Proceedings of the 1978 National Cave and Karst Management Symposia

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Proceedings of the 1978 National Cave and Karst Management Symposia

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Title:
Proceedings of the 1978 National Cave and Karst Management Symposia
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National Cave & Karst Management Symposia
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NCKMS
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National Cave and Karst Management Symposia
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National cave management symposium proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, 1978Contents: Selected Cave Management Situations in New York State / John E. Mylroie -- The Management of Caves Within the National Park Service / Roland H. Wauer -- Thoughts on Training / William R. Reeves -- Interpretive Development of Carlsbad Caverns / Clifford Stroud -- Seventy-Five Years at Wind Cave / Larry W. Frederick -- The National Park Service Cave Radiation Research and Monitoring Program / Keith A. Yarborough -- Bat Management in the United States / Thomas M. Lera - Sue Fortune -- State Legislation Concerning the Protection of Caves / George N. Huppert - Betty J. Wheeler -- Welcoming Remarks / Robert Deskins -- Theirs Not to Reason Why / G. Jay Gouge -- An Overview of Cave Management / Robert R. Stitt -- Current Problems in Cave Management / Roger W. Brucker -- Sinks, Stinks and Springs: A Summary of the Hydrogeology of the Mammoth Cave Region With Emphasis on Results and Applications of National Park Service-Sponsored Research / James F. Quinlan -- Hydrological Impacts of Urbanization in the Soluble Rock Lands of Greene County, Missouri / Tom Aley -- Karst Management in Urban Areas: Sinkhole Flooding in Bowling Green, Kentucky / Nicholas Crawford -- Aquatic Ecosystem and Management Problems in the Mammoth Cave Area / Julian J. Lewis -- A Conceptual Characterization of the Subsurface Movement of Toxic Chemicals in Soluble Rock Lands / Tom Aley - Danny Halterman -- Application of Kentucky Water Quality Regulations to Karst Waters / Robert W. Ware -- Environmental Regulations, Assistance and a Status Report on the Mammoth Cave Environmental Impact Statement / Ronald J. Mikulak -- Interpretive Training for Show Cave Personnel / Tom Aley - Cathy Aley -- Guide Training at Mammoth Cave National Park / Lewis D. Cutliff -- Interpretation at Mammoth Cave / Joe Wagoner -- Panel Discussion: Management Problems of Private Caves / W.T. Austin - Barbara Munson - David Cale - Wes Odle - Tim Anderson - Joe Waggoner - Clara Heidemann - Steve Fairchild - Richard C. Bell - Ron Burke - Vernon McDaniel -- The Size and Location of Saltpetre Mining Sites in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia / Merilyn Osterlund -- Management of Prehistoric Cultural Resources at Mammoth Cave National Park / Kenneth C. Carstens -- Cultural Resource Management at Russel Cave National Monument / David T. Clark -- The Recognition, Evaluation, and Management of Cave Bone Deposits / Ronald C. Wilson -- The Endangered Species Act and the Regulations Developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Protect Endangered Species / Robert R. Currie -- The Status of the Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) / John T. Brady -- The Survival of the Endangered Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens), a Continuing Drama / Alan Rabinowitz -- The Future of Cave Management in Relation to Bat Conservation / Alan Rabinowitz -- The Endangered Kentucky Blind Cave Shrimp / Edward A. Lisowski -- The Hart's Tongue Farm: An Endangered Plant in Cave Entrances / A. Murray Evans -- The Ecology of Hawaiian Lava Tubes / Francis G. Howarth -- The Missouri Cooperative Cave Inventory Project: A Biological Resource Survey / James E. Gardner - Treva L. Gardner -- Protection for Diamond Craters, Southeastern Oregon / Ellen Benedict - George Brown - Esther Gruber - Chad Bacon -- The Role of the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission in Cave Management / Wayne C. Houtcooper -- Cave Management and Environmental Assessment Activities of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Regional Heritage Project / Patricia A. Fink -- A Management Approach to Perkins Cave, Virginia / Roy D. Powers, Jr. -- The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission / John Wilson - Robert W. Custard - Evelyn Bradshaw - Philip C. Lucas - John R. Holsinger -- High Adventure Underground: An Adventure Caving Program at Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Missouri / Scott W. Schulte -- Preservation, Development and Management of Caves and other Karst Features Within the Tennessee State Natural Areas System / Allen R. Coggins -- The Pettibone Karst: Birthplace of the National Speleological Society / A. Plante -- Management Techniques for Wilderness Caves / James R. Goodbar -- Is the Underground Wilderness Concept Practical? / J.B. "Buzz" Hummel -- Underground Wilderness / Robert B. Stitt -- Radiation Hazards in Caves / Robert T. Beckman -- Cave Restoration and Cave Management / Katherine Rohde -- The National Cave Rescue Commission / Lee Noon -- Cave Management Plans / J.B. "Buzz" Hummel -- The State of the Art in Management Planning: A Case for Caver Involvement / Geoffrey B. Middaugh -- Cave Laws of the United States / Evelyn Bradshaw.
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National CaveManagementSymposiaProceedings NEWMEXICOOCTOBER16-20,1978SPONSORSBureauofLand Management CaveResearchFoundationNationalCavesAssociationNationalParkServiceNationalSpeleologicalSocietyU.S.ForestServiceMAMMOTHCAVENATIONAL KENTUCKYOCTOBER14-17,1980SPONSORSBureauofLand Management Cave ResearchFoundationNationalCavesAssociationNationalParkServiceNationalSpeleologicalSocietyTennesseeValleyAuthorityEditedbyRonaldC.Wilson andJulianJ.Lewis

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Frontcover:Apopular show caveuntilitwasforcedbydomesticandindustrialpollutiontocioseinthe1940's.HiddenRiverCave, Horse Cave, KentuckyhascometosymbolizetheproblemsofpoorlanduseplanningandlackofwatershedmanagementintheMammothCaveregionofKentucky.Circa1940photocourtesyofW.T.Austin.Backcover:Theexplorermakeshiswayonuntroddenearth,andhecarrieslighttoarealmthathasbeenforeverdark.NewDiscovery,MammothCAve,Kentucky,circa1938.RayScottphotocourtesyof Mammoth CaveNationalPark.PleasecontactindividualauthorsforpermissiontouseanymaterialintheseProceedings.Publishedby PygmyDwarfPress505Roosevelt Stre3t OregonCity. Oreon 970451982

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PREFACEThisvolumecontainspapersfromboththeFourthNationalCave Management SymposiumheldinCarlsbad,NewMexico onOctober16-20,1978andtheFifthNationalCave Management Symposiumheldin Mammoth CaveNationalPark,Kenbucky onOctober14-17,1980. The 1978 Symposium was composedlargelyofworkshopsandfieldtrips,whilethe1980meetingemphasizedformalpresentations.Bothformatswereproductive,buttheformalpresentationsprovidedmore witten statementsthatcanbeusedbypeoplewhowereunabletoattendthemeetings.Theconsensusamongparticipantsofthesesymposiaisthatthemeetingsprovidea much-needed forumforexchangeofideasfrom manyagenciesanddiverseacademicdisciplines.WearegratefultotheorganizationsandindividualswhosesupportmadetheNationalCave Management Symposiapossible.TheOrganizingCommitteeofthe1978 SymposiumatCarlsbadwaschairedbyRonKerbooftheNationalParkService.OtherorganizersincludedCalWelbourn,CaveResearchFoundation;MilfordFletcher,NationalParkService;Joe"Buzz" Hummel,BureauofLand Management;KatherineRohde,NationalParkService;JerryTrout,U.S.ForestService;TimAnderson,NationalCavesAssociation;andDougRhodes,NationalSpeleologicalSociety.The 1980 SymposiumatMammothCave wasplannedby twocommittees.MembersoftheSteeringCommitteewereBobDeskins,NationalParkService;Joe"Buzz" Hummel,BureauofLand Management;JackSteiner,NationalCavesAssociation;RobertStitt,NationalSpeleologicalSociety;andCalWelbourn,CaveResearchFoundation.OrganizingCommitteeworkersincludedBillAustin,NationalCavesAssociation;TriciaFink,TennesseeValleyAuthority;JimGoodbar,GreenRiverGrotto;JohnMylroie,NationalSpeleologicalSociety;JimWiggins,NationalParkService;andRonWilson,CaveResearchFoundation.Addressesfortheseindividualscanbefoundinthelistofparticipantsattheendofthisvolume.SpecialthankstoDianeKarpoffoftheUniversityofLouisvillefortypingtheseproceedings.ThenextNationalCave Manage ment Sympoisumisplannedfor1982atasitenotyetselectedatthis writing. RonaldC.Wilson

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TABLEOFCONTENTSPage197'8SYMPOSIUMSelectedCaveManagementSituationsinNewYorkStateJohnE.Mylroie................................................................................1TheManagementofCavesWithintheNationalParkServiceRolandH.Wauer...............................................................................5Thoughtson.TrainingWilliamR.Reeves.............................................................................8InterpretiveDevelopmentofCarlsbadCavernsCliffordStroud...............................................................................13Seventy-fiveYearsatWindCaveLarryW.Frederick............................................................................16TheNationalParkServiceCaveRadiationResearchandMonitoringProgramKeithA.yarborough...........................................................................27BatManagementintheUnitedStatesThomasM.LeraandSueFortune................................................................41StateLegislationConcerningtheProtectionofCavesGeorgeN.HuppertandBettyJ.Wheeler........................................................451980SYMPOSIUMWelcomingRemarksRobertDeskins................................................................................49TheirsNottoReasonWhyG.JayGouge..................................................................................50AnOverviewofCaveManagementRobertR.Stitt...............................................................................53CurrentProblemsinCave ManagementRoger W. Brucker..............................................................................55Sinks,Stinks,andSprings:A SummaryoftheHydrogeologyoftheMammothCaveRegion-WithEmphasisonResultsandApplicationsofNationalParkService-SponsoredResearchJamesF.Quinlan..............................................................................59HydrologicImpactsofUrbanizationintheSolubleRockLandsofGreeneCounty,MissouriTomAley......................................................................................61KarstManagementinUrbanAreas:SinkholeFloodinginBowlingGreen,KentuckyNicholasCrawford.............................................................................70AquaticEcosystemsandManagementProblemsintheMammothCaveAreaJulianJ.Lewis................................................73AConceptualCharacterizationoftheSubsurfaceMovementofToxicChemicalsinSolubleRockLandsTomAleyandDannyHalterman..................................................................77ApplicationofKentuckyWaterQualityRegulationstoKarstWatersRobertW.Ware.................................................................................81EnvironmentalRegulations,Assistance and aStatusReportontheMammothCaveEnvironmental Impact StatementRonaldJ.Mikulak.............................................................................82

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TABLEOFCONTENTS(cont.)InterpretiveTrainingforShowCavePersonnelTomAley and Cathy Aley...GuideTrainingatMammothCaveNationalParkLewisD.Cutliff..InterpretationatMammothCaveJoeWagoner..PanelDiscussion:ManagementProblemsofPrivateCavesW.T.Austin,BarbaraMunson, DavidCale, Wes OdIe,TimAnderson,JoeWaggoner,ClaraHeidemann,SteveFairchild,RichardC.Bell,RonBurke,Vernon McDanielTheSizeandLocationofSaltpetreMiningSitesinTennessee,Alabama, andGeorgiaMerilynOsterlund..........ManagementofPrehistoricCulturalResourcesatMammothCaveNationalParkKennethC.Carstens........CulturalResourceManagementatRusselCaveNationalMonument David T.Clark.............TheRecognition,Evaluation,and ManagementofCave BoneDepositsRonaldC.Wilson................ ,The EndangeredSpeciesAct andtheRegulationsDeveloped bytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicetoProtectEndangeredSpeciesRobertR.Currie.....................TheStatusoftheIndianaBat (Nyotis sodaZis)JohnT. Brady..................TheSurvivaloftheEndangered Gray Bat (Nyotisgrisesaens), aContinuingDrama AlanRabinowitz............TheFutureofCave ManagementinRelationtoBatConservationAlanRabinowitz..............The Endangered KentuckyBlindCave Shrimp EdwardA.Lisowski...........TheHart'sTongueFern-AnEndangeredPlantinCaveEntrancesA.Murray Evans.......TheEcologyofHawaiian Lava TubesFrancisG.Howarth........TheMissouriCooperativeCaveInventoryProject:ABiologicalResourceSurveyJamesE.GardnerandTrevaL.Gardner.ProtectionforDiamondCraters,SoutheasternOregonEllenBenedict,George Brown,EstherGruber,Chad Bacon.The RoleoftheKentuckyNaturePreservesCommissioninCave ManagementWayneC.Houtcooper..Cave Management andEnvironmentalAssessmentActivitiesoftheTennesseeValleyAuthority'sRegionalHeritageProjectPatriciaA.Fink..........A Management ApproachtoPerkinsCave,VirginiaRoyD.Powers,Jr....TheEvolutionoftheVirginiaCave CommissionJohnWilson,RobertW.Custard,EvelynBradshaw,PhilipC.Lucas,JohnR.HolsingerPage91939596105110117121 123 127133 136 138143 146 150 154 160161167 172

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TABLEOFCONTENTS(cont.)PageHighAdventureUnderground--AnAdventureCavingProgramatRockBridgeMemorialStatePark"Missouri.ScottW.Schulte'....183Preservation,DevelopmentandManagementofCavesandotherKarstFeaturesWithintheTennesseeStateNaturalAreasSystemAllenR.Coggins..............................................................................187ThePettiboneKarst--BirthplaceoftheNationalSpeieo1ogicalSocietyA.Plante......................................................................................188ManagementTechniquesforWildernessCavesJames,R.Goodbar..............................................................................196 IstheUndergroundWildernessConceptPractical?J.B."Buzz"Hummel...........................................................................199UndergroundWildernessRobertR.Stitt ........................."................201RadiationHazardsinCavesRobertT.Beckman.............................................................................204CaveRestorationandCaveManagementKatherineRohde...............................................................................205TheNationalCaveRescueCommissionLeeNoon......................................................................................208Cave ManagementPlansJ.B.""Buzz"Hummel.....................................210TheStateoftheArtinManagementPlanning -ACaseforCaverInvolvement B.Middaugh..........................................................................211Cave LawsoftheUnitedStatesEvelynBradshaw...............................................................................214ListofParticipants................'.........".................228

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MANAGEMENTSELECTEDCAVEINNEWYORKSTATE NEWYalKLocationmap of AlbanylUICIScbobarleCoaotlee. Todsbov1n,:t placl!lleD.t of thecavescl1scossed:ID.t:het2zt:. s.N r 100miles SCI{)HIlJlIEaJlMY 1Knox Cave2-CabooseCave3X Cave4Rowe Caverns5McFails Cave*JohnE.MylroieIntroductionTheNortheasternUnitedStatesisoneofthemostdenselypopulatedregionsofthecountry.Thislargepopulationandthelimitedamountof-goodareasforcavesintheregionresultsinaveryhighcavertocaveratio.Untilrecently,cavemanagement wasalmostnon-existentinNewYorkbut,duetothehightrafficlevels,ithad become more and moreessentialwithtime.Commercialcaveoperatorswereabouttheonlypeoplewhomadeanattempttoassess,inventory,and managecaves,andthiswas doneinanexploitativemanner,usingcavesasaresource..Still,commercialoperationsarepreservationaltoacertainextent.ThebestexampleofthispreservationisatHoweCaverns(Figure1),which would havebeenalmostentirelydestroyedbythequarryingactivitiesofa cement company,iftheupstreampartofthecavehadn'tbeenatouristoperation.Twenty-fivehundredfeetofcaveisestimatedtohavebeenquarriedaway,butabout8000feetofcaveweresaved.TheHelderbergPlateauofcentralNewYorkStatecontainsthebestareaforcaveexplorationinthenortheasternUnitedStates.Thisplateauextendswestward fromtheHudsonRiverintheeasternpartofthestateand endsinthevicinityofSyracuse.TheformationofcaveshasbeenespeciallypronouncedinAlbany andSchohariecounties(Figure1)attheeasternendofthe Cave management onpubliclandshaseitherbeennon-existent,oraverybasicplanoftotalexclusion.RecentactivitiesbytheStateParksandRecreationDivisionattheClarkReservationinJamestown,NewYorkhasresultedinoneofthefirstattemptsatcave management onpublic.landsinthestate.Whilestillrudimentary,theman agementactivityincludesresourceevaluation,preservation,andaccesscontrol.Thisprogram wasinitiatedinpartbylocalcaverswho are nowassistinginitsimplementation.Cave management bycaversandcave-orientedgroupswasprimitiveandhaphazarduntilthe1970's. An increaseinthenumber of cavers,plusthecrosingofafewimportantcavesledtoasuddenawarenessinthecavingcommunityoftheneedforthe manage mentofcaves.Thereisnowa widevarietyofindividualandgroupcavemanagement activities'in NewYorkState.Mostofthesehaveastronginclinationtoaccesscontrolandlittleelse,buttheotheraspectsofcavemanagement,suchas*DepartmentofChemistryandGeology, State University,Murray,KY42071preservationandinventory,arebeginningtobedeveloped.From 1975to1977.theauthorhadtheopportunitytomanagefourseparatecavepropertiesinverydifferentmannersinAlbanyand Scho hariecounties.NewYork.These.fourcaves (Fig ure1)wereKnoxCave. Knox;SingleXCave,Gallupville;Caboose Cave.Gallupville;and HcFails Cave.CarlisleCenter.Thesefourcaves awidevarietyof con ditionsandoptions.Theydemonstratenotonlythatitisimpossibletomanageall caveS inthesame way.butalsothat it isbestforeachcavetobestudiedandhandledinadifferent aanner.The CavesKnoxCaVe:KnoxCave. aformer cOlllllercial cave,locatedinKnox.NY(Figure .1). iswell knownand heavilytrafficked.The commerical operationlastedfrom 1933to1958.androadsigns and:higb waymaplocationspersistedwellintothe 1960'& OneoilcompanystillhadKnox Caveonits h1gbvay mapaslate as 1972. Thecommercialoperation and itsadvertisingcarry-overintothe1970'sresultedinveryhighvisitationrates.Manyminoraccidents1

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occurredovertheyears,mostlytonovicecaves,butinMay,1975,alargepieceoficefellfromtheverticalwallofthesinkholeentrance,killingonepersonandcripplinganotherjustastheywereenteringthecave.The owner,whohadbeentryingtogivethecavetotheNSSforataxwrite-offsincethespringof1974,wassued.HediscussedcontroloftrafficatKnoxCavewiththeauthoruntilbothlawsuitandpropertytransferissueswereresolved.Attheowner'sdirection,thecavewasfencedandtheaccessroadgated.Thelandwaspostedbytheauthor,andhewasappointedcaretakeroftheproperty.Allvisitors,whethernovicesorexperiencedcavers,weredeniedaccess.Noticesofclosurewereplacedinallareacavingpublicationsaswellasatthecavesite.Despitethis,manypeoplewerecaughttryingtousethecave.Ifcaughtbythecaretaker,theywere warned andescortedfromtheproperty.Ifcaughtbylocalauthorities,whowerepatrollingthearea,arrestswere made.Somewellknown and experience4 caverswereamongthoseapprehended,andre-inforcedtheconceptthatstrictcontrolswerenecessary.Withoutstrictaccesscontrol,therewas aseriousthreatthatthecave would bepermanentlysealed,eitherbytheowner,toremovetheproblem,orbythelocalresidents,toendthenuisance.Thecavehadtobeclosedinordertosaveit.KnoxCavehas3010feetofaccessiblepassage,and avarietyofcavingtechniquesmustbeusedtotraverseit.Thisdiversity,coupledwiththepastpublicityandtheabsenceofwaterpassages(rareinNewYork),madethecaveverypopularamongawidevarietyofindividuals.Thisputintensetrafficpressureonthecave,andclosingthecavetosaveitwas averydifficulttask.Sincetheoutof-courtsettlementofthelawsuit,planstotransferthecavetotheNSS,orasimilargroup,havebeenmovingalong.Thenon-accesspolicyisstill in force,butdoesnotrequiretheextremeeffortneededwhenfirstestablished.Acompletediscussionofthecaveanditsmanagement canbefound,inStittand Addis(1975).SingleX Cave:SingleX CaveislocatedonthesouthsideofBartonHilljustwestofGallupvillein County,NewYork(Figure1).Thecavewasdiscoveredafteranintensediggingcampaignconductedbytheauthorandothersinthespringof1974.Thecircumstancessurroundingthecavearesomewhatunique.Thecaveis3000feetlongandcontainsa tremendous roomwith2000feetofthefinestpassageinthestate.Entry,however,requiresa750footcrawlinwater42F'.Theentranceislocatedataspotdescribedinanearlierpublication(Gurnee,1961)ashavingbeencheckedand noaccessiblecavefound.The managementplandevelopedbytheauthor(reallyjustanaccessplan)calledforsuccessivelydecreasingsecrecyaboutthec,ave. The managementproblempresentedbythecavewasbasicallytwo-fold:(1)protectionofthe lnex periencedcaverfromthehazards'ofthecave,andvice versa, and (2)' maintainaccessthrough the developmentandmaintenanceofgood'landownerrelations.Itemnumber 1 wasnot.arealproblem,sincetheentrancecrawlisincoldwater,isverylong,andgenerallyforbidding. This tendedtoinhibitentry2byuntrainedand/orill-equippedpeople.Theprimaryhazardofthecaveisintheentranceareawhereitcantestanddetertheunreadywithoutreallyendangeringthem.Itemnumber 2 wasofrealconcern.Thelandownerswereveryfriendlyindividualsandgladtoseetheircaveenjoyed.Pastexperiencehadshownthatsuchexcellentlandownerrelationsdeterioratedquicklyinuncontrolledsituations.Sincethecavewasbasicallyself-protectingasregardsnovices,andlocatedwhere nocavewassupposedtobe,asecrecyapproachwasused.Thismethodinvolvedtakingleadingcaversfromtheregiontothecaveoveratwo-yearperiod.Thecaversweregivenatourofthecave,andintroducedtothelandowners.Asthelevelofsecrecydecreased,thenumberofcaversintheareawhohadseenthecaveand metthelandownersincreased.Thisgraduaiapproachavoidedasudden,heavytrafficsurgeforthecaveandthelandowners.Asstoriesaboutthegrandeurofthecavespread,sodidhorrortalesabouttheentrancecrawl,andthisalaohelpedattenuate anyI118d dashbyregioncaverstoseethecave.A more publicapproachwastakenin1976,as knowledge oftheexistenceofthecave became widespread. A coordinatorforSingleX Cave wasappointed,andasimplebutreasonableaccesspolicyestablishedandpublishedintheregional caviDg _gazines.Accesshasbeenbasedon askingand demonstrating adequateknowledge and forcaving.Byapproachingtheaccess coordina tor,thelandownerswere spared thenecessityofdealingwithstrangepeopleatunusual ofthedayornight.Thepolicywasvery flexible .and,sincemostoftheapplicants wereknown totheauthor, access decisionswereeasierto JUke. The managementplanforSingleX Cave vas notacompleteprogram.Aclassicresourceinventorywasneverdone,butacompletesurvey,geologicdescriptionandphotographicsurveyof the originalfeaturesofthecavewere accOlllplished beforegeneralknowledgeaboutthecavevas .ade public.Themajorconcernoftheauthor vasto avoidanyofthemany problems associated with thediscoveryof new caves.Totalsecrecyforanindefiniteperiodof time wouldeventuallyleadtoalienation among the cavingcoaaunity becausethe secret wouldeventuallygetout.InregionswherecavesaremoreplentifulthisisnottheproblemitisinNewYork. A newcavealsoposesproblems termsofsafety. preserva tionandlandownerrelations.Gradualdisclosureof'thecavehelpedcontrolasuddensurgeincavevisitation. and,so'helpedavoid.anyproblema. Thiswasespecially important inthiscase.sincethecavecould not begated.Caboose Cave: Caboose CaveislocatedjustnorthofGallupvilleinSchoharieCounty.New York(!'i& ure1).Thecavewasdiscoveredbytheauthor in thefallof1974and wasquicklyduginto. While onlySOO.feetlong.thecavecontainsavarietyofinterestingandsportingpassages.as well asanexcellentdisplayofspeleothems.Inordertoprotectthecave.anaccessplan was developed.Thelandownerdidnotliveinthe im mediatevicinityofthecave.butwasperfectly

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willingtolettheauthormanage.thecave.Thishad twoadvantages:first,itgave complete authoritytothecavemanager;andsecond,itmadeby-passingthecavemanagerdifficult,sincethewhereaboutsoftheowner wasnotobvious.Secrecywasusedhereasanearlypartofthemanagementprogram,asatSingleX Cave, andinasimilar,planned-deteriorationmanner.This.againpreventedasuddensurge in trafficeinto"thecave.Physicalaccesstothecavewasrelativelyeasy,soagatewasconstructed.Itwasbuiltofsteelandconcrete,withanobviousweakpointtokeepvandalsfromdestroyingtheentirestructurewhenattemptingto break-in (nobreak-ins inthetwo-yearperiodtheauthormanagedthecave).Thegatewas atriangular-shapedpieceofsteelplate,coveringasimilarlyshapedhole in theconcreteplatformcoveringtheentrance.Eachapexofthetrianglegatewas alockingpoint.Thisallowedaccesstothecavebyopeninganyoneofthe three locks,andlettingtheother two actashinges.Withthisarrangement,onelockwasfortheowner, onelockwasfortheregionalcaverescueorganization,and onelockforroutineaccess.Eachlockwasdifferentand haditsownkey andcombination.Withaccessnowsecure,theactualprogram wassetin motion. Thecavewassurveyed,photographedandinventoriedingreatdetail.Thecavewaspresentedtothecavingcommunityinacomprehensivearticlepublishedintheregionalnewsletter(Mylroie,1975),cpmpletewithdescription,geology,hydrology,maps, andphotographs.Thepurposeofthiswastobluntcuriosityaboutthecavebyprovidingfulldisclosureinanopen andfrankway.Area.caversdidnotfeelanythingwasbeinghiddenfromthem,orthattheyweremissingoutonanything. As aresult,actualrequeststoseethecavewereslowincoming, andneverreachedahighlevel.Requestsforaccessweremadetothecavemanager, andevaluatedbasedonthemanager'sknowledgeofthepeopleinvolved,andthesupportingmaterialpresented.Toav.oid keyproblems,achangeablecombinationlockwasinitiallyused.Keysdidnothavetobemailedout,andthuswerenotlostorduplicated;Thecombinationcouldbegivenoverthephonetoavoidmailingdelays,andthecombinationchangedweeklytomaintainsecurity.Thelockitself,unfortunately,failedrepeatedly.duetoinadequatecon-struction,and waseventuallyreplaced"withakeytypelock.Eventhislockwasunusualthough,asitwas amagneticlockrequiringaspecialmagnetickeytoopenit. While thishadallthehandlingandmailingdifficultiesofnormalkeys,itcouldnotbeduplicated.Theselocksareexpensive,however,andifvandalizedwouldcostahighamounttoreplace.Thepurposeinmanaging Caboose Cave wastoallowuseofthecave,whilecontrollingtrafficlevelstolowerthenegativeeffectsoftrafficonthecave,theproperty,andthecavers.Inthisrespectitwassuccessful,anddeliberatevandalismisnotknowntohaveoccurred.Asteady,thoughlow,levelofdeterioration took placethroughaccidentandcarelessness.Inspiteofthis,thecavewas amoraleboosterforareacaving,andtookpressureoffothernearby,hard-pressedcaves.McFa1ls Cave:McFailsCave,fivemileslong,isthelargestsurveyedcaveinthenortheasternUnited3States.ThecaveislocatedjustnorthofthecrossroadsofCarlisleCenterinSchoharie Coun ty,NewYork(Figure1).The entrailee ateabasbeenknownsincethemid-18oo'.butthebulkofthecavewasdiscoveredintheearly1960'sbyFredStoneandothers.Thecave is currentlyenteredfrom a9O-footverticalshaft. Many pitsandsinkholesexistonthesurface near theentrance,some beingformer entrancestothe cave, butnowblocked.A completedeScription ofthecavecanbefoundinMylroie(1977)and PaI.er (1976) Afteritsdiscoveryintheesrly1960's,FredStonegavetheNSS approximately one acre of laudaround theentrancein1965.Sincethat tUle, theNSShasmanagedthe cave, using as a guide asetofrulesdevelopedbytheBoardof Governors oftheNSS.Theactual management ofthe cave isdonebyacommittee,theMcFailsCave eo-ittee, whichinitiallyreporteddirectlytotheSecretaryTreasureroftheNSS,butwhich nov also reports totheNSSCave Ownership and Kanage.enteo-ittee. WhiletheNSS niles havea few specific ire-, suchasrequiringanNSS -oor oneachtrip into thecave,actualaccesspolicyis and carriedoutbythe Chairman ofthe McFails Cave Committee.In1976,theauthor was appointedchairmanofthecommittee.Thecave wasinDeed ofsome new managementpolicies.Thepropert:y was re-surveyed,thesinksandpitsfenced, and t:helandposted.Work vas doneto stabi.lize the en trancepitandcrawlway.Agatealready onthecaveentrancepit,butbadbeen unlocked formanyyears.Thegatebadbeen insta11ed afteratrespassing,inexperiencedcaverdied froexposureintheentrancepitin KarCh, 1968.Followingthelegalproceedingsat ltnoxCave resultingfromtheaccidentthereinKay,1975,t:hegatewasagainlockedatMcFails.By1976,the cave hadbeenwellexplored.surveyedandphotograpbed.Aclassicresourceinventory. st.i1ar tothosedoneinFederalcavesinthewesternUnited States, hasneverbeendonebutshouldbe ca.pletedin ordertofurtherunderstandthis significantcave. In1976,cavemanagementin New York still__ taccesscontrolandpropertyupkeep.Fromtheviewpointofaccesscontrol. HcFails Cavepresentedmany problems.Unlike thethreepreviouslydiscussedcaves.McFailsCaveisadangerouscavewithmanysevereobstacles. Two deathshaveoccurredhere.andthe issuchthata wrongstepdeepinsidecould fatal,whereinanothercaveitwouldonlybean incon venience.Thedangersarevaried:the entrance complexrequiresa9O-footverticaldescentinatightfissure.followedbya 1So-foot-Iong crawlway.thefirst100feetof which are eight tonineincheshigh.AfteraboutSOOfeetofwalking.stooping,andcrawling,theexplorermustpassanear-sumpwiththreeto eight inchesofairspace, almost total i-.etsion inwaterthatis42F. Following thisare 4Js1I11.es ofcave,mostly walking. Route finding is oc casionallydifficult,andsectionsof water waistdeepmustbetraversed.Therealthreatsinthiscaveareexhaustionand exposure. The length ofthecave,coupledwith i_rsion and tiahtpassages thatmustbepassedto exit thecave.havebroughtmanycaverstotheirlimits.

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Ingrantingaccess,thecave manager hastoassesstheabilitiesoftheapplicant,bothinmentalandphysical terma. Advancepermissionisrequiredtoenterthecave,andthispolicyhas been wellpub intheregionalcavingmagazines. he rigorsofthecavehavebeenwellpublicized,buttheexceptionalqualityofthecavehasledtoquestionablegroupstryingtoenterthecave.Atleastonebreak-inoccurredintheperiod1976-1977,butfortunately,noaccidentsoccurred.ConclusionsThecave management programsconductedbytheauthorinNewYorkstatefrom1975-1977werenotcave man agementasthetermisunderstoodtoday,butreallywerejustaccesscontrol.Eachofthefourexamplesgivenwascontrolleddifferentlybasedonthepurposeoftheaccesscontrolandtheconditionofthecaveanditsownership.Despitethedisparityinthewaythecavesweremanaged,theexperienceresultedinsomepersistent,recurringfactors:(1)Cave managementislaborintensive.Tryingtocontrolaccesstocavestakestimeandefforttoaccept,evaluate,andrespondtoaccessrequests.Thisisaboveandbeyondthelabornecessarytobuildgates,stringfences,placearticlesandsigns,andgeneralpropertyup-keep.(2)Themostdifficultcavemanagement(i.e.,accesscontrol)taskisaccurateassessmentofthecaverapplicant.Decidingwhoisqualifiedisthemostgruelingaspect,evenwithpeoplewellknowntothemanager.Thepotentialforalienationand breakdownoftheentireprogramexistsifstandardsaretoorigid,butaccidentsandvandalismfollowaloosepolicy.(3)Cave managementismosteffectivewhenthecave manager hasfullauthority.Whenadifficultjoblikeaccesscontrolhastobedone,itis much easierifyouaretheboss.ThisisbestillustratedbythesituationsatCaboose Cave andMcFailsCave. At CabooseCave,notonlywasthemanagergivenfullauthority,butthetruelandownerwasdifficulttolocate,making"goingoverthemanager'shead"unlikely.AtMcFailsCave,therewas avagueanddifficultNSSpolicytoapply,anddisgruntledcaverscould(anddid)gotheNSSofficersand/orDirectors,causingmanyproblems.4Oneaspectofaccesscontrol,by acave manager ishisdubiouslegalstandingandvulnerability.Incaseofanaccident,isheresponsible?Can adisgruntledcavergainaccesstoacavebyalawsuit?TheseramificationsdidnotoccurtotheauthoruntilafterhehadleftNewYorkState,butwithoutaclearerunderstandingoftheimplications,theauthorwouldhesitatetobeacavemanagerinthefuture.Cave management,actuallyaccesscontrol,didprovevaluabletothecavesandcaversinNewYork.Itisimpossibletosatisfyallpeoplewhowouldliketogocaving,justasitisimpossibletototallyprotectanyutilizedcave.Asleastmostindividualsappreciatedandsupportedthiseffort,andtherateofcavedeteriorationwasdramaticallyreducedcomparedtonon-regulatedsituations.Theonlysurewaytoprotectcavesistoclosethem.Thatway,noaccessdecisionshavetobemade,andthe caves undergonodegradation.Butasindividualsinvolvedincavesandcavingthisisnotthegoalofourefforts,exceptinspecialcircumstances.ReferencesGurnee,R.H.(editor),R.Anderson,A.'C.Mueller,andJ.Limeres. TheBartonHillProjectastudyofthelimestoneterrain,SchoharieCounty,NewYork.BulletinoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety23:1-30.Mylroie,J.E.1975.ReportonCabooseCave.NortheasternCaver6:129-136.Mylroie,J.E. 1977.SpeleogenesisandkarstgeomorphologyoftheHelderbergPlateau,SchoharieCounty,NewYork.BulletinIIoftheNewYorkCaveSurvey.336pp.Palmer,M.V.1976.Groundwaterflowpatternsinlimestonesolutionconduits.M.A.thesis,StateUniversityofNewYorkatOneonta.150pp.Stitt,R.R.andR.P.Addis.1975.A management planforKnoxCave,AlbanyCounty,NewYork.NationalSpeleologicalSociety.20pp.

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THEMANAGEMENTOFCAVESWITHINSYSTEM*RolandH.WauerTHENATIONALPARKIgrewupinamiddle-sized town insoutheasternIdaho,wheremyearliestmemoriesofcaveswereofanearbyicecaveonaSundayafternoonandalavatubeoneSaturdayinsummer. I rememberlittlemoreaboutthosetrips.Mynextcaveexperiencewas some15yearslaterinOregon,where,asanaivebuckranger,IreportedfordutyatOregonCavesNationalMonument.Thatbeautifulcavern,tuckedawayinthebowelsoftheSiskiyuMountains,hadanannualvisitationofonly85thousandthen,littlefame,andevenlessenvironmentalimpact.TheChiefRangerhandedmeaguidebookandtoldmetomemorizethefactswithin,andthatmyfirsttourwouldbe two dayshence.Ifoundthebookletfullofmythsandsemi-historicalhighlightsthatwerewittyandcute.There was oneaboutfatman'ssqueezeandanotheraboutMollies'nipple.Thentherewerefivepagesofanecdoteto"keepthefolksentertained."TheoneIstillrememberisaboutthevisitorthataskedtheguide,"how manymilesofundiscoveredpassagewaysarethereinthiscave?"Thelastfiveorsixpagesoftheguidebookincluded"Factsthatyoushouldknow."Thatwasthesec
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ResearchershaveidentifiedthreeendangeredbatspeciesincavesatBuffaloNationalRiverinArkansas.TwonewspeciesofarthropodswererecentlydiscoveredatCratersoftheMoonNationalMonumentinIdaho.RampartCaveinGrandCanyonNationalParkcontainsdroppingsoftheextinctShastaGroundSloth,asdoseveralcavesinGuadalupeMountainsNationalPark.Studiesofthedroppingshaveledtoa muchbetterunderstandingofthevegetationandclimatepresentthereduringthePleistocene.AndMuskOXCave,alsointheGuadalupes,hassofaryieldedevenmoreinformationaboutthevertebratesthatlivedduringthePleistocene.Thatcavehasproducedfaunafromshrewtobushoxensize,andincludesawholerangeofspeciesthat,accordingtoLloydLogan,"mayprovetobethemostsignificantdepositofvertebratefossilseverfoundintheGuadalupeMountains."Onlyfivetotenpercentofthepaleontologicalpotentialofthatcavehasyetbeenutilized.A1970,NationalParkServiceguidelinestates,"EveryactivityoftheServiceissubordinatetothedutiesimposeduponittofaithfullypreservetheparksforposterityinessentiallytheirnaturalstate."Thisisnotjusta managementobjectiveorpolicystatement,butamandateby CongressandthepeopleoftheUnitedStates.Fromthatmandatehasev010vedacavemanagementstatementthatIquote:"TheNationalParkService will managecavesfortheperpetuationoftheirnatural,geologicalandecologicalconditions,andhistoricassociations."Developmentssuchasartificialentrances,enlargementofnaturalentrances,pathways,lighting,interpretivedevices,ventilationsystemsandexcavationofelevatorshaftsarepermissibleonlywherenecessaryforgeneralpublicusewhensuchdevelopmentwillnotsignificantlyalteranyconditionsperpetuatingthenaturalcaveenvironmentorharmhistoricresources.Generalpublicaccessbytoursofsuitabledurationandinterest will belimitedtoarepresentativesampleofacave."Nodevelopmentaboveoradjacenttocaveswillbeundertakenwhichcouldsignificantlyalternaturalcaveconditionsincludingsubsurfacewatermovements."Caves,orportionsofcaves,maybeclosedtopublicuseorrestrictedtoaccessbyconductedtourswhensuchactionsarerequiredforhumansafetyandprotectionofthecaveresources.Caves,orportionsofcaves,maybemanagedexclusivelyforresearchandaccesslimitedtoapprovedresearchpersonnel." How istheNationalParkServicefulfillingthoseobjectives?Initialemphasismustbeplacedonprotectionoftheknownresources,whileatthesametime we mustlearnmoreaboutwhatadditionalresourcesexist.Itisvirtuallyimpossibletoprovideprotectiontoaresourcethatisunknown.Although"nomanagement"isoftenthebeststrategy6whenitcomestopreservingresourcesinanunalteredstate,itcanbecatastrophicinanaturalsystemthatisreceivingheavyimpact.Itisvitallyessentialthatweinventoryourresourcesandunderstandhowtheywork. Wemust preservewild,unalteredcavesystemsifwearetocomprehendtheessenceofanaturalcave.Theinformationbaseforourcavesisfarbehindmostofourterrestrialresources,buta number ofareasoftheNationalParkSystemarecurrentlyintheprocessofinventorying andtheirassociatedresources.Eachresourceisbeingclassified,andthatactivityleadstoascientifically-orientedmanagementstrategy.Insofaraspossible,thedualclassificationsystem,devisedbytheU.S.ForestService,B.L.M.,andtheNationalParkService,isbeingusedwithavalueforsignificantcontentandahazardratingforeachcave.Forexample,morethan40cavesatBuffaloNationalRiverhavealreadybeeninventoried,andtheclassification,mappingandmonitoringiscontinuing.A Cave ManagementPlanisnecessaryforeverynationalparkcontainingsignificantcaves.Theseactionplans,inconjunctionwiththearea'sResourcesManagementPlans
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publictovisitwithminimalhazardandnosignificantdamagetotheresources.Insomecases,permitswillnotberequired.Thereundoubtedlywillbecavesthatmustbetotallypreserved for theirscientificvalues,andentrywillberestrictedtothatpursuit.Theseareaswillbemostusefulasbaselinesforothercavesystems.Thismaysoundlikegrandrhetoric;a goodpartofithasbeensaidbefore.IstheNationalParkServicereallygoingtomonitorandcontroltheexternalandinternalthreatstoourcaves?Theansweristhatwemust!What makesthenextdecadedifferentfromthelast?Forthefirsttimewehaveanorganizationthatcombinesthefunctionsofscienceandresourcesmanagement. TheService'srecentreorganizationnotonlyprovidestherecognitionofscienceanditsimplementation,butthecatalysttogetitdone.Theingredientsforsuccessaregoodinformationanditsproperuse.Land managingagenciescanfundtheworld'sbestscientistwhocanprovidethemostsuccientsolutiontoaspecificproblem,butunlessthatreportandtherecommendationsareread,understoodandutilizeditisworthlesstothearea.Innumerouscasesthatisexactlywhathastakenplace.Knowledgeofanarea'sresourcebasecanalreadybeavailable.Theunderstandingofhowthesignificantpartsofthesystemfunctioncanbeknown.Andtheknowledgeofthebestmanagementstrategycanalsobeavailable.Butthelackofcommunica tionG betweenthescientist,managerandinterpretercannegatethewholeprocess.Ithaspreviouslybeenthesoleresponsibilityofthescientistandthemanager.Thescientistusuallyhashadapredeterminedsetofobligations,manynotrelatedtothepark'sneeds,andthemanagerusuallyhashadamilliondailytasksfrom problemstopastduereports.Therolesoftheparkmanagerandrangerarefarmore complexanddemandingthaneverbefore.Today'sbureaucracyrarelypermitstheconvenienceoffull communications betweenthe andtheuser.Andthereis where thesystemhasfailed.7Thekeyistheliaison.Itmustbeperformedbyonetrainedintheartofresourcesmanagementand-possessingabasicbackgroundinscience.ThereliesthemajorgoalforthenewDivisionofNaturalResourcesoftheNationalParkService.Althougha fewparksalreadyhaveimplementedtheidea,thenewthrustfor the Servicewillprovidemore andbettertrained Resource Managers.TheseindividualswillreporttotheareaSuperintendentand-serveasliaisonofficerbetweenthescientists,interpretersandmanagers.LetmeuseanexamplefromCarlsbadCavernsasthewaythesystemshouldwork.Theproblemofan80%declineinthearea's-batpopulationwasidenti fied bytheparkstaffin1973,andlistedasthepark'shighestresearchprioritywithintheir Re sourcesManagementPlan.Itwasnecessarytoknowwhatcausedthedeclinebeforeanythingcouldbedoneaboutit.TheRegionalOfficeassistedtheparkstaffinselectingresearchers,andcontractedforathree-yearstudy.TheprojectwasjointlyfundedbytheNationalParkServiceandtheU.S.FishandWildlifeService,andtheselectedscientistswerelocatedattheUniversityofNew Mexico andtheNationalMuseumofNaturalHistory.Dailycommunicationsbetweenthescientistsandparkmanagement wasretainedattheparklevelthrougharepresentativeoftheSuperintendent.Fromthebeginning,theparkandtheresearcherswereabletotalktoeachother.Theparkresourcesmanagerwasabletofreelyinterfacewiththeresearchers,andsoasnewdatabecameavailableitwasreadilyavailabletothemanagersandinterpreters.Thescientistsprovidedtheparkstaffwithoccasionalseminarsontheirwork,andwereabletorespondtostaffquestionsandsuggestions.Thescientistsbecamesomanagement/interpretiveorientedthattheirstatusandfinalreportsweredirectlyrelatedtotheneedsofthepark.Theyalsoprepared sev eralvaluabletechnicalreportsthatwereacceptedandpublishedinscientificjournals.Butthe prin cipalvalueoftheirwork wasvalidusableinformationeveryoneshared.Therecommendationshadalreadybeenpartiallyimplementedwhenthefinalreportwasreceived.Everyoneinvolvedhadbeenpartoftheprocess.

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THOUGHTS *William R.ReevesONTRAININGThepurposeofthisworkshopistoprovidepersonsinterestedincavemanagementwithtoolsandideasthattheycantakebackanduseintheiroperations.Amansgerofacavehastheprimaryresponsibilityofthetotaloperationoftheservicesandfacilitiesprovidedtothevisitors.Tomostmanagers,thisresponsibilityhasseveralaspects,suchasthequalityofservices,theappearanceoftheresource,operationalbudget,etc.The managermustdecidewhatistobeaccomplishedanddevelopaplanofactiontofollow.Theareathat will beaddressedbythisworkshopis"EmployeeTraining."Employeetrainingisaratherexpensiveandtimeconsumingprocess.However,dependinguponthedesiresorobjectivesofaparticularmanager,theexpenseandtimecanbeofgreatvalue.FacilityFunctionsLet'sfirstlookatthedifferentactivitiesthatmaybepresentatafacility.First,thetour.Thetourmaybeofaself-guidednature,inwhichvisitorsinvestigatethesecretsofthecave,viaspeciallymarkedtrails.Thesetrailsmayhavemarkedareasforinterpretationusingsigns,displays,orarecordedmessageasthemethodofdistributinginformationtothevisitingpublic.Guidesmaybestationedthroughoutthetourforsafetyreasonsandtoassistthevisitorwhenasked.Thistypeoftourisquitebeneficialtothevisitor,basicallyforthereasonthatthepaceatwhichthevisitorinvestigatesisthechoiceofthevisitor.Anothertypeoftourthatisverywellreceivedbyvisitorsthatareabitmoreadventurousisthespelunker'stour.Manytimesthistypeoftouralsoallowsthevisitortoproceedathisownpace,but with oneexception.Thevisitorsareaccompaniedbyaguidewhoisresponsibleforthevisitorsastheytravelthroughapre-determinedsectionofthecave.Thisparticulartypeoftourismostexcitingandprovidesafreeassociationwiththecavethatpersonsdonotforget.Probably,themostimportantfactorsthatareprovidedbyaspelunkingtouraretheclosecontact with nature,thesensationofbeinganexplorer,andthedevelopmentofanappreciationofthebeautyandmysteryofthissubterraneanworld.Tothespelunker,thisuniqueworldismorethansomethingtolookat--itissomethingtobeadmiredandrespected.*BlanchardSpringsCaverns,MountainView,AR725508Athirdmethodofpresentingacavetothevisitingpublicistheguidedtour.Theguidedtourcanbeusedtogivethevisitorachancetoseeandexperiencethecave,viathetalentsandenthusiasmoftheguide.Thistypeoftourismostoftenused,duetothedelicatebalanceofnaturethatispresentinthecave.Aguidedtourcanbejustasinformativeasaself-guidedtourandjustasexcitingandmysteriousasaspelunkingtour.Theimportantaspectistheattitudeanddesiresofthetourguide.Itistruethattheguideisnotthestarofthetour,thecaveis.Buttheguidecanprovokeorenticethevisitortowanttoknowmoreaboutcavesandeducatethevisitortosomeextentinthe im portanceofandrespectforcaves.Second,thefacility.Thefacility 1IIay beassimplea8asmallbuildingthatservesasagatheringpointoraselaborateasalargevisitorcenter.Thesizeofthefacilityisofverylittleimportance.Theattitudeofthe employees stationedatthefacilityismost important. Third,theadvertisementmaterialsorinformation.Themostcommonmethodusedisasouvenirshop.Thevisitorusually will beveryresponsivetoindividualsthatareattentiveandhelpful.AimsofTrainingThethreeservicesthathavebeenmentionedhaveonethingincommon.Theperformanceoftheservicesdependsuponpeopleperformingtheirduties.Ifthedutiesareperformed with aprofessionalandhumanisticattitude,theresults will usuallybefavorableforthefacilityand will provideeducationalrewardstothepublic,and,insomeinstances,willprovemuch moreprofitablefortheoperations. lbe questionmayhaveariseninyourminds,"Howdoesoneaccomplishthisutopia?"Well,partoftheansweristhetrainingthatisprovidedtoallemployees.Trainingisanexpensiveandtimeconsumingmethodofreachingobjectivessetbymanagement. However,trainingwithprofessionalismasthefocalpointwillalwayshelptheoperationtobeasuccess.Whatkindoftrainingisnecessaryforthisprofessionalism?Theanswerisnoteasy,butpartoftheanswercomes fromtheexperiencethatanemployeehashad.Newemployeesusuallyneedmoreattentionandreturningemployeesneedonlyarefreshercourse.Someofthefollowingsuggestionsmaybeconsideredbeforedecidingthetypesoftrainingthataresetupforeachemployee.Thesuggestionsarebasicallyaimedatindividualsthatareworking

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atafacilitythatperformsitsserviceswithaguidedtour,butthesesuggestionscanbeusefultoall employees. Thepurposeoftrainingispresumablytohelptheguidesdischargetheirresponsibilityeffectively.Amoment'sreflection,however,disclosesthatguidesare,infact,requiredtofulfillasurprisingdiversityofroles:1.AguideisaCOMMUNICATOROFENTHUSIASM.He/sheneedstobereallyexcitedaboutcaves,andthatexcitementshouldbecontagious.Byhis/herownattitudeandinterest,aguideshouldawakenandnurtureinothersasenseofwonder,curiosity,andappreciation.2. Aguideis,atleasttosomedegree,anEXPERTONSPELEOLOGY.He/sheneedstohaveabasicmastery,thoughperhapsonlyatanelementarylevel,oftherelevantaspectsofgeology,hydrology,biology,cavingskillsandtechniques,andthehistoryoftheparticularcaveanditsenvirons.Itisnotobjectionabletohavemorethanabasicknowledgeofspeleologyandinmanycasesknowing moreisnecessary.3.AguideisanORALCOMMUNICATORANDENTERTAINER.Aguideisapublicspeakerandneedstheabilitiesandskillsinvolvedinspeakingclearlyandprojectingthevoice.He/sheisaninstructor,whomustimpartinformationiaaneffectivemanner.A isanentertainer.Theguide'sperformanceshouldbesubordinatetothecaveitselfandshouldhelppeopleappreciatethecave,buthe/sheisaperformer.Andvisitorsshouldenjoytheperformance.Inadditiontobeinginterestedincavesandhavingaccurateinformationtoimpart,thebestguidesgenerallyhaveaconsiderablebitofthehaminthemandreallyenjoyperforminginfrontofanaudience.Wealiknowthecanned.spielisdeadly.Butthealternativeisthateachguide--asanoralcommunicator--mustbeanimaginativeanddisciplinedcreativeartist.4.AguideisaGROUPLEADERForabriefperiod,aguideisa commandingofficerandmustbeabletodirectandcontrolagroupofpeople.He/sheissomethingofasocialdirector,helpingpeopletohavea goodtimeandactivelyinvolvingasmanyaspossibleinthetoursothattheybecome morethanpassivespectators.Aguidemustbe,insomesense,acounselorandfriendwhenthoserelationshipsareappropirate.He/shemustbesensitivetotheinterests,feelings,fears,hostilities,etc.,ofthevisitorsandmustencourage,instillconfidence,accept,calm,etc.95.AgUideisaPROTECTOR ANDGUARDIAN. He/sheprotectsthecave.Aguideisalawenforcementofficer.He/sheprotectspersonsfromwhateverdangersmaybepresentinthecave.Aguideshouldbeableto administer firstaidwhennecessary.6.AguideisaPERSON.Thisisnotanadditionalrole.This item inthelistisintendedtocallattentiontothe impor tance,notjustofwhattheguidedoes,butofwhotheguideis.Thereismoretobeingagoodguidethanjustacquiringinformationandmastering skills. Effectivenessinfulfillingatleast some oftheguide'sresponsibilitiesrequiresacousiderable measure ofmaturity,emotionalsecurity,and comfortable nessintheroleswhicharehis/hers. Ibus, thereisaplaceforatypeofguide train ing that neednothaveanobviousanddirectrelationto"thejob"butwhichfacilitatespersonalgrowthandincreasesdepthandsensitivityininterpersonalrelations.Effectiveguidetrainingwillaimatcultivatingasenseofprofessionalismwithrespecttothefulfillmentofalltheabove-mentionedroles.TypesofTraining What typesoftraininghavebeenusedtoattainthegoalssetby amanager?Thefollowinglistisby no meanscomplete,butofferssuggestionsthatmaybeusedwithnewideasandvariationstoanswertrainingrequirements:I.ThefirstareaoftrainingcanbeclassifiedasHumanRelationsandPersonalAttitudes.A.InterpersonalSkillsandHumanRelations.Thispartoftrainingismostimportantwhendealingwiththevisitingpublic;aswellasfellowemployees.Employeesattendingthistypeoftrainingshouldgainawarenessinthefollowingareas:1.Selfanalysis(valuesclarification). When dealingwiththe Rublic, onecancommunicatemuch moreefficientlyifheknowswhatmakes himreactcertainwaystocertainsituations.Thetheoryof'I'mOK,You'reOK'helpsonetorelatemuchbettertopeopleofallages.2.HumanPotentialDevelopment.Traininginthisareahelpsgiveoneapositiveapproachtonewanddifferentsituations.3.ImprovingInterpersonalRelations.Ifthereisconflictwithintheorganizationalstructure,itwillcauseconflictintheentireworkforce.Interpersonalrelationsisdesignedtoheadoffinternalflare-upsbeforetheyoccur.

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B.TransactionalAnalysis.Thistypeoftrainingisareinforcementofthe"I'mOK,You'reOK"theory.Amajorareathatiscoveredinthistrainingtopicistherelationsthatanemployeehaswithavisitor.Traininginthisareahelpstheemployeerecognizesignalsthatshowirritation,rejection,etc.C.Communications.Themajortoolthatanemployeehastocommnicatewithavisitoristheabilitytospeak.Speakingmustbedoneinaclearandunderstandablemanner.Colloquialismisnotobjectionable,butmustbedoneingoodtasteand with propermethodofexplanationpreparedintheeventavisitorindicatessignsofnotunderstandingthetermsthatwereused.Speakingwordsproperlyisnotenough,however,fortospeakandtobeheardaretwodifferentthings.Anemployeemustspeakloudlyenoughtobeheardandyetnotdistractfromtheatmospherethatthecavecreates.D.Interpretation.Interpretationiscloselyrelatedtocommunication,butthisisanartthatrequiresagreatdealofself-determinationbytheemployee.Allemployeesmustspeakclearlyandunderstandably,buttointerpretistoincorporatetheseitemswith'provocation,whichstimulatesthevisitorandcausesthevisitortolistentotheinformationthattheemployeeisproviding.Interpretationismorethanrepeatinga memorizedtalk.Certainmethods andtechniquesareusedtocreatethedesireinthevisitortoknow and comprehend asubject.Itshouldbementionedthatthereasonforavisitorbeingatacaveisbecausehe/shewantstobethereforfun,butiftheireducationalbackgroundisexpanded,thishelpsmeetthedesireofmanagementtomake morepeopleawareoftheuniquenessandimportanceofthecave,whilestillprovidingtherecreationalexperience.Areasthatcanbecoveredare:1.Overviewofinterpretationandinterpretiveprinciples.2.Writinginterpretiveobjectives.3.Roleofobjectivesinorganizinginterpretivepresentations.4.Structuringtechniquesa.Introductionsb.Transitionsc.Conclusions.5.Questioningandrespondingtoestablishdialogue,rapport,andtobetterunderstandavisitor.6.Understandinganaudienceandmodifyingaprogramtomeetvisitorneeds.E.SocialActivities. This isfree time thattheemployeescanusetorelaxandenjoy,aswellaslearnaboutthejobthattheywillberequiredtoperform.F.Imagethatisdesired.Thisisthespecificareathatthemanagementmustdecideupon.Usually,thehostattitudeismostsuccessfulforhavingtheendresult(theexperiencethatthevisitortakeswithhim)bethatwhichisintended.I.Thesecondareathattrainingcanbebeneficialnisfacilityoperations.Thispartoftrainingivestheemployeethe thatisnecessarynperformingquicklyandefficientlyroutinelyperormedduties.10A.Orientation.Orientationprovidestheemployeeswiththefirstglimpseofthedutiesandresponsibilitiesthatthey will berequiredtoperformandaccept.Thisearlystepisthemostappropriatetimetolettheemployeesknow someoftheimportantaspectsoftheirjobandsomeofthedesiresofmanagement. B. TheFunctionalOperationoftheFacility.Knowledgeofthefunctionsthatareprovidedatafacilityisessentialtoanemployee.Ifanemployee knowswhatavisitorhasasoptionswhilevisitingafacility,assistance can beprovidedwithhigherquality.Also,thistypeoftraininghelpstheemployee become adependableandfunctionalpartofastaff.C. Area'Information.Providingarea informa tionisapartofanemployee'sjob thatis seldomcoveredinatrainingsession.However. alargepercentage of work timeistaken upbyavisitoraskingquestionsaboutotherplacestovisit,wherefoodservicesarelocated.andnumerousotherquestionsthatrequirethe ea ployeetoknowaboutthearea. Hanytimes. theemployeeisa memberofthe :iDmediate and wouldknowagreatdealaboutthearea.butaquickrefresheroranindepthsessionforoldand newemployeeswillhelp thea dischargetheirdutiesmoreefficiently.D.OntheJobTraining.This segJaent of train ingismostoftenused when preparingan e-ployee forhisduties.Trainingofthisnatureisvitalwhenpresentedasapartofthe learningexper ience,butthereisapitfallthatcandevelop.imitation.Imitationdoeshaveavalue,butwhenanemployeebeginsto imitate another eployee,thenewemployee can starttosoundjnstlikethemodel.Imitationisnotthemostdesirable -etbod ofcommunicationbecauseaparticular aethod ofexplanationcanbeperformedbyone employee inamostacceptablemanner,butifanother em ployeetriesthesamemethod,theresultsareoftenlessthanacceptable.Imitationdoeshavealongrangeeffect--boredom. Asuggestedarticleforreadingandanalyzingbymanagementis,"BoredominParadise"byW.T.AustinandTomChaney. Thearticleisinthe1976 Cave Management SymposiumProceedings,onpage54.E. EmergencyProceduresandRegulations.Inanypublicfacilityitisessentialthatanemergencyplanofactionbeestablishedforthoseemergenciesthatcouldoccur.Allstaffmembersshouldknowwhattodointheeventanemergencyarises.Somecommonemergenciesarepowerfailures,equipmentfailures,threateningnaturalconditions,physicalviolenceorthreats,injuries,etc.Theproceduresshouldbewellknownandpracticedtolessenthedangersthatcouldresult.Inmostfacilities,thereareregulationsthatavisitorisrequiredtofollow.Also,anemployeecanbetterdemonstrateandupholdregulationsiftheemployeeunderstandswhytheregulationshavebeendeveloped.

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F.Logistics.Logisticsprovidetheemployeestheworkingknowledgethatisnecessarytoperformp.roperlytheirdutieswithinthelimitationsthatarepresent.Specifically,logisticsshowtheemployeewhereswitchesare,whichdirection.totravel,whatissupposedtohappeninaparticularlightingsequence,howtowatchcertainareasthatwouldbesusceptabletodamage,timing,order,andsafetyaspectsthatmustbeobserved.Also,iftheoperationofthe'facilityrequiresa Large theschedulesofoperation,workdays,numberoftourstobetakenandrequirementsthattheemployeemustbeawareofcanbeincorporated.'III.Afinalsectionoftrainingthat significance is specialknowledgeandrequirements.Specialknowledgeofrequirementsarethosethataremorethangeneralobservationofaspecifictopic,buta morecomprehensiveunderstandingofthetopic.Someofthetopicsthatdealwithacaveand its operationsare:thesafetyaspectssuchasfirstaidandcardio-pulmonaryresuscitation,history,hydrology,geology,cavebiota,howanimalsofthecaverelatetoeachotherandtheirsurroundings,archeology,andevenspecialemergencyproceduresthatwouldapplytoveryunlikelysituations.Thespecialknowledge andrequirementsarethecrowningtouchestogiveanemployeetheconfidencethatisdisplayedtoavisitorandinthefulfillmentofdutiesthatareassigned.Byno meansarethesetopicstheonlyonesthatanemployeecoulduseinthe ofhisduties,buttheyarethebasisforbuildingaqualitytourguide.TrainingResources Eafore atrainingsessioncanbeconducted,themanagermustfindqualifiedindividualstopresenttheinformation.Thefollowinginformationmaybe of useifadecisiontotrainemployeesisreached.Severalsourcesareavailabletothemanagerto draw upon.The mostavailableisthestaffthatispresentlyworking.A managercanincorporatesomeoralloftheprimarystaff.Thisgroupofpeoplecanprovidepastexperiencestonewemployeesaswellasaddtotheknowledgeofreturningemployees.Also,thesepeoplecanbeofgreatassistanceintrainingsessionsdealingwithfacilityoperations.Theprimarystaffisthegroupthatcanhelpthemanagerdecidethetypesoftrainingthatarenecessarytoreachobjectivesthathavebeenset.Thespecialtrainingsessionisoftendonemoreefficientlybyindividualsthathaveexpertiseinadesiredareaoftraining.Thefollowinglistofpossiblesourcesofinformationorassistanceisasmallportionoftheresourcesthatcanbetappedwhenformulatingtrainingsessions:I.Private enterprises A.TomAley-Hydrologist,Biologist,GeologistOzarkUndergroundLaboratoryProtem,Missouri11B.Hanna&Silvy-Interpretation RR 5,Box1107Bryan, Texas, 77081 C. Emmett BurkeenHuman RelationsDepartmentofGuidanceWestern Kentucky UniversityBowlingGreen, Kentucky D. COIIIIIIunications Skills Co.Huntsville, Alabama E. Andy Kardos -InterpretiveSpecialistNationalParkServiceNorthCarolinaF.Dr.TatePageHuman RelationsRussellviile, Arkansas 72801Thesepeopleor cOlllpanies willusually perfoJ:III thetrainingforafee,andtheresultsarealwaysofhighquality.II.GovernmentalAgenciesA.U.S.GeologicalSurveyB.NationalParkSe.rviceMatherTrainingCenterHarpersFerry,WestVirginiaC.U.S.ForestServiceP.O.Box1MountainView,Arkansas.72560 D.CarlDavis-GeologistU.S.ForestService1720PeachtreeRoad. NW Atlanta.Georgia30309 E.DonWilliams GeologistU.S.ForestServiceWashingtonOfficeBox 2417Washington,D.C. 20013F.U.S.ForestServiceSupervisor'sOfficeP.O.Box1008Russellville.Arkansas.72801G.StateGeologicalCommissionH.MiningSafetyandHealthAdministration(MSHA)Denver,ColoradoI.ArmyCorpsofEngineersDistrictOfficenearestyou.III.PublicServiceOrganizationsorInterestedGroupsA.AmericanRedCrossB.NationalSpeologicalSociety

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IV.PrivateIndividualsA.DavidA.Saugey-BiologistHotSprings,ArkansasB. AnyoneinterestedinSpeleology12C.Dr.MichaelHarvey-BiologistMemphis,TennesseeD.Firedepartmentmemberswithrescueteamexperience.

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INTERPRETIVEOFCARLSBADDEVELOPMENTCAVERNS "'Clifford StroudOnlyrecentlyhasmanbeenabletoextendhimaelf,physically,beyondthelimitsofhisownexistence.Man'stechnologyhasopenednewfrontiers.Theexplorationoftheocean'sdepthsandthe regionsofspacewillundoubtedlyprovidemanwitha new waytolookathimself.Manwillbegintoexplorehimselfasanentity,freefromthecyclicalregulatoryfunctionsthathavegovernedhim fromthebeginning.Unfortunately,theregionsofspaceandthedepthsoftheoceanarelimitedtoaprivilegedfew.However, oneotherenvironmentcaneffectivelytakemanfromhisstateofperpetualrepetition--theundergroundcave.AlegendwastoldofanApacheIndianmedicinemanwhowasloweredintothetwilightzoneofthecavern,lateintheevening,asthesunwassettlingbeneaththewesternhorizon.Inhishandhecarrieda drum,whichheslowlypatted.ThismanwasobservedwithawebyotherIndians,watchingfromtheledgeabove.Thesoundsofthedrumcarriedtotheiranxiousears.Withadeterminedfacialexpression,thedrum-carryingmedicinemanwalkedfromthetwilightzone--intothedarknessbeyond.Afterdisappearing from sight,soundsfromthedrumwerestillaudibleforseveralminutes,totheIndiansgatheredontheledge.Themedicinemanneverreturned.InterpretationofthatwhichwouldlaterbeknownasCarlsbadCavernshadbegun.ThehistoryofmanintheParkbeganmorethanathousand years ago,withprehistorichuntingandgatheringIndiansroamingtheregion.EvidenceoftheseIndianshasbeenleftintheformsofpaintingsontheentrancewalloftheCavernsandlargerockpitsusedtocookthedesertplants.ItisbelievedthattheywereattractedtotheCavernsbecauseoftheshelterthattheyprovided,butitisdoubtfulthattheIndianswanderedintothedarkandeerielowerportionsoftheCavernsnotreachedbynaturallight.Intheiate1500'stherearerecordsofSpanishexplorersencounteringfierceApacheIndians,thetruemastersoftheruggedhills,intheregionwheretheGuadalupeMountainsservedasasanctuaryforthetribe.Itwasn'tuntilaftertheCivilWarandtheIndianwarshadbeenfoughtthatranchingfinallyarrivedinthearea.Inthelate1880'sitisbelievedthatthefirstcowboysdiscoveredthelargeopeningintheearthleadingtothe.Caverns.Withthediscoveryofthecavesandtheirlargepopulationofbatsalsocameinterestinthelargedepositsofguanolocatedinthecaves.Guano,beinganaturalfertilizerrichinnitrate,was avaluablecommodity andminingoperationstoextractthe*CarlsbadCavernsNationalPark,Carlsbad,NewMexico 8822013guano fromthecavebeganshortlythereafter.Althougha numberofcompanieswereinvolvedintheminingprocess,hightransportationcosts made financialsuccessdifficult.Evenwithallofthefinancialfailures,over100,000tonsofguanowereextractedfromthecavesoverthe20yearsofminingoperations.Althoughtheminingmeantconsiderable activity aroundthecaves,very few oftheminershadanyinterestbeyondtheareaneartheentranceknownasthe"BatCave".However,oneyoung cowboy named James.LarkinWhite,whoalsoservedasaforemanforseveraloftheguano mining companies.wasfascinatedbytheCavernsandspentmuchofhissparetimeprobingthedeeperanddarkerportionsofthecaves.AshecontinuedtoexploretheCavernsandfindmore and moreinterestingfeatures,heslowlybegantoconvinceothers'toaccompanyhim.In1922,storiesofJim White's endeavorsandthewondershe was discovering reachedtheGeneralLandOffice.TheOfficetheninitiatedaninvestigationtodetermineifthecavewasworthyofbeingsetasideasanationalmonument.Afterasix-monthexploratoryexpedition,conductedbytheNationalGeographic Society. nationalmonumentstatuswasdesignatedin1923,bypresidentalproclamation.topreserve"a lime stonecavem....ofextraordinaryproportionsandofunusualbeautyandvariety."andcontaining".stalactites.stalagmites,andother formations insuchunusualnumber,size,beautyofform,andvarietyoffigureasto make thisacavernequal,ifnotsuperiorinbothscientificandpopularinteresttothebetterknowncaves"In1923theNationalParkServiceassumedinterpretiveresponsibilitiesforthecavern.Thefragilenatureoftheundergroundwildernesswasrecognizedtosomeextent,aswasthepotentialdangertotheunwaryvisitor.Thequestion:howtointerpret?AstheIndianshadinlegends?AsJimWhitehadduringhisdaysofguanomining?Orwerethereotheralternatives?In1923guidedtoursbeganatCarlsbadCavernsandwerecontinuedthrough1971.

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Throughaseriesofexecutiveordersandlegislativeacts,highlightedbytheestablishingactofMay14,1930,theformernationalmonument andsurroundinglands,whichcontainnumerousothercavesandotheroutstandingnaturalfeatures,weremade anationalpark"for the benefitandenjoymentofthepeople."CarlsbadCaverns,largestofthepark'scaves,isoneoftheworld'slargest,byvolume,and oneoftheworld'srichestinspeleothems.DescribedbyNationalGeographicSocietyexpeditionleaderandUnitedStatesGeologicalSurveyorgeologistWillisT. Leeas'KingofitsKind',CarlsbadCavernsattributesremainunrivaled.Duringtheperiod1930through1971interpretationatCarlsbadCavernsremainedlargelyunchanged,andconsistedprimarilyofguidedtourswhichwereregulatedastofrequency,stops,lengthoftalks,etc.Topicscoveredwerenormallyhistory,geologicdevelopment,bats,and guanomining.Thepotential was presentforthedevelopmentof"canned"talks. New employeeslearnedtheirtalksbylisteningtothe"oldtimers",makingsuppressionofcreativityadistinctpossibility.Photography was notpermittedontheregulartoursbutspecialphotographictourswerescheduledatregularintervals.Blackouts were aregularpartoftheguidedtour.Throughoutthe1930'sanduntil1944blackoutswereheldattheRockofAgesintheBigRoom.Theseprogramsconsistedofaninterpretivetalk bytotaldarkness,singingofthehymn"RockofAges" andgradualilluminationafterwards.Eventuallythisprogram was discontinued.Inthe1960'sscheduledguidedtourscontinuedtoprovidetheprimarymeansofinterpretation.However,increasedvisitationgreatlylimitedtheeffectivenessofthisguidedmode. Atonepointasmanyas1,000people were recordedon asingletour.Thequalityofthevisitorexperience was loweredasthequantityofpeopleon asingletourincreased.Congestionalongthetrails nnd intheundergroundlunchroomnecessitatedachange.Considerationwasgiventoestablishmentofareservation'systemthuscontrollingthesizeofanygiventour.Alsodiscussed were non-regimented,self-pacedtrips.InJanuaryof1972self-guidedtrips with interpretivesignsspacedthroughoutthetrailsystem were initiated.Employees were onrovingassignmentsinthe cave toprovideadditionalinterpretive. infor' mation,protecttheresource,andrespondtovisitoremergencies.In1974hand-heldelectronicreceiverswereaddedtotheself-pacedtrip.Thisaudiosystemprovidesthevisitor with 43interpretivemessages'.ThesemessagesaretransmittedononeofthreechannelsineitheradultEnglish,children'sEnglish,orinSpanish.Thesystemexplainsthecavernanditsfeatures,andconveysenvironmentalandsafetymessages.Today,theparkvisitorhastwooptionsforaselfguidedtourofthecavern.Thevisitormaytakeanelevatorfrom.thevisitorcentertotheBigRoomfora1-to self-guidedwalkingtour.Or,thevisitormaychoosetotakethethreemile to3-hour walk thatbeginsatthecaveentranceandenablesthevisitortowalkthroughalldevelopedportionsofthecave.Fromeitherwalk,thevisitorreturnstothesurfacebyelevators14thataresituatedneartheundergroundlunchroomfacility.Whilethepark'sprimarysignificanceliesinitssuperlativecaveresources,andinthesegmentofthePermian-ageCapitanbarrierreefandassociatedgeologicalformationspreservedwithinitsboundariesthatgaverisetoandcontainthesecaveresources,theinterpretationisnotconfinedsolelytocaves.RathertheenviroDlDentasawholeisconsideredwiththefeelingthatcompleteawarenessofthecaverequiressomeunderstandingofsurfaceconditionsbothtodayandmillionsofyearsago.TheentrancetoCarlsbadCavernsissituated4mileswestofWhite.City.The7-mileWalnutCanyon RoadprovidesaccessfromWhiteCitytothevisitorcenter.FourinterpretivepulloffsaresituatedalongtheWalnut CanyonRoad.Theinterpretivetopicspresent information unitsrelatingtotheregionalgeology,theCbihuabuanDesert,andtheApacheIndianculture.Atthevisitorcenter, parking spacefor900carsiswithineasywalkingdistanceofthecavern en trance.Thevisitorcenterhasavarietyoffunctionsincludingafeecollectionstation.aninterpretiveexhibitroom,theelevator/lobby.awaitinglounge,distributionandcollectioncentersforelectronicreceivers,andconcessionoperationsthatincludearestaurant.agift-shop.anursery,andakennel.Inthevisitorcenter.theroofoftheelevatortowerfunctionsasanoverlookfromwhichthevisitorcan view the.CbihuahuanDesertandthesouthwesterntrendoftheCapitanReefface.Adjacenttothecaveentranceisasurfaced,self-guided,naturetrail.Throughoutthemainvisitorseason,guidednaturewalksareprovidedbytherangerstaffeveryafternoononanothertrailnearthevisitorcenteriocation.Secondinpopularitytothecaverntoursistheeveningbatflightprogram.Thisispresentedintheamphitheateratthecaveentrancebya member ofthe n:'.lger staffeverysummerevening',The'rangergivesaninterpretivepresentation.thevisitorasksquestions.and.ifthebatsarecooperative,theprogramendswitha massexodusofbatsfromthecavemouth.Visitorinterestinprimitivelanterntripsandspelunkingtoursisincreasing.TheNationalParkServicehasofferedanadditionalcaveexperience.CarlsbadCaverns'snewestattractionisaguided.lanterntourofanundeveloped cave inSlaughterCanyon -NewCave. TheopeningofNewCaveoffersthemorecuriousvisitoranintensiveexposuretospelunkingand a"wildcaveexperience".Thisundevelopedcaveisnowlimitedtosmallgroupsandprovidesatotallynewexperienceincave"exploration".NewCaveismuchsmallerthanthemaincavern,buthasmanybeautifulfeaturesthatareilluminatedbythevisitor'slightratherthanaformalstaticlightingsystem.NewCaveoffersanopportunitytointerpretsubjectslackingorinaccessibleinCarlsbadCavernssuchasthehistoryandmethodsof guano mining,prehistorichumanuseofcaveresources,andpaleontologicaldetailsdemonstratingextinctionofcertainmammalianspeciesincludingsomebatspecies.

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Sadly,extensivevandalismhasoccurredinsomebackcountrycavesinthepastduetolackofregularprotectionpatrolsandtheabsenceofcaveentrancegates.Asbackcountryusecontinuestoincrease,visitorsafetyandprotectionofdelicatecavefeatures,irreplaceablepictographsandotherarchaeologicalremainsareofincreasingconcern.ThecavesofCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkwillbe15managedtoassuretheperpetuationofanaturalcaveenvironmentforfuturegenerations.Nodevelopmentorusewillbeallowedwhichwilldestroyorseriouslyimpairthebiologicalandgeologicalprocessesnormaltothecavesystem.Subjecttothisconstraint,theNationalParkServicewilloffertothepublicthegreatestpossiblevarietyofcaveexperiences.

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SEVENTY FIVEYEARSATWINDCAVE*Larry W. FrederickLocatedinthebottomofalimestonedraw onthesoutheasternflankoftheBlackHillsisa10-inchdiameteropeningwhichhasattractedtheattentionofnumerousfascinatingpersonalities,andhasbeenthecauseofcountlessexcitingeventsduringthepast100years.TheSiouxwordfortheBlackHillsisPahasapa.TheHillsweresonamedbecausefrom adistancethepinecoveredslopesappearedblackincontrasttothegolden,windsweptprairiegrassthatsurroundsthisdome-shapedmountainrange.TheBlackHillsarelocatedinwesternSouthDakotaandextendashortdistanceintoeasternWyoming.TherearemanyIndianlegendsconcerningWindCave.SittingBull'snephewisquotedassayingthat"Wind CaveintheBlackHillswasthecavefromwhichWakanTanka,theGreatMystery,sentbuffalooutintotheSiouxhuntinggrounds."Becausewind wasoneofthefoursacreddeities,thesmallopeningfromwhichthewindblewwasverysacredto them. TheirbeliefthattheprairiewindsandbuffaloemanatedfromthisopeningissaidtohavebeenoneofthereasonsthattheSiouxfoughtsohardtokeeptheBlackHills.Agoldrushin1876ledtothesettlementanddevelopmentoftheBlackHillsbywhites.UntilthentheSiouxdominatedtheterritoryand fewwhiteshadeverventuredintotheinterioroftheHills.Pre-ParkEra -1881-1900 ThefirstrecordeddiscoveryofWindCaveoccurredinthespringof1881. Thelegendstatesthattwobrothers,TomandJesseBingham,wereridingthrougha draw whentheyheardawhistlingnoise.Theydismountedandapproachedasmallopeningwherewindblewoutquitestrongly. When theybentovertheopening,oneoftheirhatswas blownoff.Later,theyreturnedwithfriendstoshow themthehattrick.The windhadchangeddirectionand when ahatwasplacedovertheopeningitwassuckedinside.Inthefallof1881,CharlieCrary,ofCuster,isreportedtohavetoldpioneerFrankHerbertthathehadbeeninWindCave andexploredit,leavingaballoftwinebehindasevidence.Crarytoldaboutaholeinthegroundwherethewind"cameoutscreeching".*Assistant Chief ofInformation & Interpretation,Wind CaveNationalPark,HotSprings,SouthDakota,5774716Anotherearlyaccountstatesthatwe "explored thewallsaswewentandsawplacesthatwerescallopedandlookedlikepostoffice boxes". Thisiswhatwebelievetobethefirst mention ofboxwork,themosthighlydeveloped,best 1tDown formationatWind Cave.Explorationscontinuedduring1884bycurioustownsfolk.InJuly,1886,thelargestgrouptovisitWindCavearrived.Thirtytoforty folks fromCuster,20milesaway,"suppliedwithtents,campingutensilsandeverythingessentialto cofort,leftfortheCaveoftheWind,onTuesday,wheretheyremainedforadayor twoexploring thelabyrinthinemazesofthatattractivewonderandenjoyingtherefreshingwindsthat .ake thatplaceespeciallyenjoyablewhenthemercuryisseekingtheupperlevels.""BySeptember23,1887,theHotSpringsStarwasreportingthatWindCavehadbeen explored forthreemilesandnobottomfound.Thewind blows aperfectgalefromthemouthoftheinfernalpit."Anotherentrancehadbeenopened next totheoriginalholeby1887 and aloghouse,8by10feetsquarestoodoverit.In 18&9 theMcDonaldfamilymovedtoHotSprings,10milessouthoftheCave.Inarecently-donatedletter,wehavelearnedthatitwasthefather,JesseD.McDonald,whofirstfiledamining claim in1890 on aportionofthelandoverthecave.Later,in1890,JessesoldallinterestintheWind CaveminingclaimtotheSouthDakota HiDingCom pany,whosePresidentwasJ.D.Moss.Duringaportionofthetime between 1891and1894,thecompanyhiredJesseas"agentandemployeeofsaidcompany andreceivedcompensationforhisservicesassuchemployee andagent."IntheJune20th,1890,HotSpringsStarthereisareportthat"Mr.J.D.McDonald wasatHotSpringsonMonday. Mr. McDonaldislocatedatWindCave, anaturalcuriousityofgreatbeauty,about10milesnorthofHotSprings.Hedepositedonourdeskanelegantspecimenfromthecaveandthecuriousity thewonderandadmirationofallvisitorsattheoffice.IIJesse.broughtwithhim twoofhissons,AlvinandElmer.Bothweretoplayanimportantroleinthedrama andexcitementthatsoonwouldunfold.Elmer'swifewroteaboutherrecollectionofthefirstdaysatthecave."J.D.andsonslocatedinanoldblacksmithshopwithaviewofprospectinggold.Asmallloghousewaserectedoverthe

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FIGURE1.AgroupofvisitorsinIOOFHALL(InternationalOrderofOddFellows).PhototakensometimeafterApril1902.Inthelowerrighthandcorneryoucanseepartofasurveystation(U.S.).Thestationreads:"U.S.W.C.S.52".WebelievethisstandsforUnitedStatesWind CaveSurvey.ThisroomissometimesreferredtoastheModelRoomonpresent-daytours.(PhotocourtesyNationalParkService)FIGURE2.OneoftheearliestAlvinMcDonaldsignatures.Reads:"A. f. McDonald,September6th,1890,PermanentGuideofWindCave.(PhotocourtesyNationalParkService)17

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openingandsomelittlework donetowardanentrancetothecave.Nomineralswerefound.The McDonaldshadtofurnishtheirownsupplies.Mr. MossoftheSouthDakotaMiningCompany,finallydischargingJ.D.McDonaldasagent.""J.D.McDonaldthenchangedthe entran<;e alittle,builtaloghouseoverthenewopeningandsettledonthelandasa'squatter'.Workwasgoingsteadilyforwardinopeningupthecave,new roomswerediscoveredandopenedupbyblastingthroughinterveningrockwalls..muchexploringwasdone.Elmer andAlvinMcDonald wouldtakeballsoftwine,fastenoneendon asnagnearthemainrouteandsteeroffinasideopeningandgo,andcrawl,asfarasthetwinelasted,thenturnbackmarkingtheroute..."InlateryearsKatieStablerrecallsthatthefrontroomoftheloghousebuiltoverthecaveentrancehad atrapdoorinit.Toenterthecaveoneclimbeddown155feet.Katiesaid"thewindblew50strongattimesittooktwoofustoraiseorlowerthisdooraccordingtowhichwaythewindblew."Accountsinthosedaysofcavetripswereembellishedwiththedangerousandmysteriousaspectsoftravel."...touchingourtoestothewallforalittlerest,nowswingingclearfromeverythinguntilatlastwewererewardedbyarrivingsaveand soundatthebottomof the cave?No,forthebottomofthecavehasneverbeenfound."OnJanuary1,1891,AlvinMcDonaldstartedadiarywhichisalastingtributetotheearlyexplorationsofbraveyoungexplorerslikehimself,Elmer,andfriends,whobynowhadjoinedinthisnewadventure.ItisAlvin'sdiarythatgivesus aclueastohowmuchexplorationwas done and whereinthecavetheearlyexplorersandvisitorshadgone.In1892Alvinfinallywroteanintroductiontohisdiary.Itreads:"OnthefirstofJanuary1891 I sawfittokeep arecordoftheinsideworkingsatWindCave,and,actingwiththethought,Istartedadailyrecordwhich IcalledThePrivate'AccountofA.F.McDonald,PermanentGuideofWindCave.MyintentionthisyearistokeepacorrectaccountofthedevelopmentandexplorationsofWind Caveoranyothercavernsthatfortunefavorsmetobeexploringin.BythewordexploringI mean'findingcavitiesthatno humanbeingshaveyetdiscovered'.Respectfullyyours,Z.U.Q.P.S.Forthemeaningoftheseinitialsoranyotherinitialsusedinthepagesofthisbook,inquireoftheguideofanyoftheCelebratedCavernsofAmerica."Strangeasitmayseem,tothisdaywehaveneverdiscoveredwhattheinitialsZ.U.Q.standforormean-eventhoughAlvincommonlyleftthem onthecavewalls.Thediarymakesforfascinatingreading.AtonepointAlvinwrites:"amgettinghomesickafterstayingoutofthecavesolong."Hehadnotbeeninthecavefortwodays.InAprilhewrote:"Inowhave209differentkindsofrockinmygeologicalcollection".Thediarylistsrooms androutes,describeddiscoveries,and showswhatinscriptionswereleft.DuringthefourshortyearsthatAlvinexploredinWind Cave,heandothershadnamedalmost400 roomsorobjects,hadfound13seriesofpassagesorroutesandestimatedthecaveat81milesinlength.18VisitorswonderhowtheMcDonalds knewthelengthoftheircave.LuellaOwensinherbook,CaveRegionsoftheOzarksandBlackHills,publishedin1898,explains:"Themeasureofdistancesinthecaveisnotbytheusualguessworkmethodwhichhasestablishedtheshortmeasurereputationforcavemiles,butisdonewithafairdegreeofaccuracyby meansofthetwineusedtomarkthetrailinexploringnewpassages.Acarefulmeasurementofthetwinehasshownittorunnineballstothemilewithacloseaverageofregularity,soitisthecustomtoaddanothermiletothecaverecordasoftenasaninthballbecomesexhausted."Asaccurateasthismethodisclaimedtobe,wethinktheearlyexplorersknewofeightmilesofthecave,not81.Theyear1891provedtobethestartofnewdevelopmentsatthecave.Jesseboastedthatmorethan$1,000hadbeenspentinimprovingtheinteriorofthecave"inthewayofwideningpassages,puttinginladdersandotherwisemakingthecaveaccessibletovisitors".Healsotalkedoforganizinga "companyhavingforitsobjectthemoreperfectopeningupthecave(and)tolightthecavewithelectricityand makeotherimprovements".However,thefirstlightingsystem wasnottobeinstalleduntil40yearslater.InJuly1891,theHotSpringsStarreportedthatWindCave"isnowclaimedtobethelargestanddeepestcaveintheUnitedStates.Therearemoremilesofundergroundpassagewaysthanthe Mammoth CaveinKentuckycanboast.Afreehack(buggy)from HotSpringstoWindCavehasjustbeenputon,andallthatislackingtomaketheWind Cave apopularresortisa goodhotel.Hereisachancefora goodinvestment".Bythistime,itwasnotunusualtohave8to10personsperdayvisitingthecaveduringthesummer.Inthesummerof1891,JohnStablerarrivedtomanagetheHotelParrotinHotSprings.Be sawWindCaveasawiseinvestmentanddecidedtobuypartinterestintheoperation.TheclaimtothecavewasheldbytheSouthDakotaMiningCompany,nottheMcDonalds.Thiswouldbeamajorpointofcontentionincomingyears.Nevertheless,theMcDonaldssoldpartinterestinthecaveoperationtotheStablers.TheStablerswerealsogivenpermissiontobuildandoperateahotelatthecave.Somehow,theMcDonaldswerepersuadedtohandoverthebookkeepingandaccountingtotheStablers.John'sson,George,assumedresponsibility.Unbe knownsttotheMcDonalds,theStablerstransferredmoneytotheirownpocketsandremovedlargequantitiesofspecimensfromthecavewhichtheysold.This,too,wastocauseseriousproblemsinthenearfuture.Inthesummerof1892,thelongtalkedabouthotelwas opened and managed by GeorgeStabler.Ayearlater,thebestknownpublicitystuntwasconceived.AlexanderJohnstone,a famous mindreader,agreedtofindahiddenhatpinwithinWindCave.Tostartwith,Johnstonewaslockedina HotSpringshotelroomwhileagroupofcitizensguardedhim."Acommitteeofcit,izens

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andscientists"wentto Wind Cavewheretheycarefullyhidthehatpin.ThecommitteereturnedtoHotSpringswheretheyjoinedJohnstoneinthewagonridebacktoWind Cave.ReportsarethatJohnstone,whileblindfolded,drovethewagonlikeamadmanandarrivedatthecaveinanamazing 52minutes.ApieceoftwinewasconnectedtothewristofJohnstoneanda memberofthecommittee.Thiswouldnotallowamuscletwitchorasqueezeofthehandtotipthemindreaderoffastowherethepinmightbe.Stillblindfolded,Johnstoneandothersenteredthecave.ThesearehbeganwhileJohnstonewassupposedlybusyreadingthemindsofthecommitteeofcitizenswhohadhiddenthepin.Finally,afterstumblingaroundinthecavefornearlythreedays,theyenteredStandingRock ChamberwhereJohnstone,stillblindfolded,pointedtothehiddenhatpin.They emergedsuccessfullysoonafter,whereJohnstone'smagnificentfeatwasspreadacrossthecountryasanunbelievablemindreadingevent.ThisactionalonepushedWindCaveintotheheadlines.EarlyInNovember, 1893,AlvinandJ.D.McDonaldleftWind CavetoattendtheColumbianExposition,alsoknownastheChicagoWorldsFair.TheirpurposewastopromoteWindCave bysellingspecimensandbraggingofthesafetravelthroughtheirmagnificentcave.Unfortunately,Alvin,whowasnow20,returnedtoWind Caveratherill.Soonafterhediedoftyphoidfever.Hisfamily,knowinghisloveforWindCave,buriedhim onthehillsideabovethecaveentrance.TodayonemayvisitAlvin'sgravewhereagraniteboulderandbronzeplaquelayintributetothisadventurousyoungexplorer.DuringJuly,1893,thefirstofmanylawsuitsandcourtproceedingstookplace.AtthistimetheMossfamilyowedPeterFolsom $700forassayworkthathehaddoneonvariousMossclaims.ThecourtsorderedMosstopayFolsomortheminingclaimswouldbeauctioned.Withpaymentstilloutstanding,theclaimswereauctionedand Folsomboughtthem.Folsom becamethenewowneroftheWindCaveclaims.Meanwhile,theSouthDakotaMiningCompanyfiledsuitaskingthattheMcDonalds andStablerspayfortheiruseoftheareabypaying$2700forrentsandprofitsonthecaveand $1000indamages andforrestitutionofthelandandpremises.Toourknowledge,theMiningCompanynever andthefamiliesstayedontooperatethecaveasatouristattraction.In1894,theMcDonalds,Stablersandothers filed onthe acreage surroundingthecaveandpreviousminingclaims.TheWonderfulWind CaveImprovementCompany was formedwithJohnStabler,J.D.McDonald,CharlesStablerand twoothermen.ThissameyeartheDeadwood Timesreportedthat"ladiescan(now) gothroughthecavewithoutbeingsubjectedtotheordealofwearingcoverallsandjumpers".OnebusydayinAugusthad75visitorstothecave.In1895,J.D.McDonaldapparentlyprovedhishomesteadclaimandwas awarded a"receiversreceipt".MdDonaldhadsuccessfullyclaimedagriculturalrightswhiletheStablerand Folsomforceswereclaimingmineralrights.19Thestorygrewevenmoreconfusingastheturnofthecenturyapproached.Inthespringof1896,J.D.askedtoseethebooks which theStablerfamilyhadbeenkeepingforaboutfiveyears.The McDonaldslearnedthatthe Stablers hadoverdrawntheirshare.Thebooks weretaken byJesseandElmer wasputincharge.TheStabIersweregivenachancetopayback vaat vasshowntheyhadoverdrawnby makingSIUll reasonablepaymentstotheMcDonalds. TheStablers beea-e quiteangryovertheaffair. This vasthefirstseriousconflictthatrosebetweenthe twofaailies butitwasnottobethelast.Duringthewinterof1896-97,Peter Folsoaand theStablersbrokeintotheMcDonald's house. whichrestedoverthecaveentrance. WhenEt.er andJessereturnedtheywere metwith guns.TheStablersclaimedtheyweretheretoprotecttheirpropertyand no McDonaldcouldenter.The Stab lerskeptcontrolofthecaveentrance froa thenon.The McDonalds.notsatisfied with theoutcomeoftheencounter.filedagainsttheStablersincountycourtinMarchof1897. legalownershipoftheland.ThecourtupheldtheStablers'possession.However,theywerenotpermittedtodig.excavateorblastonthepropertyandpossiblydefacethecaveincasethepropertyshouldreverttotheMcDonalds.Duringthisperiodoflitigationandconflictbetweenthetwofamiliesand Folsoa. wehavelittleknowledgeofwhat.ifanything. vaschanging inthecave.Thenewspapersturned fromwriting aboutthemagnificentwondersofthecavetoreportingtheoutcomeofthefeudandeachcourt ru11ng orsuitfiled.JessefelloutoffavorwiththeBot Springs StarandJohnStabler.probablya -are articulatespokesman,gainedconsiderablesupport.HonestJohnStablerbecame knownbythe local pressasJollyJohn.InAprilof1898,theKcDonaldsandStablerssoughttoendtheconflictandseekalegaland binding opiniononexactownershipoftheland.Both par tiessubmittedalltheevidencetheycouldtotheGeneralLandOfficeinRapidCityandpressedtheU.S.Governmentforadecisiononownershipoftheland.Thismove wastobringWind Cavetotheattentionofimportant government officialsandspellthedemiseofprivateownershipofthecaveandadjacentlands.InSeptemberof1898,withoutanydecisiononownership,StablerstartedtheBlackHillsWind Cave CompanywithPeterFolsom presidentandsharesofstockwentonsaleat$1.00each.Meanwhile,theDepartmentofInterior.oneofitsagenciesbeingtheGeneralLandOffice.startedtoinvestigatetheWind Cave LuciusBoyod,ViceDeanofSouthDakotaSchoolof Mines. studiedWind CaveattherequestoftheInteriorDepartment.Hisnineteen-pagereportcontainedbasicscientificdatauponwhiththeParkwaslaterestablished.ThereportclaimedthatWind Cave was"oneofthemost extensiVe intheUnion."C.W.Greene,specialagent of theGeneralLandOffice,writetheGLOCommissionerinWashington

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FIGURE3.AlvinMcDonald,earlyexploreratWindCave.hisexplorationsofWind Caveduringtheearly1890's.Diedin1893atage20.Hisdiarydescribes(PhotocourtesyNationalParkService)FIGURE4.ViewoftheMcDonaldhouseandthecavehouse(right),constructedoflogs.Photographprobablydatesbacktothemid-1890's.(PhotocourtesyNationalParkService)20

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concerninghisfindingsatWind Cavein1899.Sincetherewerestillminingandagriculturalclaimspending,heexaminedthesurfaceextensivelyandconcludedthat"thereisnothinguponthesurfacethatI deamworthyofconsideration.Iamoftheopinionthatnoneoftheclaimants,eithertheagriculturalormineralwhohavefoughtthroughthevariousheartngsorderedbyyouroffice,wouldspendaday'stimeoradollarinmoney,ifthecavewerenotthere"UnfortunstelyfortheMcDonalds andStab'lersthisastuteobservationwasquitetrue.ParkEstablishmentandEarlyYears--1900-1914InJanuary,1900,theDepartmentofInteriorwithdrewlandsaroundthecavefromagriculturalorminingsettlement.Thiswas"PendingdeterminationofthequestionoftheadvisabilityofrecommendingthesettingofsaidlandsapartasaNationalParkforthepurposeofpreservingthebeautiesofthenaturalcuriositiesofwhatisknownasWindCave."InDecemberof1900,theSecretaryofInteriorbecamepersonallyinvolved.Fromthereportsthathadbeensubmittedand recommendations made bythosewhohadseenthecave,he"declaresthatneitherpartyisentitledtoit,thatinthefirstplaceitisnotminerallandandtheplaintiff(Stablers)thereforehasnoclaimtoit,andinthesecondplace,McDonalddidnotcomplywiththelawrelatingtothecultivation,andhisentryisheldforcancelation.TheSecretaryalsodirectsthatthelandbeheldinreserveuntilCongressshallhavehadanopportunitytocreatea permanentreservationthere."ANationalParkwas onitsway.Afterthis,J.D.and Elmer made onelastdesperateattempttoregaincontrolofthecaveentrance.Theyenteredthecavehousewheretheyhadbeenevictedaboutthreeyearsearlier.Folsom andStablerwereawayatthetime.WhenStablerlearnedofthishereturnedwitha gangofneighborsandchasedJ.D.and Elmerintothecave,wheretheystayedfor24hoursbeforereturningtothetrapdoorandbeggingtobereleased.Theywerereleasedunharmed,but.whiletheyhadbeentrappedinthecave,Jesse'snearbycabinmysteriouslyburnedtothegroundandhisspecimencollectionwasdestroyed.Noblame waseverestablishedforthisoccurrence.In1901, AgentGreentookchargeofthecavefortheU.S.Government andpostednewwarningsignsinconspicuousplaces.Theyread,"eachundergroundtouristisexpectedtoshakethedustfromhisfeetonmakinghisexit(fromthecave)" InFebruarytheGovernmentofficiallycancelledJ.D.andElmer'shomesteadentriesonlandssurroundingthecave.InWashington,legislationwasintroducedtoestablishWindCaveNationalPark.AseriesofCongressionalreportsgivesussomeideaon whatinformationtheHouse andSenatewerebasingtheirvotes.A June17,1902,SenateReport(#1944)reprinteda statement made byGLOagentMeyendoriffs:"To dojusticetothewonderfulevolutionofnaturewhich c tedthiscavern,todescribeitsgrandeur,21grotesqueness,andbeautywouldrequiretheresearchfulmindofaprofoundstudentofgeologyandpenofthepoet.Bereavedofbothandlimitedinspaceandtime,Iwill simply saythatitisoneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld.The box workcrystallizationoflimeand gypsumformed,undoubtedly,bytheactionofhotwater--representinggeometricalfigures,isthefeatureofthechamber knows asPostOffice,fromwhichittookitsname. Thisbox workistheprevalentcharacteroftheroofofmostofthechambers."The HouseofRepresentativesReportofJune20,1902 (12606)describedthefirstcavesurvey.TheSecretaryofInteriorhadaskedforthesurveytodeterminetheprobableextentofthecave.Apartialsurveywas madeinApril,1902,andareportsubmittedtotheDepartmentinHay."Itappearstherefromthatthesurveywas extended asfarasitwas foundpracticabletodoso under theconditionsexistingatpresentinthe cave, thewantofadequateopeningsandofsuitablestairshavingbarredprogressincertaindirectionsinwhichfurtherextensivechambersareknowntoexist."InJuneof1902,theSenateapprovedthebillestablishingWindCaveNationalPark.The House of RepresentativesfollowedsuitinDecember.After13yearsofstrifebetweenfamilies,courtcases,lawsuits,restrainingordersandconfusionoverownership,WindCaveNationalParkwasestablishedonJanuary9,1903,withPresidentRooseveltsigningthelegislation.Thefactremains that" from 1890to1903 someoftheIIIOstcolorfulandinterestingeventsthathaveeveroccurredatWind Cavetookplace.Thatperiodinhistorylendsmanystoriesthatarewovenintoourinterpretivemessageonpresent-daytours.Whatever happenedtothatcastofcharacters?Elmer'swifegivesus someclue.Inlateryearsshereportedthat"J.D.McDonald,aftermanyhardships,leftforMontana. Elmer McDonald,afterworking two yearsasguideforthegovernment andafter12yearsresidencyatthecave,leftwithhis family forHotSprings.Neither'receivedone pennyinrecompense fromthegovernmentforallthetime,labor,andexpensecontributedby theminexploringanddevelopingthecave."JohnStablerpassedawayin1901fromadiseasecausedbyaninfectedprairiedogbiteatage53.NowthattheGovernmenthaditsninthNationalParktoadminister,asuperintendenthadtobeappointed.ThemanforthejobwasWilliamA.Rankin,whoenteredondutyAugustI,.1903.Hewaspaid$75.00permonthforhiseffortsandwastheonlyparkemployee.Thenextsixyearswerelean.Therewaslittlemoney and. fewpeoplearoundtohelpbuildthenewpark.In1905,SuperintendentRankinreportedthatthe"walksandstairwaysleadingtothecavehavebeencompletedashasalsothestairwaysonthethreemaintraveledroutesinthecave."Blastingwasusedtolevelupandwidenoutareasalongallthreeroutes.Thetotalcostforthis

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was $291.00.Tbenextsuperintendent.JosephPilcher.hadtheopportunitytotakeGeneral Pershing throughthecave.TheGeneraltookananeroidbarometerwithhim andcheckeddepthsalongtheroute.Heproved.toPilcher'ssatisfaction.thatthecavewasnotasdeepastheguideswere reporting.The guides.however.refusedtheevidenceandstuckwiththeirownfigures.Oneproblemthatplaguedmanyoftheearlysuperintendentswasrottingwoodstepsinthecave.InMarch. 1911. atemporarysolutionwas found byusingcreosote-treatedwoodforstepsandbridges.DifficultYears--1914-1931In1915.lardbucketcandlelanternswere used byguidesandvisitors.Thiscleverdeviceconsistedofalardbucketturnedonitssidewithaholepunched upthroughthebottomwherethecandlewasstuck.Thebucketactedasareflectorand workedverywell.Even thoughelectricallightingwasdesired.onereportstatedthat,"itwouldbeimpossibleornearlyso,towirethecave.Theatmosphereisdestructivetoallorganicmaterialandthewallson whichthecableorwireshouldbefastenedarealmostimpenetrable.Thewirewouldalsobeanunsightlyobject.IIThoughitwasonlyfouryearssincethecreosotedwoodhadbeenused,theSuperintendentadvisedtheDirectoroftheNationalParkServicein1915thatthewoodwasrottingtooquickly.Beadvisedstoneforstepsandstairways.Oneproblemwiththewoodwasthatthemaximumlengthboardthatcouldbecarriedthroughthecavewas12feetandlongerpiecedwere neededinmanyplaces.Touroperationshave changeddramaticallyovertheyears.In1898weknowthatthefeewas$1.00fortheshorttourand$2.00forthelongtour,whichlasted4to6hours.Thefeesdroppedto25atonepoint.buthavecomebacktothe1898pricetoday.Itisnotsurprisingtolearnthattherehasbeenagradualincreaseinthenumberoftoursofferedeachday. 1915therewereonly2toursperday,butsincetherewereonly1or2peopleinthepark,thetourslasted3hours.Itroseto38toursperdayin1963. Today 4typesoftoursareofferedforatotalof43toursperday.Cave-insandearthquakesarealwaysaconcerntothevisitor.WindCaveisnoexception since therehasbeenminordamageinthe.past.Thefirstrecordedcave-inwasinFebruary.1916, when 2tonsofrockfellduringanextremelycoldday.Severalotherfallsoccurredovertheyears.Until1957, mostofthe problems occurredoff-season,.whilethecavewasclosed.But,on August12thatyear,10to14tonsofrockcavedin75feetfromtheentrancebetweentwotours.Noone wasinjured.Nevertheless.thiswasatleastthefourthtimethatacave-inhadoccurredatthispoint.socementpillarswereinstalledtosupporttheceiling.Earthquaketremorsorshockshavebeenfelt,butonlytheAlaskaquakeofApril,1964,resultedindamage.Tworockawere removed fromthetrailandthecavethoroughlyinspected.22Upuntil1920.therehad alwaysbeenlongdiscussionsastowhatcausedthewindatthecaveentrance.Thebeliefwasthatthedifferencesinatmosphericairpressurecausedtheairtorushintooroutofthecaveastheairpressurechanged.This.alongwithminortemperatureinfluences.iswhatweknowtobetruetoday.However.in1920anothertheorywas advancedthatthewind"iscausedbysubterraneanpassagesofwaterdowninthelowerlevelsofthecavebeyond anyofthoseyetexplored.andthattheriseandfallofthesewaterscreatesthepressureofsuctiontoforceitoutordrawitin,asthecasemaybe."Logicalasthislatertheoryseemedin1920,thereisnosupportingevidence.OnOctober10.1926.SuperintendentRoyBrazellandothersenteredthecavetoexperimentwithradioreception.InOddPellowsHall.about208feetbelowthesurface.theywereabletopickupKOAradiostationinDenver and WRR fromDallas.Asurprisingturnofeventstookplacebetween 1925and1931. TheSecretaryofAgricultureandthelocalcongressionalrepresentativesmadeseveralattemptstomakeWindCaveNationalParkaNationalMonument.transferittotheAgriculturalDepartment.ormakeitapartofCusterStatePark.Thereasonsforthisareunclear.buttheireffortswereUDsuccessful.In1928.anarticle,writtenby Ranger Anton .1.Snyder.wholaterbecame Superintendent.appearedinthe publication!he BlackHillsEngineer.Hewrotethatthecavewas formed by hotwaterandcontained108milesofpassages.Needlesstosay.bothofthese"facts"havebeendisproven.In1929,thestaffstarted experimenting with con crete ana masonryforfoundations.bridge.s.andstairsandfoundtheresults"verysatisfactoryfromthestandpointoflooksandutility".InApril,1931. work onthefirst lightingsys tmestarted.The main cable.swerecare.fullyconcealed. Wiresrunning toindividuallightswerehiddenwherepossibleorstrappedtotherockwalls.TheprojectwasfinishedonJune30.InJulythelightswerefirstturnedonbySenatorPeterNorbeck.whowasthe inv1.ted guestofhonor.Itisnotknown how muchofthecavewasilluminated.butitmatterslittlesince this systemlastedonlytwoseasonabe.fore Imisture deterioratedtbecables. SOllIeexper:t.entation was doneatthistimewithcoloredlights. For tunately.theideawasdropped. Years ofGrowth--1931-1946ItisinterestingtonotethatthroughouttheearlyyearsatWindCave mosteverysuperindendentfeltthecavetrails were finishedandsafeforthepublic.Thenthe next superintiendentwoulddisagree.Eachwrotethat more work was needed. Thiswas thecasein1934vhentheneedvasidentifiedformore cement orstonestairs.ironhandrails.trail widening.8IIIOOthing andtrailsurfacing.Alargetaskatbest.In February,1934. more improvements were made ontheshorttourroute.butitstilldidnotput

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FIGURE5.CivilianConservationCorpsworkerscarryconcreteintireinnertubes theough WindCavetowhereanotherstepwillbepoured.(PhotocourtesyNationalParkService)FIGURE6.ConstructionoftheElevatorBuildingat Wind CaveNationalParkbytheCivil tan ConservationCorps,1938. TheParkVisitorCenterandHeadquartersisvisibleinthebackgroundandtothe right oftheElevatorBuilding. (photo courtesyNationalParkService)23

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thetrailinfirstclasscondition.Thetrailhadbeensurfacedwithscreenedgravelwhichmadewalkingeasierandcutthetourfrom hoursdownto1hour.Thesavinggracecame whenPresidentRooseveltformedtheCivilianConservationCorpsaspartoftheNewDealpackagetoputjoblessmentoworkafterthedepressionyears.OnJuly16,1934,theWindCaveCivilianConservationCorpsCampwasofficially'established.Duringthenexteightyearstheywouldaccomplishmoreinthecaveandonthesurfacethananyeightyearsbeforeorsince.Thefirstchorewastoestablishacamplargeenoughtohouse,feedandcareforthe240menthatwereexpected.ByOctober5,1934,fifteenbuildingshadbeenerected.Severalimportantprojectswerestartedsoonafter.Finally,thecaveentrancewasreconstructedandfinishedinthefallof1936.Infrontoftheoldcavehousea new walk-inentrancewas made and afalseceilingbuiltwhichwascoveredwithdirttomaketheentranceappearnatural.Today,veryfewvisitorssuspectthatthehillonewalksintoismore man-madethannatural.In1940, a wooddoorwasinstalledoverthecavegate.A10-inch-diameteropeningwas made onthedoor"restoringthenaturalwhistlingeffecttotheentrancewhichledtothediscoveryofWindCave".Theyear1942broughtincreasedAmericaninvolvementinWorldWar11andalsotheabolishmentofmostCCCcamps(including Wind Cave's)sincetheyoungmenweredrafted.1960-1978 TheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyheldtheir1962NationalConventioninCuster,SouthDakota,20milesfromWindCave.Aspartoftheconvention,Afterthewar wasover,visitationjumped drama ticallyfrom3,784in1944to10,298in1945, and 43,608in1946.In1955the1millionthvisitorfinallyarrived.Ithadtaken74yearstotakeamillionvisitorsthroughWindCave.Since1955, millionmorehavebeentakenthroughthecave.Activeexploration.ofWindCavehadbeennonexistantformanyyears.ItisbelievedthatsomeoftheCCCworkerstookaninterestincavingbutmaps andsurveyrecordsarescant.InDecember, 1958,theColoradoGrottostartedpreparingforweekendtripstoWind Cave to:1IISp andexplore.Theireffortsoverthenextfewyearswerethestartofaneweraofexploration.1946-1960 TheNationalSpeleological.Societyhostedan ex peditiontoWindCaveduringAugust,1959.Duringone week, 22caverscompletedmoreworkthanhadeverbeendone.Threemilesofcaveweremapped; a faunal studywasconducted;ameteorologicalstudystarted;areportmadeonthegeologyandmineralogyofthecaveandpark;andasurfacetopographicsurveycompleted.During1955 and1956,thethirdelectricallightingsystemwasinstalled.Thissystemconsistedof421 usingdirectandindirectlight. Switches wereinstalledalong the'route sotherangercouldturnthelightsoninfrontofhim andoffbehindhim. Eventhoughthatwastwentytwoyearsago,thesystemhasprovedarealenergysaverinthisdayandageofhighenergycostsandenergyconservation.Inadditiontonormal100wattbulbs,a bandofphotofloodswereinstalledintheTemple in 1956. Theeffectofshowingtheroom byregularcavelightand then byphotofloodisquitedramaticanditisoneofthe most photographedrooms onthetour.A,thirdtypeoflightwasinstalledintheFairgrounds,thelargestroom opentothepublic.Ablacklight(shortwaveultra-violet)isusedduringtheblack-outtodemonstratethepropertyofflorescenceandphosphorescencewhichthecalciteexhibits.PostWarYearsPreliminarydrawingswerecompletedinJune,1937,forthenewstoneelevatorbuilding.ThebuildingwasstartedinJanuary,1938, andcompletedinDecember.ItstandsasatributetothefinecraftsmanshipoftheCCClaborforce.Thestoneblockswerehand-carvedfromrockquarriedinornearthepark.Thebuildingcontainsafirstaid room, lobby,restrooma,andatwo-storyventhousetohousethemachineryfortheelevators.Thesecondelevatorwasnotinstalleduntil1959.InSeptember, 1935, a 120-HPdieselplantwasinstalledtosupplypowerforthenewelevator.Tourscouldnowenterthecaveaquartermileaway,droptwohundredfeetbelowthesurfaceandforthefirsttimerideanelevatoroutofthecavewithouthavingtowalkbackup andoutthewaytheyhad comein.Thiswas oneofthemostinfluentialchangesaffectingwherethetourscouldgoandhowlongtheywouldlast.Thesecondmajorprojectwasthelightingsystem,cavetrailimprovement,andnewcaveentrance.Thelightingsystemwasoftheindirectmethodwithmost,ifnotall,ofthelightscarefullyconcealed,sometimeswiththeaidofcement andstonework. A230o-voltarmoredcablewasrequired'asaprimarylinefor system.Sometimesitrequiredasmanyas50mentocarrythenextsectionofcableintothecave.. Cementstairsweredeterminedtobethesafestand mostdurablewaytodevelopthesteeperareasalongthetrail.Itisnotknownforsurehowmanyofthe1033satirsnowinthecavewereconstructedbytheCCC.,Withanabundanceoflaborersavailable,manpower was noproblem.They mixedtheconcreteonthesurfaceandpoureditintotireinnertubes,whichtheyslungoveraworker'sshoulders.Heenteredthecavebyelevatororthewalk-inentrancetoreachthepointwherethestairswerebeingbuiltalongtheoneand ahalfmiletrail.Thefirstwastheconstructionoftheelevatorshaftandelevatorbuilding.Earlyin1934 asurveyofthecaveandsurfacewascompletedtodeterminetheshaftlocation.OnAugust20,1934, workbeganontheconstructionofashaftthatwouldpenetratethecave212feet,stopattwolevels,andprovideroomfortwo13-passengerelevators.InNovember, 1934,theOtisElevatorCompanybid$19,481to in stallthefirstelevator.ByFebruary,1935,thediggingoftheshaftandtunnelwerecompleted.24

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on-trailandoff-trailtourswereledbyrangersand membersoftheColoradoGrotto.Probablyoneofthemostbizzareproposalsfortheuseofacaveappearedin1963.Ina copyoftheCongressionalRecordthereisareportthatSenatorKarlMundtofSouthDakotaaddressedtheSenateconcerningaproposalthatWindCavebeconsideredasoneofthreepossiblesitesfortheStrategicAirCommand(SAC)headquartersifitwasmovedfrom Omaha.Thissuggestionwasoriginallymade bySecretaryofDefenseRobertMcNamara. Mundt-urgedtheSenateto "malte carefulconsideration"ofthisproposal.Uponhearingofthis,SuperintendentJessLombardwrotetheRegionalDirectornottobealarmedthat"wearenotactuallypreparingforturningoverthekeystoWindCavetotheAirForce".Theideahasnotbeenheardofsince.Explorationcontinuedduring1965withothercaversbecominginterested.SeasonalRanger DaveSchnute,alongwithHerb andJanConn,exploredforseveralmonths,mapping7,298feetofpassage.AsofMarch, 1966,therecordedlengthofWindCave was10.53miles.Thisseems afarcryfromthereported108milesthatappearedin1928.OnJanuary8,1967, an spelunkingtourwasconductedby DaveSchnute.Heoutfitted15juniorandseniorhighschoolstudentsandsponsorsandconductedaverysuccessfultrip.Herecom mendedthatthisactivitybemadeavailabletothepublic.In1968,WindCaveoffereditsfirstpublicspelunkingtour.Presently,thetourisoneofourmostsuccessful,thoughnowlimitedto10visitors.Thefour-hourexperienceallowsthenoviceachancetoseethewildsecfionofWindCaveinasafeandcarefulmanner.Hardhats,kneepads,electriclightsand twoothersourcesoflightareprovided.Caveconservationandsafetyarestressedbothonthesurfacebeforethetourandthroughoutthetrip.Wefindthatwe fewer-injuriesonthistourthanonany qtherwe'offer. Oneofthehighlightsofthetripistheopportunityforthevisitortoexploreonhis/herowningroupsofatleastthree.TheyaregivenahandfulofplasticribbonandcarefulinstructiononhowtomarktheirwayfromtheMuddleRoom,wheretherangergivesadviceonwheretoexploreandwaitsfortheirreturn.Thisportionofthecaveiswellknown byourstaffand waschosenbecausethereare very fewdropoffs,pits,wetareas,andfragileformationsand manypassagesloopbackintotheroom wheretheystarted.Thesenseofexploring is thusachievedwith rela tivesafety.Wehavebe-enverypleasedwith '-he responsebythepublicandnowofferthistour10timesperweek.Oftenthe isbookedwellinadvance."In1967,overoneinchofrainfellinonehourand asmallflashfloodenteredthecave.Mostofthetour that wasenteringthecaveescaped harmedbutthetourleaderand 6visitorscouldnotescape.Theyclimbedaledgeto safety andwaited"Thewatersoonrecededandtheytoo_leftthecaveunharmed. Arockledgewasconstructedaroundtheblowholeandanironplatewasattachedtothebottomofthecave"gatetopreventthisfromhappeninginthefuture.25In1970,thelastmajorexplorationprojectwasundertaken.Thistimeitwas afour-yeareffortbyWindyCityGrottofromChicago.Duringtheirfirstsummerattheparktheymapped9,806feetofpassageandestablishedabasecampdeepintheCalciteJungleportionofthecave,wheremedicalandemergencysupplieswerekept.Afieldphone wasinstalledtobase wherecommunicationwiththesurfacekepteveryoneinformedofwhat washappeningseveralthousandfeetawayinthecave.DuringthefirstsummerthecrewspushedbeyongCalciteLake,discoveredbytheConnaandothersinthe1960's,anddiscoveredWindCityLake.This,thelargestevidenceofwatertablefoundsofar,isalake220feetlongand50feetwideatonepoint.AnotherdiscoverywasthelargesthelictitebushfoundinWindCave.whichmeasuresnearly6feetinheight.In1971,theGrottomapped20,415feet and pushedaseriesofmazepassagesintowhatisnowthelargestroominWindCave. The roommeasures2800feetandiscalledHalfMileHall(orHaul). Ex tensivesurfacetopographicmapping wasdoneandan8-mmmovie was madeusingthephonelineasanelectricalconductortopowerfloodlampstoilluminatethecave.During1974, afive-weekexplorationprojectwasundertakenby WindyCityinvolvingatleast65cavers.Fivethree-manteams wereestablished.These teamsstayedinthecavethreedaysandtwonights,livingandworkingoutofBase Camp 02.Thisbasecampwasequippedwithsleepingandcookinggearandsanitationfacilities.BaseCamp,located7,000feetintothecave,wasoccupiedby oneoranotheroftheteamscontinuouslyforfourweeks.Bytheendoftheirthirdyear.theGrotto had mapped atotalof75,000feet.DuringtheirlastsummeratthePark.theGrottobroughtbacka groupofdedicatedcavers.The BaseCamp,telephonecommunication system. andlargenumbersofcaverswerereplacedwithsmallteams movingrapidlywithoutthe cumbersOllle logisticsofcamps,meals,telephones.andthelike.Intwo weeksanamazing amountofwork was accomplished,includingthemappingof31.000feetofpassage.Bytheendofthe summer Wind Cave wasofficially26mileslongandthefourthlongestcaveinthecountry.Lastfall,aftercompilingallthesurvey data from work donebytheseasonalrangersand others, thetotallengthofWindCave wasfoundtobe30.55miles.Accordingtothe IIIOst recent com pilationthecaveisstillratedfourthlargest.Occasionallyvisitorsaskwhenwewillopenupnewsectionsfortours.Ouransweris,probablynever.Besidesthecostofsuchan undertaking, thereisthepotentialandunknown imPact_ thatsuchaprojectwouldhaveonthecave.Finally,wefeelthatthesectionthatis isarepresentativesampleofWindCave and thiscorridorthroughatruewildernessenvironmentissufficienttosatisfythecuriosityofmost.Nevertheless.changesarecoming.Thisisthe75thanniversaryofthe establishment ofWind CaveNationalPark.Fundshavebeenappropriatedfortwolong-overdueprojects,whichwilldirectlyaffectthequalityofthevisitorexperience.

