Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems

Citation
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems

Material Information

Title:
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems
Alternate Title:
International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems
Creator:
Polk, Jason Samuel
North, Leslie A.
Publisher:
Hoffman Environmental Research Institute
Western Kentucky University
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Genre:
Conference Proceeding
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

General Note:
Jointly sponsored by the Hoffman Environmental Research Institute, the National Cave Karst Research Institute, and the International Association of Hydrogeologists, the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems was held at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucy on 8-10 June 2011. Topics include karst geomorphology, engineering and modeling, isotope geochemistry, and cultural and educational aspects of karst environments. Citation: Polk, Jason Samuel and North, Leslie A., "Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems" (2011). Environmental Sustainability Books. Book 2. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/tles_pub/2
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-03294 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.3294 ( USFLDC Handle )
8399 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Description
Jointly sponsored by the Hoffman Environmental Research
Institute, the National Cave & Karst Research Institute,
and the International Association of Hydrogeologists, the 2011
International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems
was held at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green,
Kentucy on 8-10 June 2011. Topics include karst geomorphology,
engineering and modeling, isotope geochemistry, and cultural
and educational aspects of karst environments.
Citation: Polk, Jason Samuel and North, Leslie A.,
"Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Karst
Hydrogeology and Ecosystems" (2011). Environmental
Sustainability Books. Book 2.
http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/tles_pub/2



PAGE 1

2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! "#$%&'(!)*++',!-.,!/01 ! 2 3 45!67'+!8544 ! ! ! ! ! ! 8544! 9#':+*+';+!<*#;++=&'(> !

PAGE 2

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
PAGE 3

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Z ! !"#$%&'(&)'*+%*+, & ?+%;#@+!A#!-B*>A!8544 CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC D ! 9#':+*+';+!E': #*@BA&#' CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC F ! ! J:(.&()!R.<()641%(. 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888 B ! ! N)34.%[%.3!5(66%11-! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 888 F ! 5(.14,1!R.<()641%(. 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888 F ! 546:0&!\4: 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 ] ! G7%%!9#':+*+';+!0;H+=7%+ CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 2 ! T-/.-&/4;=!I0.-!^ 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888 ^ ! ! #$0)&/4;=!I0.-!W 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 W ! _)%/4;=!I0.-!CD 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 CD ! 0+>>&#'>!0;H+=7%+ CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCC 44 ! ! #-,$.%,4+!J-&&%(.&>!T-/.-&/4;!L\=!I0. -!^ 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888 CC ! ! #-,$.%,4+!J-&&%(.&>!T-/.-&/4;!L\=!I0.-!^ 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888 CC ! ! #-,$.%,4+!J-&&%(.&>!_)%/4;!L\=!I0.-!CD 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888888888 C" ! ! K(&1-)!J-&&%(.>!_)%/4;!K\=!I0.-!CD 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888 CY ! "7>&'+>>!I++A&'(>!0;H+=7%+ CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 4F ! A0&%.-&&!\--1%.3&>!T-/.-&/4;!K\=!I0.-!^ 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 CB ! ! A0&%.-&&!\--1%.3&>!_)%/4;!K\=!I0.-!CD 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888888888 CB ! I&= 3 9#':+*+';+!G&+%=A*&J!)7&=+ > CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCC 4K ! G7%%!1L>A*B;A> CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCC 2F ! 0J+;&B%!)7+>A!"&#(*BJH&+> CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 45M ! 17AH#*!E'=+N CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCC 444

PAGE 4

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Y ! ?+%;#@+!A#!-B*>A!8544O! ! #$-!()34.%[-)&!4./!&:(.&()&!(!1$41!%&=!1$-!:(1-.1%4++;!&;.-)3%&1%,=!%.<()64+!,(660.%,41%(.!4./!,(..-,1%(.&!1$41!14*-! :+4,-!46(.3!1$-!:4)1%,%:4.1&!(01&%/-!(
PAGE 5

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! B ! 0J#'>#*!E':# *@BA&#' PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! P(<<64.!H.9%)(.6-.14+!Q-&-4),$!R.&1%101! '''8$(<<64.'()+/8()3 ! 5)4'<()/!P;/)(+(3;!74@()41(); '''8/;-1)4,%.38,(6 ! VMHJ5N?R.1-).41%(.4+!S-(&,%-.,-!V.%(. '''8%3,:*4)&18,(6 Q::&;+!#:!R+> +B*;H T-&1-).!U-.10,*;!V.%9-)&%1; N<<%,-!(
PAGE 6

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! F ! Q*(B'&S&'(!9#@@&AA++ PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! 9##*= &'BA#* 5$)%&!S)(9-& ! <*#(*B@!9HB&* I4&(.!K(+* ! 0AB:: \-34.!L++,().! k%,1()%4!L++-. J4)4$!L):%. 7--!L..-!A+-/&(! \4+,(+6!249%/&(. 5-+%4!249%& 7(34.!H,*+-) A)4./(.!_4)6-) k-)(.%,4!P4++ 7%&4!7;..!P4;.-& Q4,$-+!P-.1[ #4;+()!P01,$%&(. K41!U46@-&%& U)%& 1%-!\,20<<-! A-.!\%++-) H6%+;!\())%& 7-&+%-!M()1$ I(.41$4.!N3+-&@; 2%++(.!K-./-) 7%./&4;!Q%,! M414+%-!J,$%-@-) \4)*!J3$%411% 5$4&%1;!J1%.&(. Q%,*!#((6-;!! J-4.!k4./-)$(<< ! ! 9#'AB;A!E':#*@BA&#' PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! "BT@#'A!E'' CFB!#$)--!J:)%.3&!Q/ A('%.3!S)--.=!UX!Y"CDY C8"]D8^Y"8Z"DD ! UB@JA#'!E'' "ZZ!#$)--!J:)%.3&!Q/ A('+%.3!S)--.=!UX!Y"CDY C8"]D8^Y"8YCDD ! "#$%&'(!)*++'!V@+*(+';T!0+*W&;+> _%)-=!L 6@0+4.,-=!K(+%,E 2%4+!WCC ! -#@:#*A!9BL!0+*W&;+! C8"]D8 ]^"8WYCD ! V@+ *(+';T!9#'AB;A> 7%&4!7;..!P4;.-& C8"]D8]YB8Z"B" ! T-./;!2-5)(%` C 8"]D E ]YB E YBBF ! ! !

PAGE 7

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ] ADAMS ST KENTUCKY ST KENTUCKY ST ST A TE ST CENTER ST 14t h ST 14th ST 14t h S T . COL LEGE ST 14t h ST CHES TNUT ST MIM OSAALLEY NORMAL DR. UNIVERSITY BL VD. UNIVERSITY BL VD. CREA SONDR. RUSSELL VILLE RD. NASHVI LLE RD. REGENTS A VE. 31 W B YP ASS C O L L E G E H E I G H T S B L V D D o w n t o w n S q u a r eT r a i l to F o u n t a i n P a r k 27 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 11 12 10 9 8 7 4 3 5 6 1 2 !"#$%&'("$ CAMPUS PERIMETER TRAIL 2 MILES CENTENNIAL TRAIL 1.25 MILES UPPER CAMPUS TRAIL 1 MILE DOWNTOWN SQUARE TRAIL 1.5 WALKING TRAILS TRAIL STARTING POINT BUILDING LEGEND THE VALLEY RESIDENTIAL COMMONS OGDEN SCIENCE OFF CAMPUS SOUTH LAWN CENTENNIAL MALL COLLEGE HEIGHTS ATHLETICS & PARKING TOPPERS TRANSIT STOP INFORMATION SERVICES VISITOR PARKING MAP KEY US 31W NA SHVI LLE RD. KY 8 80 C AMPBEL L L ANE KCSC BGCC CRD P&T ! !

PAGE 8

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^ G7%%!9#':+*+';+!0;H+=7%+PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP WEDNESDAY, 8 June 2011 7:00 am 7:45 a m Hotel Shuttles (Baymont Inn/Hampton Inn parking area to WKU Snell Hall/Chestnut Parking Lot) Runs every 15 minutes 7:00 am 8:00 a m Conference Registration Snell Hall Lobby 8:00 am 8:20 a m Opening Ceremony: Dr. Gordon C. Baylis, Vice President for Research Mr. Pat Reed, Superintendent of Mammoth Cave National Park Snell Hall 3110 8:20 am 10:00 a m Technical Session : Karst Geomorphology Snell Hall 3110 10:00 am 10: 2 0 a m Bre ak: Refreshments in Snell Hall 10: 2 0 am 11: 4 0 a m Technical Session : Engineering and Modeling in Karst Terr ains Snell Hall 3110 11: 4 0 a m 1:2 0 p m Lunch Break Shuttles will run to local areas 1:20 pm 2:4 0 p m Technical Session : Isotope Geochemistry in Karst Settings Snell Hall 3110 2 : 40 pm 4:4 0 p m Technical Session : Cultural and Educational Aspects of Karst Environments Snell Hall 3110 4:4 0 pm 5:00 p m Bre ak: Refreshments in Snell Hall 5 : 00 pm 6:00 p m Business Meeting: International Union of Speleology (UIS) Speleogenesis Commission Snell Hall 3110 6:00pm 7:00 pm Break: Shuttles will run betw een WKU, hotels, and Lost River Cave 7:00 pm 9:30 p m Welcome Party: Lost River Cave and Valley Shut tles will start departing at 9:3 0pm

