New Rissooidea from Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Rissooidea)

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New Rissooidea from Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Rissooidea)

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New Rissooidea from Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Rissooidea)
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PETER GLÖER 1 DILIAN GEORGIEV 2 1Schulstraße 3, D-25491 Hetlingen, Germany gloeer@malaco.de 2Department of Ecology and Environmental Conservation, University of Plovdiv Tzar Assen Str. 24, BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria diliangeorgiev@abv.bg AbstractFor the first time a troglobiont species of the genus Bythinella and a representative of the genus Radomaniola have been found in Bulgaria. In addition, three more Bythinella spp., two new Grossuana spp. and three new Belgrandiella spp. could be introduced. These species are here described as new: Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., and G. angeltsekovi n. sp. Information about the habitat and photos of the type localities are also presented. KurzfassungNeue Hydrobiidae aus Bulgarien (Gastropoda: Rissooidea). - Erstmalig wurden eine troglobionte Bythinella und ein Vertreter der Gattung Radomaniola in Bulgarien gefunden. Zusätzlich zu drei weiteren Bythinella-Arten, konnten drei neue Belgrandiella-Arten sowie zwei neue Grossuana spp. vorgestellt werden. Die Arten werden hier neu beschrieben als: Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica, Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp.,Grossuana thracica n. sp. und G. angeltsekovi n. sp. Informationen zum Habitat und Photos der Typuslokalitäten werden ebenfalls präsentiert. Key words: Bulgaria, Hydrobiidae, Bythinella markovi n. sp., Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp., Bythinella walkeri n. sp., Bythinella srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp., Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp.
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123 Museum fr Tierkunde Dresden, ISSN 1864-5127, 25.11.200927 (2) 2009123 136Mollusca >New Rissooidea from Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Rissooidea)> AbstractFor the rst time a troglobiont species of the genus Bythinella and a representative of the genus Radomaniola have been found in Bulgaria. In addition, three more Bythinella spp., two new Grossuana spp. and three new Belgrandiella spp. could be introduced. These species are here described as new: Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., and G. angeltsekovi n. sp. Information about the habitat and photos of the type lo cal ities are also presented. > Kurzfassung Neue Hydrobiidae aus Bulgarien (Gastropoda: Rissooidea). Erstmalig wurden eine troglobionte Bythinella und ein Vertreter der Gattung Radomaniola in Bulgarien gefunden. Zustzlich zu drei weiteren Bythinella -Arten, konnten drei neue Belgrandiella -Arten sowie zwei neue Grossuana spp. vorgestellt werden. Die Arten werden hier neu beschrieben als: Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica, Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., B. bach kovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp.,Grossuana thracica n. sp. und G. angeltsekovi n. sp. Informationen zum Habitat und Photos der Typuslokalitten werden ebenfalls prsentiert. > Key words Bulgaria, Hydrobiidae, Bythinella markovi n. sp., Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp., Bythinella walkeri n. sp., Bythinella srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp., Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp.IntroductionThe hydrobiid species of Bulgaria have as yet not been studied thoroughly, although the rst publication on molluscs, due to Frivaldzky, appeared in 1835 (cited after WOHLBEREDT 1911: 169). WOHLBEREDT (1911) gave a detailed summary of the literature prior to 1911, and he listed the species described by the said authors. He and his predecessors did not report on any small hydrobiid species and dealt predominantly with terrestrial snails. In the 20th century WAGNER (1927: 281) thoroughly studied the Hydrobiidae for the rst time. He reported on some Pseudamnicola spp., of which only P. consociella euxina Wohlberedt, 1927 occurs in Bulgaria (loc. typ. near Varna), however, RADOMAN (1983: 5859) mentioned this species as belonging to the genus Adriohydrobia Radoman, 1973. HUBENOV (2007) and ZETTLER (2008) mentioned Grossuana codreanui (Grossu, 1946) as a regional endemic species (northern Black Sea coast), while AN-GELOV (2000: 12) and RADOMAN (1983: 58, mentioned as G. serbica codreanui) believed that it was widely distributed in the Balkans. In addition ANGELOV (2000) and HUBENOV (2007) listed some small hydrobiid species of the genus groups Belgrandiella and Pontobelgrandiella from Bulgaria, which are locally endemic. The species we discuss here belong to the genus groups Bythinella Moquin-Tandon, 1855, Belgrandiella Wagner, 1927, Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 (formerly Orientalina Radoman, 1978), and Grossuana Radoman, 1973.PETER GLER 1 & DILIAN GEORGIEV 21 Schulstrae 3, D-25491 Hetlingen, Germany gloeer@malaco.de2 Department of Ecology and Environmental Conservation, University of Plovdiv Tzar Assen Str. 24, BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria diliangeorgiev@abv.bg Received on July 20, 2009, accepted on August 13, 2009. Published online at www.mollusca-journal.de

