Pardoo DSO Project Subterranean Fauna Report

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Pardoo DSO Project Subterranean Fauna Report

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Pardoo DSO Project Subterranean Fauna Report
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Subterranean Ecology
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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Survey Phase 2 and 3 Results
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Subterranean Ecology, Scientific Environmental Services
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Biology ( local )
Cave Ecology ( local )
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This final report presents the results of the second and third phases of troglofauna sampling at Pardoo, and provides an assessment of the results in relation to the first phase. This report should be read in conjunction with the report on phase 1 troglofauna sampling (in Ecowise 2007) and the initial desktop assessment (Subterranean Ecology 2007a) which provide important background information, details of methods and assessment of potential impacts. The spatially more extensive phase 3 sampling, which sampled 109 reference holes (Appendix 1), aimed to detect troglomorphic species outside the proposed mine pit impact zones. Traps baited with cheese were placed in seven holes within the Monty reference site, each paired with an unbaited trap to enable a comparison of invertebrate abundances and baited versus un-baited trap sampling methods. This sampling method was trialled to investigate capture rates of subterranean invertebrates. -- Authors
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The Pardoo DSO Project Public Environmental Review Appendices Volume 3 Appendices I-PAtlas Iron LimitedDecember 2007 8030_6_v2

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A p p e n d i x L S u b t e r r a n e a n F a u n a I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d A s s e s s m e n t ( Su b t e r r a n e a n Ec o l o g y )

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Survey Phase 2 and 3 Results Subterranean Ecology Scientific Environmental Services ABN 61 973 518 568 11 Dillenia Way, Greenwood WA 6024, Australia Phone: Int 61 (0)8 9343 4141 Mobile: Int: 61 (0)401 436 968 Email: info@subterraneanecology.com.au www.subterraneanecology.com.au Project No. 53 Prepared for Atlas Iron Limited / Coffey Prepared by: Subterranean Ecology Date: October 2007 COVER: South Limb deposit showing cavernous weatheri ng voids developed in Nimingarra Iron Formation. Insets: (top) Pseudoscorpion Ideoblothrus n. sp. collected from South Limb (PDDH004) (photo Mark Harvey WA Museum); (bottom left) diamond core PDDH004 tray photo 3 to 6m depth showing micro-caverns to 1cm size (photo Atlas Iron); (right) Meso-caverns approx. 10cm size exposed inside the main cave (photos Subterranean Ecolog y). COPYRIGHT: This document has been prepared to the req uirements of the client identified above, and no representation is made to any third party. It may be cited for the purposes of scientific research or other fair use, but it may not be reprod uced or distributed to any third party by any physical or electronic means without the express permi ssion of the client for whom it was prepared or Subterranean Ecology.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION....................................... ................................................... ..........................3 1.1 Purpose and Scope of this Report............... ................................................... ............3 1.2 Sample Sites................................... ................................................... .........................3 2 METHODS.......................................... ................................................... ..........................3 2.1 Sampling methods............................... ................................................... ....................3 2.2 Survey Effort.................................. ................................................... .........................4 3 RESULTS.......................................... ................................................... ............................7 3.1 Sampling effort Phase 2 and 3.................. ................................................... ..............7 3.2 Troglomorphic taxa............................. ................................................... ....................8 3.3 Species accumulation curve..................... ................................................... .............12 4 CONCLUDING REMARKS............................... ................................................... ......14 5 REFERENCES....................................... ................................................... .....................25 6 APPENDIX 1. COMBINED PHASE 1, 2, AND 3 RESULTS... ................................26 7 APPENDIX 2. LAB NUMBER TRACKING TABLE. ATLAS IRON PARDOO, PHASE 1, 2 AND 3 COMBINED DATA..................... ................................................... .....60

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 3INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose and Scope of this Report This final report presents the results of the secon d and third phases of troglofauna sampling at Pardoo, and provides an assessment of the results i n relation to the first phase. This report should be read in conjunction with the report on ph ase 1 troglofauna sampling ( in Ecowise 2007) and the initial desktop assessment (Subterran ean Ecology 2007a) which provide important background information, details of method s and assessment of potential impacts The spatially more extensive phase 3 sampling, whic h sampled 109 reference holes (Appendix 1), aimed to detect troglomorphic species outside the proposed mine pit impact zones. Traps baited with cheese were placed in seve n holes within the Monty reference site, each paired with an unbaited trap to enable a compa rison of invertebrate abundances and baited versus un-baited trap sampling methods. This sampling method was trialled to investigate capture rates of subterranean invertebr ates. 1.2 Sample Sites In the first sampling phase (February-March), 54 tr aps were deployed in 27 boreholes spanning five project deposits (Alice, Glenda, Bobb y, South Limb and Connie) and two other potential deposits that are not part of the project (Ridley and Lena). The second phase deployed about 46 traps in 24 of the same holes, ex cept at Lena deposit which was not accessible. The second phase traps were deployed in March and April 2007, and collected in May. Site and trapping details are listed in previ ous reports (Ecowise 2007, Subterranean Ecology 2007b). Phase 3 deployed 116 traps in 109 d rillholes across five project deposits (Alice, Isobel, Monty, Olivia, Ridley, and South Li mb) in August 2007, and collected in October. 2 METHODS 2.1 Sampling methods Troglofauna was sampled using litter traps suspende d in drillholes following the procedure adopted by Biota (2006). The traps comprised 32 or 55 mm diameter PVC pipe cut to a length of 140 mm. Leaf litter was collected from th e ground locally, mostly comprising Spinifex and Acacia with some Eucalyptus. The litter was soaked in water and irradiated for 10 minutes in a microwave set on high power, to kil l any invertebrates present. The sterilised litter was packed inside the traps and the ends of the tube covered with 10mm aviary mesh. The packed traps were sealed in zip lock bags to re tain moisture and sterile conditions. The litter traps were wetted again prior to install ation in drillholes. The traps were suspended in the holes using venetian blind cord. Where hole configuration allowed, up to three traps were suspended in each hole, with each trap spaced about 5 to 10 m apart. Where possible, the traps were aligned at depths corresponding to r ecorded cavities in drill logs. The opening of each hole was sealed with plastic and stones to retain humidity as much as possible, and to minimise the ingress of surface fauna. Traps were l eft in place for at least six weeks or longer to allow colonisation by fauna. When traps were rec overed the condition (moist or dry) of the hole environment and the litter in each trap was re corded, then the traps were sealed in zip lock bags for transport to the laboratory.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 4 During Phase 3 sampling litter traps baited with a small amount of parmesan cheese were used within the Monty Reference area to aid in the collection of troglomorphic taxa. Seven baited litter traps were installed in conjuction wi th standard litter traps at similar depths. Baited litter traps were subsequently processed in the same manner as standard litter traps. In the laboratory, fauna was extracted from the lit ter using Tullgren funnels and preserved in 100% ethanol. Invertebrates were picked from the pr eserved samples using a dissecting microscope, and preliminary sorted to order or morp ho-species level. Each identified taxon was kept in a separate labelled vial and assigned a specimen tracking code. Specimen and site collection data were recorded in an Excel spreadshe et. At the conclusion of the study, all specimens will be lodged at the Western Australian Museum. Taxonomic groups known to contain troglobitic repre sentatives were examined in more detail to determine if the specimens collected in this stu dy were troglobitic or non-troglobitic forms. Troglobitic forms were distinguished by the possess ion of troglomorphic characters such as depigmentation, reduction or loss of eyes, elongati on of appendages and sensory structures. Troglobitic status was assigned after comparison wi th the morphology of other close relatives in the group, and current knowledge on their distri bution and ecology where known. Identifications were confirmed by specialist taxono mists as necessary. 2.2 Survey Effort In the second sampling phase (22nd March 2007), 46 traps were recovered from 21 of th e 24 holes, and 43 new traps were deployed in the same h oles (Table 1). Cyclonic rainfall in March 2007 prevented access to three holes at Conni e and one hole at Lena. The Connie traps were retrieved and new traps installed in the same holes on 26th April 2007, but access to Lena was still not possible at this time. Three dri llholes sampled for troglofauna during Phase 1 (OR13, OR14 and PDRC 162) were not listed in the phase 1 results report (Ecowise 2007). During the third sampling phase (13/14th August 2007), 116 traps were deployed in 109 drillholes in five deposits (Alice, Monty, Olivia-I sobel, Ridley, and South Limb). The Leo reference site was also investigated, but no drillh oles were available for sampling due to hole rehabilitation and effects of cyclonic rainfall. Al l 116 traps were recovered on 2/3rd October 2007. Phase 3 sampling were deployed in different h oles to Phase 1 and 2 sampling, apart from hole PDRC 514 in the Ridley deposit that was s ampled in all three phases (Table 1). Table 1 Lists all drill holes where traps were deployed in the first, second and thrid sampling phases. 136 drillholes were sampled in total, 27 in phase 1, 24 in ph ase 2, and 109 in phase 3. Hole ID Prospect Easting Northing Phase sampled LNRC015 Lena 716359 7746041 Phase 1 OR13 Connie 719825 7752579 Phase 1 OR14 Connie 719909 7752375 Phase 1 PDDH003 South Limb 723580 7749883 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDDH004 South Limb 723579 7749894 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDDH005 South Limb 723658 7749909 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDDH008 Bobby 722642 7760118 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDDH009 Connie 719796 7752649 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDDH010 Connie 719804 7752650 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC092 South Limb 723781 7749909 Phase 3 PDRC095 South Limb 723589 7749932 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC098 South Limb 723658 7749911 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC101 Bobby 722642 7760121 Phase 1 Phase 2