PAGE 9

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! W THURSDAY, 9 June 2011 8:00a m Hotel Shuttles will meet at Baymon t Inn/Hampton Inn parking area 8:00 am 8:30 a m Board Vans for Local Fieldtrips 8:30 am 5:30 p m All Day Local Conference Fieldtrips Option 1: Mammoth Cave Trip Option 2: Pennyroyal Plateau Surface Trip *Box lunches will be provided for both trips. 6:00 pm 9:30 p m Cookout: Hamilton Valley G uest Speaker: Mr. Roger Brucker Follow the Water: Discoveries in the Longest Cave Shu ttles will depart for h otel s at 9:3 0pm

PAGE 10

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CD FRIDAY, 10 June 2011 7:00 am 7:45 a m Hotel Shuttles (Baymont Inn/Hampton Inn parking area to WK U Snell Hall/Chestnut Parking Lot) Runs every 15 minutes 8:00 am 10:00 a m Technical Session : Karst Hydrochemistry Snell Hall 3110 10:00 am 10:15 a m Break: Refreshments in Snell Hall 10:15 pm 11:15 p m Business Meeting: UNESCO/IUGS IGCP Project 5 98: "Environmental Change and Sustainability in Karst Systems: Relations to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities" Snell Hall 3110 11:15 am 11:30 a m Break: Refreshments in Snell Hall 11:30 am 12:30 p m Business Meeting: Karst Commission of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) Snell Hall 3110 12:30 pm 2:00 p m Lunch Break Shuttles will run to local areas 2:00 pm 4:20 p m Technical Session : Karst Hydrogeology Snell Hall 3110 4 : 20 pm 4:30 p m Break: Refreshments in Snell Hall 4:30 pm 5:30 p m Panel Discussion: International Karst Cooperation Snell Hall 3110 5:30pm 7:00 pm Poster Session: Karst Topics KY Museum (on campus) 7:00 pm 9:30 p m Closing Banquet: Kentucky Museum Guest Speaker: Dr. Nick Crawford Urban Development Upon Karst: Problems and Solutions for Bowling Green, Kentucky Shuttles wi ll s tart departing for hotels at 9:3 0pm ! ! !

PAGE 11

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CC 0+>>&#'> 0;H+=7%+PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! ?VXYV0X1.,!2!67'+!8544 ! !"# $%&'(!&)*#+%++!,(-# ./012#34565078595:; # # <+=499#'/99#>??@A # ^>"D46 ! )+#JHT>&;B%!E'W+>A&(BA&#'>!#:!1'AH*#J#(+'&;!B*>A!A+*'!Y+$!I+N&;# ! 7-'%&!74./!4./! S-()3-!k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`!1!9B>+!0A7=T!B A!)7B';7'! ! 07LA+**B'+B'!R&W+* ! I%4.3!S04.3$0%=!T0!I%,$0.=!S0(!_4.3=!X0!J$%=!4./!7%.!X0&$% # # # # #

PAGE 12

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! C" ! ! "# $%&'(!&)*#+%++!,( -# !152574#345E846B120;#B=#./012#+422B=:1 # <+=499#'/99#>??@A # # C>" D:6 ! E':%7+';+!# :!aB'=!/>+! #'!X&>>#%W+=!E'#*(B'&;!9B*L#'!B '=! b 4c 9 XE9 ! : #*!VJ&ZB*>A!0J*&'(>! ! \%.3[$0!7%.=!24(`%4.!X04.=!J$%;(0!l%-=!\%.!54(=!K-.3!T4.3 =! 4./!l%4(: %.3!m$(0 ! C>Y D:6 1! <*#;+>>!I#=+%!# :!9BW+!X*&J$BA+*!b 42 Q!_B%7+>`!1![+>A!# :!R+;# '>A*7;A&'(! ! X+;B=B%!_B*&BL&%&AT!& '!0J+%+#AH+@!9%&@BA+!R+;#*=> ! J8L8!#)0-@-=!#8Q8!L0+1=!4 ./! I8H8!5(+! ">D D:6 Y7A*&+'A!07JJ%T!B'=!9H+@#%&AH#B7A#A*#JHT!B>!B!<#>>&L%+!X*&W+*!#:! ! 0AT(#L&#'A!X&W+*>&AT!B '=!1\7&:+*! VW#%7A&#'`![H+!V=$B*=>!1\7&:+*!# :!0#7AH 3 ! 9+'A*B%![+NB>! ! A-.b46%.!#8!P01,$%.&=! A-. b46%.!_8!J,$'4)1[=!4./!L..-11-!J8!H.3-+ ! ">" D:6 1>>+> >&'(!R+;HB*(+!V%+WBA&#'>!:#*!-B*>A!0J*&'(>!#:!AH+!-B$+BH!R&W+*,! ! 0+\7#&B!B '=!-&'(>! 9B'T#'!YBA&#'B%!,!9B%&:#*'&B ! A-.b46%.!#(@%. 4./! A-.b46%.!J,$'4)1[ # # !F "# $%&'(!&)*#+%++!,( -# &G92G0/9#/=C#%CGE/2B5=/9#)174E21#5H#./012#%=IB05=64=21 # <+=499#'/99#>??@A # # ">Y D:6 E'W+>A&(BA&'(!AH+!R#%+!#:!)7&=+=!0H#$!9BW+!VNJ+*&+';+>!& '!-B*>A! ! ! / '=+*>AB' =&'( ! 7-&+%-!L8!M()1$!4./!K$%+%:!94.!A-;.-. ! Z>D D:6 X&((&'(!X++J+*!&'A#!B "#$%&'(!)*++',!-+'A7;ZT,!-B*>A!a+(+'=`![H+!/';%+! ! U+'*T!0A#*T ! \4)34)-1!\8!S)%:&$(9-)! ! Z>" D:6 <+#J%+,!<#%&A&;>,!B'=!B!H+=!0A#*T!#:!AH+!9*+BA&#'!# :! ! IB@@#AH!9B W+!YBA&#'B%!Y D:6 [ H+!)*#7'=$BA+*! A#!A H+!)7%:!9#%%BL#*BA&#' ! Q(@%.!S4); ! Y>D D:6 VWB%7BA&'(!-B*>A!X&>A7*LB';+!&'!<7+*A#!R&;#`!VNB@&'&'(!I+AH#=#%#(&+>! ! B'=!G7A7*+!E@J%&;BA&#'> ! I4&(.!J8!K(+*=!A)4./(.!K()1-)=!4./!7-&+%-!L8!M()1$ ! Y>" D :6 1>>+>>@+'A!# :!E'A+*'BA&#'B%%T! 0HB*+=!-B*>A!1\7&:+*>`!VNB@J%+!# :! ! ! X&'B*&;!-B*>A!1\7&:+*!0T>A+@! ! M8!U0*0)%n=! P8!#)-%/-+=!4./!L8!\-)+4 !

PAGE 13

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CZ GREX1.,!45 67'+!8544 # F "# $%&'(!&)*#+%++!,( -# ./012#';C05E846B120; # # <+=499#'/99#>??@A # # ^>DD46 07%:&=+!QN&=BA&#'!B '=!VW BJ#*BA&W+!9#';+ 'A*BA&#'`!9#@J+A&'(!I+;HB'&>@>! ! &'!AH+!0+@& 3 1*&=!-B*>A!# :!Y#*AH+B>A+*'!"*BS&% ! L030&1(!J8!L0+-) ! ^>"D46 0&('&:&;B';+!# :!G* ++ 3 07*:B;+!G%#$!R+J*+>+'ABA&#'!:#*!Y7@+*&;B%!I#=+%&'(! ! # :!-B*>A ! #$(64&!Q-%64.. =!Q0/(+YD46 ?BA+*!9H+@&> A*T!_B*&BA&#'>!B'=!0#7*;+!I&N&'(!#:!B X&>A &L7AB*T!0J*&'(! ! 0 T>A+@`! A H+!9B**#%%!9BW+! d [#*#'A#!0J*&'(>!0T>A+@ ! A-.b46%.!k8!\%++-)=!Q(@-)1!M8!7-),$=! 4./! 5$)%&!S8!S)(9-& ! W>DD46 9B*L#'!X&#N&=+!X+(B>>&'(!G%7N :*#@![$#!)+#AH+* @B%!G&+%=>!& '![&L+A,!9H&'B ! J$-.!7%,$-.3 =!T0!U0.;0=!l%4(!o%(.3 =!4./ X04.!24(`%4. ! W>"D46 9B *L#'BA+!R#;Z!X&>>#%7A&#'!RBA+>!&'!X&::+*+'A!aB'=7>+>!B'=!A H+&*!9B*L#'! ! 0&'Z!V::+;A ! m $4.3 5$-.3 ! W>YD46 I+AH#=#%#(T!:#*!VWB%7BA&'(!G%#$!B'=!UT=*#;H+@&>A*T!#:!17A# (+'&;! ! R+;HB*(+!&'!-+'A7;ZTe>!I&>>&>>&JJ&B'!<%BA+B7 ! 5$)%&!S)(9-&=!I4&(.!K(+*=!A-.!\%++-)=!J-4.!k4./-)$(<< =!54) +!A(+&1-)=!4./!T4))-.! ! 546:@-++ # # F! "# $%&'(!&)*#+%++!,( -# ./012#';C05:4595:; # # <+=499#'/99#>??@A # ">DD: 6 9HB*B;A+*&> BA&#'!#:!G%7&=>!B'=!VWB%7BA &#'!#:!AH+&*!V::+;A>!#'!-B*>A! ! X+W+%#J@+'A!BA!AH+!X&>;HB*(+!f#'+!#:!A H+!"7=B![H+*@B%!-B*>A,!U7'(B*T ! L.%14!H)p&&=!I0/%1!\q/+ E J[p.;%=!4./! L.%14!r8!5&(64 ! ">"D: 6 UT=*#(+#%#(T!B '=!)+#@#*JH#%# (T!#:!9B*L#'BA&;!9#'(%#@+*BA+>!&'!A H+! ! G#% =+=!I#%B>>+!f#'+!#:! A H+!Y#*AH+*'!1%J> ! M%,(!S(+/&,$-%/-)!4./ M4/%.-!S(-::-)1 ! ">YD: 6 E'A+*;#''+;A&#'!#:!AH+!V=$B*=>!B '=![*&'&AT 1\7&:+*>,!9+'A*B%![+NB>,!/01 ! \4),0&!N8!S4); ! Z>DD: 6 UT=*#(+#%#(&;B%!E'W+>A&(BA&#'>!B =!0&'ZH#%+!R+>+B*;H!# '!G#*+>A+=!-B*>A! ! aB'=>;BJ+>! #'! 9 #B>AB %!"*&A&>H!9#%7@L&B,!9B'B=B ! #%6!J1(*-& =! K40+!S)%<<%1$& 4./! 54)(+!Q46&-;! !