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Hopefully,beforeChristmas,constructionofanadditiontotheVisitor Center willbegin.Thisadditionwillenlargetheexhibitareatremendously.NewexhibitsarenowbeingplannedbyourHarpers Ferry DesignCenter.Wehopethatthenewinterpretiveexhibitswilldemonstratesuchthingsastheairspeedanddirection thecaveentrance,theearlyhistoryofWindCave andexplorationefforts.Wearecrampedinourpresentfacilities;theinterpretivestaffishousedinthebasementoftheheadquarterswithno roomfor'expansion.Thenew willprovideuswitha newlibrary,museumcoilectionstorage,darkroom, moreofficeandstoragespace, new informationcounterandplentyofelbowroomtobetterassistandinformthevisitor. We areextremelyexcitedabouttheunlimitedpossibilitiesforournewfacility.Finally,thiswinterwewillbeginthetaskofremovingthepresentlightingsystem,whichisover10yearsold,andreplacingitwithanall-florescentlightingsystem.Weestimatethatwewill 600fixturesalongoneand ahalfmilesofpassages.Weplanonindirectlightingineveryspotpossible.Duringexperimentslastwinterwewereamazedatthebrightnessoftheflorescentlightsandthecolorwhichitbringsout.Wesawthingalongthetourroutewehaveneverseen before., The'projectmaybeaninconveniencetosomeduringtheinstallationbuttheresultswillbeoutstanding.Again,weareextremelyexcitedaboutthisprojectandonlyhopethatwithinthenextyearorsowewillseethe results ofourefforts.Ithinkone of thegreatestrewardsofworkingatWind Cavewillbetobepartofthechangeand,growthwearenowexperiencing.And,by1981,whenthediscoveryofWindCavewillbe100yearsold,Iwillbeabletolookbackattheturmoil problemsweare,abouttogothroughwiththisconstructionandsaywhatathrillandchallengeitwastobepartofhistoryinthemaking.ReferencesBrown,R.F.(expeditionleader).1959.ExplorationinWindCave.NSSExpeditiontoWindCave.(unpublished)Everhart,W.C. 1972. TheNationalParkService.PraegerPublishers.Horn, E.C.1901. Mazes &'Marvels ofWindCave.ThirdEdition.McDonald, A. F. 1891-1982.PrivateAccountofA.F.McDonaldPermanentGuideofWindCave.Typedtranslationby DaveSchnute.(unpublished)Miscellaneousunpublisheddocuments.letters.records,reports,onfileatParkHeadquartersand/orNationalArchives.Owen,L.A.1898.CaveRegionsoftheOzarka & BlackHills.ReprintbyJohnsonReprintCorporation1970.Rogers,E.B.1958.HistoryofLegislationRelatingtotheNationalParkServiceThroughthe82ndCongress.USDT.NPS.Scheltons,J.(editor).1970-1973.WindcaveExpeditionReports.WindyCityGrotto.Chicago.IL.(unpublished)SnyderA.J.1928. "Wind CaveNationalPark"TheBlackHillsEngineer.TheSouthDakotaStateSchoolofMines.SuperintendentsMonthlyReports.1908-1967.NationalParkService(unpublished)Woodward,R.D.1976.TheInfernalPit.AHistoryofEarlyWindCave.Firstdraft.March.(unpublished)FIGURE7. Boxworkformation.IntheearlydaysatWindCavetheythought,thisformation,reminded,themofpostofficeboxes.ItistheoneformationthatWindCaveiswellknownfor.(photocourtesyNationalParkService)26

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THENATIO'NALPARKSERVICECAVERADIATIONRESEARCHANDMONITORING*KeithA.YarboroughPROGRAMThefirstmeasurementsintheUnitedStatesofairbornealpharadiationincavesweremadein1954 andin1962and1963inNewYork and Alabama(5,14).LaterworkatCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkandothersouthernNewMexicocavesin1974 and 1975(13,15),indicatedthatapossiblehealthhazardmightexistforpersonnelwhospentconsiderabletimeundergroundleadingtoursordoingmaintenancework.Asaresult,theNationalParkServiceinitiatedaprogramofresearchandmonitoringinSeptember1975atCarlsbadCavernstoevaluatethesituation(1,2).Subsequentmeasurementsofalpharadiationweremadein1976and1977inmanyNationalParkServiceadministeredcaves(16-24).ThesefindingshaveledtoweeklymonitoringbeingcarriedoutroutinelysinceMay1976,ata numberofNationalParkServicecaves:MammothinKentucky;WindandJewelinSouthDakota; gave; CrystalinSequoiaNationalPark,Cali fornia; CumberlandGapinKentucky/Tennessee/Virginia;LehmaninNevada; RoundSpringCaveinOzarkScenic RiverWay, Missouri;aswell Carlsbad.NationalParkServiceemployeeshavebeenequippedandtrainedto.makethe.radiationmeasurements,includingradongasanddaughterconcentrations,Tsivoglouandfreeionconcentrations,andairflowdeterminations;andtocomputepersonnelexposureaccumulations(4,7,12).This work continuestothepresenttimeundertheNationalParkServiceCaveRadiationResearchandMonitoringProgram.Table1summarizestheen tire caveradiationprogram'swork,bothexistingandprojected.Theresearchphaseofthisprogramestablishedtherelationshipbetweenthealpharadiationincavesandthenaturalairflowsbyaworkinghypothesiswhichthedatahavesubstantiated(23).Thisisthatall caves inwhichtheprimarycauseofairflowisduetotemperature/(density)gravity-gradientsand also havingminimalman-madedisturbances(suchastunnels,elevatorshafts,boreholes,sealedandclosedportals,etc.,whichwouldalterthenaturalairflows)experience"seasonalvariationsinairborne radiation.'Theradiationlevelsincreaseinsummerbutdecreaseinwinter,baseduponseasonalairmovementsthrougheachcavesystemwhichoccur naturaily. Twogeneraltypesofphysicalcaveconfigurationswereidentifiedwhichacttocontroltheairflowsseasonally:*PhysicalScientistand South westRegionalOffice,National far-k SerVice, Fe,NewMexico 875011.Thosewhichgo upintoahillsideormountainside:Type I("Upside-down"=USD).2.Thosewhichgodownintotheearth;TypeII("Right-side-up"=RSU)' The summerincreaseinType Icavesisduetoincreasedairflows,whereasinTypeIIcavesitresultsfromstagnationorreducedairflows.Thisseemingparadoxisexplainedbythephysicsoftheairflowregimeineachcavetypeandwhetherornotitsnaturalairflowpatternshavebeenalteredby humanactivities.Allofthishasbeenreportedindetailelsewhere(20,22.25,26);particularlyatthe1976and1977 NationalCave ManagementSymposia.Itistrueingeneral,thatairflowdecreasesairborneradiationintheimmediatevicinityinwhichit occurs. Anyparadoxresultsfromhowthe movesthroughacavesystemwithrespecttotimeandspace.Inmore humidareas,waterinflowsfromvariableratesofpercolationresultingfromfall,winterandspringprecipitationmaymobilizemore in fluxesofradiationmaterialsthansummerthunderstorms.Suchactionmightcontributetotbe merincreasesinradiation.ThisisbeingstudiedbyDr.JamesQuinlanintheMammothCavearea.Inaridandsemi-'arid a't"eas the,sparseannualprecipitationoccursassnowsandrainsduringthewinter,orasintense,butverylocalized,summerthunderstorms.Whiletheformer coula mobilizesomeradiationmaterials,thelatterwilldosoonlyiftheyoccurintheimmediatevicinityoftbecavesystem.Inanycase,foraridandsemi-aridareas.theamountof waterusuallyis small. sothatairflowsplaythemajor.roleintbe radiationdistributionincavesystems. AneJI: ampleisCarlsbadCavernsinsouthernNew Mexico. Furthermore,inhumidareasthevolumesofairwhichmovethroughcavesystemsaremuch.greaterthanthevolumesofwater.sotbattbeairflowsprobablyplaythemajorrolethere,too.'Therefore,'becauseaircanmove morefreelyandquicklythroughout cave systems,airflowsaremuch moresignificantinthemobilizationoftbealpharadiationmaterials.Theseairflowsarethemainmeansbywhichradiationisdissipatedorconcentrated.Thus, this integrallink ,airflowandcavealpharadiationbasbeenstudiedcloselybecauseitaffectsemployeeexposureaccumulationsinunaltered,naturalcaves.27

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Alterationsofthenaturalairflowpatternsbyman's"developments"andmanagementpracticesalsocanhavemarkedeffects.Forexample,atMammothCaveinKentucky,animmense Type Isystem,thesummeroutflowscauseelevatedradiationlevels.However,tominimizeuncomfortableinflowsofcold,outsideairinwinter,metalcoversareplacedoverthenaturalentrance.Thiscausesconsiderableincreasesintheradiationlevelswhichmoderate with greaterdistancefromtheentrance(seeTables3Aand3B).Thisartificialradiationincreasecauseswinterlevelstoapproachsummerlevels(whenthecoversarenotinplace)attimes.Theuseofforcedairventilation,asisdoneinmines,isunthinkableforcavesbecauseofthedisastrousadverseeffectsonthemicroclimatesofcaveswhichwouldresult.Forexample,airmovementsintheunsealedelevatorshaftsatCarlsbadCavernsledtoanunfortunateandsubstantialdryingofthecaveanditsformationsoverseveralyearsuntilthesewerefinallysealed.DetailedstudiesbyMr.JohnMcLeanoftheU.S.GeologicalSurveyshowedthis(6).Table1 shows a summaryofannualpersonnelexposureaccumulationsatthoseNationalParkServiceadministeredcaveswhichareregularlytouredandwhichalsohavethehighestlevelsofradiation.Theextremeandmeanvaluesarepresented.Comparingmeans,MammothCave(USDtype)isseentohavethegreatestexposures,bothbecauseitssizegeneratesrelativelyhighradiationlevelsandbecauseithasthelargeststaff.CaveairwasusedforyearroundairconditioninghereuntillateApril1976.CarlsbadCaverns(RSUtype),havingthesecondlargeststaff,isalsoofgreatsizeandhascomparableexposuremeansto Cave,thoughitslevelsarelower.Table2summarizesrepresentativeradiationlevelextremesselectedfromtheoveralldatarecordobtainedforseveralNationalParkServicecaves.Table3Aalsoshowstheeffectsofthemanagementpracticeofputtingupsealingcoversin the winter,aspreviouslydescribedforMammoth.Toinvestigatethesemanagementactivitiesmorefully,aseriesof weremadeinthefallof1977.Theresults,assummarizedinTable3A,havebeengroupedingeneralastowhethertheairflowwasincastintothenatural("Historic")entranceoroutcastfromit.Theworkentailedalternatelyputtingupandtakingdownthesheetmetalcoversatthisentrance. Wilen theairwasoutcast,theentranceconfiguration(i.e.,coversupordown)causedlittledifferenceinthealpharadiationlevelsbecausetheairhadmobilizeditsradiationloadfromfartherback with inthecave.Thecoverdownconditionpromotessomewhathigherradiationlevels,aswouldbeexpectedfora Type I(USD)cave.However,fortheincastairflows,agreatdealofdifferencewasobserved.This was mostpronouncedforthoseareasclosesttotheentrance,butwasattenuatedforareasfartherintothecave.Whenthecoverswereup,thedilutingeffectoftheincastairwasprecludedandtheradiationlevelsrose,asoccurredduringpreviouswinterswhenthesecoverswereinPlacefromOctobertoApril.Conversely,withthecoversdown,theincastairdepressedtheradiationlevels3ignificantly.The"unaltered"airflowconditions(nocovers)ofsummer, whenthenaturalairflowpatterns28ofthisvastUSDcavernnetworkhavebeenwellestablishedinthecyclicunsteady"breathing",resultedintheradiationlevels,showninTable4.Thereisareasonablegoodconsistencyfromyeartoyearformostofthetourroutesandduringthesamemonths.(Thistableextendsdatapreviouslyreportedatthe1977NationalSymposium;seeref.23).OregonCave,insouthwesternOregon,showsothereffectsofmanagementpractices.Intheearly1930's,anexittunnel was drivenintothecentralareasofthecavetoproduceaneasiertourroute.Thisalteredthenaturalairflowpatternsinthecave.Table3Bshowstheaverageseasonal WL valuesforthecentralpartsofOregonCave,outsideairtemperatures,andgenerally-prevailingairflowconditions.Asisexpected,thewarmseasoncaveradiationlevel(0.30WL)exceedsthecoolseasonlevel(0.12WL)average.Sometimesduringthespringandfall,orattimesinmidsummer, whenthereislittleairfloworanoscillatingflowwhichcontinuallyshiftsdirectionsand with caveandsurfaceairataboutthesametemperatures,theradiationlevelsincreaseinthecentralpartsofthecavetowellabove"seasonal"averages.TheseincreasesindicatewhattheundisturbednatureofthisUSDcavemayhavebeen.Inthiscase,incontrastwiththesituationatMammothCaveinKentucky,theman-madetunnel,whichisunsealed,hasenhancedairflowsthroughthecaveand,therefore,hascauseddepressedradiationlevelsforthealteredconditionsofthisUSDcavesystem.ThisemphasizesthatwhenairborneradiationmaterialsaremobilizedbyUSDcaveairflows,andthatmotionsubsequentlystagnatesinthetypical,unsteady("breathing")cyclicform'ofType Icaveconfigurations,theradiationlevelscanriseabovethemoreprevalent,usualvaluesofthealtered,moresteady-stateairflowseasonalsituations,whichmayhavebeencausedinaUSDcave fiedby humanactivities.Therefore,thevitalroleofunderstandingtheairflow,thecave'sphysicalconfiguration,andthecave'smanagementproceduresisvitalinunderstandingitsradiationfluctuationsandseasonalbehavior.Theseallaffectpersonnelexposureaccumulations.Furthermore,wemustbeverycarefulinourcavemanagementactionstoavoidchangeswhichmay be subtlebutofconsiderableadverseeffectoncavemicroclimateandgeneral"wellbeing".AlldatawhichhavebeenorarebeingcollectedfromtheNPSCaveRadiationResearchandMonitoringProgramarebeingplacedinacomputerizeddatabase.ThisCaveRadiationInformationSystme (CRIS)hasbeendevelopedoverthepastyear.Theradiationmonitoringpersonnel,fromeachNPScavewhichisregularlymonitored,weretrainedintheuseofeRISinJune1978.Thissystem will permitmucheasieraccesstothedatafromallNPScavesandwillexpediteexposurerecordkeepingandtimelyreportingofresults.AlldataarereportedbycavemonitorsonspecialcodingformstotheNPS-WASODivisionofNaturalResourcesManagement.Thesedata,whichareplacedintoCRIS,areoffourmaintypes:1.Radonandthorondaughtermeasurementsalongalltourroutesandinalloccupiedareas;

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2.Employeeexposuretimesandcavelocations;3.Measurementsofradongasconcentration,theconcentrationsoftheindividualradondaughtersandfreeions,andsmallparticulate con centrations;4.Cavemeteorologicalmeasurements;bothinsideandoutsideforpressure,temperature,relativehumidity evaporationrate,andairspeedanddirectioninsidethecave.TheNPSProgramhasbeenaidedbya numberofotheragencieswhichhavebeenconsulted:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration,NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth,U.S.BureauofMines andespeciallyMiningSafetyandHealthAdministration'sDenverTechnicalSupportCenter,Radiation'Branch(formerlyMiningEnforcementandSafetyAdministration)andtheNationalCavesAssociation(NCA). Fromthisinteraction,theNationalParkServiceProgramhasevolved.Thefindingshaveledtointerimprecautionaryhealthstandardsforcaveradiationexposureofpersonnel,draftedbyboththeNational.ParkServiceandtheNationalCavesAssociation.Measurementsofalphacaveradiationalsohavebeenmade byprivateconsultantsandbyagenciesofa fewstates.In1977,NCAfundedastudybyspeleologicalandgroundwaterspecialist/consultant,Mr.TornAley,whoreportedon :'Cave RadiationandtheCommerical CavesoftheUnitedStates"(3).Hisresultsfrom218. returnedfromprivatecaveemployeeshavebeencomparedwith41responsesfromNationalParkServicepersonnelatMammothCave,Kentucky(seedetailselsewhereinthese1978Proceedings).They showthatprivatecaveemployeesspendlesstimeundergroundthandoNationalParkServicepersonnel,ingeneral.Thisistobeexpectedbecauseofdifferencesinmethodsofoperation.Privatecavesareusuallysmallerinsizewithshortertourswhichmovethroughthecavemorequickly.Also,theirtoursusuallydonotpenetrateasdeeplyintothecavebutstayinouterareaswhicharebetterventilated,oftenbymultipleaccessportals, where theradiationlevelsarelower.-Mammoth CaveandotherNationalParkService caves usuallyhavemuchgreatervisitationinproportiontonumbersofpersonnelsothatNPSspendmoretime usually.Also,themeansofconductingtoursis.important.At mostprivatecavestoursareledsothatpersonnelalternatetheirshorterperiodsofunderground exposure withtimeabovegroundthroughoutthe eveninbusytimes.ManyNPScaves(e.g.,L.ehman, Nevada; Round.Spring,Missouri;Wind andJewel,SouthDakota;etc.)areoperatedthisway. Afew,however,whichhavethegreatestvisitations,operatedifferently.Forex toursareconductedat Caveduringtimesoflower butatbusytimespersonnelarestationedalongsometourrouteswhicharethen"self-guided".Thiskeepspersonnelundergroundmorecontinuously.CarlsbadCaverns has usedthisself-guidedmethodforseveral years nowonayear-roundbasis.BecausetheradiationlevelsatCarlsbadarelower,theexposureshave'beenlower(refertoTables1and2).29Measurementsbyprivateconsultant,Mr.WilliamAustin,(9)incertainprivatecavesinKentucky show "noappreciablyhighlevels"andrangefrom"verylowtowellbelowthehighestlevelsfound NPS-administeredcaves."Checks bytheKentuckyBureauofHealthServices,RadiationCon-trolBranch(10),showvaluesusuallyofa fewhundredthsofaWL,withalllevelsbelow0.3WLforoneprivatelyoperatedcave.AtotalofeightsuchcavesweresampledinMarchthroughApril1977;threeofwhichwereman-madebydrillingandblasting.Thefindingsshowed arangeof0.045to0.49WL,withanaverageforallof0.20WL.TheseradiationlevelsaretwotofivetimeslowerthanthosemeasuredinvariouspartsofMammothCave,Kentucky,duringthesametimeperiod.InMissouri,a fewprivatecaveswerecheckedin1977 bytheStateMineInspector'sOffice(11).Resultsforwinter(earlyFebruary)measurementsinfivecaves,fourtofivesamplesateach,variedfromzeroto0.14WLforallthesecaves,withaveragesineachofthefivecavesof0.04,0.07,0.06,0.02 and 0.02WL.A mid-summer(midAugust)measurementseriesatonecaveshowed arangeforthreesamplesof0.01to0.28WLwithanaverageof0.18 1fL. This'wasinalargecavesystemhavingstronglyoutcastairflows.TheNationalParkServicearrangedwiththeNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthtoconductahealthhazardsurveyateachofitsroutinely-monitoredcavesin1976.ThiswasdeterminedbytheNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthtobeonlyasputumcytologyinvestigationwhichwasconductedduringthesummer 1976forNPScavepersonnel,onavoluntarybasis.Thereport(8)ofMay1978 (No.TA76-54),waspreparedby:EileenPhilbinGunter,R.N.,MPH,NurseOfficerandby:Channing R. Meyer,H.D.,Chief,bothformerlyintheMedicalSection,HazardEvaluationsandTechnicalAssistanceBranch,U.S.DepartmentofHealth,Education,andWelfare,CenterforDiseaseControl;NationalInstututeforOccupationalSafetyandHealth,Cincinnati,Ohio,45226.Thisreporthasbeenexcerptedtoprovidethefollowingsummaryofthemostpertinentparts(seealso,Table4,fordetailedsputumcytologyresults'foreachcaveareasampled)."InMarchof1976theNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthreceivedarequestfromtheDepartmentoftheInteriorformedicalevaluationofemployeesworkinginseveralofthecavesintheNationalParkSystem.'Therequestwas madebecauseelevatedlevelsofradon'daughters'radiationwerefoundin.severalcavestested. ***** "samplesforpulmonarycytologicalanalysisweretakenfromlongtermemployeesatCarlsbadCaverns in Decemberof1975.Theresultsoftheanalysisofthosespecimensshowed manymild cellspresentinnon-smokersaswellas

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smokers,and twooftheindividualstestedshowed markedcellularatypia.ThesepreliminaryresultspromptedtheAssistantDirectorforSafetyManagement,OfficeofManagementServices,OfficeoftheSecretary,DepartmentoftheInterior,tocontactDr.Finklea,theDirectorofNIOSH.InthiscommunicationherequestedthatNIOSHconductasurveyoftheworkersinnotonlyCarlsbadCaverns,butlongtermemployeesattheotherNationalParkServiceCaves.Aftertheavailablesamplingresultswerereviewed,itwasfeltthataNIOSHevaluationwasjustified.*****"Subsequently,NIOSHstudiedeachindividualcave'semployees(eightcavestotal).Employeesweregivenaquestionnaire and askedtoprovidetwofirstmorning sputumspecimensonsuccessivedays.BecausetheNIOSHcontractlaboratorydidnotreportthesputumfindingsina mannersatisfactorytoNIOSH,allspecimenshadtobereevaluatedusingnewcriteria.Becauseofthisasubstantialdelayinthereportsoccurred."Theresultsarenowavailableandbasedonthesputumfindingsaswellastheresultsofthequestionnaire,itisapparentthatnoevidenceofa measurablerespiratoryeffectonthecaveworkerswaspresentatthetimeofthesestudies.Recommendationsforlongtermsurveillanceandotherpertinentsuggestionsareincludedintherecommendationsofthisreport.*****"TheprojectwasundertakeninlateMayof1976and sputumsamplesaswellasadetailedquestionnairewerethouthttobeappropriate.Theemployeestobestudiedwere employedatthefollowingcaves:A.CarlsbadCaverns,Carlsbad,NewMexicoB.MammothCave,MammothCave, Kentucky C. Lehman Cave,Baker,NevadaD.Oregon Cave, CaveJunction,Oregon E. RoundSpringCave,VanBuren,MissouriF.WindCave,HotSpring,SouthDakotaG.JewelCave,Custer,SouthDakotaH.CrystalCave,ThreeRivers,California"EVALUATIONMETHODSEmployeesatthecavesmentionedwereevaluatedby twomeans.Thefirstwas adetailedquestionnaireelicitingpastoccupationalexposureaswellaspastpulmonaryhistoryand ahistoryoftobaccoconsumption. The secondwascollectionandanalysisoftwoseparatesputumspecimensobtained'fromeachworker."Thequestionnaire elicited occupationalhistory,pulmonarysymptomatology, history,familyhistoryofmalignancies,andavariety demographicdata(i.e.,age,sex,yearsatpresentjob,etc.)."Eachworkerwasrequestedtoarrivebeforeheorshereportedforwork on twoconsecutivemornings.Sputumsampleswereinducedbyuseofanultrasonicnebulizerwithapropyleneglycol-sodiumchloridesolution.Specimenswerecollectedin solutions of50%ethylalcohol,'properlylabeledandanalyzedbyMedicalDiagnosticServicesLaboratory GSA30contractlaboratoryinCincinnati,Ohio.OriginalresultswerereportedinterminologyunacceptabletoNIOSH.Asaresult,thepathologistsatHOSwereaskedtoreevaluateeachspecimenafterhavingadoptedthecriteria(developedby Saccamano,etal.)1felttobeacceptabletoNIOSH."InadditiontotheworkerswhoweretestedagroupofvolunteersfromwithinNIOSHwereaskedtoparticipateinthestudyasacontrolgroup.Thegroupofcontrolsincludedmales,females,blacks,whites,smokers,andnon-smokers.Theywereevaluatedinasimilarmannerasthecaveworkers.Eachparticipantwasaskedtoprovide two sputumspecimensandoccupationalaswellassmokinghistory.*****"RESULTSAllofthecavesstudiedduringthisinvestigationhadresultsthatweresimilarsothegeneraldiscussionwillcoverallthecavesasagroup. caveisreportedinTable10).NIOSHcontrolswereasignificantpartofthisinvestigation.Thirty-fiveindividualsparticipated.They had a meanageof30.9years.Therewere22malesand13females;14weresmokers,17werenon-smokers,and4wereexsmokers.Althougheachindividualparticipatinginthestudywasrequestedtoprovide two firstmorning sputumspecimens,13individualsprovidedonlyonespecimen.Theremainingindividualsprovidedtwospecimenseachforatotalof57specimens.Ofthese57specimens11werejudgedtobepoorsamplesnotrepresentativeofsputum.Oftheremainingsepcimens5wereinterpretedasmetaplasia,and3werereadasmildatypia.The3specimensthatwerejudgedtoshowmildatypiawereallfromsmokersorex-smokers.Thosewho hadonesputumreportedasmetaplasiaalsohadanothersputumthatwasreadasnormal.(Note:NIOSHfeelsthattheseresultsarecomparabletothosefoundforMammothCave.SeeTable10).*****"DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSIONSThe sputumsampleswereanalyzedandplacedintooneoffivecategoriesbytheexaminingpathologist.Thesamplemightbemarkedasnormalmeaningthatonlynormallyoccurringcellswerepresentin specimen.Thesecondcategorywasmetaplasiawhichindicatesthatthecellisnotnormalbutneithercanitbeclassifiedasabnormal.Third,fourth,andfifthcategorieswerealljudgedtobeabnormal.Thesewereclassifiedasmild,moderate,or,markedatypia,reflectinganincreasingdegreeofseverityasonemoved fromthe mild tothemarkedatypia.MarkedatypiaISaccama no Geno,Ph.D.,M.D.,etal."Develop Carcinomaof theLungas in Exioli,Ated Cells,I' 'JanuarY 1974,Vol.33, 256.-270.

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wouldbesuggestiveofpotentialmalignancy,withdetailedmedicalfollow-upsuggested.BasedontheresultsoftheeightcavesstudiedaswellastheNIOSHcontrolpopulation,itisapparentthatthereareonlya fewindividualsoutofthelargegroupstudiedthatshowedanysignificantconsistentabnormalities.Again,basedontheresultsofthesesamples,itdoesnotappearthattherewerewidespreadpulmonarycytological abnormalities inanyofthegroupstested.Basedonthedatathathave been collected,itappearsthatonlycertainhighriskindividualsshouldbemonitoredonaroutinebasis.Caveworkerswhoaregreaterthan40to46yearsofage,whoarecigarettesmokers,andwhohaveworkedinthecavesformorethan5 thoseindividualswhoshouldbemostcloselyobserved.Inadditionworkerswhoaregreaterthan45yearsofageandwhohaveworkedinthecavesgreaterthan5yearsdespitethefact that theyarenotsmokersorexsmokers whouldalsobehighpriorityforsurveillanceprocedures.*****"RECOMMENDATIONSBasedontheresultsofthisstudy,thefollowingrecommendationsaremade. Theyinnowayaremandatoryandmaybejudgedtobetooconservativeby someandtooliberalbyothers,butbasedonthedataavailabletheywouldprovideadequatesurveillanceinthosehighriskpopulationswithoutaddingtremendousexpensethatisencounteredinmassivemedicalscreening.1.Allemployeesofthecavesystembeencouragedtoceaseconsumptionoftobacco.2.Eachpermanentfull-timeemployeeshouldbegivenacompletehistoryandphysicalincludingoccupationalhistory,historyoftobaccoconsumption,aswellasageneralphysicalexaminationbaselinechestx-rayandbaselinesputumcytologyforthoseindividualswhoareover30yearsofage.3.Ayearlyphysicalexaminationwithlaboratorystudiesshouldbeperformedonsmokerswho are greaterthan40 years ofageandhavehadgreaterthanfiveyearsofserviceinthecavesandonworkerswhoaregreaterthan45yearsofagewhoarenon-smokerswhohavehadgreaterthan5yearsofexposureinthecaves.Thisexaminationshouldconsistoftheroutinehistoryandphysicalexaminationaswellaschestx-rayand sputum cytologydoneat alternating 6-monthintervals.4.Workerswhoarelessthan40yearsofagewith5ormoreyears in the caves mayalsobeconsideredforstudy.5.Ifthescreeningstudiesbegintodetectincreasedabnormalities,thentheprogramshouldbereevaluatedandextended.6.Ifonthescreeningprogramanyabnormalitiesarediscovered,thatisx-rayorsputumexaminations,thentheseabnormalitiesshouldbereferred31toaconsultingphysicianandappropriatemedicalfollow-upbeinstituted.7.Alluseofcaveairforairconditioningandotherusesshouldbesuspendedifithasnotalreadybeendone."TheserecommendationshavebeenincorporatedintotheseconddraftrevisionoftheRationalParkService"Interim PrecautionarY Cave Badiation HealthStandardsand Management Gui.dance forNaturalCaves OpentoVisitationbythePublic."Thishasbeenconcurredwithby Mr. JohnBast,ChiefoftheDivisionofSafety Management, Officeof Administrative and Management Policy,DepartmentofInterior,whostated""Ihavereviewedeachofthese (tosafeguardemployeeswhoworkinthecaves)andfeelthateachisprudentandnecessarytoprotecttheseemployees.Isuggestthatyou(NPS)considertheserecommendationaandincorporatethemintoyourpresent safery andhealthprogram.Imightaddthat,asidefrOlll hUlllaIlistic considerationsofamedicalsurveillance progr_, thecostsforconductingsucha program canberelativelysmallincomparisontolossesresultingfrom alackoftheperiodicphysicalex_inationa."Asreportedinthe1978Proceedingsby Mr.Toa Aley,theNCAhas unanimously approvedstandardssimilartothosebeingconsideredatpresentbyNPS. TheNCAhasadoptedthemforuseatprivatelyoperatedcavesamongtheirmembership.Therefore,theNationalParkServiceisincompliancewiththeprecautionarycaveradiationhealthstandardsand managementguidancesprevalentforthecavemanagementindustryinconsideringstandards aDd guidanceswhichareessentially similar. The Dain differencesbetweentheadoptedNCAandthedraft,interimNPSstandardsandguidancesare:1.NPSwillinformallcavepersonnelofthepotential duetocaveradiationwhereasNCAwillbeselectiveinwhatcavepersonnelbeinformedinordertominimizepossibleconfusionand/orpanicdueto mis understandings.2.NPSnolongerpermitscaveairtobeusedfor kindofairconditioning (sum-er orwinter)inanysurfacebuildings,whetherregularlyoccupiedornot..3.TheNPShasincorporatedtheNIOSH reca-enda tionsintoitsdraft,interimstandards,asdiscussedabove.4.NPSisconsideringtheinclusionofthe follow ingatthistime:A.NPS-WASOwillprovidethefundingsupportwhichmaybeneededforeachofthe follow ing:i)Paymentforthemedical exams and/orcompensation(includingpossibletravelexpensesandperdiem)toworkersforanyandallmedicalexamsandtestingwhichNPSmayrequire.

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ii)Compensation(includingpossibletravelexpenses,perdiem andchargesforanymedicalexpenses)whichmaybeincurred' when furthermedicalfollow-uptothetestingini)maybenecessary.iii)Compensation(includingpossibletravelexpenses,perdiem andchargesforanymedicalexpenses)foranytreatment,lostworktime,andeven whichmayhaveresultedincasesof,.illnessattributabledirectlyto cave airraaiation.B.NPS-WASOwillmakeall necessary arrangementsforthismedicaltesting'and communicatetheproceduretobefollowedtothefieldareasthroughtheappropriatechannels.5.NPSwilluseitscomputerizedCRISdatabasetostore,retrieveandreportalldataoncaveradiationand employeeexposures.TheNPSCaveRadiationResearchandMonitoringProgramcompleteditsresearchphaseattheendofJanuary1978, andhasentereditslong-termmanage mentphase.Thelatterphasewillextendoverthenextseveralyears,atleast,inordertogatherbothcaveradiationandemployeeexposuredataandtoobtainsuchepidemiologicalinformationasmaybepossibleusingtheinterimstandardsandguidanceswhichhavebeenbasedontheresearchdataofNPSandtherecommendationsofNIOSH.OfparticularsignificanceinboththeNCAandNPSstatementsonstandardsisthefollowing:"PARTIIISCIENTIFICINFORMATIONInterimGuidanceforDataCollectionforNaturalCaves OpentoVisitationbythePublicInordertomakethemosteffectiveresourcemanage mentdecisionsforcaveswhichwillbebothprudentandproperinthelongtermphaseoftheradiationprogram,itisimportanttocontinuetodevelopthedatabase.Thisistobedonebycontinuedroutinemonitoring,whereapplicable,usingtheabovestandards(PartI)and ManagementGuidelines(ParkII), cavesnotbeingmonitored-especiallythoseadministeredbytheNPS.Inaddition,managersshouldrecognizetheimportanceofcontinuingcooperationwithscientificprofessionals.Thiswillinsurethatappropriateskillswillbemusteredwhichcanassistindevelopingthequantitativebasisforestablishingsound managementplansandactions,byimplementingpertinentapplied'researchefforts.Conversely,managers,canprovidequestions,ideasandfactsusefulinshapingsuch"researchsothatitcanproducemanagementorientedresults."Theseconceptshavebeenredraftedsubsequentlyintoanoverall ofPrecautionaryCaveHealthManage mentGuidelineswhichareapartofgeneraldraftCave ManagementGuidelines.Allofthis,especiallythosepartsdealingwithmedicalsurveillanceandpossiblecompensationisundergoingextensivereviewbytheWashingtonOfficeoftheNationalParkService. theDivisionofSafetyManagementoftheNationalParkService,WASO,willcoordinatethe32long-termmanagementphaseoftheCaveRadiationHealthMonitoringProgram.Ingeneral,itistheconsensusofalpharadiationhealthexpertsthattheNationalParkServicemustcontinuetheroutinemonitoringactivities(includinguseoftheCRrSCaveRadiationInformationSystem -computerizeddatabaseman agedinWashington)atthecaveswhichitadministersand must addthemedicalsurveillancewhichtheNationalInstituteforOccupationslSafetyandHealthhas recommended. Itisnaivetolookforaneasy,clean"solution"tothealpharadiationsituation'incaves,becausereal-worldproblemsdonothavesuchcrisp,analytical solti tions.Theclosestresolutionofthesituationis what hasbeendone:theevolutionwhichhasbeenundertakenby"scoping"theNationalParkService(andprivate)caveradiationconditionsand em ployeeexposureamounts byresearch;establishmentofthemonitoringsystemofpeople,equipmentandtraining;and'continuous,activemanagementinthefutureusingthesystemestablishedandaddingmedicalsurveillancetoit.Managerswillhavetomanage,asthecaveradiationsituationwillnotmagicallyvanish!Tocomplainthatmoreproblemshavebeencreatedthansolved,orthatgreaterhazardsandproblemsexistelsewherefortheNationalParkServicetoworkon,orthatthereportsfromthestudyworkaretooextensiveistobegthequestionandtoshirkresponsibility.Suchpettifoggerymustbediscarded.Thisisaproblem"past"onlyinsofarasithasbeendefinedinextentbytheNationalParkServiceworktodateandthat"thesystem-ofcontinuedmonitoringandmedicalsurveillance-'isthesolution."If we considerablycurtailordroptheentireeffortatthispointinordertoconserveresources,itmaywellcomebacktohanutusinthefutureonamuchgreaterscalewithmuchmoreexpensivetortclaimsand/oradversepublicity,asHr.BastoftheDepartmentofInteriorhasnoted.Analternativetotheroutinemonitoring !!!!Z betheuseofpredictivecomputermodeling.Whilethismayworkacceptablyforcavessuchas Carls badCaverns.forwhichthenaturalairflowsarelittlealteredandinwhichourextended (over threeyears)researchshowsrepeatabilityofradiationlevels,itwillnotworkatotherssuchasMammothCaveorOregon Caveswherethe air flowsareconsiderablyaltered.The extension ofradiationlevelpredictiontoemployee exp0 surepredictioneQuIdbeevenlessreliableduetotheinherentuncertaintiesoftimeaveraging.. andweightingforundergroundareas.Nevertheless,thisseemslikeanalternativeworthyoftryinginsomeNationalParkServicecaves,suchasCarlsbadCaverns.Ahotherwayof doing this,orofcomplementingitistousecontinuoua,automatedmonitors.Thesehavegivenresultscomparabletothosefoundbythepresentmethodswhentriedina fewplacesat Mammoth Cave,.CarlsbadCaverns,LehmanCaves,andJeweiCave.The hopeofpersonaldosimetersforemployeesisstillunfeasible.TheU.S.Bureauof Mines(Hr. Droullard)hasreportedthatafterseven years developmentresearch,thesedosimeters(bothTLDwithairpumpandtract-etchtypes)arejustnovreadyforactualfieldtestinginmines.Inmoist

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and/ordustyconditionsseriouserrorsstillcanresult(20%to100%ineachtype,_respectively).Inanycase,thepresentNationalParkServicetypemonitoringsystemwouldhavetobecarriedoutasacheck.MineSafetyandHealthAdministrationfeelsthatithasinsufficientdataatpresenttopromulgatepersonaldosimeterstandardsfortheuraniumminingindustry.An"instant"WI..devicehasbeendevelopedbyseveraldifferentworkers,buttheseareexpensiveanderrorprone.MineSafetyandHealthAdministration(Mr. Beckman)hastestedandreportedon them. Theperennialquestionwillcontinuetoberaisedastowhethercaveworkersare"radiationworkers"subjecttothesame economicbenefitvs.healthriskconsiderationsimplicitinmining,especiallyuraniummining.IthasbeennotedthatwiththealpharadiationlevelsformedinsomeNationalParkServicecavestheywouldbeclosedaccordingtomininghealthstandards.Continuously, we havesoughttodifferentiatebetweencavemanagement andminingoperations.TheNationalParkService WASOisshapingapolicydecisiononthisatthesametimeitdecidesuponthealpharadiationmonitoring/medicalsurveillanceissuesfortheNationalParkServicecavemanagementpurposes.Somemedicalexpertsbelievethatiflungdiseasecouldbeattributabletocaveradiationexposures,thenitshouldbecompensatable,astheNationalParkServicedrafthealthstandardsand managementguidancesproposes.Mr.TomAley,consultanttotheNationalCaveAssociation,hasexpressedconsiderableconcernthattheNationalParkServicewillbeopeninga"Pandora'sBox"intheform-ofclaimsfromthegeneralpopulation,ifitshouldadoptthemedicalresponsibilitycommitmentsnowdraftedintothesecondinterimstandardsstatements.Heseesthisasanadmissionthatcaveexposuresdocauselungcancers.Heestimates,usingtheNational'InstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH)uraniumminerdata,thatthereareabouttwolungcancersamongthefivemillioncavevisitors(andworkers,whoareaverysmallpartofthistotal)peryear.Therefore,theNationalParkService proceedcautiously.Healthexpertsrejectthisviewpointasbeingimplausibleandunrealisticinbothalegalandpracticalsense.TheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyhaspresenteddataindicatingthatthenaturalalpharadiationfoundplanet-widemaybeoneofourgreatestenvironmentalhazards,causing5to 10% ofalllungcancers.Thisisnowagreathealthdebate:as-to whether low alpha(andother)-radiationlevelsarestatisticallyrelatedtocancersin-thegeneralpopulace.Thelinkagehasbeenshownforradiationworkers,.suchasuraniumminers.Canadianestimatesare5to 20% ofall-cancerfromnaturalsources.Dr.NealNelsonoftheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyhasreportedincreasinglungcancerriskforlowerexposureaccumulations(in WLM) basedon WLM vs.percentincreaseinlungcancerriskper WLM. Canadianfindingsagreewiththis.UnitedNationsdatashow 2to4.5lungcancersper10,000 WLM inuraniumminers,whileInternationalCouncilon-RadiationProtectiondata(unpublished)show 1to4lungcancersper10,000 WLM. Dr.VictorArcherofNIOSRhasrecentlyfoundthatintermittentexposureto"higher"-alpha-,radiationlevelsmaybelessdamagingthan continuOUS exposure33to"lower"levels,evenwhenthetotalaccumulatedexposuresarethesame.Thisissignificantforcavemanagement. However,previouslyDr.Archerhadfoundnoexposurerate(WI..)dependence with respecttolungcancerincidence.Nowhereportsthatfor"low"accumulatedexposures(about30or'40 WLM orless),theeffectsofagivenexposurerate(inWL)maybegreaterthanthatfor"high"accumulatedexposures.Thereisalinearresponse,whichCanadiandataconfirm.Allofthesedataareforuraniumminers.Otherrecenthealthdatashow110,000newlungcancersannually,witha200%increaseinthelast25years. This maybedueinparttomoreaccuratehealthmonitoringanddatareportingandinparttomoreanthropogenicpollutantsintheoverallplanet-wideatmosphere.Itseems,whenallisconsidered,thatanyagencyplanningmedicalsurveillancewouldbewelladvisedtocontract with Dr.Saccamanno'slabora-torytohavethistestingdoneaspartofitsmedicalsurveillanceprogramforitscaveemployees.At $20pertestperyear(thoughperhapslesscouldbearrangedfora"bulk"package)thecostofthispreventivehealthcheckseemsacceptable.Finally,torejectallofthisminingevidence_andtheNationalParkServiceresearchand BODi toringresultstodate-thoughcertainlynoepidemiologicallinkbetweencaveworkerairbornealpharadiationexposureandlungdiseasehas been establishedseemslikethe king killingthemessenger who bearsbadtidings. As inthecontemporarymovie,THEWIZ,whenEvileneadviseshercohortsinbadness:"Don'tnobodybringmenobadnews!",thecaveradiationsituationhasbeentreatedsimilarlyby some cavemanagers.Bycontrast,ofcourse,there may bethoseamonguswhomayhavesomedeeppsychicneedforbadnews -whetheritbethatcave radia tionmaycauselungcancerorthattheresearchandmonitoringsystemestablishedtodefinethesituationhasnotasyetbeenaseffectiveasdesired-sincenoclearlinkhasbeen deter.ined asyet.Betweenbothoftheseextremeviews,it seelllS mostprudenttogeton with cave manage.ent responsibilitiesnow,withoutdwellingupon what eversetback,oversightsoromissions may haveoccurred,andmovingonfrom.thispoint.Partofthesecavemanagementresponsibilities .ust betomakepolicyoncaveworker-health.We must bepositiveinouractions,notnegative and reactive.References1.Ahlstrand,G.andP.Fry.1976.AlphaRadiationMonitoringatCarlsbadCaverns.PaperNo. 180atFirstConferenceof Scien tificResearchin:theNational Parks. 2.Ahlstrand,G.andP.Fry.1977.AlphaRadiationProjectatCarlsbadCaverns: Two YearsandStillCounting.Paperpresentedat1977NationalCave Management Symposium,Big Sky,Montana;-PrOceedings.

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Yarborough,K.A.,M.Fletcher,andG.M.Ahlstrand.1976.RadiationMonitoringinNationalParkServiceCaves.Paperpresentedat1976NationalMeetingofNationalSpeleologicalSociety.3.4.Aley,T. 1977. CaveRadiationandtheCommercialCavesoftheUnitedStates.(personalcommunication-unpublishedmaterial)'.Beckman,R.T. 1975.CalibrationProceduresforRadonandRadon-daughterMeasurementEquipment.MESAIRI005.47pp.17. 18.Yarborough,K.A.doneinNPSCaves.1976.Radiation'StudyNSSNewsVoo.34,No.8.13.TroutJ. B. 1975.AnInvestigationofRadonLevelsandAirExchangeCharacteristicsinCottonwood andJurniganCaves.SouthwesternCaver.XIII(3):1-27.AirCarls(first24.Yarborough,K.A.1978.LettertoEditor.NSSNews,Vol.36,No.1.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12. 14.15.16.Breisch,R.L.1968.NaturalRadiationinCaves.SouthwesternCaver.VII(5):81-110.McClean,J.1971. TheMicroclimateinCarlsbadCaverns,NewMexico.USGSopenfilereport,ProjectCACA-N-la. MiningEnforcementandSafetyAdministration(MESA).1976.RadiationMonitoring.RadiationGroup,DenverTechnicalSupportCenter.88pp.Philbin,E.G.andC.R.Meyer. 1978.NIOSHHazardEvaluationandTechnicalAssistanceReportTA76-54.Austin,W.,MammothOnyxCave, Kentucky(personalcommunication)Babb,P.,RadiationControlBranch,Kentucky Bur eauofHealthServices,Frankfort,Kentucky(personalcommunication).Aley,T.,DirectoroftheOzarkUndergroundLaboratory,Protem,Missouri(personalcommunication).Rock,R.L. 1975. Sampling MineAtmospheresforPoetntialAlpha EnergyDuetothePresenceofRadon-220 (Thoron)Daughters.MESA-IRI015.15pp.Reckmeyer,V.,W.Varnedoe,etal.1962-63.RadioactivityinAlabamaCaves.HuntsvilleGrottoNewsletter.Wilkening,M.H.andD.E.Watkins.1976. Exchange and 222RnConcentrationsinthebadCaverns.HealthPhysics31:139-145.communicatedindraftforminJune1975).Yarborough,K.A.andG.M. 4hlstrand. 1976.AlphaRadiationMonitoringofNationalParkServiceAdministeredCavesinUnitedStates.PaperpresentedatInternationalSymposium onHydrologicProblemsinKarstRegionsatMammothCave,Kentucky.3419.20.21.22. 23. 25.26.Yarborough,K.A.1976.InvestigationofRadiationProducedbyRadonandThoroninNaturalCavesAdministeredbytheNationalParkService.Paperpresentedat1975 NationalCave Management Symposium.Yarborough,K.A.,etal.1976.InvestigationofRadiationProducedbyRadonandThoroninNaturalCavesAdministeredbytheNationalParkService.PaperNo. 23presentedattheFirstConferenceonScientificResearchintheNationalParks.Yarborough,K.A. 1976.RadiationLevelsinNaturalCavesAdministeredbytheNationalParkService.Ge02 newsletterofNSSSectionofCave GeologyandGeography,Vol.III,No.3.Yarborough,K.A. 1977.MeasurementsofSeasonalandDailyRadonDaughterConcentrationFluctuationsin National ParkServiceCaves.ProceedingsofRadon WorkshopatHealthandSafetyLab,ERDA(NowD.ofE.).NYC.Yarborough,K.A.1977.AirborneAlphaRadiationinNaturalCavesAdministeredbyNationalParkService.Presentedat1977NationalCave Management Symposium.Yarborough,K.A.1978.InvestigationofRadonandThoronProducedRadiationinNationalParkServiceCaves.PaperpresentedattheThirdInternationalSymposiumontheNaturalRadiationEnvironment(NREIII).Yarborough,K.A.1978.SputumCytologyandPersonnelExposuresatNationalParkServiceAdministeredCaves.PaperpresentedatWorkshop on LungCancerEpidemiologyandIndustrialApplicationsofSputumCytology(SponsoredbyMSHA,NIOSHandColoradoSchoolofMines).

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TABLE1.ANNUALNATIONALPARKSERVICEPERSONNELEXPOSURESTOCAVEAIRBORNEALPHARADIATION in ering.ear.AnnualPersonnel EXl>osure,WLM TimeIntervalVisitorServicesMaintenance Cave Area Year&DatesMaxMinAve. (No.) MaxMin' Ave. (No.) RemarksCarlsbadSep 1975thru0.860.060.511 (19) 0.740.020.278 (17) Openallyear.Caverns,Dec19750.810.120.569 (12)---N.M:ConcesConcesConces-sionersionersionerJanthruDecToursnotguided19762.170.221.287(8)1.790.040.574(16)JanthruDecAlldataareforper-19772.090.411.23(18) 1.700.020.548(17) manent onlyin1975-1978Jan1thru AUll: 3119782.700.901.66(9)1.780.'010.53(18)LehmanJanthruDecCave, 1977 Nevada PermanentPersonnel0.540.040.243(6)0.150.030.083 (3) OpenallyearMarthruDec 1977 SeasonalPersonnel1.360.130.849(l0)0.080.020.053(2) ToursareguidedConstructionwork onlight-ingsystemMaythruDec1977---0.730.0050.436(6)Jan1 thr1,1 Aug31,1978 PermanentPersonnel0.2860.010.107(4)0.140.051 0.085(3)--thru--1978SeasonalPersonnel1.050.240.857 (9)0.0170.0710.017(1)Mammoth MaJ: 1,1976Dataareforallper-Cave,to Apr 30,sonnel.OpenallyKy.19773.060.031.237 (85)3.450.372.077(15) ToursguidedonlyinJan1,19772.870.041.202 (84)3.820.0061.474(17)fall,winterandspthruDec31,19773.980.0020.427 (49---ConcesConcesConces-sionersionersionerJan1thruAug31,19781.770.030.825(74)1.960.0041.201(9)1.870.0010.301(23) ConcesConces-Conces-sioner sioner'sionerYACCYACCyACC1.170.020.31 Cave! inMaythru9.321.945.61(9)--Hydrologic studies SinkHoleAug1975Resear-Resear-Resear-havebeenconductedPlain,Ky chers cherschersthesecavesduring th (southofMaythrulast4yearstotraceMACA)Aug19773.690.742.51(8)---water pollutionmovements whichaay enter MACAfroa thesouth.RoundJan1,1977SpringthruCave,Nov22, 19771.130.10'0.518(8)---Openonlyin s.-er OzarkMOCrystalAprthru0.9850.030.264,(7)(includedin''VisitorCave Sep 1977 (Apr-DecServices")Openonlyin Sequoia,1977)Calif.Junthru0.290.050.140(17)(includedin''VisitorSep 1977Services"35

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UILE2.SlHIAR.Y OF ltEPRESENTATIVECAVERADIATIONRADONSAUGHTER WI.VALUES AT SELECTEDCAVESHAVING BlGHRADIATION. Weighted average ofall Sample Weighted Averageof .Tour RouteValues 1.0OWLineach sampling Sets with oneormoresethavingat least onevalue :: Cave Area valuea_1.0OWL(NO.) 1. OOWL(NO.) LECA 0.68(115)1.12(22) LeImIIn Cave. Nevada (Based on 13samplingsets) SECA CrystalCave.0.79(82)1.37(24)Sequoia. CA. (Based on21samplingsets)CUGAIndianCave CumberlandGap1.01(17)1.18(10)Va./Ky./Tenn.(Based on 5samplingsets)ROSP1.OverallCave: RoundSpringCave1.50(146)1.93.(98)Ozark. MO (Based on19samplesets)2.North'Passage:1.00(52)1.35(22)(Based on14SampleSets)3.SouthPassage:1.86(70)2.04(64) (Based on19SampleSets)1976 1977 1977 1978 1976 1977 1977 1978 Covers CoversCoversCoversCoversCoversCoversCovers UpDown UnDownUn Down Un DownMACAMammoth Cave0.890.911.071.031.201.101.351.21(246) (152)(454)(263) (87)(67)(252)(148)OtherCavesat Mammoth CaveNationalPark.KY:FloydCollins1.131.170:"811.071.181.321.021.42CrystalCave (12)(25)(7)(14)(10)(10)(3)(8)White'sCave None1.03None1.59None1.25None1.63(12) (20)(7)(19)GreatOnyxCave1.001.030.811.261.091.131.251.26(8)(8)(8)(lO)(4)(4)(4)(10)NewDiscovery0.861.00None1.02 1.09 1.06None1.15EntranceArea(7)(16)(5)(4)(10)(4)36

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TABLE3-A.EFFECTSOF MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIESATNATURAL ENTRANCE OF MAMHDTH CAVE ONAIBBORlIEALPHA RADIATIONLEVELS-(October10through November 22,1977).Cave Area Sampled Average RadonDaughter WI. Gate CoverConfigurationAirflowDirectionForSame Air FlowDirection,%ChangeWhenCoversPutUp lteaarks te Tb1.8 leer-HistoricTour Route1.46 UpIncast +54%Average is forentire0.67Down(off) Incast -Tour Haute. HistoricTour Route1.33 UpOutcast -5%Average is for entire 1.40DownOutcast-TourRouteNaturalEntranceto1.21UpIncast+65%Averageisfor that partMethodistChurch0.42DownIncast-ofthe HistoricTOurJIou (closertonatural1.38 Up Outcast-9%nearestthe entrance. entrance)1.51Down Outcast -isIIIOSt changeable88IIp(wa1k:lDg).Mfferenee: Up/Invs.Up/Out -.17 Difference:Dovn/mVB. Down/Out --1.09 VI. StairwaybeforeFat1.54 Up Incast+16%Average is forthat Man'sMiseryto1.29 Down Incast-ofthe Historic TourRiverHall1.22 Up Outcast-9%farthest the ent (fartherfromthe1.34DownOutcast-This is least c:haDgeable naturalentrance) BaIIlple(walling).Mff ence: Up/mVB. Up/Out+.32 VI..Mfference: Down/InVB. Dovn/Out =-.05 WI. TABLE 3::'B. MANAGEMENTEFFECTSATOREGONCAVE,OREGON.(Note:Intheearly1930'satunnel wasdriven intothecentralareasofthisTypeI(USD)cavetoserveasatourrouteoexit.oThisgreatlyalteredthenaturalairflowpatterns.Theaveragecaveairtemperatureisbetween 44to48F.Highest WL. tourrouteratesegmentincludes:JoaquinMiller'sChappel,ParadiseLost,Wedding Cake Room andGhost Roma inthe central partofthecave.)SEASONDATERANGEAVERAGEAVERAGEOUTSIDEAIRTEMPERATURE AIRFLOWCONDITI
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TABLE3-B.(continued)SEASONDATERANGEAVERAGEAVERAGEOUTSIDEAIR TEMPERATURE r4.Cool Nov.10,19770.36-0.440.39 (of 3) 45Airflowasexpectedfor(1944-1959hours)aUSDcave,thoughalteredasbeforebutwithreducedairflows.5.Cool Nov.11,19770.52-0.550.56(of3) 45Asbefore,butwithairflow(1015-1030hours)betweenthemid-dayandafternoonsamplesetson November11,asexpectedfoa'USDcave.thou2haltered.6.Cool Mar.16, 19780.15-0.300.21(of3) 43Downtowardentrancein(end)(1430-1442hours)general,butwithoscillat-ingflows,alternatingdir-ections.Cave andoutsidetemperaturesareaboutthesame.AirflowasexpectedforaUSDcave.7.Cool Mar.17, 19780.26-0.520.40(of3) 43Asbefore,aboutthesame. (end)(0837-0851hours)Airflow as expectedforausncave'thou2haltered.8.WarmAug.17, 19780.31-0.360.34(of3)apgroximately Verylittleairflow,with(2026-2041hours)4748F.oscillations,asexpected.(estimated)9.WarmAug.18, 19780.44-0.520.48(of3) 48Verylittleairflow,as(0716-0732hours)eXDected.10.WarmSep.21, 19680.60-0.730.66(of3) 43Stagnationof (Cave(1953-2006hours)temperature=45F)Thesearethehighestlevelsasvetmeasured.11.Warm(Sep.22, 1978)0.51-0.690.57(of3) 42Verylittleairflow;condi-tionasexpectedforusncaves,eventhough (Cavetemperature=46F)TABLE4.COMPARISONOFSUMMERMONTHLYRADIATION LEVELS AT. MAMMOTHCAVE ("UNALTERED" AIRFLOWS). AVERAGEWL ... (NumberofSamples Averagedarein()IS).Cave TourJuly1978July1977July1976AugustAugustAugustSept197819771976 1978Sept1977NumberofSamplesSeptRoutinely1976 Taken onTourHistoricTour(MACA).59(34).68(33).80(26) .61(50).81(40).76(17)0.76(49).88(35) .79(33)8HalfDayTour(MACA)(Scenic).42(56).44(44).43(19) .46(67) .47(45).57(49)0.56(66).62(43).67(55)14LanternTour(MACA).83(36).93(35) .82(16) .85(43).90(27).96(23)0.83(41).90(31).80(24)9Wild Cave Tour(MACA).35(64) .46(28).44(9).40(59) .44(24)0.48(63).50(45).59(46)12White'sCaveTour1.55(8) 1.63(7)1.23(4)1.37(9)1.69(7).96 (4) 1.41 (8)-3SnowballLunchroom(MACA).38(13).49(6) .49(4).43(13) .46(10).52(4)0.50(13).53(7).58(4)1GreatOnyxCaveTour.62(12).72(12).80(7).72(21) .83(10)0.64(12).77(11)-4(continued)38

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TABLE4.(continued)CaveTourJuly1978July1977July1976AugustAugustAugustSept.1978 1977 19761978 Humber of Samples Sept.Sept.Routinely1977 1976TakenonTourFrozenNiagaraTour(MACA).39(16).36(6) .40(4).38(16) .41(14).39(8)0.49(20).45(14).50(16)2TABLE4.HEALTHHAZARDSURVEYRESULTSBYNIOSHOF 1976 SPUTUM CYTOLOGY TESTING OF liPSCAVE PERSONNELVOLUNTEERS.rsEmploeesSampled Employee Age Date.vrsEmplovment Length-+YrsWk.Mos. EmploveeS-akiIut Dabi % ofEmployees CaveTotalSampled WorkingHon-EltLocationNo.Male Female LoW" High Median LoW" HighMeanatCave1-5yrs SIIIokerss.okers5aJke l.CarlsbadCaverns,4276.2N.M.35 2312196338.834moyryr>50%191152.Mammoth(68*)5 356.4Approx. Cave,Ky513813186436.532 W"k yrvr35%23 19 93.Lehman 2 61.7Cave,Nev.73 4213828.326moyrvr2of7=28.5% 43-4.Oregon 4113.2CaveOre.4* 3* 1 27 4334.534movrvr1of4=25%2115.RoundSpringCave, Oxard Riverway, 3114.5Mo.4 4-202923.524momomo--4-6.WindCave,(11*) 9114.4S.D. 9 5 4 22 4727.524movrIvr7of9=77.8% 3517.JewelCave,(13*)872.1S.D.9 8 1--29.428moyryr>50%27-8.CrystalCave,Sequoia,32 9Calif.5 5-226236.233moyrmo2of5-40%1 31NIOSHControlGroup 35 2213--30.9----1417439

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TABLE4.(continued)EMPLOYEEHISTORIEStrseer-EmployeeswithEmployeeswithNumberwithaformerrespiratoryformerpositivepositivefamilyhazardousrespiratoryhistoryofoccupationsdiseasehistorymalignantdiseaseSputumCytologyResults1.5114Allspecimenswithinnormallimits,except2.Nosignificantproblems.Bothoftheseshowedmildatypia.Onewas acigarettesmoker,oneanon-smoker.Allbut2employeesprovided2spe-cimens. These 2gave1specimeneach.2.122217 *17employeeswereunabletoproduceanysputumwhatsoever.13employeesproducedonlyonespe-cimen,theother38provided2specimens.2of13withonlyonespecimenweremildatypia-oneacigarsmoker,oneanon-smoker,1of28withtwospecimenshadbothabnormal:oneofthesemildatypia,the other moderateatypia-aheavycigarettesmoker.3of38hadonespecimenab-normal,theothernormal:mildatypiasforthese3.Onewas asmoker,oneanon-smokerandoneanex-smoker.5of38 had onespecimenshowingmodeateatypia,theothernormal.3oftheseweresmokers,2werenon-smokers.Onenon-smokerwith30yearsexposureincaves,ofthese38 showedme.taplasia,28ofthe38hadbothsampleswithinnormallimitsSurveillanceofthis shouldcontinueeventhoughtheseresultsindicatanysignificantproblemsareunlikely.3.141All7employeesprovided2specimens.Allwerewithinnormallimits.Noproblems.4.1 2-2of4employeesgave2specimens.Theother2gaveonly1.*Dr.Yarborough,NPSProgramCoord-inatorwasincludedhere.Allspecimens werenormal. Noproblem.5.1--All4employeescollectedfirstmorningsputumsampleson3consecutivemornings,self-adminis-tered.Allspecimenswerewith'innormallimits.Noproblem.Caveopenonlyinsummers.6.3 5 74of11employeesgaveonlyonespecimen.*2,employeescouldnotproduceanysputum.Allspe-cimenswerewithinnormallimits.Noproblem.7. 345 1of13employeesgaveonlyonespecimenand*4couldnotproduceanysputum.Allspecimenswerenormal. No problem.8.1 1-4employeesproduced3consecutivefirstmorningsamples,butone,waslost.1employeeproduced2consecutiveforstmorningsamples.Nosignificanepithelialcellswerefound;therefore,nodeter-minationwaspossible.CaveopenonlyinsummersNIOSH-13of35providedonlyonespecimen,theother22produced2specimenseach,but11ofthesewerepoorsamplesnotrepresentativeofsputum.Ofth46goodspecimens5werereadasmetaplasiaand3weremildatypia-thelatterwereallfromsmokeor Ofthemetaplasiaspecimens,eachothersamplewasreadasnormal.40

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BATMANAGEMENT-INTHEUNITEDSTATES*ThomasM.Leraand**SueFortuneIntroductionBetweentheyears1600 and1850,fiveAmericananimalspeciesvanished.Instartlingcontrast,fifty-sevenadditionalmammal,fish,andbirdspecieshavebeenforcedintoextinctionjustsincetheyear1850(120CongoRec.,1974).Thebasicreasonforthisdramaticincreaseinspeciesextinctionistherapid,andinsomecaseduncontrolled,developmentandadvancementofourmodernindustrialandtechnologicalsociety(115CongoRec.,1969).Inanattempttocounterthisongoingandpotentiallydisastrousprocess,Congresspassed,duringtheyears1969-1973,threemajorlegislativeactswhichweredesignedtoencompassandprovideimpetustotheconceptofprotectiontoanyandallendangeredspecies.CongressionalActionThefirstformalinvolvementbyCongressinen dangered specieslegislationbeganwiththeEndangeredSpeciesPreservationActofOctoberIS,1966.Thislawacknowledgedanationalresponsibilitytoactonbehalfofallnativespeciesofwildlifewhichwerethreatened with extinctionbyrequiring-theSecretaryoftheInteriortoimplementacomprehensiveprogramtoconserve,restore,andwherenecessary,bolsterwildpopulationsfoundthreatenedwithextinction.Itsamendedversion,theEndangeredSpeciesConservationAct,wasenactedonDecember5,1969.Itexpandedthescopeofthepreviousactbyincludingallvertebrates,mollusksandcrustaceansonaworld-widebasis,byincludingsubspeciesaswellasspecies,byensuringthattheUnitedStateswouldnotcontributetotheextinctionofothernation'swildlife,andbyauthorizingfundstoacquirelandsforthepurposeofconserving,protecting,restoring,andpropagatinganyendangeredspecies.Intheearly1970's'CongressdiscoveredthattheexistingEndangeredSpeciesConservationActsimplydidnotprovide-thekindofmanagementtoolneeded to actearlyenoughtosaveavanishingspecies.Ithaddeterminedthattheinadequacyofanexistingregulatorymechanism. was amajorfactorcontributingenormouslytothecontinuingproblemofanimalextinction.*U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Region6,1201 ElmStreet,Suite2800,Dallas,Texas57270 **6941EastShermanStreet,Wittemore,Michigan4877041EndangeredSpeciesActof1973AfterCongressionalstudyand Presidentialurging. theEndangeredSpeciesActwaspassedon Decesber 28.1973.hereinafterreferredtoasthe"1973Act."Ittotallyreplacedtheprevious two actsexceptfortheprovisionsrelatingtotheNationalWildlifeRefugeSystem.Theemphasisofthe1973Actistheconservationofendangeredandthreatenedspecies.It powerstheSecretaryoftheInteriorto ca-pile andmaintainseparateofficiallistsofthreatenedandendangeredspeciesonthe basis ofthebestscientificandcommercialdataavailable.TheSecretarymayalsoissueregulationsashe dee-s necessaryandadvisablefortheconservationofsuchspecies. This actionprovidesthe Deparc.ent oftheInteriorwiththepowertoacttoprotectspeciesbeforetheyactually become endangered.The 1973Actalso collllllits allfederalagenciestoutilizetheirauthoritiesinfurtheranceofthepurposeofthelawbytakingsuchaction toensurethatactionsauthorized. funded. orcarriedoutbythem.donotjeopardizethecontinuedexistenceofsuchendangeredandthreatened spe cieswhichisdeterminedbytheSecretarytobecritical.FederalagenciesarerequiredtoconsultandobtaintheassistanceoftheSecretarybeforeanyactionsaretakenwhichmayaffectanyendangeredspeciesortheircriticalhabitat.AlthoughCongresshadrecognizedthathuntinganddestructionofnaturalhabitatweretwocausesofextinction,the1973Actaddressedanothercauseofextinction -over-utilizationfor commercial. sporting,scientific,and/oreducationalpurposes.Takingwasdefinedtoincludeharass, harm, pursue,hunt,shoot,wound,kill,trap,capture.and/orcollect.Protectionwas also offeredforthefirsttimetoendangeredspeciesofplants.Finally,the1973Actauthorizedlegalsuitsbyprivatecitizensseekinginjunction relief foranallegedviolation.DepartmentoftheInteriorActionsInaccordance with Congressionaldirections,theDepartmentoftheInteriorhastakenspecificactiontowardsprotectionandrestorationofpopulations01bats(Table1outlinestheactionstakenregardingbats).

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TABLE1DepartmentoftheInteriorActions.ActionIndianabat sodaZis)-E*Hawaiianhoarybat (Lasiurusainereus semotus) -EIndianabatcriticalhabitatGraybat grisescens) -EIndianabatrecoveryplanLawSource1966Act32Fed.Reg. 4001 (1967) 1969Act35Fed.Reg. 16047(1970)1973Act41Fed.Reg. 41914 (1976) 1973Act41Fed.Reg. 47180(1976)1973ActDept.oftheInterior(1976)Ozarkbig-earedbat(PZecotustownsendiiingens)andtheVirginiabig-earedbat(PZecotustownsendiivirginianus) p** 1973Act42Fed.Reg. 61290(1977)*E=Endangered,**pProposedasendangeredCourtDecisionsInrecentyearscourtdecisionsconcerningendangeredspecieshaveincreasedinfrequencyandhaveproventobeofmajorsignificancein theyhaveembodiedindividualandgovernmentalattemptstomakedifficult,andyetpractical,decisionsconcerningthepreservationofspeciesinanincreasinglytechnologicalandurbanizedenvironmentwhichoftencastsasidethefateofanimals.Sincethepassageofthe1973Act,therehavebeenseveral"landmark"federalcourtdecisions which havegreatlyaffectedapplicationofthe1973Actandwhichhaveestablishedaburdenof"proofofresponsibility"uponthosewishingtoutilizethe1973 Actasadeterrentagainstfurtherhabitatand/orspeciesdestruction.TheprimaryissueintheSierraClubv.Froehlke(1976)becamewhethertheArmyCorpsofEngineershadadequatelyconsideredthefateoftheIndianabat sodaZis)initsenvironmentalimpactstatementregardingtheconstructionoftheMeramacDamnearSt.Louis,Mo.TheCircuitCourtofAppealsruledthattheSierraClubfailedtomeetitsburdenofproof,whichwastoshowthattheactionstakenorconsideredbytheArmyCorpsofEngineershadorwouldjeopardizethecontinualexistenceoftheIndianabat.IntheNationalWildlifeFederation'v.Coleman(1976),theissuecentereduponconstructionofa highwaythroughacriticalhabitatoftheMississippisandhillcrane (Grus canadensispuZZa).Thecourtruledthatsecondaryimpactsmustbeevaluatedinordertoensurethecontinuedexistenceofanendangeredspeciesandtoensurethatthecriticalhabitatwillnotbemodifiedordestroyed.Inprobablythe'mostpublicizedandcontroversialdecisionregardingthe1973Act,theCircuitCourtofAppeals,inHiramG.Hillv.TennesseeValleyAuthority(TVA)(1977),enjoinedTVAfromcompletionoftheconstructionofthe42TellicoDam.TheAppealsCourtstatedinitsopinionthatoncealivingspecieshasbeeneradicated,inthiscasetheSnaildarter(Percina imostomatanasi),discretionlosesitssignificance.Whethertheprojectis50percentor90percentcompletedisirrelevantincalculatingthesocialandscientificcostsattributabletothedisappearanceofauniqueformoflife.Enforcementofthe1973 Actmustbetakentoitslogicalextreme.ThewelfareofthesnaildarteranditscriticalhabitatalongtheLittleTennesseeRiver,weighedmoreheavilyontheCourt'sconsciencethanthewrite-offofmillionsofdollarsalreadyexpendedontheTellicoDam.IntheUnitedStatesv.Capparet(1974),theUnitedStatessoughtadeclaratoryjudgementofitsrightstotheuseofwateradjacenttolandinDeathValleyMonumentnecessarytomaintainapoolofwaterfortheDevil'sHolepupfish (cyprinodon diaboZis).Thecourtenjoinedthe de fendantssoastolimittheirpumpingtoachieveandmaintainastateddailymeanwaterlevelinthepool.Thecourtdeterminedthattheprotectionofanendangeredspeciesismoreimportantthanprivatepropertyrights.SurveyProcedureInordertodeterminehowthefederalgovernmentinterpretedandimplementedthe1973Act,fourquestionsweredirectedtowardeachdepartmentand/oragency.Thesequestionswere:1.WhatFederallaws,regulationsandguidelinesgovernyouragency'sactionsregardingendangeredspecies,especiallybats?2.Howhasyouragencyinterpretedtheselaws.regulationsandguidelinesintheformationofitsinternalpolicies?3.What doyourprotectionpoliciesinclude?

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4.Iferadicationisnecessary,whatmethodsandrecommendationsarefollowed?Whatchemicals,andwhatdosages,areallowed?AgencyResponseUponreceivingresponsesfromtwenty-sixdepartmentsand/oragencies,theywerecategorizedintothreegroups--noresponsibility,secondaryresponsibility,andprimaryresponsibility.Therewereelevendepartmentsand/oragencieswhichhadnoresponsibilityinbatmanagement.ThoseagenciesweretheAnimalandPlantInspectionService,DepartmentofCommerce,DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment,BureauoftheMines,GeologicalSurvey,Departmentof Justice,DepartmentofLabor,DepartmentoftheState,FederalAviationAdministration,OfficeofScienceandTechnologyPolicy,andtheNationalOceanicandAtmosphericAdministration.Ninedepartmentsand/oragenciesstatedthattheyhadsecondaryresponsibilitiesregardingbatmanagement.Bysecondaryresponsibility,itismeantthattherearepoliciesandprocedurestobefollowedifbatsareencounteredduringanactiontakenbyeitherthedepartment,agencyoremployee.Thedepartmentsand/oragencieswithsecondaryresponsibilityare:ForestService,SoilConservationService,DepartmentofDefense,ArmyCorpsofEngineers,CoastGuard,FederalHighwayAdministration,TennesseeValleyAuthority,CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality,andtheBureauofReclamation.Sixdepartmentsand/oragenciesstatedthattheyhaveprimaryresponsibilityregardingbatmanagement.TheDepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare-CenterforDiseaseControl(CDC)wasregisteredbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyonMay28,1976,toreleaseDDTforthecontrolofbatsinman-madestructureswheretheyconstitutehumanhealthhazardsaspotentialrabiesvectors.CDChaspreparedadocumententitled"GuidelinesfortheUseofDDTintheControlofBats."Thisdocumentoutlinesstringentcriteria for thecorrectprocedureastorequests,applicat10n,use,techniques,andreporting.CDCisreluctanttoreleaseDDTforbatcontrolbecauseofthebenefitsderivedfrombatsandwillnotapproveanyrequestsfortheuseofDDTtokillbatsincaves.Theapplicant must showthatanabnormalrabiesriskofhumanexposureexistsandthatothermethodsofrepellingorphysicallyexcludingbatshavefailedbeforeCDCwillreleaseDDT.CDCrecognizesthattotaleliminationofrabiesisseldomapracticablegoal and thatthereductiontoanormallevelofriskisa morerealisticgoal.CDCwillnotapproveprogramssimplytocontrolnuisanceanimals.TheDepartmentoftheInteriorisalandmanagingagencyandhasfouragencieswhichhave primary responsibilityforbatmanagement.Theseagenciesare:BureauofLand Management (BLM),EndangeredSpeciesScientificAuthority(ESSA),NationalParkService(NPS),andtheFishandWildlifeService(FWS).BLMandNPShaveobjectiveswhicharetomaintaindiversityandnaturalabundanceofallendemicspecies.Bothmanagecavesystemsastotalsystemsandhavemanagementpoliciesfor43threatenedandendangeredspecies,pesticjdesandcaves.TheEndangeredSpeciesScientificAuthority(ESSA) i.sprimarilyconcerned internationaltradeofanimalspecies.Tradeincludesthemovementsofspecimensforcommer scientific,exhibition,orotherreasons.Therearefivespeciesofbats(four from TunisiaandonefromUruguay)towhichESSAproceduresareapplied.TheFishandWildlife Service hasdirectresponsibilityforbatprotectionandmanagementauthorizedthroughthe1973ActandtheFishand Wild lifeCoordinationActof1956.TheFishandWildlifeServicehasissued"Guidelinesto ;\..5.<;i6 t FederalAgenciesinComplyingwithSection7 o{ the1973Act."Theseguidelinesareintendedtofurnishabroadframeworkwithinwhicilfederalagenciesmayprepareinternalprocedurestoguidetheiractivitiesandmaybe aqed?t theirdiscretion.TheFishandWildlife has severalpoliciesdependinguponthestateoftheindividualspeciesandaredictatedbya rpcovery plan.Theyincludecavemanagement,land cave criticalhabitatpreservation,andamora toriL:m onbatbanding.They recommend"bat-proofing"asanalternativeto DDT,,!)raying. Theindiscriminate killingp[ur.Jer theguiseofpublichealr:hisnot acceptable tothe F\.:IS. The . tal Protection Agency (EPA)statedthatit was primarily a anddidnothaveanyformal but managementpolicies.Theyhaveresponslbilityforenforcingthe Federal In secticicle, Fungicide, ar.d RodenticideActof1972(FIFRA),which marketingofpesticidesandrequires suchproductsberegisteresonthebasis of pr.oveneffectivenessandsafetytohumans,livestock,wildlife,andtheenvironment.A exemption(Section18ofFIFRA) canbeused to obtain DDTifanemergencyconditionexists.Thegoverningfactorinapplyingforacrisisexemptionistimeandthatnoreadilyavailablepesticideregisteredforthatparticularuseto eradicate orcontrolthepestcanbefound. Reforp.EPAnllows acrisisexemption,consultationtakesplacewiththeSecretaryofAgricultureandtheGovernoroftheState.Therearefourproductsregistered with EPAthatcanbeused for controland/oreradicationofbats.These productGare DDT,rozoltrackingpowder,naphthaleneflakes,andchlorophacinone.ConclusionTheresponsetothequestionsindicatethatthereexistsseveralfederalpoliciesrelativetobats.allofwhicharebasIcally uniform andconsistent.Ultimately,the Department oftheInterior.DepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare,andthe En vironmentalProtectionAgencyhavetheprimaryresponsibilityfor rega.ding batmanagement. Judgir.g fromthese responses.itisapparentthat theactual eradicationofbats.whenproventobeofhumandanger,isadecisionnottakenlightly.Itis,infact,onesubjectedtocarefulscrutiny,preparation.andinter-agencycoordination.Itcanbeconcluded that amoreconcertedeffortshouldbemadetoeducatethegeneralpublicabout

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thistinyfragilecreaturewhichisuniqueintheanimalkingdom. Such a programmed effortwould.undoubtedly.beanup-hillstrugglegiventheawesome powerofthemedia.butneverthelessitshouldbeattempted.Anotherresultofthesurveywasthattheexistingendangeredspecieslegislationprovidesabasictemperingtool--onewhichmustbeappliedjudiciously,yetforcefully.Throughapplicationofthe1973Act.thecourtsareengagedinecologicaltinkering,gettingspeciesthroughthebottlenecksuntilmanagementofentireecosystems(includinghabitats),canberealizedandaccomplished.Theexisting1973Actiscapableofcopingwiththepotentialproblemsoffuturespeciesextinction.The 1973Actdoesnotnecessarilyensureprotectionformanyspecieseithernowendangeredornowthreatened.Thisresponsibilityofprotectionremainsaburdenwhichwemustbear.Itremainsourresponsibilitytoseethatthispatternofextinctionisnotrepeatedinfuturegenerations.Becauseonedaywemaydiscoverthatour own survivalhasbecomethematterofprimaryglobalconcernandiscontingentupon some formoflegislativedictate.Andwho will betheretoensureoursurvival?44 REFERENCES 115CongressionalRecord6245(1969).120CongressionalRecord12749(1974).32FederalRegister4001(1967).35FederalRegister16047(1970)41FederalRegister41914(1976)41FederalRegister47180(1976).42FederalRegister61290 (1977) HiramG.Hill.v.TennesseeValleyAuthority.549F.2nd1065(6thCir.1977).NationalWildlifeFederationv.Coleman.529F.2nd 359(5thCir.1976).SierraClubv.Froehlke.534F.2nd 1289(8thCir.1976).UnitedStatesDepartmentoftheInterior.1975.IndianaBatRecovery.Plan,34pp.UnitedStatesv.Capparet.375F.Supp.456 (D. Nev.1974).

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OFSTATETHELEGISLATIONPROTECTIONCONCERNINGCAVES*GeorgeN.Huppertand ** BettyJ. Wheeler TherehavebeenmanychangesinthelistofstatelawsprotectingcavessincethepublicationofRobStitt'sarticleonstatelegislationintheProceedingsoftheFirstNationalCave Management Symposium 1975.ThispaperisanupdateofthatlistincorporatingessentiallythesametabularformatusedbyStitt.Inthepastthreeyears,sevenstateshaveinstitutedcaveprotectionlaws.ThoseofparticularnotehavebeenpassedbythelegislaturesofGeorgia,Maryland.Texas and WestVirginia.Unfortunately,onestate,Indiana,repealeditsalreadyinadequatelawonOctober1.1977.Severaladditionalcaveprotectionlaws.unreportedbyStitt.havebeenincludedinTable1,whichisalistingofknowncaveprotectionlawsandtheircharacteristics.Importantitemstotakenoteofinseveralofthemorerecentlawsareprovisionstoprotectlandownersfromliabilityandtostopspeleothemsales.Bothareverycriticalmeasurestowardpreservingcaves.*EarthSciencesDepartment.Tennessee gicalUniversity,Cookeville,Tennessee38501**DepartmentofGeology,UniversityofWisconsinOshkosh, Oshkosh,Wisconsin549Ql45

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TABLE1 STATE CAVEPROTECTION LAWS IN FORCE FeaturesProtected -mm...l:IQ),<::,<::0'"Q)......orl'"IIICll 0 0 Q)...orl...l:IQ) :llQ ArizonaArizonaRevisedStatutes1977Title13-3702Effective1978 6 monthsX X X XCalifornia CaliforniaPenalCode 1977Title14-523 1yearEffective1975 $500X X XXColoradoColoradoRevisedStatutes1963LawmustbepostedArticle1840-18-143 monthsatcaveentranceEffective1883 $500XXtobeeffective.Florida FloridaStatutesAnn. 1975Title17-267.061EffectiveonstateTitle17-267.136 monthsland.StatepermittedEffective1973 $500XXtobuycaves.GeorgiaCodeofGeorgiaAnn. 1977Title43-25Title43-9916 12 monthsOwnerprotected from Effective1977$1,000XXXXXliability.IllinoisIllinoisAnn.Statutes1977Chapter56-2.2_Chapter56-3.11CaveprotectionfallsEffective1971, 1972 $25-$300 Xunder criminalmisch1.ef. Kentucky KentuckyRevisedStat.1975Title41-13-16015-30daysAppliesonlytoEffective1948 $500Xcommercialcaves.Louisiana LouisianaRevisedStat.1977Title41-13-160130daysAppliestocavesonEffective1970 $500Xpublicland.MarylandGatesmustallowfreeaccessAnnotatedCodeofMaryland 1974tobats.water.andair.Chapter314-1410days-6mo.OwnerprotectedfromEffective1978 $500XXXXXXliability.MissouriMissouriRevisedStat.1956DealsonlywiththesafetyTitle18-293.620andinspectionofcommer-Effective1959cialcaves.Nevada NevadaRevisedStatutes1977 Cavespreservedaspre-Title33-381-195historicorspeleologicTitle33-381-2256 monthssites.AppliestopublicEffective1959 $500X Xlandonly.46

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TABLE1-continuedFeaturesProtected mEl...Qjr:Qj..c..c o ...QjM......oM'"M III:
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198048

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WELCOMINGRobertDeskinsREMAR.KSGood MoltrU.l1g 011be.ha1.606theVb!.ec.tolt,d.-fAil1deedapeMWLe601t me th-iAmoll.JUl1gtowe.tc.omeyouto MammothCave. It'1.;odyappltOpJUatethat MammothCave UXt6lle.tec.ted601ttheI.;d.e06theFi6thNa:ti..onal. Cave Managemel1tSymPOll.tum,d.-6bUl1gthetOl19elltcavellyl.;teminthewoltUand OWL ltec.el1t110mi.n.a.U.0I1totheWoltidHeltd.ageU6t.111lteviewil1gthepltOg/tamand ai-iAt 06 thepaJ!liupaYLto, 1 amamazedw.<:ththetalel1t,luwwtedge,aI1dexpeItt-iAe06thMethatMehelte601tth-iAllelll.;Wn. 1 lA.WtttoellpeUaUytlumkJimWiggiM 06 myI.;ta66601tallthehaItdwoltk he hall done inpltepalting601ttheSympOl.;ium.JimhallI.;pent c.ounttelll.;hoUlLl.;inwOltmgoutallthe6inedetail!.;.Othelt paJ!liUpaYLto on theOltgani.zhrgCommttteeMelUUAUI.;un61tOmtheNatiol1al'.CaVe-6AMoUa:ti..on, Tltici.a.Fink06theTel1neMeeValleyAutholtity,JimGoodbM 06theGlteenJUvelt GltOtto, John MyiltOiewahtheNational.Spe.teotogica.Souetl}, and ROI1Wilion06the Cave Re-6eaJtc.hFoundation. STEERINGCOMMITTEE-Joe "Buzz"HummeR.wah:theBWLeau06 LandMa.na.gement,Jac.k.Stunelt (mygood 6ltiend6ltomChattanooga RubyFaU-t"LookoutMountainl, Bob S:tit:t 06 theNational.Spe.teotog.<.c.a.eSouuy,aI1dCa.tWe.tboWLnwUhthe Cave Rellea.ltc.hFowtda:ti..on.111IteviewingthepltOg!ta.ml.;61tOm the pltevwU.6SymPMia., 1 wou1.dliketothinkthatwhat'-6ptal1l1edhelte'th-iAweekw.ill be ex:tJteme.ty1.;:tiJnui..a;ting,in60Jrma.uve,aI1dil1telte-6ung. Today we.6ac.e molte lle!tioUl.;pltobteJMinmanag..i.ng OWL ltellOWLC.ellthaninal1Yotheltpett.<.od 06 h-iAtolttj. 1 wou1.dliketobelieveth.a:twe.aItemovingbtapMilivedbLec.tion.AI.;a managelt, I ahtt:tyll6ee.tc.om601ttabteknowi.119thatwe.havec.o""etent:peopteMc.hallthe Cave Rellealtc.hFoundation, the Nationa.1. Spe.teotog.<.c.a.tSoue:tJj,andotheltl.;uenti6ic.gltOupl.;woltking601tthebene6d.06theNationa.1. PaltkSeltv.<.c.e.AI.;all06youknow,Itellea.ltc.hdolialtll601ttheNational.paJI.k.Seltvic.ehavebeenI.;wpyandatfuel>110n-ex,U,tentatMarrrnoth Cave. 16d.hadnotbeen601tthewoltk06oltgani.zatioMIIuc.hallY0UlLl.;,thend.-fAd.i..66ic.uli.toll.tate .thedeWWMwe.woUd be 6aUngtoday.Wealte now get.th!g.theattention06 OWL toc.a.tUUzenlty mOlteattention,i.6bungpaidto OWL pltObteJM OiltheiltpltObteJM.Th-iAi.6de6.<.rU..te.tljanchangeth.a:thallbeenbltoughtaboutbyItellealtc.handknowtedge.Foltthol.;e 06youmaJUngyoWL6br./;tvi.6d.toManrnoth Cave, beI.;WLetogetoutQ/tOundthePaltkandHe malte thantheheadqUaltteltl.; altea.16we.canbe06 all-6i.6tanc.etoyoudWL.<.ngyoWLvi.6d.,ptea<>ec.aU on Ull. 16 youhaveanypa.lLt.i.c.u.taItmatteltyouwou1.dUketod.{.J.;c.Ull1.; on aPeMonal.bMi.6, I' UbeQ/tOwtdallweek.. 49

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THEIRS*G.JayGogueNOTTOREASONWHY ABSTRACTThJLee.Mea.6MecU6ClL6Hd,L e.,need 601Lht60JtJTlalionincavemanagement,ac.quMiUon06in60JtJna.t.ion, and U6e06in60JtJTlalion. Theneed 601LILUOUltc.eidenti.Qic.alion and ducJUp.:Uonit;e.mpha.6ized. The impolttanc.e06bttoa4ba.6edinputintoin60Jtma.ti.onc.ollectionit;cU6ClL6lled.Pttope.ttU6e06.<-n601Lmalionindec.i6ionmaJUngit;enc.oUltage.d. LetmefirstechoSuperintententDeskin'scommentsconcerningourpleasureinhostingyoursymposiumthisyear.WearemostexcitedtohavethisopportunityandwearehopefulthatyouwillconsiderMammothCaveorothernationalparksinfutureyears.Letmealsofollow-uponBob'scommentsonthesciencebudget.ThisyeartheresearchproposalbyDr.Quinlin,ResearchHydrologisther.eatMammothCave,was atoppriorityintheSoutheastRegion.HisproposalreceivedveryhighconsiderationatourWashingtonofficeanditmadethe"cut"bytheDepartmentofInterior.Weareveryoptimisticthatthisnecessaryprojectwillreceivefunding.Itisapleasureformetoparticipateinthe1980NationalCave Management Symposium. IwanttothankBobDeskinsandallthemembersofthesteeringandtheorganizingcommitteesfortheirexcellentworkinputtingthissymposiumtogether.I knowwhatisinvolved.About ayearagotheNationalParkServiceheldamajorconferenceonScienceandResearchinNationalParks.I wastheconferencechairman,andIlearnedagreatdealaboutconferences.1)Ihavegreatrespectforanyonewhoevertrystoplanone,2)Iammuch moretolerantthanIeverusedtobeofsmallthingssuchaswhetherornotthecoffeewillarriveontime,and3)Finally,Ilearnedthatoccasionallyyouhavetoliterallydisconnectthemicrophonetogetsomespeakerstositdown. IpromisethatIwillnotstayupherelongenoughforyoutodisconnectme.InpreparingmyremarkstodayIhadtheopportunitytogobacktoyourfirstsymposiuminOctober,1975,andtobegintotraceyourprogressthroughthelast5or6years.Letmesaythatthewealthofinformationthathasbeengeneratedandconsolidatedbecauseofyoureffortsisreallynoteworthy.I wasquiteimpressed.Ialso noticedthatcertainindividualsseemtocontributefrequently.Iwon'tcalltheirnamesbuttheirrepeatedinvolvementtellsmethatthequalityoftheircontributioniswithstandingprofessionalscrutinyandreviewfromtheirpeers.Ifthiswerenotthecasetheywouldnotberepeatperformers.Qualityinformationthatislegallydefensibleisindespensible.Iencourageyoutocontinueinthefinetraditionyouhavestarted,thatis,makingtheNationalCave Management*RegionalChiefScientist,NationalParkService,SoutheastRegion,75SpringStreet,S.W.,Atlanta,Georgia3030350Symposiumasprofessionalaspossible.Thismorning,inrepresentingtheDirectoroftheNationalParkService,Mr.RussellDickenson,I wouldliketobrieflydiscussthreeareaswithyou:1.Theneedforinformationincavemanagement.2.Acquiringthenecessaryinformation,and3.Theuseofthatinformation.Theinformationalneedstoproperlymanageanycomplexnaturalsystemareenormous.Itappearsthatthisneedincreasesalmostdailywithnorealendinsight.Aswelearn answers tocertainquestions,webecomeenlightenedenoughtoaskotherquestions.InanattempttounderstandourinformationalneedsintheNationalParkService,last November wesurveyedourparksconcerningpotentialthreatsandtheneedforinformationtoaddressthesethreats.OftheeightareasthattheNationalParkServicemanagesspecificallyfortheircaveresources,126threatswereidentified.Thisfiguredoesnottakeintoaccountthatthereareatleast22othernationalparksthatpossesssignificantcaveresources.Servicewide,approximately7,000threatstoresourceEoftheapproximately340nationalparkswereidentified.SowhatIamtryingtosayisthatwehavealargenumberofthreatenedresourcesonwhichwenee(information.Iamconfidentthatwhetheryouareafederalcavemanageroraprivateone,thatyouhaveagreatneedforinformationtoaddressthreatsorconcernsorproblems.Many-ofthethreatsthatourparksidentifiedwerenotevenperceivedasproblemsa fewyearsago,i.e.,acidrain,endangeredspecies,developmentofenergyresources,airqualitydeterioration,andradioactivity.Inthefuturesomeofthesethreatswillbeadequatelyaddressed,butnewthreatsverylikelywillreplacethem.Speakingoffuturethreats,Ireadaninterestingexcerptfromabookentitled,"SecretsoftheIceAge" by EvanHadingham,thatIwanttosharewithyou:"Acave,heexplains,isa"confinedanddelicatelypoisedworld";apersonenteringthatworld"isadrasticintrusionTheaveragevisitor,forexample,breathesoutenoughcarbondioxideduringasingle

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hourtoproduce20litersofcarbonic'gas,theagentwhichdissolveslimestone.Inthesameperiodoftime,thevisitorwillgenerate60caloriesof body heatand4Qgramsofwatervapor,sothetemperatureandabsolutehumidityofthecavewillriseTheentirenatureofthecavesystemcanbealteredinunforeseeableways."Theconceptdealingwiththeinteractionbetweenvisitorsandcaveresourcesiscertainlynotnew,butformethefragilnessofthesystemandthemagnitudeofimpactthatcumulativevisitationmightposewerebroughtintofocusinthisexcerpt.Sowherearewe?Weobviouslyneedinformation,theneedisgrowing,andwewillneedinformationinthefutureinareasthatarenotknowntoustoday.Howdoweapproachthisneed?Itisusuallynotcost-effectiveoreconomicaltodealwiththreatsorproblemsastheyhaphazardlyoccur.Threatsoccurrandomly andoftenwithlittleadvancenotice.Forthoseofusinthefederalsystem,youknowthatweareoftenunderextremelytightdeadlinestotakeactionortodosomething.Ifeelthatitisthesystematicgatheringofinformationthatdescribesanddefinestheresource;thatisthefirststep.Unfortunately,itisthisfirststepthatwearestilltryingtotakeinmany,. notmost,ofourcavesystems.Let'snotbelikealatepresidentreflectingonhisadministration,"Ispentmostofmytimeonurgentissues,soIoftendidnotgettowork ontheimportantones."Solet'snotjustbeopportunisitcandworkonissuesastheyoccur--let'sbesystematic!ThesecondareathatI wanttodiscusswithyoutodayisthatofacquiringnecessaryinformation.Inasingleword Ifeelthatthisisaccomplishedthroughapartnership.IwilltrytoemphasizewhatI meanthroughashortscenariothatIrecentlyheardfromoneoftheleadingfundinginstitutes.1.Late1940'sIndividualResearchers2.Early1950's2facultymembersinthesamedepartment3.Early1960'sSeveraldepartments4.Late1960'sSeveralcollegeswithinthesameuniversity5.1970'sSeveraluniversities6.1980'sUniversitiesplusfoundationplusstateandfederalagenciesplusprivateenterpriseplusthepublic.51Inthe1980'sIthinkwewillseethistypeofpartnershipinthegatheringofinformation.Ipersonallyapplaudthisdirectionthathasevolved.Nolongercanabiologits"dohisthing"individuallyandexpectmajorsupport.Wemust"doourthing"inconcertwithothers.Oneofthemostelementaryecologicalconceptsisthatdiversityequalsstability.Inessence,anaturalsystemwhichiscomposedofagreatspeciesdiversityisabletowithstandexternalpressuresovertimemuchbetterthanalessdiversesystem.Forexample,inagriculturethenon-diverseorthemonoculturalmodelisused,primarilyin.thiscountry.Thethreatstosuchanon-diverse(lowspeciesdiversity)systemareverysignificant.Frostthatoccurstooearlyortoolate,seasonsthataretoowetortoodry,pests,diseases,andahostofotherpressures.Allthreatenthestabilityofagivencrop.Obviouslytheobjectivesofsuchasystemaredifferentthanthoseofanaturalsystem.(Butasasidepoint,Americanagricultureisbeginningtoapplythisbasicconceptofdiversityequalsstability.) pointinthisdiscussionistoemphasizethatonlythroughdiversityinourinformation ingwillwehavestabilityinourdecisionmaking. Thebiologicalscientist,thephysical andthebehavioralscientistsmustwork together,. Theeconomists,andattorneys,federalandstateagencies,managers,foundations,privatecitizens,specialinterestgroups,andelectedofficials must worktogether,notjustinthedecision-making,butintheinformationgatheringprocess.Ultimately,broadbasedinputmeansbetterdecisions.Sofar,wehavementionedtheneed tor informationthatdescribesanddefinesresourcesandtheacquisitionofinformationfrom abroadperspective.Myfinalpointdealswiththeuseofinformation.Irecentlyreadinthe"Smithsonian"thatthe new LibraryofCongressthatisbeingbuiltinWashington,D.C.,willhaveninefloorsandmorespacethan35footballfields.Itwillbelargeenoughtocontainonlytwo-thirdsofitscurrent 18-million bookcollectionandvirtuallynoneoftheperiodicals.Myquestionis,howwelldo youthinkweusetheinformationthatisavailabletoustoday?How vell istheinformationthatwasgeneratedfromyourpreviousconferencesbeingusedinthemanagementofcavessystems?I donotknowtheanswertothesequestions,butIsuspectthatmostofusknowofpiecesofinformationthatarenot being used.Thepieces,however, mustbetranslatedintosome fora thatisusefultothemanager.Itisoftenthistranslationthatislacking.Iencourageyouthisweektomakesurethatthetranslationismade. Ithinkthatingeneral,informationisusedandthatitisusedwell.Obviously,therearecaseswhenwedonotuseinformationthatisavailableandsomethinghappenssuchthatwereceiveadversepublicityandrightlyso.Tobefair,however,therearetimesinwhichwemanageresourceapoorly1nspiteofthefactthatwearetrying.A good example wouldbetheimpropergatingofsomeofourcavesthatcontainendangeredbatpopulations.

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Also,therearetimeswheninformationisavailable,butwedon'tunderstandwhatitmeans.Theconceptofcarryingcapacityisa goodexample:1.Engineers/ArchitectsCarryingCapacityPhysicalcarryingcapacity,parkinglots,roads,trails,visitorcentercapacities,etc.2.BiologistCarryingCapacityFragilnessofthenaturalresources;howmanypeopleusetheresourcepriortodamage.3.SocialScientistCarryingCapacityPerceptionsofcrowding;socialconflicts,etc.Youmayhavewonderedaboutthetitleofmycommentstoday,"TheirsnottoReason Why."Itisalinefromthepoementitled,"ChargeoftheLightBrigade"byAlfredTennyson.Itreflectsthecommonmanagerial52styleduringthe1800's."Theirsnottoreason why, theirsbuttodo anddie."The cavalry chargedanin-placeartilleryunit.Thisformofblindobediencetopowerobviouslydoesnot exist today.Decisionsaretemperedwithjudgement-andrightlyso.Likewise,informationmustbeusedinanobjective,unbiasedmanner.Weneeddiverseinputstoinsurethattheoutputsareproper.Nearly400yearsago when modernsciencewasjust begin ning,SirFrancesBaconwrotethat''knowledgeispower".Itisthispowerthatisavailabletousallthatwemustusemorewisely.Inconclusion,yourworkherethisweekisaforecastoftheissuesandchallengesfacingcave .an agers.Thelistoftopicsinyour prograa is DUst impressive.I knowthatthesetopicswillbe stn.. latingandinformative,butthatisnotenough.Thekeyquestionis,"Howwillthis inforaation beused?"Iappreciatetheopportunity,onbehalfoftheDirector,tospeakwithyoutoday,andIlook for wardtoyourteachingmemoreaboutcavesin the comingdays.

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ANOVERVIEWOFCAVEMANAGEMENT*RobertR.StittABSTRACT Cave managementilt:theUltUedS:ta;teA undoub:tediy be,ganin:thelJudc.en:twuj,cu>caveownVt6 began how.[ng:thwcaVeA;to:thepublic..FoJuna..f..managementplLObab.f..ybegaltMcaVeAWVLeadded;to:the Na:tiorull.PMkS1j4:temin:thee.o.JtlypaM: 06 :thi c.en:tuJty, bu:tUttWno:tun:til.:theJUJ.,e 06 o/[f1anized JtecJWLtional.. and,oc1.entinic.caveexploJuLtLoltinmi.d-c.en:tuJty :tha:t a -ignfti-ci.a.nt c.onc.eJuted glWup 06MVt6 began :to 6M:tVLcaveC.oMVLvmon w.LeMe,on:thepall-t 06 .them6elVeA and 06 :thecavemanagVt6. ThiMVLintVleA:tled:to:the6iM:tNational.CaveManagementSljmpMiumin 1975. ThAeena:tional..-51j111p04iaandevVLal. Itegional.ympMiain:theniveeMuinfjljeaMhaveJteuUedin:thepublic.atiolt 06 a body 06 in60!U7lation andanineJteMingaLIWl.eneA6 on -thepaM: 06 c.avemanagVt6,caVVt6, andeven:the g eneJuLtpublic.:tha:tcaveAMeavaluablelteAoUltc.eItequiltingcalte6ulmanagementM:tha:t :theljwi..U.c.onunue:to be avai.tab.te601t6u:tUltegenV!.a:tioM :to enjolj.FormalcavemanagementintheUnitedStatesprobablybeganwiththeopeningofthefirstcommericalcavesintheearlypartofthenineteenthcentury.Theestablishmentofcavenationalparksand monumentsintheearlytwentiethcenturyledtotheassumptionofcavemanagementtechniquesbyagenciesofthefederalgovernment,aswellassomestateandlocalgovernmentalbodies.BythetimeoftheadventoforganizedspeleologyintheUnitedStates(inthe1940's),however,therewaslittlecommunicationamongthevariousagencies,corporations,andindividualsmanagingcaves. Each groupmanagedcavesfortheirowngoalsandpurposes,andtherewas agenerallackofinformationtransferandcoordination.Althoughasizablebodyofinformationonspeleologybegantoappearintheliterature,therewerefew written materialsdealingwiththesubjectofcavemanagementperse.MembersoftheNationalSpeleologicalSocietybecameinterestedintheproblemsofcaveconservation(asopposedtostrictpreservation)intheearly1950's,andbeganworkingwithlandownersandagenciestofurthertheirgoalsofwiseuse.Bythelate1960'scavershaddiscoveredthatiftheydidthework,andactivelyinvolvedthemselvesincavemanagement,thattheycouldhaveasignificantinfluenceonthecavemanagementpoliciesofvariousfederalagencies,especiallyonthelocallevel.NewMexicocavers,inparticular,beganworkingwithlocalofficialsintheBureauofLand Management(BLM),NationalParkService(NPS)andForestService(USFS)toactivelymanagecavesinsoutheasternNewMexico.Itsoonbecamecleartomanycaversthattherewas aneedforcommunicationamongcaversandagenciesengagedincavemanagement.*Director,NationalSpeleologicalSociety,Inc.14179thAvenue West,Seattle,Washington9811953Ibelievethattheideaforacavemanagement sympositllllbeganwhen agroupofNew Mexico cavers.ofwhomI wasone,ponderedthequestionofhowtoencouragecommunicationamongcavemanagersovera fewbeersinBillBishop'slivingroominAlbuquerqueinthefallof1973.How.weasked.couldwegetvariouscavemanagerstalkingtooneanother,aswellastous?Theanswer seemed tobe:getthemtogetherinthesame roomtodiscusstheproblemsofcavemanagementandtosharetheirsolutions with oneanother.A Sympositllll! Cave seemedlikea goodplacetohaveone--orperhapsCarlsbad?I wasintheprocessofmovingtoNewYork.To surprise,severalmonthslaterIreceivedaphonecallfromDonSawyeroftheBLM'sRoswellDistrict.probablythefederalemployeemostconcernedwithcavemanagementatthetime.Donreportedto me thathisagency,withactivesupportfromthestateoffice,waspreparingtosetupacave symposiumforthefallof1975.Would Ibewillingtohelpout?Duringtheensuingmonths weburnedupthephonelinesformanyhours.Donunfortunatelyhadtoretireduetomedical problems beforethesymposiumactuallyoccurred,butotherBLMpeoplecarriedon.InconcertwithrepresentativesfromotherfederalagenciesinNewMexico,cavers,andcommercialcaveowners,finally,inOctoberof1975,thefirstsympositllll wasproducedinAlbuquerque.SponsoredbytheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,theCaveResearchFoundation,theBureauofLand Management,theU.S.ForestService,theNationalParkService,andtheNationalCavesAssociation,theAlbuquerquesympositllllconcentratedonprovidingabasicoverviewofcavesc:ienceandmanagementmethodstoabout100participants.TheprogramwasbrokenupintothecategoriesofCaveReaources;ResourceManagement;VisitorManagement,SafetyandRescue;Cave ManagementAids;andObjectives,

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PoliciesandPlansofAgencies.Theproceedings.publishedbySpeleobooks.providedageneraloverviewofthefieldandbecame abasicreferencesourceoncavemanagement.ParticipantsintheAlbuquerquesymposiumfeltstronglythatanothersymposium should beheldinthefollowingyear,andaninvitationwasextendedfromtheUSPSmanagementofBlanchardSpringsCavernsinArkansastoholdthe1976 Symposiumnearthere.SoitwasthatwegatheredagaininthefallofthatyearatnearbyMountianViewforwhatwasturningouttobethesecondannualsymposium. Based onsuggestionsfromAlbuquerqueparticipants.theprogramhereconcentratedoncavemanagementapproachesandtechniquesinfourareas;CarryingCapacityofCaves;CaveInventory,Valuation,andAssessment;SubsurfaceManagementasa Component.ofGeneralLand ManagementinSolubleRockLandscapes;andtheManagementofCommerical and High ValueCaves.Thethirdannualsymposium.heldatBigSky, MontanainOctober1977,concentratedonthedevelopmentofcavemanagementtoolsandtechniques--ahow-tosession,asitwere.Particularemphasiswasgiventothemanagementofnon-limestonecaves:lavatubes,icecaves.andglaciercaves..54Thecavemanagementsymposiahaveprovedtheirvalueinseveralways.Theyhaveprovideda forumforcavemanagerstomeetanddiscusstheirmutualproblems.Theyhaveenabledthepublication.inconciseform.ofalargebodyofworkson c;:ave management. Theyhaveencouragedanongoinginterestincavemanagementonthepartofalargenumberoflandmanagers.cavers.andcaveowners.Therearesomesignificantimprovements,thatshouldbemade.however.Inparticular.theparticipationofprivatelandownersandcommercialcaveoperatorsshouldbeencouragedmore.Morepromptpublicationofproceedingswouldputinformationintotheuser'shandssooner.Theparticipationoftheacademiccommunityshouldbeencouragedtoagreaterdegree.Becauseagencypersonnelworkingwithcavesseemtochangefrequently,therewillcontinuetobeaneedforeducationandinformationexchange.Therearepressingproblemsofcavemanagementwhichremain.Thesefactorsshouldleadtoalongseriesofsuccessfulsymposiainthefuture.

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CURRENTPROBLEMSINCAVE*RogerW.BruckerMANAGEMENT'ABSTRACTThe ljeaJU> 1970 :to 1980 mallked .the beginlUng and ma.twU.tlj 06 cave manage mentIt6aJtMOWLceac;Uv-Uywaha !.lpecUtt<.zed me.thodotoglj.EaIZlj-in.thepeJtJ..odmanageMweJtepJteoccup-iedlo.LthpJtob.tem6cen-teJtedaIlOu.nd-incUv-iduaR.c.aveJ.>,andl.>Ough-tCOW'!l.>ef6JtomtheJ..JtpeeMon Iww:to JtemovegJta66ili, how toJtatehazalldJ.>,and how :tobuil.d cavegatu. BIj .thern<.d-1970'1.>aclaM 06 managemen-tpJtob.lem6WIt6Jte.coglUzed.thatplaguemOl.>tcave manageM.TheJ.>e6u.nc;U0na.pJtob.lem6-included how :tocom:iuc.t a cave-inveYl.:toJtIj, how to!.let cavepolicy,and how:to MecaveJteJ.>cuec.apab-ULti.e.J.>.In.the1980'1.>manageMwill6acemega-pJtob.lem6thatwU.tdemandeWr.a.oJtcUY!M1j!.lkil.e.l.>and.level!.> 06 e660Jtt.ThJte.e!.luc.hmegapJtob.lem6aile: 1) GJtou.ndwateJtpo.e.f.ut.ton on aJteg-iona.I.>c.a.e.e,ZJCave.acce.J.>l.>,and 3) Educ.aUon 06 public066-iUa.tl.>about.the polilic.a.e.andnatWLa.pJtob.leml.> 06 caveJ.>.StMteg-ieJ.>.!>uchIt6wateMhed management,alliancebuilcUng, andbenchmaJtkJ..n.gMepJtop0.6ed .to l.>O.lvetheJ.>epJtOb.lem6. In1975inAlbuquerque,NM,IaddressedtheopeningofthefirstCave Management Symposium.Wewereplowingnewground.NowasIlookaroundtheroom Iseeveteransofnearly10yearsofstruggleswithcavemanagementproblems.TothesurvivorsIsay:Congratulations,andgetreadyformorework.Tothevictims:Thanksforyourefforst.Wewillrememberyou.Itisnotpossibletoviewcurrentmanagementproblemswithoutsomeperspective.Intheearly1970'smostoftheproblemsseemedtofocuson aspecificcave.Howcouldweremovegraffitiand unwanted moss?Howcouldweevaluateandratehazardsofourparticularcave?Howmightweconstructagatetodeterentry,optimizingexpenseandenvironmentaldamage?Onefunctionofthefirstsymposium,andsubsequentsessions,wastoprovidea forumofpeersforsolvingcommonproblems.Discussionsafterhoursweresometimesmorefruitfulthanformalpresentations.Yourpresencetodayindicatestheimportance.ofthissubject.Suchdeliberationshavecontinuingvalue.Bythemid-1970'swebegantoseeinterrelatedsetsoffunctionalproblems.Whatisthebestwaytoconductacaveandkarstresourceinventory?Howcanwesetcavemanagementpolicyandmakeitwork? Whatarethepitfalls?Howcanweorganizeorusecaverescuecapabilities?Asoneexample,thesubjectofcavecarryingcapacitywasapproachedininnovativeways.Every managertodayunderstandsthereisalimittothenumberofpeoplewhocanoccupyagivencaveatagiventime,buttheissues*Director,CaveResearchFoundation,460 E. Day YelSpgsRd.,No.103,Fairborn,OH4532455of r.,.source vulnerability,experiencevalues,andreliablefeedbackarewidelyrecognized-ifnotcompletelyunderstood--elementsofthesubject.Presentationswilldealwithspecificaswellasfunctionalproblemsthisweek.Future syur posiawillundoubtedlydealwiththesameissuesbecausenewpeopleenterourfieldallthetime.Oldhandsreceivenewjobs,promotions,and sometimesretirements.Perhapsifwesolvecurrentproblemscreativelymoreofuswillbepromoted andfewerretired!MEGA-PROBLEMSOFTHE1980'sA mega-problemisalargecavemanagementproblem.Thescopeofamega-problemgoesbeyondanylocalcave.Partsoftheproblemmaybe dt. lyunderstoodor,likethecavesthemselves,hiddenfromview.Amega-problem,atfirstrecognition,mayseemunique,unprecedented,andcertainlyunwercome.Myorientationisthatofapast-presidentandadirectoroftheCaveResearchFoundation.eRFhasbeeninvolvedinspecific,functional.andmega-problems(andwemayhavecausedsome).CRFhasworkedcloselywiththeNationalParkService,ForestService.BureauofLand Management.andwiththeparkservicesofothercountries.Asoutsidersweweresometimesabletotellcavemanagerswhattheyneededtoknow. As scientistswehavebeenabletoprovidethefactualdataorevidencetohelpsolveavarietyof problems. GROUNDWATERPOLLUTIONONAREGIONALBASISThefirstmega-problemisgroundwaterpollutionon aregionalscale.Youwillseeandhearalotaboutthatduringthisconference.

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In1979 we demonstratedthatMammothCave'sundergrounddrainagebasinextendsbeyondthelimitsofNationalParkboundaries.PerhapstheNPScancontrolthepurityofgroundwaterthatentersthecavesfromlandswithinthepark,butmostofthegroundwateratthebaselevel.ofthis2l7-milelongcaveoriginatesfromsourcesoutsidethepark.TheNPShasno way tocontrol what isdumpedintoMammothCave byaccidentalspillsordeliberatedischargefromoutsidethepark.Thisfact was dramaticallyproveninthesummerof1979 whenCRFexplorersfoundHawkinsRiverbeneathProctorCave.Itisaverylarge25cfsstream.Whenwefoundit,itsmelledofgasoline.Wefoundonitsbanksoverahundreddeadanddyingcavecrawfish.Itmaybethefirstundergroundfishkillreported.Wealsosmelledapetroleumproductmilesawayinthesamestreamseveralweekslater.Itnowappearsthatthereweretwoseparateorigins.Thefirstmayhavebeena30,000-gallonburiedgasolinetankleakattheTexacostationinCaveCity.Thesecondappearstohavebeenanupsetdieselfuelbulktransportaboutaquarterofamileaway fromtheTexacostationon1-65.Dr.JimQuinlanhasbeendyetracingtofindtheexactareaoftheMammothCavedrainagebasin.CRFsurveyteamsareprobingtowardthelimitsthatQuinlanhasfound.WhatisremarkableisthatthebasingeometryanddymanicshavebeeninferredfromQuinlan'sindirectevidenceforyears.Whenfinallyasignificantnewportionoftheflowlinewasdiscoveredintheground,thepotentialpollutionproblemloomedlargerthanever.We now seethatas water levelsrise,asafterahardrain,thesubsurfacedrainageliterallyspillsoverintohigherlevelandpresumablyoldertrunkpassagedrains.Dr.Quinlan'sdiscoverythatEchoRiverinMammoth Caveispollutedattimesis now understoodbyexaminingthe"plumbing"in Parkboun daries indeedencompassonlypartsoftheupstreambasin.PollutionmayyetdestroytheaquaticbiotaofMammothCave.Aneven worse scenarioisthatMammothCavemightbecomeanotherHiddenRiverCave(HorseCave,KY), whosesewagestenchandpoisonshavemadeitadeserttoalllife-includingman. Herearesomeoftheinterlockedproblems:1.TheMasterPlanforMammothCaveNationalPark(MCNP),begunin1967,restsonanobsoleteunderstandingofthecavesystemthathaslittlerelevanceforprotectingthecavestoday.2.TheNPSiscurrentlypowerlesstoprotecttheparkfromoutsidethreat.3.ThelocalinitiativeEPA201sewagestudyisstalledbecauseofKentucky'sinabilitytoprovideundergrounddischargestandards.4.TheEPA,Kentuckywaterqualityagencies,andCRF,amongothers,areseekingOutstandingResourceWatersprotectionforthebasinand56thesectionoftheGreenRiverthatdrainsthearea.5.Aregionalsewagesystem,whileprotectingthebasininsomeways,willencouragedevelopmentwhichwilladdsiltandotheruntreatedpollutantstothecave.ItisaCatch22.6.Spillscontinuetooccur.InJuly1980,atruckcarryingcyanidecompoundswreckednearCaveCity,andthreatenedthebasinforatime.Wemaynotbesoluckynexttime.Whatcanbedone?Currently two strategiesarebeingemployed.CRFandtheNPSaretryingtoencouragewatershedmanagementasabasicconcept.Thatphraseconnotesahostofdesirablepracticesrangingfromsoilconservationtoenforcementofexistinglawsagainstpollution.CRFisalsotryingtobringtogetheraninformalallianceoforganizationsandpeoplewhocanspeakupascourageouslyandeffectivelyforwatershedprotectionasthecitizens'201committeehasspokenupforregionalwastewatertreatment.The outcomeisindoubt.CRFfeelsthefrustrationofwonderingiftheNPSunderstandstheproblem.DoestheNPShavetheresourcesand will toact?ArecentarticleintheAtlantaConstitutionaboutthefivemostproblem-riddenparksintheNPSSoutheastRegionfailedtomentionMammothCave.Onbalance,however,theNPShighestpriorityresearchproject,aswehaveheard,istheproposalbyDr.Quinlantostudywhatisnecessarytoprotecttheundergroundbasin.Asanaside,Iwantyou.toknowthatQuinlan'sworkhasnotalwaysbeenpopularevenwithintheNPS,butifMammothCaveNationalParkissaved,thosepeoplewhofundedDr.Quinlan'sresearchdeservethecredit.Forthemega-problemofregionaldrainagebasinpollution,thestrategyis:1)Developthefactsandthescientificanalysis.2)Buildacaseforwatershedmanagement.3)Seekalliancestohelpinthework.CAVEACCESSAsMammothCave becomeslongerandmorefamous,moreandmorecaverspressthemanagersforaccesstoundevelopedpartsofthecave.Thisisnota newproblem.Whatwillmakeita megaproblemisthechangingclimateofcivilrights.FollowinginthewakeoftheFreedomofInformationAct,IpredictthatwewillseeaFreedomofAssessAct.Cavers,likerockclimbersandhang-gliderpilots,willcertainlygotocourttosuewhendeniedaccesstothecaves.Anyprotectionisteffort,suchasinspectingequipmentandcheckingcavers'qualificationswillmoveincreasinglyintoconflictwithareasofthelawsuchasinvasionofprivacy,unauthorizedsearch,discrimination,andassumptionofliabilitybytheinspectingagencyormanager.Isthecavemanagerpowerlesstoprotectthe

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caves?Mustwesetup"sacrificecaves"tobeusedbyallandpresumablytobedespoiled?Theansweristhatcaverswillnotallowthemselvestoberestrictedto"tame'"caves(scarificeornot).Asecondpartoftheansweristhatinouropinionmanagersneednotwriteoffanopencaveasasacrifice.Strategiesrelatingtoaccessaretwo-fold:1)Buildastewardshiptowardthecavebycavers-especiallylocalcavers.CRFhasperformedcontractinventorystudiesforboththeNPSandForestServiceinArkansas.LocalcaverssawCRFworkersasoutsiders.Tothem,itwasbadenoughtobeshutoutofcavesonfederallands,butwhenCRF"carpetbaggers"wereadmitted,localcaverfeelingsrantohighanger.CRFdeliberatelyrecruitedlocalcaverstohelp in theworkandtotakeleadershiproles.Wereasonedthatthiswouldhelpbuildalocalcaverstewardshiptothecaveresources.Alsoitwouldbringlocalcaversandcavemanagersintocontacton aconstructivebasisratherthanasadversaries.OnedayLorraineMintzmier,theSuperintendentofBuffaloNationalRiver,calledmeaspresidentofCRFtocomplainoftheslownessofthestudy.Iexplainedthisstrategytoherandtoldofthedelayswehadencounteredingettingthelocalcaversupportwefeltwasvitaltothepark'sbestinterestinthefuture.Withoutthatsupport,wesaid,itwouldbewarbetweencaverswhocouldbethepark'smostimportantallyincaveprotection,andtheNPS.Sheunderstood,and waspatient.Hasthisstrategyworked?Webelieveithas.Onecaverwhofelthe was persona non grata toparkofficialsreportedthattheRangerinCharge saw himin a storeandcalledhisname. Theyexchangedfriendly .. ords.Oneswallowdoesnota summer make, anditremainstobeseenhowsuccessfulachangedrolewillprovetobe.Thesecondstrategydealingwithassessis:2)Buildanaccountabilitychain.Getthecaverswhowantaccessinvolvedinthepolicydiscussionto get accountability.Forexample,benchmarkingmightbesetupinaprogramtophotographthecaveatpredeterminedpointsatregularintervals.Thephotorecordwould showifdamageistakingplace.Otheraccountabilitytechniquesarewellknown:caveregistersthattellyouwhohasvisitedthecave,atripreportfilethatreinforcesthecaver'ssensethatothersareexploringthecaveandthatthereisaresponsibilitytothoseyettocomeandtothecaveitself.StillanotheraccessstrategyistoencouragetheNSStobuyandholdcaves.NearlyeveryissueoftheNSSNewsdescribesa newcaveclosingduetoabuseandmisuse.Cavesplacedoutofbounds bylandownerscreatepressuresontheremainingcaves."Cultcavers", with asix-packofbeer,exuberantshoutsoffour-letterwords,andatrailoflitterwillcontinuetobeproblem.TherearealsothelegalproblemsofwhethertheNSSisriskingtoomuchfinanciallyinowningcaves.Perhaps"holdingcompanies"canbeestablished,butwhateverthedifficulty,one57partialsolutiontothe problem is tohavemorecavesadministratedbycaversforcavers.EDUCATIONOFPUBLICOFFICIALS Mostpublicofficialsdonotcareaboutcaves.donotunderstandcaves,anddonotvantto know aboutcaves.Areasoftheirignoranceincludethepoliticsofcavesandthe naturalprocesses ofcaves.Tobefair,however,Iacknowledgethatthereisaparallelproblemofanignoranceof politics bycaverswhocare.AtMammothCaveNationalParkthe lIPS spentseveralyearsinparalysisoveroppositiontotheMasterPlan.Thatoppositionwasamplified and orchestratedby a fewwhodidunderstandthepoliticsofthesituation.OnestrategyistoaskforhelpfromorganizatIonsandindividualswhomaybefamiliarwiththe prob lem andmayhavesomeideaforapproaching politicalproblems. When theNPSasked CRF forcounselonhowtodealwithpoliticaloppositiontotheMasterPlan,othergroupsrespondedaswell.TheNationalParksandConservation ciationsuedundertheFreedomof Act andobtainedreleaseofthefinancial statements oftheNationalParkConcessions,Inc. This vasthegroupwidelybelievedtohavepromotedthemostvociferousoppositiontotheMasterPlan.Thefinancialreportsrevealed that theCODCessioner,whohadmaintainedapositionasanonprofitcorporationandinthesameboatasotherlocalbusinessmen,wasinfactenjoyingalucrativegovernment-protectedmonopoly. Theconcessionerwasrevealedtohave$1.7millionincash.afactthatcausedlocalbusinesspeopletorealizethattheoppositionmotivesstemmed from 'adesiretoprotectthemonopoly morethananythingelse. What isillustratedhereisthetacticcallednetworking--thebuildingoflinesof communica tionoutwardfromthemanagerstoorganizationsandindividualsthatmayhavemanyresourcesandskillsattheirdisposal. We inthis roomfora anetwork;theaddresslistofattenders makes itaformalnetwork.Ibelievewecancalion each otherwhenmega-problemsarise.Publicofficialsneedfactsto.placeissuesinproperperspective.Thatiswhycaveinventoriesarea goodbeginning.Buttobemostusefultoofficials,suggestionsaboutpolicyand objectives areusuallywelcome.Objectivesareanabsolutelyessentialfirststepbeforeundertakinginformationgatheringandplanning.Onceinformation,objectives,andproposed policies areinhand,ithelpstogoseetheofficialsratherthanjustwritethem.Manyofficialsarenot"paperoriented"andwillnotread.You might abletoprevailwithoutfactaIFyouhavea mob of300readytobreakdownthedoor,butdon'tcountonit.Oneexampleoftheimportanceofapersonalvisitwillsuffice.CRFoncegreetedan incoming park

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superintendentbysendinghim agreatpileofreportsandstudiesthroughthemail.A few weekslaterhecalledandprofessedignoranceaboutwhywewereintheparkatall,and maybeourpermitshouldbeterminated.Wehastilysetup apersonalvisitwiththenewsuperintendent.Withaninvitationlikethat,howcouldwerefuse?Whenwearrivedinhisoffice,hesaid,"now youpeopleinCFRhavetounderstandthatourmissionistoprotectthecaves."Somethingclickedinmymind;nobody hadevercalledCRFbythenameofCFR.Such a mixup wastypicalofapersonwithdyslexia.Adyslexicpersonisusuallyverybright,anextremelygoodlistener,butnotareader.Ifthenewsuperintendentwasdyslexic,probablyhehadnotreada wordofthetonofpaperwehaddumped on him.Afterweexplainedourresearchprogramand methods,thingswent moresmoothly.Thisexperienceunderscoredtheneedtopaypersonalvisitsonofficialswhereverpossible.58ThatiswhyCRFhasbeenseekingaudienceswithCongressmanNatcherofthisdistrict,andwhywenolongertakeforgrantedthateveryonereads.Insummary,wehaveexaminedthreemega-problems.Allarecharacterizedbybeingcomplicated,perhapsunprecedented.Whenyoutacklethemyouneedtheadviceandsupportofalliesinmanyplaces.Askforhelp.Counseltogether.Analyzethedynamicsofthesituation.Ifyouarticulateyourownobjectivesyoumayfindcommonground,and youmayclarifytheproblemsthatfacethecaves.Mega-problemscallforalltheresourcefulnessandhelpyoucanget.Likethecaves,theirsolutionsmaytakeagreatdealoftimeandpatience.

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PARKCAVEREGION RESULTSANDNATIONALONSPRINGS:THEHYDROGEOLOGYOFOFMAMMOTHEMPHASISTHEOFWITHAPPLICATIONSSINKS,STINKS,ANDASUMMARYSERVICE-SPONSOREDRESEARCH*JamesF.QuinlanThePennyroyalPlateauincentralKentuckyconsistsoftheSinkholePlain,a2-tola-milewidestreamlessarea,andtheGlasgow Upland--eachofwhichisunderlainbyMississippianlimestonesthatgentlydipindirectionsrangingfromnorthtowest.Morethan50streamsdraintheGlasgowUplandandsinkintothegroundatitsnorthandwestmarginwiththeSinkholePlain.Thissinkhole-pockedareaisflankedonthenorthbytheChesterEscarpmentandthesandstone-cappedChesterCuesta.AlloftheMammothCaveNationalParksouthofGreenRiverisinpartoftheChesterCuesta.TheoccurrenceandmovementofgroundwaterintheSt.LouisandSte.Genevievelimestones(theprincipalaquifer)hasbeentracedfromthehighestrechargearea,justbeyondthesouthandeastmarginoftheSinkholePlain,wherewaterslowlydrainsfrom numeroussmallswampsoftheGlasgowUplandwhichfeedperennialspringsthatfeedstreamsthatsinkatthismargin.Waterfromtheswalletsflowstocavestreams.Theselow-orderundergroundtributarystreamsjoinintermediate-ordertributariesandfinallyahigh-ordertrunkstreamthatdischargesatamajorspringalongGreenRiver,BarrenRiver, or LittleBarrenRiver.ThestreamsthatflowbeneaththeSinkholePlainarealsofedbyrunoffintosinkholesanddirectinfiltrationthroughthesoil.ThestreamsthatdrainbeneaththeChesterCuestamaybe fed notonlyfromtheSinkholePlain,butalsobyrunofffromridgetops,infiltrationfromkarstvalleys,andbyspringdischargefromtwoperchedaquifersabovetheBigCliftySandstone.Waterfromnumeroussinkingstreamshasbeentracedasmuchas15milesviaasmanyas3cavesandstreamsthatcrossthebottomofcertainsinkholes.Mostflowisthroughadendriticsystem*UplandsResearchLab.,NationalParkService,Box8,MammothCave,Kentucky42259ofconduitsthatfeedtrunkstreamsthatare com monly 50feetwide andinwhichwaterlevels _y riseasmuchas100feetinresponsetoheavyrains.Flowvelocitiesrangefrom30to1300ft/hr.Mostgroundwaterbasinsarealsocharacterizedbydischargefromspringsfedbycaveswithadistributaryflowpatternthatis150feetto6.8mileswide.Oneofthesedistributaries,intheHiddenRiversub-basin(severalmileseastofthepark),is1.8mileswideanditdischargesheavymetal-richwateratas many as46springsat16locationsalonga5-milereachofGreenRiver.Oneofthesesprings was excavatedandmorethan18milesofdistributaryandfloodwater-mazecavepassagehasbeen mapped. Theheavy-metal-richwaterismixedwithwastefromacheeseplantanddischargedintothegroundatamunicipalsewage treatmentplant. TheeffluentflowstoHiddenRiverCave,beneaththecityofHorseCave.Thisformerlycommercialcaveisnow,unfortunately,afeticsewerthatisamalodorouscivicembarrassmentandnuisance.Thefollowinghavebeensuccessfullyusedas tra cers:1)heavymetalsinindustrialeffluentdischargedintoasinkhole,2)opticalbrightener.bothintroducedandinsewageplanteffluent,3)DirectYellowNo. 96 (anewly-discovereddye).4)fluorescein,and5)RhodamineWT. Asmany as9dyetestshavebeenrunsimultaneouslyinvariousgroundwaterbasins.Apotentiometricmap,constructedwithmeasurementsofwaterlevelsin1500wellsduringbaseflowconditions,complementsmuchof the dye trac ingdataandisbeingused to planadditionaldyetests.Twenty-sevengroundwaterbasinshavebeendelineatedwithintheSt.Louis-Ste.Genevievelimestoneaquiferin740miles2areasouthofGreenRiver.Datausedarefrommorethan300dyetests,1500 water levelmeasurementsand45milesofcavemapping.Thethreelargerbasinsare:BearWallow(190miles2),GrahamSprings(120miles2),andTurnhole59

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Bend (90miles2).TheBearWallowbasinincludesthesecondlargestundergrounddistributaryintheworld--6.8mileswideoveran11milereachofGreenRiver!Itincludesdischargefromthe1.8mile-widedistributary.oftheHiddenRiversub-basinanddischargefromthe2.4mile-widedistributaryoftheThreeSpringssub-basin.Wellshavebeendrilled100to180feetinto5differentcavestreams.Stagerecordershavebeeninstalledinthem,atseveralsprings,andalongGreenRiver.Temperature,conductivity,andflowvelocityinstrumentationwillbeinstalledatsomeofthesesites.Thesedata,inconjunctionwithdatafromaproposednetworkofrecordingprecipitationgagesandstagerecordersonwells,willbeusedtodiscovertherelationsbetweenprecipitation,chemicalhydrology,andaquiferproperties.Theywillfacilitatepredictionofflowratesandcomputersimulationofaquiferbehavior.ThemostextensiverecentmappinghasbeendoneinWhigpistleCave(totallength:16.2milesbut60itismuchlonger).Whigpistlehastrunkpassageatseverallevelsanditextendsunder3ridges-sofar--andcrossestheparkboundary.Delineationofgroundwaterbasinsisusefuland,indeed,essentialinkarstareaswhenplanningforregionalsewagedisposal,protectionofcaveresources,industrialdevelopment,protectionanddevelopmentofwatersupplies,reactiontoaccidentalspillsoftoxicmaterials,andwaterbudgetstudies;italsoaidsinterpretationofbothgeomorphichistoryandprocessesofkarstdevelopment.Themostrecentapplicationoftheresearchdescribed herein isthedeterminationoftheboundariesofa"RuralCleanWaterProject"area--asproposedbytheAgriculturalStabilizationandConservationService.ThiswatershedmanagementdistrictwillincludealloftheTurnholeBendgroundwaterbasinoutsideofMammothCaveNationalParkplusthe100squaremileportionoftheHiddenRiversub-basinthatisupstreamfromHiddenRiverCave.

