Landscape evolution of Menikio mountain (Macedonia, Greece) based on morphological and sedimentological analyses of caves

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Landscape evolution of Menikio mountain (Macedonia, Greece) based on morphological and sedimentological analyses of caves

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Landscape evolution of Menikio mountain (Macedonia, Greece) based on morphological and sedimentological analyses of caves
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Christos Pennos Ph.D. Thesis Submitted at the Aristole University of Thessaloniki School of Geology Department of Physical Enviromental Geography Examination Date: July 2014Abstract: The present study examines the landscape evolution of the Menikio Mountain based on morphological features that are evident inside the caves. The various evolutionary stages of the Mountain's landscape development are dated. In addition, a paleoclimatic reconstruction for the broader area is attempted. For this approach two stalagmites have been selected from the Mikro and Megalo Eptamilon caves. U - series dating techniques were used in order to determine the exact time spam of the records and in order to obtain the paleoclimatic signal, measurements of δ18O and δ13C were performed along the growth axis of the stalagmites. The project employs a range of approaches, using extensive fieldwork inside the caves alongside with laboratory chemical procedures in order to define the paleoenviromental conditions. Also, geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques together with electric resistivity tomographies and borehole data were used in order to define old buried landforms and reconstruct the paleo-landscape of the broader area. For this study and for cave entrances to be defined, G.I.S. applications in combination with ground truth verification were used. High accuracy orthophotomaps (www.ktimatologio.gr) were used in order to identify cave entrances at the vast barren landscape of Menikio Mountain. After the ground truth verification of the caves, extended exploration using alpine caving techniques took place. In the same time or in some cases following the exploration the survey of the caves was conducted using the distox cave survey system. For the reconstruction of the speleogenetic phases the meso and microforms from each cave were mapped and categorized. From this analysis it was clear which of the studied caves represent the position of the old aquifer and in combination with speleothem dating techniques they provide insights on the landscape evolution of the study area. Following the methodology proposed by Hellstrom (2003), uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating has been applied on 48 samples extracted from 7 stalagmites and calcite deposits from different caves. The results from these datings were imported at the ModAge software (Hercman and Pawlak, 2012), in order to reconstruct the chronostratigraphic model of stalagmite development. Stable Isotope measurements on two stalagmites were performed at the laboratories of Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental studies, Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Hungary and at the Institute of Geological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences at the Warsaw Research Centre. The stalagmites are covering a time spam from 14.67ka B.P. to 8.25ka B.P. for the MegaloSP3 stalagmite and from 55.446ka B.P. to 6.379ka B.P. for the MikroSP6. The results showed that MegaloSP3 stalagmite was not in isotopically equilibrium conditions. Examining the Hendy test (Hendy, 1971) results from MegaloSP3 one may suggest that they indicate evaporation, since a consistent enrichment in δ18O with distance from its vertical axis is evident. The paleoclimatological study of these two stalagmites and their comparison with other records revealed a rapid and sensitive climate and ecosystem response to the North Atlantic climatic oscillations showing that the region of North Aegean and the East Meditarranean was climatically influenced by the ocean circulation and ocean heat transport of the North Atlantic. The landscape analysis with the use of remote sensing techniques revealed that the dolines of the highest part (1000m) of the Menikio Mountain that more than the half population (490) of the dolines are found at the altitudinal zone between 1500m- 1700m. a.m.s.l. Almost, 160 dolines are located at the highest altitudes between 1800m-1963m a.m.s.l. and 150 are lying at the lower elevations between 1200m and 1400m a.m.s.l. The existence of the Kior Delik that lays at 1643m a.ms.l., in combination with the results of the landscape analysis, are suggesting the existence of a paneplain at the same altitudinal zone. The Electric Resistivity Tomographies (E.R.T.) that were applied at the Kallipoli's polje revealed the presence of a buried paleo karstic surface that is covered from fine-grained sediments of almost 250m of thickness. The presence of this buried surface is correlating with the Tsifliki cave. Tsifliki cave presents clearly epiphreatic features that in combination with the paleo-karstic surface suggesting an old base level found approximately at 750m a.ms.l. Two vibracores were drilled at the polje, in order to study the magnetic signal of the fine-grained sediments and extract paleoclimatic informations on the polje creation. Unfortunatelly, although the variation with depth of the magnetic properties of the sediments is very prominent, no datable material was found and therefore the determination of the time spam that these changes occurred couldn't be determined. Finally, by dating a speleothem deposit covering the floor of the Megalo Eptamilon cave and correlating its absolute altimetric position with the springs of Agios Ioannis, found at the bottom of the valley, it was possible to date the base level drop rate. The base level drop rate was found to be equal to 0.45mmyr-1 at least for the last 76.5ka. This rate comes in agreement with the uplift rate that was proposed by Tranos and Mountrakis (2004), who studied the tectonic uplift of the Menikio Mountain and they calculated a value equal to 0.5mmyr-1. Using linear correlation it was possible to estimate the youngest possible age for the standstills on which Tsifliki Cave and Kior Delik Cave occur. These dates are estimated to 468ka B.P. and 941.5ka B.P. respectively.
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Christos Pennos Ph.D. Thesis Submitted at the Aristole
University of Thessaloniki School of Geology Department of
Physical & Enviromental Geography Examination Date: July
2014Abstract: The present study examines the landscape
evolution of the Menikio Mountain based on morphological
features that are evident inside the caves. The various
evolutionary stages of the Mountain's landscape development are
dated. In addition, a paleoclimatic reconstruction for the
broader area is attempted. For this approach two stalagmites
have been selected from the Mikro and Megalo Eptamilon caves. U
- series dating techniques were used in order to determine the
exact time spam of the records and in order to obtain the
paleoclimatic signal, measurements of 18O and 13C were
performed along the growth axis of the stalagmites. The project
employs a range of approaches, using extensive fieldwork inside
the caves alongside with laboratory chemical procedures in
order to define the paleoenviromental conditions. Also,
geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques
together with electric resistivity tomographies and borehole
data were used in order to define old buried landforms and
reconstruct the paleo-landscape of the broader area. For this
study and for cave entrances to be defined, G.I.S. applications
in combination with ground truth verification were used. High
accuracy orthophotomaps (www.ktimatologio.gr) were used in
order to identify cave entrances at the vast barren landscape
of Menikio Mountain. After the ground truth verification of the
caves, extended exploration using alpine caving techniques took
place. In the same time or in some cases following the
exploration the survey of the caves was conducted using the
distox cave survey system. For the reconstruction of the
speleogenetic phases the meso and microforms from each cave
were mapped and categorized. From this analysis it was clear
which of the studied caves represent the position of the old
aquifer and in combination with speleothem dating techniques
they provide insights on the landscape evolution of the study
area. Following the methodology proposed by Hellstrom (2003),
uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating has been applied on 48
samples extracted from 7 stalagmites and calcite deposits from
different caves. The results from these datings were imported
at the ModAge software (Hercman and Pawlak, 2012), in order to
reconstruct the chronostratigraphic model of stalagmite
development. Stable Isotope measurements on two stalagmites
were performed at the laboratories of Hertelendi Laboratory of
Environmental studies, Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian
Academy of Sciences in Hungary and at the Institute of
Geological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences at the
Warsaw Research Centre. The stalagmites are covering a time
spam from 14.67ka B.P. to 8.25ka B.P. for the MegaloSP3
stalagmite and from 55.446ka B.P. to 6.379ka B.P. for the
MikroSP6. The results showed that MegaloSP3 stalagmite was not
in isotopically equilibrium conditions. Examining the Hendy
test (Hendy, 1971) results from MegaloSP3 one may suggest that
they indicate evaporation, since a consistent enrichment in
18O with distance from its vertical axis is evident. The
paleoclimatological study of these two stalagmites and their
comparison with other records revealed a rapid and sensitive
climate and ecosystem response to the North Atlantic climatic
oscillations showing that the region of North Aegean and the
East Meditarranean was climatically influenced by the ocean
circulation and ocean heat transport of the North Atlantic. The
landscape analysis with the use of remote sensing techniques
revealed that the dolines of the highest part (<1000m) of
the Menikio Mountain that more than the half population (490)
of the dolines are found at the altitudinal zone between 1500m-
1700m. a.m.s.l. Almost, 160 dolines are located at the highest
altitudes between 1800m-1963m a.m.s.l. and 150 are lying at the
lower elevations between 1200m and 1400m a.m.s.l. The existence
of the Kior Delik that lays at 1643m a.ms.l., in combination
with the results of the landscape analysis, are suggesting the
existence of a paneplain at the same altitudinal zone. The
Electric Resistivity Tomographies (E.R.T.) that were applied at
the Kallipoli's polje revealed the presence of a buried paleo
karstic surface that is covered from fine-grained sediments of
almost 250m of thickness. The presence of this buried surface
is correlating with the Tsifliki cave. Tsifliki cave presents
clearly epiphreatic features that in combination with the
paleo-karstic surface suggesting an old base level found
approximately at 750m a.ms.l. Two vibracores were drilled at
the polje, in order to study the magnetic signal of the
fine-grained sediments and extract paleoclimatic informations
on the polje creation. Unfortunatelly, although the variation
with depth of the magnetic properties of the sediments is very
prominent, no datable material was found and therefore the
determination of the time spam that these changes occurred
couldn't be determined. Finally, by dating a speleothem deposit
covering the floor of the Megalo Eptamilon cave and correlating
its absolute altimetric position with the springs of Agios
Ioannis, found at the bottom of the valley, it was possible to
date the base level drop rate. The base level drop rate was
found to be equal to 0.45mmyr-1 at least for the last 76.5ka.
This rate comes in agreement with the uplift rate that was
proposed by Tranos and Mountrakis (2004), who studied the
tectonic uplift of the Menikio Mountain and they calculated a
value equal to 0.5mmyr-1. Using linear correlation it was
possible to estimate the youngest possible age for the
standstills on which Tsifliki Cave and Kior Delik Cave occur.
These dates are estimated to 468ka B.P. and 941.5ka B.P.
respectively.



PAGE 2

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PAGE 3

!"##$% &'()*$% + -./ $'0$1$234( .5"1356 *$7 8.#$349$7 :'$7% ;<)6 *= $'0$1$234< 4=3 3>6 =*$1$234< ?='=4*6'3)*34< */# )@61=9/# *$7 ISBN A "24'3)6 *6% @='$B)6% C3D=4*$'34(% C3=*'3;(% =@: *$ E ( = -./1$29=% *$7 +'3)*$*.1.9$7 !=#.@3)*6 9$7 ,.))=1$#946% D.# 7@$D61F#.3 =@$D$?( */# 2#/ F# *$7 )722'=0"/% ( G 5343/1932, <'H'$ 202, @=' 2)

PAGE 4

Christos Pennos Landscape evolution of Menikio mountain (Macedonia, Greece) based on morphological and sed imentological analyses of caves Ph.D. Thesis Submitted at the School of Geology Department of Physical & Enviromental Geography Examination Date: July 2014 Judging Committee Associate Professor Konstantinos Vouvalidis, Supervisor Professor Stein Erik Lauritzen, advisory committee member Associate Professor Leonidas Stamatopoulos, advisory committee member Associate Professor Konstantinos Albanakis, opponent Associate Professor Panagiotis Tsourlos, opponent Lecturer Elina Aidona opponent Lecturer Antonios Mouratidis opponent

PAGE 5

Christos P. Pennos A.U.Th. Landscape evolution of Menikio mountain (Macedonia, Greece) based on morphological and sedimentological analyses of caves. ISBN The approval of this Ph.D. Thesis by the school of Geology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki does not imply acceptance of the opinions of the author (L. 5343/1932, Article 202, par. 2)

PAGE 6

Acknowledgements The completion of this thesis owes much to many people, and could not have been achieved without essential academic, technical, and moral support. I would like to acknowledge some of the many people who helped me through this PhD programme. Firstly, I wou ld like to thank my supervisor Assistant Professor Kostantinos Vouvalidis for trusting me and accepting to supervise this project. I am indebted to his pragmatic and hands on supervisory skills. My sincere gratitude goes to Professor Stein Erik Lauritzen for giving me the chance to work at the laboratory facilities of the University of Bergen and for the fruitful academic (and not only) discussions about caves, speleology and life I would also like to thank professor Leonidas Stamatopoulos for his contri bution during the various evolutionary stages of this thesis. I would like to acknowledge Asoc. Professor Panagiotis Tsourlos for all of the time and effort he spend for guiding me during the E.R.T. data acquisition and their afterwards interpretation. Lecturer Elina Aidona is sincerely thanked for giving me the chance to work at the laboratory facilities and perform measurement s. She is also highly acknowledged for all the help and the discussions we had during thi s study. I need to thank Lecturer Antonios Mouratidis for making all the necessary arrangements in order to acquire the IKONOS satellite images from the European Space Agency (E.S.A.) and for all his help regarding the remote sensing techniques used in this study. Associate Professor Konstantinos Albanakis is acknowledged for his comments and reviews on the manuscript. Secondly, I would like to thank Dr. Helena Hercman head of U Series Laboratory in Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Acad emy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland for performing the stable isotope analyses and for the valuable conversations we had on the topic. PhD candidate Gabriela Koltai is highly acknowledged for performing stable isotope analyses on the second stalagmite at the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental studies, Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Hungary PhD candidate Jane Noah is thanked for a ll the help and the conversations we had during my first stay at the University of Bergen (fall 2012). My friend and research t echnician Sverre Aksnes is sincere acknowledged for all his help on laboratory procedures and all the off topic discussions we ha d during my stays at the University of Bergen. My colleague and PhD candidate

PAGE 7

Christos Domakinis is thanked for all the help he provide d on the remote sensing topic and all the discussions we had. Phd candidate Charikleia G k arlaouni is highly acknowledged for all the discussion we had on tectonic geology. Thirdly, I would like to thank all my caving friends that helped me throughout the whole study spending their spare time and money in order to follow me on the numerous caving and surface field trips. Cha rikleia G k arlaouni, Nikolaos Kortimanitsis, Ilias Partsios, Yorgos Sotiriadis and Stavros Zachariad is thank you for all your support, without your help it w ould be impossible to accomplish this study. A very special thank to Sophia for her support all these years and for tolerating me and my caving trips. Lastly, and by no means least, I would like to thank my family my father Panagiotis, my mother Evaggelia and my brother Alexandros for all their support both moral and financial during all these years. Thanks for the faith you have in me.

PAGE 8

Abstract The present study examines the landscape evolution of the Menikio Mountain based on morphological features that are evident inside the caves. The various evolutionary stages of the Mountain s landscape development are dated. In addition, a paleoclimatic reconstruction for the broader area is attempted For this approach two stalagmite s have been selected from the Mikro and Megalo Eptamilon caves U series dating techniques were used in order to determine the exact time spam of the record s and in order to obtain the paleoclimatic signal, measurements of 18 O and 13 C we re performed along the growth axis of the stalagmites. The project employs a range of approaches using extensive fieldwork inside the caves alongside with laboratory chemical procedures in order to d efine the paleoenviromental conditions. Also, geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques together with electric resistivity tomographies and borehole data were used in order to define old buried landforms and reconstruct the paleo landscape of the broader area. For this study and for cave ent rances to be defined, G.I.S. applications in combination with ground truth verification were used. High accuracy orthophotomaps (www.ktimatologio.gr) were used in order to identify cave entrances at the vast barren landscape of Menikio Mountain. After the ground truth verification of the caves, extended exploration using alpine caving techniques took place. In the same time or in some cases following the exploration the survey of the caves was conducted using the distox cave survey system. For the reconstr uct ion of the speleogenetic phases t he meso and microforms from each cave were mapped and categorized From this analysis it was clear which of the studied caves represent the position of the old aquifer and in combination with speleothem dating techniques they provide insights on the landscape evolution of the study area Following the methodology proposed by Hellstrom (2003) u ranium thorium disequilibrium dating has been applied on 48 samples extracted from 7 stalagmites and calcite deposits from different caves The results fr o m these datings were imported at the ModAge software ( Hercman and Pawlak, 2012 ) in o rder to reconstruct the chronostratigraphic model of stalagmite development.

PAGE 9

Stable Isotope measurements on two stalagmites were performed at the laboratories of Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental studies, Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian Acad emy of Sciences in Hungary and at the Institute of Geological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences at the Warsaw Research Centre The stalagmites are covering a time spam from 14.67ka B.P. to 8.25ka B.P. for the MegaloSP3 stalagmite and from 55.446ka B.P. to 6.379ka B.P. for the MikroSP6. The results showed that MegaloSP3 stalagmite was not in isotopically equilibrium conditions Examining the Hendy test ( Hendy, 1971 ) results from MegaloSP3 one m ay suggest that they indicate evaporation since a consistent enrichment in 18 O with distance from its vertical axis is evident The paleoclimatological study of these two stalagmites and their comparison with other records reveal ed a rapid and sensitive climate and ecosystem response to the North Atlantic climatic oscillations showing that the region of North Aegean and the East Meditarranean was climatically influenced by the ocean circulation and ocean heat transport of the North Atlantic. The landscape analysis with the use of remote sensing techniques revealed that the dolines of the highest part (<1000m) of the Menikio Mountain that more than the half p opulation (490) of the dolines are found at the altitudinal zone between 1500m 1700m. a.m.s.l Almost, 160 dolines are located at the highest altitudes between 1800m 1963m a.m.s.l. and 150 are lying at the lower elevations between 1200m and 1400m a.m.s.l. The existence of the Kior Delik that lays at 1643m a.ms.l. in combination with the results o f the landscape analysis are suggesting the existence of a paneplain at the same altitudinal zone. The Electric Resistivity Tomographies (E.R.T.) that w ere applied at the Kallipoli's polje revealed the presence of a buried paleo karstic surface that is co vered from fine grained sediments of almost 250m of thickness. The presence of this buried surface is correlating with the Tsifliki cave. Tsifliki cave presents clearly epiphreatic features that in combination with the paleo karstic surface suggesting an o ld base level found approximately at 750m a.ms.l. Two vibracores were drilled at the polje in order to study the magnetic signal of the fine grained sediments and extract paleoclimatic informations on the polje creation. Unfortunatelly although the varia tion with depth of the magnetic properties of the sediments is very prominent no datable material was found and therefore the determination of the time spam that these changes occurred couldn't be determined.

