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Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Speleology: a meeting of the International Union of Speleology [1981]

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Title:
Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Speleology: a meeting of the International Union of Speleology [1981]
Alternate Title:
International Congress of Speleology
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International Congress of Speleology
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National Speleological Society
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English
Spanish
French
German
Chinese

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Conferences ( local )
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Conference Proceeding
serial ( sobekcm )

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General Note:
Sponsored by The National Speleological Society Hosted by The Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S.A. July 18 to 24, 1981 Edited by Barry F. Beck. Table of Contents: bv sessions, in chronoloqical order Cave Management SymposiumThe resource potential of transvaal caves / Frances Gamble - pp 466-468 Problems of management of transvaal caves/ Frances Gamble - pp 469-472 Karst cave management modelling in the transvaal / Frances Gamble. - pp 473-475 Underground wilderness: A conservation principal and a management tool / Robert Stitt - pp 185-186 Interpretation as a primary tool in cave conservation management / Edward E. Wood, Jr. - pp 582-584 Protection of ice caves / Friedrich Dedl. - pp 640-641 Hydrology IPercolation Waters in Karstic Aquifers / Michel Bakalowicz - pp 710-713 Scallops / Alfred Bilgli - pp 82-83 Hydrology and Water Chemistry of Upper Sinking Cove, Franklin County, Tennessee / Jerry D. Davis and George A. Brook - pp 38-41 A Compound Karstic System: The Sakal Tutan - Degirmenlik - Karapinar System (Western Taurus, Turkey) / Claude Chabert - pp 699-700 An Underground Thermal Stream Discovered for the First Time in Kweichow Province, China / Mao Chian-chun - pp 323 Hydrology of the Rio Camuy Caves System, Puerto Rico / Arturo Torres-Gonzalez - pp 475 Recent Flood Pulse and Hydrological Studies on the Russett Well/Peak Cavern System, Castleton, Derbyshire, England / N.S.J. Christopher - pp 522-525 Hydrogeology of the Corchia Marbles (Apuane Alps-Italy): New Data from Water Tracing Experiments / Andrea Caneda, Paolo Forti and Stefano Querze - pp 743-746 Dye Trace Studies of the Unsaturated-Zone Recharge of the Carboniferous Limestone Aquifer of the Mendip Hills, England / H. Friedeiich and P.L. Smart - pp 283-286 The Geohydrology of the Ingleborough Area, England / R.A. Halliwell - pp 126-128 Some Characteristics of Karst Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau, China / Song Lin Hua - pp 139-142 Hydrochemical Facies--A Method to Delineate the Hydrology of Inaccessible Features of Karst Plumbing Systems / Michael T. Johnson - pp 627-629 Symposium: Evolution and Zoogeography of North American Terrestrial - Session IReview and Synthesis of the Evolution and zoogeography of North American Terrestrial Cave Faunas / S. Peck - pp 506-507 The Geological, Geographical and Environmental Setting of Cave Faunal Evolution / S. Peck - pp 501-502 Isopods (Oniscoidca) from Caves in North America and Northern South America" / George A. Schultz - pp 551-552 Cavernicolous Acari of North America / W. Calvin Welbourn - pp 528 Evolution of Hypogean Species of Dpilionids of North and Middle America / Clarence Goodnight and Maria L. Goodnight - pp 9-10 Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions of North and Middle America / W.B. Muchmore - pp 381-384 Symposium: Evolution and Zoogeography of North American Terrestrial - Session IIThe Zoogeography of Eastern U.S. Cave Collembola / Kenneth Christiansen - pp 618-622 Cave Diplura of the United States / Lynn M. Ferguson - pp 11-12 The Carabidae (Coleoptera) in North American Caves / Thomas C. Barr, Jr - pp 343-344 Evolution of Cave Cholevinae in North America (Coleoptera: beiodidae) / Stewart Peel - pp 503-505 DenudationContemporary Limestone Erosion Rates in the Gunong Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia / Michael J. Day - pp 329 A General Hodel of Karst Specific Erosion Rates / John Drake - pp 158 On Karst Denudation Research Problematic / Anton Droppa pp 355 Specific Dissolution in the Mediterranean Karstic Areas of France / Guilhem Fabre - pp 192-195 Rates of Cave Passage Entrenchment and Valley Lowering Determined from Speleothem Age Measurements / M. Gascoyne - pp 99-100 Geomorphology IThe Investigation of Old Karst