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GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria124 The species of the genus Bythinella are widely distributed from the uplands of Germany (BOETERS 1981) and Poland (FALNIOWSKI 1987) on the northern border, to the Mediterranean and Northern Africa (KRISTENSEN 1985) in the South. The eastern border is the Ukraine (SON 2009), and Turkey limits the distribution in the S-East (YILDIRIM 1999, 2006). Species of the genus Bythinella occur predominantly in springs and spring-fed brooks, and as they are photophobic, they live on the undersides of leaves or submerged wood, in the interstitial (BOETERS 1998), or, exceptionally, also in caves ( Bythinella padiraci Locard, 1902), and prefer temperatures of 6 C. From Bulgaria only three Bythinella spp. are known until now: B. austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1856), B. hansboetersi Gler & Pesi 2006, and B. cf. opaca (Gallenstein, 1848) (GEORGIEV & STOYCHEVA 2008). Bythinella austriaca has been listed by ANGELOV (2000) and HUBENOV (2007) as well, but has not been mentioned by RADOMAN (1983), who was the outstanding expert on the Hydrobiidae of the Balkans. GEORGIEV & STOYCHEVA (2008) already put in question the occurrence of B. austriaca in Bulgaria. Species determination in the genus Bythinella is problematic, because species that are anatomically distinct cannot be distinguished genetically ( B. robiciana (Clessin, 1890) vs. B. opaca (Gallenstein, 1848) HAASE et al. (2007)). On the other hand, species that differ only by the marginal teeth of the radula, a constant feature, ( B. angelitae Haase, Wilke & Mildner, 2007 vs. B. opaca) can be distinguished by sequencing CO1 fragments (HAASE et. al. 2007). Thus it is uncertain whether B. opaca is distributed in Bulgaria or whether it is a distinct species such as B. angelitae which can only be distinguished genetically or by the radula from B. opaca. The Belgrandiella species listed by ANGELOV (2000) only occur in the Stara Planina Mts and Kraishte Mts. From the Rhodopes Mts, where we found the new species, Belgrandiella spp. are unknown so far. The new species do not belong to the genus Pontobelgrandiella Radoman, 1978, because the penis of Pontobelgrandiella has two small outgrowths on the left side, which could not be found in the Belgrandiella spp. which are discussed here. Fig. 1. The sampling sites of the Hydrobiidae of Bulgaria. Bythinella (red dot): 1: B. markovi n. sp. (Gargina Dupka Cave); 2: B. rav no gorica n. sp. (Ravnogor); 3: B. walkeri n. sp. (Rila Mts); 4: B. srednogorica n. sp.; Radomaniola (blue dot): 1: R. bulgarica n. sp., 2: R. rhodopensis n. sp.; Grossuana (green dot): 1: G. thracica n. sp. (Chirpan Bunar Cave); 24: G. angeltsekovi n. sp. (2: Bachkovo; 3: Pavelsko; 4: Musomishta), Belgrandiella (yellow dot): 1: B. dobrostanica n. sp. (Gargina Dupka Cave), 2: B. bachkovoensis n. sp. (Bachkovo), 3: Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp. (Stara Zagora).

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125Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 Species of the genus Radomaniola and Grossuana have not been mentioned by ANGELOV (2000) from Bulgaria, except Grossuana codreanui (Grossu, 1946), listed as a Pseudamnicola Species of the genus Radomaniola and Grossuana which are discussed here, are problematic concerning their classi cation. SZAROWSKA et al. (2007) discussed the species Grossuana codreanui (Grossu, 1846), G. serbica (Radoman, 1973), Belgrandiella haesitans (Westerlund, 1881), and Orientalina delphica Radoman, 1973, considering their generic position, and they found that all these species, however, belong to the genus Grossuana This paper is intended (i) to improve the knowledge concerning the Hydrobiidae in Bulgaria, and (ii) to describe the new species Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica, Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp., B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., and G. angeltsekovi n. sp.Material and methodsIn 2008 D. Georgiev collected freshwater molluscs in Bulgaria. The snails were collected by hand and with a sieve from the waters. The samples were put into 75% ethanol. The dissections and measurements of the genital organs and the shells were carried out using a stereo microscope (Zeiss); the photographs were made with a digital camera system (Leica R8). Of every species we dissected three specimens to be sure that the morphology of the penis and the agellum is a constant feature.ResultsNew samples, collected in the years 2008 and 2009 by D. Georgiev, revealed some new species of the Hydrobiidae in Bulgaria.Genus: Bythinella Moquin-Tandon, 1856Bythinella markovi n. sp. Material examined: 17 ex. from type locality, collected 26.02.2009 by D. Georgiev. Holotype: Shell height 2.15 mm, width 1.25 mm, ZMH 51442. Paratypes: 2 specimens ZMH 51443, 3 juvenile specimens for DNA sequencing in the University of Giessen (Prof. Wilke), rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: In the stream of Gargina Dupka cave (=Crow Whole cave), near the village of Mostovo, the northern slope of the Rhodopes Mts, Southern Bulgaria, N 41 51 00.4 E 24 55 57.1, 915 m alt. Etymology: Named after Tanyo Markov, a speleologist who led D. Georgiev to this cave. Description: The horn-coloured shell is cylindrical and consists of 3.5 whorls, which are regularly convex with a deep suture. The surface is silky and nely striated. The apex is obtuse, the umbilicus closed. The aperture is oval with a sharp periostome, which is slightly thickened at the columella. Shell height 2.2 mm, width 1.2.3 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.47.50. Animal: The mantle is white. The penis is as long as the penial appendix (Fig. 3.3), the agellum is regularly broad, at the proximal end slightly thickened (Fig. 3.4). Distribution: Gargina Dupka cave is a part of the very large Dobrostan karst system that has a total of 77 registered caves, and adjacent areas of the vilFig. 2. The type locality of Bythinella markovi n. sp. (below: inside the cave).

