Major and historical springs of Texas

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Major and historical springs of Texas
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Texas Water Development Board report 189
Brune, Gunnar
Texas Water Development Board
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This document describes 281 "major and historically significant" springs in the state of Texas. The material is presented county-by-county and includes details concerning each spring's location, geologic setting, historical background, and physical characteristics.
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This document
describes 281 "major and historically significant" springs in
the state of Texas. The material is presented county-by-county
and includes details concerning each spring's location,
geologic setting, historical background, and physical






TEXASWATERDEVELOPMENTBOARDJohn H. McCoy, ChairmanW.E.Tinsley Carl Illig RobertB.Gilmore, Vice Chairman Milton Potts A.L.Black HarryP.Burleigh, Executive DirectorAuthorizationforuseorreproductionofanyoriginalmaterialcontainedinthispublication,i.e.,notobtainedfromothersources,isfreely granted. TheBoardwouldappreciate acknowledgement.Published and distributedbytheTexas Water Development Board Post Office Box 13087 Austin, Texas 78711ii


TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT INTRODUCTIONPurposeofStudy.SalineSprings.. MethodofStudy. Spring NumberingSystem.Acknowledgements.. ClassificationofSpringsIMPORTANCE OFTEXASSPRINGS.Historical Significance SizeofSpringsGEOLOGIC SETTING .Spring Aquifers Typical Geologic SettingsofSpringsQUALITYOF SPRING WATERS DECLINE OF SPRINGSPrehistoric Setting CausesofSpring Decline Some Examples ... Texas Water LawasRelatingtoSpringsDETAILEDINFORMATIONONINDIVIDUALSPRINGS.BanderaCountyBastropCountyiiiPage3 3 3 345 55591111121522 22 22252830 3031


BaylorCountyBellCountyBexarCounty. BlancoCountyBosqueCountyBowieCounty.BrewsterCounty. BriscoeCountyBurlesonCounty.BurnetCountyCassCountyCherokeeCountyClayCounty.. CollingsworthCountyComalCountyCrockettCountyCrosbyCountyCulbersonCountyDallamCountyDallasCounty.DimmitCountyDonleyCountyEastland EdwardsCountyEllisCountyFayetteCountyTABLEOF CONTENTS(Cont'd.)ivPage31313234 34 3435 35 3535 363637 373740 4040 40 40414141 414242


GalvestonCountyGillespieCountyGrimesCountyGuadalupeCountyHarrisonCountyHartleyCountyHaysCountyHoodCountyHopkinsCountyHoustonCountyHowardCountyHudspethCountyIrionCounty..JeffDavisCountyJohnsonCountyKendallCountyKerrCounty.KimbleCountyKinneyCountyLampasasCountyLimestoneCountyLlanoCounty..LubbockCounty.MartinCountyMasonCountyMcCullochCountyTABLEOFCONTENTS(Cont'd.)vPage43 43 43 43 43444445454546 46 464749 49 4950515253 53 53 53 5454


McLennanCountyMedinaCountyMenard CountyMilamCountyMontagueCountyMotleyCountyNacogdochesCountyOldhamCountyParkerCountyPecosCounty.PotterCounty.ReaganCountyRealCountyReevesCountySanJacintoCountySanSabaCounty. SchleicherCountyScurryCountySmithCounty.SuttonCountyTarrantCountyTerrellCountyTomGreenCountyTravisCounty.TylerCounty. UvaldeCountyTABLE OF CONTENTS (Cant'd.)viPage5454 5555555556 56 56 56596060 60 63 63 6869 697070 7071727373


TABLEOFCONTENTS (Cont'd.)Val VerdeCountyVanZandtCountyWheelerCountyWichitaCountyWilbargerCountyWilliamsonCountyWilsonCountyWinklerCountyREFERENCESCITED.TABLESPage76828384848484 84851.SourceandSignificance of Dissolved-MineralConstituentsand PropertiesofWater .............202. Selected Chemical AnalysesofSpring WatersFIGURES891.Grid System Used for SpringNumbering.....42. Map Showing Old Trails and Roads andtheSprings Which Served 73.4.OldMillDamatHueco Springs in ComalCounty........ OldStoreand Bath HouseatBoquillas Warm Springs in BrewsterCounty9105.San Marcos SpringsandRecreational Park6.OneoftheSan Felip Springs .7.Map Showing MajorAquifers.8.Map Showing Minor Aquifers101112139. 10.Map Showing DistributionofSprings AccordingtoRockTypeEdwards Limestone Showing Fissures and Cavities Through Which Recharge Can EntertheUnderground Reservoir ........14 1511.LensofGravelinAlluviumvii16


12.TABLE OF CONTENTS(Cont'd.)Sand Creek Springs, in CollingsworthCounty,Showing Interbedded Siltstone and Gypsum .. ..........Page16 13. ExampleofCavernous Gypsum 1714.15. Geologic SettingsofTexas Springs Geologic SettingsofTexas Springs 17 18 16.SevenSprings,IrionCounty,EmergingFromJointedLimestone 17. Barnet: Springsand Travertine Deposits ..... 18. Maps Showing ComparisonofSprings,1500and 1973 19192319.20. 21. 22.Large WellFlowingFromthe Edwards (BalconesFaultZone)AquiferatFortSamHouston inSanAntonio.......... Phantom Lake Spring,JeffDavisCounty,IssuingFroma Cavern in Comanc:hean Limestone HydrographsofPhantom Lake and Saragosa Springs HydrographsofBarton andSanAntonioSprings 2526 262723. Barton Springs Supplies aSwimmingPool inAustin24. HydrographsofSanSaba,Dove Creek, and Roaring Springs 25. SiteofFormer Comanche Springs 26. Big Boiling Spring, Oneofthe Salado Springs 27.MormonMillFalls BelowHollandSprings 28. Someofthe Carnal Springs 29. Fish Pond and Pump House atBitterCreek Springs 30. Siteofthe OriginalXITSpring,NowDry282930323940414431.32. SiteofFormerBig Spring Dove Creek Springs474833.LasMoras Springs 34. Bravo Springs Reservoir and FormerXITRanch Division Headquarters 35. CavernFromWhich SantaRosaSpringFormerlyFlowed viii525758


TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cant'd.)36. Restored Stagecoach Station at Tunas SpringPage59 37. 38. 39.SaragosaSprings... OneoftheGiffinSpringsSwimmingPool in Balmorhea State ParkIntoWhichSanSolomon Spring Flows .................61636340. Baker Springs IssuingFromEllenburger Limestone6441.Fleming Lower Spring6542.HartSpring43.Deep Creek Springs Reservoir65 6644.45.RemainsofOldMillDam atSanSabaSprings Jennings Springs ..........676846. Heck Springs EmergingFromthe Ellenburger LimestoneIntoaSwimmingPool 47. AnsonSprings..697148. 49. 50.RemainsofOldMillat ManchacaSprings.Santa Monica Springs in 1890,LookingSouth SiteofFormerPecanSprings.74 747751. Hudspeth Springs7852. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57.58.Finegan Springs Dam and WeironDolan South Spring Main Gillis Spring,inDevil's River Oneofthe Slaughter Bend Springs McKee Spring and Gaging Station Cantu Spring and GagingStationMap Showing Spring Locations .ix78798080818395


MAJORANDHISTORICALSPRINGSOFTEXASABSTRACT iJ'I; i 1 ,I II Springs have been veryimportanttoTexas fromthetime of its first inhabitants. Many battles werefoughtbetweenthepioneers and Indiansforpossessionofsprings. Many springs affordedimportantstops on stagecoach routes, power for mills, water for medicinaltreatment,municipal water supplies, and recreational parks. Texas originally had 281 major and historically significant springs,otherthansaline springs. Of these,fourwere originally very large springs (over 100 cubicfeetper second flow); however, onlytwo,Comal and San Marcos, remaininthatclass today. Sixty-three springs, many withimportanthistorical backgrounds, have completely failed. Ofthe281 springs studied, 139 issue from 2 underground reservoirs,theEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) andtheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifers. San Saba County, with19major and significant springs, leadsallothercountiesintheState. Val Verde and Kerr Counties follow closely. Although total flowofthesprings includedinthisreporthas declined, it stillamountstoabout1,150,000acre-feet per year, andifallthesmaller springs are included,thetotal annual flow probably exceeds3,000,000acre-feet. The underground reservoirs from which springs arise may be cavernous limestone or gypsum, sand, gravel,orotherpermeable formations. Often faults have played animportantroleinthelocationofsprings by damming up an underground reservoir, blocking lateral flow sothatthewater under hydrostatic pressure can only move upwardtooverflowassprings.Inothercases arching, and crackingofrock strata have causedtheformation of springs. Although a large number of water analyses were obtained and studied, no progressive trendtowardcontamination of spring waters could be found.Atmany springs, higher discharges are accompanied by decidedly lower concentrations of dissolved solids. The decline of spring flows probably began soon afterthefirst colonizationofTexas by Spain. Clearingofforest land and heavy grazing of pastures probably reduced recharge.Inthemiddle1800'sthedrillingofmany flowing wells, someofwhich spouted84feetabovetheland surface, greatly reducedtheartesian pressureonsprings.Thenatural"fountains,"asthesprings were by early explorers, were soon a thing ofthe past. Heavy well pumpingofunderground waters for irrigation, municipal, and industrial purposes has continued the decline and disappearanceofTexas springs. reservoirs have inundated some springsbuthave increasedtheflowofothers. Detailed informationisgiven separately for each spring, includingthelocation, geologic setting, historical background, and discharge.


MAJORANDHISTORICALSPRINGSOFTEXASINTRODUCTIONPurposeofStudyThestudyofspringsisa borderline discipline, because springs arethetransition from ground watertosurface water. Hencetheyhave been studiedtosomeextentbyground-water specialists andtosomeextentby surface-water specialists. Overall, however,theyhave been neglected.Thepurposeofthis publicationistopull together information on major and historically significant springsinTexas, from ground-water reports, surface-water reports, historical documents, and field investigations.Saline SpringsIncludedinthis report are fresh-water springs (less than 1,000 milligrams per literofdissolved solids) and slightly saline springs (1,000to3,000milligrams per liter). Saline springs, containing morethan3,000mgll (milligrams per liter) of dissolved solids, arenotincluded.Themoreimportantsaline springs include a numberinChildress, Cottle, Hall, King, and Stonewall Counties innorthwestTexas, which issue fromtheWhitehorse Group and Blaine Gypsum.Insouth Texas, saline springs arise from sands oftheGulf Coast aquiferinStarr and Webb Counties.InLampasasCountyisHannah Saline Spring, formerly a well-known medicinal spring, issuing fromtheMarble Falls Limestone. Someofthese springs are exceedingly saline, suchastheLittle Red SpringsinHall County, which contain220,000mgll of dissolved solids, primarily sodium chloride. Efforts are under waytodam upthemore saline springs andtoallow the watertoevaporate,thuspreventingthesalt from damaging downstream surface-water supplies.MethodofStudyFor mostofthelarger springsinTexas dischargeismeasured frequently,insome cases daily, andwatersamples aretakenfor chemical analysisatregular-3-intervals. These measurement stations are operated bytheTexas Water Development Board, U.S. Geological Survey, and International Boundary and Water Commission. The smaller springs, which havenotbeen measured or sampled nearlyasfrequently, weretheprime target of field investigationsconductedinthis study.About BO of these smaller springs were located and visited.Aliso,thegeologic structure was studied, samples were taken for chemical analysis, photographs were taken, historical information was collected, and an estimateoftheflow was madeifnotregularly measured. On springs where flowisfrequently measured, a weirisusually built which facilitates accurate measurementoftheflow. Onothersprings,thedischarge was estimated from pipe or open-channel flow.Inestimating open-channel flow, a flow meter orthefloatmethodwas used whenever possible.Inusingthefloat method, a reachofchannel with nearly uniform cross-section and grade for a distanceofatleast100feet was selected. The average cross-sectional area and length ofthereach were measured, and a stop-watch was usedtotime the passageofa float throughthereach. The measured surface float velocity was multiplied by oneofthe coefficients giveninthefollowing tabletocorrect for a slower velocityatthechannel bed than on the surface:AVERAGEDEPTHINFEETCOEFFICIENT0.6620.6830.7040.7250.74100.78The corrected velocityinfeet per second multiplied bytheaverage cross-sectioninsquare feet yieldedtheestimated dischargeincubicfeetper second(ft3Is).


61003737DALHART PERRYTONAS-3636TUCUMCARIAMARILLO35 Q E98CLOVISPLAINVIEW LAWTON 35 GH '--''--.. 349694 WICHITA SHERMAN .... TE'XARKANA 34LUBBOCK FALLSJKL MN33 33 HOBBSBIGSPRINGABILENEDALLASTYLER r 1060PQR592ELPASO,'VANHORN 3 PECOSSANANGELOBROWNWOODALEXANDRIAT UWACOPALESTINE8VWXyZ \AA3 FORT SONORA BEAUMONTILAKESSSTOCKTONLLANOAUSTIN CHARLES30CCDDEEFFGGIHH PRjSTO EMORY PEAK-DELRIO.6LLSEGUIN PORTARTHUR29 ,-JJ KKMM00106SAN ANTONIO1049 EAGLEPASSCRYSTALCITY BAYCITY28 pp" QQ5528/02 \TTO CORPUS94Example:SpringLL6CHRISTI-SanAntonioSheet.ArmyMap Service27,UU 27Topogrophic Mop MC ALLEN 'j) 96-Springnumber assignedonmopLLVV_ 2601000 0 a:: 25c m 25 '--I32LL gao 970Figure1.-GridSystem UsedforSpring-Numbering Where practicable, discharge measurements have been summarized by water year, and an averageoftheavailable measurementsisshown fortheyear. (AwateryearextendsfromOctober1toSeptember30andisdesignated bythecalendar yearinwhich it ends.)Forthelarger springs more yearsofrecord are usually available. Generally, discharges lessthan0.1cubicfootper second have been convertedtogallons perminute(gpm). Oneft3/s equals449gpm. Discharge measurements have generally beenroundedtotwosignificant figures.Indescribingthelocationofa springfromthenearesttown,theairline distanceisalways used. The road distanceisusually muchgreater. Theauthorhas relied heavily on information contained inthefilesoftheTexas Water Development Board,mostofwhich has been published previouslyintheBoard's numerous reports pertainingtowater availability. Manyofthese reports include county-wide well and spring inventories. Also used freely as source material weresome155stream-measurement reports prepared bytheU.S. Geological Survey andtheInternational Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, which contain informationonspring-sustained streamflow.Othersourcesofinformation used are numerous;themore significantofthese are listedinthe"ReferencesCited."Spring-Numbering SystemManycommonnames, such as Buffalo, Bear,orBigSprings, are usedformanydifferentspringsinTexas. Hence a numbering systemisnecessarytoavoid ambiguity. The numbering system usedforthisreportisshowninFigure1.Allsprings used inthestudywereplottedontheArmy Map Service topographic maps having a scaleof1:250,000.Forty-sevenofthese sheets covertheentire State. Eac:h sheet was assigned aletterorlettersasshown, and each spring was assigned anumberonthesheet.Thuseach springnumberisa compositeofthetopographic map letterorletters andthespringnumberonthemap. For example, spring LL6isontheSanAntoniosheet and rHpresents Eads SpringinReal County.-4-


AcknowledgementsSpecialthanksare giventotheU.S. Geological Survey andtotheInternational Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico. These agencies furnished numerous recordsofspring discharge measurements and chemical analyses of spring waters which have been includedinthis report.Otherswhofurnished valuable records include the ReevesCountyWater Control and Improvement District and numerous citywaterdepartments. The Texas Historical Survey Committee providedimportanthistorical information on many springs.ClassificationofSpringsThe springsofTexas may be classified by size as follows:AVERAGEDISCHARGEFT3/S(CUBICFEETGPM(GALLONSMAGNITUDEPER SECOND) PERMINUTE)IMPORTANCE OF TEXAS SPRINGSHistorical SignificanceSprings were vitaltothesurvival of Texas' earliest inhabitants, over30,000years ago.Atan archeological site near LewisvilleinDenton County, radiocarbon analysis hasdatedtheremains of these early new-world menat37,000+years old, including crude sculptures, spears, and throwers (Newcomb, 1961). These early Americans always made their campgrounds near water,whetherit was a spring, spring-fed stream, a river, or a lake. They preferred clear and purewaterjustaswedotoday. Bedrockmortarsor rock mills werewornintotherock bytheIndiansastheyground sotol, acorns andothernuts, mesquite beans, and grain. Thesemortarscan still be seenatmany Texas springs.VerylargeLargeModeratelylargeMediumSmallVerysmallSeepsOver10010to1001to100.1to145to4494.5to450.5to4.5Lessthan0.5ItisalsonoteworthythatthePueblo Indiansofwest Texas used spring water for irrigationofcrops long beforethearrivaloftheEuropeans (Taylor, 1902, and Hutson, 1898). When European explorersenteredthepicture, Indians guided them over well-worn trails from one springtoanother. The large numberofsprings on these oldexploratoryroutes standsoutplainlyinFigure2.Thisissimilartotheclassification used by Meinzer (1927),exceptthathe used eight magnitudes, dividing the smaller springs and seeps into more classes. Major springsasdiscussedinthisreportinclude springs which haveoratsome previoustimedid have 1ft3/Sormore average flow, and also those smaller springstowhich significant historyisattached.Inmanycases thetotaldischargeofa groupofclosely associated springs was used. In such casesthenumberofactive springs inthegroup usually varies withthedischarge. During high dischargestheyallflow,butatlower discharges onlythelower ones flow. Some springs which have been very infrequently measured are difficulttoclassifyastosize.Ifthefew measurements were madeinperiodsofabundantrainfall,theflow wouldbehigher andthespringmightbeclassifiedasa larger springthanit reallyis.The reverse holdstrueifthemeasurementwas made during a verydryperiod. Hence considerable jUdgemententeredinto the size classificationofsome springs.-5-Becausethesprings were so vitaltothelifeofboththeIndians andthewhite men, itisnotsurprisingthatmany battles werefoughtover their possession.In1650when Spanish explorers first visitedBigSpring (P4)inHoward County,theyfoundtheComanche and Pawnee Indians fighting for its possession. When anetworkofforts was strung across Texas,theywere,innearlyallcases, located near springsinordertohave areiiable supplyofpure water. Laterthecovered-wagon and stagecoach routes cametorely heavilyuponthesprings. For example,the"CaminoReal"orKing's Highway, completed bV theSpanish colonistsabout1697from Natchitoches, Louisiana,toSanAntonioand Mexico, passed 13 major Texas springs(Figure 2) andmanymore minor ones. MostofthespringsinfarwestTexas are very smallincomparison with thoseincentralandeastTexas, becauseofthevery low rainfall and recharge. Nevertheless,theyoftenmeantthedifference between life and deathtotheearly pioneers. Nearlyallofthelarger springs were usedforwaterpowerby the early settlers (Figure 3).Atleast 61 were


-Figure3.-OIdMillDamatHuecoSprings in CarnalCountyused in this way. Gristmills,flourmills, sawmills,cottongins, andlaterelectricgeneratingplantswerepoweredbytheflowofspringwater.Inthelate1800's,manymedicinalorhealthspasspranguparoundthemoremineralizedsprings (Figure4).Atleast25springs,chieflyineastTexas, were believedtobe beneficial incuringvarious ailments.Mostofthesewatersare high in sulfate,chloride,iron,andmanganese. Manyoftheearlysettlementsreliedentirelyonspringwater.Atleast200townswerenamedforthespringsatwhichtheywerelocated.About40still areshownontheofficial TexasStateHighway Map,butmanyofthesprings havedriedup. Many springs inTexashaveacquiredhigh recreational value (Figure 5).AmongtheseareSanMarcos (Hays County), Comal (ComalCounty)andBarton Springs (TravisCounty).Somerecreational springswhichhave essentiallyceasedflowingmuchofthetime,suchas GamelSpring(MasonCounty),Big Spring(Howard County!. andSanAntonioSprings (Bexar County!. arenowmaintainedbypumpingwatertothesprings.Theartificial spring water, however, usually lacksthecoolclarityofnaturalspringwater,and-9maybeconsideredbysomeas anexampleofthedecreasingqualityofmodernlife.SizeofSpringsAllknownspringsofover 1 fe /saverage discharge areincluded in thisreport.Springswithlessflowareincludedonlyiftheirunusualhistorywarrantsit.Ofthe281majorandhistoricallysignificantsprings described, onlytwospringsatpresentComaI (ComalCounty)andSan Marcos (HaysCounty),are classified asv1erylarge. Oftheremain ing springsstudied,17are classified as large,79asmoderatelylarge,64asmedium,31 as small, 21 as very small, 2 as seeps,and65asnolonger existing(orinundated).The area thatisnowTexas,whenfirstexploredbywhitemen,hadfour very large springs. Inorderof size these wereComaI,SanMarcos,Goodenough(ValVerde County), andSan Felipe (ValVerdeCounty)Springs.GoodenoughSpringisunder150feetofwaterwhenInternationalAmistadReservoirisatconservationpoollevel. This hHad ofwaterhasprobablygreatlyreducedorevenstoppedtheflowofthisspring. San Felipe Springs (Figure 6) have fallenbelow100ft3/s discharge in


Figure4.-0IdStore and BathhouseatBoquiJlas Warm Springs in Brewster County!IIFigure5.-SanMarcos Springs and Recreation Park-10-


FigureG.-OneoftheSan Felipe Springs recent years because of well pumpinginthearea. However,theymay again become very large springs becauseoftherecharge effects oftheupstream International Amistad Reservoir. Althoughthetotal flowofsprings includedinthis report has declined considerably over the years, it still amountstoabout1,600 fe Is or1,150,000acre-feet per year. However, ifthevastnumberof smaller springs are included,thetotal annual spring flowinTexasisprobablyinexcess of 3 million acre-feet.GEOLOGIC SETTINGSpring AquifersFigures 7 and 8 showtheseven major and seven minor ground-water aquifers of Texas, andthenumberof springs describedinthisreportwhich issue from each. Itisnoteworthythat139ofthe281springs issue from the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau)andEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifers. Note alsothat49springs issue from miscellaneous aquifers which arenotshown in these figures. These include various rocks such as volcanic tuff, basalt, breccia, gypsum, and sandstone. 11 Figure 9 showsthedistribution ofthemajor springs by thetypeof rock from whichtheyarise. The springs issuing from Comanchean limestones are by farthemostcommon. These Lower Cretaceous limestones, including the Glen Rose, Edwards and associated limestones, Georgetown, and their equivalents, arefoundintheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau). Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone). Trinity Group,andEdwards-Trinity (High Plains)aquif1ers.A typical Edwards LimestoneoutcropisshowninFigure10.Certain parts of these limestones are filled with large interconnected caverns which form a tremendous underground reservoir. Recharge from streams and surface runoff enters the underground caverns through sinkholes, faults, and fissuresinthe surface rock. The flowofsprings from cavernous rock undergroundl reservoirs tendstofluctuate considerably, depending upontheamountofrainfall, recharge, and waterinstorage.Aswater levels decline,thespring flows fall off,butwhen recharge fills the reservoirsthesprings begin flowing again. The springs issuing fromotherComanchean limestones arise primarily fromtheEllenburger and San Saba Limestones aquifers which surroundtheuplifted Central MiOilral Region. Most of the springs issuing from sands and gravels flowunderartesian pressure, from aquifers suchasthe


Figure10.-EdwardsLimestoneShowingFissuresandCavitiesThroughWhich RechargeCanEntertheUndergroundReservoir(CourtesyofU.S.DepartmentofAgriculture.SoilConservationService)Each spring has its own individual geologic characteristics.QUALITYOF SPRING WATERSChemicalconstituentsinawatersupplyshouldpreferably be limitedtotheconcentrationsshowninTable1.However.theallowableconcentrationofthevariousconstituentsdepends largelyupontheuse whichistobemadeofthewater. Selected chemical analysesofwaterfrommajorspringsinTexas are showninTable2.neartheendofthereport.Noattempthas beenmadetolist allofthe available analyses. Usuallytheearliest known andthemostrecentanalyses are given,toassistindeterminingwhethertherehas been a changeinqualityofwaterfrom a particular spring. Becauseundergroundwaterdissolves minerals fromtherocksthroughwhich it moves, its chemical quality generally reflectsthenatureoftherock materialsandalso the lengthoftimethewaterhas beencontainedintherocks.Inthefollowing paragraphs,thequalityofspringwaterissuing from each aquiferisgiveningeneral terms basedupontheanalyses giveninTable2.It shouldbekeptinmind,however,thatthequalitycanvary greatly within one aquifer. For example,portionsoftheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone) aquifer which arecutofffrom normalground-watercirculation areapttohave very high sulfate concentrations.AquifersinWest Texas are likelytohave hightotaldissolved-solidsconcentrations,as the rockformationshave been less completely leachedoftheirsoluble mineralsinthis regionoflower rainfallandlower recharge rates. SpringwatersfromtheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) andtheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone) aquifers are usually veryhard,alkaline,andhighinsilica.Theycanbe highinsulfate. The Comanchean limestone spring watersofReevesandPecos Counties are similar; however,theyare higherindissolved solids, moreapttocontainhighconcentrationsofsulfateandchloride, and may have high sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR). Carrizo-Wilcox spring waters are alkaline, hightovery highinsilica, and sometimes highinsulfate and chloride.Theymay have an unsafe residual sodiumcarbonate(RSC) for irrigation. Alluvium spring waters are usually very hard, alkaline, highinsilica, and sometimes highinsulfate and chloride. Spring waters arising fromtheGulf Coast aquifer are usually lowinfluoride and highinsilica,maybe very high in iron,andare sometimes high in sulfate and chloride. Spring waters fromtheEllenburger-San Saba and Marble Falls Limestones are normally very hard, alkaline, highinsilica, lowinfluorideandiron, and sometimes highinsulfateorchloride. OgallalaFormationandSantaRosaSandstonespring waters are usually very hard, alkaline, hightovery highinsilica, and sometimes highinsulfateorchloride.SpartaSandspring waters are normally soft, acidic, highinsilica,oftenhighiniron and manganese,andlowinfluoride. Spring waters fromtheQueen CitySandare usually soft, hightovery highinsilica,andvery highiniron. BlaineGypsumspring waters are normally very hard, alkaline, highindissolved solids(butoftenless than3,000 mg/Il, highinsilica, sometimes highiniron, hightovery high in sulfate, and highinfluoride.Theymay have a marginal RSC.-15-