Phenomena of the Bohemian Massif in Czechoslovakia: A Preliminary Regional Evaluation / Pavel Bosak and Ivan Horacek - - pp 167-169 Phases of Karstification in the Paleogeographic Development of Poland's Territory / Jerzy Glazek - pp 25 Glacial Controls of Speleogenesis" / John E. Mylroie - pp 689-691 Subarctic Karst Geomorphology and the Development of Organo-Karst Landforms in the Hudson Bay Lowland, Ontario / Daryl W. CowelL- pp 13-15 Karst, Covered Karst and Interstratal Karst in Glaciated Lowland Terrains of Canada / Derek Ford - pp 20 The Pre-Quaternary Palaeokarst of the Morecambe Bay Area, Northwest England / Stephen J. Gale - pp 210-212 Conservation/ManagementStudies of the Climatic Conditions for the Conservation of Decorated Prehistoric Caves; Two Operations: Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume / J. Brunet and P. Vidal - pp 659-662 Interfering in the Postojna Cave as Far as Protection of the Cave is Concerned / France Habe - pp 437-441 Visitors and Climatic Regime of Caves / Irene Halbichova and Antonin Jancarik - pp 125 "The Guacharo Cave", Eugenio de Bellard Pietre - pp 217-218 Management of a Biological Resource - Waitomo Glowworm Cave, New Zealand / Chris Pugsley - pp 489-492 Cave Conservation in the United States of America: An Overview in 1981 / Robert Stitt - pp 187-189 Photomonitoring as a Management Tool / Peter J. Uhl - pp 476-479 The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission / John H. Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W. Bradshaw and Philip C. Lucas - pp 585-587 Multidisciplinary Research for Cave Management: The Waitomo Caves Research Program, New Zealand / P. Williams - pp 150 Cave Closing as a Conservation Method / Gyula Hegedus pp 401-402 Volcanospeleology/PseudokarstPseudokarst on Mars / Victor R. Baker - pp 63-65 On Some Underground Forms, Pseudokarstic, in France / Yann Callot - pp 682-685 Impact of 1980 Eruptions on the Mount St. Helens Caves / William R. Halliday - pp 174-176 North Carolina's Bat Caves: A Significant Region of Tectonokarst / Cato O. Holler, Jr - pp 190-191 The Genetic Relationship Between Breccia Pipes and Caves in Non-Karstic Terranes in Northern Arizona / Louise D. Hose and Thomas R. Strong - pp136-138 The Control of Karst Development with Reference to the Formation of Caves in Poorly Soluble Rocks in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa / J. Martini - pp4- 5 Pseudo-karst Caves of Arkansas / Albert E. Ogden - pp 766-768 Soil Pipe Caves in the Death Valley Region, California / Bruce W. Rogers- pp 547-548 Tunnelcaves in Swedish Noncalcareous Rocks / Rabbe Sjoberg - pp 652-656 Entwicklung und Typologie von Pseudokarst - Untergrundformen der aussenflyschkreise in den west karpaten / Josef Wagner - pp 636-637 Geomorphology IIPalaeokarst as a Key to Paleogeography, Poland's Territory as an Example / Jerzy Glazek - pp 27 Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Carlsbad Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Hixico / Alberto A. Gutierrez - pp 45-47 Equilibrium versus events in Blind valley Enlargement / J.N. Jennings, Bao Haosheng and A.P. Spate - pp 1-3 Glaciated Karst in Norway / Stein~Erik Lauritzen - pp 410-411 The High Perimediterranean Karsts / Richard Haire - pp 788-792 Karst Drainage Patterns in the Quatsino Limestone, Northern Vancouver Island, Canada / Paul Hills - pp 117-119 Geomorphologic Evolution of a Karst Area Subject to Neotectonic Hovements in the Umbria Harche Apennines (Central Italy) / Hauro Coltorti - pp 84-88 The Development of the Lower Cretaceous Karst: A Comparison with the Plate Tectonics / Pavel Bosak - pp 170-173 Karstic Poljes Borders / J. Nicod - pp 27 Geomorphic Adjustments of Fluvial Systems to Groundwater Hydrology in Semiarid and Humid Karst / Steve G. Wells and Alberto A. Gutierrez - pp 739-742 Applied HydrologyPolicy for Karst Protection in France / Gerard Aime - pp 580-581 Applications of Speleology in Civil Engineering Works in Turkey / Temucin Aygen - pp 498 Subsidence Susceptibility Hodels for Dougherty County, Georgia, from Sinkhole and Fracture Distribution Data / George A. Brook and Terry L. Allison - pp 50-52 Karst Flooding in Urban Areas: Bowling Green, Kentucky / Nicholas C. Crawford - pp 763-765 On the Hydrogeological Characteristics of Karst Water_in China and its Exploitation / Yuan Daoxian - pp 316 The Impact of the Agricultural Land-use Cycle on Flood Surges and Runoff in a Kentucky Karst Region / Percy H. Dougherty - pp 267-269 The Inner Bluegrass Karst Regions, Kentucky: An OverView / John Thrailkill, Phillip E. Byrd, William H. Hopper, Hichael R. HcCann, Lawrence E. Spangler, Joseph W. Troester, Douglas R. Gonzie and Kevin