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GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria126lages as Mostovo, Dobrostan, Pavelsko, Borovo, and Orehovo (PETROV & STOEV 2007). Many of the caves in this ridge have waters, possibly connected somewhere underground. So B. markovi possibly inhabits a larger area of subterranean streams and rivers, and the edge of its populations can be expected to lie in other caves. Notes on the ecology: The cave has two closely situated entrances and a stream that ows out from the lower one. There is a catchment of its waters at the cave antechamber which drives away about 70% of the stream for drinking needs. The total cave length is 524 m (PETROV & STOEV, 2007). The specimens live under stones in a limestone cave stream, which has shallow (at average around 10 cm) and calm waters in winter and summer, and deep (max about 1.5 m) and fast running ones at rainy seasons (Markov, pers. comm.). Live specimens were collected 50 meters from the caves entrance, where the environmental conditions were characteristic for a cave. There was no light entering, air temperature 6.6 C, and that of the water 9.6 C with oxygen level of 9.0 mg/l. Living snails were found along the whole stretch of the stream up to the surfacing of the stream from a narrow cave whole, close to the caves end. At the caves middle parts there was a large mound of guano beneath a large bat colony, and close to the stream. At this area the oxygen in the stream dropped a little to 8.8 mg/l, the water temperature was similar, while the air warmed to 10.3 C. The only makro invertebrate animal species found to live with B. markovi were at worms Planaria sp. which could be the only predator of the snails. Taking 117 at random 2 2 cm2 square samples (14.03.2009) from under stone surfaces in the stream, we collected a total of 16 individuals of B. markovi which showed a relative density of 0.14 individuals per 2 cm2 (min-max = 0 individuals). Recommendations for conservation measures: Noting that the only population of B. markovi known till now occupied only a few meters of a cave stream, we consider it as very vulnerable. Accordingly, we recommend a full protection of the habitat and the species by law. Now it has a law statute of a natural landmark and a water spring for drinking needs and the cave is partly protected, having a metal grating at the entrance that, unfortunately, does not prevent various people from entering and disturbing the area. We also recommend to the speleologists and cavers who enter the cave to avoid walking into the stream, and to move on the dry areas to avoid crushing individuals of B. markovi. Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp. Material examined: 14 ex. from type locality. Holotype: Shell height 2.9 mm, width 1.6 mm, ZMH 51444. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51445, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: West Rhodopes Mts, village of Ravnogor, N 41 56 59.9 E 24 21 53.3, 1250 m alt. Etymology: named after the Ravnogor village where the species was found. Description: The coloureless shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls which are regularly convex with a deep suture. The surface is silky and nely striated. The apex is obtuse, the umbilicus is opened. The aperture is oval with a sharp periostome. Shell height 2.9.1 mm, width 1.6.9 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.38.42. Animal: The mantle is white. The penis is by one quarter shorter than the penial appendix (Fig. 4.3), the agellum is regularly broad, at the proximal end 4 Fig. 3. Bythinella markovi n. sp. 1: photographed in ethanol (holotype), 2: paratype, 3: penial appendix with agellum (penis cut), 4: penis in situ. = agellum, p = penis, pa = penial appendix.

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127Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 slightly thickened (Fig. 3.4) and very thin at the distal end (Fig. 4.4). Notes on the ecology: Spring from a small limestone whole in an open grassy terrain, under stones and dead wood, 8 C. We found specimens of B. ravnogorica mostly under small pieces of submerged dead wood at the place of emerging of the spring water from a small cave gap. The upper surfaces of the substrates (stones, dead wood) from under which we collected the animals were fully covered by a thick population of green algae. Distribution: known only from the type locality, where the limestone formed a speci c island among a large granite area, probably endemic species. Recommendations for conservation measures: The type locality spring is situated very close to a dairy farm that strongly pollutes the waters of the main river (Ravnogorska River), of which the spring is a tributary. Also a lot of plastic, organic and other garbage was observed around the area of nding B. ravnogorica, so we recommend adequate measures to put a check to the water pollution of the area. We believe that a single chemical agent could destroy the whole population of the species from the type locality.4 Fig. 4. Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp. 1: photographed in ethanol (holotype), 23: paratype, 45: penis with agellum ( 4: dorsal view, 5: ventral view), 6: penis in situ. = agellum, p = penis, pa = penial appendix. Fig. 5. The type locality of Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp. from two views.

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GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria128Bythinella walkeri n. sp. Material examined: 18 ex. from type locality. Holotype: Shell 3.2 mm high, width 1.9 mm; ZMH 51446. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51447, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Rila Mts, south of Dolna Banya village near Bistritza River, N 42 15 59.3 E 23 43 48.7, 831 m alt. Etymology: Named after our colleague David Walker who polished the English in many of the papers of the senior author. Description: The whitish to yellowish shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls that are regularly convex and attened at the deep suture. The surface is silky and nely striated. The apex is obtuse, the umbilicus is closed. The aperture is oval with a sharp periostome. Shell height 3.0.2 mm, width 1.9.0 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.43.44. Animal: The mantle is pigmented in black. The penis is by one half shorter than the penial appendix (Fig. 5.3), the agellum is regularly broad, at the proximal end thickened (Fig. 3.4) and tapered at the distal end (Fig. 5.4). Distribution: Known only from the type locality, but it might be expected in numerous non-isolated springs similar to the type locality in Rila and other neighbouring mountains. Notes on the ecology: Shallow spring, 1 cm, from granite rocks; total lack of limestone in the area, in Fagus sylvatica forest. Non calcerous species occurring in shallow spring lled with leaves and wood rotting matter. Recommendations for conservation measures: This species was registered at the edge of the Rila National Park. This area is known as highly endangered by rapidly developing tourist resorts, an activity that totally destroys the primeval woods. Bythinella srednogorica n. sp. Material examined: 18 ex. from type locality. Holotype: Shell height 2.9 mm, width 1.7 mm, ZMH 51448. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51449, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Sredna Gora Mts, west of the village of Djulevo, south of Streltcha town, close to Streltchenska Luda Yana River, in a stream owing into it with a small pond near to its spring (the gastropods were Fig. 6. Bythinella walkeri n. sp. 1: photographed in ethanol (holotype), 23: paratypes, 4: penis in situ, 5: penis and agellum. = agellum, p = penis, pa = penial appendix. Fig. 7. The type locality of Bythinella walkeri n. sp.