Figure11.-LensofGravel in Alluvium Figure12.-SandCreek Springs, in CollingsworthCounty,ShowingInterbeddedSiltstone andGypsum-16-I


Associated LimestonesAreaFigure13.-ExampleofCavernous GypsumOgallala Formationa.Edwards(BalcanesFault Zone) c Trinity Group b.Edwards-Trinity(Plateau)Ogallala-SantaRasaFigure14.-Geologic SettingsofTexas Springs17 -


...".. ..SmIthwICk Shale and StrawnFormat'an ......Ma,bl.Falls L,mes'one.--:r=.ff:J.iJ'V$-';' Cloya.BlaineGypsumc.Carrizo-WilcoxSandsandAlluvialTerraceb.MarbleFallsandEllenburgerSan Saba limestones.".\'" .'.... .... .... :-: Salt PluQ CapRockd.GulfCoastAquiferFigure15.-GeologicSettingsofTexas SpringsHickory Sand spring waters, basedupononlyone analysis, are very hardbutotherwiseofhigh qual ity.Theonlymajorwarm springsinTexas are Boquillas Warm SpringsinBrewster County. These springs rangeintemperaturefrom95to105degreesFahrenheit(35to41 degrees Celsius) which indicatesthattheyoriginate fromdepthsas great as2,000feetbelowthesurface.Inadditiontothestandardchemical analysis parameters listed in Table 2, certainotherparametershave been measuredforsome spring waters. These includetotalc:oliform organisms; fecal coliform organisms;streptococci;biochemical oxygendemand;detergents; dissolvedoxygen;aluminum;copper;zinc; lithium;strontium;nickel; lead; iodide;mercury;arsenic;theinsecticides aldrin, DDT, dieldrin,endrin,heptachlor,heptachlorepoxide,andlindane;andthe-18herbicides 2,4-0 plusand 2,4,5-T plus. Thesetestshave beenmadeprimarilyonwaters fromthelarge springsoftheEdwardsandassociated limestonesintheBalconesFaultZone. Noneofthe testsshoweddangerousconcentrationsofanyof these parameters. Astudyoftheanalyses listedinTable 2 doesnotreveal any case of progr,essively increasingconcentrationsofdissolved solids which might indicate spring-watercontamination.Otherfactorssuchasvariabilityofrainfall appeartohave amuchgreater effectondissolved-solidscontentandmakethedetectionofcontamination,if present, very difficult.PhantomLake Spring (Jeff DavisCounty)servesasanexample. On October 7,1932, following a rainintherecharge area, a dischargeof82ft3/sandatotaldissolved-solidscontentof 144mgllwere measured. On April 28, 1971,with at reduced flowof5.7ft3Is,the


Figure16.-SevenSprings, Irion County, Emerging From Jointed Limestone Figure17.-BamettSprings and Travertine Deposits-19-


Table1.-Sourceand SignificanceofDissolved-Mineral Constituents and Properties of Water(FromDoll and Others,1963)CONSTITUENT ORPROPERTYSilica (Si02) Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca)andmagnesium(Mg)Sodium(Na)andpotassium (K) Bicarbonate(HC03)andcarbonate(C03)Chloride(el)Fluoride (F) SOURCE OR CAUSE Dissolved from practically all rocksandsoils,commonlylessthan30mgt!. Highconcentrations,asmuchas100mgtl, generally occuI'in highly alkaline waters. Dissolved frompracticallyall rocksandsoils. May also be derived from iron pipes, pumps,andotherequipment.Dissolved from practically all soilsandrocks,but especially from limestone,dolomite,andgypsum.Calciumandmagnesium arefoundinlargequantitiesinsome brimes. Magnesiumispresentin largequantitiesinsea water. Dissolvedfrompractically all rocksandsoils.Foundinancientbrimes, sea water, industrial brimes,andsewage. Actionofcarbondioxide inwateroncarbonaterocks suchaslimestoneanddolomite. Dissolved fromrocksandsoils containing gypsum, iron sulfides,andothersulfurcompounds.Commonlypresentin minewatersandin some industrial wastes. Dissolved from rocksandsoils. Presentinsewageandfoundin largeamountsinancientbrines, sea water,andindustrial brines. Dissolved in smalltominutequantitiesfrommostrocksandsoils.Addedtomanywaters by fluoridationofmunicipal supplies.-20-SIGN I FICANCE Formshardscale inpipesandboilers. Carried over in steam of high pressure boilers.toformdepositsonblades of turbines. Inhibitsdeteriorationofzeolite-typewatersofteners. Inthisreportover10mg/I isconsideredhigh,andover40very high. Onexposuretoair, iron ingroundwateroxidizestoa reddish-brownprecipitate.Morethanabout0.3mg/I stains laundryandutensilsreddish-brown. Objectionable for food processing,textileprocessing, beverages, icemanufacture,brewin'9,andotherprocesses. U.S. Public Health Service (1962) drinking-waterstandardsstatethatironshouldnotexceed0.3 mgt!. Largerquantitiescauseunpleasanttasteandfavorgrowthof iron bacteria.Inthisreport0.3 mgtlisconsideredhigh,and3 mgtl very high. Causemostofthehardnessandscale-formingpropertiesofwater; soapconsuming(see hardness!. Waters low in calcium and magne,sium are desired in electroplating, tanning, dyeing,andintextilemanufacturing. Large amounts,incombinationwith chloride, give a salty taste. Moderatequantitieshave littleeffectontheusefulnessofwaterformostpurposes. Sodium saltsmaycause foaming in steam boilers,anda high sodiumcontentmay limittheuseofwaterforirrigation. Bicarbonateandcarbonateproducealkalinity. Bicarbonatesofcalciumandmagnesiumdecomposein steam boilersandhotwaterfacilitiestoform scaleandrelease corrosivecarbondioxide gas.Incombinationwith calciumandmagnesium, causecarbonatehardness. Sulfateinwatercontainingcalcium formshardscale in steam boilers.Inlargeamounts,sulfateincombination with otherionsgives;bittertastetowater.Somecalcium sulfateisconsideredbeneficialinthebrewing process. U.S. Public Health Service (1962) drinking-waterstandardsrecommendthatthesulfatecontentshouldnotexceed250mgt!.Inlargeamountsin combination with sodium, gives salty tastetodrinking water. In large quantities, increasesthecorrosivenessofwater. U.S. Public Health Service (1962) drinking-waterstandardsrecommendthatthechloridecontentshouldnotexceed250mgt!. Fluorideindrinkingwaterreducestheincidenceoftoothdecay whenthewaterisconsumedduringtheperiodof enamel calcification. However, it may causemottlingoftheteeth,depending; ontheconcentrationoffluoride,theageofthechild,amountofdrinkingwaterconsumed,andsusceptibility oftheindividual (Maier, 1950!.


Table1.-SourceandSignificanceofDissolved-MineralConstituentsandPropertiesofWater-ContinuedDissolved solids Hardness asCaC03Hydrogen ionconcentration(pH) Boron(B)Phosphorus(P) Sodiu m-adsorptionratio(SAR) Residualsodiumcarbonate(RSC)TemperatureDecaying organicmatter,sewage, fertilizers,andnitratesin soil.Chieflymineralconstituentsdissolvedfromrocksandsoils.Inmostwatersnearly allthehardnessisduetocalciumandmagnesium. Allthemetalliccationsotherthanthealkalimetalsalsocausehardness. Acids, acid-generating salts,andfreecarbondioxidelowerthepH.Carbonates,bicarbonates,hydroxides,phosphates,silicates,andboratesraisethepH. Dissolved in smallquantItiesfromrocksandsoils. Dissolvedfrommostsoilsandrocks,andpresentinmanydetergents.Sodiumisdissolvedfrompracticallyall soilsandrocks,andmaybe derivedfromoil-field wastes.Sodiumisderivedfromall soilsandrocks,andmaystemfromoil-field wastes.Ground-watertemperatureatadepthof30to60feetgenerallyexceedsthemeanannualairtemperatureata givenlocationby2.5degreesFahrenheit.Belowthesedepthsthetemperatureincreasesabout1.8degreesforeach100feetofdepth.-21-Concentrationmuchgreaterthanthelocal averagemaysuggestpollution.U.S. PublicHealthService (1962)drinking-water standardssuggest alimitof45mg/1. Watersof hilh nitratecontent have beenreportedtobethecauseofmethemoglobinemia(anoftenfatal disease in infants)andthereforeshouIdnotbeusedininfantfeeding (Maxcy,19501.Nitratehasbeenshowntobehelpfulin re,ducing inter-crystallinecrackingofboilersteel. Itencouragesgrowthofalgaeandotherorganismswhichproduceundesirabletastesandodors.U.S. PublicHealthService(1962) drinking-water standardsrecommendthatwaterscontainingmorethan500mg/I dissolved solidsnotbeusedifotherlessmineralizedsupplies are available. Waterscontainingmorethan1,000mg/I dissolved solids areunsuitableformanypurposes.Consumessoapbeforealatherwill form. Depositssoapcurdonbathtubs.Hardwaterformsscale in boilers,waterheaters,andpipes. Hardnessequivalenttothebicarbonateand carbonate iscalledcarbonatehardness.Anyhardnessin excessofthisiscallednon-carbonatehardness. Watersofhardness as muchas60mg/I areconsideredsoft;61to120mg/I,moderatelyhard;121to180mg/l,hard;morethan180mg/I,veryhard. ApHof7.0indicatesneutralityofasolution.Values higherthan7.0denoteincreasingalkalinity; valueslowerthan7.0indicateincreasing acidity.pHisameasureoftheactivity of thehydrogenions. Corrosivenessofwatergenerally increaseswithdecreasing pH. However, excessivelyalkal inewatersmayalsoattackmetals. Inthisreporta pH of lessthan5.5isconsideredveryacid,5.5to6.5acid,6.5to7.5neutral,7.5to8.5alkaline,andover8.5very alkaline. An essentialplantmicronutrientupto0.5mg/1.Concentrationsbetween0.5and4.0mg/Icancausecropdamage,dependinguponthesensitivityoftheparticularcrop. Concentration:sofmorethan0.2mg/Icancauseunpleasantalgaeandotherplantgrowthinstreamsandlakes. Irrigation watElr witha highsodium-adsorptionratiocancauseabreakdownofsoils,makingthemimpermeable.AnSARof0to10isconsideredlow,10to18medium,18to26high,andover26veryhigh.Anothermethodofmeasuring an irrigationwater'ssodiumhazardtosoils. An RSC of1.25isconsideredsafe,1.25to2.50marginal,andover2.50unsafe.Forpublicwat,ersupplyatemperatureabove85degreesisconsideredundesirable.


totaldissolved solids increasedto2,250mg/1.Higher dischargestendtobe associatedwithlowerdissolved-solidsconcentrationandhighersuspended-solidsorsedimentconcentration.Thisisespeciallytrueinlimestone aquifers where sediment can easilyentertheaquifer through sink holes along with recharge water. Texas spring water,exceptfor salt springs, has typically beennotedfor its purity. Available data indicate it has remained essentially as pure as it ever was. Where recharge water must percolate through sand beds for a considerable distancetoreach an underground reservoir,manyimpurities such as bacteria and insecticides are naturally filteredout.Inspringsthatissue from cavernouslimestoneorgypsumundergroundreservoirs, however, thereisanincreasing dangerofpollution. These reservoirs receive recharge from surface waterthroughopen crevices and sink holeswithoutfiltering action.Alltypesofpollutants can readilyentera limestoneorgypsum underground reservoir. Therefore, itisespeciallyimportanttoprotecttherecharge areasoflimestone and gypsum underground reservoirs and springs from pollution hazards.DECLINE OF SPRINGSPrehistoric SettingThroughoutthelong period during which various Indian tribes occupied Texas, spring flow remained unchangedexceptasaffected bywetand dry climatic cycles.AtthetimeofColumbus' epic voyages Texas abounded with springs which acted as natural spillwaystoreleasetheexcess storageofunderground reservoirs. Early explorers describedthemas gushingforthingreat volume and numbers. The very early accounts usually describenotspringsbut"fountains."Thisisan indicationofthetremendousforce with which these springsspoutedforthbefore they were altered bymodernman.Asan example, lessthan100years agoBigBoiling Spring,oneoftheSalado Springs (Bell County) was still described as a fountain rising 5 feet high. Such natural fountains ceasedtoexist in Texas many years ago. Probablyintheyear1500,therewere many times as many springsofallsizesinTexas as exist now. 22-CausesofSpring DeGiine This wasthesituation which prevailed untilColumbus'discoveries set off the widespreadmigrationtotheNew World Figure 18isa comparisonofprobable sizes and locationsofknown springs existinginthe year1500with thosein1973. Admittedly much judgement enteredintothepreparationofthis figure,asaccurate springflow measurements have been available only duringthelast100yearsorso. Probablythefirsteffectuponground-watertablesandspringflowwastheresultofdeforestation bytheearly wh ite settlers. Deforested land was placed in cultivationorpasture. Thedeepopenstructureoftheforest soils was altered astheorganicmatterwas consumed andthesoils became more impervious. Heavy grazing by introducedstockanimals was probably especially harmful. Soonthesoils were socompactedthattheycould takeinonly a small fractionoftherecharge whichtheyformerly conveyedtotheunderground reservoir. This reductionofrecharge affected larger areasasmore and mOn! land was placedinpasture. However,theeffectuponwater tables and spring flow was probably relatively smallincomparison with later developments.Inthemiddle 1800'sdeepwells begantobe drilled. It was foundthatflowing wells could bebroughtinnearly everywhere.The"LunaticAsylum"wellinAustin, drilledtothebasal Trinity Sands,threwwater40feet high. Water from a wellsouthofSan Antonio reachingtheEdwards Limestone rose84feet abovethesurfaceoftheground (Hill and Vaughn,1898).Nothing could have had a more disastrouseffectupon spring flows,thanthereleaseofthesetremendousartesian pressures through flowing wells.Mostofthesewells wereallowedtoflow continuously, wasting great quantitiesofwater, untilthepiezometric heads wereexhaustedandthewellsstoppedflowing. A few still flowtothisday,asshowninFigure 19. Althoughtheeffectsofflowing wellsuponspring flow weresevere,therewas moretocome. Whenthewells ceased flowing, pumping began. Ground-water levels were systematically drawndown,as much as700feetinsome areas.Atfirst pumping for municipal and industrial use was primarily responsible.Inrecent yearstremendousquantitiesofgroundwaterhave been withdrawn for irrigation, amountingtoabout80percentofthe


totEl1 ground water usedinTexas.Asa result,somestreamswhich were formerly "gaining" streams, receIving additional water from streambed seeps and springs, are now "losing," and many streams have ceased flowing. Thousandsofsmall springs have dried up, and the larger springs have generally suffered a decreaseinflow.Otherfactors have also affected spring flow. Pavingofurban areas has reducedtheamountof rechargetosome spring aquifers. Many springs havebeeninundatedby man-made reservoirs. The additional headofwaterisoften sufficienttostopor greatly reduce the spring flow beneath it. However,insome instances man-made reservoirs have also increased the flowofsprings locateddownstreamthroughincreased recharge. Since closureoftheInternational Amistad Reservoirin1968,thereisevidencethatSan Felipe Springs,whichsupplymunicipalwatertoDelRio downstream, are increasinginflow.Some ExamplesTexas has a very wide rangeinprecipitation, averaging 8 inches annuallyinthewest and55inchesintheeast.Thisalsomeansthatground-water reservoirs receive muchlessnatural rechargeinthewest thaninthe east.Thewestern ground-water reservoirs are highly vulnerabletodrawdown by heavy well pumping, because thereislittle natural rechargetoreplace the waterthathas been withdrawn. Figure18showsthatnearlyallofthe spring:, which formerly existedinPecos CountY are now 91one. Heavy pumping for irrigationinthis area lowelred the water table so muchthatthe springs ceased flowing. A similar situationisnow developingatthe five springsintheBalmorhea areaofJeffDavis and Reeves Counties. These are Phantom Lake, shown on Figure 20, San Solomon, Giffin, Saragosa, and Sandia. Hydrographs for twoofthese springs are shownonFigure21.The water for these springs comes from a reservoirinComanchean limestones.Imperviousupper Cretaceous rocks have been faulted down against the reservoir, forming an underground dam and causingthespringstoflow. Thisisvery similartothe situationinthe Balcones Fault Zoneofcentral Texas. Saragosa and Sandia Springs flow from gravel alluvium,butthewaterprobablycomesoriginallyfrom Comanchean limestones. Figure19.-largeWellFlowing FromtheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) AquiferatFortSam Houston in SanAntonio(CourtesyofU.S. DepartmentofAgriculture, Soil Conservation Service) -25-


Figure23.-BartonSprings Supplies a Swimming Pool in AustinAnexampleofstreamunderflowmightbethatalongtheeastNueces River near Montell. Heretheriver intermiUently sinksintogravel bedsandreappearsassprings. This spring flowwouldprobably be classed as originating fromstreamunderflow and there'fore subjecttoappropriation.Natural spring waters iftakenattheirsourceare consideredtobe groundwaterandnopermitisrequired for their use. Oncetheyissue forth and flowina watercourse, however,theybecomepublic surface waters. As such, apermitfromtheTexas Water Rights Commissionisrequired for their use. A spring is normally a spillwayforanunderground re!.ervoir. Thisreservoir may be overlain by land belongingtoanumberofowners.Ifthelandownersotherthanthespringownerchoosetopumpgroundwaterheavily, loweringthewatertable and causingthespringtocease flowing,thespringownerhas no recourseinthecourtstopreventthem.San Saba and Dove Creek Springs are locatedinrocky areas where little cultivationispossible.Consequentlytherehas been little irrigation pumpingofground water andthesprings havenotbeengreatlyaffected.Roaring Springs have maintained their flow fairly well, despite large withdrawalofgroundwaterforirrigation fromtheOgallala Sandintherecharge area. Sincethesprings flow by gravity fromthebaseoftheOgallala, no largereductioninflow can beexpecteduntilthegroundwaterintheOgallala aquiferisessentially exhausted. Someofthewaterfor Roaring Springs may originate as rechargeontheareasofSantaRosaSandstoneoutcropsinNewMexico. Ground-water pumping has been much less extensivefromthisformationthanfromtheOgallala.Texas WaterLawas RelatingtoSpringsTexasground-waterlaw affirmsthatthesurface landownerownstheundergroundwaterunless it can be shownthatthesourceisasubteraneanstreamorstreamunderflow(Yarbrough, 1968). This may be difficulttoprove. -28-AnStocktonexampleisComanche (PecosCounty).These SpringsatFortartesian springs,


reservoirsis thH primary causeoftheir decline, itisobviousthatif inthevicinityofsprings such pumpingcontinuesorisincreased,mostofthesprings will gradually disappear.DETAILED INFORMATIONONINDIVIDUALSPRINGSThespring descriptions which follow aregroupedbycounty.Thecountiesappearalphabetically.Thedescriptions include: springname;identificationnumber; location; aquifer; historicalinformation,whereavailable; discharge, if known; and refHrences topertinentliterature. Spring locations areshownonFigure 58. Chemical qualityofwaterdata are given formanyspringsinTable2.Aquifer: Edwards and associated I imestonesintheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Cabeza de Vaca may have passed herein1535. Laterthesprings were astopontheChihuahua Road.In1854a Mormonsettlementbuilt a gristmill and sawmilldownstreamtousethespringwaterfor power. The military Camp Verde usedthespringsasa water supply. Discharge: March 25,1965-2.1ft3/s; February 2,1971-13gpm. Reference: Jackson, 1971.ColdSprings(LL18).Latitude29',longitude98',4 milessouthwestofPipe Creek.Aquifer:GlenRoseLimestoneIntheEdwardsTrinity(Plateau) aquifer. History: An Apache Indian village was located here. CabezadeVaca may havestoppedherein1535. LatertheChihuahua Road passedthesprings.Theywere described by Bonnellin1840as "largefountains."Discharge (fe /s by water years):Bandera CountyVerdeSprings(LU7).Latitude29',longitude99',4 miles westofCamp Verde.WATERDISYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s )19221019255.0WATERDISYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)19267.719307.5Figure25.-SiteofFormerComancheSprings-


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3!s)(ft3/S )19331119520.819351019540.1319483.519554.019512.2Reference: Bonnell, 1840.BastropCountyBurleson Springs(FFll).Numerous springs.Latitude30',longitude97',3 miles southwestofBastrop. Aquifer: Wilcox Formation oftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer.Thesprings flow through alluvium. History: These springs were usedbytheTonkawaIndians beforetheEuropean settlers arrived.In1691theSpanish explorer Domingo Teran de los Riosisbelievedtohave stopped here. Later the springs were astopon the old Camino Real,orKing's Highway, from LouisianatoMexico.In1840theywere describedas"finespringsofcrystal water bursting fromthehills." A water-powered corn milloperatedhereinthe1840's.Discharge:March1953-5gpm; November1964-25gpm. Reference:Bonnell,1840.BaylorCountyBuffaloSprings (L1).About10 springs. Latitude33',longitude99',3 miles westofSeymour. Aquifer:ContactoftheBrazos RiveralluviumandSeymourFormation.History: Nomadic Indians who formerly camped here left hearths, crude grinding tools, and stone axes.Thesprings were frequented by thousandsofbuffalo and became a buffalo huntingcampinthe1870's. Discharge:June22,1969-25gpm. References: Britton,1955and Malone and Briggs, 1970. issue through a fault. History: They were knownasmedicinal springsinthe1800's, and were later astopontheChisholm Cattle Trail. Discharge:1968-0.Reference: Atkinson, 1970. Salado Springs (F F1).Many springs, including, from upstreamtodownstream, Robertson,BigBoiling,Elm, and Anderson Springs. Latitude305 7', longitude97',atSalado. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The springs issue through faults. History: The Tehuacana Indians formerly lived here, leaving many flint implements, beads,potterysherds, and metal ornaments.BigBoiling Spring (Figure 26) was formerly a fountain5feethigh. Aftersettlementin1851thesprings were a well-known stage stand. From 1851to1868there were11flour, grist, saw,cottongin, and wool-carding mills usingthespring water forpower,olleofwhich,theDavis Mill,iscommemoratedby a historical marker. From1863to1878oneofthemill dams floodedthesprings. The dam was finally lowered bycourtorder. There were several swimming holes here.SulphurSprings, 3 miles downstream, were used medicinally. Discharge (ft 3 /s by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s )(ft3!s)19021319602419031319613719347.6196225194810.619631419506.319641119515.519652919527.619663319546.819671419555.519682519564.619692819578.0197023195824197111195913197212BellCountyLeon Springs (Y6). Near latitude longitude97',2 miles northeastofAquifer: Edwards and associated limestones Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The31',Belton.ofthesprings 31 Maximum known discharge was55ft3/S References: Paddock, 1911; Atkinson, 1970; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.