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HYDROLOGICIMPACTSOFURBANIZATIONINTHESOLUBLEROCKLANDSOFGREENCOUNTY,MISSOURI*TomAleyINTRODUCTIONWerecentlyconductedacontractstudyonsinkholefloodingandgroundwatercontaminationassociatedwithurbanizationinGreeneCounty,Missouri(AleyandThomson,1980).ThisinvestigationwasconductedfortheGreeneCountyPlanningand ZoningCommission. Greene County (whichincludesthecityofSpringfield)isexperiencingrapidurbanization.MuchofthecountyisimmediatelyunderlainbysolublerocksofMississippianand vicianage,andtherearemanycaves,springs,andsinkholesintheseareas.Ourinvestigationwasdesignedtoprovidecountyofficialsandotherswithaworkableunderstandingofthe sinkh9le floodingandwaterqualityimpactswhichshouldbeanticipatedwithurbanization.Sincetheseimpactsvarydramaticallyfromareatoareawithinthe.county,wepreparedasetoflargemulti-coloredmapswhichdepictedvarioushydrolocigcharacteristicsand/orassessedtheseverityofanticipatedhydrologicproblems.Wecannotreproducethesemapswiththispaper;wecan,however,describewhattheydepict,andwebelievethiswillbeadequateformostreaders.Forthosewhowishtoseethemaps,informationcanbeobtainedfromtheauthor.WebelievethisinvestigationwillhelpprotectwaterresourcesinGreeneCounty.Wealsobelievethatourapproachcouldbeusefulinothersolublerockareas.SINKHOLEFLOODINGSinkholesaresurfacecomponentsofthenaturalsubsurfaceconduitdrainagenetworkexistinginGreeneCounty.Intenseorprolongedrainfallcanresultinwaterflowswhichexceedthecapacityofthenaturalconduitsystem.Whenthisoccurs,sinkholesrapidlyflood;Insomecases,sinkholefloodingmaypersistfordaysorevenweeksafteramajorstorm.*Director,OzarkUndergroundLaboratory,Protem,MO6573361Providingeffectivestormwaterdrainagein sink holeareasafterurbanizationisdifficultandoftenextremelyexpensive.Inareaspronetosinkholeflooding,thecostofpublicly tedstormdrainagecanexceedthevalueof undevelopedlandwheresinkholefloodingis nOt aproblem.Sinkholesystemsconsistofboththesurfacefeatureswhichwecanreadilysee(thesinkholesthemselves)plusthesubsurfaceconduit systems whichdrainthesinks.Based uponexplorationofaccessiblesinkholedrainageconduits,theconduitsystemsarecomprisedoftwocomponents.Thefirstcomponentissteeplyinclinedtonearlyvertical.Thiscomponenttransportswater froa thesurfaceintothegroundwatersystem. Except duringrunoffperiods,theseconduitsdonot CaR monlytransportappreciablequantitiesofwater.Thiscomponentofthedrainagesystemwillbecalledsinkholedrainageconduits:thesurface ex pressionsofsuchconduitsaresinkholedrainagepoints.Thesecondcomponentofthesinkholedrainagesys tem isalateralcomponentwhichtransportswaterfromthebaseofsinkholedrainageconduitstothespringorspringswhichdrainthearea.Thiscomponentofthedrainagesystem'willbecalledlateraltransportconduits.Underground streams andmostofthecavepassagesinGreene County representpresentorformerlateraltransportconduits.Therearetwobasiccausesofsinkholeflooding.Thefirstisflowratesinexcessofthetransportcapacityofsinkholedrainageconduits.SinkholefloodingcausedbywatervolumesinexcessofthetransportcapacityofsinkholedrainageconduitsisacommonprobleminthesinkholeplainareasofGreenCounty.Muchofthesinkhole flooding whichhasbeenexperiencedtodatewithinthe City ofSpringfieldisduetothismechanism.Thesecondbasiccauseofsinkholefloodingis

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flowrateswhichexceedthetransportcapacityofthelateraltransportconduitsystemstowhichsinkholesdischarge.Suchsystemshavefinitecapacities;ifthecapacityoftheconduitsystemisexceeded,thensinkholefloodingcanresult.Thetransportcapacityoflateral conduitscanvarydramaticallyfrompoint to pointwithintheconduitsystem.Aconstrictionwithinaconduitsystemcancausedramaticincreasesinwaterlevelelevationsinareasupstreamoftheconstriction.Undernear-naturalconditions,somesinkholeswillpondwaterforafewhourstoafewdaysafteraheavyorintenserainstorm.Manysinkholeswhich floodedonlyoccasionally,andonlyforshortperiodsoftimeundernear-naturalconditionswillfloodmorefrequently,deeper,andforaiongerperiodoftimeafterurbanizationhasoccurred. These changesinsinkholefloodingareduetothreeprimaryfactors:1)Increasedcloggingofsinkholedrainagepoints,.sinkholedrainageconduits,andlateraltransportconduits.2)Increasedrunoffrates.3)Increasedrunoffvolumes.Eachofthesefactorsisdiscussedinthefollowingsections.ofsinkholedrainaeoints,conduits,andlateraltransportCloggingofsinkholedrainagepointsandsinkholedrainageconduitshasbeenamajorcauseofsinkholefloodingproblemswithinthecityofSpringfield(Hayes,1977).Watertransportthroughsinkholedrainagepointsanddrainageconduitscanbesignificantlyreducedbysedimentanddebriswashedor.dumpedintosuchareas.Insomecases,sinkholesandsinkholedrainagepointshavebeenpartiallyorcompletelyfilledwithdirtandrocktomake moreusefullandforurbandevelopment.Suchsinkholemodificationisnotinthelong-rangeinterestofthepeopleofGreeneCounty.-Ifonlythedrainagepointsoraportionofthesinkholeisfilled,thenfloodingwithintheremainderofthesinkholeislikelytobecome a moreseriousproblem.Ifthesinkholeiscomp.letelyfilledandwatersaredivertedtoadjacentsinkholes,thenfloodingproblemsintheadjacentsinkholesarelikelytobecome moresevere.Furthermore,subsidenceandsinkholecollapsearemorelikelytooccurinsinkholeareaswhichhavebeensubjectedtofillingthaninundisturbedareas.Sediment anddebriscanalsoreducethecapacityofthelateralconduitsystem.RapidsedimentfillingofaconduitdrainingtheCherryStreetIndustrialParkinSpringfieldneartheHighway65Bypassoccurredafteramajorrainstorm.Particularlywhensignificantamountsofdebrisarepresentinrunoffwaters,partialornearlycompletepluggingofconstrictionscanoccur.Landdevelopmentwillessentiallyalwaysincreasetheamountofsedimentwashedintosinkholedrainagepoints,sinkholedrainageconduits,andlateral62transportconduits.Clearingof .constructionofroads,constructionofutilitylinesandditches,andconstructionof homes andotherbuildingsallincreasesedimentproductionfromtheland.Insinkholeareas,muchofthissedimentisflushedintosinkhole drainage pointsduringrunoffperiods.Todate,mostlanddevelopmentinGreene Countyhasgiveninadequateattentiontoerosionpreventionduringandimmediatelyafter Trees andbrusharetoooftenremovedandpiledinareaswheretheywillcontributeorganicdebrisandsoilstosinkholedrainagepoints.Undesirablevegetationiscommonly removed promptlyestablishingreplacement whichwillminimizeerosion.Replacementvegetation(suchasgrasses)needtobeseeded,andthesitestypicallyneed lime andfertilizertoinsuregoodvegetativegrowth.Filterstripsofwellestablishedvegetationneedtobeleftundisturbedaroundimportantsinkholedrainagepoints,andconstructionneedstoavoidtheselocations.Unlesssuchstepsaretaken,cloggingorpluggingofsinkholedrainagepointswillcontinuetobeasignificantprobleminGreene County.Increasedrunoffrates When landdevelopmentoccurs,therateatwhichwaterrunsoffthelandscapeisdramaticallyin.creased.Thisincreaseinrunoffratesoccursforavarietyofreasons.Amongthemore impor tantreasonsare:1)thevastlyincreasedamountofimperviousareasandsemi-imperviousareaswhichrapidlyyieldrunoffwater,and2)thestraighteningandclearingofnaturaldrainageroutes.AnindicationofthemagnitudeoftheincreaseswhichcanoccurinrunoffratesduetolandusechangesisprovidedbyKittredge(1948).Be states thatpeakflowsfromforestedareasrarelyexceed60cfs(cubicfeetpersecond)persquaremilewhereasrunoffratesfrom denudedlandsmaybe500to1,000cfsormorepersquaremile.Peakrunoffratesfromagriculturalandpermanentpasturelandsaretypicallygreaterthanpeakrunoffratesfromforestedlands.MostsuburbandevelopmentsinunincorporatedGreene Countywouldnothaverunoffratesasrapidasthosewhichcharacterizedenudedareas.Therefore,thechangesinrunoffrateswhichshouldbeanticipatedwhentypicalGreene CountyareasareconvertedfromagriculturalandwildlandusestotypicalsuburbanhousingdevelopmentsarenotasextremeasthosediscussedbyKittredge(1948).Thechanges, how ever,arestillsubstantialandsignificant.andmustbecomprehendedifwearetominimizesinkholefloodingproblemsassociatedwithfuturelanddevelopmentactivitiesinGreene County.Increasedrunoffratescanresultintemporarysinkholeponding.Suchtemporarypondinghasasecondaryadverstimpact:itresultsinthedepositionofsedimentanddebrisinthevicinityofsinkholedrainagepoints.whichincreasesthelikelihoodofsinkholeplugging.IncreasedrunoffvolumesWhenlanddevelopmentoccurs,thequantityofwater

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whichrunsoffthelandisdramaticallyincreased.Thisincreaseinquantityisduetoa numberoffactorswhichinclude:1)majorincreasesinimperviousareas,2)decreasesininfiltrationratesthroughsoilsduetocompaction'andvegetativechanges,and3)removalofnativevegetationwhichconsumed morewaterthandoesreplacementvegetation.Jensand McPherson(1964)presentdatashowingtheamountofdirectlyconnectedimperviousareasassociatedwithvariouscategoriesoflanduse.Directlyconnectedimperviousareasincludebuildingroofs,roads,sidewalks,andotherareaswhereverylittlewatercanenterthesoilsorthesubsurface.Thesevalues,withanadditionalvaluewhichwecalculatedforundevelopedsinkholeplainareasinthecounty,areshowninTable1.InGreeneCounty,meanannualrunoffisapproximately12.0inchesperyear.Thisrunoffresultsfroma meanannualprecipitationof39.51inches.UsingtheabovevaluesandthevaluesinTable1wehaveestimatedtheincreasesinannualwaterrunoffwhichshouldbeanticipatedfromselectedlandusecategoriesinGreeneCounty.Ourestimatesassumethat90%ofthemeanannualprecipitationwillrunofffromdirectlyconnectedimperviousareas(asshowninTable1).Asecondassumptionisthatanyfully-developedhousing,commerical,orindustrialdevelopmentwillresultina20%increaseinrunofffromunpavedareas.Thisincreaseisduetoreducedinfiltrationandreducedvegetativewateruseintheseareas.Baseduponthemeanannualprecipitationandrunoffvolumeswhichcharacterizetheareaandthetwoassumptionsdiscussedabove,wehaveestimatedthe'meanannualrunoffwhichshouldbeanticipatedundervariouscategoriesoflanduse.ThesevaluesareshowninTable2.ThesevaluesaregenerallyapplicabletoallofGreeneCounty,butwe,havespecificallycalculatedthemforuseinevaluatingproblemsofsinkholeflooding.TABLE1ThedatainTable2clearlyshowmajorincreasesinthevolumeofrunoffwhenlanddevelopmentoccurs.Suburbanhousingwillincreaseannualrunoffbyanaverageofabout59%whileindustrialandcommercialdevelopmentwillincreaseannualrunoffbyanaverageofabout 140%. Inareaswheresinkholefloodingcanoccur.suchdramaticincreasesinwatervolumescancreatethemajorfloodingproglemswhichhavebeenexperiencedinthepastinGreeneCounty.Developmentofasinkholefloodinghazard map forGreeneCounty.Threesinkholefloodinghazardcategorieswererecognizedinourmapping:1.HighSinkholeFloodingHazards--Areaswithinthiscategorytypicallyhaveover25%ofthelandinsinkholes.Manyofthesinkholesarelarge,shallow,andhavelargedrainageareas.Evenundernear-naturalconditions,sinkholepondingaftermajorrainsiscommon.Includedwithintheseidentifiedareasarelandswhichcontributewatertosomeofthelargesinkholes.Sinkholefloodingisaseriousprobleminhighsinkholefloodinghazardareas.2.ModerateSinkholeFloodingHazards--Areaswithinthiscategorytypicallyhave between 5and25%ofthelandareawithinsinkholes.Sinkholesintheseareasaretypicallysmallerthanthosefoundinthehighsinkholefloodinghazardcategory.Sinkholefloodingcanbeasignificantprobleminmoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas.3.LowSinkholeFloodingHazards-Areas withinthiscategorytypicallyhavelessthan5%ofthelandareawithinsinkholes.Sinkholesaretypicallysmallandsteep,andhavesmalldrainageareas.Itisgenerallyunlikelythathouseswouldbebuiltinthesesortsofsinkholes.Underpresentlanduseconditions,sinkholefloodingisnotasignificantproblemintheseareas.Withdevelopment,theseareasarenotlikelytopresentsignificantsinkholefloodingproblems.PercentageoflandareaindirectlyconnectedimperviousareasinGreeneCounty.Missouri.Includes buildingroofs.sidewalks.andotherpavedorotherwiseimperviousareas.Land UseDescriptionTypicalundevelopedsinkholeplainareas'inGreeneCounty,MissouriSuburbanhousing(singlefamily)Cityhousing(singlefamily)ApartmentswithbusinessIndustrialandcommercialDirectlyconnectedimperviousareasPercentoftotallandarea0.1to0.4% 16to28%28to40%40to60%60to80%,andsometimeshigher63

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Approximately 2.5% oftheunincorporatedportionofGreeneCountyisclassed'ashighsinkholefloodinghazardareas.Anadditional 3.4% oftheunincorporatedlandisclassedasmoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas.Thebalance,94.1%,isclassedaslowsinkholefloodinghazardareas.HydrologicstrategyforminimizingsinkholefloodingproblemsinGreenCounty.With goodplanning,sinkholefloodingproblemsinGreeneCountycanbeminimizedwithoutthenecessityofprohibitinglanddevelopmentactivitiesinhighandmoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas.Based onhydrologicconsiderations,wedevelopedapproachestominimizesinkholefloodingproblems.Ourhydrologicstrategyhastwoobjectives.First,tominimizetheseverityofthefloodingproblems.Second,tokeepfloodingproblemswhichmaydevelopfromsignificantlyaffectingthepeopleofthecounty.TherearefourhydrologicstepswhichmustbetakentominimizetheseverityofsinkholefloodinginGreeneCounty.Wemust:1)Minimizeerosionandsedimentation.Sedimentreducesthecapacityofsinkholedrainagepointsandoftheundergroundconduitsystemwhichtransportsfloodwatersaway fromthesinkholeareas.2)Minimizefillingofsinkholedrainagepointswithdirtanddebris.Suchactivitiesreducethecapacityofsinkholedrainagepointsandthecapacityoftheundergroundconduitsystem.3)Minimizeincreasesinwaterrunoffrates.Rapidrunoffcanexceedthecapacityofsinkholedrainagepointsandthecapacityoftheunderlyingconduitsystems,andtherebyproducerapidsurfaceflooding.4)Minimizeincreasesinwaterrunoffvolumes.Increasesinthetotalvolumeofrunoffwatercanobviouslyincreasesinkholefloodingproblems.TABLE2Wehaveidentifiedsevenspecificactionstominimizetheseverityofsinkholefloodingproblems.Thesearelistedanddiscussedbelow.1.Majorerosionandsedimentationcommonlyoccursduringlanddevelopment.Erosionandsedimentationcouldbesignificantlyreducedifdeveloperswererequiredtoimmediatelyrevegetateclearedareas with grassorotherdesirablevegetation.Suchvegetationshouldrequireadequateapplicationofseed,fertilizer,andlime.Landclearingfordevelopmentshouldnotbepermittedatthosetimesoftheyearwhenvegetationcannotbequicklyre-established.'2.Afilterstripofsuitablevegetationshouldbeestablishedandmaintainedaroundeachidentifiedsinkholedrainagepoint.Ata minimum,thelowpointineachsinkholeplusallsubsidiarylowpointsshouldbeidentifiedassinkholedrainagepointsandshouldbesurrounded with avegetativefilterstrip.Thefilterstripcouldbewoodsornativevegetation;ifitweregrass,itshouldnotbecloselymowed.Thefilterstripwouldsignificantlyreducesedimentanddebrisdepositioninsinkholedrainagepoints.3.Fillingofsinkholeswithfilldirtandrockshouldbestronglydiscouragedandgenerallyprohibited.Fillingactivitiesincreasesedimentloadsinrunoffwatersandblockexistingsinkholedrainagepoints.4.The amountofimpervioussurfaceareaindevelopmentsinsinkholefloodinghazardareasmustbekeptlowtominimizeincreasesinrunoffratesandrunoffvolumes.Thiscanbestbedoneininsuringthatalllotsarelarge.5.Imperviousareasshouldbeasdisconnectedaspossible,andshouldbeasfarfromsinkholedrainagepointsaspossible.ThisisimportantinEstimatedmeanannualrunoffforsinkholeplaneareasinGreeneCountyundervaryinglanduses.MeanannualrunoffIncreaseoverLand UseDescription(inches/year)naturalconditionsUndevelopedsinkholeplain12.0 0% Suburbanhousing(singlefamily)17.8to20.3 48% to 69% Mean19.159%Cityhousing(singlefamily)20.3to22.869%to90%Mean21.680%Apartmentswithbusiness22.8to27.290%to127%Mean25.0108%Industrialandcommercial27.1to30.4ormore127%to153%ormoreMean28.8140%64

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minimizingincreasesinrunoffratesandrunoffvolumes.Goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignworkcanaccomplishthisifthearchitectsandengineersrealizeattheoutsetthatthelocationandconnectionofimperviousareasisofmajorimportanceinareassubjecttosinkholeflooding.6.Runofffromimperviousareasmustbedispersedratherthanchanneled.Thiswillreduceerosionrates,andwillalsoreducesedimentanddebrisloadinginrunoffwaters.Again,goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignworkcanaccomplishthisifthearchitectsandengineersrealizeattheoutsetthatthedispersionofrunoffwatersisofmajorimportanceindevelopmentsinareassubjecttosinkholeflooding.7.Areassubjecttohighormoderatesinkholefloodinghazardsshouldbezonedeitherforagriculturaluseorsinglefamilyresidentialuseonly.Moreintensivedevelopmentincreasesrunoffratesandvolumes,whichinturnwillresultinsinkholefloodingproblems.Areassubjecttohighormoderatesinkholefloodinghazardsarenotappropriateareasforthemoreintensivetypesoflanddevelopment.Eveniftheaboveactionsaretaken,somesinkholefloodingwillstilloccur.TwospecificactionscouldbetakentokeepsinkholefloodingproblemsfromseriouslyaffectingthepeopleofGreeneCounty.Thesearelistedanddiscussedbelow.1.Buildingsmustnotbelocatedinportionsofsinkholeswheretheyarelikelytobeinundatedbysinkholefloodwaters.Many,butunfortunatelynotall,problemscouldbeavoidedifthelowestpointinanybuildingfoundationwere morethan2.0feethigherinelevationthantheinferredmaximumfloodpoolofthesinkhole.Werecommendthattheinferredmaximumfloodpoolelevationofasinkholebedefinedastheelevationtowhichwaterwouldstandinasinkholeaftera 100yearrecurrenceinterval24hourrainstorm.Calculationofthislevelshouldassumethatthe100yearrecurrenceinterval24hourrainstorminGreene Countyequals8.0inches,thatthereis100%runoffofallthisrainfallfromtheareatopographicallytributarytothesinkholedrainagepoints,andthatthereisnoinfiltrationordrainageofanyofthiswateroutofthesinkhole.Usingdetailedtopographicmaps,itisnotdifficulttodeterminethetotal.volumeofrunoffwhichwouldbegeneratedbysuchastormandtheelevationinthesinkholetowhichthisvolumeofwaterwouldrise.2. Roadsurfacesshouldnotbelocatedinportionsofsinkholeswheretheyarelikelytobeinundatedbysinkholefloodwaters.WerecommendthatnoroadsurfacebeconstructedatanelevationlowerthantheiRferredmaximumfloodpoolofthesinkhole.The samecalculationapproachdiscussedaboveshouldbeusedindeterminingtheinferredmaximumfloodpoolofthesinkholeforroadpurposes.65Developmentconstraintsinhigh sinkhole floodinghazardareas.Baseduponhydrologicconsiderations,we thefollowingdevelopmentcontraintsforhigh sink holefloodinghazardareas:1.Promptrevegetationwithfertilizationand lime applicationtobringthesoilsto optt.Dm fertilityshouldberequiredandstringently enforced. Landclearingshouldberestrictedtothoseperiodsoftheyearwhenpromptrevegetation canoccur. 2.Afilterstripatleast300feet wide shouldbeestablishedandmaintainedaroundeachidentifiedsinkholedrainagepoint.3.Fillingofsinkholesandsinkholeareas with dirtandrockshouldbeprohibited.4.Lotsizeshouldbenolessthan3acres;itwouldbepreferableiftheminimumwere5acresormore.5.Landdevelopmentatanintensityofgreaterthansinglefamilyoccupancyshouldnotbepermitted.6.Thetotalimperviousareawithin developments shouldbelessthan10%ofthelandarea.Thisincludesroads,otherpavedsurfaces,andbuildings.7.Goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignshouldberequiredtoinsurethatimperviousareasareasdisconnectedaspossible.8.Goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignshouldberequiredtoinsurethatrunofffromimperviousareasisdispersedratherthanchanneled.9.Developersshouldberequiredtomaptheinferredmaximumfloodpoolforeverysinkholeintheareatheyplantodevelop.Baseduponthismapping.thelowestpointinanybuildingfoundationshouldbeatleasttwofeethigherinelevationthantheinferredmaximumfloodpoolofthesinkhole.Furthermore,noroadsurfaceshouldbelocatedatanelevationlowerthantheinferredmaximumfloodpoolelevationofanysinkhole.Developmentconstraintsinmoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas.Based uponhydrologicconsiderations,werecommendthefollowingdevelopmentconstraintsformoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas:1.Promptrevegetationwithfertilizationand lime applicationtobringthesoilstooptimumfertilityshouldberequiredandstringentlyenforced.Landclearingshouldberestrictedtothoseperiodsoftheyearwhenpromptrevegetationcanoccur.2.Afilterstripatleast200feetwideshouldbeestablishedandmaintainedaroundeachidentifiedsinkholedrainagepoint.3.Fillingofsinkholesandsinkholeareaswithdirtandrockshouldbediscouragedandgenerallyprohibited.

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4.Lotsizeshouldbenolessthan1acre;itwouldbepreferableiftheminimum size werelarger.5.Landdevelopmentatanintensityofgreaterthansinglefamilyoccupancyshouldnotbepermitted.6.Thetotalimperviousareawithindevelopmentsshouldbelessthan15%ofthelandarea.Thisincludesroads,otherpavedsurfaces,andbuildings.7.Goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignshouldbeencouragedtoinsurethatimperviousareasareasdisconnectedaspossible.8.Goodarchitecturalandengineeringdesignshouldbeencouragedtoinsurethatrunofffromimperviousareasisdispersedratherthanchanneled.9.Developersshouldberequiredtomaptheinferredmaximumfloodpoolforeverysinkholeintheareatheyplantodevelop.Based uponthismapping,thelowestpointinanybuildingfoundationshouldbeat twofeethigherinelevationthantheinferredfloodpoolofthesinkhole.Furthermore,noroadsurfaceshouldbelocatedatanelevationlowerthantheinferredmaximumfloodpoolelevationofanysinkhole.Developmentconstraintsinlowsinkholefloodinghazardareas.No'constraintsrelativetosinkholefloodingproblemsarerequiredfortheseareas.Landdevelopersmustbeawarethatisolatedsinkholesmayexistinsomeoftheseareas,andthatsuchsinkholesmaybesubjecttoflooding.Ifsinkholesexist,developmentshouldbeguidedbyourrecommendationsforconstraintsinmoderatesinkholefloodinghazardareas.WATERCONTAMINATIONANDPOLLUTIONPROBLEMSRESULTINGFROMLANDDEVELOPMENTContaminationandpollutionofwatersuppliesareseriousproblemsin Gree"" County.Waterqualityproblemscanoccur with eithersurfaceorgroundwatersupplies.Inthecaseofgroundwatersupplies,theproblemsareuniquelyseriousbecausethesubsurfacedoesnotprovideeffectivenaturalcleansingformuchofthewaterwhichentersandpassesthroughthesubsurface.Furthermore,muchofthewatercontributingtospringsystemsinthecountrymovesrapidlyintoandthroughthesesystems.Asaresult,thereistypicallyinsufficienttimetoinsurethatallbacteriaandviruses subsurfacewaterswilldiebeforethewateragainappearsonthesurface.Sinkholesareareflectionofacloseanddirectconnectionbetweenthesurfaceandthespringsystemswhichdrainthearea.Thiswasdiscussedinconjunctionwithourearliersectiononsinkholefloodingproblems.Where acloseanddirectconnectionexistsbetweenwateronthesurfaceandwaterinthegroundwatersystem,thepotentialforgroundwatercontaminationisparticularlyhigh.Ithasbeenourexperienceandtheexperienceofotherhydrologistsworkinginkarstlandscapesthatsinkholeareasareparticularlypronetogroundwaterqualityproblems.66Forthepurposesofourwaterqualityhazardmapping,weconcludedthatsinkholeareaswarrantspecialattention.ForthisreasonwepreparedamapdelineatingallsinkholeareasinGreeneCounty.Oursecondmapshowedlineaments,fracturetraces,andfaults.Lineamentsarenaturallinearfeaturesconsistingoftopographic,vegetationalorsoiltonalalignmentswhich are expressedcontinuouslyforoveronemile.Fracturetracesaresimilarfeaturesexpressedcontinuouslyforlessthanamile.Lineamentsandfracturetracesareapparentlysurfaceexpressionsofverticalornearverticalzonesoffracturing.Lineaments,fracturetraces,andfaultsareallzoneswheresubstantialgroundwatermovementtypicallytakesplace.Furthermore,theseareas are alsohighlyfavorablesitesforwatermovement fromthesurfaceintothesubsurface.Asaresult,areasalonglineaments,fracturetraces,andfaultspresentcontaminationhazardssimilartothehazardsassociated with sinkholeareas.Forthisreasonourlineament,fracturetrace,andfaultmapisa componentofourwaterqualityhazardmapping. OurthirdmapwasbaseduponsoilmappingconductedbytheU.S.SoilConservationService.Soilsaremapped bysoilseries,and adatasheetispublishedforeachsoilseries.EachsoilseriesisratedbytheSoilConservationServiceforitssuitabilityforsepticfieldsystems;thethreecategoriesare:1)slightlimitations,2)moderatelimitations,and 3)severelimitations.Oursoilmapdisplayedthesethreecategoriesofsoillimitations.WithinGreeneCounty,2.55%ofthelandiswithintheslightlimitationscategory,27.50%iswithinthemoderatelimitationscategory,and69.95%iswithintheseverelimitationscategory.Onourfourthmap, we delineatedwatershedareasformunicipalwatersuppliesandrechargeareasforspringsdeterminedtobeofimportancetoCreeneCounty.Municipalwatersupplieswarrantspecialattentiontoinsureprotectionofwaterquality.Importantspringsfitoneormoreofthefollowingrequirements:1)theyareusedasmunicipalwatersupplies,2)theyaremajorfeaturesinparks,or3)theyprovide.habitatforrare,threatened,orendangeredspecies.Thefinalmap(Map5)whichwedevelopedisawaterqualityhazardratingmap.Itincorporatesdatafromthefourmaps we havealreadydiscussed,andrepresentsa mappingofthepotentialoflandsinGreeneCountytocreateseriouswaterqualityproblems.Thismapidentifiesfourhazardcategories,whicharedefinedasfollows:Extremelyhighwatercontaminationhazards.Theselandsinclude:1)Sinkholeareaswithintherechargeareasofimportantsprings.2)Areaswithin400feetoffracturetraces,lineaments,mappedfaults,orsinkholesinareaslyingwithintherechargeareasofimportantsprings.Highwatercontaminationhazards.Theselandsinclude:1)Sinkholeareasnotwithintherecharge

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areasofimportantsprings.2)Areaswithin400feetoffracturetraces,lineaments,mappedfaults,orsinkholesinareaswhicharenotwithintherechargeareasofimportantsprings.3)Rechargeareasforimportantspringsregardlessofthemappedsuitabilityofthesoilforsepticsystemuse.4)Areaswithinthesurfacebasinsformunicipalwatersupplieswheresoilshaveseverelimitationsforsepticfielduse.Moderatewatercontaminationhazards.Theselandsinclude:1)Areaswithsoilswhich severelimitationsforsepticfielduse,exceptwheresuchareasarewithintherechargeareasofimportantspringsorwithinthesurfacebasinsformunicipalwatersupplies.2)Areaswithinthesurfacebasinsformunicipalwatersupplieswheresoilshaveslighttomoderatelimitationsforsepticfielduse.Lowwatercontaminationhazards.Theselandsinclude:1)Areaswithsoilswhichhaveslighttomoderatelimitationsforsepticfielduse.However,toberatedasa lowhazard,suchareasmustbemorethan400feetfromlineaments,fracturetraces,faults,andsinkholes;mustnotbelocatedinsinkholeareas;mustnotliewithintherechargeareaofanimportantspring;andmustnotliewithinthesurfacebasinforamunicipalwatersupply.HydrologicstrategyforminimizingwatercontaminationproblemsassociatedwithlanddevelopmentinGreeneCountyThesolublerocklandsofGreeneCountyfrequentlyprovideineffectivenaturalcleansingforcontaminatedwaterswhichenterthesubsurface.SeriousgroundwatercontaminationandpollutionproblemshavealreadyoccurredatnumerouspointsinGreeneCounty,andincreasingproblemswillundoubtedlyoccurasGreeneCountycontinuestodevelop.However,thenumberandseverityofgroundwatercontaminationandpollutionproblemscanbesignificantlyreducedifwematchlandusewiththehydrologic ofthelandfortheproposeduse.ThismatchingoflandsuitabilitywithlanduseisthebasisforourhydrologicstrategyforminimizingwatercontaminationproblemsassociatedwithlanddevelopmentinGreeneCounty.TheobjectiveofourhydrologicstrategyistoinsureadequateprotectionofwaterqualityforthepeopleofGreeneCounty.Weareconcernedwithbothgroundwaterandsurfacewater.Protectionofwaterqualityatimportantspringsandinareasusedasmunicipalwatershedsreceivesparticularattention;webelievethis appropriate.TherearefourbasichydrologicstepswhichneedtobetakentominimizewatercontaminationandpollutionproblemsinGreeneCounty.Wemust:1)Identifymajorproblemareas.Thesearetheareasidentifiedinourmappingasextremelyhighwatercontaminationhazardareasandhighwatercontaminationhazardareas.ForthisidentificationtobeofanysignificanceinminimizingwatercontaminationandpollutionproblemsintheCounty,theinformationmustbeincorporatedinlanddevelopmentplanningandinlandusedecisions.2)Insurethatwastewaterwillbeadequatelyhandledintheextremelyhighandhighwater67contaminationhazardareas.Furthermore,wemustdiscouragesewageorsewageeffluentdischargeswithintheseareas.3)Insurethatstormwaterrunoffdoesnotcreatewaterqualityproblems.Thiswillrequirethattheintensityofdevelopmentbeminimizedintheextremelyhighandhighwatercontaminationhazardareas.4)Recognizethatleaks,spills,andwastedischargesfromcommericalandindustrialsitescancreateveryseriouswaterquality problems. Suchlandusesarebestsuitedtolowandmoderategroundwatercontaminationhazardareas.Wehaveidentifiedfivespecificactionswhichneedtobetakentominimizeproblemsofwatercontaminationandpollution.Thesearelistedanddiscussedbelow:1)Regulationoftheintensityandnatureoflanddevelopmentwillbenecessaryin some areastoinsurethatwaterqualityinGreeneCountywillbeadequatelyprotected.Suchregulationoftheintensityandnatureoflanddevelopmentshouldfocusthemajorityofitsattentiononthehighercontaminationhazardareas(theextremelyhighandhighhazardcategories).2)Inareaswheresewageandsewageeffluentdisposalisexpectedtocausesignificantwaterqualityimpacts,weneedtodevelopapolicythatsewagefromdevelopmentsshouldbeexportedfromtheseareas.Itmustbe thatthereareareaswhereevenwastetreatmentcannotbeexpectedtoinsuretheprotectionofwaterquality.An exam pleofthisispresentlyofferedbythewastedisposalfacilitiesatLittonIndustries,locatedinasinkholeareaneartheSpringfieldRegional'Airport.3)Theuseofseptictanksystemsandsimilaron-lotsystemsindevelopmentsshouldberestrictedtositeswheresignificantwaterqualityproblemswillnotresultfromtheuseofsuchsystems.Thecostperresidenceofsewagecollectionsystemsincreasesaslotsizeincreases,thusmakingon-lotdisposalsystemsfinanciallyattractiveforlargelotdevelopments.However,itmustberecognizedthatprotectionofgroundwaterqualityinextremelyhighandhighwatercontaminationhazardareasneedsbothlargelotsizesandgoodsewagetreatment.4)Effectiveactionsneedtobetakentominimizewaterquantityandwaterqualityproblemsfromurbanrunoffinareaswhererunoffwatersarelikelytocausewaterqualityproblems.Theareaswheretheseproblemsaremostseverearesinkholeareassubjecttohighormoderatesinkholefloodinghazards.Soundplanningandcontroloverdevelopmentsinsinkholeareaswillminimizebothsinkholefloodingandwaterqualityproblems.5)Weneedtoencouragethelocationofcommercialandindustrialsitesinareaswhereleaks,spills,anddischargeswillnotsignificantlyaffectwaterquality.Inparticular,wemustprotectimportantwatersupplies.Waterqualityproblemswhichwouldresultfromindustrialandcommercialdevelopment

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havegenerallybeenignoredinthepastwhensuchfacilitieswerebeingplannedandlocated.Asaresult,suchdevelopmentin high andextremelyhigh hazarp' categoryareasregularlycreatewaterqualityproblemsinGreeneCounty.Asanexample,inthepastyearindustrialwastes Pave dischargedfromatleasttwo,andprobablythree,oftheelevenspringsystemsinGreeneCountywhichweidentifiedasimportant.DevelopmentconstraintsforprotectingwaterqualityBased uponhydrologicconsiderations,wehave,devvelopedalistoflanddevelopmentconstraintsappropriateforeachofthefourwaterqualitycontaminationhazardareacategories.Therationalefortheseactionshasalreadybeendiscussed;thereasonforourlistingistogivethereaderaspecificoutlineoftheintensityQfconstraintswhichwebelieve,from ahydrologicstandpoint,tobeneededtoprotectwaterquality.Developmentconstraintsforextremelyhighwatercontaminationhazardareas1)Septicfieldandrelatedon-lotdisposalsystemsshouldnotbeusedforlanddevelopmentsintheseareas.Regardlessoflotsize,residentialdevelopmentshouldnotrelyonsepticfieldsystemsforwastewaters.Someadvancedon-lotsystemsmaybeappropriateforuseintheseareas.2)Allliquidwastesshouldbeexportedfromareaswithinthiscategory.Nolandapplicationofeffluentsshouldoccuronlandsinthiscategory.3)Increasesinwaterquantityassociatedwithlanddevelopmentshouldbeminimizedinsinkhole'areas.Itshouldberememberedthata numberoftheareaswithinthiscategoryalsohavehighormoderatesinkholefloodinghazards.'4)Groundwaterqualitywouldbebestprotectedbyperpetuatingagriculturallanduseintheseareas.Iflanddevelopmentdoesoccur,lotsshouldbenosmallerthanthreeacres,andpreferrablygreaterthanfiveacres.Developedareasshouldbezonedforsinglefamilyoccupancy.5) Commericalandindustrialactivitiesinlandsofthiscategorycancreatemajorgroundwaterqualityproblems.Furthermore,thistypeoflandusetypicallyinvolveslargeareasofimpervioussurfaces.Runofffromtheseareasadverselyaffectsgroundwaterquality.Hydrologically,commercialandindustrialdevelopment js unsuitedtolandsinthiscategory.Developmentconstraintsforhighwatercontaminationhazardareas1) fieldandrelatedon-lotdisposalsystemsshouldnotbeusedforlanddevelopmentsintheseareas.Regardlessoflotsize,residentialdevelopmentshouldnotrelyonsepticfieldsystemsforwastewaters.Someadvancedon-lotsystemsmaybeappropriateforuseinthese areas. 2)Ingeneral,liquidwastesshouldbeexportedfromareaswithinthiscategory.Nolandapplicationofeffluentsshouldoccuronlandsinthiscategory,exceptpossiblyforareaswithinthe68surfacebasinsofmunicipalwatersupplies.Thereasonforthisexceptionisitispossiblethatsomesoilswithseverelimitationsforsepticfieldusemightbeadequateforeffluentirrigationpurposes;thiswillseldombethecase.3)Increasesinwaterquantityassociatedwithlanddevelopmentshouldbeminimized,insinkholeareas.4)Residentiallanddevelopmentontheseareascangenerallybeconductedifadequatesewagetreatmentisprovidedandlotsizesaregenerallylarge.From ahydrologicstandpoint,wewouldliketoseelotsnosmallerthanoneacre.Insomeplaceslargerlotsareneededduetosinkholefloodingproblems.5)Commercialandindustrialactivitiesinlandsofthiscategorycancreatesignificantwaterqualityproblems,andparticularlysignificantgroundwaterqualityproblems.Hydrologically,commercialandindustrialdevelopmentispoorlysuitedtolandsinthiscategory.Developmentconstraintsformoderatewater contam inationhazardareas1)Septicsystemsandrelatedon-lotdisposalsystemsshouldnotbeusedforlanddevelopmentsintheseareas.Landsinthiscategorybecauseoftheirlocationinwatershedsformunicipalwatersuppliescouldusesepticfieldandrelatedon-lotdisposalsystemsiflotswere large andtheassociatedsoilshadslightlimitationsforsepticfielduse.2) Landapplicationofeffluentscouldoccuronlandsinthiscategoryifsuitablesoilsarepresentandifappropriateirrigationtechniquesareused.Sprinkleirrigationmaycreatefewerproblemsthanoverlandrunoffirrigation,butsitespecificquestionsneedtobeconsidered.3)Ingeneral,increasesinwaterquantityassociatedwithlanddevelopment will notcreateseriouswaterqualityproblemsinlandsofthiscategory.4)Residentiallanddevelopmentontheseareascangenerallybeconductedifadequatesewagetreatmentisprovided.Based uponhydrologicconsiderations,wehaveno minimumlotsizerecommendation. 5) Commercial andindustrialactivitiesonlandsofthiscategorycouldcreatesignificantwaterqualityproblems.Site-specificinvestigationsshouldbemadeforeachcommercialorindustrialsiteproposedforanareawithinthemoderatewatercontaminationhazardcategory.Developmentconstraintsforlowwatercontaminationhazardareas1)Septicsystemsandrelatedon-lotdisposalsystemscouldbeusedforlanddevelopmentsintheseareas.2) Landapplicationofeffluentscouldoccuronlandsinthiscategoryifsuitablesoilswerepresent.

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3)Certaincommercialandindustrialactivitieson lands ofthiscategorycouldcreatewaterqualityproblems.Site-specificinvestigationsshouldbemadeforeach orindustrialsiteproposedforanareawithinthelowwatercontaminationhazardcategory.SUMMARYANDOlITLOOKInasolublerockarea,surfacewatersandgroundwatersareintegrallyconnected.Becauseofthis,landusechangescanhavedramaticconsequencesongroundwaterqualityandgroundwaterresources.However,thisdoesnotmeanthatalldevelopmentwillcreategroundwaterproblems;therearetwo reasons forthis.First,somegroundwatersystemsaremoresensitivetodamageorhavegreatervaluesthanothergroundwatersystems.Secondly,thehazardsofgroundwatercontaminationandpollutionvarywidelyfrompointtopoint.Evenwithverycarefullanddevelopment,onesitecouldcreateseriousgroundwaterproblemswhileanothernearbysitecreatesonlynegligiblegroundwateri.mpacts.Incertainareas,landdevelopmentwilleithercreateormagnifysinkholefloodingand/orgroundwatercontaminationandpollutionproblems.Inotherareas,landdevelopmentisnotlikelytocreateappreciablesinkholefloodingproblems.Regardlessofwhetheroneconsidersgroundwatercontaminationorsinkholefloodingproblems,itisobviousthatthereisawiderangeofconditionspresentwithinGreeneCounty.Becauseofthis,landdevelopmentsmustbetailoredtothecharacteristicsoftheland.Webelievethatimplementationofguide,linessuchaswehaveoutlinedinthispaperwouldrepresentaprudenttailoringoflanddevelopmenttothecharacteristicsoftheland.Asyet,wedonotknowtheextenttowhichourhydrologicstrategiesandrecommendedlanddevelopmentconstraintswillbeadoptedbyGreeneCounty,However,ourmappinghasreceivedagreatdealofpublicattention.The mapswereheavilyusedbythecountyinaseriesoftownshipbytownshippublichearingsoncountylanduseplanning.Aportionofthewatercontaminationhazardmap was reproducedonthefrontpageofthe69Springfieldnewspaper.andthemapswerefeaturedina 20minuteprime-timetelevisiondocumentaryonthefutureofSpringfield.Inaddition.thestateofMissouriandtheU.S. Environmental Pro-,tectionAgencyareexpectedtofundcolor priqting ofseveralhundredsetsofthe maps for distribution;asubstantial demand forcopiesiofthemapshasalreadydeveloped.WehopetbatItMsattentionwillencouragetheadoptionofour hydro logicstrategiesandmostofour reeam-ended velopmentconstraints.Ifthisoccurs.webelieveitwillresultina muchimprovedlevelofprotectionforwaterresourcesinGreeneCounty.REFERENCESAley,T.andK.C. Thomson.1980.IdentificationofareasinunincorporatedGreeneCountywheresinkholefloodingandseriousgroundwater conem. inationcouldresultfromlanddevelopment.CootractreportbytheOzarkUndergroundLaboratoryforGreeneCounty,Missouri.72p.+5 maps. Hayes,W.C.1977.Urbandevelopmentinakarstterrain--Springfield,Missouri.Contract,reportforU.S.Dept.ofHousingandUrban under projectCPA-MO-07-0o-l032.65p.+plates.Jens,S.W.andM.R.McPherson.1964.Hydrologyofurbanareas.In:Ven Te Chow, ofAppliedHydrology".-McGraw-Hill,Chapter20.45p.Kittredge,J.1948.Forestinfluences.McGrawHill.394p.

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FLOODINGKENTUCKYKARSTAREAS:BOWLING*NicholasCrawfordMANAGEMENTSINKHOLEGREEN,ABSTRACTINURBANIN Sinkhole6iooding-iAa.6eJuow.,pltoblem601tUlLbanMe.Mf.oca,ted upon .6inkholepiain.6. Po.e.tution 06 .6ub.6U1L6ac.e.6:tJteam.6byUlLban-6.toJUll.OOi:eJtJtuno66-iAa./'..60a pltobiem.S.toJtm.6e.WeMMeoMenpltohibi.tivef.y expen.6ivebee.ttu.6e 06 .the kaM.t .teNtain. Good kaM.tmanagemen.tcanIteduc.e.6inkhof.e 6loodingwWea.t.the-6ametimehef.p .to plto.tec..t .the c.avu andwa.teJtquaLi;ty06.the aqui6eJtundeJt.the c.i.ty. Ru.tJtic..ting devef.opmen.tin-6inkhoiuwhich 6f.ood by zoning c.ombinedw<..th.6.toJtllWa.teJtIte.ten.tion bMin.6 appeaM.tobe.the.mo-6.te.66e.c..tiveme.thod 06 deatingw<..thbo.th6inkhoie6looding and-6.toJUll.OOi:eJtpoUut.i.on 06 kaM.taqui6eMinUlLbanMe.M. IntroductionOneofthemostseriouskarst-relatedproblemsforurbanareaslocateduponsinkholeplainsisperiodicfloodingofkarstdepressions.PerhapsthemostsevereproblemsoccurinBowlingGreen,Kentucky,wherehomes,streets,businesses,apartmentcomplexes,andevenashoppingcenterareaffected.Floodingoccurs:1)duringperiodsofintenserainfallofshortdurationwhenthequantityofstormwaterrunoffexceedssinkholeoutletcapacities,and2)duringperiodsofprolongedrainfallwhentheBarrenRiveratfloodstagehasabackwatereffectonsubsurfacestreamsand/orsubsurfacestreamsathighdischargehaveabackwatereffectonsurfacerunoffattemptingtoflowundergroundatsinkholes.AlmostallofthestormwaterrunoffintheBowlingGreenareaflowsintosinkholesordrainagewells(overthreehundredhavebeendrilled)andtherebyintotheverycomplexsystemofsolutionallyenlargedconduitsinthelimestone.ItisbelievedthatthegreatmajorityofthesmallsubsurfacestreamsflowingthroughtheseconduitsaretributariesoftheLostRiver,a subsurfacestreamwhichcollectsmuchofthekarstdrainagefromsouthernWarrenCountybeforeflowingunderBowlingGreentoarisingneartheBarrenRiver.Unfortunately,BowlingGreenisrapidlygrowinginadirectionthatisupstreamintermsofthesubsurfaceLostRiver;thismaygreatlyaggravatethesituationinthefutureunlesswisedecisionsaremadeconcerningtheproblemofkarstflooding.*AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofGeographyandGeology,WesternKentuckyUniversity,BowlingGreen,Kentucky70SinkholeZoningRestrictionsTheCity-CountyPlanningCommissionisattemptingtopreventfuturefloodingproblemsbyrestrictinglanduseinsinkholestothecontourwhichcorrelateswiththecapacityofthesinkholetoholdthevolumeofrunofffrom aonehundredyearprobability,three-hour,rainfallevent.Thiswillgreatlyreducethemajorityoffuturefloodingproblems,butitisnotthemostconservativeestimateofthedepthtowhichkarstdepressionswillflood.Manysinkshavesprings,oftenephemeral,whichdeliverwatertothemfromareasbeyondthetopographicdivide.Also,manysinkholesareinterconnectedbyacommonsubsurfaceconduitintowhichtheynormallydrain,butduringfloodswatermaybackup behin!l aconstriction(suchasabreakdowncollapsearea)untilithassufficientheadtoforcethefloodwaterthrough.Thiswillresultinthefloodingofthoseinterconnectedsinkholesupstreamfromtheconstrictionbutnotthosedownstream.Theymaydrainwithinimpoundmentevenduringthelargestoffloods.Thewaterlevelinthefloodingsinkholesupstreamwillreachacommonlevelwhichhasnothingtodowiththesizeofeachsink.Somesinksmayfillcompletelyandoverflow,thuscreatingfloodingproblemsforotherareas.Iftwoormoresinksareconnectedbyacommonconduit,urbandevelopmentorotherlandusewhichincreasesrunoffintoonesinkmayresultinfloodingoftheothersinksomedistanceawayaswaterisimpoundedandflowsoutoftheswalletatthedistantsink.Watermayormaynotfloodthesinkwherethedevelopmenttakesplace,dependingonitselevation.Asthecitygrowstowardthesoutheast,hopefullymostpotentialfloodingproblemswillbeavoidedbyzoning,therebypreventingdevelopmentin

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sinkholeareaswhichflood.However,urbanexpansioninthatdirectionwillincreasethefloodcrestoftheLostRiverwhichflowsunderBowlingGreenasmorerunoffwaterisdirectedundergroundfaster.Thiswillincrease the depthoffloodinginsinkholesdownstream,andIfearthatsinkholeswhichhavenotfloodedinthe paat willfloodinthefuture.FloodRetentionReservoirsBeforeapprovingdrainageplansforchangesoflanduse,theCity-CountyPlanningCommissionisrequiringstormwaterretentionreservoirscapableofholdingthevolumeofadditionalrunoffdirectlyresultingfromthechangeinlandusewhichwilloccurduringathree-hour,lOa-yearrainfallevent.Thefloodretentionreservoirsshouldreducetherateatwhichstormwaterrunoffgetsundergroundatswallets,thusreducingfloodingpressureonthesubsurfacestreams.Unfortunately,itisstandardprocedurefordeveloperstodrilloneormoredrainagewellsinsidetheretentionbasins.Thusthereservoirsdonotholdthewateruntilitsinksslowlyintothesoil,insteadtheycollectstormwaterrunoffanddirectitdowndrainagewellsintothekarstdrainagesystemandintosubsurfacestreams.Theplacementofdrainagewellsinsidethereservoirdefeatsthepurposeofthefloodretentionbasin,thepurposebeingtoretainrunoffonsiteandthuswithholditfromthestreamsoasnottoincreasethefloodstagedownstream.Floodretentionreservoirswithdrainagewellsdonotwithholdrunoffwaterfromsubsurfacestreams,insteadtheydelivermorewatertosubsurfacestreamsfaster.Thismayresultinfloodingofsinkholeswhicharelowerinelevation.Iftheretentionreservoirsdidnothavedrainagewells,stormwaterrunoffwouldsinkslowlyintothesoil,thusfilteringoutsediment,trashandsomeotherpollutantsassociatedwithurbanstormwaterrunoff.StormwaterDrainageWellsAnotherareaofconcernisthenumerous stormwater drainagewellsintheBowlingGreenarea.Boththecityandindividualpropertyownershavedrilledwellstodirectstormwaterintothekarstaquifer.Doeswaterdirectedintothesewellsathigherelevationsresurgeatsinkholesatlowerelevations,thuscontributingtosinkholeflooding?Thereisdirectevidencethatseveraldrainagewellshavecausedsubsidenceandsinkholecollapse.Asthecityexpandstowardthesoutheastintoareasofthesinkholeplainwherethe'depthtobedrockisgreater,thedangerofsinkholecollapsewillprobablyincrease.Also,thereissomeevidencethatsoilerosionfromagriculturallanduse,urbanstormwaterrunoff,andconstructionsitesiscloggingmanyofthesinksanddrainagewells.Sedimentfortytofiftyfeetdeepisoftenfoundstackedupindrainagewells.WhataboutthesedimentthatreachesthekarstaquiferunderBowlingGreen?Isitbeingdepositedinthesmallconduitsoftheunderlyinglimestone,cloggingthem,andthuscontributingtothesinkholefloodingproblemsofthiskarstlandscape?71ResearchObjectivesAmajorobjectiveofthisinvestigationistounderstandthecomplexgroundwatersystemundertheBowlingGreenareainordertofacilitatestormwatermanagementandtherebyreducefutureflooding.Thefirststepinunderstanding the] karst-relatedfloodingproblemsofthesinkholeplainuponwhichBowlingGreenislocated,isto delimit theundergrounddrainagedividesand sub surfaceflowroutesbydyetracing.NumerousdyetracesusingautomaticwatersamplersandfluorometerhavedelimitedthegeneralboundariesoftheLostRiverGroundwaterBasin.TheprocessofidentifyingdrainagedividesandlocatingthesmallersubsurfacestreamsunderBowlingGreenisnowinprogress.Inordertoidentifypossiblecorrelations berween precipitationintensityandduration,stageheigbtoftheBarrenRiver,stageheightofthesubsurfaceLostRiver,elevationofthewatertable,andthedepthoffloodinginvariouskarstdepressions,continuouslyrecordinginstrumentationisbeinginstalled.Ninerecordingstreamgagesandfourrecordingraingageshavebeeninstalledtodate.Monitoringwillcontinueforatleastthreeyears.Aninventoryandinvestigationofdrainagewellsisinprogress.Theinvestigationincludes:I)elevationofthewatersurface,2)geochemicalanalysisofwatersamplestakenfromthewells,3)siltation,4)sinkholecollapseinrelationtothewells.Asecondobjectiveofthisresearchistoinvestigatenon-pointpollutionofkarstaquifersintheBowlingGreenarearesultingfromstormwaterrunoff.Thisresearchispartofa208studyfundedbytheKentuckyDivisionofWaterthroughtheBarrenRiverAreaDevelopmentDistrict.trailerswithcontinuousmonitoring forwaterqualityhavebeenplacedattheLostRi,verKarstWindow(beforethestreamflowsunder the city)andattheLostRiverRise(wherethesubsurfacestreamresurgesafterflowingunderBowlingGreen.ConclusionsandManagementRecommendationsItwouldbefinanciallyprohibitiveforBowlingGreentorunstormsewersthroughoutthecityduetothekarstterrain.Evenwithstormsewers,muchofthestormwaterrunoffwouldstillflowintothecavesunderthecity.However,somethingscanbedonewhichwouldreducesinkholefloodingwhileatthesametimehelptoprotectthecavesandthewaterqualityoftheaquiferunderthecity.Restrictingdevelopmentinfloodproneareasbyzoning,combinedwithstormwaterretentionbasins(withoutdrainagewells),appearstobethemosteffectivemethodofdealingwithstormwaterfloodinginkarstareas.Retentionbasins:1)preventstormwaterfloodinginthelocalarea;2)retainstormwateronthesurfacetherebyrelievingpressureonthealreadyoverloadedsubsurfacedrainage

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system;3)providea meansoffilteringstormwaterthroughthesoiltherebyprotectingthesubsurfacedrainagesystemfromsilt,transand someotherpollutants;4)arefarlessexpensivetoconstructandmaintainthanstormsewerswhichareoftenprohibitivelyexpensiveinkarstregions.ReferencesBooker,R.W.andAssociates,Inc.1979.StudyofSinkholeFlooding,BowlingGreenand WarrenCounty,Kentucky:reportpreparedfortheFederalInsuranceAdministration.51pp.72DepartmentofHousing and UrbanDevelopment,FederalInsuranceAdministration.1979.FloodInsuranceStudy,CityofBowlingGreen,Kentucky.26pp,10FloodBoundary and Floodway Maps, 10FloodInsuranceRateMaps.Lambert,T.W.1976. WaterinaLimestoneTerrainintheBowlingGreenArea,WarrenCounty.Kentucly.U.S.GeologicalSurveyandKentuckyGeologicalSurvey,ReportofInvestigations17.SeriesX,Universityof Kenbucky. Lexington.Kentucky.43pp.

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AQUATICECOSYSTEMSANDMANAGEMENTAREATHEMAMMOTHPROBLEMSCAVEIN JulianJ.LewisABSTRACT Aquatic..tMgiobiluex-L6.tinI.>.ta.bieenv-iJwnment6w.Uhlow 600d inputandhave developedI.>pecUtUzationl.>whic.ha.U.ow.them .to t.Lti.lize .thewuu.ualhabi:t.a.t.660undinc.avu.Fi6.teen I.>pec.iu 06 aquatic..tMglobiluMeImDwn6/Wm.theFlin.t-Mammo.th Cave SYI.>.tem, 06 whic.h 13 MeinveJLtebJu1.tuand2Me6iJ.>h. In Manrno.th Cave .thueI.>pec.iu develop c.orrmunil.iut.dU.c.hex-L6.tinbo.thUppeA.ievelandbal.>eievelh.a.hi..ta..tI..Manyaquatic.vwgiobiluMehighlyI.>pec.A.aizedin.theiJr..hab.Ua:tutilizafun.Evidenc.e6/Wmdil.>tJUbutionl.>.twLi.uc.onduc..tedinMalm'lO.th Cave indi..c.a.te6.that: .the vl.Ogiobilic.il.>opod,CaecidoteaI.>p.,andmpJr.edtLtoJr.,Orconectes peUucidus,have declinedinS.tyx and Ec.ho Jr.iVeJL6due.to.the e66eeu. 06 bac.k6ioodingc.aul.>edbyGJteen1U.ve.Jr. Vam#6. O.the.Jr.hab.Ua:tdiI.>.tu.Jr.banc.uMec.aMed by .theu.l.>e 06 I.>-<:nkhoiu on .theI.>.inkhoiepiain adja c.ent:.toMamno.th Cave NationalPMkaI.>dump!.>OIlI.>WeJL6.Wa.te.Jr.Mom.the !.>inkhoieplain6ioHkI.to.theGJr.een1U.ve.Jr.via!.>ubte.Jr.Jr.anean!.>tJr.eam6.inMammo.th Cave NationalPaJr.k. I wouldliketostartbydiscussinga fewgeneralaspectsofaquaticinvertebratecavernicoles,andthenthekindsofinvertebrateswhichoccurinaquaticcavehabitats,andthehabitatsavailableforcommunitydevelopment.SeveralmanagementproblemsinherenttotheMammothCaveregion,whichalsoareapplicabletootherareas,areinterspersedinthediscussion.Areadilyobservableandoftenstrikingcharacteristicofaquatictroglobitesistheirspecializedmorphology.Incomparinganepigeanisopod,Cae aidoteabreviaauda, withasubterranenaspecies, CaeaidoteaantriaoZa, severaldifferencesarereadilyapparent.In Caeaidotea breviaauda,eyesandpigmentationarepresent,thebodyisstoutinrelationtothelength,theappendagesaresimilarlyshortandstout,andtheuropodsareespeciallyshort,aboutonehalfthelengthofthepleotelson.In CaecidoteaantriaoZa, botheyesandpigmentationareabsent,thebodyisrelativelylongandnarrow,theappendagesareelongate,andtheuropodsareovertwicethelengthofthepleotelson.IneasternMissouricavestreamsthesetwospeciesoftenco-occur(Lewis,1974;PeckandLewis,1977),but Caeaidotea antriaoZaisdominant.Aninterestingexceptiontothisisfoundinasectionofstream ofBiologyand WaterResourcesLaboratory,UniversityofLouisville,Louisville,KY 1,01.92 73passageinTomMooreCave,inPerryCounty, Mis souri,whichliesunderasepticfield.Inthispassage,theopportunistic CaeaidOteabrevicauda hasapparentlytakenadvantageoftheunusuallylargefoodsupplyandhasvirtuallydisplacedCaeaidotea antriaola, becausethetroglobite'sfeedingandreproductivestrategieshavenotevolvedtoallowrapidutilizationofsuch ephe. eraloccurrences,givingtheeplgeanspeciestheadvantageinthisparticularsituation.A moredetailedreportontheeffectsofsepticfieldpollutiononanunderlyingcaveecosystemhasbeengivenbyHolsinger(1966).Inanyecosystemthebasisofthefoodwebisultimatelygreenplants,whichderiveenergyfromthesuntophotosynthesize organic compoundsfrominorganicrawmaterials.Caveecosystemsarenotanexceptiontothis,butplantswillnotgrowpastthetwilightzoneofcaves,sofoodmustbeimportedbyindirectmeans.Floodscarryinlargeamountsofmaterialsranginginsizefromtreetrunksdowntodissolvedorganicmatter,andassuch,areamajorsourceoffoodtothecave'saquaticinhabitants.Unfortunately,pollutantsareequallyvagile.Unliketerrestrialtroglobites,whichcanavoidlocalizeddisturbancesbymovingelsewhere,aquatictroglobitesarelessabletofindrefugefrom apollutantwhichhasbeenspreadoverawideareabystreamflow.The"brokenbacksyndrome"ofthefish AJrJ:JZyopsis spelaeaintheDonaldsonCaveSystem,inLawrenceCounty,Indiana,isapparentlycausedbythespreadofanunidentifiedchlorinatedhydrocarbonfromthe

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surfaceintothecavesystem. as acaseinpoint.The damage caused byevenasingleintroductionofa toxic materialtoacave streamcan belonglivedduetotherelativelowfecundityandlonglifespanofsomeaquatictroglobites.Asecondsourceoffoodisprovidedbytrogloxenes,notablybats,cavecric1i:ets,andraccoons,whichfeedonthesurfaceand import foodintothecaveintheformofguano.Ultimately,theseanimals may alsodonatetheirbodiesasfoodsourcesifdeathoccurswithinthecave.Theaquatictroglobiticinvertebratefaunaof Mam moth Caveisa good exampleofthetypesofinvertebratesfoundincavesoftheeasternUnitedStates,althoughthespeciesdiversityanddegreeofsyntopyisunusuallygreat.Threespeciesofnon-arthropodtroglobitesoccurinthewatersofMammothCave: twospeciesofflatworms, sphattoptana pezoooeaa and sphattoptanabuahanani; and onespeciesofsnail, Antzoosetatesspizoatis. Themajorityofaquaticinvertebratesinmanycavesareoftenarthropods,notablycrustaceans,andthisisthe case in Mammoth Cave.Theseinclude:twospeciesofisopods, Caeaidotea stygiaandanundescribedspecies, Caeaidotea sp.(Lewis andBowman,inpress);threespeciesofamphipods,TABLE1 Czrangonya:paokmodilStygohzoomuB7J'i,tNus and Stygolntomus ea:i'Lis; andtwospeciesofdecapods.thecrayfish OZ'aoneotespettucidus and theshrimpPatasmemiasgantePi. Thefinaladditionsareacopepod, CyoWps donnaUsoni (known inMaIIIIIIoth Cave from asinglespecimen takenin laaring River). and two ectocOlllllH!nsal ostracods. Sagittooyth8zoe1xz:tT'l and SagittoaytheZ'B Btygia,whichhavebeen taken fromthecrayfish OZ'oonsotespettucidus. Ageneralsummaryofthefaunaof Cave.includingmanyspeciesofaquatictroglophllesandtrogloxenes, hasbeen presentedbyBarr(1968).Itisrelevanttopointoutthatsomeofthesespeciesaremoresusceptibletolocalizeddisturbancesthanothers.IfawidespreadspeciessuchasCae aidotea stygiaisdestroyedatonelocality.thepossibilityof reo-invasion ofthehabitat from otherpopulationsisprobablygoodifthehabitatisrestoredtoitsoriginalcondition.However, U aspeciessuchas PatasmemiasgantePi, which is known from asinglecave system. issubjectedtoanenvironmentaldisturbance.thespecies may beentirelyextirpated,sincethehabitatcannotberesuppliedfromotherpopulations. Many partsoftheupperlevelsof MauIIoth Caveareextremelydry,buttwogeneraltypesofhabitats(Table1)occurwhichsupportaquatic communities GeneralizedtroglobiticaquaticcommunitiesintheFlint-Mammoth Cave System UpperLevelHabitats(shaftdrains,terminalbreakdowns)Flatworms: sphaUoptanapezoaoecasphattop tana buahanani Isopods(waterslaters): Caeaidotea stygiaAmphipods(scuds): Crongonya:packaI'di Stygohzoomus7J'i,tzoeuBStygobPomuse:x:iUs BaseLevelHabitats(caverivers)??Snails: Antrosetatesspizoatis Copepods: Cyctops donnatdsoni Ostracods: Sagittoaythere stygia Sagittoaythezoe barTi Caeaidotea sp.(undescribed) Cl'angonY:I:paakaI'diStygobzoorrrus vitreus Stygobzoomuse:x:iUs Crayfish: OPooneates pe 1-Zuaidus Shrimp: PaZaemonias gantePi Fish: TyphUcthys subterraneusAmbtyopsis spetaea 74

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whenperennialwaterisavailable.The more commonofthesetwotypesaresmallstreamsassociatedwithverticalshafts.Shaler'sBrook,whichoriginatesfromawaterfallcomingfromAnnette'sDome,flowsacrossGratzAvenue,andthenendsbyfallingintoanotherpit,Lee'sCistern,istypical.InShaler'sBrook,thedominantspeciesis Caeaidotea stygia,withpopulationdensitiesrangingfrom70individualsper15cm2ingravelriffleareastonearly0insandbottomedpartsofthestream.Intheriffleareasamphipodsoccurindensitiesof1to2individualsper15cm2 ,andflatwormsoccur2to3per15cm2 SmallerpoolssuchastheDevil'sCoolingTubinGratzAvenuearealsosuppliedbywaterflowingthroughshaftcomplexes,andcontainsmallcommunitiesofinvertebrates.Thistypeofpoolhabitatissimilartotherimstonepoolhabitatswhicharecommoninothercaves.Asecondtypeofupperlevelaquatichabitatcanbefoundwhereavalleyhasintersectedacavepassage,creatingaterminalbreakdown.Insomeareas,suchasthebreakdownattheendofRafinesqueHall,enoughwaterflowsdownthebreakdowntosupporta communitysimilartothatdescribedforShaler'sBrook.Pumphousesdrawingwaterfromspringswhichnormallysupplywatertoupperlevelcavepassageshasthreatenedtheexistenceofsomeoftheselocalizedaquaticcommunitiesbydepletingtheirwatersources,butthisproblemisbeingrectifiedbybringinginwaterfromothersourcesforhumanneeds,allowingthespringstosupplytheunderlyingcaves.At somepoint,e.g.,Charon'sCascade,thewaterfrom upperlevelsfindsitswaytothebaselevelstreams,whichinHistoricMammotharetheStyxandEchorivers.Inthesestreams,whichofferawidervarietyofaquaticmicrohabitats,communitiesare diversethanthoseallowedbythesemi-perennialupperlevelstreams.Differentspeciesarepresent, most notablythesnail AntroseZatesspiraZis, anundescribedisopodofthegenusCaeaidotea,thecrayfishOraoneates peZZuaidus, theshrimpFaZaemoniasganteri,andthefish T,yphZiathyssubterraneus and AJribZyopsis speZaea.MuchoftheEchoandStyxriversconsistsofdeeppondedwater,duetobackfloodingfromtheGreenRiverDam#6.Thisstructurewasbuiltin1906toallownavigationontheGreenRiver,butwasdeactivatedin1951 duetoalackofrivertraffic.In1965GreenRiverDam#4collapsed,andnavigationupstreamofthispointisnolongerpossible,exceptinlocalizedsituations.Thelockatdam#6hasbeenconcretedshutandistotallynon-functionalatthispoint.Studiesare'presentlyunderwaytoevaluatethepossibilityofeliminatingtheGreenRiverLockandDam#6.ThedownstreampartsofStyxandEchorivershavebecomeheavilysiltedduetobackfloodingfromtheGreenRiver,andsomeareaswhichwereoncedryarenowpermanentlyflooded.Hay(1903)reportedthatthecrayfish Oraoneetes peZZuaidus wasabundantintheRiverStyx.However,nowthesandbottomoftheriversupportsanisopodpopulationofnearlyzeropopulationdensity(similartothatfoundinthesandyareasofShaler'sBrook),whichinturn wi.ll notsupportthecrayfIshpredaciousontheisopQds.Thebackfloodinghas,inessence,created75anaquaticdesert.Asdiscussedabove, two subterranean species of Caeaidotea occurinthe Cave Systea, asituationwhichisfoundinonlya few othercavesintheUnitedStates.In Cave. thesetwospeciesofisopodsare interestingas ecologicalindicators. Caeaidoteastygia, whichwasfirstdescribedbyPackard(1871) acollectionprobablymadeat Richardson'sSpring,i.s inthe Mammoth Caveareagenerally restrictedto habitatsintheupperlevelsofthecave. H0w ever, Caeaidotea stygiaalsooccursinthe pODded, heavily-silted,downstreampartsof Echo and Styx rivers.Asonetravelsupstreamaninterface i.s foundbetweenthepopulationsof CaecidOteaBtygia andtheundescribedspeciesof caeaidotea,with theundescribedspeciesbecomingmoreabundant in relationtothenumbersof Caeaidoteastygiapre sentthefurtherupstreamonetravels. Extremely deepwaterinRoaringRiver,the upstreaJacontinua tionofEchoRiver,makessamplingdifficult.buttheupstreamportionsofotherstreams have beenfoundby dyetracing(Quinlan Rowe,1977;1978)sothata morecontinuousexamination fromdown streamtoupstreamcanbeconducted.Moving froa Hawkin'sRiver(in l>1ammoth CaveNationalPark)upstreamtoMillHole(akarstwindowoutsideofthepark)tothesubterraneanheadwatersunderthesinkholeplainatParkerCave,onlytheundescribedspeciesof Caeaidotea hasbeenfound.Apparentlytheundescribed Caeaidotea isahabitatspecialist,livingonlyinbaselevelstreampassageswhererockorgravelisavailable. caecidotea stygiaismoreofahabitatgeneralist,whichthroughitsrangeinhabitsa numberofdifferenthabitats,includingbaselevelstreams.InMammothCave, Caeaidotea stygiaisexcludedfromthebaselevelstreamhabitatbytheundescribed caecidotea, exceptinthedisturbedlowerreachesofStyxandEchorivers,wheretheundescribedspeciespreferredhabitatisnotavailableduetothesiltationaccompanyingthebackfloodingdisturbance caused bythenearbydamontheGreenRiver.IwouldliketoclosebypointingoutsomeoftherealandpotentialproblemspresentedbythefactthatthewaterflowingthroughMammothCaveNationalParkcomesfromoutsideoftheboundsoftheparkfromtheadjacentsinkholeplain.Perhapsthemostsimplisticoftheseproblemsisthatsinkholescontinuetobeused as dumpsfortrash,althoughthedumpingofdigestedsludgefromtheHorseCavesewagetreatmentplantcontaining,mongotherthings,chromium,nickel,lead,andcadmium,givesa newperspectiveonthisageoldproblem.Pollutionofthegroundwaterfromanoilfieldlocatedonthesinkholeplainalsopresentsoccasionalproblems.However, a moreseriousproblemiscausedbythedischargeoftheHorsecavesewagetreatmentplant'seffluentintodisposalwellswhichflowintoHiddenRiverCave.Thisproblemiscompoundedbythedischargeofindustrialwastefrom alocalmetalplatingplantandcreameryintothetreatmentplant.Thehighconcentrationsofmetalspresentaretoxictothebacterianecessarytodegradethesewage,sotreatmentislessthaneffective.Afterleavingthe

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HorseCave treatment plant,theeffluenttravelstotheGreenRiver via BiddenRiverCave.Thiscavewasatone time a commercial attraction,butthedischargeofsewageintothecavehastrans formed thepassagesintosewers,withalarge,odorousentranceindowntown Horse Cave. I wouldliketoacknowledgethesupportofmyworkin Mammoth CaveNationalParkintheformoftwograntsfromtheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyResearchAdvisory Committee; travelunds fromtheUniversityof Louisville DepartmentofBiologyandtheWaterResourcesLaboratory;andfieldsupportfromtheCaveResearchFoundation.Ialsothankmywife,TeresaK.Lewis,forassistingmeinconductingfieldstudiesintheMammothCaveregion.LiteratureCitedBarr,T.C.1968.EcologicalstudiesintheMammoth Cavesystemof I.TheBiota.InternationalJournalofSpeleology3:147-204.Hay,W.P.1903.ObservationsonthecrustaceanfaunaoftheregionaboutMammothCave, Kentucky.Proc.U.S.Nat.Hus.25(1285):223-236.Holsinger,J.R.1966.Apreliminarystudyontheeffectsoforganicpollution o BannersCornerCave,Virginia.Intern.Jour.Speleology2:75-89. Lewis, J.J.1974.TheinvertebrateaunaofMysteryCave,PerryCounty,Missouri.MissouriSpeleology14(4):1-19.76Packard,A.S.1871.Onthe crustaceansaDd insectsofthe MaaIoth Cave. Aller. Bat.S:744-761.Peck,S.B.andJ.J. Lewis. 1977.Zoogeography andevolutionofthesubterraneaninvertebratefaunasofIllinoisandsoutheasternMiss1our.NationalSpeleologicalSocietyBulletin40(2):39-63.Quinlan,J.F.andD.R. Rowe.1977.Hydrologyandwaterqualityinthecentral Kentucky karst:Phase1.Univ.KentuckyWaterResources Research Inst.,ResearchReport101:1-93.Quinlan,J.F.andD.R.Rowe.1978.Hydrologyandwaterqualityinthecentral Kentucky karst:PhaseII,PartA:PreliminarySUllllllllryofthehydrogeologyoftheMillHolesub-basinoftheTurnholeSpringGroundwaterBasin.Univ. Kentucky Water ResourcesResearchInst.,ResearchReport109:1-42.

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ACONCEPTUALCHARACTERIZATIONOFTHESUBSURFACEMOVEMENTOFTOXICRO.CKCHEMICALSLANDSINSOLUBLE*TomAleyand**DannyHaltermanInthepastfewyearswehaveseenadramaticincreaseinthenumberofsolubleandfracturedrockgroundwaterproblemswhichwereassociatedwithtoxicchemicals.Thesehaveincludedchemicalssuchaspolychlorinatedbiphenols(PBC's),2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(commonlycalledTCDDordioxin),heavymetals(includingchromium,copper,andotherplatingwastes),andradioactiveisotopes.Solublerocklandscapes,andtosomeextentcertainfracturedrocklandscapes,havesomeuniquegroundwaterfeaturesnottypicalofotherregions.Asa thesubsurfacemovementoftoxicchemicalsinsolublerockareascanbedramaticallydifferentfromwhatwouldbeanticipatedinamorehydrologicallyhomogeneousenvironment.Ithasbeenourexperiencethatthese differencs areseldomappre bythemanagement-orientedpeoplewhoareresponsiblefordealingwithtoxicchemical prob lems.As aresult,thousandsofdollarshavebeenwastedinpoorlyconceivedstudyprograms,monitoringplans,andpollutioncontrolstrategies.Thepurposeofthispaperistoprovidethereaderwithageneralcharacterizationandworkableunderstandingofhowtoxicwastesmovethroughthesubsurfaceinsolublerockareas.Tosomeextent,thischaracterizationisalsoapplicabletosomefracturedrocklandscapes,andthereadershouldkeepthisinmindeventhoughfracturedrocklandscapeswillreceivenospecificattentioninthispaper.Furthermore,weurgethatourconceptualcharacterizationnotbeusedinlieuofchemicalspecificandsite-specificinvestigations.Therearethreefactorsofcriticalimportanceindeterminingthesusceptibilityoftoxicchemicalstosubsurfacemovementinsolublerocklands.Thesefactorsare:1)thenatureofthechemical,2)thenatureofthegroundwaterrechargesystem,and3)thenatureofthegroundwatersystem.*ConsultingGroundwaterHydrologistandDirector,OzarkUndergroundLaboratory,Protem,MO65733**ConsultanttotheOzarkUndergroundLaboratoryinbiochemistry.77THE NATUREOF THE CHEMICAL Toxic chelRicals are cOBBllOnly associated v:f.th industrialandmunicipalwastes. Their propertiesareasvariedastheirsources, andaoder standingthenatureofthese cheaicalsaod t:beirinteractionsisessentialtopredictingt:beirbehavioringroundwater systems. Therearetremendousdifferencesinthe water solubilityoftoxic chelRicals. Toxic che.i.calswhichwe haveencounteredcanrangein watersoIa bility from lessthan2partsperbillionto to tallysoluble.Peopleoftentacitly thattoxic chelllicalswithlow watersolubilities will notcauseadverse in groundwater becauseoftheassumeddilution which occurs with inthese systems. Insolublerocklandscapes,this assumption is cOllllBOnly invalid.Ata .-fni_. the assumption islessvalidinsoluble rockareas underlainbyamore unifora porous media '(suchasalluviumorsandstone).Incasesinvolvingtoxicchemicalsincludedinlandfills,dumps,orindustrialdischarges,onemustconsidernotonlythesolubilityofthechemicalinwater,butalsoitssolubilityinotherliquidspresentatthesite.It sometimes occursthatatoxic chemical hasaverylow solu bilityinwater,butahighsolubilityincertainsolvents.Thesesolvents,inturn,canhaveahighsolubilityinwater.Therearealsogreatdifferencesintheadsorptivepropertiesoftoxicchemicals with respecttosoils.Chemicals with lowadsorptivetendenciesarelikelytoremainavailablefortransportinsolutionthroughagroundwatersystem.Conversely,othertoxicchemicalshavehighadsorptiontendenciesandreadilyadheretosoilandclayparticles.Iftheyencountersuitable'soilparticleswithsuitableandavailableadsorbingsurfaces,theycanberatherrapidlyremovedfromwatersmovingthroughthesubsurface. ; Thechemicalstabilityoftoxicchemicalsingroundwatersystemsisalsoimportant.Thestabilityofa compound maybeinfluencedbyarange

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of-conditionsfoundintheenvironment.Assessmentofstabilitybaseduponconditionsencounteredonthesurface,however,donotnecessarilyreflectconditionsencounteredinthesubsurface.Inundergroundconditions,forinstance,ultra-violetirradiation(fromthesun)isabsent;sunlightirradiationofchlorinatedhydrocarbons'canbeanimportantdestructivemechanism. Thestabletemperatureofthesubsurfaceenvironmentisanothercoriditionenhancingstabilityofcompoundsthatwouldotherwisedeteriorateinthetemperatureextremesofthesurface.Bacterialdegradationofsome compoundsisyetanotherimportantdestructivemechanism.Bacterialabundancedecreasesbyordersofmagnitudeasoneprogressesdeeperintotheground.Bacteriaaremostabundantintheleaflitteranduppermostfewinchesofthesoil.Ithasbeenourexperiencethattoxicchemicalstendtobesignificantlymorestableindeepersubsurfaceenvironmentsthaninsurfaceandnear-surfaceenvironments.Otherpropertiesandcharacteristicsoftoxicchemicalsarealsoimportantinassessingtheirpotentialforsubsurfacemigrationandcreationofharmfulimpactsinsolublerockareas.However,mostofthesedifferencesdonotvarybetweensolubleandinsolublerockareas,orbetweensurfaceandsubsurfaceconditions.Forthisreasonwewillnotdiscussthesepropertiesandcharacteristicsinthispaper.NATUREOFTHEGROUNDWATERRECHARGESYSTEMInsolublerocklandscapes,themovementofwaterintothegroundwatersystemistypicallynonuniform.Asaresult,thesubsurfacemovementoftoxicchemicalswillalsobenon-uniform.Groundwaterrechargeisthemovementofwaterfrom .thesurfacetowardthegroundwatersystemwhichunderliestheland.Inmostsolublerocklands,itisouropinionthatgroundwaterrechargecanbedividedintotwoclasses:1)discreterecharge,and 2)diffuserecharge.ThedistinctionsbetweendiscreteanddiffuserechargeisdiscussedindetailbyAley(1977).Discreterecharge,whichcouldalsobecalledconcentratedrecharge,istheconcentratedandrelativelyrapidmovementofrechargewatertowardthegroundwatersystem.Descreterechargeislocalized;itoccursindiscreteareas.Substantiallygreaterquantitiesofwaterperunitareaenterthegroundwatersystemthroughdiscreterechargezonesthanthroughdiffuserecharge.Diffuserechargereferstothegeneralandrelativelyslowseepageandpercolationofrechargewatertowardthegroundwatersystem.Diffuserecharge,bydefinition,isnotconcentratedflow.Discreterechargezoneshavea muchgreaterpotentialfortransportingtoxicchemicalsinsolutiontowardthegroundwatersystemthandodiffuserechargeareas.Theprimaryreasonforthisisthatdiscreterechargezonesprovidelesseffectiveadsorptionthandodiffuserechargeareas.Therearethreeexplanationsforthisdifference.78Thefirstexplanationforthedifferenceisthatflowratesthroughdiscreterechargezonesaretypicallymuch morerapidthanthrough diffuse rechargeareas.Asanexample,surfacerainfallintheOzarksrechargingthroughdiscreterechargezones causes majorflowincreasesinnearbyspringswithina fewhoursofthe precipitation; thediffuseflowcomponentisdelayed and greatlyattenuated(Aley,1977).Therapidtranait times whichcharacterizediscreterechargewatersprovidelesstimeforadsorptionbysoilparticlesthanisthecasewithdiffuserechargezones.Thesecondexplanationisthatdiscreterechargezonescommonlyhavebeenflushedofmuchofthefinetexturedmaterialswhichcouldpotentiallyadsorbtoxicchemicalsfromcontaminatedwater;diffuserechargeareashavenotbeenflushed.Itappearslikelythatwatervelocitiesthroughdiscreterechargezonesoccasionallyarerapidenoughandconsistofenoughwatertopresentturbulentflowconditionscapableoftransportingsubstantialquantitiesofsedimentthroughandoutofthediscreterechargezones.Thethirdexplanationisthatadsorptionoftoxicchemicalsbysoilsincreaseswithincreasesintheamountofpotentialadsorbingsurfaceareaencountered.Contaminatedwaterwillencountera muchsmallerareaofadsorbingsurfacesindiscreterechargezones(whicharecomposedprimarily of conduits)thanindiffuserechargeareas(whereintergranularwatermovementpredominates).Nodatahavebeenassembledtoquantifythedifferenceinadsorbingsurfaceareasbetweendiscreteanddiffuserechargezones,butitisourbeliefthatthedifferencescouldcommonlybetentoonehundredfold.Anmentionedearlier,discreterechargezonesarecapableoftransportingmaterialsinsuspension;diffuserechargeareasarenot.Becauseofthisdistinction,toxicchemicalsadsorbedonclayparticlescanbetransportedthroughdiscreterechargezonestothegroundwatersystem.Thisrepresentsasubsurfacetransportsystemwhichgenerallydoesnotexistexceptinsolublerocklandscapes.Inourexperience,thistransportmechanismhasseldomreceivedanyattention.Clayparticles,whicharetypicallysmallerthanfourmicronsindiameter,canbetransported into andthroughgroundwatersystemsinsolublerockareas.Webelievethattoxicchemicaladsorptiononsuspendedclayparticlesiscommonlyanimportantmechanismoftoxicchemicaltransportinsolublerocklands.Lycopodiumsporesareagroundwatertracingagentwhichtheseniorauthorhasusedona numberofoccasions(AleyandFletcher,1976).Thesesporeshavea meandiameterof33microns,thustheyaresubstantiallylargerthanthelessthanfourmicrondiameterclayparticlesontowhichtoxicchemicalscanbeadsorbed.Bothsporesandclayparticleswilltravelinsuspensiontowardandthroughgroundwatersystems;ifanything,theclayparticleswilltendtoremaininsuspensionforlongerperiodsoftimeincalmwatersthanwillthespores.TheseniorauthorhastracedLycopodium.sporesfromsinkholesandsinkingstreamstospringsas

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faras39.5milesdistantfromtheinjectionsite.Inaddition.sporeshavebeensuccessfullytracedfrom asepticfieldtoadomesticwatersupplywell.andfrom twowellswhichpenetratedshallowcavestoamajorcavestreamhalfamileaway.Toxicchemicalswithmoderatetohighwatersolubilityand lowtomoderateadsorptiontendency.willmostcommonlyreceivethemajorityoftheirsubsurfacetransportinsolution.Toxicchemicalswithlowwatersolubilityandmoderatetohighadsorptiontendency.willmost commonlyreceivethemajorityoftheirsubsurfacetransportinsuspensioniflocalsubsurfaceconditionsareconducivetosedimenttransport.NATUREOFTHEGROUNDWATERSYSTEMGroundwaterrechargecontributeswatertothegroundwatersystem.Itisthemovementofwaterthroughthegroundwatersystemwhichisthetopicforthissectionofthepaper.A goodconceptualmodelfordealingwithgroundwaterinsolublerockareasshouldrecognizethattherearetwo componentsofthegroundwatersystem.Theterms"waterinstorage"and"waterintransit"havebeenusedtocharacterizethesetwo components(Aley.1977).Waterinstoragegenerallyfitstheconventionalviewofgroundwater.Waterinstorageischaracterizedbyslowlateralmovement.Indistinctcontrast.waterintransitischaracterizedbyrapidlateralmovement. commonlyatratesoffromseveralfeetperhourtoseveralhundredfeetperhour.Itwouldbeillogicaltolabelwatermovingattheseratesthroughagroundwatersystemaswaterinstorage.Thisrapidlymovingwaterisintransit.notstorage.Obviously.thetwoclasses(waterinstorageandwaterintransit)areacontinuum.foreventhewaterinstoragehassome movement.Ratherthanhangourselveswithsemantics.whichistotallyunnecessaryforthepurposesofthisdiscussion.weproposethat flow ratesequaltoor.inexcessofonefootperhourindicatewaterintransit.andrateslessthanonefootperhourrepresentwaterinstorage.Based onMissouristudies(Aley.1977).discreterechargezonestendtocontributemostoftheirwaterstowaterintransit.Diffuserecharge zones contributewaterbothtowaterintransitandwaterinstorage.Ingeneral.waterintransitisundergroundforashorterperiodoftimethaniswaterinstorage.Inaddition.contaminantsintroducedintowaterintransittendtomoveaspulsesthroughthegroundwatersystem.Ingeneral.contaminantsreceivelessdilutioninwatersintransitthanthey do in waters instorage.Thesedistinctionsbetweenwaterinstorageandwaterintransitareof vital importanceinassessingthepotentialforsubsurfacemovementoftoxicchemicals.Withinmostsolublerockgroundwatersystemsonedoesnotgenerallyencounterabundantsoilparticlescapableofadsorption.althoughsomeexceptionstothisgeneralizationundoubtedlyoccur.Ifthereisadifferenceincontaminantexposure79toadsorbing particleswithin80lablerock groundwater systems, we anticipate that _ter instoragewouldbe elqlosed to 1I01'eact.cirpt1oll thanwouldwaterintransit.In s-aeral,.,.t adsorption willoccur abovethe grouaclrtater system (in otherwords, within the groaa.llrater recharge system). If toxic chemicalsinsolution reach the rockgroundwater system,weshouldeqec:tthea tomovewidelythroughthe grouodll'atersy.tea. Toxicchemicalsentering throughdiscreterecbarp zoneswillcontribute priJlarily tothe vater1JI transitcomponentofthe groUlldVatersyst:ea;..-t ofthetoxicchemicals introduced will disdlaEge aspulses from springs draining thearea. Tod.c chemicalsinsalutionentering throughdHfase rechargezoneswilltypicallyhave low to .ader ateadsorptioncharacteristics, and viII COId:rl butebothtowaterintransit aud to waterin storage;theywilltypicallybedetectable in springsbeforetheyaredetectablein ve1l.B, althoughtheywill ultn.ately be fOUDd both in springsandwells. ConcentratioDsinspringsaod wellswillbeafunctionofthe flowsyst:ea;we cannotdevelopageneralizationasto whetherCOD centrationsshouldbegreaterin spriogs orinwellssincethisisasite-specificquestion.Toxicchemicalsadsorbedonsoilparticles can reachthegroundwater systeIB through discrete rechargezones.Discrete recharge zones t:eod tocontributemostoftheirwaterstothe waterin transitcomponentofthe groundwaterAs wehavedemonstratedthroughtheuseof spores.waterintransitcantransport suspended materials.Asaresult.toxic che-icalsaclsorlM!d onsoilparticleswhichenterthe groundwater systemshouldbe expected to dischargesprings. Theywillsettleandnotbetransported throughthe waterinstoragesystem.Sincewells aze extractingwaterinstorage.toxic cheaicalsad sorbedonsoilparticleswill selda. be recovered fromsuchwells. SUMMARY Wehavecharacterizedthelikely movement of tozi.c chemicals in subsurfacewatersinsoluble rock landscapesinan attempt to develop as lEDygen eralconclusionsabout torlc chemical move.ent insuchlandscapesas we could. Numericalverifica tionforourconceptualcharacterizationisgenerallylacking.yetthecharacterizationfitaourfield experience incasesinvolving subsurface movementof toxic chemicalsinsoluble rockareas.We believethatourconceptualcharacterizationwillprovidemanagementorientedpeople with abettergeneralcharacterizationofsubsurfacetoxicchemicalmovementin.solublerocklandsthanpresentlyexists.However.general charac: terizationscanonlyprovidegeneralhelpindealingwithproblemsofsubsurfacemovementof toxic chemicalsinsolublerocklands.Ourconceptualcharacterizationsshouldnotbeusedinlieuofchemical-specificandsite-specific investigations.We believe.however.thatthisconceptual charac: terizationcanbeofsubstantialvalueinguidingthedesignofinvestigationprograma;ithasbeenour experience thatsuchguidanceforsoluble rock

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landscapesisurgentlyneeded.REFERENCESDi1amarter,R.R.andS.C.Csa11any.Hydrologicproblemsinkarstregions.WesternKy.Univ.,BowlingGreen.pp.323-332.Aley,T. 1977. A modelforrelatinglanduseandgroundwaterqualityinsouthernMissouri.IN:80Aley,T. andH. W. Fletcher.1976.tracer'scookbook.Ho.Spe1eo1ogy.Thewater16(3):1-32.

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APPLICATIONOFKENTUCKY QUALITYREGULATIONSTOWATERS "'Robert W.WareABSTRACTWATERKARST OnMay 7,1980, .the U.S. Env-iJummen.ta.Plto.tecti.on Agengy appltovedKen:t:ucl.y'.6SUlt6aceWCl.te!tQu.ai.A;tyS.:ta.ndaJui6whichWelteadop.ted byKen-tu.ck.y'.6VeptVLtme.n.t601tNCl.tWr.al.ReMUltCe.6andEnv-iJummen.ta.PItO.tecti.ononVecembe!t 5, 1979. Rev..u,-iOn.6.to .thepltev-ioU!.lltegu1a.ti.On.6-inetudedexpClM-ion 06 aUdu.igna:tWn.6.to ..incfudea..UU!.le.6601ta..UWCl.teM,.6peuMcltequhLemen.t.6.toaccolIJJCln!/a:ppUca.t.i.On.6601tde.6..ignCl.tedU!.leadjU!.l.tJnen.t.6andVCl!t..tanCe.6,mune!t..tc.touc.lJ..mi.;tl,601taqua.t<.cli6epM.tecti.on601televenCOn.6ti..tu.en.t.6..ina.dJ:Li.:Uon.togeneJlal. b..toaMayeJU:te!t..tCl,bac.te!t..tolog..icCll.eJU:te!t..tCl601tp!t..tmCl!ty and MCondalty con :tact!teClteCltionWCl.teM,and anewMec.taJ.,.6..i6-icCltion 06 Outlr.tandingRuoUItCeWCl.teM.TheVeptVLtmen.tItecen.ilyItecuveda60ltmCll.Itequu.t6/tOm.the Cave Ruea.!tCh Foundation.to!tedeJ.>..ignCl.tea..Uunde!tgltOund1i.t!tea.m.6..in.theMammo.thCaveMea. MOutlrta.ncLi.ngRe.6oUltceWCl.teM.Ken.tucky'liliUlt6acelAtLte!tlteglLlt1t1.0n.6appltj..inth..t.6Mea.accoltcLi.ng.to.the deMnLUon 06 liUlt6acelAtLteMwhichexpltuliltj..incfude.6 "... any.6Ub.te!t!tClneanWCl.teM6lowing..inwellde.6..ine.dchanne.l.6 and hav..tngacf.e.a.!thydltO.tog..icCll.connecti.onwi.th.the.IiUlt6a.ce.. "In geneJlal. con li..ide!tCltion..u,g..iven.toanypltOpoliCll.601tOutlrta.ncLi.ngRe.6oUltce.WCl.teMchu..6-iMcCltionaccompan.iedbyliublita.n.t..tCll.documen.tCltion.toIiUPPO!t.tthe.dM.igna..te.dU!.le.andMMuCl.tedeJU:te!t..tCl.Howeve!t,ce!tta...tnliUMUlt6ace.1i.t!tea.m.6..in.the.Mammo.thCaveMea.mayquCll...i6Y601ta.u.tomClUc-indM-ionpendi.ng.the.a.ddi.:tion 06 .the.Ken.tuck.yCaveSh!t..tmp.to.the Endange!tedSpe.uuL..u.t.C.tO.6eR.yIte.e.a.ted to .th..t.6a.cti.vily..u,.theMna.Uzation06 EPA '.6Env.ur.onme.n:tal.Impac.tS.ta.te.men.ton.theMammo.thCaveMea..The.VeptVLtme.n.t andEPA have.gene!ta.:tedWMteR.oadCllloca.t.i.On.6601te66.fue.n.t.661l0mpubUcf.y-owne.d.t!tea..tJne.n:tWOIl/u,..in.th..t.6Mea..Thuel.Ik:t6te.toada..UocCltiOn.6Me.bMe.d on CIlile.ll...ia.MMe..ta..tedwi.th.theCUltIle.n.tWa.!tmWCl.te!tAquaticHab..t.ta.tchu..6..iMcCltion. An Out.6ta.ndA.ngRuoUllCeWCl.te.!twillM.6.ignmalle..6.t!t..tnge.n.t.topltO.te.c.t.theMe.In:tU!tn,mOlte.6.t!t..tnge.n.tl.Ik:t6te.toada1i.0ca.t.i.0n.6r.uUlbe.Il.equhLed.to-in.6U1teMMuCl.ted-in-li.t!te.amCIlile.ll...ia.Menotv..iola:te.d. The1.leR.e.cti.on 06 .themOli.tcOIi.t-e.66ecti.ve.t!tea..tJne.n:taUeJtna.;t;{.ve601l.the.Mea...u,de.penden.t upon .theMnCll.l.Ik:t6te.toadClllocCltion.6 and .the-iJr.M.60e..ta..ted.t!te.a.tme.n.tCMU. "'Kentucky Dept. for NaturalResources andEnvironmental-Protection,DivisionofWater,1065U.S. 127South,Frankfort,KY4060181

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ENVIRONMENTALREGULATIONS,ASSISTANCEANDASTATUSREPORTONTHEMAMMOTHCAVEENVIRONMENTAL*RonaldJ.MikulakIMPACTSTATEMENTI.INTRODUCTIONThepurposeofthispaperistodiscussEPA'sinvolvementinenvironmentalprogramsfrom twoperspectives.First,andvery generally" anoverviewofseveralenvironmentalprogramsthatEPAhasbeenauthorizedbyCongresstoadministerandimplementwillbepresented.SixpiecesofFederallegislation--theCleanWaterAct,CleanAirAct,ToxicSubstancesControlAct,ResourceConservationandRecoveryAct,SafeDrinkingWaterAct,andtheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct-willbereviewed.Thelegislativehistoryandthehighlightsoftheselawsastheyrelatetoenvironmentalregulationandassistancewillbecovered.Secondly,theexperiencesofEPA'seffortsinthepracticalapplicationoftheCleanWaterActandtheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyActintheMammothCaveareawillbediscussed.Thiseffort-theMammothCave AreaEnvironmentalImpactStatement(EIS)involvesaprogramofFederalassistanceinaddressingthisarea'swastewaterman agementproblems.Theprogressanddifficultiesthathavebeenencounteredthusfarineffortstoresolveexistingandavoidfuturewastewatermanagementproblemswillbethefocusofthisdiscussion.II.ENVIRONMENTALREGULATIONANDASSISTANCEInthecontinuingandoftenheateddiscussionofpollutionandenvironmentalissues,theUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)isfrequentlyinthepubliceye.EPAwascreatedbecauseofincreasingpublicandgovernmentalconcernaboutthedangerstothehealthandwelfareofAmericanscausedbypollution.Clearly,immediateandpositiveactionwasnecessarytocopewiththedeteriorationofthenaturalenvironment.Groundsfordeepconcernwerenotdifficulttofind:onallsides,noxiousair,foulwater,andotherseriousthreatstothehealthand well-being' ofallAmericanswereabundantlyevident.*EISBranch,EPA,RegionIV,345CourtlandStreet,Atlanta,GA3036582EPAwasgiventhemainFederalresponsibilityforcomingtogripswiththesecomplexproblemsandatthesametime,strikingabalancebetweentheprotectionofthenaturalenvironmentandsecuringforourcitizensthebenefitsofeconomicandtechnologicalprogress.OnJuly9,1970,PresidentNixonsenttoCongressareorganizationplanremoving 15unitsfromexistingdepartmentsandagencies,andrelocatingtheminanewindependentagency.WhenthereorganizationplanbecameeffectiveonDecember2.1970,theUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency openeditsdoorsforbusinesswithWilliamD.RuckelshausasAdministrator.EPAbringsunderoneorganizationalroofFederalactivitiesincontrollingairandwaterpollution,drinkingwaterquality,solidwastes.pesticides.environmentalradiationandnoise.Itisanindependentregulatoryagencythathasnoobligationtopromoteagriculture,commerceorindustry.Ithasonlyonemission--toprotectandenhancetheenvironment.Ingeneral,theagencyisresponsibleforestablishingandenforcingstandards.conductingresearchanddemonstrationsformonitoringpollutionintheenvironment.andperhapsmostimportantly,forassistingStateandlocalgovernmentsintheirownefforts.Thepurposeistomountanintegratedattackonpollutionandatthesametime,tomakeorderlyprogresstowardunderstandingtheenvironmentasasinglesystemofindependent,butinterrelatedparts.ThefollowingdiscussionofEPA'smajorenvironmentalprogramswillrelatethesixpreviouslylistedlawstofourmajorareasofconcern:air.water,solidwaste,andtoxicsubstances.AIRTheaveragepersonbreathes35poundsofaireachday--sixtimesasmuchasthefoodanddrinknormallyconsumedinthesameperiodoftime.By1970over200milliontonsofwasteproductswerebeingreleasedintotheairannually.Slightlyoverhalfofthepollutioncamefromtheinternalcombustionenginesofcars and othermotorvehicles.Roughly 22percentcame fromfuelburnedatstationarysourcessuchaspowergeneratingplants.andanother15 was emitted fromindustrialprocessef

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Airpollutionisassociatedwiththeincreasingnumberofcasesofemphysema,bronchitis,asthma,lungcancer,and numerousotherrespiratorydisorders,withdiseasesoftheheart,andwithcertainincidencesofimpairedmentalperformance.IllnesscausedoraggravatedbyairpollutioncosttheAmericanpeopleanestimated$4.6billionyearlyinmedicaltreatment,lostwages,andreducedproductivity.Airpollutionalsocorrodesbuildings,damagespersonalproperty,and harmsforestandcrops,causinganadditional$12.5billionindestructionanddecayeachyear.TheFederalairpollutioncontroleffortbeganmodestlyin1955 whentheU.S.PublicHealthServiceimplementedanairpollutionresearchprogramandofferedtechnicalassistancetoStateandlocalgovernmentsconcernedabouttheproblem.Congresssteppedupthetempoin1963withtheCleanAirAct,providingforFederal-Stateactiontocutdownonindustrialsmokestackgases.In1965,the first setofamendmentstotheCleanAirActgavethe Eederal governmentauthoritytoreducemotorvehicleemissions.TheAirQualityActof1967calledforanewairqualitymanage mentapproachtotheproblem.TheFederalgovernmentdesignatedairqualityregionswithproblemsandpublishedinformationontheeffectsofairpollutantsonhealthandwelfare,and oncontroltechniquesforairpollutants.TheStateswerethenobligedtodevelopairqualitystandardsandplansforimplementingthosestandardsinthedesignatedregions.Perhapsmoresignificantly,the1967legislationpavedthewayforenactmentofthehistoricCleanAirAct Amendmentsof1970.UndertheseAmendments,EPAhasestablishednationalairqualitystandardswhichspecifymaximumallowablelevelsforthemajorpollutants.Thesepollutantsincludesulfuroxides,particulatematter(suchasdust,smoke, andflyash),carbonmonoxide,hydrocarbons,andnitrogenoxides.Anothermajorpollutant,formed whennitrogenoxidescombinewithhydrocarbonsinthepresenceofsunlight,iscalledsmog--theeye-stinginghazewhichhangsovermostmajorAmericancities.Thetechnicalnameforsmogisphotochemicaloxidants.The AmendmentsfurtherrequiredthattheStates,inordertomeetthenationalstandardssetbyEPA,developdetailedplanstocontrolairpollutioncomingfromsuchsourcesasautomobiletraffic,manufacturingplants,and powerplants.The Amendmentsdirectedthathearingsbeheld,allowingcitizenstoparticipateintheformulationofsuchcontrolplans.ThestandardswhichEPAsetfornewcarsbeginningwith1975modelsrequiredsignificantautoemissionreductionsfrommodelsproducedbefore1968.EPAalsoestablishesperformancestandardslimitingpollutionemissionsfrom neworsubstantiallymodifiedplantsincertainindustriesandrequirestheseplantstousethebestpollutioncontrolequipmentandproceduresavailable.Standards83havebeensetforfossil-fuelpowered generators,cementplants,oilrefineries, steel mills,and a numberofotherindustrialoperations.EPAalsoregulatessuchextremelyhazardousairpollutantsasasbestos,beryllium,mercury,andvinylchloride.BeforetheStatesandEPAdevelopspecificprogramstoachievecleanairstandards,theyconductextensivetechnicalresearchandmonitoringtodeterminethelevelsofairpollutionthatexistineacharea. While thestandardsforallareasofthecountryareuniformlyestablishedbyCongresstoprotecthealthandwelfare,specificstrategiesforindividualStatesandlocalitiesmustdependonexistingandprojectedlevelsofairpollution.The moreseverethelevelsofpollutionare,themorestringentthepollutionabatementprogramswillbetoachievethestandards.Hundredsofmonitoringstationsaroundthecountrycontinuallysampletheairandanalyzeitsqualityasabasisforestablishingthesespecificpollutionreduction programs. AirqualityintheUnitedStatesisnow showing definitesignsofimprovement.Nationally,sulfurdioxideconcentrationshavebeenreducedbyroughly30percentsince1970.Thenationalaverageforparticulatematter,suchasdustandBOothasdroppedabout17percentinthatsametime,andthisdownwardtrendiscontinuing.Carbonmonoxidelevelshavedecreasedbyroughly10percentandmodestreductionsinhydrocarbonshavealsobeenrecorded.WATER-Forcenturies,naturalprocesseshavehelpedtokeepmanylakesandriversclean.Eutrophication,thenaturalagingoflakes,causessomedeteriorationofwaterovergeologicperiodsoftime,butthiscannotcomparewith man-made pollution,whichhasplacedmoreofastrainonmanyofourwaterwaysthannaturecanaccomodate.Bytheearly1970's,pollutionhadmade manyofourrivers,estuaries,andlakesunfitforrecreation,andadjacentwetlandswerebeingchokedwithsiltorruinedbychemicaleffluents.Analysesofdrinkingwaterrevealedsignsofpotentiallydangerouscontaminationinmanypartsofthecountry.Eventhevastoceansarejeopardizedbythewastesthateventuallyreachedthemthroughtherivers.byoilspills,andthedumpingofwastesandhazardousmaterials.Priorto1948,themainthrustoftheFederalwaterpollutioncontrolprogramwastoensureunhamperednavigation.andpreventthespreadofcommunicabledisease.In1948,cleanwatereffortswerefirstlaunchedonatrialbasisasCongressauthorizedfundsforresearch,Stateandlocalplanning,and manpowertraining.Apermanentprogram wasinitiatedundertheWaterPollutionControlActof1956.In1965thewaterpollutioncontrolprogramwasstrengthenedbylegislationwhichcalledforestablishmentof watez qualitystandardsandimplementationplansforcleanupofallinterstateandcoastalwaters.TheCleanWaterRestorationAct

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of1966providedmoreFederalmoneyforbuildingtreatmentfacilities.Thefar-reachingFederalWaterPollutionControlActAmendmentsof1972(P.L.92-500)includestrictdeadlinesfor theNation'swaterways.Rigorouseffluentstandardsare'setbyEPAandareenforcedbytheStatesandmunicipalitiesincooperationwithEPA.Industriesdischargingintonavigablewatersmustinstallneededpollutioncontrolequipmentandmustobtainpermits which limitthekindsandquantitiesofpollutantsthatcanbedischarged.Morethan41,000industrial,agricultural,andFederalfacilitysourcesofpollutionand20,000municipalsewageplantsaretoberegulatedunderthepermitprogram.The1972lawalsoauthorizedFederalgrantsofupto75percentofthecostofplanning,designing,andbuildingmunicipalsewagetreatmentfacilities.ThiseffortisoneofthelargestpublicworksprogramsinAmerica,andsince1972EPAhasbeenauthorizedtocommitover$25billioninconstructiongrantsthroughSeptember1982.TheFederalWaterPollutionControlAmendmentsof 1972 alsoprovideforpublicparticipationindevelopingandenforcingwaterpollutioncontrolprograms.EPAandtheStateshavepublishedregulationsspecifyingminimumguidelinesforpublicparticipationintheprocess.Therefore,noFederalwaterpollutioncontrolprogramcangoforwardwithouttheopportunitybeingprovidedforactiveparticipationbytheinterestedpublic.In1977,theFWPCAof1972was amendedtocreatetheClean Actof1977.CongresshasperiodicallyimprovedtheFederalWaterPollutionControl Indeed,evenasitadoptedP.L.92-500,.Congressclearlyanticipatedthatreview,coursecorrection,andfinetuningwouldberequiredsoonafter1972.EPAwasdirectedtoreporttoCongressannuallyonthemeasurestakentowardimplementingtheobjectivesoftheAct.Inshort,Congresswellrecognizesthatthewaterqualityfieldischangingrapidly;newproblemsemerge,newtechnologyisdeveloped,overallknowledgeimprovesapace.Andthelawmustbeadjustedinresponse.Apracticalbutespeciallycompellingmotivationforthe1977amendmentslayinthefactthatthefinancialauthorizationsofP.L.92-500appliedonlyuntilJune30, 1975,withshorttermfundingextensionsvotedafterthat The1977amendmentsprovidelong-termauthorizations,generallytoSeptember30,1982,generallyat$5billionannually.The1977amendmentswereshapedinpartbywhatmightbedescribedas"institutionalforces".Forinstance,priorityandprogramdecisionsbystateagenciesinresponsetothe1972lawtendedunderstandablytofocusonurbanareas,whereproblemsloomedlargestandneedswerefoundgreatest--an emPhasis whicharousedfrustrationsinsomeruralcommunities.Atthesametime,agriculturalinterestsbegantovoiceconcernaboutdifficultiespotentiallyinherentintheAct's84languagegoverningnonpointsourcepollutionanddispositionofdredge-and-fi11materials.Accordingly,severalofthe1977amendmentsdealdirectly with theneedsandproblemsofsmallcommunities,ruralareas,andagriculture.Another"institutional'force"stemmedfromfindingsthatlackofcompliance with the1972lawcouldinagreatmanycasesbetracedtofailuresoftheFederalGovernmenttoadheretoitsownpoliciesortofollowthroughonpromisedactions.Majorindustry,itwasnotedintheCongressionalhearingstoamendtheAct,wasbetterthan incompliance;municipalitieswerecomplyingatonly33%level.Probablythemostimportantofthe1977amendments.however,arethosewhichmightbedescribedasbasedupon"technologicalforces"--emergingpublicphilosophiesandexpressedconcernsaboutchemicalpollution,materialsrecycling,andenvironmentallycompatibletechnicalsystems.The1977amendmentsreflectCongressionalrecognitionthatdangeroustoxicpollutionwasgoingunabatedwhilemuchattentionwasfocusedonlessseriousformsofpollution.Majoroilspillsontheopenseas,carbontetrachloridecontaminationoftheOhioRiver,theKeponedisasterinVirginia,PCB'sintheGreatLakes,and growing concernaboutthe.chemicalcontaminationofdrinkingwatersuppliesnationwide,havedrivenhomethefactthattherearedifferentkindsofpollution,andthatsomekindsposeagreaterthreattopublic thanothers.Thisrecognition,combined with emergingquestionsaboutthecosteffectivenessofapplyingourmorestringenttechnology-basedlimitationson"ordinary" wastes. ledin1977toa newclassificationofpollutanttypes, with differentrequirementsspecifiedforeachcategory.Thesechangesresultina muchgreateremphasisonthecontroloftoxicpollutants.Finally,a numberofthe1977amendmentsreflectastrongCongressionaldesiretoencouragedeploymentofnew"innovativeandalternative"wastetreatmenttechnology--inpartbecauseitmayinsomecasescostlessthanconventionaltechnology,andinpartbecauseitofferssubstantialenviron Beyondthat,the1977legislationpromotesrecyclingandreuseofpollutioncontrolby-products(effluent,sludge,nutrients),energyconservation,andmultipleuseoflandsandwaterswhicharecomponentsofwastewatertreatmentsystems.Butthecleaningupofourwaterwaysinnotouronlyconcern.Thequalityofthewaterwhichcomesoutofourtapsstrikesevenclosertohome. Mostofusassumethatthewaterwedrinkissafe,anditusuallyis.Butapproximately4,000casesofwaterborneillnessesareknowntooccureachyearinthiscountry,andtheactualtotalmaybefargreater.UndertheSafeDrinkingWaterAct,EPAisresponsibleforestablishingnationalregulationstoprotectpublichealth.TheActalsoauthorizesEPAtoprovidetechnicalassistancetotheStatesand.grantsfordemonstrationprojectsinvolving

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improvedtreatmenttechnologyormethodsforprovidingadependable,safesupplyofwater.UndertheAct,watersuppliersareobligatedtonotifythepublicwhenthequalityoftheirproductfailstomeetFederalregulations.AsecondmajorthrustoftheSafeDrinkingWaterActconcernstheprotectionofwaterthatcomestousfromundergroundsources.Inmanypartsofthecountry,certainindustriesdisposeoftheirwastematerialsbyinjectingthemintowellsthatpenetratedeepintotheground.Theseandotherwastedisposalpracticesmaycontaminateourgroundwaterwithavarietyoftoxicmaterials.EPA,workingwiththeStates,willregulatesuchpracticestoensurethequalityandsafetyofthisessentialsourceofdrinkingwater.SOLIDWASTEUndersolidwastelegislation,EPAseekstoreducetheamountsofsolidwasteproduced,torecovermaterialsandenergyfromwasteswhereverpossible,andtoultimatelydisposeofwastesinwaysthatwillnotendangerpublichealthortheenvironment.NationalfiguresshowthatAmericansgenerateastaggeringamountofsolidwaste--anestimated4.5billiontonsayearfromhousehold,commercial,agricultural,animal,industrial,andminingactivities.Furthermore,thevolumeofwasteincreases,yearbyyear.Thiscountryhasbeenblessedwithwhat wasconsideredtobeanabundanceofnaturalresources.Wehavereachedunprecedentedheightsofproductionandconsumption.WhileaccountingforonlysixpercentoftheEarth'spopulation, Americans consumeatleastone-thirdofitsindustrialrawmaterials.Butwearenowfacedwiththeprospectofpayingthepriceforourpastactivities.Manyofourresourcesappeartobereaching>theirlimits,andaccumulatingsolidwasteposessignificanthazardstohealthandtotheenvironment.The.managementofthewasteweproduceisalreadyanextremelydifficulttask,andthesituationthreatenstoworsen.Ourannual"throw-away"includes48billioncans,26billionbottlesandjars,4milliontonsofplastic,7.6milliontelevisionsets,7millioncarsandtrucks,and30milliontonsofpaper.Itisestimatedthatby 1980wastecollectionmayamounttoover340milliontonsperyear,ornearlytwicetheamountpickedupbycollectionagencies hauledawayfordisposalin1977. The 1977costofwastedisposalwas$4.5billionperyear.Inthisvastcountry,themostconvenientwastedisposalsystemhaslongseemedtobeopendumping. However,burningatmost dumpscontributedtoairpollution,andapproximatelyhalfofalldumpsaresosituatedthattheirdrainageaggravatesthepollutionofgroundwater,rivers,andstreams.Dumpsalsoattractrodents,flies,andotherpests.Toremedythissituation,manycommunitieshaveprogressedoverthepastdecadefromopendumpstosanitarylandfills.Inthis>system,alayerofdirt85applieddailyoverthetrashkeepspests away; cutsoffwaterpollutantsfromsurfacerunoff,doesawaywiththeneedtoburnthewastes,andpreventswindscatteringoflitter.Whenfilled,thesitecanbereclaimedforuseasaparkorplayground.However,veryfewofthe approximately 15,000to20,000municipaldisposalsites completed orincurrentuseweredesignedtopreventwaste aa terialsfromseepingthroughthesoiland taminatingsurfaceorgroundwater.Thebelateddiscoverythatdumpsandlandfills may seriouslythreatendrinkingwatersupplies--evenyearsafterthesiteshavebeenclosed--suggeststhatalllevelsofgovernmentmustselect,design,andoperatetheirsanitarylandfillswithgreatcare.Chemical,radioactive,biological,explosive,andflammablesubstances(referredtoashazardouswastes)requirespecialdisposaltechniques.TheNationgeneratesmorethan10milliontonsofsuchmaterialseachyear.Inthepast, auch ofthewastewasincineratedordumpedintolakes aqd streams.Asairandwaterpollutioncontrolsareimplemented,moreandmoreofthesewastes-which aregrowingatafivetotenpercentannualrate-arebeingdivertedtothelandwhere,again,theythreatenhumanhealth.Thetechnologyforsafemanagementisoftenavailable,butitisnotbeingextensivelyused.HistoricallytheSolidWasteDisposalActof markedthefirstsignificantinterestoftheFederalgovernmentinthemanagementofsolid TheDepartmentofHealth,Education,and wasorderedtoconductresearchinto improvement technologyforcollectionanddisposalofsolidwaste.HEW'sresponsibilitieswerelaterassignedtoEPAwhentheAgency wascreated.Then,theResourceRecoveryActof1970 amended tbelegislationtoprovidea newfocusonrecyclingandrecoveryofvaluablewastematerials.TheResourceConservationandRecoveryAct (RCRA) of1976 (PL94-580)providesforthedevelopmentofFederalandStateprogramsforotherwiseunregulatedlanddisposalofwastematerialsandforthedevelopmentofresourcerecoveryprograms.TheActregulatescreation,transportation,treatmentanddisposalof"hazardouswaste";regulatesfacilitiesforthedisposalofallsolidwastes;andphasesouttheuseofopendumpsfordisposalofsolidwastesinfavoroftherequiredutilizationofsanitarylandfills.Additionally,it makes fundingavailablefortheplanningandconstructionofbothwastedisposalandrecyclingfacilitiesbymunicipal!ties.TOXICSUBSTANCESTheToxicSubstancesControlActof1976givestheEPAauthoritytoregulatetheproductionanduseofallchemicalsharmfultopublichealthortotheenvironment.TheActrequirestheAgencytolistallsuchchemicals(perhapsasmanyas20,000)nowonthemarket,tolimittheuseofthosefoundtobeharmful,and,ifnecessary,tobantheirproduction.

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Asnewchemicalsubstancesareproduced,thelawrequiresthattheybetestedfortoxicityandenvironmentaleffectsbeforetheyaremarketed.It isf'st1.mated thatseveralhundredandperhapsas rn"Hly as1,000newchemicalsareintroducedintocommerceeachyear.Thesenowhavetobetestedfortheirpossibleeffectson humanhealthand onplantandanimallife.TheActdoesnotapplytodrugs,foodadditives,pesticides,radioactivematerials,andotherchemicalsregulatedbyotherFederallaws.Itdoesapplytochemicalsthatmayescapeintotheenvironmentandpoisontheairandwater.ItthusaugmentsEPA'sprotectiveauthorityunderairandwaterpollutioncontrollaws.Itisparticularlyconcernedwithchemicals maycausecancer,birthdefects,andgeneticmutations(heredi,tarychangesinhumancells).Thesuspectchemicalsincludesuchwidelyusedsubstancesaspolychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB's),whichaccumulateandpersistintheenvironment;rawmaterialforplastics(vinylchloride),oncethoughttobeharmless;andcertainpropellant forspraycans,whichmaydolong-termdamageintheupperair.Beforeanewchemicalcanbemarketed,themanufacturermustnotifyEPAatleast90daysinadvance,givingtheamountofthechemicaltobeproduced,thenumberofpersonswhowouldbeexposedtoit,andallavailabletestdataonitstoxicityandenvironmentaleffects.EPAmustthenevaluatetheriskinvolved.Ifthereisnotenoughinformationtomakethatjudgment,theAgencymayseekacourtinjunctiontoprohibitmanufacturependingfurthertesting.IfEPAbelievesthenewchemicalpresentsanunreasonablerisk,itmaymakeruleslimitingthechemical'sdistributionanduse,orrequiringcer'tainlabelinganddisposalmethods,orboth.Apermanentbanonmanufacturerequiresactionby aFederalcourt.Inanyrulemaking ontoxicsubstancesEPAmustconsiderandpublishitsfindingsonthesubstances'expectedbenefits,theavailabilityofsubstitutes,andtheprobableeffectsonthechemicalindustryandthenationaleconomy. Aspecialsectionof,thelawbansthemanufactureofPCB'sasof1979.Thesechemicalsarenowusedmainlyas fluidsinelectricalequipmentbutwereformerly used inpaints,'inks, andmanyotherproducts.Theyarepoisonoustohumans,accumulateinthefattytissuesoffish,andresistnaturaldecayintheenvironment.NATIONALENVIRONMENTALPOLICYACTOnJanuary1,1970,thePresidentsignedintolawtheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA),whichdeclaredanationalpolicytoencourageproductiveandenjoyableharmony manandhisenvironment.86Insigningthebill,thePresidentremarkedthatitwasparticularlyfittingashisfirstofficialactofthenewdecadenotonlybecauseitgavedesparateFederalenvironmentaleffortsorganizationanddirection,butbecause,"the1970'sabsolutelymustbetheyearswhen Americapaysitsdebttothepastbyreclaimingthepurityofitsair,itswatersandourlivingenvironment.Itisliterallynowornever."NEPAestablishedintheExecutiveOfficeofthePresidentaCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality (CEQ), chargedwithresponsibilitytostudytheconditionoftheNation'senvironment,todevelopnewenvironmentalprogramsandpolicies,tocoordinatethewidearrayofFederalenvironmentalefforts,toseethatallFederalactivitiestakeenvironmentalconsiderationsintoaccountandtoassistthePresidentinassessingenvironmentalproblemsandindeterminingwaystosolvethem.ToensurethatenvironmentalamenitiesandvaluesaregivensystematicconsiderationequaltoeconomicandtechnicalconsiderationsintheFederaldecision-makingprocess,NEPArequireseachFederalagencytoprepareastatementofenvironmental pactinadvanceofeachmajoraction, recommendation orreportonlegislationthatmaysignifciantlyaffectthequalityofthehumanenvironment.Suchactionsmayincludenewhighwayconstruction,harbordredgingorfilling,nuclearpowerplantconstruction,large-scaleaerialpesticidespraying,riverchanneling,newjetrunways,munitionsdisposal,bridgeconstructionandmore.AnEnvironmentalImpactStatementistheheartofaFederaladministrativeprocessdesignedtoensureachievementofnationalenvironmentalgoals.Eachstatementmustassessindetailthepotentialenvironmentalimpactofaproposedaction,andallFederalagenciesarerequiredtoprepare statements formattersundertheirjurisdiction.Asearlyinthedecision-makingprocessaspossible,andinallcasespriortoagencydecision,anagencypreparesadraftstatementforreviewbyappropriateFederal,Stateandlocalenvironmentalagenciesaswellasthepublic.Aftercommentfromtheagenciesandinterestedparties,thestatementispreparedinfinalformincorporatingallcommentsandobjectionsreceived on thedraftandindicationhowsignificantissuesraisedduringthe commenting processhavebeenresolved.Bothdraftandfinalstatementaremadeavailabletothepublic.Thestatement'sprimarypurposeistodisclosetheenvironmentalconsequencesofaproposedaction,thusalertingtheagencydecision-maker,thepublicandultimatelyCongressandthePresidenttotheenvironmentalrisksinvolved.AnimportantandintendedconsequenceofthisistobuildintoaFederalagency'sdecision-makingprocessacontinuingconsciousnessofenvironmentalconsiderations.This,inturn,ensurestothefullestextentpossiblethattheagencydirectsitspolicies,plans,andprogramssoastomeetnationalenvironmentalgoals.

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III. MAMMOTH CAVEAREAEISBACKGROUNDTheplanning,designandconstructionofwastewatertreatmentfacilitiesareguidedbytwopiecesofFederallegislation:TheCleanWaterActandtheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct.AsprovidedinSection201oftheCleanWaterAct,theFederalgovernmentwillfundapproximately75%oftheeligiblecostsfortheplanning,designandconstructionofwastewatertreatmentfacilities.UndertheprovisionsoftheAct,theKentuckyDepartmentforNaturalResourcesandEnvironmentalProtectionisresponsibleforthedesignationofwastewaterfacilitiesplanningareasinKentucky.Inthecaseofthisproject,theplanningareaincludesthemunicipalitiesofMunfordville,HorseCave,CaveCityandParkCityaswellasportionsofMammothCaveNationalPark.Becauseoftheuniquegeologicconditionsinthestudyareaandpotentialenvironmentalsensitivitiesandimpactsassociatedwithcurrentandproposedwastewaterfacilities,EPAdecidedthatthepreparationofanEIS wasnecessary.ThenoticeofintenttopreparetheEIS wasissuedinOctober1977. The EISstudyareaoccupiesaconsiderableportionoftheareawidelyknownasthe"CentralKentuckyKarst".AsischaracteristicoftheCentralKentuckyKarst,theterrainofthestudyareaisgentlyrollingandpittedwithsinkholeswhilethesubsurfacecontainsa complexstructureoflimestonecavesandfreeflowinggroundwaters.Thearea'suniquegeologicalfeaturesareofnationalinterestandprovidetheareawithastrongtouristattractionattheNationalParkandotherlocalprivatecaves.Withregardtowastewatermanagement,theuniquetopographyandresourcesoftheMammothCaveareademandspecialattention.ThecavesandpassagesalongtheGreenRiverandundertheKarstPlainarehydrologicallycomplex.Asresources,theyaresubjecttopressuresforuseorpotentialmisuseasisanysurfaceterrainfeatureorwatercourse.However,sincetherearenosurfacestreamsinorconvenientlynearexistingpopula tion centers,theoptionsforwastewatertreatment anddisposalinthisareaarealreadylimited.Theidentificationanddevelopmentofthemostenvironmentally-soundandcost-effectivewastewatermanagementsystemisthecentralissueofthisEIS.Thiseffort,however,cannotbecarriedoutindependentlyofotherinterrelatedissuesthatmustallbeconsidered.ISSUES1.ExistingWastewaterManagement -ForthepurposeoftheEIS,thereare5majorpopulationcentersinthestudyarea.TheseincludethemunicipalitiesofMunfordville(1975populationof1,233),HorseCave (1975populationof2,06B),CaveCity(1975populationof l,blB) andParkCity(1975population576),andtheproposedstagingareaoftheMammothCaveNationalPark.WiththeexceptionofParkCity,thesepopulationcentersmaintainandoperatewastewater87treatmentfacilities.ThedisposaltechniquepracticedbyMunfordvilleand Mammoth CaveNationalParkissurfacewaterdischargetotheGreenRiver.TreatedeffluentisdisposedofinHorseCave and CaveCity,however,bydirectdischargetoadjacentsinkholes.Additionally.severalprivatelyownedtreatmentplantsare'locatedthroughoutthestudyarea.Mostofthesesmallwastewatertreatmentplantshaveeitheradirectorindirectdischargetogroundwater.Thoseareasnotservicedbymunicipalorprivatetreatmentanddisposalfacilities.includingParkCity,employon-lottreatment sub-surfacedisposaltechniques. Becausetheenvironmentofthecavesissomewhatnaturallyprotected.thenaturalprocessesofoxidation.bacterialactionanddecaythatservetorestoresurfaceenvironments.operatevery'slowlyornotatall.The Caveenvironmentisthereforeverysensitivetointrusionfromsurficialpollutants.Directthreatstothecavesinclude:(1)lossofscenicvalueduetocontaminationofthecaveenvironmentbypollutants.(2) damagetorareandsensitiveaquaticandterrestriallife forms, and(3)damagetomineraldepositsandotherspecialfeatures.Existingwastewaterdisposalpracticesarecurrentlyimpactingthearea'sextensivenetworkoflimestonecavepassagesandfreeflowinggroundwaters knd couldposeathreatto the waterqualityinthecavesystemsoftheNationalPark.Thesethreatstothecavesandtheparkaremagnifiedbecauseofthenecessitytomaintainthesensitiveenvironmentalbalancethatisrequiredfortheprotectionandpreservationoftheseresources.2.CaveResourcesTheunderlyingthemethatisbasictotheconductoftheErsisthattheprovisionofwastewatermanagementservicesshouldbecompatiblewitheffortstopreserveandprotectthearea'snationallysignificantcavesystemandphysical.biologicalandhistoricalresources.Inthisregard.themostimportantscenic.recreationalandwildernessresourcesoftheCentralKentuckyKarstarethecaves.TheFlintMammothCaveSystemaloneextendsforover230milesandistheworld'slongestcave.Numerousothercavesareasignificantscenicandrecreationalresource.3.SubsurfaceHydrologyThelinkbetweenexistingwastewaterdisposalpracticesandthecavesis understood when thesub-surfacewaterarrangementisexplored.OtherthantheGreenRiver,therearefewsurfacestreamsinthestudyareabecauseofthehydrologicconditionsassociatedwiththeKarstgeology.SurfacerunofffromthehigherelevationsflowsnorthtowardtheGreenRiver.sinksatthesouthandeastmarginofthesinkholeplainandthenformscavestreams.AsthesesubsurfacestreamscontinuetoflowtotheGreenRiver.theyarealsofedbyrunoffintosinkholesanddirectinfiltration.Thus,inthestudyareathereareno sur facetributariestotheGreenRiver.TheGreenRiver,infact.isthehydrologicalbase fortheregionandreceivesallgroundwater fromthestudyarea.

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Theundergrounddrainageinthekarstareasfollowswell-definedflowpathswhichcouldbeconsideredundergroundstreams.Thesestreamsof water caninsomeinstancesbefollowedfordistancesofmilesandoftenappearoncave as"rivers".Thecontinuityofthesestreamsisdocumentedbydyetracingwhichshowsthattherearedistinctflowpathsconnectingthepointswhere.dyeisinjectedandwhereitisdetected.Extensivedye-tracinginvestigationsbytheNationalParkServiceoverthepast5yearshasresultedintheproductionofmapsdetailingsubsurfacedrainagebasins.Generally,theseinvestigationshaveshownthattwoofthemajorbasins,theTurnholeSpringBasinand aportionoftheBearWallowBasin,theHiddenRiverSub-basin,areofmostrelevancetotheEIS.TurnholeSpringBasinhasitsheadwatersinthegroupofspringsandsinkingstreamssouthofParkCity,continuesinanorthwesterndirectionthroughtheParkandresultsinadischargetotheGreenRiveratTurnholeSpring.Theeasternandnortherndividesoftheboundaryarecomplex andtheactualdefinitionoftheboundaryandflowordrainagepatternsdependsupontheflowstagesoftheundergroundstreamnetwork.TheHiddenRiverSub-basinoccupiesmostoftheremainingeasternportionofthestudyarea.TheheadwatersofthebasinarethesinkingstreamssouthofCaveCityand Horse Cave. ThedischargetotheGreenRiveristhroughadistributarysystemofapproximately39springsat14locationsovera5milereach.4.FinancialImpactsEffortstodevelopwastewatermanagementsystemsthatarecompatiblewiththearea'ssensitivenaturalresourcesmustalsoconsiderthelocaleconomicconditionandtheabilityofthecommunitytopayforanenvironmentallysound manage mentsystem.Theentirestudyareahasformanyyearshadaneconomydominatedbyagricultureoragriculturally employment.However,agricultureas'afocalpointofemploymentinthestudyareahasgivenwaytomanufacturingasthemajoremployer.Althoughtheareahasbeenchangingitseconomicbase from dependenceuponagriculturetoincreasingdependenceonmanufacturingandtourismrelatedservices,theareacontinuestosufferfromhighunemployment andlowpercapitaincomes.Unemploy mentdata for 1975andincomedatafor1969 for the3countystudyarearevealsthatthestudyareaissub-parwithregardtobothstateorregionalandnationalfiguresforbothareas.Incomedataisa goodindicatorofacommunity'seconomicstatusandreflectstheincomeproducingcategoryofanarea.Therelativelylowmedianfamilyincomeofthestudyareaisindicativeofthecapitalproducingabilityofagriculture,manufacturingandtourismrelatedservices.Incomedataisalsotheyardstickagainstwhichacommunity'sabilitytofundawastewatermanagementsystemiscompared.5.AlternativesAspreviouslydiscussed,wastewatermanagementin88thestudyareaispresentlyhandledlocallybyeachpopulationcenter.Potentialeconomicand/orenvironmentalconcernsmay,however,encouragetwoormorepopulationcenterstocombinewastewaterforjointtreatmentand/ordisposal.ThroughthedevelopmentandevaluationofalternativesintheEISprocess,eightmanagementalternativesrangingfrom aregionalmanagementconceptofjointtreatment/disposalbyallpopulationcentersexceptMunfordvilletolocaltreatmentanddisposalofwastewaterateachpopulationcenterhavebeengenerated.Thebasisfortheevaluationofthesealternativesisthecost-effectivenessanalysis.Thecosteffectivenessanalysisprovidesamethodforgaugingtheoverallresourcecostsofanalternativesincefactorsotherthanmonetarycostareconsidered.Thecriteriathatareinvolvedintheanalysisinclude,netpresentworthcosts,impactsonthenaturaland man-madeenvironmentsandsystemoperability.6.RecentIssuesInAugust1979,therangeofEISalternativeswaspresentedtoalocalreviewcommittee.ItwastheopinionofthemajorityofcommitteemembersthatanalternativeinvolvingtheremovalofexistingsubsurfacewastewaterdischargeswouldbemostbeneficialtotheareaandshouldbeselectedastheEISproposedaction.Duringthemeeting,particularattentionwasgiventoaregionalsystemwhichwouldinvolvewastewatertreatmentfacilitiesatParkCity,theParkService'sproposedStagingArea,Gave City andHorseGave.Wastewaterwouldbetreatedatthesefacilities,combined anddischargedtotheGreenRiver.Althoughthisalternativewasthemostexpensive,itwasconsideredtobeanenvironmentallysuperiorproposal.Giventhedirectionthatwasreceivedfromthecommittee,theattentionofEPAwasthenfocusedontheregionalsystemalternative.Twomajorproblemsimmediatelysurfaced:(1)thehighercost,and(2)'thelackof.a managementagencytoimplementtheplan.First,withrespecttocost,theregionalsystemalternativewasconsideredtobethemostcostlyalternativewithanetpresentworthcostofapproximately$10.6million.(Theleastcostlyal whichinvolvedlocaldisposalateachpopulationcenterwasestimatedtoresultinanetpresentworthof$6.5million.)Inordertomoreproperlydescribeandunderstandeconomicimpactsofalternativesystems.,itisnecessarytotranslatethesecostsintousercharger--themonthlyorannualcosttousersofthesystem.Indoingso,itbecameobviousthatcostsincurredtoprovideservicetopreviouslyunseweredareas(ParkCityandalongRoute70)wereextremelyhigh.Thesecostsweresohigh,infact,thattheviabilityofaregionalsystemwasjeopardized.EvenwiththeapplicationofEPA75-85%fundingofeligiblewastewaterfacilities,"anannualuserchargefortheParkCityareaapproximated$800.AnnualuserchargesforresidentsofHorseCave and CaveCityweresignificantlylessthantheestimatesfor.ParkCity,althoughusercharges

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wereexpectedtoalmostdoublefromcurrentlevels.Severalmechanisms to minimizetheeconomicimpactofaregionalwastewatermanagementsystemwereexplored.QuestionsconcerningfundingsourcestosupplementEPAandthelocalsharesoftheprojectcostandattemptstoamendexistingpoliciestofundfacilitiesnotpreviouslyfundedthroughtheEPA201GrantProgram havenotyetbeenresolved.Theviabilityandsuccessfulimplementationofaregionalalternativemay, however,restuponthesuccessfulresolutionoftheseissues.Thesecondproblemassociatedwitharegionalsystemthatwasquicklyidentifiedwasthatofimplementationand management.Severaldifferentman agementapproachesarebeinglookedatwithapplicationtothisarea.Ifnecessary,thesemanage mentapprocaheswillbediscussedlocally,followingtheselectionofanalternative.Anotherproblemthatwasrecognizedduringthistimeframethathasresultedinasubstantialdelayinvolvestheverydifficulttaskofdevelopingwasteloadallocationsforsubsurfacedischargesinthearea.Awaste10adallocationisthedeterminationofthepollutantloadthatawastewaterdischargemaycontainthatwouldensurethatthereceivingwaterswould meetinstreamwaterqualitystandards.InKentucky,itistheresponsibilityoftheDepartmentforNaturalResources'and EnvironmentalProtection,todevelopwasteloadallocationsforwatersoftheCommonwealth. AtthetimeoftheEISevaluationofalternatives,wasteloadallocationsforsubsurfacedischargesintheareahadnotbeendeveloped.ForthepurposesoftheEIS,itwasnecessarytoindependentlyestablishtreatmentlevelsforthevariousproposedfacilitiesinordertoevaluatecost,etc.TheEISevaluationofalternativesdid,therefore,containvarioustreatmentlevelsbasedonroughassimilativecapacityestimates.Theseestimates,however,cannotbesubstitutedforthewasteloadallocationswhicharetobedevelopedbyDNREP.TheconsequenceofthissituationisthatEPAis'unabletoselectanEISproposedactionbecausethebasisforanydecisionhasnotbeencompletelydeveloped.Stateddifferently,'theproblemisthis:wasteloadallocationsforsubsurfacedischargesneedtobe,developedtodeterminetheleveloftreatmentrequiredtomeetin-streamwaterqualitystandards.Theleveloftreatmentthatisrequiredisneededtodeterminethecostofwastewatermanagementalternatives.Thecostofthevariousalternativesisthemajorfactorinthecosteffectivenessanalysisofalternatives.Thecosteffectivenessanalysis,inturn,isusually giveQ agreatdealofweightinthedecisionprocess.Thekey,atthispointintime,totheEISdecisionprocessisthereforethedevelopmentofwasteloadallocationsforsupsurfaceprocessdischarges.Asofthisdate,preliminarywasteloadallocationshavebeendevelopedandareintheprocessofbeingrefinedandfinalized.Additionally,tworecentdevelopmentsthatareperipherallyrelatedtotheEISmayeventuallybecomeimportantintheEISanddecisionstobemade. developmentsinclude:(1) arequestto list theKentuckycave shrimp ontheU.S.Departmentofthe,Interior'sEndangered f:pecies List,and (2) arequesttodesignatesubsurfacewatersinthestudy asKentuckyOutstandingResourceWaters.TheFishandWildifeService, DeJBr tmentoftheInteriorissuedanadvancednoticeofaproposaltolisttheKentucky cave shrimp asanendangeredorthreatenedspecies.'Theimpactofthisproposaland anysubsequentlistingontheEISisunknownatthistime.If,however,thespeciesislistedasanendangeredspeciesotherfederalagenciesmustformallyconsultwiththeFishandWildlifeServiceonallactionstakenthatmayaffectthelistedspeciesorcriticalhabitatthatsupportsthespecies.TherequesttotheKentuckyDNREPtodesignatethesubsurfacewatersoftheareaasoutstandingresourcewatersisauthorizedunderSection8ofKentucky'sSurfacewaterstandards(401KAR5:031).Thissectionindicatesthatanypersonmaypresentaproposaltoclassifycertainwatersasoutstandingresourcewaters.The Kentucky DNREP willevaluatetheproposalandconsider:(1)existingwaterquality;(2)currentuse;(3)aesthetic,biological,morphologicalandhabitatcharacteristicsofthewaters;(4)occurrenceofindividualsorpopulations,indicesofdiversityandwell-being,andabundanceofspeciesofanyuniquebiota;(5)economic andsocialcousequencesoftheproposedclassification;(5)otherjustificationgivenfortheproposedclassification.Twoquestions,withrespecttoanydesignation,areimportanttotheEIA--(1)whatwillbethegeographicscopeofanydesignation?and(2)whatusecriteriawillbeestablishedtosupplementanoutstandingresourceswaterdesignation?Again,asofthisdate,thesequestionsareunanswered andtheimpactoftheseactionsupontheEIAselectedactionand EISprocessingeneralisunknown. WHAT HAPPENSNEXT?Asnotedabove,thekeytotheEISdecision at thispointisthedevelopmentofwasteloadallocationsforsubsurfacewastewaterdischarges.WithoutthisinformationtheEISwillnotbeabletoproceed.,Theproblemofdevelopingwasteloadallocationsforthesesubsurfacedischargesiscompounded bytheendangeredspeciesandoutstandingresourcewateractions.The outcomeoftheseactionswillundoubtedlyaffectanyeffortsordecisionsconcerningwasteloadallocations.Severalpossiblecourses of actionappeartobeavailabletoresolvethisproblem--manyofwhichwillundoubtedlybetimeconsuming. Theactionswhichmustnecessarilybe priortoEPA'sselectionofawastewatermanagementsystemareactionsthatareoccurringoutsiQeofEPA's immediatecontrol.EPAisincontactwiththeFederalandStateagencies,organizationsandindividualsinvolvedinthedevelopmentofapplicablewasteloadallocationsforsubsurfacedischarges,theproposaltolisttheKentuckycaveshrimpasanendangeredorthreatenedspeciesandtherequestandactiontodesignatesubSurfacewatersoftheareaasOutstandingResourceWaters. l'he EISwillbeaffectedbytheoutcomeofoneoralloftheseactivities.EffortswillbemadetoencouragetheseactivitiestobecompletedexpeditiouslytoallowEPAtofulfillitsNEPAresponsibilitiesandtheEISprocesstoreachasuccessfulconclusion.89

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ItisevidentthatmanyofthedecisionstobemadeintheMammothCaveAreaEISdecisionprocessmaybebeyondthepurviewofEPAtoexecute.Irrespectiveofdecisionresponsibility,the ob jectivesofaproposedactionshouldnotbelost.Theissueathandiswastewatermanagement.Ultimately,however,theconcernisfortheprotectionandpreservationofanationalresourcethroughprudentwastewatermanagementplanninganddecision-making.Inthespiritofpreservationandenvironmentalprotection,areasonableapproachthataffordsthegreatestdegreeofprotectionandyetissensitivetolocalfiscalconcernsshouldbepursued.90Thisareahasalreadybeenvictimizedbypoorwastewatermanagement.Solutionstotheseproblemswilltakebothtimeandmoney. However,ifthecommitmenttoresolvetheseproblemsisnotmade.thepotentialexistsfortheuniqueresourcesoftheareatobeirreparabledamagedwithpossiblerepercussionstobefeltbythearea'stouristindustryandlocaleconomy.Thelocalcommunities.inconcertwiththeStateandFederalgovernments.mustbeabletomakethecommitmentandinvestmentthatisrequiredtoprotectandpreservetheinvaluableresourcesofthisarea.