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129Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 found only in the running water), UTM-grid: KH80, GPS coordinates: 42 27.6 N, 24 20.1 E, 393 m a. s. l. Etymology: named after the mountain Sredna Gora where this species lives. Description: The horn-coloured shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls that are regularly convex with a deep suture. The surface is silky and nely striated. The apex is obtuse, the umbilicus is slit-like. The aperture is oval, angled at the top, with a thickened periostome. Shell height 2.9.1 mm, width 1.6.7 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.44.42. Animal: The mantle is dark grey. The penis has a relatively rounded apex and a broader base. The penial appendix is wide at the upper part, and the corpus is a little protruded. The penis is as long as the penial appendix (Fig. 6.3), the agellum is extraordinarily large with a thin distal part and a thick proximal part. Notes on the ecology: Bythinella srednogorica n. sp. has been found in a small stream, owing from beneath a limestone hill and passing by a volcanic rock, which is a tributary of a medium sized river (Streltchenska Luda Yana). The stream was surrounded by a forest of Carpinus orientalis and Quercus sp.Genus Belgrandiella Wagner, 1927The species of the genus Pontobelgrandiella Radoman, 1978 have two nipple-like outgrowths on the left side of the penis, the penis of Belgrandiella spp. have no outgrowths. Thus the species described below belong to the genus Belgrandiella Belgrandiella angelovi Pintr, 1968 Locus typicus: Bulgarien, Balkan-Gebirge (Stara Pla ni na), eine Quelle im Schipka-Pa, nrdlich vom gleich namigen Dorf. Description: The colourless to greenish-yellowish shell is opaque, cylindrical and consists of 4.5 regularly growing whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is silky. The apex is slim and obtuse, the umbilicus is slit-like. The aperture is ovally broad. Shell height 1.9 mm, width 0.98 mm (holotype), aperture height to shell height 0.39. Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp. Material examined: 27 ex. from type locality, 29.11.2008 D. Georgiev et Stoycheva leg. Holotype: Shell height 1.8 mm, width 1.1 mm, ZMH 51454. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51455, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Spring near Bedechka River, park Krairechen, town of Stara Zagora. Etymology: Named after the town in which region the species lives. Description: The yellowish to brownisch shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a clear suture. The surface is silky to glossy. The apex is slim and obtuse, the umbilicus Fig. 8. Bythinella srednogorica n. sp. 1: photographed in ethanol (holotype), 23: paratype, 4: penis with agellum. = agellum, p = penis, pa = penial appendix.

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GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria130is closed. The aperture is oval. Shell height 1.8.0 mm, width 1.1.2 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.40. Animal: The mantle is white, the penis is simple without an appendix and regularly broad. Notes on the ecology: Could be found on stones and moss. Recommendations for conservation measures: The population of R. bulgarica in the town of Stara Zagora is endangered by the nowadays very fast growing urbanisation of the area, which at last can totally destroy its habitat. We recommend entire protection of the area and the conservation of the forest habitat in the town as it was years before. Also careful control on water pollution is needed. The type locality of the species is endangered by a total diversion of the waters of the thermal spring for commercial purposes, so this has to be avoided. Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp. Material examined: 20 ex. from type locality, 14.03.2009 D. Georgiev leg., 8 ex. West Rhodopes near Martsiganitsa Hut, spring at karst area in Fagus sylvatica forest, N 41.1, E 24.5, 02.05.2009 Georgiev leg. Holotype: Shell height 1.8 mm, width 0.9 mm, ZMH 51450. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51451, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Gargina Dupka cave, about 20 m from the entrance, Mostovo village, N 41 51 0.4 E 24 55 57.1, 915 m alt. Etymology: Named after the Dobrostan Ridge of the Western Rhodopes where the species was found. Description: The whitish to light horn-coloured shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is silky to glossy. The apex is slim and obtuse, the umbilicus is closed. The aperture is oval and angled at the top. Shell height 1.7.9 mm, width 0.9.0 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.37.40. Animal: The mantle is white, the penis is simple without an appendix, and at the distal end tapered. Distribution: known only from the type locality, probably endemic. Notes on the ecology: Water temperature measured on 14.03.2009 was 8.2C and oxygen levels 9.4 mg/l. Possibly troglophilous species. Recommendations for conservation measures: same like for Bythinella markovi Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp. Material examined: 23 ex. from type locality, 15.03.2009 D. Georgiev et S. Stoycheva leg. Holotype: Shell height 2.1 mm, width 1.0 mm, ZMH 51452. Paratypes: 3 ex. ZMH 51453, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Bachkovo village, West Rhodopes. stream, N 42 57 10.1 E 24 51 41.2, 320 m alt. Etymology: Named after the village in which region the species lives. Description: The colourless to light horn-coloured shell is cylindrical and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is glossy. The apex is small and obtuse, the umbilicus closed. The aperture is oval. Shell height 1.9.0 mm, width 1.0.1 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.40.42. Animal: The mantle is colourless, the penis is simple without an appendix, and at the distal end slightly tapered. Notes on the ecology: It lives in a small stream that is 40 cm in length and 5 cm in depth, passes Fig. 9. Paratype of Belgrandiella angelovi (HNHM Budapest No. 11885). Fig. 10. Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp. 1: shell, 2: penis in situ.