PAGE 10

Finally, by dating a speleothem deposit cover ing the floor of the Megalo Eptamilon cave and correlating it s absolute altimetric position with the springs of Agios Ioannis found at the bottom of the valley, it was possible to date the base level drop rate. The base level drop r ate was found to be equ al to 0.45mmyr 1 at least for the last 76.5ka. This rate comes in agreement with the uplift rate that was proposed by Tranos and Mountrakis (2004) who studied the tectonic uplift of the Menikio Mountain and they calculated a value equal to 0.5mmyr 1 Using linear correlation it was possible to estimate the youngest possible age for the standstills on which Tsifliki Cave and Kior Delik Cave occur. These dates are estimated to 468ka B.P. and 941.5ka B.P. respectively.

PAGE 11

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PAGE 12

!"#$% &'&%()#*+ ,& -&.%$ %*/ '"/."0 0 ModAge ,12 Hercman and Pawlak (2012) 3% 020-4$+%5 ,12 $,0)+"62 %$&,/'12 '"0. 0,&'&%()#*02 $,& +".0$,("%& Hertelendi of Environmental studies, ,&7 82$,%,&7,&4 '7"#2%*(5 9"+7205 ,#5 37.."%*(5 : *0;# <05 = '%$,# 62 $,#2 37..0"<0 0--> *0% $,& 82$,%,&4,& ,12 ? +1-&.%*62 = '%$,# 62 ,#5 @&-12%*(5 : *0;# <05 = '%$,# 62 $,#2 A0"$&B<0 O $,0-0. <,#5 MegaloSP3 *0-4',+% !"&2&-&.%*/ +4"&5 0'/ 14.67ka B.P. +15 8.25ka B.P. +26 & $,0-0. <,#5 MikroSP6 0'/ 55.446k a B.P. +65 6.379ka B.P. C0 0'&,+-9$ 0,0 9;+%D02 &,% & $,0-0. <,#5 MegaloSP3 ;+2 B"%$*/,02 $+ $72)(*+5 %$&,&'%*(5 %$&""&'<05 =" #2+4&2,05 ,0 0'&,+-9$ 0,0 ,&7 Hendy test ( Hendy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m +2,&'-7$#5 07,(5 +2%$!4&72 ,#2 >'&I# .%0 ,#2 4 '0"D# %0 +'%G>2+%05 +'%'9;1$#5 $,# J62# +,0D4 1500 m *0% 1700 m 3% .+1G7$%*95 9)&;&% #-+*,"%*62 ;%0$*&'($+12 &% &'&<+5 '"0. 0,&'&%()#*02 $,#2 '+"%/!# ,#5 '/-.#5 ,#5 K0--<'&-#5 0'&*>-7I02 ,#2 4'0"D# *0-7 9212 '0-0% & *0"$,%*62 ;& 62 3% .+1 &"G+5 07,95 ,& $!( 0 ,12 &'&<12 '&"+< 20 $7$!+,%$,+< + 07,/ ,12 ;&-%262 +<20% *0-7 92+5 + -+',&*-0$,%*> %J( 0,0 ,& '>!&5 ,12 &'&<12 *0, > )9$+%5 G,>2+% ,0 250 m H

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!"# $%&'() %#!* +,-. /#&$0 12 -!-3$%'-+$0 $ %.1 4/2&5. %#! -/.620#! 7-'860(' %# #/#0# /2&#!-'9:$ #&8#6#;'(9 $/'8&$2%' (9 32&2(%.&'-%'(9 7# ;$;#1<* 2!%< $1'-34 $' % 1 9/#". ;'2 %.1 4/2&5. $/'891$' 2 $/'/,=>-.* -%.1 !"# $%&'() :?1. -%.1 #/#02 212/%4-$%2' %# -/)62'# (795 m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mmyr 1 % #!693'-%#1 ;'2 %2 %$6$!%202 76.500 3&<1'2 I %' ) 2!%) ,&3$%2' -$ -! 8>102 $ %.1 %' ) /#! !/#6#;0-+.($ ;'2 %#1 &!+ < 214">-.* %#! D$1#'(0#! ( %#!693'-%#1 ;'2 %# =!%'(< %#! % ) 2 ) #/#02 -4 8>12 $ %#!* Tranos and Mountrakis (2004) $012' 0. $ 0.5 mmyr 1 J!-3$%0:#1%2* ;&2 '(9 %'* !"# $%&'(,* +,-$'* %>1 =4# !".6<%$&> 1 $/'821$'? 1 $/'/,=>-.* $ %. +,-. %>1 /.;?1 %#! F;0#! G?211. (2' +$>&?1%2* %# &!+ < 2 $%9C6.%# -! /$&201$%2' / > $/'891$'2 $/'/,=>-.* -%.1 /$&'#3) %#! -/ .620 #! 7-'860(' =$1 /#&$0 12 $012' 1$<%$&. 2/< 468 ka B.P. H #0>* $/'891$'2 $/'/,=>-.* -%.1 #/#02 C&0-($ %2' %# -/)62'# %#! A'#& K$60( =$1 /#&$0 12 $012' 1$<%$&. 2/< 941.5 ka B.P.

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INDEX 1.Introduction 1.1.1 General about caves 15 1.1.2 Caves and landscape evolution 16 1.1.3 Paleoclimatic reconstruction from cave deposits 17 1.1.4 Studies on Mountain Menikio 1 7 1.2 Aims of the research 18 1.3 Research objectives 19 1.4 Thesis overview 20 2. Menikio M ountain 2.1 Location 21 2.2 Geomorphology 21 2.3 Geological setting 22 2.3.1 Bedrock formations 22 2.3.2 Tectonic structure 24 2.4 Quaternary paleoclimatic data of the broader region 26 3. Methodology 3.1 Introduction 2 8 3.2 Cave spotting and cave survey 2 9 3.3 Cave morphology 3 3 3.4 Paleoclimatic approach 3 4 3.4.1 Th/U dating technique 3 4 3.4.2 Stable Isotopes 3 8 3.5 Geomorphological analysis 40 3.6 Electric Resistivity Tomographies 4 2 3.7 Magnetic susceptibility 4 5 4. Results 4.1 Cave spotting and cave survey 4 8 4.2 Cave morphology 6 2 4.2.1 General 6 2 4.2.2 Mikro Eptamilon cave 6 5 4.2.3 Megalo Eptamilon cave 6 7 4.2.4 Tsifliki cave 6 9 4.2.5 Kior Delik cave 71 4.2.6 Vert i cal caves 7 4 4.3 Paleoclimatic approach 7 5 4.3.1 Th/U dating results 7 5 4.3.2 Stable Isotopes 8 7 4.4 Geomorphological analysis 8 9 4.5 Electric Resistivity Tomographies 91 4.6 Magnetic susceptibility 9 5 5. Discussion 5.1 Landscape evolution 9 8 5.2 Paleoclimatic reconstruction 10 3 6. Conclusions 10 8 7. References 1 1 0

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! ! "# 1. Introduction 1.1.1 General about caves Cave is called a ny natural void in the surface of the earth that is accessible to human This anthropocentric definition given by the International Union of Speleology (U.I.S.) of what exactly is a cave shows that these landforms are related the most with human nature in compari son with any other landform From the beginning of human civilization' caves where used by human s as shelters providing them safety from predators and weather conditions. Humans also used caves in order to fulfill their religious needs since most of the past and modern religions are connected with them. There are a lot o f caves that are known for their religious use by early humans and during the antiquity. One of the most known is located at the island of Folegandros in the Aegean Sea where thousands of ancient Greek names most of them unknown until today, are painted on the cave walls during a ceremony of adultness. Christianity (one of the dominant, present day, religions) has also its theological background on these landforms since the two most important events the birth of Jesus Christ and the resurrection and His ex it from the tomb that His body was transferred after t he crucifixion took place inside a cave. Since caves are in so many way s correlated with the existence of human it was inevitable that scientists from vari ous disciplines start studying them. For the geoscientists the primary goal was to understand how caves are formed in order to explain the various shapes and dimensions of cave chambers. Most of the present day theories about speleogenesis in carbonate rocks where suggested by cave scientists already by the end of the 19 th century. Almost from that time scientist s had already understand the role of carbon dioxide and the role of erosion in the development of cave passages and in Speleogenesis in general A detailed overview on the beginning of the science of speleology has been given by Shaw (2000 ) where the key role of Eduard Martel the father of m odern speleology is highlighted, as he was the one that understood the role of vados e water and made it well known among speleologists. During th e 20 th century there was a shift in emphasis from water table controls to investigations of underlying processes and mechanisms of cave development The most important conceptual shifts according to White (2000) are the emphasis that is given by the scient ists in detail to the geological setting, the acknowledgment of caves

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! ! "# as a part of carbonate aquifer hydrogeology and the improved understanding of chemical processes that take place in the dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Also, very significant develop ment during the last years was the recognition of the halocline caves, the hydrothermal caves and sulfuric acid caves which resulted from mechanisms different from shallow water and c arbonic acid cave development ( Klimchouk, 2007 ) Although, many theories and ideas concerning the speleogenesis in unconfined setting where conceived and published no one of them could totally explain speleogenetic processes in caves all over the world. This problem occurred because most of the scientists expressed their theories based on local criteria. Finally, the real milestone in the speleology was the four sta te model (fig.1.1 ) that was conceived by Ford (1968, 1971; Ford & Ewers, 1978; Ford & Williams, 1989 ) Ford provided a resolution on the problem of speleogenesis with pairs of conceptual model. This model can be applied in aquifers in marble, limestone, do lomite, and gypsum as well as anhydrite in which fissure porosity and transmission is predominant prior the cave system development. In Ford's opinion the longitudal shape of a sub sequent cave is controlled from the water table and the fissure density in t he host rock. !"#$%&' ( )()'*+&'!,$%'-./.&'0,1&2'3%,0' !,%1'/41'56&%7'8(9:;< 1.1.2 Caves and landscape evolution Understanding the key factors that controlled the speleogenesis of solutional cave systems could provide many insights into the evolution of karst ic areas and the

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! ! "# surrounding landscape (e.g. Kuffner, 1998; Klimchouk & Ford, 2000; Frisch et al., 2002; Audra et al., 2006; Lauritzen, 2006; HŠuselmann et al., 2007 ; Plan, 2009; Laur itzen, 2013 ; Lauritzen & Skoglund, 2013 ). A commonly used correlation between subsurface karstification and surface morphology among the cave scientists is the concept of "cave levels". In 1909, Saw icki noticed that cave passages developed at definite elevations and introduced the term evolution level ("Evolutionsniveau"; Sawicki, 1909). However, cave levels and their correlation with base levels were highly disputed by a lot of cave scientists for a long period of time A review on the topic was given in detail by Bšgli (1980). Now days in contrast it is widely accepted that the concentration of solutional cave conduits at certain elevations can be used to study speleo genesis in relation to landsca pe evolution, as fluvial base levels control subsurface cave development (Palmer, 1987) which is the equivalent of fluvial terraces in fluvial geomorphology "$"$%!&'()*+(,-'.,+!/)+*01./2+.,*0 3/*-!+'4)!5)6*1,.1 ! In 1996, at the University of Bergen it was held the first conference on speleothems and climate Cli mate Change: The Karst Record (Lauritzen, 1996), and, later, the speleothem record was accepted as a valid palaeoclimat ic archive ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 1999 ) From that day on it is more than obvious an exponential increase in the use of speleothemes as paleoclimatic archives. The main reaso ns that favor that increase is that the y are well suited for uranium series dating and taking into account th e huge technologic al advances both in TIMS and ICPMS dating techniques the results are very accurate Moreover, cave dripstones are terrestrial deposits what means that they are complement to the deep sea and to high accurate ice core records. Also the processes of the spe leothem growth are very sensitive to external, often climatic driven changes and for that reason many of the measured variables can be used as climatic proxies. In addition due to their closed crystalline nature they are not favorable in contamination and degradation. Finally, b ecause of their underground location they can also stay undamaged and avoid erosion (in most cases) for a very long period of time.

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! ! "# 1.1.4 Studies on Menikio Mountain. Although Menikio Mountain is an extended highly karstified carbonate volume consisting mainly by marbles there was no studies made there until the early 80's. Vavliakis ( 1981 ) was t he first who studied the surface karstic landforms where he tried to correlate them with glaciation and tectonic uplift of the mountain. The following years few works carried out in the region ( Papaphilippou Pennou, 2004 ; Vavliakis et al., 1986 ) both of them where studying the pane planes of the mountain extracting valuable results for the relationship of these landforms and the broader tectonic regime. Tranos & Mountrakis ( 2004 ) present a different approach in the region. Their study concerns the geometry, k inematics and the fault seg men tation of the adjacent to Menikio fault zone Also there was an effort in order to better understand the paleohydrology at the foothills of Menikio Mountain (Eptamili region) by studying the scalloping phenomena in the Mikro Eptamilon cave ( Pennos et al., 2006 ) Fina lly, Pechlivanidou et al. ( 2011 ) attempt a paleoclimatic approach on the region by applying sedimentological methods and analyzing the magnetic parameters of the clastic sediments from a cross section at the entr ance of the same cave. 1.2 Aims of the research This research examine s the landscape evolution of the Menikio M ountain based on morphological features that are evident in the cave walls (speleogens ). Moreover, the various evolutionary stages are dated. In addition, a paleoclimatic approach is attempt ed For this reason, two stalagmite s have been selected from a low altitude cave. U series dating techniques were used in order to determine the exact time spam of the record. Additionally and in order to obtain the paleoclimatic signal measurements of 18 O and 13 C were performed along the growth axis of two stalagmite s A key aim for this research is to define the speleogenetic origin of the Menikio caves. This is going to be achieved through detailed survey and morphological analysis Caves, created in the phreatic/epiphreatic zone are depicturing the relative position of the old base level and therefore the tectonic standstills during the landscape evolution. Dating calcite deposits accumulated inside the cave depicting the epiphreatic origin of the cave.

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! ! "# The project employs a range of approaches using extensive fieldwork inside the caves alongside with laboratory chemical procedures in order to refine the paleoenviromental conditions. Also, geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques together with electric resistivity tomographi es and borehole data were used in order to define old buried landforms and reconstruct the paleo landscape of the broader area. 1.3 Research objectives The study area is located in the n o r thern part of Greece. Menikio Mountain is generally a harsh and hardly accessible due to the barren karstic landscape. Although Menikio Mountain holds all the types of Karstic landforms both in surface and subsurface i t is one of the least studied karst areas in the region of Macedonia, with only few published papers r egarding karst and caves, and no information about caves This thesis mostly represents a regional geomorphological work, giving first comprehensive information about the geomorphological evolution of the mountain based on criteria mostly found in its caves In the same time a paleoclimatic approach is being made based on the isotopic signal of Menikio stalagmites. Considering the size of the area, and the genera l lack of previous research, it represents a n enthusiastic attempt. The results presented in this thesis are therefore a contribution to the general knowledge of geomorphological evolution and development of the mountain The paleoclimatic results contribu te in the paleoclimatic reconstruction of the broader area of the northern Greece and the north east Mediterranean in general. There are three main objectives to the PhD research: To define old base levels of the karstic aquifer of the Menikio Mountain through delimitating the origin of the caves and by studying the surface karstic landforms To determine the uplift rate of the mountain by dating fossiled phreatic tubes.

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! ! "# To create a paleoclimatic model for the broader region through speleothem records. 1.4 Thesis Overview At the first chapter it is given a small introduction reviewing the science of Speleology by presenting all the milestones that took place during the evolution of this scientific field. Then follows a review on the various studies made at the Menikio Mountain and finally the aims and the objectives of the study are presented. In t he second chapter of the thesis the geological setting of the mountain and a short review on the paleoclimatological studies made in the broader area of the Aegean are presented. The third chapter presents the methodological approach that was used and the justification for applying this methodology. The results from every method used for this study are presented in detail at chapter four. The discussion and the interpretations on the results are presented at the fifth chapter of the thesis. Finally, the conclusions of the study are cited on the sixth chapter on the th esis and the bibliography that justifies the scientific context of the study is posed at the last chapter of the thesis.