PAGE 14

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CY Z>"D: 6 0A#*@!VW+'A!E@JB;A>!# '!V J&ZB*>A!0A#*B(+!B'=![*B'>J#*A!#:!Q*(B'&;!0#&%! ! 1@+'=@+'A>!&'!-+'A7;ZT ! J-4.!\8!k4./-)$(<<=!I4&(.!J8!K(+*=!5$)%&!S8!S)(9-&=!A-.b46%.!\%++-) =! 4./! ! 54)+!A(+&1-) ! Z>YD: 6 E@JB;A!# :!aB'=!/>+! B'=!9%&@BA+!9HB'(+>!#'!a#'( 3 [+*@!X&>;HB*(+!# :! ! 0J*&'(> ! M-9-.!U)-&%, =!I%4.3!S04.3$0%=! 4./!#%6!S+(9-) ! Y>D D:6 -B*>A!E>>7+>!&'!6B@B&;B ! L.3-++4!S)4$46 ! !"#J,+$%K#+%++!,( -# ./012#';C05:4595:; # # <.L#DG14G6A # # 4C!&; # 3 9H+@&;B%!G#*@BA&#'!= 7*&'(!0A# *@!VW+'A>!&'!B '!/'=+*(*#7'=!R&W+*! #:!B! [TJ&;B%!-B*>A!?BA+*>H+=,!0? 9H&'B X4.3!K%.3$-.3=!X04.!24(`%4.=!I%4.3!X(.3b0.=!P-!o%0<4.3 =! 4./!J$-.!7%,$-.3 ! 8C!QW+*W&+$!# :!g7B'A&A BA&W+!9HB*B;A+*&SBA&#'!I+AH#=>!A #!V>A& @BA+!?BA+*!G%7N+>! & '!-B*>A! UT=*#(+#%#(&;!E'W+>A&(BA&#'>! H4)+!L8!S)--.-!4./!5$4)+-&!I8!#4;+() ! cC![H+!E':%7+';+!#:!1%%#(+'&;!?BA+*!# '!-B*>A!<*#;+> >! 3 1!9B>+!0A7=T!&'!AH+!IB#;7'! 07LA+**B'+B'!R&W+*!& '!)7&%&',!9H&'B P04.3!_-.!4./!#4.3!T-% ! DC!-B*>A&:&;BA&#'!&'!"*+;;&B!B '=!G%T> ;H!]I#7'A!YB'#>,!0%#W+'&B^ \4)1%.!U.-[!4./ #4/-b!J+4@! FC! UT=*#(+#%#(&;B%! 3 V'W&*#'@+'AB%!E>>7+>! B'=!9B7>+>!#:!-B*>A!?BA+*!0T>A+@>!& '! Y#*AH+*'!9H&'B 7 %4.3!X(.3:%.3=!T4.3!T-%14%=!m$4(!5$0.$(.3=! 4./! m$4.3!5$-.3 ! KC!a#'( 3 [+*@![*+'=>!#:!<*+;&J&ABA&#',!0A*+B@: %#$,!B '=!"B*A#'!0J*&'(>!X&>;HB*(+,! 9+'A*B%![+NB> Q(@%.!S4); =! A)%4.!P0.1 =! J1-<&A&W+!V::+;A!#:!)+#=&W+*>&AT!#'!"&#=&W+*>&AT!& '!G%#*&=B A);4.!A((1$ ! 2C!Q;;7**+';+!#:!UTJ#(+'&;!9BW+>!&'!9#B>AB%!R+ 3 V'A*B'A >!B '=!)7%%&+> K41)%,%4!U46@-&%&! 4./! I($.!\;+)(%! !

PAGE 15

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CB MC!<*#@#A&'(!Q7A*+B;H!B'=!9#@@7'&AT!V=7;BA&#'!1L#7A!9BW+!B'=!-B*>A!R+>+B*;H! <*#i+;A>![H*#7(H!0#;&B%!B'=!_&>7B%!I+=&B I(.41$4.!N3+-&@; ! 45C! a#;B%&S+=!UT=*#%#(T!#:!17 A#(+'&;!R+;HB*(+!&'!-+'A7;ZTe>!I&>>&>>&J J&B' <%BA+B7 A-.!P44<<=!5$)%&!S)(9-&=!4./!I4&(.!K(+* ! 44C! <*#A+;A&'(!-B*>A!0T>A+@>!B'=!)*#7'=$BA+*!&'!R7*B%!9H&'B!AH*#7(H!9#@@7'&AT! Q7A*+B;H!B'=!0;&+';+!V=7;BA&#'! I4&(.!J8!K(+*=!7-&+%-!L8!M()1$=!S0(!_4.3=!4./!5$)%&!S)(9-& ! 48C! XB@! B'=!R+>+*W#&*!9#'>A*7;A&#'!# '!9#B>AB%!<%B&'!9B*L#'BA+>` 0&A+!0A7=T! : *#@!0@&AH! 9#7'AT,!I&>>&>>&JJ& I($.!H8!\;+)(%-=!24))-+!T8!J,$6%1[=!I%6!\4;=!T%++!28!\,@);/-=! 4./!I4&(.!L8! \,%+'4%. ! ! "7>&'+>>!I++A&'(>!0;H+=7%+PPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! ?VXYV0X1.,!2!67'+!8544 ! B>DD : 6 E F>DD :6 "7>&'+>>!I++A&'(`!E'A+*'BA&#'B%!/'&#'!#:!0J+%+#%#(T!]/E0^! ! ! 0J+%+#(+'+>&>!9#@@&>>&#' ! ! "#$%&&!'(&&!)**+, ! ! GREX1.,!45 67'+!8544 ! CD>CB4 6 E CC>CB4 6 ! "7>&'+>>!I++A&'(`!/YV0 9QjE/)0!E)9AB&'BL&%&AT!&'!-B*>A!0T>A+@>`!R+%BA&#'>!A#!9%&@BA+! ! ! 9HB'(+!B'=!1'AH*#J#(+'&;!1;A&W&A&+>k ! ! "#$%&&!'(&&!)**+, ! CC>ZD46 E C">ZD :6 "7>&'+>>!I++A&'(`!-B*>A!9#@@&>>&#'!#:!AH+!E'A+*'BA&#'B%! ! ! 1>>#;&B A&#'!#:!UT=*#(+#%#(&>A> ! ! "#$%&&!'(&&!)**+, ! Y>ZD : 6 E B>ZD :6 ;7>>&#'`!E'A+*'BA&#'B%!-B*>A!9##J+*BA&#' ! ! "#$%&&!'(&&!)**+, ! ! !

PAGE 16

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CF I&= 3 9#':+*+';+! G&+%=A*&J!)7&=+> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! ! ! Option 1: Pennyroyal Plateau Surface T rip: The South Central Kentucky Karst ! ! Led By: Dr. William B. White Dr. Bette White Dr. Chris Groves Dr. Jason Polk Guide By: Dr. William B. White ! K)(<-&&()!H6-)%10&!(
PAGE 17

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! C] TABL E OF CONTENTS #$-!S-(+(3%,!4./!P;/)(+(3%,!J-11%.3 _%-+/!#)%:!C8!!#$-!#0).$(+-!2)4%.43-!A4&%. %-+/!#)%:!"8!!#$-!P%&1()%,!J-,1%(.!(
PAGE 18

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! C^ ! THE GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC SETTING ! EY[RQX/9[EQY ! #$-!J( 01$ E 5-.1)4+!U-.10,*;!U4)&1=!4+&(!*.('.!4&!1$-!\466(1$!549-!L)-4!%&!4!'()+/ E ,+4&&!-`46:+-!(!!A-/)(,*!3-(+(3;! s T-++-)!cCW"]dt!)-9%-'!<)(6!4!3-(6():$(+(3%,4+! 9%-':(%.1! s T$%1-!-1!4+8!cCW]Ddt!/-14%+-/!,(.&%/-)41%(. (!!#$-!S+4&3('!V:+4./=!4!)(++%.3!1(:(3)4:$;!6(&1+;!(.!&$ 4+-&!4./! &$4+-;!+%6-&1(.-&!&(!1$41!&0)<4,-!/)4%.43-!%&!:)-&-)9-/8!!#$-!J%.*$(+-!K+4%.=!4.!4)-4!+4,*%.3! &0)<4,-!&1)-46&!@01!:(,*-/!'%1$!&%.*$(+-&!<()6-/!(.!1$-!\%&&%&&%::%4.!J18!7(0%&!4./!J1-8! S-.-9%-9-!7%6-&1(.-&t!!1$-!2)%::%.3!J:)%.3&!H&,4):6-.1=!4!/%&&-, 1-/!4./!%))-30+4)! -&,4):6-.1!4@(01!ZDD!<--1!%.!-+-941%(.t!!1$-!\466(1$!549-!c()!5$-&1-)d!K+41-40=!1$-!/%&&-,1-/=! &4./&1(.E ,4::-/!)%/3-&!&(01$!(
PAGE 19

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CW ! #$-!(9-)4++!&1)41%3)4:$%,!,(+06.!%&!&$('.!%.!_%30)-!Z!4./!4!6()-!/-14%+-/!,(+06.!<()! 1$-!+%6-&1(.-!%.!_%30)-!Y8!!A(1$!,(+06.&!4)-!1$-!'()*!(
PAGE 20

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "D ! ! _%38!Z!!Q-3%(.4+!&1)41%3)4:$%,!,(+06.!<()!&(01$ E ,-.1)4+!U-.10,*;8!!K4+6 -)!cCW]Bd8 !