Figure26.-BigBoiling Spring, OneoftheSalado Springs Childers Springs(FF 17). Several springs. Latitude31',longitude97',5 milesnortheastofSalado. Aquifer: Edwards and associated I imestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The springs issue through a fault. History: Childers grist mill (also called Shanklin's mil! later) usedthespringwaterforpowerfrom1847to1920. The mill race was later usedforirrigation water. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:1968-0.References: Atkinson,1970and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.FortLittle River Springs(FF18).Latitude31',longitude97',2 mileswestof Little River. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The springs issue through a faultintheAustin Chalk. History:In1836-37 these springs furnished water forFortLittle River. Discharge:1965-0. Referellce: Tyler, 1966.BexarCountySelma Spring (LL30). Latitude29',longitude98',1 mile southofSelma. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The spring issues through faultsintheAustin Chalk. History: Bonnellin1840described this springas "a white sulphur spring, themostbeautifulin-32the world, with a large basin 20 feetindiameter."It was a stagestoponEICamino Real. Discharge: March 5, 1963-0;March 4, 1968-0.15ft3/s. Reference:Bonnell,1840.Salado Creek Springs (LL31). Several springs. Latitude29',longitude98',7 milesnortheastofSan Antonio. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone) aquifer. Artesianwaterissues from afaultintheAnacacho Limestone. History:EICamino Real passed these springs. DischaqJe (ft3/s bywateryears):WATERDIS-WATERDlS-YEARSCHAFIGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3ls1(ft3/s119193.01948a1933 1.Ei 1951a1934 O.B 1952a1935 2.2 19701.2SanAntonioSprings (LL32). Many springs. Latitude29',lon!litude98',onthe. SanAntonioRiver just above East HildebrandStreetinSan Antonio. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. Artesian springs issue from a fauItintheAustin Chalk. History: These


springs were the siteofan ancient Payayan Indian settlement. Cabeza de Vaca possibly visited themin 1!)35. EICamino Real passed them. Early Spanish missions usedthewater for irrigation. Bonnell (1840) estimatedthatabout100springs formedtheSan Antonio Riveratthattime. The San Jose Mission built the firstcorngrinding mill,the"Molino Blanco,"in1730toutilizethewater power of the springs. Many other mills usedthesiteatlater dates. They were temporarily abandonedin1896 becauseoflow spring flow,butin1904four hydroelectric powerplants were using the spring water. Discharge (fe /s by water years):193354Maximum recorded discharge was212ft3/s in 1920.AsI!arlyas1898,Hilland Vaughn recognizedthatthe spring flowhadbeen reduced by well pumping. They stated, "when the wells are allowedtoflowthesprings diminishinvolume, andtheSan Antonio Riverisgreatly lowered." The springs have now essentially ceased flowing much of the time. Waterispumpedtothe spring sites fromseveral wellstomaintain the recreational value of Brackenridge Park, in which the springs were located. References:: Bonnell,1840;Taylor, 1904;Hilland Vaughn, 1898;andJackson, 1971.1895919229.318961219237.5189791924131898919257.61899919269.51900919277.21904919285.619166.219294.919176.519304.119183.719327.619199.119336.819201419345.619219.7193520WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1WATERDIS YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s )San Pedro Springs (LL33). Several springs. Latitude29',longitude98',inSan Pedro Park, San Antonio. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. Artesian springs issue through a faultintheAustin Chalk. History: These springs and their associated lakes were originally a focalpointfor several CoahuiltecanIndianbands knownasPayayas. Excavations madein1878unearthed numerouspotterysherds, spearheads, knives, and tomahawks. The springs were called Yanaguana Springs bythePayayas. Cabeza de Vaca may have visited themin1535.In1718theSanAntoniodeValero mission (the Alamo) was founded nearby, andthespring water used for irrigationofcorn, chilies, and beans. Numerous old roads radiated from thispoint. The springs were the site of an Army camp during the Mexican War, 1846-48,andtheCivilWar.The parkinwhich the springs were locatedisone of Texas' oldest recreational areas. Citywaterisnow pipedtothe !.wimming pool formerly fed by the springs. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge (fe /s by water years):o4035 12736 29 63 38 402o5275 75 67 6.22ooo87120 9883DiSCHARGE(ft3/s)3682WATERYEARS1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 194319441945 1946 194719481949 1951 1952-57 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 19631970197119721973 94 59 52 97 64 140 455429 1819764418 13 120 90 50 20 100 200 90 79DISCHARGE(ft3/s)42 299781895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1904 1905 1906 1910 1911 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 lfl24 925 1926 1927 1928 19291932WATERYEARS-


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3tsl(ft3tS)19363019510.11937241952-57019382119587.31939219598.8194019609.319411819618.619421819623.519439196301944719651.819451519662.719461019700.1194710197101948-50019723.1The springs havenowessentially ceased flowing becauseofheavy municipal and industrial pumping. References: Newcomb,1961;Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971;Sturmberg,1920;and Paddock, 1911. Martinez Springs (LL34). Latitude29',longitude98',3 milesnortheastof Saint Hedwig. Aquifer: Wilcox SandoftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. The springs appearasbase flowinthegravel streambed. Discharge: March 5,1963-1.6ft3/s.MitchelllakeSprings (LL35). Latitude 2916'longitude98',atMitchell Lake Dam. Aquifer; Wilcox SandoftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. Discharge:May28,1925-3.5 fe Is.The springs represent seepage fromthereservoir.BlancoCountyRocky Creek Spring(EE40). Latitude3015', longitude98',3 miles eastofHye. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestoneofthe Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer. Discharge: May 17,1962-1.5ft3/S.Koch Springs(EE41). Latitude30',longitude98',1 milesouthof BlancoinBlancoStatePark. Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestone oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: An old Comanche Indian trial passed these springs. Discharge:June22,1938-30gpm; August 20,1941-15gpm;September8,1952-270gpm; March7,1962-430gpm. Buffalo Spring (EE44). SourceofBuffalo Creek. Latitude30',longitude98',5 milesnorthwestof-34---,._---Johnson City. Aquifer: Morgan Creek and Cap Mountain Limestones. Discharge: July 22,1941-1.1cfs; flowingin1973. Crofts Spring (EE45). Latitude3019', longitude98',4 milesnortheastofJohnson City. Aquifer: Ellenburger-San Sabalimestones.Discharge: Reportedtohave failedin 1908; August 4,1938-0.13ft3/s;May28,1968-3.7ft3Is.Hobbs Spring (IEE46). Latitude 30 18', longitude98',2 miles north of Johnson City. Aquifer: Ellenburger-San Saba Limestones. Discharge: May 27,1969-1.0ft3/s.BosqueCountyEIFlechazoorloveatFirst Sight Springs(Yl).Latitudeabout31',longitudeabout97',about9 milesnortheastofValleyMills.Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones oftheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone) aquifer. History: "Elevenabundantsprings" were used bytheTehuacana Indians,whohad a village here. From1867to1895 th,e Chisholm Cattle Trail passedthesprings. Reference: M olrfi, 1935. Pierson Spring (Y5). Latitude31',longitude97',forming Gary Creek. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Settled by Old Pierson of Norwayin1854. Discharge:In1854 a 2-inch-diameter pipe couldnotcarrytheflow(about0.15ft3/s).Reference: Pool, 1964.BowieCountyDeKalb Spring (N2). Latitude33',longitude94',in DeKalb. ,.o,quifer: Terrace Alluvium. The spring flows from a sand ontopofa clay layer. Discharge: Flowingin1911. Reference: Gordon, 1911. Dalby Springs (N:3). Aboutfour springs. Latitude33',longitude94',inDalby Springs. Aquifer: Wilcox SandoftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History: Indians used these springsasfar backas30,000years ago,asevidenced by projectile points, axes, scrapers, andpotteryfound here.In1911thesprings were well known for their medicinal value. Discharge:1892-27gpm. References: Gordon, 1911; Peale, 1894; and Texas Historical SurveyCommitteeand Texas Water Development Board, 1970. Boston ChalybeatE! Spring (N4). Latitude33',longitude94',atOld Boston. Aquifer: Wilcox Sand


oftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History: From1813thespring was on Trammell's Trace, an underground slave route.In1892it was knownasa mineral spring. Reference: Gordon, 1911.BrewsterCountyBurgess, Kokernot,orSan Lorenzo Spring (CC9). Latitude30',longitude103',innortheastAlpine. Aquifer: Alluvium. History: The spring was possibly visited bytheearly Spanish explorer Cabeza de Vacain1535. It was certainly used by Juan de Mendozain1684. It was ontheChihuahua Road from Chihuahua, MexicotoIndianola, Texas' chiefport,in1845. A historicalmarkerislocated here. Discharge:October31,1929-0.5ft3/S;1957-nonereported; April 28,1971-0ft3/S .The springisreportedtohave ceased flowingabout1940. References: Texas Historical Survey Committee,1971;and Williams, 1969. Pena ColoradaorColored Rock Spring (CC10). Latitude3010',longitude 103 17', 4 milessouthwestofMarathon. Aquifer: Marathon Limestone. History: This spring was a reststopontheOld Comanche Indian Trail from New Mexico.FortPena Colorada usedthespring water around 1880. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:1957-0.3to1.0 fe Is. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Chilicotal Spring (JJ1). Latitude 29 15', longitude 103 08', 8 milessoutheastofPantherJunction,BigBend National Park. Aquifer: Alluvial sand and gravel. History: This was oneoftheComanche Indian campgrounds on their trail from New MexicotoMexico. References: Maxwell, 1968, and William, 1969. Glenn Springs (JJ2). Latitude 29 11', longitude 103', 13 miles westofBoquillas Ranger Station,BigBend National Park. Aquifer: Aguja Sandstone. History: This spring wasthesiteofanIndian campground on the Comanche Trail from MexicotoNew Mexico. Many spear and arrow points, grinding stones, and bedrock mortars have beenfoundhere. The spring was named for aMr.Glennwhosettled hereinthe1870'sand establ ished a store. Thesettlementwas raided by bandits from Mexicoin1916. Reference: Maxwell, 1968. Boquillas Warm Springs (JJ3). Five artesian springs onthe left bankoftheRio Grande. Latitude29',longitude102',near Boquillas Ranger Station,BigBend National Park. Aquifer: Probably Edwards and associated limestones, through a faultintheBoquillaslimestore.The springs rangeintemperaturefrom95to105 degrees Fahrenheit, indicatingthatsomeofthem originateabout2,000feet below thesurface. History: -35-Used bytheMescalero Apache Indians. The springs were later on the Comanche Indian TrailtoMexico. Bedrock mortars ground by these people can stillbeseenatthe springs.Inrecent times (1909), a store and bath house for medicinal bathing were built, as showninFigure 4. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge (fe /s by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s )(ft3/sl19360.8219650.6119531.619660.7819640.6119710.32The spring formerly used for medicinal bathingisnowalmost dry,butsomeoftheothers still flow. Reference: Williams, 1969.BriscoeCountyHylsey Springs(H1). Many springs. Latitude34',longitude101',9 miles northeastofVigo Park,inPalo Duro Canyon.Aquifer:SantaRosa Sandstone. History: The springs were possibly visited by Coronadoin1541. Discharge:September9,1946-2.1ft3 /s;June 23, 1971-0.22ft3 /s. Heavy pumpingforirrigationtothewest may have causedthereductioninflow.BurlesonCountySourorSpring Lake Springs (FF14). Numerous openings. Laflitude30',longitude96',5 miles northwestofCaldwell. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History: These springs were astopontheold Spanish "Camino Real" from LouisianatoMexico.In1892theywere well knownasmineral springs. In 1936they supplied water for a swimming pool. Discharge:1892-0.4ft3/S ;1936-0.4 fe Is. The flow varies considerably with precipitation. Reference: Peale, 1894.BurnetCountyHolland, Felps, and Horseshoe Springs (EE38). Several springs forming Hamilton Creek and MormonMillFalls. Latitude30',longitude98',3 miles southofBurnet. Aquifer:BasalHensell Sandofthe Trinity Group aquifer. History: The springs were a favorite Indian watering place long before white men appeared. A Texas Ranger station was situated here from 1847to1849.In1849it was replaced byFortCroghan, 3 miles north. From 1851to1853a Mormon colony maintained a grist mill and shop for furniture makingat


Figure27.-MormonMillFalls Below Holland Springsthepicturesque MormonMillFalls, 5 miles downstream (Figure 27). Water fromthesprings providedthepower. The mill,theremainsofwhich can still be seen, wasoperatedbyothersafterthe Mormons moved west.Thesprings arenowused for irrigation. A historical markerislocatedhere. Discharge:July26,1961-1.0ft3/S;September17,1971-1.3 fe /s (measuredatthefalls). References: Barkley,1970;Texas Historical Survey Committee,1971;and Jackson,1971.Ebeling Springs (EE39).Twoopenings. Latitude30',longitude98',7 milessouthof Marble Falls. Aquifer: The springs rise from afaultbetweentheEllenburger and Marble Falls Limestones. Discharge: July 25,1940-1.7ft3/s;September17,1971-0.95ft3/S .CassCountyHughesorChalybeate Springs (N5). Latitude33',longitude94',inHughes Springs. Aquifer: WilcoxSandoftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History: A Caddo Indian village was located hereinprehistoric times. The FrenchexplorerLaSalle may have passed herein1686. From1813Trammell's Trace, anundergroundslave route, passedthesprings.In1847thetownofHughes Springs was laidoutatthe springs. The 36-springs were long known for medicinal qualities. A historicalmarkerislocated here. Discharge: None reportedin1942or1971. References: Gordon,1911;Peale,1894;and Texas Historical SurveyCommittee,1971. Thrasher Spring (N6). Latitude33',longitude94',5 miles eastofLinden. Aquifer: Queen City Sand. History: Knownasa mineral springin1911.Discharge: Nonereportedin1942and 1971. Reference:Gordon,1911.CherokeeCountyCastalianorChalybeate Springs (Z5). Latitude31',longitude95',3 miles eastofDialville. Aquifer: Queen City Sand. History: The Cherokee Indianshada here and raised orchardsofpeaches and plums. Remnantsoftheir advancedpotterycan stillbefound. Formanyyearsthesprings were a resortforinvalids afflicted with jaundiceandotherdiseases. Discharge: July 12,1936-5gpm; flowingin1971.Reference: Deussen, 1914.


ClayCounty Buffalo Springs (L2). Latitude33',longitude 98', at Buffalo Springs. Aquifer: Cisco Group limestones and sandstones. History: Moscoso may have stopped hereinhis 1542 expedition. The springs were a watering placeforbuffalo huntersasearlyas1849.In1857 theU.S.Cavalry camped here, finding"plentyof waterinholes and fine grazing." An Army post was established herein1867butwas soon abandoned because of a lack of water. The springs were also ontheCalifornia Trail. Reference: Henderson, 1958.CollingsworthCountyElmCreek Springs (E6). The springs form Elm Creek base flow. Latitude35',longitude100',8 miles southeast of Shamrock. Aquifer: Blaine Formation (siltstone and gypsum). dipping northwest. The springs rise through alluvial sands. History: Indian artifacts have been foundatthe springs. Discharge(ft3Isbywater years): O'Hair Springs (H4). Several springs. Latitude34',longitude 100', 3 miles south of Quail. Aquifer: Whitehorse Sandstone, dipping northwest. Discharge: October 20,1938-0.02ft3Is;January 24,1967-1.3ft:l/s; June24,1971-0.12 fe/s. The flowisabsorbed from the channel within one mile during summer. Roscoe Springs (H5). Latitude34',longitude 100', 8 miles westofWellington. Aquifer: Whitehorse Sandstone, dipping northwest, and alluvium. History: A swampthatformerly existed here has been channelized and drained. Discharge: October 1,1938-3gpm; March 26, 1968-1.7ft3/s;June 24,1971-0.10ft3Is.Wellspump water from alluvium nearbyforirrigation. The spring flowisabsorbedbythe alluvium one mile downstream. Sand Creek Springs (H6). Several springs, forming Sand Creek. Latitude34',longitude 100', 8 miles eastofWellington. Aquifer: Whitehorse Sandstone, with much gypsum, dipping southeast (Figure 12). Discharge: October 5, January 12,1967-1.4ft3Is;June 24,1971-0.08 ft3Is.ComalCountySpring Branch Springs (LL21). Two springs. Latitude29',longitude98',3 miles northwestofSpring Branch. The springs supply watertothe Spring Branchcommunityand school. Aquifer: Glen Rose and Cow Creek Limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge (ft3Is):DISCHARGE(ft3/s1DISCHARGE(ft3/s10.51.01.4111945195119621955DATEMarchMarchOctoberJanuary3.'19492.819623.119502.419633.119512.719642.319521.919652.119531.619662.119541.419672.119551.719682.219561.219691.819571.619702.219581.419710.9119591.419722.2November19361.8August19705.5Wolf Creek Springs (E7). Numerous springs, forming Wolf Creek. Latitude35',longitude 100', 5 miles northeastofLutie. Aquifer: Blaine Formation (siltstone and gypsum), a dipping northwest. History: The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge: September 9,1938-1.0ft3Is;May1,1967-1.7 fe Is;June24,1971-2.5ft3Is.Honey Creek Spring (LL22). Latitude 29', longitude98',3 miles north of Honey Creek. Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestoneof the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The spring issues from a cavern. Discharge: .July 20,1944-2.8ft3Is;August 18,1970-0.8ft3/S .Wischkaemper Springs (H3). Three springs. Latitude34',longitude100',6miles northeastofQuail. Aquifer: Alluvium. Discharge:May18,1967-1.7ft3Is; June 24,1971-0.25ft3Is.Rebecca Springs (LL23). Latitude 29', longitude98',4 miles northeast of Spring Branch. -37-


The Springs supplywatertoCypress Lake.Aquifer:Travis PeakFormationoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue from cavitiesintheCowCreek Limestone. Discharge:October1925-0.4ft3/s;October1943-3.9ft3/s;August1970-1.1ft3/s.Wolle Springs (LL24). Five springs.Latitude29',longitude98',5 milesnortheastofWesson. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Water wasmuddyduring upriver rises, leadingtothebeliefthatthesprings were fed bytheGuadalupe Riverupstream.History:Inundatedby Canyon Reservoirin1964. Discharge:1944-15ft3/s;January26,1955-22ft3/s.Crane'sMillSprings (LL25).Twosprings.Latitude29',longitude98',6 miles westofSattler. Aquifer: Lower Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity(Plateau) aquifer.Thesprings flowfromcrevices alongtheTomCreek Fault. History:InundatedbyCanyonReservoirin1964. Discharge:September18,1944-14ft3/s;January27,1955-8.1ft3/s;March 7,1962-9.1 fe Is.Bear Springs (LL26).Latitude29',longitude98',5 milesnortheastofValley View. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer.Thesprings issuethroughtheBear Creek Fault. Discharge: November 5,1936-2gpm;September29,1943-0.4ft3/s;March 28,1945-5ft3/s;September29,1945-0.4ft3Is.Hueco Springs (LL28).Twosprings.Latitude29',longitude98',4 milesnorthofNew Braunfels. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestonesoftheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone)aquifer. Artesian springs rise fromtwoopeningsingravel. History:Thewaterwas long usedtorun a mill.In1950a smallwaterpowerplantwas still inoperation,buthasnowbeenabandoned(Figure 3). Discharge(ft3/sbywateryears):WATERDIS WATER DISYEARSCHAFlGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s) (it.1 Is)195881196672195963196723196050196882196152196950196213197048196321197120196417197272196550Maximum recorded discharge was 131ft3/sin1968.Temperature, tu rbidity,anddischargeallfluctuatewith rainfall, indicatingthattherecharge areaissmall and nearby. Comal Springs (LL29).Aboutsix springs, formingtheComal River. Latitude29',longitude98',inLanda Park, New Braunfels. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestonesoftheEdwards (BalconesFaultZone) aquifer. The springs issuethroughtheComal Springs Fault. The springtemperatureof74 Findicatesthattheartesianwatercircu lateatleast500feetbelowthesurface.Thewaterisneverturbidandisbelievedtocome from a large recharge area (Figure 28). History:TheTehuacanaIndiansformerlylived here,asevidenced bythemanyartifacts left inthevicinity.In1764theFrenchexplorerSt. Denis visitedthesprings. Theywerelater astoponEICaminoReal.In1845agroupofGerman immigrantsunderPrince Carl Solms-Braunfelssettledhere, callingthesprings "Las Fontanas."Theypurchasedthe1,300acressurroundingthesprings for$1,111.Many millsandpowerplantshave usedthewaterpowerofthesprings.Inthe1870'sNew Braunfels installed awatersystem, sothatit wasnolonger necessarytocarrythewaterfromthesprings. Discharge (ft3/s bywateryears):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(1t3 /5)(1t3 /5)(ft3/5)(ft3 /5)1924371949461882375190437519280195027189632819053901929019510.51897390190638619371.5195210189830519102991944601953431899310191126719455819542.5190036019154071946541955019013601921320194757195601902325192437019487.019574319034121925320-38-


-WATER015-WATER015-WATER015-WATER015-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(tt3/s1(ft3/s1(ft3/s1192630019453601968326197131319273201946359196929519723581928288194735219703101929290194827719302731949286Maximum recorded discharge was 534 fe /s on1950261October 16, 1973. These are the largest springsinTexas1931320andinthesouthwestHowever, they failed completely19323211955104for a timein1956 after 7 years of drought. References:1933311195651Tiling, 1913 and Taylor, 1904.19343151957137Bishop Spring (LL37). Also called Gumtree,Big,19353261958299or Flugrath Spring. Latitude 29', longitude 98 18',193635919593217 miles eastofSpring Branch. Aquifer: Large cavitiesinthe lower Glen Rose Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity19373471960318(Plateau) aquifer. History: Inundated by Canyon79383431961352Reservoirin H164. Discharge (ft3/s):19393011962290015015-19402791963224DATECHARGEDATECHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/s )19413431964189August19247.4August19510.119423491965262January19:283.9October19510.319433411966281February 19:29 2.9September19520.819443461967189November19:163.2March19629.1January 19:;18 3.9Figure28.-Someof the Comal Springs (CourtesyofU.S. DepartmentofAgriculture, Soil Conservation Service) -39-


Crockett CountyliveOak Spring (DD2). FormsLiveOak Creek. Latitude30"45',longitude101',10 milesnortheastof Sheffield. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones oftheEdwards-Trinity (plateau) aquifer. History: Mendoza probably stopped herein1683. The spring furnished water forFortLancaster inthe1880's.Discharge:July4,1917-5.0ft3/s;January 1962-"flows"; February 6,1968-0.Cedar Springs (DD4). Several springs. Latitude30',longitude 101',15milessoutheastofSheffield. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springs were settledin1882 byW.P.Hoover. They have been used for irrigation. Discharge: March 6,1963-"flows";February 6,1968-18 fels (including severalothernearby springs).Crosby CountyCouch Springs (K2). Latitude33',longitude 101', 8 miles eastofCrosbyton. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation. History:In.1874 General Mackenziestoppedhere while pursuing Indians. Discharge: November 7,1938-1.9ft3Is.Reference: Spikes and Ellis, 1952.Culberson CountyBone Springs (U3). Latitude31 53', longitude 104 53', 5 miles west of Pine Springs. Aquifer:Brushy.Canyon Formation. The springs issueatthecontactwiththeunderlying Bone Spring Limestone. History: The springs were the basis for a Comanche Indiancampground.References: King,1948and Williams, 1969. Pine and Smith Springs (U4). Latitude31',longitude104',atPine Springs. Aquifer: Cherry Canyon Formation. The springs issue through faults. History: The springs werethebasis for a stage stand on the Butterfield OverlandMailroutein1857. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:1971-68gpm. References: King, 1948; Williams, 1969; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Independence Spring (U5). Latitude31',longitude 104', 6 miles east of Pine Springs. Aquifer: Delaware Mountain Group sandstones. The spring issues through a fault and gravel alluvium. History: This spring was a ComancheIndian campground.In1857 a stage standontheButterfield OverlandMailroute was -40-established here. Discharge.1971-14gpm. References: King, 1948 and Williams, 1969. Delaware Springs (U6). Latitude31',longitude104',15 miles east of Pine Springs. Aquifer: Bell Canyon Formation. History: The springs were usedbythe U.S. Cavalryintheearly 1800's.In1857theywere the basis for establishing a stagestopon the Butterfield OverlandMailroute. References: King, 1948,andWilliams, 1969. Rattlesnake Spring (U8). Near latitude3121" longitude104',22 miles north of Van Horn. Aquifer: Hueco Limestone. The spring issues through a fault. History:In1880 there was a battle between U.S. Cavalry troops andApache Indians when Apache Chief Victorio and his band triedtoget wateratthis spring. Reference: Utley, 1960.Dallam CountyBuffalo Springs(A 1). Several sl3rings. Latitude36',longitude102',16 miles northeastofTexline. Aquifer: Purgatoire Formation, dipping east atabout20feet per mile. History: Originally a watering place for buffalo herds, and later wild mustangs. It was an Indian settlement,asevidenced by numerous arrow and spear headsfoundnearby. Coronado may havedrunkfrom these springsin1542.In1878cattleranching began, andin1888 the XIT Ranch first division headquarters was established here. The stage line from Santa FetoKansas City stopped here. Presentlythesprings feed several large pools surrounded bycottonwoodtrees. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: August7,1924-1.2ft3Is;February 23,1937-0.9ft3Is;July 26,1957-1.2 fe Is;June22,1971-0.58ft3Is. In recent years municipalandirrigation pumpingtothe west have reducedthedischarge. References: Haley,1929;and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 197'1.DallasCountyBrowder Springs {R7). Latitude32',longitude96',inCity Park in Dallas. Aquifer: Austin Chalk and terrace alluvium. Hiistory: These springs were Dallas' principal sourceofwaterbefore wells were drilled. A historical markerislocated here.Discharge: Duringthedrought of 1909-1910, the springs supplied 1.6ft3/SofwatertoDallas.Noflow was reportedin1943. Reference: Texas Historiical Survey Committee, 1971.