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! "# ! 2. Menikio Mountain 2.1 Location Menikio Mountain is located at the region of central Macedonia in northern Greece. It is actually the topographic border between the prefecture of Serres at the western part and the prefectu re of Drama at its eastern part (fig. 2.1.1) 2.2 Geomorphology Topographically the Canyon of Aggitis River at south, the Serres basin at the west, the Prodromou River at North and finally the Drama Basin at the east borders Menikio Mountain. Menikio rises from an elevation of 100m a.m.s.l. near the city of Serres up to 1963m a.m.s.l. at the Mavromata peak. !"#$%&'()*)' )'+,-'./'+&0"1".'+.$02,"0'34,51#%.$06'"7,#&'/%.7'8..#9&':,%2;<)

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! "" ! The morphology of the mountain is complicated since the slope at the lower altitudes is high (~15 degrees) in contrast at the high altitudes the slope of the mountain is very low (0 2.5 degrees) (fig.2.2.1) !"#$%&'()()' +,-.&'/0.' 012'3-14-$%'/0. -5'46&'7&1"8"-'7-$140"1 )'9040'2&%":&2'5%-/'+;<7'9=7' >%&5&%&13&?'@"46"1'4&A4B ) 2.3 Geological setting 2.3 .1 Bedrock Formations From geological point of view Menikio Mountain belongs at the Pangeo unit of the Rhodope Massif. According to Mountrakis (1985, 2010) Rhodope massif actually represents an old clearly continental massif that was cut off from the tectonic plate of Laurasia and didn't suffer the sedimentation that took place a t the broader area of t he Aegean during the Alpine orogenesis. The Pangeo unit is characterized by the presence of metamorphic rocks with some granitoid intrusions that penetrated the old bedrock during the Eocene Oligocene In detail, the crystalline bedrock can be divided into three clearly d istinguished horizons T he lower that consists of ortho gneiss, schist and amphibolite. The middle one composed by marbles of considerable thickness and the upper one where alterations between sch ists and marbles are evid ent (Mountrakis, 1985, 2010) At the Menikio Mountain the middle horizon is exposed near the polje of Kallipoli and only poses a small part of the Mountain in contrast its main part is build up by the higher marble horizon ( fig. 2.3.1 ).

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! "# ! This type of geological structure (alterations between gneiss and marbles) plays a key role in speleogenesis and it will be discussed in detail in the following chapters. 2.3 .2 Tectonic structure The plate tectonic regime of the Aegean region (Fig. 2.3. 2 ) consists of the Aegean plate to the south, separated by a strike slip boundary (Jolivet et al., 2013; McKenzie, 1970) from the Eurasian plate to the north, which encompasses the north Aegean, Rhodope and adjacent areas The Aegean plate is overriding the African plate, accommodated by northeastward dipping subduction in the Hellenic trench. The strike slip boundary between the Aegean and the Eurasian plates (the north Aegean transform zone) consists of two major strike slip faults, which are extensions of the North Anatolian fault (NAF) (Jolivet et al., 2013; McKenzie, 1970; Papazac hos et al., 1999) and references within ) The NNW SSE extensi on that is caused because of the present day sub duction in the Hellenic trench and the westward movement of Anatolia, affects the overriding Aegean plate. The southern part of the Eurasian plate, lying north of the Aegean, is (for that reason) also extending in a roughly N S direction (Martinod et al., 1997; Papazachos and Kiratzi, 1996) As a result of this extension old NW SE tectonic structures are reactivated as normal faults (Papaphilippou Pennou, 2004; Psilovikos, 1990; Vavliakis et al., 1986) The action of these faults during the Quaternary resulted in the complex morphology of the Northern Greece creating a system of tectonic horsts and grabens (Psilovikos, 1990) In detail, the broader area of the Menikio Mountain as part of an old continental massif suffered the stress of almost all the main tectonic events that shaped the broader Aegean region. These events lead to extend folding and faulting of the mountain.

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! "# ! The tectonic analysis revealed three different folding phase s (Mountrakis, 1985, 2010) The first phase resulted in foldi ng in N S direction that took part during the Paleozoic E ra together with the first metamorphic phase of the bedrock. In contrast, the second phase resulted in folds with directions varying from NE SW to ENE WSW. The age that this second phase took place is conducted from the dating of the various plutonic intrusions that are not present in the Menikio Mountain and therefor is estimated that took part either during Eocene Oligocene or during Jurassic Cretaceous. The third and youngest phase resulted in folds with their main axes orientated to NW SE (Mountrakis, 1985, 2010) estimates that this final phase occured during the Tertiary. The present stress re gime in the Central and Eastern Mace donia is recognized to be exten sional since the Late Miocene with the maxi mum extension oriented NE SW during the Late Miocene Pliocene and N S during the Lower Pleistocene Present (Pavlides et al., 1990) The faults in the wider area could be discriminated into three !"#$%&'()*)' ( +,-'./'01&'#&.0&20.3"2'4&00"3#'./'01&'5%.,6&%'7&#&,3'%&#".3' 89,:;,<'&0',=)>'(??@A

PAGE 26

! "# ! main groups considering their strike: (a) NW SE faults, (b) NE SW to ENE WSW faults and (c) E W faults. The NE SW to ENE WSW faults are km long faults which intersect the Mt Menikion. Many of them are inherited Oligocene Miocene strike slip structures that later reactivated as normal faults (Psilovikos, 1990; Tranos and Mountrakis, 2004) The role of this structural pattern is extremely significant and is highly related with the development and the orientation of the caves of Menikio Mountain 2.4 Quaternary p aleoclimatic data of the broader region Quaternary is the most recent of the th ree periods of the Cenozoic Era i n the geologic time scale. It follows the Neogene Per iod and spans since 2.5 Ma B.P. until today. The Quaternary includes two epochs: the Pleistocene (2.5 Ma 10 Ka B.P.) and Holocene (10 Ka present) A proposed but as yet informal third epoch, the Anthropocene, has also gained credence as the time in which humans began to profoundly affect and change the global environment, although its start date is still disputed. The paleoclimatic reconstruction of the broader Aegean region is studied until now mainly through pollen analysis. These analyses have been conducted on the Thenagi Philippon at the region of Drama in n orthern Greece (Milner et al., 2013; Peyron et al., 2011; Tzedakis et al., 2006) lake K opais and lake Xinias in central Greece (Dig erfeldt et al., 2000; Lawson et al., 2004) and lake Ioanninon at the western Greece (Bottema, 1995; Eastwood et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2012; Lawson et al., 2004; Tzedakis et al., 2002; Wilson et al., 2008) The above mentioned studies pointed out that the paleoclimatic pattern of the region follows more or less the same pattern as the globally pro posed isotopic curve. In detail, it was clear that the warmer interglacial periods were the MIS11 and MIS5 and the colder were the MIS7 and MIS9. In the same context studies that conducted by Smith et al. (1997, 2006) concluded that during the MIS8 there was glaciation at Moun tain Olympus although the y didn't manage to define the exact age of it. Karkanas (2001) working on clastic cave sediment d eposits of the Theopetra cave, was able to recognize evidence for severe colding during the MIS4 and to identify the Younger Dryas event which

PAGE 27

! "# ! implies that the climatic reversal associated with this event in the northern latitudes also affected this area (Triantaphyllou et al., 2009) The paleoclimatic recons truction of the Holocene in region was created based mainly on marine records ( e.g Bottema, 1979; 1995 and references within). From that data is it visible that in the region of Aegean an increase in precipitation occurred around 8ka B.P. followed by two major dry periods around 6ka B.P and 5ka B.P. These results are in agreement with the work made by Psomiadis et al. (2010) on a stalagmite at the region of Sidirokastro in Northern Greece. Psomiadis (2011) worked also with a s peleothem record from the cave "Atspas" at the Skala Marion at the island of Thassos where he recognized a d ry period from 3ka 2ka B.P. Fin ally, the most recent work made by FinnÂŽ et al. (2014) on a terrestrial record ( stalagmite ) at Kapsia cave at Peloponnese (covering a period from 950 BC to AD 830 ) proved that t he stable oxygen is otope signal in the stalagmite shows that the regional hydroclimate followed a semi regular pattern of 500 to 600 yr cycles, similar to cyc les found in the North Atlantic. !"#$%&'()*)' + )',-.'/0'1%&&2&)''34&'5"6&5'/0'64&' .-7&/27"8-6"2'56$9"&5'8&:6"/:&9'":'6&;6'-%&'9&."26&9'<"64'64&'2/7/%&9' 2"%27&5)'+='34&/.&6%-'2->&)'(='34&:-#4"'?4"7"../:)'@='A"9"%/B-56%/'2->&)'*='C7D8.$5',/$:6-":)'E='F":"-5'G-B&)'H=' I/.-"5'G-B&)'J='K/-::":-'G-B&)'L='M65.-5'2->&)

PAGE 28

! "# 3. Methodology This chapter presents the field and laboratory approaches used in this research, and justification for their inclusion in the study. Firstly, following an introduction to the chapter concerning the work plan of the research the methods used in the underground environment are outlined. These were carried out over numerous fieldwork stints to the Menikio Mountain. Secondly, the surface methods used to refine the geomorpho logical evolution and paleoclimatic reconstruction are presented. 3.1 Introduction The methods used to carry out this study have been carefully selected to meet the aims and objectives outlined in Chapter 1 of this thesis. They have been chosen to best suit the nature of the study, and the types of material recovered from each site. A well executed field strategy, allied to a scheme of scientifically robust analysis, is crucial to carrying out successful geomorphological research, and the following metho dologies have been used in order to ensure the best results from this PhD study (fig. 3.1.1 ) !"#$%&'()*) )'!+,-'./0%1',2'1/&'3&1/,4,+,#5'1/01'-06'2,++,-&4 2,%'1/&'7$%7,6&6',2'1/"6'61$45 ) 8%09#&' .,+,%'$6&4'2,%'1/&'+0:,%01,%5'3&1/,46;'#%&5'.,+,%'2,%'2"&+4-,%<;':+$&'094'#%&&9'1/&'#,0+6',2'1/&'61$45''

PAGE 29

! "# 3. 2 Cave spotting and cave survey Since limited work has been undertaken on Menikio concerning cave exploration and no caves were known apart the one that was mentioned by Vavliakis ( 1981 ) the whole Mountain should be explored in detail. In order to find new caves one must keep in mind how caves relate to their geologic setting. The geological information (e.g. bedrock formations and the tectonic regime) for the present study was retrieved by the geological maps of I.G.M.E. Prosotsani shee t ( Kouris, 1988 ) and Serres sheet ( Xydas and Staikopoulos, 1985 ) Solutional cav es are most abundant whe re soluble rocks are exposed at/ or near the surface, a nd lay above or/ at the level of local rivers. In pursu it of defining caves first the relationship between surface karst features and underground drainage was taken into consider ation Caves are most likely to be negotiable if a large amount of water has flowed through them in th is context it is more fruitful to search for caves in upland valleys that concentrate large volumes of water or in the lowest elevation point of closed depressions ( Palme r, 2007 ) Caves occur where soluble rocks underlie insoluble ones on the eroded flanks or ridges and plateaus. Many cave entrances can be found at the contact between rock types, where runoff first encounters the soluble formation ( Lauritzen, 2001 ; Lauritzen and Skoglund, 2013 ) Also, s inkholes usually indicate the presence of underground water pathways, w hich are able to dissolve the rock from above. Small sinkholes are quite likely to be related with larger cave entrances than the bigger ones since it is possible not to be chocked with large collapse d blocks. Finally air movement through openings at the surface topography especially during wintertime can show cave en trances and lead to new discoveries. This is possible since plumes of relatively hotter air are rising from within the cave. If the surface is covered by snow (something widely seen on alpine regions) these rising plumes are causing the snow to melt, so snow free areas surround cave entrances. For the purpose of this study and for cave entrances to be defined G.I.S. applications in combination with ground truth verification were used.

PAGE 30

! "# Firstly, rectified satellite images and high accuracy aerial orthophotomaps ( www.ktimatologio.gr ) were imported in ArcGIS v10.1 software Using this software and by visual examination of the images numerous points of interest were highlighted as potential cave entrances Given the fact that the highest elevation areas of Menikio Mountain are lacking vegetation an assumption was made that black spots visible on the images should be classified as potential cave entr ances (fig 3.2.1). In order to constrain the large amount of data further visual examination at higher resolution was applied and it was made possible to discriminate between unidentified black spots and shadows by scattered bushes. I n the following stage the remaining spots that were located on the mountain ridges were excluded since caves are rarely found in these areas because there is not enough water to form them Then the points were superimposed on the geological maps and those lying on insoluble rocks were also eliminated. In order to avoid mistakes since l ayers with different geographical projection origin (geological maps, satellite images and aerial orthopohotomaps) points were excluded only in the case that the insoluble formation surface exposure was larger than ~10m 2 and the point was located in the center of the formation. Finally, all the remaining points were extracted from the program in a G.P.S friendly format and uploaded on a G.P.S. handheld in order to facilitate the !"#$%&'()*)' + )',-'&./012&'34'/-'3%563163530/1'4%30'56&'6"#6&75'&2&8/5"3-'12/5&/$)'9-:"%:2&;'/%&' 763<-'56&'1377"=2&':/8&'&-5%/-:&7)

PAGE 31

! "# ground truth procedure. After the verific ation of the caves extended exploration using alpine caving techniques took place ( Marbach and Tourte, 2002 ) In the s ame time or in some cases following the exploration the survey of the caves was conducted. Cave survey is one of the most important aspects in the science of speleology. Even if a cave is fully explored, its length and its relation to the surface are unknown to the scientists until the cave map is completed. Cave explorers and cave scientists produce almost all the cave maps rather than professionals so it is essential that one can create accurate maps. Most cave surveys are made with compass inclinom eter and tape or laser rangefinder device. Cave surveyors in order to reconstruct the orientations of each passage on a paper they measure direction, the slope and the distance of each passage section. A very common technique during the survey is the creat ion of a small sketch so that the details are transferred to the map to portray the way the cave looks in plan view and as well as in profile ( Dasher, 1994 ) In hydrogeological and geological research in general vertical accuracy is quite significant so that one can identify the relationship of the cave origin and the geological characteristics of the area. During t he last decades, computer based tools replaced more and more this process Today many cave mappers do their entire survey using standard or specially designed computer programs (e.g. Grottolf, Theri on, VisualTopo) It took somewhat longer to extend the digital age into the cave. In recent years, however, several electronic devices for in cave use were proposed. !"#$%&'()*)' +,&'-"./01'.2./&3)

PAGE 32

! "# For t he purposes of this study a more advance state of the art system w as used during the survey of the cavities the distox paperless cave surveying system (Figure 3.2.2) (http://paperless.bheeb.ch/) This system uses new technological capabilities to build a framework that integrates the entire process end to end, from data a cquisition in the cave to the final map drawing. In detail, the system consists of special devices used in the cave to acquire the data, and PC based analysis and visualization software to form a reliable and easy to use data path and was developed by Beat Heeb The data collection part consists of two devices, a measuring device and a PDA with a data management application. The two are linked together with a wireless Bluetooth connection. Each of them can be used as standalone device, but the full potential of the system is achieved only if they are used in combination. The measuring device acquires all relevant data, distance, declination, and inclination simultaneously. The compass and clinometer are both 3 axis sy stems that allow accurate measurements in any direction independent of the device orientation and that feature makes it possible to measure and create cross sections on the cave passages with high accuracy The PDA application is used to manage and store !"#$%&'()*)' ( +,%%"-,%'.%,/'01&'2",'5603/"4,7'839&':1,;"7#'01&':$%9&<'/&01,-'.,44,;&-'-$%"7#' 01&'%&:&3%81)'=4 $&'4"7&:'"7-"830&:'01&'8&70&%4"7&>'%&-'4"7&:'3%&'01&'8%,:: ? :&80",7':1,0:'37-'@438A'-,0:' 3%&'01&':030",7:)

PAGE 33

! "" m easured data. It displays the data numerically and graphically and allows adding sketches directly on the PDA screen ( http://paperless.bheeb.ch/ ). Following the PDA could be synchronized to a PC and the stored da ta are converted and transferred to Therion, an open source G.I.S cave cartography software ( http://therion.speleo.sk/ ) where a complete cave map was created. The surveying method used during this thesis followed the approach of a centerline with cross sections vertical to the direction of the survey (fig. 3.2.3) Following this methodology and using the distox system ( http://paperless.bheeb.ch/ ) both the speed and the accuracy of the method reached the highest possible levels 3.3 Cave morphology Once speleogene tic processes establish the geometry of a cave system the cave's further development is controlled by its relative position with the groundwater and by the sediment flux (e.g. filled or emptied of sediment) The above mentioned variations result in different speleogenetic agents that can result in variable morphology (speleogenetic facies). Speleogenetic agents are all fluids, like water and air ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ) These fluids have various attributes temperature, pressure, chemical aggressiveness, kinetic energy, se diment content, aggregate state that operate in the phreatic, water table (epiphreatic) or vadose zones. Each morphologic feature is a hint for a cave scientist to unde rstand the processes and the origin of caves, which is the objective of the speleogenetic analysis: To identify the type and sequence of speleogenetic agents that underlie specific forms or groups of forms ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ) Because the various speleogenetic agents often operate in sequence, overprinting is common. Some forms of cave passages have been subject to intensive research and may be interpreted by means of simple physical and chemical principles. But many of the individual forms are polygenetic and hence are difficult to decode with certainty It is practical to genetically distinguish cave forms in two categories: M esoforms that are of similar size to the diameter of cave passage itself and microforms that are smaller than the cave passage ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ) M esoforms express the gross morphology of the passage, and in most cases they re flect how the passages are formed. Microforms are usually superimposed onto