PAGE 21

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "C ! _%38!Y8!!2-14%+-/!&1)41%3)4:$;!(
PAGE 22

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "" ! #$-!J4+-6!_()641%(.!c0&04++;!,4++-/!1$-!J4+-6 E T4)&4'!_()641%(.d!%&!4!,(6@%.41%(.!(
PAGE 23

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "Z ! !!!!!! _%38!B8!!J1)0,10)-!,(.1(0)&!<()!1$-!\466(1$!549-!L)-48!!_)(6!o0%.+4.!4./!H'-)&!cCW^Cd8

PAGE 24

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "Y ! #$-!%.<+0-.,-!(
PAGE 25

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "B $4&!,01!4!/--:!,4.;(.!1$)(03$!1$-!\466(1$!549-!K+41-40=!/('. E /%:!<)(6!1$-!)-,$4)3-!4)-4&! ( .!1$-!J%.*$(+-!K+4%.8!!#$-!S)--.!Q%9-)!%&!1$-!0+1%641-!@4&-!+-9-+!<()!4++!/)4%.43-!1$)(03$!1$-! \466(1$!549-!Q-3%(.8!!#$-)-!%&!4!/)4%.43-!/%9%/-!4+(.3!1$-!&(01$-).!4./!-4&1-).!@()/-)&!(!!I(::4!Q%/3-=!2(;-+!k4++-;=!\466(1$!549-! Q%/3-=!P(0,$%.&!k4++-;=!4./!_+%.1!Q%/3-8!!_0)1$-)!-4&1=!1$-!:+41-40!%&!6()-!$%3$+;!/%&&-,1 -/!@01! <)436-.1&!&0,$!4&!M()1$1('.!Q%/3-=!#(($-;!Q%/3-=!4./!_%&$-)!Q%/3-!)-64%.!4./!4)-!)-+-94.1! 1(!1$-!-`:4./%.3!\466(1$!549-!J;&1-68!!L!1(:(3)4:$%,!64:!(
PAGE 26

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "F H.1)4.,-8!!#$-&-!:)(9%/-/!4,,-&&!1( 4!:()1%(.!(
PAGE 27

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "] ! _%38!^8!!#(:(3)4:$%,!6 4:!(
PAGE 28

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "^ A-,40&-!1$-!:)%941-!,49-&!'-)-!4 @(01!1(!@-!&(+/!1(!1$-!M41%(.4+!K4)*!J-)9%,-=!&(6-!<()64+! 4))4.3-6-.1!'4&!.--/-/!4./!1$-!)-&0+1!'4&!1$-!549-!Q-&-4),$!_(0./41%(.8!!5Q_!.-3(1%41-/! 4,,-&&!1(!.(1!(.+;!5);&14+!@01!(1$-)!_+%.1!Q%/3-!,49-&!4./!%.1-.&%9-!&0)9-;!(:-)41%(.&!'-)-! &((.!0./-)'4;8!!Q4 1$-)!g0%,*+;!5);&14+!549-=!5(+(&&4+!549-!4./!J4+1&!549-!'-)-!,(..-,1-/! <()6%.3!1$-!_+%.1!Q%/3-!549-!J;&1-68!!#$-&-!:4&&43-&!4::-4)!(.!4!64:!<(+%(!@;!2-.9-)!A0).&! 4./!Q(3-)!A)0,*-)!1$41!'4&!:0@+%&$-/!@;!5Q_!%.!CWFY8!!#$-!.-`1!64b()!,(..-,1%(.!'4&!%.!CW]"! '$ -.!4!+(' E +-9-+!:4&&43-!'4&!<(0./!-`1-./%.3!@-.-41$!P(0,$%.&!k4++-;!4./!,(..-,1-/!1$-! _+%.1!Q%/3-!J;&1-6!1(!\466(1$!549-!cA)0,*-)!4./!T41&(.=!CW]Fd8!!K)(3)-&&!'4&!)4:%/!%.!1$-! CW]Da&!4./!CW^Da&8!!K)(,1()!549-=!:)-9%(0&+;!%&(+41-/!(.!I(::4!Q%/3-=!'4&!<(0./!1 (!,(.14%.!4! 64b()!&1)-46! s 7(3&/(.!Q%9-)! s 1$41!:)(9-/!1(!@-!1$-!+(.3!&0&:-,1-/!64&1-)!/)4%.!1$41!:%)41-/! )-,$4)3-!1$41!$4/!:)-9%(0&+;!<+('-/!1$)(03$!\466(1$!549-!4./!1((*!%1!1(!#0).$(+-!J:)%.38!!L! .-'!,49-! s Q(::-+!549-! s '4&!/%&,(9-)-/!(01&%/-!1$-!K4)*!( .!#(($-;!Q%/3-8!!V:&1)-46! 7(3&/(.!Q%9-)!'4&!+%.*-/!1(!\466(1$!549-!4./!Q(::-+!'4&!&:+%,-/!%.!4&!'-++!cA()/-.!4./! A)0,*-)=!"DDDd8!!#$-!)-&0+1=!4&!( ! ! \466(1$!549! ! ZF]8DD 6%+-& ! _%&$-)!Q%/3-!J;&1-6 ! CCC8^F!6%+-& ! T$%3:%&1+E I4,*:(1 E \4)1%.!Q%/3! ZY8"]!!6%+-& ! P%//-.!Q%9-)!J;&1-6 ! ! "C8CD!!6%+-& ! 5)06:!J:)%.3!549! ! CD8]Y!!6%+-& ! I46-&!549! ! ! CD8"B!!6%+-& ! k%.-34)!Q%/3-!549! ! !!! ^8YC!!6%+-& ! 7--!549! ! !!! ]8^"! 6%+-& ! #$-&-!/414!4)-!<)(6!Q(@-)1!S0+/-.a&!h7(.3!549-!7%&1i8!! ! L<1-)!BD!;-4)&!(
PAGE 29

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! "W ! FIELD TRIP 1 THE TURNHOLE DRAINAGE BASIN ! #$-!(@b-,1%9-!(!!#PH!KLQU!5R#X!RM#HQ5PLMSH!NM!R E FB ! 5C5 _(++('!1$-!4,,-&&!)(4/=!UX!)(01-!"BB=!1('4)/!\466(1$!549-!M41%(.4+!K4)*8!! ! 4Cc 2%46(./!549-).&=!4!:)%941-+; E ('.-/!&$('!,49-!(.!1$ -!)%3$18 ! 8Cc R.1-)&-,1%(.!'%1$!UX!)(01-!]D8!!A-4)!+-<1!(.!)(01-!]D=!1$-!64%.!-.1)4.,-!)(4/!%.1(! \466(1$!549-!M41%(.4+!K4)*8!!T-!4)-!/)%9%.3!(.!1$-!&4./&1(.-!,4:)(,*!4+(.3!I(::4!Q%/3-8 ! cCM R.1-)&-,1%(.!41!J+(4.a&!5)(&&%.38!!#0).!)%3$1!1('4)/!K4)*!$-4/g04) 1-)&8!!T-!/-&,-./! <)(6!I(::4!Q%/3-!4./!,)(&&!1$-!$%3$!&4//+-!1$41!64)*&!1$-!/('.&1)-46!-./!(
PAGE 30

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZD 1$4.!ZDDD!<--1!(!9*#>> &'(!<#'=C ! J+(4.a&!5)(&&%.3!K(./!'4&!41!(.-!1%6-!4!&64++!(:-.!+4*-!:-),$-/!(.!1$-!A%3!5+%<1;! J4./&1(.-8!!#(/4;=!9-3-141%(.!%&!,)('/%.3!%.8!!7%11+-!'41-)!)-64%.&!4./!1$41!+%11+-!%&!@)('.!4./! 1$%,*!'%1$!/-,4;-/!:+4.1!641-)%4+!4./!$06%,!&0@&14.,-&8!!#$-!A%3! 5+%<1;!,4.!4,1!4&!4.!4g0%<-)! 4./!%1!'4&!:(&&%@+-!1(!/%3!&$4++('!'-++&!&0%14@+-!<()!<4)6!'41-)!&0::+%-&8!!2%3!1((!/--:=!(AC ! #$-!&(%+!:)(<%+-!(.!.(. E ,4)@(.4 1-!)(,*&!0&04++;!$4&!4.!()34.%, E )%,$!L E $()%[(.!41!1$-!1(:=! 4!6()-!,+4; E )%,$!A E $()%[(.!@-+('=!4./!4!1$%,*!)0@@+-!1)4.&%1%(.![(.-=!()!5 E $()%[(.=!,(.&%&1%.3! (
PAGE 31

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZC -+4@()41-!&,0+:10)%.3!(
PAGE 32

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Z" ! _%38!W8!!5)(&& E &-,1%(.!&*-1,$!(
PAGE 33

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZZ ! 2)%9%.3!4+(.3!)(01-!F^=!'-!4)-!%.!1$-!$-4/'41-)&!(
PAGE 34