Figure29.-FishPond and Pump HouseatBitter Creek SpringsDimmitCountyCarrizo Springs (QQ1). Several springs. Latitude28',longitude 99', 3 miles southwest of Carrizo Springs. Aquifer: Carrizo Sandofthe Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History: The Spanish explorer Ponce de Leonisbelievedtohave stopped herein1689. After 1697 the springs were a stop onEICamino Real.In1865four hundred immigrants under CaptainLeviEnglish settled here. Discharge:1892-0.26ft3/s. The springs ceased flowingin1929because of heavy well pumping and declineofground-water levelsinthe area. Reference: Peale, 1894.DonleyCountyBitter Creek Springs (H2l. Three springs. Latitude34',longitude100',7miles southofLelia Lake. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation. The main spring emergesinthe bottomofa fish pond and swimming pool (Figure 29). History: Early explorers described this areaas"blackwith buffalo." The springs are surrounded by a large groveofcottonwoods. Discharge: March5,1968-1.7 ft 3 /s; June 23,1971-0.08ft3 /s. Reference: Haley, 1929. 41 EastlandCountyShinoak Springs(Ql).Latitude 32 12', longitude 98 42', 2 miles southwest of Gorman. Aquifer:BasalTrinity Group Sands. History: The town of Old Shinoak Springswaslaidoutaround these springs. Water was hauled from thElm for home and livestock use. The townwasdoomed when the railroad bypassed itin1880. A lake was builtin1911tocatch the spring flow. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:Noflow was recordedin1937. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.EdwardsCountyHackberry Springs(DD 17). Many springs. Latitude30',longitude100',8miles east of Rocksprings. Aquifer: Edwards and associated I imestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge:1939-2.5ft 3 Is; October7,1954-5.5ft3/S .BigPaint Springs (EE8). Latitude 30 16', longitude99',4 miles south of Telegraph. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The water has been used for irrigation. The springs supplied four


fishpondsin1938. Discharge; April 22,1939-22ft3 Is;September 14,1955-18ft3/s;March 26,1962-31 ft:J Is. Seven Hundred Springs (EE9). Many springs. Latitude30',longitude99',4 milessouthofTelegraph. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Mendoza probably stopped herein1683. The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge(ft3Isby water years);WATER015-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3Is)(ft3lsI193914196516195211196615195611196717195928196815196125196915196222197020196316197118196416197221Tanner Springs (EE10). Latitude30',longitude99',5 miles southofTelegraph. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: A mill formerly used the springwaterfor power. The water has also been used for irrigation. Discharge; February 11,1925-8.9ft3Is;February 22,1939-9.3 fe Is.Kickapoo Springs(KK15).Atleast three springs. Latitude29',longitude100',21milessouthwestofRocksprings. Aquifer; Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs probably issue through a fault. History: The explorer Bosquemayhavestoppedherein1675.In1898Hilland Vaughn wrote,"Enormoussprings break forth, creating a wide, running streamofclearwaterthatcontinues for four miles, and then disappearsintosink holes," Discharge (ft3Isbywateryears):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEIft3/s)(ft3lsI19312.019542.519393.519551.819521.519621.819531.3Reference:Hilland Vaughn, 1898. -42-Paint Bluff Spring,::least 14 opening.;. Latitude 29'. longitude we 10Pli lesnorthwestofBarksdale. Aquife:: =C1wanJSalld associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trlrl icY (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through faults. Discharge.January23,1939-2.2 fe Is. Roberts Springs (KK18;. Atleast three springs. Latitude29',longitude100',10 miles northwest of Barksdale. Aquifer; Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through faults. History: The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge:January20,1939-3.3ft3Is;October15,1953-2.2ft3Is.Pulliam Springs (KK19). At least 10 springs. Latitude29',longitude100',8 milesnorthwestofVance. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-TrinitY (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through a fautt. History: The springs have been usedforirrigation. Discharge: January 18,1939-2.5ft3Is;October 15,1953--2.0ft3/s; February1956-1.0 fe Is.McCurdy Springs (KK20). Latitude29',longitude100',6 milesnorthofVance. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springs have been usedforirrigation. Discharge: March 10,1924-11ft3/s;1939-3.7ft3/s;August 16,1955-14ft3Is(after heavy rains).EllisCountyHawkins Spring (R5). Latitude32',longitude96',1/2mile eastofMidlothian. Aquifer; Austin Chalk. History: The Peters Colony, including William Hawkins, settled herein1848. Duringthatsummer log cabins were built from logs hauled from DallasCountycedarbrakes. The spring suppliedallwaterforthecolony. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: None reportedin1967. Reference: Texas Historical SurveyCommittee,1971.FayetteCountyMount Maria Spring (MM4). Latitude29',longitude96',2 miles southofLaGrange. Aquifer: Oakville SandoftheGulf Coast aquifer. History: Described by Bonnell (1840)asa spring ontopofMount Mariawitha waterfall and much limestone spar (travertine). The spring was ontheold Spanish Bahia Road from NacogdochestoCorpus Christi. Discharge:Noflow reportedin19137.Reference: Bonnell, 1840.


GalvestonCountySmithSprings (NN1). Three springs. Latitude29',longitude94',onthenorthwest side ofHighIsland. Aquifer: Gulf Coast aquifer. History: The Karankawa Indians had acampgroundatthese springs. Discharge:In1952theflowhadbeen reducedto"seepageinfinesand."Reference: Deussen, 1914.GillespieCountyLange Springs (EE18).Atleast two springs. Latitude30',longitude99',2 miles northofDoss.Aquifer: Hensell Sandofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Pictographsina nearby cave indicatethattheIndians used these springs long before the coming of white men. Originally the springs were describedas"deep,cold springs gushing from beneath shelving rock."In1849Lange's corn, feed,andsaw mill was built here. The springs have also been used for irrigation. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:1937-0.67ft3/S.References: Fredericksburg ChamberofCommerce, 1946, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Fall Springs (EE30). Latitude30',longitude99',4 miles northofCamp Scenic. Aquifer: Comanche Peak Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Indians oftheArchaic Period (400to3000years ago) leftburntrock middens, projectile points,andstoneaxesatthese springs. Discharge: March1965-2.2ft3/s. Reference: Briggs, 1971. Guenther Spring (EE33). Near latitude3016', longitude98',about4 miles westofFredericksburg. Aquifer: Hensell Sand oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History:In1851theGuenther corn, feed, and saw mill was established, making use ofthespring water power. Discharge: None reportedin1937. Reference: Fredericksburg ChamberofCommerce, 1946.GrimesCountyKellum Springs (FF15). Latitude30',longitude96',5 milesnortheastofCarlos. Aquifer: Jackson Sand. History:Thesprings were the basis for a health and pleasure resortinthe1850's. Discharge: December 11,1942-41gpm;1971-25gpm. Piedmont Springs (FF16). Eight springs originally, including White Sulphur, Middle,andBlack Sulphur Springs. Latitude30',longitude96',atPiedmont. Aquifer: Jackson Sand. History: The springs were astop-43-ontheold Bahia Road.Inthe 1850's threeofthese springs, varyingintaste from mildtostrong, were the basis for a famous health resort. They supplied a large hotel and bath house, which were used bytheConfederate Army duringtheCivilWar.A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: Decem ber 11,1942-36gpm; November 9,1970-13gpm. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Gibbons Spring(GG1). Latitude30',longitude95',3 miles northwest of Roans Prairie. Aquifer: Jackson Sand. History: The Coushatta Indianshada village here with well-constructed houses and gardens. Laterthespring was a stagestopon the old Spanish Bahia Road.Inthe 1850's a pleasure resort grew uparoundit. Discharge: None reportedin1971.Guadalupe CountyEwing or Geronimo Springs (MM2). Latitude29',longitude97',1 milesoutheastofGeronimo. Aquifer: The springs flow from fissuresinlimestone, probably the Willis Point Formation. History: The Tehuacana Indians had a villageatthese springs until they were drivenoutbythewhite men in 1835. The springs were a favoritespotfor barbecues and picnicsinthe1850's. Discharge: August 20,1926-0.44 fe Is; June 6,1936-0.67ft3/s; June 23,1964-0.58ft3/S .Reference: Moellering, 1938. Walnut Springs (MM3). They include Elm Spring. Latitude29',longitude97',in Seguin. Aquifer: Leona Formation" History: Tonkawa and Hueco Indians livedatthese springs.Inprehistoric times they were also a favoritehauntofbuffaloes, antelopes, bears,mountainlions, and jaguars.In1834 the town of Walnut Springs was laidoutaround the springsandusedthewater. Laterthetown was renamed Seguin. Discharge: June 15,1936-"flows";1966-Noreported flow. Reference: Moellering, 1938.Harrison CountyHynson, Marshall, Noonday Camp,andIron Springs. Over100springs. Latitude32',longitude94',4 milesnorthofHallsville. Aquifer: Queen City Sand. History: The French explorerLaSalle probably stopped herein1686. The springs became very popularasa health resortabout1851. DuringtheCivilWar,water fromthesprings was usedina leather-tanning factory. Discharge:In1943 the flow was describedas"seeps."In1964theywere reportedtobe flowing. References: Deussen, 1914, and Hackney, 1964.


Figure30.-SiteoftheOriginal XIT Spring, Now DryCoushattaSpring (S9). Probably near latitude32',longitude94',2 miles south of Latex. Aquifer: Wilcox SandoftheCarrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History:In1841, apartymappingtheboundary betweentheRepublic of Texas andtheUnitedStates"encampedata springofmost delicious water on an old Caddo Indian trail leading from Caddo PrairietotheCoushatta Village." Discharge:Noflow was reportedin1943or 1966. Reference: Mugno, 1971.HartleyCountyXIT Springs(02).Latitude35',longitude102',9 milessouthwestof Hartley,inacanyonon Rita Blanca Creek. Aquifer: OgallalaFormation.Historv:In1890, whentheFortWorth and Denver Railroad came through, this becamethegeneral headquartersofthe3 million acre XIT Ranch. A lake was fed by this spring, and40acresofalfalfa, apples, peaches, plums, pears,andgrapes were irrigated. The ruinsoftheold headquarters still stand. Discharge: February1938-14gpm;June22,1971-nospring flow,but5 gpm from a flowing well. Many wells were drilledinthevicinity, causing the springtodry up (Figure 30). Reference: Taylor, 1902. -44-HaysCountyDripping Springs (EE42). Latitude30',longitude98',in Dripping Springs. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History:In1849thesprings powered acottongin.Formany yearstheyprovided waterforthetownand Dripping Springs Academy.Inrecent years a well has been drilled because oftheunreliability ofthesprings. Discharge:1938-Nonereported;November 20,1950-"flows";October15,1971-5gpm. Reference: Dobie, 1948.Jacob'sWell(EE43). Source of Cypress Creek. Latitude30',longitude98',3 milesnorthofWimberly. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer, faulted against impermeable beds.Thespring issues through a vertical shaftinthefault,10feetindiameter and150feetdeep. Discharge: August 5,1924-6.1ft3Is;October28,1937-6.0 ft"' Is;December 6,1937-2.9 ftJ Is;January 26,1955-2.4ft3Is;April 4,1962-4.4ft3Is;July 10,1974-3.6ft3Is. BartonCreek Springs (EE47). Many springs and seeps. Latitude 30 15', longitude98',4 milesnorthof Dripping Springs. Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestone oftheEdwarclsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge:


1938-Nonereported;July 6,1970-2.9ft3/S ;October 1,1970-0.31ft3/S .WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)These arethesecond largest springsinTexas. Maximum recorded discharge was300ft3/s on November 5, 1973. References: Bonnell, 1840;Hilland Vaughn, 1898; Taylor, 1904; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.SanMarcos Springs (MM1). Five large fissures and many small openings. Latitude29',longitude97',2milesnortheastofSan Marcos. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestones oftheEdwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer,faultedagainsttheTaylor Marl. The springs issuethroughtheSan Marcos Springs Fault. Sincethechemicalcontentvaries much more thanthatof Comal Springs,therecharge areaisbelievedtobe smaller, probably withinthe Blanco River drainage area. History: WhentheSpanish explorers discovered these springs in 1743,theyestimatedthatthere were200springs. From1755to1756 a mission was located here. The springs vvere animportantstoponEICamino Real from NacogdochestoMexico.In1840Bonnell described them as"themostpleasantanddelightful situation in the Republic." Power-plants, gins, corn mills,andanice factory usedthewaterpower. A historical markerislocated here.Thesprings were astopontheChisholm Cattle Trail from1867to1895.Inrecent yearsanamusementparkhas developedaroundthem (Figure 5). Discharge(ft3/Sby water years):1949195019511952 195319541955 1956 195719581959 1960130110110 100 125 14095701172151711781961196219631964 1965196619671968196919701971197220913412492156164 103 194 162190138 158WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s)1895150192818018968919291801897186193012018985119311901900150193214019031531933100190614519341201910951935135191528019361301916150193713519171081938130191897193990191912719401001920190194118019211701942140192222019431801923150194418019242201945210192516019461701926180194720019271301948110 45-HoodCountyThorporSulphurSprings (R1). Latitude32',longitude97',atThorp Spring. Aquifer: Comanche Peak Limestone of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: During theCivilWartheConfederate 20th Battalion was stationedatthespring.In1871 a health resort andcottongin openedtomake useofthespring water.In1873 Add-Ran College (TCU) began usingthewater. References: Ewell, 1895, and Paddock, 1911.HopkinsCountySulphurSprings(N1). Latitude33',longitude 95'. Aquifer: Wilcox Sandofthe Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History: This was a campgroundoftheCaddo Indians. When first settled, there were buffalo, bear, and wild mustangsindroves here. Wolves and pantherstooka heavy tolloflivestock.In1892 the springs were well known fortheirmineralcontent.Discharge: None reportedin1943. Fleference: Peale, 1894.HoustonCountyElkhart Creek Springs(Zll.The flow from these springs forms Elkhart Creek. Latitude31',longitude


IrionCountyCrowSpringorOjo del Cuervo (U2).Latitude32',longitude105;05',intheSaltBasin 9 milesnortheastofDellCity. l\quifer: Alluvium. History: Wagon trainsstoppedhere forwaterin1846.In1857itbecame astopontheButterfield OverlandMailroute. Discharge:1949-5gpm.Reference: Williams, 1969.4.513DiSCHARGE(ft3Is)19341940 IS C f irrigatioll ditches here ,:do'els arrived. The springst heading west in1850.1 Be'3; Taylor,1902;and8.012HutI)"19251918 VV'lellbecamec'qou 01 l"IIVJWdliams,lD69. Eagle SpringorOjo del Aguila(BB1).Latitude30',longitude105',5 miles westofHotWells. Aquifer: Yuccaconglomerate,sandstones,andlimestones.Thespring issuesthroughtheEagleSpringFault. History: BecausetheApache Indiansaswell asthewhite men relied on this springforwater, several skirmishestookplace here.TheOld Spanish Trail from SanAntoniotoEIPaso passed here. From1854to1882thespring wasthesiteofa stage stand. A historical markerislocated here. References: Underwood,1963,andTexas Historical SurveyCommittee,1971. Apache Spring (U71. Nearlatitude31',longitude104',attheheadofApacheCanyon.Aquifer: Bone Spring Limestone. The spring issues through a fau It. History: This spring wasthesceneofthelast Indian fightinTexas.In1881 a bandofApaches was annihilated here.Thespring wasreportedtohave run red withtheirblood. Reference: Utley, 1960. Seven, Spring Creek, Headwater,orGoodSprings (W2). Several sprin!ls. Latitude31',longitude100',3 mitessouthofMertzon. AqUifer:Edwardsandassociated limestonesoftheEdwardsTrinity(Plateau) aqu ifer. Springs issuefromjoints inthelimestone (Figure 16). History:Thesprings were used by Meserve man9,000years agoandlater byTonkawaIndians,wholeftseveralbedrockmortars, usedforgrindingcornandnuts, inthelimestone,andmanyspearpoints. The SpanishexplorerMendoza passed here in 1683.Thesprings were used bytheU.S. Cavalryinthelate 1840's. This was the last freshwaterspring onthisroutewestwardbeforeencounteringthegypseouswateroftheplains. Thewaterispresentlyusedforirrigation. Discharge (fe /sby years):WATERDIS-WATERYEARSCHARGEYEARS(ft3Is)CaneyCreek Springs (Z3). Flow from these springs forms Caney Creek. Latitude31',longitude95',4 milessouthofGrapeland. Aquifer:SpartaSand. History: The springs were onEICaminoReal. Discharge:September16,1965-1.7ft3/s.95',2 milessouthwestofSalmon.Aquifer:SpartaSand. Discharge:September15,1965-3.4ft3/s. BoilingSpring(Z4).Latitude31',longitude95',6mileseastofGrapeland. Aquifer:SpartaSand. History: The Tejas villageoftheNabedache Indians was located here. A Spanish mission was establishedatthespring in 1690,andit became astoponEICaminoReal. The spring lIVas used medicinallyformanyyears. Discharge:1963-5gpm. Reference: Brune, 1970.HowardCountyHudspethCountyHays Branch Springs (Z2). Flow fromthese springs forms Hays Branch. Latitude31',longitude95',5 milessouthwestofGrapeland. Aquifer:SpartaSand. History: A Kickapoo Indian village was formerly locatedatthese spr:ngs. They were astoponEICaminoReal. Discharge:September16,1965-1.8ft3/s.AlamoSpringsorOjos delAlamo(U1). Latitude31',longitude105',17milesnorthofFortHancock. Aquifer: Finlay Limestone (equivalentofEdwards Limestone). History:ThePuebloIndians wereBigSpring(P4). Originally seven springs. Latitude32',longitude101',2 milessouthofBigSpring. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquiferina subsidence area. History: The spring was a favoritecampgroundforIndians.TheSpanishexplorerCastilloisbelievedtohavestoppedhere in 1650. WhenotherSpaniards arrived in1768,Comancheand Pawnee Indians were fighting for possessionofthespring. CaptainR.B.Marcyin1849described itasa"finespring flowing from deep chasms inthelimestone rockintoanimmense reservoirofsome50feetindepth."The spring was used bytheTexasandPacific Railroad from 1881to1915. It wassoonnecessarytodrill wellstosupplementthespring flow.Asa resultthespring essentially driedupin1925(Figure31).In1967well water waspipedtothespringinanefforttorestoretherecreational valueofthearea. A historicalmarkerislocated here. Discharge:1891-0.15 fe Is;1925-0;1937-"weakseep";1971-0.References: Fan1in, 1968, and Texas Historical SurveyCommittee,1971. -46-


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE (ft3/sl (ft3/S )19565.319646.119587.419656.019598.519665.719609.719695.719619.019707.919629.419721219637.8Several small springs upstream have been driedupbypumping from wells. Dove Creek Springs (W3). Latitude 31011',longitude100044',8 milessoutheastofMertzon. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: They were originally used by the Tonkawa Indians.In1865a force of370militiamen attacked 1 ADO peaceful Kickapoos here and were defeated. A bedrockmortarused for grinding corn and acornsisstill present. The springs are presently usedforirrigation (Figure32).A historical markerislocated here. Discharge(ft3/Sby water years): WATER DIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/s1 lEI18 4.219655.519251319667.619404.519675.519441719685.419597.819695.1 1960 1219704.9 1961 9.019719.819621119721319637.919731219646.0Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.JeffDavisCountyEIMuertoorDead Man's Hole(882).Near latitude 30"32', longitude 104020', 5 miles northeast of Quebec Siding. Aquifer: Tertiary lava, ash, tuff, and agglomerate. History: This spring was a stop on the Old Figure31.-SiteofFormerBigSpring -47-


Figure32.-DoveCreek Springs Spanish Trail from SanAntoniotoEIPaso. Later it wasthesiteofa stage stand,theruinsofwhich still exist. Itissaidthat29 bars of stolen gold were buried here in 1879. Discharge:1963-"stillflows enoughtowatercattle". Reference: Scobee, 1963. Barrel Springs(883).Latitude30',longitude104',8 milesnortheastof Ryan Siding. Aquifer: Barrel Springs lava, tuff, and agglomerate. History: The springs were a waterstopon the Old Spanish Trail from SanAntoniotoEIPaso. After 1851theywere on a regular stagecoach route. Discharge:1963-"slightlydamp". Reference: Scobee, 1963.PhantomlakeSpring (CC5). Latitude30',longitude103',inMadera Canyon, 5 miles westofToyahvale. Aquifer: Comanchean limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Artesian springwaterissues fromthebase of a cliff, along a fault (Figure 20). Rainfall causes a large increase in flow and suspended sediment, and a large decreaseindissolved solids and temperature.Forexample, on April 28, 1971, with a flowof5.7 cfs,theconcentrationofdissolved solids was2,250milligramsperliter. On October7,1932, following a rain, a flowof82cfs and dissolved-solidsconcentrationof 144mgllwere found. These relationships indicatethatrechargeisfrom a relatively small, nearby area. History: The Spanish explorer Espejo-48 probably stopped here in 1582. The spring was usedtopower acottongininearlysettlementdays. It has been used for irrigation since 1853. Discharge (ft3Isbywateryears):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3Is!(ft3Is)1900461951151904461952141932161953131933231954131934 16 1955131941171956131942171957111943 14 1958111944 14 1959131945 HI 1960111946 16 1961111947 15'1 19629.819481419638.919491419648.619501519657.5


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/sl19667.719698.019677.319706.119681719715.7AsshowninFigure 21, the spring appearstobegraduallY failing. References: Taylor, 1904, and Scobee, 1963. Barrila or Jug Spring (CC6). Latitude30',longitude 103', closetothe corner of Reeves, Pecos, and Jeff Davis Counties. Aquifer: Tertiary lava, tuff, ash, and agglomerate. History: This spring was a stop ontheOld Spanish Trail fromEIPasotoSan Antonio. Later it became a stagecoach station.In1850 it was attacked by Apaches and 14 mules were stolen. The stone ruinsofthe station can stillbeseen. Discharge:1877-"smallbutnever failing." References: Utley, 1960, and Scobee, 1963.FortDavis Spring (CC7). Latitude30',longitude 103', 1 mile northofthe townofFortDavis.Aquifer: Alluvium. History: The well-known Painted Comanche Camp wasatthis spring. The Indians made paintings on many trees here. The Spanish explorer Espejo probably stopped herein1582. The Old Spanish Trail from SanAntoniotoEIPaso used itasa water stop. From 1856to1875FortDavishauled water from Limpia Creek, 2 miles north. From 1875to1883 the Fort Davis Spring was used for drinking water and irrigationofa gardenatthe fort,butcaused much dysentery amongthetroops, probably because the spring was pollutedbythefortand stock upstream. After 1883 water was pumped from Limpia Creektothe fort. Reference: Utley, 1960. Templeton Springs (CC8). Two springs. Latitude 30', longitude 103', 10 miles southeastofFortDavis.Aquifer: Duff Tuff. History: The springs were usedin1902toirrigate fruit trees, alfalfa, and grass. Discharge: March 2,1955-0.33ft3/s.Reference: Taylor, 1902. Leoncita Springs (CC17). Latitude30',longitude103',9 miles northofAlpine. Aquifer: Sheep Canyon and Cottonwood Springs Basalts. History: Juan Dominguez de Mendoza may have campedatthese springsin1684. They were the basisfora stage standonthe San AntoniotoEIPaso route through Musquiz Canyon. An Army camel train camped herein1859.Discharge:April12,1930-0.11ft3/s;February 21,1955-reportedtobe flowing. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.JohnsonCountyCleburne Spring (R6). Latitude32',longitude97',at304West HendersonStreetinCleburne. Aquifer: Washita Group limestones. History:Thisbrick-lined spring was the water supply for early Cleburne and Confederate Camp Henderson. At a nickel a bucket, boys carried watertothe merchants. This was a stopping place on the Chisholm Cattle Trail. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: The pool was often dipped dry,butthe spring always refilled it. Clebu rne's first city well tappeditssource and the spring dried up.In1969 no flow was reported. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.KendallCountyEdge Falls Springs (LL20). About four springs. Latitude 29 55', longitude 98', 4 miles southofKendalia. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: April 2,1940-1.3ft3ls ; September 8,1952-0.4 fe Is;March 3,1962-1.4ft3/s;November 20,1964-2.5ft3/s.KerrCountyEllebracht Springs (EE19). Two springs. Latitude3010', longitude99',2 miles eastofMountain Home. Aquifer: Comanche Peak Limestone oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Indiansofthe Archaic period (400to3,000years ago) left burnt-rock middens, projectile points, and stone axesatthese springs.DeVaca may have passed themin1534. Later they were on the Chihuahua Road from MexicotoIndianola. Discharge: March 16,1965-11ft3/s;March 31,1966-6.7ft3/s.They supply water for a fish hatchery. Refemnce: Briggs, 1971. Fish and Wildlife Springs (EE20). Sourceofthe North Fork Guadalupe River. Latitude30',longitude 99',10miles westofHunt. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: June 30,1938-16 fe Is;March 15,1965-14ft3/s;April 13,1967-0.33ft3/s.Reference: Bonnell, 1840. Bear Springs (EE21). Latitude30',longitude 99', 5 miles westofHunt. Aquifer: Comanche Peak LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 16,1965-3.0 fe Is;1969-nonereported. Honey Springs (EE22). About five springs. Latitude30',longitude99',3 miles northwestof-49-