R. Pogue - pp 336-338 New Contributions to the Problem of Dam Building in Karstic Regions / Adolfo Eraso - pp 348-350 Affectations of the Cyclones in the Karst / Angel Grana Gonzalez - pp 542-543 The Deep Karsts in Wujiang Valley at wugiangdu Dam Site / Li Maoqiu - pp 732-734 Karst and Caves of Castleguard Hountain, Rocky Hountains of Canada: A symposium Session II: Origin and Development of the Cave and KarstGeology, Geomorphology, and Glaciology of the Castleguard-Columbia Icefield Area / D.C. Ford - pp 37 Speleogenesis of the Castleguard Cave system / D.C. Ford - pp 281 Clastic Sediments in the Castleguard Cave / J. Schroeder - pp 496-498 The Antiquity of the Cave as Established by U-Series Dating of Speleothems / H. Gascoyne and A.G. Latham - pp 101-103 Glacier-ground Water Interactions and Quantitative Groundwater Tracing in the Vicinity of Mount Castleguard, Banff National Park, Canada / C.C. Smart - pp 720-723 Session III: Modern Physical Processes in the CaveThe Climate of castleguard Cave, Canada / T.C. Atkinson - pp 322 Radon Sources and Distribution in Castleguard Cave / P.L. Smart - pp 212 The Hineralogy of Castle guard Cave / R.S. Harmon and T.C. Atkinson - pp 428-432 Mechanisms of Calcite Speleothem Deposition in Castleguard Cave, Canada / T.C. Atkinson - pp 322 Session IV: Cave BiologyThe Fauna of Castleguard Cave / J.S. Mort and A. Recklies - pp 630 Stygobromus Canadensis, A Troglobitic Arnphipod Crustacean from Castleguard Cave, with Remarks on the Concept of Cave Glacial Refugia / J.R. Holsinger - pp 93-95 Speleogenesis ITunnel-caves and Natural Bridges of Northern Mediterranean Area / Jacques Choppy - pp 707-709 Speleogenesis Models for the Mammoth Cave Region, and Their Use as Predictive Tools for Southern Toohey Ridge, Hart and Barren Counties, Kentucky / James Currens - pp 75-78 On the Underground Stream and Cave Systems of Soliao Karst Area, Bama County, Guangxi, China / Yuan Daoxian - pp 317-381pp 647 Some Results and Limitations in the Application of Hydraulic Geometry to Vadose Stream Passages", Christopher Smart - pp 724-726 Subterranean Stream Piracy in the Garrison Chapel Karst Valley, Indiana, U.S.A. / David Des Marais - pp 196-199 Complex Groundwater Basin Migrations in Roppel Cave, Kentucky / Miles E. Drake and James D. Borden - pp 28-30 Cavern Porosity Development in Limestone: A Low Dip Model from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky / Ralph O. Ewers and James F. Quinlan - pp 727-731 Genetical Observations on Some Natural Cavities of the Masua Mine (SW Sardinia) / Paolo Forti, Giuliano Perna and Bruno Turi - pp 779-781 Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and Other Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains / Carol HilL - pp 143-144 Dynamic Re-adjustments in a Cave System Speleogenesis--A Result of a Base Level Surface Stream Abandoning 8 km (5 miles) of a Surface Meander Streambed / Michael L. Johnson - pp 630 MineralogyMuck Spreading on Speleothems / A.G. Latham - pp 356-357 Moonmilk, Two Questions of Terminology / R. Bernasconi - pp 113-116 Classification of the 'Stratified Calcareous Deposits in Function of Environmental Conditions / Jacques Choppy - pp 775-778 Genetical Observations on Some Macrocrystal Cave Perals Found in Two Caves of Lombardia' (Northern Italy) / Alfredo Bini and Paolo Forti. - pp 747-750 Hollow Calcite Crystals on Surfaces of Small Pools in the Liethohle/Sauerland, West Germany / G.F. Tietz - pp 362-363 Morphological and Mineralogical Features of Phreatic Speleothems Occurring in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) / Joaquin Ginbs and Luis Pomar - pp 529-532 Preliminary Report of the Cave Minerals in China, South Korea, and Japan / Naruhiko Kashima - pp 250-251 Manganese Deposition in Limestone Caves / George W. Moore - pp 642-644 Systematics of Mineral Parageneses in Austrian Caves / Robert Seemann - pp 256-259 Recent Formation of Carbonate Mineral Association in Dolomite Caves, Franconia, West Germany / G.F. Tietz - pp 364-366 Contribution to the Morphometries of Stalagmites / Ivan Gams - pp 276-278 Biology INotes on the Cave Spiders of Papua - New Guinea / Paolo Marcello Brignoli - pp 110-112 Invertebrate Interactions with Microbes During the Successional Decomposition of Dung / Kathleen H. Lavoie - pp 265-266 Cooperation of Speleologist and Microbiologist / Kinga Szekely and G.L. Nogrady - pp 492 The Incidence of Iron Bacteria in an Australian Cave / H. Jane Dyson and Julia James - pp 79-81 On the Hyporheic Hydracarians of Cuba / Tr. Orghidan and Magdalena Gruia - pp 792 Sur L'Equipement Adeno-sensoriel du Pedipalpe de L'opilion Troglophile Sabacon Paradoxum Simon (palpatores, sabaconidae) / C. Juberthie, Andre