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131Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 through granite rocks, situated beneath a large limestone area. It is surrounded by grass vegetation and single Populus sp., Salix sp. and Juglans regia trees. Water temperature of the spring was 6.4 C (measured on 15.03.2009), and oxygen 9.2 mg/l. Co-existing with Galba truncatula Recommendations for conservation measures: Pollution of the type locality by a small animal farm situated upstream was obvious, and has to be limited.Genus Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006The species of the genus Radomaniola have a clearly visible outgrow at the left side of the penis, like the species described here as new. Species of the genus Grossuana Radoman, 1973, a genus which is closely related to Radomaniola, have smaller outgrowths, sometimes hardly visible. If both genus groups are distinct in fact can be discussed. Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp. Material examined: 35 ex. from type locality, collected 15.11.2008 by D. Georgiev. Holotype: Shell height 1.8 mm, width 1.3 mm, ZMH 51456. Paratypes: 5 ex. ZMH 51457, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: Thermal spring south of the village of Ostra Mogila, southern slope of Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts, Southern Bulgaria. N 42 27 10.8 E 25 28 27.5, 368 m alt. Etymology: Named after the country where the species lives. Fig. 11. Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp. 1: photographed in ethanol (holotype), 23: paratype, 4: penis in situ. Fig. 12. Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp. 1: holotype, 2: penis in situ. Fig. 13. The type locality of Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp.

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GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria132is endangered by a total diversion of the waters of the thermal spring for commercial purposes, so this has to be avoided. Remark: GEORGIEV (2005) reported R. bulgarica as Pseudamnicola consociella euxina from shell material collected near the type locality. Radomaniola rhodopensis n. sp. Material examined: 39 ex. fro ocality, 15.03.2009 D. Georgiev et S. Stoycheva leg. Holotype: Shell height 1.9 mm, width 1.5 mm, ZMH 51533. Paratypes: 5 ex. ZMH 51534. Locus typicus: a small spring (water source), tributary of the Pavelsko village main river, south of the village, N 41 51` 9.7`` E024 42` 29.4``, 791 m alt. Etymology: named after the Rhodopes (= Rodopi, Rhodope) mountains were the species lives. Description: The conical shell is light horn-coloured to whitish and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is silky. The apex is slightly rounded, the umbilicus closed. The body whorl is prominent. The aperture is oval and angled at the top, with a sharp periostome which is thickened at the columella. Shell height 1.9.1 mm, width 1.5.6 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.43.45. Animal: The mantle is pigmented in black with a white border. The penis bears a double lobe on its left edge and a black pigmented spot at the distal end of it. The operculum is orange. Notes on the ecology: Lives in spring that are visibly rich in calcium (the CaCO3 was formed a thick stratum on the stone surfaces and sticking the stones together as a cement) with a lot of rotting plant matter with temperature 8.4 C, and oxygen 7.2 mg/l. The spring was lled mainly with dead leaves of Juglans regia, growing nearby.m type l. Description: The elongated conical shell is light horncoloured to whitish and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly convex with a clear suture. The surface is silky. The apex is small rounded, the umbilicus is closed. The aperture is oval and angled at the top, with a sharp periostome which is at the columella thickened. Shell height 1.7.8 mm, width 1.2.3 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.49.50. Animal: The mantle is pigmented in black with a white border. The penis bears a double lobe on its left edge that is pigmented by two small black spots and a triangular black pigmented spot at the distal end to it (Fig. 4.3). The operculum is orange (Fig. 4.2). Distribution: Except at the type locality, we registered the species in four springs at Bedechka River (a few kilometers east of the type locality) both in the Upper Thracian Lowland at the town of Stara Zagora town, and up the same river at the slopes of the Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts. Notes on the ecology: Thermal spring. Water temperature 17.2 C at the spring, oxygen 6.2 mg/l, 368 m alt. (measured on 19.04.2009). Known to live in calcerous small, very shallow springs that are in ows of medium sized rivers, surrounded by tree vegetation as Alnus glutinosa, Salix spp., and Populus spp. The population in the town of Stara Zagora (Upper Thracia) is situated in a stream in a forest park area. The springs at Bedechka River are colder with a water temperature of 10 C, and lled with tree leaf detritus having oxygen levels of 5.2 mg/l. In these springs R. bulgarica lives together with Belgrandiella angelovi on stones, sand, wood and water vegetation. Recommendations for conservation measures: The population of R. bulgarica in the town of Stara Zagora is endangered by the nowadays very fast growing urbanisation of the area, which at last can totally destroy its habitat. We recommend entire protection of the area and the conservation of the forest habitat in the town as it was years before. Also careful control on water pollution is needed. The type locality of the species Fig. 14. Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp. 1: shell photographed in ethanol (holotype), 2: paratype, 3: Penis.