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 5 Hole ID Prospect Easting Northing Phase sampled PDRC107 Bobby 722602 7760102 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC138 Bobby 722880 7760049 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC162 Olivia 718871 7756994 Phase 2 PDRC200 South Limb 723777 7749938 Phase 3 PDRC202 South Limb 723673 7749671 Phase 3 PDRC207 Connie 719793 7752622 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC250 South Limb 723860 7749851 Phase 3 PDRC251 South Limb 723861 7749883 Phase 3 PDRC252 South Limb 723857 7749914 Phase 3 PDRC253 South Limb 723900 7749913 Phase 3 PDRC254 South Limb 723900 7749791 Phase 3 PDRC255 South Limb 723862 7749822 Phase 3 PDRC256 South Limb 723898 7749851 Phase 3 PDRC257 South Limb 723900 7749877 Phase 3 PDRC271 South Limb 723359 7749885 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC272 South Limb 723359 7749900 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC279 South Limb 723817 7749926 Phase 3 PDRC387 Ridley 724002 7759228 Phase 3 PDRC402 Glenda 722559 7760239 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC403 Glenda 722519 7760228 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC406 Bobby 722679 7760241 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC414 Alice 721450 7758574 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC418 Alice 721452 7758653 Phase 3 PDRC422 Alice 721616 7758662 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC423 Alice 721616 7758631 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC424 Alice 721679 7758620 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC425 South Limb 723140 7749946 Phase 3 PDRC426 South Limb 723078 7749989 Phase 3 PDRC514 Ridley 724002 7759162 Phase 1 Phase 2 Pha se 3 PDRC515 Ridley 724001 7759292 Phase 3 PDRC520 South Limb 723597 7749947 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC521 South Limb 723402 7749894 Phase 1 Phase 2 PDRC532 South Limb 723215 7749954 Phase 3 PDRC533 South Limb 723199 7749992 Phase 3 PDRC534 South Limb 723221 7749993 Phase 3 PDRC540 Alice 721539 7758662 Phase 3 PDRC542 Alice 721539 7758631 Phase 3 PDRC544 Alice 721474 7758578 Phase 3 PDRC545 Alice 721445 7758681 Phase 3 PDRC546 Alice 721437 7758629 Phase 3 PDRC556 Ridley 723988 7759359 Phase 3 PDRC614 Olivia 718941 7756943 Phase 3 PDRC615 Olivia 718919 7756942 Phase 3 PDRC616 Olivia 718900 7756981 Phase 3 PDRC617 Olivia 718920 7756982 Phase 3 PDRC634 Isobel 719285 7755479 Phase 3 PDRC635 Isobel 719318 7755505 Phase 3 PDRC636 Isobel 719349 7755526 Phase 3 PDRC637 Isobel 719239 7755550 Phase 3 PDRC638 Isobel 719274 7755564 Phase 3 PDRC643 Isobel 719334 7755617 Phase 3 PDRC688 Alice 721478 7758561 Phase 3 PDRC689 Alice 721501 7758663 Phase 3 PDRC694 Alice 721319 7758624 Phase 3 PDRC695 Alice 721274 7758605 Phase 3 PDRC696 Alice 721279 7758583 Phase 3 PDRC697 Alice 721318 7758598 Phase 3 PDRC698 Alice 721359 7758618 Phase 3 PDRC699 Alice 721360 7758604 Phase 3 PDRC700 Alice 721425 7758545 Phase 3 PDRC702 Alice 721450 7758544 Phase 3 PDRC703 Alice 721472 7758634 Phase 3 PDRC707 Alice 721711 7758641 Phase 3 PDRC711 Olivia 718967 7756700 Phase 3 PDRC713 Olivia 719035 7756743 Phase 3 PDRC714 Olivia 719068 7756765 Phase 3 PDRC716 Olivia 719014 7756633 Phase 3 PDRC717 Olivia 719046 7756656 Phase 3

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 6 Hole ID Prospect Easting Northing Phase sampled PDRC720 Olivia 718875 7756414 Phase 3 PDRC721 Olivia 719155 7756123 Phase 3 PDRC722 Olivia 719187 7756149 Phase 3 PDRC728 Isobel 719469 7755709 Phase 3 PDRC730 Isobel 719519 7755637 Phase 3 PDRC732 Isobel 719448 7755590 Phase 3 PDRC733 Olivia 719712 7755978 Phase 3 PDRC734 Olivia 719751 7756001 Phase 3 PDRC738 Olivia 719473 7756181 Phase 3 PDRC740 Olivia 719503 7756074 Phase 3 PDRC741 Olivia 719526 7756094 Phase 3 PDRC742 Olivia 719221 7756168 Phase 3 PDRC745 Olivia 719134 7756601 Phase 3 PDRC753 Alice 721499 7758599 Phase 3 PDRC754 Alice 721473 7758521 Phase 3 PDRC755 Alice 721475 7758540 Phase 3 PDRC756 Alice 721495 7758545 Phase 3 PDRC757 Alice 721500 7758560 Phase 3 PDRC758 Alice 721415 7758635 Phase 3 PDRC764 Alice 721380 7758660 Phase 3 PDRC766 Alice 721240 7758620 Phase 3 PDRC767 Alice 721280 7758635 Phase 3 PDRC768 Alice 721240 7758588 Phase 3 PDRC769 Alice 721240 7758570 Phase 3 PDRC773 Monty 727380 7755120 Phase 3 PDRC774 Monty 727380 7755100 Phase 3 PDRC775 Monty 727380 7755080 Phase 3 PDRC776 Monty 727340 7755120 Phase 3 PDRC777 Monty 727340 7755100 Phase 3 PDRC778 Monty 727340 7755080 Phase 3 PDRC779 Monty 727340 7755060 Phase 3 PDRC782 Monty 726980 7754170 Phase 3 PDRC783 Monty 726980 7754140 Phase 3 PDRC784 Monty 727020 7754200 Phase 3 PDRC785 Monty 727020 7754170 Phase 3 PDRC786 Monty 727020 7754140 Phase 3 PDRC787 Monty 727060 7754220 Phase 3 PDRC788 Monty 727060 7754185 Phase 3 PDRC789 Monty 727060 7754150 Phase 3 PDRC790 Monty 727100 7754195 Phase 3 PDRC791 Monty 727100 7754155 Phase 3 PDRC1009 Alice 721441 7758628 Phase 3 PDRC1011 Alice 721340 7758610 Phase 3 PDRC1012 Alice 721301 7758634 Phase 3 PDRC1013 Alice 721301 7758615 Phase 3 PDRC1014 Alice 721299 7758595 Phase 3 PDRC1016 Alice 721360 7758653 Phase 3 PDRC1017 Alice 721338 7758653 Phase 3 PMRC009 Ridley 723600 7759145 Phase 3 PMRC012 Ridley 723192 7758962 Phase 3 PMRC016 Ridley 723587 7759205 Phase 3 PMRC017 Ridley 723601 7759280 Phase 3 PMRC018 Ridley 723618 7759355 Phase 3 PMRC019 Ridley 723980 7759414 Phase 3 PMRC052 Olivia 719162 7756103 Phase 3 Total Holes 136 27 25 109