Lepex and L. Juberthle-Jupeau - pp 810-813 Ecology of the New Zealand Glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Caves at Waitomo, New Zealand / Chris Pugsley - pp 480-482 Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, for Exploitation of Unpredictable Food Resources / Ellen S. Levy - pp 584 Ecology of Malheur Cave, Oregon / Ellen M. Benedict and Esther Gruber - pp 480-482 The Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx Hudsonius (pallas) from a Pleistocene Cave Deposit in West Virginia / Frederick Grady and E. Ray Garton - pp 279-281 The Tactics of Dispersal of Two Species of Niphargus (Perenial Troglobitic Amphipoda) / Marie Jos~ Turquin - pp 353-355 SedimentologyThe Palaeohydraulics of Karst Drainage Systems: Fluvial Cave Sediment Studies / Stephen J. Gale - pp 213-216 Morphogenesis and Sedimentology in a Quebec Cave: The Speos de la Fee (Matapedia) / Camille M. Ek - pp 104-105 Pebble Investigations in Slovene Caves (Yugoslavia) / Andrej A. Kranjc - pp 18-20 Sedimentologic and Speleogenetic Implications of Clastic Deposits in Central Lilburn Cave, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, CA, USA / John C. Tinsley, D.R. Packer and S.R. Ulfeldt - pp 291-294 Probable Cave Deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains of West Antarctica / John P. Craddock and Gerald F. Webers - pp 395-397 Thermoluminescence: A Method for Sedimentological Studies in Caves / Yves Quinif - pp 309-313 Speleogenesis IITectonism, Fractures, and Speleogenesis in the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, USA / Ernst H. Kastning - pp 692-695 Gypsum Caves in Libya / Attila Kosa - pp 156-158 New Genetic Problems in Corrosion - Caves in Gypsum / Walter Krieg - pp 453-455 Analysis of the Structural Control of Speleogenesis of Lilburn Cave, California, United States / Gail McCoy - pp 319-321 Cave Systems Speleogenesis at the Karst Poljes of Slovenia (NW Yugoslavia) / Rado Gospodaric - pp 656 Formation of Great Underground Systems in Nakanai Mountains (New Britain - Papua New Guinea) / Richard Maire - pp 782-787 The History of Exploration of Canadian Hole / Peter Zabrok - pp 369-371 Le Gouffre B.U. 56 = -1192 metres (Massif de la Pierre Saint-Martin) / Jean-Francois Pernette - pp 574-576 MicroclimatologyThe Air Movements in the 'Grotte de Niaux' (Ariege), Consequences / Claude Andrieux - pp 323 Mathematic Simulation of 'Thermic' Airflow in Complicate Dynamic Caves / Antonin Jancarik - pp 103 The Regularities in the Formation of Gas Composition of the Air in the Large Karst Caves of Podolia and Bukovina / A.B. Klimchuk, N.L. Yablokova and S.P. Olshtynsky - pp 21-23 Ouaternary Climatic Change and Speleostratigraphic Development / S. Lang - pp 448-450 Carbon Dioxide in Coldwater Cave / Warren C. Lewis - pp 91-92 Mathematic Simulation of Baric Airflow / Jiri Botur and Antonin Jancarik - pp 142 Cryospeleology / Garry D. McKenzie - pp 266 The Breathing of Coldwater Cave / Warren C. Lewis - pp 89-90 Tropical GeomorphologySingle and Double Fourier Series Analysis of Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico / George Brook and Ronald Mitchelson - pp 53-55 The Foot Caves in the Tropical China / Zhao-xuan Zeng - pp 479 Limestone Hardness and Tropical Karst Terrain TYpes / Michael J. Day - pp 327-329 The Geomorphological Features of the Karst in Guilin District / Zhu Dehau and Tan Pengjia - pp 145 Karst and Caves in the Turks and Caicos Islands, B.W.I. / Vojtech A. Gregor - pp 805-807 The Submarine Caves of Bermuda / Thomas M. Iliffe . Desert Gypsum Karst in Bir al'Ghanarn, Libya / Attila Kosa - pp 154-155 An Analysis on the Palaeographic Elements of Karst Development in the Wumin Basin, Guangxi, Southern China / Lin Junshu, Zhang Yaoquang, Wang Yanra and Zhao Zhongru - pp 738 Towards a Numerical Categorization of Tropical Karst Terrains / Michael J. Day - pp 330-332 Study of Features of the Karstic Depressions in South China / Chen Zhiping - pp 499-500 Geochemistry/GeophysicsStalactite Growth in the Tropics Under Artificial Conditions / Eugenio de Bellard Pietre - pp 221-222 The Classification-of Karst Waters by Chemical Analysis / N.S.J. Christopher and J.D. Wilcock - pp 526-528 Radiation Hazards in Natural Caves / Arrigo A. Cigna and Gian F. Clemente - pp 420-423 C02 Measurements in Cave Air: A Comparison Between Belgium and Quebec / Camille M. Ek - pp 672-673 The Relationship Between the Availability of Organic Carbon and Cavern Development in the Phreatic Zone / Julia James - pp 237-240 Carbonaceous Sediments in a Gypsum Karst (Hainholz/South Harz, Fed. Rep. Germany) / Stephen Kempe and Kay Emeis - pp 569-571 Radioactivity in Venezuelan Caves / Eugenio