Hurl1Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestoneofthe EdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 16,1965-1-6 ft3 Is;April 11,1967-0.62 fe Is.Mystic Springs (EE23). SourceofCypress Creek. Latitude30',longitude99',5 milessouthofHunt. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through cobbles and boulders. Discharge: March 16,1965-3.6ft3/S ;1969-nonereported. Tegener Springs (EE24).Twosprings. Latitude30',longitude9919', 4 milessouthofHunt. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 16,1965-1.4ft3/s;May4,1966-0.18ft3/s.Kelly Springs (EE25). Latitude30',longitude90',3 miles eastofHunt. Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestone oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 16,1965-2.0ft3/s;1969-nonereported. Colbath Springs (EE26). SourceofBear Creek. Latitude30',longitude 9913',5 miles westofKerrville. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Cabeza de Vaca probablystoppedherein1534. Laterthesprings were astopontheChihuahua Road. Discharge: March 24,1965-1.1ft3/s;December 2,1966-6gpm.Indian Springs (EE27). Latitude30',longitude99',8 miles westofKerrville. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 24,1965-1.9ft3/s;December 1,1966-0.20ft3/s.GoatSprings (EE28). Latitude30',longitude99',6 milesnorthwestofKerrville. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (plateau) aquifer. History:DeVaca possiblystoppedherein1534. Laterthesprings were a stop on the Chihuahua Road. Discharge: March 24,1965-1.7 fe Is.Henderson Springs (EE29). Latitude30',longitude 9915',2 mileseastofCamp Scenic. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: IndiansoftheArchaic period (400to3,000years ago) left burnt-rock middens, projectile points,andstone axesatthesprings. Cabeza de Vaca possiblystoppedherein1534. The springs were later a stop ontheChihuahua Road from MexicotoIndianola. -50-Discharge: March 16,1965-1.6ft3/s. Reference: Briggs, 1971. Reid Springs (EE31).Aboutfive springs, forming Town Creek. Latitude30',longitude99',7miles north of Kerrville. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 24,1965-2.4 fe Is;November 10,1966-0.50ft3/s.Cypress Springs(EE32). Latitude30',longitude99',9 miles eastofKerrville. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March15,1965-3.2ft3/s;June15,1966-2.2ft3/s.Lynx Haven Springs (LL15).Abouttwosprings. The source oftheSouthFork Guadalupe River. Latitude29',longitude99',atLynx Haven Lodge. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: June 30,1938-13ft3/s;March 15,1965-10ft3/s; July 12,1967-0.03ft3/s. Reference: Bonnell, 1840. Buffalo Creek Springs (LL 16). Latitude30',longitude99',6 miles southofHunt. Aquifer: Comanche Peak LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue 40feetabovethechannel bed. Discharge: March 16,1965-1.3ft3/s;1969-nonereported.KimbleCountylonaSprings (EE3). Many springs. Latitude 3042',longitude99',7 miles westofLondon. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: These springs werethesiteofa Lipan Apache Indian campground. When settledinthe1850'stheywere described as "sparkling springs with 50-pound catfish and beaver." Discharge: July 13,1966-1.3 fe Is.Reference: Fisher, 1937. Gentry Spring (EE4). Latitude30',longitude99',5 milesnorthwestofCleo. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Settled by Raleigh Gentryinthelate 1850's, whenitwas describedasa "lively spring." Discharge:September25,1965-0.28ft3/s.Itissaidtobe affected very little by local rainfall. Reference: Fisher, 1937.ScottSprings (EE5). Latitude30',longitude99',6 milessouthwestof London. Aquifer: Edwards


and associated limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: A battle with the Lipan Apache Indianstookplaceatthese springs. Discharge:1969-nonereported. Reference: Fisher, 1937. Coleman Springs (EE6). Two springs. Latitude30',longitude 99', 4 miles north of Telegraph. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History:DeVaca possibly drank from these springsin1534. Discharge: March 22,1966-1.9ft3/s. Flow varies with rainfall. Christmas Canyon Springs (EE7).Atleast four springs originally, including House Canyon Spring. Latitude30',longitude99',1 mile southofTelegraph. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: March 24,1966-16ft3/s.Headquarters Springs (EE11).Atleast two springs. Latitude30',longitude99',5 miles southeastofSegovia. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesoftheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: April 25,1966-1.5ft3/s. Rio Bonito Springs (EE12). At least three springs, including East, West, and Water Hole Springs. Latitude30',longitude99',8 miles southof Segovia. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. Discharge: April 21,1966-11ft3/s. The springs supply watertoa lake.KINNEYCOUNTYMud Springs (KK 11). Latitude 29', longitude100',8miles north of Standart. Aquifer: Georgetown LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The Spanish explorer Bosque probably stoppedatthese springsin1675. They have been used for irrigation. Discharge (ft3/s bywateryears):WATER DISWATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/sl(ft3/s119394.019667.019402.519675.419411.019684.51952019692.71953019701019621019715.0196514197224 51Pinto Springs (KK12). Latitude29',longitude 100', 7 miles north of Brackettville. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge (ft3/s by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDlS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s )(ft3/s119394.319663.719406.619672.019413.819682.519523.6196901953019702.419622.019712.119658.3197216LasMoras Springs (KK13). Latitude29',longitude 100',atBrackettville. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones of the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. The springs issue through a faultinthe Eagle Ford and overlying fonnations. They quickly reflect rainfallinthe area (Figure 33). History: The springs formed the site of a favorite campground for Comanche, Mescalero Apache, andotherIndians. They were a stop on the Old Spanish Trail fromEIPasotoSan Antonio,andlater also on the military road running north fromEaglePass.In1840 Colonel Tom Howard led aU.S.Cavalry unittosurprise and massacre the Comanche Indian village here. Startingin1852the springs were uSt!d asa water supply for Brackettville. They have been much used for irrigation, andatone time supplied the powertorun an ice manufacturing plant. Discharge (fe Is by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/s118962119402718996019412419005119422319021119432519042819442119051419451819061819461119101419473319128.419482119259.319492919285.819502719392719517.0


LampasasCountySwimming Pool Spring (X15). Latitude31',longitude9811', in Hancock Park, Lampasas. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestone. History: The spring was used by the Comanche Indiansasa campground, and later was a stage stop. It was known for its medicinal valueinthe1890's. A historical markerislocated here. The spring suppliestheswimming poolinHancock Park. Discharge (ft3/s bywateryears): by water years):WATEROIS-WATEROIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/sl(ft3/sl19316.119543.019392.219555.119403.519623.319413.0Reference. Manny. 1947.WATEROIS-WATEROIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s119529.519631119536.319645.71954251965301955221966211956241967201957301968251958351969719594919701719603119713.5196127197228196219References: Manny,1947andHilland Vaugh, 1898. Schwandner and Silver Lake Springs (KK14). Latitude29',longitude100',16 milesnorthwestof Laguna. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springs werethebasis foranIndian villageinprehistoric times,asevidenced by pictographs, stone tools, and projectile pointsfoundinnearby caves. Discharge (ft3/sWATEROIS-YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s )19001.6WATER018YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s )19021.319011.719061.4Figure33.-LasMoras Springs 52-


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s119101.319571.319241.719621.719310.219711.519421.1Hancock, Gold, Rock,andmany smaller springs (X22). Latitude31',longitude 98',inHancock Park, Lampasas. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestone. History: The first white settlers found Indians using the curative watersofthese springs. The town of Lampasas grewuparound them.In1882 they gained wide fameasa healthresortThe springs still supply watertothe city of Lampasas. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge (ft3/sby water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s)19008.719597.919019.319601319026.319611519066.719621119107.119631119246.719647.419316.719651219576.019717.3195812References: Peale, 1894, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.LimestoneCountyTehuacana Springs (Y3). Latitude31',longitude96',atTehuacana. Aquifer: Tehuacana Limestone. History:In1825Captain Coleman repulsed the Tehuacana Indiansatthese springs.In1858theybecame widely knownasthe Tehuacana Hills springs and parks. Reference:Williams, 1969. Springfield Spring (Y4). Latitude31',longitude 96', atFortParker. Aquifer: Kincaid sands and limestones. History: Explorersin1833 saw the large council house builtatthis spring by the Tehuacana Indians. Herein1836 Cynth ia Ann Parker was captu redbyComanche Indiansattheageof9.After 26 years with the Comanches she was recaptured. Reference: Williams, 1969.LlanoCountyCastell Spring (EE34). Latitude30',longitude 98',atCastell. Aquifer: Precambrian marble, gneiss, and schist. History:In1847 a bandofGerman settlers under the leadershipoftheCountofCastell laidoutthe townofCastell around this spring. Reference: Fry, 1943. Valley Spring (EE35). Latitude30',longitude 98',atValley Spring. Aquifer: Hickory Sandstone. History:In1854O.C.Phillips erected a gin, grist mill, and sawmillatthis "big spring." A historical markerislocated here. Fleferences: Fry, 1943, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.LubbockCountyBuffalo Springs(Kl).Six springs. Latitude33',longitude 101', 9 miles southeast of Lubbock. Aquifer: Comanchean limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (High Plains) aquifer. History: Coronado may have stopped herein1541 while search ing for the gold treasures oftheSeven Cities of Cibolo. Discharge (ft3/sbywater years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s )19370.319693.419450.0319703.3196216In1945 the springs supplied a swimming poolandbath house.MartinCountySodaSprings (P1). Latitude32',longitude 101', 5 miles south of Flower Grove. AqUifer: Ogallala Formation. History: These springs were on the old Comanche Indian trail from New MexicotoMexico. Discharge: May4,1936-dry.Heavy well pumping for irrigationinthearea probably dried up the springs. Sulphur Springs (P2). Latitude32',longitude 101', 8 miles northofLenorah. Aquifer: Comanc hean Limestoneofthe EdwardsTrinity(HighPlains) aquifer. History: These springs were on the old Comanche Indian trail from New MexicotoMexico. They were probably visited by Fray Juan de Salasin1632and Castilloin1650. SeveralU.S.Army -53-


expeditions stopped here later.In1891 the springs were describedas"several springs of pure fresh water, oneofthem slightly tinged with sulphur." Discharge:May4,1936-10gpm. Heavy well pumping for irrigation has greatly reduced the spring flow. Reference: Liles, 1953.MillSprings (EE16). Several springs. Latitude30',longitude 99',10miles southwest of Mason. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone. The springs probably issue through a fault. Discharge: December1939-nonereported; January 20,1962-2.0ft3/s. Mustang SpringorMustang Fountain (P3). Latitude32',longitude 101',atMustang Pond 8 miles west of Stanton. Aquifer: Comanchean limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (High Plains) aquifer. History: When Capt.R.B.Marcy stopped herein1849,hedescribed the good grazing, numerous wild mustangs, and thousandsofbuffalo and antelope. The spring was on the Comanche Indian trail and later the California trail. This was the last water on the California trail until Willow Springs (Winkler County, spring V3) 100 miles west.In1879 Thrall described itas"excellent stock water." A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: April 17,1936-"seep";1953-"dryfor many years," Heavywellpumpinginthe area undoubtedly was an important factorinthe failureofthis spring. References: Thrall, 1879; Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971; and Liles, 1953.MasonCountyAnderegg Spring (EE17). Three springs. Latitude30',longitude 99', 5 miles southof Hilda. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone. History:JohannAnderegg established a cheese factoryatthese springsin1850. It was also a stop on the old Chihuahua RoadtoMexico. Discharge:1940-30gpm. Reference: GillespieCountyHistorical Society, 1960.McCullochCountySoldiers' Water Hole (X18).latitude31',longitude 99', 6 miles east of Brady. Aquifer: Ellenburger and San Saba Limestones. History: This was an ancient Comanche Indian campground. Many U.S. Army units, including General RobertE.Lee's, used this spring. Early pioneers also camped here en routetothe West. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: None reportedin1961. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.MedinaCountyMcLennanCountyDiversion Dam Springs (LL 19). Latitude29',longitude98',just below Medina Diversion Dam, 6 miles northofRio Medina. AqUifer: Edwards and associated limestone of the Edwards-TrinitY (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue throughtheHaby Crossing Fault. Discharge(ft3/s by water years): Waco Springs (Y2). Latitude 31 34 longitude97',onMainStreetseveral blocks northeast of the squareinWaco. Another spring was located west of the Brazos RiveratFirst Street. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestoneofthe Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aqUifer. The springs apparently issued through a faultinthe Austin Chalk and through the overlying terrace materials. History: The old Hueco Indian village was located here.In1849 the town of Waco was laidoutaround the springs. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: 1964-none reported. References: Pool, 1964, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEIft3/s1Pluenneke Springs (EE 13). Several springs. Latitude30',longitude99',4 miles west of Streater. Aquifer: Ellenburger-San Saba Limestones. History: These springs were a stop on the old Chihuahua Road and later on the Western Cattle Trail. Discharge: February 16,1925-0.7 fe Is; November1939-20gpm reported; January 20,1962-2.0 fe is. Gamel Spring (EE14). Latitude30',longitude 99 14',inMason. Aquifer: Hickory Sandstone. The spring issued through a fault. History: The spring wasata favorite campgroundofthe Comanche Indians. Bedrock mortars for grinding corn. nuts, and mesquite beans have been found here.In1847 the German settler John Meusebachmetwith Indian chiefs here preparatorytohis important treaty with the Comanches (See Sloan Springs, San Saba County). The spring supplied watertoFortMasonin1851. Discharge:1940-14gpm;1971-0.Asrecentlyas1940 the spring supplied watertothe Mason swimming pool. Waterisnow pumpedtothe pool. Reference: Polk 1966. Kothmann Springs (EE15). Several springs. Latitude30',longitude99',7 miles southwestofMason. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone. The springs issue through a fault. Discharge: August 22,1918-7.9 fe Is; December1939-0.01ft3/s; January 20,1962-3.0ft3/s.192150192427192325192524-54-


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3/s)19262519532.91927251954192825195541929241956019302219573193123196036193225196229193329196326193431196425193518196520193934196618194891967181950111968231951319692019520The flow represents leakage from Medina Diversion Reservoir, andisrelatedtoreservoir stage.MenardCountyWilkinson Springs(EEl).Latitude30',longitude 99', forming Clear Creek, 6 miles west of Menard. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The old San Saba Mission was located near these springs from1756to1758. They were described thenas"clear, sparkling, and deep." Later they provided irrigation water for 2,000 acres. They were a stop ontheChihuahua Road from theportofIndianolatoMexico. Discharge: (ft3/s by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s 1(ft3/s119022519481519181219491319201819511019221619527.619331419558.219401819567.3194225-55-References: Taylor, 1904; and Goodnight, Dubbs, and Hart, 1909. Vaughn Spring (EE2). Near latitude 30', longitude99',source of Elm Creek, 10 miles southofMenard. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The Lipan Apaches left many mounds ofburntrockatthese springs, where they had baked sotol bulbs. William Vaughn,thefirst settler,in1886, irrigated20acres from the spring. Discharge:1965-nonereported. Reference: Pierce, 1946.MilamCountyIndian Springs (FF131. Several Springs. Latitude30',longitude96',3miles northeast of Cameron. AqUifer: Alluvium. History:In1716 Domingo Ramon found a villageof2,000 Mayeya Indiansatthese springs. Later they were used by the Tonkawa Indians. Many middens, burial grounds, spear points, and corn grinders have been found here. The springs were formerly usedtoirrigate truck crops. Discharge:1937-nonereported; June1971-0.10ft3/s. Reference: Taylor, 1902. Sharp Springs (FF20). Two openings. Latitude30',longitude 97', 1 mite northwestofSharp. Aquifer: Probabl'l' Wolfe City Sand. History: The springs were on the old Comanche Indian Trail from BanderatoEast Texas. They were well knowninearly days for their medicinal value. Discharge: March 19,1936-5gpm;1971-nonereported. Reference: Peale, 1894.MontagueCountyBarrel Springs(M1). Latitude 33', longitude97'.Aquifer: Wichita Sandstone. History: A Taovayas Indian village was located here. CaptainR.B.Marcy, exploring for the California Trailin1854, camped here.Hefoundthatpredecessors had sunktwobarrelsinthe springs, andthatthe water was "delightfully pure and clear." Later the springs were on the Chisholm Cattle Trail. Discharge:1857-TheU.S.Cavalry found the flow weak;1944-nonereported;1967-nonereported. Reference: Henderson, 1958.MotleyCountyRoaring Springs (K3). Latitude33',longitude 100', 4 miles southofRoaring Springs. Aquifer: Santa Rosa Sandstone and Ogallala Formation. History: This and other large springsinthe area were used for irrigationbythe Wichita Indians long beforethe


European settlars arrived. BedrockIe11ar;\J,te!by the Wichitas can still be seenin sandsto'le:"tthe springs.In1876a buffalo hunters' campwa, heated here. The springs were describedatth at tillie assupporting numerouscottonwoodand walnut trees, grape vines, currants, and plums. Presently the waterisusedina swimming pool and recreational area. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge(ft3/s by water years):WATER015-WATER015-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/s )19371.119571.219381.119581,419391.119591,319431.119601.119441.219611.419452.019621.519462.519631.419472.019641.419481.419651,219491.419661.019501.319670.919511.319681.219521.519691.319531.419701.119541.419711.319551.419721,319561.419731.3Dischargeisalso shown on Figure 24. References: Morfi, 1935, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.NacogdochesCountyNacogdoches and Shawnee Springs (Z6). Latitude31',longitude94',between NorthStreetand Banita CreekinNacogdoches. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History: These springs were originally on an old Tejas Indian trail.In1686 Robert Sieur deLaSalle becameillduring his explorations and rested here for onemonth.Laterthesprings were astoponElCamino Real.In1716 the Mission Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe was established here.Atthattime someofthesprings,onLaNana Creek, were called"LosOjos de Padre Margil." They were formerly usedasa water supply forthecityofNacogdoches and alsoasmineral springs. Discharge:InSeptember 1936, there was essentially no flow;1970-noflow reported. Reference: Deussen, 1914. -56-White and Red Springs (Z7). Latitude 31 49',longitude94',in Garrison. Aquifer: Wilcox Sand of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer. History:LaSalle may have drunk from these springsin1686.Theywere formerly the basis for a health resort. The waterofRed Springisreddishincolor andismore mineralized than thewaterof White Spring (Table 2). Discharge: October1936-1gpm;1970-noflow reported.OldhamCountyBravo or Bold Springs or Ojos Bravos(Dl).Three springs. Latitude35',longitude103',5miles eastofNara Visa, New Mexico. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation. The springs flow from sandinspring boxes. History: A Comanche Indian settlement existed here. The explorer Onate may have passed herein1601. Casimiro Romero, a sheep rancher, was the first settlerin1876.Hewas drivenoutby cattle ranchers, and XIT Ranch Division 3 headquarters was established herein1888.Theold XIT headquarters building, surrounded by largecottonwoodtrees,isstill being used (Figure 34). Discharge: July 20,1938-"weak";June22,1971-18gpm. The flow feeds a stock tank, with no overflowinJune 1971. It reportedly overflowsthetankinthewinter, whencottonwoodtrees and evaporationdonotdraw so much water. Reference: Nordyke, 1949.ParkerCountyBear Creek Springs (R2). Latitude32',longitude97',8 miles southeastofWeatherford. Aquifer: Paluxy Sand of the Trinity Group aquifer. The springs issue throughtheGoodland Limestone. History:Inthe1870'sthree flourishing water-power mills used these springs. With increased grazingthesprings dried up, probably bec:auseofcompactionofthe surface soil and reductionofnatural recharge. Discharge:1971-nonereported. Reference: Taylor, 1904.PecosCountySantaRosa Spring (V2). Latitude31',longitude 102',8miles southwestofGrandfalls. Aquifer: Comanchean limestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The spring flowed from a limestone cavern in a ravine (Figure 35). History: TheJumanoand Apache Indianswhoformerly frequented this spring left numerous artifacts. Taylor (1902) described the springasanoasisinthedesert, withcottonwoodtrees along the irrigation ditches which were usedtoirrigate alfalfa and peach trees. Runoff waternowoccasionally flows intothecavern,butspring flow from it has ceased.


-Figure34.-BravoSprings ReservoirandFormerXITRanchDivisionHeadquartersDischarge(ft3/s):015015-DATECHARGEDATECHARGE(ft3Is)(ft3Is)July19044.0January19590January19434.4February19620December19493.3April19710December19533.7Reference:Taylor,1902.DeeporDiamondY Springs (V4). Several springs.Latitude31',longitude102',12milesnorthofFortStockton.Aquifer:ComancheanlimestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity(Plateau) aquifer. History: These springs wereonan oldComancheIndian trail. Mendozaprobablystoppedherein1683. Latertheywere astopontheChihuahuaRoad.Discharge: May 10,1943-0.4ft3/S ;July25,1950-"flows";1971-0.Heavy wellpumpingforirrigation hasdriedupthesprings. Leon Springs (CC11). Several springs.Latitude30',longitude103',8 mileswestofFortStockton.Aquifer:ComancheanlimestoneandTrinitysandoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer.History:JuandeMendoza in1684describedthebuffaloandthenuttreesatthesprings. Manypecantrees still grow here. -57-TheoldSpanish TrailfromSanAntoniotoEIPaso passedthroughhere. LaterLieutenantS.G.FrenchoftheU.S. Cavalry describedthemas springs30to40feetindiameter,thatsanktogreatdepthslike large wells.Hedescribedsaltdepositsaroundthespringsandanodorofsulfur. Discharge(ft3/s bywateryears):WATER015-WATER015-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3Is)(ft3/s)1920231948151932161949111933181950121946141958-710Maximumrecordeddischarge was28ft3/sonMay26,1948.Someflowing wells were included inthedischargemeasurements.Heavypumpingoftheaquifercausedthespringstocease flowing.ComancheSprings (CC12). Six springs originally.Latitude30',longitude102',insoutheastFortStockton.Aquifer:ComancheanlimestoneandTrinitysandoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer.Thesprings rose along a fault. History:Thesprings were used inprehistorictimesbytheJumanoIndians,probablyfor irrigationofcorn.Theywerepossibly visited by Cabeza


Figure35.-CavernFromWhichSantaRosaSpringFormerlyFlowedWATERDIS-WATER DISYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/s11923421946441924471947421925491948371932421949381933471950341934461951271935441952261936421953201937441954261938431955171939421956131940421957419414319581.819424419590.8319434319611.51944431962-720194543Maximum recorded discharge was66ft3/SonJune23, 1899. References: Hutson, 1898; Taylor,1904;Brune, 1969; and Texas Historical SurveyCommittee,1971. de Vacain1536. Juan de Mendozain1684 describedthe6 large beautiful springs gushing forthtoform Comanche Creek. The Old Spanish Trail from San AntoniotoEIPaso passed through here. In1849Captain William WhitingoftheU.S. Cavalry described them as"aclear gushofwater which bursts fromtheplain, unperceived untilthetravelerisimmediatelyuponit...aboundinginfish and soft-shellturtles."Inthesame year many gold seekers travelingtoCalifornia stopped here.In1859CampStocktonwas established andusedthespringwaterasits supply. Thewaterwas usedin1904topower a gin. A historical markerislocated here. From1875on,thesprings werethebasis for an irrigation district which watered6,200acresofcropland. Heavy pumpingoftheaquifer, especiallyintheBelding areasouthwestofthesprings, loweredthewater table. The spring discharge begantofall offinMay1947, and by March 1961,theflow had ceased (Figure 25). Discharge(ft3 /s by water years):WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1189966190464WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1191945192246 -58San Pedro Springs (CC13). Latitude30',longitude102',7 milesnortheastofFortStockton. Aquifer: Comanchean limestonesoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springs were on an old Comanche Indian trail. Mendoza possiblystoppedherein1683. Latertheywere a stop ontheChihuahua Road. The springs were used for irrigation. Discharge(ft3/Sby water years):WATER DISWATER DISYEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3/ s119024.019522.719433.819532.419474.219541.819483.619561.919494.919570.719504.019580.219512.51959-710Maximum recorded flow was6.4ft3/SonJanuary18, 1949. Heavy well pumping for irrigationcausedthe springstofail.