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INTERPRETIVESHOWCAVETRAININGPERSONNELFOR*TomAleyandCathyAleyWe n.eed :to con.vey.i..detU>,w:tmeJl.e.iy6ac:t6. Factsareboring,sleepproducing,andtendtonotstickinourminds.Ideas,ontheotherhand,canbeinterestingandcontagious.Whyisit,then,thatthetypicalshowcavetoursubmergesthevisitorinfactsratherthanideas?Partoftheproblemmaybelackoftimeorinexperienceonthepartoftheguide.Theguidemusttietogetherfactstodevelopandsupporthisideas,andthisrequirestime,effort,and a goodunderstandingofthecave.Wecanhelpovercometheseproblemsthroughtraining;ideascanbedevelopedfor,andgivento,theguide. Many guides,eventhoughtheyhavebeengiveninterpretiveideaswhichtheycoulduse,arelikelytobefoundspielingfactsratherthangivingideastovisitors.Anexplanationfor this isthatmanyguides.have adifficulttimedistinguishingbetweenfactsandideas,andlistingsoffactspredominateoverthediscussionofideas.Ideasareillusive,andtheyslipaway,leavinguswithnothingbutfacts.Iftheman agementofacaveoperationisconvincedthattheir tours shouldfocusonideasratherthanfacts,then-theyneedtoperiodicallyassurethatthisisbeingdone.Wehaverunaseriesoftrainingprogramsforreturningguidesatseveralshowcaves.Wehavefoundthata goodtechniquetouseip.our"refreshercourse"istogointhecavewithagroupofguidesandask each .guidetoshowusatleastoneofhisstopsandtotelluswhat hetalksabout.Ifwegetarecitationoffacts,wewillusuallyrespondbyaskingthegroupwhatideas,inadditiontothefactsthathavebeenlisted,couldguidesconveyatthisstop,andwhatfactscouldbeusedtodeveloptheseideas.Bytheendofahalf-daysessioninthecave,ideasratherthanlistingsof facts,seem topredominateineveryone'sanswers.Discussions.oftengetlively,andtheguidesarereintroducedtotheconceptofcoriveyingideas.Twocriticalideastoconveytovisitorsatshow 1.Visitingcavesisaveryworthwhileexperience.2. thiscaveisverynice;I'llhavetocome*Directors,Ozark Underground Laboratory,Protem,Missouri573391back somet:!JDe,. andmyfriendsreallyoughttovisitheretoo.Ifthemajorityofvisitorstoshowcavestooktheseideaswiththemaftertheirvisit,webelievethatshowcaveswould doanoutstandingbusiness.However,visitorstomost show cavesleavewithneitheroftheseimpressions. How, tbencan we implanttheseideasinourvisitors?Thefirstthingweneedtodoisinsurethattheentirestaffrecognizesthatgivingthevisitorsthesetwoideasisamajorobjectiveofthecave'smanagement.Second,managementneedstoregularlyreinforcethisobjective.Third, managelEnt of the showcave must givevisitorsanexperience which istrulyveryworthwhile.Whyshouldvisitingthiscave,orcavesingeneral,beaworthwhileexperience?Visitingcavesgivespeopleadeeperlookattheearthonwhich they live.Such alookisrelevantto lIIaDy ofthewaterand enviroIJJDental problemspresentlyfacingthisnation.Weareconvincedthatoneofthegreatestassetsofcavesistheirdisplayofnaturalfeaturesandnaturalprocesseswhichhavesignificantimpactsonourdaytodayactivitiesonthesurface.Weareconvincedthatthisassetisseldomeffectivelyusedatshowcaves.Bothvisitorsandtheshowcaveindustryarehurtbythefailuretousethisresource.Visitingcavesisalsoaworthwhileexperiencebecauseitisfun.Itshouldbeenjoyable,andweshouldworktomakesurethatitis.However,webelievethereisaserioustrapforshowcaveshere;visitorstoshowcavesshouldnotleavewiththeideathatcavesareworthwhileprimarilybecausetheyarefun.Whenthisoccurs,thevisitorislikelytoequateshowcavesstrictlywiththeamusementindustry.The amusementindustryis con tinuallyexpandingandchangingwithmyriadsofnewthingstosee,do,and experience. By cOIIIpari son,cavesareverystaticamusementattractions.Thestaticfeaturesinafrenziedindustryshouldbeexpectedtoholdanevery-decreasingshareofthattotalindustry;itseemstousthatthisisexactlywhatishappeningintheshowcaveindustry.Showcaveshavethepotentialforblendingalearningexperiencerelevanttoourdaytodayliveswithentertainment.Apartofthatrelevantlearningexperienceisfindingoutthatonceyouhaveseenonecaveyouhavenotineffectseenthemall.Ifshowcavescanachieveablendingoflearningandentertainment,weareconvincedthatvisiting

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caves willgenerallybeviewedbythepublicasaveryworthwhileexperience.Atpresent,wedonotbelievethatthisisthepublicattitude;ifweareright,thenalotofworkneedstobedone.GuidetrainingMuchofthedaytodayburdenofmaking showcavevisitationaworthwhileexperiencerestswith"theguides.Trainingcanmakeitpossibleforguidestomake a showcavevisitaworthwhileexperience.Itisanecessaryandimportantfirststep,butwehavenoillusionthatgoodtrainingalonewillinsurethattheguidedoesa goodjob.Theguidetrainingprogramswhichweconductaredesignedtogivetheguideideaswhichhecanuseonhistours.Weshowhowspecificfactscanbeusedtosupportorfill-outtheideas.Withreturningorcontinuingguides,wetryandmakesurethathis"facts"aretechnicallyaccurate.Mostguidesdonotrealizehowimportanttheirjobis.Theytendtoviewguidingasjustanotherjob;ajobwithaboutthesamestatusassellingBigMacsorpumpinggas.Inourtrainingprogramsweimpressupontheguidethatguidingisnotjustanotherjob.Weemphasizethattheinformationtheygivevisitorsisrelevanttothevisitors'daytodaylives,andthatwelldonetourscando agreatdealofgood.Guidingcanalsogivepeopletremendousexperienceincommunicatingwithothers.Guidingisimportantwork,andtheguideneedstoknowit:healsoneedstohaveotherpeoplerecognizetheimportanceofhiswork.Wealsogiveguidessome h1epinavoidingboredom. ThearticlebyAustinandChaney (1977)isthecruxofthisfacetofourtraining.Thereadershouldconsultthisfinepaper.Theoldplatitudethat"everybodylovesalover"isapplicabletocaveguiding,andweconveythisinourtrainingprogram.Iftheguidethinksthatthecaveisveryniceandtheexperienceveryworthwhile,chancesarethatmostvisitorswill thesamethingaftertheirtrip.Oneofthebestcavetourswehaveeverhadwas fromanoldwomanwhoowned RoundSpringCaverns.Afterchasingthegeeseoutofthegarden,shespentfourhoursinhercavewithus.Shewentthroughthecavelikemostofuswouldgothroughatrunkfulloffamiliar,butlong-unseen,heirlooms.Itwas atotallymarvellousexperience.92Wetrytoinsurethattheguideappreciatesthecaveinwhichheisworking.Weopenlyadmirethefeaturesofthecaveasweconductthetraining,andweencouragetheguidestodolikewisewhentheyareleadingtours.Guidesneedtorealizethatmostvisitorsneedhelpinrecognizingfeaturesworthyofadmiration.Wealsoencouragetheguidetoalwaysbelookingforcavefeatureswhichhehasnevernoticedbefore:discoveryhelpscombatrepetitiveness.Andfinally,wetelltheguidetolookatandadmireafeatureforafewmomentsbeforehebeginstotalkaboutit;thishelpstheguideappreciatethefeaturebetter.ThetrainingdilemaUltimately,thequalityoftheexperiencewhichavisitortoa showcavereceivesislargelyareflectionoftheinterest,skill,andknowledgeofhisguide.Trainingprogramscanhelpprovidetheknowledgeandskill,andcanoftenimproveaguide'sinterestinhisjob.Unfortunately,theaverageguideataprivate show cavewillspendlessthan1,100hoursworking un dergroundasacaveguide.Economicconsiderationsarecommonlythereasonforprovidingonlyveryfundamentalguidetraining.Canthetypicalshowcaveaffordtoprovidegoodtraining?Thesolutiontothisdilemaismadeannuallybythemanagementofshowcaves:itappearstousthatimprovedguidetrainingisthetrend.ReferencesAustin,W.T. andT.Chaney.1977.Boredominparadise;ahardlookatcaveguidetraining.Nat'1.Cave Management Symp.Proc.fromtheMountainView,ArkansasSymp.,Oct.,1976.pp.54-58.

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GUIDETRAININGATMAMMOTHCAVE*LewisD.CutliffIntroductionNATIONALPARKB.IntroductionFormalTraining"Howwonderfultobewise,tounderstandthings,tobeabletoanalyzethem andinterpretthem.Wisdomlightsup aman'sface,softeningitshardness"Ecclesiastes8:1."Whenpeoplearefreetodoastheyplease,theyusuallyimitateeachother."E.HofferForyearsthisisexactlywhathappenedatMammoth Cave. Sons andbrothers,nephews andcousinsfollowedinthefootstepsoftheirancestorsintothecave,parrotingthesamestories,jokesandlegendshandeddownfromgenerationtogeneration.Trainingofnewguidesconsistedofaccompanyingaseasonedguideon aparticularrouteorsectionofthecaveforthreeyearsbeforehe waspermittedtobecome aleadguide.Thissystemoftrainingprevaileduntilthemidfiftieswithlittleattemptmadetochangethestandardcannedspeechesoffacts,figures,andstalejokes.RayNelson,whobecameassistantChiefInterpreterin1957,shouldbecreditedwithbringingaboutthefirstmajorchangewhen hecompileda newguidemanualandintroducedtheguidestoFreemanTilden'swritingsinthebook,InterpretingOurHeritage.Healsoinsistedonin-housetrainingduringslackperiodswithemphasisonDramaticInterpretation,or"drammer" as hecalledit.ThiswasthefetalstageatMammoth Caveinformalinterpretivetraining. Feom ithasgrowntheintensivetrainingcourseswhichwenowholdforourpermanentandseasonalguides.Everywintersince1977,MammothCavehasheldInterpretiveSkillsorBasicCommunicationcourses,in-parkforallinterpretersintheParkand fromotherparksaswell.Theyareconductedby aprofessorinspeechcommunications.II.HistoryMammothCaveTrainingA.Earlytraining1.Families--legends--stories--jokes2.Trailed3yearsbeforeguiding CaveNationalPark,MammothCave,Ky.42259931.RayNelson1957a.Wintertrainingb.IntroducedtoFreemanTildenandreading.c.Newguidemanual-examples,etc.d.Moreupdatedinformation--Biology-Archaeology--Geology--HistoryC.Training today--how doweattaintraining1.ThroughHFCorHOAL(SV. TR.CIR.)orthroughcivilservicetraining.2.In-park(gearedspecificallytoourneeds,caveinterpretation--usingbasiccommunicationskills).1977-ThematicInterpretation-InterpretiveSkills1978-ThematicInterpretation-InterpretiveSkills1979-EnergyInterpretation-InterpretiveSkills198G-Thematic andEnergy-VideoPackage3.Formata.Seasonal-Basicinterpretationskillsaswellasareaorientationandserviceorientationb.Comm.Spec.insUllllller--continuallyworkingwithseasonalsD.Seasonals1.Whoaretheyandhowdowegetthem.a.Changingrawrecruitintoa communicator(manydisciplines-backgrounds)maybeawalkingbookofknowledgebutunlessabletostimulateorprovQkethevisitorheisnotaneffectivecommunicator.(3weeks)Aworkableproduct.2.Complex Hiring Procedure

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Wefeelthatweareontherighttrackinourtrainingprogrambutmustalsobeawarethatthereisalwaysroomforimprovement.IthinkFreemanTilden'sstatementinthefifthessenceshouldbeconstantreminderforthoseofusconcernedwithcommunicatingwiththevisitor94whenhesaid,"Interpretationisavoyageofdiscoveryinthefieldofhumanemotionsandintellectualgrowth,anditishardtoforeseethattimewhentheinterpretercanconfidentlysay,'Nowwearewhollyadequatetoourtask.,It

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INTERPRETATION*JoeWagonerATMAMMOTHCAVEEditor'sNote:Thefollowingoutlinereflectsthegeneralthemeofromanticinterpretationcurrentlybeingemphasizedat Mammoth CaveNationalPark.Inaddition,interpretationat Mammoth Caveincludesliteratureforforeignvisitorsandactivitiesandprogramsforspecialpopulationssuchasthehearingimpaired,theblind,andpersonsconfinedtowheelchairs.AspecialEnvironmentalEducationTeamisalsoactivebothabove andbelowgroundinterpretingparkfeaturestochildren and special.groups.-RCW III.Classicist(occidental)versus romanti cist(oriental).A.Occidental.1Allthingsarepreordained.2.Purposebehindeachthing.3.Mankindisthemasterofnature.4.Allthingsplacedonearth priJllarily forhisuse.B.Oriental.1.TIlereisnoreason.2.Thingsare,justbecausetheyare.3. Mankind isapartnerinnature.4. Mankind isanintegralpartof his surroundings.IV.Organization:''Wetrainedhard--butitseemedthateverytimewewerebeginningtoform upintoteamswewouldbereorganized.I wastolearnlaterinlifethatwetendtomeetanynewsituationbyreorganizing:and awonderfulmethoditcanbeforcreatingtheillusionofprogresswhileproducing confusion, inefficiencyanddemoralization."-PetroniusArbiter210 B.C.I.Thetriadicconfigurationofinterpretation.A. Theunderlyingform:thebasicfactsastheyarepresumedtobeandassetforthby asupposedauthority.B.Theclassicalform:understandingandrelatingbasicfactsinlanguage(s)understandablewhenpresentedtotheuninformed.C.Theromanticform:relatingtotheuninformedthestoryintimatedbyone'sunderstandingofthebasicfacts--anddoingsoinsuchawayastobeasinterestingandentertainingaspossible.II.Classicalversusromanticform.A.Classicalform. .1. Atechnologist.fortechnology'ssake.2.Usestechnologytofullest.3.Understandstechnology.4.Cancopewithtechnologicalbreakdown.5.Knowsthattechnologycanandwillsolveourproblems..6.Willnotreadilygiveuphis/hertechnology.B. Romanticform.1.Non-technologist;learyoftechnology2.Usestechnologybecauseitisthrustonhim/her.3.Has nounderstandingoftechnology.4.Cannotcopewithtechnologicalbreakdown.5.Believestechnology solveour lems.6.Mightgiveup some formsoftechnology.*ChiefInterpreter, Mammoth CaveNationalPark, Mammoth Cave,Kentucky 4225995v.Wagoner'shyPothesis:Inanygiveninterpretivetask,itisthegoaloftheinterpretertoprovidethevisitorwithonevalid and importantpointwhichisrelatabletothevisitor'sdailylife.And,theinterpretershouldstrivetodosoinasinterestingandasentertaininga wayasispossible.

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PANELDISCUSSION:MANAGEMENTPROBLEMSPARTICIPANTSOFPRIVATECAVESW.T.AustinMammothOnyxCaveBox572HorseCave,KY42749WesOdIeCrystalOnyxCavePark,Inc.Route2 CaveCity,KY42127ClaraHeidemannNaturalBridgeCavernsRt.3,Box 515NaturalBridgeCaverns,TX78218RonBurkeRubyFallsRt.4,ScenicHighwayChattanooga,TN37409BarbaraMunson CumberlandCavernsRt.9,Box106McMinnville,TN37110 TimAndersonLakeShastaCavernsP.O.Box801O'Brien,CA96070SteveFairchildBoydenCavernP.O.Box959 Murphys,CA95247 Vernon McDaniel DiamondCavernsRoute1ParkCity,KY42160 DavidCaleLaurelCavernsBox10,Rt.1Farmington,PA15437JoeWaggoner TheLostSea,Inc.Rt.2,LostSeaPikeSweetwater,TN37874RichardC.BellSenecaCavernsBelleview,OH44811Editors'Note:AustinandCalesubmittedwrittencommentsforinclusionhere.Theremainderofthisdiscussion was editedfrom atranscript(by DonnaK.Wilson)ofatapesuppliedbyHarryHeidemann.-R.C.W. andJ.J.L.Moderator:.I'dliketointroduceBillAustin,oftheNationalCaveAssociation,whowillintroducethepanelforthediscussionwe'regoingtohaveonManagementProblemsofPrivateCaves.Austin:Wehaveaprettygoodcollectionofprivatecaveoperatorshere.A fewaresoshytheyareintheaudience.I wouldliketoidentifyTomandCathyAleyfromtheOzarkUndergroundLaboratory;GordonSmithfrom MarengoCave,Indiana;Vernon McDaniel from DiamondCaverns,Kentucky;RonBurke,fromRubyFalls,Tennessee;DickBellfromSenecaCaverns,Ohio;SteveFairchildfrom Boydan,andmanyothercaves,inCalifornia;ClaraHeidemann fromNaturalBridgeCaverns,Texas;JoeWaggoner,LostSea,Tennessee;TimAnderson,LakeShastaCaverns,California;WesOdIeofCrystalOnyx Cave,Kentucky;andDavidCalefromLaurelCaverns,Pennsylvania.ThelastmemberoftheNationalCaveOrganization,andtheonewithashortmessageforus,isBarbaraMunson,theSectetary/Treasurer.SheisassociatedwithCumberlandCaverns,Tennessee.Barbara,couldyoutellthesefolksaboutourmeetingcomingupintwo weeks?96Munson:Asyousee,wehaverepresentativesherefromallovertheUnitedStates.WearehavingourAnnualNationalCaveAssociationConventionOctober28,29,and30,inTennessee.WewillbeinSweetwatervisitingtheLostSea, .in :ChattanoogaatRubyFalls,inMcMinnvilleforCumberlandCaverns.Wewouldlovetohaveanyofyoucomejoinusforallorpartofthemeeting.Wedon'tconfineourselvestojustshowcaveproblemsandconsiderations,justasyoudon'tseemtobeconfiningyourselvesjusttowildcaves.Wehaveagreatcrossoverofinformation.Anyofyouwhowouldlikemoreinformation,pleaseseemeandI'llgiveittoyou.Thankyou.Austin:MynameisBillAustin,and IamownerandoperatorofMammothOnyxCave. IamalsoownerofHiddenRiverCave,aboutwhichyouhaveheardmuch, andtheformermanagerofFloydCollinsCrystalCave. IamthefourthgenerationofaKentuckycaveowningfamilyandthethirdgenerationofcommercialcaveoperationby-thatsamefamily.Weboughtourfirstcavein1889 andopenedourfirstcommercialtourin1916.Wehavebeeninvolvedinmanyofthecave-relatedhappeningsintheKentuckycavearea--happeningsranginginscopefromtheintroductionoftheknee-crawlertothesport,liftingthe150-year-oldmythof150milesofcaveatMammothtotherealityofmorethan200milesofcaveintheFlint-Mammoth Cavesystem,andothereventsallthe backtothedevelopment

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ofhydropower andhydroelectricproductioninHiddenRiverCaveintheearly1890's.Whatdoesallthismean?Howdoesitfitintoadiscussionofcavemanagement?ItmeansthatI grew upinthecavebusiness,andthatcavemanagementisa wayoflifeforme--andformywife,orwives,andformychildren,andformyemployees.Mymanagementofmycavealsoaffectsothersinthecaveareaforitaffectstheirincomeaswell.IfIscrewup Idon'thavetheprivilegeofpreparingthethreeenvelopeslIdamnwellhavetostayhereand workmywayoutofthemesslSoItendtothinkalotaboutthemanagementofmycave,andtheman agementofmycompetingcavesaswell.I wanttosharesomeofthesethoughtswithyouforpossiblediscussion.BuzzHummelwrotemeearlyinSeptemberaskingfora copyofmymanagementplan.Thiswasmyreply,"Wereallydon'thave aformal 1!Ianagement plan-thenameofthegameintheprivatesectorhasalwaysbeen'survival'.Accomplishingthismeansthatontheaverageyou must spendlessthanyouearn,ortrytoearnmorethanyourexpenseofoperation.Itwouldbesafetosaythatintheprivatesector,management dependsentirelyonvisitationandtheresultantcashflow.Theessentialbills,includingtaxes,arepaid,staffinglevelsadjusted,and anysurplusgoesintoadvertising----allbasedon incomeorpromiseofincome."Ibelievethatmanyofyouwhohavevisitedprivatecaveoperationswillthinktheyhave done averyworthwhilejobofpreservingthecavestheyshow--thetaskthatiscentraltomanagementofthepublic-sectorcaves.Youcanlookattheeventsbeforeandafter1961atFloydCollinsCrystalCave,forinstance,andgetadirectcomparisonofcaveprotectionunderprivateandpublicmanagement.Privatecaveoperationmustprotecttheresource--noresource,no incomeIThepointsIwishtodraw fromthisarethese:1.Privatecaveoperations,throughtheirmanagement,havehad agreatdealtoofferthepublicsectorovertheyears.Privatecaveoperationsalsopreserveandprotectcaves.2.Privatecavemanagement dependstotallyoncashflowwhichisderivedbymultiplyingthenumberofvisitorstimesthepriceofadmission.3. Thepublicsector,withoutexception,hadtraditionallyofferedcave atadmissionpricesrangingfromwellbelowtheindustryaverageoftheprivatesectortoabsolutelyridiculousfees!AtthetimeMammothCave was removed fromprivateoperation,the.basicadmissionpricewas$2.00perperson.Atthattimeyoucouldbuy a new Fordfor650dollars.In1980 youcangetatourforonedollar,thecaveadmissionpricefortheFrozenNiagaratour.ThosefriendsoftheNationalParkService,NationalParkConcessions,Inc.,getanotherdollarfortheten-minutebusride--atotaloftwodollarsfortheone and ahalfhourtour.Thisatatimewhentheprivatesectorindustryaverageisclosetofourdollarspertour.97(NOTE:A November, 1980,surveyofcaveadmissionpricesattwenty-nine National Caves Asso ciationmembercavesindicatestheaverage admis sionfeeplannedforthe1981seasonis$4.36.)Admissiontothetwo-hourhistorictour is adollarandfiftycents.Lowadmissionfees conatitute asubsidy fra-the Treasurytotheaffluentwho can affordavacation--asubsidytheyprobablydeserve,butisnotreallyfairtotherestofuswhohavetopayit. Why shouldallthepeopleinthiscountry.includingthoseofusintheprivatecavesector,contributetoassistafewtoseeapublic show caveoperation?Thoseofusintheprivatesectorhavedemonstratedthatpeople will payareasonable,profitableadmissionfee.Itismycontentionthatthepublicsectorshouldraisetheiradmissionfeestoatleast approxi matetheprivatesectorindustrylevels. This isanecessarysteptoencourageandfosterbettercavemanagementinthiscountry.Withoutityouwillsoonbeaddingtheprivatecaveoperatortothelistofendangeredspeciesyoudiscussatthesemeetings!Thoseofuswhohavebeeninvolvedincave owner shipandcavemanagementoveragreat many yearsareveryprotectiveofthecave.Wehaveit foreoureyesthatweare"inchargeof manage-ent" ofthisfeatureforonlyafragmentof initsexistence.Thistendsto make usverycarefulaboutthechangesweinflictonit.I think wedoa goodjobwhenyoucompareourrecordwiththatofthepublicsector.Weneedpublicsectorsupportintheformofrealisticadmissionpricesinordertocontinuethiseffort.I'llleaveyouwiththisthoughtwhichhasbeencreditedtoaNigeriancheiftan:"Iconceivethatlandbelongstoavastfamilyofwhichmanyaredead fewarelivingandcountlessnumbersareunborn."Helpussaveourland,andthecavestheycontain.forthecountlessnumbersunborn. Thank you.JimGoodbar: What do youthinka goodfeewouldbe? Five dollars.threedollars,twodollarsandfiftycents,oristhereageneralconsensusofwhatthefeewouldhavetobetomakeitalucrativebusinessorsomethingthatwouldsurvive?Icanspeaktothat. Some ofyoumight recei.ve somethingfrom OregonCaves,I know Ido.Whattheydoistargetdifferentprivateoperations(theyareastate-ownedcave)whichtheyfeelhaveaboutthesame numberofpeopleandthesamesizefacility.Theythenwrite every year.askforyourrates,andfortheinformationonthethingsthatyoudo.ThentheStateofOregonstructurestheadmissionfeetothatcaveontheconsensusoftheprivatefeesreceived.That's

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how theyapproachtheproblem.Goodbar(?):Arethereanykindofguidelinesfortheprivatecave owner forsettinghisfee,suchasthe velopment,beauty,orlengthoftour?Austin:Icanonlyspeakfrompersonalexperience.When we firstgotinvolvedinthecavebusiness we adoptedtheindustrystandard,which was two dollars.Thatappliednotonlyhere,butatMammothandothercaves.This was fairlyearlyon.Followingthattime we addedvarioustaxesthatcamealong.At onetime we hadafifty-fourcenttaxon a two dollaradmission,soadmission was two dollarsandfifty-fourcents.Wemaintainedthatfeefromtheverybeginningthrough1976. Economicnecessityforcedustoraiseit.Ihavebeeninsomeofthesediscussions with othercaveoperators.Idon't know anyofthemthatarerichorlucrative.Infact,Itoldthegroupatthelastmeeting,ifanybodythat was therestillhadtheirfirst wife and areasonably new car,he was probablydoingprettygood.So, we thinkaboutthisalot.Bell:Myopinionwouldbethatunlessyoumake areasonableprofityouarejustnotgoingtosurvive.MyCPAjustraiseshell with mebecauseIamreluctanttogo anyhigher.Withtheeconomy,inflation,taxes,thewholeballof wax increasingeveryyear12to15%,whateveritis,Ihavenotincreasedmyfeescommensurate with that.Ijustcan'tdoit.Consequently,myprofitmarginhasdecreasedconsiderably.Iamkindofinadestinationarea with alotofotherattractions,whichispartofit.Justatthebaselevel,statistically,goingbacktomy own operation,inflationthatisoccurringright now --andIjustuseitasanillustrationIamnotkeepingup with inflation,whichfrom abasicbusinesssenseiswrong.YetIdon't want togoanyhigher.I'mcharging$3.75foradults,atthistime,whichisnotoutofsightandthereisalmostnocustomerresistanceatthe window. Speakerfromaudience:I was undertheimpressionthatsincecommericalcavesreallyhadnotbeenallthatlucrative,strictlycharginganadmissionfee,thatthemostsuccessfuloneshadtriedtoadd onsupplementalbusinesses--restaurantbusiness,variousshops,antiquecars,golfcourses,motels,andthat when theycoulddothisthecavecavetour was anattractionandreallydidn'tpresentmostoftheprofit.Thatprofitcouldbegeneratedfromtheseotherbusinessesatthesamelocation.Isthistrueorthisjustanarrowviewfrommypartofthecountrywherethishasoccurred.Austin:Helpussaveourland.Let'snotcoveritupwiththatsortofstuff.98Cale:Alotofprivatecaves,privateowners,haveasenseofwantingtomaintaintheatmosphere,theambianceofthecavesetting.Wehavetoavoidrecommendingcommercializationintheinterestofthatmortgagepayment.Soaprivateoperationdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatyouwillstartpullinginmotels.Somedo,somehaveacaveinasettingwhereitiscompatible.Icanthinkofmanycaves,andifRoyDaviswashererightnowhecouldcertainlyaddressthatquickly.Ithinkthatalotofcommercialcaveshaveavoidedthatverykindofdevelopmentintentionally.Thatiswhatwedon'twant,althoughourimageisthatwedo.Speakerfromtheaudience:Iwasn'ttalkingaboutwhatyouaredoing.I wasjusttalkingaboutmyideathatthemostsuccessfulcommercialcaveshaddonesomeofit.I wastalkingaboutdoingitinaveryprofessionalandhighqualityway.Austin:Did youeverhearthestoryabouttheguythatwentuptothegirlinabarandaskedherifshewould gooutwithhimfor$500.Shesaidyes.Hewentbackandtalkedtohisbuddy,thenwentoverandgaveher$5.Shescreamedathim,slappedhisfaceandsaid"What doyouthingI am."Hesaid,"We'vealreadyestablishedthat,we'rejustbickeringovertheprice."Nowifyougetinvolvedintheseancillaryoperations,yougetfurtheraway fromcaveconservationwitheverystep.SteveFairchild:Toansweryourquestion,no Idon'tthinkthatthesuccessfulbusinessesaretheoneswiththegiftshopsandcarcollections.Wehopetobeabletomaintainthelandinanabsolutelynaturalcondition.Therearenobuildingsonit.Wepermitnogiftshops.Wedon'thavelightsandtrails.Itcosts$60forthattour,andwejustbarelybreakevenonIt.IfIhadagovernmentcavedownthestreettakingpeoplethroughfor$1.50,mylandwouldbeasubdivisionandthecavewouldbeunderasubdivision.Speakerfromtheaudience:Does anybodyhaveanyinformationontheamountthatpeopleare-preparedtopaytogointoacave?I mean,ifyourpricesaregoingtogoup,doesyourattendancego down? Or dothecheapgovernmentcavesregularlygethigherattendance?Speakerfromtheaudience:Seemsliketomethewholethingislocationofacaveandtheword-of-mouthtypereactionthattheyget.WhenyoulookatLurayCaverns,theyareupprettyhigh.Idon'tknowwhattheycharge,7or8dollars,buttheyhavelargevisitorship.

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Speakerfromtheaudience:I'dliketomake a comment onprices,Joe.Socialscientistswilltellyouthatwhenpeoplepaymoreforsomething,theytendtoenjoyitmore.AtMammoth CaveI'msurprisedtoseetheyhavesuchadrop.Thisisprobablyaprettyradicalidea,butifyou'reonlypaying$1.50,youmaybe"notappreciating"itasmuchasifyoupaid$4.25.Soundslikeacrazyidea,buttheremightbesomethingtoit.Austin:At Mammoth Cavethereisa$1.00userfeechargeforacavetourthattakesanhourandtenminutes,andyoupayabuckfora10-minutebusride.Speakerfromtheaudience:Andthemaximumlimiton atouris200,inthesummertime.Inanhour'stimeyouhave200visitorsthattourforanhourandahalf.Sohowmuch moneyisthat?Itwouldbe$200inanhourand ahalf'stime.Thevisitorspaymore moneyina governmentcavethantheywouldinBillAustin'scave.Forthewildcavetour,wecharge$4.00forsixhours.Austin:Whatdoesitcostyoutorunthosetrips?Speaker from theaudience:Well,ofcourse,thereareotherfactors; we breakeventhroughtheyear,Iimagine.Austin:Youimagine?Itismyinformationthatyoureturnabout60%totheTreasury.Thatwasina goodyear.Speakerfromtheaudience:I'mnotsure.Thereareotherfactors.That's usualfee.Whoknowsifit'stoohightotoolow.Depends 'ontheway youlookatit.Speaker?:Myquestion,though,iswhyisthatfee$1.00andwhatisthebasisofthat.Isthatadministrative?Speaker?:Thebasicreasonisthatanygovernmentoperationisnotnormallyrequiredtooperateataprofit.That'sthebaseline.Iftheydonotmakea.profit,theyarejustratherincidental,becauseappropriationthathasnorelationshiptotheamountofmoneygrossedonthepropertywilltakeuptheslackforthenextyear.Wedonothavethatleeway.Speaker?:You'reactuallyencouragedtocutnormalprices.Speaker?:I wouldimaginethatJimwillsupportmeonthis.TheNationalParkServiceandtheForestServicephilosophyistokeepthepricelow enoughtomake ,99itmoreavailabletogreaternumbersofpeoplesothatitwouldn'tbeprohibitivelyexpensiveforanystratum.Isthatcorrect?Wiggins:That'scorrect.Austin:Anyotherquestions?Speaker?:I'dliketosay,inthefieldofrecreationtherehavebeenquitea fewstudies,andthesituationisnodifferentwithcaves,campgrounds.riverrunning,mountainclimbing-thewholesubsidysituation.InsomeplacestheyindexthecostofthecampgroundwhereyouhavetheKOAoutsidethecampgroundanditonlycostsabucktocampinthecampground, and $5intheKOA.In some placestheyhavealreadycometotheindexingsituation.Isthatwhat youaresayingyouwouldliketoseeintermsoftheNationalCaveAssociation?SteveFairchild:Thegovernmentrecentlyseemstobeintouserfeesfortheirservices.Asalightplaneflyer,I abigtaxonmygasolinetopayfor!.aguardiaAirport.Theycallitauserfee. I'm notallowedtogointhere,butIhavetopayafeeonit.Thegovernmentisnotatallafraid.tomakemepayforthingsIcan'tevenuseandcallitauserfee,andheretheyhaveallthesefantasticservicesthatpeoplearewillingtopay.Bearinmind,mycustomerspayme$60togoinmycave.Theyarewillingtopaymoneytogointhem.Whynotletthempayforitandusesomeofthatmoneyforresearchonthefloodplains.thesinkholeplains,thethingsouthere.Whynotletthempayforsomeofthoseservicesthattheyaregettingthebenefitof;afteralltheyareusingthem.Whyshouldhehavetopaythetaxestosupportthisplacesothatthisplacecanundercut him? Thatisexactlywhatishappening.Speaker?:I'maskingthesamequestion.Whydon'tyouhavealobbyorCongressionalrelieforsomethingtohaveanindex?Speaker?:Onecommenthere.TVAwasaccused.andagain.thatisa "government.operation".ofundercuttingon campgroundsandsoforth.TheytookitintoconsiderationandIthinkrevisedtheirscheduletobesurethattheydon'tundercutprivate camp grounds.Theyareacompetitorinsomecases.butnotal'JWcompetitor.Therearedifferentapproache"Speakerfromtheaudience:I'vegotoneothercomment. AlotofpeopleinCaveCitywouldlovetoseeuschargenothing,

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free.Alotofpressurefromlocals.Everythingisfreeinthepark.They maketheirlivingon accome dationsandfood.Soyou'vegotthataspecttoworryabout,too.Speaker?:Myguessisthatyourvisitationwouldnotfalloffifyourpriceswerehigher.Speakerfromtheaudience:Youareprobablyright.v.McDaniels:Howmuchisthehalf-daytournow?Speakerfromtheaudience:Ithinkitis$3.00.McDaniels:Thereareprobablyveryfewprivatecavesinthecountrythatarelessthan$3.Theyofferafourand ahalfhourtourandI'malmostcertainthatmostofyourprivatetoursareonehour.Speakerfromtheaudience:Youareprobablyright.Mostoftheprivatetoursarequalitytrips,withlownumbers,right?Howmanydo youtakeon atrip?McDaniels:JustasmanyasIcanget.Inthesummertime,25or30.Munson:NCAdidasurvey4yearsago.Itwasrightabout$3.00.Thatwasnotasurveythatwasrelatedtothelengthoftimeofthetourorthelengthofthetour.Butinlisteningtothisdiscussion,wealsotouchon a numberofotherproblemsthatare tionedhereintheManagementProblemsofPrivateCaves.We'retalkingaboutadmissions,butwewanttotalkaboutotherproblems.(Note fromBillAustin,Nov.25,1980. A November 1980surveyofcaveadmissionpricesindicatestheindustryaverageis'weilabove$4.00pertour.)Ramey: IpersonallyfeelthatitbehoovesthegovernmentParksService,ForestService,orotheragencieswhomanagethecavesandpresentcavesinsuchamanner,tobeacredittotheothers.VisitorscometoBlanchardCavernsand go awayenthusiastic noughtogotoanothercave.Andthat'sreallyourobjective--tomaketheAmericanpublicawareoftheresourceandtodevelop appreaiation forit.Notsomuchhowmuchitcosts,becausethefederalgovernmentisnotgoingtomake aprofit,that'snottheintent,buttodosomethingright.I that'sourobjective.I hope when avisitorleavesBlanchardthattheydo go awaywithanappreciationforcaves,whichiswhatshowcaveindustryisallabont.100Austin:I wouldliketointroduceDavidCalewhowilltakethenextsegmentoftheprogram.Cale:I.Therehasbeenatrendtowarddeclining domes" tictourismsince1974duetofourbasiccauses.A.Thepriceofgasolineand,at times. availabilityconcernshavelessenedautotourism.B. Highinflationrateshavegobbledupdiscretionaryincome.C.Vacationsarenolongeraprestigething.Avisittoa famouscaveisnolongera"bigdeal".D.Travelhasbecome moreresort-bustourcommoncarrieroriented,hurtingcaves.whichtendtobeinruralareas.andfavoringcitiesandhighlydevelopedresortpockets.II.Thoughthegoodolddayswereneverreallyallthatgood,therehasbeenacomparativedeclineinrecentyearsintheAmericansenseofindividualresponsibilitywhichhascreatedfourbasicproblemsforshowcaves.A.Theoldbeliefthatcavesshouldbe"free"("IfGodmadeitwhyshouldIpaytoseeit?")andgovernment ownedhasbeenstrengthenedbyanationaldeclineinpublicsupportforthefreeenterpriseethic.B.Therehasbeenacomparativeincreaseinparkvandalismandabuse.C.A weakeningoftheworkethichasmadetheoldproblemoffindinggoodhelpevenworse.evenwithhighunemployment.D.Theadventofconsumerismhasledtohigheroperatingcosts,higherinsurancecosts.andanupsurgeinlawsuitswherebigbucksaresoughtforlittlehurts.III.Cavesarehavingtocompetewithagreatproliferationofleisure time opportunitiessince1960,especiallyinthefollowingthreeareas.A.TheHome:Theincreaseinhome swillllling pools,homegames, andhomeandyardmaintenancehaveworkedwithinflationtopopularizethe"backyardvacation".B.Sports:Afive-foldincreasesinceWorldWarIIingolfcourses,theriseintennis.basketball,andhandballcourtsaswellasothercommunityrecreationopportunities.theproliferationofleisurevehiclesandboats.andtelevisedspectatorsportshaveabsorbedmuchoftheAmericanleisurethatusedtogotoweek-endtravel.C.TheTouristIndustry:Nationalawarenessofthepotentialofthetouristdollarhas

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puteveryoneinthetouristbusiness.Everystatenowpromoteseverybuildingandpieceoflanditcanasatouristattraction,dilutingthepreeminencecavesoncehadintourism.IV.Nationalenvironmentalconcernsandbiggovernmenthaveteamed uptoincreasecaveregulation.A.Highwaysigning,themosteffectivemediaforthehighwaymarket,hasbeengreatlyrestricted.B.Mostcavesarenowstateinspectedandforcedtocomplytorulesthatsometimesgreatly increp-se operatingcosts.C.Caves bytheirverynatureareusuallynotnearpublicsewerageorinareassuitableforsepticsystema.Localzoningand sewerageregulationshavehampered development andraisedcosts.D.Thethreatofradonregulationnowlooms onthehorizon.Eachoneoftheseareasofconcernmustbemetwithsomeresponsefromcaveoperators,eitherasindividualsorasagroup. My timeallottmentatthesym posiumallowedmetoaddressonlyoneproblem.IchoseII-A,theproblemofpublicresistancetopayforacavevisitandresentmentofprivateownership.Firstofall,thepublicshouldbemade awareofwhatitcoststomaintainacave,a building,aguidestaff,and apromotionbudget.Itmightnotbeinappropriateforcavestoposttheirannualcostsincludingcapitalizationon asmallsigninthelobby.Atypicalsignmightread:Youradmissionfeemaintainsthecaveandparkgroundsandpreservesthemforfuturegenerations.Lastyear'sparkexpenseswere$226,458.67Thecostwillprobablysurpriseyourvisitors.Ihavewrittenachild'sbooktitled"The Old Man's Cave".Itwillbefullcolorwhencomplete, very brief,andtothepointthatevenanundevelopedcavecostsmoney. The book makesthecasefortheprivateshow caves andthekinds of problemstheirownershave,withoutbeingheavyaboutit.TheprivatecavesclosetoNationalParkcaveshavetheaddedproblemoflowuserfeesattheNPScaves.Ofcourse,theNPScaveshavetheirownproblemswithtaxpayerswhothinkNPScavesshouldbefree.Isuggesttheprivatecavespost,intheirlobbies,the annual budgetoftheNPScavedividedbytheirpaidattendancefigures. lbe resultwillbethetruecostpervisitor.The truecostwillmaketheprivatecavefeelookquitereasonable.The1960'snourishedananti-businessattitudeandthatattitude is stillaround,thoughnotasstrong.HowGftenhaveyouheard:"Howcananyoneownacave?"or"Nooneshouldbe allowedtomslte aprofitonnature."Ithinkprivatecaves have an tmage problem.Partoftheproblemmaybeduetotheway a number ofcaveswerepromotedinbygonedecades.InthemindsofmanyAmericanstheideaofaprivate show caveconjuresupashabbysouvenirbuildingand aplethoraofgaudy "tour ist"signs makingridiculous claimsfortheat-.traction.NCAmembercaveshavestandardsfarbeyondthoseIamreferringto,yetthere stLll ismuch someofusmightdo.Hereare same thoughtsalongthatline:1.Avoidthe use ofthewordtourist. Fo:: many itconjuresupasuckerimage and noonelikestobecalledatourist.2.Refertoyourcaveproperty,nomatter hawsmall, asapark.For let your brochuretalkaboutparkhoursinsteadofcavehours,orrefertopicnicingorcampinginthepark.3.Makeyour on-prem:ise instructionsigns simi lartothoseusedbystate parks. Buyarouteranduseearthcolorsforsuch signing. Trytomakeyourhighwaysignslookofficialby mimicking stateletterstyle,bordering,andevencolorasmuchaslegallypossible.4. D::opthe work"Inc."fromyourcave name inalladvertising.Itservesnopromotionalpurposeandisaturn-offtomany.5.Talkecology,preservation,andnatureinyourpromotion.Avoidthe"touristsuperlatives"typicalof1930'sadvertising.Don'ttellyourcustomersthattheywillbe"amazed beyondbelief!"Thoseflowerycavedescriptionsthathavebeeninyourliteraturesincetheyearoneshouldalsobereviewed.6.Useuniformedguidesandservicepersonnelasmuchaspossible.Concentratemoreonguidetraining.7.Makeyourgroundspark-like.Thoseoldtrailersatyourentrancethatyou'vebeen get tingahundreddollarsa monthrentfor becostingyouten times thatin turn-around customers.Canthat ofoldboardsandsalvagedblockbeput somewhere else?Customerswill pre-judge yourcavebytheappearanceofyourgroundsandbuildings.Privatecaveoperatorsareinthebusinessofeducationandpreservation.Yes,wearealsoshowmen,butonlyin the sensethataproperappreciationofnature'sbeautyisbestachievedwhenpresentedinaninterestingway.Wearenota bunchofgreedylocals out tomake afastbuckoffaholeinourbackyardfromsuckertourists.Weknowthis.Thequestionis:doestheAmericanpublicknowthis?"Austin:Anydiscussion?101

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WesOdIe:Thereisalotoftruthin what hesaid.Istartedtoaskaquestionawhileago onwhatBillwassayingandnottodragoutthefactofmoney,butallthesecavesareinbusiness,basically,tomake adollar.I'marealestatebrokerbytradeand somehowIgothookedintobeinga .caveoperator;I'mnotsureI wassucha good real estateinvestor!Ifyou'regoingintoarestaurantbusinessyou'reautomaticallyputoutonthefiringlinetocompetewitheverybodyelse.You.trytodosomethingalittledifferent,better,orforacheaperprice,andthenseeifI'vegotsomethingtotakehomeandputinthebank.It'snodifferentinthecavebusinessandasa newcaveownerintheareaIexpectedtohavecompetition.I'mthetypeofpersonwhocanusuallymeetcompetitionhead on andI'llbattleforit.I'veneverbeenonetothinkmuchabout.thesesubsidyprograms.Iguessmaybe I wasbroughtupinsouthernIllinoisthehardway,myDadbeing coal miner.Ilearnedtokindofgrovelforexistenceandwhen yougetintobusinessforyourselfyouhavetogroveljusttosurvive.Sojustasmuchasalittlerestaurantmanhastosurvive,sodoesacaveoperatorandthere'sno programthatIknowofsetupforsubsidy.Incasewedon'tmakeitthisyear,wecan'tgetsubsidizedtocarryusovertothenextyear.Socompetitionfromwithinthegovernmentissomethingthatisalittlehardformetounderstand.Idon'tsupposethereisaplaceintown you can go andnotpickupMammothCaveinformation.Iknowifyou cometoourcavewewilltellyouabouteverytour,giveyou alittlebrochuretellingyou what.hoursyoucancome, andhowmuchyouhavetopaytogoon atour.ButI'vebeenveryunsuccessfulingettingmyinformationtothepublic.SoIhaveaproblemthatIbroughtuptosomeofthepersonnelouthereatMammothCavethatI'dliketoseeushavefreeaccesstogetallofourbusinessadvertisedjustasmuchaswehandoutinformationonMammothCave.I'dliketoaddressjustacopuleofminutestotheproblemoffaircompetition.Ifwecan'tcompeteontoday'smarketmaybeourcavedoesn'tdeservetobeopen.Ifwedon'thavesomethingto thepeople,theycertainlyaren'tgoingtokeepcomingback.I'vebeentoeverycavearoundherethat'scommercialized,eventheman-made one. IthinkthenaturalcavesareverybeautifulandI'drecommend you seeeveryoneofthem.Ifweputourselvesoutontheopenmarketandbepromoted bytheMammothParksSystem Ithinkwewouldstandasgood achanceevencompetingprice-wise.Mammoth Caveisa hugecave,it'salongcave,it'sahistoriccave,it'ssomethingthat shouldseeonce.Butafteryou'vewalkedthefirsthouron a4-hourtripyou'renotgoingtoseemuchdifferent.Thenext3hoursaregoingtobeprettyclosetothesame.Thiscave'sshownforitssize.Allyoursmallcavesareknownfortheirbeautyinthearea.Theyarebeautifulandjustassomeone thismorning,theyaredifferent.Justbecauseyou'veseenone,youhavenotseenthemall.You'vestillgotsomethingtosee.SoIthinkweshouldhavetheopportunitytocompeteinafairandequitablemanner andI'vesuggestedtotheparkstnatwebegrantedabulletinboard,abrochurerack,orsome methodwherethepubilc102hasfreeaccesstoour'literature.YoucangototheinformationcenterandaskfortheliteratureonVernon'scaveandtheywillhandyoua Diamond Cavernsbrochure.YoucanaskaboutCrystalOnyxCave andtheywillhand you oneofourbrochures.Butifyoudon'taskyou'renotgoingtogetit.Ithinkitwouldonlybefairtoofferasmuch'informationonusastheydo on them.SoIthinkourproblemsarecompetingnotonlywithpricebutwiththeadvertisingindiseminatingtheinformationaboutourcaves.I'mwillingtostandwithourcaveand compete ontheopenmarketasanyotherbusinessandIthinkit'sonlyfairthatwecouldhaveareci-,procatingagreementwiththeNational Park. Austin:ThenextgentlemanisTim Anderson from LakeShasta.TimAnderson: Ireallydon'thavetoomuchtosayeither.I'mjustgoingtobringup acompletelynewproblem.Wepay workman'scompensation.Ithinkeveryoneknowsthat,butforeachofyouremployeesyouputsomuchintoyourinsurancecompanytopayincasetheyhaveanaccidentonthejob.Theinsurancecompanyshaveratetablesanddependingonthetypeofjob,you paysomuchpercentforthesepeople,dependingon whattheinsurancecompanyconsiderstobethemostdangeroustypeofjob.About 4or5yearsage,wegotourinsurancebillandtherewas abigdifference.Weimmediatelygotonthephone andaskedthem whatthedealwas. Theysaidtheyjustrealizedthatouremployeeswereworkinginamine,thatwewereemploying mineworkersandthathappenedtobethehighestrateofanyinsuranceyoucouldpay.Well,tomake averylongstoryshort,eventuallywegotthemreclassifiedasamusementparkworkers,whichisstillveryhigh.Thepointofthiswholediscussionisthattheradonquestionisnotcompletelydead.I knowwe'vebeenoverthismanytimes,butitkeepscomingback.Itsalmostlikea zombie.Ifcavesare tobeclassifiedasminesthatwilljustbeoneproblemandthatproblemhasbeenaddressedbefore,butIthoughtI wouldbringitbackagain.JimGoodbar:Iftheywereclassifiedasmines would youallhavetoberesponsibleforbuyingradonmonitoringequipment,beingabletotellhowmanyworkinghourlevelpeopleyoushouldhave,andbeundertheirrestrictionsalso?Anderson:Therearealotofhorrorstoriesastowhatwould happenifcaveswereclassifiedasmines,andthat'snotjustprivatecaves,butMammoth,Carlsbad,oranyofthepubliccavestoo.Austin:Anyotherquestionsonthisworkman'scompensationproblem?Oneoftheextraexpensesthatwehaveinprivatecaveoperationistheoverhead.Itcan

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getprettybad.IthinkofcoalmininginKentucky.Now70or80centsissenttotheinsurancecompanyeverytimeaminerispaidadollar.Okay. ThenextgentlemanaroundthetableisMr.JoeWaggonerfromLostSea,Tennessee.Waggoner:TheLostSeaisownedbyacorporation,andquitefrankly,anumberofpeoplewhoownpartofthecavewentintoitasaninvestment.IfyouboughtstockinGeneralMotorsorAT&Torwhateverelseanditwasworthlesstodaythanwhen youboughtit,yourattitudewouldbealittleshaky.Withoutdividends,aprivately-ownedcavewouldgo downbecause,oflackofprofit.ItishardtotellthosepeoplewhoownstockinitthatthegoodChristian,Americanthingtodoistopreserveit.I'msorry,butthereareanumberofthosepeoplewhowouldsaysellthatthingtoaminingcompanyoranythingelsetogetmoneyoutofit.I'mnottryingtotellahorrorstory,I'mjustsayingthewayitisfromabusinessstandpoint.Wehaveasmalloperation,andwedon'thaveexperts.IfI knowweshouldhaveawaterexpert,Ihavetobecomethatperson.Itbothersmesometimestorealizehow manydifferentareasIhavetobeanexpertin.Peoplewhorunsmalloperationsneedallthehelp,theycanget.Weblamedecliningattendanceontheeconomy,orinflation,orcompetition,orwhatever,butI'mnotsurethatisit.Itmaybethefactthattheprivatecaveowners,inconjunctionwiththeparksandeveryoneelse,needtogo on amajoreducationalcampaign.Wedonotgivetheexperiencethatweshould.Amajor'campaignshouldbewagedtoputinterestintothisarea.IamsorryIdonothavetheanswer to it,butIwouldsurecontribute.Austin:Clara youcaretocomment ontheproblemsofcavemanagement?Heidemann:Iprobablydon'tbelonguphereonthispanelbecauseIdon'thaveanygripes.I shouldn'tsaythat,butit'sthetruth.WedoownNaturalBridgeCavernsandwedevelopedthecaverns.Wetrytoemploypeoplewhoareveryenthusiasticandgivethemthesameloveforthecavethatwehaveandatareasonableprice.Wehaven'tgoneupinourpriceinfouryearswheremosteverybodyinourareahasgoneup.I'dsayinthefuturethatwewillhavetogo uptomeettherisingcostofinsurance,advertising,andwages,becauseeventhoughwedonotcomeundertheminimumwagelaw,we'vegotto pay itinordertogetgoodhelp.Afteryouhavethepeoplea fewmonthstheywantaraise.Weallwanttogivethemthatraise.They'vegotto itsomewhere.Butwehavebeengivinganin everyyear.We'vejustspentalotoftimetryingtopublicizeourcave.Wehavekeptitinitsnaturalstate.Wedomostoftheworkourselves.Itisafamilyoperation,butwehaverepeatvisitors.Somepeoplesaythey'vecome 8or12times.IthinkthatspeaksprettywellforNaturalBridgeCaverns.103Anyquestions?Austin:I'vegotaquestion.Whatareyoudoingright?Heidemann:Ithinkprobably owewhatwehavetothecaveandthetreatmentwegiveourvisitors,morethananythingelse,Ibelieve.Austin:SteveFairchildfromBoydenCave.Fairchild:TheyhavealreadytalkedabouteverythingI wasgoingtotalkabout.Ihaveasmall town sittingabovemycavesysteminCalifornia.Ihavealltheproblemsthatgovernmentcavemanagementshaveplusworkman'scompensationandinsurance.Ihavetogeneratemyownelectricityandtobeauexpertoncities.Itisinterestingtoknowthatthereisalotofinformationoutthere,butwehaveavery d:i.fficult timegettingitsometimes.Forthosecuriousaboutmycavetrip,itisanexperiment.ForyearsIhaveadvocatedthatnoteveryonewantstrailsandlightsinacave.Wecharge$60forthetour,itis14hours.Theykeepcomingback.Everyweekendispacked.Aboutathirdofthemarepeoplewhohavebeentherebefore,sowehitanimaginaryconnectionsomewhere.Wehavehad16or20newspaperarticlesand4or5TVshows.WehavecertainlyturnedonthepeopleinCaliforniatothefactthatthereissomethingunderthegroundbesidesrockandoil.Speaker?:TomAley,do yoa haveaviewonthistopic?Aley:Iwouldliketotieseveralpointstogetherhere.One wayofprotectingsomeoutstandingprivatecavesisthroughsomesortofeconomicreturn.Idon'tparticularlycarehowitisyougettheeconomicreturnaslongasit'snotdestructivetothecave.Buthehastwobeautifulcavesthere,orhehadtwobeautifulcaves,ifyouwentbackto1849.CaveCityCave was alsoknownasMammothCave,andwasvisitedbyJohnMuir,BretHart,and'others.Itwas a showcavefora numberofyearsandwentoutofbusiness.Ithinkanyofuswhohaveevergonecavinghaveseenshow caves thathavegoneoutofbusiness.ThereishardlyanythingleftinCaveCityCave.ThereisalotleftinCaveoftheBells,buttherewouldbenothingleftifyouhadthesubdivisionoverit.Ihavethefeelingifwereallycouldtotalupthedamageswemightfindthattherehavebeenmoredamagesdonetocavesbylandusethantherehasbypeople,beating'andbashing,andmuckingaroundinthem.And,yet,weputalotofattentiononthis.Ifeelwhatisneededissome way toassurethat

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goodcavescanbeprotectedthroughcommercialdevelopmentorwhatever.It'salwaysashakything.Anythingcanhappen.But Ithink,whateveritisinthequestionofpricingandtheimpactsofassociateddevelopments,it'sagreatcatastropheforcavesandforsoundcavemanagement when a showcavegoesoutofoperation.Weloseatremendousresource.Austin:Couldwemoveon. We'vegotabout10minutesand 3peopleleft!ThenextspeakerwillbeRichardBellfromSenecaCavernsinOhio.Bell:The mainthingrwouldliketosayisthatIthinkthis isveryhealthy.Therewas atimewhentherewas nointercommunication.Therealbenefitofthiswholethingisthateverybodyistalkingtoeverybodyelse.Constructivecriticismisextremelyhealthyforanything,and whenweneedhelpweknowwhotocall.I hopeeverybodyremainsinterestedandthatwekeepgrowing.RonBurtonfromRubyFalls. Idon'thaveanythingtoadd.JustifanyofyouaredownfortheNCAthismonth,we'vebeendoingsome work onourlowercave,whichistheoriginalcave.I'dbegladtotakeanyofyouthroughthat.Austin:OurlastcontestanthereisVernon McDaniels from DiamondCaverns,ParkCity,Kentucky.McDaniels:Tosummarizejustabit.Billmayprobablybedoingthistoo,butIthink what weprimarilyfindisthattolookataprivatecaveandseeanownerisnottosaythatheismaking alotofmoney.Wehavetremendousoverhead.I wasveryinterestedinthethingsthatTomwastalkingaboutasfarasinterpretation,Ialsorealizethatinterpretationisextremelyimportant.104Ifyouhavethemostbeautifulcavethereis,whetheritbeinCalifornia,NewMexico,orwhereever,youneverforgettheguide.It'svery,veryimportant.Peopleseethelittlethingsaboutaguideand sometimes youhavetogivehimthebenefitofthedoubt,butit'shardforustohiretheverybest,andifwedid,it'shardertokeepthemforverylongforwhatwecanpay them. As anexample,theyareopeningup afactoryon BowlingGreen,startingpeopleat$11anhour.The samepeoplethatwehireascaveguidescangothereand dothesamething,sowe'rereallypinchedbythat.Thereareotherthings-signs forexample.InthispartofKentucky,aninterstatesignrunsyou from 10to13thousanddollars.Speakerfromtheaudience:I'dliketotalktoyouaboutthesecavetrips.IhavebeenRegion Chairmanforabout10years.You'dbesurprisedatthenumberofrequestsIgetfrompeoplewantingtogointoasemi-wildcavetripforabirthdayparty.Theywanttheiryoungonestogoon a"wildbirthdaypartycavetrip."Austin:Did youeverthinkofsendingthemtoa showcave?Speakerfromtheaudience:Well,reallytherearealotofgroupsthatwantmoreofawildtrip.Yet youneedpeopletoleadthem. Ithinkthereissomeadventforsomethingalongthisline.Perhapssomethingcouldbeworkedoutwiththecommericalcaveownersthatwecouldprovidesomethinglikethis.I'vebeenlookingatitmyselfand Ididtakethebirthdaytrip.Wehada goodpartyintheparkandthenhad aprettyroughcavetrip.Everyonereallyenjoyedit.Theredidn'tseemtobequalmsaboutevencostingany mone} Austin:You'vehad achancetogettoknowthesecaveoperatorsandhearsomeofthemtalk.Vernon McDaniels from DiamondCaverns,alsoWesOldham fromCrystalOnyxandmyselfareofferingfreetoursforanybodythatshows upwitha nametagorareceiptfromthesymposium. ThefolksatParkMammothwillalsogiveyoufreetours,however,onlyonFirdayandSaturday.Withthat,we'regoingtofinishup 15 secondsaheadoftheschedule.

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THESIZEANDLOCATIONOFSITES SALTPETRETENNESSEE,GEORGIA*MerilynOsterlundMININGALABAMA,ABSTRACTANDIN VwUng:theCivilWM-I>a.UpetlleOIl.YLUVl.,a majOll .inglLedi.entingunpowdVl.,tat<>pll.Oc.uJted61l.Om.eime.<>tonecave<>in:theMuthrvz.n Appai.ac.hian MowttcUM.One06:themolLehnpoll:ta.ntYLUVl.pll.OduungMea<>06:theCon6edeJtac.ytat<>ea<>:tand mUldi.eTenne.<>-I>ee,nolLthAlabama.and nolLthwell:t GeolLgia.Many 06 :themi.n.i.ngQpvz.a.:t.,i.oM.in:thi<>MeawVl.ecLU.covVtedandde.<>:tIWyedby :the .invadingFedeJuLtaJIJ7lie.<>,butmanywVteno:tcLU.covVtedand:themin.ing 06 YLUeILcon:tinued :thJtoughout:thelVt. A numbVl. 06 :the.<>ecave.<>Iw.vebeendocumentedby eithrvz.WlLUtenlLecoJuU,OIloltai.:tJtacU.:UOM.ThemajoJu:tJj,howeveIL,wrvz.eob-l>cUlte,-I>mai.l-u.meopvz.a.:t.,i.oMwho<>ehi<>:toJticIl.Ole.<>havebeen601Lg0tien.' To -I>UPPOft.;t:thehypo:the.<>i<>:that:theOMc.uJteloco.:tioMandentJtance.<> 06 cave.<>con:tJUbuted :to:the-I>ucce.<>-I>06:theCon6edeJtateMl:tpetlleOpvz.a.:t.,i.oM:the '601Lg0tien'cave.<>have :tobedocumented. Todo :t.hi<>lLequilte.<>:that-I>peu6-<-c6ea:twr.e.<>OILa.Jr;t,i6awMe60und.in:thecave,<>u.c.h.a6pic.kmaJtk<>,c.leaJtedwa.lkJAxly-l> va.:tt.OILCa6U06va.:tt.,:taUy1'IIIVl1u.,f.a.ddeJt<> OIL:toofA. DuringtheCivilWarsaltpetre,ornitre,themajoringredientofgunpowder, wasprocuredfromlimestonecavesinthe Throughoutthewarsaltpetrewas minedinTennessee,Alabama, andGeorgia,oneofthemoreimportantsaltpetreareas.Thisareaprovidedtwenty-ninepercentoftheConfederacy'sdomestic,supplyofthemineral.1 ThepurposeofthispaperistoshowthatTennessee,Alabama, andGeorgia'ssuccessinproducingsaltpetrefortheConfederacycanbeattributedtocavelocationandthenature of saltpetremining.Ofthe160ormoresaltpetrecavesinthestudyareaonlyelevenwerediscoveredandtheminingoperationsdestroyedbytheinvadingFederalarmies.2Nearlyallofthesediscoveredcaveswerehighlyvisible;thatis,locatednearlinesofattackormajortransportationroutes,andhadlargeentrances.Butthesizeoftheentranceandthelocationofthemajorityofthecavesweresoobscureandremotethatthechancesofdiscoverybytheenemywereslim.Saltpetreminingwasnotveryvulnerabletoattack;convenientlyhiddenwithinthecaveitcouldeventakeplacebehindenemylines.Becausetheminingoperationcouldbeconductedwithasmalllaborforce,afewbasictools,andsimpleequipment,itcouldberestoredeasilyaftercaptureanddestruction.*DepartmentofGeography,UniversityofTennessee,Knoxville,Tennessee37916105Frequently,miningoperationsresumedassoonastheenemyleftthearea;infact,severalcaveswerecapturedmorethanonce.3Historically,fromthefourteenthcenturytotheendofthenineteenthcentury,saltpetrewasusedingunpowder. 4Thisgunpowder was amixtureofseventy-fivepercentsaltpetre,twelvetofifteenpercentsulphur,andtwelvetofifteenpercentcharcoal.Saltpetreisatermusuallyappliedtocertainnaturally-occurringnitrateminerals.Saltpetreleachedfromtheearthoflimestonecavesiscalciumnitratethatisconvertedtopotassiumnitratebyfurtherprocessing.S DuringthewartheSouthnotonlyprocuredsaltpetrefromtheearthofcavesbutalsofromtheearthunderoldhouses,tobaccobarns,andanimalshelters.AtthebeginningofthewartheSouthwaspoorlypreparedtosupplyitsarmieswithgunpowder.TherewereonlytwosmallprivatepowdermillsintheSouthandthesemillsproducedblastingpowdernotgunpowder. 6 TheSouthhadlittlerecent perienceinmakingpowder,inextractingnitrefromnaturaldeposits,orinobtainingitbyartificialmeans.TheentiresupplyofgunpowderintheConfederacywasscarcelysufficientforonemonthofactivewarfare.'Thusplanswereenactedquicklytoimprovethepowdermills,toconstructalargepowdermillatAugusta,Georgia,andtoobtainnitrefromthecavesof TE'nnessee, Alabama,andGeorgia.8 The OrdnanceDepartment,withGeneralJosiahGorgas

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atthehead,wasestablished,andColonelGeorgeW.Rainswasappointedtotakechargeofthemanufactureofgunpowder. 9OneofthefirstactionstakenbyRainswastoinitiatea campaigntopromotetheproductionofdomesticsaltpetre.HevisitedmanyofthecavesinTennessee,Alabama,andGeorgia,sentagentstomakecontractswithcaveowners,advertisedforsaltpetreinnewspapers,andpublishedapamphlet,"NotesontheMakingofSaltpetrefromtheEarthoftheCaves."lOThispamphletwasdistributedwidelyand wasreprintedseveraltimes.llTheproductionofnitrewasslowingettingstartedandtheUnionblockadeeffectivelywaslimitingimporations.12TomeetthiscrisistheConfederateCongressinApril,1862,organizedtheNitreand MiningBureauandappointedIsaacSt.Johnaschief.13Thiswas awisemovebecausewithinsixmonthsthedailyproductionofsaltpetreincreasedfrom 200 poundsto2,000pounds,alevelofproductionthatSt.Johnwasabletomaintainthroughoutthewar.l4Aftertheautumnof1862,theSouthwasalwaysadequatelysuppliedwithsaltpetreandgunpowder.iSTheotheringredientsofgunpowder,sulphurandcharcoal,wereobtainedeasilyfromtheburingofironpyritesandtheburningofwood.16HalfoftheConfederacy'ssupplyofsaltpetrecame fromdomesticsources,theremainderwasimportedfromEuropeandMexico.I?Atthecloseofthewar morethan70,000poundsofgunpowder and asupplyofsaltpetrewereon handattheAugustaPowderMill.18ThroughtheeffortsofSt.John,theNitreand MiningBureau became knownasthemostefficient,wellorganizedandsuccessfuldivisionoftheWarDepart ment.lS Someofthelargerandrichercavesweretakenoverbythegovernmentand mined byconscripts,otherlargecaveswereleftinprivateownershipand mined byhiredslaves,20butbyfarthemostnumerouswerethesmall,two-orthree-manminingoperations.Everyoneintheareawasencouragedtominesaltpetre.Theprocessofmakingsaltpetre,asColonelRainsstated,"..wassosimplethatanyone...canwithoutanyexpensemakeatleasta few poundsofthesalteveryday.,,2lThefirststepintherecoveryofnitreistotestthecaveearthforit.Nitreispresentiftheearthcontainssmall,whitish,needle-likecrystalsthattastesalty-bitterandfeelcooltothetongue,andthatsparkleandpromotefirewhenthrownonglOWingcoals,orifafurrowscratchedintoa smoothsurfaceoftheearthisagainsmooth ,twotofivedayslater.Iftheearth,containsnitre,thenextstep iR tofillvatsorbarrelswiththeearthandcoveritwithwater;thewater,afterpercolatingthroughtheearthbecomes aleach-brineofcalciumnitrate,andisdrainedfromthevatandtreatedwithpotash(theashofburnedwood).Thepotashchangesthecalciumnitratetopotassiumnitrate.Thisliquorisboiledtoincrease'theconcentrationandthencooled.Coolingcausesthepotassiumnitratetoprecipitateoutofthesolution.Theprecipitate,calledgroughsaltpetre,issenttothepowdermillforfurtherrefiningandcombiningwithsulphurandcharcoaltomake gunpowder.AsColonelRainssaid,"The makingofsaltpetreissimple."Z2106TheresearchofsaltpetreproductionduringtheCivilWarishamperedbecausetheextant,contemporarydocumentsarefew andscattered.Most oftherecordsoftheOrdnanceDepartmentandthe ','-" NitreandMiningBureauweredestroyedbyfireattheendofthewar,andtheirchiefs,GorgasandSt.John,diedbeforetheycouldwritehistoriesoftheiroperations.Nocontemporaryre-cordexistsofthenumber,location,name,orownerofthecavesmined.Only a fewcavesarementionedintheOfficialRecordsoftheRebellion,mainlythosethatwerecaptured.Thecavelocationsshown onthemaps(Fig.land2)inthispaperwerecompiledfromthepublishedcavesurveys,reportsinthefilesoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,andfromtheoralandwrittenaccountsoflocalhistoriansandcaveexplorers.Toverifythatacavewas mineditisnecessarytofindinthecaveevidenceoftheoperation.Themostconclusiveevidencethatacavewas minedistheremainsofavatorotherrelicsoftheleachingprocess.Leachingvats,invarioussizesandshapes,round,"V",andsquarewereconstructedsimply.Allvatsweremadesothatthewaterpoure,overthedirtcouldpercolatethroughthedirtandcollectatthebottom.Onemethodofconstructionwastomakethebottomofthevatoutofoverlapping,lenth-wisehalvedlogs.Thesidesofthevatweremadewithoutnails,thesupportsweredovetailedandtheplankswerenotfastenedtothesupportssothattheycouldbereusedinanothervat.Troughstocollecttheleach-brinewerehewn fromlargelogs.Quiteoftenallthatremainsofavatarea fewpiecesofwood, acastofthevat,orapileofleachedearth.Anotherindicationthatacavewas minedisevidenceofexcavation,suchasanobviouschangeinthecolorandtextureofthepassagewallsaboutoneortwofeetabovethefloor;man-madetunnels,holes,orfossilizedpickmarksinthecaveearth;logsproppinguptheceilingofanexcavatedarea;orapileofrocksholdingup aboulderfromunderwhichearth was removed.Furtherevidenceisimprovementinthepassagewaysofthecave:inclinedwalkways,rockspiledtothesideofa smoothpath,bridges,steps,ladders,andwinches.Someoftheladderswereputtogetherwithpegsprobablybecauseofascarcityofnailsorpossiblebecauseofaneedtomakeitconvenienttoassembleanddisassembleforeaseintransportingitthroughthecave.Bagsofearthandworkerswerehauledupanddowndeeppitsorcreviceswithwoodenwinches.Wooden tramways ortracksforcartswerelaidtofacilitatetheremovalofdirtfromthecave.Otherevidenceofaminingoperationaretallymarks,possiblerecordingthenumberofbagsofearthremoved,andnamesofworkerswithdates.IsaacDrakesignedhisnamein1862inHubbard Cave,asdidW.R.JohnaonandE.GrissoninW.R.JohnsonSaltpetreCave,andfoundonthewallofPiperCave wastheinscription,"JamesPiperworkedthisprong1863."And,ifyouarelucky,anabandonedminingtoolisfound,oraleachingkettle.ExtantarefourofseventeenlargecastironkettlesfromSautaCave,

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SALTPETERCAVES+CAPTUREDSALTPETERCAVECAPTUREDCAVESRELATIVETOTRANSPORTATIONROUTES107

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JacksonCounty,Alabama. TheoperationatSautawasthelargestinthearea.InTennessee,Alabama, and Georg.ia morethan160caveswereminedforsaltpetreduringtheCivilWar. Mostofthesecaveshaveentrancesthataresmallanddifficultto orfind,arelocatedinrugged,remote,andisolatedareas.Thesefeaturesmadecaveslessvulnerabletoenemydiscoveryanddestruction.Onesaltpetrecavehasafairlyvisibleentrancethatiswithinaquartermileofaroad,butsinceitisnearthetopofa300-foothillinasinkhole,itisnotvisiblefrom tpe road.Anotherexampleisanextremelylargeentrance,butbecauseitismorethanamilefrom aroad,attheheadofanarrowcove,andapproximately400feetabovethevalleyfloor,itwasnotvulnerableto attack. OftheelevenknowncapturedcavesninewereeithervisiblefromtheTennesseeRiver,arailroad,oramajorroad;hadalargeentrance;orwereverynearwheretheUnion army campedforalongtime.Theexceptions,TalucahCaveinMorganCounty,Alabama, wasaccidentallydiscoveredby araidingparty,23andMeredithCaveinCampbellCounty,Tennessee,isthoughttohavebeenreportedtotheFederalsby a Unionsympathizer.24TypicalofthecapturedcavesisKingstonSaltpetreinBartowCounty,Georgia.CapturedbytheUnion armyinMay,1864,ithasahighlyvisibleentrancethatcouldbeseenfromtheroadthatwasusedbytheUnion army.Twoothercapturedcaves,Lookout Mountain andNickajack,werevisiblefromtheTennesseeRiverandtherailroadwhichparalleledtheriver.ApictureoftheentrancetoNickajackCavetakenafew monthsafteritwascapturedbytheUnion army shows anextremelylargeentrance,approximately100feetwideand25feethigh;todayitisinundatedbythebackwatersofaTVAdam. Lookout Mountain Cavenowcontainsthe widely advertisedRubyFalls.Theproductionofsaltpetrewassuccessfulbecausenitrewaseasytolocate,mine,andrefineand it couldbeasmallorlargeoperation.Miningnitrewasprofitable.The governmentpaidthirty-fivecentstoone and ahalfdollarsa poundforgroughsaltpetre,whiletheNorthpaidthirteencentsa poundforimportednitre.2SSaltpetreminerswereexempt frommilitaryduty.26ThismayexplainwhytherearemoreknownsaltpetrecavesinTennessee.Tennessee'sloyalitiesweredividedandsomemenmayhaveoptedtominesaltpetreratherthanleavetheirhomes and movetotheNorth.Ofthealmosttwomillionpoundsofdomestically-producedsaltpetre,over500,000pounds came fromthecavesofTennessee,Alabama,andGeorgia.27108 POO'rNOTES ITheWaroftheRebellion:A .Compilation oftheOfficialRecordsoftheUnion andConfederateArmies (70vols.in128parts,Washington,D.C.,1880-1901),Ser.4,III,698. 20R, passim.3NickajackCave,Tennessee,andManitouCave,Alabama,werebothraidedtwicebytheFederals.OR,Ser.I,X,Pt.II,161:XXX, 1t. III,354:XXXII,Pt.I,129;Harper'sMonthly,February6,1864.4Burton"Faust,SaltpetreMiningin Kammoth Cave, (Louisville,FilsonClub,1967),2.Sp. GaryEller,"SaltpetreChemistry"GeorgiaUnderground,XI(Fall,1974),88-89.GA.P.VanGelderandH.Schlatter,HistoryoftheExplosivesIndustryinAmerica(NewYork,ColumbisUniversityPress,1927).107.7GeorgeW.Rains,HistoryoftheConfederatePowder Works(Augusta.ChronicleandConstitutionalistPrint,1882),3.Blbid.4-7. 9.!!>id., 4. IOIbl.d. llRains'pamphletwasprintedintheClarksville(Tenn.)Jeffersonian,MobileAdvertiserandRegisterandHuntsvilleDemocrat. I20R,Ser.4,II,291I3FrankE.Vandiver,PloughsharesIntoSwords:JosiahGorgas andConfederateOrdnance(Austin,UniversityofTexasPress,1952),106.I40R,Ser.4,II,222. Rains,ConfederatePowder Works. 26.I6JamesH.Brewer,TheConfederateNegro (Durham,N.C.,DukeUniversityPress,1969),45:RainsConfederatePowder Works,16.170R,Ser.4,III,698.I BRains,ConfederatePowder Works,26.I9Ralph W. Donnelly,"ScientistsoftheConfederateNitreand MiningBureau,"CivilWarHistory.II(December,1956),70. 200R,Ser.4,I,I,115-16;II,83,222-24;Brewer,ConfederateNegro.44-46.

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21GeorgeW.Rains,Noteson MakingSaltpetrefromtheEarthoftheCaves(Augusta,Steam PowerPressChronicleandSentinel,1861),2.22Ibid.230R,Ser.1.XXXIX,Pt.I,463-64. .Ser.1.X.Pt.I.20.10925Rains.NotesonMakingSaltpetre.11;Jonesboro(Tenn.)Telegraph.February,1864;AlfredD.Chandler.Jr.,"Bupont.Dahlgren.andtheCivilWarNitreShortage."MilitaryAffairs.nIl(Fall.1949).143.26Jonesboro(Tenn.)Express.January20.1863.270R,Ser.4.III,698.

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MANAG,EMENTOFPREHISTORICCULTURALRESOURCESATMAMMOTH*KennethC.CarstensCAVEABSTRACTNATIONALPARKIn addUi..ontoe.onta..i.nA:.ng :the wol!i.d'.6longutcaveandhavingwol!i.dIWWwnedcave6olUllaU0n.6,theFlint MammothCa.ve SIj.6:temhMae.ciAimaU 0 6oJr.U.6e.ontent.606u.rUq u.e pJr.eh-<..6:toIl1.e.andh-<..6:toJUc.c.u.Ull!U1lJr.uoWtC.u.Th-<..6papeJr.w.LU6oc.u..6 on:the h-<..6:toJr.1j06cave.managementMUpeJr.tiUM.topJr.UeJr.v-ing.the6Jr.a.gileJr.ema.,(.Y1.606.thepJr.eh-<..6.toJUc.c.u.Ull!U1lpMt. Intro'ductionThefieldofculturalresourcemanagement,likethatofcavemanagement,beginswiththeidenti-,ficationandassessmentoftheresourcedatabase.Intendedsolelyforthepublicgood,culturalresourcemanagementpersistsfortheprotectionandpreservationofthenon-renewableculturalresources.ToarchaeologistsofNorthAmerica,aswellascaversandprivatecaveowners,theprotectionofcavescontainingculturalresourcesdidnotoccuruntiltheFederalgovernmentenactedtheAntiquitiesActof1906.Unfortunately,thatact,aswellasseveraladditionallawssincepassedbyCongress,offersprotectiontothoseresourcesonfederally owned landsonly.The management,protection,andpreservationofculturalresourceswithinMammoth Ciye NationalParkcouldnotbegin,therefore, tilAprilof1940--almostfourdecadesafterthe1906Act.Onlyrecentlyhastherebeenaconcertedefforttosystematicallyandscientificallyidentifyandpreservetheculturalresourcedata intheMammothCavearea.PriorandsubsequenttotheMammothCaveregionbecoming aNationalParkin1940,thequantityandqualityofculturalresourceswithintheMammothCaveareahavedwindledthroughintentionalandunintentionalmismanagement.Thefollowingparagraphstracethemanagementoftheculturalresourcebaseinthe Mammoth Cavearea.EarlyInvestigations:1800-1916 The AgeofAntiquariansOneoftheearliestarchaeologicalrecordingspertainingto this researchareawaswrittenbyConstantineSameulRafinesque(1824).Rafinesque,acolleagueofJames Audubon, wasdeeplyinterested*AssistantProfessorofAnthropology, Department ofSociologyand'Anthropology,MurrayStateUniversity,Murray,KY42071110inrecordinginformationonprehistoric remains oftheOhioValley.AccordingtoYoung(1910:18).Rafinesqueclaimstohavelocatedonehundredand ancientsites(settlements) andfive hundredandfivemonuments (moundsandforts?)allfrom a41-countyareaofKentucky.HisstudyareaincludedportionsoftheCentralKentuckyKarst.Rafinesque'sentryfortheGentralKentuckyKarstarealisted"shellmoundsalongtheGreenRiverandmummiesincaves."FollowingRafinesque'sinitialinquiryintoKentucky'sprehistory,thereappearstobeanabsenceofrelatedliteratureabouttheantiquitiesof the area.Thisisnottosaythatinterestin antiqui tieshaddied;ithadnot.According'toYoung(1910),increasedfarmingactivity,andingeneral.disruptionofthelandduetopopulation growth, causedanincreasingamountofdestructionandlootingofprehistoricsites.By1870thecollecting,selling,andsmugglingofantiquitieswas amajorprofession.Thisisalsotrueforthe Maa moth Cavearea.Althoughknown IDOstlyforits large cavesystem,thearchaeologicalcontentsoftheCentralKentuckycaves,e.g.,avarietyofartifactsaswellasdesiccatedhuman remains, andtheircollectionandsellingwas atopical pasttiBe. SuchfindsasFawnHoofin1813,Scudder's mummy in1814,LittleAl(ice)in1875,andLostJohnin1935,helpedmake the Mammoth area famous(Meloy, 1968).Duringthemid-nineteenth'andearly20thcenturies,manyindividuals explored thecavesystemslookingonlyforsuchfindstosell(seeYoung,1910).Unfortunately,thisdilettanticpastimehasstoppedonlyinthosecaveswhichareconstantlyprotectedbytheNationalParkService(e.g.,Salts,Mammoth,andLeeCaves).Theearliestdateknown frominsideSaltsCaveis1809 (Watson,etal.,1969:7).Datesand names signedonvarioussignaturerocksin Mammoth andSaltscaves,indicatethatthemajorityofhistoric

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caving"datesfromthelastquarteror so ofthe19thcenturytothefirstquarterofthe20thcentury" Thevegetalantiquities(e.g.,textile,sandals,cordage)thatcouldbefoundwithinthedrycaveswerenotnormallypreservedinsurfaceor"open"sites.Hence,theseitemswereespeciallysoughtoutforcollecting,smuggling,andlooting.In1874or1875LouisVialandsomefriendsexploredextensivelyinSaltsCaveusinga "newsideentranceknownonlytothemselves"(Watson,etal.,1969:7).Duringoneofthesecavetripstheyfoundthe"SaltsCaveMummy",laternicknamedincorrectly"LittleAlice".Morerecentexaminationsby (1971:200-206)hasidentifiedthesexandageofthisindividualtobethatofanineyearoldmale,nowcalled"LittleAI",.Duringthe1890'ssuchmenasF. W. PutnamofthePeabodyMuseumaswellaslocalKentuckianssuchasColonel,BennettYoung, T.F.Hazen, and W. D.Cutliff,madeextensivecollectionsand/orpurchasedprehistoricmaterialsfromSaltsandMammothCaves.Young(1910:300,305)states:"In1893 Mr.TheodoreF.Hazen...opened a newentranceintoSaltsCave.." (and) "weobtainedmanyinterestingrelics..."aboutthepresententrance(SaltsSink),numerousspalls,flakesofflint,pestles,axes,andawls,andotherimplementshavebeenfound..." YounggoesontodescribenumerousartifactstakenfromwithinSaltsandMammothCaves,suchascordsofbark,hemp,cattailleaves,andgrass;basketwork;half-burnedcanetorches;corncobs(possiblymodern);anaboriginalladder;woodendiggingimplements;cups,dishes,bowls andwaterbottlesmade fromgourdsandsquashrinds;tobaccoleavesandseedpods,aswellasmanychertimplements.'ThelargecollectionofCol.BennettYoung waseventuallyacquiredbytheMuseumof the AmericanIndian,HeyeFoundation,NewYork(Schwartz,1958e; Watson,ed.,1974:167).Later,JohnM.Nelson,whowas acaveguidefrom1894-1907,extensivelycollectedantiquitiesbothfromthecavesand fromsurroundingsurfacesites(Carey,1942;Schwartz,1958f:3;Watson,etal.,1969;ed.,1974).WiththeexceptionoftheJohnM.Nelsoncollection,theotherlargeprivatecollectionswereeithergivenorsoldto:theAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,NewYork;SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,D.C.;orthePeabodyMuseumofArchaeologyandEthnology,Cambridge,Massachusetts.CulturalAssessmentandReorganization:1917-1960ItwastheMammothCaveEstatescollection,donatedtotheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistoryin1913,thatpromptedNelsC.Nelson(norelationtoJ.M.Nelson)toengageinthe"onlyscientificarchaeolo gical investigations"oftheMammothCaveareauptothattime(Schwartz,1958d).NelsC.NelsonworkedinMammothCaveNationalParkduringMayand Novemberof1916asanarchaeologicalrepresentativeoftheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.NelsC.Nelson's1917reportdescribedthematerials111 he foundduringhissurface and subsurface recon naissanceand excavations withinthe HasDoth Cavearea.Specifically, Nelson describes andcompares hissurfacefindsfromthe MammothCave and Eaton Valleyfieldstosimilarbifacial chippedstone materialsthenbeing found inthe FrenchPaleo lithic(Nelson,1917:16-19).Intotal Belson examinedthroughexcavationand/orother exam.na tion(itisunclearwhetherornot some siteswere"testexcavated")sixof ninecavesites; sixofsevenopensurfacesites; andone offourrockshe1ters(Ibid:11).Thelater mmber referstothecategory '"'"'Of""site typeshereportedforthe Mammoth Cavearea.Schwartz(195Sd:1-2) states thatNelson'smaincontributionwasto "scientifi callydocumentthepresenceinthe caves of __ classesofmaterialpreviouslyonlyreported by amateurs"butthatNelsondidnotmakesubstantialconclusionsabouthismaterialsduetothe lack ofpublishedreportsconcerningtheantiquitiesofthearea. However. uponvisitingFlint Dome, asectionofMammothCave,Nelson(Ibid:34)correctlystated:"...the S\DD oftheevidenceestablishedbeyondreasonabledoubtthatthe Indian quarriedchertintherecessesoftheMammothCave."OneofNelson'sexcavations,(arockshelternearBoneCave),gavefurtherevidencethattheareawasoccupiedprehistorically.Inhis5'X7'X excavation,Nelsonuncoveredaburialpitlinedwith13limestoneslabssetonedge.Includedwithintheburialdetrituswerefourcordmarked,limestone-temperedsherdsandseveralflintchips.Nelsonwasapparentlystruckbythemodeofceramictempering,remarkingthatitwas oddthattheyhadnotbeentemperedwithshellashadbeenthoserecoveredfromtheFox Farm site(aFortAncientsiteinnorthernKentucky).NelsonconcludedthatthepeoplewhohadoccupiedthisshelterwereoftheMiddleMississippianperiod.From whatisknownabouttheceramicsoftheGreenRiverdrainage,itismoreplausiblethattheburial'scontextwasLateWoodland.al though limestonesherdshavebeenrecoveredfrombothLateWoodland andMiddleMississippiancontexts(Hanson,1960).Nelson'sotherexcavation,insidethevestibuleofMammothCave,isprobablyhismajorworkintheMammothCavearea.AlthoughNelson'sexcavationofthevestibulewasexploratory,itwasextremelyextensiveandthorough.Nelsonsankaseriesof10testtrenchesthat"revealedmiddenintwoplaces.Onewasnearthewestwalloftheentrancewhiletheother.some 40feetfromthefirst,extended50feetbackovertheentireentrancearea.AlthoughNelson'snotes are attimesambiguous,hedoesdemonstrateastrongconcernforthetemporalandspatiallocationorartifactsexcavated(personelobservationofNelson'scatalogrecordonfilewiththeAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,NewYork:April,1975).Nelsonexcavatedalmostallofthevestibuleentrance,butthenumberofartifactsfoundwassmall.AsSchwartz(1958d)pointsout,however,thiswasprobably due totheextensivelooting

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thathadoccurredearlier.ItmayalsobetheresultofNelson'srecoverymethods(noscreenswereused)and/orextensivesubsurfacealterationsasaresultfromcavecommercializationorprevioussaltpetreminingoperations. Any ofthesereasonsmayhelpexplainthepaucityofartifacts_recovered.Inanycase,Nelsondidfindandrecog .nize evidenceofprehistoricdietintheform-ofanimalbonefromsuchspeciesasbear, opposUm, porcupine,deer,dog,elk,bat,turtle,andpossiblycraneandturkey,aswellaselevendifferentspeciesoffreshwatermolluscs(unionids).Bealsofoundprehistorictoolssuchasboneawls,boneflakers,antlerpoints,tubes,stone projec tilepoints,scrapers,and groundstoneimplements,anditemsforpersonaladornment,suchaspendants.Fromhisfindings,Nelson(1917:69)concluded:".wehavehereevidenceofatypeofcultureverysimilartothatoftheStone-graveandMound-buildingtribes,butmuchmoreiimitedinitsscopeofdevelopment;inotherwords,essentiallymoreprimitive.Theprimitivegrouplivedoffthenaturalproductsofthelandandtheadvancedgroupgainedsubsistencemainlythroughthepracticeofagriculture."Nelson'sreferencetotwodifferentcultureswereinterpretedfromtwostratigraphicallydifferent-middens.Thelower,ormore"primitive"groupwasidentifiedbyNelsonwhatarchaeologistswoulddefinetwodecadeslater(e.g.,Ritchie,1933),astheArchaicculture(Schwartz,1960:133).OnlyoneothermentionofMammothCaveareaprehistoryappearedinprintduringthefirsttwodecadesofthetwentiethcentury.Thiswas afleetingmentionofaseriesofrocksheltersitesnearwhatisnowthewesternboundaryofMammothCaveNational-Park.Thereferencewas made byC.B.MoorewhovisitedtheIndianHillrocksheltercomplexin1915 (Moore, 1916).Shallowwatercondi tions ontheGreenRiverforcedMooretoterminatehisGreenRiverarchaeologicalexpeditionnearIndianHillas his boat,theGopher,wastoolargetocontinuethe journey upstream.SincethetimeofNelsC.Nelson'sworkuntiltheformationofMammothCaveNationalParkduringtheearly1940's,competitionamongthevariouslandand/orcaveownersforthepublicdollargreatlyincreased.Itwas a periodofgreatturmoilandrivalry(Sides,1971).A newlydiscovereddesiccatedburialwithinMammothCave, knownasLostJohn,broughtaboutadditionalarchaeologicalpublicity(Pond, 1935;1937).Pond'swork andG.K. NelDDBnn's analysis of LostJohn(Neuman, t"938) constitutedtheonlyarchaeologicalinquiryintheareabetweenN.C.Nelson'sworkin1916 andtheformationoftheParkin1940.althoughseveraladditionalreferences-tocaves and rock.heltersitesinandaroundthepresentboundaryof Mam moth CaveNationalParkappearedintermittently(e.g.,Fowke, 1922;FunkhouserandWebb,1932).WiththefinalacquisitionofthelandsbythegovernmentonApril25,1940,itbecame afederaloffensetoremovematerialsfromthecaveinteriors.112DuringtheformationoftheMammothCaveNationalParktheMammothCave-NationalParkAssociation purchased from Mr.JohnM.Nelsonacollectionofprehistoric,historic,andgeologicalspecimensthatwerethendonatedtoMammothCaveNationalParkonJanuary15,1942(Carey,1942:1).Mr.HenryA.CareyoftheArchaeologyDepartmentattheUniversityof Kentucky wasplacedinchargeofcatalogingthePark's new acquisitions.Carey,assistedby twoparkemployees,Mr. M. L.CookandMr.R.Skaggs,beganthearduoustaskofcategorizing,measuring,andcatalogingtheJohn M.Belson collection. Some photographswerealso takenby Mr.FredBinnewies.Nelson'scollectionofarchaeologicalandlocalculturalmaterials numbered over25,000specimens.Unfortunately,themajorityoftheNelsonarchaeologicalcollection waswith outspecificprovenience.Thatis,the materials comprised,forthemostpart,items collected andbought from thelocalarea,but withno note made astotheexactcollectinglocation. Furthermore, Nelsonkeptonly"mentalnotes"for spec:iJlens ofexceptionalqualityofunusual circumstance ofdiscovery.FromtheNelsoncollection,Careyconcludesthat:(1)theMammothCaveNationalParkarea vas utilizedforanextensive period oftimebytheaboriginalpeoples;(2)atypologicalsequencecouldbeworkedoutfortheareausingthecollection,butthatextremecautionshouldbeusedin drawing definitiveconclusionsduetothelackofcontrolledlocationaldata;and(3)thatscientificarchaeologicalexcavationsshouldbestarted,bothinsidethecavesandatselectedsurfacesites withinthe Parkarea,by atrainedarchaeologist. Unfortun ately,duetothe"International Eaergency"(World WarII)occurringatthetimeofCarey's writing, thecollectionswerenotstudiedagainuntil1957 when DouglasW.SchwartzexaminedtheJolm M. Relsoncollectionandattemptedtorelocate sa.e ofthesurfacesites_fromwhichNelsonhad made hiscollections(Schwartz,1958f).Schwartzalso visit edseveralofthemajor museums intheEastto study thecollectionsacquiredfromthe Caveareaattheturnofthecentury.Arebirthand interest inthesurfaceand sUbsur facearchaeologicalpotentialofthe Cave areabeganaspartoftheNational Park Service's''Mission66" .program,whichwasdesignedtoacc __ dateparkvisitorsbetterbyenriching, "their visits with morecomplete inforaation onthenaturalandthehumanhistory"ofthe Cavearea. DouglasW.Schwartz,thenwiththe of An thropology,UniversityofKentucky,was engaged to"studyalltheavailableartifactsand reIaIlins, includingmaterialsscatteredin severalausueas", and"presentthecompletestoryofthecaveinitsrelationtothelifeofprehistoric man"(Schwarta, 1960:135).Schwartzbegan work in1957,thirteenyearsafterCarey'sinitialpleaforadditionalregionalsynthesis. Schwartz statesthatthis program alsocalledforradiocarbon dating. athoroughstudyofthe remains oftheprehistoric tiner foundin1935(LostJohn). mapping activityareasutilized bytheIndianswithin Mammoth Cave.anda sur facesurveyofsiteswithin Mammoth CaveNationalPark

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PattyJo archaeologicalworkin Mammoth. CaveNationalParkbeganin1962 when,inconjunction with the Cave ResearchFoundation,theIllinoisStateMuseum, and MammOth CaveNational'Park,sheinitiatedanarchaeologicalreconnaissanceof.thelargecaveswithintheFlintMammothCavesystem(Watson,etal.,1969).Watson'sinitialwork wascarriedoutprimarilyinSaltsCavebutmorerecentresearchhas expanded into'othercaves(Mammoth,Lee,andBluff),andtoarchaeologicalsurfacereconnaissance.Onereasonforstudyingthearchaeologicaldeposits.andartifactswithinthe ofthecavesisthatdataderivedfromthepaleo fecal materialsandvegetalfibers(culturalorganicIn1957(Schwartz,1958h) andin1959(Schwartz,1960b;Schwartz,Sloan,and Hanson,1960),Schwartz'sgroupconductedadditionalarchaeologicalsurveysinBreckinridge,Grayson,Hardin,Hart,and Edmonsoncounties(adjacentcounties'tothenorthandwestofMammothCaveNationalPark;aportionofHartandEdmonsoncountieslieswithinthePark'sboundaries).Thesesurveyswerepartoftheinter-agencyarchaeologicalandpaleontologicalsalvageprogramfortheRough and Nolin Rivers.Additionalarchaeologicalsiteswerelocatedduringthesurveys.Archaeologicaltestexcavations,however,tookplaceat16,sites.Withtheexceptionofsite15Gy12,onlytwotofourshortdescriptiveparagraphswerewrittenexplaining the culturalcontentofthesetestexcavatedsites.Hence,thesignificanceofthisgeographicallysimilardatasampleanditsrelationshiptotheMammothCaveareawasminimal..In1958,DouglasW.Schwartzproducedsevendifferentpapers (1958a-g) inwhichhetriedtoaccomplishtheaforementionedresponsibilities.Themajorityofhiswork,however,wassimplya summaryaccountofworkaccomplishedbyothersbeforehim(e.g.,N.C.Nelson,J.,M.Nelson,andH.Carey).Schwartzputthisbodyofpreviousdata,narrativediscussions,andartifactualdescriptionsintoanorganizedfashion.Thesesevenunpublishedreportswerethenusedashisfoundation for thewritingoftwopopularaccountsofMammothCaveareaprehistory(1960;1965).ThreeofSchwartz'sreports(1958a,d,andf)and alaterreportbySchwartz and Sloan(1960)providesomeusefuldiscussionofarchaeologicalsitelocationsandprobablesitelocations.AfterrecheckingthemajorityofSchwartz's(1958f)and Schwartz, andSloan's(1960)sitelocationsduringmyfieldresearchperiod(intermittentvisitsfromfall,1973,throughfall,1975),itbecameclearthatmanyofSchwartz'ssitelocationsweredubious.ThosesiteswhichwereaccuratelyrecordedwerethosereportedbySchwartzandSloan'spredecessors.SchwartzandSloandidgiveaccurateinterpretationsofthematerialsinpossessionoftheMammoth CaveNationalParklibrary,althoughtheseinterpretationsappeartobedrawnmainlyfromthearchaeologicalsurfacecollectionsstoredatthePark'sresearchcenterandwereaccomplishedwhollyonatypologicalbasis.Schwartzshouldalsobegivencreditforpullingtogetherhithertounorganizedarchaeologicalleaflets,letters,anddocuments.ANewEra:1960-1980Prehistory.InterpretingtheArea's113matterpreservedbythedrycaveenvironment)arehighlyrelevanttodiscoveryofdietarypracticesduringtheLateArchaic-EarlyWoodlandperiod.OrganicartifactscontainingthisinformationarenotgenerallyfoundateasternU.S.archaeologicalsites.ResearchwasexpandedinAprilof1969toinclude,"excavationintheSaltsCaveVestibule,asearchforandtestingofpossiblesurfacesitesnearSaltsSink,andrecordingofprehistoricremainsinothercaves within thePark(Ibid.).Inaddition, comparative studiesweremadeatacavelocatedoutsidethepark(WyandotteCave,Indiana);a more complete radiocarbon se quencewasobtained from Saltsand Mammoth Caves;astratigraphiccolumn from Salts Cave Vestibulewasfloated;pollenandparasitological analyses frompaleofecalspecimenswereundertaken; and pollencorestudiesfrom nEarby sinkhole ponds initiated.Aidedinherresearchbyscientists repreoollting thebiological,geological,philosophical, matbe matical,social,physical,and chemical fieldsofstudy,Watson was abletoapproachthearchaeologicalproblemsoftheMammothCaveNational Park areainascientifically-integratedmanner. Th1s approachhasledtosomeanswers,andto manyDew questions,particularlywith,respectto environ mentalchangesandtheirpossibleeffectontbeprehistoricinhabitantsofthestudyarea. Watson hasbeenabletodocumentthattheprehistoricpe0pleweremining caveforminerals(e.ggypsumandmirabilite)andchertaswellas simply exploringit.Shehasalsonotedsimilar patterns inportionsofothercaveslocatedinside(Lee andBluff)andoutsidetheParkboundaries (wyan dotteCaveinIndianaandJaguarCaveinnorthernTennessee).AlthoughLee,Bluff,Wyandotte.andJaguarCavesarenotcomparableinsizetoeitherSaltsorMammothCave,Watson'sdataclearlysuggestthatcaveminingandexplorationwerewidespreadactivitiesinthiskarsticregionwhichprobablybeganduringtheLateArchaic(Watson.ed 1974:221-232;personalcommunicationre:JaguarCave).Thetwenty-ninedatesnowavailableforthe Caveprojectclearlydemonstrate the widespreadprehistoricuseofthecavesoveraveryimportantandsimilartimehorizon: that ofthebeginningofhorticultureintheLateArchaicEarlyWoodlandperiod(ca"4,000to2,000B.P.).HumanremainsfromtheGreenRiverArchaicSbellmoundsaswellas'remainsofindividuals fro. theMammothCaveareaarebeingstudied(Robbins.1911;1974; 1976;Barnes,1974;MolnarandWard,1914).Thesestudieshaveemphasizedthestature.diet.variousosteologicalcharacteristics(e.gausclestructure,bonepathology,and masticatory),and socialtreatment(e.g.,burialpractices andcan nibalism)ofthe'extinctGreenRiverpopulations.Dataconcerningthesocialorganization'and general culture history ofthepeople whoventured intotheFlint Mammoth Cave Systemis BQchacrespecula tive,butthedataandthesuggestions made(Wat son,ed.,1974:231)arewithinthe range of 'pTOba bilitywhensupportedbythevariousstrandsofinformationhowavailable.Pollenanalysesofpaleofeealspecimens by Schoenwetter (1974&:57-58Yhave beeninterpretedasmeaningthatthepeoplewholeftthefeceswerenotmembersofaspecialworkorelitistgroup.AsWatson cit.)states"Thepeoplewhowentintothecaveswere s1mply

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individualswhowantedorneededcavemineralsforpersonalorfamilyuse."Thishypothesisalsofitsinformationderivedfrom human and non-humanremainsfoundinbothSaltsand Mammoth Caves,suchas 'the presenceofchild-sizedslippersinSaltsCave (Young,1919:307),hanks of raw thatmightbeassociatedwithfemaleworkand/orclothingrepair,andthebodiesofansdultmale from'MsmmOth Cave(LostJohn),andapreadolescentboy fromSaltsCave(LittleAI).Physicalpathologicalevidencesuggeststhatbothindividualsdiedwhilepursuingexploringand/orminingactivitiesinthecaves;neitherseems to havebeendeliberatelyplacedintherespectivecavesfollowingtheirdeaths.Most,importantly,dietaryinformationsuggeststhattheindividualswhovisitedthecavesnotonlyreliedheavilyupon asteadyplant-fooddiet(hickorynuts,sunflower,sumpweed, chenopodseeds,andoccasionalfruits;Watson,ed.,1974:234),butalsoutilizedplantswhichweredomesticated.Meat fromdeer,turkey,andsmallmammalswasalsoconsumed,buttoalesserdegreethanthevegetablematerials.Thenatureofthefoodremainssuggeststhatthepeoplewhoventuredintothecavesutilizedfoodsourceswhichwerelightweight,yetnutritious(e.g.,sunflowerseedsand/orhickorynutsinthewhole,orpemmican when ground anddried).Watson'sresearchintheMammothCaveregionisuniquefortworeasons:(1)itisthefirsttimesuchscientifically-integratedarchaeologicalcaveresearchhasbeenattemptedintheeastern States;and(2)itprovidesanaspectofculturalhistorywhichwas,relativelyspeaking,short-livedyetextremelyimportant(e.g.,evidenceofhorticulturalremainsbyourpresentarchaeologicalrecoverytechniqueswouldnotbe foundin"open"surfacesites,orwouldnotbepreserved).Watson'sresearchcontinuesintheMammothCaveregion.Aspart o thatcontinuation,myworkistodocumenttheculturalhistoryoftheCentralKentuckyKarstsothatWatson'ssynchronicstudiesmaybefittedintotheprehistoricculturalcontinuumoftheMammoth Cavearea.Theinitiationofthe Qreen onJanuary26,1974 by Watson,JanetLevy,andmyself,markedthebeginningofintensive,systematicsurfacesurveyinMammothCaveNationalParkandmycommitmenttothisresearchproJect.InSeptemberof1974 Isynthesizedtheprogressofthissurfacereconnaissance,analyzedsurfacecollections,anddiscussedtheculturalcharacteristicsofseveralopenandrocksheltersites(Carstens,1974);GRS-12 (BlueSpringHollowRockshelter);GRS-11 Site);GRS-13(DanielsCemetary);GRS-25(NolinRockshelter);'andGRS-37(SaltsSinkSurface).Surfacereconnaissanceandadditionalsiteexcavationhavecontinuedsince1974(Carstens,1975,1976, 1977; Watson andCarstens,1975).ExcavationstookplaceatThreeSpringsPumphouse (GRS-5)duringJanuaryand March, 1975;NolinRockshelterduringApril,1975;BlueSpring Hollow RockshelterduringMarch,June,andJuly,1975;PatchRockshelter(GRS-18) during Julyand 'November, 1'975; Crumps Cave (GRS-21)during September, 1975;OwlCaveVestibule(GRS-19)duringOctoberand November,1975; andatIndianCaveRockshelter(GRS-49)duringNovember, 1976.AdditionaltestexcavationsattheElmoresite(GRS-42)werestarted.in114October,1975.Inadditiontotheseexcavationsandsurfacecollections,one weekduringApril,1975, was spentintheAmerican Museum ofNaturalHistory, New York,examiningmaterialobtainedduringthesurfacecollectionsandexcavationsconductedby Rels C.Nelson(1917;muchofthismaterialwas un published).Theinterpretationofthese exeava tiona,surface survey and collectionsmadeby theGreenRiverSurveypersonnel, aswell..as observations made ontheJohn Nel..son and Rel..s C. Nelson collectionshaveprovedsufficientin theculturalhistoryoftheCentral leDtucltyKarst (Carstens,1980).Sincethe time of NelsNel..son' s workinthe earl,. twentiethcentury, ithastakenarchaeolofP.-tB morethansixdecadestopiecetogetherthearea'sprehistoricculturehistory.Muchof thisdelay istheresultofsignificant prehistoricsitesbe ingdestroyedbyvandals.Stronger .easures ofresourceprotectionareurgentlyneededif weare tocontinuetoidentify,interpret,and preserve theculturalresourcebase.Withoutadequate eo forcement,resourceprotectionbylegislatioa is meaningless.ReferencesCitedBarnes,S.1974.AnalysisofthreeBt-5 Burials. UnpublishedManuscript.Departmentof Anthropology, WashingtonUniversity,St.Louis.Carey,H.A.1942.ReportonJohn MoBel.soa collection.U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior,NationalParkService. Mammoth CaveNational Park Library. Mammoth Cave,Kentucky.Carstens.K.C. 1980.Archaeological ioYestiBa tionsintheCentralKentuckyKarst. Uopubll.sbed DoctoralDissertation. Depart.ent of WashingtonUniversity.St.Louis.Carstens.K.C. 1976.RecentInvestigatiODS in theCentralKentuckyKarst:Apreli.ioary te.pora1 orderingofseveralsurfacesitesin the Cavearea.Kentucky..Paperpresentedtothe 35th AnnualHeetingoftheCentralStates AnthropoloaJ. calSociety,St.Louis.Carstens,K,C. 1975.Surface arcbaeolOl7in MammothCaveNationalPark. Kentucky.Paperpre sentedtothe40thAnnual Meeting ofthe Society forAmericanArchaeology.Dallas.Carstens,K.C. 1974:Arcbaeologi<:alsurfacere connaissanceof MammothCaveNational Park. J.entuclty Master'sThesis. Depart1llent of AnthropoloU.Wash ingtonUniversity.St.Louis.Carstens.K.C.andK.K.Jenings.1977. Three SpringsPumphouse: Anassess1llent of d.-age. ReportpreparedfortheNational ParkService. April,1977,Tallahasse,Florida.Duffield,L.F.(inpreparation).The Archaeolou ofKentucky. On-going research,UniversityofKentucky.