de Bellard Pietre - pp 219-220 Deep Ice in the Cave of Scarasson, Marguareis Massif, Maritimes Alps, Italia~ Michel Siffre - pp 112 Fluid Inclusions in Speleothems as Paleoclimate Indicators / Charles J. Yonge - pp 301-304 Etude comparee des variations des principales caracteristiques physico-chimiques de deux sources karstiques de Basse Provence en fonction de la nature geologique de L'aquifere / Tatiana Muxart - pp 518-521 Groundwater Geothermal Energy from Subsurface Streams in Karst Regions / Nicholas C. Crawford - pp 820 Hydrology IIA Karst Hydrology Study in Monroe County, West Virginia / William K. Jones - pp 345-347 Sea Tide Effect Study in Karst Caves on the Rim of Trst/Trieste/Bay / Primoz Krivic - pp 355 Hydrology of Harlansburg Cave / Kenneth M. Long and J. Philip Fawley - pp 387-390 Resultats das Observations Conduites Sur Ie Site Experimental de la Grotte du Lamalou (Causse de l'Hortus-France M~ridionale) / Henri Paloc, H. Bonin, M. Bonnet, J. Guizerix. A. Lal1emand-Barres. J. Margat and D. Thiery - pp 461-465 Empirical Confirmation of Curl's (1974) Flow Velocity Calculations / James A. Pisarowicz and Mark Maslyn - pp 772-774 La Dissolution du Calcaire dans la Partie Superieure du Bassin de la Riviere aux Saurnons, Anticosti, Quebec / Jean Roberge - pp 393-394 Major Groundwater Flow Directions in the Sinking Creek and Meadow Creek Drainage Basins of Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia, USA / Joseph W. Saunders, R. Keith Ortiz and William F. Koerschner, III - pp 398-400 Quantitative Dye Tracing in an Alpine Karst Environment / Christopher Smart - pp 587 Variation of Conduit Flow Velocities with Discharge in the Longwood to Cheddar Rising System, Mendip Hills / P.L. Smart ..333-335 An Example of Karstic Drainage, the Hydrological System of Eynif (Western Taurus, Turkey) / Claude Chabert - pp 701-702 Hydrogeology of Northern Fayette County and Southern Scott County, Kentucky, USA / Lawrence E. Spangler and John Thrailkill - pp 553-555 Aquatic Faunas IPreliminary observations on foraging behavior in a hypogean crustacean community / D.L. Bechler and A. Fernandez - pp 66-67 The effect of competition on species composition of some cave communities / D.C. Culver - pp 207-209 Fauna of anchialine (coastal) cave waters, its origin and importance / B. Sket. - pp 645-647 Ecosystem of a deep confined aquifer in Texas / G. Longley - pp 611 A Karst Ecosystem - the Dorvan Massif (Ain. France) V-Drift of Invertebrates, Organic Matter and Minerals out of the Massif / J.Gibert - pp 223-227 Subterranean phreatic biocoenoses of northwestern Iran / G.L. Pesce - pp 566-567 Ecology and taxonomy of marine cave invertebrates in the Bahama Islands / J.H. Carpenter - pp 24-25 Respiratory metabolism comparison of Niphargus Rhenorhodanensis (subterranean crustacea, amphipoda) from two different karstic systems / J. Mathieu - pp 793-795 Occurrence of Jaera (Isopoda, Asellota, Janiridae) in the hypogean domain / J.P. Henry - pp 670-671 Experimental breeding of the U.S. cavernicolous crustacean Caecidotea recurvata (Steeves, 1963) / G. J. Magniez - pp 241-242 Aquatic Faunas IIThe subterranean Caecidotea of the Interior Low Plateaus / J.J. Lewis - pp 234-236 Comparison of acute toxicity of cadmium, chromium, and copper between two distinct populations of hypogean isopods (Caecidotea sp.) / A.D. Bosnak and E.L. Morgan - pp 72-74 Population ecology of the troglobitic isopod crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman (Cirolanidae) / T.L.Collins and J.R.Holsinger - pp 129-132 Ecology of crayfishes from West Virginia caves / S.C. Van Luik - pp 657-658 Agonistic behavior in the Arnblyopsidae, the spring, cave and swamp fishes / D.L. Bechler - pp 68-69 Agressive behavior in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus / J. Parzefall, J.P. Durand and B. Richard - pp 415-419 Sensory compensation in the darkness: comparative study of the prey detection in the cave living vertebrate Proteus anguinus / J.P. Durand, J. Parzefall and B. Richard - pp 31-34 SpeleochronologyRadiometric Dating of Polish Cave Speleothems: Current Results / Jerzy Glazek and Russell S. Harmon - pp 424-427 A Late Pleistocene Chronologic Record in Southeastern Minnesota / Richard S. Lively, E. Calvin Alexander, Jr. and Jodi Milske - pp 623-626 A Climate Record of the Yorkshire Dales for the Last 300.000 Years / M. Gascoyne - pp 96-98 Phreatic Speleothems in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) as Indicators of Mediterranean Pleistocene Paleolevels / Angel Ginls, Joaquin Ginls and Luis Pomar - pp 533-536 Geological Development and Age of the Caves in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) / Vojtech