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZY ! _%38!CD8!!#'(! 9%-'&!(!/0)%.3!/);! '-41$-)8!!A-+('>!1$-!<+((/-/!94++-;!/0)%.3!$%3$!)0.(<<8!!#$-!+%.-!(
PAGE 35

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZB ! _%38!CC8!!J-36-.1!(
PAGE 36

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZF ! ! _%38!C"8!!74)3-!,(6:(0./!&%.*!%.!J18!7(0%&!7%6-&1(.-!41!'-&1-).!-./!(
PAGE 37

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Z] !!!!!!!!! ! _%38!CZ8!!\4:!(
PAGE 38

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Z^ %.!1$-!,$4..-+8!!H9-.!/0)%.3!/);!:-) %(/&=!&14./%.3!'41-)!,4.!@-!&--.!4!&$()1!/%&14.,-!/('.!1$-! &:)%.3!()%<%,-8!!L!1)4%+!0:!1$-!<4)!@4.*!@)%.3&!(.-!1(!1$-!341-/!-.1)4.,-!1(!J(01$!549-=!4.! %&(+41-/!<)436-.1!'%1$!4@(01!$4+
PAGE 39

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ZW 1$-!64&1-)!/)4%.43-!+%.-!<0)1$-)!0./-)6%.-/!1$-!&%.*!4./!1)%33-)-/!<0)1$-)!,(++4:&-8!!R1!&$(0+/! @-!&4%/!1$41!. (1!-9-);(.-!4,,-:1&!1$%&!$;:(1$-&%&8 ! Q-10).!1(!1$-!64%.!1)4%+=!10).!+-<1=!,+%6@!0:!1$-!%)(.!&14%)&=!4./!<(++('!1$-!64%.!1)4%+!@4,*! 1(!1$-!:4)*%.3!+(18!!2)%9-!.()1$=!,(.1%.0%.3!4+(.3!1$-!'4;!'-!$49-!@--.!3(%.38 ! cMC2 R.1-)&-,1%(.!'%1$!I(::4!Q%/3-!Q(4/=!UX )(01-!]D8!!#0).!+-<1=!'-&18 ! D5Cc K0++!%.1(!1$-!#0).$(+-!N9-)+((*!:4)*%.3!+(18 ! 0[Q
PAGE 40

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YD ! _%38!CB8!!\4:!(
PAGE 41

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YC #$-!1)4%+!1$-.!/-&,-./&!1$-!(1$-)!&%/-!(
PAGE 42

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Y" ! FIELD TRIP 2 THE HISTORIC (WESTERN) SECTION OF MAMMOTH CAVE ! KNRM#!N _!NQRSRM>!!#PH!PRJ#NQR5!HM#QLM5H!RM!\L\\N#P!5LkH!ML#RNML7!KLQU ! R1!%&!,+-4)+;!/%<<%,0+1!1(!')%1-!4!)(4/!+(3!<()!4!,49-!1)%:8!!T$41!<(++('&!%&!4!'4+*!1$)(03$! 1$-!,49-8!!J:-,%<%,!:(%.1&!(A#*&; V'A*B';+ C!! #$-!.410)4+!-.1)4.,-!1(!\466(1$!549-!%&!<()6-/!@;!1$-!,(++4:&-!(!YB**#$>C !! #$-!-.1)4.,-!:4&&43-!1(!\466(1$!549-!%&!4!@)(4/!49-.0-!b0&1!(9-)! '4+*%.3!$-%3$18!!N.!1$-!(01&%/-=!1$%&!:4&&43-!'4&!,+-4)+;!1$-!(.-!1$41!,(++4:&-/!1(!<()6!1$-! -.1)4.,-!&%.*$(+-8!!R ! ! 549! ! \4`%606 \%.%606 L9-)43! ! \466(1$!549! C8"Y ! D8ZW ! D8]Z ! 5);&14+!549! C8YW ! D8^Z ! C8C" ! S)-41!N.;`!549! C8"" ! D8F^ ! C8DD ! T()*%.3!+-9-+&!4)-!/-<%.-/!@;!MRNPJ!4&!1$-!-`:(&0)-!1(!0)4.%06!6%.-)&=!'()*%.3!&14./4)/!YD! $(0)!'--*&=!@)-41$%.3!4%)!,(.14%.%.3!CDD!:%,(,0)%-&!(
PAGE 43

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YZ ! [H+!R#A7'=BC !! P(0,$%.a&!M4))('&!+-4/&!%.1(!1$-!Q(10./4=!(.-!(C !! P%3$!(.!1$-!+-<1!'4++!(A!9H7*;HC !! T-!$49-!@--.!<(++('%.3!4!'4+*'4;!@0%+1!@;!1$-!K4)*!J-)9%,-!1(! /-,)-4&-!/0&1!4./!+%.1!3-.-)41-/!@;!1$-!1$(0&4./&!(
PAGE 44

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YY A4,*&+%/-)&!L++-;8!!R&!1$%&!:4&&43-!1$-!0::-)!,(6:(.-.1!(
PAGE 45

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YB ! _%38!C]8!!J(6-!(!0J*&'(C !! T4./-)%.3!T%++%-!'4&!4!@+%./!@(;!'$(!:+4;-/!1$-!9%(+%.!%.!1$-! C^DDa&8!!P-!&:-.1!1$-!.%3$1!%.!1$-!,49-!4./!'4&!<(0./!%.!1$-!6().%.3=!&+--:%.3!@-&%/-!1$%&!&64++! :((+!(!9#::&'C !! S%4.1a&!5(<<%.!%&!4!@)-4*/('.!@+(,*!1$41!$4&!&+%/-!(01!(
PAGE 46

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YF ! ! _%38!C^8!!\4:!&$('%.3!1$-!\4%.!549-!4./!1$-!0./-)+;%.3!)(01-!1$)(03$!1$-!2-&-)1-/! 5$46@-)&=!A(11(6+-&&!K%1=!4./!_41!\4.a&!\%&-);!1(!S)-41!Q-+%-
PAGE 47

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Y] [H+!X+>+*A+=!9HB@L+*>C !! S(%.3!+('-)!%.!1$-!&;&1-6!%&!4+&(!3(%.3!<()'4)/!%.!1%6-8!!T$-.!1$-! ,4:)(,*!'4&!@)-4,$-/=!4./!1$-!&0)<4,-!94++-;&!/-9-+(:-/=!/)4%.43-!<)(6!1$-&-!94++-;&!<()6-/! 4!9-);!,(6:+ %,41-/!&-g0-.,-!(>!<&AC !! !!!! !!! ! _%38!C^8!!A(11(6+-& &!K%18!!c7-<1d!L&!&--.!@;!P858!P(9-;!%.!C^WF8!!cQ%3$1d!L&!&--.!@;!I46-&! U.0/&14/!%.!CW]D8 ! A(11(6+-&&!:%1!cCDB!<--1!/--:d!,01&!4,)(&&!1$-!$()%[(.14+!10@0+4)!:4&&43-&!(
PAGE 48

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! Y^ 4,,-&&-/!1$)(03$!4!+-<1 E $4./!+-4/!(<!64&1-)!1)0.*&=!94++-;!/)4%.&=!4./!&$4<1! /)4%.&8 ! <+'>&;# ]#*!<+'>B;#%B^ 1W+'7+C !! A-;(./!A(11(6+-&&!K%1=!1$-!10@0+4 )!:4&&43-!1$41!'-!$49-! @--.!<(++('%.3=!3(-&!(<!I&>+*TC !! R1!)-g0%)-&!4.!464[%.3!&-g0-.,-!(
PAGE 49

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! YW @)-4*/('.!4./!<%++8!!R.!1$-!(::(&%1-!/%)-,1%(.=!1$-!:4&&43-!+-4/&!1(!Q%9-)!J1;`=!H,$(!Q%9-)=! 4./! /--:!%.1(!1$-!,49-8 ! R&W+*!0ATNC !! #$-!64%.!@4&-!+-9-+!/)4%.!1$)(03$!\466(1$!549-!Q%/3-!,(.&%&1&!(&AT!UB%%C !! #(!,(.1%.0-!(0)!+((:!1(0)=!'-!-`%1!Q%9-)!P4++!@;!&14%)&!1$41!,+%6@! (9-)!4!@)-4*/('.!:%+-8!!N.!4!+4)3-!@)-4*/('.!@+(,*!4)-!&-9-)4+!@)4&&!64)*-)&!&$('%.3!1$-! +-9-+&!1(!'$%,$!94)%(0&!<+((/!$49! )%&-.8!!#$-!CWF"!<+((/!4./!&-9-)4+!(1$-)&!<%++-/!Q%9-)!P4++!1(! 1$-!)((!1W+'7+ 8!!_)(6!1$-!@)-4*/('.!)((6&=!'-!-.1-)!J:4)*&!L9-.0-=!4!,(6:+-`!(
PAGE 50

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
PAGE 51

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BC ! T-!+-49-!\466(1$!2(6-!@;!1$-!&14%)'4;!0:!1$-!h<%)-!1('-)i!-)-,1-/!%.!1$-!6 %//+-!(
PAGE 52