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Meloy.H.1971. MUmmies of Mammoth Cave.Shelbyville,Indiarta: Micron. Nelson,N.C.1923. Kentucky:MammothCave andVicinity.ManuscriptonfileattheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,NewYork. Moore,C.B.1916.Someaboriginalsiteson GreenRiver,Kentucky:Certainaboriginalsiteson lower Ohio River. AcademyofNatural ofPhiladelphiaJournal,2ndseries,Vol. 16,No.3.Philadelphia.Hanson. L. 1960. Theanalysis,distribution and aeriationofpotteryfromtheGreen River-drainage aaabasiaforanarcheologicalsequenceofthatarea.UnpublishedManuscript,OfficeofStateArchaeology,UniversityofKentucky,Lexington.Schwartz,D.W.1958b. Arcbaeo1ogi.calIIeport 011MaterialsintheJohn M. IleISOD Collection MammothCaveNationalPark. llamJsc:ript, CaveNational Park Library, Cave,KeDtucky. Schwartz.D.W.1967. Conceptions of K.eDtucky prehistory;A case studyinthe history 'of Archeo logy.StudiesinAnthropology.110.6. DaiYerrity of Kentucky Press. Lexington.Scboenvetter.J. 1974b.Pollen aaalys1s of sedimenta fromSalta .Cave veetibule.1D:'Arcbeology of tlu!Cave Area.P. J.W&taoa(f!d.).Academic Press. levYork. Schwartz,D. W. 196Ob. Archaeologicalsurvey oftheNolinRiver Reservoir.Manuscript.IIuseIa ofAnthropology. University of Kentucky.LexiDgtoa.Schwartz. D. W. 1965. Prehistoric__ in Cave. EasternNational Park andIIoau.-eIttAssocia tion.InterpretiveSeries. Ro. 2.Schwartz.D. W. 1960a.Prehistoric __ in moth Cave.Scientific Aa!rican, Vol.203.Schwartz,D.W.1958a. Sandalsandtextiles MalDDlOthCaveNational Park.1laDuscript:, CaveNationalParkLibrary. Cave.Kentucky. Schoeowetter,J.1974a. Pollen analysisof human paleofeces from upper Salts Cave. Archeologyofthe tl8ma)th CaveArea.P. J.,W&taoa(ed.).Academic Press. lev York. -Dentalremains The ArcheologyJoWatson(ed.).Molnar. S. and S. Ward. 1974. fromSaltaCavevestibule.In:ofthe Mammoth CaveArea,PattyAcademicPress.Fowke,G.1922.ArchaeologicalInvestigations.Park1.CaveexplorationsintheOzarkregionofcentralKissouri.Part11. Cave explorationa inotherstates.Bureauof American Ethnology,Bulletin76. Washington,D.C.Funkhouser,W.D.andW.S.Webb.1932. ArchaeologicalSurveyin Kentucky. Universityof KentuckY ReportsinAnthropology and Archaeology, Vol.2. Lexington. Nelson,N.C.1917.Contributionstothearchaeologyof Mammoth Caveandvicinity,Kentucky.AnthropologicalPapers,AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory,Vol.22.Park1.NewYork.Schwartz,D. W. 1958c. AnArchaeologica1Jleport onPhysical Remainsfre.CaveJlatioaalPad. Manuscript, Cave RatiooalPadLibrary,ammoth Cave, Kentucky. Neumann.G.K.1938. Thehumanremains fromMammoth Cave. AmericanAntiquity,Vol.3.Pond,A. LostJohnofMummyLedge.NaturalHistory.Vol. 39. Pond.A.1935.Reportofpreliminarysurveyof im portantarchaeologicaldiscoveryatMammothCave, Kentucky. WisconsinArcheologist,Vol. 15.Schwartz,D.W.1958d. S.-ry and EvaIaatbJo ofthe1916 American lktsema Archaeologica1 VorkinMammoth CaveNationalParkLibrary. Cave. Kentucky.Schwartz.D.W.1958e.Descriptionand Analysis of Museum Haterials fre.CaveIIatiooalPark. Manuscript. MaD.oth Cave N8.tiooalParkLibrary.Mammoth Cave. Kentucky. Rafinesque,C.S. 1824.AncientHistory.orAnsalsofKentucky:IntroductiontotheHistoryandAntiquitiesoftheStateofKentucky.Frankfort. Schwartz. D. W. 1958f. Archaeologlca1Survey of Mammoth CaveNationalPark. Manuscript, CaveNational'ParkLibrary. Cave. Kentncky. Ritchie.W.A.1933. TheLamokaLakesite. Re searchesandTransactionsoftheNew York StateArcheologicalAssociation,LewisH.MorganChapter,Vol.7,No.4,SchwartzD.W..1958g. Report: on TwoBadiocarboD Datesfro. Cave.hntueky.Manuscript.MBDaoth Cave National ParkLibrary. Cave. Kentucky. Robbins, L.M.1974.Prehistoricpeopleofthe Mammoth Cavearea.Archeologyofthe Hammoth Cave Area. P.J.Watson(ed.). Academic Press. New York.Schwarta.D.W.1958h. 'IbeArchaeology of Ha. moth Cave NationalPark. Manuscript. Cave NationalPark Library. Kentucky. Schoeowetter.J.1978.Surface sediment pollenstudiesinthe Mammoth CaveNationalPark_studyarea:Amethodologicaland interPretive report.UnpublishedResearchReportofthe Palyno logyLaboratory,Departmentof State Univeraity, Tempe. Robbins, L.M.1974.SaltsCave, Kentucky. A Woodland "lIIUIIIIIlY"from American Antiquity36:200-206.Schwarta.D.W.-and L.H.Hanson. 1961. Archaeo logicalexcavationintheNolinBasin1961. Manuacript.OfficeofState Archeology.University of Kentucky,Lexington. U5

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Schwartz, D.W.andT.G.Sloan.1960a.ArchaeologicalsurveyoftheBarrenReservoir.Manuscript,OfficeofStateArcheology,UniversityofKentucky, Lexington. Watson,P.J.1976.Inpursuitofprehistoricsubsistence:acomparativeaccountof somec0n temporaryflotation techniques. MidcontinentalJournalof Archaeology, Vol.I, 110. 1.Sides,Stan.1971.EarlycaveexplorationinFlintRidge.Kentucky:ColossalCave andtheColossalCavernCompany.Jour.SpeleanHistory.Vol.4,No.4.Schwartz,D.W., T.Sloan,and L. Hanson. 1960.TestexcavationsintheNolinBasin1960. Manuscript,OfficeofStateArcheology,UniversityofKentucky,Lexington. Schwartz, D.W.and T.G.Sloan.1960b.Archaeologicalsurveyof-twenty-two small federalprojectsinKentucky.Manuscript,OfficeofStateArcheology,UniversityofKentucky.Lexington.1966.Prehistoric miners ofSaltsArchaeology,Vol.19, Bo. 4.1975. Arcbaeo NationalPark:fortheNationalWatson,P.J.Cave,Kentucky.Watson.P.J.(ed.).1974.ArchaeologyoftheMammothCaveArea.StudiesinArcheology,AcademicPress,NewYork. Young.Col.B.-1910.ThePrehistoric Men ofKentucky.FilsonClubPublications,No.25,Louisville:JohnP.Horton.Waston.P.J.andK.C.Carstens.logicalresourcesofMammothCave Abriefsummary.ReportpreparedParkService,July,Tallahassee.Watson,P.J.,etal.1969.TheprehistoryofSaltsCave,Kentucky.IllinoisState MUseu-. ReportsofInvestigations.No.16.Springfield.Excavation12,Kentucky.UniversitySchwartz,D.W.and T.G.Sloan.1958.oftheRoughRiverSite,Grayson Manuscript,OfficeofState'Archeology,of Kentucky, Lexington.Wagner,G.E. 1978.AnArcheobotanicalAnalysisofFiveSitesinthe Mammoth CaveArea.Master's-Thesis,DepartmentofAnthropology,WashingtonUniversity,St.Louis.Wagner,G.E. 1976.AboriginalplantuseinwestcentralKentucky:apreliminaryreportofsurfacesitesinthe Mammoth Cave area. Paperpresentedatthe17thAnnualMeetingof_theSocietyforEconomicBotany.June13-16,UniversityofIllinois,UrbanaChampaign.116

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CULTURALRESOURCEMANAGEMENTATRUSSELCAVENATIONALMONUMENT*David T. Ph.D.ABSTRACT RUMeU. Cave ,u,oneonthem04tbnpo!l:taYLt4LtU.inthe.!lOuthea4teMUnU:edStatu.Itutt6dec1.aJl.ed a na.t<.onalmonument.in 1961 ol.6.teJl. a 4vUUonexcava.U.on6,e.ovvUng25% 06 the.caveintvW:Jlt,doewnentedOVeJl. 9,000 ljeaM 06 inten6eplteh-Wtoltie.human.oc.c.upa:tWnandanaJLt<.6ac.ta44emblageinexe.U4 06250,000 .6pewen6.Sine.e:that.ti.me, a c.omp!U'hen4ivec.uUwta-eItUOUlte.umanagementpltOgltamJuu,beendeve.
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Figure1. RussellCave.Northeast Alabama. and ad.1acent SouthCentral Tenn.ssee (From Criffin 1974 :2)a SINK 0102030 FEETFIGURE2-PlANOFAREASEXCAVATEOATRUSSELLCAVEAND"INPLACE"EXHIBIT.(MODIFIEDFROMGRIFFIN1974)publishedintheBureauofAmericanEthnologyAnnualReports(Stirling1957,1958;Roberts1959,1960).Unfortunately,afinalreporthasnotbeenpublished.However,radiocarbondatesfromMiller'sexcavationsdocumentover9000yearsofprehistorichumanoccupationatRussellCave.Thedepositscontainfantasticallywell-preservedartifactsnumheringwellover200,000specimens.Theyincludestonetoolsanddebris,ceramics,bonetools,faunalandfloralremains,aswellasburialsandfirehearthsandstoragepits.Thevarietyofculturalmaterialsandfeaturessuggeststhatawiderangeofactivitieswereconductedby humaninhabitantsatthesite.Consideringitsarcheologicalsignificance,theNationalGeographicSocietywiselypurchasedRussellCave anditscontiguousareas(310acres)in1958. Thesiteandlandweredonatedtothe"Americanpeople"andgiventotheNationalParkService(Grosvenor1958).In1961,PresidentJohnF.Kennedyofficiallyestablishedthe"RussellCaveNationalMonument".In1962theNationalParkServiceconductedexcavationsatRussellCaveunderthedirectionofJohnW.Griffin.Thepurposeofthisresearchwas"primarilyaimedatpreparingforthedevelopmentofaninplaceexhibitofthestratifieddepositswithintherockshelter"(Griffin1974:5).Griffin'sexcavationsyieldedanotherrichassemblageofculturalmaterialwhichwascomparabletothatrecoveredbyMiller.In1979,theauthorconductedadetailedanalysisofsomeofthearcheologicalmaterialsrecoveredduringthe1956-1958excavationsat Russeal Cave.Ofspecialinterestisthefaunalassemblage,whichincludesover105,000elements.Thepreservationofbone andshellmaterialsisextraordinary.Over 50vertebratespeciesand27invertebrates(11mussels,6freshwatersnailsand10terrestrialsnails)havebeententativelyidentified.Deer,turkey,raccoon,squirrelandboxturtlewerethespeciesmostimportanttohumangroupsthroughouttheoccupationalsequence.Afterabout500B.C.,avarietyoffreshwaterfauna,includingfish,turtles,musselsandsnails,wasintenselyexploited.Habitatcharacteristicsofsomeofthefreshwaterspeciesindicatetheywere(are)indigenoustotheTennesseeRiver,documentingtheeconomicimportanceofbothlocalandnon-localresources.Overall,thepreliminaryevidenceindicatesthatriverineandmidlandhardwoodforestbiomesweretheprincipalresourceareasexploitedbytheinhabitantsofRussellCave.Thechippedstoneassemblageconsistsofover24,000specimens.Ofthese,16,400areflakes(14,200)andblades(2,200)exhibitingdistinctstrikingplatforms.Otherdebitage(6,186)typesincludechunksandsmallerfragments.Thereare1,414finishedimplements,including58typesofprojectilepoints(827specimens),14othertypesofbifacialimplements(472),and7typesofunifacialtools(121).Thehighincidenceofprojectilepointsandother.bifacialimplements,inadditiontothegreatsizeofthefaunalassemblage, suggest thatthesitewasusedasahuntingandfoodprocessinglocality.Thelargeconcentrationofchippingdebrisimpliesthatstonetoolsweremanufacturedatthesite.Aportionofthelimestone118

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formationabovethecavecontainsabundantchertnodules,whichundoubtedlyconstitutedanimportantsourceofrawmaterialforstonetoolmanufacturing.TheceramicassemblagefromRussellCaveconsistsofplainanddecoratedwares.Theearliestceramicsareplainwareand"twine"impressedwarestemperedwithcrushedlimestone.Later,awidevarietyofdecoratedtypeswereintroduced,includingcheck-stamped,block-lineandconcentric-circledesigns.Crushedlimestoneisthemostcommontemperingagent.Duringthelatestoccupations,vesselstemperedwithpulverizedshellwerecommon.Overall,the resourcemanagement programatRussellCavehasbeenfocusedonprotection,preservationandpublic information. Thecaveexhibit,resourcetrails, literature,andparkservicepersonnelprovide comprehensivein formationaboutthearcheology and naturalenvironmentofthe site.The cave systellaalso animportantpartofthe managementaySteli.The culturalresource managementaystea atthesite 18 uniquebecausethecave hassubstantialde posits, 60? of which are UDdaturbed,over 9000yearsof human occupation,over500,000 artifaets exhibiting extraordinarypreservation,andal0 catedwithinanundisturbednatural settios_ FutureGoalsBroyles,B.J.1958.Russell Cave in northern Alabama.Tennessee Archeological.Society.lIis cellaneo.usPapers,No.4.pp.1-35.Miller.C.F.1957b. Radiocarbon date from anEarlyArchaicdepositinRussellCave. Alaba.a. AmericanAntiquity23(1):84.Teonessee1954. A CaveShelter.10(2):68-74.Brown,P.H.Archeologist.ReferencesGriffin.J. W. 1974.Investigationsin Russell Cave.NationalPark ServicePublicationsiii Archeology,No.13.U.S. Depanaent of the Interior.Washington.D. C.Themostimportantproblemisrecognition aod subsequentevaluationofcultural deposits atcavesites.Thisrequiresincreased collaboratioa amongcaveowners,speleological societies,aod archeologists.Furthermore, archeologists areinterestedinbothculturaland biologicaldata whichprovideinformationon envirau.entalaod culturalreconstructionandthus, necessitates collaborationwithbiologicalresearchers. ca.e sitesneedprotectionvialegislationor ownership.Atpresent,cavesitesare beiaBdes troyedatanalarmingrate.Acave site,sadaas RussellCave,representsaneducatiooal device whichprovidesthegeneralpublic with forunderstandingthenecessityfor cave tionandthuseducationshouldhea _jorCOIK:erD ofanycave managementprogra-. Miller.C.F.1956.Life'8.000 yearsagoun coveredinan Alaba.aeave. National Geographic Magazine.110(4):542-558.Miller.C.F.1957a.Field iJlpressioDS ofthearcheologyofRussellCave,northern Alaba.a. Eastern Stated "ArcheologicalFederationBulletin16:10-11.Culturalresource management atthe sitebaa providedthepublicwithabetter understandlOS ofprehistoric archeology and therelationshipbetweeDhwnan groupsandthe It alsoelIpha sizestheneedfortheprotectionand preserva tionofcavesites, excavations,and cultural de posits.Last,thepreservationofthe uodisturbed culturalresourcesenhancethe potentialfor futurearcheologicalresearchatthesite.Overall,theexcavationsconductedbyMillerandtheNationalParkServicehaverecoveredover500,000artifactsandhundredsofculturalfeaturesincludingburials,firepitsandstoragepits.Inaddition,over 60% ofthesiteisundisturbed.Aprogramhasbeendevelopedtopreserveandprotectthenaturalenvironmentatthesite.Aseriesofnature trails passthroughtheforestcircumscribingthesite.SignsareusedalongthetrailstopointoutnaturalresourcesexploitedbytheprehistoricgroupslivingatRussellCave.Theseincludewater,animal,plantandstoneresources.The monumentmuseumprovidesadditionalinformationaboutthesitethroughexhibitsandtapedexplanations.Aseriesofpublicationsandslidesaboutthesitearealsoavailable.RussellCavehasbeenpreservedbecauseitrepresentsavaluablearcheologicalresource.ItrepresentsoneoftheoldestsitesintheeasternUnitedStates.The monument wascreatedtoprotecttheremainingprehistoricculturaldepositsaswellastheadjacentnaturalcavesystem.Asnotedabove,thesitehasbeenmaintainedbytheNationalParkServicesince1958. ThesiteisadministratedbyMr.JohnMapel,director.and a numberofhighlycompetentParkServicepersonnel.Asmallmuseumhousesanexhibitthatincludesdiagnosticartifactsand adescriptionoftheprehistoryofthesite,aswellasahistoryofexcavations.Fromthemuseum, apathwindsthroughthewoodstothesite.Onthecaveinterior,anelevatedwoodenplatformleadstoGriffin'sexcavationunit,whichhasbeenconvertedtoanopen"pit"exhibit.Twoconcreteretainingwallsform onecorneroftheexhibit(Figure2).Athirdwall,paralleltotheapertureofthecave,consistsofaprofileshowingtheoccupationalsequenceatthesitewithcorrespondingC-14dates.Thefourthsideoftheexhibitconsistsofasetofwoodenstairsleadingdownintothe"pit".Ataperecordingexplainstheprehistoryofthesiteaswellasthehistoryofexcavations.AccordingtoMr.Mapel,thesiteaverages25,000visitorsayear.Thecaveandtheinterior"excavation"exhibitarethemainfeaturesatRussellCaveNationalMonument. TheNationalParkServicehasdevelopeda.numberofprotectivemeasuresfortheseresources.At anycavesite, roof collapseisapotential.problem. Theinteriorofthesiteisconstantlymonitoredforcracks,etc.Elevatedwalkwaysintothecavepreventdisturbanceanddestructionoftheexistingculturaldeposits(Figure2).Lightsandcamerasareused tomonitoractiv.itiesinsidethecave.119

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Miller,C.F.1958.RussellCave:newlightonStoneAgelife.NationalGeographicMagazine.113(3):426-437.Miller,C.F.1960. TheuseofChenopodiumseedsasasourceoffoodbytheearlypeoplesofRussellCave,Alabama.SouthernIndianStudies.12:31-32.Roberts,F.H.H.,Jr.1959.Seventy-fifthAnnualReportoftheBureauofAmericanEthnology.19571958.Washington,D.C.Roberts,F.R.R.,Jr.1960.Seventy-sixthAnnualReportoftheBureauofAmericanEthnology.19581959.Washington,D.C.Miller,C.F.1962.sellCave, Alabama.14:13-15.Napier-likevesselfrom RusSouthernIndianStudies.Stirling,M.W.1957.Seventy-thirdAnnualReportoftheBureauofAmericanEthnology,1955-1956.Washington,D.C.Miller,C.F.1965.Paleo-IndianandEarlyArchaicprojectilepointforms fromRussellCave,northernAlabama.AnthropologicalJournalof 3(2):2-5.Stirling,M.W.1958.Seventy-fourthAnnualReportoftheBureauofAmericanEthnology,1956-1957.Washington,D.C.120

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EVALUATION, THERECOGNITION-,MANAGEMENTOFDEPOSITS*RonaldC.WilsonABSTRACTCAVEBONEAND M0.6tca.vuconta.i.nMme.type.06bone. de.p0.6Lt.Bone.ilCC1JJ1Iulat:iOYll>mo.Cave.bone.de.p0
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elementsshouldbeselectedforreferraltoaspecialist.TheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyhasrecentlyformed aVertebratePaleontologyStudyGrouptoserveasaclearinghouseforreportsofcavebonedeposits.TheaddressesoffoundingmembersareavailableinTable1.Anyoftheseindividualsmaybeconsultedforadviceonhowtodealwithspecificdiscoveries,foridentificationofspecimens,orforreferraltothenearestspecialistorinstitution.Once asitehasbeenrecognizedandevaluated,itsmanagementshouldbesimilartothatpreferredforarcheologicalsites.Excavationshouldbeunderthedirectionofapaleontologist.Ifaqualifiedsupervisorisnotimmediatelyavailable,TABLE1themanagementobjectiveshouldbeprotectionofthesitefromunauthorizedcollectingandfrom damageduetoheavy traffic intheareaofthesite.Thevalueofthesiteliesintheinformationitcontainsonpast animals andtheirenvironments.Stratigraphicrelationshipsasrevealedbyproperexcavationandpreservedinfieldnotesandpublicationsarethereforerequiredinordertoobtainthemostinformationfromthesite.Fossilspecimensandtheinformationassociatedwiththemprovideanoftenoverlookedbasisforinterpretationofthegeologicalhistoryofthecaveandoftheecologicalhistoryoftheregioninwhichitoccurs.Thedetailswillbedifferentforeachsite.AssistancefromtheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyVertebratePaleontologyStudyGroupshouldaidcavemanagersinobtainingmaximumbenefits from thepaleontologicalresourcesoftheircaves.MembersoftheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyVertebratePaleontologyStudyGroupAddressE. RayGartonFrederickGradyOscarHawksleyAllenMcCradyH.GregoryMcDonaldRonaldC.WilsonP.O.Box200,Barrackville,WV26559 1201SouthScott, #123, Arlington,VA22204DepartmentofBiology,CentralMissouriStateUniversity,Warrensburg,MO64093SectionofVertebrateFossils,CarnegieMuseumofNaturalHistory,4400ForbesAvenue,Pittsburgh,PA15213DepartmentofVertebratePaleontology,RoyalOntarioMuseum, 100Queen'sPark,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaMSS2C6DepartmentofBiology,UniversityofLouisville,Louisville,KY40292122

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REGULATIONSENDANGEREDSPECIESTHEANDBYTHETHEu.s.FISHANDACTDEVELOPEDWILDLIFESERVICE'SPECIES*RobertR.CurrieTOPROTECT ABSTRACT ENDANGEREDThe Endange!tedSpeue6Ad061972,/l6 ameJlded, pl'Wv..ideA60J( a Na:tioIUll.PltOgltamto.i..den-ti.6!!,pJtO-ted,widtoILeCOveJl.6peei..eA Oil :thevehge06e.xfue-t.i..on. The F.i..6hwtdW.ildf..i..6eSeJl.t;ic.e1146:the1l.U>polfhi.biLitg06menfug:theAd60IL:teMel>:tILi.al6peUI!.6,6!L1!.6/11lutvt6Peei..eA,amIcvrhli.nrnaJLine6peUe6when on land. In J[l!.6p0n6eto:ti,eImIda.te.to"pJtOv.i..de a mewl6wheJl.eb!!:theeco6qUflIM upon whicheJidtJn!jeJted6Peei..eAwtd:thJteat:ened6peUe6depeJldmaybeCO,t6eJl.ved,"aml".topItOvi.de a pII:Ogltam60IL:theC.On6eJl.va;Uon06.l>uc.hendangeJl.ed6peei.uamlt:lrJu>A;tl!.lled6peUe6":theF.i..6handW.ildf..i..6eSeJl.v.i..c.e1!46ckveloped a 6eJLie.606Jr.egu1JzLi.oru..iJrfJlementing:thePILov.i..6.i..on606:theAd.TIll!.6eJUY;u1JzLi.oru.or.r:tLi.ItL:thepJtOc.edwr.e6-tobe60Uowed .inddVllllini.ngrdra;t4ftuulangeJtedOJ[:th!Leat:ened6peUe6;:thepJtOc.edwr.el>:tobe60Uowedinp!W:teeting:the6peUe6 onc.e:the!! havebeen056.iei.aUJ.jde:teJrmi.n.ed.tobe.uulangeJtedOIl.:thJteat:ened; and,:themec.han.i..61116:tobett6ed:todevelopplaMIdli.clI.IAJiHlead:to:theILec.ove/t!f06endange!tedwtd:thJtea:t.en.ed6peei.U.fllhe1l6uc.c.eM6u.U!! .implement:ed,-thel>emel16U!L1!.66houl.den6U!Let:ha:t..in.:theUn.iteds.t.ate.6110add.it:.iona1.6peUe6aILel06-t60J[eveJ!.:th!Loughe..x:ti.nctionbqman. TheEndangeredSpeciesAct,inapproximatelyitspresentform,wasenactedin1973.Ithasbeenamendedseveraltimessincethenbut,withtheexceptionofthosepassedin1978,theseamendmentshavebeenminor.CongressstatesinSection2oftheActthatitspurposesareto"providea means wherebytheecosystemsuponwhichendangeredandthreatenedspeciesdependmaybeconserved,"and"toprovidea programfortheconservationof"thesespecies.TheFishandWildlifeServiceandtheNationalMarineFisheriesServicearechargedwiththe_administrationoftheAct.TheNationalMarineFisheriesServiceisprimarilyresponsibleforthespeciesfoundinthemarineenvironmentsuchaswhales,whileweareresponsibleforthespeciesfoundinterrestrialorfreshwaterenvironments,suchasthebaldeagle,graybat.and Alabamacavefish.Therearea fewspecies.iikethethreatenedloggerheadturtle.whichare*FishandWildlifeBiologist,U.S.FishandWildlifeService,50SouthFrenchBroad Avenue,PlateauBuilding,RoomAS,Asheville.NC28801.123theresponsibilityofbothServices. Whilethe seaturtleisinthewater,itisonder thejur isdictionoftheNational. Marine FisheriesService.butwhenit comes ashoretonest. it isunderourjurisdiction.TherearefivesectionsoftheActwhichareofspecialinterest.Theseare:1.Section4whichestablishesthe mechanism usedin determining whichspeciesareendangeredorthreatened;2.Section5 which authorizes the purchaseoflandexpresslytoprotectorenhance the statusoflistedspecies;3.Section6whichsetsupa program forcooperatingwiththestatesin meeting thepurposesoftheAct;4.Section7whichdirectsal.lFederal.agencies to cooperatein the protectionandconservation listedspecies;and.5.Section9whichoutlinesactivitiesthatare

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prohibitedwhendealingwithlistedspecies.Iwillnowrevieweachofthesesectionsinalittlemoredetail.Butfirstwewillneedtodefinethreeimportantterms.Anendangeredspeciesisaspecieswhichisindangerofextinctionthroughoutallorasignificantportionofitsrange.. Athreatenedspeciesisaspecieswhichislikelytobecomeendangeredwithintheforeseeablefuturethroughoutallorasignificantportionofitsrange.Criticalhabitatisaspecificareawithinthegeographicalareaoccupiedbythespeciesonwhicharefoundthosefeatureswhichareessentialtotheconservationofthespeciesandwhichmayrequirespecialmanagementorprotection.Specificareasoutsidethepresentrangeofthespeciescanbedesignatedcriticalhabitatiftheyarejudgedtobeessentialfortheconservationofthespecies.ThelistingresponsibilitiesunderSection4have,untilfairlyrecently,beenwiththeOfficeofEndangeredSpeciesinWashington.WithintherecentpastsomeofthedutieshavebeendelegatedtoourRegionaland AreaOffices,suchastheAtlantaRegionalOfficeandtheAshevilleAreaOffice.Thissectionandtheregulationsdevelopedunderitstatethataspeciesmaybedeterminedtobeendangeredorthreatenedforanyofthefollowingreasons:1.Thepresentorthreateneddestruction,modification,orcurtailmentofitshabitatorrange;2.Overutilizationforcommercial,sporting,scientific,oreducationalpurposes;3.Diseaseorpredation;4.Theinadequacyofexistingregulatorymechanisms;or5.Othernaturalorman-madefactorsaffectingitscontinuedexistence.Atthetimeaspeciesislistedasendangeredorthreatened,theServicemustalsodeterminewhatconstitutescritical'habitatforthespecies.Theonlyway aspeciescannowbelistedwithoutdesignatingcriticalhabitatiswhen.suchadesignationisjudgednottobeprudent.Thisexceptionwouldonlybeusedincaseswherepublishinginformationabouttheexactlocationofaspecieswouldincreasethethreatorbeofnobenefittothespecies.ThiswasthecasewiththerecentlylistedGreenPitcherPlantinAlabama. TheGreenPitcherPlantisverypopularasanoveltyplantandasanunusualadditiontohomegardens.SincethereisnorestrictionintheActontakingorcollectinglistedplants,it was judgedthatitwasnotprudenttoprovideinformationaboutwherethefewremainingindividualswereactuallylocated.TheActrequiresthattheServiceholdapublicmeetingintheAreatobedesignatedcriticalhabitatorifcriticalhabitatisnotdesignated,toholdapublicmeetingifone.isrequestedbyanyone.Basicallythismeansthatveryfewadditionalspecieswillbelistedwithoutholdingapublicmeeting.AsIamsuremanyofyouareaware,addingaspeciestothelistisnotasimpletask.Theprocedureswhichmustbefollowedaretimeconsuming andcostlytocarryout.Theprocessincludes:1.Astatusreviewofthespeciesbaseduponthebestinformationcurrentlyavailable;2.Anenvironmentalassessmentoftheimpactsoflistingthespecies;3.Adeterminationofwhatconstitutescriticalhabitat;4.Aneconomicassessmentoftheimpactsofdesignatingcriticalhabitat;5.Consultationwithlocalandstategovernments,Federalagencies,privateindividuals,andorganizationswhichmaybeaffectedbythelistingofthespecies;6.NoticeintheFederalRegisteroftheproposalstolistthespeciesanddeterminecriticalhabitat;7.DistributionofcopiesoftheFederalRegisternoticetolocalnewspapers,scientificjournals,localgovernments,stategovernments,andothersifappropriate.8.Apublicmeetingtogatherinformation,andifrequested,a moreformalpublichearingontheproposals;andfinally,9.NoticeintheFederalRegisterofthedispositionoftheproposals.Section4alsodirectstheServicetodevelopandimplementplansdesignedtoconserveandinsurethesurvivaloflistedspecies.Thesearereferredtoasrecoveryplans.Dr.JohnBrady,teamleaderoftheIndiana/CrayBatRecovery Team.willgiveyousomeperspectiveonhowtheseplansaredevelopedinhispresentationontheIndianabat.Section5oftheActauthorizesthepurchaseoflandsspecificallyforlistedspecies. Examples ofcaveswhichhavebeenorareintheprocessofbeingacquiredforthispurposeincludeSautaCave andFernCaveinAlabama.Bothcavesareofutmostimportancetothegraybat.The MorguesectionofFernCaveisamajorhibernaculumandSautaCaveisanextremelyimportantmaternitysite.InadditiontothesummeruseofSautaCavebythegraybat.severalthousandIndianabatsalsohibernatethere.Section6oftheActauthorizestheServicetoenterintoCooperativeAgreementswithqualifyingstatesforthestudy.protection.andconservationofendangeredorthreatenedplantsandanimals.Thiscooperationtakestheformofatleasttwo-thirds124

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Federalfundingofmostofthestate'sendangeredspeciesactivities.Atthepresenttime,36stateshaveenteredintocooperativesgreementswiththeServiceforfishandwildlifewhilesixstateshaveagreementscoveringplants.WenowcometotheextremelyimportantandoccasionallycontroversialsectionwhichrequiresotherFederalagenciestocooperateintheprotectionand enhancementoflistedspecies.Section7oftheActstatesinpartthatallFederalagenciesshall:1.Carryoutprogramsfortheconservationoflistedspecies;2.Insurethattheiractionsdonotjeopardizethecontinuedexistenceofalistedspeciesordestroyoradverselymodify aspecies'criticalhabitat(unlessofcoursetheagencyhasbeengrantedanexemptionfromSection7 bytheEndangeredSpeciesCommittee);and3.ConsultwiththeSerticeontheeffectofproposedactionsonlistedspeciesor calhabitatifitisdeterminedthatanaction ".!!!!X. affect"alistedspecies.TherearetwobroadcategoriesofactionswhichmayrequireconsultationwiththeServicetodeterminetheireffectonlistedspecies.Thefirstoftheseareconstructionprojects.Aconstructionprojectisanactionwhichisconducted,authorized,orpermittedby aFederalagency whichinvolves"construction"ofsometype,and which i.s amajorFederalaction.ThatisonerequiringpreparationofanenvironmentalimpactstatementundertheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct.WhenaFederalagencyisinvolvedinaconstructionproject,theymustfirstasktheServiceiftheremaybeanylistedspeciesorspeciesproposedforlistingwithintheimpactareaoftheproject.TheserequestsforlistscomedirectlytotheAreaOfficesinmostregions. vfuen sucharequestisreceived,thedistributionalinformationavailableisreviewedandtheFederalagencyisprovidedalistofspecieswhich occurinthearea.Atthesametime,theagencyisinformedofitsresponsibilitytoprepareabiologicalassessmentoftheeffectsoftheproposalonthesespeciesandtheircriticalhabitat(ifcriticalhabitathasbeendesignatedwithintheprojectarea).Afterpreparationofthebiologicalassessment,theagencydeterminesiftheproposedaction .!!!!X. affectineitherapositive,ornegativemanner alistedspecies.Iftheagencybelievesthatalistedspeciesmaybeaffected,itmustrequestaformalconsultationwiththeService.Ifitbelievesthatthespecieswillnotbeaffected,consultationisnotrequiredunlessrequestedbytheService.Forspecieswhichhavebeenproposedforlistingbuthavenotyetbeenformallyaddedtothelist,theFederalagencymustconferwiththeServiceiftheydeterminethattheproposedactionmayjeopardizethecontinuedexistenceoftheproposedspecies.Federalactionswhichdonotmeetthecriteriafor125constructionprojectsaretreateddifferently.Agenciesarenotrequiredto formally requestlistsofspecieswhichmayoccurinthearea,noraretheyrequiredtopreparea formal biologicalassessment.However,they must still determine iftheproposedaction will affect,againinapositiveornegativewayanylistedspecies.Usuallytogetenoughinformationtomakethisdeterminationanagencymustperformananalysis sillilar tothatrequiredforabiological assessment. Ifalistedspecieswillbeaffected,consultation is required.TheformalconsultationprocessistheprocedurebywhichtheService issues aBiologicalOpiniononwhateffecttheproject will haveonlistedspecies.TheconclusionswhichmaybereachedinaBiologicalOpinioninclude:1.Thattheprojectwillenhancetheconservationofaspecies;2.Thattheprojectisnotlikelytojeopardizethecontinuedexistenceofaspecies;3.Thattheprojectislikelyto jeopardiZe thespeciescontinuedexistence;or4.Thattheagencycannotinsurethattheir ac tionswillnotjeopardizethecontinued exis tenceofaspecies.Thistypeofopinionwouldbeissuedinthosecaseswherethereisnotenoughinformationavailableto form a aore explicitopinionandagreementcannotbereachedonextendingtheconsultationperiod.TheActprohibitsaFederalagencyfromdoing any thingwhich wouldjeopardizeaspecies.AlthoughtheServicehasnoenforcementpowersunderSection7,agencieswhichignorethisdirectivearesubjecttosuitbyprivateindividualsororganizationsinFederalcourt.In1978Congressinstituteda mechanismfor resolv ingconflictsofthisnature.Thiswas accOllplishec bytheestablishmentofanEndangeredSpecies mittee.Thiscommitteecanreviewthemeritsofaprojectand weigh themagainstthemeritsofprojectalternatives(includingnotcompletingtheproject)whichwouldnotbelikelytojeopardizethecontinuedexistenceofthespecies.Theycaneitherrulethattheprojectasproposedorsomealternativetotheproposalisinthepublicinterest.Itisonlyafterthecommitteehasissuedan exemp tionfromtheActthataprojectwhichislikelytojeopardizeaspeciescanlegallybecompleted.Itshouldbepointedoutthatthisisthe next tothelastresortforthemostdifficultconflicts.InthepastalmostallcontroversieshavebeensatisfactorilyresolvedwellbelowtheEndangeredSpeciesCommitteelevel.AsIstated,theEndangeredSpeciesCommitteeisthenexttothelastresort.ThelastresortisCongress.Congresscanspecificallyexempt aprojectfromallprovisionsoftheAct.Thiswas donewiththeTellicoDamprojectineasternTennessee.

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Section9oftheActdealswiththeprohibitionofcertainactivitieswhichwouldadverselyaffectlistedspecies.Plantsandanimalsaretreateddifferentlyunderthissection.Thereisnoprohibitionagainsttakingorpossessingalistedplantwhiletheseactsareprohibitedwhendealingwithanimals.Thefollowingareprohibitedunlessspecificallyauthorizedby apermitfromtheWildlifePermitOfficeinWashington:1.Importingorexportingthespecies;2.Possessing,selling,delivering,etc.,thespecies;3.Takingthespecies;4.Sellingorofferingforsaleininterstatecommerceanylistedspecies;and,5.Violatinganyspecialregulationdevelopedwhenthespeciesislisted.Weshouldnotethat"take"isdefinedintheregulationstoincludeharmingorharassingaspecies.Harassmeans"anintentionalornegligentactor126ommissionwhichcreatesthelikelihoodofinjurytowildlifebyannoyingittosuchanextentastosignificantlydisruptnormalbehavioralpatternswhichinclude,butarenotlimitedto,breeding,feeding,orsheltering."Harmmeans"anactorommissionwhichactuallyinjuresorkillswildlife,includingactswhichannoyittosuchanextentastosignificantlydisruptessentialbehaviorpatterns,whichinclude,butarenotlimitedto,breeding,feeding,andsheltering;significantenvironmentalmodificationordegradationwhichhassucheffectsisincludedwithinthemeaningofharm."Thepenaltiesforviolatinganyoftheseprohibitionsarefinesupto$20,000andayearofimprisonment.IftheEndangeredSpeciesActisconscientiouslyimplemented,weasaNationcanfulfillthegoaloutlinedbyCongressofconservingendangeredandthreatenedspeciesaswellastheecosystemsuponwhichtheydepend.Iftisnot,thenwewillcontinuetoloseelementsofourdiversefaunaandfloraatanalarmingrate.Italldependsuponus.Wemustsupportthegoalof pre servingthesespeciesifwearetosucceed.Weshouldalsoallbepreparedtopaythecostswhichwillberequiredtodoso.

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THESTATUSOFTHEINDIANABAT*JohnT. Bradysodalis)IntroductionTheIndianabathasbeendesignatedanendangeredspeciesbytheU.S.Fish,andWildlifeService,andisprotectedundertheEndangeredSpeciesActof1973,asamended(U.S.Fish and WildlifeService,1978).Arecoveryplanwaspreparedin1976(Engel,eta1.,1976),andtheIndiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamisintheprocessofrevisingthisplan.Distributionand Numbers TheIndianabatisfoundinthemidwesternandeasternUnitedStatesfromnorthernArkansasandeasternOklahoma,northtoIowa andnorthernMichigan,toeasternVermont andNewHampshire,southeasttonorthernFlorida.ThewinterrangeisprimarilyinMissouri,Indiana,Kentucky,andTennessee:Table1 shows hibernating populationfiguresfromthemostrecentavailablesources.Missourihasthelargesthibernatingpopulation,accountingfor66.4percentofthetotal.Indianahasthenextlargesthibernatingpopulationwith20.4percent.Ninety-onepercentoftheknownIndianabathibernatingpopulationisfoundintenlocations(ninecavesand one mine)witheightinMissouri,oneinIndiana,and oneinKentucky.TherecouldTable1beothermajorhibernating caves, especiallyinthesoutheast,thathavenotbeen located. HabitatRequirements1.Hibernating.Dependingon localweather conditions,Indianabatsareinhibernation froa OctobertoApril(LaVal,etal.,1977). Indiana batshavespecific requirements forhibernation,generallychoosingroostsites withincavesoor mineswhichhavestable temperatures of4-8Callowingthebatstomaintaina low IEtabOUSWaDd conservefatreservesuntilspring (Humphrey, 1978).Thebatsusually hibernate inlarge, dense clustersofabout300batspersquarefoot(Ball,1962;Engel,etal.,1976;Clawson,etal.,1980).2.MaternityPeriod.Verylittlevas known ofIndianabatsummerhabitsuntilrecently.Currentstudiesindicatethat femalesfOnl nurserycoloniesmostlyinriparianandfloodplainareasof a.all tomediumsized streams (Humphrey,etal.,1977;Cope,etal.,1978;Sparling, et aI.,1979; Gard nerandGardner, 1980), but sa.etiBeseven intree-lineddrainageditches(Brack,1979).Thefewnurserycoloniesfoundhaveranged froa SO to 100individualsincludingyoung, (HUllphrey,et al.,1977;Cope,etal.,1978). Humphrey,et aI.(1971found anurserycolonyundertheloose bark ofadeadbutternuthickorytree (CaryacordifoZ'frria). EstimatedhibernatingpopulationofIndianabats (MYotis sodaZis) PopulationPercentStateSizeofTotalDateSourceMissouri342,10066.41980Clawson(1980Indiana104,82420.41975Humphrey(1978)Kentucky55,78210.81975Humphrey(1918)Tennessee7,5541.51975Humphrey(1978).WestVirginia1,7570.31975Humphrey(1978)Arkansas1,7000.31975Humphrey(1978)Virginia5800.11975Humphrey(1978)NewYork5000.11975Humphrey(1978)Illinois1940.01975Humphrey(1978) 514,99199.9*TeamLeader,Indiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeam,U.S.ArmyCropsofEngineers,210TuckerBoulevard,North,St.LouiS,Mo.63101127

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Thecolonyoccasionallyusedalivingshagbarkhickorytree (Carya ovata)asanalternateroost.Thebatswereobservedforaginginairspacefrom2to30 mabovethegroundunderriparianandfloodplaintrees(Humphrey,1977).Excellentforaginghabitathasbeendescribedasmature trees thatoverhangriversbymorethan30 m ononeorbothsides;streamswithoutriparianvegetationdonotappeartobesuitable(Cope,etal.,1978).IndianabatswerefoundtofeedprimarilyonLepidopterainMissouri(LaVal andLaVal,1980).Populationestimatesfornurserycoloniesrangedfrom60to90batsperkmofsuitablestreamwithanaveragefigureof75perkm.Riparianhabitatwas foundtobeoccupiedbyIndianabatsfrom mid-Mayuntilmid-September(Humphrey,etal.,1977).Thelocationofmalesduringthebreedingperiodisnotwellknown,althougha fewhavebeenfoundincaves(LaVal,etal.,1977;Hall,1962).Theyhavebeenobservedfeedinginfloodplain,hillside,andridgeforestsintheMissouriOzarks(LaVal,etal.,1977).3.Mating.--BetweenearlyAugustandmid-September,Indianabatsarriveinthevicinityof hibernaculaandengageinswarming andcopulation.Swarmingisdescribedas"...a phenomenoninwhichlargenumbersofbatsflyinandoutofcaveentrancesfromdusktodawn,whilerelativelyfewroostinthecaves"duringtheday."(Cope and Humphrey,1977).SwarmingcontinuesintoOctober,anditisduringthistimethatfatreservesarebuiltupforhibernation.ReasonsforDecline1.NaturalHazards.--Indianabatsaresubjecttoa numberofnaturalhazards.InBatCaveinMammothCaveNationalPark,anestimated300,000skeletonswerefound,apparentlyvictimsoffloodingfromthenearbyGreenRiver.A few othercasesofhibernaculabeingfloodedhavealsobeenrecorded(Hall,1962).Batshibernatinginminesarevulnerabletoceilingcollapse.ThishasoccurredinIllinois(Hall,1962) andispresentlyaseriousconcernata mineinMissourithatisthelargestknown bathibernaculum.Anotherpotentialhazardexists causeIndianabatshibernateincoolportionsofcavesthattendtobenearentrances.Somefreezetodeathduringveryseverewinters(Humphrey,1978).2.HumanCauses.--ThemostseriouscauseofIndianabatdeclineishumandisturbanceofhibernatingbats. The batsenterhibernation with onlyenoughfatreservestolastuntilspring.Whenabatisaroused,itusesaportionofthesereserves,asmuchas10to30daysoffatsupplyperaveragedisturbance.CaversorresearcherspassingnearhibernatingIndianabatscausearousal(Humphrey,1978).Ifthishappensveryoften,the bats likelywilldie.Vandalismalsohasbeendocumented.In1968,anestimated10,000IndianabatswerekilledinCarterCavesStatePark,CarterCounty,Kentucky,by3boys who toremassesofbatsfromtheceilingandtrampledandstonedthemtodeath(Engel,etal.,1976).Therearemanyexamplesofsuchtragedies.Batsseemtohaveabadreputationandareviewedby peoplewithfearandrepugnance.FIGURE1.WarningsignforIndianabathibernaculabytheMissouriDepartmentofConservation(photoCredit,St.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineers).Othersourcesofdeclineincludeindiscriminatehandlingofbatsbybiologists,especiallyinhibernacula;commercializationofhibernacula;exlucsionofbatsfromcavesbypoorlydesignedgates;changesincavemicroclimatebyopeningofadditionalentrancesorblockingofairflowbypoorlydesignedgates;floodingofcavesbyreservoirs,buttingofforestsnecessaryfor summer roosting;andpesticidepoisoning.Management1.ProtectionofHibernacula.--TheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicehasdesignated13cavesand2mines,whichareusedbyabout453,600hibernatingIndianabats,ascriticalhabitatundertheEndangeredSpeciesActof1973.Eightoftheseareinpublicownership.Thisrepresents88percentofthetotalknownpopulation.Thereareanumberofotherhibernatingcaveswhichprobablyqualifyascriticalhabitat.TheRecoveryTeamneedscooperationfromthecavingcommunitytolocatehibernatingcaveswhicharenotknown.Protectionofthesecavesdoesnotexcludecaverssincethecavescanbeenteredduringthesummermonthswhenthebatsarenotpresent.A numberofmeasuresshouldbetakentoprotecttheseimportanthibernacula,Usually,thefirstrecommendationistopurchasethecaveandplaceitinpublicownership.Afterpurchase,adecisionmustbemade onhowbesttoprotectthecavefromhumandisturbance.Ifthecaveisremoteandnevervisited,thebestcourseofactionprobablyistodonothing.Thenextlevelofprotectionistoerectasign.AnexampleofasignfromMissouriisshowninFigure1.Themostsecurelevelof128

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FIGURE2.PhotographofagateusedonanIndianabathibernaculumbySt.LouisDistrict.CorpsofEngineers(PhotoCredit-St.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineers). ___ --N#,.. . 1O'....,. TyPICAL SECTION THRU CAVE..._.,_'..Ii/Y.tlo,M'-,,;....... .. rl' .. / ,._,;',;":r,:;,:,.t;.':.... .. :'.lo..!_r .........'"_'----*'"--..... -.-....__.._.-.-.. -.. __.="':....__:._...._:",._J'-......' ..,....._-..,--!-5a.:. __ ...-'_c-"-..-_r . .a.""-_.-=--"__-_ ............_ --:: .. ""=:-"'.:;__L-'-...... ........... 1'. . .e.--_:0:6_ '-'... u,::_.-_...l-. __ 1 ... ;...--.--...... ---.::..c..-'A 1 .........,1_"'''''''''''"Y__ .. ,:..-t:-..:Ie"----.....r__..... . _...,J_,: .. ,'"J..t., I Q,.,I....,.c......."" .. ,_ .. ,'-' .. __.'"........,_"M ._ ....... __ .. I. J.r_i . ......,. .... -......'.........r.:':rz.'"u.rMr'"'"':l-.....,..--.. TYPICAL Gt.1E DETAILS ELEVATION OF CAVEGATE ,.....;r... _r ...._."_rr: FIGURE3. Drawing ofagateusedon anIndianabathibernaculumbytheSt.LouisDistrict.CorpsofEngineers.129

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protectionistoplaceagateatthecaveentrance,orafencearoundtheperimeteroftheentrance.Agateisconsideredthemosteffective,butthechoicemaydepend onthephysicalsetting.Figure2 shows aphotographofa cave gateconstructedbytheSt.LouisDistrict,Corps.ofEngineers,onacriticalhabitathibernaculuminMissouri. This gatehasproventobeeffectiveinkeeping:.most.peopleoutandhasbeenacceptabletothebatsoverthelast3years.Figure3is an engineeringdrawingofthisgate,A gated caveshouldalsohaveasignexplainingthe ofthegateandpen invQlvedifthecaveisentered.Gatesmust be used only withextremecaretoavoiddetrimentaleffects.Theyshouldnotbe horieontal orusedonentrancessmallerthansixfeetin dia meter.Gatesonsmallentrancesaremostlikely to restrictairfloworincreasebatvulnerabilitytopredators(Tuttle,1977;Tuttleand Stevenson.,1978),leadingtoabandonmentofthecaveby Weldedsteelbargatesprovidethemostsecure means ofpreventinghumanentryintoacave.Eventhebestdesignedandwell-builtgatecanbevandalized.Routineinspectionswillidentifydamagesothatrepairscanbemadepromptly.Eachgatemust bedesignedspecificallyfor the cavetobeprotected,consideringnumbersofbats,airflow,andentrancesizeandshape.Inspiteofthenumberofvariablesinvolved,certaingeneralizatiortsaboutgatedesigncanbe made.Gatesshouldbeconstructedofsteelbars,ofsufficientsizeandhardnesstobeinvulnerabletoboltcutters.Roundsteelbars3/4to1inchindiameter(AmericanSocietyofTestingMaterialsA242)arerecommended.'Allweldsshouldbemadecarefully,usingarcweldingequipment.Accessopeningsingatesshouldbeconstructedto'thesamestandards,withthemostdurablehinges,hasps,andlocks.Inasituationwherevandalismseems weak-linkdesignmaybeemployed. .The lock,hasp,orsomeothereasilyreplaceableportionofthegateshouldberelativelyweaksothatvandalswillnottrytobreachthemain bodyofthegate.Locksshouldbechosenwithcare,asmanycommontypesareextremelyeasytoforceopen.Freeendsofallbarsshouldbegroutedinto'solidrock.Insomecavesitmaybenecessarytopouraconcretefooting(althoughitshouldnotriseaboveoriginalgroundlevel),ortodigthroughadeepclayorgravelfilltoreachtheunderlyingfloor.Openingsingatesthroughwhichbatsareexpectedtoflyshouldbeapproximately6inchesverticallyandatleast24incheshorizontally.Lengthsgreaterthan24inchesbetweenverticalbarsincreasetheprobabilitythatthebarscanbespreadbyuseofhydraulicjacks.Unfortunately,asimpleverticalgateseldomcanbeconstructedatacavewithasinkholeentrance.Horizontalgateshavetwoseriousdrawbacks:(1)batsarereluctanttoflyupthroughsuchagate;(2) ahorizontalgatemaybecomeblockedwithdebris,preventingentryandexitbybats,aswellasblockingnormalairflow.Asolutionisprovidedby a130"cage"gate,similartothat shown inFigure4.Itis importanttorestrictaccesstoimportantIndianabatcaves.Fewpeoplefindcaveswithoutthe aid oftrailsandroads.Obliterationofjeepandfoottrailsmaygreatlyreducehumantraffictothecaves(Indiana/GrayBat Re coveryTeam,inmanuscript)Therearea numberofcaveswithblockedentrancescausedbypoorlydesignedgatesrestrictingairflow,whichhavecausedIndianabatstoabandonthem., Theseblockingstructuresshouldberemovedsothatthebatpopulationacanrecover(Humphrey. 1978) After theimportantcavesareprotected,aperiodic(notmorethan one peryear)censusshouldbe made to mdnitorthe hibernatingpopulationa.These will be indicative oftheeffectivenessofprotectivemeasures.Censusesshouldbedonewitha minimua of by a qualified biologist,andbatsshouldnotbehandled.RecreationalcaversneednotbeexcludedfromIndianabathibernaculaduringthe whenbatsarenotpresent(IMayto1 SeptembeT) (Humphrey,1978).Cavegating recommendations presentedherefortheIndianabatdonotnecessarilyapplytothegraybat (My otis gTiseseens). Ingeneral,graybats are muchlesslikelytousegatedcaves.Arecoveryplan'shouldbereleasedlate.in 19aO forthegraybatexplainingcavegatingproceduresforthisspecies.TheU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceandtheIndiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamshouldbecontactedbeforeattemptingtogateeither an Indianaorgraybatcave.rhefollowingagencieshavehadthemostexperienceinbatcavemanagementandare recommended assourcesofinformation:(1)TheIndiana/GrayBat'Recovery Team (2)U.S.Fish and WildlifeService,Region4,Atlanta,GA(3)MissouriDepartmentofConservation,Columbia,MO(4)TennesseeValleyAuthority,Norris,TN(5)U.S.ArmyCorpsof-Engineers,St.Louis,HO(6)u.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers, Kansas City,MO2.ProtectionandRestorationofRiparianHabitat-Within summer rangeoftheIndianabat,riparianandfloodplainforestshouldbepreservedwherever pqssible. Itisespeciallyimportanttopreserveoldlargetreesandrecentlydeadtreeswhichstillhavebarkand-may become anurserytree.In wherestreamsaredivertedor forestshouldbereplaced.Treesplantedalongnewdrainageditchescouldbeusedwhentheybecomemature.

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FIGURE4.Photographofa"cage"gateusedonanIndianabathibernaculumwithahorizontalentrancebytheMissouriDepartmentofConservation(PhotoCredit-R.Clawson).ReferencesBrack,V.1979.DeterminationofpresenceandhabitatsuitabilityfortheIndianabat sodaZis) andgraybat (MYotisgrisescens) forthe portions ofthreeditches,BigFiveLevee andDrainageDistrict,Union andAlexandercounties,Illinois.St.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineers. Louis,Missouri.Clawson, R. L. 1980.LettertoJohnT.Brady,TeamLeader,Indiana/FrayBatRecoveryTeam.15August,1980.MissouriDepartmentofConservation,JeffersonCity,Missouri.Clawson, R.L.,R.K.LaVal,M.L.LaVal,and W. Carie.1980.Clusteringbehaviorof'hibernating MYotis sodaZis inMissouri.J.Mamm.61:245-253.Cope,J.B.andS.R.Humphrey. 1977.Springand autumn swarmingbehaviorintheIndianabat, MYotissodaZis. J.Mamm.58:93-95.Cope,J.B.,A.R.Richter,andD.A.Searley.1978. AsurveyofbatsintheBig Lakeproject'area 1n Indiana.JosephMoore Museum,EarlhamCollege,Richmond,Indiana.Engel,J.M.,etal.1976.RecoveryPlan.for the Indianabat.U.S.FishandWildlifeService,Washington,D.C.34pp.Gardner,J.E.,and T.L.Gardner.1980.DeterminationofpresenceandhabitatsuitabilityfortheIndianabat (MYotis sodaZs) andgraybat (MYotisgrisescens) forportionsofthelower6.6milesofMcKeeCreek,McGeeCreekDrainageand Levee 131PikeCounty,Illinois.St.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineers,St.Louis,Missouri.Hall,J.S.1962. Alifehistoryand studyoftheIndianabat,Myotis sodaZis.Read ingPublicMus.andArtGallery,Sci.Publ.,12:1-68.Humphrey,S.R.1978.Status,winterhabitat,and managementoftheendangeredIndianabat, MyotissodaZis. FloridaSci.41:65-76.Humphrey,S.R.,A.R.Richter,andJ.B. Cope. 1977.SummerhabitatandecologyoftheendangeredIndianabat,Myotis sodaZis. 58:334-346.Indiana/GrayBatRecovery Team. 1;n1IIaJluscript. Graybatrecoveryplan.U.S.Fishand Wildlie Service,Washington,D.C.LaVal,R.K.andH. L.LaVal.1980.Ecologica1studiesandmanagementof batswith e. phasisoncavedwellingspecies.TerrestrialSeriesNo.8.Missouri Department ofCOnservation,JeffersonCity,Missouri.LaVal,R. K., R.L.Clawson,W.Caire,L.R.Wingate,andH. L.LaVal.1977. An evaluationofthestatusofmyotine"batsintheproposedMeramecParkLakeandUnionLakeprojectareas.Missouri.U.S. ArmyCorns ofEngineers,St.LouisDistrict, 136"pn. SparlinR,D.W H.Sponsler,andT. B1.et.an. 1979.LimitedbiologicalassessmentofGalumCreek.CooperativeWildlifeReseanchLaboratory,SouthernIllinoisUniversity.Carbondale,Illinois.

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Tuttle.M.D.1977. GatinR asa meansofprotectin2cavedwellin2bats.NationalCave Manage ment Svmposium Proceedinga, 1976.(T.AleyandD.Rhodes,eds.),Sneleobooks,Alburquerque,NewMexico.Tuttle,M.D.andD.E.Stevenson.1978.Variationinthecaveenvironmentanditsbiologicalimplications.National Ca'!'e Management Symposium132Proceedings,1977.(R.Zuver,etal.,eds.),AdobePress,Alburquerque,New Mexico. U.S.FishandWildlifeService.1978.Listof andthreatenedwildlife andplants. FederalRegister.43(238):58031,11 December1978.

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THESURVIVALOFTHEENDANGEREDGRAYBAT(Myotisgrisescens).ACONTINUINGDRAMA*AlanRabinowitz ABSTRACTThegltaljbat-iAone 06 orr1.ya 6ew bat,6peuuwhichU6Ucavuyea/I.-lWund. Colon.i.uwillmi..glta-te,6eMonaUybetweenwaJun (14-250C) I7I4t:.eJmUtjcavudwUng,6umtneJtmontJu.andcold (6-71C) hi..bVlnatingcavuduMngwi..nteJLmonth6.Gtr.aljba.:t4 6eed pJUmaM.i.yoveJttU{ua:ti..chab.U:.a:aandtiuL6,6W1111eJtcavu,paM;.i..cui.aJtl1j:tho,6 e U6 edby rna-teJtrU.:tycol.on.i.u,fVl.em.aJI1.tjaiJAkttj,6l.oca.:tedwUJU.n1-21U.1.0me:tVL4 06 Jti.vVL4ottILueJtvoill.GlWwthJLa:tuand,6UlLvival. 06 newlljvolantIjoungMeinvVL4el.tjPlWpo.lL:t.i..ona.e.-to:thecLi.J.l:tanc.e-to:theneMu:toveJt-wa.:teJt60l!aging habi.:ta:t.InW-i..ntett,CDl.on.i.Uhi..beJr.natein deep, cold,veJLt.i..cal.cavu.TheJLmolLegui.a.:to.lLljando:thVlh.a.b.U:.a.tILequVtement6necu,6Ua.:tel.MgeaggILega.tion.6 06 g.lLatjba.:t4-inorr1.yIt6whi..beJtna.:t.i..ngcavu:thJwughout:the.i...ILJLa.nge..ApplWJWna.:tel.tj 95 pVlCent06 :the ent.i..JLe,6peuuhi..bVlna.:tuinorr1.y 9 cavueachw.i..ntVlIAJi:thmoILe:thanhal.6ina,6.Lnglecave.V.ILM:t.i..cdeclinu 06 glLaljbatpopufutWn.6p.lLobabl.tjbeganMeaJLl.tja4:the19:thcentUlLtj61LOminten.6iveMUpe:teJtmi..n.i..ngandcaveexpl.oJuLtionandCOrmJVlUa.e..i..za:t.i..on.PILUe.n.t 06 declinehavebeenaccel.eJr.a:f:J!.dbyaddi.:t.i..ona.e.6actoM4UchMlL6e 06 pu:t.i..udu,chemical.Ai.U:.a.Uon,pollu.:t.i..on,and.i..mpoundme.nt 06 wa.:teJUAXLlj.6,na.:tuJLal.c.a1mni..t-rl.'A,6ueha4cave6lood.Lng,and-inCILeMedpopui.aJL.U:y 06 ,6pel.unlUng. 06 aU 06 :thue6act:.oM,humancLi.J.l:tuJLbancew.i..:thi..noccupi..e.dcalJUappeaM-to be :theplLi..maJujCJ1LL6e 06 decline 06 :theglLaljbat.Cl.o,6eILel.a:t.i..On.6hi..p,6havebeendemon.6:t:JuLtedbe:tweenlta-tu 06 declineand6ILequence06cLi.J.l:tuJLbance.st:w:li.et.-in TennU,6ee Alabama, MiMOwU, and Kentucklj-indi..ca.:tedeclinu 06 76%, 72%,and88%,ILupewvel.lj,whencompMingp.lLuentcol.ony,6.i..zu-topa4:tIIIIVWnumpqpufutWnu:t.i..matu.Si..nceg.lLatjba:tAILequVtel.Mgeco.e.on.i.u6011.,6UCCU,66ul.ILeaJti.ng06 Ijoung, :the6e:t.ILend4indi..ca.:te:thatJLeCDVe!Ltjac:t.i..on-iA:tak.en.i..mme.di..a.:tel.tj,blj:theyeM 2000 :the:tow.popu1.a:t.i..onmayno:tbeable-to.6U6:ta.i..n.<.uel.6.Cl.eaJLl.y:thepJt.i..rrrvujobjec:t.i..veCDnceJtnin.g:the1I.ecOVVllj06g.lLatjbatpopui.a:t.i..On.6en:tail.t> :the1I.educ:t.i..on 06 human-inoccupi..edcavu.AUhoug h:th-iAbUlLdenha4come-to1I.u:tpJriJtrJJtil.yIAJi:thgoveJtnmentagenUu,coopVla:t.i..onamongpJti.vate caveownVL4andl.oCJJl.CDn.6Vlva:t.i..onandcav.LngcouldplayaClLUUal.ILOle.SeCDndtvLy obj ewvu.6hould -incl.udepubUceduca:t.i..on,p.lLo:tec:t.i..on06cJri.;tiCJJl.ha.b.i:to.:t60ILglLaybat60JLag-ingawviliU,andmon.i.t:.oJti.ng 06 pu:t.i..c.i..deconcen:t.lLa:t.i..on.6-ing.lLatjbatpopui.a:t.i..on.6 Recentby:the U.S.F -iA h andWildli6eSeJtv.i..ceand:theIndi..ana/G.ILatjBatRe.CDVe.ILIjTeammaku:the6u:tu1lehope6ul..HoweveJt,muchmOILene.ed!> :to be done.Therapidexpansionofman'srecreationaland commercialactivitieshasseriouslythreatenedmanyimportantcavefaunas.Amongthesearenumerousbatspeciesthathave shown markeddeclinesoverthepast20years(Cockrum,1970;Mohr,1953, 1972).Thegraybat,Myotis gI'isescens, amonotypicspecieswhichoccupiesarestrictedrangeinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,isperhapsthemostseriouslythreatenedofallcavebats.ElevenyearsagoBarbourand*GraduateProgramin EC0logy, UniversityofTennessee,Knoxville,Tennessee37961andDavis(1969)predictedthatthegraybatprobablyfacesextinctionunlessprotected.andrecommendeditsinclusionontheU.S.FishandWildlifeendangeredspecieslist.Thisprotectionfinallycameaboutin1976(FederalRegister28April1976)afterdrasticdeclinesreducedthetotalpopulationnumbertoadangerouslylowlevel.Sincethattimeprogresshasbeenmadetowardsrecoveryofthespecies,however, much moreneedstobe done beforeextinctionnolongerremainsapossibility.Amongthemanyactionsthatwillhavetobetakentoprotectthisspecies.theforemostmustincludesubstantialandcontinuingeffectstowardspubliceducation.Withthisinmind133

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thepurposeofthispaperisfourfold:(1)Toreiteratethecausesofdeclineofthegraybat.(2)Toascertainitscurrentpopulationstatus.(3)Tospecifyrecoveryactionsthatareunderwayorneededinthefuture.(4)Tomake apublicappealtoagroupofindividuals,inwhosehandsthefutureofaspecieslies.Thegraybatisoneofthefewbatspecieswhichisvirtuallyrestrictedtocaveenvironmentsyearround.However, duetoitshighlyspecificroostrequirements,lessthan5percentofallavailablecavescouldeverbeoccupiedbythisspecies(Tuttle,1979).Coloniesofgraybatsmoveseasonallybetweenwarm(14-2soC)cavesinthe summer andcold(6-110C)cavesduringwinter.Theirspecificthermoregulatoryandotherhabitatrequirementsforcethemtoseekonlycaveswithdefinitestructuralconfigurations(Tuttle,1976a;TuttleandStevenson,1978).Thus,summermaternitycavesarelargewarmairtrapswhilewinterhibernatingcavesareusuallydeep,vertical,voluminouscoldairtraps(Tuttle,1975;.Tuttle ;md Stevenson,1978).Duringwinter,largecolonies oi graybatscongregateinfewerhibernatingcavesthananyotherNorthAmericanvespertilionidbat.Approximately95percentoftheentireknownspeciespopulationhibernatesinonlyninecaveseachwinter,withmorethanhalfinasinglecave(Tuttle,1979).Thisisoneoftherealthreatstotheirsurvival(Mohr,1972).Continueddisturbanceatthesesitesandsubsequentarousalfromhibernationdepletesfatreservesthatcannotbereplacedbeforespringemergence.Calculationsforsimilarspeciesindicatethateacharousalcausesanexpenditureof20-30daysfatreserves.Clearly,repeatedorprolongedvisitstohibernaculawithinasinglewintercanresultinhighlevelsofmortality.Duringsummer,disturbanceatmaternitysitescanbeequallydetrimental.FromlateMaythroughmid-Julyflightlessyoungbatsarepresentattheroostsandmaybedroppedupon asingledisturbance.Anylossofyoungisserioussincefemalesdonotreachsexualmaturityuntiltheirsecondseasonandthenbearonlyone youngeachyear(Tuttle,1976a).Inadditiontotheirspecificcaverequirements,adultgraybatsfeedalmostexclusivelyoninsectsoveraquatichabitats(Tuttle,1979;laValeta1.,1977).Thismakesitnecessaryforsummercaves,particularlymaternitycolonies,tobelocatednearwaterandinfactthemajorityhavebeenfoundwithin1-2kmofriversorreservoirs(Tuttle,1976b). Unfortunately thistypeofforaginghabitatand fts insectfaunacanbevery tochemicalpollutionandsiltationofwaterways. Tpese occurrences,particularlyinareasof increased stripmining,arepossiblefactorsinthe declineofthegraybat.Additionally,deforestationofareasnearcaveentrancesandbetweencavesandover-waterforaginghabitatcouldaffectgraybstsdetrimentally.Foresthabitatisusedbyadultgraybatsforforagingduringinclementweatherandforpredator134avoidance(Tuttle,1979).It is also used by younggraybatsduringtheirfirstweekofflightwhentheyareweak and clumsyfliers.Otherfactorsthatareknowntocausedeclinesofgraybatpopulationsincludeincreasinguseofpesticides(Clarketal.,19,77,1980),cave c0m mercialization,impoundment"of waterways (Tuttle,Stevenson,andRabinowitz,inmanuscript),andnaturalcalamitiessuchasflooding.However,despiteallofthesethreatstotheexistenceofthegraybat,theprimarycauseofpopulation de clineshasbeenthehumandisturbanceatoccupiedcavesites.Acloserelationshiphasbeen demon stratedbetweenoverallpopulationdeclineandfrequencyofhumandisturbanceatcavesites(Tuttle,1979).Althoughestimationsofgraybatcolonysizesaredifficult,techniqueshavebeendevelopedthatcauseminimaldisturbancetocolonies,yetgivegoodcomparisonsbetweenpast maximum populationnumbers andpresentcolonysizes.Thesetechniquesarebaseduponmeasurementsofceilingstainsandguanoaccumulationsatmaternitysites,andarecarriedoutonlyafterthecolonyhasvacatedthecave(Tuttle,1979).Usingsuchmethodologyatcavesthroughoutthe range, we areleftwitha gloomypictureconcerningratesofdeclineandpresentpopulationnumbers.InthreeseparatecensusescarriedoutatmaternitycavesinTennesseeand Alabama(Tuttle,1979),Missouri(laVal,1980),andKentucky(RabinowitzandTuttle,1980),therewerereporteddeclinesfrompastmaximumpopulationlevelsof 76%, 72%,and88%,respectively.InTennesseeandAlabama, 22coloniessurveyedin1970andagainin1976.showeda54%reductionduringthesix-yearperiod(Tuttle,1979).InMissouri,27maternitycoloniescensusedin the early1960'sandagainin1978 showedan80%reductionovertheIS-yearperiod, with 16oftheoriginalcoloniestotallyabandoned(laVal.1980).InKentucky.of20randomlychosen gray batsites,12weretotallyabandoned(RabinowitzandTuttle. 1980). Withthesekindsoftrendsitcanbespeculatedthatifpopulationscontinuetodecreaseatthecurrentratesofdecline.serious proble.s couldariseinthenearfuture.Sincegraybatsrequirelargecoloniesforthesuccessfulrearingofyoung(Tuttle.1975),consistentdeclinesinpopulationnumberstendtohaveasnowballingeffect.Thetotalpopulationnumberthatwouldbescatteredoversixstatesbytheyear2000 might notbeabletosustainitself.However.thereishopeforthefuture.SincethegraybatwaslistedontheFederalendangeredspecieslistin1976.governmentagencieshavebeencompelledtoattemptthereversalofpastpopulationdeclines.Sofar.encouragingprogresshasbeenmade. TheFederalIndiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamhasmademajorstridesinthedocumentationofcriticalhabitatforthespecies.Asaresult,severalmajorcaveshavebeenpurchasedand/orprotected.throughtheconstructionofpropergatesorfences.Inaddition,theteamhasoutlinedfutureprioritiesforrecoveryofthegraybat.Theseinclude,amongotherthings,theacquisitionandprotectionofadditionalcaves,thecontrolofforaginghabitatdestruction,andpubliceducation.Althoughalloftheseactionswillbeneededtohelpcurtailpresentratesofpopulationdecline.onlyastrong

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publiceducationprogramwillsolvethelongtermproblems.Theroleofpubliceducationcannotbetakenlightly.Thetimeandmoneyspentinprotecting'thegraybatcouldallbefruitlessunlessweseektoobtaincooperationandunderstandingbetweengovernmentagencies,privatecaveowners,cavingclubs,conservationgroups,andthegeneralpublic(Rabinowitz,inpress).Anexpensive,wellconstructedgatedesignedtoprotectbatsisworthlessifsubjectedtovandalismbyindividualswhofeeltheirrightsarebeinginfringedupon.Wecannevertotallysolvetheproblemscausedbyindividualswhowillvandalizecavesfornoreason,butwecanminimizesuchoccurrences.Insomeinstancesparticularcaveswhichharborendangeredgraybatpopulationscouldbeopentothepublicduringcertainnon-criticaltimesoftheyear.Properlywordedsignsandnaturalisttalkscouldgofaringivingthepublicabetterunderstandingofacreaturethathasbeenmalignedbysomanyforsolong.Muchofthefutureofthegraybataswellasallothercavebatspecieswillbeinthehandsofmanypeopleatthissymposiumtoday.Thestrongestplatformforbatconservationcancomethroughthecavingcommunity. Caveowners,cavers,governmentofficials,andnaturalistscanplayamajorroleindisseminatinginformationregardingtheneedtoprotectbatspeciesas well asdispellinglongstandingrumorsconcerningbats(i.e.,batsasmajorvectorofrabies).Asabiologist,Icanstudybatsandpassonmyinformationtoyou.Thefutureofthespecies,however,isinyourhands.REFERENCESClark,D.R.,R.K.LaVal, andD.M.Swineford.1978.Dieldren-inducedmortalityinan en dangeredspecies,thegraybat (MY otis gPises aens).Science199:1357-1359.Clark,D.R.,R.K.LaVal,andA.J.Krynitsky.1980. andheptachlorresiduesindeadgraybats,FranklinCounty,Missouri1975versus1977.PesticidesMonitoringJournal13:137-140.laVal,R.K.andM.L.LaVal.1980.Ecologicalstudiesand managementofMissouribats,withemphasisoncavedwellingspecies.MissouriDept.ofConservation,TerrestrialSeries18.53pp. Mohr, C.E. 1953.Possible cause, ofanapparentdeclineinwinteringpopulationsofcavebats.Natl.Speleol.Soc.14:3-13. Mohr, C.E. 1972. Thestatusof threatenedspe ciesofcave-dwellingbats.Bull. Ratl. Speleol.Soc.34:33-47.Rabinowitz,A.R. 1980. Thefutureof eave.an agementinrelationtobatconservation. Ratl. Cave Mgmt. Sym.Proc.(Inpress).--Rabinowitz,A.R. andH.D.Tuttle.1980. Status ofsummercoloniesoftheendangeredgraybatinKentucky.J.Wildl.Hanag.(Inpress).Tuttle,M.D.1975.Populationecologyof the graybat (MYotisgPisesaens): Factorsinfluencingearlygrowthanddevelopment.Occas.PapersMus.Nat.Rist.,Vniv.ofKansas36:1-24.Tuttle,M.D.1976a.Populationecologyof the graybat (NyotisgPisescens): Factorsinfluencinggrowthandsurvivalofnewlyvolantyoung.Ecology57:587-589.Tuttle,M.D.1976b.Populationecologyof the graybat (MYotisgPiseocens): Pbilopatry, timing andpatternsofmovement,weightlossduring aigra tion,andseasonaladaptivestrategies.Occas.PapersMus.Nat.Rist.,Vniv.of Kansas 54:1-38.Tuttle,M.D.1979.Status,causesofdeclines.and managementofendangeredgraybats.J.Wildl.Manage.43:1-17.Tuttle,M.D.andD.Stevenson.1978.Variationinthecaveenvironmentanditsbiological t.pli cations.Natl.Cave Mgmt. Sym.Proc., BigSky. Montana:108-121.Cockrum, 'E. L.bats.Ecology1970.Insecticidesand guano51:761-762.LaVal,R.K.,R.L. Clawson,M.L.LaVal,andW.Caire.1977.ForagingbehaviorandnocturnalactivitypatternsofMissouribatswithemphasisontheendangeredspecies MYotis gPisesoens and MYotis sodaZis. J.Mammal.58:592-599.135

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THEFUTUREINRELATION*AlanRabinowitzOFTOCAVEMANAGEMENTBATCONSERVATIONRecentlegislativeactionconcerningendangeredspecieshasbroughttolighttherapiddeclineofmanytemperatecavebatpopulationsintheUnitedStates.Atthepresenttime,2batspeciesand2subspeciesarelistedontheFederalendangeredspecieslist,theGraybat (MY otis grisesaens), theIndianabat(M.sodaZis),theOzarkBig-Earedbat(PZeaotus townsendii ingens),andtheVirginia bat(P.t. virgin ianus).Consequently,federalandstateagencieshavebeen willing tocommitincreasingsumsofmoneyforthe andgatingofcavesthatharborendangeredpopulations.Thisisaworthwhileendeavorwhichisnecessaryfortheimportantmaternityandhibernatingcavesthathavehistoriesofhumandisturbance.However,this1typeofactionshouldnotbeconsideredastheonlymeansofbatconservation;itisunnecessaryandunfeasibleinmanycircumstances.Abroaderconceptofbatcavemanagementneedstobeestablishedbyfederalandstateagencieswhichtakesintoaccountchangingeconomicsituationsandlowprioritycavesthatharborbatpopulationsnotyetendangered.Inotherwords,propercavebatconservationshouldinvolve"strategicmanagement"asapposedto"crisismanagement"(Devereaux,1977).Inadditiontotheincreasingcostsforcavesandtheirassociatedlands,therearemanydifficultiesinvolvedwithconstructingpropergatesorfencestoprotectthecaves.Thepotentiallydisasterouseffectthatmayresultfromimpropergatedesigniswelldocumented 1975;Tuttle,1977).Althoughthistypeofbatcavemanagementhasbeenshowntoyieldexcellentresultswhencarriedoutproperly,itsprohibitivecostmakesitavailabletoonlythemostimportantcavescontaininglargenumbersofendangeredbats.Thus,weneedtoconsiderchannellingadditionaltimeandmoneyintoalternativeeffortsthatwillprotectotherbatpopulationsaswell.Suchprotectioneffortsshouldincludepubliceducationandtheinvolvementofprivatecaveownersandlocalconservationandcavinggroups.ExperiencehasledmetobelievethatthereisoftenimmediateattitudeandbehavioralchangesinmanyindividualswithwhomIhavetakenthetimetodiscussbatbiologyandtheimportanceofbats.Furthermore,Ihaveseenawillingnessby manycaveownersandcavingclubstoprotectmanyoftheirownbatcavesoncetheyrealizetheirbiologicalimportance.Thiskindofprotectioncanbemorevaluablethanthestrongestgateandismuchlessexpensive.In *Graduate PrograminEcology,UniversityofTennessee,Knoxville,Tennessee37916arecentsurveytoestablishthestatusof ma ternitycoloniesofthegraybatin Kentucky, Ifoundthatonlyone of thetwentycavessurveyedwas owned byindividualswho willingly keptpeopleoutofthecaveanddidtheirbesttoprotectthebatsfromharm. This cave showed a74%declineinnumbersofbatsfrompast .axi mumpopulationlevels.Althoughtldsisalargedecline,itwasthethirdlowestofthecavessurveyed.Theonlyothercaves showing lowerdeclinesweremorestructurallycomplexand suitedasgraybatmaternity andTuttle,1980).Manylandownershaveindicatedawillingnesstoprotecttheircavesifthere was someinputfromfederalorstateagencies.AnothercavethatwassurveyedinKentucky showed apast maximum populationof94,000graybats.perhapsoneofthelargestmaternitycoloniesinthestateatonetime.However,thecurrentpopulationis6.800bats,a93%decline.Theownersofthecavewerehorrifiedtolearnofsuchadeclineandfeltthatifthegovernmentsentthem aletter recognizing theimportanceoftheircave,as well asasigntopostatthecaveentrance.theywould dotheirbesttokeeppeopleawayduringcriticalSeasODS.Duetothecaves'slocationitwouldbedifficultforindividualstogetintothecavewithout permis sionfromtheowners.Minimum amountsoftimeandmoneyspentoncooperatingwithlocalcavingclubsin'll.ennesseeand Ken tuckyhavealsobeenproductive.Myattendenceatlocalcaveclubmeetingstogiveslidepresentationsconcerningbatbiologyhasgreatlybridgedthegapbetweenscienceandlocalcavers.Thecaversweregenerallyintelligentandeagertolearn about cavebiologyandthegeneral feeling seemedtobethatwewereworkingtowardsa coumon goal,thepreservationofcavesandcavefauna.Theeducationofthegeneralpublicisnotaseasytodealwithaswithpeopleinterestedincavesorinconservation.Federalandstategovernments.however,haveidealoutletsthroughwhichtoaccomplishthisgoal.Betterandmore numerousinterpretiveprogramscouldbeestablishedinstateandnationalparks,andtheU.S.FishandWildlifeagencycouldsetupenvironmentaleducationprogramstoprovidelecturestoschoolsandcommunitygroups.Theimpactofsuchworkmaynotalwaysbeimmediatelyobviousbutitwouldbefarreachingandlongterm.Unfortunately,personalexperiencewithgovernmentagencieshasindicatedanantipathyforthistypeofpublicrelations.Inthepast,actionstakenby manyagencieshavebeenaimedatcuringsymptoms,136

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REFERENCESDevereaux,R.1977. Nationalcavemanagement symposiumproceedings:BigSky, MOntana,pp. 7-10.Hunt,G.andR.R.Stitt.1975.Cavegating.Speleobooks,Albuquerque, NewHexico, i-v+43pp.Rabinowitz,A.R. andM.Tuttle. Status of s.mercoloniesoftheendangered gray bat inKen tucky. Accepted J.Wildl. Manage., Oct.1980.1975.PhysicalcontrolsforvisitorNatl.Cave Hgmt. Symp. Proc.,p.89.,Welbourn,C.management.Rabinowitz,A.R.andB. Nottingham. 1979.Humanvisitationandfall/winter caveusage bybatsintheGreatSmokyMountains National Park.Speleotype-EastTennesseeGrotto,pp.4-20,vol.13. twoendangeredbatspecies,the Indiana andgraybats,havepubliceducationastheirfirstpriority.However,wemustrealizethatpubliceducationdoesnotsolvethe illllU!diateproblems. Weneedmoreextensiveeffortsby government agenciesandrecoveryteamstoinvolvebat caveownersand localcaversinprotectingtheir own cave resources. Throughsucheffortsitis my beliefthatwe may notonlyremove manyspeciesfrOlll endangered orthreatenedstatusbutwemaycurbthedeclineofothercavebatpopulationsaswell.Tuttle,M.1978.Gatingasa means ofprotectingcavedwellingbats.Natl.Cave Mg!t.S,-p. Proc.1976,pp.77-82.notestablishinglong range goals.TheNationalParkServiceandtheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicehavebeenwillingtospendlargesumsofmoneyincomplyingwithlegislativeguidelinesforendangeredspeciesbuttheyhavedonelittleornothinginregardstoestablishingmore andbetterinterpretiveprogramsconcerningcaverelatedfauna. cavinggroupshavebecomefrustratedandangrywithgovernmentagenciesbecausetheyfeeltheyhavebeensnubbed andcheated.Localcaveclubshavebeenresponsibleformanyimportantbatcavelocations,onlytofindafavoritesportcavepurchasedand/orgatedwithouttheirpriorknowledgeorinput.Now,manycaversfeeltheymustkeeptheircavessecretsothatitwill not betakenaway from them.Muchoftheirfrustrationiswarrantedandcouldhurtfuturebatconservationefforts.Unless public educationandcooperationaccompaniesthepurchase,gating,orpostingofcaves,illegalentryandvandalismwillcontinue.Forexample,despitethefactthatBlowhole Cave, amajorIndiana bat hibernaculumintheGreatSmokyMountainsNationalPark,hasasignrestrictingentrythis Lave hadthegreatestnumberofknownunauthorizedvisitsofanyoftheelevencavesinthepark(RabinowitzandNottingham,1979).Recentdesignsforcavegatesincludeadeliberateweaklinksothatforcedentrydoesnotdestroytheentiregate(Hunt andStitt,1975).Ifenoughantagonismamonglocalcaversisarousedthroughthegatingofcertaincaves,forcedentrywouldberelativelysimpleandmightresultinthedeliberatedestructionoflargebatpopulations.Thisactionwould makethelandpurchaseandgateconstructionvirtuallyworthless.Theviewthatpubliceducationand iscrucialtotheprotectionofanyspeciesisnota newidea.However,ithasrarelybeen a t-temptedduetothedifficultiesofimplementingsuchprogramsaswellasthelackofobservableresults.Despitetheseproblems,theideamustbepursuedparticularlyin regards tobatconservation.Withincreasingnumbersofspeciesbeingputontheendangeredspecieslistandcriticalhabitattakinglastplaceinmanyinstances',sufficientmoneyforprotectingbatspeciesandcaveenvironmentswillbecome moredifficulttoobtain.Evidenceofthiscan beseenina 1980lettertoTennesseestaterepresentativeT. byfederalcongressmanJohnDuncan.ReferringtothepurchaseofacaveconsideredtobecriticalhabitatforbothgrayandIndianabats,Duncanstates:"Firstofall,Federalfundstopurchasehabitatforendangeredspeciesof wild lifeareextremelylimited, with mostoftherecentexpenditureshavingbeenmadeforthebenefitofspecieswhichhavegreater public recognitionandappreciation.Iamafraidthattheeliminationofaspeciesofbatwouldcausemuchlessofanoutcrythanwould,say,theeliminationofaneaglespecies."Withthiskindofattitudeprevailinginoursociety,publiceducationandcooperationwillbeouronlyhopeforlongtermprotectionofcavebats.Fortunately,thelatestrecoveryplanfor137

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SHRIMPTHEBLINDENDANGEREDCAVEKENTUCKY *Edwsrd A.Lisowski ABSTRACTFilL6tcii.Ac.oveM.din 7907, the.Ke.ntu.c.hyBUndCave.ShMmp,PaZaemonias gan ter1:Hay,haAbeen c.oUec.tedinonlytwoblUlei.evei.alte.lUl 06 theFUntMammoth Cave Regu.lM1.y.(.nthe.ShMmpPoot66JLom 1955to7967, the.6ltMmpc.thnotHenaga..<.n60JLtwei.ve.ye.a.IL6.InSe.pte.mbeJL, 7979,a 6.i11gle.deadinrU.v.idu.a.lc.th 60 u.n.d demoMtIr.a.t.<.ngthe. P. ganteroinote.xt.utc.t.Hab.i..tatmorU.Mca..t..i.onc.a.Me.d by Loc.kand Da.m S.ixand by e.a.JLly6a.UJLe..e.IUlU6JLomtheNoUnR.ive.JtRue.Jtvo-Ut,lUIwei..lUIpoUu.tion6JLOm6eLlXlgeandoUbJr-ine.Me.unpUc.ate.d-inthe.6hMmp'6neMex:tLnmon.Rel.i.c.tpOpu..a.t.i.OM 06 the6hMmpIte.ma..tn.in hablta.t6wh-ic.hMe 110t Iteadilyc.et16e.d TheKentuckyblindcaveshrimp, PaZaemoniaa gan Hay,wasfirstobservedbyWilliamPerryHayin1901 . Whilesearchingaseriesof pools intheRoaringRiverpassageofMammothCaveforcrayfish,henoticedasmallobjectswimmingnearthesurface.Hay(1902)described,his attemptsto captureit:"Afteramostexasperatingchase,duringwhichmyspecimenseemed morethanoncetohaveeludedme,it was captured,andI saw immediatelythatanotheranimalhadbeenaddedtothefaunaofthecave.Ithensetaboutfindingothers,and,knowingwhattolookfor,theywerefoundquiteeasily...Alltheirmovementswereunmistakablyshrimp-likeandverydifferentfromthoseofanyoftheothercrustaceansinthecave.uResemblingasmallcrayfishwithoutpincers, the MammothCaveblindshrimpisdelicateandtrans parent. Itsantennaeareabouthalfagainaslongasthebody,whichrangesupto25mm,oraboutoneinch,inmatureshrimp.Whatlittleisknownaboutthelifehistoryoftheshrimpsuggeststhattheyliveoneortwoyears.Femalescarryeggsfromlatespringtofall.Althoughtheyounghavenotbeenfound,theyapparentlyhatchduringthefallwhenthewaterisleastturbulentandwhenthemicroorganismsonwhichtheshrimpfeedreachtheirpeakabundance.Theseasonalwinterfloodsthatwashtheshrimpfromthequietpoolsintothelargecaveriversalsorechargenutrientsinthepools.Asthefloodwatersrecedeinthe spri.ng,the shrimpareagainisolatedinthepoolsuntilthefollowingwinter'sfloods.Quiet,silt-bottomedpoolsassociatedwithseasonalsedimentdeposition are theprimehabitatfortheKentuckyblindcaveshrimpfortworeasons.First,thethinorganicveneerdepositedonthebottomof*DepartmentofEntomology,UniversityofIllinois,Urbana,Illinois.138thepoolsbywinterfloodsprovidesapropitiousnutrientsourceformicroorganisms,whichareacriticallinkbetweenorganicmaterialthatiswashedintothecaveandtheshrimpandotheraquaticcaveanimals.Thisveneerislesswelldevelopedinthecaveriversbecausetheorganicsedimentsarecontinuallymixedwiththeinorganicsedimentsinthemainriverchannel.Second,whenisolatedinpools,theshrimpareprotectddfromtheirpredators,thethreespeciesofcavefishesandthetwospeciesofcavecrayfish.Theseasonallyreplenishedpoolsnearthebaselevelrivers in MammothCavehavebeenareliablelocalityforobservingshrimpforoverhalfacenturywheneverbiologistsvisitedthecave.Haycollectedtwelvespecimenstherein1901.WhentheprominentEuropeanbiospeleologistsCandidoBolivarand ReneJeannel(1931)visitedMammothCavein1928,theyobserved30shrimpinapoolnearEchoRiver.Giovannoli(inBailey,1933)reportedanothersightingin1929.Nobiologists visitpd thecaveriversbetween1930and1950,butcaveguidesreportedoccasionallyseeingshrimpinapoolnearEchoRiver(Barr,1967).Duringthe1950'sanduntil1967theKentuckyblindcaveshrimpreliablycouldbefoundintheShrimpPoolsoftheRoaringRiverpassage.Also,intheearly1960's,theshrimpcouldbefoundinsmallpoolsneartheGoldenTriangle,aportionofthebaselevelriverunderFlintRidge.Sincethe shrimp werenotseenagainbetween1967 and 1979despiterepeatedsearchesintheirprimehabitat.theywerefearedextinct.Manyofthedisturbanceswhichhavedrastically redur.ed thepopulationlevelsoftheshrimpcomefrom20toSOmilesaway.Tounderstandthenatureofthese impacts weneedtoreviewthehydrologyoftheMammothCaveRegion(Figure1).Fivesourcescontributewatertothebaselevelriver.sofMammothCave.AtleastSO stnkingr.reeks terminate in swallowholes, Andwater fromsomeoftheseflowsnorthwestundergroundISmileson astraightlinetolargespringsontheGreenRiver.Precipitationthat

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LOCK & DAK SIX '1'URNIIOLESPRING-NOUNRIvERRESERVOIR-FIGURE 1. ofwaterin the baselevelriversof ,;ammoth Cave.Fivesources watertothehydrologicsystemintheMammothCaveRegion:sinJ:ingcreeks,sinkholesontheSinkholePlain. karstbetween thesandstone-cappedridges,ver.ticalshaftswhichconductwaterdownward fromtheedgesof the andbackfloodingfromtheGreenRiver.Forclarity,onlytheStyx,EchoRoaring and Hawkins -riversareshown.Hydrologicconnectionsduringhighwaterareshownasdottedlines.fallson the sinkhole-plainsinksqU:l.ckly under groundtothebase level cavestreamsasdoestheprecipitationthatfallsonthekarstvalleysseparatingthethree major ridges overMammothCave.Precipitation that a118on thesecaprockprotectedridgesis attheedgesoftheridges to baselevel'througha complexofverticn}shafts. Finally. amountofwaterisbackflooded thebaselevel'cave during the winterfloodingof the GreenRiver.whichhas floodcrests uptosixty Each oftbese of water. ifp'olluted,can adversely affectthe.Kentuckyblindcaveshrimp.HiddenIliver. Cave, inthe -nearby town of HorseCave,isa priDeexample of theeffects ofpollutiononcavebiota. 'J'bis cave.oncea dJunicipalwater supply a cOllllierci81 show cave, wasso pollutetlby residential. creamery. -andindustrialwastes,thatitwasclosedandallthe 'cave lifeinitwasdestroyed.Fortyyearslater,.manyofthemajorsourcesof abated,butmuchofthepollutIonstillpersi.stsandthecaveanimalshavenot recolonizedBi4deri. River CAve.which overturnedearlierthatyearnearCaveCity, spillsthatarehosedoffserv:l.cestationdrivewaysandflowinSinkholes,orastoragetankthatwas leakinglarge quantitiesof gaRoline un til the leak wasdiscovered. _A similardisaster,largerinmagnitude,wasnarrowlyavoided:l.n June 1980. Afierycollisionbetweentwotrucks,oneofwhichwascarryingpr:l.ntersinkandcyanide,forcedtheevacuationofportionsofCaveCityfora dayandahalf.Onlyluckand immediate ac.tion byEPAandNPSoff:l.aialspreventedlargequant:l.tiesofcyanidefromenteringHawkinsRiverandkillingallitsaquaticlifedownstreamtotheGreenRiver. Durfng highflowcondit:l.ons,some Hawkins River water, whichoccasionallyiscontaminatedby'pollution,crossesundergrounddrainagedividesandflowsintoRoaring-EchoRiver.Fortunatelyfor.the shrimp, during low waterconditions, River waterdoesnotflowintoEcho-Roaring orGoldenTriangle,theonlytwoknown fortheKentuckvblindcaveshrimp.For.tunately, none ofthispollutedwaterregularly through theshrimp'sprime habitatin Mammoth Cave.However,during1979,amassivecrayfishkilloccurredin Joppa'Ridge's HawkinsRiver,amajorunderground strea thatreceiveswaterfromthe sink hole Pollution, in particularpetroleumcontamination,isthemost likelycause ofthecrayfish since iarge'dollops'ofapetroleum-basedsludgewereseen on Hawkins River..Possiblesourcesofthis'.pollutionar.e afueloil tanker-truck Since, during lowflowconditions,thewateratrthesetwolocalitiescomesprimarilyfromsourceswithinMammothCaveNationalParkitisnotheavilypolluted.However,theGreatOnyxJobCorps ConservationCenter'ssewagelagoononFlintRidgehas contaminated cavestreams.TheshrimpwerelastseenintheGoldenTriangleareaofFlintRidgejustbeforethefirstofaseriesofoverflowsofthe.iagoonintothecave.139

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Undercertain.hydrologicconditions surfacp. waterfromtheGreenRiveralsoenterstheshrimp'sknownhabitats.WhentheGreenRiver is higherthan the cave streams,the hydrostaticpressureforcessurfacewaterthroughthespringsand far intothelow-gradientbaselevelpassages.Whenpolluted,this surface watercanadverselyaffectaquaticcaveecosystem.Beginningin1958,aconsiderableamountofbrinepollution,highinchlorideionconcentration,wasdischarged.intotheGreenRiverfromtheGreensburgoilfieldupstreamfromMammothCaveNationalPark.Thisbrinepollutioncontinuedforseveralyearsuntilstoppedbyenforcementofdisposalregulations.Bymonitoringthechlorideion concp.ntrations, Hendrickson(1961) was able totrare themovementofwaterfromtheGreenRiverintotheStyxRiver Spring, throughStyxandEchoriversandfinallyouttheEchoRiverSpring. Hp. calculatedthatduringthe period B-12 March 1960"about40percentof thE' waterdischargedfrom Echo RivE'r atthistime rame fromtheGreenRiverandabont50percentcame from loral!:roundwater runoff."A reduction in of CaVE'fish,crayfish andshrimp occurred justafter contaminationoftheCreenbytheseoilfield and hydrocarbons.Strictenforcementof protectionlaws ;lndImplemE'ntation ofaregionalsewagetreatmentplanwillimprovethequalityofboththesur face andsub-surface watE'r intheMammothCaveRegion.Thereductioninwaterpollution will enhancethechancesofsurvivalfortheshrimp.However,anotherseriousthreattoitssurvivalremainsintheformofadversemodificationsoftheprimehabitatby dams ontheGreenRiver.LockandDamSix,completedin1906, wasconstructed aspartofaseriesofnavigationalimprovementstotheGreenRiver.Itsprimarypurposesweretoencouragedevelopmentof minE'ral resourcesalongtheNolinRiverandtopermitnavigationon ayearroundbasis farupstreamasMammothCave FE'rry, nearEchoRiverSpring.A gE'neraldeclinE' ofshippingontheupperGreenbeganin thE' 1930's,and,.in1951,theU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers, which constructedandadministeredthestructures, de activated Locks andDamsFiveand Si.x duetoalackoftraffic.Subsequently,LockandDamFourcollapsedin1965,endingallshippingupstreamfromthatpoint.TheabandonedLockandDamSixislocatedimmediatelydownstreamfromtheboundariesofMammothCaveNationalPark.The impoundmentartificallybackpondswateronthelower17milesoftheGreen's26-milecoursethroughthepark.AlthoughthelowercavestreamsofFlintRidge (e.g.,the GoldenTriangle),upstreamfromtheimpoundment,remainfreeflowingatlowGreenRiverflows, they arebackfloodedduringhighflowsmorefrequentlythanbeforeconstructionofthedam. ThelowercavepassagesofJoppaandMammothCave rldges that Rr withintheimpoundedareaare parkponded atalltimes.BackpondingfromLockandDamSixconsiderably re theavailablecavehabitatsinthebaselevelpassages.Acomparisonofpre-190bandpost-1906mapflofthelowestlevelsofthe historiC".sections of Caverevealsthatseveraldrypassagesarenowperenniallyflooded(Figure2).Previously140FIGURE2.Acomparisonofpre-andpost-LockandDamSixmapsofthebaselevelriverpassagesofhistoricMammothCave.The Hovey andCallmapsareredrawnfromsketches,andtheCaveResearchFoundationmapisfrom a compass andtapesurvey.dryareassuchasHanson'sLostRiverandasectionoftheEchoRiverpassagebetweenEchoRiverandSilliman'sAvenuenowcontainfourtofivefeetofwater.Writtenaccountsofearlyvisitorsandexplorersarealso revE'aling. Hovey,in1897,wrote:"TheGreat Walk i.sonlyfive fe"t abovelowwatermark."Laterin1909,hestated:"TheGreatWalkforfourhundredyardsusedtobeadmired,butnowitsbeautifulyellowsandiscoveredbytheback-waterfrom the rivers."Also,freeflowingcavestreams, with alternatingrifflesandpools,have become perenniallybackpondedpools.Perennialbackpondingincreasessiltationattheinterfacebetweenthebackpondedwatersandthefree-flowingcavestreams.Thesesiltdepositsacttoretardtheflowcausingadditionalsiltationimmediatelyupstream.Thus,additionalaqua tic habitatsbecomesiltedoverastheinterfacebetweentheperenniallyhackpondedcavewatersandthefree-flowingwatersmigratesupstream.Becauseofsiltation,the diversE' streamhahitat,withpatchesofsilt,sand,gravel,rocks,andboulders,hasbecome anearlyuniformhabitatofsilt-bottomedpools.InEchoandStyxriversofMammothCave,.thissimplificationoftheaquatic hasresultedinadocumentedreductionoftheareaswhereaquaticcaveanimals,inparticular,thecavefishesandcrayfishes,areseen.IthasalsoreducedtheoverallnumbersofeachspeciesAccordingtotheCorp'sfigures,theminimumwatersurfaceatEchoRiverSpringwillbefivefeet

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lower after removalofLock andDamSix.Furthermore,theStyxRiverSpring,whichisalmostcontinuallyflooded.bytheimpoundment,willexperiencefree-flowoutofthecave45percentofthetime.RemovalofLock andDamSixwillrestorethefreeflowingconditionsinthelowerlevelsofMammothCave.Thiswillflushoutthe aswellasrestorethediversityoftheaquatichabitatsandincreasethepopulationdensityofthecavespecies.InadditiontoreducingtheareaofsuitablehabitatfortheKentuckyblindcaveshrimp,Lock andDamSixisalsoalteringtheseasonalfloodingregimes.Floodingnormallyoccursfromearlywinterthroughlatespring.Adrierperiod,extendingintothefallwhenthewatertablegenerallyisatitslowestlevel,follows.Lock andDamSixincreasestheoccurrenceofunusualsummer andfallfloodingoftheshrimp'sprimehabitat.BecauseoftheincreasedGreenRiverlevel,surfacewaternowenterstheRiverStyxSpringduringthesummermonths,whereasthisoccurredrarely,ifever,beforetheconstructionofthedam.Thisadverselyimpactstheaquaticcaveorganismsinthreeways.First,summerbackfloodingforceswarmsurfacewaterintothecavestreams.On30May1960,Hendrickson(1961)observedanoabruptoriseintemperatureofEchoRiverfrom 54to70F.Aquaticcaveanimalsarephysiologicallylessabletotoleratewarmwaterthanthecoldwaterthatisbackfloodedduringnormalwinterfloods.Second,organicpollution,withattendantalgalblooms,givesatemporarycompetitiveadvantagetothenontroglobiticshort-livedopportuniststhatoccasionallyentercavesattheexpenseoftroglobiticlong-livedspecialists,whichareadaptedtothenormally.low foodsupply.Thissimplifiesthecommunity andiscalledtheparadoxofenrichment.Third,increasedsummer andfallbackfloodingincreasesthelikelihoodthattoxinswillbewashedintothecavewhentheyareconcentratedduetolowGreenRiverflows.Summerandfallreleasestoincreasewinterstoragecapacityfromthe Nolin RiverReservoir,startingin1963, and fromtheGreenRiverReservoir,startingin1969,aggravatestheseimpacts.BecauseLock andDamSixincreasesthewaterlevels,ontheaverage,theseasonalwinterfloodingoftheshrimp'sprimehabitatoccursearlierintheshrimp'slifecycle.The youngshrimphatchintheearlyfallwhenchancesoffloodingareminimalandpreydensityismaximal.Modificationsofthetimingofwinterfloodingaffecttheyoungshrimpbyeitherdilutingtheirfoodsupplyorwashingthemintounfavorablehabitatsbeforetheycancopewiththelargerivers.FallreleasesfromtheNolinRiverandGreenRiverreservoirs,have asimilaradverseimpact(Figure3).Thecombinationofhabitatmodificationordestructionandunnaturalfloodsduringthecriticalfallhatchingandgrowthperiodmostassuredlykeepsthepopulationsizeoftheshrimpataverylowlevel.ThecontinuedsurvivaloftheKentuckyblindcaveshrimpdependsonstepsthatwillraisethepopulationlevelsothatthespecieswillbeabletowithstandtheuncertaintiesofitslimitedandfood-poorenvironmentandwillrestorethenaturalrilk-Ipreadingmechanisms.1419 8 c z70 OJ'"'"'"'""-... 6 '" '" '"OJCi" 5 OJ c0 0 t: 0 ...'" z '"3.,;:;.....x... z0 2;:; JFMAMJJASONDJFIGURE3.AlteredSeasonalFlows. ThemonthlymeanflowsoftheGreenRiveratRiverMile181.7.200feetupstreamfrom Lock andDamSix,forthewateryears1965to1978(U.S.G.S.data),MonthlymeanflowsregulatedbytheNolinandGreenRiverReservoirsareindicatedbyan"X". Monthly meanflowsadjustedfromthechangesincontentsofthereservoirsareindicatedbyan"0"Floodsofshortdurationaswellasextremelylowflowscanoccuranytimeduringtheyear.Withoutreleasesfromthetworeservoirs,theaverageflowswould belowerinthesummer andfallandhigherinthewinter.Forexample,duringNovember1970,thenaturalflowof2871cfswasincreasedto5661cfsbyreleasesof1284cfsfromtheNolinRiverReservoirand byreleasesof1506cfsfromtheGreenRiverReservoir.RemovalofLockand DamSixwill notaltertheseflowsbutwilllowerthe elevation ofthewaterduringlowflowbyninefeettotheelevationofPoolFiveatthesiteofLockand Daa Six.The lowwaterelevationatEchoRiver Spring willbeloweredbyfivefeet.Aspeciesspreadsitsriskoftotalextinction when itsindividualsareindifferentpatchesofahabitatorindifferenttypesofhabitat. A speciesthatutilizeshabitatsthatareboth large in num berandsizeisbetterabletosurvive major disturbancesthanaspeciesthatutilizeshabitatsthataresmallineithernumberorsiae (Figure 4).Notallpopulationswillbeequallyvulnerabletoalocaldisaster,so,somewillsurvive.Oncethesurvivingpopulationsbuildupinsiae, someindi vidualsmayrecolonizeareaswheretherestofthepopulationswentextinct.Becau.ethe.hrimphavehighlyspecialiaedhabitat' requirement., restricted geographicrange, andpoorpower.ofrecoloniaation,allthe adverseimpacts discus.edaboveare eepeciallydetrimental tothe

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floodingwhenthenewlyhatchedshrimparemostvulnerable.Moreimportantly,removalofLockandDamSixwillrestorefreeflowoutofthecaveintotheGreenRiver.Thisfreeflowwillflushoutsiltdeposits,restorehabitatdiversity,andincreasethesizeandnumbersofoptimumpoolmicrohabitats,whichwillmaketheshrimppopulationmorestablebyrestoringthenaturalriskspreadingmechanisms.Theshrimp,asanindicatorspecies,mirrorstheconditionoftheentirebaselevelaquaticecosystem.Torestoreconditionsneededbytheshrimpistorestoreoverallhabitatdiversityandthusthebioticdiversityoftheecosystem.ThisrestorationiscriticalforthesurvivaloftheendangeredKentuckyblindcaveshrimp,PaZaemonias gantepi Hay. lJPDAT!':; SCUBAdiversobservedsixKentuckybIlndcaveshrimpneartheFourthBoatLandingonEchoRiveron 29 November1980.Theshrimpwasexamined,photographed,andreleasedinitsoriginalhabitat.On10January1981,CaveResearchFoundationbiologistsobservedthreeshrimpintheGoldenTriangleofFlintRidgeduringaperiodofunusuallyfavorablewaterconditions.ReferencesBailey,V.1933.ThecavelifeofKentucky,mainlyintheMammothCaveResion.Am.Nat.14:385-635.Hay,W.P.1902.ObservationsonthecurstaceanfaunaoftheregionaboutMammothCave,Kentucky.Proc.U.S.Nat.Mus.25(1285):223-236.Barr,T.C.,Jr.1967.EcologicalstudiesintheMammothCaveSystemofKentucky.PartI.TheBiota.Int.J.Speleol.3:147-204.Hendrickson,G.E.1961.SourcesofwaterinStyxandEchorivers,MammothCave,Kentucky.U.S.Geol.Sur.Prof.Paper424-D:D41-D43.1931.Campagne du Norden1928Zool.Exp.etGen.Bolivar,C.andR.Jeannel.speologiquedansl'Amerique(BiospeologicaLVI.)Arch.71:293-316.FIGURE4.SpreaoingtheRiskofExtinction.Eachtypeofgeometricfigurerepresentsatypeofhabitatforadifferentspecies,andthesizeofthefigurerepresentsthesizeofthepatch.Theareaofthestipplingisproportionaltothenumberofindividualsinthepatch.Ifadisturbanceeliminatespopulationsinsomeofthepatches,individualsfromotherpatchescanrecolonize.The"circle"specieshasbecomeextinctsinceallofitspopulationswereeliminatedbythedisturbance.KentuckyblindcaveshrimpcomparedtothecavefishesandcrayfishesinMammothCave.Evenintheabsenceoftheman-madeadverseimpacts,theshrimpleadaprecariousexistence.ApetitiontonominatetheshrimpforEndangeredSpeciesstatuswassubmittedtotheU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceon12January1977.'Tocomplywiththe1978EndangeredSpeciesActAmendments,theUSFWSwithdrewthepetitionon 10December1979.UnitedStatesGeologicalSurvey.WaterResourcesforKentucky.Wateryears1965to1978,inclusive.Hovey,H.C.1882.CelebratedAmericanCaverns,EspeciallyMammoty,Wyandotte,andLuray.Cincinnati:R.Clark&Co. 228pp.Hovey,H.C.andR. E.Call.1897.MammothCaveofKentucky,AnIllustratedManual.Louisville,Kentucky:J.P.Morton&Co. 131pp.Althoughmanypeoplewereconvincedthattheshrimpwasextinctsincenonewereseenfortwelveyears,CaveResearchFoundationinvestigatorsbegananintensivesearchforitduring1979.On1September1979,asingledeadspecimenwasfoundintheShrimpPools.Itwasprobablykilledbyanunusualsummerflood,whichoccurredduringthepreviousweek.Thediscoveryofthedeadshrimpprovidedcrucialevidencethattheshrimpisnotextinctandconstitutedsufficientnewinformationtowarranta newpetitiontolistthespecies.Dr.RaymondCouchard,Chairman,FreshwaterCrustaceanSpecialistGroup,InternationalUnionforConservationofNatureandNaturalResources,submittedthepetitionon12December1979.TheUSFWSagreedtoreproposelistingtheKentuckyblindcaveshrimpasanEndangeredSpecies,andwillconductapublicmeetingon10 December 1980inBowlingGreen,Kentucky.Hovey,H.C.mothCaveofJ.P.Morton1909.Hovey'sHandbookoftheMamKentucky.Louisville,Kentucky:&Co.,63pp.Insummary,removalofLockandDamSixandmodificationsinthesummerandfallreleasesfromNolinRiverandGreenRiverreservoirsarenecessaryfor the survivaloftheKentuckyblindcaveshrimp. thiA willpreventunnaturalsummerandfallback-

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ENTRANCESENDANGEREDCAVETHEHART'STONGUEPLANTFERNINAN *A. MurrayEvans ABSTRACTThe (PhyZZitis VaA.OCCW!.6 .(.ItIAJideR.ypopuiatioMinnolLthea6telLnand 60uthetUteJLnNolLtltInnolLtl,e.JI.n.uOCCW!.6in6catteJteti popu WioY16onca.lceJ[oU6btcen:tJtalNewState,thr.8Jwce'Perrin6ulaILegionOntalLioandtheUppeILPenin6(da06Michigan.Inthe6outhetUte1LYlUnitedState6wa6twolocation6.inTennu6ee.one 06 whichi6noWde6:tltoyed. AttempU bybotan.uU to MndnewpopulatiOIt6 havenotbeenplLOductivC!,butinthelMtthJteeyeo.Mtloonewpopulation./)IlavebeencU6coveJted by 6pelunkeM .inAlabama.ThethILeealteinpU6,Olt./){nk6,withqu..i:tedi66ewtgecologicall,aWat6,lteafAvelljC!xpo6edanddJtytoect1LemelydaJtkandhwn.i.d.TIle6e60utlteJtnPOpu.o.tiUH6MepltC!.wmed-tobePle.u-toceneILeli&606lui.duplLeadbOJteal6lolta6.ri,eC!colagic.a.ladaptation/)06tlte6e6VtMtotilC!.6eILe6fuctedenvilLOnmennneed;tobe.betteJt undeMtood.ThetaxonItMbeenplt0p06edl.i6tinga-6Fc.dr.ltaUyEndal1ge!t.edbytile U. S.Fi61tandW.<.idU6eSeltv.<.ceand-i.6uYldelt6.tudyand!t.ev.<.ew.AteJLting6pelunkeM and othe!t. inte!t.Mtedcave!t.6appeQ1t6 .to bea6igni6icafttIUlytohelpp!t.otectand 6tudyImownandtoaid-<.nlocatingnewonu. Thecurrentinterestinour"rareplants"hasprovideduswithopportunitiestoinvestigatecertainaspectsofthenaturalhistoryofsomeofthecriticalorganismsinourflora.Theearlystagesofourconcernwithprotectionoffragileelementsofourflorainevitablerevolvedaroundthephilosophicalquestionsofwhatconstitutes"rarity"andwhichofthevariousproposedcategoriesshouldbeappliedtoanygiventaxon.Categorieshavebecome well-established.andwearenotfittingthesebiotaintoconvenientman-madecategoriesof"endangered","threatened","extirpated".etc.-anovel.thought-provoking,andoftenamusingverbalandphilosophicaldebate. We arealsoprimarilyintheinventoryphaseofthisprocess.Individualsandagenciesareputtingconsiderableeffortintoattemptingtoinventorylocalities.describehabitats,searchtheliteratureforhistoricalrecordsandinformation.andprovidemanagementproposalsfordesignatedplants.ThishasprovidEdanimpetusformuch-neededfieldstudiesintosomeveryworthwhilefragileandunusualhabitatsandorganisms.butoneisconstantlyremindedthatthenextstepintheprocessis*DepartmentofBotany,UniversityofTennessee.Knoxville,TN37916.ContributionfromtheBotanicalLaboratoryoftheUniversityofTennessee.N.S.no.532.143researchintotheultimatelymostimportantquestionofwhatmakesparticulartypes, or groups,oforganisms"rare".Whatcausescertaintaxatobecomerestrictedtoparticularscarce or fragilehabitats?Isitbecausethehabitatitselfprovidessomepositiveenvironmentalingredient.orisita morenegativeforceinwhichtheorganismmayactuallybemorebroadlyadaptive.butlacksaggressivequalitiestocompetesuccessfullyin ruore favorablesites.Thereisgeneralagreementthatourconcernswithprotecting"rare"organismsusuallyboildowntoaquestionnotofpreservingthebiota,butofpreservingtheappropriatehabitatsinwhichtheynaturallyexist.Oftenthehabitatsthemselvesareuniqueand/orfragileandpredictablywefindthattheselocalitiesharbormorethanone.andsometimes ofourdesignatedrareorganisms.Forexample.intheceda]barrensofmiddleTennesseewehave listedcspecies inthegeneraPetalostemumand Leavenworthia. AlongthenarrowmarginsoftheroughandtumbleriversoftheSouthernAppalachians we have Conra dina verticiZZata (CumberlandRosemary)andHet erothecaruthii (Ruth'sgolden-aster)whichbegrowneasilyincultivation.andonRoanMountainandotherhighelevationoutliersofthesouthernAppalachianswehave LiZiumgrayi (Gray'sLily)andGeum radiatum. tonamejusta few ramdonexamples. We canfindtheseplantsandwecanmakeinferencesastowhytheymightbewherewefind.them.However,harddataonhabitatadaptationis

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largely lacking. I expect thatthenextoreventualpheof search and recov.ry effortswill produce.ome qualityr rch intothe dynamics ofthelife cycles ofthe organisms involvedandthe interrel.tionshipBut in the presentcontext. the di.cu.eion n.ed. ultimately tor.lat.to c.ve.. Tothe.pelunker and geologist.and .ven the.oologiet.theinteriorofthe eave is fair ground,ifnotthef.rtil. ground; to thebotanist the cav. mouth may b.of major int.rttheint.riorisrath.raterile.Itwould.ppearth.tthe combination ofgeologyand climatecontrolproduced by c.rt.incaves inthis region have produc.da situation which isofinteresthere.The AmericanHartis-tongue fern (PhyZZitis scoZopendM:WIl(L.)Newm. var. amel'icanWll Fernald)(Fig.1) occurs infewwidelydisjunctpopulations in northeasternandsoutheasternNorth America. Initsnortherndistributionitoccurs in scatteredpopulationsonlimestoneanddolomite outcropsincentral NewYorkStatenearSyracuse,and along theNiagaraescarpmentofsouthernOntario(Soper,1954) andtheUpperPeninsulaof Michigan(Futyma, 1980).Theplantsoccurpri marily.on moistcooltalusslopesbelowcliffsusuallyshadedbyforestandoftenassociatedwith streams andwaterfalls.OntheUpperPeninsulaof Michigan, theplantsaremoreexposed,occurringonlow-lyingdrierandlessshadedlimestoneoutcrops.Inthesoutheastthesituationisfascinat ingly different.Theplantshavehistoricallybeenknown from twopopulationsinTennessee.ItwasfirstdiscoveredatPostOakSpringsinRoaneCo.,TNin1849abouta"drycave"withanorthwest exposure atthebaseoftheescarpmentofalargesinkholebasin(Maxon, 1900;McGilliard,1936).Therehavebeenseveralreportsintheliteraturesincetheturnofthecentury(Shaver,1954)thatthispopulationhasdisappeared,and Ialsosearched th'" localityabonttenyearsagowithout.success. Lbe extantTennesseelocalitywasfirstdiscoveredin1879inasmallpitjustnorthwestofSouthPittsburg,ontheAlabamaborder,westofChattanoogainMarionCo.(Maxon,1900).Thispitisabout25m deepwitha tear drop-shapedopeningabout20 mlongby10mwide.Thewallsare sotheinteriorispermanentlyshadedbythewalls.Apermanentstreamentersfromspringsontheslopeabovethelipandsprayfromthewaterfallintothepitkeeps the humidityextremelyhighyeararound.TheHart's-tongueferngrowsonthewallsandledges,butinverylow numbers andwithheavycompetitionfromliverworts(ConaaephaZumsp.)which sometimesovergrowtheplants.Overthepasttenyears,Ihave thelocalityduringvariousseasons,andthe number ofplantshavedwindledfrom 18to 12.' It.wasonlythissummerthatI sawthefirstmaturefertileplant--heretoforetheplantshavebeenperennialjuvenileswithleavesonlyuptoca.5emlong.Asolderreportshavecitedagradualdecline.in numbers ofplantsfromanearlyhighofabout200,Ibelievethatthispopulationhasbeenunderseverestressandisprobablyinitslaststagesofdeclineandextinction.IhavesporadicallysearchedthecavesandsinksofTennesseewithoutsuccessoverthelastdecade144FIGURE1. PhyZi.itisscoZopendritJll (L.)Newm.var. Fern.Habit,X "l/8. fornewpopulations. There hasbeenlittledoubtinmymindthatthistaxonexistedinthisoneremaining knolYn populationasadistantoutlierpopulationofaoncewidedistributionduringtheglacialperiod.Whereasmanyexamplesofdisjunct boreal plantpupulationshave"hungon"tooursouthernAppalachianmountaintops,itwouldappearthatthehabitatrequirementofcoolmoistshadedlimestonehasdriventhisparticularspeciesintothecavesratherthantothemountaintops. With thehighnumberofcavesystemsinthisregionadditionalpopulationsshouldturnupeven tually, butthelogisticsofsearchingsuitable haveturnedbackmuchoftheeffortsoffieldbotanists.Itwasthereforedelightful,andnotaltogethersurprising,thattwonewpopulationsoftheHart'stonguehaverecentlybeenfoundinpitsinAlabamabybotanically-inclinedspelunkers,specificallyMerilynOsterlund.Whatisparticularlyinteresting,however,is.howdifferentthesetwo newpopulationsappeartobefromtheTennesseepopulationand fromeachother.In1979,ShortreportedthefirstAlabamastationinJackson,County,in "The Morgue",partoftheFernCavesystemonthewestslopeofNatMountain.ThelocalityisquitedifferentfromtheMarianCountypitinTennessee.The Morgueisanopen,barrel-shapedpitwithrelativelystraightsides,withtwocavernentrancesatoppositesideandahightalusridgeacrossthemiddlebissectingthesinkintotwoflat-sidedfunnelsleadingintothecaverns.Thepitisabout20 m deepatthetwopassageentrancesbut,fromthe low sideofthe

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LiteratureCitedFutyma,R.P.1980.Thedistributionandecologyof .1?hyZZitis scoZopendrium in Michigan.Amer. Fern.J.70:81-87.Short,J.W.1979. phynitissooZopend:Piumnewly discoveredinAlabama. Amer.FernJ.69:47-48 . Shaver,J.M.1954.FernsofTennesseewithfernalliesexcluded.BureauofPubl.,George PeabodyCollege,Nashville,Tenn.502pp.TheHart's-tongueinAmer.Fern.J.26:113-122.McGilliard,E.1936.Tennessee1878-1935.Maxon,R.M.1900.OntheoccurrenceoftheHart's-tongueferninAmerica.FernwortPapers,pp.30-46.Themajorthrustof ttds paperis to bringthissituationtotheattentionofcavers,perhapsstirsomebotanicalcuriosity,andhopefullycomeupwithadditionalfindswhichcanbecompared to thethreeweknowofsofar.Thesethreearesodifferentinsomanyfascinatingways.Althoughtheycanbestudied,andhopefullyprotected,additionallocalitiescanpresentuswithbettermeansofanalysingandpredictingwhat might bethe norws for PhyZZitisscoZapend:Pium var. arneriaanum inthesoutheasternUnitedStates.awetshelteredclay bank. Thereisawaterfallintothepit,sothatthisoneis moremoist thanThe Morgue. But here the moststrf.1du8as pectofthesituationisthatthefern poPulation isaveryvigorousone.Thereareover100 plants inallstagesofdevelopmentfromtinyjuvenilesporlingstosubstantialmatureplants with leavesupto40emlong.Thisisthemost vigorouS populationofthethreeinthesoutheasternUnitedStates,andiswhatonewould expectto findinahealthy,well-adaptedpopulationofactivelyreproducingplants.Thispopulat1onsuggeststhatthisspeciesisstilladaptedtoappropriate en vironmentsinthesoutheast,andgivesmesubstantialconfidencethatotherpopulationsexistinthisregion.Whereasthe populationseemstobestuckina.relativelypermanentjuvenilestage with littleor no maturereproductivefoliageproduced,the Jackson County.Alabama.populationproducesabundant,reproductively-matureleavesandabundantspores,butthereisnosignofyoungspore-producedplants.Thepopulationseemstobestuckinanovermature state, withtheplantsincreasinginsizeby fcrking oftherhizomes(stems)butnotproducing new individuals.DuringtheintervalbetweentwovisitsinFebruary,1978andAugust,1980,severalplantshavedisappeared,eitherbywashoutorpossiblybyhumandisturbance.Theconspicuouslossesareseveralplantswhichgrewononeoftheledgeswherenotonly one veryinaccessible plant remains.ThefernpopulationisalsostrikinglydifferentfromtheTennesseepopulation.Theplantsarelarge,matureandvigorous.growingnotassingleindividualsbutas ofseveralconnectedbyshortbranchedrhizomes.Thereareonlyten clUlllps. whichare probco,b.'.y quiteold.Nosmallorjuvenileplantsoccur.andno signs ofreproductionwereapparent.lip,onlyca.12mdeepatthetopoftheridgeacrossthemiddle.Thefernsarenotshelteredalongthewalls,but are onandaboutsmallboulders on thenorth-facingslopeoftheridgebisectingthepit.Theyarequiteexposed, growipg withtheGladeFern (Athyriwnpycnocarpon), thewalkingfern (ABpZeniumrhi20phy7,Zum) andseveralspeciesofmossescarpetingtherocks.Theyareexposed.todirectsunlightduringmid-summerexceptforthetreecoversurroundingtheopening.Thesurroundingforesthasrecentlybeenlumbered almost tothepit.Increasedexposuretosunlight,dryinginsummerandprobablyincreasedwindflowcausedbythisloggingmayhavesomeecologicaleffectonthemicroclimatewithinthepitanditwillbeinterestingtofollowthischangeovertime.Butthemostvisibledifference between thisandtheTennesseepitisthatthis'oneisdry,withnowaterflowexceptrainfall.Humidityismaintainedbycoolmoistairflowoutofthecave.rnskeepingthetemperaturesignificantlybelowambientoutsidethepit,andbyfogsformedwithinthepit ...here thecoolcavernairmeetswithwarmairfromabove. Recently, asecond Alabama populationwasfound,againbyMarilyn08terlund,whichI inAugu8t,1980. This oneisinPetersonPit,New someSinu, County,Alabama,andithas 801118 strikingdeparture8fromtheothertwo.Thehabitatisintermediatebetweentheprevioustwo,atleastin ap?srent ecologicalfeatures.Itisanopenpit 8imilar toThe Morgue,withaslopingfloortoasinglecavern.Thepitisca.25mdeep at thecavernmouth,andabout 20 mindiameter, more orleseround,andmoreorlessstraight-sided,butwithaconspicuousledgeabouthalfway down, inwhich theHart'stongue ferns grow.Thispiti8openandexposedto,atleast,shadedforestdaylight.The fsrns areonthe northwe8t to80uthwestside,withaneastexp08ure,butprobablyfarenough into thepitthattheyrarelyhavedirect sunlight. The wall abovetheledgeisundercut,providingacrawlspaceshelter,andthefernsaregrowingunderthisoverhangonSoper,J.H.1954.TheHart's-tongueferninOntario.Amer.FernJ.44:129-147.145

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THELAVAECOLOGYTUBESOFHAWAIIAN .Francia G.Howarth ABSTRACTThe.ge.ol.og.i:c.aU.yyOWLgtMp.<.ca.t.uthe..uo,fa:te.d.gltOup06h-lghoc.eM<.c..utand6.ItAnative.6aunaJLe.6.uwthat-uo,f.a,tLcn,46JLebJ:).vehj6e.wc.on.tine.n.talgltOupll,con.tine.n.talcave.6aLlM.6,manage.d:toc.olotU.ze.HawaM..Yet 1971, a46/le.mbtage.06highly/lpe.e-i.aUze.dcave.tVtthltopod6wa.4d.uc.ove.JLe.d.UVA.ngA.nHawa.UancaVe.6.Thue.e.volve.d.6JLomJLe.pJLue.nta:t.<.vu06the.Ilpe.c.ia.:Ungna..tl.ve.6auna..bythe.plLOC.U/l06adapUve.1lfU.6tA. The deepcavezone.,wheJLethetMgl.obUuMe.60Wld,.u. a M.goltOUIlOIlhtVtIlhenv.uwnmen:t:that.l.1lpeJtpe.:tuaihjdoJr.k,tJJi:th a JLebJ:).ve.tyC.Onll:tan:t:tempeJLa.:twt.e,wUhau.ttteJLatmo/lphe.JLeandtJJi:thou.tmany06thetempoJLa.tc.u.UUIledby.6U1L6ac.e..6peuu.Themo.6tcJrLti.ca.tenv.uwnme.n.tal6ac-t:0Ildete.Jtm.[tWtgthed.u.tJrA.bu.:U.on06tMgl.obUuw.U:h.i.n.inho.bUab.tecavu.u.the.6:table.6a.twt.atedatmo.6pheJLe.YOWLgb46a.U;.(.C.tava.hallnume.JLOU6vo.i.d6wfU.c.hallow.i.n:te.JLcaveand.l.n:te.Jl1ava6lowd.uPe.JLIlal06tMgl.obUu. In 6a.c-t:theltVtgutpoputa..ti.Onll06bUuMebe.t.l.evedto.inho.bUthuevo.l.d1> ,and onlywhe.JLe6IJodandmenta.t.tow,dtJtheyen:te.JLandc.olotU.zethe.aJLgeJtcavep46.6agU. ,The muneneJtgy.6OUILc.e.inthecave.ec.o.6y.6tem.u.tlLee1W0tA.Feed.i.ng on thue1W0tAMetlLogl.ob.i.:ti.c.c.bildpR..anthoppe.JLll,noci:J.Li.dmothltVtvae, and.Dirns'l'OgonU8rniUepedu.S.l.X.6pec..i.u06.:tIw.ec.JrA.c.k.w,GJLyWdae,tVteOlntuVOJLOU6. A bUnd "teMu.tM.a.e."u.ttte.JLtlLeadeJt.6cavenge.6 on deadtVtthMpodJ. The b.t.i.ndPJLedatoJLll.inc1.udea.thJLead-legge.dbug', a .aJLgee.aJtWi.g,andZ,JLelIICVl1utb.tewol6IIp.<.de.JLll.1t.u.wU:hhOmetlLep.i.dationthat 1 madetheex,u,tenc.e06th.i.Il6aunak.nown,601lthe.i.nc.JLeMe.i.npubUc.C.u.JrA.O.5Uymean/lm:.inc.JLe46e.incavev.u.Ua.:ti.on. CavuMepctlltic.ui.aJLf.yLlenllmVetophy,6-<.c.al.d.u:tUltbanc.e.Yet.i.6the.ex.i.lltenc.e 06 thue.JLemaJLkablean.i.ma.t&.i.6notmadepu.bUc.,then theiJr.habUat6may be dutILoyed thltough.i.gnoJLanc.edu.JrA.ngc.hange!l.inlandU6e. TheHawaiianArchipelagoisastringofyoungoceanicislandsstretchingmorethan1500miles.acrossthenortherntropicalPacific.Theyareisolatedfromotherhighislandsandcontinentsbymore than 2000miles,andrelativelyfewterrestrialanimalsandplantsmanagedtodispersetoandcolonizetheislandsnaturally.However, manyofthosethatwonthedispersalsweepstakesevolvedintomany newspecies,givingHawaii a .bizarreanduniquefloraandfauna.GiventherelativeyouthoftheeasternhighislandsingeneralandtheextremeyouthofHawaii'slavatubesinparticular,ithadlongbeenassumedthatspecializedcaveanimalsdidnot exist inHawaii.Thusitwasquitesurprisingtodiscoverin1971 arelativelydiversecommunityofnativearthropodsspecializedtoliveinyoungHawaiianlavatubes(Howarth,1972).Todate,morethan30terrestrialtroglobiteshavebeendiscovered.Thecaveecosystemisrigidlydefinedbythegeologicalsetting.Thus,ifwehaveanunderstanding*B.P.BishopMuseum,P.O.Box19000-A,Honolulu,HI96819ofthegeologyofcavernousrock,wecanbetterunderstandtheadaptationsofcaveanimalstotheirenvironmentaswellasthefunctioningofthecaveecosystem.Althoughsomecontroversyconcerningtheirformationstillexists(seeOIlierand Brown, 1965;Greeley,1971;andOIlierandZarriello,1979),IfollowPetersonandSwanson (1974)whovividlydescribedtheformationoflavetubesfromactualobservationsinHawaii Basalticlavaflows,themainbuildingmaterialof oceanic volcanoes,generallyflowin2 formscalledthea'aandpahoehoe,differingmainlyonlyinheatandgascontent.A'aiscooler,containslessgas.andflowsmoresluggishlythanpahoehoe.A'aflowsadvancemuchlikeacaterpillartractortreadwithamolteninteriorandasolidbutirregularlybrokensurfacecrustthatmovesforward,breaks, tumb lesinfrontoftheflow.andisburiedbytheadvancingflow.Pahoehoe,ontheotherhand,ishotter,hasa highe:gas content,ismorefluid.andflowsasariver.Theseriverstendtocrustoverbycrystallizationasthesurfacecools.Thecrystalsgrowalongtheleading.upstreamedgeandalsoinward thesides.Thiscrustmaygrowquitefastovertheflow.Eventually,iftheflowis'continuous,thecrustmaythickenenoughtosupportitselfand become aroof.Overflowsoflavathrough146

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skylightsalsomay thicken and atrangthan theroof. When thelavalevelaubaidea,aecondaryroofsoftenform belowskylighta. Thia naturalhealingof breaks keepsthepahoehoe moving,.incetheroofofbasaltactsa.agoodinaulatorfortheflowinglavabeneath.Thisroofingandhealingprocessisactuallyresponsibleforcarryingpahoehoegreatdistances from thevent.Theformationoflavatubesisoneofthe factoraintheformationof oceanic shieldvolcanoea.incontrasttothecone-shapedvolcanoesofthecontinents.whichare .largely composedof andes1tic lavas.AndedUcflowsaremore sluggishthan a'aandgenerallypileuparoundthevent.thustheconeshape.Othervoidssometimeslargeenoughtobeconsideredcavesmayalsoforminlava.Overflowsofpahoehoespreadoutasthinlayers.Degassingcanswellthestillplasticuppercrustand formlargegasbubbles.Also shrinkageduring coolingmayseparatelayersoflava,orcauseextensivesystemsofcracks,creatingvoids.Gasvesiclesforminthecoolinglavafromtrappedbubbles.Thesemayformextensiveporouslayersofvesicular basalt withinaflow.Othervoids.suchastumuli and buriedtreemoldsalsooccur.Thecaveecosystemcanbedividedinto4environmentalzones.Theseare(1)anentrancezone wherethesurface and undergroundenvironmentsmeet;(2) atwilightzonewherelightprogressivelydiminishes;(3) atransitionzonethatisincompletedarknessbutwhere someoutsideenvironmentaleffectsarestill felt;and (4)a deepcavezonewherethespecializedterrestrialcave animals arefound.Theextentofthedifferentzonesdependsonthesize,shape,andlocationoftheentrance(s),ontheconfigurationofthecavepassages,and onthesubterraneanmoisturesupply.Themostcriticalenvironmentalfactorde termining thedistributionoftroglobiteswithinhabitablecavesappearstobethesaturatedatmosphere(Howarth,1980).Inordertoconfirmthisobservation.IhavebeenstudyingthemicroclimateofselectedHawaiiancavesandcorrelatingthedatawiththedistributionofcaveanimals(Howarth,inpress).CharcoalCavenear PaliinHawaii VolcanoesNationalParkatca800 melevationisalargepassagelavatubewhichtrendsdownslope fromitssinglelarge Kempe andKetz-Kempe (1979) mapped anddescribed.thecave.CharcoalCaveappearstofitthetype1categoryofTuttleandStevenson(1977)sinceitsgreatestvolumeisbelowtheelevationofitslargemainentrance.However,theen vironmental dataindicatethatthepassagehasasmalldownslopeentrance(Howarth,inprep.).PreliminaryreconnaissanceindicatedthatCharcoalCavehadaverylongtransitionzone and would beidealfordeterminingtheclimaticfactorsdefiningthetransition/deepcavezoneboundary.For15consecutivedaysfrom21Augustto5September,1979, Igatheredclimaticdatasimultaneouslyfromthetwilight,transition,and deepcavezones.Thestationswereapproximately45,110,and 185meters,respectively,fromtheentrance.Themaximumpenetrationoflightintothecaveis70m.AWeatherMeasureH311hygrothermographand 2picheatmometersweresetateachstation.Thepicheatmometersweremodifiedbyusingalargerfilterpaperdisc,5.5 em 147 diameter, inordertoincrease aeu.itivity, and aamallplaaticdi.ca.anumbrallatodivertthealmoatcon.tantceilingdrip.An analytis ofthesedatawillbepubliahedelsewhere,buttheresult.oftheevaporationstudyaremeaningfulhere. When meanpotentialevaporationrateforthe4dayperiodfrom 28-31August,asmeasuredbythepicheatmometers,isplotted agaiu.t di.tancefromtheentranceofCharcoalCave,theevaporationratefollowsanearlyhyperboliccurveonitswayintothedeepcave.Therateofevaporationatthedeep cave zonestation was 0.15ccperdayoronly 36% oftherateatthetransitionzonestationandonly 8% oftherateatthe twi lightzonestation.Comparedtothesurfaceenvironmentoutsideofthecaveentrance,the twi lightzone wasstillquitehumid.Althoughnotmeasuredduringthesameperiod,thecomparableevaporationrateoutsideofthecavewascertainlyover9.0 em3 perdayorover5 times therateofthetwilightzonestation.On31August1979,specializedcaveanimalswere foundonlybeyond165m fromtheentrance.Thus,theboundarybetweenthetransitionzoneandthedeepcavezonehasacalculatedevaporationrateof0.16 em3 perday.Therateofevaporationateachstationvariedduringthestudy.However,therewas aconstantpatternofdecreasingevaporationdeeper within thecave.Duringthestudythemeanevaporationrateswere1.88cm3 ,0.35cm3 and0.11 em3 atthetwilight,transition,and deepcavezones,respectively.Thecaveanimalsvarysomewhatintheirresponsetoevaporationrateamongdifferentspecies.Significantly,somecaveanimals,notablythewolfspider, Lycosahowarthi, therockcricketCaaonemobius varius, thecentipede, IIi thobiussp.,andthecaveplanthopper, Oliarus polyphemus, migratedtowardstheentranceduringtheperiodsoflessevaporation.Therewas a goodcorrelationbetweenthemeasuredevaporationrateandthedistributionofspecializedcaveanimals.These measurementswere madeabout25 em fromthewalland1.5m abovethefloor.Theevaporationrate,ofcourse,would be muchlowernexttothe moist substratewheretheanimalsareliving.Food Webs:ThemainenergysourceinHawaiiancavesistreerootswhichpenetratetheyounglavatoadepthof10mormore.The 2otherenergysourcesarecaveoozes,i.e.,organicandmineralcolloidsdepositedbypercolatinggroundwater,andaccidentals,i.e.,surfaceandsoilanimalsthatblunderintothecavebutcannotsurvivethere(Howarth,1973).Feedingdirectlyontherootsare2speciesofblindcixiidplanthoppers.Allstagesarefoundonlyunderground.Theadultisthedispersalstageandisquitedistinctfromitssurfacerelativeswhichalsofeedonrootsasnymphs,buttheiradultsliveanddisperseaboveground.Severalspeciesofapparentlytroglobiticmothlarvaealsofeedontreeroots.Thebestknownoftheseisanundescribednoctuidwhichhasablindcaterpillar,flightlessfemale,andweakly-flying

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male.Acavemillepedeand a remarkableblindterrestrialamphipodfeedonbothlivinganddeadrootlandoccasionallyotherorganicmatter.AblindterrestrialwatertreaderIcavengelondead arthrJpods inthecave.SixIpecielof cricketsarerestrictedtoHawaiiancaves.Thele ere truecrickets,Gryllidae,andarenotatallrelatedtothecontinentalcavecrickete.Onegroup,whichiecloselyrelatedtothenativeHawaiiantreecrickets,prefertowalkupsidedownontheceiling.Theothergroupbelongstothegroundorrockcrickete.Thesepreferedthefloor,andhaveclosesurfacerelativeswhichscavengeonwetrockysubstrate,suchaeunvegetatedlavaflows(Howarth,1979),andseacoaltl.Thepredatorsincludeathread-leggedbugwhichpreferstositandwaitforpreyontheceiling,and alargeblindearwigwhichpreferstoremainincracksandsmallervoidsinthelavaandonlyrarelyisfoundincavepassages.Itisquitecloselyrelatedtonativesurfacespecies.AtthetopofthefoodchainandperhapsthemostexcitingHawaiiancaveanimalsare blindwolfspiders.The membersofthefamilyLycosidaearecharacterizedbythelarge,headlight-likefronteyesandarecalledthebig-eyedhuntingspiders.Hawaiihasalargeandinterestingsurfacelycosidfauna.Itseemsaxiomaticthatno member would becomecaveadapted.However, ontheIslandofHawaiitherelivesthecave-adapted,small-eyedbig-eyedhuntingspider.Thisspeciesiscommoninlowtomid-elevationlavatubes.But,evenmoreremarkable,thereexistsinasmallareaontheolderIslandofKauaianothercave-adaptedlycosid.Thisistherareandendangered,no-eyedbig-eyedhuntingspider.Thisspeciesperhapsrepresentstheepitomyofadaptiveshiftsonoceanicislands.Organicfoodenergyiscontinuallybeingwashedintosubterraneanvoidsbypercolatinggroundwaterandsinkingstreams.Otherenergymaybeintroducedbydeeplypenetratingplantrootsand bydispersinganimals.Innon-cavernousareasthislossisprobablynotsignificantbecausethevoidsaresmall.Butwherethereareextensivesystemsofinterconnectedsubterraneanvoidssuchasonefindsinbasalticorkarstareasmuchofthisenergyiscarriedoutofreachforsurfacedetritivores.Tobesurewherethedebrisistrappedorconcentratedsuchasnearentrancessomeofitmaybeharvestedbymigratingsurfaceanimals.However,therestisprobablyunobtainabletoopportunisticsurfacespecieseitherbecausetheresourceistoodiffusetoallowadequateharvestableenergytomaintaintheirlifestyle,becauseoftheirinabilitytolocatethescatteredresourcesinperpetualdarkness,orbecausetheycannotcopewiththeconstantlyhydratingatmosphere.Somepreadaptedspeciesandtheirassociates,i.e.,predators,etc.,havemadetheadaptiveshifttoexploitthisresourcewhichIbelieveisrelativelyrich.Evolutionhasmade themfinelytunedtoefficientlyexploittheresources.Basalticlava,particularlypahoehoe,issoporousfromgasvesicles,cracks,lavatubes,andothervoidsthatthereexistswithintheyoungerflowsanextensivesystemofinterconnectedchannelsandairspaces.Inthedeeperzonesofthissystemwherethetemperatureisrelativelystable,the148relativehumidityreachelequilibriumatlaturation,andtheevaporation rate, ilnegligible.Atthelehumiditielinlectbloodilhygrolcopic(Edney, 1977) and would thereforebe drawingmoiltureoutoftheair.IbelievethatthemajorpopulationsofcaveanimallliveintheImallerinterconnectedvoidswithinthelavabelowthevariable temperature zone,andcolonizethelargercavepassagesonlywherefoodandevaporationrateallow,anditisherethattheyhavebeenstudied.Therefore,cavelareonlya windowtoviewthefaunawithinthevoidsintherock.Butitisanimperfectwindow,for it isafragileone andgivestheillusionofafood-poorenvironment.Infewotherhabitatsisman80clearlyanintruderthaninthesubterraneanworld.ConservationContinentalcavesareoften viewed asislandsandtheirecosystemsshareanapparent fragility-in responsetoperturbations.Caveecosystemsonislands,i.e.,island-likehabitatswithin islands, maybeindoublejeopardy,andseveralofthenewlydiscoveredarthropodsarecandidatesforendangeredspeciesstatus. What thenisthefutureofthisuniqueecosystem,notevenrecognizedbefore1971?Ifperturbationshadcauseditsdemisesometimeduringthelast200years,biologistswould havecontinuedtobelievenosuchfaunahadeverexistedintheHawaiianIslands.OnHawai'iIslandthereare'stillmanyavenuesofdispersalbetweenlavatubes,andcontinualnewflowscan beexpected;therefore, one can expect thesurvivalofmostofthecavefauna,barringanymajorcatastrophies.OntheolderislandsofMaui andKaua'ithecavesareerodedremnants.manyoftheavenuesofdispersalareclosedthrougherosion,andthecaveanimalsleadatenuous.threatened,orendangered eXistence. Certainlycavesfillanderodeasnaturalprocesses,butmanhastenstheprocess.Forexample,alavaflowonKaua'iwascoveredwith5mofsugarcanebagasseinanefforttobuildupsoilonthesurface.Thecaveunderthefieldbecamefilledwithfermentingmolasses.Theecosystemanditsspe cialized lIfewaspresumablydestroyed.Thedestructionofthenativeforestandthelife-givingrootsdestroysthehiddenandstilllargelyunknowncavefaunabeneath.Unfortunately,cavesandsinkholesareoftenusedasgarbagedumps.Forexample,inOffalPit,which wasusedby alocalslaughterhouse,therearehundreds,perhapsthousandsofcowskullsandbones,andthedownslopesectionisa messofrottingtallowandbones.Onlyonenativecaveanimal inthisrottingsoupandthatisthenativerockcricket,Caconemobius howarthi. Even humanvisitationdisturbsthefragileecosystem.Cavessharewithotherdiscretehabitatssuchasmontane bogs andsanddunesavulnerabilitytotramplingandphysicaldisturbance.Tobacco smokecontainsapowerfulinsecticidewhichcertainlychallenges,ifnotkills, many caveanimals.Thesmoke fromtorchesandcigarettesalsolowerstherelativehumidityandmayjeopardizetheecosystem.Heavilyvisitedcavesareoftenlackingmanyspecializedspecies.