PAGE 34

! "# passage walls. They often indicate modifying processes that applied on the cave system after the formation of the main passage ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ) During the cave exploration for the purposes of this thesis various morphological fea tures where identified. The meso and microforms from each cave where categorized in order to reconstruct the speleogenetic phases. From this analysis it was clear which of the studied caves represent the position of the old aquifer and in combination with speleothem dating techniques could provide insights on the landscape evolution of the study area. For this purpose speleothems were collected from 4 different caves from 3 different altitudinal zones and at the same time calcite from the surface of speleog ens that were formed at the phreatic/epiphreatic phase (e.g. scallops) as well as from calcite crusts overlying clastic deposits These types of chemical deposits were used in order to have a detailed scale for the paleoclimatic reconstruction and to defin e the uplift rate of the mountain by dating the aquifer drop ( Ford and Williams, 2007 ; Kevin L. Carrire 2010 ; Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ; Mariani et al., 2007 ; Plan et al., 2009 ; Wagner et al., 2010 ; Wagner et al., 2011 ) 3. 4 Paleoclimatic approach The most critical requir ements of any record to be used as a climatic proxy is that this record should provide information concerning the paleoclimatic evolution and the time scale can be determined in high detail ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 1999 ) Speleothemes can be used as paleoclimatic records since their growth is linked to the dripwater and to physical and chemical conditions of calcite crystallization. The speleothem properties that have been linked with the paleoclimatic alterations and are used widely for paleoclimatic reconstruction are the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition, the type of lamination major and minor element compos ition and the crystallographic structure ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 1999 ) 3. 4 .1 Th/ U dating technique Uranium thorium disequilibrium dating has been used for several decades as means of determining the age of late Quaternary carbonate materials such as corals and speleothems. This is achievable because of the different solubility of uranium and thorium in natural waters, which results in high uranium/thorium ratios in most

PAGE 35

! "# carbonates. In the cases that these carbonates are free of detrital contamination their initial 230 Th/ 234 U activity ratio is zero, which with time increases to unity as the 234 U decays to 230 Th, its unstable daughter product. The age of a sample can be calculated up to almost 650.000 years (Lauritzen pers. c om.) using th e measured activity ratio and the decay constants (the ratio of 234 U in the sample to its parent isotope 238 U must also b e determined) Initially such 230 Th/ 234 U/ 238 U ages were calculated from activity ratios determined by alpha spectrometry ( Harmon et al., 1978 ; Lauritzen et al., 1990 ; Thompson et al., 1975 ) which was progressively replaced from th e late 1980s by direct measure ment of isotope ratios using t hermal ionization mass spectro metry (TIMS) ( Stein et al., 1993 ; Zhu et al., 1993 ) TIMS age determinations are much more precise than alpha spectrometry and have greatly reduced sample size demands, giving very good precision from samples containing a few hundred nanograms of uranium ( Hellstrom, 2003 ) Multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectro metry (MC ICP MS) has evolved from the combination of earlier plasma source instruments with the multi collector arrays originally developed for TIMS instruments. Its adva n tage over TIMS is that the samples can be introduced to t he instrument in solution rather than as a purified solid, resulting in rapid measurement of multiple elements ( Hellstrom, 2003 ) For the p urposes of this thesis more 59 samples were extracted from 7 stalagmites and calcite deposits from fo u r different caves. The samples were analyzed following the methodology that Hellstrom ( 2003 ) has proposed for Th / U dating using parallel ion counting multi collector ICP MS and it is described below. At first, the collected samples were categorized in two (2) groups. The stalagmites and the non stalagmitic calcite deposit e.g. calcite crust samples. Following, the stalagmites were cut in half following a perpendicular line to their growth axis starting from the bottom until the top tip of the speleothem. At the next step, the half pa rt of the stalagmite was further cut in order to get a thin slice of the stalagmite ~ 2cm thick. At the final part the stalagmite slice was cleaned using weak (1M) HCl acid so that the lamination of the speleothem to be clearly visible and recognizable the n it was further cut perpendicular to the growth axis so that a laminar sampling to be achievable (fig. 3. 4 .1.).

PAGE 36

! "# The preparation procedure for the non stalagmitic samples was simpler. After their collection all the samples were only cleaned using water and weak (1M) HCl acid in order to remove the clay particles. Following, from both the stalagmitic samples as well as the non stalagmitic ones a subsample of 0.5g from the carbonate material was extracted and a unique lab number was given to each A pretreatment before the chemical preparation was applied during this procedure is essential that all the organic material should be removed from the sample. This is pos sible by igniting the sample for at least four hours at 750 ¡C. After, the sample is dissolved using c oncentrated nitric acid ( 14M, HNO 3 ) and the spike is added ( ~ 0.1 gr) the sol u tion is centrifuged in order to remove !"#$%&'() )' + )',-./.'.0'1'2/131#4"/&'5%.22'2&5/".6)

PAGE 37

! "# any insoluble practicles Before the ion exchange chromatography the sample is evaporated to almost dryness and dissolved in 1M HNO 3 to make 5 mL solution. The spiked sample is introduced in 1 M HNO 3 to 0.8 ml TRU Spec column and the matrix is removed by further elution of the solution with 1 M HNO 3 followed by 4 M HCl. U and Th are collected together in 0.1 M HCl 0.2 M HF (fig. 3. 4 .2) !"#$%&'()* ) + )',%$ ./&0'012$345'67891%8:1%;'1<'=$8:&%48%;'#&121#;'84>'/82&102"38:&?'@4"A&%5":;'1<' B&%#&4C !"#$%&'()* ) ( )',D&'EFG H.'I2&3&4:+'380D"4&'6@4"A&%5":;'1<'B&% #&4C

PAGE 38

! "# Then the solution is evaporated again in order to achieve 0.5ml ca. and finally one drop of 1M HNO 3 is added before the introduction of the sample at the ICP MS instrument (fig.3. 4 .3) After this procedure the measurements are exported from the ICP MS instrument s software and imported at the Age4U2U v.5.01 software (fig.3. 4 .4 ) in order to integrate, peak correction and calculate the 230 Th/ 234 U ages o f the analyzed samples The Age4U2U is an open source software that was developed at the University of Bergen by Lauritzen ( 2012 ) 3. 4 .2 Stable Isotopes Carbon stable isotope ( 13 C) in speleothems may provide information as to the origin of CO3 precipitated while 18 O indicates the environmental conditions ( e.g. temperature, humidity) during calcite precipitation. Isotopic fractionation should be investigated in order to render the results as rel iable for interpretation ( Hendy, 1971 ) For the purposes of the study seven stalagmites were collected from three caves in different altitudinal zones. After performing dating techniques on the collected samples only two stalagmit e s were found suitable for stable C and O is otope analyses the MegSP5 from the Megalo E ptamilo n cave and the MikSP5 from the Mikro E ptamilon cave. The stalagmites were send at the Hertelendi Laboratory of !"#$%&'()*) )'+,%&&-./01'2%03'1/&'%&.$41.'5"-605'02'1/&'7#&*898'.0215:%&)

PAGE 39

! "# Environmental studies, Institute for Nuclear Resear ch Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Hungary and at Institute of Geological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences at the Warsaw Research Centre respectively Carbonate powder was collected by drilling at 1mm intervals for the M eg SP3 stalagmite and at 2mm intervals for the M ik SP 6 stalagmite After the chemical preparation in order to determine the stable C and O isotope values the samples were measured using a Finnigan DELTAplus XP mass spectrometer Then to reconstruct the chronostratigraphical (age/depth) model the results were imported at ModAge software ( Hercman and Pawlak, 2012 ) ( fig .3. 4 .5) ModAge can be used for profiles that have been dated using various techniques. The system uses three basic measurements for input data: activities, the atomic ratio or age, and the depth of the measurement. Based on the measurement results (pro bability distributions), ModAge estimates the confidence bands of the age dept h model and uses nonparametric methods to avoid the consequences o f failure to meet assumptions The authors of the software after performing multiple tests in order to identify the most suitable fitting model that could be applied they concluded that the locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method (LOESS) is the most appropriate for model extraction ( Hercman and Pawlak, 2012 ) The stratigraphic correcti on procedure applied in the M odAge program uses a probability calculus, which assumes that all of the sample ages are correctly estimated. The probability age distribution from the samples was used to estimate the most probable sequence in accorda nce with the superposition rule ( Hercman and Pawlak, 2012 ) !"#$%&'() *) + )'',-%&&./012'3%14'20&'5167#&'48".'".9$2':".61:)

PAGE 40

! "# 3. 5 Geomorp hological analysis The goal for this part of the research was to identify all the dolines that are located at the highest part of the Menikio (1000m 1963m a.m.s.l) and group them based on the altitude that they occur. D olines are created in areas of low relief since the water should stay in the surface of the soluble rock in order that karstic reaction to take place. Defining the altidutional zones that these depressions are concentrated we could have insights of paneplain sur faces formation in the area For this to be achievable in reasonable time frame remote sensing techniques were applied ( Denizman, 2003 ; Manoutsoglou et al., 2012 ; Siart et al., 2009 ) For decades, remotely sensed data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used successfully for the mapping and extraction of surface structures and therefore represent an integral part of applied geomorphology ( Bubenzer and Bolt en, 2008 ; Cr—sta et al., 2003 ; Smith et al., 2006 ) Concerning extensive studies like the detection of landforms, the analysis of feature distribution or land cover investigations, visual interpret ation of aerial photos has proved to be very effective ( Sallun Filho and Karmann, 2007 ; Servenay and Prat, 2003 ) The high spatial resolution of airborne photographs provides a valuable data source, particularly for detecting smaller landforms (meters to decameters). However, newer datase ts like high resolution satellite images and digital elevation models (DEMs) have become progressively popular due to their numerous advantages and qualities (e.g. high level of detail, multi spectral properties, and increasing global coverage). DEMs and s atellite imagery have been applied to detect geomorphologic units and various relief features like glacial or aeolian landforms or for assessing the correlation of landforms and land cover ( Bubenzer and Bolten, 2008 ; CarrŽ and Girard, 2002 ; Demirkesen, 2008 ; Novak and Soulakellis, 2000 ) In order to address the issue of surface karst mapping in the Menikio Mountain, a multi methodological approach was applied analyzing digital elevation model derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in combination with 4 Ikonos multispectral images (pixel size 4m) orthophotopmaps ( de Carvalho et al., 2013 ; Florea, 2005 ; Siart et al., 2009 ) and the geological maps (fig.3. 5 .1) T he accuracy of the results of the above mentioned approach was tested by ground truth evaluation through multiple field stints and by visual examination of high accuracy orthophotomaps

PAGE 41

! "# Elevation data from the SRTM were used to derive geomorphometric parameters of the study area Contours of altitudinal zones and slope raster were calculated in degree units. Post processing with majority filtering and mean filtering helped to smooth erro neous pixel values before the final reclassification of slope raster into ten continuous categories. Ikonos images were used. Processing and enhancement was conducted with the ENVI 4.8 software package. The data were georeferenced to UTM WGS 84 coordinate s (zone 34 north). A resolution merge method was employed to enhance the spatial resolution of the imagery, resulting in a final pixel size of 1 m. Subsequent to image mosaicking; the specific area of interest was extracted in a subscene by deleting redundant parts to reduce the spectral and spatial complexity of the data. The remote sensing of karst features like enclosed depressions is problematic because small landforms might fall below the resolving power of most airborne or satellite sensors. Also, just like any other surface features, they are neither characterised by unique shape nor do they share a single figure ( Siart et al., 2009 ) Due to this complexity, an alternative methodological approach is required. In this context, one has to pay attention to the important fact that karst depressions in the Menikio Mount ain are frequently filled with colluvial sediments up to several meters of thick ness These solution residues are characterized by high contents of iron bearing minerals ( ali 2011 ; Ford and Williams, 2007 ; Gunn, 2004 ; Vavliakis, 1981 ; Williams, 2004 ) A semi automatic data analysis was applied using ENVI 4.8 software in order to identify the indirect karst indicating variables of iron oxide rich sediments Following, an evaluation of the results was performed using the high resolution orthophotomaps ( www.ktimatologio.gr ) and ground truth field trips at the study area. Finally, all the results were exported in an ArcGIS format (*.shp) and imported at the ArcMap routine. The data were interpolated on the SRTM DEM dataset so that altitude attribute was applied to each feature and the resulting data were exported in a simple ASCII format. Further processing resulted in a spatial distribution graph of the number of dolines in relation to the altitude.

PAGE 42

! "# 3. 6 Electric Resistivity T omographies The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) technique is increasing ly popular in a wide range of applications In the same context and in need for understanding the sediment/carbonate rock interface in highly heterogeneous karst settings geophysical methods remain the most efficient alternative for high resolution imaging between borings ( Park et al., 2013 ; Psomiadis et al., 2009 ; Siart et al., 2010a ; Siart et al., 2010b ) The only drawb ack of the methodology in imaging structures in covered karst is that the depth to the sediment rock interface maybe is greater than the depth of resolution of the survey ( Harr o and Kruse, 2013 ) This is especially true in areas where restrictions in the surface array length due to the irregular shape of the landforms (e.g. small dolines) and other surface features (e.g. vegetation) may limit the depth of penetration The res olution depth of ele ctrical resistivity imaging ( ERT ) !"#$%&'() *) + )',-&'./%"0$1'2/3/1&31'$1&2'40%'3-"1'/5/671"1)'/8'9:,;'2&<)'=8'>?0501'"
PAGE 43

! "# surveys is limited by the distance between the furthest electrodes involved in any single reading. This application was transferred to the karstic geoarchives of the Kallipolis p olje at Menikio Mountain in order to evaluate the maximum depth of sediment fill and to reveal and identify buried paleo karst stuctures The preliminary localisation of the best archives was accomplished on a small scale through analyzing high accuracy aerial orthoph otomaps in combination with high accuracy digital elevation model that was constructed on site for the purposes of this study using a D GPS unit (Papoudas, pers. com) and with ground truth fieldwork In order to obtain the best available data 8 fixed ERT lines were employed. Geoelectrical data were obtained using a 10 chanel resistivity meter (IRIS INSTRUMENTS) with a 48 cable multiplexing ability (fig. 3. 6 1 ) !"#$%&'()* ) + )',-&'.&/0 $%"1#'/00&.234'5"6-'6-&'7879'7106%$.&160'%&0"06":"64'.&6&%;'6-&'2/66&%4'/1<'6-&' =/23&0'>?'6-&'&3&=6%><&0)

PAGE 44

! "" The i nter electrode spacing was set to 1 0 m and 50m for two group s of 4 ERT lines each the lengths of the mea sured line s varied from 250, 500 and 1000m depending on the available land space and the preferred detail of the results (fig. 3. 6 2 ) The lines were geometrically positioned in a way that the maximum possible coverage of the irregular shape of the Kallipolis polje could be achieved (fig. 3. 6 3 ). !"#$%&'() ) + )',"&-'.%/0'12&'3&45/6&3 7)8)9) 5":&';/('<="&-'1/'&>?1@)';/1&'12>1'12&'."%?1'&5&A1%/3&?'>%&' 4/?"1"/:&3'":'12&'B&3%/AC'":'/%3&%'1/'>AD$"%&'12&'%&?"?1"="16'=>5$&?'/.'12&'B&3%/AC'<0>%B5&@'12>1' -&%&'$?&3'./%'12&'3>1>'":1&%4%&1"/:)' E$4&%"04/?&3'>1'12&'$44&%'%"#21'A/%:&%'="&-'/.'12&'&5&A1%/3& ?) In order to check data quality and discard any noisy measurements mapping of the raw data has been performed Following, with the use of a 2 D inversion algorithm further process of the data took place In this context a flexible non linear 2 D scheme ( Tsourlos, 1995 ; Tsourlos et al., 1998 ) based on smoothness constrained algorithm was used for the inversion of the collected resistivity data. The process enables the construction of an estimation of the subsurface resistivity distribution which is coherent with the experimental data. The algorithm is iterative and fully automated and is based on a reliable 2.5D finite element forward modeling scheme, which is also used for calculating the Jacobian matrix when necessary ( Tsourlos et al., 2014 )

PAGE 45

! "# Finally, after the altitudinal topographic correction of the ERT scans an ASCII type file was exported. The file was then imported to the ArcScene v.10.1 software so that the interpolation of the data could lead in the creation of a pseudo 3 D image model of the polje 's buried topography. 3. 7 Magnetic susceptibility Enviromental magnetism is a relatively new science, especially when applied to Quaternary terrestrial deposits. The study of magnetic minerals in a sediment sample can yield valuable paleoenviromental data. To date, much enviromagnetic work has concerned lacustrine and marine sed iments ( Aidona et al., 2007 ; Aidona and Liritzis, 2012 ; Ghilardi et al., 2010 ; Pechlivanidou, 2012 ) loess sequences ( Heller et al., 1991 ) soils ( Maher et al., 2003 ) and archaeological sedime nts ( Eastwood et al., 2007 ; Ellwood et al., 2004 ; Ellwood et al., 1996 ; Woodward and Goldberg, 2001 ) !"#$%&'()*) ()'+,-'./'01&'2,33"-.3"4'-.35&)'6&7'3"8&4'"87"9,0&'01&':6;'3"8&4)''<.80.$%4'7&%"=&7',/0&%' 01& > ? @AB'4$%=&C',%&',34.'="4"D3&)