PAGE 11

133Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 Genus Grossuana Radoman, 1973Grossuana thracica n. sp. Material examined: 57 ex. from type locality, collected 06.12.2008 by D. Georgiev. Holotype: Shell height 2.1 mm, width 1.2 mm, ZMH 51458. Paratypes: 5 specimens in ethanol, ZMH 51459, rest in collection Gler. Locus typicus: It lives where the water emerges from the spring of Chirpan Bunar cave, owing into a small pond, 3 km east of the village of Bolyarino, Upper Fig. 15. Radomaniola rhodopensis n. sp. 12: shell. Fig. 16. The type locality of Radomaniola rhodopensis n. sp. Fig. 17. Type locality of Grossuana thracica n. sp. from two views. Fig. 18. Grossuana thracica 1: shell photographed in ethanol (holotype), 23: paratypes, 4: penis.

PAGE 12

GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria134lands, collected from stones and water vegetation. Water temperature 13 C (measured on 06.12.2008). Coexisting with Radix auricularia Recommendations for conservation measures: Considering that G. thracica is connected only with a few meters of spring area in one of the few lowland caves of Upper Thracia, we found it very vulnerable. Accordingly we recommend full protection of the area and the species by law. Quick measure has to be taken to prevent the enterance of cattle (mainly cows) from the nearby villages into the wetland area, which can destroy the population of the species. Also the pumping from the pond for irrigating the nearby agricultural lands has to be limited. The use of pesticides has to be carefully controlled. Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp. Material examined: 8 ex. from type locality; 6 ex. from a spring (22 C) at village Musomishta, Mesta River Valley, Toplitzata area, N41 33, E023 45, Thracian Lowland, Southern Bulgaria, N 42 13 59, E 25 05 03.2, 155 m alt. Habitat: Karst spring at a cave hole. Etymology: Named after the region where the species lives. Description: The conical to elongated conical shell is light horn-coloured and consists of 4.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is glossy. The apex is very small, the umbilicus closed. The aperture is oval and slightly angled at the top, with a sharp periostome that is thickened at the columella. Shell height 2.1.2 mm, width 1.5.7 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.53.60. Animal: The mantle is pigmented in black with a small white border. The penis is slim and at the distal part attenuated. A small lobe is hardly visible in some specimens (n=5). A black spot on the penis seems to be characteristic. Notes on the ecology: Limestone lowland area, running surface water emerging from a cave and lling a small pond. The type locality is the actual spring of a small river surrounded by pastures and agricultural Fig. 19. Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp. 1: holotype, 2: Musomishta, 3: Pavelsko, 4: penis in situ. Fig. 20. Type locality of Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp. from two views.

PAGE 13

135Mollusca 27 (2) 2009 28.03.2009 A. Tsekov leg., 20 ex. (4 adults, 16 juveniles) from Pavelsko village, West Rhodopes, spring at the river south of the village, 15.03.2009 Georgiev et Stoycheva leg. Holotype: Shell height 2.1 mm, width 1.5 mm; ZMH 51460. Paratypes: 3 ex. from type locality; ZMH 51461. Locus typicus: Bachkovo village, W Rhodopes, spring in sand, N41 57` 8.5`` E024 51` 37.3``, 303 m alt, 15.03.2009 D. Georgiev leg. Etymology: Named after Prof. Angel Tsekov, an ichtyologist who collected the material from Musomishta village area. Description: The elongated conical shell is whitish to light horn-coloured and consists of 5.5 whorls that are slightly rounded with a weak suture. The surface is glossy. The apex is very small, the umbilicus closed. The aperture is oval and slightly angled at the top, with a sharp periostome, which is thickened at the columella. Shell height 2.0.1 mm, width 1.3.4 mm, aperture height to shell height 0.40.42. Animal: The mantle is pigmented in black with a small white border. The penis is slim and at the distal part strongly tapered, with a black spot on the middle part of the penis. Notes on the ecology: The water temperature at the Bachkovo water source was 12 C, oxygen was 9.3 mg/l, at Pavelsko they were respectively 8.2 C, and 8.4 mg/l. Possibly calcerous species, because it was found at areas of visibly calcium rich waters. Lives in small rivers and springs with various temperatures. Recommendations for conservation measures: Sustainable and regulated usage of the spring waters of the species localities is needed for their conservation.DiscussionAccording to our experience delimitation of species is possible if they are distinct in at least one constant feature which allows separation from other species, because this shows, that the speciation is xed. Classi cation of genus groups is possible, if the species differ in their basic penis morphology and shell characters as well. The genus Bythinella is well-de ned by a cylindrical shell and a penis that bears a penial appendix with a agellum. The penis of Bythinella markovi is concerning the ratio of the penis and penial appendix, similar to that of B. austriaca, but the agellum differs from B. austriacas. In addition, the mantle of B. austriaca is pigmented in black (white in B. markovi), and B. austriaca does not occur in caves. It seems that the specimens of B. markovi n. sp. studied by us are not fully grown. B. markovi is clearly distinct from Bythinella opaca as can be told by considering the penis morphology, because the penis of B. opaca is longer than the penial appendix, and the agellum is slimmer than in B. markovi. From B. hansboetersi the new species is different in the penis morphology (penis is shorter and the agellum is slim and long) as well as in the shells proportions, in B. markovi shell width to height is about 0.47.50 and in B. hansboetersi it is 0.59.61. The other new Bythinella spp. that are described here can also be distinguished by means of the penis morphology and the agellum. The agellum seems to be a good feature to distinguish Bythinella species. Bythinella srednogorica was mentioned as Bythinella cf. opaca (GEORGIEV et STOYCHEVA 2008), and the authors already questioned if this is in fact B. opaca. The agellum in B. opaca is much shorter than in B. srednogorica, the propotions of shell height to width is in B. srednogorica 0.55 and 0.53 in B. opaca, thus B. opaca is slimmer than B. srednogorica. The Belgrandiella zagoraensis n. sp. is the only Belgrandiella sp. under discussion, of which the outer margin of the aperture is vertical, in the other species the last whorl grows a little upward, thus, however, their outer margin of the aperture are louvered. In addition, the shell of B. zagoraensis is not opaque like the others. In B. dobrostanica n. sp. as well as in B. bachkovoensis the umbilicus is closed versus slit-like in B. angelovi B. bachkovoensis n. sp. is broader than the other Begrandiella spp. under discussion. The outer margin of the other species aperture is sinuated (from side view) versus straight in the here discussed Belgrandiella spp. (see PINTR 1968). The genus groups Radomaniola and Grossuana are probably not well de ned (SZAROWSKA et al 2007), but we follow RADOMAN (1983: 39, Fig. 17) who described Fig. 21. Bythinella opaca (topotype). = agellum, p = penis, pa = penial appendix.