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 73 RESULTS 3.1 Sampling effort Phase 2 and 3 Phase 2 sampling collected invertebrates from 23 of the 24 holes sampled. The mean number of specimens per hole was 39.8 (range 0 – 413). The total of 1176 specimens comprised 30 morpho-species. (Appendix 1). The invertebrate spec imens comprised 11 orders belonging to Acarina (14 morpho-species), Coleoptera (4), Collem bola (3), Dipluran (2), Psocoptera (1), Oligochaetea (1), Isopoda (1), and Pseudoscorpionid a (1). The second phase more or less replicated the survey effort of the first phase. Each phase collected a similar number of individuals (1176 cf. 1220) (Table 2). The first phase detected 27 morpho-species including four troglomorphic spec ies (note that since the previous report additional samples from phase 1 sample holes were p rocessed which increased the known diversity). The second phase collected many of the common and abundant species (not troglomorphs) collected in the first phase, and det ected an additional eight taxa including two troglomorphic species, a second new species of pseu doscorpion, Lagynochthonius n. sp at South Limb deposit and a third species of dipluran belonging to the family Projapygidae which was collected at Lena deposit. The Lena depos it is outside the project area but provides useful context as a reference site in an isolated h illock of Channel Iron Deposit (CID) analogous to Connie deposit. Projapygids were also detected at Robe Valley (Biota 2006). Table 2. summarises the phase 1, 2 and 3 survey effort and faunal diversity. Full specimen details in appendix. *Total number of distinct holes sampled, 23 hole s were sampled during 2 phases and 1 hole was sampled during all 3 phases. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Combined Phases Holes / samples 27 25 109 136* traps 54 46 116 216 Total samples 161 individuals 1220 1176 78684 81080 new taxa 33 18 19 70 new Tbs 4 4 4 12 Phase 3 sampling consisted of 109 sites and 116 tra ps from deposits Alice, Monty, Olivia, Isobel, Ridley, and South Limb, and collected appro ximately 78 000 individuals, of which 45 individuals (0.06%) were troglomorphic, and the rem ainder were epigean species (Table 2). Phase 3 sampling collected invertebrates from 105 o f the 109 holes sampled. The mean number of specimens per hole was 732 (range 0 – 10 006) and the mean number of taxa per hole was 3.3 (range 0 – 9). The majority of specime ns were composed of Acarina (79%) and Collembola (24.5%) species. Phase 1 and 2 sampling did not identify any troglomorphic taxa from these groups and hence, to dramatically reduce processing time for phase 3 samples, these groups were not separated into morpho-species although no additional species were observed. The number of specimens collected during Phase 3 wa s significantly greater per trap reflecting both the use of 7 traps baited with parm esan cheese and possibly warmer surface temperatures. The seven baited traps were all place d in holes within the Monty reference site

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 8 and collected 32 483 individuals (41.2% of all spec imens collected in Phase 3). The baited traps collected a single blind coleopteran, but wer e dominated by Acarina (31 008) and Collembola (1 462). The strike rate for invertebrates for combined Phas e 1, 2 and 3 data was 96 % (n = 136 holes, 216 traps, 161 samples), with 65 individuals from 1 2 potentially troglomorphic taxa detected. The expected strike rate for collecting troglobites usually falls in the range of <5 – 25 troglomorphs per 100 trap events (Subterranean Ecol ogy unpublished data, Biota 2006). The strike rate for troglomorphic taxa in the project a rea is slightly greater at 29 individuals per 100 trap events. The trapping intensity in the proj ect area is comparable to sampling intensity in similar sized deposits. 3.2 Troglomorphic taxa Pseudoscorpions Ideoblothrus n. sp. Ideoblothrus species are known to occur in Africa, Asia, the Ame ricas, and Australia, and most of these species occur in tropical rainforest ecosystems within leaf litter or soil (Harvey and Edward 2007). Eight species have been found in subterranean environments, three from Mexico and five from Australia. In Australia, there are currently seven described species, comprising two species from epigean tropical vine t hicket habitats in the Kimberley and Melville Island, and five species known only from s ubterranean habitats in the Pilbara region, Cape Range and Barrow Island. Other presently undes cribed species are known from tropical rainforests in eastern Queensland (Harvey and Edwar d 2007). In the Pilbara region, Ideoblothrus species have previously been recorded from caves in karstic terrains (Barrow Island, Cape Range), vuggy pisolitic channel iron deposits (Robe River), and unconsolidated riverine alluvial sedime nts (Fortescue River). At the minesite, Ideoblothrus was collected from a drillhole (PDRC098) at South L imb. The new species of Ideoblothrus collected at the minesite is clearly different from the other described species in this genus, recently reviewed by Harvey and Edward (2007). Similar to the other species of Ideoblothrus recorded from subterranean habitats, the minesite specimen exhibits morphological features consistent with underground life, including loss of eyes and reduced pigmentation, and increased sensory hairs. The min esite Ideoblothrus is probably a troglobite. Of the five species described from the Pilbara regi on, Cape Range and Barrow Island, each species appears to have a restricted distribution c haracteristic of obligate subterranean species (troglobites) and Short Range Endemic (SRE) species generally (cf. Harvey 2002): I. papillon (Cape Range, Papillon Cave), I. woodi (Cape Range, cave C167) I. nesotymbus (Barrow Island, two drillholes), I. pisolatus (Mesa B, Robe Valley, three drillholes), I. westi (Fortescue River, one drillhole). A probable sixth species is recorded from Mesa A, located less than 5 km from Mesa B in the Robe Valley, sugg esting highly localised endemism related to geological structures (Biota 2006, Harve y and Edward 2007). There are no records of Ideoblothrus species from surface habitats, suggesting that most if not all, members of this genus are probably confined to subterranean habitat s in the Pilbara region.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 9 Lagynochthonius n. sp. The second species of pseudoscorpion was identified by Dr Mark Harvey (WA Museum) as a new species of Lagynochthonius n. sp. The single specimen (Figure 1) was collecte d from hole PDDH004 (see diamond core photograph front cov er) located inside the proposed pit at South Limb, and about 100 m away from hole PDRC098 which contained the other species of pseudoscorpion Ideoblothrus collected in phase 1 (Figure 2). Additional specime ns of Lagynochthonius n. sp. were collected during phase 3 sampling from Alice (1 specimen) and the Monty reference site (3 specimens). The genus Lagynochthonius has recently been reviewed by Edwards and Harvey ( submitted) who described three new hypogean species from pisol itic mesas in the Robe Valley, karst on Barrow Island, and calcrete deposits in the Pilbara and Yilgarn. These species all displayed typical troglomorphic adaptations including total l oss of eyes and attenuated appendages. Each of these described species is postulated to be a short-range endemic as each have been found from highly restricted locations (Edwards and Harvey submitted). The specimen of Lagynochthonius collected at South Limb represents a new species wh ich is most similar to a species collected from a borehole at Yarrie Station about 130 km east of the Ord Ranges. Lagynochthonius n. sp. (Edwards and Harvey submitted). Diplura The two diplurans collected during phase 1 were exa mined and appear to belong to different (morpho-) species belonging to the family Heterojap ygidae (?). Diplura sp. 1 collected at Connie (PDDH010) is distinguished from Diplura sp. 2 collected at Olivia (PDRC162) by: body vermiform, appendages slender and elongate, 40 -50 antennal segments, cerci with three small teeth on internal margin, and one small tooth near base of internal margin. In contrast, Diplura sp. 2 had a smaller and more robust body fo rm and appendages were less slender and elongate; antennae with < 30 segments, cerci each w ith one internal tooth, and dorsal margin of segment supporting the cerci had two prominent s pines. Phase 3 collected another specimen of Diplura sp. 1 outside the pit area in t he South Limb deposit. A third species of dipluran belonging to the family Projapygidae was c ollected from Lena deposit and Alice deposit. Recent taxonomic work on this order is ver y limited and as such taxonomic resolution is not likely to be available beyond tha t provided here in the near future. The specimens will be lodged with the WA Museum to allo w for future taxonomic studies. Pauropoda Two specimens of Pauropoda were collected from PDRC 406 at Glenda deposit. Pauropods are generally found in damp organic soil, underneat h stones and leaf litter. All members of this class lack eyes and pigment, so it is difficul t to ascertain if the specimens collected at Glenda are soil dwelling or a deeper hypogean form. Recent taxonomic work on this order is very limited and as such taxonomic resolution is no t likely to be available beyond that provided here in the near future. The specimens wil l be lodged with the WA Museum to allow for future taxonomic studies. Thysanura A probable troglobitic species of thysanuran (silve rfish) was collected at Connie, Alice and South Limb. The species belongs to the family Nicol etiidae, all members of which are blind and depigmented, so assignment of ecological status is difficult. However, nicoletiids collected in the Robe Valley were considered to be troglobites (Biota 2006).