PAGE 46

! "# This type of analysis can provide usefu l insights into the nature and origin of the sediments. The use of the magnetic parameters as part of a multi methodolog ical approach towards the paleoclimatic reconstruction of the broader area of the thesis will allow for the evaluation of these data alongside with the stable isotope analyses. T wo vibracores 5m long each (klp1 and klp2) (see Figure 3. 7 .1 ) were drilled during autumn of 2011. These cores were split in half, photographed and described on the basis of color (Munsell Soil Color Chart), texture, and lithology. Samples were collected at 5 cm intervals for environmental magnetism analyses. In the laboratory fac ilities of the department of Geophysics of the S chool of G eology of Aristotle U niversity, all samples were weighted in order to calculate the mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted using a Bartingt on MS2 meter (resolution: 2 x 10 6 SI on 0.1 range) and a dual frequency sensor. Thus all samples were measured at l ow (0.465 kHz 1%) and high (4. 65 kHz 1%) frequency. The dual frequency enabled the estimation of the frequency depended magnetic suscept ibility (k fd ) which indicates the presence of ferrimagnetic grains close to the superparamagnetic stable single domain (SP) transition. !"#$%&'()*) +)',-.'/0'12&'3-44"./4"5'./46&) 7"12'%&8'8/15'-%&'8&."91&8'12&'./5"1"/:'/0'12&'1;/' <"=%-9/%&5'>=-9?#%/$:8'0%/@'A//#4&'B-%12C)

PAGE 47

! "# !"#$%&'()*) +)',-&' Bartington MS2

PAGE 48

! "# 4. Results In this chapter the results of the methodological approach (¤3) are represented. The analysis and the interpretation of the results are discussed at the following chapter (¤5). 4.1 Cave spotting and cave survey The methodology followed at the early stages of the study in order to locate as many caves as possible provide fruitful results. This combined approach resulted in an efficient number of new caves never mentioned before in any official report or cadastral. The ground truth field trips showed that there was over 70% success on the remote sensing technique used to locate cave entrances in the vast arid landscape of the Menikio Moun tain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

PAGE 49

! "# It was made possible to locate thirteen (13) new caves, out of the eighteen (18) in total (fig. 4.1.1) During the exploration and the survey of the caves it was made clear that in Menikio Mountain lays the deepest cave (Chionotripa cave) in the region of Northern Greece the vertical depth of which reached 166m. Also, it was visible that fourteen (14) of the caves were following a vertical pattern of development and on ly four (4) presenting a significant horizontal extent (table 4.1.1). Following, the survey of the caves took place and the cave maps where created. The accuracy of the produced cave maps can be rated as grade 5c 6c, according to the British Cave Resear ch Association standards (Day, 2002) ! ! !"#$%&'()*)' )'+,-'./'01&'2%.,3&%'%&#".4'./'+&4"5".'+.$40,"4)'6,7&8',%&'81.94'9"01':.;.%'3.08)'<&3' 3.08'81.9"4#':,7&8'/.$43'3$%"4#'01"8'80$3=',43'2;$&'3.08',%&':,7&8'01,0'9&%&'54.94'2&/.%&'01&' 80$3=)'>.0&'01,0'"4'01&'8.$01&%4'9&80&%4'?.80'&3#&'./'01&'?,-'01&'2;$&'3.0'" 8'3&-":0"4#'2.01'+&#,;.' ,43'+"5%.'&-0,?";.4':,7&'@"?,#&'2,:5#%.$43'/%.?'A..#;&'B,%01C)

PAGE 50

! "# ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !"#$%&'()*)' + )',"-%.'/0123"4.5'627&)'8425'7"&9)

PAGE 51

! "# ! ! !"#$%&'()*)' + ,&#-./'012-3"./4'5-6&)'7.-4'6"&8)

PAGE 52

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*)' ( )'+,"-."/"'012&)'3.14'2"&5)

PAGE 53

! "# !"#$%&'()*)' + )',"-%'.&/"0'123&)'4/25'3"&6

PAGE 54

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) + )'!,$-./'0/1&)'23.&-4&4'&5&1/.",-'6%,7"5&) !"#$%&'()*) 8 )'9/"4,$%,.%"6/'0/1&)'23.&-4&4'&5&1/.",-'6%,7"5&)

PAGE 55

! "" ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',-.-/"'0%"1-'2-3&)'456&.7&7'&8&3-6"9.'1%9:"8&) ' !"#$%&'()*) ; ) <-%6=&.-'2-3&)'456&.7&7'&8&3-6"9.'1%9:"8&)

PAGE 56

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) *+ )',"-.&/"0'123&) 456&-7&7'&/&326"8-'9%8:"/&)

PAGE 57

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) ** )'+,-*'./0&)'123&45&5'&6&0/3"74'8%79"6&) !"#$%&'()*) *: )'+,-:'./0&)'123&45&5'&6&0/3"74'8%79"6&)

PAGE 58

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) *+ )',-.+' /01&)'234&56&6'&7&104"85'9%8:"7&)

PAGE 59

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) *( )'+,-('./0&)'123&45&5'&6&0/3"74'8%79"6&) !"#$%&'()*) *: )'+,-:'./0&)'123&45&5'&6&0/3"74'8%79"6&)

PAGE 60

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) *+ )',-. +'/01&)'234&56&6'&7&104"85'9%8:"7&) ' !"#$%&'()*) *; )',-.<00'/01&)'234&56&6'&7&104"85'9%8:"7&) '

PAGE 61

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) *+ )',-&.-/%"',%"0/'1/2&)'34/5'2"&6) '

PAGE 62

! "# ! "#$%&'!()*) *+ ) ,-#./.0 !324')!560'/7'7!'8'420#./!1&.9#8') 4.2 Cave Morphology In order to understand the geomorphological and the geological context under which the speleogenesis and the further development of the cave one has to study the imprint of the speleogenit c processes on the cave ( speleogens and the cave sediments, both clastic and chemical). In the first part of this chapter all the results from the above mentioned speleological approach are presented in summary for all the caves Following, the results from the caves with high horizontal extent are presented in detail. 4.2.1 General The majority of the Menikio caves are vertical shafts with depth varying from 166m to 4m. The diameter of those almost cylindrical shafts varies from narrow chimneys 40cm to

PAGE 63

! "# wide 10m vaults (fig. 4.2.2 ). These caves develop in close relation with a surface sinkhole (fig. 4.2.1 ) and/or following steep joints (fig.4.2.3). According to Lauritzen & Lundberg (2000) these type of passages are showing clearly speleogenesis under vadose conditions. Four of the explored caves found to have, as mentioned before, significant horizontal extent and they presented phreatic/epiphreatic morphology (fig. 4.2.2 ). These caves have significant interest for the purpose of this study and therefore their morphological features are presented in detail. !"#$%&'()*) + )',-&'.-"/0/1%"23'435&'%&#"/0)'6&7'3%%/8'2/"019'1-&'7/: "0&';7<3=>+?<@' 8-&%&'435&'/44$%9';0/1&'1-&'4/89'A/%'943:&@)

PAGE 64

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) )'+,-.&'/012"3#'40&'5,%"1$/'61%701.1#"8,.'9&,4$%&/'19'40&'&:7.1%&;'8,5&/)'< = >'?012"3#'5,;1/& /0,94/'@"3'7"84$%&'>'40&';"/4,38&'41'40&'&34%,38&'"/'*A6B)''(B'!%,84"13'19','70%&,4"8'4$-&'"3'C"1%;&."D'8,5&)'AB' E0%&,4"8'4$-&',4'40&'F&#,.1'G74,6".13'8,5&)'HB'C&I01.&'7,//,#&',4'+/"9."D"'8,5&)'JB' K&34"8$.,%'70%&,4"8'4$-&',4' F"D%1'G74,6".13'8,5&)

PAGE 65

! "# 4.2.2 Mikro Eptamilon cave The Mikro Eptamilon cave has been discovered during the mid 70 's during the works at the marble quarry that the cave develops. Members of the Hellenic Speleological Society conducted the first exploration of the cave almost immediately after its discovery. Until that day there was n't any known entrance of the cave. N owadays, the cave has three different entrances (see fig. 4. 1 2 ) that were opened accidentally during the quarrying works. Mikro Eptamilon cave has relatively small dimensions. The total length of the cave is almost 224m and the altitudinal difference betw een the highest and the lowest point of the cave is 24m. The height of the cave corridors varies from 25cm to 4m. !"#$%&'()*) + )',"-%.'/0123"4.5'627&'28'!421'6&"4"5#)'98':&"4"5#'6$0.42;'25<'3"62'%"6='%.6-)'68':&"4"5#'25<' >244'=24?'1$9&;)'<8'@=%&21"6'1$9&)'&8'A6244.0;)'?8'B7&%=25#"5#'6246"1&'6%$;1)'#8'C.%324'?2$41' D<&12"4'?%.3'1=&' 6&"4"5#'.?'2'0=%&21"6'1$9&8)

PAGE 66

! "" The morphological features of the cave are revealing a mixed phreatic and epiphreatic origin. The cave corridors are geologically controlled presenting lenticular and cylin drical shape. Those of almost N S direction are following the intersection between the strata of the marbles and the strike of tectonic discontinuities (fig.4.2.3. d, g) In contrast those with W E direction are following the strike of the predominantly join group of the region. This difference results in different corridor shape (fig. 4.2.4). The cave walls are showing extreme scalloping. The size of the scallops found inside the cave varies fro m very small (~2cm) (fig. 4.2.3 e) to large ones (~1m) (fig. 4.2.5) that can be found on the highest parts of the cave At the low part of the cave it was found an overhanging calcite cr ust (fig. 4.2. 3f) a flat ceiling (fig. 4.2.3 a) and ceiling and wall half tubes (fig. 4.2.3 c). Finally, in some of the highest parts of the cave it was observed that a type of highly altered bedrock that is rich in mica dominated the ceiling (fig. 4.2.3b). !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'!()*) + )!,-&$'!./-0012.!-3!34'!/-5'!6-00.) "#$%&'!()*) ( )!-7!8 9 :!;#&'/3#1 9 ?!;#&'/3#1
PAGE 67

! "# 4.2. 3 M egalo Eptamilon cave The Megalo Eptamilon cave was also discovered during the quarrying works at the region and was explored almost simultaneously with the Mikro Eptamilon cave by the same team of cavers The two caves are considered to be essentially part of the same karst system although until today no physical connection between them has been found but their adj acent positions can imply this hypothesis (fig. 4.2. 7 ). The total length of the cave is almost 5 24m and the altitudinal difference between the highest and the lowest point of the cave is 57 m. The height of the cave corridors varies from 25cm to 10 m.

PAGE 68

! "# ! !"#$ %&'()*) + ) ,&#-./'012-3"./4)' -'5'67'89%&-2"6'2$:&;'<= > ?0'@"%&62"/4)':'5'&7'A.-;2"6';&@"3&42;'6/B&%&@':C'-' 6-.6"2&'6%$;2)'@7' #C1;$3'@&1/;"2'-2'29&'6/42-62':&2D&&4'3-%:.&'-4@'3"6&'%"69':&@%/6E )'F7'G&42"6$.-%'6/%%"@/%' ?= > <0'@"%&6 2"/4)

PAGE 69

! "# The morphological features of the cave are revealing phreatic speleogenetic conditions The cave corridors are geologically controlled presenting lenticular and cylindrical shape according to their direction. Those of almost N E S W direction are following the intersection between the strata of the marbles and the strike of tectonic discontinuities (fig.4.2. 6 c a ). In contrast the ones following SE NW direction they appear lenticular shape following the strike of the joints (fig.4.2. 6f) The same formation that is rich in mica minerals is also visible on the cave ceiling at the highest part of the cave (fig.4.2.6 d). 4.2. 4 Tsifliki cave Tsifliki cave was explored for the first time by Nikos Leloudas on 2006 (pers. Com.) although it's existence was well known to the local community of Agriani The first part of t he cave is artificially made since it was partially used during the antiquity for mini ng exploitation. This occupation of the cave is explained by the presence of iron oxides (fig. 4.2.8f) that are widely visible on the cave walls. The total length of the cave is almost 146 m and the altitudinal difference between the highest and the lowest point of the cave is 5 m. The height of the cave corridors varies from 25cm to 2 m. Cave passages of almost E W direction are following the bedding of the marbles (fig 4.2.8b) in contrast to those of almost N S direction that are following the strike of the joints !"#$%&'()*) + )',-'.%/0&12&3'1%/44'4&12"/5'/6'7&#,8/'9:2,;"8/5'<=8$&-',53'7">%/'9:2,;"8 /5'<#%&&5-'/5' 2?&'@$,%%A'B,88)'=-'.8,5'C"&B'/6'7">%/',53'7&#,8/'9:2,;"8/5'<5/2&'2?,2'3$&'2/'2?&'%&4:&12"C&'2?&' 7">%/'1,C&'4&&;4'2/'=&'?"#?&%'B?&%&',12$,88A'"4'8/B&%'2?,5'2?&'7&#,8/-)

PAGE 70

! "# (fig. 4.2.8d e). The shape of the passages is altered later by vadose incision resulting in a keyhole like shape (fig. 4.2.8d) but also by upward erosion (paragenesis ) creating spectacular flat ceilings (fig. 4.2.8a,c b). !"#$%&'()*)+)',-'.,%,#&/&0"1'23,0'1&"3"/#'4"05'05&'"/"0",3'163"/7%"1,3'85%&,0"1'0$9&'&:"7&/0)'9';1-'.,%,#&/&0"1'23,0'1&"3"/#) 7-' <&65=3&'>5,8&'8,>>,#&)'&-'?&"3"/#'1$8=33,> ,3=/#'05&'1=%%"7=%'>5=4/',0'05&'7-'85=0=)'2-'@%=/'=A"7&>'=/'05&'1,:&'4,33>)

PAGE 71

! "# 4.2. 5 Kior De lik cave Kior Delik cave is located at 1643m a.m.s.l. at the ridge above a dry valley and it is developed parallel to the valley. Members of the Hellenic Speleological Society first explored the cave (Pennos & Partsios unpubl. d ata, 2003). During the visits that made for the purposes of this study the length as well as the depth of the cave was increased to the total length of 355m a nd its vertical depth at 80m. The cave's development is perpendicular to a fault segment that controls the valley development as well. (fig. 4.2.9) !"#$%&'()*)+)',&-.-#"/0 .'102'-3'45&'6%-07&%'%&#"-8'-3'9 "-% : &.";'/0<& =,,>?'@ABC)',&-.-#"/0.'102'-3' D,EF'087'?>GE'7040'$H&7'3-%'60/;#%-$87'=3-%'%&3&%&8/&H'H&&'4&I4C) From the morp hological features it is evident that the cave is now in the vadose zone. The division between the vadose shafts and the epipheatic galleries is clear mostly because there is a difference on their inclination (vadose shafts are developing almost vertically in contrast to the epiphreatic galleries that t hey are almost horizontal ( Piccini, 2011) The shape of the cave corridors is totally formed by the breakdown morphology (fig. 4.2.11) Not many features from the previous speleogenetic phases are preserved (fig. 4.2.12a,b,d,f) since there are major collapses in almost all cave rooms (fig 4.2.11 & 4.2.12 e) The whole process probably connected with the presence of the aforementioned active fault The strike of the

PAGE 72

! "# fault is parallel to the main axis development of the cave and crosses almost vertical the bedding of the marbles which results in major breakdowns (fig.4.2.10) !"#$%&'()*)+,)''-.&'/0$12'3&52'"53"6&'2.&'7"8%'9&1":';0 <&'=>?, @ AB, @ C) !"#$%&'()*)++)'D%&0:68E53'85'2.&'/"501'%884'8/'2.&'7"8%'9&1":';0<&'=582&'2.&' 2%"05#$10%'3.0F&'8/'2.&';8%%"68%'6&%"<&6'GH'2.&';%833'3&;2"85'8/'2.&'/0$12' 3&52'056'2.&'G&66"5#'8/'2.&'40%G1&3C)

PAGE 73

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*)+*)','' ./'.&"0"1#'.$230,4)'5/'."%.$0,%'46,2&'2,44,#&)'7/'8,734&'.,1931)'&/'5%&,:73;1'<3%26303#9)' =/'.90"17%".,0'23>630&',>'>6&'&17'3='>6&'.,1931'4&&1'31' 7)

PAGE 74

! "# 4.2. 6 Vertical caves. All the caves that present vertical extent can be classified as vadose caves s ince no phreatic or epiphreatice features were observed. All the caves present chimney like shapes and semicircular or elliptical pot like shapes. They are developing following the strike of steep almost vertical joints (fig. 4.2.13 4.2.14 & 4.2.15 ) !"#$%&'()*)+,)'-.&' &/0%1/2&'34'!3$/01'215& 16'6&&/'4%37'0.&'830037)'-.&'%&9' 916.&9' :"/&'"/9"210&6'0.&'60%";&' 34'1/'1:7360'5&%0"21:'<3"/0'=9">>"/#'1/#:&'?@ A B) !"#$%&'()*)+()'-.&'&/0%1/2&'34'CDE+'215&)' -.&'%&9'916.&9':"/&'"/9"210&6'0.&'9">>"/#'34'0.&'." #.'1/#:&'<3"/0' 0.10'23/0%3:'0.1'9&5&:3>7&/0'34'0.&'215&'=9">>"/#'1/#:&'F@ A B)

PAGE 75

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*)+ )'-.&'&/0%1/2&'34'0.&'5."3/30%"61'217&)'-.&'217&'8&7&936:&/0'43993;<'0.&'<0%"=&)'-.&'>3"/0'"<' <.3;/'10'0.&'6"20$%&';"0.'0.&'%&8'81<.&8'9"/&'?+*@ A BC, A D) 4.3 Paleoclimatic approach 4.3.1 Th/U dating results For the purposes of the study 59 samples were prepared following the method that was proposed by Hellstrom (2003) for ICP MS ana lysis. From the total of these samples there were analyzed and measured at the ICP MS 48 of them. Firstly, subsampling at the stalagmites was performed in order to acquire samples from the top and the b ottom and then according to the results further subsam pling was performed in order to create a chronostratigraphic record. Following, the results from the analysis are presented in groups according to the cave.