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! B" ! FIELD TRIP 3 THE EASTERN SECTION OF MAMMOTH CAVE ! KNRM#!N_!NQRSRM>!#PH!5LQ\R5PLH7!HM#QLM5H ! #$-!S)4./!L9-.0-!#(0)!-.1-)&!\466(1$!549-!1$)(03$!1$-!54)6%,$4-+!H.1)4.,-!4@(01! 6%/'4;!4+(.3!\466(1$!549-!Q%/3-!c&--! _%38!^d8!!#$-!4,,-&&!)(4/!1(!1$-!54)6%,$4-+!H.1)4.,-! %&!(:-.!(.+;!1(!(<<%,%4+!9-$%,+-&8!!#$-!-.1)4.,-!%&!'%1$%.!1$-!,%),+-!( 8!!#$-!-.+4)3-/!:4&&43-!%&!*.('.!4&!5)(3$4.!P4++8!!R1! +((*&!+%*-!1$-!\4%.!549-!c'%1$(01!1$-!&((1d!@-,40&-!'-!4)-!%./--/!%.!+-9-+!A=!4.!-`1-.&%(.!(7@!B'=!9*T>AB%!?+=(&'(!"*+BZ=#$'C !! 5+-49-+4./!L9-.0-!-`1-./&!4,)(&&!\466(1$! 549-!Q%/3-!4./!%&!/);!1$)(03$(01!%1&!+-.31$8!!#$-!:4&&43-!'4++&!4)-!/-,()41-/!'%1$!3;:&06! ,) ;&14+&8!!#$-&-!'-)-!4::4)-.1+;!&:-,14,0+4)!%.!1$-!-4)+;!/4;&!@-<()-!64.;!(
PAGE 53

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BZ J4./&1(.-8!!T$%,$!c()!@(1$d!(
PAGE 54

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BY ,(.&%/-)4@+-!/%&14.,-!@-$%./!1$-!&-)9%,-!4)-48!!#$-)-!%&!4.!-+-941()!1(!1$-!&0)<4,-!.-4)!1$-! @-3%..%.3!(
PAGE 55

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BB ! ! _%38!""8!!Q-+41%(.!(!_&' +TB*=!B'=!AH+!>!#:!V%!)H#*C !! #$-!)%3$1!<()*!<)(6!J.('@4++!2%.%.3!Q((6!%&!4.! %))-30+4)!:4&&43-!1$41!,(6:+-1-&!1$-!,)(&&%.3!(
PAGE 56

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BF ! _%38!"Z8!!\4:!(
PAGE 57

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! B] [H#*Je>!<&A !! #$-!,(.1%.041%(.!(
PAGE 58

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! B^ ! _%38!"Y8!!J-g0-.,-!(!X#@+C !! L!&$()1!,+%6@!0:!4!&+(:-!1(!1$-!)%3$1!(!>C !! A)4.&<()/!L9-.0-!,(.1%.0-&!4./!'4&!1$-!*-;!1(!%6:()14.1!/%&,(9-)%-&!%.!1$-! -4&1!-./!(
PAGE 59

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! BW /('.8!!L!:((+!41!1$-!@4&-!(!cCd! 1$-)-!%&!1$-!/-9-+(:6-.1!(
PAGE 60

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FD &$4<1&!4&!1$-!,4:)(,*!)-1)-41&!4./!cZd!/-.0/41%(.!(+e>!>!B'=!6+B''+e>!1W+'7+C !! Q(&-a&!K4&&!%&!4!$%3$!,4.;(.!1$41!9--)&!(<!#:!AH+!9BW+C!! ! I-4..-a&!L9-.0-!'%/-.&=!@-,(6-&!6()-!&:4,%(0&!4./!(:-.&!41!1$-!&46-!<+(()!4./! ,-%+%.3!+-9-+!'%1$!4.!-9 -.!+4)3-)!64&1-)!1)0.*8!!#(!1$-!)%3$1=!1$-!+4)3-!:4&&43-!-./&! %66-/%41-+;!%.!4!&-/%6-.1!4./!@)-4*/('.!,$(*-8!!#(!1$-!+-<1=!%1!,(.1%.0-&!4&!4!64b()!:4&&43-8 ! T-!$49-!3)4/04++;!34%.-/!-+-941%(.!4./!4)-!.('!%.!1$-!A!#%-)!(
PAGE 61

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FC -+'A7;ZT ]#*!)*B'=^ 1W+'7+C!! ! T-!,(.1%.0-!-4&1'4)/!%.!U-.10,*;!L9-.0-! cS)4./!L9-.0-!(.!1$-!Uu6:-)!64:!4./! .('!,4++-/!1$-!S)4./!L9-.0-!1(0)!@;!1$-!K4)*!J-)9%,-d8!!V.+%*-!1$-!\4%.!549-=!U-.10,*;! L9-.0-!$4&!&0<<-)-/!)-+41%9-+;!+%11+-!@)-4*/('.!&(!1$-)-!4)-!&6((1$=!&(+01%(.4++; E &,0+:10)-/! '4++&8!!\4&&-&!(
PAGE 62

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s 4@(01! ]B!<--18!!_0)1$-)=!4!,(&6(3-.%,!%&(1(:-!/41-!(!B'=!X#$'>C !! _()!1$-!.-`1!$4+C !! T-!$49-!@--.!9%-'%.3!&$4<1&!6(&1+;!<)(6!4!&%.3+-!94.143-!:(%.18!! L1!1$-!M-'!H.1)4.,-=!'-!,+%6@!1$)(03$!1$-!-.1%)-!!&-g0-.,-!(
PAGE 63

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FZ REFERENCES A()/-.=!I46-&!28!4./!Q(3-)!T8!A)0,*-)!c"DDDd! 8%13$2!9(::30;!<(=% 8!!J(01$-).!R++%.(%&! V.%9-)&%1;!K)-&&=!54)@(./4+-=!R7=!ZBZ!:8 A)0,*-)=!Q(3-)!T8=!I($.!T8! P-&&=!4./!T%++%46!A8!T$%1-!cCW]"d!Q(+-!(.3?$2!@(0%. 45 F€=!B E CZ8 A)0,*-)=!Q(3-)!T8!4./!Q%,$4)/!L8!T41&(.!cCW]Fd! A;%!B3$4%/0!<(=% 8!!L+<)-/!L8!U.(:<=!M-'!X()*=! MX=!ZCF!:8 S-()3-=!L.3 -+(!R8!c"DDBd! 9(::30;!<(=%!#(&05%0%.!@3.7/ 8!!P8\8R8!K)-&&=!7(0%&9%++-=!UX=!"DF!:8 S)4.3-)=!24));+!H8=!2-)-*!_4@-+=!4./!L)1$0)!M8!K4+6-)!c"DDCd!K+%(,-.E K+-%&1(,-.-!%.,%&%(.!(%3&346C(&!#3C6%01!3D!E:%.6C(!8?&&%06$ 44c =!^"B E ^ZF8 K4+6-)=!L)1$0)!M8!cCW^Cd! E!>%3&346C(&!>?62%!03!9(::30;!<(=%!F(063$(&!G(.7 8!!m-:$;)0&!K)-&&=! #-4.-,*=!MI=!CWF!:8 K4+6-)=!L)1$0)!M8!cCW^Wd!S-(6():$%,!$%&1();!(!S-(6():$( +(3;=! P;/)(3-(+(3;=!S-(4),$-(+(3;=!H.3%.--)%.3!S-(+(3;=!#8S8!Q(@-)1&!cH/8d=!:8!YB] E BDF8 T41&(.=!K411;!I(!cCW]Yd! E.C;%3&341!3D!0;%!9(::30;!<(=%!E.%( 8!!L,4/-6%,!K)-&&=!M-'!X()*=! "BB!:8 T-++-)=!I8!\4)9%.!cCW"]d!S-(+(3;!(%34.(5;6C(&!J%=6%K K5 =!^^ E CCB8 T$%1-=!T%++%46!A8!4./!H+%[4@-1$!78!T$%1-!cH/&8d!cCW^Wd! -(./0!'12.3&341H!<3$C%50/!D.3:! 0;%! 9(::30;!<(=%!E.%( 8!!k4.!M(&1)4./!Q-%.$(+/=!M-'!X()*=!ZYF!:8 T$%1-=!T%++%46!A8!4./!H+%[4@-1$!78!T$%1-!c"DDZd!S;:&06!'-/3%.3!4./!,49-).!@)-4*/('.>! J10/%-&!%.!1$-!\466(1$!549-!J;&1-6=!U-.10,*;8!! L3?.$(&!3D!<(=%!($2!-(./0!#0?26%/ KF =! YZ E B"8 X4)@()(03$=!U-% 1$!L8!4./!S4);!\8!L$+&1)4./!cCW]]d!L+:$4!)4/%41%(.!6(.%1()%.3!(
PAGE 64

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FY I&= 3 9#':+*+';+!G&+%=A*&J!)7&=+PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! Option 2: Mammoth Cave Trip ! ! ! Led and Guide By: Dr. Art Palmer and Peg Palmer Dr. Rick Toomey Shannon Trimboli

PAGE 65

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FB

PAGE 66

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FF

PAGE 67

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! F]

PAGE 68

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! F^

PAGE 69

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! FW ! !

PAGE 70

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]D !

PAGE 71

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]C ! !

PAGE 72

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]" !

PAGE 73

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]Z ! !

PAGE 74

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]Y !

PAGE 75

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]B ! !

PAGE 76

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]F !

PAGE 77

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]] ! !

PAGE 78

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]^ !

PAGE 79

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ]W ! !

PAGE 80

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^D !

PAGE 81

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^C ! !

PAGE 82

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^" !

PAGE 83

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^Z ! !

PAGE 84

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^Y !