PAGE 14

GLER & GEORGIEV: New Rissooidea from Bulgaria136the penis of the genus Radomaniola [Orientalina], which bears a double lobe at its left edge, which is clearly visible. The genus Radomaniola is not known from Bulgaria so far, but RADOMAN (1983) reported on Radomaniola spp., which occur regionally or locally endemic in Montenegro, Serbia and Greece. In Radomans opinion (1983: 41) the species Amnicola miliaria Frauenfeld, 1863 and Pseudamnicola consociella Frauenfeld, 1863, which have been listed by ANGELOV (2000) and HUBENOV (2007) from Bulgaria, are synonyms of Radomaniola curta (Kster, 1852). Pseudamnicola consociella has been described as a species with an elongated conical shell with its type locality in Dalmatia, and Pseudamnicola miliaria has also been described from Dalmatia. Because the shells of these species are similar to P. consociella Wagner mentioned it as being a subspecies of the latter one. The genus Grossuana is de ned by a penis that bears a small lobe at the left edge, which is hardly visibile. In addition the distal part of the penis is tapered (RADOMAN 1983: 56 Fig. 24). RADOMAN (1983: 40) reported on the distribution of Grossuana codreanui from S-Romania and Bulgaria to Serbia (e.g. region of Ni), while ANGELOV (2000) and HUBENOV (2007) mentioned this species as being a regional endemic species (coastal region of the Black Sea). G. thracica n. sp. differs from G. codreanui in the penis morphology (the penis of the latter species is not strongly tapered as it is in G. thracica) and the shell of G. codreanui is glossy vs. silky in G. thracica n. sp. In addition, the aperture of G. codreanui is rounded oval and not angled at the top, as it is in G. thracica. Both Grossuana spp. are locally or regionally endemic species but Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp. is widely distributed in Bulgaria and could be found in the Mesta River Valley as well as in the Rhodopes Mts (see Fig. 1). Usually, species of the subfamily Rissooidea, which occur in mountainous regions, are locally or regionally restricted in their distribution. On the other hand, many species have been described in former times from the Balkan region, but only a few from Bulgaria. Thus we assume that the species diversity in Bulgaria is higher as known as yet, and we hope that it can be studied before the habitats of endangered unknown species are destroyed.AcknowledgementsWe are very grateful to the speleologist Tanyo Markov who led us to and into the Gargina Dupka cave, and to the members of the speleological club Paldin (Plovdiv): Ilian Naydenov, Stanimira Deleva, and Anelia Pavlova for the help in the cave. We also thank to Slaveya Stoycheva, for also helping on the terrain during collection of most of the species. In addition, we thank Prof. Angel Tsekov for collecting the material from the Musomishta village surroundings, Mesta River valley, Dr David Walker for smoothing the English, and two anonymous referees for their helpful comments.ReferencesANGELOV, A. M. (2000): Mollusca (Gastropoda et Bivalvia) aquae dulcis. Catalogus Faunae Bulgaricae 4. So a, Leiden, Pensoft & Backhuys Publishers. xiv + 57 pp. BANK, R. A. (in press): Towards a catalogue and bibliography of the freshwater Mollusca of Greece. Heldia 6(1/2): 7912. BOETERS, H. D. (1981): Die Gattung Bythinella Moquin-Tandon in Deutschland (Prosobranchia). Archiv fr Mol lus kenkunde 111 : 191. BOETERS, H. D. (1998): Mollusca: Gastropoda: Superfamilie Rissooidea. In: SCHWOERBEL, J. & ZWICK, P. (Hrsg.): Swasserfauna von Mitteleuropa (begrndet von A. BRAU ER), 5(1, 2). Stuttgart, G. Fischer. IX+76 S. FALNIOWSKI, A. (1987): Hydrobioidea of Poland (Proso branchia: Gastropoda). Folia Malacologica, 1: 119. GEORGIEV, D. (2005): Species diversity and habitat distri bution of the malacofauna ( Mollusca: Bivalvia Gas tro poda) of Surnena Sredna Gora Mountain (Southern Bul garia). In: B. GRUEV, M. NIKOLOVA, A. DONEV (Eds.): Proceedings of the Balkan Scienti c Conference of Biology in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) frm 19th till 21st of May 2005. pp. 428. GEORGIEV, D. & STOYCHEVA, S. (2008): A record of By thi nella cf. opaca (Gallenstein, 1848) (Gastropoda: Proso branchia: Hy dro biidae) in Bulgaria. Malacologica Bo hemoslovaca (2008) 7: 51. HAASE, M., WILKE, TH. & MILDNER, P. (2007): Indentifying species of Bythinella (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea): A plea for an integrative approach. Zootaxa 1563: 1. HUBENOV, Z. (2007): Fauna and Zoogeography of Marine, Freshwater, and Terrestrial Mollusks (Mollusca) in Bulgaria. In: FET, V. & POPOV, A. (Eds.): Biogeography and Ecology of Bulgaria. Springer. pp. 141. KRISTENSEN, T. K., 1985. Guide pratique des Gasteropodes deau douce Africains. Espces prsentes en Afrique. 21 pp., 9 pl. LOCARD, A. (1902): Description de mollusques nouveaux appartenant la faune souterraine de France et dItalie. Bulletin du Musum dHistoire naturelle [de Paris], 8: 6081. PETROV B. & STOEV P., 2007. The Underworld of the Rho dopes. U&D Ltd. Graphic Design Company Publ., Bul garia. 86 pp. [In Bulgarian]. PINTR, L. (1968): Eine neue Wasserschnecke aus Bulga rien. Archiv fr Molluskenkunde 98(1/2): 61. RADOMAN, P. (1983): Hydrobioidea a superfamily of Pro sobranchia (Gastropoda). I. Systematics. Serbian Aca demy of Sciences and Arts, Monographs 547 (De part ment of Sciences, 57): 1. SON, M. (2009): Check-list of freshwater Gastropoda of Ukraine (http://malacologukraine.narod.ru/Check-list-ga stro poda-freshwater.htm, 2009). SZAROWSKA, M., GRZMIL, P., FALNIOWSKI, A. & SRBU, I. (2007): Grossuana codreanui (Grossu, 1946) and the phy lo genetic relationships of the East Balkan genus Gros suana (Radoman, 1973) (Gastropoda: Risso oi dea). Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-0530-4. Springer Science+Business Media B. V. WAGNER, A. (1927): Studien zur Molluskenfauna der Bal kanhalbinsel mit besonderer Bercksichtigung Bulgariens und Thraziens, nebst monographischer Bearbeitung ein zelner Gruppen. Annales Zoologici Musei Polonici 6(4): 263 399, 23 pl. WOHLBEREDT, O. (1911): Zur Molluskenfauna von Bulga ri en. Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Grlitz 27: 167. YILDIRIM, M. Z. (1999): Trkiye Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mol lusca) Trleri ve Zoora k Yayilislari. 1. Tatli ve Aci Su lar. Turkish Journal of Zoology 23: 877. YILDIRIM, M. Z. (2006): Supplement to the Prosobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Fauna of Fresh and Brackish Waters of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 30: 197. ZETTLER, M. L. (2008): Two records of the regional endemic hydrobiid snail Grossuana codreanui (Grossu, 1946) in Bulgaria (Dobruja) and some nomenclatorial notes. Mollusca 26: 163.