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! "# 4.3.1.a Mikro Eptamilon cave !"#$%&'()*)'+)',"-%.'/0123"4.5 627&)'89&':2304"5#'0.:"1".5:'2%&';&0"61&;'<"19'19&'=426-'1%"25#4&:) ' 82=4&'()*) + )'>61"7"1?'%21".:'@.%'244'19&':2304&:'&A1%261&;'@%.3',"-%.'/0123"4.5'627&) ' !"#$ %& $ '()*+,-.,/0 $ 1"2-3($%& $ 456 7$ 8--29 $ 45: 7; 456 7 45< =>; 45: 7 45< =>; 454 => ?@($8A"9 $ 1026 Calcite crust from the top of clastic sediment sequence MikroSP1Up 0.1847 1.109441 + 0.084 2.13841 +0.17 2 +9.01 0.084 0.17 9.01 1032 Calcite crust from the bottom of clastic sediment sequence MikroSP1Down Didn't run on ICP MS 1021 Calcite crust MikroSP2 0.5366 1.011440 +0.015 1.00988 +0.024 383 +8.02 0.015 0.024 8.02 1102 Calcite crust MikroSP2 Didn't run on ICP MS 1030 Calcite cover on scallop MikroSP3 Didn't run on ICP MS 1023 Calcite cover on scallop MikroSP4 0.5410 1.022667 +0.019 0.93522 +0.029 13 +3.22 276.767 + 73.869 0.019 0.029 3.22 44.871

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! "" 1024 Overhanging calcite crust MikroSP5 1.2069 0.956436 + 0. 00 6 0.86488 +0.007 13 +13.544 215.676 + 14.018 0. 006 0.007 13.544 237.252 1103 Overhanging calcite crust MikroSP5 Didn't run on ICP MS 1111 Stalagmite MikroSP6a 3.5796 1.116839 + 0.021 5.05569 +0.091 90 + 757.4 0.021 0.091 757.4 1112 Stalagmite MikroSP6b 6.9167 1.089550 + 0.028 0.13603 +0.0012 12769 + 0.963 15.936 +0.157 0.028 0.0012 0.963 0.156 1113 Stalagmite MikroSP6c Didn't run on ICP MS 1114 Stalagmite MikroSP6d 1.3415 1.054186 + 0. 007 0.22222 +0.01 9196 + 4.75 8 27.383 +1.498 0. 007 0.01 4.75 8 1.477 1010 Stalagmite MikroSP6down 6.2159 0.925522 +0. 0052 0.39574 +0.001 190 +12.664 55.101 +0.252 0. 0052 0.001 12.664 0.253 1115 Stalagmite MikroSP6e Didn't run on ICP MS 1116 Stalagmite MikroSP6f 3.3367 1.005876 +0.035 0.38824 + 0. 0013 263 +53.53 55.446 +0.231 0.035 0. 0013 53.53 0.230 1009 Stalagmite MikroSP6up 6.2262 0.973883 +0.0100 0.05673 +0.0014 38 +3.88 6.132 + 0.183 0.0100 0.0014 3.88 0.187

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! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) + )' ,"-%./01'23454#6"3&)'78&'9$6:&%2'4%&';.%%&2<.9="9#'3.'38&'&>3%4;3&='2$:246<5&2)'78&'=%"55' 8.5&2'3843'?&%&'64=&'@.%'6&42$%"9#'38&'A>B#&9'49=';4%:.9'234:5&'"2.3.<&2'4%&'452.'C"2":5&)

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! "# 4.3.1.b Megalo Eptamilon cave. !"#$%&'()*) + )',&#-./'012-3"./4'5-6&)'78&'9-31."4#'1/9"2"/49'-%&':&1"52&:';"28'28&'<.-5='2%"-4#.&9) 7-<.&'()*) + )'>62"6"2?'%-2"/9'@/%'-..'28&'9-31.&9'&A2%-52&:'@%/3',&#-./'012-3"./4'5-6&) !"#$ %& $ '()*+,-.,/0 $ 1"2-3($%& $ 456 7$8--29 $ 45: 7; 456 7 45< =>; 45: 7 45< =>; 454 => ?@($8A"9 $ 1015 Stalagmite MegaloSP1up 0.5043 1.023140 + 0.016 0.14886 +0.036 18 +4.408 16.232 + 4.762 0.016 0.036 4.408 4.558 1087 Stalagmite MegaloSP1down Didn't run on ICP MS 1108 Stalagmite MegaloSP3a 0.5366 1.0 5477 +0.01477 0.34190 +0.0057 383 + 2.097 45.505 +0.991 0.01477 0.0057 2.097 0.977 1086 Stalagmite MegaloSP1up Didn't run on ICP MS 1109 Stalagmite MegaloSP3b 4.8122 1.0688 7 +0.01494 0.1219 5 +0.0056 169 +16 .624 14. 182 + 0.709 0.01494 0.0056 16 .624 0.705

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! "# 1110 Stalagmite MegaloSP3c 6.9647 1.004407 +0.0248 0.10248 +0.0029 3566 +105.85 11.805 + 0.367 0.0248 0.0029 105.85 0.367 1011 Stalagmite MegaloSP3up 1.2069 0.942184 +0.0049 0. 12 274 +0.003 4312 + 3.232 8.253 + 0.276 0.0049 0.003 3.232 0.276 1093 Stalagmite MegaloSP3down 3.9524 1.0177 7 + 0.02 0.12353 +0.007 2219 + 5.681 14.393 + 0.879 0.02 0.007 5.681 0.879 1097 Stalagmite MegaloSP3down 0.2544 1.1 4832 +0.02103 0.9 5645 +0.023 90 + 757.4 9 + 204.82 0.02103 0.023 757.4 204.82 1092 Stalagmite MegaloSP3mid 5.8956 1.049653 +0.0197 0.14037 +0.0081 1260 + 5.942 16.497 + 1.32 0.0197 0.0081 5.942 0. 97 1091 Stalagmite MegaloSP3up 4.1678 1.049368 +0.01961 0.14092 +0.00803 1266 + 5.916 16.568 +1.031 0.01961 0.00803 5.916 1.031 1031 Calcite crust MegaloSP4 0.2088 0.976869 + 0.0371 0.72381 +0.07101 4 +2.6117 109.830 +47.771 0.0371 0.07101 2.6117 86.481 1087 Stalagmite MegaloSP1down Didn't run on ICP MS 1101 Crust Megalo Crust tripa 5.5268 0.887070 +0.0285 0.51328 +0.00211 9 +47.2566 76.503 +0.342 0.0285 0.00211 47.2566 0.334 1016 Stalagmite MegaloSP1down 0.1925 1.068850 +0.0354 0.37189 +0.0389 2376 +236.35 50.497 +0.342 0.0354 0.0389 236.35 0.334 1022 Calcite cover on scallop MegaloSP5 0.7138 0.973844 + 0.0161 0.0161 1.52847 +0.032 0.032 62 +4.731 4.731

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! "# ! !"#$%&'()*)' +&#,-./0* 1,2',34'+&#,-./05 162' 78,-,#9"8&)':;&'3$96&%7',%&'<.%%&7=.34"3#'8.'8;&'&>8%,<8&4' 7$67,9=-&7 ) 4.3.1.c Tsifliki cave. !"#$%&'()*)' ( )':7"?-"@"'<,A&) :;&'7,9=-"3#'=.7"8".37',%&'4&="<8&4'B"8;'8;&'6-,<@'8%",3#-&7 ) ! ! !

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! "# !"#$%&'()( ) (& *+,-.-,/&0",-12 & 310&"$$&,4%&2"56$%2&%7,0"+,%8&3015& !2-3$-9& +".% ( & !"#$ %& $ '()*+,-.,/0 $ 1"2-3($%& $ 456 7$ 8--29 $ 45: 7; 456 7 45< =>; 45: 7 45< =>; 454 => ?@($8 A"9 $ 1008 Stalagmite Tsifliki SP1down 0.0711 1.176967 + 0.8998 1.89115 + 1.5386 4 + 4.057 0.8998 1.5386 4.057 1096 Stalagmite Tsifliki SP1down 0.1022 0.862750 + 0.3906 7.98752 + 3.743 6 + 11.235 0.3906 3.743 11.235 1095 Stalagmite Tsifliki SP1mid 0.0271 0.518076 + 0.27284 2.94301 + 5.107 2 + 3.365 0.27284 5.107 3.365 1007 S talagmite Tsifliki SP1up 0.0629 1.067224 + 0.31231 1.13859 + 0.6072 2 + 1.0016 0.31231 0.6072 1.0016 1094 Stalagmite Tsifliki SP1up 0.0522 0.866649 + 0.2837 1.45187 + 0.9239 3 + 1.5499 0.2837 0.9239 1.5499 1025 Calcite crust on scallop TsiflikiSP2 1.1254 0.978693 + 0.0199 1.07911 + 0.0294 16 + 10.473 0.0199 0.0294 10.473 1055 Calcite crust on scallop TsiflikiSP3 0.0757 1.163951 + 0.15809 2.04283 + 0.2939 6 + 3.9928 0.15809 0.2939 3.9928 ! :-;<0%&'()( = (&!2-3$-9->?@&2,"$";5-,%(&!4%&A<5#%02&"0%&+100%261A8-A;&,1&,4%&%7,0"+,%8&2<#2"56$%2( &

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! "# 4.3.1.d Kior Delik cave. ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',"-%'.&/"/ 012&)'34&'51678"9#'7-5":"-95'1%&';&7"0:&;'<":4':4&'=810/':%"19#8&5) 31=8&'()*) ( )'>0:"2":?'%1:"-5'@-%'188':4&'51678&5'&A:%10:&;'@%-6',"-%'.&8"/'012& !"#$ %& $ '()*+,-.,/0 $ 1"2-3($%& $ 456 7$8--29 $ 45: 7; 456 7 45< =>; 45: 7 45< =>; 454 => ?@($ 8A"9 $ 1019 Stalagmite Krd1a 0.1259 1.039863 + 0.24035 0.16731 + 0.4991 8 + 24.736 0.24035 0.4991 24.736 1020 Stalagmite Krd1b 0.1239 1.007930 + 0.12781 0.29590 + 0.3357 4 + 4.6118 0.12781 0.3357 4.6118 1006 Stalagmite Krd1down 0.0346 0.958192 + 0.37371 1.17335 + 0.64913 354 + 138.73 0.37371 0.64913 138.73 1005 Stalagmite Krd1Up 0.0737 1.058401 + 0.1782 0.31846 + 0.33375 2 + 1.992 0.1782 0.33375 1.992 1013 Stalagmite Krd2down 0.0508 0.911814 + 0.247 1.20725 + 0.5476 225 + 81.9647 0.247 0.5476 81.9647 1014 Stalagmite Krd2up 0.0659 0.869715 + 0.27813 1.42805 + 0.94635 36 + 21 .0 141 0.27813 0.94635 21.0141 1029 Calcite crust Krd3 (borehole) 0.0269 0.921639 + 0.47286 1.68041 + 1.42101 3 + 2.28177 0.47286 1.42101 2.28177 1104 Stalagmite Krd4a 0.0254 0.770942 + 1.0028 6.05416 + 8.09401 202 + 141.523 1.0028 8.09401 141.523 1105 Stalagmite Krd4b 0.0296 0.911901 + 0.28177 0.37458 + 0.9012 6 + 13.8892 0.28177 0.9012 13.8892

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! "# 1106 Stalagmite Krd4c 0.0243 0.827536 + 0.65298 4.66748 + 4.31153 311 + 149.373 0.65298 4.31153 149.373 1107 Stalagmite Krd4d 0.0191 0.789786 + 0.58581 3.62571 + 3.501 5 9 + 36.397 0.58581 3.501 36.397 1017 Stalagmite Krd4down 0.0397 1.102767 + 1.1281 3.89011 + 4.0294 46 + 9.2827 1.1281 4.0294 9.2827 1018 Stalagmite Krd4up 0.0461 1.246762 + 0.9372 0.9372 0.82405 + 1.4618 1 .4618 3 + 4.3269 4.3269 1099 Stalagmite Krd1down Didn't run on ICP MS 1098 Stalagmite Krd1Up Didn't run on ICP MS 1089 Stalagmite Krd4down Didn't run on ICP MS 1088 Stalagmite Krd4up Didn't run on ICP MS ! !"#$%&'()*)' + )',%-./012',%-3/41'5' ,%-(/61'78090#:"8&7)';<&'=$:4&%7'0%&'6>%%&7?>=-"=#'8>'8<&'&@8%068&-' 7$470:?9&7) ! Some lab Id's correspond to the same sample and this is because the dating procedure either resulted in ages with big errors or the result exceeded the range of the Th/U dati ng procedure. In order to check these results new samples were acquired and the procedure was applied again. For most of the samples the Thorium content was very high, and this was the main reason for the low success on the age calculation of the samples a lthough, no visible detrital

PAGE 85

! "# contamination was appar ent during chemical preparation. This observation was also reinforced by the high 230 Th/ 232 Th ratios ( >5 ) that according to Constantin et al. (2007) indicate the detrital contamina tion. Following the chronostratigraphic models of the mikroSP6 and megaloSP3 software are presented as the derived from the ModAge software. Note that after importing t he data into the software ModAge evaluated the values and suggested some of them to be excluded (those with big error values and those that didn't appeared to be in a stratigraphic order). ! ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',-&'.-%/0/12%32 "#%34-".'5/6&7' 8"2-'./09"6&0.&':3061 /9'2-&';"<%/=>?'12373#5"2&'31'6&%"@&6' 9%/5'2-&';/6A#&'1/9283%&)' ! From the above model is obvious that the MikroSP6 stalagmite presents t w o different growth rates. The first stage is observed between ~56k a ~25ka B.P. where t he stalagmite obtained almost 3.5cm of height and can be translate it in a growth rate of 0.11cm/kyr The next stage is found from 25ka B.P. until 6ka B.P. where the stalagmite obtained almost 8.5cm that is equal to 0.44cm/kyr.

PAGE 86

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',-&'.-%/0/12%32"#%34-".'5/6&7' 8"2-'./09"6&0.&':3061 /9'2-&';%/<=*'12373#5"2&'31'6&%">&6' 9%/5'2-&';/6?#&'1/9283%&)' ' From the extracted age model of the MegaloSP3 stalagmite it is obvious that the stalagmite presents three different growth stages that can be translated to three different growth rates. The first stage can be located from the 16ka until ~14.3ka B.P where the stalagmite gained almost 5cm resulting in a growth rate of 0.71cm/kyr. The second stage is found betwee n 14.3ka and 11.7ka B.P. where the stalagmite grew 3cm that is equal to a growth rate of 1.15cm/kyr. The last evolutionary stage of the stalagmite is located between 11.7ka until 8.2ka where it stopped growing. The growth rate for this last stage is equal to 0.714cm/kyr.

PAGE 87

! "# 4.3.2 Stable isotopes The results from the stable isotopes analyses present reproducibilities for both 18 O and 13 C better than 0.2 for the MegaloSP3 stalagmite I n contrast the MikroSP6 stalagmite results present reproducibility for the 13 C 0.075 and for the 18 O 0.015 The resulted curves for both stalagmites can be found below. !"#$%&'()*) +, )' -.&' / +* 0'123' / +4 5'6%78"9&:'78' ;.&'<"=%7>?@':;191#<";&)'-.&'31:.&3'9"2&:'%&6%&:&2;' ;.&' A B C' 123' ;.&'D B C' &%%7%'E$%F&:) ' !"#$%&'()*) ++ )'-.&'G&23H';&:;'%&:$9;'E$%F&:'87%';.&'I"=%7>?@':;191#<";&)' J%16.:'E 7%%&:6723';7';.&'.&23H';&:;' 9"2& :'F":"K9&'1;'8"#)'()*)C)'9&8; ":'2&1%&:;';7':;191#<";&'K1:&'123'%"#.;'2&1%&:;'1;';.&':;191#<";&';76)

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! "" The analysis of the MikroSP6 stalagmite showed that stable oxygen isotope ratios vary between 9.4 and 6.1 with a mean value of 7.2 along the stalagmite core, while 1 3 C fluctuate s between 3 62 and 8.61 with a mean value at 5.97 4. 18 O shows significant drop at 18000 yrs B.P. that where reaches the lowest value ( 9.4 ) Then the isotopic signal increases until almost 6.2 In contrast the carbon isotope ratios are showing constant variations creating high and low spikes with values varying from 3.62 until 7.75 the period between 30Ka to 15Ka B.P. A general decreasing trend until almost 8Ka B.P follows this period. !"#$%&'()*) +, )' -.&' / +* 0'123' / +4 5'6%78"9&:'78' ;.&'< Å=>* :;191#<";&)'-.&'31:.&3'9"2&:'%&6%&:&2;';.&' ? @ ,' 123';.&'A @ ,' &%%7%'B$%C&:)

PAGE 89

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) +* )',-&'.&/01'2&32'%&3$42'5$%6&3'78%'2-&'9&#:48;<*'32:4:#="2&) The analysis from the MegaloSP3 stalagmite showed that stable carbon isotope ratios vary between 10.4 and 6.5 with a mean value of 9.1 along the flowstone core, while 18 O fluctuates between 8.0 and 6.0 with having its mean value at 7.4. 18 O sho ws significant changes (e.g. 1.1 between 15.5 14.5 Ka B.P. ) that are followed by synchronous shifts in 13 C 4.4 Geomorphological analysis Applying the remote sensing approach described in chapter 3 the creation of a GIS database for the analysis of karstification on Menikio Mountain was achieved. T he validity of the raw results (fig.4.4.1) exported from the ENVI 4.8 software from the IKONOS images was later explored through means of ground truth evaluation. After the ground truth verifica tion the da tabase resulted in an 800 entries dataset. Following, based on srtm data the altitude that every doline occurs was added at the dataset and the construction of a histogram showing the number of dolines found in each altitudinal class was possible (fig.4.4. 2).