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 10 Coleoptera A single troglomoprhic coleopteran specimen was col lected from a cheese baited trap (PDRC 779) from within the Monty reference site in Phase 3 sampling. The individual has no eyes and is slightly depigmented suggesting it is a trog lobite. This is the only troglomorphic specimen to be collected from a baited trap. This i s the first blind troglomorphic beetle to be collected from the Pilbara and only the third in We stern Australia, with the remainder both from caves on the Nullarbor Plain. Trolomogphic Col eoptera are generally associated with temperate areas and commonly belong to the carabid family. This specimen is not a carabid Further identification is pending with taxonomic sp ecialists at the Australian National Insect Collection. Araneae A single troglomorphic Araneae specimen was collect ed from drillhole PDRC 774 in the Monty reference site during Phase 3 sampling. The i ndividual has no eyes and is depigmented suggesting it is a troglobite. Further identification is pending with taxonomic specialists at the WA Museum. Chilopoda A troglomorphic species of Chilopoda (centipede) wa s collected during Phase 3 sampling from the Alice and Olivia deposits. The species bel ongs to the group Scolopendrida and the specimens are elongate and depigmented suggesting i t is a troglobitic species. Four individuals were collected from Alice in drillholes PDRC 542, 689, 764, and 1017, all located outside the proposed pit area, and a single specime n was collected from drillhole PDRC 615 from outside the Olivia pit area. Other troglomorph ic scolopendrid centipedes from Western Australia are known from the Robe Valley Mesa A (Bi ota 2006), Cape Range (Biota 2005), and a cave on the Nullarbor Plain (Edgecombe 2005) Recent taxonomic work on this order is limited and as such taxonomic resolution is not likely to be available beyond that provided here in the near future. The specimens will be lodg ed with the WA Museum to allow for future taxonomic studies. Diplopoda A previously unknown species of Diplopoda (milliped e) was collected during Phase 3 sampling. All specimens appear to belong to a singl e morpho-species with individuals lacking eyes, and are depigmented. Specimens of Dip olpoda sp.1 have been collected from Alice, South Limb and the Monty reference site. The specimens will be lodged with the WA Museum to allow for future taxonomic studies. Isopoda The isopod species Oniscoid sp 2 (slater) has been collected from five separate deposits (Alice, Connie, Monty, South Limb, Ridley) in phase s 1 and 3. Specimens are depigmented and have reduced eyes, although it may be an edapha phile rather than an obligate troglobitic species. The specimens will be lodged with the WA Museum to allow for future taxonomic studies.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 11Figure 1. Chthoniid pseudoscorpion Lagynochthonius n. sp collected from PDDH004 at South Limb. Photo Subterranean Ecology / Western Australian Museum. Figure 2. Pseudoscorpion Ideoblothrus n. sp. collected from PDRC098 at South Limb deposit. Lengt h approximately 2 to 3 mm. Photo by Mark Harvey (Western Aus tralian Museum).

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 12 3.3 Species accumulation curve The adequacy of sampling was evaluated by a species accumulation curve (Figure 3). The initial steep slope of the curve lessens midway thr ought the first sampling phase and shows slight flattening near the end of phase 1. Phase 2 shows a consistent increase in taxa again with a distinct flattening toward the end of the sa mpling period. The beginning of phase 3 shows an initial rapid rise in newly detected speci es, although the rate of increase lessens after less than 10 samples. The remainder of phase 3 shows few new species, with the last 100 samples yielding only 10 additional species. Th e initial rapid rise in the curve from phase 3 samples may be attributed to seasonal changes. Th e flattening of the curve suggests that most species which were present in the sampled hole s during sampling have been collected. It would be expected, however, that a few previously u ndetected species would be collected with additional sampling in the same areas. Figure 3. Species accumulation curve phase 1, 2, and 3 c ombined. A species accumulation curve for troglomorphic taxa only is shown in Figure 4. Phase 3 collected only four new troglomorphic taxa despite sampling over 100 holes. The curve shows an excellent fit to the field data with an r2 value of >0.99 (Figure 4). The flattening of the curve suggests that most troglomorphic species which were present in the sampled holes during sampling periods have been collected. It is anticipated that further surveys are unlikely to reveal additional troglomorphic taxa.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 13 Troglomorphic species accumulation curve Phase 1, 2 & 3y = -0.0004x2 + 0.147x R2 = 0.9949 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 050100150 No. of samplesNo. of Tb Figure 4. Species accumulation curve for troglomorphic ta xa only from Phase 1, 2 and 3. The rate of new troglomorphic taxa accumulation decreases significantly w ith increased sampling intensity.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 144 CONCLUDING REMARKS The phase 2 sampling results concur with those of P hase 1 and further support the sampling adequacy for inside impact areas. The phase 2 resul ts revealed additional diversity of troglomorphic species in the Ord Ranges, and contri buted further data on diversity and occurrence of troglofauna in Archaean terrain in th e Pilbara region. The phase 2 results do not markedly alter the conservation assessment or p otential impacts for troglofauna as outlined in the phase 1 report (Ecowise 2007), exce pt that additional troglomorphic species are now recorded. The additional troglomorphic spec ies detected in phase 2 came from deposits already known to contain troglomorphic spe cies (Connie and South Limb). Phase 2 failed to detect obvious troglomorphic taxa (with t he possible exception of the pauropod) at Bobby-Glenda, but this does not preclude the possib le existence of troglobites here given the similar and prospective geology, low sampling effor t, and low detectability of troglobites. Table 3. Troglomorphic taxa distribution across deposits dur ing three sample phases. n nrnnr nn n r n n n n n n nn nn n rnn n !" 44 # $% 10 % 8 & '( 17 % )n 21 *" 12 +r# 35 # +n 1 ,9 .n 4 n &# 161 &!&(% Phase 3 sampling collected an additional four trogl omorphic species, a blind spider and beetle from single holes within the Monty reference site, a widespread millipede species and a scolopendrid centipede from Alice and Olivia. Phase 3 sampling also increased the known distribution of five other previously recorded trog lomorphic taxa (Table 4). The distribution of troglomorphic taxa across the Atlas Iron Pardoo deposits sampled over three phases suggests they are likely to form a single ecologica l community. The presence of several common troglomorphic taxa between sampled deposits such as the pseudoscorpion Lagynochthonious the scolopendrid centipede, the nicoletiid silver fish, the dipluran sp. 1, the