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Manyarthropodsrecentlyintroducedbyman,suchascockroaches,centipedes,millepedes,isopods.andspiders,havesuccessfullycolonizedlowlandcaves.Some.of!theseexotic,i.e.,non-nativeanimals havesurelyaltered theeecology ofthecaves,butitisunknownwhetheranyreplaced speciesinthecaveecosystem,sincethisisalsotheregionmostdisturbedby man.Lastly,cavesaresomewhat dangeroustotheuninitiated.Recreationalcavevisitationbythepublicshouldbediscourageduntiladequateprotectionofsamplecavesand ecosystemsisassured.Acknowledgements IthankMr.DaveAmes,Superintendent,andhisstaffattheHawaii VolcanoesNationalParkforlogisticsupport,encouragement, andforthesurfaceweatherdata;Mr.G.K.Uchidaforfieldassistance;N.C.Howarthforfieldandlaborstoryassistance;Ms.D.Hiyahanaforlaboratoryassistance;H.E.andW.P. Mullforlogisticsupport.ResultsofresearchsupportedbyNSFgrantnos.GR23075,DEB75-23105, andDEB79-04760totheauthor.LiteratureCitedEdney, E.B.1977. Water BalanceinLandArthropods.Vol.9.Zoophysiology and Ecology,D.S.Farner(coord.ed.).Springer-Verlag,Berlin.282p.Greeley,R.1971. Geologyof lavatubesintheBenarea,Oregon.StateofOregon, Dept.ofGeology andMineralIndustriesBull.71:1-47.Howarth,F.G.1972.CavernicolesinlavatubesontheIslandofHawaii.Science175:325-326.149Howarth, F.G.1973.ThecavernicolousfaunsofHawaiianlavetubes. 1. Introduction.Pac.Insects.15:139-151.__ __ __ 1979. Heogeoaeolianhabitats on newlavaflows on HswaiiIsland: An ecosystemsupportedbywindbournedebris.Pac. Insects 20(2-3):133-144.1980.Thezoogeographyofspecializedcaveanimals:Abiocl1maticmodel.Evolution34(2):394-406.1981. Hawaiiancave insects: Somebioclimaticandgeologicfactors governing theirevolutionsnddistribution.EntomologiesGeneralis.Inpress.Kempe,S. andC.Ketz-Kempe. 1979.FireandiceatopHawaii.NSSNews37:185-188.OIlier,C .D.andH.C.Brown. 1965. LavacavesofVictoria.Bull.Volcanologigue25:215-229. -=__ --=-_::_ andP.Zarr1ello.'1979.P'ape'aLava Cave, Western Samoa.Trans.BritishCave Res. Assoc. 6:133-142.Peterson,D.W.andD.A.Swanson. 1974. Observedformationoflavatubesduring1970-71atKilaueaVolcano, Hawaii.Stud.Speleol.2(6):209-223.Tuttle,H.D.andD.E.Stevenson.1977.Variationinthecave environment anditsbiologicalimplications.1978Proe.NationalCave Management Symposium.R.Zuber,J.Chester,S.Gilbert,D.Rhodes,editors.Albuquerque,HewMexico.

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THEMISSOURICOOPERATIVECAVEINVENTORYRESOURCEPROJECT: SURVEYABIOLOGICAL*James E.Gardnerand**TrevaL.Gardner ABSTRACTMi6t>0uM.oveJl 4000 knownC4Ve.6. A t>,[gni6-t-C4ntnumbeJl06:the.6eC4VUaJl.e.60Wld on UMtedSta:tuFOIle.6tSeJlv,[c.eandMi6t>0uM.VepaJLtment 06'\ COnJ>eJlvaUon.landt>.ManagementILe.6P0nJ,,[b.LU.ti.e.6601ltheC4veILe.60WLC.e.6 on t>t:a-teand 6edeJtaltandt>plLorrqotedtheMU,t>0uM.VepaJLtment06COnJ>eJlvat.i.on,:theMaJtkTwa..i.nNaUonalFOIle.6tand:theNoJLthCen:tlLal.FOIle.6tExpelL.i.men:tSta:t.i.on-ColwnO<.a,MU,t>0uM.toenteJl,[nto ac.oopeJta.t.LveC4ve,[nvento/l.YaglLeemen:t,[nOc.tobeIL,1978.Corrqole.Uon06:the6.i.Mt twoyeaJL606t>:tu.dylLevealed:thatt>tateand6edeILaUymanagedc.ave.6c.on:ta.i.nedcUVeMeMt>emblagu066awtaandmanyo:theILt>,[gni6,.c.antC4ve1Le.60WLC.e.6.Many06:theC4ve.6c.on:ta.i.npopu1.a.UonJ> 06 6edeILaUyw:tedendangeILedand:thILeatened.t>pec.,[u.Theyc.ou1..dthlL6bec.ancUdate.6601LcM-Uc.a.t habU.a:tdu-ignation.OVeIL230c.avu havebeen,[nventolL.i.edonMU,MwUVepaJLtment 06 COnJ>elLvalionand U.S. FOIle.6tSelLv,[c.e.ta.n.d6:todate. The ma.joJvUy 06 :thuec.avu lLeplLUen:tVMtILueaILc.hpotentiw.AUhou.gh a. b,[olog,[c.a.t anaty.6-Uthe60c.a.tpo,[nt 06 :the ,[nventolty,manyIUnd606C4veIte.6Ou.tr.c.uaile c.on .6,[deILedwhenmanagementplant>Medeve..toped.WUhaItec.en:t.t!jawatr.ded.20-montheUe.n.6,[onandthe,[nc..e.w.,[on 06 c.ave.6onIvUAMwUVepaJLtment06Na.tuItaJ.Ruou.tr.c.e.6,V,[v-U,[on 06 PaIL/u,andH-UtolL.i.c.PltueILvaUon(.6t:a-tepaILfu) pltOpelLti.u,t>,[gni6,.c.a.ntadcUUol'lal c.ave 1te.60u.tr.c.e.6aile expected.tobecUt>c.ovelLed. INTRODUCTIONcavingasasportactivityhasgreatlyincreasedinMissouriinrecentyears.Thisfact,combinedwiththealmostinevitabledeteriorationofcaveresourcesresultingfromheavyuncontrolledusage,indicatedaneedtoassessandevaluatecaveresourcesonpubliclands.InOctober,1978,theMissouriDepartmentofConservation,theMark TwainNationalForest,andtheNorthCentralForestExperimentStation-Columbia,Missouri,enteredintoacooperativecaveinventoryproject.ItistheresponsibilityoftheU.S.ForestServiceandtheDepartmentofConservationtodirecttheirprogramactivitiestowardmanagingandenhancingtheenvironmentforthewidestrangeofbeneficialuseswithoutitsdegradation,.risktohealthorsafety,orotherundesirableconsequences.Caveresourcesareundoubtedlyanintrinsicpartofourenvironment,butresponsiblemanagement*WildlifeBiologist,NaturalHistorySection,MissouriDepartmentofConservation,P.O.Box180,JeffersonCity,Missouri65102**ProjectAssistant,NaturalHistorySection,MissouriDepartmentofConservation,P.O.Box180,JeffersonCity,Missouri65102150andenhancementofanyenvironmentcannotbeaccomplishedwithoutfirstidentifyingtheelementsofthatenvironment.Caveresourcesrequiresomeveryspecialconsiderations.OBJECTIVESANDCONSIDERATIONSAlthoughabiologicalinventoryofcavesonU.S.ForestServiceandDepartmentofConservationlandswastheinitialobjectiveofthestudy,itsoonbecameevidentthatmanyproductswouldberealizedfromsuchacomprehensiveundertaking.Someprimaryobjectivesoftheinventorywereto:1.DeterminethenameandexactlocationofcavesonthepropertiesoftheMark TwainNationalForestandtheMissouriDepartmentofConservation.2.Complete acomprehensiveinventoryofallknowncavesonthepropertiesoftheabove-mentionedagencies.3.Compilevertebrateandinvertebratespeciesdatagatheredduringthecaveinventory.Publisheddata will alsobeincludedwiththeinformation.

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4.Placespecialemphasis ongatheringinforma tiononthestatusoffederallylisted endan geredandthreatenedspecieaandataterareand endangered speciesandtheirpossible critical habitats. Emphaaie waaaleo'placedon gathering dataonapecieswhicharenotonthefederalorthestatelistsbuthaveparticularscientific. management. localor na tionalinterestin some epecificlocation(1.e !I'yphUphthyB southern cavefishi!I'yphZomton grottosala mandeq and Euryoea cavesalamander).5.Provideinformationonpresent and potentialrecreationalusageofcavesonpubliclands.6.Develop acaveclaasificationsystembaaed onalldataobtainedbythecaveinventory.7.Providerecommendationsforthemanagementofcaveresourcesonaper-cavebasistotheresponsiblemanagingagencies.Atthepresenttime.thereareover4000knowncavesinMissourithathavebeenrecordedandenteredinto'a systembytheMissouriSpeleologicalSurvey andtheMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResources.DivisionofGeology and LandSurvey.Withthecooperativesharingofthisstored information. wedeterminedthatapproximately282cavescouldbefound onU.S.Forest Service lands and approximately70caves were owned bytheDepartmentofConservation.SinceaconsiderableproportionofcavesinMissourioccuronstate and U.S.ForestServicelands.they must undoubtedlyrepresentsignificantnaturalresources.However.previousinformationconcerningresourcesonU.S.ForestServiceand DepartmentofConservationcaveswas virtU$lly nonexistent.Itwasnotevidentthatthesecavescontaineduniqueanddiverseresourcesuntilthecompletionofthefirst two yearsofthecaveinventoryproject.Ourgoalsaretofurtherevaluateandidentifycaveresourcesonpubliclandsandtodeveloparesponsiblemanagement programtoenhancecaveresources.'BIOLOGICALRESOURCESAlthoughobjectivesofthecaveinventorywerebroadinscope.primaryemphasis was ongatheringbiologicaldata.Smallcollectionsofinvertebrateswere made by handcollection-searchmethods.Previouscave-collectingexperienceandconsultationwithexpertsondifferentfaunalgroupsgreatlyreducedthepossibilityofharmfulcollections.thereby minimizingimpact. Attemptswere madeto examine everyconceivablehabitatineachcavevisited.Vertebrateswerenotcollectedbutwere examined andidentifiedinthecave.Thecollectionsofinvertebratespecimens weresorted.catalogued,labeled,andshippedtotaxonomistsforidentification.Thereareover32invertebratetaxonomiststhroughouttheUnited States and Canadacooperatingwithidentificationsofcave The taxonomicgroupsofinvertebratesandthecooperating pro fessionalsforthegroupsaregiveninthe ack nOWledgements. Ourcatalogueofcavernicolous matedala.volU1118 1 and 2, basoyer 2200 .paci menentrie.to date. Atotalof219 spacia. ofinvertebrateehavebeenidentifiad. However, onlyapproximately 60% ofthe materials have beenexamined. Over SOapeci.. ofvertebrat.. have beenobaervedandidentified, including rare and endangeredapeciee.Many invertebrate epecieerap resent importantzoa geographicalrecord..Fifteen iuvertebrata ape-ci..collectedrepre.. ntnew,unducdbedaped ....Inmostca.ee,enough .peciman. were collected toallowthe cooperating .cienti.tstopubli.h DeWepeciesde.cdptionl.Additionalmaterials of pre viouelyknown,undescribed.pecies werealsocol lected and haveinsome caeeastimulatedcontinued taxonomic work oncertaintaxa.Greatly neededio formationcollectedon invertebratespeciesbas providedvaluable information ontheir distribution andpopulationstatus.PALEONTOLOGICALRESOURCESMissourihasbeennotedfor bone deposits since Dr.A.K.Koch'svisitin1839.The ar.ostcoo stantcaveenvironmentisanideal.storage place fortheremainsofextantandextinct an1llals. SignificantPleistocenedepositshavebeen un earthedinMissouriwithasubstantial percentage beingdiscoveredincaves.Duringthesurvey,nineU.S.ForestServicecavesandelevenDepartmentofConservationcavescontained materials of paleontologicalsignificance.One department-owoed. cavecontainedadepositoftheextinct flat-faced peccary (PZatygOTiUBaompre88UB), andstillanothercavecontained remains oftheextinctdirewolf (Aenoayondipus). Remainsof specieswhich areDOlongerindigenoustoMissourihavebeen identified fromsomesurveycavesandare also valuabletopaleontologists.ARCHEOLOGICALRESOURCESA nwnberofU.S.ForestServiceand DepartmentofConservationcavesinMissouricontainedsignificantarcheologicalmaterials.Although SOlE stateandfederallymanagedcaveshavebeen examined byprofessionalarcheologists,themajorityhavenot.Alreadymanyofthesepotentiallyimportantsiteshavebeenruthlesslyplunderedbyrelicseekersand amateurarcheologists,resultinginthelossofvaluabledata.Somesurfaceartifactswere dis coveredincavesduringthesurveyandseveral pO tentiallyimportantsiteshavebeenidentified.GEOLOGICALRESOURCESFewcavesonU.S.ForestServiceand Department ofConservationlandscontainoutstandinglyrareofbeautifulspeleothems.Itistrulyunfortunatethatmostcaveswhich once.containeduniquespeleothems havebeenirreversiblyvandalized.Onlythoseareasofthecavewhicharenoteasilyreachedorare simply notknownabouthaveretainedtheirpristinebeauty.The fewremainingcaveswhichcontain sigDlficant speleothemdepositswillundoubtedlybeprotectedforfuturestudy.Withsuchalargenwnberofcavesmanaged bytheU.S.ForestServiceand Departmentof'Conservation.therearemanyexcellentopportunitiesforthestudy151

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ofkarstgeomorphology,stratigraphy,apeleoganeaia,and mineralogical and sedimentological atudiea.The manyspring cavesandcaveawithdeep lakea and streams scatteredthroughout the atateprovideavarietyofstudyforhydrologistsandgeologiata.RECREATIONALRESOURCESRecreationaluseofcaves on publiclands inMis sourihasbeen phenomenalin recentyears...The.obvious vandalism anddestructionofcavefeaturesandcavehabitats (including cave fauna) hasbeenextremelydetrimentaltonon-renewablecaveresources.There'is,perhaps,a glimmerofhopewiththerecentpassageofacaveprotectionlaw.HouseBillNo. 1192, knownasthe"CaveResourcesAct",becomeseffectiveonJanuary2,1981,andprovidesfortheprotectionofall natural cavefeaturesandcavegatesandsupportstheMissouriCleanWaterAct(intheformofgroundwaterpollution).ItisaClassA misdemeanorforeachviolationofthenewlaw.Unfortunately,provisionsfortheprotectionofindigenouscavelifeweredeleted.Recreationaluseofcavesisrecognizedaspartofthemulti-usephilosophyemployed bytheU.S.ForestServiceandDepartmentofConservation. How,ever, bothagenciesarealsoresponsibleforwisemanagementofnaturalresources.Whenthecaveclassificationsystemandmanagement recommendationsareimplemented,itisinevitablethatcertaincaveswillbeclosedtorecreationaluse.Forexample,graybat (Myotisgrisescens) nurserycavesareclosedtopublicusagefromApril1throughOctober31,andIndianabat (Myotis soda Zis) hibernaculaareclosedfrom September 1throughApril30.SixDepartmentofConservationcavesandoneU.S.ForestServicecavehavebeenclosedbecausetheyareimportanttothesurvivalofthetwoendangeredspeciesofbats.Somecaveswillbeopenedonlyon apermitbasisbecauseofserious,unavoidablehazards.Itis.themanagingagencies'responsibilitytoinstituteadequatewarningprocedures.Itisreasonable.tosay,however;thatthemajorityofthecaveswill remain open year roundforrecreationalusage.Effortsarebeingmadetoencouragethecooperationofsportcaversintheconservationofcaveresources.Plans.for.simply-wordedsignsarebeingmade andimplemented.Thesesignswillbeplacednear,orjustinside,caveentrancesandstatebrieflythecavevisitor'sresponsibilities,safetyandcavingethics.Educationalpublicawarenesseffortsintheformoftelevisionprograms,publicspeaking,newspaperandmagazinearticles,publicdisplays and narratedslideprogramshavebeenapartofthecavesurvey.Withthecooperationandvolunteerhelpofconcernedindividualsof'theMissouriSpeleologicalSurvey,twocaveshavebeencleanedup,andthereareplansformoreclean-upactivitiesinthefuture.PROJECTEXTENSIONAsofOctober1,1980,the caveinventoryagreementbetweentheMark TwainNationalForestandthe Missouri DepartmentofConservationwa. givan a 2o-month extenlion.Inventoria. of approximataly 115 more U.S.Fore.t Servicecave. andelevan Department of COnleivation caveaare.chedulad to bacompletedby May 20,1982. Addi tionally,the MillouriDepartment of NaturalBa aourcea, piv1.ion ofParka andBiatoric Pre rva tion(atatepark.),.ucceaafullynegotiatedwiththeDepartmentofConservationforinclusion in thecooperativeinventory.The Milloud StateParksagreementshould become effective inthe fallof1980.The additionalinventory ofapproximately70cavesonstate parka lands, remaining U.S.ForestServicecaves, and Departmentof C0n servationcavesisexpectedtogreatlyincreaseknowledgeofMissouricaveresources.Cooperationbetweenthesethreeagencieshasgreatly enhanced speleo-conservationeffortsinMissouriandshouldcontinueto.dosointhefuture. SUMMARY Sincetheinitiationofthecooperative cave inventoryprojectinOctober,1978,inventoriesof174U.S.ForestServicecaves arid 59DepartmentofConservationcaveshavebeencompleted.Thereremainsapproximately115U.S.ForestServicecavesandelevenDepartmentofConservationcavestobe found andinventoried.BiologicalinformationgatheredonsuchavastnumberofcavesscatteredthroughoutMissouriprovidedimportantdataontheoccurrenceanddistributionofcavernicolousanimals.Althoughonlyabout60%ofthespecimenscollectedfromcaveshav.ebeenexamined andidentifiedby taxonomic specialists,219speciesofinvertebrateshavebeenidentified.Withtheanticipatedidentificationoftheremainingmaterials,additionalcavespecieswillmorefullycompletethedistributionandoccurrenceofcavefaunainMissouri.Fifteennew,undescribedspeciesofinvertebrateshavebeencollected.Atotalof54speciesofrecentvertebrateshavebeenobservedarididentifiedinthesurveycaves.Comprehensive.biologicaldataonsuchabroadscalehasprovidedneededinsightintotheconservationandmanagementofcavefauna.Acaveclassificationsystembasedonresourcecontentandhazardswillbedevised.andwilldeterminemanagementrecommendations.Caves impor tanttothesurvivalofrareandendangeredspeciesandcavescontainingextremelyfragileecosystems,orotheruniquefragileresources,willberecommendedforclosureto use.Othercaveswillbeclosedseasonallyoraccesswillbegrantedthroughapermitsystem.Themajorityofthe'caveswillremainopenfornonconsumptiverecreationalusage.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheMissouricooperativecaveinventoryprojectwas fundedcooperativelybytheMark TwainNationalForest,theNorthCentralForestExperimentStationColumbia,MissouriandtheMissouriDepartmentofConservation.WegreatlyappreciatethecooperationoftheMissouriSepleologicalSurveyfortheloanofcaveinformationandforprovidingcavelocations.WearedeeplyindebtedtothefollowingresearchscientistsoftheSystematic Entomology Laboratory,USDA,andtoDr. LloydKnutson,Chairman,Coleoptera152.

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Dr.D.M.Anderson, Dr.R.D.Gordon, Dr.J.M.Kingsolver,Dr. T.J.Spilman, and Dr.R.D.Whitehead,Diptera;Dr.R.J.Gagne, Dr.C.W.Sabrosky,Dr.G.Steyska1,Dr. F.C.Thompson, and Dr.W. W. Wirth,Lepidoptera;andtoDr.D.M.Weisman.CooperatingscientistsonthestsffoftheDepartmentofEntomology,SmithsonianInstitutionare:Dr. T. L. Erwin,Coleoptera;and Dr.O.S.Flint,Trichoptera.OthercooperatingscientistsoftheSystematicEntomologyLaboratory,USDA,included:Dr.WilliamPeck,Arachnids;Dr.StewartPeck and Dr. EdwardBecker,Coleoptera.Thefollowingadditionalscientistsgenerouslyprovidedtaxonomicservices;Dr. GeorgeL.Harp,aquaticinvertebrates;Dr.LeslieHubricht,Gastropoda;Mr.JulianJ.Lewis,Isopoda;Dr.J.R.Holsinger,Amphipoda; Dr. L.M.Page,Decapoda; Dr.W.B.Muchmore,PseudoscorpionidaandIsopoda;Dr.C.J.Goodnight,Opilionida;Dr.R.M.Shellyand Dr.W.A.Shear,Diplopoda;Dr.K.A.Christiansen,Collembola;Dr.L.M.Ferguson,Diplura;Dr.CalvinWelbourn, Dr.I.A.Smith and Dr.E.E.Linquist,Acari;and Dr.R.C.Froeschner,Hemiptera.153We wish toacknowledgeMr.TomR. Johnson forhisaidintheidentificationofcertainamphibians,Dr.W.L.PfliegerforidentifyingcertainfishIpeciel,and Dr.V.R.McDanielforidentifyingsomerecentvertebrate Ike1etalremains. WealsoappreciateDr. Oscar Hawksley and Mr.ClarkHoodforexaminingpaleontologicalmaterialsand Mr. Dick Maloufforexaminingarcheologicalevidence.Dr.KeithEvans,Mr.TomJohnson,Mr.WilliamKickbusch,Mr.LesterMagnus and Mr. Gordon Maupincriticallyreviewedthismanuscriptandprovidedmanyhelpfulsuggestions.Last,butnotleast, we wishtothankthemanypeopleintheU.S.ForestServiceand DepartmentofConservationdistrictofficesthroughoutMissourifortheirvaluableassistanceinthefield.

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PROTECTIONFORDIAMONDCRATERS.SOUTHEASTERNOREGON*BllenBenedict. Brown, ***Esther Gruber, and ****Chad BaconABSTRACT v..tamondCJr..a..teM,a 16, 656 aCJl.e..blUla..U.Lc.un,.L:t 0 n public..eandwfUc.hma.nag ed by.the.BU/li1.606-the.BWl.e.a.u06LandManagement: (ELM) LL6e.dIUlaltout doOlL chuMwom and.eaboJr.a..tOltybyanuiUmat:ed 7,000 v,u,UOJr,6peAyeM who MeinteAellte.d i.nblUla..U.Lc.volc.an,U" m, and/Olt.tnVUg ued by :the""Wl.v.tval06b.tot:ai.nl>enK.-aJrJ..de.nv,uwnme.nt:l>..tnc..e.udeMeldVUpgltOUp.6and .6.tgh-t-UeM towU.ng the. adjac.ent:Ma1'..heWl.NaUonal W.tldU6e.Re.6uge.ando:theILalte.a..606 the. HalUte.yBIUli.n,ll-tudent:.6:ta.JUngdIU>.6ellat:thenealtbyMatheWl.F.teldSt:ation and6tudyi.ngVaJrJ..OMpItOble.m606-theNolttheJtltGlteat:BIUl.tn.AUhoughV.iAmondCJr.a..teMXt6.tdentiMedIUleo.JrJ:./jIUl 1902 IUlexfUbU-tng.6.i.gn,iMc.ant:6eatwlu,UhIU>onlyItec.ent:.e.y bec.ome knownallamLL6eum06bMa..U.LC.volc.an,U"mwhic.hrrr1.yc.ont:a..<.n:theglteat:ell:td.<.veM.t:ty06bMa..U.LC.vo.tc.a.n.i.c.land60Jun600anyalte.a06ilill.i.ze.tnNoJvthAmWc.a.Among:thelle6ea.t:Wl.ellalte.llma.e..ebut.6.i.gn.i.6.ic.an,tc.a.VellwahunMu.al Un.i.ng.6,IUlwe.U.MItMeandoJul.g.tle.eava.6peleothem6w#Uc.hMe'valuable:to06.eava c.ave ""peleogenell,u,. The. BWl.e.a.u06LandManagement:hM lega.U.y pJtO:tectedV-iamondCJr.a..teJU>,6-i.M:tundeIL a R6P?c.la.l>.6.t6-ic.ation (1956-1980) andundeA a pend.<.ngplto:tec.UvewahdJr.aJatt (1973-1991). Many 06 :themO.6t.6-ign.i.Mc.an.t6ea.tWl.ell,e. g. c.aVU,ClULteM,dJt-i.blet.6p.tJtell,",,'pa:tt:eILc.onellandItClJnpaJt.t.6,6.towUl1ell,etc..,Me.MM&a.tedwahOltpaJLt..i.aUtjc.on.6.tJtuc..ted 06 ,s.eab.eava theloMe. :top one. .ton0Wl.-inc.htfUc.k.eaYeIL 06 -the pahoehoe 6loW6..ta.yeIL,u,de6.t!Ledbype.JU>On.6601tMe.Mdec.oJta.t:.i.veveneeILbuild.<.ng.6tone.UndelL:thep.ta.nn.<.ngpM-.C.Ull,V.i.a.mondCJr.a..teMhIU>beenpJtOpo.6ed: (1) 601tdell.i.gna.UonMan Out.6tand-.LngNa.tWl.a.e.Me.a (ONA) -to be managed60lt.t:t.6.6ue.ntiMc., educ.ational,M.e-n.i.C.andJte.CJl.e.aUonalIr.UOWl.c.v.,; (2) 601tdell.tgnaUonManMea06CIt.t:t.<.c.a.e.Env.tJtonme.nt:a..e.Conc.eJtlt lACE) :toplr.ov.tdefUghpJUotU.-ty.6.ta.tLL6.Lnmanagement:dew.ton.6;and (3) 6olr.pvuna.nent:wdhd/tfWXl..f.:tobait, wahou..t qUellUon0It6Wl.:theIL.tegalpltOc.eed.<.ng.6,appltOplt-i.a.Uon 06 the'land by min-Lng.toc.aUon. INTRODUCTIONHundredsofdarkholesexistatDiamondCratersbuttheknowncavepassagesareveryshort--theycanbemeasuredinonlyhundredsoffeet.Fewcaversvisitthearea.Why,then,isDiamondCratersbeingdiscussed at aNationalCave ManagementSymposium?BecauseDiamondCraters,located*EcologistandDiamond.CratersCoordinator,BurnsDistrict,BLM,Burns,OR97720;DepartmentofBiology,PacificUniversity,ForestGrove,OR97116;OregonGrotto,NationalSpeleologicalSociety,13402N.E.ClarkRoad,Vancouver,Washington98665.**DistrictGeologist,BurnsDistrict,BLM.Burns,OR97720 ***Range Technicial/Botanist,BurnsDistrict,BLM,Burns,OR97720andOregonGrotto,NationalSpeleologicalSociety,13402N. E. Clark Vancouver,Washington98665.****Drewsey-RileyResource Manager,BurnsDistrict,Burns,OR97720154approximately50milessoutheastofBurns,Oregon,inanimportantspeleologicalresource.Notonlydoesitcontainnearlyeverytypeoflavacaveinminiatureandunusuallavaspeleothemsandlinings,butcavershavejoinedBLMintheefforttoprotectthearea.TheilureauofLand Managementisproposingtoprotectandpreservethe16,656acresofpubliclandwithinDiamondCraterswithtwocomplementarydesignationsandaprotectivewithdrawal.TheOutstandingNaturalArea(ONA)designationwouldrecognizethepresenceofimportantnaturalresourcesatDiamondCraters,whiletheAreaofCriticalEnvironmentalConcern(ACEC)designationwouldcommitBLMtoprotecttheseimportantresourcesonalongtermbasis.Thewithdrawal,pendingsince1973,wouldbarwithoutquestionorfurtherlegalproceedings,appropriationofthelandformining.The DiamondCratersOutstandingNaturalArea,asitwouldbenamedunderthesedesignations,wouldbemanagedforitsscientific,educatipnal,scenicandrecreationalresources.

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HISTORYOF MANAGEMENTDiamond Cratershaslongbeen known a.anareawithsignificant geologic landforms including miniature lava caves(Russell,1908.Piperetal., 1939. PetersonandGroh,1964.Benedict,1979a,19aOb.Gruberetal.,1980. Walker andNolf,inpress).Thesignificanceofthearea was firstofficiallyrecognizedbyBLMwhentheOregonStateParkSys tem (OSPS) made astudyofDiamondCratersalongwithother young basalticareasinOregon. TheaSPsSuperintendentstated:"Sincetheuseisnotgreat at thistimeandmaynotbefora numberofyears,itwouldappearthatthemostsatisfactory way toadministertheareaandpreservethosefeaturesofpublicinterestwouldbethroughyouradministrationthatnewcinderconesnotbeopenedorpermitsissuedthatwouldallowthedestructionofthepeculiarformationscreatedinthelavaflow"(letterofOctober3,1956).InNovember, 1956,thelandsadministeredbyBLMatDiamondCraterswereclassifiedundertheRecreationandPublicPurposeAct(R&PP)toretainland"initspresentstatusandallowsufficienttimeforappropriateofficialsoftheBureau,theStateofOregon,andtheNationalParkServicetoexamine andconsiderwhetheraportionorallofthelandcanbeleasedorsoldtoaqualifiedapplicant,orheldinwithdrawalstatusandadministeredby aFederalAgency.forrecreationalpurposes."The R&PP classification was revokedinMarch 1980.Duringtheearly1970's,theBureauofLand Manage mentbeganhavingproblemswithtrespasserswhoremovedslablavaincommericalquantitiesfrom DiamondCraterstouseasdecorativeveneerstone."Slablava"is-theloose,exposedupperonetofourinchthicklayerofbasaltwhi.chseparateseasilyfromthemainbodyofapahoehoeflow."Pahoehoelava"formsfromaveryfluidbasaltigmagmawhichishighlychargedwithdissolvedgasesand sometimesformscrustsoverchannels,makinglavatubeS(Harter,1970;HarterandHarter,1980).Slablavaflows in the_westernUnitedStatesareoftenvastrubblefieldsoflowdiversity,mostlylackinginsignificantandinterestingvolcaniclandforms.At DiamondCraters,however,theslablavaareascompriselessthan10percentofthetotalareaandaregenerallyofhighdiversity manyofthemostscenicand/orscientificallysignificantlandforms,e.g.,lavaflows,spattercones,dribletspires,pitandcollapsecraters,caves,etc.,aresurroundedbyorpartiallyformedofslablava.Frequently,thisslablavaexhibitsanintricatelyintermeshedpatternofflowlineswhichisvitaltothestudyofthegeologicalhistoryofDiamondCraters.Theslablavaareasarealsoimportanttothestudyoflavacaves.AccordingtoRussHarter(1979),avolcanogeospeleologistfromtheSouthernCaliforniaGrottooftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS): "The surfal=e lavaassociated with lavatubesatDiamondCratersisnotonlyvaluableforunderstandingcavesthere,butitisvaluablebecauseiSSitprovidanalog.tolavatuba.inotherplaceswhereexpo.ure.arenota.good.Thesurfacelava rock at Diamond Crater.thatisde.ired bysome asbuildingItoneilthe ssmerock thetis needed intactandundi.turbedinordertoprovideabasi.fortheItudyoflavscave"Whenslablavaiscru.hedor removed,much valuablescientificdataarelostandscenicresourcesdestroyed.Damagetothesesurfacescannotberepaired.Thereforein1972, BLM initiatedaprotectivewithdrawaltosegregatethelandatDiamondCratersfrommineralentrymoreeffectivelythantheexistingR&PPclassification.Thepathtoprotection,however, haa beenslowandtortuous.AnEnvironmentalAnalysis Record andaStaffReportwerepreparedduring1972andforwardedtotheStateBLMOffice.Thewithdrawalapplicationwasfiledon March23,1973,andthenotice was publishedintheFederalRegisteronApril26,1973. Thecasefile,however,wasreturnedtotheDistrictonApril4,1977,forupdatingandrevisioninaccordancewithsection204ofthenewFederalLandPolicy Act(FLPMA)whichhasbeenpassedbyCongressin1976.UnderFLPMAawithdrawalofover5,000acresmustbesubmittedtoCongress.FLPMAalsorequiredpublicinputandintegrationofsuchactionsintotheplanningsystem,i.e.,theManagement FrameworkPlan(MFP). TheBurnsDistrictpreparedthe MFP, fortheresourceareawhichincludedtheDiamondCratersandpresenteditforpublicinputatameetinginBurnsonMarch13,1978,andameetinginPortland,Oregon, on }furch 15,1978. The MFP recommendedthatDiamondCratersbedesignatedasanOutstandingNaturalArea andthat16,656acresoflandbeWithdrawn. ThenoticeofwithdrawalwasrepublishedintheFederalRegisteron March26,1978.Duringthissame period, thewinterof1977-78,commercialstoneinterestsremoved,withoutpermission,manytonsofslablavafromthepublicland.Environmentalistswhohadsupporteddesignationand withdrawal undertheMFPprocessstronglyprotestedand demandedthatBLMprotectDiamondCratersbydesignatingitasaResearchNaturalArea(RNA)(Hayse,1978).Thestoneinterests,ontheotherhand,demandedthatBLMallowthemtominetheslablava.Beforeanydecisioncouldbemade,BLMneededmoreinformationaboutthe ofDiamondCraters.Itwasonlynaturalthatcavers'wouldgetinvolvedbecauseseveralOregonGrottomembers hadbeenexploringthecavesthereoffandonsincebefore1961(Anon.,1961;Benedict,1973, 1974,1976,1979a,1979b,1979c,d,1980a,1980b;BenedictandGruber,1980;Larson1977,Nieland,1976;Pope,1978,1979; Smolen,1979).Severalsignificanteventsoccurredduring1979and1980.BLMandindependentresearcherscontinuedinventoryingresourcesatDiamondCraters.OnJuly13,1978,DiamondCraterswasidentifiedasanACECunderthenewguidelinespublishedintheFederalRegister.Inthemeantime,thestate-andfederalnaturalareacommitteesbecameinterestedinDiamondCratersandrequestedareport(Brownetal.,1979).Also,BLMpersonnelwereinvitedtodiscussDiamondCratersattheFarWest Cave Management Sym posiumheldinRedding,CaliforniaduringOctober'

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I <)7'J(GrubeI' eta1.,1980).OnNovember15,1979, che statenaturalareacommitteerecommendedONAJesignationforDiamondC'ratersandthepreservationof -She "completesuiteofgeologicforms";ONA was recommendedratherthanRNAdesignationbecausetheformerwouldpermitcompatiblerecreationalusesuchasstudentfieldtrips,hiking,etc.;onApril10,1980,anothermilestonewaspassedwhenthefederalnaturalareacommittee endorsedthe ofa DiamondCratersDNAforthe"16,000+acres."Caversalsovotedtosupportthisaction.At aSeattle,Washington,meetingofFebruary17,1980,theNorthwestRegionoftheNSSvotedtosupportdesignationofDiamondCratersasanDNAandthewithdrawaloftheareafrommining.TheBoardofGovernorsoftheNSSendorsedthesameactionsattheirAugust 1980meetinginSt.Paul,Minnesota.Inthemeantime,BLMhireda DiamondCratersCoordinatortoworkduringthe1980fieldseason--toassistfieldactivitiesatDiamondCraters,givetoursthereand slide programs,preparedocuments andliveattheCraters.The documentsincludeda newEnvironmentalAssessment,a LandReport,andanACEPlanElement.WHATAREWEPROTECTING? isthemostcommonrockonearth--itaboundsinthewesternUnitedStatesandelsewhere.WehavebeenaskedifwereallyneedtoprotectstillanotherbasalticvolcanicareawhenwealreadyhavetheCratersoftheMoonNationalMonumentincentralIdahoandtheLava Beds NationalMonumentinnorthernCalifornia?TheanswerisemphaticallyYES!.ToquoteGeorge Walker (1979),geologistforUSGS,MenloPark,California:"DiamondCratersexhibitssomeofthebestandmostdiversebasalticvolcanicfeaturesintheU.S.andallwithinacomparatively small andaccessiblearea.ThediversityofvolcanicfeaturesmakesituniquewithintheU.S.--perhapswithintheWesternHemisphere." RESOURCESDiamondCraters,anaturallyinterrelatedgeologicunitofPleistocenevolcaniclandforms,illustratesasequenceofextrusive,intrusiveandpyroclasticactivitywhichproducedsixunusual,localizedlava domes andtheentirerangeoferuptiveandcollapsefeaturesthatcanbeformed by basalticvolcanism.The complexeruptionsrangedfromveryquiet,fluidflowsextrudedfromfissurestoviolent,highlyexplosiveconfinedsteamexplosionswhichproducedtephraranginginsizefromashtotruck-sizedblocks. of'theindividualfeaturesare:kipukasofcountry rock; ashflows;pahoehoeflowswithavarietyofsurfacetexturesandmicrorelief, ridges,lavatoes,collapsestructuresandsinks,trenches,semi-trenches,andlavacavesandtubesofdiverseoriginswhichcontainexcitinglavaspeleothemsand.linings;dribletspiresandcones;spatterconesandramparts;avarietyofcraters,vents,cinderconesandmaars;andagroupofelongatedomeswithdiversesummitfeaturesincludingdeepfissures,grabens,calderas,venttubeliningsandpahoehoemoats.The.greatdiversityofVOlcanicfeaturescanbeexplainedbyfollowingsequenceofeventsinthe NortPern GreatBasin.156DiamondCratersisinalanddominatedbyvolcanism.DuringtheMiocene,between16and12millionyearsago,morethanahundredseparatebasalticflowsfloodedovervastareasofsoutheasternOregon.GraduallysomeofthesebasaltswereupliftedandtiltedsothattheSteensMountain,a 50milelongfaultblockmountain,tothesouth'ofDiamondCraters,nowrisesaboutamileabovethegenerallandsurface.Aboutninemillionyearsago,rhyoliticash-flowtuffs.beganeruptinginglowingavalanchesfromlargemagmachambers,locatedtothenorthofSteensMountain-abroadundrainedstructuralanderosionalbasin,thepresentHarneyBasin,isbelievedtobetheremnantoftheobscure,buriedcalderaswhichresultedfromtheseeruptions.The HarneyBasinformedalongtheBrothersFaultZone,"oneofthefundamentalstructuralelementsofOregon"whichextendsmorethan250milesbetweentheSteensMountain andtheCascade'Mountainstothewest(Walker andNolf,inpress).DuringthePleistocene,glaciersformedinthemountainsand avastlakeoccupiedtheHarneyBasin.Thislakeroseandfell,andattimesthelakebedwasnearlydry.DiamondCratersprobablyformedduringoneofthedrierperiods.AccordingtoBruceNolf,thevolcanologistwhohasstudiedDiamondCratersformorethanadecade,DiamondCratersformedintwostages:(1)floodbasalts,and (2)injectionofbasalts.The DiamondCratersfloodbasaltsspilledoutfromfissureslocatednearthesoutheasternmarginof.theHarneyBasin,forminganearlycircularlayeralmostsixmilesindiameterandlessthan350feetthickontopofthelakesedimentsandtheninemillionyearoldash-flowtuffs.Whilethisinitialbasalticlayercooled,basalticmagmasinjectedupintothelayerfrom a numberoflocalized,highlevelmagmachambers--sixlavadomes bowedup.TheirpredominantlynorthwestorientationwascontrolledbythedirectionoftheBrothersFaultZone. The domesvariouslycollapsedasthesupportingmagmaswithdreweitherinternallyand/orthroughextrusiveeruptions.Someoftheventseruptedquietpahoehoeflows,formingcaves,spattercones,dribletspiresandcollapsecraters,etc.Otherventseruptedmoreviolentlyproducingspatterconesandexplosioncraterswhichejectedmaterialranginginsizefromashtotrucksizedblocks.NowmostofthelandareaofDiamondCraterswascoveredbythisejecta(i.e.,tephra).Nowonder DiamondCratersexhibitssomuchgeologicdiversitywithitsdomes,craters,lavaflowsandtephracoveredareas.'BIOLOGICALRESOURCES"DiamondCratersisa nat!al classroomonpubliclandforthoseinterestedintheprocessesofvolcanism,andlorthoseintriguedbythe sur vivalofbiotainharshenvironments."(Benedict,1979a).DiamondCratersislocatedintheNorthernGreatBasinatelevationsbetween4150and4700feetabovesealevel.Itoccursattheecotones be tweentheDesertShrub,andShrub-SteppeandtheWesternJuniper-BigSagebrushZonesandcontainsbothunusualandrepresentativespeciesand com munitiesoftheUplandsandtheWetlands.Over

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240speciesofvascularplantshavebeenidentifiedfromDiamondCraters;fourspeciesarebeingconsideredforlistingontheproposedOregonStateList(Siddaletal.,1970;Gruberetal.,1979)andtwospecies,formerlylistedontheFederalThreatenedList,arecurrentlybeingreviewed'.Thewidediversityofgeologicalsubstratesandlandformsincombinationwiththeverydiversevegetation,providesabundant'nesting,restingandfeedinghabitatsforwildlife,bothvertebratesandinvertebrates.Nineteenspeciesofamphibiansandreptiles,52speciesofmammalsand189speciesofbirdsareknownorsuspectedofoccurringatDiamondCraters.Todate,norareorendangeredspeciesofanimalsareknownfromtheCraters.However,GruberhasdiscoveredahighlyunusualmiteinhabitingadeepfissureinNortheastDome -thefissureis40feetdeep,eightfeet wide andseveralhundredfeetlong..SimilarfissuresinArizonacontain "cave adapted"invertebrates.ANTHROPOLOGICALRESOURCESAlthoughDiamondCratersisnotknownforitsculturalresources,oneor two lithicscattersiteshavebeendiscovered.Even moreimportant,however,is sedimentrecorddepositedbeneaththewatersofMalheurMaar,afreshwaterlake200feetindiameterand6feetdeep,whichislocatedinoneoftheexplosioncratersofWestDome.AccordingtoPeterMehringer,Jr.,ananthropologistfrom WashingtonStateUniversity: MaaristheonlylowelevationdesertlakebetweenCanadaandBajawhichcontainsanunbrokensedimentarycolumnwhichspansthepast6,000years;thelakeisespeciallysignificantduetoitsrapidrateofdeposition,itspermanencyanditslocationattheshadscale-sagebrushecotone."Mehringerandhisgraduatestudents,aspartoftheSteensMountainPrehistoryProject(Aikensetal.,1979),haveremovedaIS-metercoreofsedimentsfromMalheurMaar.ThecorefromMalheurMaarandamberratsamplesfromSurpriseandSpatterConeCavesalongwithmaterialsfromsitesoutsideDiamond,CraterarebeingstudiedinordertoreconstructtheecologicalhistoryandthemovementofhumansintheGreatBasinsincetheendofthePleistocene. NATURALAREA VALUESAnestimatedseventhousandpersonsareattractedtoDiamondCratersannuallydespitethefactthatalmostnoprintedinformationisavailabletothemwhichdescribesthenaturalresourcesthere.VisitorsincludefieldtripgroupsandsightseerstouringtheadjacentMalheurNationalWildlifeRefugeandotherpointsofinterestintheNorthernGreatBasin.SomeofthevisitorsarestudentsandfacultyfromthenearbyHalheurFieldStation,aneducationalinstitutionoperatedbyPacificUniversityincooperation with aconsortiumof21othercollegesanduniversitiesinOregonandWashington.StillothervisitorsarescientistsstudyingvariousproblemsoftheNorthernGreatBasin.VisitorsareofeveryagegroupandcomenotonlyfromallpartsofOregonandtherestoftheUnitedStates,butfromforeigncountriesaswell.157MANAGEMENTPLANFOR DIAMONI' CRATERSOneofthedocumentspreparedduring1980 byBLMwasanACEC l'Jan ElementfortheproposedDiamondCratersOutstandingNaturalArea.AnACECPlanElement :.,., management planforaproposedAreaof Grit!, .1 Envirc'1.mentalConcernbasedonthe published intheFederalRegisteronAugust27,1980. The PlanElementincludes:(1)aproposedname,(2)astatementofthespecificmanagementobjectives,(3)adescriptionoftheenvironmentalresources,(4)astatementofthespecialmanagementmeasures,and(5)a summaryofpublicparticipationandrecordofpublicresponse.MostofthisinformationhadalreadybeenincludedineithertheHFPorintheNewEnvironmentalAssessmentandLandReport, which madeitfairlyeasyto draw uptheACECPlanElementforDiamondCraters.Whatarethespecificmanagementobjectivesandthespecialmanagementmeasures which arelistedintheDiamondCratersACECPlanElement?SPECIFICMANAGEMENTOBJECTIVESManagethenaturalresourcesoftheapproximately16,656acresofpubliclandwithinthisnaturalgeologicunit,knownasDiamondCraters,toinsurethattheuniqueassemblageofgeologicfeaturesandecosystemsispreservedsothatpresentandfuturegenerationsmaybenefitfromtheexceptionalscientific,educational,scenicandrecreationalvalues.Pursueapprovalofthependingprotective drawal.IncreasepublicawarenessofthesignificanceofDiamondCratersbydesi.gnatingitasanOutstandingNaturalArea.Developameaningfulinterpretativeandi.nformationalprogramasfollowupofthe1979and1980slideprogramsandfieldtours.SPECIALMANAGEMENTMEASURESAccordingtotheACECguidelines,thespecificmanagementmeasuresforDiamondCratersfallinto two categories.Measures(b)through(g) will becarriedoutbyBLMandmeasures(a)and(h)aretheresponsibilityofothers.(a)Recommendation bythestateandfederalnaturalareacommitteesofDiamondCratersasanOutstandingNaturalArea--alreadyaccomplished.(b)DesignateDiamondCraterasanOutstandingNaturalArea(ACEC).(c)Developandimplementaboundarysignprogramtowarntrespassersthattheareaisnotavailableforminingorrockcollecting.(d)Restrictorexcludepublicuse,ifnecessary,toprotectspecificgeologic,botanicalorzoologicalsitesthatareextremelyfragileandunabletowithstandheavyusepressure.

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(e)Restrictallvehicleusetoestablishedanddesignatedroads;closeandreclaimallexistingroadsandtrailswhicharenotnecessaryforthescientific,educationaland/orrecreationalmanagementofDiamondCratersasanONA.(f)Prohibitthedevelopmentofany newroadsandtrailsunlesstheyarenecessaryforthescientific,educational,and/orrecreationalmanagementoftheareaforitsnaturalvalues.(g)Continuetoprovideinformation,slideprogramsandfieldtourswithinthelimitsoftheDistrict'sothercommitments.Ifnecessary,developanexpertvolunteerprogramtohelpcarryoutthisobjective.(h)Withdraw DiamondCratersfrommineralentry-onlyCongresscanapproveaprotectivewithdrawalofover5,000acres--thereportsarebeingpreparedbyBLM.NowthatyouknowwhatanACECis,youshouldbeawarethatanypersoncannominateanareaforconsiderationasanACECprovidedthelandismanaged byBLM.SinceBLMmanages morelandthananyotherfederalagency,nodoubt,atleastoneofyourfavoritecaveswillbeonBLMland.Ifthisisthecaseand youwishtonominatetheareaasanACEC,justwritetotheManageroftheDistrictwherethecaveislocatedandidentifythearea.ThenkeeptrackofwhatishappeningtotheareathroughtheACECdesignationprocess.WHEREAREWEWITHDIAMONDCRATERS?Benedict,E.M.1979a.DiamondCraters8S8speleologicalresource:ApreliminarytechnicalreporttoBLM,BurnsDistrict,Oregon,Nov.1978.Speleograph15:13-18.Benedict,E.M.1979b. DiamondCraters:A museumofbasalticvolcanicfeatures.Speleograph15:111-114.Benedict,E.M.1979c.DiamondCraters:WingoSystem.,Speleograph15:125-126.Benedict,E.M.1979d. DiamondCrater:50-footdeepearthcracks.Speleograph15:128.Benedict,E.M.1980a.DiamondCraters:ApossibleOutstandingNaturalResourceArea.Prog.NWRASymp.on CaveScienceandTechnology,Feb.16-18.Seattle,WA.p.12.Benedict,E.M.1980b.FacetsofDiamondCraters.NSSNews38:104-107.Benedict,E.M.andE.H.Gruber.1980.DiamondCratersrecommendedasanOutstandingNaturalArea.Speleograph16:23-26.Brown,G.B.,E.H.Gruber,and C. E.Wright.1979.ProposalforDiamondCratersResearchNaturalArea,BLM,BurnsDistrict.23p.(Districtfile).Gruber,E.H.,G.B. Brown,andC.Bacon.1980.UseofvolunteersatDiamondCraters.Proc.1979FarWest Cave Management Symp.,Oct.23-25,Redding,CA.,p.58-59.Harter,R.G.1978.Strataoflavatuberoofs.Bull.NSS.40:118-122.Harter,R.G.1979.SpeleologicalReporttoB1M,October31,1979.(Districtfiles).Harter,R.G.andJ.W.Harter.1980.Thegeologyoflavatubecaves.Proc.1979FarWest Cave Management Symp.,Oct.23-25,Redding,CA,p.9-16.ThepaperworkforDiamondCratersisalmostdone-atleastforthisround!YourememberthatBLMhasbeenworkingontheprojectsince1956. Any way,wehavegatheredalargebodyofsupportivedataindicatingthatDiamondCratersisindeedanuniqueareaworthyofprotectionandpreservation.Wehavestrongpublicsupportfortheproposedaction--wehavereceivedendorsementsfromthestateandfederalnaturalareacommittees,theNationalSpeleologicalSociety,theOregonWilderness Coali tionand numerousotherindividuals.ThefateofDiamondCratersnowrestswiththehigherlevelsofBLMandthe Congress oftheUnitedStates.Gruber,E.H.,S. C.Wright.1979.Rareplantsurvey,1979. 303p.Syere,M.A.Stern,andC. A.threatenedandendangeredUSDI,BLM,BurnsDistrict,LITERATURECITEDAikens,C.M.,D.K.Grayson,andP.J.Mehringer,Jr.1979.SteensMountainPrehistoryProject,Interimreport,1979.Univ.Oregon,Dept.Anthropol.,32p.Hayse,B. 1978. DiamondCratersindanger.OregonDesertReport,2:3-4(reprintedinSpeleograph15:6-7).Larson,C.1977.BibliographyofOregonSpeleology.Bull.Ore.Speleol.Surv.6:1-95.Anon.Couun.1961.CavesofOregon.NSSCaveFilesIBMprintout,April1961.Nieland,L.12:186-189.1976. CaveEcology'76.SpeleographBenedict,E.M.1973.DiamondCraters-MiniCaves,Speleograph9:129-131.Peterson,N.V.and E.A.Groh.1964.DiamondCraters,Oregon. OreBin26:17-33.Benedict,E.M.1976. CaveEcology'75:Thefirstweek.Speleograph12:114-117.Benedict,E.M.1974.realtrip.SpeleographThreeweeksoflava:10:126-130.A158Piper,2939. Harney 189p.A.M.,T.W.Robinson,Jr.,andC.F.Park.Geologyandground-waterresourcesoftheBasin,Oregon.USGSWater-SupplyPaper841,

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Pope,R.1978.14:139-144.CaveEcology'78.SpeleographSmolen, B. 1979.ters.SpeleographWinterweekendatDiamondCra15:25-27.Pope,R.Craters.1979.MapofSpatterCone Cave, DiamondSpeleograph15:40.Walker,G.W.1979.Questionaireon DiamondCraters.(DistrictFiles).Russell,I.C. 1903.NotesonthegeologyofsouthwesternIdahoandsoutheasternOregon.Bull.USGS.217:54-57.Siddall,J.L.,K.L. Chambers, andD.Wagner.1979.Rare,threatenedandendangeredvascularplantsinOregon,aninterimreport.OregonNaturalAreaPreservesAdvisoryCommitteetotheStateLandBoard.Salem,109p.Walker,G.W.andB.Nolf.(inpress).Geologicsummary andfieldtripguide--HighLavaPlains,BrothersfaultzonetoHarneyBasin,Oregon.PacificNorthwestAmer. UnionMeeting,Sept.14-21.Bend,OR.Bull.Ore.Dept.Geology MineIndust.,102.159

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THEROLEOFTHEKENTUCKYNATUREPRESERVESCOMMISSIONINCAVEMANAGEMENT -Wayne C.HoutcooperABSTRACTThe. Ke.ntu.ckyNa.tuJte.PIteJ>eJtvuComW.6.tonwa..6u.ta.bwhe.d by the. 1976 Ge.neJta..M.6e.mbly.tocondu.ct a.6.ta..tew<.de..tnventOlty06natUlUtlMea.6,andtodevdopana.tuJtepJleJ>eJtve..6.6y.6te.m. The Corrrn.i..6.6.<.on.<..6an.<.mpoJt.tantItUOWLCe.ava.t.ea.ble.:toaidthe.pItOCU.600eJ>.ta.b.U.6h.<.ngcavemanagement.6.tJta.teg.<.uthJtough :the. appUcalion06 1) the.Na.:tuJr.a1..HeJtilageme.:thodology00e.nv.<.JtoY!11le.n.ta..e.in v entolUj and Z I laW6.topltOtectthe'<'de.n.t.tMedna.tUlUtl6ea.tWLU .The inve.nt.olUjpltOcedWLuMe.U.6e.d :to a.6.6e..6.6management p/tioltiUe..6ba.6e.dupon 1) thenumbeJtandltMdy06e.lement.606natWLal dive.Mi:ty, Z I the. de.glte.e. 06thlte..a.t :to:the. .6y.6:te.mand/Oil.i:t.6compone.nt.6 and,3) :the.le.ve.l00plte..6e.ntpltOtect.tona060ltded tho.6ena:tUlUl:loea.tWLe..6. The amount00legalpltote.ct.tonthatmay be. appUed.t.6,.i.I1pMt,dependent upon the..6pe.c.to.<.ca.t.e.yde.oined le.vel.606peJtm.t.6.6ible.U.6emuttLa.t.e.yagltee.able:tothe.owneJt(.6)andtotheCommW.6.ton.AnMea00na.tuJta.e..6igni6icancemay be. identiMeda.6aRegi.6:teJtedNa:tUIUl:lMeaOil.mo.y be dedica.teda.6 a KentuckyNa.tWLePIte..6eJtve.Bothact.toJ1.6Meattemp.t.6topJlotectandplte..6eJtve.tmpor...:tant.6egmen.t.606OWL/tichna.tWLalheJtilage00ltplte..6entand6u.:tuJtegeneJta.t.i.oJ1.6 :to e.njoy. *KentuckyNaturePreservesCommission, 407Broadway,Frankfort,Kentucky40601160

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CAVEMANAGEMENTANDENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENTACTIVITIESOFTHETENNESSEEVALLEYHERITAGE *Patricia A.FinkAUTHORITY'S PROJECT ABSTRACTREGIONALTheTVA Reg.<.onal.Na.tuJu1..HeJtilo.gePJr.Ojee-t,u.,wOIe./Ung:to.I.denti6y and pIW.tee-tna..tuJ!O..6ea-tWtuoc.c.Wl.Jvi.ng.I.ntileTennu.6eeVail.eyJt.eg.<.on. The HW-tagePIWjee-tmeu.n.tMYL6 a da.ta.ba.-6ewfuc.hc.on.tMYL6.I.n601UTla.tien on :thJt.ea.tened and endangeJt.edpa.n.t and an.I.ma.-6peuu,S.ta..teandFedeJLa1.rrrJJ'tIl8edMea.-6,.6eYL6ilivehab.I..ta..t-6,c.hamp.I.onbtee6, and wU.iiuegeolog.[cai.6e.a.tu1l.u,WMc.h.I.nc1.u.duc.a.vu. The da.ta.management:-6Y.6.tem(tIUdevelopedby.theNa.twr..e.COYL6eJt.vanc.y,and .I.nce.uduc.Jt.oM-ILe6eJt.enc.ed map, manual.,andc.omputeJt.6il..u. The da.ta,u.,Med60ILenv.I.Jt.onmen.ta1.a.-6-6U-6ment:and.to-<.denti6Y-6.(.gM6'<'c.a.n.tna..tuJu1..Mea.-6.I.nneed06pILueILva..t.[on.E660JtUMe-thenrrnde.topIW.tee-t-thueMea.-6.Env.<.!Wnme.nta1.a.-6.6U.6ment:c.a.JtJt.I.edoutby.theHW-tagePJt.ojee-tC.0YL6,u.,t:6 06 Jt.ev.<.wWgpIWpoudpIWjec.t:6loc.a.tedtu{;thA.n.theTenneMeeVailey.tha.twill.a66ee-tTV'!,R.a.nd.6OILJt.I.VeM,OILILec.uveFedeJta1.6u.nd-6.ThuepIWpMWMeJt.ev.<.ewed.tode.teJun.i.newhe.theJt.Ole.not.thepJr.Oj ee-twllc.on6lie-twaha-6.i.gM6.<.c.a.n.tna..tuJu1..6ea-tWte,Mc.ha.-6a c.ave. Th.I.6.tec.hrUqueha.-6pILevent:ed adVeMe-i.mpa.c.t:6 .to c.a.vu .to.I.de.nti6y.I.ng c.on6lic.t:6pJt.I.olL.toc.on-6.tJt.uc.Uonac.Uviliu. TVA bec.a.meac.Uve.I.n c.a.ve management:byeo60JtU.topJr.O.tee-t .the FedVUI.t.e.tjendangeJt.edGMy andInd.I.o.nabeLa.Th.Jl.eec.a.vu -HambJt.I.c.lUl,N.i..c.k.a.jac.k,and Dam-have been gCLted.I.noILdeJt..topILevent:fu.tuJtbanc.e06.the.I.Jtbat:populLLtWYL6. Ten o.theJtc.a.vuon TVA R.a.nd.6c.on.tMn.i.mpoJt..tan.tbat:e.o.OMU,butbec.a.Me00.the.I.Jt.I.nac.c.u.6.I.b.I.lityMeno.ta.-6vu.neJt.ab.e.todu.tJt.uc.Uonand fu.tWtbanc.e.SeveJta1.0.theJt.c.a.vu onTVA R.a.nd-6CLlLebungplLo.tee-ted by du.i.gna.t.I.ona.-6Smail. WildAlteM. *TennesseeValleyAuthority-RegionalNaturalHeritageProject,DivisionofLandandForestResources,Norris,Tennessee37828161

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INTRODUCTIONTheTennesseeValleyAuthority(TVA),whichilknown primarily foritachainoflakeaanditagenerationofinexpensiveelectricity,ilchargedwiththeresponsibilityoffurtheringtheproperuse>conservation>anddevelopmentofthenaturalresourcesoftheTennesseeValleyRegion.1 TheTVARegionalNaturalHeritageProjectwascreatedtoassistinmeetingthisresponsibility.ThecoreoftheHeritageProjectisadatsbaseofsignificantnaturalfeatures>whichincludescaves.Thisdatabaseisusedtolocateandpreventconflictsbetweensensitivenaturalresourcefeaturesandproposeddevelopmentprojects.TheRegionalHeritageProjecthasalsobeeninvolvedintheprotectionofcavesthroughcavegating,hassupportedcave-relatedresearch.andparticipatedincavemanagement symposiums.THETVAREGIONTheTennesseeValleyregionincludes201countieswithinsevensoutheasternstates:Tennessee,Virginia.NorthCarolina.Georgia.Alabama.Mississippi>andKentucky.ThisregionencompassestheTennesseeRiverwatershed,plusotherareasthatreceiveTVAelectricity.HERITAGEPROJECTMETHODOLOGYRegionalNaturalHeritagefilescontaindataonthelocationsofthreatenedorendangeredplantandanimalspeciesasdefinedbyStateandFederalagencies;managedareassuchasnationalparks,nationalnaturallandmarks>andstatewildlifemanagementareas;championtrees;importantbiologicalareassuchasheronrookeriesandspeciestypelocalities,andsignificantgeologicalfeaturessuchascavesandotherkarstfeatures.HeritageProjectdataisgatheredfromcurrentliterature>museum andherbariumrecords,contactswithprofessionals,andfieldsurveyreports.Cavedatahasbeencollectedfrompublicationssuch booksbyBarr(1961) and Matthews (1971) onthecavesofTennessee.Anothermajorsourceofinformationregardingcavesisthevariousstate cave surveyssuchastheAlabamaandWesternKentucky CaveSurveys.Atpresent.thesesurveysarethebestsourcesofinformationaboutcavesintheTVAregion.Othersourcesincludecontactswithcaversandprofessionalspeleologists.andoccasionaldiscoveriesbyTVAstaffinthefield.ThemethodologyforstoringdatawasdevelopedbytheNature anon-profitorganizationwhosegoalisthepreBervationofnaturaldiversitythroughtheacquisitionandmanagementoflandscontainingsignificantnatural TheTVARegionalNaturalHeritageProjectwasestablishedthroughacooperativeagreementbetweenTVAandtheNatureCons'rvancyonJune1.1976.SixJCongresshasdefinedthisresponsibilityinthreeacts:(A)TennesseeValley Actof1933, 48Stat.58-59.(B) TheNationalEn vironment31 PolicActof1959,42U.S.C.4321etseg.83Stat.852.Pub.L.91-190.(C) EndangeredSpeciesActof1973,15U.S.C.1931et.seg.162louthl.ltlrnIt.t.1-Kentucky,Miaaia.ippi, NorthIndSouth.C.rolin.,T.nn, .nd Wa.t Viraini. --.1.0h.v. th.irownHarit...proJrama. N.tur.lHerit.gld.t.il.toradinthree cro raferenced fill'E.ch alament, a.J.,cava,iaaSlignedauniquaindaxcode whichidantifiaait throughoutthedataman.gement.y.tam. Allin formationpertainingtoa particularalament iaatoredandretrievedusingtha index coda forthat element.Thedata isstored a. follows: 1.ToposraphicMapFileThie file conaiat. ofasetofapproximately1600U.S.GeologicalSurveytopographicquadrangle map.whichcoverthe 201-countyTVAregion.Each elementoccurrence isplotted on theappropriatetopomap. The indexcodeandlatitude/longitudecoordinatesforeachelementappearingonthemaparelistedinthemapmargin.2.ManualFiles-Informationabouteach element istranscribedontostandardized daca sheets.Thesesheetsarestoredinthreedifferer.tfiles.Thegeographicfilegroupsdatasheetsbytopographicquadrangle.The element manualfile contains afolderforeachelement,e.g.,species.andmayalsocontaindistributional information, lifehistorystudies,and managementinformation.Thethirdfilecontainsboundary,ownership.andmanagementinformationforeachdesignatedmanagedarea.3.ComputerFile-ThisfileservesasthebookkeepingsystemfortheHeritageProject.Throughtheuseofthisfileitispossibletorapidlyretrievespecificsubsetsofthedatabase.e.g.,alltheGrayEat gPisesaens) localities in FentressCounty.Tennessee.Thisfeatureisespeciallyusefulinthestudyofdistributionsofparticularspecies.Thecomputerfilecanalsobeusedtogeneratemapsdepictingoccurrencesofelements.HERITAGEPROJECTAPPLICATIONSDatafromRegionalNaturalHeritagefilesisusedprimarilyinenvi.r.onmentalassessment.Thisprocesswillbedescribedindetailinthefollowingsection.SignificantnaturalareascanalsobeidentifiedandprotectedthroughtheuseofHeritagedata.Forinstance,Heritagefilescanbeusedtoenumerateoccurrencesofaparticularspeciesandthusaid in determiningitsrelativerarity.Heritagedatacanalsobeusedtolocateareaswheremanydifferentsignificantnaturalresourcefeaturesareconcentrated.Areasthatrepresentexamplesofparticularhabitatssuchasheronries.orcedarglades.canalsobelocated.Heritagedatamakesitpossibletodeterminepreservation.prioritiesonthebasisofsounddataratherthansubjectivejudgements.AreasonTVAlanddeterminedtohavehighpriorityforpreservation.maybedesignatedaseither an EcologicalStudyArea.aCriticalHabitatArea>oraSmallWildArea.HeritagedataisalsoprovidedtoStateandFederalagenciesresponsibleforthelisting/delistingofthreatenedandendangeredspecies.SeriousresearchersdealingwiththreatenedandendangeredspeciesarealsoallowedaccesstoHeritagedata.MapsofHeritagedatashowiugthedistribution

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FIGURE1.SignplacedattheentranceofeachcavegatedbyTVA.(PhotobyLindaParrish)FIGURE2.GateatentranceofNorrisDamCave.(Photoby Bob 163

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FIGURE3.GateatentranceofNorrisDamCave.(PhotobyBobCurrie)FIGURE4.GateatentranceofNickajackCave.(PhotobyRalphJordan)164

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ofaparticularspecieacanbeuaedto identify areasinneedoffurtherreaearch. ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT ANDCAVEPROTECTIONHeritagedataia in theprotectionofallcavesintheTVA region ratherthanthoaejUltonTVAland,throughtheenvironmentalaalealmentandreviewprocess.EnvironmentalalsellmentinvolveltheidentificationofsignificantnaturalrElourcefeatureson asiteproposedfordevelopmentandthen determining potentialconflictsbetweentheproposedprojectandthenaturalresourcefeaturelintheproposedstudyarea.Forexample;when a powerplantsiteisproposed,Heritagestaffexaminethesitetodeterminewhethertherearecavesor other significantnaturalfeaturespresent.Ifsuchfeaturesarefound,theprojectmaybe.modifiedormitigationmayresult.Thisreviewprocessisgearedto andresolvepotentialenvironmentalconflictsintheearliestpossiblestagesofaproject.TherearethreetypesofprojectproposalsthatTVA'sRegionalNaturalHeritageProjectreviews.Theseincludeanyproposedprojectin the TennesseeValleyregionthat will receiveFeaeralmoneyoraffectsTVAlands,lakes,andrivers.Thesethreetypesofprojectsare:1.TVAProjectson TVA-owned andPrivateLands-Thiscategoryincludesprojectsdealing with thegeneration of suchaspowerplantsitesandtransmissionlineroutes,and0 her TVAprojectssuchasparksandsolarhomesites.2.Non-TVA Projects onTVA-administeredLandsThisincludesanyprojectthataffectsTVAwaterways. Most ofthesearesmallprojectssuchasthebuildingofboatdocks,rip-rappingofshorelines,anddredgingforgravel.OccasionallyTVA will sell,lease,orgiveawaylandsfor purposes.Theseactionsmust aJ.sobereviewedandapproved.3.Non-TVAProjectsonPrivateLands--ThiscategoryincludesanyprojectintheTennesseeValleyregionthatreceivesFederalmoney.Thisincludessuchprojectsassubdivisionsthatreceive fr.omtheDepartmentofHousing and UrbanDevelopment (BUD),sewersystemsthatreceivemoneyfromtheEnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA), and anyFederal,State,orCountyroadsthataretotallyorpartiallyfunded with Federalmoney.TheseprojectedproposalsaretypicallysubmittedforHeritageProjectreviewasoneofthreetypesofdocuments.The mostdetailedareEnvironmentalImpactStatements(EIS's),which are doneformajorprojectsaffectingmanypeopleoralargeareaofland.EnvironmentalAssessments aresimilartoEIS'sbutareforminorprojects.26a's,thenameofwhichreferstoaportionoftheTVACode,aresmallprojectsthataffect waterways intheTVAregion.Mostprojectproposalsincludeashortdescriptionoftheprojectand amapoftheaffectedarea.Projectproposal review consistsofeachHeritagestaffmemberlocatingtheprojectsiteontheappropriatetopomapfromtheHeritageTopographic Map: Pil.,. and then ch.ckinato a.a ifthere areanypoaaible conflictawithin their field oftrainina,e.a.,cavaa,rareplant.,rara animal Iftharaarenorecorded occurrence.inthe.tudy areathanthaprojacti.approvador furtherfieldinva. tiaation.areinitiated. If theraare conflict. batwean apropoled projact and a knownlocation ofasignificantnaturalrelourcafeature,thearoupinitiatingtheprojectpropo.ali. infor-ad.Haay projectpropolafloffer primaryand .everalalternataproject.itel.Insuch ease.,Heritage projectreviewincludesidentificationof the.iteor siteswiththeleast potential for adverseimpact Ifnoalternatesiteeareprovided andenviroameutal conflictsare identified, Heritageataff member.may field-checktheproposed 6J.te todeterminethe na tureandmagnitudeofconflictsand suggest po.siblemitigationmeasures.CAVE MANAGEMENT Through mostofTVA'shistory,cavesonTVA land.were eitherpassivelymanagedorignored;theagency'smaindealingswithcavesconsistedoffloodingthem when TVAreservoirs were built.This was oftendonebecausetheagencywas unawarethatcavesexistedonTVAlands. Through the data collectioneffortsoftheHeritageProject,itis DOWknown thatatleast34cavesarelocatedonTVAproperties.Othersaresuretoexistbuttheirlocation, which iseften known onlybylocal cavers,has notbeenprovidedtoTVA.TVAbecameinvolvedintheactivemanagementofcavesthroughitseffortstoprotectthreatenedandendangeredanimalssuchastheGray and Indiana (MYo tis sodalis) Bats,theTennesseeCaveSalamander(Gynnophilu8 palleucus), andtheAlabamablind cave fish(Speoplatyrhinuspoulsoni).Thereare13cavesonTVAlandthatareknowntoserveashabitatforGray andIndianabats.TVA'sHeritageProjectbasworked with theU.S.FishandWildlifeServicetogatethreeofthecaveswhichweredeterminedtobeextremelyvulnerabletodisturbance.TVAagrees with manyleadingbatexpertsthatgatingshouldbeusedonlyasalastresortmethodofcaveprotection.Theremainingtencavesareprotectedbyotheragenciesandlorbytheirinaccessibility.Cavegateswereconstructedsothatinterferencewithbatmovementswouldbeminimizedandthetemperature.humidity,andairflowinthecavewouldnotbealtered.Thegates were alsobuilt a "weaklink"sothatpeople who weredeterminedtobreachthegatecoulddosowithouttotallydestroyingthegateandcaveentrance.Eachentrancehasasignexplainingwhythecaveisgated,thepenaltyforenteringandlordamagingthecave,plusanaddresswheremoreinformationcanbeacquired(seeFigure1).The three gatedcavesaredescribedbelow.NorrisDamCaveNorrisDamCaveformerlycontaineda GrayBatmaternitycolonyandpresentlyharborsabachelorcolonyofapproximately7000individuals.Thiscaveislocatedon anaturetrailapproximately300feet downstream fromNorrisDam.Theentrancesarelargeandinviting,andveryaccessible.Thecaveislargeandoffersrelativelyeasycaving,makingitpopularforlocalchildrenandtourists who havecometoseethedam.Oneentrancehasbeengated with horizontal165

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bars,apacedfar enouah aparttoallowthebatato enterandexitwithoutinterference (aee'il ure 2).Theotherentrance,locatedabout20feet from thefiratentranceialatedby afencetopped with barbed vire.' Thefencecontain.alatetoallow durinathemonths whenthebat.arenotpresent.(aee Fiaure 3).The.elate.arepoliced byTVAPublic SafetyOfficera end the Ten neasee Wildlifeaeaource.Alency. Inthehalf year thatthegate. have inplace,veryfew unauthoriaed people have enteredthecave. 8aIIlbriclta' Cave Bamhriclta' Cavecontainsa GrayBatcolonyofap proxiaately 10,000 individuals. ItislocatedonGuntersville Lake, and isaccessibleonlybywater.Theentranceiasmall,notparticularlyinviting,andonlyoneof many caveentranceslocatedinthatparticularbluff.Thegateisconstructedofchain link fencing which extends15feetbeyondtheentranceandafew'feetbelowthewatersurface.Thisgateismonitoredthroughaninformalagreement with the Alabama DepartmentofConservation. Nickajack Cave Nickajack Cavehousesa Gray Batbachelorcolonyofapproximately50,000individualsandprovideshabitatfortheTennesseeCave Salamander.ItislocatedonNickajackReservoirintheareawherethestatesofTennessee,Alabama, andGeorgiaconverge.Itisaccessbileonlybywaterbutitiseasilyseenfromtheroadandlakeandissubjecttolargeamountsoftraffic.Ithasalarge,spectacularentrancewhichcaneasilybeenteredbyboat.Theentrancehasbeenandstillisafavoriteplaceforfishermentotakeshelter during storms.Thefence,builtofchainlink,issuspendedjustinsidetheentranceandextendsbothabove and belowthewater(seeFigure4).ThecaveentranceismonitoredbyTVAPublicSafetyOfficersandtheTennesseeWildlifeResourcesAgency.OtherCriticalCavesBlytheFerryCavehousesatransientcolonyofGrayBatsandprovideshabitatfortheTennesseeCave Salamader.It i!3 locatedinChickamaugaReservoirnearChattanooga.TheTennesseeWildlifeResources Agencyhasprimaryresponsibilityformonitoringthiscave.KeyCavecontainsa GrayBatmaternitycolonyofapproximately24,000individualsanditistheonlyknownhabitatfortheAlabama CaveFish.ItislocatedinPickwickReservoir,nearSheffield,Alabama.ThecaveanditssurroundingareahavebeendesignatedCriticalHabitat,andareincludedwithintheproposedSevenMileIslandWildlifeManagementArea.TVAand the Alabama DepartmentofConservation will sharetheresponsibilityformonitoringthearea.166 OTHERCAVEMANAQIMENT ACTIVITIESIntharecantpa.t, TVAb.came involvad with thenational,cava manalamant communitythroulh participation in ralional andnationalman.lament aympo.iuma.TVAi.workinlto lath.r information aboutactiv.cava manalamentt.chniqua. throulhtha.. .ympo.iaand by .upportinlr....rchoncavafauna.In1980 TVA rvada.hoatofthe Ia.ternRegional Cave ManalamantSympoa1umand the Ifa tionalCave ManagementSympoa1um. In1981 TVA willbe.upportingthe International Cave Manage ment Sympo.ium and CaveCamp, and the8thInternationalCongreof Speleology. ReferencesBarr,T.C.1961. CavesofTenneee.Tenne.seeDiv.ofGeologyBulletin64.567pp.Hunt,G.and R.R.Stitt.1975. CaveGating.Speleobooks,Albuquerque, HM. 43pp.Matthews,L.E.1971.DescriptionsofTennesseeCaves.Tennessee ofGeologyBulletin69,150pp.McKitrick,J.,J.R.Jordan,Jr.,andJ.R.thurman. 1978."TVARegionalHeritageProgram:Aland-useplanningtoolforfishandwildliferesourceplanners."TVADivisionofForestry,Fisheries,andWildlifeDevelopment.'Norris, TN Tuttle,M.D.1976."Gatingasa meansofprotectingcavedwellingbats"NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,Mountain View.Arkansas,pp.77-82.Tuttle,M.D. :'Ind D.E.Stevenson.1977."Variationinthe environmentanditsbiologicalimplications"NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,Big Sky. Montana, pp. 108-119.

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AMANAGEMENTAPPROACHTOPERKINS *Roy D.Powers.Jr.CAVE.VIRGINIA ABSTRACTpeJt.khLt, Cave, cU..t.c.ove.Jr.ed by oJrgan..i.zedcaVeM'<'1'1thelate 1960' one 06 themold;cavu.<.ntheea6te.Jr.nUnUed.s.ta..teA.?e.Jr.IUMCavel.oc.a..ted.<.nWa6lWtgtonCou.nty,Vbt.g.<.n.<.a..Thecave'<'1'1middleOJr.dcv.<.c..<.an.Ume..6toneandc.on.ta.i.n.6OVe.Jr. 53,000 6ed 06 mappedc.onc.en:tlta.:ted.<.n a c.omplexmaze-Ukeoc.c.u.py.<.nganMea.ei?u..<.va.te.n..t.to a 2, 000 6edon a ThecaveC.On..ta..<.Manabu.ndanc.e06wftUe.60JtlllQ.t(.oMJLan.g.<.ng61LOmhOdato61.owo.tone. The cavehtu.been.known..tol.oc.alILu'<'dent6theeaJti.y1900'1.>.Atthedme06rU..6c.ove1L1j by thecav.<.ngc.onrnu.nUy,luI.>thM0lte-hal6m<.le.06pMhadbeen.e.n..te1Led.Inl.D;te 1914, :the cavefAXUPu.ILc.htu.e.dbybtdependent caveM and manageme.n..tfAXUaftempted blj them.managementwa.6.<.ne66ecti.ve.In 1911, :the cavefAXUaga.<.nhOld,timetoan NSS meJnbe1L who -Urrne.d-i.o.:te..typlLOc.eededtoI.>du.p a Pe1LIUYl!.l Cave COYl!.le1Lva.U.OIt and ManagementSoudy (PERCCAMSl,to plLOteaandmanagethec.ave.TlU-6pape1La.dd1LU.6U.the1La.t-i.on.a..teand mdhodology The management11Mbeene66ecti.veandone06:themode.t.606pJUvatec.avemal'lil.9ement.6Y.6te1l16. ThePerkinsCaveConservationand ManagementSociety(PerCCams)isthemostrecentcavemanagementorganizationinVirginia.Theorganization,governedbyaboardofdirectors,hasapproximately20 members, whoareveterancaversoftheVirginiaregion.Thesepeoplehaveawidevarietyofexperienceandexpertiseincavemanagement andconservation.Theyhaveelectedtoapplythemostrigidandsystematiccontrolmethods,somebothuniqueandnon-traditional,everdevelopedtoconserveandmanage aprivatelyownedcave.InanevaluationofmanagedcavesintheVirginiaregion(Wilson,1978)PerCCAMSrankedhighestofall managell!ent groups.PerkinsThe CavePerkinsCave,locatedinWashingtonCounty,Virginia,was unknowntothecavingcommunityuntilMarch, 1958. Thecavehadbeenknowntolocalresidents,however,forover100years.Thetrafficthatthecavereceivedovertheyearswaslightbeacuseofitsrurallocationandthefactthatitwasconsideredtobeaverysmallcave.CribbCave,whichwasverylargeandlocated near Perkins,receivedmostofthetraffic.WhenPerkins*ConservationChairman,VirginiaRegion,NationalSpeleologicalSociety,P.O.Box7007,Richmond,VA23221167wasdiscoveredbyorganizedcavers,lessthanone-fourthofamileofpassagewaywas known. Thecaveisdevelopedonseverallevelsina complex mazeandcontainsover53,000feetofknownpassageway.Thecaveishighlydecorated,containsmany lowcrawls,severalstreamsandmanylongpassageways,thelongestbeing1,400feetinlength.Despiteitssize,thelateralextentofthecaveisonly2,200feet.TheentranceislocatedonthesoutheastsideofClinchMountainatanelevationof2,200feet.DevelopmentofthecaveisjointcontrolledandthepassagesaredevelopedalongstrikejointstrendingNNEandSSW.PerkinsisdevelopedinupperSilurianlimestoneoftheTonolowayformation whicn hasashallowdiptothesoutheast(Holsinger,1975).Thevandalismwhichhasoccurredtothecavehasbeenmoderatetoheavybuthasbeenrestrictedmainlytothefrontofthecave.Fortunately,themajorityofthesensitiveformationareasliebeyondandhaveexperiencedlittle-ornovandalism.ManagementHistoryWiththediscoveryofPerkinsbyorganizedcavers,interestofthecurrentownerincreased.He,ofcourse,hadaccesstotheinformationthatthecaverswerecollectingand,asaresult,aroused

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theinterestof local residents. which re.ultedinanincrease,oftrafficinthe cave. Thi.couldhavehaddisasterouseffect upon the cav.,exc.pt fora cave ownerdispute which dthe cava tobe closedexcept totheparti.s mapping the cav Cave Ownership The Firat Attempt In1974.Perkinsvaspurcha.edbyunaffiliatedcaverswho attemptedmanagement ofthecave.Thisfirst attempt waswell thought outbutpoorly executed andresultedin management thatwasonlypartiallyeffective.butvasbetterthannomanagementatall.Inearly1977.thecavewasagainputupforsaleand managementceased. Duringthisperiod.thecavewasagain subject tovandalism.CaverOwnership The SecondAttemptInNovemberof1977.thecavewaspurchasedbyJohnWilson.a caver whowasdeterminedtosuccessfullymanagethecave.Wilson.a member 6f theBulterCaveConservationSociety.hadexperienceincavemanage ment and waswellacquaintedwiththeproblemsofcaveconservationandcavemanagement.WilsonimmediatelysetaboutorganizingPerCCAMS.Anorganizationalmeeting,opentoallmembersofthecavingcommunitywhowereinterestedinmanagingPerkinsCave. washeld.Officerswereelected,by-lawswritten.goalsestablished,and membershiprequirementsdefined.TheGoalsofPerCCAMSFourgoalsoftheorganizationwereclearlydefinedandmethodologyestablished(seeAppendixi).1.Tosecuretheentranceandallfutureentrancessoeffectivelythatordinarymeanswillbeinadequatetoenterthecavewithoutauthorization.Inordertoachievethisgoal,thecavewasgated.Thegatewasdeliberatelymademassivetoprevententrybyordinarymeans. The gate itselfwasmadeintheformofagridconstructedofheat-treatedsteel.Thegatewashingedfromthebottombyloopsofhalf-inchsteelbarssetintoreinforcedconcrete.Thelockingarrangementconsistedofasliding3-inchstainlesssteelpipe,whichslidesintosleevessetinconcretemonolithsoneithersideofthegate.One-inchsteelpinsslidethroughthesleevesandpipateachsideofthegateandheavy-dutypadlockswereinsertedthroughtheendsofthepinstopreventboltcuttersfrombeingusedtocutthelocks.Thelocksareprotectedbystainlesssteelboxeswhichareweldedtothebottomofthesleeves.Arubberhoodkeepsmoisturefromthelocks.Sincethegatewasinstalledinmid-1978,therehasbeennoforcedentryintothecaveandthegatehassustainedno damageeventhoughatleastonebreechofthegatewasattempted.Itisthefullintentionofthesocietytoprosecute,tothefullestextentofthelaw,anyoneattemptingillegalentryofthecave.AllmembersofthesocietyhavebeendesignatedbyWilsonashisagentsandmaybringchargesagainstanyoneviolatingthecave.1682.To taka what.v.r mea.ur n.c ry to minimi ,totheIrtt.xt.nt humanly pOllibl.,unint.ntion.l damal. to the c.va by paopla who to.nt.r.Inord.rtoachi.v.thil10.1, Itrinlant rulal were .nactedtoinlur.th.te.chc.verw..properlyequippedtocaul 1little imp.ctupon thecaveandit. environment poibla, aquip mentorpracticeswhich might have.nadvar.aeffectoncaveformation.andcava lifewere banned;ratiosof PerCCAHS member.to proceduresandroutesformoVingthrough the cava,wereestablished;certainsen.itivearea.of the cavewereclosedfornormaltraffic; trip. wererequiredtobeplannedandorganizedinadvance;validreasonsfortripsweree.tabli.hed;.cientificcollectingrequiredpriorapproval by theboardofdirectors;andaccuraterecord.ofeachtripwererequired.3.Tousethecaveasademonstrativeprojectonhowtomanage asensitivecave,thu.contributingtotheadvancementofknowledgeinthisarea.Achievingthisgoalisanongoingprojectbythemembersoftheorganization.Dataisbeing com piledandpapershavealreadybeenpublishedcon themethodologyusedbyPerCCAMS.4.Toallowtheuseofthecaveinecologicallysound waysthatmayservetodemonstratethevalueofcavesinpromotingthequalityoflife.Inordertoachievethisgoal,usesofthecavehavebeenclearlydefined.Severaluses,suchastourism,havebeenbanned.Eachtrip must beapprovedinadvanceandthosenot conforming toestablishedusesrequiretheadvancedapprovaloftheboardofdirectors.ConclusionInthetwoyearsthatPerCCAHSbasbeenmanaged,Perkinscavetraffichasbeenreduced,brokenformationsrestoredandthecavebasbeencleaned.Newtechniquesandprocedureshavebeendeveloped.Dataandinformationconcerningcavemanagement andconservationhasbeengenerated.LiteratureCitedHolsinger,J.R.1975.DescriptionsofVirginiaCaves.DepartmentofConservationandEconomicDevelopment,Charlottesville,Virginia.Wilson,J.1978. Cave Management TheVirginiaExperience.APPENDIXiPERKINSCAVECONSERVATIONANDMANAGEMENTSOCIETY(PerCCAMS)PURPOSESPurposePerkinsCaveisofsuchsignificantvaluethatitmeritsextraordinarymeasurestopreserveit.Forthisreason,thePerCCAMSshallbefounded.

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A.Topreventallpeoplewho wouldvandalizeorotherwiseharmthecaveinanymanner,from getting intothecave.B.Totakewhatevermeasuresnecessarytominimize,tothegreatestextenthumanlypossibleunintentionaldamagetothecavebythepeoplewhodoenter.C. ToallowandencouragethepublishmentofinformationaboutPerCCAMSanditsfindinginordertocontributetotheadvancementofknowledgeofcavemanagement.D.Toallowthecavetobeusedinecologicallysoundwaysthatmayservetodemonstratethevalueoncavesinpromotingqualityoflife.10)Petlsndother animal.notindi.enoUi tothecave,.hallnotbe allowed in the caveexcept with priorapprovalof the]oard ofDirectorland then onlyforscientificpurpolel.11)Alltripsintothecave.hallbeprearrangedtorecordvilitationto thecave andallperlonsenteringthe cave completethecaveulequestionnaire,oneachtrip.12)Smokingisprohibitedinthecave.APPENDIX11PERKINSCAVECONSERVATIONAND MANAGDlENTSOCIETY LEGALRELEASEANDINDEMNIFYINGAGREEMENTName(PleasePrint)_ I maketheseconvenants,releasesandwaiverstobindmyself,myexecutors,assignsandotherpersons.LEGALRELEASEFORM:ALLPERSONSMUSTSIGNTHISFORMBEFORERECEIVINGPERMISSIONTO ENTER PERKINSCAVE.IFYOUAREMARRIED,YOURSPOUSEMUSTALSOSIGN..READBEFORESIGNING. Ifullyrealizethatwhen IenterPerkinsCaveorotherwiseparticipateincavingtripsImaysufferinjuriesordeath,and knowingthis,Iherebyvoluntarilysignthislegalform.IunderstandthatanycavingtripsthatI makeinmotorvehicles owned oroperatedby membersofthePerkinsCaveConservationand ManagementSociety,theirassociatesorundertheauspicesortutelageorcontrolofanyPerkinsCaveConservationand ManagementSocietyismadecompletelyatmyownrisk.State: _________Phone:Date:Address:Age:City:Inconsiderationofthepermission tomebythePerkinsCaveConservationand SocietyinenteringPerkinsCaveandforothervaluableconsideration,I dohereby,formyself,myheirsandassigns,foreverreleaseanddischargethePerkinsCaveConservationandManagementSociety,theirofficersortheirmembershipandagents,',hetheractingofficiallyor otherwise from eny andallclaims,demands,clausesofaction,suitsofliabilitiesarisingoutofenteringPerkinsCave,cavingtripsandspeleology,transportationto,during,and fromcavingtrips,orcavingareas,andoperationincidentalthereto.I doherebyreleaseandforever thePerkinsCaveConservationandManagementSociety.theirofficers,ortheirmembershiporanyotherpersonsactingbyorthroughthePerkinsCaveConservationand ManagementSocietyeitherdirectlyorindirectlyofanyresponsibilityorliabilityofanynaturewhatsoevertomeortoothersforpersonalinjury,death,orpropertydamagewhichmayoccureitherdirectlyorindirectlyasaresultofmyactivitiesassociatedwithcaveexploringorspeleology.MethodologyandRegulationsA.1)Tosecuretheentrance,andallfutureentrances,soeffectivelythatordinarymeanswillbeinadequatetoenterthecave,withoutauthorization.2)Tomakewhatevereffortsnecessarytobringtojusticeanyonewhoillegallytrespassesandentersthecave.3)Tosetupsufficientprocedurestolimitthenon-membersofPerCCAMSsothattheycanbecompletelysupervisedwhileundergroundandtoeliminatemostpeoplewhosebehaviormighthaveundesirableeffectsonthecave.B.1)ThatPerCCAMSrequireallwhoenterthecavetohaveaprimarylightsourcethatisreliable,andprovidesconsistentlybrightlighttominimizethepossibilityofunintentionaldamagetothecaveduetopoorvisibility.2)ThatPerCCAMSrequirethatallcaverswhoenterPerkinsCavebeequippedwithhardhatsandthreereliablesourcesoflight,andwhateverotherequipmentisnecessaryand fortheplannedtripandwhatisgenerallyrecognizedasbeingappropriateforsafecaving.3)ThatPerCCAMSbananyequipmentorobjectswhoseuseorpresenceinthecave,overanextendedperiodoftime,couldharmthecave or the CAve life.4)TolimitaccesstoPerkinsCavetoPerCCAMSmembers andtorequirethataPerCCAMSmemberbeonevery trip intothecave.S)Torequirethatshouldatripbesubdivided,thataPerCCAMSmember mustbeineachsubgroup.6)ThatonalltripsintothecavetheratioofPerCCAMSmemberstoNSSmembersnotmembersofPerCCAMS,shouldnotbelessthanonetotwo.7)ThatonalltripsintothecavetheratioofPerCCAMSmemberstonon-PerCCAMS memberswhoarenotNSSmembers,shallnotbelessthanonetoone.8)Thatalltripsintothecave,PerCCAMSmembersshouldmaintainlineofsightcontactwiththenon-membersexceptwhenlineofsightisnotasafeprocedureofmovingthroughagivenpassage.9)Shouldanexception in thesecavingregulationsbeneededfor.reasonsthatpromotecavingandcaveconservation,exceptionsmaybe made bythePerCCAMSBoardofDirectors. 169

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", .Ifurtherpromisetobind myaelf.my heirs. adminNam.NSSYe.NoNSSi}istratorsandexecutoratorepaytothePerkin. Addu CaveConservationand ManagementSocietyandanyNSSi}andallmembersorpersonsactinginconnection Name NBSYesNotherewiththeirheirsandsucce.sorsandas.isn. Addu ..anysumofmoney,that they oranyofthemmayNSSYe.NoNSSi}hereafterbecompelledtopayforanyreasonbecauNameof my participationinsuch Addre..IfurtherstatethatI havecarefullyreadtheforeName NSSYe.NoNSSi}goingreleaseand indemnifying agreementand know Addreuthecontentsthereofand I sign the aame aa my ownNSS(Jfreeact.NameNSS Yea NoAddress Givenundermyhand andaealthia _.....,..".... __dayof_______________,19_Caver(sign)_ Spouse(ifmarried,sign)InPresenceof:Witness(sign)Address _Witness(sign)_Address_APPENDIXiiiPerkinsCaveConservationand Management (PerCCAMS) P.O.Box7007 Richmond,VA23221TRIPANDKEYREQUESTFORMSend twocopiesofthisformtotheaboveaddress.Onecopywillbereturnedtoyou with thekey.PleasemailthePerkinsCaveGateKeytothefollowing PerCCAMS member:NameOfficePhone _Alloftheabove(&thoselistedonthepreviou.page)musthavesignedareleaseform in thepast2yearsorthetripwillnotbeapproved.Pleaseencloseallnecessaryrelease forms. Thefollowingpersonhasbeeninformedofthedetailsofthistripandwillbecalledorvisiteduponourreturn'from this cavetrip,byapproximately:TimeAMPM ---'Month YearNameOfficePhoneAddressHomePhone _City.StateZip_Thispersonwillcommencerescueproceduresbycalling,inthefollowingorder:JohnWilson (804)355-5203 (804)252-8252______ --'PerCCAMS Member (._-2. ________PerCCAMSMember ->-_.<.__ .-.CPerCCAMS}1ember...,('-----'-) _AddressHomePhone _City_StateZip _orCave Rescue Communication Network(CReN)at(804)924-7166,ifheorshehasnotbeencontactedbyTime,ThetripisplannedforDayMonthYear,___Day,___ --:Month.with asTripLeader.ThefollowingPerCCAMSmemberswillbeonthetrip:NameAddre-s-s----------------------NameAdJre-s-s----------------------NameAddre-s-s----------------------NameAddr:e-s-s----------------------Thefollowingnon-PerCCAMSmemberswillbe onthetrip:Purposeofthistrip:Checkallthatapplytothistrip.A.Mapping -Stateareaofcavetobemapped:B.CaveConservation1.CleanUp-Describemethodstobeusedandinwhatareaofthecave:2.Restoration-Describetherestorationproject,areaofcaveand methodstobeused:NameNSSYesAddr"-s-s-------NoNSSII_170

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C. Familiarization -TripsmUltbe 100%PerCCAMS memberl. Givearea ofcave ID.Photosraphy-PhotographerImUltbePer CCAMS memberl.Allphototriplar.tosupportthepurposes of PerCCAMS.D cribe thegoallofthetripand placea tob.photographed:E.RescueCompletethisformastimeallows.F.Scientific-Nospecimencollecting.DescribeAPPENDIXivP.O.Box7007, Richmond, VA23221 PERKINSCAVE TRIP REPORTFORM Dat._Trip Leader (Plrlonrespon.iblefor the conduct of the party): TripMembers(ifactualtrip member. weredifferentinanywayfromtho.eli.tedonthetriprequestform,li.there):Thispersonisanaddition__ordeletioD__(checkone)Thispersonisanaddition__ordeletion(checkone)Thispersonisanaddition(checkone)ordeletionG. ExplorationAlltripsmusthave100% PerCCAMS Members. Giveareaofcavetobeexplored:H.EnvironmentalImpactStudies-Evaluationofvandalismorstudythepotentialeffectsofpeopleandtheiractivitiesuponthecave.Intheeventofgateviolations,thisformmaybefilledoutafterashortcaveexaminationtrip.Describe:NameAddressCityNameAddressCityNameAddressCityStateStateState NSS (IZipNSS II ZipNSS II ZipI.Cave Management -TripsmustbetocarryoutthepurposesofPerCCAMS.Describe:J.CommunityRelations-Requiresboardapproval.Describe:KeystotheFarmgateandthehouseare ----desired.(Sometimesthesekeyswillbe sameascavegate)IunderstandthatastripleaderofthistripintoPerkinsCave, IamresponsibleforseeingthattheintentofallrulesandregulationsestablishedbyPerCCAMSarecarriedoutcompletely.IwillseethateachpersononthistripcomplieswithallPerCCAMSrulesandregulationsincludingpostingthe time inandoutofthecaveintheCaveRegister.Iwillcompleteatripreportfromwithin14daysafterthetrip.Signature_ TheuseofthefannhouseandotherfacilitiesbyPerCCAMSmembersisavailableuponrequest.ThesefacilitiesarebeingmadeavailablebyJohnWilsonatnochargetoPerCCAMSmembers,providedthateachtripleadertakesresponsibilityinseeingthatthehouseandbuildingareleftinatleastasgood aconditionastheywerefound.171Actualpurposesoftrip,ifdifferentthanthepurposestatedonthetriprequestform.Areasofcaveactuallyvisited:___Timefirstpersonenteredcave:Timelastpersoningroupemerged fromcave:__, __ Resultsoftrip(attachreportifnecessary): __ ObservationsthatmightbeusefultoPerCCAMS(attachreportifnecessary): __ EnclosedisthePerkinsCaveKey(s):YesNoSignature_

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THEEVOLUTIONOFTHEVIRGINIACAVECOMMISSION *John Wilson,RobertW.Custard,Evelyn W. Bradahaw,PhilipC.Lucaa,andJohnR.Hollinger ABSTRACT The V.iJlg.<.M.a on theCOIl4eJl.va.tl.onandU"e 06 pubfMhed a. llepoJl..t.totheGoVell.nOllandtheGeneJtal.inthan a. yea.ll.wUhnodUtec..ta:ppllopM.a;t).onandthenc.eMedtoex.iA:t. The Ca.vePllOtec..t.i.onActc.on.ta..i.nedmajolr..t.mplt.OvemeitUoveJl.:theoldt..aJJJ.inc..tud.i.ng:thebanMng 06 4a.e:uandUmUa.tl.on 06 cavecwneJl..uab.i..uty. Some06 :the.1le.c.omme.nda.tl.oM 06 :t1W.c.omm.iu.icnMe.duiVUbe.d .in:thU.papeJl..The.st:u.dyConmU4.i.onIr.e.c.omme.nded.that a pVllTlane.1t.tCave.Col7llni.44.i.onbe.u.ta.b UAhe.d.Th.i.4came.about .in a two-4.te.PpllOC.U4.AMell.muc.hnego.ti.a.tLngwUh.the..te.adeJl.4Mp 06 the.V.i.lr.g.i.n.i.aGe.neJtalM4embly, .that body appllcve.d a one.-YeaILc.onmU4.ionw.Uh $8000.00 .in6und4.TIW.budgetmade.U p044ible601lac.c.ompUAhingmanything4on o. 4c.a.e.ene.vell.be.601le.done.inthecavecommunUy. The Ca.ve.PIlO:te.c..t.i.onActxu.applr.ove.doVe.JuVhe.lm.i.nglyby.the.Genell.alM4emblywah.f.1;Uf.eOPP04.utonbut4e.vell.alame.ndme.itU:tha.tpltO.tec.tthetUght06thecave.o"-ttell.:toU4eIW.allhell.cavea4heOil4he4eunU.In 1980 :the.Cave.Comm.i.Mionxu. madea pVllTla.nentst:a.teAgenc.yMpMt06:theVepM.tme.lt.t06COMeIl.vaUonandEconom.i.c.Vevelopment.Howevell.,noadd.i.tiona.t6und.t.ngxu.pltOvided. Sincenoopell.a.t.i.ngMe ,now availablenOll.:thec.ormt.i..64.<.on,.the .<.ntell.u.tedcaveJl.460llmedtheV-Utgbua. Cave COYlJ.lell.vancy.topIWvide. a mean4On6und.<.ng,notonly the c.omm.i.4.<.on,but alonolr.encounag.<.ng:the.OWl1eJl.4Mpandmanagement06cavu. The pUllP04U 06 ac.oll4e1l.vanc.yMeUA.te.d.in:the Appendix..Th.i.4cave c.oMVtvanc.y wouldee/l.:to!r.a..i.e6u.nM6/LompubUc. MUc.Ua.Uon 6undJta.i.l..i.ngPllOje.e.uMc.ha4bingoandduu,etc.. The6undwould go to4u.ppO!L.tcave.a.c.qu..i.ilionandmanagementa4wellMtoM.ito!l.fja.n.i.zaUOYlJ.lucha4:theV.iIl.g.<.M.aCave.Comm.i44.<.on.atSTORY OFTHEESTABLISHMENTOFTHE VIRGINIA COMMISSIONONTHECONSERVATIONANDUSEOFCAVESIfirstsuggestedtheideaofacavecommissionin1970toacaverinRichmond.Hedidnotagreethatgettingthestateinvolvedwithcavesandcavingwouldbea goodidea.However,withinseveralyears,Ididindafewcavers who agreedthatacave missionwouldbeadesirablethingandby1975,I hadsetthewheelsinmotionthroughVirginiaStateDelegateBillAxselle.Together we .setup a committeetostudytheproblemsofcaveconservationandtheroleofthestateindealingwithcaveconservation.The new committee was composedofcavers,alegislator,representativesofseveralappropriatestateagenciesandrepresentativesofcommercialcavesinVirginia.After two meetings,itbecameapparent*Virginia Cave Commission,P.O.Box7007,Richmond,Virginia23221172thatthestateagencieswerenotinfavorofadd ing additionaldutiestotheiragencies.This,apparentlybecausetheyfeltthattheGeneralAssemblywouldnotfundanythingofthisnature,andtheydidnotwishtohaveanyadditionalworkwithoutadditionalfundings.So,thecaversweretoldbytherepresentativeoftheagencythatbeforetheiragencycouldsupportanyon-goingstateactivitytoprotectcaves,we wouldhavetothoroughlydocumentalmosteverythingaboutcavesinVirginia.Thisrequestwasbeyondourresourcestoaccomplishinanyreasonablelengthoftime.Theywereinformedofourlimitations.butsaidtheycouldnothelp.otherthantosupplyuswithacopyofJohnHolsinger'sbook,pescriptionsofCavesinVirginia.Uptothatpoint,thecommercialcaverepresentativeshadnot,inany'significantway,opposedwhatthecaversweretryingtodo.

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Sincethecurrentrouteappearedtobeunproductive,I madethedecisiontogostraighttotheGeneralAssemblywithourideas.IaskedDelegateAxselletodraftapreliminaryresolution,JointHouse Resolution10.Isentdraftcopiestoeveryoneonthiscommittee:commercialcaveowners,agencyheads,etc.,plusalltheNSSchaptersinVirginia,andaskedfortheirsupportandsuggestions.Nosuggestionscamein..Asaresult,Axsellesetup apublicmeetingwiththeRulesCommitteepriortothestartofthe1977sessionoftheGeneralAssemblyinordertogetanyinputfromtheRulesCommittee andotherinterestedpeople.Severalchangesweresuggestedatthismeeting,includingthedeletionoftheword "overcommercialization;fromthewhereaees.Weagreedtothat,andafterthathearing,representativesofcommercialcavesneveragainspokepubliclyagainstanyofour,resolutionsatanyhearingoverthenextthreeyears.The'onecommercialcaverepresentativewhospokeagainsttheresolutionatthathearingin1975opposedtheconceptofcommissionsingeneral.Hewasopposedtoanycavecommissionbecausehebelievedthatitwouldleadtogovernmentregulationofcommercialcaveoperations,eventhoughthiswasprohibitedbytheresolutions.Thisindividualcontinuedtoopposethecommissiontotheend andtriedunsuccessfullytogettheVirginiaChamberofCommercetoopposetheresolution.I donotthinkthatearlyoppositionoftheonecommercialcaverepresentativehadanyeventualeffectonhowlongittooktogettheresolutionpassed.InVirginia,manylegislatorsbelievethatbad lawsandbadresolutionsareworsethannolawsatall.So,whenthereisa newconceptproposed,theGeneralAssemblytendstotakeitstimewhileconsideringallaspectsoftheproposedlaw.ThreeorfouryearsistypicalforbillsandresolutionsofthistypetobepassedinVirginia.Thiswasparticularlytrueforthiscommissionsinceit.wasnotonlyanewconceptforVirginia,but,tothebestofmyknowledge,itisthefirstcommissioneverestablishedintheUnitedStatestostudytheoveralluseandconservationofcaves.Thecaveresolutionwascarrieduverin1977 andthenpassedin1978.ThevoteintheHouse was 67to7.Itwas amendedbytheSenate(fundsdeleted)andpassed40to0;theHousethenpassedtheSenateversion.Resolutionsdonotrequirethegovernor'ssignaturesothecommitteewasapprovedasofthefinaldayoftheGeneralAssemblyinMarch, 1978.WeanticipateddifficultyingettingtheresolutionpassedandhadplannedaneffortofseveralyearstogettheGeneralAssemblyused.totheideaofacave commission. Ialsoplannedtoeducatecaversasto'thereasonwhysuchacommissionwasneeded,andwhattherolesofcommissionsareintheprocessotestablishingagenciesandpassinglaw.Oneofthethings.thathelpgetbillsandresolutionspassedistohaveanarticulategroupofcitizenswhocanconvincetheirdelegatesoftheneedanddesirabilityofproposedlegislation.Ifoundthatmanycaversdidnotunderstandtheconceptofcommissionsingeneral,eventhoughthevastmajorityoflawsinVirginiagotherouteofeitherLegislativeStudyCommitteeor Commissions. Ihadtoconvincecaversthatultimatelythegoalofprotectingcaveswouldbebetter serVed notsolelybycaveprotectionlaws,butbyon-goingstructure,commission,agencieswhosepurposeistoprotectcaves,educatepeople,andevenmanage somecaves.Itisunlikelythatpunitivelawsalonecanade quately protectceves.Itisdesirabletohavepeoplewithinstategovernmentwho will comeup withpositive solutionstoproblemsandbeableto react quicklywhenthreatstocavesbecomeapparent.Thisprocessofworkingforthesupportofcaversbegantogetresultsinlate1977,when numerouscaversbegantocontacttheirdelegates.But,ultimatelythe Commission waspassedbecauseDelegateAxsellewasabletoconvinceJohnWarren Cook,SpeakeroftheHouse andchairmanoftheRulesCommitteeto give the com missionatry.Ibelievethat1978 wasthefirstyearthatthecommissioncouldhaveestablishedunderthecircumstances.Theseveralyearswaitingdidgiveustheopportunitytodevelopalistofstrongpotentialcommissionersand makethenecessarycontactwithinthepoliticalframework. Mostofthe members onthelistIsuggestedtoAxsellewereacceptedbytheGovernor. Tne Governorappointedthreecommissionerswhoweresuggestedbyothersources.Thepassageofthisresolutionisonlyastart.Ibelievethatapermanentcommissionoragencywillbenecessaryandourstudycommissionhasrecommendedthis.I wouldestimatethatitcouldtakeanywherefromthreetotenmoreyearstohavethisgoalrealizedinitsentirety,althoughwehavebeenabletoachievesomeofourobjectivesalreadyby1979.WORKANDRECOHMENDATIONSOFTHEVIRGINIA COMMIS SIONONTHEUSEANDCONSERVATIONOFCAVESTheVirginiaCommissionontheConservationandUseofCaves wastomake areporttotheGovernorandtheGeneralAssembly;dothisinlessthanayearwithnodirectappropriationandthenceasetoexist.Thatiswhathappened;its43-pagereportwaspublishedand went totheGovernorandtheGeneralAssemblywiththreemajorrecommendationsandextensivebackgroundmaterial.The CaveProtectionActcontainedseveralmajorimprovementsovertheold law, includingthebanningofspeleothemsalesandlimitationofcaveownerliability.SomeoftherecommendationsofthisCommissionaredescribedonthenextfewpages.SaleofSpeleothemsAmajorrecommendationoftheCommissionisthatVirginiajoinWestVirginiaandMarylandinbanningthesaleofspeleothemsortheirexportfromtheCommonwealthforsaleelsewhere(seeproposedVirginiaCaveProtectionAct,Appendix).Byeliminatingthisincentiveforremovingthesemineralformationsfromcaves,muchvandalismshouldbestopped.InformationontheprovisionsoftheStatecaveprotectionlawshouldbewidelydisseminated,perhapsbysignspostedincaveentrances,towarnvandalsthattheiractivitiesareunlawful.173

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Generallyspeaking,therearetwomarketsforspeleothems -souvenirhuntersandseriouscollectoraofmineralspecimens.Abanonspeleothemaalea will primarilyaffect the souvenirhunterwhobuysasmallspeleothemforadollarortwo from awaysiderockshoporsouvenirstand.Thesesouvenirspeleothemsareusuallynotparticularlyattractiveonceremoved fromtheirnaturalsurroundingsandhavelittlelaatingvalue.Souvenirhunters will probablynevernoticetheirdisappearanceifthesaleofspeleothemsisprohibited.Thepotential economic loaatoownersofrockshopsandsouvenirstands will benegligibleasspeleothemsalesusuallyaccountforonlya'minutepercentageoftheirbusiness.Further,moatofthesouvenirhunterswhowould buy aspeleothemiftheywereofferedforsaleprobably will end upbuyingsomeothertrinketifspeleothemsalesarebanned.Fortheseriouscollectorofmineralspecimens,abanonthesaleofspeleothems will notpreventthelegitimatecollectionofspeleothemsfromcavessimplybyobtainingthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecaveowner. Withtheprofitmotiveforcollectingremoved,collectingofspeleothemsisexpectedtobecomelimited,selective,andprofessionalinthewayitisdone.Indiscriminatecollectionbyprofiteersoperatingwithoutthecaveownerspermissionhopefully will beeliminated.LimitationofCave OwnerLiabilityAsrecreationalcavinghasbecomeincreasinglypopularoverthelastdecade,therehasbeenacorrespondingriseinthenumberofcavingaccidents.Undoubtedlythistrendwillcontinueasthesportofcavinggrowsandincreasingnumbersofinexperiencedandill-equippedindividualsentercaves.Forthecaveowner,caveaccidentsrepresentasourceofpotentialliability with whichitisdifficultforhimtodeal.Fewcaveownerscanobjectivelyevaluatethecavingabilitiesofpersonswishingtoentertheircave.Further,fewcaveownershaveeverbeenintheircave,andthuscannotevaluatethedifficultyoftheircaveortherisksinvolved.Manycaveowners ,areabsenteelandownersand,therefore,havelittleeffectivecontroloveraccesstotheircave.Thus,unlessacaveownercloseshiscavetoallpersonsbygatingitorpostingit,hehaslittlechanceoflimitinghispotentialliability.The Commission,therefore,recommendsthatcave beabsolvedfromliabilityintheeventofanaccidentintheircave.Personsenteringacavewouldthenhavetodosoattheirownriskexceptatcommercialcaveswhereanadmissionfeeispaid.TheprovisionsoftheproposedCaveProtectionAct(See Appendix)will,permittheuseofcavesforrecreationalandscientificpurposeswithoutimposingunwarrantedlia-bilitiesuponthecaveowner. 'ProposedPermanentCave Commission The Commission recommendsestablishingapermanentVirginiaCave Commission composedofelevenmembers,servingthree-yearstaggeredterms(seeproposedlegislationcreatingCommission,Appendix).Mostof the membersshouldbepersonsactiveand knowledgeableinthemanagement,exploration,study,andconservationofcaves.Expertiseinthefieldsofcavebiology,geolog,archeology,paleontology,174hiatory,andracr.ationmaybe reprs nted. Itbecameclaarduringthe Commi ion'.workthattherei.aroleintheCommonwealth tor apermanentVirginiaCave Commi ionto provide con-,sultative .ervic to.tateagencie.on problem. relatedtotheuee,managemont,prot.ction, andsciantific interpretationofcave. andkar.t landforms.(Seeappendixfor documantation onpastinteractionbetweenspeleologi.t. and Stataagencies.)ThisproposedpermanentCava Commi. sioncouldaleoprOVidecon.iderabl.ai.tancetostateagenciesbycoordinating programs oractivitiesthatinvolvecave.and' kar.t withfederalagencies,regional parka, localgovernments,andprivatecitizenCaves onPrivateProperty--Thepropo.edpermanent Cave Commissioncanplayan important roleinassistingprivatelandownersin conserving and managingcavesontheirproperty. Theleg18 lationcreatingtheproposedCave Commissionwill specificallychargethatbodywith studying theproposedCaveProtectionActcanbe more effectivelyenforced.Further,theproposed Cave CommissionwillbechargedwithstudyingtherightsofthepropertyownerunderVirginialawinordertoclarifywhoowns acavewhenthesurfacerightsandthemineralrightsareseparately Lastly.theproposedCave Commission will seektoidentifysignificantprivately awnedcaves indangerofbeingdestroyedand will stepswhichcanbetakentoprotectthese caves. Emphasiswillbeplacedon waysthe Commouwealtll canencourageprivateindividuals and groupstosavethesethreatenedcaves.Purchaseofsignificantcavesbygovernmentagenciesinordertoprotectthem;'houldbeconsideredameasureoflastresort.Caves onPublicProperty--The numberofVirginiacavesonpublicpropertyispresently un known.Severalcitiesandcountiesaswellastworegionalparksowncaves.TherearetencavesintheJeffersonNationalForestand twenty cavesintheCumberlandGapNationalHistoricPark.Cavesarealsolnowntoexistin the George WashingtonNationalForest and onStatelandowned bytheDepartmentof Highways,Divisi(.:<,.,f Parks,and Commissior.ofGameaudInlandFisheries.Only ahandfulofthesecavesaremanaged so astoprotectthecavefromvandalism and visitorsfrominjury.TheproposedCave CommissioncouldbeinstrumentalinassistingpublicagencieswhichowncavesinVirginiainformulatingandimplementingmanagementplansfortheircaves.AninventoryofpubliclyownedcavesinVirginiawouldbethelogicalfirststepinthisendeavor.Further,theproposedCave Commission wouldbeabletoputpublicagenciesintouch with trainedspeleologistswhencave-relatedproblemsarise.CivilDefense--Inthepast,a numberofVirginiacaveshavebeendesignatedascivildefenseshelters.Inmanycasesthecavesselectedwere suitableforthisuse(seeAppendixforfullerdiscussionofcivildefenseandcaves.)Typicallycavesarecoldand damp,usuallyareremotefromurbanpopulationcenters,andoccasionallyare

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subjectto flooding.Many haveverticalpitlor amall,tight pg...Thepropo.ed Cav.Commillion couldprepareli.tforuaebyState .nd federal civil d.fenae .gencie. of Virginia cave.luit.bl.foru.e civil defenae.heltera.Thi.wouldpreventpoible dia ter. ariaing a resultofthedesignationofinappropriate cavesas sheltera.Itia recommended thatsignsnowidentifying inap propriate c.ve. as civil defenseshelter.be removed.Advisina .ndAssistingPublic Agencies --A major functionoftheproposed Cave Commission willbeto advise .ndassistpublicagencies.Therepresentlyexists,duetotheeffortsoftheVirginiaSpeleologicalSurveyoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,awealthofd.taabout Virginia caves,but this in formation isnotgenerally accessible. Theproposedcave Commission willstudyways and meansofmakingthesedatamorereadilyavailabletoStateagenciesfor their inconstructionsiting,landuseplan ning. and environmental impactstatementreview.Aspreviouslymentioned,anelectronicdstastorageand retrieval systemmaintainedby 'anappropriateStateagencyseemstobethemostlogicalwayofprovidingreadyaccesstothesedata.' TheproposedCave Commission will beabletoactasaliason between cavingorganizations,cavescientists.publicagencies,andthegeneralpublic.For example. theproposedCave Commission may beabletohelplocalrescuesquadsobtaintheassistanceof experienced caverstohelpthem copewiththeunique problems posedbycaverescuesituations. Similarly. theproposedCave Commissioncould'assistingatheringinputfrominterestedpartiesifaStatecaverecreationplaniseverdeveloped.(Theneedforanddesirabilityofacaverecreationplan will bestudiedbytheproposedCave Commission.)Lastly.theproposedCave Commission will beabletoplayan important informationalrolebyprovidingStateagencieswithgeneralinformationaboutcavesandbyassistingtheseagenciesinprovidinginformationaboutcavestothepublic.Thescientific, recreational. andaestheticvalueofVirginia'scavesisnot,widelyrecognized.TheproposedCave Commission wouldattempttogenerateanincreasedawarenessofthevalueofVirginia'scavesandthelegalprotectionthesecavesaregivenunderVirginialaw.In,thisconnection, the proposedCave CommissioncouldprepareorassistotherStateagenciesinpreparingpublicationsoncavesorcaverelatedproblems.ConclusionVirginia'scavesrepresentaunique,limited,andnon-renewablenaturalresourceofgreatscientific,historic.educational.economic,andrecreationalvalue.Vandalismandpollutionarerapidlydestroyingthisresource.InordertopreventVirginia'sspeleanwildernessfrombeingdestroyedwithinoutlifetime.immediatestepsneedtobetakentoprotectVirginia'ssignificantcaves.The Commission recommendsthatapermanentCave Commission becreatedtoassistStateagenciesdealingwithcave-relatedproblems,thata new, morecomprehensiveCaveProtectionActbeenacted,andthattheVirginiaResearchCenterforArcheologybegrantedaspecialappropriationforthe1980-82bienniumtoconductatwo-yeararcneologicsurveyofVirginiacaves.175 ESTABLISHMENTOF A TEMPORARYCAVECOMMISSIONAND PASSAGE OFTHECAVEPllOTECTIONM:.T TheStudyCommi'lionrecomm.nded that a permanent Cave Commiuion beeltabli.bed., Thi.came.bout inatwo-.tepproce...Aftermuchnegoti.tingwiththeleader.hip theVirginia GeneralAI lembly,thatbodyapprovedaone-year Commi ion with$S,OOO.OOinfund..Thi.budget made itpOlsibleforaccompli.hing many thing.ona.caleneverbeforedoneinthecavecommunity. A.um maryofthese accomplishment. follow. onthenext few pages. The CaveProtection Act wasapproved overwhelm inglybytheGeneralAssembly with little oppo sitionbutseveralamendmentsthatprotect the rightofthecave owner to use hisor her caveasheorsheseesfit.Thecavingcommunityisindebtedtothe Common wealthofVirginiaanditsGeneralAssemblyforestablishingthefirstpermanentCave Commission intheUnitedStates,thusprovidingtheframeworkformoreeffectiveattemptstoprotectVirginia'suniquespeleologicalresources.The workoftheCommission wasalsofacilitatedbythecooperationof the VirginiaSpeleological establishedin1975asthesuccessortotheVirginiaCaveSurvey,whichhad been foundedin1954.WealsoappreciatethesupportofthemorethansixhundredmembersoftheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyresidinginVirginia.DuringtheyeartheCommissionheldsevenmeetingsforthepurposeofcoordinatingactivities. Minute3 ofthesemeetingshavebeendeposited with theofficeoftheDepartmentofConservationand Economic Development,forwhoseinterestandcooperationCommission members are grateful.ThreatstoVirginia'sCaves AlargenumberofVirginia'ssignificantcavesarerapidlydeterioratingasaresultof vandalism andheavytrafficincidenttotherecentgrowthofrecreationalcaveexplorationasasport.Asaresult,alargeportionofVirginia'snon-renewablecaveresourcesareindangerofbeingdestroyedwithinourownlifetime.SignificantCaves AmajoraccomplishmentoftheCommissionintheyear1979-1980 wasthedesignationof200cavesandsevenkarstareasintheCommonwealthas"significant". EleNen'criteriawere usedinevaluatingwhichcavesqualifiedforinclusiononthelist:archaeologic,biologic,economic,aesthetic,geologic,historic,hydrologic.paleontologic,andrecreationalsignificance.length.anddepth.Carryingoutthisprojectentailedextensivereviewofavailableliteratureaswellascanvassingallthemembersoftheorganizedcaving com munityinVirginiaandissuingcallsforinformationintheNSSNews(organoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety).VirginiaWildlife.andVirginiaMinerals.

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PubliclyOwnedCavesAnotheraccomplishmentoftheCommission wastodeterminethenumberofcaveslocatedonpubliclyownedpropertyinVirginiaandtheirlocation.WiththeassistanceoftheVirginisSpeleologicalSurveyandthroughcorrespondencewithmanypublicagencies,alist was derived.Atotalor92caveswerefoundonpubliclyownedland:45onfederalproperty,39 onstateownedlands,and8 ownedby cities ortowns.The Commission recommendsthat this listbereviewedandupdatedaftertwoyears,andeveryfiveyearsthereafter.The CommissionhasidentifiedapproximatelytenpercentofallknownVirginiacavesassignificantbecauseofrarefeatures,animalsfoundtherein,orunusualconditions. .of allcaveslocatedonpublicproperty,29%belongto'thissignificantcategory,representing12%ofallVirginia'ssignificantcaves.Manypubliclyownedcavescontainevidenceorartifactsofhistoricalimportance.Somewereminedforsaltpetre,whichwasusedinthemanufactureofgunpowderintheRevolutionaryand
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(CODEO"VIRGINIA 1()'150.11 at.seq.)IN VIRGINIA IT IS ILLEGALTO:Cavesare unique sensitive environments.Helppreservethiscaveforfuture generations to eqoy. THANKYOU.THE VIRGINIA CAVE COMMISSION Disturb, harm, or remove any bats or other living organisms in the cave, Disturborremove any historic or prehistoric artifactsorbones. Writeo'r marX upon the cave walls or surfaces. Break, deface,orremove any natural materialormineral formation. Utterordumpspent carbideorother waste materials, {l)ntISCAVEIS .PROTECTDBYVIRGINIASTATELAWFIGURE1.Signsintendedforplacementatcaveentrancesaredesignedtoeducatethecavingpublic.casewaswhetherthecircuitcourtofEdmonsonCounty,Kentucky,hadthepowertoorderasurveyofGreatOnyxCave.Edwards ownedthecaveentranceand was operatingthecavecommercially.Lee,aneighbor,believedthatpartsofGreatOnyxCaveextended'underhislandandthereforebelongedtohimaccordingtotheancientcommonlawdoctrine(thatwhoeverownsthesurfacealsoownstotheskyandtothedepthsbelow),andthatEdwards wasthereforeguiltyoftrespass.TheCourtdecidedthatalthoughEdwards ownedtheentrancetoGreatOnyxCave,anypartsofthecaveextendingunderLee'spropertybelongedtoLee.Sincetheonlymeansofdeterminingwhethertrespasswasoccurringwastosurveythecave,thecourtorderedasurveybegun.ProtectionofSignificantCavesThroughAcquisitionOtherconservationgroups,especiallywithintheorganizedcavingcommunity,alsomaybepotentiallywillingandabletoacquiresgnificantprivatelyownedcavestoinsuretheirpreservation.Infact,twooftheCommonwealth'slargest''wild''caves,ButlerCaveinBathCounty andPerkinsCaveinWashingtonCounty,arepresentlyownedand/ormanaged byconservationgroupsestablishedspecificallytopreservethem.The Commissionmaybeabletoplayaroleinbringingtogethercaveownersforwhomcaveareprimarilyanuisanceandthosegroupsorindividualsinterestedincaveprotection,forthepurposeofworkingoutmutuallyacceptabletermsforsometypeoftransferorsharedresponsibility.LawEnforcementWhereespeciallysignificantprivatelyownedcavesareinimminentdangerofbeingdestroyed,theCommissioncan'encouragetheirconservationbyinter ested individualsor groupswhomightbewillingtoacquirerightstothepropertythroughpurchase,lease,oreasement.TheNatureConservancy(TNC)maybementionedinthisconnection.TNCisanationalconservationorganizationdedicatedtothepreservationofnaturaldiversitythroughtheprotectionoflandscontainingthebestexamplesofthenaturalworld.TNChashelpedpreserveover1.5millionacresoflandthroughsome2,200individualprojects.TNCisfundedbydonationsoflandandmoneyandthroughgrantsand membershipfees.AnearlytaskoftheCommission wastostudywaysthattheCaveProtectionActcouldbemoreeffectivelyenforced.The CommissionconcludedthattheeffectivenessoftheActcouldbeenhancedbyusingtwobasicapproaches--informingthepublicaboutthelawandthevalueofcaves,andbyassistingcaveownersinformulatingmanagementplanstoprotecttheircaveproperty.Aspartofitsefforttoassistcaveowners,theCommission hadthreehundredsignsmade(Figure1)whichbrieflyoutlinedtheprovisionsoftheCaveProtectionAct.Thesesigns,madeofaluminum,willbeinstalledinsignificantcavesaroundVirginiabycaveownersandmembersofthecaving177

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community.Whiletheymaynotdetermaliciousvandals,thesesignsshouldhelppreventthekindofdamagetocavesthatresultsfromcarelessnessandignorance.Initsroleofinformingthepublicaboutcaves'andtheCaveProtectionAct,the Commission hascarriedoutanactiveprogram.Informationaboutthelawhasbeenwidelydisseminated cavingcircles.InNovember.forinstance.afulllengtharticleontheCaveProtectionActappearedinVirginiaMinerals.Morerecently.the Commission hadseveralthousandsmallbrochuresexplainingtheCaveProtection Act printedfordistributiontorecreationalcavers.Presently.a numberofinformativeexhibitsoncaveconservationarebeingbuiltfordisplayatVirginia'scommercialcaves.Throughadditionalpublications,pressreleases,and aspeakers'bureaucurrentlybeingsetup.theCommissionintendstocontinueitseffortstoeducatethepublic,aboutcavesandthelawsthatprotectthem.ItisanticipatedthattheCommissionwillalsoworkcloselywithotherstateagenciessuchastheVirginiaStateLibraryandtheDivisionofMineralResources.whichalsoprovideinformationaboutcavestothepublic.Forexample,theCommissionispresentlyinvestigatingpossiblesourcesof orslideshows oncaveswhichcould'beacquiredtoaddtothepresentcollectionattheVirginiaStateLibrary.Asotheropportunitiespresentthemselves.theCommissionundoubtedlywilltaketheinitiativeinordertocontinuetoprovidethepublicwithinformationaboutcavesthroughawidespectrumofmedia.OnlyaninformedandconcernedpubliccanensuretheprotectionofVirginia'sspeleologicalresources.CivilDefenseThe Commissionhasnotruledouttheuseofcavesas divil defenseshelters.althoughastudyofthisundertakeninseveralwesternstatesbytheNationalSpeleologicalSocietysomeyearsagoconcludedthat,cavesintheirnaturaland unimprovedstateareunsuitablesheltersforpeopleduringanuclearattack.Storageofmaterialsincavesislessexpensivethanusingthecaveasashelterforpeople;butbothareexpensivepropositionsinthatinitialmodificationsareusuallyextensiveandtheongoingmonitoringofaccesstotheshelterisessential.RecreationAnypositiontakenbytheCommission onthedevelopmentoftherecreationalpotentialofcavingshouldbeconsistent with thebasicprinciplefor which theCommission wasestablished:the conServation ofcaves witlrin the COmmonwealth. Inouropinion,visitingoneoftheseveralcommercialcavesintheCommonwealthisthepreferablewaytointroducethegeneralpublictothebeautiesandfascinationoftheundergroundworld.The CommissionshouldalwaysbereadytoprovideguidanceandinformationtocommercialcaveownerstoaidtheminenhancingtheattractionofcommercialcavestotouristsfromwithinandfromoutsidetheCommonwealth.178Because"wild"cavesareusedbybothpublicandprivategroupsforrecreationalpurposes,theCommissionshouldprovidethesegroupswithguidelinesbasedupontheprovisionsoftheCaveProtectionAct.Forindividualsandgroupswhohavenotbeenprovidedwithmoreinclusvieguidelines,signssummarizing,the CaveProtectionActwillbepostedinmostofVirginia'ssignificantcaves.ConclusionAspublicinterestinoutdoorrecreationcontinuestogrowandlanddevelopmentacceleratesintheintermontanevalleyswestoftheBlueRidge,increasedpressurewillbeputonVirginia'slimitedandfragilecaveresources.Inordertopreservetheuniqueeducational,recreational, historic,andeconomicvalueofVirginia'scavesandkarstareas,theCommonwealthneedstomake acontinuingcommitmenttosafeguardthisspeleanwilderness.ApermanentCave Commission, composedofconcernedcitizens.,workinginconjunctionwithotheragenciesoftheCommonwealth,appearstobethemosteffectivevehicle'forfocusingtheattention of bothgovernment andthepubliconthisgoal.ItisanticipatedthatfutureeffortsoftheCave CommissiontoconserveVirginia'scaveresourceswillfallprimarilyintofourbroadareas--collectingandmaintainingacompletedatafileoncaveresourceswithintheCommonwealth,providinginformationtothepublicaboutcaves,theirvalue,andthelawsprotectingthem,advisingandassist ing publicagenciesandprivatelandownersmaking management andlandusedecisions,andstudyingthoseaspectsofcaveownershipandmanagementthataredirectlyaffectedbypublicpolicy.The Commission lIasalreadymadegreatprogressincollectingandmaintainingacavedatafile.TheestablishmentoftheVirginiaSignificantCaveListandtheinventoryofpubliclyownedcavesweregreatmilestonesintheassessmentofVirginia'scaveresources.Thedevelopmentofa computerdatastorageandretrievalsystemincooperationwiththeDivisionofMineralResourceshasputawealthofeasilyaccessiblecavedataatthedisposalofengineersandplannersthroughouttheCommonwealth. AlistofVirgi.niacaveownersiscurrentlybeingcompiled.Asmoredatabecomesavailable,theCommissionwilladdtoandupdatethesedatafileson acontinuousbasis.Initsongoingroleasasourceofinformationaboutcavesandtheirprotection,theCommissionhaspublishedseveralarticlesandbrochuresasnotedabove.Inthecomingyear,theCommissionplanstoerectsignsatsignificantcavesstatingtheprovisionsoftheCaveProtectionActandplacedisplaysatseveralofVirginia'scommercialcaverns.Acontinuingprogramofpublishingarticlesandbrochuresoncaves,theirvalue,andtheirprotectionisalsoenvisioned.The Commis sion'sspeakersbureauoncave-relatedsubjectsisexpectedtobecome afullyfunctioningentity.Cooperativeeffortswithotherpublicagencieswhich.provideinformationoncavestothepublicareanticipatedaswell.