A. Gregor - pp 808-809 Geochronology of Speleothems from the Flint Ridge - Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky, USA / John W. Hess and Russell S. Harmon - pp 433-436 Magnetostratigraphy from Speleothems: Establishment and Applications / A.G. Latham - pp 358-361 The Archanthropinae of the Petralonian Cave / Nickos A. Poulianos - pp 508-510 Horsethief Cave: An Early Pleistocene Cavern / Wayne M. Sutherland - pp 608-611 Geomorphology IIILa Genese des Formes du Karst de la Haute-Saumons, Facteurs Determinants / Jean Roberge - pp 391-392 The Shape of Gypsum Bubbles / Richard L. Breisch and Fred L. Wefer - pp 757-759 Reflections on Karst Geomorphology Research in Italy: 1960-80 / Ugo Sauro - pp 563-565 Evapori te Karst Gypsum Plain, Culberson County, Texas / A. Richard Smith - pp 482 Solute Uptake on a Magnesian Limestone Hillslope / S.T. Trudgill, A.M. Pickles and R.W. Crabtree - pp 351-352 Simulation of Rock Pendants - Small Scale Experiments on Plaster Models / Stein-Erik Lauritzen - pp 407-409 Karst Development in Siliceous Rocks, Venezuelan Guiana Shield;, France Urbani - pp 548 Geography of the Friars Hole Cave System, USA / Douglas M. Medville - pp 412-414 Gypsum-Anhydrite Karst on the Territory of the USSR / K.A. Gorbanova pp778 Dinaric Karst Poljes and Neotectonics / Peter Habic pp 797 Archeology/PaleontologyThe Scanning Electron Microscope as an Adjunct to Environmental Reconstruction in Archeological Sites / Peter A. Bull - pp 340-342 Archeological Investigations in Sand Cave, Kentucky / George M. Crothers - pp 374-376 Cuban Rupestrian Drawings / Antonio Nunez Jiml!nez - pp 282 First Extinct Vertebrates from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky / Ronald C. Wilson. - pp 339 The Geranium Cave of Rethymnon, Crete / Anna Petrochilou ..456-457 Cave Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in the Cockpit Karst of Peten, Guatemala / Michel Siffre and Gerard Cappa. - pp 286 Vertebrate Fossils in Lava Tubes in the Galapag9s Islands / David Steadman - pp 549-550 A Cups tone Petroglyph of Possible Astronomical Significance from an Early Woodland Site in the Karst Region, Jackson County, Kentucky / Ken Tankersley - pp 760-762 Paleontology and Archeology of Jaguar Cave, Tennessee / Louise Robbins, Ronald C. Wilson and Patty Jo Watson - pp 377-380 The Mammalian Fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico / Lloyd Logan - pp 159-160 The 'Karstic reactivation' theory and the Epipalaeoli thic sites of Northern Spain / Manuel R. Gonzalez Morales - pp 751-752 HistoryA Pioneer in Speleology: The Swiss Painter Casper Wolf (1735-1783) / Pierre Strinati - pp 458 Early American Speleological Writings / Jack Speece - pp 183-184 Pioneers of North American Cave and Karst Science Prior to 1930 / Ernst Kastning - pp 247-249 History and Contributions of the Western Speleological Survey / William R. Halliday - pp 177-178 DocumentationThe Cave Research Foundation / Richard A. Watson and Philip M. Smith - pp 372-373 Some Problems of Cave Names / Paolo De Simonis - pp 324-326 Cave Research in Switzerland / Urs Widmer - pp 638-639 Thesaurus of Hungarian Speleo1ogy, Project of an International 'Speleosaurus''', Laszlo Lenart - pp 634-635 Statistical Study of the Great Caves of the World / Jacques Choppy and Pascale Choppy - pp 703-706 Techniques/EquipmentAccuracy Evaluation of Electromagnetic Locating / Charles Bishop and Frank S. Reid - pp 70-71 Matching Cave Gear to Cave Hazards / David R. McClurg - pp 252-253 The Relations Between Technique and Aesthetiques in Underground Photography: The Position of the Cameras and the Lighting / Francois-Marie Callot and Yann Callot - pp 679-681 On Measuring Caves by Volume / Primoz Jakopin ..270-272 Self Tests for Conservation Awareness and Caving Skills / David R. McClurg - pp 254-255 Le Secours Souterrain en France / Pierre Rias - pp 674-678 Long-term Single Free-Run Experiments and their Results as a Performance Predictability Index in Astronauts / Michel Siffre - pp 112 MappingLarge Cave-System Database Management: A Simple Concept, Yet a Complex Solution / James D. Borden - pp 615-617 An Evaluation of the Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging System as a Tool for Cave Surveying / Richard L. Breisch and Michael Maxfield - pp 753-756 Analysis of the Propagation of Error in Cave Surveys / Thomas A. Kaye - pp 800-801 A Comparison of Expected Survey Errors with Closure Adjustments / Robert Thrun - pp 648-649 Der hypsometrische Hohlen-Ubersichtsplan / Gunter Sturnrner - pp 260-261 Evolutionary EcologyRegressive Evolution and Phylogenetic Age / Horst Wilkens - pp 622 Regression of the Locornotion-Controlling System in Cavernicolous