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 15 oniscoid slater, and the blind millipede support th e notion that troglomorphic taxa collected within haematite and BIF areas are wide-ranging acr oss the Ord Ranges (Table 3). This interpretation is consistent with the geology and g eomorphology of the ranges which comprises contiguous Nimingarra Iron Formation, wit h no obvious barriers to fauna dispersal. The geologically distinctive pisolite (C ID) deposits at Connie and Lena located 2 to 8 km from the Ord Ranges, also share all their trog lomorphic taxa with the deposits sampled in the Ord Ranges sensu stricto (South Limb, Alice, Monty and Ridley), suggesting that the troglomorphic community is more widely distributed in the local region. Further sampling, while unlikely to reveal much additional diversity (see Fig 4), may further expand the range of all known troglomorphic taxa in the Ord Ranges a nd nearby formations where suitable subsurface habitats exist. Table 4. Troglomorphic taxa abundance within project area. n n r n */ nn 01,,2 nn r/ n33 4r5 6n n&*%!#,%7 "r(!&(((%8#n&*#8-% 7"r(%"((%8##& +n&*(%8, %7"r(!%((%8#&% n&*!8, %7"r(!%((%8#%& n&*%! %7"r(%&-((%8#& n%&*%!#,%7 "r(!&(((%8#nn&*(%8 %7"r(#&%-((!#"! n&*"( %7"r(&&8((%8#%& n&*(#! %7"r(&8"((%8##" n&*#8%7"r(%"((%8##& n&*%! %7"r(%&-((%8#& nn$*!"#9 %"r(#(-((#"! n0"",9%" r(-8"!((%#%" n*&,"r (-8%((%%(n80""-,"r (-(-#((%#!n*"(,"r (-(-&((%# nn+n+*"% "r(#&%-((!#"! nn45&':*((! "r((&8"((%%"" n45&':*(("r((&!"((%%"#" n&&':*((#" r((&!"((%%" +n&&':*(88 "r(("#"((%!8% n(&':*(-" "r((""((%!-% n)n*#"r (88(((%#--! n&)n*#% "r(8--((%#-! n&*'*""-" 7%r(&#""((%-!% n(& +r*%(9%r(&-""((!-8(( n& +r*%9%r(&8%(((!--! +r *"-8,9%"r(&#%8((!-+n +r 0""!,9%"r(&%(-((!-8-! n& +r *%9%r(&8#((!-88&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 16n +r*%",9%"r(&%-(((!--!( n& +r*%(9%r(&-""((!-8(( n#% The three deposits with the highest numbers of tro glomorphic species detected (Alice 6 spp., South Limb 6 spp., Monty 5 spp.) share at least 50% of their troglomorphic taxa with the other two deposits (Table 4). Alice and South Limb share 66% of their troglomorphic taxa with each other. Additionally over 58% of all trogl omorphic taxa are known from at least two sites and over 41% are known from three or more sit es. This high degree of similarity strongly suggests that the troglomorphic taxa colle cted in the project area forms a single ecological community, with all troglomorphic taxa e xhibiting extensive ranges across (and hence it can be inferred between) all sites sampled Table 5. Troglomorphic taxa distribution across deposits and potential impact zones. Troglomorphic taxa Reference areas Potential impact areas Outside pits? Potential drawdown (m) Comments Araneae sp. 2 Monty yes 0m Species secure, no furth er consideration Lagynochthonius n. sp. Monty South Limb, Alice yes >50m, 5-10m Species secu re, no further consideration Ideoblothrus n. sp. South Limb no >50m Species likely to occur in simil ar habitats outside disturbance areas Diplopoda sp. 1 Monty South Limb, Alice yes >25m, 510m Species secure, no further consideration Scolopendrida sp. 1 Alice, Olivia yes 5-10m, 0m, Species likely to occ ur in similar habitats outside disturbance areas Pauropoda sp. 1 Bobby yes >50m Species likely to occ ur in similar habitats outside disturbance areas Diplura sp. 1 South Limb, Connie yes >25m, 0m Species likely to occur in similar habitats outside disturbance areas Diplura sp. 2 Olivia yes 0m Species occurs outside pit with zero drawdown Projapygidae sp. 1 Lena Alice no 0m Species secure, n o further consideration Nicoletiidae sp. 1 South Limb, Alice, Connie yes >25m, 5-10m, 0m Species likely to occur in similar habitats outside disturbance areas Coleoptera sp. (blind) Monty yes 0m Species secure, no further consideration Oniscidea sp. 2 Monty South Limb, Alice, Connie, Ridley yes >25m, 5-10m, 0-5m Species secure, no further consideration The systematic composition of the troglomorphic com munity revealed in the Ord Ranges bears some broad similarities with the troglomorphi c communities identified in the geologically recent pisolite (CID) mesas from the R obe Valley (Biota 2006). However, the geomorphic setting in the Ord Range contrasts with the situation in the Robe Valley where each ore deposit is expressed in a mesa landform th at functions as an ecological island within an archipelago of mesa landforms. With the exceptio n of Connie and Lena deposits (which are not of bioconservation concern in respect of th is minesite proposal), the ore deposits in the Ord Range are not topographically isolated from each other. Instead, they are subdued pods nestled within contiguous Archaean strata form ing the range proper, and obvious biogeographic barriers that may potentially cause t he isolation of subterranean populations are not evident.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 17 This survey is the first to reveal a significant tr oglomorphic community in Archaean greenstone rock terrain in the Pilbara, and Austral ia. Previously, significant troglomorphic communities were recorded only from Quaternary vugg y pisolite (CID) and karstified rocks including limestones and calcretes. It is possible that additional troglomorphic communities will be found in similar geomorphic habitat context s in the Pilbara, and other areas of Western Australia. This has implications for enviro nmental survey and assessment of resource development projects located in rock types other than karst, calcrete and CID, and which may provide prospective habitat for troglofau na. Figure 5. Troglomorphic taxa present in Alice deposit an d locations of all holes sampled. Red outline is proposed pit, brown outline is proposed waste dump.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 18 Figure 6. Troglomorphic taxa present in South Limb depos it and locations of all holes sampled. Red outline is proposed pit, brown outline is proposed waste dump.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 19 Figure 7. Troglomorphic taxa present in Bobby/Glenda and Ridley deposits and locations of all holes sampled. Red outline is proposed pit, brown outline is proposed waste dump.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 20 Figure 8. Troglomorphic taxa present in Monty deposit re ference area showing locations of all holes sampled.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 21 Figure 9. Troglomorphic taxa present in Connie deposit and locations of all holes sampled. Red outline is proposed pit, brown outline is proposed waste dump.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 22 Figure 10. Troglomorphic taxa present in Olivia deposit an d locations of all holes sampled (Olivia and Isobel). Red outline is proposed pit, brown outline i s proposed waste dump.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 23 Figure 11. Troglomorphic taxa present in all Atlas Iron P ardoo sites and locations of all holes sampled. Monty, Isobel and Lena are reference areas.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 24 Figure 12. Modelled drawdown contours at Bobby-Glenda, Al ice and Ridley. Figure 13. Modelled drawdown contours at South Limb.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 255 REFERENCES Biota (2006), Mesa A and Robe Valley Mesas troglobi tic fauna survey. Subterranean fauna assessment. Prepared for Robe River Iron Associates 64 pp. Ecowise (2007) Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project – Subterranean Fauna Assessment. Report prepared for Enesar Consulting Pty Ltd. June 2007. 51 pp. Edgecombe, G.D. (2005). A troglomorphic species of the centipede Cryptops ( Trigonocryptops ) (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) from Western Austr alia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 22: 315-323. Edward, K. L. and M. S. Harvey (submitted). A revei w of the pseudoscorpion genera Tyrannochthonius and Lagynochthonius (Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae) in the semi-arid zone of Western Australia: extreme shortrange endemism in hypogean and epigean environments. Harvey, M. S. and K. L. Edward (2007). A reveiw of the pseudoscorpion genus Ideoblothrus (Pseudoscorpiones, Syarinidae) from western and nor thern Australia. Journal of Natural History 41(5-8): 445-472. Subterranean Ecology (2007a) Pardoo DSO Project Tro glofauna Desktop Assessment. Report prepared for Ecowsie Environmental, January 2007. 1 3 pp. Subterranean Ecology (2007b) Pardoo DSO Project Tro glofauna Survey Phase 2 Results Phase 3 Sites. Report prepared for Atlas Iron Limi ted, August 2007. 18 pp.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 26 6 APPENDIX 1. COMBINED PHASE 1, 2, AND 3 RESULTS.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 27 n n n ""&0""!0""%0""8*"-%*"-8 +n2; +"8"+"8#+"(8+"(#+"8+"8% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 #8 ='rnn4nn5 "" ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 # 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn -! 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 28n n n *"*"(*&8*(*(*!" +n2; +"(%+"(+"#8+"(!+"#-+"#( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 & ='rnn4nn5 # ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn 8 rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 # nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 29n n n *!"&*!"#*!!*!*!&*!! +n2; +"(-+"8+"8(+"(+"(&+"(" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 # ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 & ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 (" nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 30n n n *%!*%"*%*&7*&7*&7& +n2; +"8!+"8&+"((;"#(;"#8;"#nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 #& ='rnn4nn&5 "&% ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn 8 rn7,rn rn rn % 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 31n n n *!7*!7*!7&0""70""7 +n2; ;#!;#%;##;"%8;"%nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 !%&"& ='rnn4nn5 %""!" ='rnn4nn&5 #&"% ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn !" 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn &!& rn &%" 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 32n n n 0""7&0"-70"-70"-7&*"( +n2; ;"#";"#;"#;"#&;"(" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 % ='rnn4nn5 &" ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 "" 'rnn4>nn-5& "# rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn &&" nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn # 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 & nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n (( 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65! n4rn>n>54=58 rnnrnnrn nnnnn !#! 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 33n n n +*"%7+*"%7&+*"%7*&7*&7* !7 +n2; ;-;&";8;&&;&!;&% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 "" ='rnn4nn5"" ='rnn4nn&5# ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5& rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 8 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 8# nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 34n n *!70""&70""%70""87>0""-1 +n2; ;&#;!;";%;&( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ""& ='rnn4nn5""8!# ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5%& ='rnn4nn85'rnn4>nn-5!! rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn &! nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn &" 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 35n n n 0""-70""70""!1*"-%7*"-87 +n2; ;&8;&;#;&; nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 & ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5# ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn & nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 & ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn &# 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 36n n *"7>*"(*&81>*#*"(n7 +n2; ;;;&+!8#;& nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 & ='rnn4nn5#, ='rnn4nn&5+ ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45; nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5A nn 'rnn % nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn & 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 37n n n *(7>>&*(7>>&*!"&7*!"&7 >>& +n2; ;(;";%; nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5## ='rnn4nn&5# ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5(!" rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn & rn %& 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn % 'n45 n