Figure36.-RestoredStagecoach StationatTunas Spring Cold Springs (CC14). Several springs. Latitude 30', longitude 102', 6 miles northeastofFortStockton. Aquifer: Comanchean limestonesofthe EdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The springsvvereon an old Comanche Indian trail. Later they were used for irrigation. Discharge: October 16,1942-2.6ft3Is;April1958-0;February 22,1962-0.Heavy well pumping for irrigation caused the springstofail. Tunas (Prickly Pear Cactus) or West Escondido Spring (CC15). Latitude30',longitude102',26 miles eastofFort Stockton. Aquifer: Comanchean limestones oftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: This was a favorite campgroundofthe Comanche Indians. Cabeza de Vaca may have stopped herein1534. It was described by Captain William Whiting of theU.S.Cavalryin1849asa clear, beautiful spring gushing from the limestone bluff on the north side of Tunas Creek. Experimental camel trains stopped hereinthe late 1800's. The stagecoach station on the Old Spanish Trail which passed the spring has now been restored (Figure 36). A historical markerislocated here. Discharge (ft3Is by water years): -59-WATERDISWATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE (ft3/s ) (ft3/s)19241.219501.619331.919620.1619432.019630Pumping from nearbyvvellscaused the springtocease flowing. Reference: Williams, 1969. Pecos Spring(DO1). Latitude30',longitude 101', 1 mile eastofSheffield. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The Comanche Indians used this springasa campsite.In11534Cabeza de Vaca probably passed the spring. Later it became a regular stoponthe Old Spanish Trail from San AntoniotoEIPaso. Discharge: March 7,1924-0.7ft3/s;August17,1943-0.5ft3/s;1961-nonereported.Potter CountyTecovas Springs(03).Several springs. Latitude35',longitude 102', 5 miles northwestof


Bushland. '''.Quif,''UrFi;,.jI(]';.;nFlosa sands History These springs supportedJfavorite carnpsite of plains Indians. Later theywereJ meeting placeoftraders, smugglers, and renegade peddlers called Comancheros. Since 1881 they have been at the headquarters of the FryingPanRanch, where barbed wire was first used. A historical marker concerning the springislocated 1 mile east of Bushland. Discharge: August 13,1924-0.1ft3Is;April 20,1937-10gpm. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.Reagan CountyGrierson Springs(Wl).Latitude31',longitude101',6 milessouthof Best. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestonesofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: These springs were used bytheComanche Indians,whocamped here.In1683Mendozaisbelievedtohavestoppedhere.In1879the10thU.S.Cavalryhadanoutpostatthese springs. Discharge:1972-nonereported. Reference: Williams, 1969.RealCountyCamp Wood Spring (KK16). Latitude29',longitude HXtOl', 1 milenorthof Camp Wood. Aquifer: Glen Rose LimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer.Thespring issues through alluvium. History: The spring has been used for irrigation. ItisalsothewatersupplyforCamp Wood. Discharge: April6,1906-3 fe Is;October6,1954-1.1ft3Is;December 13,1954-1.0ft3/s;September19,1955-2.5 fels. Reference: Taylor, 1902.BigSprings(LL4). Latitude29',longitude99"39',11miles northeast of Leakey. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault. Much travertine has been deposited belowthesprings. History: TheJumanoIndians practiced agriculture here abollt8,000years ago. Discharge(ft3/sby water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARS CHARGE YEARS CHARGE(ft3/s 1(ft3/s119258.919564.519531.91962 2.2 19544.6Reference:Hilland Vaughn, 1898. VanderStuckenSprings (LL5). Latitude29',longitude99',7 miles east of Vance. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs probably issue through a fauIt.History: The springs havebeenused for irrigation. Discharge: July 25,1955-1.1ft3/s.Eads Springs (LL6).Atleasttwosprings.Latitude29',longitude99',11miles westofLeakey. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge:1956-1.3ft3/s.Spring Branch Springs (LL7). Latitude29',longitude99',1 mile south of Leakey. Aquifer: Alluvial gravel. The springs probably represent Frio River flow which sinksintogravel beds upstreamandreappears here. Discharge: June 27,1925-14ft3/s;January 6,1955-4 fe Is;JuIy9,1957-11ft3Is.ReevesCountyHackberry or Irving Springs (V1). Several springs. 6 milessouthofPecosatlatitude3120 ',longitude 103'. Aquifer: Alluvium. History: The California Trail and Butterfield OverlandMailroute passedthesesprings inthe1850's. Taylor (1902) describedthemas several springs, the largest20feetindiameter,witha strong sulfur taste,butexcellent for livestock. Discharge (ft3Is):Morriss Spring (LL 1). Latitude2957', longitude99',10 milesnorthofVance. Aquifer: Edwards and associatedlimestones. The spring issues through a fault. Mendozamayhavedrunkfrom this springin1683. Discharge: April 17,1955-1.6ft3/s.ChittimSprings (LL2).Atleast three springs. Latitude29',longitude99',15miles northofLeakey. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestones. The springs issuethrougha fault. History: TheJumanoIndians practiced agriculture hereabout8,000years ago andleftpaintings nearby. Discharge: April 19,1956-1.6ft3/s.Reference: Newcomb, 1961.DATEDISCHARGE(ft3/s1DATE DIS CHARGE(ft3/s1Prade Springs (LL3). Three springs. Latitude29',longitude99',14miles northofLeakey. Aquifer: Edwardsandassociated limestones.Thesprings probably issuethrougha fault. History: TheJumanoIndianspracticedagriculture hereabout8,000years ago. Discharge:June23,1955-1.2 fe Is.Reference: Newcomb,1961. -60-July19042.2July19241.0December19490.1Reference: Taylor, 1902.AprilMarch1959.19621971o oo


Figure37.-SaragosaSprings Saragosa Springs (CC1). They also include Toyah Creek Springs. Latitude30',longitude103',1 mile southwestofBalmorhea (Figure 37). Aquifer: Alluvium (gravel). The original sourceofthewaterisprobably Comanchean limestones which underlie the gravel. History: Espejo probably stopped herein1582. The springs were once usedtopower a grain and flour mill. They are now usedforirrigationinReeves County Water Control and Improvement DistrictNo.1.Discharge (fe Isbywateryears):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE YEARSCHARGE(ft3fs)(ft3/s)19194.819632.119225.919642.119331419651.719415.019661.919472.519671.419491.819681.119501.619691.419511.419700.819521.519710.319621.861 Maximum recorded discharge was30ft3/sinNovember 1932. Dischargeisalso shown on Figure 21. Reference: Taylor, 1904. West and East Sandia Springs (CC2). Three springs. Latitude30',longitude103',atBalmorhea. Aquifer: Alluvium (gravel). Original sourceofthe waterisprobably Comanchean limestone underlyingthegravel. History: Espejo may have stoppedatthese springsin1582.In1911anotherspring existedabout1 mile upstream. The springs are now usedforirrigationinReevesCountyWater Controland Improvement District No.1.Discharge (fe Isby water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3fs)(ft3/s)19322.519491.81933 :1.7 19502.119422.319511.91943 19521.619442.219531.819453.219620.5319462.619630.5919472.619640.501948 1.'9 19650.51


SanSolomonorMescaleroSpring(CC4).Latitude30',longitude103',atToyahvale.Aquifer:ComancheanlimestoneoftheEdwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. This artesian spring issuesfromcavernsintheWATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3!sl (ft3!sl19660.5119690.5119670.5019700.5119680.5119710.51Maximumrecordeddischarge was4.4 fe /sinAugust1945. Giffin Springs (CC3).Threesprings.Latitude30',longitude103',atToyahvale.Aquifer:ComancheanlimestoneoftheEdwardsTrinity (Plateau) aquifer. Artesian springs issuethroughgravel from a fault (Figure38).ImperviousupperCretaceousrocks have beenfaulteddownagainstthelowerCretaceousundergroundreservoir, causingthespringstoflow. Nearby rainfall results in a large increaseinflowandsuspendedsedimentanda large decreaseindissolved solidsandtemperature.History:TheSpanishexplorerEspejo possiblystoppedherein1582.Thesprings havebeenused for irrigation since1853.Discharge (fe /sbywateryears):WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3!sl313232 322731303230 32322932293630313031195131195319551954 195619521957 19591961WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s119581969 1963196219601971281966196519701967196819641972291898;Taylor,1902;and bonoll I)01(Figure 39). ImperVIOusupper(el."",lave beenfaulteddown iJ(jJillSl 1 eIm'!2'Crt',lCf':JW; undergroundreservoir, causing sprll'9s:01101'1.Nearby rainfall results ill a large ipcrease Indischarge andsuspendedsolidsanda lar(je decrease In dissolved solidsandtemperature,History: The Imes of prehistoric irrigation canalscouldstill(1898) be tracedinthis area,wheretheJumanoIndians,andlatertheMescalero Apaches,directedwatertotheircornand peaches. Manyarrowheadsandstoneimplementshave beenfoundnearby.TheSpanishexplorerEspejo possiblystoppedatthese springsin1582.Irrigation bywhitemenbeganatthisandtheothernearbyspringsin1853.FortDavis soldiers called this spring"HeadSpring".TheReevesCountyWaterControlandImprovementDistrictNo.1wasformedin1915,irrigating12,200acres.In197111,000acreswereirrigated fromthesprings inthearea. ThetownofBalmorhea alsoobtainsitswaterfromthem.This springisnowinBalmorheaStatePark. A historicalmarkerislocatedhere. Discharge (fe /sbywateryears):WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s11900461904461919 :35 1922 ,17 1923341924 ::14 1925 19323:519334519344119353219363019414319424919434019443!519454"1946 3B 1947 37 1948 32 194931195031References:Hutson,Williams,1969. 4.23.1 1960195819611962 19591964 1968 1967196319691965197219711966 19705. 3.25.6 4.84.419221919 19251923193319431932194519421947194819411944194619491950195219511953-62-


Figure38.-0neoftheGiffinSpringsSan Jacinto CountyGold Springs (GG2). Three springs. Latitude 30', longitude 95', northeast of Coldspring. Aquifer: Gulf Coast aquifer. History: The Alabama-Coushatta Indians formerly campedatthese springs. They left'many beads and silver ornaments made from coins. The springs originally supplied the townofColdspring with its water, andin1966 they still were usedasanauxil iary source. Oneisa cypress-linedpit8by15 feet and30feet deep. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: January 17,1947-32gpm; April7,1966--32 gpm. References:Hsu,1969 and Texas Historical Survey Committee,197.1.San Saba CountyHallorBigSprings (X2). Several springs. Latitude 31', longitude 99', 3 miles east of Hall. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestone. Discharge:1901-4.0ft3/s;October 24,1938-2.5ft3/s;September1952-0;February7,1957-0;March19,1962-0;September 14,1971-1.6 fe Is.The springs supply a 23-acre lake. Richland Springs (X3). Three springs. Latitude 31', longitude 98',atRichland Springs. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestone. The springsrisethrough a fault Figure 39.-Swimming PoolinBalmorhea State Park Into Which San Solomon Spring Flows-


atwhich the aquiferisincontact with Strawn shales and sandstones. History: The springs were usedbyFort Duncanin'the 1850's. They have been used for irrigation and have always been the city of Richland Springs' primary water source. The city usesanaverageof0.13 fe Is.Occasionally irrigation pumpinginthe area causes the springs to dry up. At these times the city relies on awellfor water. Discharge:1901-6.0ft3Is;October 10,1938-3.4ft3Is;February7,1957-0;March 9,1962-0.13 fe Is;September14,1971-4.8ft3Is.BakerSprings (X4). One large and several small springs. Latitude31',longitude98',5 miles southwest of Algerita. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping north. The springs are ontheSloan Fault (Figure 40). History: The Comanche Indians used these springs, leaving many projectile points and tools. The springs supply a 3-acre lake and are used for irrigation. Discharge: October 28,1938-3.8 fe Is;September 8,1952-1.7 tr/s; February 11,1957-1.0ft3/s;ApriI25,1962-2.4frls;SePtember 14,1971-12tr/s. Fleming orKingSprings (X5). Two springs. Latitude 31', longitude98',8 miles southwestofAlgerita. Aquifer: The lower spring issues from the Ellenburger Limestone (Figure 41) and the upper from the Marble Falls Limestone. The springs areinthe Algerita Syncline. History: The springs were usedbythe Comanche Indians,asevidencedbyprojectile points-found there. Taylor reported:hc:r:he" we'e toirrigate 40 acresin 1901. ThevEirestill used for irrigation. Discharge: November 5,1921-3.0 'ft3 Is;February 25,1939-4.5ft3/S;September8,1952-0.3ft3Is;April 23, 1962-.6ftJIs;September 14,1971-10.2ft3Is. Fleference: Taylor, 1902. Hart, Berry, Mud, and Bogard Springs (X6). Latitude31',longitude 98', 6 miles southwest ofA1gerita.Aquifer: Marble Falls LimestoneintheAlgerita Syncline. History: The springs formerly powered a grist mill. The old water wheel can stillbeseen. They are usedtoirrigate about 70 acres of pecan trees and other croPs (Figure 42). Discharge: February 25,1939-3.7 fe Is;February 11,1957-1.4 tr Is;May3,1962-3.7ft3Is;September14,1971-4.1ft3Is.SloanorWalnut Springs (X7). Many openings. Latitude 31', longitude98',7 miles southwestofAlgerita. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestoneinthe Algerita Syncline. History: This was an important Indian settlement.In John Meusebach with a party ofGerman immigrants made a treaty with the Indiansatthese springs. Rightstothe San Saba valley were obtainedinexchange for about $1,000 worth of presents. Comanche Chief Mope-tschokepe and representativesofthe Hueco, Lipan, Cupaw, Tehuacana, and Caddo tribes participated. Thiswasone of themostimportant Indian treaties ever made, andwasnever Figure40.-BakerSprings Issuing From Ellenburger Limestone-64-


Figure41.-FlemingLower Spring Figure42.-HartSpring-65-


broken.Inthe 1880's a grist and saw millwaserected here. The dam and mill race still exist. The water has been used for many yearstoirrigate pecan trees, pasture, and crops. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:1902-9.0 fe Is;March 30,1918-4.7 fe Is;November 18,1921-5.3 fe Is;October 28,1938-6.2 fe Is;September8,1952-4.3ft3Is;February 7,1957-3.1ft3Is;April 23,1962-4.2 fe Is;September 14,1971-9.0 fe Is.Turkey Roost Springs(X8).Several springs. Latitude31',longitude98',9 miles southwestofAlgerita. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestoneinthe Algerita Syncline. History: Used for a long period bytheComanche Indians, as evidencedbyprojectile points. Discharge: June 16,1931-2.1ft3/s;December 19,1938-0.33ft3Is;September 14,1971-0.05ft3Is.The flowisusually lost before reaching the San Saba River. Deep Creek Springs(X9).About seven springs, includingBigSpring. Latitude31',longitude98',12 miles southofRichland Springs. AqUifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping north. History: The springs supply a lake used for irrigation(Figure 43). Discharge: November 29,1938-4.2 fe Is;February 25,1969-3.1ft3Is;February7,1957-0.3ft3Is;March 19,1962-2.5 fe Is;September 14,1971-4.1ft3Is.Sycamore, Cottonwood, andothersprings (Xl0). Latitude31',longitude99',13 miles south of Richland Springs, on both sides of the San Saba River. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestoneina small anticline. History: They are used for irrigation. Discharge: February 25,1939-1.3 fe Is;February7,1957-0;September14,1971-2.1 fe/s. Wallace Springs(X11). Many openingsingravel and limestone. Latitude31',longitude98',8 miles southwestofHarkeyville. A historical markerislocated here. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping north. The springs issueatthecontactof the aquifer and the Barnett Shale,inthe Wallace Creek Syncline. Discharge: November 18,1921-2.1 fe/s; October 3,1938-3.6ft3Is;September 14,1971-12 fe Is.San Saba Springs(X12).About 18 springs. Latitude 31 12', longitude98',atthe southeast edgeofSan Saba. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestoneinthe San Saba Anticline. History: Paddock (1911) statedthatthese "strong springs" were usedasearlyas1880topower a flour mill, saw mill, andcottongin,toirrigate50acres, and latertogenerate electric power. Remnants of the old mill dam are stillinplace (Figure 44). The springs now supply watertothecityofSan Saba. An averageof0.74ft3Isisused by the city. Discharge(ft3Is Figure43.-DeepCreek Springs Reservoir -66-


Figure44.-RemainsofOldMillDamatSan Saba Springsbywater years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3fsl (ft3fsl19399.719659.019527.319668.819575.519677.519597.519681119601119698.919611219701319621619717.519635.319729.719648.4197310.2Dischargeisalso shown on Figure 24. Reference: Paddock, 1911. BarnettorDalton Springs(X13). Numerous springs. Latitude31',longitude98',5 miles east of San Saba. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping northeast. Springs are on the Simpson Creek Fault Zone. Downstream from the springs, large travertine deposits have built up where the water passes over falls (See Figure 17). History: Much land was irrigatedasearly as 67-1867 from these springs. They are still usedtoirrigate a pecan grove. Littleofthe spring water reaches the San Saba River. Discharge: October 29,1938-0.90ft3Is;February 12, 1957--0.5 fe Is;September 14,1971-1.5 fe Is.Reference: Paddock, 1911. ParkerorHolland Springs (X14). Includes Brister Spring one-halfmil!ewestLatitude31',longitude98',5 miles northwestofBend. Aquifer: Marble Falls Limestone. The springs issue through the Cherokee Fault Zone. History: They are used for irrigation. Discharge: October 29,1938-1.9 fe Is;JuIy23,1940-1.3ft3Is;February 12,1957-0.2ft3Is;April 23,1962-1.1 fe Is;September 14,1971-2.2ft3/s.Sulphur Springs (X16). Several springs, oneinthe Colorado River. Latitude31',longitude98',3 miles eastofBend. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping northeast. History: The springs were used for medicinal bathinginthe 1850's. They now supplytheswimming poolata hunting and fishing camp. Discharge: March 6, 1939-1.4ft3/s; September 14,1971-0.54ft3Is.Gorman Springs(X17). Several springs. Latitude31',longitude98',4 miles southeastofBend. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping northeast.


Muchoftheflow disappears into a sink, reappearing below Gorman Falls downstream. Large amounts of travertine have built up betweenthesprings and the falls. Discharge: October 29,1938-2.0 fe Is;February 12,1957-2.5ft3/s;July19,1961-3.7ft3/s;September1971-1.5 fe/s. The springs provide water for a fishing and hunting camp. Post Oak Springs(X19). Many openings. Latitude31',longitude98',7 miles southeastofBend. Aquifer:BasalEllenburger Limestone, in the Ellenburger Hills Fault Zone, dipping northeast. Post Oak Falls and much travertine are downstream. Discharge: February26,1939-1.1 fe/s;September 14,1971-0.55ft3/s.Jennings Springs (X20).Atleast three openingsingravel and limestone. Latitude 31 100',longitude98',8 miles southeastofBend. Aquifer: Basal Ellenburger Limestone, dipping northeast, intheEllenburger Hills Fault Zone (Figure 45). A small anticlineispresent. Discharge: February 26,1939-1.5 fe Is;September14,1971-0.42ft3Is.Supplies water to a hunting and fishing lodge. Heck Springs (EE36). Several openingsatthebase of a bluff. Latitude 30 59', longitude98',4 milesFigure45.-JenningsSprings-68-west of Cherokee. l\qu;f"r E ."-"ger Limestone. The springs rise throu!Jh a fault wi h t'le Wilhems Limestone present on the other sideof trw fault at the surface (Figure 46). History: A Cherokee Indian village wasatthe site of the springs when Europeans first explored the area. The White mill was erected herein1895. The springs were formerly used for irrigation. Althoughnotused for irrigation now, thereismuch irrigation pumpinginthe vicinity. They now supply watertoa swimming pool. Discharge: October 29,1938-2.6 fe Is;July24,1940-1.7ft3/s,February 12,1957-0.2 fe/s; 1962-2.0 fe Is;September 14,1971-1.4 fe Is.Reference: Taylor, 1904. Boiling Springs (EE37). Three openings. Latitude30',longitude98',3 milesnorthof Tow. Aquifer: Ellenburger Limestone, dipping northeast. Springs areinthe Ellenburger Hills Fault Zone. Discharge: February 26,1939-4.3 fe Is;April 25,1962-3.5ft3Is;September 14,1971-2.5ft3Is reported.Schleicher CountyGovernmentorMain Springs (DD15). Latitude 30 50', longitude100',1 mile westofFortMcKavett. Aquifer:: Edwards and associated limestones. History:Asmanyas3,000Comanche Indianscampedhereattimes. The lake formedbythesprings formerlyaboundedwith fish. The Chihuahua Road and Mackenzie Trail passed here. The springs were the water supply forFortMcKavett, establishedin1852. Water was hauledinbarrels by mule teamstothe fortona nearby hill. It was also usedtoirrigate a gardenforthe fort. Discharge(ft3Is by water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s )(ft3/s )1902 26 196016190511519611619188.619621619221219631419332.019641119426.119651219481119661019519.319677.71952:3.819689.5195515.719698.219566.21970131958 lE; 1971101959 1(. 197217


Figure46.-HeckSprings Emerging From the Ellenburger LimestoneIntoa Swimming PoolScurryCountyCamp Springs (P5). Several springs including Dripping Springs. Latitude 3246',longitude 100',atCamp Springs. Aquifer: Santa Rosa Sandstone. History: The Comanche Indians often camped here, leaving many artifacts and pictographsina nearby cave. Captain.R.B.Marcy and his troops camped herein1849 while exploring routestothe west. Later the springs were a stop on the California Trail. The townofCamp Springs was thrivingin1900butisnow a ghost town. The nearby Deep Creek Springs, formerly strong, are now gone. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge: April 8,1924-2.0ft3/S ;1946-nonereported. References: Boren, 1969, and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Greene Springs (P6). Latitude32',longitude 10043',3miles southwestofMidway. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation and Santa Rosa Sandstone. History: The Comanche Indians left food-grinding holes and petroglyphsonthe sandstone wallsatthese springsasevidenceoftheir long use. Many stone knives, scrapers, arrow points, beads, and potsherds have also been found here. CaptainR.B.Marcy camped herein1849 and General RobertE.Leein1856. A historical markerislocated 1.5 miles northeastofStateHighway 180. -69-Discharge:1946-45gpm;1969-0.References: Boren, 1969,andTexas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.SmithCountyCherokee Spring (S2). Latitude321 0', longitude95',6 miles southwest of Noonday. Aquifer: Queen City Sand. The spring flowed from a limonite deposit. History:In1839 there was a battle between Texas troops under General Ruskwhowere campedatthe spring and the Cherokee Indians. A historical markerislocated here. Discharge:Noflow recordedin1937or1963. Reference: Woldert, 1948. Neff Springs (S3). Latitude32',longitude95',450feet south of the junction of West Houston and South Glenwood BoulevardinTyler. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History: The springs were formerlyinWillNeff's swimming pool. Discharge:1937-nonereported;1947-umoderately large" flow;1963-nonereported. Reference: Wo/dert, 1948. Arms Factory Spring (S4). Latitude 32', longitude 95 18', 75 feet northofMockingbird Lane and 50 feet westofSouth Robertson AvenueinTyler. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History: The springwasa


campsite for the Caddo and Tejas Indians. When first discovered by white men itwasa bold spring, oneofthe largestinthe area. Discharge: None reportedin1937, 1947,or1963. Reference: Woldert, 1948. Tyler Springs (S5). Two springs. Latitude32',longitude 95 18', on South Spring Street,75feetsouthofEast ElmStreetinTyler. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History:Inthe early days the spring had a large flow whichwascurbedina 10by 12-foot pool. It was frequently used for baptizing. Discharge: July 6,1936-10gpm; no flow recordedin1937, 1948,or1963. Reference: Woldert, 1948. Camp Ford Spring (S6). Latitude32',longitude 95', 3 miles northofTyler. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History: During theCivilWarthis spring supplied water for6,000menatCamp Ford, a prisoner-af-war camp. Itisnow submerged by Burns Lake. No flow was recordedin1937, 1948,or1963. Reference: Wolder!, 1948. Cousin Spring (S7). Latitude32',longitude 9515',5 miles northeast of Tyler on the south sideofRay's Creek. Aquifer: Sparta Sand. History:Itwas describedasone ofthefinest springsinthe area when thecountywas first settled. Discharge: None reported in1937,1948,or1963. Reference: Woldert, 1948. Headache Springs(Sll).Latitude3219, longitude95',6miles eastofTyler. Aquifer: Queen City Sand. History: These springs were well known for their healing mineral waters. During theCivilWara medical laboratory here made medicines and whiskey for the government. The medicines were made from the mineral water and herbs suchaspoke root, snakeroot, mullein, jim son week, Jerusalem oak, nightshade, mistletoe, and cherry bark. Discharge: No flow reportedin1937or1963. Reference: Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.SuttonCountyFortTerrettSprings (DD16). Source oftheNorth Llano River. Latitude30',longitude 100 11', 8 miles west of Roosevelt. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: A number of early explorers passed this way, possibly includingDeVacain1535, Bosquein1675, and Mendozain1683.In1852-53 the springs furnished water for Fort Terrett. Discharge:1918-"largeflow";1972-"reportedtoflow only after a rain." Reference: Fisher, 1937.TarrantCountyCold Sp,rings (R3). Latitude 32"44',longitude 97',on the south sideofthe Trinity River 1/4mileeast of the North MainStreetbridgeinFort Worth. Aquifer: Probably the Paluxy Sand of the Trinity Group aquifer. The springs issue through alluvium. History: TheU.S.Army Dragoons arrived and camped herein1849. The springs were then surroundedbya grove of giant oaks and pecan trees, and were a social center until the 1880's. They Wine usedasa water supply forFortWorth from1849to1876, when artesian wells were drilled. They were on the Chisholm Cattle Trail from1867to1895. Discharge:1849-"gushedclear cold water";1942-nonereported;1949-"faintlybubbling";1957-nonereported. References: 'Paddock, 1911, and Arlington Heights Junior Historians, 1949. MaryLeBone Springs (R4). Latitude32',longitude97',3 miles south of Arlington. Aquifer: Woodbine Sand .. History: This was an ancient Indian settlement,asevidenced by arrow points, bedrock mortars, andotherrelics. A trading post was establishedatthe springsin1845. From here the Texas Rangerssetoutin1849tolocate a site forFortWorth. Discharge:1942-nonereported;1949-"severalsluggish springs";1957-nonereported. References: Paddock, 1911, and Arlington Heights Junior Historians, 1949.TerrellCountyMeyers Springs (CC16). Near latitude30',longitude 102',about9 miles northeastofDryden. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: These springs were an old Apache Indian watering place,asevidenced by pictographs on the cliffs. They make a beautiful 40-foot fall from a precipice into a large basin.In1882a militaryoutpostwas located here,theremains of which can stillbeseen. Reference: Williams, 1969. T-5 Springs (DD3). Latitude30',longitude 101', 16 miles southofSheffield. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:1917-5.5 fe/s; July 25,1929-8.4 fe Is;March 29,1962-13ft3/s;February7,1968--9.0 fe Is.Richland Springs (DD5). Latitude30',longitude 101 16 miles northwestofPandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:1917-3.3 fe Is;July25,1929-2.8ft3/s;March 29,1962-3.9 fe Is;FE!bruary7,1968-1.9ft3/s.Wolf Springs (DD6). Latitude30',longitude 101', 16 miles northwestofPandaIe.Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge: -70-


1917-3.3ft3/s;July 25,1929-6.2ft3/s;March 29,1962-6.4ft3/s;February7,1968-6.3ft3/s.Geddis Springs(007).Latitude 30 18', longitude 101',15miles northwest of Pandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:1917-5.5ft3/s;April 29,1943-2.6ft3/s;February 7,1968-0.Sweetwater Springs(0081.Latitude 30 17', longitude101',14 miles northwestofPandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:1917-4.4ft3/s;April 29,1943-3.2 fe Is;1962-2.8ft3/s;1968-2.4 fe Is.TomGreenCountyMillSpring(W4).Latitude31',longitude 100', 1 mile southofChristoval. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: Meserve manofabout9,000years ago left spear points here. Juan Dominguez de Mendoza possibly stopped herein1683. The Bismarck gin used the spring for powerinthe1800's. Discharge: March12,1925-2.4ft3/s;1941 and1954-nonereported; July 20,1970-dry.Anson Springs(W5).Several springs. Latitude31',longitude 10