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ThestudyfunctionsofthecaveCommissionwilldiminishsignificantlywiththepublication ot thisreport.Whilesomeaspectsofcaveconservationsuchascaveownerahiplawandthe ettectiveness andenforcementoftheCaveProtection Act willrequirefurtherstudy,thebasic studies establishingthevalueandextentofVirginia'scavereaource.andthethreatstotheseresourceshavebeen com pleted.TheprincipalfocusoffutureannualreportsbytheCommissionwillbeonthechangesinthestateoftheCommonwelath'scaveresourcesandontheCommission'songoingeffortstoconservethem.Initsadvisorycapacity,theCommissionhasbeenactivelydeveloping its abilitytosssistpublicagenciesandprivatelandownersengagedinmakingcavemanagementandlandusedecisions.Forexample,dataon.thelocationandsignificanceofcsvesalongtheproposedrouteofUS #58 inLee County wasprovidedtotheDepartmentofHighwayssothatdestructionofsignificantcavescouldbeavoided.Inanotherinstance,theCommissionnotifiedtheVirginiaResearchCenterforArcheologyaboutanimportantfindofIndianinscriptionsina Bath Countycaveandarrangedpermissionfora James MadisonUniversityarcheologisttovisitthecavetoevaluatethesignificanceofthefind.Withthe new computerizeddatabasedevelopedbytheCommissionandtheunusualspeleologicexpertiseoftheCommission'smembers,anexpandingroleisforeseenfortheCommissioninthedevelopmentofcavemanage mentplans,theprotectionofsignificantcaves,andthestudyoflanduseinkarstareas.ItishopedthattheCommissioncancontinuetoprovidethefocusforcaveconservationeffortsinthecommonwealth andtoserveasthesourceofauthoritativeinformationonallaspectsofcaveusefromrecreationtocivildefense.EStABLISHMENTOFTHEPERMANENTCAVECOMMISSIONIn1980,theCave Commission was made apermanentStateAgencyaspartoftheDepartmentofConservationand Economic Development. However, noadditionalfunding was provided.SincenooperatingfundsarenowavailablefortheCommission,the in terestedcaversformedtheVirginiaCave Conservancytoprovidea meansoffunding,notonlytheCommission,butalsoforencouragingtheownershipand managementofcaves.ThepurposesofaConservancyarelistedintheAppendix.ThisCaveConservancywouldseektoraisefundsfrompublicsolicitationfund-raisingprojectssuchasbingoanddues,etc.Thefundswould gotosupportcaveacquisitionandmanagementas well astoassistorganizationssuchastheVirginiaCave Commission.APPENDICESVirginiaCaveProtectionActChapter252AnActtoamendtheCodeofVirginiabyaddinginTitle10 achapternumbered12.2,consistingofsectionsnumbered10-150.11through10-150.18,andtorepeal18.2-142oftheCodeofVirginia,theadded andrepealedsectionsrelatingtotheconservationandprotectionofcaves;penalty.179Approved March IS,1979.BeitenactedbytheGeneral Aalemblyot Virginia:1.ThattheCodeofVirginiail amendedby add-inginTitle10achapternumbered12.2, consist ing ot sectionenumbered10-150.11through10-150.18 as follow.:CHAPTER12.2VIRGINIACAVE PROTECTION ACT.150.11.Finding.andpolicy.-TheGeneralAaeembly herebyfindethat cavesareuncommon geologicphenomena, andthatthe minerals depolitedthereinmaybe rare and occurin unique fOrm8 ofgreatbeautywhich are irreplaceableifdestroyed.Alsoirreplaceablearethearcheological resources incaveswhich are ofgreatscientificandhistoricvalue.Itisfurtherfoundthattheorganismswhichliveincavesareunusualandoflimitednumbers;thatmanyarerare andendangered species;andthatcavesareanaturalconduitforgroundwaterflowandarehighly subject to water pollution,thushavingfar-reachingeffects transcend ingman'spropertyboundaries.ItisthereforedeclaredtobethepolicyoftheGeneralAssembly andtheintentofthischaptertoprotecttheseuniquenaturalandculturalresources.910-150.12. Definitions.--.4B sedinthischapter,thefollowingwordsshallhavethe meanings statedunlessthecontextrequires otherwise: A."Cave" means anynaturallyoccurringvoid,cavity,recess,orsystemofinterconnectingpassagesbeneaththesurfaceoftheearthor within aclifforledgeincludingnaturalsubsurfacewateranddrainagesystems,butnotincludinganymine,runnelaqueduct,orother excavation, islargeenoughto ermita persontoenter.Theword"cave"includesoris synony mous with cavern,sinkhole,naturalpit,grotto,androckshelter.B."CoDunercialcave"means anycaveutilizedbythe owner forthepurposesofexhibitiontothegeneralpublicasaprofitornODrofitenterprise,whereinafeeis f01 entry.C."Gate"means anystructureor de,,-ice locatedtolimitorprohibitaccess '1 toanycave.D."Sinkhole"means aclosed topogTaphic depressionorbasin,generallydrainingundetgrouna,including,butnotrestrictedto,adoline,\1vala,blindvalley,orsink.E."Person"or"persons"means anyindividual,partnership,firm,association,trust,orcorporationorotherlegalentity.F. "Owner" means apersonwhoowns titl-e tolandwhereacaveislocated,includingapersonwho owns titletoaleaseholdestateinsuchland,andspecificallyincludingtheCommonwealthandanyofitsagencies,departments,boards,bureaus,commissions,orauthorities,aswellascounties,municipalities,andotherpoliticalsubdivisionsoftheCommonwealth.G."Speleothem"means anaturalmineralformationordepositoccurringinacave.Thisincludesorissynonymous 9talactite helectite,shield,anthodite,gypsumflowerandneedle,angel'shair,sodastraw,drapery,bacon,cavepearl,popcorn(coral),rimstonedam,column.

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palette,flowstone,etcetera.Speloethemsare monly composedofcalcite,epsomite, gypsum, aragonite,celestite,andother similar minerals.H."Speleogen"meansanerosionalfeatureofthecaveboundaryandincludesorissynonymouswithanastomoses,scallops,rills,flutes,spongework,and.pendants.I."Material"meansalloranypartofanyarcheological,paleontological,biological,orhistoricalitemincluding,butnotlimitedto, any petroglyph,pictograph,basketry,humanremains,tool,beads,pottery,projectilepoint,remainsofhistoricalminingactivityoranyotheroccupation,foundinanycave.J."Cavelife"means anylifeformwhichnormallyoccursin,uses,visits,orinhabitsanycaveorsubterraneanwatersystem,exceptingthoseanimalsandspeciescoveredby anyofthegamelawsoftheCommonwealth.Q-150.13.Vandalism;penalties.--A.Itshallbeunlawfulforanyperson,withoutexpress,prior,writtenpermissionoftheowner,to:1.Break,breakoff,crack,carveupon,write,burn,orotherwisemarkupon,remove,orinany mannerdestroy,disturb,deface,mar,orharmthesurfacesofanycaveoranynaturalmaterialwhichmaybefoundtherein,whetherattachedorbroken,includingspeleothems,speleogens,andsedimentarydeposits.Theprovisionsofthissectionshallnotprohibitminimaldisturbanceforscientificexploration.2.Break,force,tamperwith,orotherwisedisturbalock,gate,door,orotherobstructiondesignedtocontrolorpreventaccesstoanycave,eventhoughentrancetheretomaynotbegained.3.Remove,deface,ortamperwithasignstatingthatacaveispostedorcitingprovisionsofthischapter.B. Theenteringorremaininginacavewhichhasnotbeenpostedbytheownershallnotbyitselfconstituteaviolationofthissection.C.AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.Q-150.14.Pollutionunlawful;penalities.--A.Itshallbeunlawfulforanyperson,withoutexpress,prior,writtenpermissionofthe owner, tostore,dump,litter,disposeoforotherwiseplaceanyrefuse,garbage,deadanimals, toxicsubstancesharmfultocavelifeorhumansinanycaveorsinkhole.Itshallalsobeunlawfultoburnwithinacaveorsinkholeanymaterialwhichproducesany smokeorgaswhichisharmfultoanynaturallyoccurringorganisminanycave.B.AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.Q-150.15.Biologicalpolicy;penaltiesforviolation.--A.Itshallbeunlawfultoremove,kill,harm,orotherwisedisturbanynautrallyoccurringorganismswithinanycave,exceptforsafetyorhealthreasons;provided,however,scientificcollectingpermitsmaybeobtainedfrom anycavecommissionestablishedforsuchpurposeorfromtheappropriateStateagency.B.AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.-150.16.Archeology;permitsforexcavation;howobtained;penaltiesforviolation.--A.In180ordertoprotectthearcheologicalresourcesnotcoveredbytheVirginiaAntiquitiesAct(150.1etleq.),it'shallbeunlawfultoexcavate,remove,deltroy,injure,deface,orin any mannerdiaturb any burialgrounds,historic'orprehistoricrllourcel,archeologicalorpaleontologicalliteor any partthereof,including=elics,inscriptions,saltpatreworkings,fossils,bones,remainsofhistoricalhumanactivity,oranyothersuchfeatureswhichmaybe foundinany cave, exceptthosecavesowned bytheCommonwealthordesignatedas Commonwealth archeologicalsiteaorzones,andwhicharesubjecttotheprovisionsoftheVirginiaAntiquitiesAct.AnyviolationofthissubsectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.B.NotwithstandingtheprovisionsofsubsectionA.hereof,apermitto or remove archeological,paleontologicalprehistoric,andhistoricfeaturesmaybeobtained from theVirginiaHistoricLandmarks Commission. The Collllllissio:\ mayissueapermittoconductfieldinvestigationsiftheCommissionfindsthatitisinthebestinterestoftheCommonwealth,thattheapplicant meets thecriteriaofthissectionandtheapplicantisanhistoric,scientific,oreducationalinstitution,professionalarcheologistor whoisqualifiedandrecognizedintheareasoffieldinvestigationsorarcheology.Suchpermitshallbeissuedforaperiodof two yearsandmayberenewed uponexpiration.Suchpermitshallnotbetransferrable;provided,however,theprovisionsofthissectionshallnotprecludeanypersonfromworkingunderthedirectsupervisionofthepermittee.C.Allfieldinvestigations,explorations,orrecoveryoperationsundertakenunderthissectionshallbecarriedoutunderthegeneralsupervisionofthe Commb ..ionerofArcheologyoftheVirginiaResearch forArcheologyandtheVirginiaHistoricLandmarks Commissionandina mannertoinsurethatthemaximumamountofhistoric,scientific,archeologic,andeducationalinformationmayberecoveredandpreservedinadditiontothephysicalrecoveryofobjects.D.Apersonapplyingforapermitpursuanttothissectionshall:1.Have knowledgeofarcheologyorhistoryasqualifiedinsubsectionB.hereof.2.Provideadetailedstatementtothe Comio siongivingthereasonsandobjectivesforexcavationorremovalandthebenefitsexpectedtobeobtainedfromthecontemplated work. 3.Providedataandresultsofanycompletedexcavation,study,orcollectionatthefirstofeachcalendaryear.4.Obtainthepriorwrittenpermissionofthe owner ifthesiteoftheproposedexcavationisonprivatelyownedland.5.Carrythepermitwhileexercisingtheprivilegesgranted.E.AnyviolationofsubsectionA.hereofshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.Any viola tionofsubsectionD.hereofshallbepunishedasaClass4misdemeanor,andthepermitshallberevoked.F.Theprovisionsofthissectionshallnotapplytoanypersoninanycavelocatedonhis own property.

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-150.17.Saleofspeleothemsunlawful;penaltiesrItshallbeunlawfulforanypersontosellorofferforsaleanyspeleothemsinthisCommonwealth,ortoexportthemforsaleoutsidetheCommonwealth.AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.-150.18.Liabilityofowners andagentslimited.-Neithertheownerofacavenorhisauthorizedagentsactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityareliableforinjuriessustainedbyanypersonusingthecavefor orscientificpurposesifnochargehasbeenmadefortheuseofthecave,notwithstandingthataninquiryastotheexperienceorexpertiseoftheindividualseekingconsentmayhavebeenmade.NothinginthissectionshallbeconstruedtoconstituteawaiverofthesovereignimmunityoftheCommonwealthoranyofitsboards,departments,bureaus,oragencies.2.That18.2-142oftheCodeofVirginiaisrepealed.HOUSEBILLNO.1800 ABILLtoamendtheCodeofVirginiabyaddinginTitle9achapternumbered24.1,consistingofsectionsnumbered9-152.1through9-152.5,creatingtheCave Commissionitspowers;duties;andtheconductofacavestudy;appropriationandexpenditureoffunds.Patron-AxselleReferredtotheCommittee onRulesBeitenactedbytheGeneralAssemblyofVirginia:1.ThattheCodeofVirginiaisamended byaddinginTitle9achapternumbered24.1,consistingofsectionsnumbered9-152.1through9-152.5,asfollows:CHAPTER24.1CAVECOMMISSION9-152.1.Cave Commissionestablished;compensation-A.ThereisherebyestablishedintheofficeoftheDepartmentofConservationand Economic DevelopmenttheCave Commission whosepurposeshallbetoimplementthepolicysetfortyinthisarticleandtomakerecommendationstointerestedStateagenciesconcerninganyproposedrule,regulationoradministrativepolicywhich woulddirectlyaffectorbearupontheuseandconservationofcavesinthisCommonwealth. MembersoftheCave CommissionshallmeetasnecessaryandservewithoutcompensationbutshallbereimbursedfortheirreasonableandnecessaryexpensesincurredintheperformanceoftheirdutiesasCommissionmembers.B.The Cave CommissionshallconsistofelevenmemberswhoshallbeappointedbytheGovernor onthebasisofmeritandshallbeactiveandknowledgeableintheconservation,exploration,study,and management ofcaves.C.Each member mustbeacitizenofVirginia.The membersoftheCommissionshallserveforaterm181ofoneyearcommencingJulyone,nineteenhundredseventy-nine.D.The Commissionshallannuallyelectachairman,vice-chairmanandrecordingsecretary.9-152.2.Meetings.--theCave Commissionestablishedpursuantto9-152.1shall keep acompleteandaccuraterecordofallCommissionmeetings,suchrecordtobeavailableforinspectionbythepublicintheofficeoftheDepartmentofConservationand Economic Developmentduringnormalworkhours.Sixmembersshallconstitutea quorumforthetransactionofbusiness.9-152.3.FunctionsofCave Commission.--TheCave Commissionmayperformthefollowingfunctions:A.Serveasanadvisoryboardtoany request ingStateagency onmattersrelatingtocavesandkarst.B.Conductaninventoryofpublicly ownedcaves inVirginia.C.Providecavemanagement expertise andservicetorequestingStateagenciesincludingtheperparationofmanagementplansfor nonca.aercial cavesonpubliclyownedproperty.D.IdentifyallsignificantcavesinVirginiaandreportanyrealandpresentdangertosuchcaves.E.Providecavedataforuseby Scate andothergovernmentalagencies whichprepare orreviewenvironmentalimpactstatementsandlanduseplans.F.Publishorassistinpublishingarticles,pamphlets,brochuresorbooksoncavesandcave-relatedconcerns.G.Facilitatedatagatheringandresearcheffortsoncavesandperformsuchotherfunctionsasmaybe deemednecessaryinkeeping with thegeneralpurposesofthisarticle.9-152.4.Cave Commissiontostudyandreportoncavemattersof concern.--InadditiontoallotherdutiesoftheCave Commission, itshallbetheresponsibilityofthe Commission tostudythe-followingareasofgeneralandspecialconcernsandprepareareporttotheGovernorandGeneralAssemblynotlaterthanJunethirty,nineteenhundredeighty:A.WaysinwhichStateagenciescanassistlocalauthoritiesinobtainingtheassistanceofexperiencedcaverstohelpthemin cave rescuesituations.B.WaysinwhichtheStatecanencourageprivateindividualsandconservationgroupsinterestedincaveconservationtopurchaseandprotectsignificantcavesin dangel: ofbeingdestroyedC.Virginialawsrelatingtocaveownershipinordertoclarifyownershiprightsanddeterminepotentialliabilities.D.Waysand meansofmakingcavedataavailablethroughanelectronicdatastorageandretrievalsysteminordertoassistpublicagenciesin mak ingdecisionsdirectlyorindirectlyaffectingcaves.E. TheneedforanddesirabilityofaStatecaverecreationplan.F. Ways inwhichtheVirginiaCaveProtectionActcanmoreeffectivelybeenforced.G.Theuse.presentandfuture,ofVirginiacavesascivildefenseshelters.

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H.WaysinwhichtheStatecanadvisethepublicaboutthelegalprotectiongiventocavesunderthelawandthepenaltiesforviolationsofthoselaws.9-152.5.Expendituresandfunding.--The Commissionmayacceptanygift,money,securityorothersourceoffundingandisauthorizedtoexpendsuchfundsasarenecessaryinordertoeffectuatethepurposesofthischapter.2.ThatthereisherebyappropriatedfromthegeneralfundoftheStateTreasurytotheCave Commissionthesumofeightthousanddollarsinordertoimplementtheprovisionsofthisactforthe1979-1980fiscalyear.ARTICLESOFINCORPORATIONOFTHEVIRGINIACAVECONSERVANCYARTICLEI -The nameofthecorporationistheVirginiaCaveConservancy.ARTICLEII -ThepurposeofthecorporationshallbeA.TopromotetheconservationofcavesinVirginiaandcontiguousstates.B.Toacquirethemanagementrightsofcavesinneedofprotectionandmanagement whenfeasibleandappropriatetoadequatelyprotectandconservethesecavesandtheircontents;andtomanagethesecavesinthebestwaypossibletoservethepublicinterestandprotectthecaves.C.Topromotethescienceandtechnologyofcavemanagement;D.Topromotethescientificstudyofcaves;E.TopromotethequalityoflifeinVirginiainsofarasappropriatecaveconservationandusecancontributetothis.F.Toserveasafundraisingorganizationon anon-profitbasistohelpachievetheabovepurposesandtoprovidegrantstootherorganizationswhicharedevotedtoaccomplishingthesesamegoals.ARTICLEIII -MembershipintheCorporationisopentoallinterestedpersonscomingwithinthepurviewofArticleIIabove,whoareapprovedformembership bytheBoardofDirectors.AllmembersoftheCorporationshallbeentitledtovoteforthe oftheCorporationandshallbeentitledtoalloftheprivilegesofmembership.ARTICLEIV -TheaffairsoftheCorporationshallbemanaged by aBoardofDirectorswhichshallconsistofthePresident,theVicePresident,Secretary,theTreasurerandsuchothermembersasmaybedeterminedbytheBoardofDirectors.One-thirdofthemembersoftheBoardofDirectorsshallbeelectedeachyearattheAnnualmeetingoftheCorporation.TermsofDirectorsshallbeforthreeyears.TheofficersshallbeelectedbytheBoardofDirectors.ARTICLEV'--Theaddressoftheinitialregisteredofficeis2908IdlewoodAve.,intheCityofRichmond,Virginia.TheCityinwhichtheinitialregisteredofficeislocatedisRichmond. The nameoftheCorporation'sinitialregisteredagentisJohnM.Wilson,whoisaresidentofVirginiaand aDirectoroftheCorporationand whosebusinessofficeisthesameas182theregisteredofficeoftheCorporation.ARTICLEVI--The numberofdirectorsconstitutingtheinitialBoardofDirectorsistwelve(12)andthenames andresidenceaddressesofthepersonswhoaretoserveastheinitialdirectorsare:JohnM.Wilson,President7901DalmainDrive,Richmond,Virginia,23228Mail:2908Idlewood,Avenue,P.O.Box7007,Richmond, Va. 23221Home:(804)262-8262,Office:(804)355-5203RobertW.Custard,Vice'President2628JeffersonParkCircle,Charlottesville,Virginia,22903.Phone:293-2060Evelyn W. Bradshaw,Secretary1732 ByronStreet,Alexandria,Virginia,22303Horne:(804)765-0669Office:(202)547-4343PatriciaJ.Stephens,Treasurer4655 Selwood Road, Richmond,Virginia,23234Home:(804)271-4619Dr.RobertC.Anderson6140ChesterbrookRoad,Mclean,VirginiaHome:(703)356-6494RoyClark4164S.36thStreet,Arlington,Virginia,22206 HenryT.N.Gravesc/oLurayCavernsCorp.,P.O. Box748,Luray,Virginia,22835,Phone:(703)743-6551JohnR.HolsingerDept.ofBiology,Old DominionUniversity,Norfolk,Virginia,23508,Office:(804)489-6281,Home:(804)625-0327Rev.JohnM.KettlewellBlueRidgeSchool,Dyke,Virginia.22935PhilipC.Lucas320CrestfieldCourt,Charlottesville.Virginia.22901,Home:(804)973-8143.Office:(804)977-7400.RoyD.Powers,Jr.Rt.1,Box153,Duffield.Virginia.24244Dr.VirginiaM.TiptonBiologyDepartment,RadfordCollege,Radford.Virginia,24142,Office:(703)731-5191INCORPORATORS:JohnM.Wilson,PresidentPatriciaJ.Stephens,Treasurer

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ADVENTURECAVINGSTATEMEMORIALAN-ATPROGRAMUNDERGROUNDMISSOURIBRIDGEADVENTUREROCKHIGHPARK.*ScottW.SchulteABSTRACT Ul.i.nflwddcave.6 a:tRoc.k.BJUdge.Me.moJUa.lSta:te.PMk.ne.MColwnbia, a paJrk-c.onduct.e.d adve.ntuJte. c.avingpJWgJta.mintltoduc.e.6non-c.avVUltothe.I.lpoJz.t06cav.<.ngandtothe.e.c.ologyandge.o.togy 06 c.ave.6.The.pJtogJta.mhUpiJte.6M an adve.ntMe.Cave tM:pl.lMec.onductedMa
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Anotherimportantresourceofthecavesisthelifethatisfoundwithin.Associatedwithcaves,ofcourse,arebats,andtheDevil'sIceBoxisnoexception. Most cavebatspeciesoftheareahavebeensightedintheDevil'sIceBox. TheeasternPipistrillebat,BigBrownbatandLittleBrownbararecommonlyseeninthecave.Twothatareontheendangeredspecieslist,theIndianabat sodaZis) andtheGraybat (MYotisgrisescens) alsooftenvisitthecave. MYotisgrisescens usesthecavewhilemigratinganda guano pilesuggeststhatthecavemayhavebeenusedasa maternitycolonysiteinthepast.Othercavelifeincludessalamandersthatfindtheirwayintothecave.Manyinvertebratessuchas am phipodsandisopodsarefoundinthewater.Insectsandspiderscanalsobefoundinthecave.Neithercavefishnorcavesalamandershavebeenfoundinthecave;butanothercreature,thepinkplanaria (Macrotyta gZanduZosa) isfoundonlyinBooneCounty,MissouriandperhapsonlyinRockBridgeStatePark.ThisflatwormhasbeenfoundandidentifiedonlyintheDevil'sIceBoxandaspringinthepark.ThespecieshasalsobeenreportedfromBolten'scave(alsoinBooneCounty),buttheidentificationhasnotbeenconfirmed.BecausethepinkplanariaislistedonMissouri'srareandendangeredspecieslist,weareveryconcerned with thestudyandprotectionofthisanimal.It will berecommendedforinclusionontheFederalRareand EndangeredSpecieslist.Anotherconsiderationindevelopingmanagementstrategyforthecaveswasthedemandputontheresource.Inadditiontoparktours,recreationalcaversvisitthecaves.Thistypeofactivityisnotheavyandresultsinabout15to25tripsperyeartoparkcaves. Most caversareexperiencedandaremembersofspeleologicalorganizations.Anotherimpactonthecaveresourcesisdevelopmentofthesinkholeplainthatdrainsthroughthecaves.Impactonthecavesmaybeexperiencedthroughwaterpollutionduetodevelopmentandlandusepracticesonthoseportionsofthe karstthatarenotprotectedbystateownership.Theareaisrapidlyshiftingfromprimarilyagriculturalusetoresidentialdevelopment.Studiesconducted in 1971and1973wereinconclusiveregardingpollutioneffectstothecavestreamsystem.Furtherstudieshavenotbeendone.However,observationsofstream organisms, whicharegoodindicationsofwatercondition,doesnotindicatesevereproblemsatthistime.Anothermoredirectdevelopmentconsiderationwas aproposaltodeveloptheDevil'slee-Boxforeasyaccessandtoconductinterpretivetourswithinthecave.Developmentwastoincludeashaftopeningintothecaveupstreamofthewaterpassageandaboardwalkwithin-thecave.Athirduseof the cave'isthatofscientificresearch.Columbiaisthelocationofthreeuniversitiesincluding the UniversityofMissouri.ThereisalsoafederalfishresearchfacilityandtheresearchfacilityofoursisteragencytheMissouriDepartmentofConservation.AllofthesefacilitiesonoccasionhavereasontovisitthecavesatRock184Bridgeforworkon researchproblems.Alsotobeevaluatedwastheimpactanadventurecavingprogramwouldhaveontheresource.RockBridge StateParkhasbeenconductingapilotoutreachprogramforabouttwoyears.Thephilosophybehindtheprogramisthatastateparkcould bemore thanastaticentitynotjustaplacewherepeoplecometorecreate.Wefeltthatbyofferingnontraditionalprogramswecouldprovideexperienceswhichwoulddevelopandreinforcethevaluesembodiedinthestateparkconcept.Ourgoalwastodevelopappreciationandunderstandingofnaturalresourcesandtoteachtheskillsneededtoparticipateinvariousoutdooractivities.Orienteering,backpacking,canoeing,crosscountryskiing,kayaking,wintercamping,survivalskills,naturestudyand .caveexplorationaresomeoftheprogramsoffered.TheprogramsareofferedtothepublicthroughtheColumbiapublicschooladulteducationprogramandtogroupsthataskforspecificprogramssuchastheSierraClub,GirlScouts,4-Handuniversitygroups.Theseprogramsdifferfromtraditionalparkprogramsinthatwhileusingtheparkasaresourcebaseweoffertheseprogramsexternallyandarenotlimitedtousingtheparkastheprogramsite.ThroughouroutreachprogramswearetakingtheparkandexperiencestothepeopleBecauseoftheparkresources,cavingwasconsideredtobeanaturalforinclusionintheoutreachprograms.Impactcouldnotbeoverlookedandcarefulconsiderationwasgiventohowtheprogramcouldbecompatibletothepark'sroleincarryingoutthemissionoftheDepartment.Asastatepark,RockBridgeMemorialStateParkisadministeredbytheDivisionofParksandHistoricPreservationoftheMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResources.TheroleoftheDivisionistwofold:preservationandrecreation.Interpretationisamethodusedtoassistinthepreservationofournaturalandhistoricresourcesaswellasconductedinsuchawayastoberecreationalforthosetaking parx inaprogram.Within these guidelinesa lowimpactcavingprogramwas deemedtobeappropriateforRockBridge.Afinalimportantitemtobeconsideredintheoverallmanagement schemeisthecaveswassafety.BothDevil'sIceBox andPolly'sPotaredangerous.ThelongwaterpassageintheIceBoxandtheverticalentranceto.Polly'sPotexceedtheusualhazardsexpectedincaVing.Insummary,weassimilatedallofthesefactorsintoa management schemeforthepark'scaves.TheResourceDemand-actualandprojectedroleofparksafety.Themannerinwhichweareoperatingthecavesnowconsistsofthefollowingitems: ,.

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Thecaves ,willclosedfromMay' toAugust.Polly's locke'd..' onhavingatripornot.Ifthelikelihoodoffloodingissignificantwecancelor postpone thetrip. INo A permi".. used.Anadventure.. caving ispresented... "",' .Forbothcavetripsweprovidedthebasiccavingequipmentneeded--acavinghelmetand aJustriteelectricheadlampforeachpersonand awaterproofflashlight.Westartedtheprogramtryingtousecarbidelampsbecauseoftheloweroperatingcost,butsoonfoundthatthecarbidelampsweretemperamentalforinexperiencedusersandeveninthebestofconditionswerearealtimewaster.Nowweprovidetheheadlampandtheflashlightandparticipanthastoprovidethebatteriesforthoselightsandanadditionalthirdsourceoflight.Wealsoprovidetheboatsandclimbinggearneededforthecaves.Ravingoutlinedourbasiccave program andthereasonsbehindit,Iwillnowdescribethe adventqreprog;ams weconductat Rock Bridge.'..'-.... ..,' Theinitial': wasto. the word outanddevelopaninterestinourprograms.ThroughtrialanderrorwefoundthattheadulteducationprogramofferedbyColumbiapublicschoolswastheidealmechanismforpromotingandregisteringourprogram.Theirbrochure,whichincludedourcourses,wenttosome60,000peopleincentralMissouri.Theadulteducationstaffalsohandledregistrationandprovidedclassrooms whenneededandtookcareofgettingeducationalmaterials.Devil'sIceBoxtripsareone-dayaffairsthatstartabout8:30a.m.andfinishabout10-12hourslater.Boatsandgeararepickedupattheparkofficeandtransportedtotheparkinglotnearesttheentrance.Fromtherethegearandboatsarehauledabout300meterstothecaveentrance,lowereddowntheDevil'sIceBoxsinkholeandthetripisstarted.Frominitialmeetingtimetoactuallygettingintothecavetakesaboutanhour.Everyoneisrequiredtowearacoastguard-approvedtypeIIIorbetterpersonalfloatationdeviceinthewaterpassage.Theseareprovidedbytheindividual. Group sizesarekepttoatotalpartysizeof12orless.Boatsstayinvisualcontactofeachotherinthewaterpassageandcontingencyplansarediscussed'priorto'embarkingonhowacapsizerescuewouldbeconducted.Thewaterpassagehasseverallowspotsandportages.Becauseoftheawkwardportageandlongcarrytoandfromthecave,weuseplasticboatswhicharedurableandrelativelylightweight.Inflatableraftsareusefulbutdeterioraterapidlyinthehandsofuncaringusers.TheDevil'sIceBoxcanfloodeasilyandweareverycautionsaboutallowingentrywhenthreateningweatherispredicted.In ofdoubtweconsultwiththeNationalWeatherService,whichhasbeenmosthelpfulinprovidingspecificinformationneededfordecidingNext comesropetraining.Rope work isnecessarytogetinandoutof Potandisalso needed inAngelsRoostpassageway.Polly'sPotworkshopsarefortwodaysinsteadofonedayasintheDevil'sIce Box trip.Firstontheagendaisaone-hourslideshowintroducingthepeopleto caves andcaving.Polly'sPotTripsWith a'll tripsweconductthereisnofreeride.Theparticipantsdonotjustleavethe cave andwavegoodbye.Theyreturntotheshopandassistinthetiresometaskofcleaningallthegearthathasbeenused.Everypieceisindividuallycleaned,'theninsepctedbyparkpersonnelasitisreadiedforthenextuser.Throughoutthetripweemphasizerespectfortheresource,'thecave,andtheequipment.Whentheyleave,everythingmustbeinasgoodorbetterconditionthanbeforetheycame. Oncebeyondthewater passage; ,thegrouporgroups(groupsof8or mOre are-usuallydividedinto2groups)are allowed to determine howorwhattheywanttoexplore.Laminatedsectionsofcavemapsareprovidedandtheparkleaderoutlinesvariouspossibilities.Agroup may choosetoexploreontheirownwith the parkleaderprovidinginformationasrequested,ortheymaychoosetohavetheparkleadershow themvariousfeaturesofthecave,guidingthewayandinterpretfngastheyproceed. This openendedapproach seems tobe well receivedandpreventstheleaderfromadoptinga"canned"presentation:Throughout lengththe Devil's IceBoxisinterestingtoexplore. Large andsmallformations,domes,'sidepassages,watercrawls, wades,tight passages,a chimneyclimbandwildlifeallarenew andexcitingforthefirst-orsecond-timecaver.Theyalsolearn how toeatlunchwithmud. Theimpactoftotaldarknessisemphasizedastheytrytomanueverashortdistance nolight.Afterexploringfor4to6hoursitisbacktotheboatsandouttothesurfaceworld.Intenseheatin September orfreezingcoldinFebruarycomeasashockastheyemerge fromtheworldtowhichtheyhavebecomeaccustomed. We havechosentherackandbrakebarasthedevice we useforrapelling. We liketheamountofcontrolitgivesusovervaryingloadsandropes.Usedproperly,wefeelthatitissafer. We generallyusemorebarsthan would beusedbyanexperiencedclimber. We dothissothatitisveryeasyforthenewcaverto slowly andeasilycontrolhisdescent.Itisnotourpurposetoteachtheexcitementofalong,fastrappel.Rather, we wanttheparticipanttobeabletogodowntheropesafelyandinfullcontrol.Abelayis always used.Thefirstday(Saturday)is used totrainin the safeuseofropeworkincluding rapell1ng, ascendingandbelaying. I j,'/l. Descripti9n of ProgramS 185

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Intheafternoon we gotoatrainingtoweroftheColumbiafiredepartmentforactualexperienceinrappeling,belaying,andascending.Whilethistowerisnotideal,wepreferitratherthannaturalbluffsasatrainingsitebecauseoftheextracontrol we haveinobservationofalloperations.Careistakentoinsurethatallactionsaresafeandcorrect.Thenextday(Sunday)wegointothecave.Notverylongorespeciallyattractive,Polly'sPotisneverthelesspopularbecauseofthenovelentranceandthedifficultpassageatAngelsRoost.Becauseofthelogisticsofgettinginandoutofthecave,westartwithagroupof15or16peopleanddividethemintothreegroups.Thegroupsarriveanhourapartandstarttheirtripsintothecave.Parkpersonnelrigtheropesattheentranceandcontroltherappels.Thistakesaboutanhourpergroup.Meanwhile,oneortwoparkemployeesproceedtoAngelsRoostandrigropesthereforthegroups. Each groupisgivenamapandinstructions,thentheyareontheirowo. Theyexplorethecaveandfindtheirwayonthemap,arrangingtobeatcertainpointsatcertaintimessothatthegroupsremainseparated.AngelsRoostaddsalittleexcitementtothetrip.Atthispointthecaveseemstoend,butthereisasmalltunnelabout4metersabovethecavefloorwhichprovidesaccesstotherestofthecave.Theproblemisthattheopeningisaboveapoolofwater.Toreachdrypassagewithoutgettingwetcallsfordifferentstrategiesdependingonthe Somegetwet.GettingbackoutofAngelsRoostisevenmoredifficultandthosethatareoutofshapesometimesfinditimpossiblewithoutassistance.186Gettingoutoftheentranceisalsonoteasybutmosthavelittletroubleandenjoytheexperienceofascendingtherope.Thosethatfindittoodifficultcanbepulledoutusingpulleysriggedtoarope.Weprefertoprovidethisbackupriggingratherthanscreeningparticipants.Screeningwouldbedifficulttodowithfairnessandaccuracy.Manypeoplearepleasantlysurprisedtofindthattheycandomorethantheythought.Also,beingabletoprovidethistypeofbackuppreparesusforemergencieswhererescuemightbeneeded.Bothourcavingprogramsarewellattendedandareasuccessfuladditiontoouroutreachprogram.Ifsuccessismeasuredbysatisfactionofthosethathaveparticipated,thereisnodoubtthattheprogramisworthwhile.

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DEVELOPMENTPRESERVATION.MANAGEMENTOFCAVESANDANDOTHERTHEKARSTTENNESSEEFEATURESSTATEWITHINNATURALAREAS*AllenR.CogginsSYSTEMABSTRACT FOWl06the. 29 duigna.te.d Tennu.6e.e.S.tLtte.Na..twtai.NW1J.>have.be.e.nu:.ta.bwhe.d .6pe.&6ic.aUytoPILUeJr.Ve.cavu.The.1jMe.Bone.Cave.S.tLtte.Na.tWtalAlLe.a,VanBwtwCot.mty;VunbaJr.Cave.S.tLtte.Na..twtai.AILM,Mon.tgome.Jr.1jCountlj;Cave.state.Na.twr.ai.AJr.e.a,St.l1Li.van Co untlj; and C aJr.te.Jr.Ca v U S.tLtt e Na.tWtalA1te.a,FIUl.ttllin.County.Se.veJr.ai.othe.Jr.S.tLtteNa.tWtalAILea.!>c.ontcUn c.avu andILeh:tte.dluvz..6t6e.atwr.e..6woJr.thy06pILUe.Jr.vation, pILote-cUon, and-i.nte.Jr.pILe.ta.tion.The.hub:teN!.tlUa.n!(UOUltc.u wdJUnthue.Me.a..!>Me.wte.danddullibedalongwdhthe..6.tLtte.'.6pILeUm.i.naJr.ypMpO.6a.nOlLthUJr..6ec.uJr.,{.tlj,de.l'elopmentandmanage.me.nt. NaturalAreasAdministrator,TennesseeDepartmentofConservation,2611 WestEndAvenue,Nashville,TN37203187

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PETTIBONEKARSTTHEBIRTHPLACEOFTHE-NATIONALSPELEOLOGICAL*A.PlanteSOCIETYABSTRACTThe PettiboneKaJL6.t 06 we.t>.teJtnMa.6Mc.hU6e..tt6it,bo.th aMeaandtlYt.i:mpoJLto.n;t.hbJ.toJUc.h,{;te .to.the Na;Uonal Speleolog-<.c.ai.Soc.-<-e.ty. On Vec.e.mbel!. 1,1940, agJWup a6 NewEnglandc.aveexplO!tel!.hmeA;-Ln.PettiboneFai..e.hCave601t.thepUltpOhe 06 Jta;U6y-Lng.the pltopOhed c.on.!>titu.t-i.on 06 .the NSS.The kaJu,;tMeait,loc.a.te.dInan outc.Jtop 06 Pai.e020-Lc. malLb.tu,andItepltehenthac..e.ahh-Lc.example 06 hubduedmalLblekaM.t. The MeahMa c.omplexgeo.tog-Lc.ai.hJJ,.toIttj, awUqueec.ology, and alongheJUUeven.thamv,{;ty.Rec.entamviliuhaveplac.ed .the Pe.t.UboneFai..e.hMea-<-nJeo paJuiy,ltehuUlng-Ln.the601U7lel!.va;Uon T MkFoltc.e by the NSS .topltehel!.ve .thJJ,Mea601tilinatUltai.andhbJ.toJUc.vai.ue.FutUlteut.i.l..<.zawn 06 .theMeawilllnvolveilivalue601tltec.Jtea;Uon, lteheaJLc.htlYtdeduc.a.tJ.on. The c.Jtea.tJ.on 06 a "Pe.t.t-i.bone KaM.tPltUeI!.ve"it,bungltec.ol7l7lended.to.the NSS .toc.aJt!ttjout.thehe obj emVeh. 1.THEPETTIBONEKARSTDescription--(Geography,Geology andEcology).Theterm"PettiboneKarst"(Figure1)hasbeenproposed(Plante,1980)astheplacenameforasmalluplandvalleylocatedinthe town ofCheshire,innorthernBerkshireCounty,Massachusetts.Thiskarstvalleyislargelylocatedwithina1500acretractoflandknownastheFarnamsProperty, owned byMr.HarroldSchacterofMt.Kisco,New' York. Thekarstvalleyencompassesslightlylessthan200acres,ofwhichapproximately140acresisontheFarnamsProperty.Theremaining40to50acresareontwosmallerparcelsofland,describedindeeddescriptionsastheLutherE.WoodFarm andtheDeanProperty.WiththeexceptionofalineofsinkholesextendingnortheastontotheDeanProperty,allofthesignificantfeaturesarelocatedontheFarnamsProperty.ThePettiboneKarstisboundedonthesouthandsouthwestbyPettiboneBrook,whichoncefollowedacoursethroughthesouthernhalfofthevalleybuthasbeenreroutedby man.Itisboundedontheeastby aridgerisingfromawatergapatPettiboneBrook andrunningnortheasttoThunderBrook.Onthewestitisboundedbythesouthern ridge oftheMt.Greylockmountainrange,fromwhichPettiboneandThunderBrookdescend.Tothenorth,theboundaryisthedrainagedividebetweenPettiboneBrook*8HighlandAvenue, Adams, 01220188andThunderBrook.Themostnoticeablephysicalfeatureinthekarstvalleyis'theabandonedFarnamsQuarry.DrainagethroughoutmuchofthekarstvalleyiscapturedbythisquarryandroutedthroughFarnamsTunnelwhichrunseasterlyundertheridgesome 2500feet.AshortdistancenorthoftheFarnamsQuarryistheoldDeanQuarry.Bothofthesequarriesprovideexcellentgeologicalcrosssectionsofthekarst'sbedrockstructure.OldquarryroadsandseveraltrailsprovidebothvehicularandfootaccesstomostareasofthevaHey.Recentinvestigations(Plante,1980)haveshownthatthePettiboneKarstissignificantinitsnaturalandhistoricalaspects.Theareaisanoutstandingexampleofkarstandcaverndevelopmentinageologicallycomplexsetting.ThebedrockisBascomFormationmarbles,lower-Ordovicianinage,whichcomprisetheuppermostmemberoftheStockbridgeMarbleGroup(Herz,1958).ThePettiboneKarsthasseveralpointswhichreccommenditasanaturalareaworthyofpreservation,includingitsuniqueexampleofbedrockinfluenceuponplantcommunities,theexistenceofararespeciesoffern,andtheoveralldiversityofcommunitiesinthevalley.Themajorcommunityinthevalleyistransitionallowandmid-sloperedoak(Jorganson,1978);Portionsofthevalleysupportwhatappearstobeatransitionalmixedmesophyticcommunity.Welldevelopedkarsttopographyexistsinastandofmaturesecond-growthwhitepine.Alongtheeasternsideoftheeastfaultisastrand

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fiG.1 \.TTru. Norlh ZOO'100'0ZOO'I: 2.. 00TOPOGRAPHIC MAP ofthe PETTIBONEKARSTShowing: CAVEENTRANCELOCATIONS(aolidtriangln),POSSIBLE PRESERVEAREAS(dott.dlin)PROPOSED RESTRICTED AREAS(da.h.dlin) QU"RRYRO"O$......co\D

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ofmaturesecond-growthhemlockssome50to75yards wide andoveramilelong.Withtheexceptionofa fewstrayindividuals,thisstandgrowsoverschistbedrockanddoesnotcrossthefaultontothemarbleswhere thesoilismorealkalineandapparentlynotasconducivetohemlockgrowth.InthevicinityofthemarbleknollabovePetti-boneFallscavethisbedrockinfluencebecomes atextbookexample(S.O'Neill,pers.comm.). Thegroundcoverspeciesontheknollarelargelythosewhichpreferlimeysoils,includingdensecoloniesofbothsharp-lobedhepaticaandwildginger,anddensecoloniesofbothMaidenhairfernandChristmasfern.Theunderstoryandcanopyontheknollconsistlargelyoftransitionalhardwoodssuchasredmaple,ash,birch,and hophornbeam. While a fewyardstotheeast,acrossthefault,thelimeysoilspeciesandtransitionalhardwoods ontheknollarelargelyreplacedbygroundcoverspecieswhichprefermoreneutraltoacidsoils, with thecanopyofmaturehemlocksmentionedabove.Thetransitionisrelativelysharp,easilyseenwhenwalkingthroughthearea.Thesinglemostsignificantspeciesfoundin the karstisWalkingFern, Camptosorus rhizophyZZus, which islistedasbotharareandlocalspeciesthatisverychoosyofhabitat(Cobb,1963).The maincolonyinthekarstislocatedjustwithinthenorthernFarnamsPropertyboundary.Smallercoloniesandindividualplantsarefoundinandaroundthesinkholesfurthersouth.Thereareonlytwootherstations known forthisspeciesinthestate.Onlyoneofthethree stationsisprotected.ThisisBartholomewsCobbles,apropertyoftheTrusteesofReservations.TwootherinterestingspeciesinthekarstaretheShowyOrchidandtheEbonySpleenwort.Other,morecommonspecies which havebeenfoundinthePettiboneKarstincludeRattlesnakeFern,SensitiveFern,YellowClintonia,Jack-in-the-Pulpit,Columbine,andsome twodozenotherfernsandwildflowerswhichhavebeenidentified.ThelistoffaunanotedinthePettiboneKarstislong,andincludesatleasttwospeciesofbats,red-tailed,hawk,raven,sandpiper,woodduck,swallow, warb ler,woodpeckers, owls, porcupine,osprey,baldeagle,transientVirginiadeer,blackbear,greatblueheron,andnumerousotherbirdsand mammals. CavesoftheKarstTherearepresentlytenknowncavesinthePettiboneKarst,ranginginsizefrom10feetlong,Will'sWiggle,to636feetlong,PettiboneFallsCave.PettiboneFallsCaveisthelongestknowncaveinthestate.Investigations(Plante,1980)have shown thatitisaremnantof whatwas oncea muchlargercavesystem, which includedPowderhouseCave andmayhavebeenintegrated with cavesunderthekarstnorthoftheFarnamsQuarry.PettiboneFallsCaveisadistalportionofthepaleo-system.Passagesinitrangefromsmallsolutiontubestowalkingheightjointpassages.Thoughthecaveisbest known foritsroleinthefoundingoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS),itisalsouniquein'theNortheastforitsmineralogicalcontent.Moonmilkcoats walls andceilingsinquantitiesunheard190ofelsewhereinthestate,perhapsinNewEngland.Areasofthecavearealsoheavilydecoratedwith flows tonedraperies,flowstone.cascades,rimstoneterraces,andseveralvarietiesofspeleothemsincludinghelectites,sodastraws,cave"coral",cave"popcorn",andtheubiquitousstalactitesandstalagmites.PettiboneFallsCaveisinfactthemostbeautifulcaveinthesite.Fortunatelyitsnarrowentranceisprotectedby asturdygatetopreventvandalism.PettiboneFallsCaveoriginallyprovidedasubsurfacedrainageroutetothePowderhouseCavemasterconduitofthepaleo-system.Thewestwallofthislargesolutiontubeisheavilyscalloped,indicatingthatitoncecarriedahighvolumeofwatermovingslowlynorth,probablytowardsthehugh'jointcavesnorthoftheFarnamsQuarry.PlumberCanyon Cave and Phantom Canyon Cavearelargejoint-orientedcavesonthenorthernsideoftheFarnamsQuarry.TheyarebothdevelopedonN200Wjoints,withceilingheightsupwardsof100feet-whichgivessomeindicationoftheextentofcaverndevelopmentunderthekarst.EntrytoPlumberCanyon Caveisgainedthroughanoldminetunnel(nottheFarnamsTunnel)whichisnowlargelysiltedinandfloodedbeyondthecave.Phantom Canyon Caveisenteredhighinaninsidecornerofthequarrywall.Onthe wall justbelow andoutsideoftheentranceistheremnantofalargesolutiontube.Thistube'sorientationandelevationsuggestthatitisasegmentofthePowderhouseconduit.Ifitis,thensome 1400feetofthepassagehasbeenremovedby quarrying, whichprovidesafurtherindicationoftheextentcaverndevelopmenthasreachedinthePettiboneKarst.HarborCaveislocatedinthenortherncorneroftheDeanQuarry.Thoughitsentranceportendsacaveofconsiderablesize,mostofithasbeenremoved byquarrying.Whatremainsoftheoriginal,naturalentranceisacrossthequarrytothesoutheastalongthe top ofthewall.Thereisalsoasmalldomeinthewallthere,on adirectlinewithremainingpassageofthecave.HarborCaveis now moreofhistoricalinterestthangeological.Will'sWiggleCave andFoxholeCave,locatednearPettiboneFallsCaveandPowderhouseCave,aredisconnectedportionsofthepaleo-system.Will'sWiggleisashortlengthofcrawlwayopeningonaravineformedbythecollapseoftheupstreamendofthePowderhousemasterconduit.FoxholeCaveisdevelopedon aN350EjointbetweenpassagesonjointsofthesamesetinPettiboneFallSCavetotheeastandPowderhouseCavetothewest.Thiscaveisnowclosedbyfill.HighonthewallinthenortheasterncorneroftheFarnamsQuarry,PocketCaveisfound--whichisbelievedtobeadisconnectedsegmentofPhantomCanyon Cave.Northeastofthequarrythereisasmallcaveinoneofthesinkholesontheeasternfault.This is 'BobcatDenCave,whichhasneverbeenfullyexploredduetotheinstabilityofitsentrance,developedlargelyinfaultgouge.The namestemsfromevidencethatitactuallyhasbeenusedasadenbybobcats.Furthernortheastalongthefault,ontheDeanProperty,isthe:recently

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re-discoveredLimeKilnCave,alsolocated in asinkholedevelopedonthefault.ItisashortsolutiontubeonaN200Wjoint.Thesefivesmallcavescompletethelistofknowncavesinthekarst.Atleast tgree morecavesaresuspectedtoexist,allonN20 W joints.Overall,thedegreetowhichcaverndevelopmenthastakenplaceinthePettiboneKarstisinteresting.Cavernlengthsandespeciallypassagesizesareexceptionalforthisstate.Theevidencethatacavesystemofperhapshalfamileormoreinlengthonceexistedheremakesthearea the mosthighlydevelopedkarstinthestatebyalongmeasure.Putsimply,thecavesofthePettiboneKarstareoutstanding--eachinitsownrightandwhenviewedasapartofthelargersetting.HistoryThehistoryofexploration,visitationanduseofthePettiboneKarst.islargelyknownthroughoralaccountspasseddownthroughtheyears.Littlecouldbefoundtodocumentclaimsaboutthearea,thougha moredetailedsearchmayfinddocumentation.Thefollowinghasbeenpiecedtogetherfromoralaccountsandwhatdocumentationcouldbefound.Itissubjecttoverification.LegendhasitthatPettiboneFallsCave wasdiscoveredbyDanielPettiboneintheearly1800's(J.Moore,pers.comm.).Thismanwas anearlyexplorerandsettlerinthearea.HisgraveislocatedintheoldFarnamsCemetary.Itispossiblethathediddiscoveroneormoreofthecavesinthekarst.Whateverthetruthmaybe,knowledgeofthecave(s)hasbeenpasseddownthroughtheyearssincetheearly1800's.ItwasshortlyafterDanielPettibonemovedintotheareathatquarryingofthemarbleinthekarstbegan.Severaldifferentindividualsorfamiliesoperatedsmallquarriesforbuildingstoneandagriculturallimethroughthe1800's(Voelher,1952).TheoriginalquarrysitesarelocatedwheretheDean Quarry is now andonwhatisnowcalledtheDeanProperty.Itwasn'tuntiltheearly1900'sthattheDeans becameowners'andoperatorsofthequarries,andstartedquarryingwheretheFarnamsQuarryisnow. TheU.S.Gypsum CompanyboughttheareaaroundtheFarnamsQuarryinthe1930'sandsteppedupoperationsconsiderably,workingthequarriesuntil1968--whentheeconomicsofmodernizingtheplanthadtobefacedandtheydecidedtoclosedowninstead,probablyduetothefactthatthequarryingoperationwasn'tpayingoffwellsincetheywerequarryingBascomFormationmarblesand marblesastheyhadthought.ThePettiboneKarstplayedanoteworthyroleinAmericanhistoryduringthemid-1800's.AtthistimeaspotinCheshirewasbeingusedasastoponthefamousUndergroundRailway.usedtomoverunawayslavesnorthtonew homesasfreemenandwomen.TothisdaythisplaceisknownastiThe-Harbor".Whenauthoritieswereafootsearchingfortherunaways,theyweretakentooneormoreofthecavesinthekarsttobehiddenuntiltheauthoritiesstoppedlookingforthem.ClayPerryreferstothisrathervaguelyinoneofhisbooks(Perry,1946),indicatingthateitherPettiboneFallsCaveortheFarnamsTunnelwasusedasthehideout.SincetheFarnamsTunneldidnotexistbeforethe1900'sitmostcertainlywasnottheplaceusedanditisratherunlikelythatPettiboneFallsCave wastheplaceeither.Itslow,wet,muddy,breakdown-jumbledandporcupine-inhabitedpassageswouldnotrecommenditasahideout,howevertemporary,particularlyifabetterspotwasavailable.SincetheDeanQuarrywasalreadyinoperationtheoddsarethatthecavetherewaswellknown, and morereadilyathand.Whatisleftofthatcaveindicatesthatitwasfairlyspacious,andprobablyrelativelydrynearitsentrance.IthasbeennamedHarborCaveonthesuspicionthatit,ratherthanPettiboneFallsCave, wasthehideout.(Ithasalsobeensuggested(J.Moore,pers.corom.)thatPettiboneFallsCavewasn'tactuallydiscovereduntiltheearly1930'swhentheU.S.GypsumCompanyboughttheproperty.)Thereisalong oftimebetweenuseofthecave(s)asaslaves'hideoutandthenextknownvisitstothecave(s).Itwasduringthemid-1930'sthatClayPerrycametothekarstwhiledoingfieldresearchforhisfirstbook oncaves:"UndergroundNewEngland".HeandseveralotherNewEnglandexplorersspentsometimeinPettiboneFallsCave,exploringandtakingspecimensofspeleothemsforstudy.ItwasbecauseofClay'sfamiliarity with PettiboneFallsCavethatitsooncametoplayamajorroleinthebirthoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(Perry,1946;Stephenson,1969;Lincoln,1960;Hill,etal.1966).WhenClaylearnedofthenewlyorganizedD.C.SpeleologicalSocietyhecontactedBillStephenson.TheD.C.explorersandNewEnglandexplorerssetaboutorganizingtheNSS.OnDecember1stof1940theNewEnglandgroupheldameetinginPettiboneFallsCavetoratifytheproposedConstitution.They formedtheNewEnglandSpelunkers'Grotto,appointedanominatingcommitteeforofficers,andthenjourneyedtoBakersQuarryCaveinLanesborough,whereClayPerrywaselectedPresident,NedAndersonasVicePresident,and LeoLincolnasSecretary-Treasurer.MinutesofthemeetingweretransmittedtoWashingtonD.C.,and onJanuary1stof1941theNSSwaschartered.TheNewEnglandSpelunkers'GrottowasaccordedthestatusofGrotto HI oftheSociety.ThusdoesPettiboneFallsCaveholdaprestigiousplaceinthehistoryoftheNSS.Theareawasonlyvisitedsproadicallybyexplorersfromthattimeupuntil1975.Inthe1960'speopleworkingontheguidebook:."CavesofMassachusetts"(Hauer,1966)undertookarudimentarysurveyofthefrontpartofPettiboneFallsCave,publishingthemapintheguideandlistingthecaveasonly120feetlong.Inthesummer of 1975alooselyorganizedgroupofareaexplorersworkingon asurveyofcavesinthecountrybeganinvestigationsofthePettiboneKarst. What hadbeenintendedasacoupleofweekendtripsstretchedintofiveyearsofsurveying,studying,researching,landownernegotiations,andfinallytheformationofthePettiboneKarstConservationTaskForce(CTF)oftheNSS. ************* 191

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ItisvitaltothepurposeofthePettiboneKarstCTFatthispointtostressthehistoricsignificanceofPettiboneFallsCavetotheNSSandtostresstheroleofHarborCaveinAmericanhistory.CombinedwiththenaturalmeritsofthePettiboneKarst,thesehistoriceventsshouldmakeitimperativetotheNSStoundertakewhatevermeasureswhichmayprovenecessarytopreservethePettiboneKarst.II.THEOONSERVATIONPROBLEMThePettiboneKarstConservationTaskForce(CTF)InDecemberof1979itwaslearnedthatthepresentowneroftheFarnamsPropertywasadvancingplanstosellandharvestallmarketabletimberontheproperty,priortosellingtheproperty.Theoriginalcuttingplansgaveafigureof1.5millionboardfeetoftimbertobeharvested,roughtly50%hardwoodsand50%softwoods.Arevisedcuttingplan,wasfiledlaterwhichreducedtheharvesttoabout.75millionboardfeet,stillroughly50-50hardwoods andsoftwoods.Undereitherofthesecuttingplanstwostandsofsoftwoodsweretobeharvested,whichstoodtoendangertheintegrityofkeyareasofthekarst.ThesestandsincludethewhitepinesintheareaofbestdevelopedkarsttopographynortheastoftheFarnamsQuarry,andtheportionofthehemlockstandtotheeastandsoutheastoftheknollunderwhichPettiboneFallsCavelies-withanestimatedfourtosixthousandboardfeetoftimberinvolvedinthesetwoareas.MembersoftheBerkshireCounty CaveSurvey,havingspentthefiveyearsinvestigatingthekarstanditscaves,becameconcernedthattheharvestofthesetwokeystandswould doirreparabledamagetothesinkholeplainnortheastofthequarry,andtoPettiboneFallsCave.'Immediatestepsweretakentofindacourseofactionwhichwouldpreventthedamagefrombeingdone--andwhichwouldhopefullyleadtopreservationofthekarstandcertainotherparcelsonthepropertywhicharethoughttobevaluablenaturalorhistoricareas.OneofthestepstakenwastorequestConservationTaskForcestatusfromtheNSSConservationCommitteeChairman.EmergencyactiontookplaceinJanuaryof1980,conferingprovisionalCTF'statusuponthegroupafterdiscussionwiththeNSSExecutiveVicePresident.Then,attheMarch 1980meetingoftheNSSBoardofGovernors(BOG),thenewCTFreceivedofficialconfirmation.AttheCTF',srequest,BOGearmarked$500fromthe'SavetheCavesFundfortheCTFtousetopurchasetimberrightsinthetwokeyareasofthekarstshoulditbecomenecessarytodothisinordertoprotectthesinkholeplainandPettiboneFallsCave.Anadditional$100 wasallocatedtohelpdefraytheexpensesoftheCTF.ThePettiboneKarstCTFthensaw,andstillsees,itspurposeasfour-fold:1)tostoptheharvestoftimberinatleastthetwokeyareasofthekarst;2)toinvestigatepreservationoptions'whichtheNSSmightundertaketopreservethekarstanditscaves,particularlyPettiboneFallsCave;3)todocumentclaimsofthePettiboneKarst'snaturalandhistoricimportance,and4)toworkwithanyotherconservationorganizationswhichmighappropriatelybeaskedtoaidinpreservationofthekarstortheotherareasofthepropertywhichmeritlookingintowith192aneyetowardsprotection.Thislastwasseenasa two-waystreet:theCTFwouldprimarilybeengagedinprotectionofthekarst,receivingaidfromothergroups--andwould,inreturn,aidothergroupsinanyeffortstheymightundertaketoprotectotherportionsoftheproperty.ThefollowingparagraphsoutlinethefindingsoftheCTFsinceJanuaryof1980,emphasizingtheseverityoftheproblemsinvolved. The ConservationDilemma Thepresentowner'sinterestintheFarnamsPropertyisasabusinessinvestment.Thepropertywaspurchasedin1970fromtheU.S.Gypsum Co.asaspeculativeventure,bothasa meanstoget tingseven yearsoflong-terminvestmenttax'credit,andwithsomehopeofeitherdevelopingthepropertyorsellingittoanotherdevelopmentgroup.Theseven-yearperiodofgraceendedin1978, and sincethentheownerhasbeenseriouslylookingforabuyer -asking$1.5millionfortheentire1500acres(itwas purchased forabout$370,000).Aprospectivebuyerwasfoundinthefallof1979--GreenRiverTrustofNashua,NewHampshire. The ownerthenbeganadvancingtheplanstologthepropertybeforethesalewentthrough.Apurchaseoption was filedinFebruaryof1980,withariderattachedwhichallowedtheownertocarryoutthetimberharvest.ThesaletoGreenRiverfellthrough,theydroppedtheoptionin }fuy 1980,butplansforloggingwerewellunderway.LoggingbeganinMay,afteranoriginalstartingdateof whichwasabandonedduetodelays. (The CTFlikestothinkthatithadsomethingtodowiththat.)Obviously,thereisabasicincompatabilitybe-'tweentheowner'sinterests'inthepropertyandthoseoftheNSS.Thecoursesofaction open totheNSSareseverelylimitedasfarastheCTFhasbeenabletodetermine.Wedonothaveanylegalgroundstointerferewiththeowner'suseorsaleofthepropertysolongasuseorsalearewithinthelaw and anyenvironmentalregulationswhichapply.Allwecandoistokeepoureyes open to be surethat'lawsandregulationsarenotbreached -whichwearedoingasbestwecan.Otherapproachestotheproblemhavebeentried,andhavenotmetwithsuccessforthemostpart.The owner wasapproachedwiththeoffertobuythetimberrightstothetwo key areas.Herefusedthisoffer,asitwouldplaceanincumberanceuponthelandthatmighthindersale.Buthedidgiveaverbalpromiseatthattimethatthetreeswouldnotbeharvested,whichwasbetterthannothing.Theproblemofcreatingobstaclestothesale thepropertyeliminatesboththepossibilityofobtaininganyconservationrestrictionsfromtheownerorofactuallypurchasingthe two keyparcelsandtherequiredrightsof-way.Purchaseisimpossiblebecausethetwoparcelsandrights-of-waywouldbesosituatedastoeffectivelydividethenorthwestquarterofthe1500-acretract,orworse,dividetheentirenorthernthirddependinguponthe'rights-of-waylocation{s)

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Thepromisethatthetreesinthetwokeyareaswillnotbeharvestedisasmall"victory",ifyouwill;butaverbal isnotexactlybinding.Thoughwereallyexpectthattheownerwillkeephispromiseaslongasitdoesnotcausehimunduefinancialloss,wemustalwaysbepreparedforachange.Presently,theownerhasrefrainedfrom harvesting thesoftwoods--ostensiblytoleavethemasasellingpointfortheproperty.Butshouldthemarketvalueofsoftwoodsgo upsufficiently,orabuyerbefoundwhoisnotinterestedinthesoftwoods,thenitispossiblethattheycouldbeharvested,includingthoseinthesinkholeplainandnearPettiboneFallsCave. Nor dowehaveanyassurancesthata owner wouldbeany morereceptivetoconservationconcerns.Inshort,theprospectsforpreservationdonotlookgoodsofarasanystop-gapmeasuresorminimalresourceeffortsgo.OtherConservationOrganizationsTheCTFhasbeenincontactwithseveralotherorganizations:TheNatureConservancy,TheWildernessSociety,TheMassachusettsAudubonSociety,TheTrusteesofReservations,TheBerkshireNaturalResourcesCouncil,TheCheshireHistoricalCommission,andTheMassachusettsApplachianTrailCommittee.Eachoftheseorganizationshasbeenwillingto offer aidintheformofadvice,andinacoupleofcasesthehelpoftheirexperts,whichhasbeengreatlyappreciated.But,forvaryingreasons,noneoftheseorganizationscantakeanyconcreteactiontowardspreservationofthekarst,orofother.portionsofthepropertywhichwefeelshouldbepreserved.FutureProblems-AnAssessmentAsidefromharvestingtimber,therearefewuseswhichthePettiboneKarstmightbeputto,whetherbythe owneroranyfutureowner. Thenatureofthekarstvalleyisactuallyalmostself-preservinginsomerespects.Itisbasicallyundevelopableland,classified"sub-marginal"formostuses(Barlowe,1978).Theuseswhichmightbeconsideredare:renewedq'uarrying,useofthequarriesforwastedisposalsites,industrialorhousingdevelopment,andagricultureorforestry.Eachofthese,includingforestry,meetwithobstacleswhichappeartomake themunfeasibleforthepresentandprobablytheforseeablefuture.III.COURSESOFACTIONShort-termMeasuresThereislittlewhichtheCTForNSScandotoprotectthePettiboneKarstso'farasstop-gap,watchdogmeasuresgo.Thecoursesofactionavailableareallmeasureswhichcannotbeexpectedtoassurepreservation.They wouldinvolveappealtoregulatoryagencies,suchastheEPA,andwouldundoubtedlyleadtolitigationincourt,withnoassurancesthatcourtdecisionswouldprovefavorable.Though someactionalongtheselinesmaybecomenecessary,thisapproachcannotbeconsideredasaviablemeansbywhichthe Karstcanbeprotectedinperpetuity.193Proposalfora"PettiboneKarstPreserve"Forreasonsoutlinedinthesectionofthepaperwhichassessedlanduse,theCTFbelievesthatthePettiboneKarstcanbeclearlyshowntobea"whiteelephant"ontheowner'shands.Solongasanyprospectivebuyersforthe Farnams Propertycontinuetobemade awareoftheuselessnessofthekarstvalleytheoddsforsaleofthepropertyaregreatlyreduced.Therefore,itisquitelikelythattheownerwillseethebusinesssenseofsellingthekarstvalleytotheNSS,thusriddinghimselfofoneofthemajorobstaclestosaleoftherestoftheproperty.Approachingtheproblemfromthisangle,theCTFhasdeterminedwhatitbelievestobea minimumacreageoflandinthekarstvalleywhichtheNSSmightbeabletogettheownertopartwithandwhichwouldcreateapreserveencompassingthesalientgeologicandbiologicfeaturesofthevalley.Thisminimumareaisapproximately112acres,includinganaccesscorridortoLanesboroughMountainRoad. Fromtheowner'sviewpointtheproposedpreserveboundarieswouldcreateasubdivisionwhichwouldnotleaveanyland-lockedparcelsordivide remainderofthepropertyinsuchawayastohinderitssale.Nor woulditremove fromhisownershipanysignificantamountofvaluableproperty.Also,creationofthepreservewouldactuallyraisethevalueofthepropertysurroundingit,makingitmoredesirablefordevelopmentorresourcemanagement. FromtheNSS'spointofview,thepreservewould encompassallofthesignificantkarstfeaturespresentlyontheFarnamsProperty,includingnineofthetenknowncavesinthekarst,greatlyfacilitatingaccessdevelopmentforthepreserve.Therearefourmajorpointstobeconsideredindecidingwhetherornottotakeonaprojectofthismagnitude:1)costsandfunding;2)landownerliability;3)title;and4) management.PreserveDevelopment and Management Recommendations TheCTFrecommendsthatresponsibilityformanagementbeplacedinlocalhands,eitherwitha committeesuchastheMcFailsCave CommitteeorwithagroupoflocaldirectorsofaneducationalcorporationsuchastheNortheasternCaveConservancy. We furtherrecommendthat,atleastinitially,key membersofthemanagementgroupbedrawn fromthisCTF.Ourpeoplearepresentlythe"residentexperts"onthePettiboneKarst,andareinthebestpositiontodirectproperdevelopmentandmanagementofthepreserve: We recommendthatthepreservebemaintainedasaday-usefacilityundera"packitin-packitout"policy,clearlypostedandreiteratedinanybrochures.The samereasonswhichmakethelandundevelopeableforotherusesholdtrueforcamping--lackofsufficientwateranddifficultieswithdisposalofhuman Campingsimplycannotbeallowedherewithoutadverseeffects. We recommendthatthepreservebemade acompletegeologicandbiologicsanctuary.postedagainst

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hunting.trapping.androckcollecting.Thefloraandfaunafoundinthevalleyshouldbestrictlyprotected. and rockcollectingshouldbeprohibitedlestitleadtothecollectionofspeleothemsbypeoplewhoarenotfullyawareofNSSconservationpolicies.WerecommendthattheNRObechargedwithcarryingouttheproposeddevelopmentswhichareneeded'ordesirable,workingonavoluntarybasisandunderpreservemanagementdirection.ThefollowingparagraphsoutlinethedevelopmentswhichtheCTFrecommends andthereasonsforthem.Thefirstpriorityshouldbefencingthequarries.Webelievethatthisprojectshouldbecarriedoutasageneralpublicsafetyproject,irregardlessofwhetherornotthereisanyquestionofliability.Itcanbe acconiplished cheaplyandadequatelyusingheavypole-sizetimber,whichisavailableinquantityontheproperty.Thereissufficientlargestoneforbuildingstonewallsshouldmanpowerbeavailable.Thismightbea good waytogoaboutitinopenareassuchasthesouthrimoftheFarnamsQuarry.Thefencesand/orwallsshouldhavewarningsignspostedalongtheminformingpeopleofthedangerandtellingthemnottogobeyondthebarriers.Finally.we recommendthatthisprojectbecompletedbeforethepreservebecomesopentothepublic.AroadwillhavetobebuiltfromLanesboroughMountainRoadintothequarryroadinordertoprovideaccessformaintenancevehicles.Werecommendthatthisbeaccomplishedbyobtainingatemporaryaccess fromtheFarnamsPropertyownertousethepresentquarryroadformovingvehiclesontothepreserve,andtherebuildingtheroadouttoLanesboroughMountainRoad,usingthelargevolumeofquarriedstoneavailableatthequarries.Thereismorethansufficientstoneavailabletobuildacrushedstoneroad15feetwide with atwo-footthickbedandgradingwherenecessary.Thebridgewhichmustbebuilt PettiboneBrookcanbeconstructedfromavailable andstone.Waterbarsalongslopescanbeprovidedtopreventerosion.WerecommendthatuseoftheroadbelimitedtomaintenancevehiclesandthataparkinglotbeprovidedatLanesboroughMountainRoadforthepublic.Again,thisprojectcanbeaccomplishedusingavailablecrushedstone.Theaccessroadcanbesturdilygatedattheparkinglot,perhapssimplyasturdyregisterboxwhichcontainsliteratureonthe pre serveandtheNSS',and alockcompartmentfordonations.Thepresentsystemoftrailsinthepreserveshouldbeexpandedtoincludeaccesstomoreofthesignificant featuves. WheretheoldPettiboneBrookchannelcrossesthewesternfaulttherearebothgeologicandbiologicfeaturesofinterest.Atrailisproposedheresothatpeoplecanseetheswallowholesalongthefaultaswellasenjoytheinterestingtransitionalplantcommunities'inthearea.ThepresenttrailleadingtoPettiboneFallsCaveshouldbeextendedtotraversetheknollandcirclethroughthehemlockstandacrossthefaultthere,prOVidingthepublicwithaviewofthestrikingexampleofbedrockinfluenceuponplantcommunities.194Beyond the proposeddevelopmentsmentionedabove,theCTFrecommendsthatthepreservebemaintainedasaprimitivearea.Anyfurtherworkshouldbelimitedtoroutineyearlymaintenance--roadandtrailupkeep,replacingsigns,gate etc.Activitiesallowedon the preserveshouldbenoninterferenceformsofrecreationandstudy.Vehiclesshouldbeprohibited,including snow mobiles.Onlythingslikehiking,cross-countryskiing,perhapsice,climbing,(norockclimbingl),and,ofcourse,caveexplorationshouldbeallowed.Theareaissimplynotsuitedtointensiveuseordevelopment.Finally,theCTFhighlyrecommendsthedevelopmentofaneducationalprogramatthe preserve forlocalschoolsandgroups.Volunteerguidescanbeusedtointroducestudentsandtheirteacherstothemany andvariednaturalfeaturesofthearea.aswellasprovidingthemwiththehistoricalbackgroundofthecavesandquarries.Wealsorecommendthatabrochurebeprintedgivinginformationforaself-guidedtourofthepreserve,withstopsdesignatedby numberedposts thevariouspointsofinterest.Aboveall,theeducationalvalueofthePettiboneKarstshouldbeexploitedinanyandeverywayavailablethatwilldo noharm.Itistoorichanareatohoardortosimplygounused.ConclusionThePettiboneKarstofwesternMassachusettsisauniqueandvaluablenaturalandhistoricarea.Itsgeologicandbiologicfeaturesandhistoricbackgroundhighlyrecommenditasaplaceforpeopletogo,whethertolearnortosimplyenjoythemselves.Thoughpreservationoftheareawillnotbeeasytoaccomplish,theobstaclesarenotinsurmountable.Aviableplanhasbeenworkedoutandforwardedhere.TheNSSisnowfacedwithanimportantdecision--whetherornottoundertakeamajorprojecttopreservethePettiboneKarst,thebirthplaceofthesociety.ThePettiboneKarstConservationTaskForcestandsconvincedthatthesocietycanundertaketheprojectsuccessfullyandwouldbeworkinginitsownbestinteresttodoso.Wearereadyandwillingtogotoworkontheproject,andwilldoeverythingwithinourpowertoseethe"PettiboneKarstPreserve"become arealityAcknowledgements TheauthorgratefullyacknowledgestheaidofthefollowingindividualsandorganizationsintheefforttopreservethePettiboneKarst.Withouttheirhelpthispapercouldnothavebeenwritten,andthePettiboneKarstmighthaveendedupforgottenbythewayside,becomingatotallyworthlessparcelofland.Thesepeopleare:RobertAddis,NortheasternCaveConservancy,NSSDirectorand memberoftheCTF;DavidAllured;ViAllured;SamuleBittman;JimBourden;KarenBourden;KenDeCelles,CTFmember;KevinDowney,NROConservationChairman,ASHAVicePresident.andCTFmember;GerryDuPont;JessicaGrosset;Bill'Howcroft,CTFmember;GailKalison,NPSNationalNaturalLandmarksProgram;TomKustra;

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A.DixLesson,theNatureConservancy;Edward Lyons;JackMiddleton;JamieMoore;SharonO'Neill,CTFmember; LoydannPierce;PaulPulenskey;RichardRobinson;LuciaSaradoff,CTFmember; and GeorgeWislockioftheBerkshireNaturalResourcesCouncil.Specialthanks &0 toKenDeCellas,BillHowcroft,and Sharon O'Neillfortheirmanyhoursof'workinthefield,atthedraftingtableandcomputer,andatthekitchentable.where mostthingsgotthoughtout.Finally,ifitwere,notforLuciaSaradoff,thethreattothePettiboneKarstwouldnothavecometotheattentionoftheNSSintimeandlogging would havedestroyed two ofthemostsignificantfeaturesontheproperty.Luciaisowedaheartfeltdebtofgratitudeforhereffortstopreservetheproperty.APPENDIX AChapter575 The CommonwealthofMassachusettsIntheyearOneThousand Nine Hundred andSeventy twoAN ACTENCOURAGINGLANDOWNERSTOMAKELAND AVA.II.ABLE TOTHEPUBLICFORRECREATIONALPURPOSESBY LIMITING LIABILITYINCONNECTIONWITHSUCHUSE.BeitenactedbytheSenateand HouseofRepresentativesin Courtassembled,and bytheauthorityofthesame.asfollows:Chapter21oftheGeneralLawsisherebyamended by insertingaftersection17Bthefollowingsection:Section17C.Anowneroflandwhopermitsthepublictousesuchlandforrecreationalpurposeswithout imposing a,chargeorfeetherefore.orwholeases his landforsaidpurposestothecommonwealthoranypoliticalsubdivisionthereofshallnotbeliabletoany memberof thepublicwhousessaidlandfortheaforesaidpurposesforinjuriestothepersonorpropertysustainedbyhimwhileonsaidlandinthe absence ofwillful.wantonorrecklessconductbysuch oWner. norshallpermissionbedeemedtoconferuponanypersonsousingsaidlandthestatusofaninviteeorlicenseetowhomanydutywouldbeowedbysaidowner.Theliabilityofanownerwhoimposes achargeorfee'fortheuseofhislandbythepublicforrecreationalpurposesshallnotbelimitedby anyprovisionofihissection.LiteratureCitedAddis.R.P.1979.AstudyfortheNationalSpeleological Soci,ety; Knox Albany County,NewYork. New York CaveSurveyBulletin fJ3. 139pp. Baker. V.R.1976'. Hydrologyofacavernouslimestoneterraneandthe'hydrochemicalmechanismsofitsformation.MohawkRiverBasin, NeW York.EmpireStateGeogram12:2-65.Barlow.R. 1978. LandResourceEconomics,3rdEdition.Prentice-Hall,Inc.,New York. 653pp.Dunbar,C.O.1966.HistoricalGeology.2ndEdition.JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.,NewYork. 500pp.195Haure,P.1966. CavesofMassachusetts.BostonGrotto,NSS.62pp.Herz,N.1958. BedrockgeologyoftheCheshirequadrangie,Massachusetts.U.S.G.S.1sheet.Herz,N.1961. BedrockgeologyoftheNorthAdamsquadrangle,Massachusetts.U.S.G.S.1sheet.Hill, W. S.,G. W. Moore,J.L.Staniland,W.S.Stephenson,andH.Zotter.1966.HistoryoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety.NSSBulletin28(1):38-54.Hobbs,B.M., W. Means, andR.F.Williams.1976.AnOutlineofStructuralGeology.JohnWiley&Sons.Inc.NewYork. 571pp.Lincoln,L. L. 1960.HistoryoftheNewEnglandSpelunkers'Grotto#1oftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety.NESG#1NSS(unpublished),7pp.Moody, L.D.,B.J.Pruitt. W. Volk,and W. H.Oldcare.1977. Warrens CavePreserve,StewardshipPlan.TheNatureConservancy(unpublished).71pp.Mylroie,J.E. 1977.SpeleogenesisandKarstgeomorphologyoftheHelderbergPlateau,SchoharieCounty.NewYork.NewYork CaveSurveyBulletin112.336pp.Perry,C.W.1946.NewEngland'sBuriedTreasure.StephenDayePress,NewYork. 347pp.Stevens,W.1968.Inter-officememo.U.S.GypsumCompany,Inc.(unpublished).2pp.Stephenson,W.J.1960.TwentiethanniversaryofNSSNears.earlyhistoryrecountedbyfounderandfirstpresident.WillimaJ.Stephenson.TheGeorgiaUnderground3(2):21-26.Sundance. 1980. ThePettiboneKarstof Massachusetts(unpublished).Sweeting,M.M.1973.KarstLandforms.ColumbiaUniversityPress,NewYork. 362pp.Voelker.M.1958. ThelimestonedepositofFarnams, Mass.U.S.GypsumCompany,Inc.(unpublished.15pp.Voelker,M.1969.MineralreservereportforFarnamsQuarry.U.S.GypsumCompany,Inc.(unpublished).7pp.Walker,R.1961.Annual FarnamsMineralReserveReport.U.S.GypsumCompany,Inc.(unpubliahed).9pp.

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MANAGEMENTWILDERNESS*JamesR. GoodbarTECHNIQUESCAVESABSTRACTFOR TIUApapvr.dea1.t>wi.:t.hMmecavemanagementiny.6e.tha:tcan be applied.towildeJmU6cavu,altdMme6pee<.6-<.c.act<.olt6 whic.hmay be .tak.e.nbycavemanageJL6inolLdeA.to be..t.teAp/tO.ted .the wUdeJmu.6c.ave. INTRODUCTIONBasictothemanagementgoalssetforthinthe1964WildernessActisthedevelopmentofa man agem.entplanwhich will retainacave'swildernesscharacteristicswithinacceptablelimits.Specifically,thesemanagementgoalsaretoad,ministertheland"fortheuseandenjoyment of theAmericanpeopleinsucha manneraswillleavethemunimpairedforfutureuseandenjoymentaswilderness,andsoastoprovidefortheprotectionoftheseareasandthepreservation.oftheirwildernesscharacter...."(WildernessAct,1964).Takingtheboldsteptoassumethatcertaincaves,portionsofcavesorcave-bearingareasunderfederalcontrolwillbedesignatedaswilderness,guidelinesneedtobesetconcerningthespecificactionsandtechniqueswhichthemanagershouldtakeinordertoreachthestatedmanagementgoals.Thepurposeofthispaperistooutlineasetofsteps,actionsandtechniqueswhichmaybeusedinmanagingafederallydesignatedundergroundwildernessarea.STEPONE:HIREA SPECIALIST Thefirststepanagencyshouldtakewhen managingaresourcesuchascavesistohire cialist.Thisoneactionhasthepotentialtodo morefortheresourcethananyother.A competentcavespecialistcouldaddtheexpertiseandinsightnecessarytoavoidcrisismanagementwhichissooftenthecase.Itwouldbehisjobtodevelopmanagementplans,conductinventoriesandclassificationsforeachcave,issuepremits,patrolthecavearea,actas andpublicrelationsmanforlocalcavinggroups,anda myriadofothertasksallofwhichcomeundertheheadingofcavemanagement. Thefollowingstepswouldbetheresponsibilityofthecavespecialist.STEPTWO:DETERMINEACCEPTABLELIMITSOFIMPACTSThefirstobjectiveofanundergroundwildernessmanagershouldbetosettheacceptablelimitsofP.O.Box1683,BowlingGreen,KY42101thehumanimpactswhich will occurwithinthecaveenvironment.Thiscanbedonewiththeaidofacaveinventory.Suchfactorsascriticalenvironmentalhabitats,delicateformationareas,pristinepassageways,andotherwildernesscharacteristicsforwhichthecavewasdesignatedshouldbethebasisfordeterminingtheseacceptablelimits.Certainmanagementtechniquesmaybeusedin order tohelpretainwildernesscharacteristics.Oneofthesetechniques would betoestablishcarryingcapacitiesforeachcave.Avalidsystemfordeterminingcarryingcapacitieshasnotyetbeendevelopedthoughtheconceptsandusefulnessinrelationtocavemanagementhasbeendiscussedinprevioussymposia(Aley,1976;Brucker,1976;Forssell,1977; Middaugh,1977).Untilavalidsystemisdeveloped,theestablishmentofcarryingcapacitiesmustbeasubjectivedecisionmade bythecavespecialist.Carryingcapacitiesmayvaryfromonesectionofacavetoanotherdependingonthedelicatenessoftheenvironment.Likewise,theymayvarywithtimeofyearinrespecttoahibernatingornurserybatcolonyorothersuchseasonallimitations.Carryingcapacitiesmaybesetaccordingtonumberofcaversineachgroupand also thenumberofgroupsallowedpermonthor year. Anothermethodofhelpingmaintaintheacceptablelimitsofhumanimpactsonanundergroundwildernessistodevelopasystemofaccesscontrols.Oneofthemosteffectivemeansofaccesscontrolistheinstallationofagate.Anothermeansofaccesscontrolisthroughthedesignofsurfacetrailsandpaths(Gallagher,1978).Athirdtechniqueavailabletothemanagertocontrollaccessisthetypeand numberofpermitsissued.The numberofpermitsissuedrelatesdirectlytocarryingcapacity.Thetypeofpermitissuedforcertaincavesmayvarydependingonthecontentsandfragilnessoftheindividualcave.There are fourbasictypesofcavepermits.(1)Theblanketpermitwouldallowaccesstoallpartsofthecaveonanunrestrictedbasis.Somecavesmay have multiplegateswhichwouldrequiretheapplicanttohavepriorknowledgeofthecaveandrequestthecombinationforeachspecificgate.(2)Thetripleaderpermitwouldrequireatleastonememberoftheparty,thetripleader,tohavevisitedthecavebefore.(3)Theguidedtourpermitwouldal-low agrouptoenteranotherwiseclosedcaveorportionofacavewhenaccompaniedbyarepresentative196

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ofthemanagingagency.Thistypeofpermitmayberestrictedbytheavailabilityofmanpowerandmoney.(4)Theresearch-onlypermitwouldbeissuedtogroupswhoenteredthecavetoconductauthorizedscientificresearch.Oneotheraspectofaccesscontrolthatmaybeconsideredinawildernesscaveistheestablishmentoflowimpacttrailswithinthecave.Thetermwildernesscavemightgivetheideathatonecanrunwildthroughoutthecaveandgowhereverhewants.Itisobvioustotheeducatedcaverthattheoppositeistrue.Ifacceptableroutesarenotprovided)theimprintofman'sfoot will rapidlydegradeanotherwisevirginfloor.Thistramplingwouldnotonly,degradethescenicqualityofthecavebutwouldalsodamagethescientificvalue.STEPTHREE:USEREDUCATIONANDINVOLVEMENTThedevelopmentofausereducationandinvolvementprogramisprobablythemostvaluabletoolavailabletothecavemanager.ByproperlyinformingthecaveuserastothefragilenatureofthecaveenvironmentandhowtoprotectthecavefromunnecessaDydamage,themanagerinitiatesapreventativetypeofmanagementinsteadofcourtingcrisismanagement.A numberoftechniquesareavailable.Themostidealwaywould betohavepersonalcontactwitheachgrouppriortotheirentry.Thisisnotalwayspossible.Analternativeistosendaconservationmessageoutwitheachpermitissued,thoughthisissomewhatlesseffective.Specificinstructionsastocertainareasofthecavetoavoidortousespecialcautioninduetohibernatingbatcoloniesorendangeredspeciesshouldalsobeincluded.Anothermethodofeducatingthecaveuseristonotifyeachapplicantthatabibliographyofcaveinformationisavailableuponrequestfromtheissuingoffice.Thiswouldaidintheselfeducationoftheuserbutwouldrequirethatsuchabibliographyfirstbecompiledandmadeavailable.Anotheropportunitytoaddtothepubliceducationofcaveswouldbetodevelopaslide-tapeserieswhichcouldbeloanedtoschoolsorotherinterestgroups.TheeducationofthecaveusercanbeincreasedsubstantiallybyorganizedcavinggroupssuchastheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,andvariousconservationtaskforces.Thelargemajorityofcaversareindependentofgroupssuchasthisandwouldbeinformedofacaveconservationmessagewhen permits wereissued. secondpartofthis step wouldbetoinvolvetheuserwiththeprotectionoftheresource.Thiscanbeaccomplishedbysolicitingthehelpoftheuserindetectingnewvandalism,graffiti)orbreak-insandrequestingorrequiringthetripleadertosubmit'ashortreportwhenhereturnsthesignedpermit.Thistechniquecouldserveathreefoldpurpose:(1)toplacethevisitorinapositionoffellowguardianandprotector'ofthecave,(2)serveasfeedbacktothemanageroftheconditionofthecavewhichwouldaidinthemonitoringofthecavesystem,and(3)serveasanindicatorofresponsibilityoftheuser.197Otherinformationmayberequestedonthereturnedpermitorintheformofaquestionairesuchasthepurposeofthetrip,numberofhoursspentinthecave,distancetraveledtovisitthecave,likesanddislikesofthecavingtripormanagementpolicies,andotherquestions which mightprovidevaluableinformationtothemanagerforuseinfuturedecisionmaking.STEPFOUR:MANAGEMENTEVALUATIONInordertodeterminethedegreeofsuccessoreffectivenessofmanagementpracticesthesepracticesmustbemeasurable.Onemethodofmeasuringorevaluatingmanagementisbytheinitiationofaphotomonitoringsystem.Withstrategicallylocatedphotopointsthecumulativeimpactsofvisitorusecanbedocumented.Themonitoringsystemcanbeofgooduseindeterminingexcessiveuse,vandalism)andchangesinsurfaceandcanguidethemanagerinmakingdecisionsconcerninguserestrictionsandpassageclosures(Stout,1978).Theuseofphotographyasa managementtoolwhenusedoveralongperiodoftimecanserveasaguidetofuturemanagersandprovideinsighttothechangeswhichhavetakenplaceovertheyears.Awellplanneddocumentationsystemshouldalsoincludeawrittennarrativetoexplainthechangeswhichhavetakenplaceandshouldbecorrelatedwithamaptoshowlocationwithinthecave(Larson,1978).Thisthreefoldmethod wouldallowamanagertoascertainthecumulativeimpactsonthecaveenvironmentandrelatethemtocaveusepattern.Thiscouldalsobeusedtoaddvaliditytothedevelopmentofcarryingcapacitiesandeliminatethesubjectivenessof"gutfeelings".Anothermeansofmeasuringtheeffectivenessofwildernesscavemanagement would betoconductanannualbiotainventory.Thiscouldmakeuseofhibernatingorroostingbatcolonies,ornumberofbeetlespergivenarea,orotherbiologiccommunitiesasindicatorsoftheamountofhumanen anddegradationtothetroglobites'naturalhabitat.This would, ofcourse,requireabaselinefortheassessmentsofthefindings.Theproperuseofa managementevaluationsystemshouldbetodetermineifmanagementgoalsarebeingmet.Ifitisdetermined,throughtheuseofmanagementevaluationtechniques,thatexcessivedamageisoccuring,themanagershouldthenreturntostep two andadjustcarryingcapacitiesorinitiatenew meansofaccesscontrol.Thisstepwouldcompleteasetofmanagementactionswhichshouldthenberepeatedon aregularbasistoaddtotheaccuracyofmanagementdecisionsandtheattainmentofmanagementgoals.SUMMARYThe managementgoalsforareasdesignatedaswildernessaretomanagetheresourcefortheprotectionofitswildernesscharacteristicsandforitsuseaswildernessbyfuturegenerations.Thefirststepofanagencychargedwiththesegoalsshouldbetohireaspecialist.The istwouldthenberesponsibleforestablishingtheacceptablelimitsofhumanimpactsonthecave.Techniquesavailabletoaidinretainingwilderness

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characteristicsofthecavewouldbetodeterminecarryingcapacities,developasystemofaccesscontrols,andinitiateausereducationandinvolvementprogram.Thefinalstepwouldbetoimplementa managementevaluationsystem theuseofphotomonitoringorbiologicalmonitoring.Ifmanagementgoalsarenotbeingmetthenanadjustmentofcarryingcapacitiesandaccesscontrolsshouldbemade.REFERENCESForssell,S.E.1977.Theconceptofcarryingcapacityandhowitrelatestocaves.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.Speleobooks,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.1-5.Gallagher,T.J.1978.Achievementofmanagementgoalsthroughaccessdesign.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.AdobePress,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.63-65.Larson,C.V.1978.Photographyasacavemanagementtool.NationalCvae Management SymposiumProceedings.AdopePress,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.96-103.198Stout,D.L.1978.AphotomonitoringsystemforHorsethiefCave Wyoming.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.AdobePress,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.104-107.WildernessAct.1964.88thCongressoftheUnitedStates,Vol.78,PublicLaw88-577.Aley,T.1976.Cows,cavesandcarryingcapacity.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.Speleobooks,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.70-71.Brucker,R.W.1976.Commentsoncarryingcapacity.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.Speleobooks,Albuquerque,NewMexiso.p.72.Middaugh,G.1977.Practicalexperiencewithcarryingcapacity.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.Speleobooks,Albuquerque,NewMexico.pp.6-8.

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CONCEPTISTHEUNDERGROUNDPRACTICAL?WILDERNESS*J.B."Buzz"HUDlllelABSTRACTFltOm aphil.o40Ph<.C.a1.vieIPoin.tmOotc.avuMede6ac..towUdeJtnu.6.TI1A.-6papeJtde.al..6-0epJta.c.Uc.ab..UUy 06 du.<.gnatedwtdVlflItOWtdwUdeJtnuo61tOma leg.u,.ea.u.ve andmanageJt.<.a1.viewpoin.t. The.6ec.oltdptVtt 06 .tJt.,U,pl:tpeJtdioc.u.6.6UaUeJtnaliveandin.teJt.<.mmeano 06 .teg.<..6.ea.u.veanda.r.Im.<.n.<..6:tJuLtJ.. v eplr.otec.UoIt. Question:Whattypeofdesignationisusedtoprotectfederallandsfrommisuseanddegenerativedevelopment.Answer:Ahh...Wellyoucan areaswildernessorall...well.ThisisthecasewithmostAmericans.Outsideofwildernesstheyarenotawarethatotherprotectivestatutorymeasuresexistforfederallands.Thisisthemainreasontheenvironmentalcommunityhascometouse"Wilderness"asacatch-allmeasuretoprotectnaturalresourcesfrommisuseand/ordevelopmentwhichmaydestroynaturalvalues.Nowcaversaredoingthesamething,usingWildernessasablanketprotectivemeasureto"savethecaves".Firstofall we shouldtakealookattheconceptofWildernessandcompareittothenewnotionof"undergroundWilderness".IndividualsinstrumentalincreatingourpresentWildernesssystemenvisionedWildernessas.."acontinuousstretchofcountrypreservedinits.naturalstateopentolawfulhuntingandfishing,bigenoughtoabsorba2 weekpacktrip...." (AldoLeopold,1921) ".I.shallusethewordWildernesstodenotearegionwhichcontainsnopermanent ..andissufficientlyspaciousthatapersonincrossingitmusthaveasleepingoutexperience."(RobertMarshall,1950).EarlyWildernessphilosophersbelievedareasof Wil!derness shouldbelarge',natural,andstillretaintheirprimevalcharacter.Althoughcavesareveryuniqueandpossiblythebestexampleofanareaprimarilyaffectedbytheforcesofnature,Idon'tfeeltheyfitintothetruecriteriaofWildernessasoutlinedinthe*OutdoorRecreationPlanner,BureauofLand Management,P.O.Box1397,Roswell,NM88201199WildernessAct.Thesizecriteriastatesthatanareamustbe5000acresinsize or isofsufficientsizeastomakepracticableitspreservationanduseinanunimpairedcondition.Areassmallerthan5000acresweregenerallythoughttobeislands,isolatedsmallcanyonsandmesas.Theconceptofwildernessundergroundisvalidonlyifthesurfaceareaabovethecavecanalsobemanagedina mannerwhichwouldprotectandpreservethecaveresources.ThiswouldmeaneitherdesignatingthesurfaceasWildernessorsomeothertypeofstatutorypreservation.If.thiswas donethentherewouldbenorealneedtodesignatethecaveasWildernessforitwillbeprotectedbythesurfacedesignation.Surfacemanagement andsizeareonly two ofmanyreasonsIfeelthatUndergroundWildernessisnotapracticableconcept.Listedbelowareseveraladditionalreasonswhosecumulativeeffect,presentsastrongcaseontheinvalidityofundergroundwilderness.1. }lost federallyadministeredsurfaceareashavebeeninventoriedforwildernesscharacteristicsbyagenciessuchas BLH, NPS,USFS,USF&WS,etc.Itwouldbeextremelydifficulttoinfluencetheseagenciestobacktrackandevaluatecavesforwildernesspotential.2.Undergroundwildernessisa newconcept,anddoesnoteasilyfitintotheparametersoftheWildernessAct.AnewactmayhavetobewrittenandpassedbyCongress,such as withtheEasternWildernessActof1975,whichcontainslessstringentwildernesscriteria.3.Sizemaybeaninhibitingfactor.Theactstatesanareamustbe5000acresinsizeorofsufficientsizeastomakepracticableitspreservationanduseinanunimpairedcondition.Thissizerequirementisnotabsolute,butmostagenciesdonotconsidersmallareasunlessthereisstrongpublicsupport.4.AgreatdealofpublicsupportwouldbeneededtopushaprogramsuchasthisthroughthelegislativeanthillsofWashington..Afterwitnessing

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therecentlackofsupportforwildernessbycavershereinNewMexico,Idon'tforeseestrongsupportforundergroundwildernessinthefuture.5.Proposedwildernessareaswhichdonotcontaintraditionalvalues,suchastrees,lakes,and mountainsarenotreadilyacceptedbythepublic.Diversityinwildernesslandforms(desertsversusmountains)isstillanewideawhichthepublichasnotembraced.UndergroundWildernesswouldaddtothelandformdiversityoftheWildernesssystem,butittoomayhaveaproblembeingacceptedbythepublicandlandmanagers.6.Inthepasttheenvironmentalcommunityhasusedwildernessdesignationasacatch-allmethodforprotectingareasfromdevelopmentandmisuse.Ifeelthatcaversaredoingthesamething,thinkingthatWildernessdesignationwillprotectandpreservecaves.Inrealityitcoulddraw moreattentiontocaveresourcesandintensifymanage mentproblems.7.TheconceptofUndergroundWilderness was initiatedtoprotectuniquecaveresourcesfrombeingdestroyedbymisuseordevelopment.The needtoprotectcavesisanimmediateneed;wildernessdesignationmaytakefrom4-12years,whileotherprotectivedesignationscanbe doneinoneday.8.Wildernesslegislationpresentlybeingvotedonincongresscontains"releaselanguage",whichmeansthatareaspresentlybeingdroppedfromtheWildernessreviewsystem,cannotberestudiedforwildernessconsiderationinthefuture.It'sobviousthattheconceptofUndergroundWildernesshasseveralhurdlesinitspath.Gettingtheconceptgenerallyacceptedmaytakesometime,ifever.Ourundergroundcaveresourcesundoubtedlyneedpreservationthroughstatutoryorlegislativemeans.Ifwildernessisnottheanswer,whatis?Thisleadsustothesecondpartofthispaper,alternativemanagementmeasuresanddesignationstoWilderness.Caveresourcesonfederallandsareadministeredprimarilybythreeagencies:TheBureauofLand Management (BLH),theNationalPark (NPS),andtheUnitedStatesForestService(USFS).AllthreeagenciesarepresentlyreviewinglandsforpossibleWildernessdesignation.ButWildernessisnottheonlymanagementmeasureordesignationtheseagencieshaveattheirdisposal.Alloftheseagencieshavethepowertoenactspecialmanagementmeasurestoprotectresources.ThesemeasuresvaryfromagencYtoagencyrangingfromadministrativeregulationstoformalstatutoryandlegislativeprotection.UnlikethelongprocessofWildernessdesignation,whichcantakequitea numberofyears,otherprotectivemeasuressuchasemergencyclosurescanbedoneinoneday.BeingmostfamiliarwithBLHregulations,Iwilllista fewofthemeasureswhichcouldbeusedtoprotectandpreservecaveresources.200ResearchNaturalAreasProvideproceduresformanagementofpubliclandhavingnaturalcharacteristicsthatareunusualorthatareofscientificorotherspecialinter-.est.Primarypurposeofresearchandeducation.OutstandingNaturalAreaDesignationwouldestablishproceduresforthemanagementofrecreationtoprotectnaturalfeaturesunusualandoutstandinginnature.PrimitiveAreasProvideproceduresformanagementofnaturalundevelopedlandswherethenaturalenvironmentcanbepreservedby managementofrecreationactivitiesandexclusionofadditionalroadsandcommercialdevelopments.ClosureofLandsThisisatemporaryrestrictiontoprotectthepublicandassureproperresourceutilization,conservation,andprotectionoflandsandresources.SpecialAreasIAnareaestablishedwhereresourcesrequirespecialmanagement andcontrolmeasuresfortheirprotection.AreasofCriticalEnvironmentalConcern(ACEC's) Usedforidentifying,designatingandgivingspecialmanagementattentiontoAreasofCriticalEnvironmentalConcern.Willprotectandpreventirreparabledamagetoimportanthistoric,cultural,orscenicvalues,wildliferesourcesorothernaturalsystems,andprotectlifeandsafetyfromnaturalhazards.WithdrawalsLandscanbewithdrawnfromgrazing,mining,andotheruseswhichmaydestroyuniqueresources,suchascaves.BothUSFSandNPShavesimilarmanagementtoolsattheirdisposal.Butdesignationsaremeaninglesswithoutmanagementplans.Theseplansspelloutthepurposeofthedesignationandthemanagementobjectivessought.PertinentdesignationsandcomprehensivemanagementplanscanprotectandpreservecavesaswellorevenbetterthanWildernessdesignations.Theimmediateneedofcaveprotectioncanbemetonlyby someofthemanagementmeasurespreviouslymentioned.Undergroundwilderness,ifitbecomes areality,isyearsaway frombeinga managementtooL

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UNDERGROUND*RobertR.StittWILDERNESSABSTRACT Evenbe60Jte .thep/l66age06.theWildeJU1.u.6Actbt 1964, cavuweJteconcuved06al>anJ..d.ea1.example06w.UdeJU1.u.6.Howe.veJt,FedeJtalagenuuhave beent.low.toaccep.tandapply.the concep.t06wtdeJtgJtOwtd w.UdeJtnu.6.to.thef.a.ncU.theymanage. A conceJt.teddebateamongCOn.6eJtvatiOrUAU,f.a.ndmanageJt6, and.thepubUcoveJt :thepa1>.tt1JJodecaduhal>JtuuUedi.naccep.tance 06 .thelegali..ty06:the concep.t,bu.tinUUleirrLt<.ative:toactua.llyapplyil.tocaveI7IIJ.fli.lgemen.tbyi.ncfudingcavual>paJtt. 06 .theNationalWildeJU1.u-6 PJtotecti.onSYl>.temon.theiJtownmeJtil.Ma.n.a.geJt6f.>eem.to6eel.thatdu-tgl'lJLt<.on 06 cavuwi!deJU1.Ul>.eJ.m.U6managemen.t6leubililyandm-i.gh.t mak.e managementmoJteck66-<-c.u.UCOn.6eJtvatiOrUAU, on.theotheJt hand,lVtfluetha.tili-6pJtec.i-6e1.y.tha.t066leubililywhichlAXJuldlead.to maxhnumpJtueJtvation 06 .the cave JtUOMcebypJteventingdu.tJw..c:t)..veu.l>e,w<..thou.tl>igrUMcantly.ti.Jn,U:i.ngmol>.tu.l>e. The public,to a lMgeex.tentnotaLUVle 06 thei-6f.>UUinvolved,.6eem6.tobea6!ULU106theconcept 06 w.UdeJU1.eM,a6Jta.-i.dthat.uwil.llocfl .them ou.t 06.thecavu{bu.tin6acttheyMee66ecti.velylock.edou.tanyway I. S-i.nce no undeJlgJwundwil.deJU1.Ul>hal>actu.al.e.ybeendU-tgnated,ili-6d-i.66icuUtoMyex.a.ctiJj how ilwould be managed,peJtcuvedbythepublic,011.actu.al.e.yMed.Su.c.hdu-i.gnation, 06 60JteXJ1J7lpletheeligiblel1YtdeJlgJtowtdpoJtti.on-6 06 Mamno.th Cave Na.t-i.onal Palik,wouldl>h-i.6t.the60c.U-6 06 thedebate6,'t01nwhe.theJtthewil.deJtneMconceptf.>hou.ld be appliedtocavuto how il-6hou.ldbeapplied.ThatcU-6c.u.l>t.ionwouldu.ltim:ttely be mOJteu.l>e6u.l60JtQave manageJt6 andwouldin.thea.u.thoJt'l>opbt-ton be betteJt60Jr.the cave JtuoMce. Undergroundwildernesscanbedefinedaswildernesslyingbeneaththesurfaceoftheearth.TheWildernessActof1964(1)defineswildernessas"anareawheretheearthanditscommunityoflifeareuntrammeledbyman,wheremanhimselfisavisitoranddoesnotremain..retainingitsprimevalcharacterandinfluence,withoutpermanentimprovementsorhumanhabitation..andwhichgenerallyappearsto have beenaffectedprimarilybytheforcesofnature with theimprintofman'sworksubstantiallyunnoticable...hasoutstandingopportunitiesforsolitudeoraprimitiveandunconfinedtypeofrecreation..andmayalsocontainecological,geological,orotherfeaturesofscientific,scenic,orhistoricalvalue."Caves andcavesystemsareoutstandingexamplesofwildernessbythisdefinition.ApplyingtheWildernessActdefinitiontoundergroundwildernessrequiresonlytheapplicationofthelegallyacceptedconceptofverticalaswellashorizontalboundariestothewildernessstudyprocess.IttookmanyyearsfortheWildernessActtowenditswaythroughthelegislativeprocesspriortoitspassagein1964. During thoseyearsmanyhearingsandstudieswerecommissionedbyCongress.Themostimportantofthesestudies,bytheOutdoorRecreationResourcesReview Commission, wasconsideredcarefullybyCongressinthepreparationofthefinalAct,andinitsStudyReportNo.3,caveswerereferredtoas"important*Director,NationalSpeleologicalSociety, 1417 9thAvenue,West,Seattle, WA 98119201potentialwildernessresources"andanappendixtothereportdealtextensivelywithcaves(2).EventhoughtheWildernessAct makes nospecificmentionofcaves,itisclearthatCongresswasawareoftheirpotentialaswildernessandintendedtoincludethemundertheAct,justastrees,mountains,rocks,andothernaturalfeaturesareincludedwithoutspecificallybeingnamed. However,probablybecauseoftherelativelylowprofilethatthefriendsofcaveshaveexhibitedovertheyears,therehasbeenlittlepublic cryfortheprotectionofcaves,andFederalagencieshavegenerallyviewedcavesasanunfortunateaccident--afeaturewhichtheywishedtheydidnothavetomanageatall.Inspiteofmanyproposalsbyconservationistsduringthestatutoryten-yearreviewperiodfollowingpassageoftheWildernessActthatcavesandcaveareasbeincludedintheNationalWildernessPreservationSystem(NWPS),todatenoFederalagencieshaveproposedanytoCongress.Althoughcaveshavemanytimesbeenprotected includedinthesystemaspartoflandcontainingsurfacewildernessvalues,nonehaveyetbeenincludedintheirownright.InMammothCaveNationalParkinparticular,thefighthasbeenlongandalmostbitter.AtearlyMasterPlanhearingsin1967,theNationalSpeleologicalSocietymade adetailedproposalforundergroundwilderness.Bythetimethefinalhearingswerefinallyheld(aftermanypostponements)in1974,theNationalParkServicetookthepositionthatcavescouldnotbepartofwildernessbecause

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caveswerenotpartoftheland.AlegalbriefbytheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(3)easilylaidthatandotherobjectionstorest,andtheInteriorDepartmentsubsequentlyadmittedthatcavescouldbeincludedintheNWPS--buttheychosenottorecommend anycaveswithinMammothCaveNationalPark.Argumentsofproponentsofundergroundwildernessstressthatdesignationaswildernesswouldrequirehigherstandardsofmanagement,atleastintheoryavoidingsomeofthe thathaveoccurredin Mammoth CaveNationalParkinthelastfewdecadesunderFederalmanagement.Statutoryrecognitionofthesegoals,coupledwiththerecognitionthatcavesareoneofthefinestexamplesofwilderness,sincetheyrepresentoneofthelastpartsofthelandthatisstillunexplored,wouldbeoneofthebestthingsthatwecoulddofortheworld'slongestcave.Opponentsofundergroundwildernessargue,ontheotherhand,thatitwouldlockuptheParkandlimitmanagementoptions,andthat"wecan'tdoitbecausewehaven'texploredallthecave."Thesehollow'argumentsonthepartofthebureaucratsseemtobeaimedatassuagingthefearsoflocalresidentswhostillresentearlylandcondemnationpracticesintheParkanddonotagreewiththemandateofCongressthattheParkshouldbemanagedforallofthepeopleoftheUnitedStatesandnotjustforthebenefitofa fewinthelocalarea.Argumentsagainsttheundergroundwildernessconcept b) otherparticipantsinthispanelseemtobeofthenatureof"well,weain'tdoneityet,solet'snotdoit."Certainlytheattitudesofthevariousagencieshavereflectedthisviewpoint.AlthoughthewordingoftheWildernessAct wasspecificallymodifiedbyCongressduringtheprocessofpassagetoincludeareasofsmallerthan5,000acresifthey were of"sufficientsizeastomakepracticable[their]preservationanduseinanunimpairedcondition"thusadmittingcavesandcavesystems(especially Mammoth Cave),the5,OOO-acreissueisalwaysraisedbyagencies,and nonehaveappliedthisclausetocaves.Theconceptofundergroundwildernessismostapplicablewheresurfaceareasarenoteligibleforinclusioninthe NWPS becauseofhumanintrusionssuchasroads,building,etc.Thebestexampleofthisis Mammoth CaveNationalPark,wherethe land surfacewasoncefarmlandandhasnotyet,accordingtoNPSbiologists,retumedtoatrulywild cond'i tionmeetingthecriteriaoftheAct.MostoftheMammothCaveSystem,belowtheground,isofwiidemessquality;andtheNationalParkService,hasalreadyplannedtomanagethesurfaceoftheParkiswayscompatible with undergroundwildernesspreservation.Thebesttestofwhethernewlegislationisnecessarytoenablecavestobeincludedinthe NWPS istotakethequestiontothehallsof TheonlywaythiscanbedonewithoutwidespreadpublicoutcryisforaFederalagencysuch as theNationalParkServicetomakean,undergroundwildernessproposalforanappropriatearea,suchasMammoth CaveNationalPark,andtoletCongressmakethefinaldecisionasto its originalintentin202passingtheWildernessActof1964.Theideaofundergroundwildernessisnotnew;ithasbeenaroundforover20years.Ithasnotreceivedwidespreadpublicsupportbecauseoftheattitudesofcaverswho,becausetheyfearincreased,cavevandalism that mightresult,haveshiedaway frompublicityforcavesandcaveconservation.OncetheissuemakesitintoCongresscaverswillrallyaroundandsupportit.Thedesignationofanareaasundergroundwildernessshouldnotbetheonlytechniqueusedfor'caveprotectiononFederallands.Inareaswheretheconceptisnotappropriate,othermethodsofprotectionshouldbeutilized.BuzzHummelhasoutlinedmanyoftheseinhispaper.Thisdoesnotmeanthatcaveconservationistsshouldabandonthefight achieveundergroundwildernessprotectionwhereitisappropriate.Ultimatelytheexistenceoftrulywildcavesmaydependonlong-termstatutoryprotectionbyinclusionofundergroundwildernessintheNationalWildernessPreservationSystem.WhenPresidentFordsenthiswildernessmessagetoCongressin1974,he. recommendednowildemess at allforMammothCaveNationalPark,butpledgedthatthequestionwouldberestudiedaftera fewyears.Fiveyearshavenowpassed,andsincethatistheusualperiodforarestudyintheNationalParkService,thatstudyshouldnowbeunderway.Argumentsthatthecaveisnotallknownare'invalid,sincethecavewillneverbecompletelyknown, anditispreciselythisunexplorednaturewhichmakesitanoutstandingexampleofwilderness.Thatreviewmustincludethesubsurfaceaswellasthesurfaceportionsoftheland,andifeitherarefoundappropriateforinclusioninthe NWPS, theyshouldbe.Thedesignationofeligibleportionsof Mam moth Cave SystemintheNationalWildemessPreservationSystem wouldshiftthefocusofthedebateoverundergroundwildernessfromwhetherthewildernessconcept beappliedtocavestohowitshouldbe'applied.Thatdiscussion would ultimatelybemoreusefulforcavemanagersandintheauthor'sopinionbetterforthecaveresource,References(1)WildernessActof1964,78Stat.890(1964),16U.S.C.1131 (1965).(2)OutdoorRecreationResourcesReview Commission,StudyReportNo.3,WildernessandRecreation-!=. ReportonResources,Values, anCf"PrOblems, Washington:U.S. GovernmentPrintingOffice,1963.(3)Stitt,R.R."LegalBrief:LawandSoundPolicyRequirethe NatiQnal ParkServiceandtheSecretaryoftheInteriortoreviewtheUndergroundPortionsof Mammoth CaveNationalParkastotheirSuitability for WildemessundertheWildemessActof1964," Unp1.1blished paper,June25,1974(SubmittedaspartoftheHearingRecordfortheMammoth CaveNationalParkWildemessHearings,May27,1974.)

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DISCUSSIONVariousmembersoftheaudienceandthepanelraisedthefollowingpointsinthediscussionperiod(transcribedfromRobStitt'snotes):TheWildernessActisapoortoolforcaveprotection.ApropertoolshouldbemodelledaftertheWildandScenicRiversActasaspecifictoolratherthantheshotgunapproachoftheWilderness Act, includingsomecavesaspartoftheActandsettingup areviewprocess.ThepublicitythatgoeswithdesignationundertheWildernessActisbad;itattractspeopletothearea.Wildernesswon'taccomplishmuch.ForestServiceplanningprocessisissue-oriented.CavershavetheopportunitytoraisetheissueineachindividualNationalForest,aspartoftheplanningprocess.ThepresenceofcavesinanareacanhelptogetitincludedaspartoftheNWPS.Finally,BuzzHummelsummed upthewholeissue:Nothingcanbedonewithoutpublicinvolvementandsupport--andthereisnopublicsupportfortheinclusionofcavesintheNationalWildernessFreservationSystem.203

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RADIATION*RobertT. BeckmanHAZARDSINCAVESThepossibilityofradon-daughterhazardatCarlsbadCavernswasreportedtotheNationalParkService(NPS)in1975(Ahlstrand,1976).Asaresultofthisreport,theNPSinitiatedroutinemonitoringandanemployeeexposurerecordsystem.Inanefforttoinvestigatetheproblemfurther,theNPSrequestedassistancefromtheRadiationGroup, DenverSafetyandHealthTechnologyCenter,MiningEnforcementandSafetyAdministration(MESA),now Mine SafetyandHealthAdministration,(MSHA).TheresultsofthestudiesperformedbytheRadiationGroupwerereportedbyAhlstrand.SubsequenttotheCarlsbadCavernsSurvey,additionalcaveshavebeensurveyedattherequestofNPS,theBureauofLand Management(BLM),andtheForestService(USFS).Inaddition,wehaveassistedinthetrainingofmonitoringpersonnelandundergroundemployees.Theradon-daughterhazardresultsfromthepresenceofradium,(Ra-226) in thecountryrock.The Ra-226undergoesradioactivedecaytoformradon(Rn-222).The Rn-222 is agas,andassuch, is verymobile.Aportionofthegasmigratesintothecaveatmosphere.The Rn-222 is notthemajorhealthhazard;becausethedecayrateofRn-222ifrelativelyslow,verylittleofany in haledRn-222decays in thelungsbefore itis exhaled.Themajorhealthhazardcomes fromthefourshort-liveddaughtersofRn-222(Po-218,Pb-214,Bi-214,andPo-214)commonlyreferredto as RaA,RaB,RaC,andRae'.Thesedaughtersremainsuspended in thecaveair.Whencaveaircontainingthesedaughters is inhaled,aportionofthedaughtersareretainedinthelungs.Astheseretaineddaughtersdecay,theydeliverasignificantdoseofalpharadiationtothelungs.Epidemiologicstudieshave shoWn thatexposurestoradondaughterscanleadtoincreasedlung'cancerrisk(Lundin,etal.,1971).ThisepidemiologicstudyledtotheestablishmentofanMSHAstandardrequiringthatnoundergroundminingemployeebeexposedtomorethan4 WorkingLevelMonths(WLM)percalendaryear.Radon-daughterconcentrationsaremeasuredbyfilteringtheradondaughtersfrom a knownvolumeofairandcountingthefilterinanalphadetectorofknownefficiency(ANSI,1973).Exposurerecordsaremaintainedbyrecordingthetimethateachemployeeisexposedtoaparticularradon-daughterconcentration.Theproductofthe WL andhoursexposedisaccumulatedforeachemployeeinworkinglevelhours(WLH)andtheWLHareconvertedtoWLMbydividingby 173. UnderMSHAstandards,noemployeeshouldbeexposedtomorethan4WLMinanycalendaryear.*PhysicalAgentsDivision,MineSafetyandHealthAdministration,P.O.Box25367,nenver,CO80225204Theminingindustrycontrolsradon-daughterconcentrationsthroughtheextensiveuseofmechanicalventilation;thisoptionisnotavailableinnaturalcaves.Theothermethodofcontrollingexposureiscommonlycalledadministrativecontrol.Thisinvolveslimitingtheamountoftimethatanemployeespendsintheradon-daughterenvironment.Properuseofadministrativecontrolcaninsurethatpersonnelarenotoverexposed.Radondaughtersareahazardthatispresentinmanycaves.Screeningofcaveswillindicatewhichofthecavescontainsignificanthazards-employeesatthesecavesmustbeprotectedagainstoverexposure.REFERENCESAhlstrand,G.M.1976.AlphaRadiationAssociatedStudiesatCarlsbadCaverns.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.MountainView,Arkansas.pp71-74.AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute,Inc.(ANSI. 1973.RadiationProtectioninUraniumMines.ANSIN13.8-1973.22pp.Lundin,F.E.,J.K.Wagoner,andV.E.Archer.1971.Radon-DaughterExposureandRespiratoryCancerQuantitativeandTemporalAspects.JointMonographNo.1,U.S.Dept.ofHealth,Education,andWelfare,PublicHealthService,NIOSHNIEHS. 176pp.

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CAVERESTORATIONANDCAVEMANAGEMENT*KatherineRohdeABSTRACT MoII.e.:than.:thJr.e.e./}e0.JL6have.plU>6e.d6.i.nce.the. lI.utoJuttionplI.Oje.c.ta.-tCtVLUbadCa.VeJ!ltl>lUU>be.gun.We.te.aJl.Yte.dwfU.chme.thod6m<.ghtWOII.k.andwe began :to.6eewhaX.the6COPe. 06 the.pll.Oje.c.tcou1.d be. FutU/LeWOII.k.w.notchange.dMVeil/}much.Many06thete.chniquuand.tlLe.a.tme.nt.6Me.the. Mme.WeMeloolUngmoll.e.c.aII.e6ullyatthetechniquu,the.COn.6e.que.ncu06the."lLemedie.6 IIand .tJr./}ingtop!Lovide.oplion.6all.aLte.JLnalivuthatwiLlcompliment the.otheIL cave. managementac..ti.on.6andde.ciAiolt6 .Chromehandrails,asphalttrails,undergroundlunchrooms andbigoldbrooms. Hundredsofbrightlights,littledeadcavemites,penniesinpoolsand athousandgroupsfrom athousandschools.Chewingtobacco,cigarettesmoke, someoneatthebackofthetourtakingatoke.The TamahawkinSonoraisgone.CarlsbadisfullofemorychipsandMammothhasitsshareoflint.Don'tdespair.Don'tgiveup. Heretheycome.Clearthe way, theWhiteTornadoes,thecleaningknights.Withpail,hook andladder,entertheCaveRestorer.The CaveRestorerenteredCarlsbadCavernsthreeyearsago.Inthebeginningit was anexperiment.Eachactionwas atrialanderrorprocess.Indeed,itdidseemasifthecaverestorer"whirled"intotheCaverns.There was thefeelingthatthisprojectcouldbecompletedinacoupleofweeks. Theresultswouldbeacleancave;shining,squeakyclean,andasvirginaswhenfirstfound.Thiswasnottobethecase.Theprojectstartedasanexperiment.Manyyearsofbrighthotincandescentlightshadprovidedanenvironmentthatwasfavorableforproducingathrivingcrop of greenmosses andalgaeoncaveformationsthatwereneareachlightfixture.Onesuchareawasparticularlyvisible.TheFrozen Waterfall, apurewhitecascadeof flow stone,wasmarredby alargeslimydarkgreenstreakdownthefrontof the formation. What processcouldbeusedtoremovethatstreak?BytalkingwithemployeeswhohadbeenattheCavernsformanyyears,itwasdeterminedthattherehadbeenperiodicattemptstoremoveplantgrowth.Itwasnotknownexactlywhen,howoftenorevenwhatchemicalshadbeenused.Inordertomake abeginning,'itwasdecidedtotrymixingcalciumhypochlorite(adrypowder)withwater,*ShenandoahNationalPark,Luray,VA22935205formingaliquidchlorine.This would besprayedontheplantgrowth,allowedto work fora fewminutesandthenrinsed(diluted) with clearwater.There would be arisk.It was notknown what kindofreactionthere would be. What iftheFrozenWaterfallturned"CloroxBlue"?Becauseofthatfear,asmallout-of-sightportionoftheFrozenWaterfall 'was testsprayed with chlorine.There was notareaction,andcaverestoration began atCarlsbadCaverns.Duringtheearlystagesoftheprojecttherewas noformalplanofaction.Asanareacoveredwithmoss andalgae was encountered,itwastreatedwithchlorineafteratestspray.However, fromthebeginning,noteswerekeptrecordingthedate,themethodused,howmuchchemical,ifany,wasusedandtheresultsofthetreatment.Asworkprogressed,consequencesofdevelopmentotherthanplantgrowthbecameevident.Morepossibleprojectsbecamevisible.Morecarewastakentodocumenteachactionasthoroughly'aspossibleincludingtheconditionbeforecorrectiveaction,resultsofthataction'andchecksmadeseveraldayslater.ItbecameevidentthatrestorationatCarlsbadCavernswasnotgoingtobeasimplejob.Therewasthepossibilitythatalargeandcomplicatedprojectcouldfollowiftheparkmanagerscouldbeconvincedthatitwasimportantandnecessary.