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 38n n *!"#7*!!7*!7*!7*! 7& +n2; ;(;!;"!;"%;"# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 % ='rnn4nn5& ='rnn4nn&5#& ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5& ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5! rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 "& ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn % 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 39n n n *!!1*!!1*!!7&*%!7*%" 7 +n2; ;"(;"8;"-;#;8 nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 #!&" ='rnn4nn5(-#!" ='rnn4nn&5! ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(58 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-58 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn & nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn & rn & 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 & nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 40n n *%*"-*""-*"*"*"& +n2; ;-;!(;&&%;&&;&!%;&& nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5& ='rnn4nn&5&, ='rnn4nn!5+ nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85; 'rnn4>nn-5# rn4/nn >nn"5A nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn (% rn 6rn &!" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 41n &&&&&& n n *"!*"#*"(*""*"*%" +n2; ;&8;&!&;&&";!#%;!%8;!#" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n #"8""" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn & rn 6rn &!" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 42n n *%*%*%&*%!=*%%*%#= +n2; ;!##;!%(;!#;!(;!!8;!#nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n "!"%&" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n # 'nn)n n45 n!45nn !( +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 43n &&&&&& n n *%(*(-*&8(*!8*!%*!# +n2; ;!%-;!(";!;&!#;!%%;&-& nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %!!#"" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5( 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn % rn 6rn 8 ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 # n!45nn 8 +n+n 8 nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 44n n *%!*%%*%&*%&&*%&!*%!" +n2; ;&8;!!&;!#8;!"(;!%;&!! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"!"%""%"" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn &" rn &"! rn 6rn "%& ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 45n &&&&&& n n *%!*%!!*%!%*%!#*%%#*#! +n2; ;&!";&&!;&!;&%";&8&;&#& nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n #"("("" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn 6rn 8%&# ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5! ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5& $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 % rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 46n n *#%*##*#(*#&!*#&%*#&# +n2; ;&%8;&(;&8!;&88;!!!;!% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"""""&"""("" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn "" rn 6rn # ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n & nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 47n &&&&&& n n *#&(*#&8*#!&*#88*#8-*#-! +n2; ;&8(;!#(;&-8;&#;&!-;&(% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"!" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn % rn &""&&" rn 6rn & ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 48n n *#-%*#-#*#-(*#-8*#--*("" +n2; ;&%!;&&#;&&&;&%&;&!(;&#! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn "! rn & 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 49n &&&&&& n n *("*("&*("(*(*(&*(! +n2; ;&%#;&%;&#";&##;&8;&%% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"""""%""&'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn &"""% rn &"% 6rn &% ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 %% n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 50n n *(#*((*("*(n*n*($ @ +n2; ;&&8;&#(;&%(;&--;!"" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5, ='rnn4nn!5+ nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85; 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5A nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n """%""" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn &""" rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn &" nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 &" n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 51n &&&&&& n n *(8*(&"*(&*(&&*(&!*(&8 +n2; ;!%#;!!#;!%&;&-!;!#;!#! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5, ='rnn4nn!5+ nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85; 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 A nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %&""&" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn %"%" rn %""%" rn 6rn &8" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 52n n *(!"*(!*(!*(!%*(%&*(%! +n2; ;!%!;!#&;!!;&(&;&%-;&(! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5, ='rnn4nn!5+ nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85; 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 A nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n """8 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn &"" rn #"""" rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 8 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 53n &&&&&& n n *(%%*(%#*(%(*(%8*(#!*(## +n2; ;&(";&(;&#%;&&-;&!8;&! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"""( 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn 8%""""%" rn 6rn %#" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65% n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 54n n *(#(*(#8*(#-*((&*((&70*((! +n2; ;&#-;&%;&&(;&8";&(8;&(nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %""8"""" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn %#""""!"" rn "%%"""%""%"" rn %"" 6rn &%8"%" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn & nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn & +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 55n &&&&& n n *((!70*((%*((%70*((#*((#70 +n2; ;!";!!%;!"&;!!nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %"""8"""&"""""" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 & 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn "" rn !"" rn 6rn (("% ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 56n n *(((*(((70*((8*((870*((+n2; ;!!(;&((;&8%;&-";&(# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5, ='rnn4nn!5+ nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85; 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 A nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n !8 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn %" rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 % n!45nn % +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 57n &&&&&& n n *((-70*(8*(8&*(8!*(8%*(8# +n2; ;&8-;!"%;!%";!";&-#;!! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %""" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn "%""!""" rn &"8""""#""& rn 6rn ""& ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 8 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 58n n *(8(*(88*(8-*(-"*(-'*""+n2; ;!"#;&-(;!&;!"8;!";!"! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545& nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n !""%"!"""&" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn8" rn #"""%"" rn 6rn "%% ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 ( rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 59n &&&&&& n n '*"'*"#'*"('*"8'*"-'*"% +n2; ;&8#;&-%;!;&-;!"-;&nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n4/+r 545 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n %%" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn454nn =545 nn454nn=545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 n45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 % n!45nn % +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 60 7 APPENDIX 2. LAB NUMBER TRACKING TABLE. ATLAS IRON PARDOO, PHASE 1, 2 AND 3 COMBINED DATA.