Carabid Beetles / Friedrich Weber - pp 667-669 The Activity Controlling Time-System in Epigean and Hypogean Populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) / Wilhelmine Erckens - pp 796-797 Demographic Characteristics of Carabid Cave Beetles / Thomas Kane - pp 451-452 Variations in Life Histories of Linyphiid Cave Spiders / Thomas Poulson - pp 60-62 Remarks on the Origin and Distribution of Troglobitic Spiders / Christa L. Deelman-Reinhold - pp 305-308 The Ecology of Bat Guano in Tamana Cave, Trinidad, W.I. / Stuart Hill. - pp 243-246 The Community Structure of Arthropods Associated with Bat Guano and Bat Carcasses in Tumbling Creek Cave, Missouri / Barbara Martin - pp 3 Cave DivingRescue Cave Divers and Their Equipment / Thomas Cook - pp 314-315 The World's Longest Underwater Cave / Sheck Exley and Ned Deloach - pp 16-17 Techniques de Progression en Riviere Souterrain a Gros Debit / Jean-Francois Pernette - pp 572-573 Cave Diving in England in the 1950's / Oliver C. Wells - pp 735-737 The NSS Cave Diving Section / Thomas Cook - pp 315 Social SciencesCaving Education in Quebec / Daniel Caron - pp 577-579 Le Medicalisation des Secours en France 'Le Point en 1980' / F. Guillaume - pp 650-651 Caving Activity and Sensation Seeking of N.S.S. Members: A Psychological Profile / Penny R. Lukin and Barry F. Beck - pp 798-799 The French School of Speleology / Gerard Duclaux and Marcel Meyssonier - pp 636-666 Subject Cave and Motivation for Speleology / Thomas Kesselring, Ursula Sommer and Urs Widmer - pp 802-804 Vertical TechniquesA Brief Look at Single Rope Techniques and Equipment from Around the World / Donna Mroczkowski and Neil Montgomery - pp 132 Choosing a Rope for SRT (Single Rope Techniques) / Mike Cowlishaw - pp 108-109 The Weak Link / Andrev Eavis - pp 43-44 Development of Relevant Testing Procedures Leading Toward Establishing Standards for Caving and Static Loaded Rescue Ropes / Kyle Isenhart - pp 179-180 Some New Methods in Exploring Technique of Water and Vertical Caves / Mladen Garasic - pp 146-147 Provisional Specifications for Caving (S.R.T.) Ropes / Andrew Eavis - pp 42 Knots for Single Rope Techniques / Neil Montgomery and Donna Mroczkowski - pp 479 Evolutionary Ecology IIHow Food Type Determines Community Structure in Caves / Thomas Poulson and Thomas Kane - pp 56-59 Abiotic Effects on the Successional Decomposition of Dung / Kathleen Lavoie - pp 262-264 The Foraging Behavior of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus / Ellen Levy - pp 581 Ecological Studies of Openings into Underground Karst: I. The shaft wall of an entrance pit (Gouffre de Lent, Ain, France): First Results / J. Gibert, R. Laurent, J. Mathieu and J .L. Reygrobellet - pp 228-233 Ecological and Biological Implications of the Existence of a Superficial Underground Compartment / Christian Juberthie and Bernard Delay - pp 203-206 The Ecological Genetics of Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops Tellkampfii (Coleoptera, Carabidae) / George Brunner and Thomas Kane - pp 48-49 A Critique of the Analogy of Caves and Islands / Rodney Crawford - pp 295-297 Non-Relictual Terrestrial Troglobites in the Tropical Hawaiian Caves / Francis Howarth - pp 539-541 Soil Biology, Research Activity and Prospects of the Centro di Ecologia del Cansiglio, Venetian Prealps, Italy / Renato DaIle Mule, N. Martinelli, M. Paoletti and V. Toniello. - pp 568 Geomorphology IVThe Lower Cretaceous Paleokarst in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) / Pavel Bosak - pp 164-166 Morphoclimatic Control - a Tale of Piss and Wind or a.Case of the Baby Out With the Bathwater? / J .N. Jennings - pp 367-368 Morphogenetical and Chronological Aspects of some Karst Areas in the Italian Alps / Ugo Sauro - pp 556-562 Karst Valley Development and the Headward Advance of the Sequatchie Valley of Tennessee Along the Sequatchie Anticline / Nicholas C. Crawford - pp 814-819 The Karsts of the Oriental Part of Cuba / Nicasio Vina - pp 537-538 Paleotemperature, Sea Level and Uplift Data from New Zealand Speleothems / Paul Williams. - pp 151-153 Biology IIEcological Analysis of Terrestrial Invertebrates in a Venezuelan Cave / C.V. Alvarez, M.L. Olivo and R.E. Urosa - pp 631-633 Molecular Isotopic Analyses.of Bat Guano Hydrocarbons and the Ecology of the Insectivorous Bats in the Region of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA / David J. DesMarais, J.M. Mitchell, W.G. Meinschein and J.M. Hayes - pp 200-202 Communication on a Preliminary Survey of the Fauna of Caves in Some Regions of Brasil / Eliana M.B. Dessen, Verena Eston, Marietta S. Silva, M. Thereza Temperini-Ileck and Eleonora Trajano. - pp 123-125 Holarctic Cave