PAGE 85

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^B 1L>A*B;A>PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! !+-3%&+41%9-=!<%.4.,%4+=!4./!:0@+%,! )-+4 1%(.&8!Q$-1()%,!/-:+(;-/!%.!<()'4)/%.3!94)%(0&!:4)1&!(!&1-'4 )/&$%:!9-)&0&!-.1)-:)-.-0)&$%:t!)-3%(.4+! -,(.(6%,!/-9-+(:6-.1!9-)&0&!:)%941-!:)(:-)1;!)%3$1&8!#$0&=!4+1$(03$!\466(1$!549-!M41%(.4+!K4)*!%&! 4!&1();!(!c%d!,(.,-.1)41%(.!/0-!1(!-94:()41%(.!(
PAGE 86

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^F 1$41!&0+<%/-!(`%/41%(.!64;!@-!4!64b()!:)(,-&&!%.!1$-!4)-4=!,(.1)%@01%.3!&0+<41-!4.%(.&!1(!3)(0./'41-)! 4./!%.,)-4&%.3!1$-!:(1-.1%4+!<()!,4)@(.41-!/%&&(+01%(.!4./!&:-+-(3-.-&%&8 ! ! )VQaQ)E91a!0[R/9[/RV 1YX!/YXVR)R Q/YX!XR1EY1)V!QG!1!U E)U 3 1a!P%3$!9-+(,%1%-&!c,48!CDD!6?$d!4./!,(.9-)3-.1!<+('!1('4)/&!(.-!64b()!*4)&1!&:)%.3!'4&!<(0./! %.!1$-!m03&:%1[!5%)g0-=!'$%+-!+('-)!9-+(,%1%&!c,48!CD!6?$d!4./!/%9-)3-.1!/)4%.43-!1('4)/&!.06-)(0&! *4)&1!&:)%.3&!$49-!@--.!%/-.1%<%-/!%.!1$-!4/b4,-.1!L+:&:%1[-!4)-48!#$-!3(4+!(
PAGE 87

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^] ,-.1)4+!_+()%/4=!%.!K%.-++4&!4./!P%++&@()(03$!,(0.1%-&=!4+(.3!1$-!S0+
PAGE 88

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^^ 4g0%<-)8!R.!1$%&!4)-4!-`1-.&%9-!$;:(3-.%,!,49-!&;&1-6&!$ 49-!/-9-+(:-/!4&!'-++8 A-%.3!4!64)3%.4+!4)-4!41! 1$-!@(0./4);!(
PAGE 89

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! ^W EY[VR9QYYV9[EQY!QG![ UV!VX?1RX0!1YX![REYE [.!1g/EGVR0,!9VY[R1a [Vl10,!/0!1 ! \4),0&!N8!S4); ! m4)4!H.9%)(.6-.14+!775! ! #$-!H/'4)/&!4./!#)%.%1;!Lg0%<-)&!4)-!,)%1%,4+!'41-)!)-&(0),-&=!&0::+;%.3!$%3$ E g04+%1;!:(14@+-! '41-)!1(!(9-)!1'(!6%++%(.!:-(:+-!%.!1$-!3)-41-)!L0&1%. E J4.!L.1(.%(!)-3%(.!(!$;/)(+(3;=!3)(0./'41-)=!)%:4)%4.!4./!'-1+4./!$4@%141&=!0)@4.! '41-)&$-/&=!'41-)!0&-!@;!$064.&!4./!'%+/+%<-=!'41-)!g04.1%1;!4./!g04+%1;=!)4%.!'41-)!$4)9-&1%.3=!3)--.! 34)/-.%.3!4./!,(6:(&1%.3=!'41-)!g04+%1; :)(1-,1%(.=!4./!,(.&-)941%(.8!!H/0,41()&!%.9-&1%341-!+(,4+! )-&(0),-&!494%+4@+-!1(!1$-%)!,+4&&)((6&!1(!%.,)-4&-!1-4,$-)&a!,(.<%/-.,-!%.!,(9-)%.3!'41-)!1(:%,&! 1$)(03$!$4./& E (.!4,1%9%1%-&8!!#-4,$-)&!'$(!411-./!1$-!'()*&$(:!)-10).!1(!1$-%)!,+4&&)((6&!:)-:4)-/ 1(! 30%/-!&10/-.1&!%.!-.9%)(.6-.14+!%.9-&1%341%(.8!#$-!'()*&$(:!:)(6(1-&!1$-!,0+1%941%(.!(
PAGE 90

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WD aQY) 3 [VRI![RVYX0!QG!
PAGE 91

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WC ,(.3+(6-)41-&!4)-!&%6%+4)!4&!%.!1;:%,4+!*4)&1!4g0%<-)&=!(<1-.!-`,--/%.3!CDD!6?$t!c%%d!6%,)(@%4+! ,(.146%.4.1&!4)-!)4:%/+;!1)4.&:()1-/!1('4)/&!&:)%.3&t!4./!c%%%d!1$! 643.%10/-!4./!&-4&(.4+!:411-).!(??:0@&80&3&83(9?16?DY/D"?:/
PAGE 92

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! W" XE))E Y)!XVV
PAGE 93

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WZ 416(&:$-)%,!5N 34&!,(.,-.1)41%(.&!4)-!6-4&0)-/!'--*+;8!H:%*4)&1%,!/)4%.43-!%.!1$-!,49-!"B6!@-+('! 1$-!&0)<4,-!%&!6-4&0)-/! c1-.!6%.01-!)-&(+01%(.d!'%1$!4!@4))-+ E '-%)!<()!/%&,$4)3-=!4./!1$-.!/0:+%,41-! &:5!4./!1-6:-)410)-!4./!1)%:+%,41-!:P!<()!%.&1)06-.1!)-/0./4.,;!4./!,4+,0+41%(.!(
PAGE 94

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WY 1$-!& 1()6!&0)<4,-!)-,$4)3-!4./!/)4%.43-!9(+06-&!-g04+!4./!1$-.!/%9%/%.3!1$-!)-&0+1%.3!)-,$4)3-! 9(+06-!@;!1$-!6-4&0)-/!)4%.<4++!/-:1$=!4&&06-/!1(!@-!0.%<()6!(9-)!1$-!&64++!)-,$4)3-!4)-48 k4+0-&!(!Cd!U4)&1!3-.-&%&!4./!1;:-&!(
PAGE 95

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WB ()34.%[41%(.!64;!+-4).!<)(6!(1$-)!<%-+/&!(
PAGE 96

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WF ! Q99/RRVY9V!QG!U.
PAGE 97

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! W] $;:(3-.-!& :-+-(3-.-&%&8!L.(1$-)!)-&0+1!%&!1$-!$%3$!/-3)--!(
PAGE 98

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! W^ J:)%.3!%.!_+()%/4!$4&!.(14@+;!/%<<-)-.1!,$4)4,1-)%&1%,&!4./!$4&!4!,+-4)!/-,)-4&%.3!/%&,$4)3-!1)-./8!L! 9-);!&%6%+4)!/-,)-4&%.3!1)-./!$4&!@--.!(@&-)9-/!41!M%4 .3[%304.!&:)%.3!%.!5$%.48!#$-&-!/%<<-)-.,-&!4)-! -`:+4%.-/!1$)(03$!4.4+;&-&!(! $11:>??/%.4)%,8%'+-4).8()38 ! )VQ
PAGE 99

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! WW ! M41%(.4+!549-!4./!U4)&1!Q-&-4),$!R.&1%101-=!M-'!\-`%,(!R.&1%101-!(
PAGE 100

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDD ! V./-)&14./%.3!1$-!/%&1)%@01%(.!(
PAGE 101

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDC ! EYGa/VY9VX!QG!a1YX!/ 0V!<1[[VRY0!QY!XE00Q a_VX!EYQR)1YE9!91R"Q Y!1YX! n 4c 9 XE9 GQR! V
PAGE 102

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CD" ,(++4:&-!&%.*$(+-&!'-)-!+(,41-/8!!T41-)!@0/3-1!4.4+;&%&!) -9-4+-/!+%11+-!'41-)!+(&&!4./?()!)-10).!1(!1$-! ,4)@(.41-!0.%1&8!!_%-+/!'()*!&033-&1-/!1$41!1$-!N4*($4;!5)--*!$4&!%.,%&-/!/('.!1$)(03$!6(&1!(!Cd!)-9-4+!%
PAGE 103

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDZ (<1-.! ( 9-)+((*-/!4) -4&!%.!1$-!<0./%.3!4./! ,(66 0.%,41%(.!(
PAGE 104

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDY 1(14++;!/%&,$4)3-&!1$-!oSJ!4&!1$-!&(+-!&0::+;!(
PAGE 105

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDB !cCd!#$-!(,,0))-.,-!(
PAGE 106

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDF ! U.XRQ)VQaQ)E91a!EY_V 0[E)1[EQY0!1YX!0EY-U QaV!RV0V1R9U!QY!GQRV 0[VX!-1R0[! a1YX091!4.! -`46%.41%(.!(
PAGE 107

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CD] :)(9%/-&!4!<)46-'()*!<()!6(/-+%.3!49-)43-!&(0),-!-+-941%(.!<()!&:)%.3!'41-)&!'%1$%.!1$-!@4&%.8!#$%&! :)(9%/-&!%.&%3$1!%.1(!1-6:()4+!4./!&:41%4+!/%<<-)-.,-&!%.!&(0),-!4./!1;:-!(!4++(3-.%,! &%.*%.3!&1)-46!&(0),-&!c'%1$!4!$%3$!-+-9 41%(.4+!&%3.4+d=!()!401(3-.%,!)-,$4)3-!/-)%9-/!<)(6!+(,4+! %.<%+1)41%(.!%.1(!&(%+&!4./!-:%*4)&1!c'%1$!4!+('-)!-+-941%(.4+!&%3.4+d8 ! 7%g0%/!'41-)!&14@+-!%&(1(:-!94+0-&!'-)-!6-4&0)-/!41!)%9-)&=!&:)%.3&=!4./!%.!:)-,%:%141%(.!/0)%.3! @(1$!$%3$!4./!+('!<+('!,(./% 1%(.&!%.!"DCD8!K)-,%:%141%(.!94+0-&!&$('!4.!%&(1(:%,!+4:&-!)41-!(!4.!0::-)!h&(%+i!+4;-)! 1$41!,+(&-+;!)-&-6@+-&!1)4/%1%(.4+!h+-4*; E @ 0,*-1i!&(%+!6(/-+&=!4./!4!+('-)!h)(,*i!+4;-)!1$41!%&!4!'-++ E 6%`-/=!+4)3-)!)-&-)9(%)!1$41!<--/&!%.1(!1$-!,49-8!R.!(@&-)941%(.&!4./!1$-!6(/-+=!<-/!'%1$!6(/-).!,+%641-! /414=!‡ C^ N /' %&!6(&1!,(6:4)4@+-!1(!1$-!(`;3-.!%&(1(:%,!,(6:(&%1%(.!(
PAGE 108