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Duetodocumentationoftheearlywork,aswellasa new systemthatutilizedbrighterlightsandlitup moreareasofthecave,supportwasgiven.Moneywasapprovedforaspecialproject.These funds wouldbeusedtoprovidepersonnel,equipmentandsupplies.Caverestorationwasstilljustanexperiment,butithadthesanctionofthetitlepilotproject.Sinceitwasanofficialprojecttheactivitiesneededtobeplannedmorepreciselyiftheprojectweretogaincredibility.Anunderstandingofwhatthegoalsoftheprojectwereto be wasneeded,aswellaslimitsseton how muchcouldandshouldbeattempted.Aninventoryofpossibleprojectsorareasthatneededattentionwas madealongthethreemilesofdevelopedtrail.Thesewerelistedandd.ividedintofourcategories:plantandalgaeremoval,removingmudandfill,carryingouttrashandlitterandcleaningdustandlintfrom walls, floorsandspeleothems.Theseprojectswerethenlistedinprioritybasedon1)feasibility,2)potentialharm,and3)necessity.Restorationwasdefined.Guidelinesandprocedureswereestablished.Aspecificobjectivewouldbesetforeachproject.Procedureswouldbefollowedtotrytoensurethatno more damage wouldbedoneinthenameofrestoration.Documentationwouldremainimportantandwouldbedoneinasdetailedaformaspossible.Mostimportantly,eachmemberofthecrewwouldunderstandwhatcaverestorationwasand'whatobjectivesweretobeaccomplished.Astheprojectprogresseditbecameevidentthatthefewprojectsthatcouldbedonewereonlyscratchingthesurface.Itcouldbecomparedtowipingaspotoffofawall,onlytofindthatthenewlycleanedspotstandsout,emphasizinghowdirtythewholewallis.Thewalliscleanedandthetaskhastoexpandtoallofthewalls.Oneofthelimitationsoftheprojectwasthatcaverestorationwouldbeanattempttoreturnthecavetoitsnaturalstateandany cave restorativeactionshouldnotbenoticeable.-Oneofthesignsofasuccessfuljobwouldbethatitshouldbenearly impossible totellataglancethatanyareahadbeencleaned.Attheendofthefive-monthpilotprogram,severalprojectshadbeencompleted.Muchofthenoticeableplantgrowthhadbeencontrolledandanexperimentalscheduleofcleaningestablished.Manybagsoftrash and litterwerecarriedout.Dustandlintwaswashedorsweptoffofselectedareas.Severalareaswereclearedofoldtrailmudandfillexposing some flowstoneandapoolthat had beencoveredformanyyears.Evenwiththeseobjectivesbeingcompletedtherewas asensethatmuch morecouldbedone.Itclearly wasnot aprojecttobe started andfinishedinthreemonths.Nor wasitone.tobedonebytrialanderrormethods.Itwastimetoplanforthefuture.Itwastimeforcaverestorationtobecome aworkingelementofcavemanagementandnolongerto'beconsidereda project.Now,threeyearslater,projectresultscanbereviewed. What wasaccomplished? What waslearnedandmostimportantly,whataction,ifany,shouldbetakenatthispoint?Generally,itwaslearnedthatcaverestorationcouldnotbetreated206asastraightforwardcleaningproject.Itisverycomplicatedandeachactioncouldaffectnotonlytheproblemitwastocure,butmightaffectsomeotherareaaswell.Foreveryactiontheremightbeareactionthatwouldbemoredestructivethantheoriginalproblem.AtthistimecaverestorationisnotagressivelybeingpursuedatCarlsbadCaverns.Abeginningwas made,butbeforeanyfurtherworkisdone,questionsmustbeanswered.Researchisnecessarytoensurethatthereactiontorestorationwillnotbedetrimentaltothecave,itsenvironmentoritslife.PLANTGROWTHREMOVALSeveraltimesinthepast,therehadbeenattemptstokillthe mosses andalgaethatgrewinareasnearthelights.Norecordswerekeptandthemethodorchemicalusedisnotknown now.Inordertobegin,adecisionwas madetotryaliquidchlorine.Aprocedurewasestablishedformixingthecalciumhypochlorite(adrygranularpowder)withwaterthatwouldpreventaccumulationsofundissolvedsolidsfrombeingdepositedinthecave.Thiswastimeconsuminganditwastemptingtoshortcuttheprocedure,resultingin'thepossibilityofmoreresiduebeingintroducedintothecaveenvironment.Astrongsolutionofhydrogenperoxidewastried,butitdidnotproveeffective.Stilllookingforalternativemethods,itwaslearnedfromothercavemanagersthatCloroxbleachhadbeenusedinothercaves.CloroxwastriedintestareasofCarlsbad.ItwasfoundthattheCloroxwas moreconcentratedthanthesolutionmentionedaboveandthatitdidkillandbleachtheplantgrowthinmostareas.Cloroxdidnotneedtobeappliedasfrequentlynordidasmuchofthechemicalneedtobeused.Thereseemedtobenovisibleresidue.Recordswerekeptofthedifferentareastreated.Theseincludedthedateoftreatment,howmuchofthechemicalwasusedtoremovethealgae/moss,howmuchtimewasneededandtheresultsoftheaction(how much waskilled,anyadversereactions).Periodicchecksweremadetoseewhenthefirstsignsofnewgrowthappearedandthisinformationrecorded.Fromthisinformationascheduleofcyclictreatmentcouldpossiblybedeveloped.Beforeanyfurtherchemicalsareintroducedintothecave,aninventoryneedstobemadeofthetypesofplantgrowththatoccurinthecave.Thisshouldalsoincludewheretheplantsaregrowing, with notesonsurfacetype,humidityandtemperatureofthearea,typeandstrengthofilluminationanddistance'ofthealgaefromthelightsource.Researchthathasalreadybeendoneinothercavesshouldbeconsulted.Suchstudieshavedealtwiththeeffectsofdifferenttreatmentontheplanttypesandtherateandtimerequiredforplantstorecoveraftertreatment.Otherstudieshavedealtwithplantresponse.tolight,includingphotoperiodand requirements,aswellaseffectsofcertainalgacidesandherbicidesonthedifferenttypesofplants.Thesestudiesshouldbeconsultedandmodifiedforthespecificsituation Carlsbad.

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Researchisnecessarytodeterminetheeffectsofthechemicalsonthebioticcommunityofthecave.Atthebeginningoftheproject,aprimitiveattemptwas madetotest tbe effectofCloroxonthebioticcommunity.Plotswereestablishedandinventoriedforspeciesand numbersofeach.Theseareaswerethensprayedwithcloroxandrecounted.Resultsseemedtoindicatethattherewas noeffectonthepopulationsofthetestplots.However,sincecloroxisastrongalgacideandaccordingthethelabel,"killsgerms",moreac curate studiesneedtobedonetoanswerthefollowingquestions.I."Areanyindividualskilledoutrightatthetimeofapplication?Ifso,howwillthisaffectspeciespopulationsinthearea?Inthecave?2.DoesCloroxsterilizeanarea?Ifso,forhowlong?3.DoesCloroxaffectthenaturalfoodsources?Willitsusecauseadisruptionofthefoodchain?4.WhathappenstotheCloroxinthecave? gow doesitbreakdown?Willanewforeignmaterialbeintroducedintothecaveasaprecipitate?5.IfwaterisaddedtotheClorox(intheformofarinse),willthatreducebioticmortality?6.WhatisthechemicalreactionofCloroxwiththerockofthecave?Withthe"exotic"trash,i.e.metalsandorganicmatter?Thesequestionsshouldbeansweredforeachchemicalthatmightbeconsideredforuseinthecave.Therehavebeencavecleaningprojectsthathavemadeuseofsteamapplications.Again,researchwouldneed-tobedonetodeterminetheeffectsofsteamonthebioticcommunityaswellasonthecavemicroclimate.DOSTANDLINTDustandlintaccumulationspresenteda dilemmaforthecaverestorer.Brushingandsweepingwasattemptedatseverallocations.Rinsingwithwaterwasalsotried.Thesemethodsprovedtoinvolvemuchhardlabor(haulinghoses,sweepingstickylintandcleaningmuchlargerareasthanhadbeenplannedsothattheclearedareawould"blend"intoitssurroundingsandnotbeobviousasacleanedarea)andwasonlyapplicabletosmoothfloorsandflowstone.Thismethodwasnotpracticalindelicateareasdecoratedwithpopcornoraragoniteorinareasofdehydratedanddecayingcalciteoringypsumareas.One solutionishighpressurewaterapplicationsintheformofahighpressuremist.Beforesuchastepistaken.researchagainneedstobedonetoaddressthesequestions:1.Howwillthehighpressurewateraffectcavefauna?2.Canenoughpressurebeappliedintheformofa207misttowashthespeleothems,yetnotdamagethem,particularlysodastraws,aragonite,decayingcalciteand gypsum?3.Howcanthewashedofflintbecollectedsoitcanberemovedfromthecave?OLDTRAILFILLRemovingoldtrailsthatconsistedofpackedmudwasoneofthehardest(physically)andmosttediousjobs,yetwasoftenthemostrewarding.Itwasexcitingtoremovemudandfillandexposehiddenflowstone,rimstonedamoroldpool.Carefulresearchisnecessarytodeterminethataproposedremovalisanoldtrailandthefillwastransportedandplacedtherebyman.Checkingoldtrailmaps andphotographsisanimportantstepaswellasconsultingwithgeologiststodeterminethatoriginalornaturalcaveisnotdestroyed.Oneofthemajorlimitationsofthisprojectisthemandatetokeepthecavenatural.Cantheprojectbe andcompletedsoastoblendinwiththesurroundingunalteredarea(asmoothtransition)?Wherewillthematerialthatisremovedbedisposedof?Whatisthedesiredresultandisitworththelargeeffortthatwillberequiredtosatisfactorilycompletetheproject?CONCLUSIONFromtheabove,itcanbeseenthatcaverestorationcannotbeisolatedbyitself.Anyactiontakencancauseareactioninthemicroclimate.biologicalcommunityorintheinorganicresource.Caverestorationisanelementincavemanagement.Itisnecessarytounderstandthatcaverestorationisanattempttohealorremovedestructiveorharmfuleffectsofman'sdevelopmentanduse.butitisnottore-createanewcave.Consideringthis,thefirstquestionthatshouldbeaskedis:"Iscaverestorationnecessary?"Isthemistakeharmingcaveinanyway? Whatisthepurposeoftherestorativeaction?Aesthetic?Integrityofthecave?Topreventfurtherdegradation?Iftherestorationisdesired,alternativescanbeestablishedinaplan.Researchanddataareneededtobackuporjustifythesealternatives.ManyelementsoftheCave ManagementPlanwillaffectproposedrestoration.Caveinventory(biota,speleothems,rareornotrare)andhistorical sources(oldnames,dates,graffiti,trash)arejusttwothatmight.haveaneffectonproposedactions.Untilresearchhasbeendoneanddataandresultshavebeenreviewed,nomajoractivityshouldtakeplace.Iftheresearchshowsthatthereisnoalternativethatiscompletelyacceptableandsatisfactorywithout'trade-offs,andthosetrade-offsarenotacceptable,thenthatprojectofcaverestorationshouldnotbedoneuntilanacceptabletreatmentisfound.Perhapsthebestalternativeistotakesteps.toensurethatfuturedevelopmentdoesnotrequirecaverestoration.

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THENATIONALCAVERESCUECOMMISSION***Lee Noon TheNationalCaveRescueCommissionisa commissionoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS)operatingundertheofficeoftheexecutivevicepresidentandconsistingofonenationalcoordinatorandseveralregionalcoordinatorswhoformtheboardofcoordinatorsby wQich theNCRCisoperated.Alsoofsignificancearethenationalmedicalofficerandthenationaldivingofficer.Thesepositionsprovideup-to-dateexpertiseintheirrespectivefields.Thesepersonnelinteract with theAirForceRescueCoordinatingCenteratScottAirForceBase.Cooperationbetweenthesegroupshasmade asignificantimpactontheimmediateavailabilityoftransportationforcaverescue teamsasneeded.PrimaryfunctionsoftheNCRCare:1)tocoordinatecaverescueoperations,2)toprovideforcaverescuetraining,and 3)toactasthevoiceoftheNSSoncaverescuematters.Additionalfunctionsare:1)todevelopanationalstandardforevaluationofrescueteamswishingtoaffiliatewiththeNCRC/NSS,2)tosolicitandpublishpapersandtextsoncaverescuerelatedtopics,and3)toinitiallyestablishandcontrolanationalinventoryofequipmentfortrainingandrescues.TheNCRCisnotarescueteam,butisacoordinatedgroupofindependentrescueteamsunitedby a commonpurposeandledbytheNCRCboardofcoordinators.IntheperformanceofthefirstoftheNCRCroles,caverescuecoordination,itisvitaltohaveatelephone which ismonitoredaroundtheclockbytrainedrescuecoordinators.ThistelephoneisprovidedbytheReCatScottAFBwhereahighlyskilledteamofspeciallytrainedcoordinatorsmanasophisticatedcontrolroomfornationwiderescueoperationsofalltypes.ThedutypersonnelobtaintheinformationrequiredtoinsurethatthecorrectNCRCcoordinatorandrescueteamorteamsareaddedonthelinewiththepersoninitiatingtherescuecall.(Forthepurposeofspeedthisshouldbealawenforcementofficer.)Ifairtransportationisrequired,theAirForcecoordinatesthis.Toreemphasize,theNCRCisnotarescueteamthatfliesallovertheUnitedStates,althoughmanyofthecoordinatorsareleadersofcaverescueteamsintheirownareas.TheNCRCwillinsurethatthecorrectskillsandequipmentareprovidedbytheteamsrespondingand will staybythetelephonetoprovideanyassistancenecessary.Whilethisisbyfarthemost *169 S.BathStreet,Waynesboro,VA22980 **ThepaperwaspresentedbyDonPaquette,208glamorousjoboftheNCRC,itisthejobwhichconsumestheleasttime.Themajorityofwork done bytheNCRCisinourcaverescuetraining,bothonthelocalandnationallevels.TheannualCaveRescueSeminarisanationallyconductedseminarwhichcoversthemethodsofbasiccaverescueandwhichalsohasaseparatecourseforthedevelopmentofteamleaders.Bothcoursesaresixdaysindurationandprovidethestudentswithacross-sectionofcaverescueskills.Thiscurrentlyistheonlyschoolofitstypeintheworld.Thefacultyisavolunteergroupofinstructorswhoareindividuallyrecognizedasexpertsinthevariousfacetsofcaverescue.Fromthisschoolhasdevelopedanationalcurriculumwhichisbeingadoptedbyvariousgovernmentagenciesastheminimumrequirementinundergroundrescue.Asanadditionalbenefitoftheseminars,theNCRehaspublishedtheHandbookofCaveRescueOperationsin1978.Thismanualisupdatedasnewinformationandpracticescomeonthenationalscene.Itwasupdatedin1980 andiscurrentlybeingsolicitedforpresentationatvariousNSSfunctions.Inadditiontothesepapers,theNCRCisactivelyinvolvedinthedevelopmentofrescueequipmentthatisuniquetothecaverescueenvironment.Asmanyofthesituationsencounteredon acaverescuearefarremoved fromthemainstreamofemergencymedicalandrescueknowledge,theequipmentavailablefromthelocalrescueagencieswillnotalwaysworkandmaybeextremelydangeroustothepartiesinvolved.ForthisreasontheNCRCconstantlykeepsinformedonthelatestofrescuetechniquesandequipmentinorderthatonlythebestandsafestareusedforcaverescues.Whereequipmentisnotavailablewedevelopourown,suchasthewarmgasinhalatorandcurrentlyexperimentalfiberglass"set-in-place"splints.Alongthesamelines,theNCRCmaintainsacacheofrescueequipmentfortrainingpurposesonboththelocalandnationallevel.TheNCRCstaffwillalsoserveasconsultantsonpossiblerescuesituationsandwillalsoaid cavers throughoutthecountryininterfacingwithvariousgovernmentagenciesforrescuereadinesspurposes.Itisalwaysbettertobeoverpreparedfor tqe nextrescuethantohavethatrescuecomewhileyouarethinkingaboutgettingready.Itisinthisveinthatthe canprovidethegreatersupportforpersonnelinvolvedwithcavemanagementwhetherwildorcommercial.Oneofthemajoraspectsofcavemanagementmustbearescuepreparedness.Arescuecanvaryfromavisitortoacommercialcavetwistinganankleandbeinghelpedout,toamajorinjurydeepinawild

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portionofthecave whichrequiresmanytrainedrescuers.Whileitisexpectedthatthefirstincidentwouldbehandledbythestaff,thesecond wouldalmostcertainlyentailoutsiderescuers'efforts.Perhapswecanbestseetheneedforpreparationbyreviewingarecentcaverescueinthewildportionofacommercialcavern.The ownerofthecavernwas on atripwithseveralexperiencedcaversand onenoviceonhisfirsttrip.Thenovicefell30feetintoapit,duetoafreakaccident,andsufferedmoderateribandpelvicinjuries.Asthecavernisseasonal,thetelephonewasturnedoffandthenearestphone wasthreemilesaway.Outsiderescuerswerecalledinandtherescuewasoverinlessthanfivehoursafterthefall.Whilethisappearstobegreatnews,thereweresomeproblems.Nothavingatelephone handyslowedtheinitialcalloutandcausedproblemsincommunicationswiththeresourcecoordinatorwhowasoffsite.Initialcalloutwastoabout60peopleandhalfofthesewereheldonstand-byuntiltheconditionofthepatientwas known.Duetotheproblemsofcommunicationsmanypeoplewereheldonalertaftertheywere nolongerneeded.Eventhoughthe owner knew oftheverticalsectionsinthewildportionofthe cave therewas noverticalrescueequipmentatthecavern.Asa minimumheshouldhavebad enDugh ropesandverticalequipmenttodothe known drops.Ideallyheshouldhavehadseveral rescue pulleys,cams, aboltkit,andfirstaid kit. Arrangementsshouldhavebeenmadeforaccesstoastretcher,ifneeded.Thebestthatcan be doneistohave someone from theNCRCoranothercaverwhois knowledgeableinrescuetoreviewthecavewithyou. This wayyou,asamanager,canhavethebest possible preplanningfortheuniqueaspectsofyour cave. WhiletheNCRCcanhandlearescue wben it happens, wewouldprefertopreventoneor minimize theproblemsbypreplanning wherever possible.

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CAVEMANAGEMENTPLANS*J.B. "Buzz"HUDDIlelInordertofindoutwhatthestateoftheartisforcavemanagementplans,Iwroteseveralpeoplewhoareactiveincavemanagement andaskedforcopiesofanycavemanagementplanstheymighthave.Ifolloweduptheseletterswithphonecallsanddiscussedmanagementplanswiththeiroriginators.Ilearnedthatthestateoftheartofwritingmanagementplansisstillinitsinfancy.Thesefirstmanagementplansweredone from a"seatofyourpants"approach.Managersnowwritingcavemanagementplanscancontactthesepeopletorequestcopiesofexistingplansorinformationwhichmaybenefitthem.Listedbelowareaddressesofindividualswhomaybecontactedforfurtherinformation.Non-FederalManagementPlansManagementPlanforKnoxCaveRobertR.stitt14179thAvenueW.Seattle,Washington98119ProvinceofBritishColumbiaMinistryofForestManagementPlanforCandlestickCavePhilWhitfield521 WestInnesStreetNelson,BritishColumbia,CanadaNationalParkServiceLehman Caves Edward E.Wood,Jr.Lehman CavesNationalMonumentBaker,Nevada 89311 Grand CanyonNationalParkM.erleE.StittGrand CanyonNationalParkCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkRonKerbo Carlsbad CavernsNationalPark3225NationalParksHighwayCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220*BureauofLand Management,P.O.Box1397,Roswell,NewMexico210UnitedStatesForestServicePacificSouthwestRegionJimShiroU.S.ForestService636 SansameStreetSanFrancisco,California94111PacificSouthwestRegionJimShiroU.S.ForestService636 SansameStreetSanFrancisco,California94111OzarkSt.FrancisNationalForestRichardA.MillsDistrictRangerOzarkNationalForestP.O.BoxIMountainView,Arkansas72560BureauofLand Management Worland:WyomingDistrictBureauofLand ManagementBobBarryP.O.Box119Worland,Wyoming82401TomAleyOzarkUndergoundLaboratoryProtem,Missouri65733NewMelones Cave Cave ManagementPlanKevinClarkeBureauofLand Management 63 NatomaStreetFolsom,California95630

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THESTATEOFTHEARTINMANAGEMENTPLANNING-ACASEFORCAVERINVOLVEMENT *Geoffrey B. Middaugh ABSTRACTManagementpf.an.6Me.6.i.mpl./jp-i..e.c.u 06 papeJt when theyMe not 60ilowe.dupwUhon-:the.-g/tOUYldmanageme.rz,tactioYl6.r.t1..6cU6Mc.u.U;tode.Mne a cookbookapp/tOac.h;toma.n.a.gementp.ta.nMng. GeneJta.ily, managementpia.n611IULl;t60ClU>:thema.na.geme.rz,tactioYl6;tobe:taken6ltomthegenvz.a.l.a.Uoc.a.fundewMnodown to 6pec.-i..6-i..c.ma.na.geme.rz,tactioYl6. A gltea.;tdeal. 06 Jte6e.aJlc.hha.6:takenp.ta.c.ewiUc.hg-i..vu a genvz.a.l.giUdw.ne601tmanagementp.ta.n6.P.ta.n6 haveto :takegenvz.a.l.goa..t6,Cl/tt.tc.ui.a;te6pec.-i..Mc.objectivu6JtOm:thuegoa..t6,eva.f.ua;tec.WlJte.nt6.<.:tua..ti.OYil.> and aMwnp.uOYl6 and plte.6eJUbe6pe.c.-i..Mc.manageme.rz,tme.c.han-i..6m6 :to ac.iUe.ve.;the.obje.ctivu.W-i..th:th-i..6geneJUI1.60Jtma.;t-i..nmind60Jt:taungaction,theMMe.nW7le.IWU6ave.nuuandpl.a.c.uwheJte.c.a.veJt-i..nvol.vement1..6 ne.e.de.dand Ite.quuted.Cave.M6houl.d be. lOO'Vte. 06 :th-i..6app/tOac.handmake.Mite.the.ypltov-i..de.;t-i..me.tyand app/tOpua.;te.guidanc.e. :to ;the.pltOCU6.Manageme.ntp.ta.nMng1..6 a pILOC.U6.Cave.M have. ;to be. .invol.ve.dwah;the.pltOC.U6. Whe.n involveme.ntonlyOc.c.uMa.;t6.ing.te.poinUand;t-i..mu.in:the.pltOC.U.6,c.on6U6ionandm-i..6c.ommunie.a..uonoe.c.uJt.Re.l.e.va.n:t.6ol.u.uoyl6 ;to;th-i..6p/tOble.mine..tu.de.;the.Me 06 6teeJting corrrnU.te.u,adv1..6oltyc.ommLtte.u,g/tOupMe.l.dtJt-i..p.6,andU6e. 06 keyc.on:tP..ctt.. A rrr:z.jOJt6O.tu.tton601Lc.ave.M1..6;toUYlde.M:tand the. pILOC.U.6. Theconceptofa managementplanisabstract.Managementplansarepiecesofpaperwhichiden .anumberofactionsthatsomeoneorsomeagencyisgoingtotake.Managementplansabstractlycaneitherindicatethatacaveisgoingtobe"protected"oritisgoingtobe"gated".Thereisadistinctdifferencebetweenwords andactions,asIhopethispaperwillpointout.The word"protected",forexample,bringswithitvariousactionconnotations,i.e.,closedtopublicuse,closedtorecreationalcaving,withdrawnfromminerallocation,protectionofthewatershedforacave,andsoon.Theactionof"gating"hasvariousconnotationsalso.Itmaymean abarbedwirefencearoundtheentrance,asigntellingpeopletokeepout,orironbarsthatallowneithercaversnorbatseitherinorout.Theproblemwithdevelopingmanagementplansisoneofagreeinguponthetermsorthemethodstoaccomplishaspecificobjective.Thepurposeofthispaperistoidentifyageneralformatforcavemanagementplans,toidentifyaconceptwhichleadstoamutualunderstandingofwhatacave management planningprocessis,andtoshowhowthisprocessisaccessibleforcaverinvolvement.Thispaperwillfocusonpubliclandmanagementagencies(applicabletostate,aswellasfederalagencies),howevar,someoftheconcepts*BureauofLand Management,P.O.Box1449,SantaFe,NewMexico 87501211canalsobeappliedtoprivateinstitutions.Manyfederalandstateagenciesareheavilyinvolvedinlanduseplanning.Mostplansinvolveallocationdecisionswhichaddresshowcertainportionsofthepubliclandswillbemanagedandprovideguidanceforvariousactivitiesbysettingproductiongoals,levelsofprotectionorintensitiesofdevelopment.BoththeFederalLandPolicyandManagement Actof1976(FLPMA)andtheForestandRangelandRenewableResourcePlanningActof1974(RPA)provideCongressionalguidancefordevelopinglanduseplanswithallocationdecisionsastheprimeoutput.Allocationdecisionsareprimarilyconcernedwithbroadviewsoflandmanagement--wildernessversustimberproduction,naturalareasversusoilandgasproduction,orwildlifehabitatprotectionversusintensiverecreationuse.Ofcourse,theseissuesarenotalwayspolar,butallocationdecisionsusuallydecideparametersabouthowareasaretobemanagedinabroadmultipleusesense.Dominantuseandgoalsareusuallyestablished.Thenextstepinthelanduseplanningprocessis.toimplementtheallocationdecisionswithon-thegroundlandmanagementactionsjconvert"words"to"actions".Forexample,takingtheallocationofawildernessareaandimplementintensiveman agementoftherecreationalusesinthatwildernessareaistakingaction.Takingtimberproductiongoalandtoinitiatemanagementplanstoharvesttimberisalsotakingaction,butmore

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familiartocaversistakingthe goal'foracertaincaveandimplementingon-the-groundactionstopreservethecave,researchitsvalues,andperpetuateitsfree-functioningnaturalecosystem.Thetoolforimplementingallocationdecisionsisthemanagementplan. How dothegeneralallocationdecisionsconverttoon-the-groundactions? How arethegeneralallocationdecisionsfundedandeventuallyimplemented?Thisconversionof"words"to"actions"isthepurposeofthemanagementplan.The managementplanservesasthebudgetarydocumenttoidentifycostsandactions,aswellasadecision-makingguide.The managementplanhastobeflexibleenoughtoadapttochanginglanduseconditions,aswellaschangingbudgetaryconditions,butspecificandstringentenoughtoassurethatthepubliccommitment madeasalanduseallocationismet.The managementplanisadiversedocument. How ever,itspurposeisalwaysthesame:tobringabouteffectiveon-the-groundmanagementactions.Oneofthemoreeffectiveformatsforguidingthedevelopmentofmanagementplansisthe"goalachievementmanagementframework".Thisframeworkborrowsheavilyfromtheadministrativemanagementconceptof"managementbyobjectives"andisdiscussedingreater'detailinthebook"WildernessManagement" byJohnHendee,GeorgeStankey,andRobertLucas.Thisbookwillnodoubtbeaclassicintermsofall types ofmanagementplanningactivitiesand not necessarilyjustforwilderness.Thefouritemsbelowaretheframeworktoguidethedevelopmentofmanagementplans.GOALS:Goalsarebroadstatementsofintent,direction, and purposewhichdescribeidealendsoreffects.Goalsarenotusuallyquantifiableand,bydefinition,maybeunachievable.Itshouldbeobviousthatgoalsarealwaysvariedanddifferent.dependingontheagencyorthepurposeforwhichaninstitutionexists.OBJECTIVES:Objectivesarestatementswhichdescribespecificconditionssoughtataparticularpointintimeanddefine"what"willbeachieved.Objectivesalsodefinestandardstoevaluatemanagementactions.Objectivesarequantifiableintermsofwhatistobeachieved(numbersofcaverrecreationdaysoracresofcavewatershedprotected).Asfederalagenciesbecome moresophisticatedintheirlandmanagementprocess,managementobjectivesarebecoming moresophisticatedandquantifiable. CURRENT SITUATIONSANDASSUMPTIONS:Adescriptionofthe"currentsituation"usuallydescribesthestateoftheresourcesatthepresenttime.Istherecoursedeterioraring?Isitbeingprotected?Isitbeingoverused?The"assumption"isapredictionofresourceconditionatafuturepointintime.Theassumptionisalsoanestimateofchangethat may occurtotheresource. MANAGEMENTMECHANISMS: Management mechanismsarethemeatofmsnagementplans.Thesebasicallyarethespecificactionsthroughwhichobjectiveswillbeachieved.Theyarethe"how's"toachievethe"what's".They showhowthecavewillbegated212 Qrhow manypermitswillbeissuedtoachieveadesiredstateofprotection.Management mechanismsalsodefinestandardsfordetermininglevelsofchangeandlevelsofunacceptablechangeintermsofprotectionoftheresource.Nodoubt,themanagement mechanisms composethebasicsubstanceofmanagementplans.Allthetoolsofregulation,enforcement,inventory,development,access,use.andprotectionaremanagementmechanisms.Whendevelopinga managementplan,the"goalachievementframework"canbeexpandeduponandnarrowedinscope.Somemanagementplansrequiremuch moredetailon managementmechanisms.A managementplanforalargeareawithnumerouscaveswillconcentratemore ontheobjectivesforindividualcaves.Management mechanismsmaycomelater.A managementplanforonesinglecavemaycontaindetailonstandardsandlevelsofunacceptablechange.Fromexperience,thisframeworkhasbeenfoundtobeveryworkable.Itprovidesatangibleframeworkforactioninaformatthatthepubliccanunderstand.IthasbeenusedforWildernessAreas(witha goodrecordofimplementation),rivermanagementplant(similartocavesbecauseoftheirlinearsystemsandneedsforquotasofuse),andfornaturalareaswithuniquesensitiveecosystems.Thesecondpartofthispaperwilldealwithhowcaverscanconstructivelyparticipateinthedevelopmentofmanagementplans.Withtheframeworkpresentedabove,itisimportantthatcaverinvolvementbeincorporatedintoallfourdecisionpoints:Goaldetermination,objectiveformulation,currentsituationsand assumptions andmanagementmechanisms.Itisimportantthatthecavingpublicandthemanagementagencybetalkingaboutthesamepointsintheprocesswhentheyaretryingtogetoncommonground.Itdoesnotdoanygoodtoargueaboutthetypeofgatetobeplacedonacavewhenthecaversandtheagencyhavenotyetagreedonwhetherthecaveshouldbearecreationalcaveoraresearchcave.ThisapproachisschematicallypresentedinFigure1.Theinvertedtrianglerepresentsthebroadtypesofparticipationneedsfordetermininggoalsandobjectives.Asplannersbegintofocusonassumptionsand managementmechanisms,thecaverinvolvementneedstobemorerefinedandfocusedonissues.Theneedfortechnicalexpertisealsobecomes moreacute.Caversmustrealizethattheirinvolvementcannotoccuratsinglepointsintime.Sporadicinvolvementcausesconfusionatfocusingontheissues.Attendingonepublicmeetingdoesnotconstituteinvolvement.Itmaymakeonepersonawareofthegoals,butitwillnotleadtoresolutionsoftheproblemsbydescribingmanagementmechanisms.The IIgo'al achievementframework"isa process.""' Itrequiresinvolvementthroughouttheprocess,overaperiodoftime.Itisnotpossibletounderstandwhatisbeingdoneorevenbeingproposedwithoutunderstandingtheoverallprocess. When involvementconstitutessomeonejumpinginandoutoftheprocess,agreatdealofconfusionandmiscommunicationoccur.Ifcaversareconcernedwithresults,itismoreeffectivetobeinvolved

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GOALS OBJECTIVES CURRENT SITUATION&ASSUMPTIONS ACTIONS"CaverInvolvementCaverInvolvementCaverInvolvementFigure 1213throughouttheentireprocessratherthanintermittentpointsintime.Thefinalissueofcaverinvolvementwillbetodefinespecificwaysthatinvolvementcanbeutilizedsothatcaverscanbeinvolvedintheentiremanagementplanningprocess.Therearemanytechniquesofinvolvement--bothformalandinformal.Apublichearingwithcourttranscriptionsandformalpresentationsisquiteformal.Afriendlyvisittothepersonwhoisgoingtowritetheplanisaninformalapproach.Theweakestmethodsarethosethatoccuratsinglepointsintime.Examplesarepublicmeetings,publicforums,hearingsandopenhouses.Attendanceatthesetypesofmeetingsalwaysrequiresafollow-upofsomekindwhetheritisaletterorawrittenstatement.Apersonsimplycannotattendonemeetingandbeinvolved.Thestrongestmechanismsofinvolvementincludesettingupofadhoccommitteesandsteeringgroups.The groups-are setuptocloselyfollowtheactionsoftheentiremanagementplanningprocess.Involvementlikethisrequiresagreatdealofwork,butitusuallyachievesresults.Otherformalinvolvementmechanismsincludeadvisorycommittees,groupsfieldtripsandconstantcommunicationthroughkeycontactsandindividuals.Insummary, managementplanningisaprocesswhoseendistoprovideforon-the-groundmanagementaction.Theprocessisnotsimple,butcanbepresentedsimplyasaframeworkfocusingwordsintoaction.Caversneedtomakethemselvesawareoftheprocessandhowtheycanusevarioustechniquestoaccesstheprocess.Theresultsofknowingtheprocessandwhereandwhentoparticipateinitwillbeeffectivecavemanagement.

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CAVETHE*EvelynBradshawLAWS OF UNITED STATESAtthe1975 Cave Management Symposium,RobStittofNSSpresentedacomprehensivestudyofcaveprotectionlawsintheUnitedStates:fromwhichsomeofthefollowingisextracted.In1978theVirginiaCommissionontheConservationandUseofCavesassembleddataon a numberofsuchlawsforbackgroundindraftingthe1979VirginiaCaveProtectionAct.Alabama Alabamadoeshavealiabilityexemptionforownersorpropertyusedrecreationallyifthereisnochargeforsuchuse.InAlabama,accordingtoStitt,therewasanattemptin1973-1974to eHtablish aStateSpeleologicalCommissiontoregulatecommercialcaves and enforcelaw.Archeologywasincluded.Theusualprohibitionsagainstvandalismetc.wouldhavebeenincluded.Arizona-3702.Defacingordamagingpetroglyphs,pi.ctographs,caves or caverns;classification.A. Apersoncommitsdefacing or damagingpetroglyphs,pictographs,caves or cavernsifsuchpersonknowingly,withoutthe prior writtenpermissionoftheowner1.Breaks,breaksoff,cracks,carvesupon,writesorotherwisemarks uponorinanymannerdestroys,mutilates,injures,defaces,removes,displaces,marsorharmspetroglyphs,pictographsoranynaturalmaterialfonndinanycaveorcavern;or2.Kills,harmsordisturbsplantoranimallifefoundinanycaveorcavern,exceptforsafetyreasons;or3.Disturbsoraltersthenaturalconditionofsuchpetroglyph,pictographs,caveorcavernortakesintoacaveorcavernanyaerosolorothertypeofcontainercontainingpaints,dyesorothercoloringagents;or4.Breaks,forces,tamperswith,removesorotherwisedisturbsalock,gate,doororotherstructureofobstructiondesignedtoprevententrancetoacaveorcavernwhetherornotentranceisgained.*Director,NationalSpeleologicalSociety,1732 ByronStreet,Alexandria,VA22303214B.Asusedinthissection,"naturalmaterial"meansstalactites,stalagmites,helictites,anthodites,gypsumflowersorneedles,flowstonedraperies,columns,tufadams,clayormudformationsorconcretionsorothersimilarcrystallinemineralformationsfoundinanycaveorcavern.C.Defacingor petroglyphs,pictographs,cavesorcavernisaclass2misdemeanor.AddedLaws1977, Ch.142,100,effOct.1,1978.California623 CavesA.ExceptasotherwiseprovidedinSection599c,anypersonwho,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionoftheownerofacave,intentionallyandknowinglydoesanyofthefollowingactsisguiltyofamisdemeanorpunishablebyimprisonmentinthecountyjailnotexceedingoneyear,orby afinenotexceedingfivehundreddollars($500),orbybothsuchfineandimprisonment:1.Breaks,hreaksoff,cracks,carvesupon,paints,writesorotherwisemarksuponorinany mannerdestroys,mutilates,injures,defaces,mars,orharm anynaturalmaterialfoundinanycave.2.Disturbsoraltersanyarchaeologicalevidenceofprioroccupationinanycave.3.Kills,harms,orremovesanyanimalorplantlifefoundinanycave.4.Burnsanymaterialwhichproducesanysmokeorgaswhichisharmfultoanyplant,oranimalfoundinanycave.5.Removes anymaterialfoundinanycave.6.Breaks,forces,tamperswith,removesorotherwisedisturbsanylock,gate,door,oranyotherstructureorobstructiondesignedtoprevententrancetoany cave." whetherornotentranceisgained.B.Forpurposesofthissection:1."Cave"means anynaturalgeologicallyformedvoidorcavitybeneaththesurfaceoftheearth,notincludinganymine,tunnel,aqueduct,orothermanmadeexcavation,whichislargeenoughtopermitapersontoenter.

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2."Owner" meansthepersonorprivateorpublicagencywhichhastherightofpossessiontothecave.3.''Naturalmaterial"meansanystalactite,stalagmite,helictite,anthodite,gypsumflowerorneedle,flowstone,drapery,column,tufadam,clayormudformationorconcretion,crystallinemineralformation,andanywall,ceiling,ormineralprotuberancetherefrom,whetherattachedorbroken,foundinanycave.4."Material"meansalloranypartofanyarchaeological,paleontological,biological,orhistoricalitemincluding,butnotlimitedto,anypetroglyph,pictograph,basketry,humanremains,tool,beads,pottery,projectilepoint,remainsofhistoricalminingactivityoranyotheroccupationfoundinanycave.expreaslyinvitedratherthanmer.elypermittedtocomeuponthepremisesbythelandowner.Nothinginthissectioncreatesadutyofcareorgroundliabilityforinjurytopersonorproperty.Added byStAtS.1963,c.1759,p.3511,1;. Amended byStats.1970, c. 807,p.1530,1;Stilts.1971,c.1928,p.1975,I;Stats,1972,c.1200,p.2322, 1;Stats.1975,c.1303,p-----,1.1970 Amendment.Substituted"fishing,hunting"fortakingoffishand game"andadded"riding"inthefirstparagraph;substituted"forentryofusefortheabovepurposes"and"suchpurposes"for"totakefishand game, camp,hikeorsightsee"and"rockcollecting"inthefirstparagraph.1972 Amendment.Included"animalandalltypesofvehicularriding"inthefirstparagraph.Forms: SeeWest'sCalifornia.CodeForms.C.Theenteringorremaininginacavebyitself shall notconstituteaviolationofthissection.AddedbyStats.1976,c.1303,p.-----,2.byStats.1977,c,p.-----,,urgency,eff.6,1977.AmendedApril Law Review Commentaries Background andgeneraleffectof1963addition.(1963)38S.VarJ.647.Colorado1977 Amendment. Substitutedinsubd.(A)(2)thephrase"Disturbsoraltersanyevidenceofarchaeologicalprioroccupationinanycave." Library ReferencesHealthandEnvironment37,43.C.J.S.Healthetseq.,35.Earlier(theabovematerialelaboratesonthe word spelunkingintheearlierlaw shown below)346Permissiontoenterforfishing,hunting,camping,etc.An owner ofanyestateinrealpropertyowesnodutyofcaretokeepthepremisessafeforentryorusebyothers'forfishing,hunting,camping, water sports,hiking,spelunking,riding,includinganimalandalltypesofvehicularriding,rockcollecting,orsightseeingortogiveanywarningofhazardousconditions,uses'of, structures, oractivitiesonsuchpremisestopersonsenteringforsuchpurposes,exceptaspro vided inthissection.StittnotesaColoradostatuteenactedbefore1883 makingitacrimetobreak,destroy,remove,orharmcaveformations,orbreakandenter,provided,however,thata copyofsaid law ispostednearthecaveentrance.Convictioncalledforfineorimprisonment.TheclauseintheColoradolawrequ1rlngthepostingofa copyofthe law nearthecaveifit'stobeprotectedineffectmakesthelawuselessexceptforprotectionofcommercialcaves,sinceintheabsenceofacaretakeranywould-bevandalcouldmerelytear down the sign andreturnthenextday.FloridaNoreferencetocavesinlawindexes.GeorgiaChapter43-25.CaveProtectionActof1977CrossReferencesPenaltyforviolationofChapter,see43-9916.43-2501ShorttitleThisChaptershallbe knownAnd maybe cited asthe"CaveProtectionActof1977".(Acts1977,p.833,eff.July1,1977.)Anownerofanyestateinrealproperty who gives permission toanotherforentryorusefortheabovepurposesuponthepremisesdoesnotthereby(a)extendanyassurancethatthepremisesaresafeforsuchpurposes,or(b)constitutethepersontowhompermissionhasbeengrantedthelegalstatusofaninvitee'orlicenseeto whom adutyofcar.e is owed,or(c)assumeresponsibilityfororincurliabilityforanyinjurytopersonorpropertycausedbyanyactofsuchpersontowhompermissionhasbeengrantedexceptasprovidedinthissecti.on.This'sectiondoesnotlimittheliabilitywhich otherwise exists(a)forwillfulormaliciousfailureto'guardorwarnagainstadangerouscondition,use,structure'oractivity;or(b)forinjurysufferedinanycasewherepermissiontoenterfortheabovepurposes was grantedfor'aconsiderationotherthantheconsideration,ifany,paidtosaidlandownerhv the stat.e;or(c)toanypersonswhoareSec.43-250143-250243-250343-250443-250543-2506 43-250743-2508ShorttitleFindingsDefinitionsVandalismunlawfulSaleofspeleothemsunlawfulPollutionandlitteringunlawfulWildlifeLiabilityofownersandagents 2 : ,. .l

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43-2502 Findings TheStateofGeQtgia hl'rebyfinds thatcavesareuncommongeologic,phenomena andthatthemineralsdepositedtherein may be'rare,andoccurin formsofgreat beauty which are irreplaceableifdestroyed.Itisalsofound'that,the wilqlife whichhaveevolvedto,liveincavesareunusualandoflimitednumbers, and manyare'rareand dangeredspecies,andthatcavesareanaturalconduitforgroundwaterflowandarehighlysubjecttowaterpollution, which-has far-reachingeffectstranscendingman'spropertyboundaries.ItisthereforedeclaredtobethepolicyofthisStateandtheintentofthisChaptertoprotecttheseuniquenaturalresources.(Acts1977,p.833,eff,July1,1977).43-2503DefinitionsUnlessthecontextinwhichusedclearlyrequiresadifferentmeaning,asusedinthischapter:A."cave"means anynaturallyoccurringsubterraneancavity,including,butnotrestrictedto,acavern,pit,pothole,naturalwell,sinkholeandgrotto;B. "collllDercial cave"means anycavewithimprovedtrailsandlightingutilizedbytheownerforthepurposeofexhibitiontothegeneralpublicasaprofitornonprofitenterprise,whereinafeeiscollectedforentry;C."gate"means anystructureordevicelocatedsoastolimitorprohibitaccessorentrytoacave;D."owner"means apersonwhoownstitletolandwhereacaveislocated,includingapersonwhoownstitletoaleaseholdestateinsuchland,andspecificallyincludestheStateand anyofitsagencies,departments,boards,bureaus,commissionsorauthorities,aswellascounties,municipalitiesandotherpoliticalsubdivisionsoftheState;E."Sinkhole"means aclosedtopographicdepressionorbasin,generallydrainingunderground,including,butnotrestrictedto,adolinelime sink orsink;F."speleothem:means anaturalmineralformationordepositoccurringinacave,including"butnotrestrictedto,stalagmites,stalactites,helectites,anthodites,gypsumflowers,gypsumneedles,angel'shair,sodastraws,draperies,bacon, pearls,popcorn(coral),rimstone dams, columns,palettes,andflowstone.Speleo thems arecommonly ofcalcite,epsomite,gypsum,aragonite,celestiteand other similarminerals;G."wildlife"means anyvertebrateorinvertebrate animal lifeindigenoustothisStateoranyspeciesintroducedorspecifiedbytheBoardofNaturalResourcesandincludes,butisnotrestrictedto,qusdrupeds,mammals,birds,fish, amphibians. reptiles.crustaceans,andmollusks,oranypartthereof.(Acts1977,p.833,eff.JulyI,1977.)43-2504VandalismunlawfulItshallbeunlawfulforanyperson,without the expresspriorwrittenpermissionoftheowner,towillfullyor knowingly .1.break,breakoff,crack,carveupon,writeupon,burnor otherwise markupon,remove,orinany manner destroy,disturb,deface,marorharmthesurfacesofanycaveoranynaturalmaterialtherein,includingspeleothems;2162.disturboralterinany mannerthenaturalconditionofanycave;,3.break,force,tamperwithorotherwisedisturbalock,gate,doororotherobstructiondesignedtocontrolorpreventaccesstoanycave,eventhoughentrancetheretomaynotbegained.(Acts1977,pp.833,834,eff.July1,1977.)43-2505Saleofspeleothems.unlawfulItshallbeunlawfultosellorofferforsaleanyspeleothemsinthisStateortoexportthemforsaleoutsidethisStatewithouttheexpresswrittenpermissionoftheownerofthe cave fromwhichsuchspeleothemswereobtained.(Acts1977,pp.833,835,eff.JulyI,1977.)43-2506PollutionandlitteringunlawfulItshallbeunlawfultostoreincaveorsinkholesanychemicalsandothermaterialswhichmaybedetrimentalorhazardoustocavesorsinkholes,tothemineraldepositstherein,tothewildlifeinhabitingcaves,tothewatersoftheState,ortothepersonsusingsuchphenome nonforanypurposes.Itshallalsobeunlawfultodump,litter,disposeoforotherwiseplaceanyrefuse,garbage,deadanimals,sewage,trash,orothersuchsimilarwastematerialsinanyquantityinanycaveorsinkhole.(Acts1977,pp.833,835,eff.July1,1977.)43-2507WildlifeItshallbeunlawfultoremove,kill,harmordisturbanywildlifefoundwithinanycave:Provided,however,thatnothingcontainedinthisSectionshallbeconstruedtorepealSection32ofanActcompletelyandexhaustively,revisingsupersedingandconsolidatinglawsofthisStaterelativetogameandfish,approvedMarch7, 1955(Ga.Laws1955,p.483),asamendedparticularlybyanActapprovedMarch29,1968(Ga.Laws1968,pp.497, 515)'{former 45-208}, relatingtoscientificcollectors'permitsoranyrulesorregulationspromulgated theretooranyFederalorStatelawsrelatingtotheprotectionofcertainplantsoranimals.(Acts1977,pp.833, 835,eff.July1,1977.)43-2508LiabilityofownersandagentsA.Neithertheownerofacavenorhisauthorizedagents,officers,employeesordesignatedrepresentativesactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityshallbeliableforinjuriessustainedby anypersonusingsaidcaveforrecreationalorscientificpurposesifthepriorconsentofthe owner hasbeenobtainedandifnochargehasbeenmadefortheuseofsuchfeaturesandnotwithstandingthataninquiryastotheexperienceorexpertiseoftheindividualseekingconsentmayhavebeenmade.B.Neithertheownerofacommercialcavenorhisauthorizedagents,officers, ordesignatedrepresentativesactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityshallbeliableforaninjurysustainedby aspectatorwhohaspaidtoviewthecave,unlesssuchinjuryissustainedasaresultofsuchowner'snegligenceinconnectionwiththe .maintainingoftrails,stairs,electricalwiresorothermodifications,andsuchnegligenceshallbetheproximatecauseoftheinjury.

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C.NothinginthissectionshallbeconstruedtoconstituteawaiverofthesovereignimmunityoftheStateoranyofitsboards,departments,bureausoragencies.(Acts1977,pp.833,836,eff.JulyI,1977.)IllinoisFrOlll: The WindyCitySpeleonews,Vol.17,June1977TherefollowsadraftofacaveconservationbillforIllinois,writtenby Tom Lera,WindyCityGrottoconservation chairman. StateRepresentativeWoodyBow man, a member oftheCommittee onEnvironment,hasagr'eedtosponsorthebill.Lettersinsupportofthebill,whichhasnotyetbeenpublishedandassigneda number,shouldbesenttoyourstaterepresentativeandtoMonroe L.Flinn, chairman oftheCommittee onEnvironment,whoseaddressis2746CampJacksonRoad,Cahokia,Illinois,62206,or2080StateOfficeBuilding,Springfield,Illinois,62706. Tom Lerawouldappreciatecopiesofanylettersand anyother co_nts you might have. His addressisApart ment 16-D, 415Aldine,Chicago,Illinois,60657. (Theproposedbill,.modeledafteranAlabamabillofseveralyearsago,clearlyneedsacertainamountof1IlOreorless minor fiddling-e.g.,"troglodite.") Hixon Synopsis:Thisbillprovidesforthepreservationofcavesandcavernsandprohibitsthedestructionand taking offormations"plants,'andanimalslivingtherein.ItalsoprovidesforestablishmentofaStateSpeleologicalCommittee. A BILLTOBE ENACTED ANACTProvidingfurtherfortheconservationofnaturalresourcesoftheState;designatingthecavesandcavernsoftheStateandtheflora,fauna, mineral formationsanddepositsthereinandothercontentsthereofforscenicandcommercialpurposes;regulatingthroughlicensuretheuseofsuchcavesandtheircontentsfor commercial purposes;protectingtherightsofpropertyowners andthegeneralpublicincaves;requiringcaveownerstoinstallandkeepinrepaircertainequipmentandabidebysafetyregulationswhencavesareopenedtothepublic;providingfor safety inspectionofcaves;establishingaStateSpeleologicalCommittee;providing the dissemination ofinformationaboutIllinoiscavesandcavernstotheownersthereofandtothepublic;designatingcertainactsrelativetocavesandcavernsandtheircontentsas criminal offensesandprescribingpenaltiesthereof.BEIT ENACTED BYTHELEGISLATUREOFILLINOIS:Section1:DefinitionsThefollowingwords andphraseswhenusedinthisActhavethe meanings respectivelyascribedtotheminthissection,exceptinthoseinstanceswherethecontextclearlyindicatesadifferentmeaning.A. "Cav.e" means anynaturalsubterraneancavity :that iseitherfiftyfeetinlengthorindepth,oranycombinationoflengthanddepthtotalingfiftyfeetorthatapersoncanentertoapointwhere.daylightcannotbeseen,orthatcontainsobligatorycavernicolous fauna (animalsobligedtoliveunderground).The work"cave"includesorissynonymouswithcavern,pothole,sinkhole,andgrotto.217B. "Mine" means anysubterraneancavitythatislargeenoughtopermitapersontoentertoapointwheredaylightcannotbeseen,orthatcontainstoobligatorycavernicolousfauna(animalsobligedtoliveunderground).The word"mine"includesorissynonymouswitbtunnel,aquaduct,orothermanmadeexcavation.C."Speleothem"means anaturalmineralformationordepositoccurringinacaveor mine whetherattachedorbroken.Thisincludesorissynonymous with stalactites,stalagmites,helictites,anthodites,gypsumflowers,needles,angle'shair,sodastraws,draperies,bacon,cavepearls,popcorn,rimstone dams, columns,flowstone,etcetera.C."Commercial Cave" means acaveutilizedbytheownerorlesseeforthepurposeofexhibitiontothepublic,asaprofitornon-profitenterprise,whereinafeeisprerequisiteorsolicitedasaconditionofadmittance.E. "Wild Cave" means acaveessentiallyinitsnaturalstate.Wildcavesarenotusedforanycommercialpurposewhatsoevernorare shown on anyscheduledbasistothepublic.F."ExhibitionCave" means acaveopenedtotbepublicfornocharge.Exhibitioncavesare not classedascommercialcaveseven though shown on ascheduledbasis.G."Gate"means anystructureordevicelocatedtolimitorprohibitaccessorentrytoanycaveormine.H."Troglobite"means anyanimalorplantdependentupon acaveforitsexistence,eventhoughitmayexitthecaveonoccasion.1."Troglodite"means anyanimalorplantdependentuponthecaveforitsexistencetha.tnormallyneverleavesthecave.J."Person"means anyindividual,partnership,firm,trust,association,corporation, compa.ny, municipality,orState.K."Owner" means aperson(s)whoownstitletolandwhere acaveor mine islocatedincludingapersonwhoownstitletoaleaseholdestateofsuchland.L."Supervision"meanseitherthecontinuousphysicalpresenceofacertified,orpermittedand/orlicensedsupervisororinhisabsence,clearlylegibleinstructionsordirectionsfortheprecautionstobetakentopreventinjurytopersons,theenvironment,andartifacts.Section2: Committee A Committeeofnolessthanfournormorethan personswillbeappointedbytheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservationtoassisthim in reachingdecisionsonall pertainingtocavesand mines whichariseinconnectionwiththe admin istrationofthisAct.Such Committee members aretoberesidentsofIllinoisandnotnecessarilystateemployees. Committee meetingswillbe at leastquarterlyandtheCommitteeisempoweredtoactatscheduledmeetingsregardlessofthenumberinattendance.TheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservationistheChairmanofthis committee. Thiscommitteewillbe known, andisreferredtothroughoutthisAct,astheStateSpeleologicalCommittee andisauthorizedtoestablishaprogramofeducationofthegeneralpublicandaneducationofcavepropertyownerstohelptheminpreservingcavelifewithintheirproperty.

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Section3:AccessandOwnership Owners,bothprivateandpublic,ofcaveandminepropertymaycontrolaccesstothecaveandminepropertybyeitherofthefollowingmethods:A. Normalpostingprocedures.B.Affixingapermanentnoticeateveryentrancetoeachcaveand minestatingrestrictions,prohibitions,andanyprovisionsforgainingentrance(ifapplicable),and astatementthatviolationoftherestrictionorprohibitionswillbea misdemeanorunderthisAct.C. Affixing agateovertheentrancesubjecttotherestrictionsinSection7ofthisAct. Anownermay notpermanentlyblock,fill,flood,orcloseaccesstospecificallydesignatedcavesand aines, registeredasanaturepreservebytheIllinoisDepartmentofConservation,IllinoisNaturePreservesCommission, andtheStateSpeleologicalSociety"pursuanttoSection7.UnlessotherwiseestablishedthroughregistrationattheDepartmentofConservationandclearlypostedatcaveandmineentrances,cavesandmineswhichareentirelyorinpartlocatedwithintheboundariesofpublicpropertyshallbeopenforrecreationalpurposes.Section4:LiabilityNeithertheownerofacaveorminenorhisagentactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityareliableforinjuriessustainedby anypersonusingsuchfeaturesforrecreationalorscientificpurposesifthepriorconsentoftheownerhasbeenobtainedandifnochargehasbeenmadefortheuseofsuchfeatures.Anownerofacommercialcaveisnotliableforaninjurysustainedby aspectatorwhohaspaidtoviewthecave,unlesssuchinjuryissustainedasaresultofsuchowner'snegligenceinconnectionwiththeprovidingandmaintainingoftrails,stairs,electricalwiresorothermodifications,andsuchnegligenceis the proximatecauseoftheinjury.Section5:VandalismItisunlawfulandconstitutesthecrimeofmaliciousvandalismforanypersonwithoutexpresspriorwrittenpermissionoftheownerorinpubliccaveswithouttheexpresspermissionoftheStateSpeleologicalCommitteeto:A.Break,break-Qff,crack,carveupon,write,burn,orotherwisemarkupon,remove,orinanymannerdestroy,disturb,deface,marorharmthesurfaceofanycaveormineoranynaturalmaterialtherein,includingspeleothems;B.Discardlitterorrefuseinanycaveormine;C.Disturboralterinanymannerthenaturalconditionofanycaveormine;D.Break,force,tamperwith,removeorotherwisedisturbalock,gate,door,orotherstructureorobstructiondesignedtocontrolorpreventaccesstoanycaveormine,eventhoughentrancetheretoisauthorizedbytheownerthereof;ItisunlawfultoofferforsaleanyspeleothemobtainedincontraventionofSection5(A),intheStateofIllinoiscommercialcavesobtainedasauthorizedinsaidsectionexceptatlicensedcommercialcavessellingmaterialfromtheircave.Itisalsounlawfultoexportsuch:ftemsforsaleelsewhere.Anypersonviolatingaprovision"ofthissectionisguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanonehundredfiftydollarsnormorethanfive-hundreddollars,andinadditionthereto,maybeimprisoned218inthecountyjailfornotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.Section6:PollutionItisunlawfultostore,dump,disposeoforotherwiseplaceincavesorminesanychemical,refusedeadanimals,sewage,trash,garbageorothermaterials.Apersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionsofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanone-hundredfiftydollars.Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshall,thesecondoffense,beguiltyofamisdemeanor,and uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanfivehundreddollars.Apersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionofthissectionshall,forthethirdoranysubsequent'offense,beguiltyofafelony,and uponconvictionthereof,shallbepunishedbyimprisonmentinthepenitentiaryfornotlessthanoneyear.Section7:BiologicalPolicyItisthepolicyoftheStateofIllinoistopreventtheexterminationofeitherplantoranimallifeincavesormines.Itisunlawful,constitutingthecrimeofmaliciousvandalism,toremove,kill,harm,ordisturbanyplantoranimallifeeithertroglobiticortrogloditic:provided,thatscientificcollectingpermitsmaybeobtainedfromtheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservation.Gatesemployedattheentranceoratanypointwithinanycaveormineshouldconsistofopenconstructiontoallowfreeand unimpededpassageofair,insects,batsandaquaticfauna.Asthenecessityarises,theStateSpeleologicalCommittee andtheI11iniosNaturePreservesCommissionisempoweredtodesignateandestablishcertaincavesandminesasNaturePreserves.Thesecavesmaybepostedtopreventbothaccidentalandintentionaldisruptionofnaturalcavelife.ApersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionofthisSectionisguiltyofamisdemeanor,and uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanone-hundredfiftydollarsandnotmorethanfive-hundreddollarsandinadditionthereto,maybeimprisonedinthecountyjailfornotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.Section8:Archeological,Paleontological,andHistoricalFeaturesNopersonmayexcavate,remove,destroy,injureordefaceanyhistoricorprehistoricruins,burialgrounds,archeologicalorpaleontologicalsiteincludingsaltpeterworkings,relicsorinscriptions,fossilizedfootprints,bonesoranyothersuch:eaturewhichmaybefoundinanycaveormine.Apermittoexcavateorremovearcheological,paleontological,prehistoricandhistoricfeaturesmaybeobtainedfromtheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservationofIllinois.Thepermitwillbeissuedforaperiodnottoexceedoneyearandmaybe"renewedatexpiration.Itisnottransferablebutmayworkunderthedirectsupervisionofthepersonholdingthepermit.Apersonapplyingforsuchapermitmust:A.ProvideadetailedstatementtotheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservationofIllinoisandtheStateSpeleologicalCommitteegivingthereasonsandobjectivesforexcavationorremovalandthebenefitsexpectedtobeobtainedfromthecomtemplatedwork;

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IndianaChapter4 DestructionGeologicalFormationsGeologicalformationsincavesDestructionorl.nJuryprohibited Violation,penalty.Section35-16-4-1.Chapter4-DestructionofGeologicalFormations{RepealedeffectiveJuly1,1977.} 35-16-4-1 {10-4530}.Geologicalformationsincaves--Destructionorinjuryprohibited-Violation,penalty.Whoever,nothavingthe ex pressconsentoftheownerthereof,willfully,mischievouslyormaliciouslydisfigures,destroysorremovesanystalagmitic,stalactiticorothergeologicalformationoranypartthereoffoundinanycaveshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanorand uponconvictionshallbefinednotlessthatfiftydollars{$50.00}normorethanfivehundreddollars{$500.00}towhichmaybeaddedimprison ment fornotlessthanten{10}daysormorethansix{6}months.{Acts1947,ch.161,l,p.523}.TitleofAct.ThetitleofActs1947,ch.161,read:"Anacttoprovidefortheprotectionofgeologicalformationsincavesandprescribingpenalties."InforceAugust21,1947.ismade onthematter.Noactionatallwithin120daysofreceiptbytheStateSpeleologicalCommitteeofapetition,modification,oradditionalinformationshallconstituteautomaticapproval.TheprovisionsofthisActareseverable.IfanypartoftheActisdeclaredinvalidorunconstitutional,suchdeclarationshallnotaffectthepartwhichremains.Section35-16-4-1{10-4530}.caves--Destruction ViOlation: penalty.1977.}ItisourunderstandingthattheforegoinglegislationdidnotpassbutthatIllinoiscavershadsomesuccess.withamendingtheirNaturePreservesAct andanActonRecreationalUseofLandandWaterAreastoincludecaves.Section11:AlllawsorpartsoflawswhichconflictwiththisActareherebyrepealed.ThisActshallbecomeeffectiveimmediatelyuponitspassageandapprovalbytheGovernor,oruponitsotherwisebecomingalaw.433.870.Defacingorcarryingawayformationincaveexhibitedtopublic.Anypersonwho,withoutpermissionfromtheowner,shalldestroy,break,teardown,writeupon,mar,handleorcarryawayCompiler'sNotes.Thissection(Acts1947,ch.161,,p.523),concerningdestructionofgeologicalformations,wasrepealedbyActs1976,P.L.148,24,effective,JulyI,1977.Forsavingclauseconcerningcrimescommittedpriortothatdateseenotto35-41-1-1.Forlawonmischeifsee35-43-1-2.B.Agreetoprovidedataandresultsofanycompletedexcavation,study,orcollectionatthefirstofeachcalendaryear;C.Obtaintheadditionai prior writtenpermissionoftheDirectoroftheDepartmentofConservationifthesiteoftheproposedexcavationisonstate-ownedlandsandpriorwrittenpermissionoftheownerifthesiteofsuchproposedexcavationisonprivatelyownedland;andD.Agreetocarrythepermitwhileexercisingtheprivilegesgranted.Apersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionofthissectionisguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanone-hundredandfiftydollarsnormorethanfive-hundreddollars,andinadditionthereto,inthediscretionofthecourt,maybeimprisonedinthecountyjailnotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.Section9:Commercial Caves TheDepartmentofConservationisdirectedtoestablishstandardsofsafety,includingregulationsrelativetoguardrails,bridges,ladders,stairs,platforms,walkways,barriers,paths,lightsandemergencylights,etc.,forallcommercialcavesinIllinoisandtoenforcesuchstandards.TheDepartmentofConservationshallestablishalicensingprocedurewithannualrenewalsforallcommercialcavesinIllinoiswhichwill:A.RequirefilingwiththeDepartmentadetailedwrittenplanofallintendedmodifications,includingacomplete,trueplanandelevationmapofthecaveormine,andstatingthata copyofsuchmapisatareadilyaccessiblelocationnearthecaveormineentrance.TheplansmustbeapprovedbytheStateSpeleologicalCommitteebeforealterationsbegin;B.Providethatdangertopublichealthandsafety,destructionofvaluablescientific,anthropological,orextensivedestructionofspeleothemswillbeconsideredbasisforrejectionofsubmittedplans;C.Requiretheownerofacommercialcavehavethecavepasstheinitialsafetyinspection,andpayaninspectionfee,obtainalicenseshOWingthatthecavehasbeendulyinspectedandapprovedandconspicuouslydisplayedator near theentrancetothecave;andD.CommercialcavesshallbeinspectedbytheDepartmentofConservationinitially,beforelicensingandannuallyafterinitiallicensing.Failuretomaintainthecaveinaconditionatthetimeofinitiallicensingshallbecausefornonrenewalofthelicense.TheDepartmentofConservationisgrantedtheauthoritytofixthefeefortheinitialandannualinspectiontocoverthecostoftheseinspections,butsuchfeeisnottoexceedtwohundreddollarsfortheinitialinspectionandfiftydollarsfortheannualinspection.Presentationofacertificateofinspectionbyarecognizedliabilityinsurancecompanyshallbeacceptedinlieuoftheannualinspection.Section10:ExceptionAnyprovisionofthisActmaybewaivedprovidedapetitionstatingthereason(s),extent,limit,location,andexpirationdateofsuchrequestisfiledwiththeStateSpeleologicalCommitteeandprovidedtheCommitteeapprovesthepetition.Allorpartofapetitionmayberejected,ormoreinformationmayberequestedbeforeafinaldetermination219

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any rock, wall,orother tormationwithinanycaveexhibited tothe public asanaturalattractionshallbefinednotlessthanfivedollars nor aore thanonehundreddollars($100). or.im prisonednotlessthan five(,5) nor more thanthirty(30)days,orboth.(Enact.Acts.1948. ch. 219).Cross-references. Criminal mischief. KRS 512.020to512.040.CollateralReferences.52 Am. Jur.2d.Malicious Mischief, 1-11.Footnote from Stitt:U.S.Constitution. V,preventing taking ofpropertywithout justcom pensation.Thereisajudicialandlegislativetrend towards abroaderinterpretationinthe InCoxv.ColossalCaverns.219Ky.612. 276S.W.543,CourtofAppealsofKentucky, 1925,thecourtfoundthatwhencaverightswereseveredfromsurfacerightsacaveowner had arighttopreserveacave.butnottodestroyit,sincethatwouldaffectthesurfaceowner'srights.Inthecaseofendangeredspecieslegislation,therightofthestatetoprotecttheresourceisconsideredtooverrideindividualpropertyrights. Maryland BOUSEOPDELEGATES81r0954 No. 512 (PRE-FILED) By:DelegateMunsonRequested:September28.1977Introducedandreadfirsttime:January11, 1978Assignedto:EnvironmentalMatters Committee report:Pavorablewithamendments Houseaction:Adopted Readsecondtime:March2,1978Chapter341ANACTconcerningCavesFORthepurposeofsettingforthregulationsregardingtheuseofcaves;definingcertainterms;prohibitingcertainactions;allowingforpermitsundercertaincircumstances;andprovidingpenaltiesforcertainviolations.BYaddingtoArticle-NaturalResourcesSection5-1401through5-1406.inclusing,tobeunderthenewsubtitle"Subtitle14.'Caves"AnnotatedCodeofMaryland (1974 Volume and 1977 Supplement)SECTION1.BEITENACTEDBYTHEGENERALASSEMBLYOFMARYLAND,Thatsection(s)oftheAnnotatedCodeof berepealed,amended,orenactedtoreadasfollows:Article-NaturalResourcesSUBTITLE14.CAVES2205-1401.(A)INTHISSUBTITLE. THE FOLLOWING TERMS HAVE THEMEANINGS INDICATED.(B)"CAVE" MEANS ANYNATURALLYOCCURRINGVOID.CAVITY.RECESS.ORSYSTEMOFINTERCONNECTINGPASSAGESBENEATHTHESURFACEOFTHEEARTHORWITHINACLIFFORLEDGE.EXPLANATION:CAPITALSINDICATEKATTERADDEDTOEXISTINGLAW.{Brackets}indicate matter deletedfromexistinglaw.Underliningindicates ments tobill. indicates matter strickenby amendment.INCLUDINGNATURALSUBSURFACEWATERANDDRAINAGESYSTEMS.THEWORD"CAVE"INCLUDESORISSYNONYMOUSWITHCAVERN, SINKHOLE,GROTTOANDROCKSHELTER.(C)"COMMERCIALCAVE"MEANSANYCAVEWITH IMPROVED TRAILSANDLIGHTING UTILIZED BYTHE OWNER FORTHEPURPOSEOFEXHIBITIONTOTHEGENERALPUBLICASAPROFITORNONPROFITENTERPRISE,WHEREINAFEEISCOLLECTEDFORENTRY.(D)"GATE"MEANSANYSTRUCTUREORDEVICELOCATEDTOLIMITORPROHIBITACCESSORENTRYTOANYCAVE.(E)"PERSONORPERSONS"MEANSANYINDIVIDUAL,PARTNERSHIP,FIRM,ASSOCIATION,TRUST,ORCORPORATION.(F)"SPELEOTHEM"MEANSANATURALSECONDARYMINERALFORMATIONORDEPOSITOCCURRING IN ACAVE.THISINCLUDESORISSYNONYMOUSWITHSTALAGMITES.STALACTITES,HELECTITES,ANTHODITES,GYPSUMFLOWERS,NEEDLES,ANGEL'SHAIR,SODASTRAWS,DRAPERIES,BACON,CAVEPEARLS,POPCORN(CORAL),RIMSTONEDAMS,COLUMNS,PALETTES,FLOWSTONE,ETCETERA.SPELEOTHEMSARECOMMONLYCOMPOSEDOFCALCITE,EPSOMITE,GYPSUM,ARAGONITE,CELESTITEANDOTHERSIMILARMINERALS.(F)"OWNER"MEANSAPERSON WHO HASTHERIGHTOFACCESS(ORPOSSESSIONTOTHECAVE.(H)"SPELEOGEN"MEANS ANEROSIONALFEATUREOFTHECAVEBOUNDARYANDINCLUDESORISSYNONYMOUSWITHANASTOMOSES,SCALLOPS,RILLS,FLUTES,SPONGEWORK,ANDPENDANTS.(I)"SINKHOLE"MEANSANATURALDEPRESSIONINALANDSURFACECOMMUNICATINGWITHASUBTERRANEANPASSAGEORDRAINAGESYSTEM.(J)"CAVELIFE"MEANSANYLIFEFORMWHICH MALLYOCCURSIN,USES,VISITS,ORINHABITSANYCAVEORSUBTERRANEANWATERSYSTEM,EXCEPTING,HEREIN,THOSEANIMALSANDSPECIESCOVEREDBYANYOFTHEGAMELAWSOFTHISSTATE.

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5-1402(A)APERSONMAYNOT. WITHOUT EXPRESS,PRIOR.WRITTEN PEllMISSION OF iHE ANOWNER. WILLFULLY OR KNOWINGLY: (1) BREAK. BREAK-OFF.CRACK.CARVEUPON. WRITE. BURN.OROTHERWISE MARK UPON.REMOVE.ORINANY MANNER DESTORY. DISTURB. DEFACE,MAR.OR HARM THESURFACESOFANYCAVEORANY NATURAL MATERIALWHICHMAYBEFOUNDTHEREIN WHETHER ATTACHEDOR BROKEN. INCLUDINGSPELEOTHEMS ANIl. SPELEOGENS, ANDSEDIKENTARY DEPOSITS:(2) DISTURB ORALTERINANYMANNERTHENATURALCONDITIONOFANYCAVE:(3) BREAK. FORCE.TAMPERWITH,OROTHERWISE DISTURB ALOCK,GATE,DOOR.OROTHEROBSTRUCTIONDESIGNEDTOCONTROLORPREVENTACCESSTOANYCAVE,EVENTHOUGHENTRANCETHERETOMAYNOTBEGAINEDj ANIl (4)HOWEVER,_THEENTERINGORREMAININGINACAVEBYITSELFSHALLNOTCONSTITUTEAVIOLATIONOFTHISSECTION.(5)UNLESSOTHERWISEESTABLISHEDBYTHESECRETARY ANI' CLEARLYPOSTEDATTHECAVEENTRANCE,CAVES HAV:NG ACCESSWITHINTHEBOUNDARIESOFPUBLICPROPERTIESSHALLBEOPENFORRECREATIONALPURPOSES. (B) APERSONMAYNOTDISPOSEOF,DUMP,STORE,OROTHERWISEINTRODUCEINTOANYCAVE,SINKHOLE,ORSUBTERRANEANDRAINAGESYSTEMANYLITTER,REFUSE DEAD ANIMALS,SEWAGE,TRASH,GARBAGE,ORANYCHEMICALORBIOLOGICALCONTAMINANT WHICH ISPOTENTIALLYDANGEROUSTOMAN-ORANYFORMOFCAVELIFE. (C)ANYPERSONVIOLATINGANYPROVISIONOFTHISSECTIONISGUILTYOFAMISDEMEANOR,ANDUPONCONVICTIONTHEREOF,SHALLBEFINEDNOT N9R MORETHAN$500,ANDINADDITIONTHERETO,MAYBEIMPRISONEDFORNOTLESSTHANTENDAYSNORMORETHANSIXMONTHS.5-1403.APERSONMAYNOTSELLOROFFERFORSALEANYSPELEO THEMS IN THIS STATE,ORTOEXPORTTHEMFORSALEOUTSIDETHESTATE.APERSON WHO VIOLATESANYOFTHEPROVISIONSOFTHISSECTIONISGUILTYOFAMISDEMEANOR,AND,UPONCONVICTION,SHALLBEFINEDNOT MORETHAN$500ANDINADDITIONMAYBEIMPRISONEDFORNOTLESSTHANTENDAYSNOR 1'tORE THANSIXMONTHS.5-1404.(A)APERSONMAYNOTREMOVE,DISFIGURE,KILL,HARN,DISTURB,KEEP,RESTRAIN,ORINANYMANNERALTERTHENATURALCONDITIONOR ENVIRONNENT OF MAb-bfPE-WHf6H-NSRKAbb-bfVE5-9R-9SSYRS-WfiHfN-AN ANYCAVELIFE. (B)NOTWITHSTANDINGTHEPROVISIONOFSUBSECTION(A)OFTHISSECTION,SCIENTIFICCOLLECTION PERNITS MAYBEOBTAINEDFROMTHESECRETARY. A-PERS9N-WH9-VfSbAtES-AN-PRSVfSfSN-9F-tHfS-SEStf9N f5-6Yfbt-eF-A-MfSBEMEANSR,-ANB,-YFSN-69NVfStfSN221SiK-:K9NFHS. (C)GATESEMPLOYEDATTHEENTRANCEORATANYPOINT-WITHIN-ANYCAVESHALLBEOFOPENCONSTRUCnON-TOALLOWFREEANDUNIMPEDEDPASSAGEOFAIR,WATER,-INSECTS,BATS,ANDAQUATICFAUNA.(D)APERSONWHOVIOLATESANYPROVISIONOFTHISSECTIONISGUILTYOFA MISDEMEANOR, AND,UPONCONVICTIONTHEREOF,SHALLBEFINEDNOTMORETHAN$500AND-IN-ADDITIONTHERETOMAYBE IMPRISONED FORNOTLESSTHAN15DAYS-NORMORETHAN6MONTHS. (A)A PERSON MAYNOTEXCAVATE, REMOVE, DESTROYINJURE,DEFACE,OR ANYMANNERDISTURBANYBURIALGROUNDS,HISTORICORPREHISTORICRUINS,ARCHEOLOGICALORPALEONTOLOGICALSITEORANYPARTTHEREOF,INCLUDINGRELICS,INSCRIPTIONS,SALTPETERWORKINGS,FOSSILS,BONES,REMAINSOFHISTORICALHUMANACTIVITY,ORANYOTHERSUCHFEATURESWHICHMAYBEFOUNDINANYCAVE,EXCEPTTHOSECAVES OWNEDBY THESTATEWHICHARESUBJECTTOTHEPROVISIONSOJTHEARCHEOLOGICALRESOURCESACTOF1968 (TITLE2,SUBTITLE3).(B)NOTIHTHSTANDINGTHEPROVISIONSOFSUBSECTION(A)OFTHISSECTION,A PERNIT TOEXCAVATEORREMOVEARCHEOLOGICAL,PALEONTOLOGICAL,PREHISTORIS,ANDHISTORICFEATURESMAYBEOBTAINEDFROM THE SECRETARY.THE PERNIT SHALLBEISSUEDFORAPERrO!OF TI-IO YEARSANDMAYBE RENEWED ATEXPIRATION.IT ISNOTTRANSFERABLEBUTTHISDOESNOTPRECLUDEPERSONSFROMWORKINGUNDERTHEDIRECTSUPERVISIONOFTHEPERSONHOLDINGTHEPERMIT.(C)APERSONAPPLYINGFORAPERMITSHALL: ill HAVEKNOWLEDGEOFARCHEOLOGY. ill PROVIDEADETAILEDSTATEMENTTOTHE SECRETARY GIVINGTHEREASONSANDOBJECTIVESFOREXCAVATIONORREMOVALANDTHEBENEFITSEXPECTEDTOBEOBTAINEDFROMTHECONTEMPLATEDWORK. ill PROVIDEDATAANDRESULTSOFANYCOMPLETEDEXCAVATION,STUDY,ORCOLLECTIONATTHEFIRSTOFEACHCALENDARYEAR. f3t (4)OBTAINTHEPRIORWRITTENPERMISSIONOF THE SECRETARYIFTHESITEOFTHEPROPOSEDEXCAVATIONISONSTATEOWNEDLANDSANDPRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSIONOFTHEOWNERIFTHESITEOFTHEPROPOSEDEXCAVATIONISONPRIVATELYOWNEDLAND. f4tJ1L CARRYTHEPERMITWHILEEXERCISINGTHEPRIVILEGESGRANTED.(D)APERSONWHOVIOLATESANYPROVISIONOFSUBSECTION(A)OFTHISSECTIONISGUILTYOFA MISDEMEANOR,ANDUPONCONVICTIONSHALLBEFINEDNOTLESSTHAN$100NORMORETHAN$500,ANDMAYBEIMPRISONEDFORNOTLESSTHANTENDAYSNORMORETHANSIXMONTHS.APERSON WHO VIOLATESANYOFTHEPROVISIONSOFSUBSECTION(B)OFTHISSECTIONISGUILTYOFAMISDEMEANOR,AND,UPONCONVICTION,SHALLBEFINEDNOTLESSTHAN$100NORMORETHAN$500,ANDTHE PERNIT SHALLBEREVOKED.

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5-1405.(A)NEITHERTHEOWNEROFACAVENORHISAUTHORIZEDAGENTSACTINGWITHINTHESCOPEOFTHEIRAUTHORITY ARE LIABLEFORINJURIESSUSTAINEDBYANYPERSONUSINGTHECAVEFORRECREATIONALORSCIENTIFICPURPOSEIFTHEPRIORCONSENTOFTHEOWNERHASBEENOBTAINEDANDIFNOCHARGEHASBEENMADEFORTHEUSEOFTHECAVE.(B) ANOWNER OFA COMMERCIAL CAVEISNOTLIABLE FORANINJURY SUSTAINEDBY'ASPECTATORWHOHASPAIDTO VIEWTHE CAVEUNLESSTHEINJURYISSUSTAINEDASARESULTOFTHE OWNER'S NEGLIGENCEINCONNECTIONWITH THE PROVIDINGANDMAINTAININGOFTRAILS,STAIRS, ELECTRICALWIRES, OROTHERMODIFICATION, A."ID THENEGLIGENCEISTHEPROXIMATECAUSEOFTHEINJURY.SECTION2.ANDBEITFURTHERENACTED,ThatthisActshalltakeeffectJuly1,1978.MissouriCaveprotectionlawshavetwicebeenintroducedbutnotasofJanuary1979passed. New YorkNoreferencetocavesinindexestostatutesbutStittmentionsaproposal(notpassed)in1974toprotectarcheologicalartifactsincavesandincludemudformationsamongspeleothemsasdefined.The SundayCaver(AdirondackGrotto)inJune1978reportedanamendmenttotheGeneralObligations Law tomakeitcoverspeleologicalactivitiesand com mentsthisshouldmean no more KnoxCave-typecases. North DakotaStatutebooksavailableonlythrough1977; noreferencetocaves.Ohio No referencefoundbutStittbelievesthereisacaveprotectionactsimilartotheearlyVirginiastatute. Oklahoma Stittcitesa 1967 law makingitacrimetovandalizeformations,killorharmplantsoranimals(Guano .tning andkillingpredatoryanimalsareexceptions),orlitterorpollutecaves.PennsylvaniaStittnotesacaveprotectionlawproposalin1973failedafterithadbeen amended tooutlawfornicationandadulteryeverywhere.Pennsylvaniadoeshavealiabilityexemptionforpropertyownersifthereisnochargeforsuchuse.South Dakota StittnotesaSouth Dakota lawenactedin1939 .sking ita misdemeanortomutilateorremovecaveformationsorcarveinitialsinacave.Tennessee39-4535.Defacingorinjuringmaterialincavesor222caverns--Penalty.--Itshallbeunlawfulforanypersonwithoutthepriorpermissionoftheowner,towillfullyand knOWinglybreak,breakoff,crack,carveupon,writeorotherwisemarkupon,orinanymannerdestroy,mutilate,injure,deface,marorharm anynaturalmaterialfoundwithinanycaveorcavern,suchasstalactites,stalagmites,helictites,anthodites,gypsumflowersorneedles,.flowstone,draperies,columnsorothersimilarcrystallinematerialformationsorotherwise;tokill,harmordisturbplantorrefusetherein,orotherwisedisturboralterthenaturalconditionofsuchcaveorcavern;crbreak,force,tamperwith,remove,orotherwisedisturbalock,gate,doororotherstructureorobstructiondesignedtoprevententrancetoacaveorcavern,withoutthepermissionoftheownerthereof,whetherornotentranceisgained.Anypersonviolatinganyprovisionofthissectionshallbe deemedguiltyofa misdemeanor andshallbefinednotlessthantendollars($10.00)normorethanonethousanddollars($1000.00)foreachoffense,orshallbepunishedbyimprisonmentinthecountyjailorworkhousefornotmorethanone(1)yearorboth,inthediscretionofthecourt(Acts1967, Ch.199,Sec.1,2).TexasArt.5415j.CavernsProtectionActPolicySection1.ItisherebydeclaredtobethepublicpolicyandinthepublicinterestoftheStateofTexastoprotectandpreserveallcavesonorunderanyofthelandsintheStateofTexas,includingtidelands,submergedlands,andthebedoftheseawithinthejurisdictionoftheStateofTexas.DefinitionsSection2.InthisAct:(A)"Cave" meansnaturallyoccurringsubterraneancavity.The word"cave"includesorissynonymouswithcavern,pit,pothole,well,sinkhole,andgrotto.(B)"Gate"meansanystructure,lock,door,ordevicelocatedtolimitorprohibitaccessorentrytoanycave.e.C)"Personorpersons"means anyindividual,partnership,firm,association,trust,orcorporation.(D)"Speleothem"means anaturalmineralformationordepositoccurringinacave.Thisincludes issynonymouswithstalagmites,stalactites,helicities,anthodites,gypsumflowers,needlesangel'shair,sodastraws,draperies,bacon,cavepearls,popcorn(coral), rims tonedams,columns,palettes,flowstone,orothersimilarcrystallinemineralformationscommonly composedofcalcite,epsomite,gypsum,aragonite,celestite,andothersimilarmineralsandformations.

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(E) "Owner" means apersonwhoownstitletolandwhereacaveislocated,includingapersonwhoownstitletoaleaseholdestateinsuchland.Vandalism;penaltiesSection3.(A)Itshallbeunlawfulforanyperson,withoutexpress,priorwrittenpermissionoftheowner,towillfullyorknowingly:(1)break,break gff, craak,carveupon,write,burn,orotherwisemarkupon,remove,orinanymannerdestroy,disturb,deface,mar,orharmthesurfacesofanycaveoranynaturalmaterialtherein,includingspeleothems;(2)disturboralterinanymannerthenaturalconditionofanycave;(3)break,force,tamperwith,orotherwisedisturbalock,gate,door,orotherobstructiondesignedtocontrolorpreventaccesstoanycave,eventhoughentrancetheretomaynotbegained.(B)Anypersonviolatinga prOV1S1onofthissectionshallbeguiltyofaClassAmisdemeanor,unlesshehaspreviouslybeenconvictedofviolatingthissection,inwhichcaseheshallbeguiltyofafelonyofthethirddegree.Saleofspeleothemsunlawful;penaltiesSection4.(A)Itshallbeunlawfultosellorofferforsaleanyspeleothemsinthisstate,ortoexportthemforsaleoutsidethestate,withoutwrittenpermissionfromtheownerofthecavefromwhichthespeleothems were removed. (B) ApersonwhoshallviolateanyoftheprovisionsofthissectionshallbeguiltyofaClassBmisdemeanor.Pollutionunlawful;penaltiesSection 5. (A)Itshallbeunlawfulwithoutpriorpermissionoftheownertostore,dump,disposeof,orotherwiseplaceincavesanychemicals,deadanimals,sewage,trash,garbage,orotherrefuse.(B) ApersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshallbeguiltyofaClassCmis demeanor. Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshall,forthesecondoffense,beguiltyofaClassAmisdemeanor.Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshall,forthethirdoranysubsequentoffense,beguiltyofafelonyofthethirddegree.Permits for excavations;howobtained;prohibitions;penaltiesSection6.(A)Nopersonshallexcavate,remove,destroy,injure,alterinanysignificantmanner,ordefaceanypartofacaveownedbytheStateofTexas,unlesshefirstobtainsapermitdescribedinSubsection(B)ofthissection.(B)TheGeneralLandOfficeoftheStateofTexasmayissueapermitunderthissubsectionifthepersonseekingthepermitfurnishesthefollowinginformation:(1)sdetailedstatementgivingthereasonsandobjectivesfortheexcavation,removal,oralterationsndthebenefitsexpectedtobeobtainedfromthecontemplatedwork;(2)dataandresultsofanycompletedexcavation;(3)thepriorwrittenpermissionfromthestateagencywhichmanagesthesiteofsuchproposedexcavation;(4)aswornstatementthathewillcarrythepermitwhileexercisingtheprivilegesgranted;and(5)anyotherreasonableinformationwhichtheGeneralLandOfficemayprescribe.(C) TheGeneralLandOfficemayforgoodcauserevokeanypermitissuedunderSubsection(B)ofthissection. (D) Apersonwhoshallviolateany prOV1S10nofSubsection(A)ofthissectionshallbeguiltyofaClassBmisdemeanor.ApersonwhoviolatesanyoftheprovisionsofSubsection(B)ofthissectionshallbeguiltyofaClassCmisdemeanorandthepermithereinauthorizedshallberevoked.Acts1977,65thLeg.,p.565,ch.200,eff.May20,1977 .TitleofAct:Anacttobeknownasthe"TexasCavernsProtectionAct";relatingtothedefacing,damaging,andpollutingofcaves;thesaleofspeleothems;excavations;andprovidingpenalties.Acts1977,65thLeg.,p.565,ch.200.LibraryReferencesHealthandEnvironment(key)25.5.C.J.S.HealthandEnvironment61to66,69,71to73,78to80,82to86,88to90,94,104,110,115to126.Virginia(original)Enacted1966 CodeofVirginia,No.18.1-175.1.(A)Itshallbeunlawfulforanyperson,withoutthepriorpermissionoftheowner,towillfullyorknowinglybreak,breakoff,crack,carveupon,writeorotherwisemarkupon,orinany destroy,mutilate,injure,deface,maror anynaturalmaterialfoundinanycaveorcavern,suchasstalactites,stalagmites,helictites,anthodites,gypsumflowersorneedles,flowstone,draperies,columns,orothersimilarcrystallinemineralformationsorotherwise;tokill,harmordisturbplantoranimallifefoundtherein;todiscard"litterorrefusetherein,orotherwisedisturboralterthenaturalconditionofsuchcaveorcavern;ortobreak,force,tamperwith,remove,orotherwisedisturbalock,gate,doororotherstructureorobstructiondesignedtoprevententrancetoacaveorcavern,withoutthepermission223

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(revised)Chapter12.2VirginiaCaveProtectionActoftheownerthereof,whetherornotentranceisgained.10-150.12.Definitions.--Asusedinthischapter,thefollowingwordsshallhavethemeaningsstatedunlessthecontextrequiresotherwise:10-150.16.Archeology;permitsfor howobtained;penaltiesforviolation.-(A)InordertoprotectthearcheologicalresourcesnotcoveredbytheVirginiaAntiquitiesAct(10-150.1etseq.),itshallbeunlawfultoexcavate,remove,destroy,injure,deface,orinany mannerdisturbanyburialgrounds,historicorprehistoricresources,archeologicalor10-150.15.Biologicalpolicy;penaltiesforviolation.--(A)Itshallbeunlawfultoremove,kill,harm,orotherwisedisturbanynaturallyoccurringorganismswithinanycave,exceptforsafetyorhealthreasons;provided,however,scientificcollectingpermitsmaybeobtainedfromanycavecommissionestablishedforsuchpurposeorfromtheappropriateStateagency.(B)AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.10-150.14.Pollutionunlawful;penalties.(A)Itshallbeunlawfulforanypersonwithoutexpress,priorwrittenpermissionoftheownertostore,dump,litter,disposeofor otherwise placeanyrefuse,garbage,deadanimals,sewage,toxicsubstancesharmfultocavelifeorhumansinanycaveorsinkhole. Xt shallalsobeunlawfultoburnwithinacaveorsinkholeanymaterialwhichproducesanysmokeorgaswhichisharmfultoanynaturallyoccurringorganisminanycave.(B)AnyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.(E)"Person"or"persons"meansanyindividual,partnership,firm,association,trust,orcorporationorotherlegalentity.(F) "Owner" means apersonwhoownstitletolandwhereacaveislocated,includingapersonwhoownstitletoaleaseholdestateinsuchland,andspecificallyincludingtheCommonwealthand anyofitsagencies,departments,boards,bureaus,commissions,orauthorities,aswellascounties,municipalities,andotherpoliticalsubdivisionsoftheCommonwealth.(G)"Speleothem"means anaturalmineralformationordeposit occurring inacave.Thisincludesorissynonymouswithstalagmite,stalactite,helectite,shield,anthodite,gypsumflowerandneedle,angel'shair,sodastraw,drapery,bacon,cavepearl,popcorn(coral),rimstonedam,column,pal ette, flowstone,etcetera.Speleothemsarecom monly composedofcalcite,epsomite,gypsum,aragonite,celestite',andothersimilarmsterials.(H)"Speleogen"means anerasionalfeatureofthecaveboundaryandincludesorissynonymouswithanastomoses,scallops,rills,flutes,spongework,andpendants.(1)"Material"meansalloranypartofanyarcheological,paleontological,biological,orhis torical itemincluding,butnotlimitedto,anypetroglyph,pictograph,basketry,humanremains,tool,beads,pottery,projectilepoint,remainsofhistoricalminingactivityoranyotheroccupation,foundinanycave.(J)"Cavelife"meansanylifeformwhichnormallyoccursin,uses,visits,orinhabitsanycaveorsubterraneanwatersystem,exceptionthoseanimalsandspeciescoveredby anyofthegamelawsoftheCommonwealth.(1979,c.252.)LegislativefindingsandpolicyDefinitions.Vandalism;penaltiesPollution;penaltiesDisturbanceofnaturallyoccurringorganisms;scientificcollectingpermits;penalties.Archeology;permitsforexcavation;howobtained;penalties.Saleofspeleothems;penalties.Liabilityofownersandagentslimited;sovereignimmunityofCommonwealthnot Waived. Sec.10-150.11.10-150.12. 10-150.13. 10-150.14. 10-150.15.10-150.17.10-150.18.10.150.11.Legislativefindingsandpolicy. TheGeneralAssemblyherebyfindsthat caves areuncommongeologicphenomena, andthatthemineralsdepositedthereinmayberareandoccurinuniqueformsofgreatbeautywhichareirreplaceableifdestroyed.Alsoirreplaceablearethearcheologicalresourcesincaveswhichareofgreatscientific historicvalue.Itisfurtherfoundthattheorganismswhichliveincavesareunusualandoflimitednumbers;thatmanyarerareandendangeredspecies;andthatcavesareanaturalconduitforgroundwaterflowandarehighlysubjecttowaterpollution,thushavingfar-reachingeffectstranscendingman'spropertyboundaries.ItisthereforedeclaredtobethepolicyoftheGeneralAssembly andtheintentofthischaptertoprotecttheseuniquenaturalandculturalresources.(1971,c.252.)10-150.1b.(A)"Cave"meansanynaturallyoccurringvoid,cavity,recess,orsystemofinterconnectingpassagesbeneaththesurfaceoftheearthorwithinaclifforledgeincludingnaturalsubsurfacewateranddrainagesystems,butnotincludinganymine,tunnel,aqueduct,orotherman-madeexcavation, islargeenoughtopermitapersontoenter.The word"cave"includesorissynonymouswithcavern,sinkhole,naturalpit,grotto,androckshelter.(B)"CommercialCave" meansanycaveutilizedbytheownerforthepurposes:ofexhibitiontothegeneralpublicasaprofitornonprofitenterprise,whereinafeeiscollectedforentry.(C)"Gate"meansanystructureordevicelocatedtolimitorprohibitaccessorentrytoanycave.(D)"Sinkhole"means aclosedtopographicdepressionorbasin,generallydrainingunderground,includingbutnotrestrictedto,adoline,uvala,blindvalley,orsink.(B)Anyviolationofthissectionshallbepunishedby afinenotexceedingfivehundreddollarsorconfinementinjsilnotexceedingtwelvemonthsinthediscretionofthe jury orthecourt trying thecasewithoutajury.224

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offerortoAnyapaleontologicalsiteoranypartthereof,includingrelics,inscriptions,saltpetreworkings,fossils,bones,remainsofhistoricalhumanactivity,oranyothersuchfeatureswhichmaybefoundinanycave,exceptthose caves owned bytheCommonwealthordesignatedasCommonwealtharcheologicalsitesorzones,andwhicharesubjecttotheprovisionsoftheVirginiaAntiquitiesAct.Anyviolationofthissubsectionshallbepunishedasaclass3misdemeanor.(B)Notwithstandingtheprovisionsofsubsection(A)hereof,apermittoexcavateorremovearcheological,paleontological,prehistoric,andhistoricfeaturesmaybeobtainedfromtheVirginiaHistoricLandmarks Commission. The CommissionmayissueapermittoconductfieldinvestigationsiftheCommissionfindsthatitisinthebestinterestoftheCommonwealth, that theapplicantmeetsthecriteriaofthissectionandtheapplicantisanhistoric,scientific,oreducationalinstitution,professionalarcheologistoramateur,whoisqualifiedandrecognizedintheareasoffieldinvestigationsorarcheology.Suchpermitshallbeissuedforaperiodoftwoyearsandmay be renewed uponexpiration.Suchpermitshallnotpreclude any personfromworkingunderthedirectsupervisionofthepermittee.(C)Allfieldinvestigations,explorations,orrecoveryoperationsundertakenunderthissectionshallbecarriedoutunderthegeneralsupervisionoftheCommissionerofArcheologyoftheVirginiaResearchCenterforArcheologyandtheVirginiaHistoricLandmarks Commission andina mannertoinsurethatthe maximum amountofhistoric,scientific,archeologic,andeducationalinformationmayberecoveredandpreservedinadditiontothephysicalrecoveryofobjects.(D) Apersonapplyingforapermitpursuanttothissectionshall:1.Have knowledgeofarcheologyorhistoryasqualifiedinsubsection(B)hereof.2.ProvideadetailedstatementtotheCommissiongivingthereasonsandobjectivesforexcavationorremovalandthebenefitsexpectedtobeobtainedfromthecontemplatedwork.3.Providedataandresultsofanycompletedexcavation,study,orcollectionatthefirstofeachcalendaryear.4.Obtainthepriorwrittenpermissionoftheownerifthesiteoftheproposedexcavationisonprivatelyownedland.5.Carrythepermitwhileexercisingtheprivilegesgranted.6.Anyviolationofsubsection(A)hereofshall"bepunishedasaClass3misdemeanor.Anyviolationofsubsection(D)hereofshallbepunishedasaClass4misdemeanor,andthepermitshallberevoked.(E)Theprovisionsofthissectionshallnotapplytoanypersoninanycavelocatedonhisownproperty.10-150.17.Saleofspeleothemsunlawful; ties.-ItshallbeunlawfulforanypersontosellorforsalesnyspeleothemsinthisCommonwealth,exportthemforsaleoutsidetheCommonwealth.violstionofthissectionshallbepunishedasClass3misdemeanor.10-150.18.Liabilityofowners andagentslimited.(A)Neithertheownerofacavenorhisauthorized225agentsactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityareliableforinjuriessustainedby anypersonusingthecaveforrecreationalorscientificpurposesifnochargehasbeenmadefortheuseofthecave,notwithstandingthataninquiryastotheexperienceorexpertiseoftheindividualseekingconsentmayhavebeenmade.Nothinginthissectionshallbeconstruedtoconstituteawaiverofthesovereign immunity oftheCommonwealthoranyofitsboards,departments,bureaus,oragencies.WestVirginiaWestVirginiaBill-CBD914.HB:1144.N.1974 ABILLtoamendchaptertwentyofthecodeofWestVirginia,onethousandninehundredthirtyone,asamended, byaddingtheretoanewarticle,designatedarticle nine, relatingtotheprotectionofcaveswithinthestateof West Virginia.BeitenactedbytheLegislatureof West VirginiaThatchaptertwentyofthecodeofWestVirginia,onethousandninehundredthirty-one,asamended,beamended byaddingtheretoanewarticle.designatedarticlenine,toreadasfollows:ARTICLE9.CAVEPROTECTIONACT.#20-9-1.Definitions.Unlessthecontextinwhichusedclearlyrequiresadifferentmeaning,asusedinthisact:(A)"Cave" means anynaturallyoccurringsubterraneancavity.The word"cave"includesorissynonymouswithcavern,pit,pothole.well.sinkholeandgrotto.(B) "Commercialcave"means anycavewith im provedtrailsandlightingutilizedbytheownerforthepurposeofexhibitiontothegeneralpublicasaprofitornonprofitenterprise,whereinafeeiscollectedforentry.(C)"Gate"means anystructureordevicelocatedtolimitorprohibitaccessorentrytoanycave.(D)"Personorpersons"means anyindividual,partnership,firm,association,trustorcorporation.(E)"Speleothem"means anaturalmineral forma tionordepositoccurringinacave.Thisincludesorissynonymouswithstalagmites,stalactites,helectites,anthodites,gypsumflowers,needles,angle'shair,sodastraws,draperies,bacon,cavepearls,popcorn(coral),rimstonedams,columns,palettes.flowstone,etcetera.Speleothemsarecommonly composedofcalcite,epsomite,gypsum,aragonite,celestiteandothersimilarmaterials.(F)"Owner" means apersonwhoownstitleto land whereacaveislocated,includingapersonwhoownstitletoaleaseholdestateinsuchland.(1977,c.142.) Vandalism;penalties.Itisunlawfulforanyperson,withoutexpress,prior,writtenpermissionoftheowner, to willfullyorknowingly: (A)Break, breakoff, crack, carveupon,write,burnorotherwisemarkupon,remove,orinanymannerdestroy,disturb,deface,marorharmthesurfacesofanycaveoranynaturalmaterialtherein,includingspeleothems;

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(B)Disturboralterinanymannerthenaturalconditionofanycave;(C)Break,force,tamperwithorotherwisedisturbalock,gate,doororotherobstructiondesignedtocontrolorpreventaccesstoanycave,eventhoughentrancetheretomaynotbegained.Anypersonviolatingaprovisionofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanonehundredandfiftydollarsnormorethanfivehundreddollars,andinadditionthereto,maybeimprisonedinthecountyjailfornotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.(1977,c.14Z.)ZQ-7A-3.Saleofspeleothemsunlawful;penalties.Itisunlawfuitosellorofferforsaleanyspeleothemsinthis.State,ortoexportthemforsaleoutsidetheState.Apersonwhoviolatesanyoftheprovisionsofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefined not lessthanonehundredfiftydollarsnormorethanfivehundreddollarsandinadditionthereto,maybeimprisonedinthecountyjailfornotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.(1977,c.142.)2Q-7A-4. policy;penaltiesforviolation.Itisunlawfultoremove,kill,harmordisturbanyplantoranimallifefoundwithinanycave:Provided,thatscientificcollectingpermitsmaybeobtained from thedirectorasprovidedinsectionfifty{2Q-2-501.articletwoofthischapter.Gatesemployedattheentranceoratanypointwithinanycaveshallbeofopenconstructiontoallowfreeandunimpededpassageofair,insects,batsandaquaticfauna.Apersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and.uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthantwohundreddollarsnor more thanfivehundreddollarsandinadditionthereto,maybeimprisonedinthecountyjailfornotlessthanfifteendaysnormorethansixmonths.(1977,c.14Z.)Zo-lA-So'Archaeology;permitsforexcavation;howobtained;prohibitions;penalties.(A)Nopersonmayexcavate,remove,destroy,injureordefaceanyhistoricorprehistoricruins,burialgrounds,archaeologicalorpaleontologicalsites.includingsaltpeterworkings,relicsorinscriptions,fossilizedfootprints,bonesor any otherfeatureswhichmaybefoundinanycave.(B)Notwithstandingtheprovisionsofsubsection(A)ofthissection,apermittoexcavateorremovearchaeological,paleontological,prehistoricandhistoricfeaturesmaybeobtainedfromthe ofnaturalresources. Suchpermitshallbeissuedforaperiodoftwoyearsandmayberenewedatexpiration.Itisnottransferablebutthisdoesnotprecludepersonsfromworkingunderthedirectsupervisionofthepersonholdingthepermit.Apersonapplyingforsuchapermitmust:(1)Provideadetailed statement tothedirectorofnaturalresourcesgivingthereasonsandobjectivesforexcavationorremovalandthebenefitsexpectedtobeobtainedfromthecontemplatedwork.(2)Providedataandresultsofanycompletedexcavation,study'orcollectionatthefirstofeachcalendaryear.226(3)Obtainthepriorwrittenpermissionofthedirectorofnaturalresourcesifthesiteoftheproposedexcavationisonstate-ownedlandsandpriorwrittenpermissionof the ownerifthesiteofsuchproposedexcavationisonprivatelyownedland.(4)Carrythepermitwhileexercisingtheprivilegesgranted.Apersonwhoviolatesanyprovisionofsubsection(A)ofthissectionshallbe guilty ofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanonehundreddollarsnormorethanfive,hundreddollars,andmaybeimprisonedinthecountyjailfornotlessthantendaysnormorethansixmonths.Apersonwhoviolatesanyoftheprovisionsofsubsection(B)ofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanonehundreddollarsnormorethanfivehundreddollars,and the permithereinauthorizedshallberevoked.(1977,c.142).lO-7A-6.Liabilityofownersandagents.(A)Neithertheownerofacavenorhisauthorizedagentsactingwithinthescopeoftheirauthorityareliableforinjuriessustainedbyanypersonusingsuchfeaturesforrecreationalorscientificpurposeifthepriorconsentoftheownerhasbeenobtainedandifnochargehasbeenmadefortheuseofsuchfeatures.(B)Anownerofacommericalcaveisnotliableforaninjurysustainedby aspectatorwhohaspaidtoviewthecave,unlesssuchinjuryissustainedasaresultofsuchowner'snegligenceinconnectionwiththeprovidingandmaintainingoftrails,stairs,electricalwiresorothermodifications,andsuchnegligenceistheproximatecauseoftheinjury.0977,c.142.)JerryKyleoftheGreenbrier WV Grottocommentsaboutonesectionnotinthe WV law:Thefollowingisasectionwhichwasincludedintheoriginalbillbutwasdeletedbythelegislature.IincludeitbecauseIpersonallyfeelitshouldbe amajorsectionofanylaw concerning caves."Itshallbeunlawfultostore,dump,disposeoforotherwiseplaceincavesordolines,anychemicals,refuse,deadanimals,sewage,trash,garbageorothermaterials.Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshallbeguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanonehundreddollars.Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionof tr.ia sectionshall,forthesecondoffense,beguiltyofamisdemeanor,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbefinednotlessthanfourhundred-.dollars.Apersonwhoshallviolateanyprovisionofthissectionshall,forthethirdoranysubsequentoffense,'beguiltyofafelony,and,uponconvictionthereof,shallbepunishedby impris onmentinthepenitentiaryfornotlessthanoneyear."Wyoming wyoming Statutes19776-10-107.Injuring'naturalobjectsorformations.

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Whosoevershallwillfullyandunlawfullydeface,breakoff,cut,carve,print,markorengraveuponorinanymannerinjureordefaceanynaturalpicturesqueformationorstalactiteorstalagmite,stalactiticorstalagmiticformationoranywallorinterior,ofanynaturalcave,cavern,geyser,ortunnel.Whoshallwillfullyandunlawfullyinjure,.breakordestroyanyformationsofanynaturalmineralspring,orhotspring,theirwatersformingandbuildingsuchformationthroughprecipitationofmineralsorchemicals,shallbedeemedguiltyofamisdemeanorand uponconvictionthereofshallbefinedinanysumofnotlessthanonehundreddollars($100.00),towhichfinemaybeaddedimprisonmentinthecountyjailofthepropercountyofnotmorethansixty(60)days. (Laws 1909,ch.141,;C.S.1919, ; C.S.1920, ;R.S.1941 -362:C.S.1945, -2005;W.S.1957,-229.)Effectivedate.-Section 2,ch.141,Laws1909,makestheacteffectivefrom andafterpassage.Approved March I,1909.Inaddition,Stittdiscovereda1973statutespecificallyincludingcavesinthegeneralburglarystatute.227Stittcomments:Thereisaneedfor a nationwidecoordinatedefforttoobtainadequatelegislationinallstateswhichhavesignificantnumbersofcaves.Thestatescanbeclassifiedasfollows:1.Thosestatesalreadyhavinganadequatecaveprotectionlaw(Virginia,Oklahoma, andTennessee)2.Thosestateshavingalawonthebookswhichisnotadequate(Colorado,Wyoming,SouthDakota,IndianaandKentucky).3.Thosestateswhere alawiscurrentlybeingproposed(Arizona,NewYork, Alabama, WestVirginia,Pennsylvania,Ohio,andMissouri).4.Thosestateswithno lawwhichhavesignificantcavesworthyofprotection(18andPuertoRico).5.Thosestateshavingnosignificantcavesworthprotection(NorthDakota,Kansas,Nebraska,andDelaware).Thechancesofsuccessinsomestateswithlowpopulations,littleorganizedcaving,orfew commercialcavesaresmall.Thusthereareeightstatesinadditiontothosewithexistinginadequatelaws whereactionshouldbeconcentratedforthemosteffectiveness.TheseincludeArkansas,California,Florida,Georgia,Hawaii,Idaho,Montana, andNewNexico.SubsequenttothedateoftheStittstudy,CaliforniaandGeorgiadidpasscomprehensivecaveprotectionacts.

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LISTOFPARTICIPANTSNATIONALCAVE w.NAGEMENT SYMPOSIA1978 1980 19781980 Tecry P. Ander:;on EnvironmentalSupervisor.LimnologistDivisionofWater.StandardsandSpecificationsSection1065U.S.127SouthFrankfort.Kentucky 40601+BobAddisNSSBOG'79Convention10 GrandviewTer.N.Cobbleskill,NewYork 12043CatherineAley Ozark Underground LabProtem,Missouri65733TomAley Ozark Underground LabProtem,Missouri65733RichardAllooEnvironmentalEngineerGeneralMotorsCorp.P.O.Box Q BowlingGreen,Kentucky 42101 MikeAndersonLakeShastaCavernsBox801O'Brien.California96070 Tim Anderson LakeShastaCavernsP.O.Box801O'Brien,California96070JudyAustin Mammoth Onyx CaveP.O.Box527HorseCave,Kentucky 42749W.T.Austin Mammoth Onyx CaveP.O.Box527HorseCave,Kentucky 42749++ ++++ ++++ + +++CarolBelski403SouthernSkyCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220 DaveBelski402SouthernSkyCarlsbad,NewMexicoTomBemisPecosValleyGrotto,NSSCRF,NPS,FriendsofUndergroundWildernessCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkDrawer TCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220BenBenedictNSS8106 S. E.CarltonStreetPortland,Oregon 97206EllenBenedictNSS,BiologySectionBLM(BurnsDistrict)PacificUniversity8106S.E.CarltonStreetPortland,Oregon 97206EarlBiffleMississippiValleyOzarkReg.SpeleanResearchAssoc.Inc.26Lake RoadFenton,Missouri63026 KarenBizakParkTechnicianU.S.CorpsofEngineersLake Texoma.Rt.4,Box493Denison,Texas 75020JohnBradyIndiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamU.S. CorpsofEngineersSt.LouisDistrict210TuckerBive.,NorthSt.Louis,Missouri63101+++++++ + ++RobertT.Beckman+MineSafetyandHealthAdmin.DTSCP.O.Box 25367Denver,Colorado80225RobertL.BarryOutdoorRecreationPlanerBureau of Land Management (BLM)1804 Bower Avenue Worland,Wyoming82401SlimBaxter1343 McKinley Alamogordo,NewMexico 88310RC.BellSenecaCavernsBelleview,Ohio 44811++ ++228RichardL.Breisch110ADibbChinaLake,California93555RonBridgemonCRF4074W.RedwingStreetTucson,Arizona85704 GladysBridgesCascadeCavernsRt.4,Box4110Buerne,Texas 78006JohnP.BridgesCascadeCavernsRt.4,Box4110Buerne,Texas 78006+ +++

PAGE 236

1978 1980 19781980H.Gassaway Brown,IIIU.S.ForestService10504 Woodland Avenue,N.E.Albuquerque,NewMexico 87112+Bobby L. Crisman ManagementAssistantCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220+RogerW.Brucker460EastDay-YelSprgs.Rd, 0103 Fairborn,Ohio 45324+CarolJ.CrockettBox 244Laramie,Wyoming82070+PattyDawNSS-GreenbrierandSandiaGrottosGeologySectionP.O.Box61SinksGrove,WestVirginia24976RobertCurrieP.O.Box1206Asheville,NorthCarolina28802 DonaldA.DaytonSuperintendentCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220TomW.DavisU.S.ForestServiceFederalBuildingCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220+++ ++ + + +63139VirginiaM.DayMVG MMV NSS2101ForestSt.Louis,}lissouriFredDaniellGeneralMotors(BowlingGreen,KY)BedfordCourtHorseCave, Kentucky 42749 DwightDealChihuahuanDesertResearchlnst.P.O.Box63Alpine,Texas79830+ + + + + ++JackBurchSonoraCavernsSonora,TexasHalBryanBiologistKentuckyDept.ofTransportationRt.4,Box 290Frankfort,Kentucky40601GerardCappa 29 Av.Primerose06000-Nice,FranceRonnieBurkRubyFallsRt.4,ScenicHighwayChattanooga,Tennessee37409Li1lianG.CaleLaurelCavernsBox10,Route1 Farmington, Pennsylvania15437DavidCaleLaurel Caverns Box10,Route1 Farmington, Pennsylvania15437JoeBuszowskiVancouverIslandCave Exp. Group 1319524thAvenueSurrey,BritishColumbia,CanadaU4A2G2EmilyDekker-Fiala+NPS,CarlsbadCavernsGuadalupeMtns.ResourceManagementSpecialist3225NationalParksHighwayCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220DavidT.ClarkDept.Anthropology/ArcheologyCatholicUniversityWashington,D. C. 20064 Kevin ClarkeOutdoorRecreationPlanner Bureaq ofLand Management(BLM)10460 Bockingham DriveRanchoCordova,California95670 Alexia Cochrane Onia, Arizona72663JanConnRt.3Custer,SouthDakota57730GeorgeCorrieNPS, Mammoth CaveP.O.Box105 MaDllDOth. Cave, Kentucky 42259+++++JohnF.deBoerDiabloGrotto,NSSKlamath Mtns. Cons.TaskForce ValleyVistaRoad WalnutCreek,California94598DonDeLorenzoU.S.ForestService919 AlamosaCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220RochelleDeveraux40548MohawkRiverRoadMarcola,Oregon 91454 ++++229

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1978 1980 19781980JerryDick5205ChaparralDriveLaramie,Wyoming82070KathleenDickersonShilohNationalMilitaryParkShiloh,Tennessee38376GillEdigerBox8424Austin,Texas 78712BethElliottNSSKingstonLane LookoutMountain,Tennessee37350 Thomas E.Enright230111thStreetCody, Wyoming 82414+++ ++James E.GardnerWildlifeBiologistMisaouriDepartmentofConservation30RollaGardensRolla,Missouri65401TrevaL.Gardner30RollaGardensRolla,Missouri65401JimGoodbar+GreenRiverGrotto,NSS,CRFP.O.Box1683 BowlingGreen,Kentucky 42101JayGogueRegionalChiefScientistNationalParkService75SpringStreet,S.W.Atlanta,Georgia30303++ +++HurrayEvansBotanyDepartmentKesslerBuildingUniversityofTennessee KnOxville, Tennessee37916JohnFairchild+Boyden CavernKingsCanyonNP,California93633StephenE.Fairchild+BoydenCavern,SequoiaNatl.Forest Cave City(Cal)MoaningCavern,SierraNevada Rec.Corp.P.O.Box959 Murphys,California95247+AndyG.GrubbsUTG A1'1CS SWT.1304BobHarrisonAustin,Texas 78702orDepartmentofBiologySan Texas 78666 BobbieHallSeasonalGuide,MammothCave 3671 DonataDriveCincinnati,Ohio 45239AlbertA.Hawkins CaveNationalParkMammothCave, Kentucky 42259++ +JaneE.Fisher+4424 MarcusSt.Louis,Missouri63115TriciaFink+GeologistTVA,EastTennesseeandGreenbrierGrottosTVANaturalHeritageProjectNorris,Tennessee37828KurtH.FiegelArcheologistKYDept.ofTransportationRoute8,CardwellLaneFrankfort,Kentucky 40601MilfordFletcherCountryClubGardens, 075 SanteFe,NewMexico 87501ScottForssellBureauofLand Management(BLM)Roswell,NewMexico 88201+ ++ClaraHeidemann+NaturalBridgeCavernsRt.3,Box515NaturalBridgeCaverns,Texas 78218HarryHeidemann+NaturalBridgeCavernsRt.3,Box515NaturalBridgeCaverns,Texas78218JodyHewstonSeasonalInterpreterLehman CavesBaker,Nevada 89311 CatoHoller,Jr.N.C.C.S.P.O.Box100 OldFort,NorthCarolina28762SusanHollerP.O.Box100 OldFort,NorthCarolina28762+ + + ++LarryFrederickWindCaveNationalParkHotSprings,SouthDakota57747+WayneHolmP.O.Box788 Cody,Wyoming82414+Andrew GalewskyCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220+230WayneC.HoutcooperKentuckyNaturePreservesCommission 407 BroadwayFrankfort,Kentucky 40601+

PAGE 238

19781980 1978 1980 BenJohnson+BritishColumbiaSpeleologicalRes.18608 72 Av.Surrey,British Columbia, Canada V35-4P1FrancisG.HowarthBPBishopMuseumP.O.Box19000-AHonolulu,Hawaii96819J.B."Buzz"HUllllllelOutdoorRecreationPlannerBureanofLand Management(BLM)1717 West SecondRoswell,NewMexico 88201+ ++RobertW.LoganAquaticBiologist/Environ.SupervisorKentuckyDivisionofWaterStandardsandSpecificationsSection1065U.S.127By-PassSouthFrankfort,Kentucky 40601JanetMcCormick NSS,AdministrativeVicePresident8028 Fenway RoadBethesda,Maryland 20034 Vernon McDaniel DiamondCavernsRt.1ParkCity,Kentucky 42160+ + +DebbieKing+BoydenCavernKingsCanyonNP,California93633JohnD.Linahan+Area Manager CarlsbadCavernsNationalParkCarlsbad, NewMexico '88220BobLiebman+Director,NationalSpeleologicalSocietyP.O.Box441 Lewisburg, WestVirginia24901 EdLisowski Departmentof Entomology 320MorrillHallUniversityofIllinoisUrbana,Illinois61801+++++++(Region9)BettyMcLeodP.O.Box850 Columbia,California95310HarryB.MahoneyForester,U.S.ForestServiceMonongahelaNationalForestBox1548Elkins,WestVirginia26241 Mike McEachern AmalaguatedDiggroes1404B.Kirkwood RoadAustin,Texas 78722RonMikulakE1SBranchEnvironmentalProtectionAgency 345CourtlandStreetAtlanta,Georgia30365 NanchA.Masterson+SuperintendentHaHaTonkaStateParkRt.I,Box157BCamdenton,Missouri65020RobertH.Martin+338BridgePlaceWestScaramento,California95691GeoffreyB. Middaugh+OutdoorRecreationPlannerBureauofLand ManagementStateOfficeP.O.Box1449SantaFe,NewMexico 87501WilliamMixonNSS5035NSouthDrexelBlvd.Chicago,11lini0860615JohnMacGregor+BiologistKenouckyDepartmentofTransportation102FourthStreetNicholasville,Kentucky 40356PatriciaA.Martin+338BridgePlaceWestSacramento,California95691+ +++++++Kenneth W. KarsmizkzP.O.Box 1903 Bozeman, Montana 59715ErnstH.KastningAssistantProfessorDepartment,ofGeosciences Hurray StateUniversityMurray, Kent-.Jcky 42071J.RalphJordanProjectManagerNaturalHeritageProjectDivisionofLand&ForestResourcesTVANorris,Tennessee37828 Ronal Kerbo+CaveSpecialistCarlsbadCavernsDrawer TCarlsbad,NewMexice 88220FloydR. Lewis U.S.ForestService176 N. 1st,WestParis,IdahoJulianJ. Lewis TeachingAssistantDepartmentofBiologyUniversityofLouisvilleLouisville,Kentucky40292231

PAGE 239

BurlI.NaugleKentuckyDepartmentofNaturalResources800 LeawoodDrive,Apt.36Frankfort,Kentucky 40601 1978 1980 1978 1980+JohnG.Perna+(Smith.Hinchman&Grylls,Detroit,Michican)GeneralMotorsAssemblyPlantLouisvilleRoad, Route14+BowlingGreen,Kentucky 42101 AlanRabinowitz+BatBiologistUniversityofTennessee+1820 McClung AvenueKnoxville,Tennessee37920 JamesW.Ramey+ ++BlanchardSpringsCavernsForestServiceMountain View,Arkansas72560 Sanda Moore 7926S.W.31stAvenuePortland,Oregon 97219BarbaraMunsonNationalCavesAssociationRoute9,Box106McMinnville,Tennessee37110 PennyKarie Hyers ACC WCottageFlagstaff,Arizona86001JohnHylroieN.S.S.DepartmentofGeoscienceHurrayStateUniversityHurray,Kentucky 42071+WilliamR.ReevesU.S.ForestServiceBlanchardSpringsCavernsSylamoreRDBoxI Mountain View.Arkansas72560+JimNielandBox9,St.HelensPSCougar, Wa5hington 98616+DougRhodes+ 515 IsletaBlvd.,S.W.Albuquerque,NewMexico 87105DonRice+DepartmentofGeography and GeologyWesternKentuckyUniversityBowlingGreen,Kentucky 42101ScottSchulte+ParkSuperintendentMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesRockBridgeStateParkColumbia,Missouri65201 LibbyNielandBox9,St.HelensPSCougar,Washington98616 Peggy B.NimsNationalParkService,MammothCaveRoute3,Box 15 CaveCity,Kentucky 42127KerilynOsterlundStudent126-DTaliwaCourtKnoxville,Tennessee37920BenNot t inghamGreatSmokyMountainsNationalParkCades Cove RangerStationTownsent,Tennessee37882 WesleyOdelCrystalOnxyCavePark,Inc.Route2 CaveCity,Kentucky 42127DonPaquetteNationalCaveRescueCommission 835HickoryDriveBloomington,IndianaPaulaPaquette835HickoryDriveBloomington,Indiana47401AlanC.ParkerNSSC.O.M.C.P.O.Box7057NewOrleans,Louisiana70186LindaParrishNaturalHeritageProjectTVA Norris. 37828+++++ + ++ +232KatherineRohdeNorthDistrictNaturalistShenandoahNationalParkLuray,Virginia22935 MarkO.RosackerLivingDesertStateParkP.O.Box100Carlsbad,NewMexico 88220RobertSarabiaPecosValleyGrotto N.E.1stCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220TimSchafstallDepartmentofBiologyWesternKentuckyUniversityBowlingGreen,Kentucky 42101MurielH.SchmidtOnyxCaveEurekaSprings,Arkansas72632R.C.SchroederOnia,Arkansas72663MichelSHfre34 RueTrachelNice06000France++ ++ + +++

PAGE 240

19781980 19781980MichaelSkinnerMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesRt.I,Box390LinnCreek,Missouri65052PeterJ.UhlBox244Laramie.Wyoming82070 Lynne Sims 505RooseveltOregonCity,Oregon 97045BettySquireP.O.Box850Columbia,California95310++++ + + ++ + + +RobertW.WareEnvironmentalEngineer1065U.S. 127By-PassSouthFrankfort,Kentucky 40601MichaelWarshauerNSS,AACS,CRFBox520,Rushing Route Mountain View,Arkansas72550KeithA.WhisenantBuffaloNationalRiverP.O.Box1173Harrison,Arkansas72601 Susan WarshauerNSS,AACS,CRFBox520,RushingRouteMountain View,Arkansas72550 Cal WelbournCRF3678HollowcrestAvenue Columbus, Ohio 43223 RolandH.Wauer+ActingChief,DivisionofNaturalResourcesNPS,U.S.DepartmentofInteriorWashington,D.C. 20240 Ronald C.'WilsonCRFDepartmentofBiologyUniversityofLouisvilleLouisville,Kentucky 40292 Edward E. wood,Jr.++Chief,Interpretation&ResourceManagement Lehman CavesNationalMonumentBaker,Nevada 89311HaroldW. \.Jerner 1300N.Pate,Apt.176HCarlsbad,NewMexico 88220Phil \.Jhitfield ExplorationGroup,NWRAofNSSVancouverIslandCave521WestInnesStreetNelson,BritishColumbia, CanadaVlL3J2James P. \.Jiggins ManagementAssistantMammothCaveNationalParkMammothCave, Kentucky 42259JohnM.WilsonVirginiaCave CommissionVirginiaCave Conservancy P.O.Box7007 Richmond,Virginia23221++ + + ++++++ +++ ++37837 GordonSmithNCARt.3,Box160,SkylineDriveFloydsKnobs,Indiana47119RobStittNSS Director14179thAvenue West Seattle,Washington98119JudySutherlandBox 829JeffreyCity,Wyoming82310CliffordD.StroudCarlsbadCavernsNationalParkCarlsbad, New Mexico88220 Wayne SutherlandBox829JefferyCity.Wyoming82310RalphSquireP.O.Box850Columbia.CaliforniaJoeThorntonDivisionofWaterQuality1065U.S. 127 BypassSouthFrankfort,Kentucky 40601KerlinD.Tuttle Milwaukee PublicMuseumMilwaukee,Wisconsin53233JerryL.TroutU.S.ForestService1312ChicoCarlsbad. NewMexico 88220Joe E. Waggoner Manager LostSea,Inc.Rt.2Sweetwater,TennesseeJames E. WaltersNPSGrand CanyonNP,Arizona86023+JohnE.Wylie+MissouriDepartmentofConservationBox180JeffersonCity,Missouri64101233

PAGE 241

1978"1980 1978 1980 Dr.KeithA.Yarborough+RonZuber+NPS,SouthwestRegionalOfficeHorticultureDepartmentP.O.Box728NorthDakotaStateUniversitySantaFe, New Mexico 87501Fargo,NorthDakota58102GEOGRAPHICSUMMARY1978 1980 1978 1980Arizona40NorthCarolina03Arkansas43NorthDakota1 0California106Ohio 13Colorado22 Oregon42Georgia02Pennsylvania02 Hawaii 01SouthDakota 2 0Idaho1 0Tennessee0 12Illinois1 2 Texas 93Indiana03Virginia12 Kentucky427Washington 21Louisiana01Washington,D.C.1 1 Maryland 01 WestVirginia2 3Missouri69Wisconsin1 0 Montana 10Wyoming71 Nevada 12 Canada31 New Mexico235France20 New York 10234


Description
National cave management symposium proceedings, Carlsbad,
New Mexico, 1978Contents: Selected Cave Management
Situations in New York State / John E. Mylroie --
The Management of Caves Within the National Park Service
/ Roland H. Wauer --
Thoughts on Training / William R. Reeves --
Interpretive Development of Carlsbad Caverns / Clifford
Stroud --
Seventy-Five Years at Wind Cave / Larry W. Frederick --
The National Park Service Cave Radiation Research and
Monitoring Program / Keith A. Yarborough --
Bat Management in the United States / Thomas M. Lera -
Sue Fortune --
State Legislation Concerning the Protection of Caves /
George N. Huppert Betty J. Wheeler --
Welcoming Remarks / Robert Deskins --
Theirs Not to Reason Why / G. Jay Gouge --
An Overview of Cave Management / Robert R. Stitt --
Current Problems in Cave Management / Roger W. Brucker --
Sinks, Stinks and Springs: A Summary of the Hydrogeology
of the Mammoth Cave Region With Emphasis on Results and
Applications of National Park Service-Sponsored Research /
James F. Quinlan --
Hydrological Impacts of Urbanization in the Soluble Rock
Lands of Greene County, Missouri / Tom Aley --
Karst Management in Urban Areas: Sinkhole Flooding in
Bowling Green, Kentucky / Nicholas Crawford --
Aquatic Ecosystem and Management Problems in the Mammoth
Cave Area / Julian J. Lewis --
A Conceptual Characterization of the Subsurface Movement
of Toxic Chemicals in Soluble Rock Lands / Tom Aley Danny
Halterman --
Application of Kentucky Water Quality Regulations to
Karst Waters / Robert W. Ware --
Environmental Regulations, Assistance and a Status Report
on the Mammoth Cave Environmental Impact Statement / Ronald J.
Mikulak --
Interpretive Training for Show Cave Personnel / Tom Aley
- Cathy Aley --
Guide Training at Mammoth Cave National Park / Lewis D.
Cutliff --
Interpretation at Mammoth Cave / Joe Wagoner --
Panel Discussion: Management Problems of Private Caves /
W.T. Austin Barbara Munson David Cale Wes Odle Tim
Anderson Joe Waggoner Clara Heidemann Steve Fairchild -
Richard C. Bell Ron Burke Vernon McDaniel --
The Size and Location of Saltpetre Mining Sites in
Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia / Merilyn Osterlund --
Management of Prehistoric Cultural Resources at Mammoth
Cave National Park / Kenneth C. Carstens --
Cultural Resource Management at Russel Cave National
Monument / David T. Clark --
The Recognition, Evaluation, and Management of Cave Bone
Deposits / Ronald C. Wilson --
The Endangered Species Act and the Regulations Developed
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Protect Endangered
Species / Robert R. Currie --
The Status of the Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) / John T.
Brady --
The Survival of the Endangered Gray Bat (Myotis
grisescens), a Continuing Drama / Alan Rabinowitz --
The Future of Cave Management in Relation to Bat
Conservation / Alan Rabinowitz --
The Endangered Kentucky Blind Cave Shrimp / Edward A.
Lisowski --
The Hart's Tongue Farm: An Endangered Plant in Cave
Entrances / A. Murray Evans --
The Ecology of Hawaiian Lava Tubes / Francis G. Howarth
--
The Missouri Cooperative Cave Inventory Project: A
Biological Resource Survey / James E. Gardner Treva L.
Gardner --
Protection for Diamond Craters, Southeastern Oregon /
Ellen Benedict George Brown Esther Gruber Chad Bacon --
The Role of the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission in
Cave Management / Wayne C. Houtcooper --
Cave Management and Environmental Assessment Activities
of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Regional Heritage Project /
Patricia A. Fink --
A Management Approach to Perkins Cave, Virginia / Roy D.
Powers, Jr. --
The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission / John
Wilson Robert W. Custard Evelyn Bradshaw Philip C. Lucas
- John R. Holsinger --
High Adventure Underground: An Adventure Caving Program
at Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Missouri / Scott W. Schulte
--
Preservation, Development and Management of Caves and
other Karst Features Within the Tennessee State Natural Areas
System / Allen R. Coggins --
The Pettibone Karst: Birthplace of the National
Speleological Society / A. Plante --
Management Techniques for Wilderness Caves / James R.
Goodbar --
Is the Underground Wilderness Concept Practical? / J.B.
"Buzz" Hummel --
Underground Wilderness / Robert B. Stitt --
Radiation Hazards in Caves / Robert T. Beckman --
Cave Restoration and Cave Management / Katherine Rohde --
The National Cave Rescue Commission / Lee Noon --
Cave Management Plans / J.B. "Buzz" Hummel --
The State of the Art in Management Planning: A Case for
Caver Involvement / Geoffrey B. Middaugh --
Cave Laws of the United States / Evelyn Bradshaw.


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