WATER DIS ',''il, T iOH 015-YEARS CHARGE TAFiS CHARGE(ft3/s)(ft'ls)19051.019500.319400.3019520.119480.119620.18Kickapoo Spring(W7).Latitude31',longitude 100', 12 miles southofVancourt. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History:In1873 a detachment fromFortConcho killed Kiowa Chief Lone Wolf here and recovered some stolen horses. The spring was used for irrigationinthe early days of settlement. Discharge: December 20,1904-4 fe Is;October1940-1.3ft3Is;May9,1950-1.0ft3Is;April 12,1962-1.4ft3/s;July28,1970-0.1ft3/s.Pumpingofnearby wells causes the springtostop flowing. Reference: Taylor, 1904.TravisCountyMormonorTaylor and Mount Bonnell Springs(FF4). At least 50 springs. Latitude30',longitude 97', 1 mile north of Tom Miller DaminAustin. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones,onthe Mount Bonnell Fault. History: A Mormon settlement usedthespringstopower a grist millin1846 and 1847. They have now nearlyallbeen inundated by Lake Austin. Discharge:1904-3ft3Is;1918-1.0ft3Is;1941and1957-nonereported; February 6,1973-22ft3Is.Reference:Hilland Vaughn, 1898. Power HouseorDam Spring (FF5). Latitude30',longitude97',atTom MillerDaminAustin. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The spring flows through Colorado River terrace deposits. History: The spring appearedintheeastabutmentduring construction of Lake Austin Damin1893. The dam failedin1900 and was later rebuilt. The spring still drains through several drainage pipes below the powerhouse. Discharge: December 18,1895-4.3 fe Is;1897-10 fe Is;1899-8ft3Is;1941 and1957-nonereported; March1970-0.3ft3Is;February 5,1973-0.05ft3/s.References:Hilland Vaughn, 1898, and Taylor, 1900. Seiders Springs (FF6). At leasttwosprings. Latitude 30 17', longitude97',on Shoal Creek between34thand38thStreetsinAustin. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault. History: In 1839 the springs were describedas"astream of limestone water whichcouldbeusedasa water supply for the new capital." Between1846and 1865 many Army troops, including those underthecommand of General Custer and General Lee,-camped at the springs. From 1871to1896 Ed Seiders operated a popular resort and bath house here. Bath tubs werecutoutof the rock on the hillside and filled from the springs. Discharge:1898-"small";1941and1957-nonereported;1971-0.32ft3Is;June7,1972-30gpm. downstream spring has a strange cyclic action. The flow practically ceases for several minutes and then gushes forth for a brief interval before subsiding again.OnJune 7, 1972, the rangeinflow was from 2to60gpm during a 5-minute cycle. The phenomenonisprobably causedbya siphoning actioninthe rock passageways from whichitissues. Whentherate of flowislower, the cyclic periodislonger. References:Hilland Vaughn, 1898; Barkley, 1963; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Cold and Deep Eddy Springs (FF7).Atleast seven springs. Latitude 30 16', longitude97',near Valley Springs RoadinAustin. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault. History: Many Indian projectile points and tools have been foundatthesprings andinBat Cave downstream andBeeCave just upstream. An old Comanche Indian trail from BanderatoNacogdoches passed the springs.Inthe1870's steamboats made excursions from Austintothese springs and the upstream Bee Springs.Onlytwosprings are now abovethelevelofTown Lake. Discharge: 1898-'''large volume"; August1917-4.2 fe Is;February8,1941-3.0ft3Is;1955-nonereported;May1972-2.9ft3Is.References:Hilland Vaughn, 1898, and Sellards" Baker, and others, 1934. Barton Springs (FF8).Atleast five groups of springs, including Upper, Main, Upper Left Bank, Lower Left Bank, and OldMillorWalshSpring;thefarthest downstream. Latitude 30 16', longitude 97 47', 2 miles southwestofAustin. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault. History: This was a gathering place for the Caddo, Tonkawa, Apache, and Comanche Indians. An old Comanche Indian trail from BanderaCountytoNacogdoches passed here. The early settlers had a trading postatthe springs. Early Spanish explorerswrotethatin1714wild horses were Three Spanish missions were located here from 1730to1731.In1839the five commissioners namedtoselect a site fortheTexas capital described the springsas"perhaps the greatest andmostconvenient water powertobefoundinthe Republic." BonnEll! (1840) described themas "large, springs, manyofwhich would afford 5or6 hundred barrelsofwater a minute, burstingoutatthe.footofthe mountains." This flowisequivalentto47to56 fe Is.Earlyinthe 1880's afortwas locatedatthe springs. A numberofsaw and grist mills and ice-making machines used the water power ofthesprings. This was also a stop on the Chisholm Cattle Trail from 1867to1895. A


historical markerislocated here. The springs have always been popular for swimming (See Figure 23). Discharge (fe Isby water years):WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1189517189625WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)193029193164The springs were named for Colonel Jose Menchaca of the Armyofthe Texas Republic. They were describedbyHillandVaughn(1898)ashaving a large flow, butlessthan Barton Springs. They were on the Chisholm Cattle Trail from 1867to1895. A mill was once operated by the spring waters. The remains of themillmay stillbeseen (Figure 48). Discharge (gpm by water years):1897 18981899190048251969193219331934193535274461WATER015-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s119411819555WATER015-YEARSCHARGE (ft3/s1 197123197320019011902190319041905 190619101916 191719181919192019211922 1923 1924 19251926192719283323694365241930171852955836643662373319361937 1938 1939194019411959 19601961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966196719681969 1970197119724448532030896355954944235864417585784383Reference:HillandVaughn, 1898.Santa MonicaorSulphur Springs (FF19l. Latitude30',longitude97',4 miles south of Marshall Ford. Aquifer: Glen Rose Limestone. History: These springs were once the basis for Comanche and Tonkawa Indian campgrounds.Inlater periods the waters were bottled and highly valued for medicinal purposed. The springs were also a favorite resort for early Austinites (Figure 49). They are now beneath Lake Austin. References: Barkley, 1963, and Hart, 1973.TylerCountyEnloe Spring (GG3). Latitude30',longitude94',3miles northwest of Colmesneil. Aquifer: Jasper Sand. History: The Cherokee Indian Peach Tree Village was formerly located here.In1840 the Enloe gin, gristmill, and sawmill was builttouse the spring water for power. A historical markerislocated here. References: Bonnell, 1840; Taylor 1904; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971.UvaldeCounty192950On February 6, 1973, the Upper Springs werenotflowing,theMainSprings flowedanestimated47ft3/s,the UpperLeftBank Springs flowed 5ft3/s,theLower Left Bank Springs flowed 6 fe Is,andWalshSprings flowed 9ft3/s.Dischargeisalso given on Figure 22. References: Bonnell, 1840;HillandVaughn, 1898;Meinzer, 1927; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. Manchaca Springs (FF10). Several springs on a small tributary of Onion Creek. Latitude 30', longitude 97', 3 miles south of Manchaca. Aquifer: The springsrisethrough a faultinthe Austin chalk and gravel, possibly from the Edwards Limestone. History: Spring Creek Springs (LL8). Latitude 29' longitude 99 57', 2 miles northeastofMontell. Aqu ifer; Gravel alluvium. The flowisbelievedtobechiefly Nueces River flow which sinks into gravels and reappears hereassprings. History: The springswere the basis foranancient Indian campground. Later a missionwaslocated here. Discharge: March 22,1924-0;August 11,1924-0;December 14,1954-10 fe Is;February 16.1955-0;September 20.1955-15ft3/s;July 10,1957-30 fe Is.Spring Branch Springs (LL9). Latitude 29', longitude 99', 6 miles southeast of Laguna. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge: March 22,1924-0;August 13.1924-0;April 30,1925-0;-


Figure48.-RemainsofOldMillatManchaca Springs Figure49.-SantaMonica Springsin1890, LookingSouth(From the Austin-TravisCountyCollection, Austin Public Library)-74-


See also the combined discharge measurements for Groups 1to3ofLeona Springs below. See also the combined discharge measurements for Groups 1to3ofthe Leona Springs, following Group 3.leonaSprings, Groups 1to3(Lll1).Inrecent years the combined flowofGroups 1 through 3ofleonaSprings has been measured. These measurements follow (fe /s by water years):leonaSprings, Group 3(Ll13).Latitude 29', longitude 99', 6 miles southeast of Uvalde. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs probably issue through a fault beneath theleonaFormation. Discharge: (fe /s by water years):DISCHARGE(ft3/s1WATERYEARS19255.319421419314.919431419347,61944819355.21945819396.919462.619401319476.5194112WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3Is)19251.619396.519318.419464.719344.419477.019354.8WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)(ft3Is)1934141942271935141943241936331944111937341945131938:29194661939201947101940 :10 19486.9194111719493.0leonaSprings, Group 2 (LL12). Latitude 29 11', longitude 99', 3 miles southeastofUvalde. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault and the Leona Formation. Discharge: (ft3/s by water years):WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s)WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1(ft3lsI1885019313.11893019331918961119346.81898019351.41899019397.11900519407190422194161906131942719108.419438191201944419253.819451.019280.9194601930019473.5November 14,1931-0;May2,1940-4.0ft3/s; July 9,1940-3.1 fr Is; August 28,1940-3.6ft3/S ;September 26,1940-3.2ft3/s. Soldiers Camp Spring(LL10). Latitude 29 10',longitude 99', 8 miles west of Uvalde. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The spring issues through Austin Chalk and gravel. History: The spring was a stop on the Old Spanish Trail.Hilland Vaughn (1898) said "Water rushesoutinastream.ofconsiderable size, andis cool. clear, and pure, and surrounded by splendid growthsofpecan trees." Discharge: November15,1931-0;August 19,1939-1.5ft3/s;1962-nonereported. Reference:Hilland Vaughn, 1898. See alsothecombined discharge measurements for Groups 1to3oftheLeona Springs, following Group 3. Reference: Bonnell, 1840.leonaSprings, Group 1 (LL 11). They include. Mulberry Spring. Latitude 29', longitude99',1 mile southeastofUvalde. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs issue through a fault andtheLeona Gravel. The Leona Riverinthis areaissometimes gaining and sometimes losing flow by meansofinterchange with underground water. Spring flow generallylagsbehind rainfall by several months. History: The springs afforded a stop on the Old Spanish Trail.In1840 they were describedas"thepurest streamsofcrystal water." The Leona Springs were settled by ,Reading Blackin1853.Atthattime they were surrounded by large live oak, elm, pecan and hackberry trees. Discharge (fr Isby water years):-75


WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3Is)(ft3/s119501419622819510.6219637.11952019640.111953019650.071954019660.31955019670.5195601968519570196991958019702119596.5197112196031197225196131The maximum recorded flow was51ft3/son December 4, 1973. It shouldbenotedthatinyearsinwhich both separate and combined discharge measurements were made, the separate measurements generally totaled a greateramountthan the combined flow. Thisisbecause someofthe flowoftheupper springs (Group 1 and2)was losttothe alluvial gravels before reaching the Group 3 springs where the combined flow was measured. Leona Springs, Group 4 (LL 14). Latitude 29', longitude99',9 miles southeastofUvalde. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. The springs probably issue through a fault beneath the Leona Formation. The Leona Riverinthis areaissometimes losing and sometimes gaining flow. Spring flowlagsbehind rainfallbyseveral months. Discharge (ft3/sby water years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE (ft3/sl (ft3/s119251219396.819311219463.019345.219475.519355.6Reference: Taylor, 1902.Val Verde CountyHoward Springs (DD9). Latitude 30', longitude 101', 2 miles southofPandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:May18,1939-2.6ft3/s;June 20,1943-3.4ft3/s; March 29,1962-0;February 8,1968-0;May20,1969-4.0ft3/s. Tardy Springs (DDlO). Originally nine springs. Latitude30',longitude 101', 4 miles south of Pandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. Discharge:May15,1939-2.6ft3/s;1962-1.1ft3/s' February 6,1968-2.0 fe Is;May29,1969-1.9 fe Is..Cox Springs (DD11). About 23 springs, including Evert Springs. Latitude30',longitude 101',11miles southofPandale. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: The springs have been used for irrigation. Discharge:May15,1939-6.7ft3/s;July 21,1943-17 fe Is;May2,1962-1.1ft3/s;1968-0.89ft3/s.Juno, Headwater, or Stein Springs (DD12). Originally two springs,atleast. Latitude 30', longitude 101',atJuno. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: Many early settlers stopped here on their way west. The Old Spanish Trail from San AntoniotoEIPaso passed here. The Devil's Riveratthispointwas describedin1916asa beautiful stream with largeliveoaks. The springs, Beaver Lake upstream, and the perennial flowoftheDevil's Riverinthis area havealldisappeared.InMay1971,thefirst headwater springs were 15 miles downstream,atPecan Springs. Discharge: August 8,1925-5.8ft3/s;July13,1939-0.03ft3/s;May25,1971-0.Irrigation pumping from wells upstream probably contributedtothe drying upofthese springs. However, muchofthe reductionindischarge occurred before any pumping for irrigationtookplace. Bosworth (1964) believesthatovergrazing compacted the surface soils and greatly reduced rechargetothe aquifer. Reference: Bosworth, 1964. Pecan Springs (DD13). Latitude30',longitude 101', 7 miles southwestofJuno. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through gravel on the right (west) bank of the Devil's River. History:Hilland Vaughn (1898) described themasa "sparkling springofpure limpid water, and its tasteisdelicious." They are surrounded by a large groveofpecan trees (Figure50),with beaver dams downstream. The Old Spanish Trail from San Antonio to EIPaso passed here. Originallyatleast six springs were here, butinMay1971, only the fartherest downstream spring was still flowing. Discharge:1892-0.8ft3/s ; June 13,1939-6.6ft3/S ;May25,1971-0.1 fe/s. Reference:Hilland Vaughn, 1898. Hudspeth Springs (DD14). Many springs. Latitude30',longitude 101',10 miles southofJuno. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestone of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue through gravel on the -76-


FigureSQ.-SiteofFormer Pecan Springs right (west) bankofthe Devil's River (Figure 51). A beaver damislocated downstream. History: The Old Spanish Trail from San AntoniotoEIPaso passed here. The springs have been usedforirrigation. Discharge: June 14,1939-2.3ft3 /s; February1969-3.6ft3 /s;May25,1971-5.8ft3/s. Dead Man Springs (KK1). Four springs. Latitude29',longitude101',3 miles eastofShumla. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer, on theleft(east) bankofthe Pecos River. History:In1892the Southern Pacific Railroad built the Pecos high bridge, 321 feet above the river. Thesouthernmostofthese springs was used as a water supply by the railroadatthe bridge. The springs areunderabout55feetofwater when International Amistad Reservoirisatconservation pool level. The International Boundary and Water Commission has drilled a well for the railroad,toreplace the springasawatersupply. Discharge: May 25,1939-4.2ft3/S : May 25,1971-3.2ft3/s reported.HuffstutterSprings (KK2). Two springs. Latitude29',longitude101',19miles northofComstock. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestone. History: The Old Spanish Trail from San AntoniotoElPaso passed these springs.FortHudson was established near themin1854.Camel caravan experiments were carriedoutfrom herein1856. Discharge: June 13,1939-1.7ft3/s;May25,1971-0.8ft3/sreported. The small (east) spring has reportedly ceased flowing. Finegan Springs (KK3). One large and eight smaller springs. Latitude29',longitude101',13 miles westofLoma Alta. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue from the baseofa bluff ontheleft (east) bankofthe Devil's River,about15feet above the river (Figure 52). History: Artifacts indicate long usebythe Apache Indians. Originally there wereatleast25springs. There was also a waterfallata higher elevation during strong spring flows. Discharge: February 15,1928-3.5 fe Is;July1939-27 tt3/s; September 17,1966-4.0ft3/s; February 4,1969-4.0 fe Is;May25,1971-20ft3/s. Reference: Bosworth, 1964. Dolan Springs (KK5). Two main andabout20smaller springs. Latitude29',longitude100',12 miles westofLoma Alta. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer, on Dolan Creek. History: Indian middens with many stone tools indicate very ancient use of these springs. A dam and measuring weir have been built below the south springs (Figure 53). Thenorthsprings flowintoa natural


Fi9ure 51.--HudspethSprings Figure52.-FineganSprings-78-


Figure53.-Damand WeironDolan South Spring poolinthe rock. Discharge(ft3/sbywater years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGE(ft3/sl(ft3/sl19282.019681.719393319691.119665.619703.019672.419711.2Gillis Springs (KK5). About 14 springs. Latitude 29 43', longitude 101', 9 mileseastofComstock. Aquifer: Georgetown LimestoneoftheEdward-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue from limestone ontheright (west) bank of the Devil's River, some below river level (Figure54).Discharge: February 14,1928-6.3ft3/s; July 19,1939-0.18ft3/s; October 4,1967-0.22 fe Is;May25,1971-9.2ft3/s. Slaughter BendorSwann-Shelton Springs (KK6). About 18 springs. Latitude29',longitude 100',21miles north ofDelRio. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestoneofthe Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aqUifer. The springs issue fromthelimestoneatthe baseofa cliff ontheleft (east) bankofthe Devil's River, about 10 feet above the river (Figure 55). A small anticlineispresent. History: Indian middens with numerous stone artifacts-79-indicate long useofthese springs. They are underabout50 feetofwater when International Amistad Reservoirisatconservation pool level. Discharge: January26,1921-25ft3/s;August 12,1925-50 fe Is;February 18,1928-26ft3/s;May25,1971-11ft3/s.Goodenough Spring (KK7).Anartesian spring on the left (north) bank of the Rio Grande. Latitude 29', longitude 101 15', 12 miles southwest of Comstock. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestone of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. History: The Spanish explorer Castano de Sosa may have stopped herein1590 during his explorationofthe Rio Grande and Pecos River. Discharge (fe Isbywater years):WATERDIS-WATERDIS-YEARSCHARGEYEARSCHARGEIft3/sl(ft3/s l1922190193011719232401931150192421019321591925169193330219261601934188192714019351561928120193614419291301937132


Figure54.-MainGillis Spring, in Devil's River Figure55.-0neof the Slaughter Bend Springs-80-


WATERYEARS1938193919401941194219431944DISCHARGE(ft3/s1122120119124143115104WATERYEARS1954195519561957195819591960DISCHARGE(ft3/s1103 10591102113219156about150 feetofwater whenthereservoirisatconservation pool level. This has probably greatly reduced the dischargeanddivertedittootheroutlets suchasSan Felipe Springs. McKee Springs (KK8). Latitude 29', longitude 101', 9 miles westofDelRio. Aquifer: Georgetown Limestone of the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The springs issue from limestone on the left (east) bankoftheRioGrande (Figure 56). Discharge (fe /sbywater years) :1945194611315019611962149116WATER015-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1WATER015-YEARSCHARGE(ft3/s1194719481949195019511952193132138 1139884196319641965196619671968102 128 120 124107 137193919611962 19631964 19651.02.11.7o1.54.31966 196719681969197019711. maximum momentary flow was3,580ft3/s on September 23, 1964. This was the third largest springinTexas until covered by water from International Amistad ReservoirinJuly 1968. The springisunder Discharge appearstohave been increased by International Amistad Reservoir since its closureinJuly 1968. San Felipe Springs (KK9). Three large and one small spring. Latitude 29', longitude 100', 1 mile Figure56.-McKeeSpring and GagingStation-81-


"I,:d'""fDeRio. F 'litHe 6shows oneofthe springs. Aqurcr Geor

Figure 57. '-Cantu Spring and GagingStationforfishing, mounds,potterysherds, and old furnaces for makingpotteryhave been found here. Several mills were powered bythespring water, including Riley'sMill,thefirstinthe 1850's. These included a grist mill, flour mill,cottongin, and furniture factory. An old water wheel could still be seenin1950. Discharge:1973-nonereported. A flowing well was reported just northeast fromthesame aquifer. Reference:Mills,1950.WheelerCountyFortElliott Springs(E1). Several springs forming Sweetwater Creek. Latitude35',longitude100',2 mileswes.tofNew Mobeetie. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation.History: These springs were originally a watering placeforbuffalo, wild turkey, antelope, bear, and javelinas. Buffalo hunters established the townofMobeetie near the springsin1874, From1875to1889nearbyFortElliott used the spring watertoirrigate vegetables. The creek was reported originallytohave had many more water holes and fish, perhaps because the springflow was greater and more uniform. Discharge: July 11,1967-140gpm; June 24,1971-9gpm. Much well pumping for irrigationinthe vicinity has reducedthespring flow. Reference: Harris, 1968. 83-Rathjen Springs (E2). Five springs. Latitude35',longitude 100',11miles northeastofWheeler. Aquifer: Ogallala Formation. History:In1879 Fred Rathjen arrived from Germanytoestablish the first white settlement here.Heused the springstoirrigate60acres,thefirst irrigationinthe Texas Panhandle.Hesold vegetables, peaches, pears, and applestonearbyFortElliott. Discharge: July 14,1967-180gpm; June 24,1971-110gpm.In1971 the springs supplied10stock tanks on Williams Creek. References: Taylor, 1902, and Harris,1968. Wheeler Springs, formerly Seed Springs (E3). Several springs. Latitude34',longitude 100', 1 mile northeastofKelton. Aquifer: Whitehorse Group (sandstone), dipping northwest. History: Used for irrigation. Discharge: July27,1967-1.4 fe/s; June 24,1971-0.28ft3Is.Muchwellpumping has been done for irrigationinthe surrounding area. Bronco Springs (E4). Numerous small springs. Latitude35',longitude 100', 6 miles southof Wheeler. Aquifer: Whitehorse Group (sandstone). dipping northwest. History:Inthe early 1900's these springs were apartofShamrock's water supply. The water was hauledtotown on wagons. Discharge:


WilsonCountyWinklerCountyWilson Sprmg (FF9l_ Lat!tuoe 30"3S', longitude 97', 4miles northwest of Taylor. Aquifer_ Wolfe City Sand. History: The sprinq was on an old Comanche Indian trail. From 1849to1887 the Gooch corn millused the spring waters. Discharge: February8,1941-0.10ft3/s.Reference: Norvell(nodate).Knight Springs(FF12}.Several springs. Latitude 3040',longitude97',5 miles northwest of Georgetown. Aquifer: Edwards and associated limestones. History: Knight's mill used the water power from the springsinthe1880's. They were a reststopon the Chisholm Cattle Trail from 1867to1895. Discharge: July1940-0.89 fe Is;March 16,1964-0.66ft3Is.Reference: Norvell (no date). 1}1%123'ti:ind fedthrough a fault. ['i',chargl'\11a Sutherland Springs (LL36). Many springs including White Sulphur, Cold, Sour, and Alligator Springs. Latitude29',longitude98',1 mile northeastofSutherland Springs. Aquifer: Carrizo Sand. History: These springs were much used bytheCoahuiltecan Indians, who left many flint projectile points, choppers, scrapers, knives, and ceramic sherds. The springs were astopontheChihuahua Road, and the old townofSutherland Springs was laidoutaround them. In the 1850's and 1860'stheapproximately 100 warm and cold springs, reportedly with27flavors, were known for their medicinal qualities. Bathinginthe springattheresort hotel was popular. A historical markerislocated here. They will probably be inundated by the conservation pool watersofproposed Cibolo Reservoir. Discharge: August 18,1936-"flows";1949-1.5ft3Is;1954-0.01 fe Is;March 6,1968-0.15ft3Is.References: Wilson County Centenial Association, 1960;Hsuand Ralph, 1968; and Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971. China Springs (13). Several springs. Latitude34',longitude98',2 miles westofHaynesville. Aquifer: Wichita Formation (limestone and sandstone). Discharge:1913-"considerableflowofslightly brackish water";1969-0.24ft3Is;1970-0.23ft3Is.Reference: Gordon, 1913. 1938-"very stroI9",Ma."25, 196710 qpln;Juno, 24, 19:71--27 gpmIn1971 they supplied eight stock tanks References Perkins, 1938, and Harvey, 1962.WichitaCountyLehman Springs (E5). Several springs forming Crow Creek. Latitude35',longitude100',5miles southeast of Shamrock. Aquifer: Blaine Formation (siltstone and gypsum}, dipping northwest. History: These springs were a partofShamrock's first water supplyin1901. Water was hauledtotown and sold, 6 barrels for$4.Discharge:June 16, 1967-.56 fe Is;June24,1971-0.60ft3/s.Reference: Harvey, 1962.WilbargerCountyDoans Springs(11).Several springs. Latitude34',longitude99',1 mile northwestofDoans. Aquifer: Baseofthe Seymour Formation (alluvium). History: These springs were astopon the Western Cattle Trail from1876on. The waterisnow impoundedina recreational lake. Discharge:In1913theywere described as supporting a small stream which persistedthroughoutthe year, sinking into sandsaboutone mile from its source. Discharge: February 28, 1951 and November 10,1970-reportedtobe flowing. Reference: Gordon 1913. Condon Springs(12).About10springs. Latitude34',longitude99',3 miles northwestofVernon. Aquifer: Baseofthe Seymour Formation (alluvium). History: The springs were on the Western Cattle Trail from1876on. Discharge:In1913they were describedas"good water, with a good flow maintained through the year." October1943-27gpm; December 10,1969-reportedtobe flowing. Reference:Gordon,1913. Willow Springs (V3). Latitude31',longitude102',7 miles northofMonahans. Aquifer: CenozoicWilliamsonCountyalluvium (dune sand). History: This water hole was vital Berry Springs (FF2). Latitude30',longitudetotheComanche Indians andtothewhite travelers97',5miles northofGeorgetown. Aquifer: Edwards--.-heading forthegold rushinCalifornia. In' 1901 the and associated limestones. The springs issue through a remainsofa 40-wagon-party massacre were found here. fault. History: The Strange corn mill was operatedatA historicalmonumentislocated12miles southofthese springs for many years. Discharge: March 17, Kermit on State Highway18and 6.6 miles westofthe1964-13ft3Is.Reference: Taylor, 1904. springs. Discharge: None reportedin1941or1959. Heavy pumpinginthis area has greatly drawndownManske Branch Springs (FF3). Latitude30',water tables. Reference: Texas Historical Survey longitude97',6 miles eastofGeorgetown. Aquifer: Committee, 1971.-84-