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CD^ ! #$-!3)(0./'41-)!%.!43)%,0+10)4+!*4)&1!4)-4&!% &!&0&,-:1%@+-!1(!,(.146%.41%(.!<)(6!()34.%,!&(%+! 46-./6-.1&!4./!:-&1%,%/-&8!20)%.3!64b()!&1()6!-9-.1&!(
PAGE 109

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CDW ! R.!)-,-.1!ZD!;-4)&=!'%1$!1$-!,$4.3-!(
PAGE 110

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CCD 0 J+;&B%!)7+>A!"&#(* BJH&+>PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! # D0"#K5:40#M0GEN40 # # Q(3-)!T8!A)0,*-)!$4&!@--.!-`:+()%.3!4./!')%1%.3!@((*&! 4@(01!\466(1$!549-!<()!6()-!1$4.!BB!;-4)&8!P-!%&!,( E 401$()!(! A;%!<(=%/!8%13$2 =! A;%!B3$4%/0!<(=% =! A.( 55%2M!A;%!#03.1!3D!N&312!<3&&6$/ =!4./! 8%13$2!9(::30;!<(=%H!E! A(&%!3D!OP/%//63$!6$!0;%!@3.&2Q/!B3$4%/0!<(=% 8!P%&!<%<1$!@((*!4./! <%)&1!$%&1()%,4+!.(9-+=! >.($2R!>&33:1R!($2!G%C?&6(.H!#0%5;%$!86/;35! (0!9(::30;!<(=% =!1-++&!1$-!&1();!(
PAGE 111

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CCC O 0"#)02# ("# J/9640 # /=C#J4:#J/9640 # 1*AH7*!YC!%3&341 c"DD]d=!4./! E!>%3&346C(&!>?62%!03!9(::30;!<(=%! F(063$(&!G(.7 cCW^Cd=!4./!1-4,$-&!4!& 066-)! *4)&1!<%-+/!,(0)&-!<()!T-&1-).!U-.10,*;! V.%9-)&%1;8!P-!%&!4!SJL!<-++('!4./!U%)*!A);4.! L'4)/!)-,%:%-.18! ! IB*(B*+A!_C!%3:3.5;3&341!($2!'12.3&341!3D!-(./0!A%..(6$/T ,( E -/%1()!(
PAGE 112

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CC" 17AH#*!a&>APPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ! 1 ! L+3-(=!U41%! 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888 C"=!^B *41%-84+3-(G'*08-/0 ! L6-+%,$-9=!S8M8 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888 CC=!WF ! L1*%.&(.=!#%6 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888 CC=!WW 1841*%.&(.G0,+84,80* ! L0+-)=!L030&1(! 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888 CZ=!^B 440+-)G364%+8,(6 ! L0+1=!#(@;!Q8 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888 C"=!CD] 140+1G-64%+84)%[(.48-/0 ! ! A4)*-)=!I($.! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 CC =!WW b848@4)*-)G&(1(.84,80* ! A-++64..=!V1-! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888 CC=!^F V1-8@-++64..G*%18-/0 ! A(+&1-)=!54)+ 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888 CZ=!CY=! W"=! CD] ,4)+8@(+&1-)G4)&80&/483(9 ! A((1$=!A);4. 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 CY=!^F @@((1$ZG64%+80&<8-/0 ! 9 ! 5$0.$(.3=!m$4( 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 CY=!CD^ ! 5(+-=!I0+%4!H8 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 C"=!CD] b-,(+-G-64%+84)%[(.48-/0 ! 5&(64=!L .%14!r8 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888 CZ=!^] L.%148H85&(64G,(.(,(:$%++%:&8,(6 ! X ! 2464;4.1%=!J0@-*1% 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888 CC=!WY ! 24(`%4.=!X04. 88888888888888888 C"=!CZ=!CY=!WW=!CDC =!CDZ ! /`;04.G*4)&18-/08,. ! 24;=!\%,$4-+ 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888 CC=!WB 6%,*/4;G0'68-/0 ! V! ! H.3-+=!L..-11-!J8 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888 C"=!WB 4-.3-+G+&08-/0 ! H)p&&=!L.%14! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888 CZ=!^] 4.%148-)(&&G3 -(+(3;8-+1-8$0 ! G! ! _4.3=!S0( 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888 CC=!CB=!WZ =!CDB 3<*4)&1GC"F8,(6 ! _-@)%4)14=!H)%*! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888 CC=!WY ! _-.=!P04.3 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888888 CY=!^^ $<-.G*4)&184,8,. ! ) ! S4);=!\4),0&!N8 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888 CZ=!^W 64),0&G[4)4-.9%)(.6-.14+8,(6 ! S4);=!Q(@%. 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888 C"=!CY=!^W=!WD )$34);G@&-4,/8()3 ! S-;-)=!#(@%4& 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888 CZ=!CDB 13-;-)G3 '/38/! S+(9-)=!#%6 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888888 CY=!W] .13+(9-)G64,1-,8,(6 ! S(-::-)1=!M4/%.! 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 CZ=!WD .4/%.-83(-::-)1G*%18-/0 !

PAGE 113

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CCZ S(+/&,$-%/-)=!M%,( 8888888888888888888888888888 CC=!CZ=!^F=!WD 3(+/&,$-%/-)G*%18-/0 ! S)--.-=!H4)+!L8 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888 CY=!WC -43)--.-G0&3&83(9 ! S)%<<%1$&=!K40+! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888 CZ=!CDF :3)%<
PAGE 114

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CCY A-.b46%.86%++-)G'*08-/0 ! \%.=!54( 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888888888 C"=!CDC ! \%.3[$0 =!7%. 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888 C"=!CDC +6[:-4)+G&'08-/08,. ! \;+)(%-=!I($. 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888 CY =!CB =!WF =!CDC b-6"G6&& 141-8-/0 ! Y ! M()1$=!7-&+%-!L8 888888888888888888888 C"=!CB=!CD"=!CDY=!CDB +-&+%-8.()1$G'*08-/0 ! < ! K4+6-)=!L)1$0)! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888 CC=!CDZ :4+6-)4.G(.-(.148-/0 ! K4+6-)=!\4)34)-1 ! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888 CC=!CDZ :4+6-)4.G(.-(.148-/0 ! K-.3=!T4.3 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888 C"=!CDC ! K%.3$-.3=!X4.3 ! 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 CY=!CDZ @4+4.,-G&'08-/08,. ! K(+*=!I4&(.!J8! 888888888888 C"=CZ =CY= CB=W"=WY=CDB= CD] b 4&(.8:(+*G'*08-/0 ! K()1-)=!A)4./(. 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 C"=!CDY A)4./(.+--:()1-)G364%+8,(6 ! g ! o%(.3=!l%4( 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888888 CZ=!WW ! o%0<4.3 =!P! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888 CY=!CDZ ! R ! Q46&-;=!54)(+ 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888 CZ=!CDF ,+)46&4;G&$4'8,4 ! Q-%64..=!#$(64&! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888 CZ=!CDB #$(64&8Q-%64..G10 E /)-&/-.8/! 0 ! J401-)=!\4)1%.! 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888 C Z=!CDB 64)1%.8&401-)G3-(80.% E 3(-11%.3-.8/! J,$6%1[=!24))-+!T8 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888 CC=!CDC &,$6%1[)4G6&&141-8-/0 ! J,$'4)1[=!A-.b46%.!_8! 8888888888888888888888888 C"=!WB=!CDF @&Z]G1`&141-8-/0 ! J$%=!X0 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888 CC=!WZ ! J$%;(0=!l%! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888 C"=!CDC ! J+4@-=!#4/-b! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888 CY=!W] &+4@-G[), E &4[08 &% ! J6%1$=!A)%4. 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888 CY=!WD @)%4.&G@&-4, /8()3 ! J1(*-&=!#%6 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888 CZ=!CDF 1%68&1(*-&G9%08,4 ! [ ! #4;+()=!5$4)+-&!I8 ! 88888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888 CY=!WC ,b14;+()G0&3&83(9 ! #%6(*$%.4=!H8R8! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888 CC=!WF ! #(@%.=!A-.b46%. 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888 C"=!CDF @1CC]CG1`&141-8-/0 ! #)-%/-+=!P(+3-) 88888888888888888888888888888888 88888888888888888888 C"=!W^ $81)-%/-+G0.-&,(8()3 ! #)0-@-=!J4)4$!L8 ! 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888 C"=!CD] &1)0-@-G4)%[(.48-/0 !

PAGE 115

"#$$!%&'()&*'+,&*-!.,&/()(&0(!,&!1*)2'!345),6(,-,64!*&5!70,242'(82!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,:-+&6!;)((&? ! CCB ! 94.!A-;.-.=!K$%+%: 88888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888 C"=!CD" 94.@-;.-G0&<8-/0 ! k4./-)$(<<=!J-4.!\8 888888888888888888888888 CZ=!CY=!W"=!CD] J-4.894./-)$(<

printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.