PAGE 90

! "# ! !"#$%&'()() )'+,-'./'01&'1"#1',20"0$3&'-,%0'./'+&4"5".'+.$40,"4)'61&'3.2"4&7'8,7'&9-.%0&3'/%.:'01&';<=>' %.$0"4&?'@,4'A&'7&&4'"4'A2$&'@.2.%)'B,7&:,-C'>DE
PAGE 91

! "# ! From the above histogram (fig. 4.4.2) is clearly visible that more than the half population (490) of the dolines which occur at the Menikio Mountain, are found at the altitudinal zone between 1500 m 1700m. a.m.s.l. Almost, 1 6 0 dolines are located at the highest altitudes between 1800m 1963m a.m.s.l. and 150 are lying at the lower elevations between 1200m and 1400m a.m.s.l. 4 5 Electric Resis tivity T omographies The 8 ERT lines that were employed provide fruitful results. An a lgorithm for efficient (2D) inversion of the ERT sections was applied, this algorithm was proposed by Tsourlos et al. (2014) The algorithm is based on 2.5D finite element method (FEM) scheme to solve Poisson's equation that describes the current flow into the earth's subsurface (Tsourlos et al., 2014) All inversions produced very low RMS errors (<2%) between measured and predicted data that is indicative of reliable interpreted geoelectrical images. The images that resulted after the altitudinal correction are presented (fig.4.5.1) In detail: ERT line 1 : The processed resistivity image is shown in Fig. 4.5.1 The high resistivity values can interpret with the bedrock formation and is clearly seen on the bottom right of the section, having a thickness of almost 10 0m and an average width of 100m Above the bedrock material a low resistivity formation (silt clay) can be observed having an irregular shape and is probably corresponding to fine grained polje material Near the topographical surface of the section a low resistive material can be observed ( depicted with blue color ) which possibly corresponds to superficially drained water

PAGE 92

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',-&'&.&/0%"/'%&1"10"2"03'0454#%67-"&1'894%'741"0"4:'1&&'9"#)';)*)+<)

PAGE 93

! "# ERT line 2: The resistivity image that occurred after the processing is shown in fig. 4.5.1. The section presents an image similar to that of line 1 but with mor e symmetrical characteristics. The high resistivity values can interpret with the bedrock formation and is clearly seen on the bottom of the section, having a thickness of 10 0 m presenting a double coned like shape. At the middle depth of the section depict ed with green colors low resistivity formation can be observed. This material is being interpreted with the silt clay deposits of the polje. This layer is interrupted by low values (depicted with blue color) that most probably are corresponding to a near s urface small aquifer. At the upper part of the section a thin layer with high resistivity values is observed (red colors). This thin layer corresponds to a thin pebbly layer found on the surface of the polje that possibly is the result of recent human acti vities at the region. ERT line 3: This line was created, beside the purpose of the stratigraphy investigation, in order to check the resistivity values of the bedrock and for that reason the first poles were positioned in the marble so to incorporate this information so and to calculate the underground structure as proposed by Kim et al. (2014) For that reason the resistivity image of this section (fig. 4.5.1.) is presenting a clear pattern. At the upper left part of the section, where the bedrock is exposed, high resistivity values are seen. The rest of the section is presenting low to very low values. This part of the section depicts fine grained material (green color) as well as water carrying (blue color). ERT line 4: This line was deployed in order to check the stratigraphy at that part of the polje where a small current is creating a small alluvial fan. It was decided that a vibra core was going to take place there and the sediment thickness as well as the grain size should be checked firstly. The processed resistivity image of E.R.T. line 4 is shown also in Fig. 4.5.1 The cross section presents low (green) to medium (yellow) resi stivity values. These values corresponds respectively finer and coarser material. The presence of the coarser material can be correlated with the presence of the current and possibly is representing older stages of the alluvial fan. ERT line 5: This line was constructed in order to check the general stratigraphy of the polje. The high resistivity values (purple & red colors) can interpret with the bedrock formation and are clearly seen at the bottom of the section, having a thickness that varies from15 0 m to 50m and presenting a double coned like shape. At the middle de pths of the section are depicte d ( with green colors ) low resistivity formation s This material is being interpreted with the silt clay deposits of the polje. Th ese deposits are interrupted by low

PAGE 94

! "# resistivity values (depicted with blue color) that most probably are corresponding to a near surface small aquifer. ERT line 6: At the processed resistivity image that is shown in Fig. 4.5.1 is clearly visible at the bottom left of the section high resistivity values that can be interpret with the bedrock formation having a thickness of almost 15 0m and an average width of almost 600m At the bottom right part of the section lower resistivity values are presented. These values can be described, mainl y because of their form, as a mixture of low and high resistivity units and therefor can be interpreted to highly karstified bedrock filled with fine grained sediments. Above the bedrock material a low resistivity formation can be observed having an irreg ular shape and is probably corresponding to the fine grained polje deposits The lowest resistivity values that are shown with blue color represent small aquifers. ERT line 7: This section (fig. 4.5.1.) presents two clearly distinguished areas or resistivity values. The lower one that is found at the bottom part of the section and presents high resistivity values and the upper one found at the upper part of the section that presents low resistivity values The high resistivity area can be interpreted to the bedrock formation that is lying under the sediment fill of the polje, which in contrast is shown with low resistivity values and are covering the upper part of the section. ERT line 8: The last cross se ction that has been constructed (fig. 4.5.1.) presents similar image as the E.R.T. line 7. The bedrock that is found at the lowest part of the section presents high resistivity values and it also presents the same double conical like shape having a thickne ss of more than 15 0m and width more than 900m. At the upper part of the section is visible an area with lower resistivity values that can be interpret as the sediment fill of the polje From the observation of the E.R.T. lines it is obvious that the sedime nt thickness decreases near the borders of the polje. Sediments are depicting with yellow colors and with blue some small aquifers that are the result of the surface drainage Finally, the bedrock formations are represented with high resistivity values shown with purple and dark red color (resis tivity values 65000 10000 Ohm m). The buried bottom of the polje presents irregular characteristics of concave and convex shape (see tomography 1,5,6,7) that differs from the known curved shape of the karstic depressions.

PAGE 95

! "# ! !"#$%&'()*) + )',-'"./&%0123/"1.'14'/5&' 6)7)8)'9:3. %&9$2/9) ! 4 6 Magnetic susceptibility Klp1 and Klp2 boreholes present a rather homogenous stratigraphic architecture (Fig. 4.6.2.a.) In detail, Klp1 presents a sequence of silty material for the first 180cm of the core interrupted from a small sandy band visible at the depth of 150 160cm. From the depth of 180cm until the end of the core a clayey sequence with scattered schistolithic pebbles is visible. Klp2 borehole presents a m ore homogenous clayey sequence with scattered schistolithic pebbles. This sequence is interrupted by two pebblye horizons vis i ble at the depth between 70 90cm and 190 210cm. The variation with depth of the magnetic parameters examined for the studied bo reholes Klp1 and Klp2 are presented in Fig. 4.6 .2. In Klp1 profile (Fig. 4.6.2a ) m agnetic susceptibility (LF) shows a generally decreasing trend from the lowest part of the section (500 cm depth) to almost the middle of the core (300cm) From that point un til the deoth of 200cm the values of magnetic susceptibility are presenting an increasing trend The upper part of the Klp1 core presents a rather decreasing trend towards the top of the core. Mean fd values are approximately 10 below 350 cm depth, while they are significantly lower at the middle part of the profile between 350 300cm depth, reaching mean values of ~ 4 In contrast the upper part presents (from 300cm depth to the top) presents mean fd values of ~ 10. The fluctuations of the magnetic susceptibility at the Klp2 (Fig. 4.6.2b ) borehole present a similar pattern. In detail, an increasing on the Lf values is obvious at the lower part of the core between 500cm 440cm depth. This increase is followed by a decrease at the part between 440cm until 300cm of depth. Finally, 300cm until the top of the borehole a gentle slope

PAGE 96

! "# increase is visible. In contrast fd values present a rather stea dy pattern with mean values of interrupted by high spikes at the part between 350cm depth to 240cm depth and the part 140cm to 110cm depth. There are also observed two major low spikes at 50cm depth and at 100cm depth.

PAGE 97

! "# !"#$%&'()*) + )' ,-%.-"#%./0"1'123$45'6 27512%&'8.%".-"259'2:';!<=!' .56'>:6'.325#'?3/+'@.A'.56'?3/B@CA' C2%&023&9 )

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! "# 5. Discussion 5.1 Landscape evolution In this study, the morphological imprints of the speleogenetic agents of the caves were studied in order to define the various geological and hydrogeological factors that controlled the speleogenesis and the further development of the caves. This type of analysis provided insights on the geomorphological evolution of the Menikio Mountai n since the existence of epiphreatic tubes can be correlated with tectonic standstills at the uplifting evolution of the mountain. By dating speleothemes at these types of karstic tubes it was possible to delimit the uplift rate of the mountain. During t he exploration of the caves it was clear that four of the caves are presenting epiphreatic characteristics. These caves are scattered in three different altitudinal zones Following an interpretation on the morphological feature of each cave is presented in order to reconstruct speleogenesis and development of every cave. Both Mikro and Megalo Eptamilon caves are characterized by the presence of morphological features depicting the epiphreatic origin of the caves. These are primary the shape of the corrid ors for both caves and the scallops on the cave walls (fig.4.2.3.e,d ), and measurements on scallops that are pointing a general direction of paleof l ow towards the base of the valley (i.e. ~towards South). Both caves are also developed along the cross secti on between the bedding of the marbles and the strike of tectonic discontinuities which also points out the epiphreatic origin of the caves since deep phreatic caves tend to form loops and rarely follow any geological pattern ( Derek Ford and Williams, 2007 ) Possibly, the presence of the mica rich bedrock on the cave ceiling at the upper parts of the caves had also played key role on the initialization of the caves increasin g the aggressiveness of the speleogenetic fluids ( Lauritzen, 2001 ) Following that initial stage of the caves and most probably due to climatic oscillations, the caves were at least partially filled with sediment. This stage of the cave development is visible by the presence of paragenetic features such as flat ceilings (fig. 4.3.2 a), ceiling and wall half tubes (fig. 4.3.2 c) as well as o verhan ging calcite crusts (fig. 4.3.2 f) At the next stage of the cave development high energy water started eroding the deposited sediments increasing the diameter of the cave corridors and decreasing the velocity of the water which gradually led in equ ilibrium between the eroded and deposited sediments. Finally, the water table dropped and vadose water invade the caves resulting in the formation of speleothemes.

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! "" Tsifliki cave presents also a clear epiphreatic origin. The morphological features that poin t to the epiphreatic or igin of the cave are primary the shape of the cave corridors and the small size of the scallops covering the cave walls. The scallop size can be related with high water velocity ( Lauritzen and Lundberg, 2000 ) that can be achieved only in an unconfined cave conduit. The absence of any phreatic loo p also points to a speleogenetic setting near the surface of the aquifer. From the presence of iron oxide deposits (fig. 4.2.8 f) inside the cave it is possible to imply that lithology played also a key role in the formation of the cave increasing the aggre ssiveness of the speleogenetic agents It is also obvious that the cave conduits are following the tectonic pattern since most of the corridors are formed parallel to the strike of the observed joints (fig. 4.2.8d, e) Concluding, the creation of the cave w as accelerated by highly aggressive fluids that were flowing parallel to the tectonic discontinuities. Finally the proto cave was created at the surface of the aquifer. Then after the enlargement of the conduits the transport capacity of the karstic water was reduced, thus f avored sediment deposition. The shape of the conduits was then reformed by paragenesis (fig. 4.2.8.a, b, c). Finally, the water table dropped and the cave sediments were removed from inside the cave. Also, this shift in the water table le vel resulted in the creation of passages with the characteristic key hole like shape (fig. 4.2.8 d) Kior D elik cave presents no clear morphological features since collapsed blocks cover most of the cave (fig. 4.2.11). This mechanical failure of the cave walls is the result of the cross section of a major tectonic discontinuity (with possible vertical displacement i.e. fault) with the bedding of the marbles (fig. 4.2.10) T he horizo ntal development ( fig. 4.1.5) of the cave and the elliptical cross section (fig. 4.2.12 b) in a certain corridor of the cave could imply epiphreatic speleogenetic origin of the cave. In contrast, the presence of vertical potholes is pointing out speleogenesis under clear vadose conditions (fi g 4.2.12d, f) In this context, one could set the creation of the proto conduits at the epiphreatic zone. Later and due to aquifer drop high discharge vadose canyons were formed drilling out cylindrical potholes (fig. 4.2.12d, f) Following, water supply was reduced creating smaller canyons. This new discharge had insufficient erosional power and thus the pothole left relict. Following this stage or maybe at the same time major slab breakdowns started taking place destroying the speleogenetic facies of the pr ev ious stages and enlarging the cave passages. According to t he four state model of Ford and Ewers (1978) t he geometry of caves is related to the frequency of permeable fissures. The model suggests that the water table caves' (i.e. epiphreatic caves) are common in areas with high fissure frequency, which is the

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! "## case for the region of Northern Greece, an active tectonically region that presents bri ttle deformation ( Mountrakis et al., 2006 ) From the above it is clear that the caves were formed a t three different zones that can be correlated with old standstills of the base level. This observation comes in agreement with the remote sensing and geophysical data exported from this study. In detail, it is clear from the remote sensing approach that m ost of the dolines of the high altitude region of Menikio are occurring at the altitudinal zone between 1500 1700m a.m.s.l (same altitudinal zone as Kior Delik cave see table 4.1.1.) The presence of dolines signifies the existence of an extended plateau t hat lies at this altitude zone since dolines occur in flat to gently dipping surfaces ( De Waele et al., 2009 ; Gabrov ek and Stepi nik, 2011 ; Williams, 2004 ) The E lectric R esistivity T omographies (E.R.T.) revealed an old, buried karsti c landscape (paleokarst). The characteristic morphology of the features that were exposed by the use of the E.R.T. methodology resembles the typical surface morphology of a landscape curved by closed depressions and can be interpreted as an extensive doline field found buried at the depth of 200m 250m below the pres ent topographic surface (fig. 4.5.1 & fig. 4.5.2). This can also inferred as an old flat low gradient surface that favored the development of dolines in such extent and subsequently to be translated as an old buried "plateau". This paleo plateau lies app roximately at an a bsolute altitude of 800m a.m.s.l. the same altitudinal zone as Tsifliki cave that occurs at 795m a.m.s.l. ( see table 4.1.1 ). In order to determine the chronological context under which these changes at the base level took place speleothe mes were collected from inside the caves. From Mikro and Megalo Eptamil on caves the older sample is dated back at 76.5 0.3 Ka B.P. (sample no 1101, see table 4.3.2). This sample is part of the calcite crust that covers the clastic sediments of the Megalo Eptamilon cave and forms the present cave floor. It is found according to the survey at the altitude of almost 130m a.m.s.l. almost 35 m above the karstic springs of Agios Ioannis ( 95 m a.m.s.l.) Unfortunately it wasn't possible for samples to be dated fro m the other caves occurring at higher altitudes. From the above data it is evident that the base level drop rate for the last 76.5ka is equal to 0.45mm yr 1 This result comes in agreement with the work made by Tranos and Mountrakis (2004) where they conclude that a mean slip rate for the Serres Fault Zone is equal to 0.5mmyr 1 It is clear that the uplift rate of the mountain and the base level drop are highly correlated and therefore the use of epiphreatic caves for the definition the landscape evolution of the Menikio Mountain is extreme ly accurate. A ssuming that this rate was steady the creation of the Tsifliki cave couldn't be younger than 468ka and This fact explains that none of the samples taken from the cave was

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! "#" dated since the limitation of the method was almost reached. In the same context the Kior Delik c ave couldn't be younger than 941.5ka, which also explains the Th/U dating results from the samples taken inside the cave. Accordingly the two standstills of the uplift history of Menikio couldn't be younger that 468ka and 941.5ka respectively. The results of this study seems to validate the general speleogenetic model proposed by Gabrov ek et al. (2014) They tested the factors controlling the formation of water table or looping caves and they found that the cave formation is not principally dependent on fracture densi ty but also on the recharge dy namics, valley incision rate and vertical d istribution of permeable struc tures. From the study of the Menikion caves is it shown that the base level drop rate is equal to the mountain uplift rate and thus equa l to the valley incision rate. This fact in combination to the highly fractured Menikio marble explains, according to the theory of $%&'()*+,!+-!%./!01#"23 the absence of looping caves and the presence of water table (epiphreatic) caves at the region. The adjustm ent of the water table level to the valley base level is so fast although in such tectonically active region that no hydraulic gradients can build up and accelerate the evolution of looping pathways in contrast to what one should expect in this tectonic se tting

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! "#$ !"#$%&'()' )'+%,--'-&./",0',1'2&0"3",'2,$0/4"0)'5"/6'.,7,%-'4%&'8&9"./"0#'/6&':'8"11&%&0/'47/"/$8"047';,0&-' 408'/6&"%'84/"0#)

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! "#$ 5. 2 Paleoclimatic reconstruction. In order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic fluctuations in the broader region only the two stalagmitic records were used. The use of the clastic record retrieved from the two boreholes at the Kallipolis polje was not unable to be used since no organic material nor other datable material was found. The absence of dateable material didn't allow for the record to be constr ainted chronologically. Before starting the analysis of the results of the isotopic curves form both stalagmites it is necessary to discuss on the results of the H endy tests presente d on figures 4.3.12 & 4.3.14. Both stalagmite s were tested for oxygen isotope equi librium using the Hendy test. The variation in 18 O along each horizon for both stalagmites is considered to be small but the upper horizon of the MegaloSp3 stalagmite (fig 4.3.12) may indicate e vaporation since shows con sistent enrichment in 18 O with distance from vertical Observing the isotopic signal of 18 from both MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 stalagmites it is clear that t he signals present ed to be anticorrelated although the 13 C isotopic signal from both records follows the same trend and the curves are presenting high similarit ies This difference in the trends, given the fact that the horizontal distance of the two sampling positions is le s s than 100m, could be explained by the Hendy test results. It is possible that evaporation influenced the isotopic signal of the MegaloSP3 stalagmite and thus the observed difference in the curve.