Description
PETER GLOER
1& DILIAN GEORGIEV
2
1Schulstrae 3, D-25491 Hetlingen, Germany
gloeer@malaco.de
2Department of Ecology and Environmental
Conservation, University of Plovdiv Tzar Assen Str. 24, BG-4000
Plovdiv, Bulgaria diliangeorgiev@abv.bg
AbstractFor the first time a troglobiont species of the
genus Bythinella and a representative of the genus Radomaniola
have been found in Bulgaria. In addition, three more Bythinella
spp., two new Grossuana spp. and three new Belgrandiella spp.
could be introduced. These species are here described as new:
Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B. walkeri n.
sp., B. srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n. sp.,
B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola
bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana thracica n. sp., and G.
angeltsekovi n. sp. Information about the habitat and photos of
the type localities are also presented.
KurzfassungNeue Hydrobiidae aus Bulgarien (Gastropoda:
Rissooidea). Erstmalig wurden eine troglobionte Bythinella
und ein Vertreter der Gattung Radomaniola in Bulgarien
gefunden. Zusatzlich zu drei weiteren Bythinella-Arten,
konnten drei neue Belgrandiella-Arten sowie zwei neue Grossuana
spp. vorgestellt werden. Die Arten werden hier neu beschrieben
als: Bythinella markovi n. sp., B. ravnogorica n. sp., B.
walkeri n. sp., B. srednogorica, Belgrandiella dobrostanica n.
sp., B. bachkovoensis n. sp., B. zagoraensis n. sp.,
Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp.,Grossuana thracica n. sp. und G.
angeltsekovi n. sp. Informationen zum Habitat und Photos der
Typuslokalitaten werden ebenfalls prasentiert.
Key words: Bulgaria, Hydrobiidae, Bythinella markovi n.
sp., Bythinella ravnogorica n. sp., Bythinella walkeri n. sp.,
Bythinella srednogorica n. sp., Belgrandiella dobrostanica n.
sp., Belgrandiella bachkovoensis n. sp., Belgrandiella
zagoraensis n. sp., Radomaniola bulgarica n. sp., Grossuana
thracica n. sp., Grossuana angeltsekovi n. sp.


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