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 61 n n ,4'>'0>65*!!*(*" -8*!"*%*%!0""8 ;"8(;"#-;"8%;"#(;"((;"8!; "(# nnnn465 nn<,45+&& n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +!(+&#+&='rnn4nn5+&#+ &='rnn4nn&5+! ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45+&! nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn+&% nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn+&(+ !" rn7,rn rn rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5+ nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+&8 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 62 n n ,4'>'0>65*!&*"(0" "!""&0""%*&8*!! ;"(&;"(;"8#;"8";"(8;"#8; "(" nnnn465+!! nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +%"+"%8+"#"+"#% ='rnn4nn5+%"+"%8 +"#" ='rnn4nn&5+!#+!8 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5+ !% ='rnn4nn(5+%& ='rnn4nn85+"# 'rnn4>nn-5 +"# rn4/nn >nn"5 +"#& nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn+!-+% rn7,rn rn+"%(+"#! rn+"%(+"%-+"#! 6rn ,n0rn0rn+!& +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+&&& nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn+% 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 63 n n ,4'>'0>65*%"*!"#*" -%*!*"*(*!"& ;"8&;"8;"8;"(;"(%;"(!; "(nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +"88+%( ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5+%nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn+& rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn+#" n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+%!+%%+%8 rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5+"# # rnnrnnrn nnnnn +%# 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 64 n n ,4'>'0>65 *&7 *&7 *&7& *!7 *!7 *!7&0"-7 ;"#(;"#8;"#-;#!;#%;##;"# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +-!+-(+"+( ='rnn4nn5+-&+-%+ -8++8 ='rnn4nn&5+8(+-+ -+ ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5+ 88+# rn4/nn >nn"5 nn+-8+& 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn+8%+-+"" nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+8!+8-+-#+!+ rn+8&+8#+-"+--+% 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5+&& nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 65'n45 n n ,4'>'0>650"-70"-7& 0""70""70""7& ;"#;"#&;"%8;"%-;"#" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +%%+## ='rnn4nn5+&+(( ='rnn4nn&5+%!+(='rnn4nn!5+%#+#& nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85+&!+! 'rnn4>nn-5+& +!&+8"+# rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn+(8+%8 nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545+& 8 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+&&+!+%+8+%rn+%+#% 6rn ,n0rn0rn+# +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5+&&" ;rn nn4@5+#" nn4n)n+!5+#( nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn+%& n4325 45 An nn)n4r5+&( $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 +&& nn+n)n+&"+&'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+&-+!" n4rn>n>54=5+&& "2+&% rnnrnnrn nnnnn+&#+& 8+%(+8+#!

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 66'n45 n n ,4'>'0>65*"(*%* "7>0""&7*!!1 ;"(";-;;!;"8 nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +-#+&"+&"#+&& ='rnn4nn5+-!+-+&"%+&% ='rnn4nn&5+-%+&"& +& ='rnn4nn!5+!% nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5+&"8+ &( ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5+!# +-+&"(+&8 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn+-(+&"nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn+!! nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+!-+-&+-8+&"! +&# rn+!8+&"+& 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5+&! nn4+&""5+&""+&! n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+&" n4rn>n>54=5+%" rnnrnnrn nnnnn+!( 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 67 n n ,4'>'0>65*&81>0""!1 *!!10""%7 *%!7 ;&;#;"(;";# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45+& % nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +&!"+&!='rnn4nn5+&#+&!! +&!8 ='rnn4nn&5+&" ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5+&!+&&8 +&!%+&%" ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 +&! rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn+&nn&+&&+&!# nn!+&&rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+&+&! rn+&+&!&+&!( 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+&% nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 68'n45 n n ,4'>'0>65*!"&7*!7 *%"7*(7 >>& *"( ;%;"%;8;(; nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn+!8 nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +&%(+&#& ='rnn4nn5+&%+&%# +&#, ='rnn4nn&5+&#%+ ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45; nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 +&#! rn4/nn >nn"5 A nn 'rnn+&%8 nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45+&%& ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+&%!+&%%+&#" rn+&%6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5+&## nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn+ &# 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 69 n n ,4'>'0>65*!7& *!!7*!"#7*"-%7*"-87 ;"#;!;(;&; nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +&(! ='rnn4nn5+&(8+&8 ='rnn4nn&5+&((+&8 +&8( ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5+&#-+&( ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5+&# 8+&(& rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn+&("+&(nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45+&#(+&(%+&8! ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 +&8" rnrn rn7,rn+&8% rn+&(+&8& rn+&(#+&8# 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 70nnnnn 'n45 n n ,4'>'0>65*!"&7>>&*! !7&0""87>*(7>>&*!7 ;;"-;%;";"! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +&8-+!"&+!& ='rnn4nn5+&-"+!" ='rnn4nn&5+&-!+!"" +!"+!% ='rnn4nn!5+&-( nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5+&-+&-+!"# ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5+ &-+!"( rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn+!8 nn& nn! rn4nn%5+&-& ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45+!# ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+&88+&-#+!"-+! ( rn+&-8+!! 6rn ,n0rn0rn+!"! +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5+!"+! n4r5 nn n4325+!"! 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+&-%+! n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn+!" %+!"8

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 71'n45 n n ,4'>'0>650""-70""-1 0""7*"(n7 *&7 *&7 ;&8;&(;&;&;&&;&! nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +!-& ='rnn4nn5+!8-+!-& +!8(+!='rnn4nn&5+!-!+! 8(+!='rnn4nn!5+!8(+ !nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5+!(='rnn4nn85+!8'rnn4>nn-5+ !8rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn+!-! nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45+!88+!nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+!8"+!-"+!-% rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn+!-( +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5+!-nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n+!-# 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 72nnnnn 'n45 n n ,4'>'0>65*!7*!7+*" %7&+*"%7+*"%7 *# ;&%;&#;&";-;8+!8# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 +%"-+%"" ='rnn4nn5+%"-+%"" ='rnn4nn&5+%"( ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 +!-8 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn+%"'rnn+%""+%"& nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45+%"( nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545+!8# nn4545+%"%+%"8 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+%"!+%"# rn 6rn ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n+%" 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn nnnnn+%" 'n45

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 73 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*#!*#(*# -(*("&*("*#%*(#( ;&#&;&8!;&&&;&%;&%#;&%8; &#nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +--+#-+-"& 'nnnn4545 +#!! n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+-"rn+8-8+8--+-"+ -"!+-"rn+8-8+8--+-"+ -"! 6rn+-%+-",n0rn0rn +nn+-"8 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 +-"( ;rn+-8+-"# nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5+-( $nn$nn45+#!% nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+-""+-"% n!45nn+-" +-#+#+n+n+-! nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-& n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 74nnnnn 'n45+#!# n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*("(*((*( %!*%%#*((-*##*#&( ;&#";&#(;&(!;&8&;&(#;&(; &8( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +-+-&"+-&8 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+-" rn 6rn+-"+-&+--+ -&&+-&( ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n+-% n+-# 0rn0rn4n>3n5+;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+-+-8+-& +-&% n!45nn+-! ++n+n+-"+-( +-&+-&! nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-&# n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 75nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*#&!'*"*% !*((&*(#!*""-*(%% ;&88;&8#;&8;&(8;&!8;&&%; &(" nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +#%"+#%#+#%8+##%+### 'nnnn4545 +##! n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+##+##( rn+#!-+##+##& +##( rn+## 6rn+#%+#%%+##+# #& ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+#%!+#%-+## n!45nn +#%+#%( +n+n+##" nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-&-+#%& n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 76nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*"!*("* %!"*#-8*(#-*"&*#-# ;&8;&%(;&!!;&%&;&&(;&&; &&# nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+#(! rn+#(!+#(%+#(( +#(8 rn 6rn+#(% ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn+#( nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+##8+#(& n!45nn+##+#("+#(# +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn+#(