REFERENCES CITEDArlington Heights Junior Historians, 1949, Down historic trailsofFortWorth andTarrantCountY:FortWorth, Dudley Hodgkins Co. Atkinson, Bertha, 1970, HistoryofBellCountY, Texas:BellCountyHistSoc. pub. Barkley, Mary, 1963, History of Travis CountY and Austin, 1839-1899: Austin, The Steck Co.__1970, a History of central Texas: Austin, Austin Printing Co. Bonnell, George, 1840, Topographical description of Texas: Austin, reprint by Texian Press. Boren, Hugh, 1969, Historical markersinScurry CountY: Scurry County Hist. Survey Comm. Bosworth, Allan, 1964, Ozona Country: New York, Harper and Row. Briggs, Alton, 1971, An archeological survey of Ingram Reservoir: Texas Hist. Survey Comm. and Texas Water Devel. Board, Archeo!' Survey Rept. 9. Britton, Sarah, 1955, The early history of Baylor CountY: Dallas, Story Book Press. Brune, Gunnar, 1969, How much underground water storage capacity does Texas have?inProceedingsoftheAmerican Water Resources Association: Am. Water Resources Assoc. 5th annual conf.__1970, Major springsofTexas,inWater for Texas: Texas Water Devel. Boardv.l,no.2 (Nov.). Deussen, Alexander, 1914, Geology and underground watersofthesoutheasternpartofthe Texas Coastal Plain:U.S.Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 335. Dobie, Dudley, 1948, A brief history of Hays CountY and San Marcos, Texas: San Marcos. Doll,W.L.,Meyer, Gerald, and Archer,R.J., 1963, Water resources of West Virginia: West Virginia Dept. Nat. Resources,Div.Water Resources. Ewell, Thomas, 1895, A history of Hood CountY, Texas: Granbury, Granbury News. Fannin, Jean, 1968, The oldBigSpring:BigSpring,BigSpring Herald. -85-Fisher,O.C., 1937, It occurredinKimble: Houston, Anson Jones Press. Fredericksburg Chamber of Commerce, 1946, Fredericksburginthe Texas hill country: Fredericksburg ChamberofCommerce brochure. Fry, Tillie, 1943, HistoryofLlano County, Texas: Univ.ofTexasatAustin thesis. Gillespie County Historical Society, 1960, PioneersinGod's hills: Austin, Von Boeckmann-Jones. Goodnight, C., Dubbs,.E.,and Hart,J.A., 1909, Pioneer daysinthe southwest from 1850to1879: Guthrie, State Capital Co. Gordon,C.H., 1911, Geology and underground watersofnortheastTexas: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 276.__1913, Geology and underground watersofthe Wichita region, north-central Texas: U.S. Geo!. Survey Water-Supply Paper 317. Hackney,V.H.,1964, Historical hallmarks of Harrison County: Harrison CountY unpublished rept. Haley,J.E., 1929, The XIT ranch of Texas: Norman, UniversityofOklahoma Press. Hallenbeck, Cleve, 1940, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca: Glendale, Arthur Clarke Co. Harris, Sallie, 1968, Hide town: Hereford, Pioneer Book Publications. Hart, Katherine, 1973, Travis CountY history buriedunderlakes: Austin, Austin American-Statesman. Harvey,Mrs.John, 1962, Wheeler CountY Historical Survey Committee 1962 Report: Shamrock, WheelerCountyHist. Survey Comm. Henderson, Jeff, 1958, 100 yearsinMontague CountY, Texas: Saint Jo, Ipta Printers. Hill,R.T., and Vaughn, T.W.,1898, Geologyofthe Edwards Plateau and Rio Grande Plain adjacenttoAustin and San Antonio, Texas, with referencetothe occurrenceofunderground waters;U.S.Geological Survey,18thAnn.Rept,pt.II.


Hsu,D.P., 1969, The Arthur Patterson site, a midnineteenth century site, San Jacinto County, Texas: Texas State Building Comm. and Texas Water Deve/. Board, Archeo/. Survey Rept.5.Hsu,D.P., and Ralph, Ronald, 1968, An appraisal of the archeological resources of Cibolo Reservoir, Wilson County, Texas: Texas State Building Comm. and Texas Water Deve/. Board, Archeo/. Survey Rept.1.Hunter, Lillie, 1969, The book of years: Hereford, Pioneer Book Publications. Hutson,W.F., 1898, Irrigation systemsinTexas: U.S. Geo/. Survey Water-Supply Paper 13. Jackson,A.T., 1971, Millsofyesteryear: Univ.ofTexasatEIPaso, Texas Western Press.King,P.B.,1948, Geologyofthe southern Guadalupe Mountains: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 215. Liles, Vernen, 1953, Pioneering on the plains, a history of Martin County, Texas: Univ.ofTexasatAustin thesis. Maier,F.J., 1950, Fluoridationofpublic water supplies: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour.,v.42, pt.1.Malone, James, and Briggs, Alton, 1970, Archeological reconnaissanceintheMiller Creek Reservoir area: Texas State Hist. Comm. and Texas Water Devel. Board, An:heol. Survey Rept. 6. Manny,H.J., 1947, Kinney County:ValVerdeCountylibrary unpublished rept. Maxcy,K.F., 1950, Report on the relationofnitrate concentrations in well waterstotheoccurrenceofmethemoglobinemia: Nat'l Research Council Bull. Sanitary Eng. Maxwell,R.A., 1968, TheBigBendofthe Rio Grande: Univ.ofTexasatAustin, Bur.ofEcon. Geology Guidebook 7. Meinzer,O.E., 1927, Large springsinthe United States: U.S. Geo/. Survey Water-Supply Paper 557.Mills,W.S., 1950, HistoryofVanZandtCounty: VanZandtCounty unpublished rept. Moellering, Arwere, 1938, A historyofGuadalupe County, Texas: Univ.ofTexasatAustin thesis. Morfi,F.J.A.,1935, HistoryofTexas, 1673-1779: Albuquerque, Ouivira Society. ')lu'9l1

Texas Historical Survt?yTexas Water Development Board,1970, An arc!eological survey of the Texarkana Reservoir enlargement area: Texas Hist. Survey Comm. and Texas Water DeveL Board, Archeo!. Survey Rept.7.Texas Historical Survey Committee, 1971, Official guidetoTexas historical markers: Austin, Texas Hist. Foundation. Texas State Historical Maps, 1958, Pictorial historical map of Texas: Texas State Historical Maps, ManufacturersandDistributors,P.O.Drawer3885,San Angelo, Texas. Thrall, Homer, 1879, A pictorial historyofTexas: St. Louis,N.D.Thomas and Co. Tiling, Moritz,1913,History of the Germanelementin Texas: Houston, Moritz Tiling. Tyler, George, 1966, The HistoryofBellCounty:Belton, Dayton Kelley. -87-Underwood,J.R.,Jr.,l963,GeologyofEagle Mountainsandvicinity, Hudspeth County, Texas: Univ.ofTexasatAustin, Bur.ofEcon. Geology, Geol. QuadrangleMap26. U.S. Public Health Service, 1962, Public Health Service drinking water standards:U.S"Public Health Service Pub.956.Utley, Robert, 1960, SpecialreportonFortDavis, Texas: U.S. National Park Service rept. Williams, Clayton, 1969, Never again: San Antonio, The Naylor Company, 3 vols. WilsonCountyCentennial Association, 1960, WilsonCountycentennial; Floresville, WilsonCountyCentennial Association. pub. Woldert, Albert, 1948, A historyofTylerandSmith County, Texas: San Antonio, The Naylor Company. Yarbrough,D.8.,1968,Lawsand programs pertainingtowater and related land resources: Texas Water Deve!. Board Rept. 89.


Tabl@ 2.--SelectedChemical Analyses ofSpring \laters,Analyse. by theTexas State Department of Healthunleuotherwise indicated.Resultsarein"liter exceptpH,lIodiUltl-adllorptionratio, residuallodilJll carbonate,and temperature. Aquifer symbols: Alluvium,A1;Gulf Coast, GC; Ogallala,08; Sparta,SPi Que!;n City.QC; carrizo-Wilcox, CW;TrinityGroup, TR.;Edwardl-TTinity (HighPlains),EN;EdwardsTrinity(Plat .lII1),l1.i';EJlO'ards(1l.1rnnes FaultZone),EhiSanta Rou, SRiEllenburgerSanSaba. S; Hidllitj", Hi;other aqutfen, eth.Spring NameAquifer DateofCollectionSilica (Sio.,) cal cium (ca) Magne.ium(Mg) SodiumIPotas(Na) siUlt\ (K) I Bicar bonate (RCO,,,) Sulfate (Sa. )Chloride(e1)Fluoride(F)Nitrate (NO:\) Phos phate(PO. )Total dis solved110lidstotal hardness a. CaCo.'lpH Sodiumadsorptionratio(SAR) III sodium TeI1Ipercarbonate8t.ure(RSe) (aF)!! "Ruffalo othFeb.23,1937June n, 1971i959452922* 20

Table2.--SelectedchemicalAnalysesofSpring SpringNameAquiferDateofCollectionSilica (51,,-)d... (Ca) Magne.,= (Hg) IPotu-(Na) dum (K)Iron(Fe)Boron(8)Bicarbonate(HCo,) Sul fate (SO.) Chloride(Cl)Fluoride(F)Nitrate (NO,) phollphate (pa.) Total dis lIolvedsolid.rotalhardness.. pHSodiumadsorptionratio(SAR)Residualsodiumcarbonate(RSC) atlire (oF) II j;\Ii).'I W5!Jove CTPpk AnsonEp EpI Aug.7,1940.Apr.1,1965I16 Aug.20,1940july12,1970I15 70 14 771660I178818 *17* 31 *352682932873121215 <10 111821 27 660,<2010 <20 7.5 257 316289 394 2342582202977.6 .'I W6 .'I W7 .'I X2 .'I X3LipanKickapoo .. 11RichlandEp Ep oth oth Oct. 15,1940Oct.18,1940Oc.t.24,1938Sept.13,1971I13OCt.10,1938May3,197180761041041082022 232021*13*23*27*44<.02 <.02,1293 299 275405 403 405 31 <1011 9 1515,28 21 13 113957.<20<20<208.0<205.5 <1.0 316292261376403650 283 278 353343337 ). 6972 73 7373.'I x4I .'I X5 .'I X6 .'I BakerFlemingBogardHartESES o'h othOct.S,1938Sept.13,1971Nov.14,1938Sept.12,1971Nov,15,1938'do.Sept.14,197111 1112III99 92 10511018 22 37 24 22*3646*7<'02<.02<.02.02<.1.1390387426390427 423 12 10 11815 15967 70 281411.3<.1.1<205.5<207<20 <20 5.5 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 440456375371 393387 351339 384 3603687. 1.1 .1,2.27272717271 7172 .'I X7 J X8SloanTurkeyRoostoth o,h July20,1938 Sept, 14,1971 \11Dec.19,1938Sept.12,1971 j 1797 653028<,02.13<.1.1451 423 336 2769 42515.1.2 <20 6.0<20<.4<1.0<1.0391 370 296 313 365 280 7.67.9,1.2727269 69Nov.29,1938Sept. 14, 1971I17Nov.29,1938Sept.12,1971I12 co o .'I X9 .'I Xl0 JJ XlI .'I X12DeepCreek Sycamore WallaceCreekSanSabaES ES ES othSept.29,1938Sept.13,1971July19,1938Jan.8,197115 73 67469489109 110 31 323240 3232 3 13*384*90*85.04.1<.02.10<,1<.1.1445 362 329 281451 448 45144911 6 191481210 21 10 6156147<.1.2 .1<.1<203.0<201.5<206.0 <20 4.5<1.0<1.0<1.0 393 316297 285 376 386619616312300246 394 387405 4077.77.9).97.1, 717072.'IX13.'I X14 BarnettParkerBrister ES0,"o,h Oct.7,1938Sept.13,1971I13July20,1938Aug.29,19388611468 23 31 30<.02.1479 353 476317121110910 14.1<204.5<20 <20<1.0403 326 4022794163104142937.6.2 .'I X15ParkerSwillllll.ingPooloth oth Sept. 13,1971May14,1942Sept.17,19711210107142124345445*447253.1.3481 359 351 32 25865 530 .1.23.0o<.4<1.0<1.04121,8701,1704075764977,67,47.55.0 .!J X16SulfurES Mar. 6,1939Sept.16,1971121841584651*812 530 16.04.445145027 27 1,430970.2<20 < .42,720

Table2.--Selected ChemicalAnalyses ofSprins Waters--Continued 72787974 68 52 6452Temperature('F) Rea1dua! sodiumcarbonate(RSC) 34 100832 8701,100960Totalhardne.,.. 48292,8402,7001,620319Total dis solved .olida2,215 .32,2402,098 ...:: .2 I 2,140pho,phate(PO .. )< 1.8 2.7<.4Nitrate (N", ) 2.2 2.11.9Fluoride(F)8427604.513608 610655630443142Chloride(Cl)635 650 70568015Sulfate (SO, )5648688401.5 <10 85 16 12332 322284276222281 Bicar bonate (Heo,) .5.50.6 Boron (B)11 23 1719 273*85*584560*12*437430*4634441.4681 88 8081 28126196200 202 2721'0223790189192 2821 64OCt. 6,1936 Dec. 7,1930Apr.28,1971Sept.19,1907Nov.13,1931Apr. 28, 1971I25Sept.19,1907Sept.22,1936 Dec. 6,1930I19Apr.28.197118SpCWowEp Ep Ep Saragosa RedSandia NacogdochesWhite Giffin 11 CC3 11 CC2 11 '6 1111 Z7 111/ CCIIIIDate ofSl1ioa I Cal-IMagne-j SodiumI p:ta'-IlrooSprinlName AquiferCollection (SiOp)cil.lll sium(Na) silAt\ (Fe)I I I(Ca) (Mg) (K) iii0.7 11 CC4San SolomonEp Oct.28,1930 Apr.28,1971I19 1901968087*448437 630<.212,2108038507.4146.678 76 11 CC5Phantom. LakeEpOct.28,1930Apr.28,19711916191192 8691*47346719.5285 278 6916806556502.2.55 < .42,309<.2I2,2508308507.46.9 6.97178 11 ee10 PenaColorado lJ CCll I ComancheothEpMar.12,1957 1 10Apr. 7, 1932I22 May 20,19582360138144485452*92 256 252 13 .05374271.37I247166393420423583302.21.8.8 6.5 6061,370 1.350 3475665148.12.121215776Feb. 1, 1941I22Dec.16.194918 11 CC15 11 003TunasT-5Ep EpFeb. 7, 19681614013386485327183*186B2.05276277.13 I 218342 360171250249,1301,1406085475504737.37.815 152.054009 008DDllon107172687372722. 300216sso573252170.1259608274267 50210 <20 .4<20 <20 13 <20 .31.41015212474 222061291661245108212215 111 111461204216250127268226195281172.1.06<152*59*12111* 3 *96*13212025 32 2022 4113 16 19934979763S76 6081213 1531918Mar.6.1963I20do.Feb. 7, 1968 Aug. 21,1918Apr.26,1939June13,1939 Hay 27,1971 May 18.1939 May 15.1939 Fl!b. 6,1968Ep Ep Ep Ep Ep Ep Ep EpPecanSweetwaterCoxCedar Tardy HowardWolfRichlandDD13 11 DDSDD4 11 006 11 11 11 11 11co-'11 0014HudspethEp Aug. 20,1934 May 27,1971167S7213 15*98<1.06.0'.12e,270131015 12.4 Tracl'! 7.5.2268274241 243 7.5.32672Jan.12,1965!150015 I Government 11 0017IHackberry 11 EElWilkin.onEp Ep EpFeb.9,1939Aug.18,19421577 5662 201520*13*19*9322 232 28811 1121172712.4.23.8 <20 .5315242 278274199 236 11 EE9ISevenHundred lJ EElOTanner EE6 ColemanEp Ep EpAug.25,1966Dec.29,1938do.147274 73161513*5*12278 275 2817.615131111 11.28.7 <20 <20 3042562672462442387.,1962284363142727.645 11 EE14 I GamelHiFeb.10,19406633*5342<1013 <20 299300.1EElS I KathmanESJan.20,1962284212862767.551 ] EE18ILangeEp Mar. 4,1936270 <10 50303EEl9 IElle.bracht Ep Mar. 15,1965268192652407.873EE201 Fish andWildlifeEpdo.1268142684. 235 7.2.170EE21BearCreekEpMar.16,196522411245 232 7.5Seefootnotesatendoftable.


Tabt. 2. --le1ecudCh..tca1ADa1y ...of SpdnaWaur.-.con.tin.u.d...... 23,1949I24July 3, 1940 Kar. 16,1964Sept.27,1938Sept.16. 1971 Jan.4.1939 July26, 1961 I11Sept. lS, 1971 2coI\.) Spr101 EE2ZEE231124 1125 E126U27 EE281129 E!31EE3211 EE36 11 EE37 EE38EE39U4011 EE41 11E"'3118 11U45 EE46 PP2pp3lF4SFiS"8'!I"7'!I"8liP"11pFlO11 PPll 11n12 N_ Honey CreekMy.ticTelanar Cr.ak Kelly Cr.. k. Colbath IndianCreekGoatCreak Randanon BranchFall RaU Cypre.. Creek "ok BellinaHollandEbauna1tockyCreek... ok Jacob'. WallBuffaloCroft.HobblBerry Ka_nlkaBranchlIonw.i'av.rHou.aSa1den Cold Bartonwnlon "-u.chaca Burle.on Kn11htAquHerEpEp Ep EpEpEp Ep Ep Ep Ep EpES ES Tr ES ESEpEpotb ..IS Eb Eb EbSbSbEb Ebotb otbowEp Dau atCollection Mar. 16, 196' do. do.do_ Mar; 24, 1965 Mar. 16,1965do. Kar.24. 1965 Hal'. 25, 1965 Sept.16, 19-71Hay 17,1962 Hay20. 1941 Oct. 28,1937July22, 1941AUI.4,19:38May 28,1969 Hay 27,1969 Mar. 17,1964do.Feb.6,1973 Mar. 14,1896 Mar.30, 1973 Mar. 21.1896 Jlme 16,1972 Har. 14,1896 June 14, 1941 Feb.6,1973'eb.8,1941 Feb.17, 1941 Sept. 3, 1971SlUea (Siq,> 13 136.24.212 10718 Ca10'" (C.)69 839496 3892 53 105 94 122 10588867370 \2253 738082 9987 94 9466 Mqn.01...('-> 514639 43414034221717 41 30 27 132.32214 3820 19 112118.617 SodlID I Potal (Ha) Ii_ *12 5 5 *21 1915*18 29 9 *<5*12*10 *18 *42*34*4 *\2 *16* 19 74*18 *54 Iroo(P.) .\2 .04 .04.021.0Joron(B)'"'0.> 276 282284 318267 281272268 250 248 280 473 453 464 434 268.437240329329409470 432 368248 182375 96 339 302 298244 256 329 298 334 316Sul tat(80.> 6.91115 28 17643111"12 191624264882 45 16 25 2622892912 Chlo ride (C1)138.516 15 19 162218282126 1073038 27 31 56 15 281929141614402875345822 18 2237134623 36 14F1uo..ride(P>.1 .1.2.3.,.3< . Mltrata(NO.) <2010<2021.47.03.2467.0.211 11" ;13 7.0 1.75 7.0.671.5 5.559 22123.8<20Pb.. pbolta(PO.> <1.0 <1.0 <1.0<1.0TotaldU .olved.01141.280 250 265 29028' 2}5 275 263 280250300 390 392 386504298427 335 4"303 399 411 278 227 456 298 330 330 434325 321319368 291510348 366303Total hrdae .. CaCo. 250 241264292317268269 252 251 261 310 381 39839441826539'348 354 306 375 430 380 322 268 220 396 106 191 180 340 94 282282292 227282270 236 284pH7. 7.88.'7.'7.8 SodiUlll ad.orpHonratio (SAR) . 1.5 . 1.5RU1dual .odium carbonate(R5C) .1o rempli'r-! I6870706854 70 7068727278 6J PF13 11"1511n16IndianKalltDPiadrKJn.t1.1 otb Jun. 8,1971I22Dee.11,1942 D.c. 8,1942 Nov. 5, 1970I89 95 45 233 230 1.9 27 25*22 *140*2132002'..052829230'124 17 179 34062013 118390 300.1o.112 363 527 1,353 1,500 258\21 691 6807.4 6.7.4 1.1 3.6'I3.372S.efootnote.atandof table.


Table2.--Selected ChemicalAna1yau of SpringWatera.....continued IIII Spring N .... II IAquilili"IDille",fCollectien T SiHco 'II(S10,) r:alc1. (Ca) I SoditDdumI (Ha) (Mg) Pota. d',," (K)IronI'oron1 .-::I (FeiI{B} I ISulfate (",,) -IChlo-IFlueI Nitrat. rideride (NO,) I(Cl)I (F) 1I Total I Totaldiahardne..phatesolved .a\solid2 I pHSodiumadsorptionratio(SAR) Residual sodiumcarbonate("C) Temper ature (oF)Jj FF19I SantaMoniea}J 002Cold260I1304.2I2.03.01.3 }} JJ3 }}10<110<3BoquillallWarul DeadManFineganEpGCEpEpEp May 26,1896 OCt.23,1941I12 Apr. 7,1966 17June10,1936Apr.29,1971 I 23 Mar. 15,1934Sept.12,1966I10 May 25,197114120 135 76 696739 14 13 15 7801785 958301<'272226 256 2591,6403.4375 3652.37.27670 8.0 68 70 20 1412.<.411 118<.2.33,7103952868 870 265272257 22 13 532 499 2471762307. 1047273 11KK4 DolanEpJune22,1939 May 25,19711473 6714 14*67<1.02.1281 256<107913.4.3<207.6.1248 256 239 2271.7.2.2172 72 1110<5 GilUsEpJuly 18, 1939 May 26,1971'146'61 121387<1.1244 227 <10 81110.2.4<207.1231232 213 2067.'.2.2174 73Nov. 2, 1933Sept. 7, 1967113 KK6]jKK7Slaughter Bend GoodenoughEp Ep do.13666974 1221131310<1.1.06239 278 252 16 2611 12 279 280 215 258 2387. 1.37372 Edge FaU.LLl7 \ Verde L116 I Buffalo CTeek L115 \ Lynx Haven 667064687565157070 68 68 69 7061 68'" 705210566..2 .4 .4.2.6 . .2 . . .22.11.0 266 270 255 340 265 220 197294320 286 322 28223322229. 308 246 125 244 192 154 246 17614'2011.2368 223 220263 253 213 271 29527.257 286 244 22033124434033526632.311431 201 388 3401841761363131713228.8108.217117.'4.81.4'.23.64.4207.<20 <20 <208.0<20<20< 8.48.47.'20 261119 12121819331116 13'.216 14 29 191113306. 151111154.63.7291138 101 130352177214 298 304 3343142472.6 344 352 201 270 248 220 244 266 253 261 220 302 225 260 230 27118.240140 285 .01.01 .021418*11*2*4*912*13918 168 122*5 1 79 4 16 12 101118 14116.8135684 85726652827359 54 94 80468875 56 '02315 102 9710088120107 109do.I12July19,1944 OCt. 7J1943 Mar.25, 1965Feb.6,1939Jan.20,1939Jan.23,1939 Mar.1, 19471 9.8 Au..3,1.6'I14Hov.20,1936Jan.24,1955 Mar.15, 1965 I 11Mar.16,1965Apr.3,1956 I 13Jan. 16, 1939Feb.27,1939 Apr.11, 1956 I 12 Apr. 10,1939Nov.4,197014 Apr.27,1933 Nov. 3,1970I12 Apr.6,1939 HO\1. 3,1970 13 Hov. 8, 193916Oct.4,1939 22Oct.3,193914June17,1952 12 Oct. 6,1954I 15 Jan.24,1955do.Ep Ep Ep Ep Ep Eb Ep Ep Ep Ep Eb EpEpEp Ep EpEbEpEpEpEb EpEp Ep Ep McKee SaoFelipe ]nlOi Cantu }}10<8}}10<9}}10<11 IHud )j"12Pinto}JKK13 Las Moras]KKl5 Kickapoo ]KK16CIIIl'IP Wood ]1KK17 PaintBluff )JK!UB Roberta ]jKR19Pulliam]JK1{20McCurdy]1 LL3Prade )jLlA Big 11all Leona Group 1 11 LL13Leona Group 3 JI LLl4 Leona Group 4 JI LUlSpringBranch }}1J LU2HoneyCraek 11 LL23Rebecca ]j LL24Wolle Seefootnotesatendof table.