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! "#$ ! !"#$%&'() )'+,&' ./ 0 "12324"5'%&52%6'7%28'923,':" ;%2<=>'?@6':&#?A2<=B'13?A?#8"3&1'?@6'3,&"%' 5284?%"12@ C"3,'3,&'D%&&@A?@6 "5&'52%&'%&52%6 ?@6'3,&'<2 7$A?%'5?E&'13?A?#8"3"5 %&52%6 ) Figure 5.2 shows the comparision of the chronological plots of the 18 O ratios between the MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 with the Greenland ice core record ( Wolff et al., 1997 ) and Sofular cave stalagmitic record at Turkey ( Fleitmann et al., 2009 ) The data from the Greenland ice core project best represent the north Atlantic paleoclimatic oscillations and are broadly used in paleoclimatic studies ( Bar Matthews et al., 1997 2000 ; Bar Matthews et al., 1999 ; Moseley et al., 2013 ; Psomiadis et al., 2010 ; Zanchetta et al., 2011 ) Therefore these data are correlated with the data derived from this study in order to detect if there is an impact of global paleoclimati c variations in the north Aegean area. Furthermore, stalagmitic

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! "#$ record from Sofular cave is chosen since it is a high resolution archive that covers the same time spam as the MegaloSP3 and MikroSP6 stalagmites. Also, the Sofular cave is located approximate ly at the same latitude and in vicinity of the studied caves. As it is clearly visible at the figure 5.2. the trend of the 18 O ratio curves of MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 is presenting great similarity with the 18 O ratio curves of Greenland and Turkey. In detail, there is a prominent negative spike at 16 17ka B.P. which is also seen at the Sofular cave stalagmitic record and at Greenland ice core record that represents th e Heinrich E vent 1 (H1). This event represents a sudden cooling of the north Atlant ic climate. Similar spi kes are recorded at ~24ka, 30ka and 39ka B.P. on all 18 O ratios curves and are interpreted as H2, H3 and H4 event s respectively. However, the H5 event is not clearly traceable in 18 O ratio curve of MikroSP6 stalagmite, a lthough it occurred during the time spam of the studied record This is due to the relatively low density of the data. T he height of the MikroSP6 stalagmite is t o o low (12.5cm) and at the same time the stalagmite covers a time spam of almost 50ka. Between the Hein rich events, 18 O ratios of MikroSP6 stalagmite depict higher values that represent climatic ameliorations. Based on the interpretation of 18 O ratio curves from the Greenland ice core record and Solufar cave stalagmitic record these higher values can be p artly interpreted as the Greenland Interstadials. Moreover, during the early Holocene a negative spike is visible in both MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 stalagmitic records approximately at 8ka B.P. Also a positive spike is depicted at MikroSP6 stalagmite approxi mately at 5ka B.P. These two spikes can be correlated to the well known 8.2 cold and the 5.2 warm events, respectively.

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! "#$ ! !"#$%&'() )'+,&' .* /' "01213"4'%&41%5'6%17'812,'9":%1;<='>?5'9&#>@1;<*'02>@>#7"2&0'>?5'2,&"%'4173>%"01?' A"2,'2,&';16$@>%'4>B&'02>@>#7"2"4 %&41%5) As it is clearly seen at figure 5.3 the trend of the 13 C ratio curves of MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 is presenting great similarity wit h the 13 C ratio curves of Sofular stalagmite in Turkey. There are prominent positive spikes at 15ka B.P. and approximately at 24ka and 48ka B.P., that is also visible at the Sofular, cave stalagmitic record and can be correlated to the H1, H2 and H5 event s. Although the H2 and H5 are in perfect chronological correlation the spike at the H1 presents a small offset. This offset possibly points out a late response of the vegetation in the climatic changes. The H3 and H4 events are untraceable at the stalagmit ic record of this study. This is possible due to the relatively low density of the measured data, as stated before. Moreover, during the late Pleistocene a positive spike is visible in both MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 stalagmitic records approximately at 13k a B.P. This spike is also clearly visible at the Sofular cave record and can be correlated with the Younger Dryas Event. Also a positive spike is depicted at both stalagmite s approximately at 8ka B.P. This spike also

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! "#$ visible at the Sofular cave record is c orrelated to the well known 8.2 cold event Finally, at the MikroSP6 record it is visible at the younger end of the curve a negative peak that can be correlated with the 5.2 warm event. Concluding, the validation of the model was checked as well by the comparison with the other models. A lthough there were observed a chronological offset between the data derived from that study and so me of the major climatic events this offset is inside the error limits derived from the chronological uncertainties. Mo st of the climatic events are clearly visible in the model thus it is safe for one to suggest that both MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 records reveal a rapid and sensitive cl imate and ecosystem response to the North Atlantic climatic oscillations and that the region of North Aegean and the East Meditarranean was climatically influenced by the ocean circulation and ocean heat transport of the North Atlantic.

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! "#$ 6 Conclusions The present study based on the speleogenetic analysis of the Menikio Mountain caves, remote sensing techniques, electric resistivity tomographies stable isotope measurements and results derived from Th/U dating methodology resulted in the reconstruction of the geomorphological evolution of the mountain and of the paleoclimatic conditions that dominated the broader North Aegean region from 5ka 65ka B.P. This multi proxy approach was applied for the first time at the region and the results can be used as a base for future works. Concluding: Thirteen new caves were found using basic remote sensing techniques and ground truth field stints The discov ered caves were explored by means of S.R.T. and surveyed in order to create high accuracy georefer e nced maps During the exploration and the survey of the caves it was made clear that in Menikio Mountain lays the deepest cave (Chionotripa cave) in the regi on of Northern Greece the vertical depth of which reached the 166m. The caves of the Menikio Mountain were formed following tectonic discontinuities that preexisted at the Menikio Mountain as the result of various stress fields that applied in the region The lithological str ucture of the Menikio Mountain, alterations between marbles and mi ca schist/gneiss aquicludes influenced the speleogenesis. The dissolution of the mica rich bedrock resulted in highly aggressive pyrite dissolution fluids that accelerated the dissolution of the marbles. The result of this process is visible in the Tsifliki cave were iron oxi des are covering the cave walls and at the Megalo Eptamilon cave were small quantities of gypsum sulphates were trac ed at the cave walls that resulted possibly by sulphuric acid dissolution Fourteen out of the eighteen caves that were studied for the purposes of this thesis are following a vertical pattern of development pointing to vadose spel eogenetic setting. The ag e of these caves is younger than t he age of the plateau in witch they occur. Mikro Eptamilon, Megalo Eptamilon, Tsifliki and Kior Delik caves are presenting epiphreatic characteristics and therefore their speleogenetic setting can provide insights to the evolution of the mountain. Their altitudinal positions represent old aquifer standstills of the Menikio Mountain. By means of electric resistivity tomography the existence of a buried highly karstified field (doline dominated) was revealed. The presence of this paleo karst area is

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! "#$ lying at the same altitudinal zone as the Tsifliki cave Studying the altitudinal position of the dolines found on the highest part of the mountain it was made clear that their position depicts the existence of the highest plateau at the Menikio. At the same plate au the Kior Delik cave is also developed From the above it is clear that the factors that controlled the relative position of the aquifer also controlled the uplift movement of the Menikio Mountain. It is safe then to say that the position of the epiphreat ic caves represents tectonic standstills on evolution of Menikio. It was not possible to acquire dating by means of Th/U geochronological techniques from all three standstills in order to extract a detailed evolutionary m odel. The uplift model was based on the datings acquired from the Megalo Eptamilon cave and linear extrapolation method was used in order to define the youngest age ( terminus ante quem ) From the above it was clear that the aquifer was at the position wher e Mikro Eptamilon and Megalo Eptamilon caves are found at least 76.5ka B.P. The plateau at which the Tsifliki cave occurred couldn't be younger than 468ka B.P. and finally the oldest evolutionary standstill of Menikio Mountain cannot be younger than 941.5ka B.P. It was also possible to extract the uplift rate of the Menikio Mountain finding the altitudinal difference between the position of Megalo Eptamilon caves and the karstic spring that lies at the margin of the S erres graben valley. The uplift rate found is equal to 0.45mmyr 1 and comes in agreement with the study by Tranos and Mountrakis (2004) where they resulted in uplift rate equal to 0.5mmyr 1 for the Serres fault zone From the comparison of the paleoclimati c record with other records it is visible that there is a correspondence between the data derived form this study and the Greenland ice core archive as well as with Sofular cave record. Also most of the climatic events are clearly visible in the model thu s it is safe for one to suggest that both MikroSP6 and MegaloSP3 records reveal a rapid and sensitive climate and ecosystem response to the North Atlantic climatic oscillations. Finally it is clearly visible that the region of North Aegean and the East Meditarranean was climatically influenced by the ocean circulation and ocean heat transport of the North Atlantic

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! ""# 7. References Aidona, E., Kondopoulou D., Scholger, R., Georgakopoulos, A., and Vafeidis, A., 2007, Palaeomagnetic investigations of sediments cores from Axios zone (N. Greece): implications of low inclinations in the Aegean: eEarth Discussions, v. 2, no. 1, p. 37 68. Aidona, E., and Liritzis, I., 2012, Magnetic Susceptibility and Radioactivity Changes of Aegean and Ionian Sea Sediments during Last Glacial/Interglaci al: Climatic and Chronological Markers: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 280, p. 342 353. Audra, P., Bini, A., Gabrov ek, F., HŠuselmann, P., HoblŽa, F., Jeannin, P. Y., Kunaver, J., Monbaron, M., u ter i # F., Tognini, P., Trimmel, H., and Wildberger, A., 2006, Cave genesis in the Alps between the Miocene and today: A review: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 50, no. 2, p. 153 176. Bar Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., and Kaufman, A., 1997, Late Quaternary Paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from St able Isotope Analysis of Speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel: Quaternary Research, v. 47, no. 2, p. 155 168. Bar Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., and Kaufman, A., 2000, Timing and hydrological conditions of Sapropel events in the Eastern Mediterranean, as evident f rom speleothems, Soreq cave, Israel: Chemical Geology, v. 169, no. 1 2, p. 145 156. Bar Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A., and Wasserburg, G. J., 1999, The Eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq cave, Israel: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 166, no. 1€“2, p. 85 95. Bottema, S., 1979, Pollen analytical investigations in Thessaly (Greece): Palaeohistoria, v. 21, p. 19 40. Bottema, S., 1995, The Younger Dryas in the Eastern Mediterranean: Quaternary Science Re views, v. 14, no. 9, p. 883 891. Bubenzer, O., and Bolten, A., 2008, The use of new elevation data (SRTM/ASTER) for the detection and morphometric quantification of Pleistocene megadunes (draa) in the eastern Sahara and the southern Namib: Geomorphology, v 102, no. 2, p. 221 231. $ ali % J., 2011, Karstic uvala revisited: Toward a redefinition of the term: Geomorphology, v. 134, no. 1 2, p. 32 42. CarrŽ, F., and Girard, M. C., 2002, Quantitative mapping of soil types based on regression kriging of taxonomic distances with landform and land cover attributes: Geoderma, v. 110 no. (3 4), p. 241 263. Constantin, S., Bojar, A. V., Lauritzen, S. E., and Lundberg, J., 2007, Holocene and Late Pleistocene climate in the sub Mediterranean continental environment: A sp eleothem record from Poleva Cave (Southern Carpathians, Romania): Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, v. 243, no. 3 4, p. 322 338. Cr—sta, A. P., De Souza Filho, C. R., Azevedo, F., and Brodie, C., 2003, Targeting key alteration minerals in ep ithermal deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, using ASTER imagery and principal component analysis: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 24, no. 21, p. 4233 4240. Dasher, G. R., 1994, On station : a complete handbook for surveying and mapping caves, Hu ntsville, Ala., National Speleological Society, 242 p. p.: Day, A., 2002, Cave Surveying, Buxton, Cave Studies Series 11, 40 p.: de Carvalho, O., Guimar‹es, R., Montgomery, D., Gillespie, A., Trancoso Gomes, R., de Souza Martins, ƒ., and Silva, N., 2013, Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambu’ Group, Brazil: Remote S ensing, v. 6, no. 1, p. 330 351.

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! """ De Waele, J., Plan, L., and Audra, P., 2009, Recent developments in surface and subsurface karst geomorphology: An introduction: Geomorphology, v. 106, no. 1 2, p. 1 8. Demirkesen, A. C., 2008, Digital terrain analysis usin g Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and SRTM DEM: a case study of Nevsehir province (Cappadocia), Turkey: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 29, no. 14, p. 4173 4188. Denizman, C., 2003, Morphometric and spatial distribution prarmeters of karstic depressions Lower Suwannee River Basin, Florida.: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 65, no. 1, p. 29 35. Digerfeldt, G., Olsson, S., and Sandgren, P., 2000, Reconstruction of lake level changes in lake Xinias, central Greece, during the last 40 000 years: Palaeo geography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 158, no. 1 2, p. 65 82. Eastwood, W. J., Leng, M. J., Roberts, N., and Davis, B., 2007, Holocene climate change in the eastern Mediterranean region: a comparison of stable isotope and pollen data from Lake Gš lhisar, southwest Turkey: Journal of Quaternary Science, v. 22, no. 4, p. 327 341. Ellwood, B. B., Harrold, F. B., Benoist, S. L., Thacker, P., Otte, M., Bonjean, D., Long, G. J., Shahin, A. M., Hermann, R. P., and Grandjean, F., 2004, Magnetic susceptibil ity applied as an age depth climate relative dating technique using sediments from Scladina Cave, a Late Pleistocene cave site in Belgium: Journal of Archaeological Science, v. 31, no. 3, p. 283 293. Ellwood, B. B., Petruso, K. M., Harrold, F. B., and Kork uti, M., 1996, Paleoclimate characterization and intra site correlation using magnetic susceptibility measurements: An example from Konispol Cave, Albania: Journal of Field Archaeology, v. 23, no. 3, p. 263 271. FinnŽ, M., Bar Matthews, M., Holmgren, K., S undqvist, H. S., Liakopoulos, I., and Zhang, Q., 2014, Speleothem evidence for late Holocene climate variability and floods in Southern Greece: Quaternary Research. Fleitmann, D., Cheng, H., Badertscher, S., Edwards, R. L., Mudelsee, M., Gokturk, O. M., Fa nkhauser, A., Pickering, R., Raible, C. C., Matter, A., Kramers, J., and Tuysuz, O., 2009, Timing and climatic impact of Greenland interstadials recorded in stalagmites from northern Turkey: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, no. 19, p. L19707. Florea, L ., 2005, Using state wide GIS data to identify the coincidence between sinkholes and geologic structure: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 2, p. 120 124. Ford, D., and Williams, P. W., 2007, Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology, Chichester, England ; a Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, ix, 562 p. p.: Ford, D. C., and Ewers, R. O., 1978, The development of limestone cave systems in the dimensions of length and depth: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 15, no. 11, p. 1783 1798. Gabrov ek, F., HŠuselmann, P., and Audra, P., 2014, Looping caves' versus water table caves': The role of base level changes and recharge variations in cave development: Geomorphology, v. 204, p. 683 691. Gabrov ek, F., and Stepi nik, U., 2011, On the formation of col lapse dolines: A modelling perspective: Geomorphology, v. 134, no. 1 2, p. 23 31. Ghilardi, M., Gen, A., Syrides, G., Bloemendal, J., Psomiadis, D., Paraschou, T., Kunesch, S., and Fouache, E., 2010, Reconstruction of the landscape history around the remn ant arch of the Klidhi Roman Bridge, Thessaloniki Plain, North Central Greece: Journal of Archaeological Science, v. 37, no. 1, p. 178 191. Gunn, J., 2004, Encyclopedia of caves and karst science, New York, Fitzroy Dearborn, xviii, 902 p. p.:

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