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 77nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(#*#--*# -!*((&*((8*(%#*(& ;&&8;&!(;&(%;&8";&8%;&(; &8 nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +#8+#8&+#8%+#-% 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+#8+#8! rn+#8"+#8+#8!+ #-" rn 6rn+#8!+#-"+#-! ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+#8#+#8( n!45nn +#(-+#88+#8-+#-& +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 78nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(!%*(""*# 88*(%&*(((70*(%( ;&(&;&#!;&#;&%-;&((;&#% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +#-(+#--+("+("% 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+("+("# rn 6rn+#-#+("& ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn+("! nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5+("" nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +#-8 +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 79nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*((8'*"8*# !&*(8%*((!*(8!*( ;&-";&-;&-8;&-#;!"; &## nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +(+(8+(-+(% 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+(rn+("8+(-+(! rn 6rn+(# ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+(+(%+(& n!45nn+(" +("(+(&+((+( +n+n+("-+("+ (! nn+( nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 80nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*!#'*"%*( 88*(n*n*(&&'*"# ;&-&;&-;&-(;&--;&-!;&-% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45+ (&# nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +(#+(&!+(&(+(!"+(! 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+((+(&rn 6rn+(,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+(&" nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+(8+(&8 n!45nn+(&& +(&+(&% +n+n nn+(& nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 81nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*((-*((!*( $@*%&*(-"*"" ;&8-;&(-;!"";!#;!"8;!#% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45+(!( nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +(!%+(%+(%%+(%-+(#" 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+(!+(!# rn+(!+(!#+(%8 rn 6rn+(!+(%!+(%8 ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn+(% nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45+(!& An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+(!8+(!-+(%& n!45nn +(!!+(%"+(%( +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 +(%# rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 82nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*&8(*#&#*( (%70*((%*!%*";!;!%;!!%;!";!%%;!( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn&+(# nn!+((" nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +((&+((%+((8 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+((( rn rn 6rn+(#!+(#(+((+((! +(((+(8" ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+(#nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+(#& n!45nn +(#%+(#8+((# +n+n+(#+(( +((nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 83nnnnn+(## 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(&"*((#*( 8*%&*(8*((( ;!!#;!"&;!"%;!#8;!%#;!!( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn&+-! nn!+(8& nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +(8%+-!&+-!(+-%+-%% 'nnnn4545 n'34=5+-!! 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+-!+-!%+-!rn+-!+-!%+-!-+-% +-%! rn 6rn+(8+-!+-!-+%+-%! ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+(8! nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+-!8+-%" n!45nn +(8+-!#+-%& +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-!" n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 84nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65'*""-*(!*( !*%&!*%&&*" ;!"!;!#&;!!;!%;!"(;!%8 nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn!+-( nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +-#+-#(+-("+-(! 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+-# rn+-#+-#rn 6rn+-%#+-#"+-##+#,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5+-%8 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45+-%-+-#8 n!45nn+-#% +-#&+-(& +n+n+-#! nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-%(2#!8+-( n4rn>n>54=5+-%( rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 85nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*((#70*(8# *%%*(!"*(8(*% ;!!-;!!;!!8;!%!;!"#;!%( nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +-((+-(-+-8+-8%+-8#+--& 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 +-88 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+-8( rn+-(8+-8+-8%+-8 ( rn 6rn+-(#+-(8+-8 ,n0rn0rn+-8" +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5+-$nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n+-'nn)n n45+-(%+-8! n!45nn +--" +n+n+-8&+-8 nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 86nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(-*(8-*% %*%"*%(*%!='*";!";!&;!!&;!#";!%-;!(; !"nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn!+""8 nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n +"( ?n +""+""&+""-+"& 'nnnn4545 n'34=5+ "! 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+"" rn 6rn+--8+"""+""% +"" ,n0rn0rn+""# +nn 'n+"n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn+--nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n+--% 'nn)n n45+""+"#+" 8 n!45nn +--#+""!+"% +n+n+--!+"" +" nn+--( nn,nn4r>> 65+""( n4rn>n>54=5 +" rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 87nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(8&*(&!*# &8*#&%*(&*%#= ;!%";!#;!#(;!!!;!%&;!#nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +"(+"8+"&"+"&+"&%+" !"+"! 'nnnn4545 n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+"#+"-+" &+"&# rn+"#+"&# rn 6rn+"#+"&# ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An+"% nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n+"! 'nn)n n45+"& n!45nn +"!+"&!+"&8 +n+n+"+"& &+"&( nn+" nn,nn4r>> 65+"&n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 88nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*(&8*%'*" (*"(*"*%!!*(%8 ;!#!;!##;!;&&";&&;&&!; &&nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 +-## nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +"!!+"!#+"!8+-8!+-!%+-#( 'nnnn4545 +-8# n'34=5 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545+-#% nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn+"!& rn+"!&+-8%+-!# rn 6rn+"!(+"!-+-8% +-8(+-#8 ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5+"!% nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n+-#n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 89nnnnn 'n45 n &&&&&&& n ,4'>'0>65*%!*(##*% !%*"#*"*!8*#8;&!";&!;&!;&!&;&!%;&!#; &!nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +-(%+-%+-#"+-%%+-(" 'nnnn4545+ -%"+-( n'34=5 +-(& 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+-!-+-%!+-#+-( 8+-%(+-( rn 6rn+-!8+-%&+-#+(8+-%#+-(! ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5 ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5+-!(+-%nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n+-(( n45 n!45nn +n+n nn nn,nn4r>> 65+-(# n4rn>n>54=5 rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 90nnnnn+-% 'n45 n &&&& n ,4'>'0>65*%!#*(#8*# -%*(! ;&%";&%;&%!;&%% nnnn465 nn<,45 n<+n45 nnnn nn45 nn& nn! nn'rnn<=+nnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn5 ='rnn4nn&5 ='rnn4nn!5 nn%45 nn#4rn/nn5 ='rnn4nn(5 ='rnn4nn85 'rnn4>nn-5 rn4/nn >nn"5 nn 'rnn nn& nn! rn4nn%5 ='rnn rn nn nn45 nn45 ='rnn n ?n +-(-+-88+-#& 'nnnn4545 n'34=5+-8 0 nnnn4545 nn4545 nn4545 nnnn454=5 rnrn rn7,rn rn+--+-8rn 6rn+-8+--+-#! ,n0rn0rn +nn 'n n 0rn0rn4n>3n5+-8" ;rn nn4@5 nn4n)n+!5 nn4+&""5 n4r5 nn n4325 45 An nn)n4r5 $nn$nn45 nnnn43>>n 54=5 nn4r>>+rnn5 nn+n)n 'nn)n n45 n!45nn +n+n+--" nn nn,nn4r>> 65 n4rn>n>54=5+-8& rnnrnnrn

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Pardoo Direct Shipping Ore Project Troglofauna Surv ey Phase 2 and Phase 3 Results Subterranean Ecology 91nnnnn 'n45


Description
This final report
presents the results of the second and third phases of
troglofauna sampling at Pardoo, and provides an assessment of
the results in relation to the first phase. This report should
be read in conjunction with the report on phase 1 troglofauna
sampling (in Ecowise 2007) and the initial desktop assessment
(Subterranean Ecology 2007a) which provide important background
information, details of methods and assessment of potential
impacts. The spatially more extensive phase 3 sampling, which
sampled 109 reference holes (Appendix 1), aimed to detect
troglomorphic species outside the proposed mine pit impact
zones. Traps baited with cheese were placed in seven holes
within the Monty reference site, each paired with an unbaited
trap to enable a comparison of invertebrate abundances and
baited versus un-baited trap sampling methods. This sampling
method was trialled to investigate capture rates of
subterranean invertebrates. --
Authors


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