Mites of the Family Rhagidiidae (Actinedida: Eupodoideal / Miloslav Zacharda and William Elliott - pp 604-607 Composition and Origin of Underground Fauna in Poland / Andrzej Skalski - pp 403-406 Soil Biology in the Southern Italian Alpine Area. General problems of Biospeleology / Maurizio G. Paoletti. - pp 568 Canonical Analysis in the Genus Troglocharinus Reitter and Some Other Related Taxa (Col. Catopidae) / Olequer Escola - pp 500 Biospeleological Researches in the Island of Ceylon / Pierre Strinati and Villy Aellen - pp 459-460 Diptera in British Caves / G.T. Jefferson - pp 106-107 Preliminary Report on the Biology of Sorcerer's Cave, Terrell County, Texas / Rodney L. Crawford - pp 298-300 The Cavernicolous Fauna of Ohio, USA. Part I: Preliminary Report / H.H. Hobbs, III. - pp 444-447 Sur la Presence D'un Rythme de Reproduction dans le Milieu Souterrain Superficiel: Etude Chez les Coleopteres Bathysciinae / Lysiane JUberthie-Jupeau - pp 714-716 GeologyNeotectonics in some Caves in Yugoslavia / Mladen Garasic - pp 148-150 Fold Development in the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina and Its Influence on the Sistema Purificacion, Mexico / Louise D. Hose - pp 133-135 The Karst Development of Rye Cove, Virginia / David A. Hubbard, Jr. and John R. Holsinger - pp 515-517 Development of Flow Routes and Cave Passages from Fault Segments in West Virginian Caves / Roy A. Jameson - pp 717-719 Fracture Control of Dolines, Caves, and Surface Drainage: Mississippian Plateau, Western Kentucky, USA / Karen M. Kastning and Ernst Kastning - pp 696-698 Organizational Principles of Complex Stationary Researches of Karst / A.B. Klimchuk, V.M. Shestopalov and G.V. Lisichenko - pp 35-36 Early Proterozoic Paleokarst of the Transvaal, South Africa / J. Martini - pp 6-8 Jointing as an Index of Sulphate Massif Karstification / I.A. Pechorkin, A.I. Pechorkin and G.B. Bolotov - pp 181-182 Karst Development in the Front Royal 7.5 Minute Quadrangle of Virginia / David A. Hubbard, Jr - pp 511-514 Alpine Karst in the Sierra Nevada, California / Bruce W. Rogers - pp 544-546 Lilburn Cave's Contribution to the National History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA / J.C. Tinsley, D.J. Des Marais, G. McCoy, B.W. Rogers and S.R. Ulfeldt - pp 287-290 Speleogenesis IIIA Functional Classification of karst / John Mylroie - pp 686-688 Speleogenesis of Arkansas Ozark Caves / Albert E. Ogden, Wyndal Goodman and Samuel Rothermel - pp 769-771 Hydrochemical Factors in the Origin of Limestone Caves / Arthur N. Palmer - pp 120-122 A Graphic Method of Analysis of the Phreatic Caves / J. Schroeder - pp 493-495 The Toohey Ridge Cave System - A Geographical Overview / James D. Borden and Miles E. Drake - pp 612-614 Commission ReportsComparative Research of Limestone Solution by Means of Standard Tablets / Ivan Gams - pp 273-275 Commission of Conservation and of Tourist Caves / France Habe - pp 442-443 Cave Map Symbols / Ralph Muller - pp 588-603 Poster Sessions/ Endangered Species Legislation in the U.S. / Thomas Lera - pp 385-386 Spatial Aspects of Histoplasmosis in the United States / George Huppert - pp 26-27 Facial Reconstruction of an Easter Island Skull / G.L. Nogrady - pp 138
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PROCEEDINGS OFTHE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY VOLUMES I & II A Meeting of the International Union of Speleology Sponsored by The National Speleological Society Hosted by The Department of Geography and Geology Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S.A. July 18 to 24,1981 Edited by Barry F. Beck Department of Geology Georgia Southwestern College Americus, Georgta, 31709, U.S.A.

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EDITOR'S REMARKS At the onset of this task of editing the Proceedings of the Eighth International .Congress of Speleology, it was necessary to establish some priorities. The organizing committee generally agreed that a ~published volume was much more useful than a more detailed account of the Congress which might be delayed three or four years waiting for all the contributors to respond. Further, it was agreed that cost was to be kept to a minimum while meeting our pre-publication deadline. The editor felt that languages other than English ought to be represented where possible to make the new scientific advances herein available to the largest audience possible. Finally, I found that the resources were not available to rewrite or redraft any contributions. The preparation of the manuscript for photoreduction required retyping all papers to a common format on oversized paper. The typing was done by Terry Looney, Pat Morgan, Mattie Walton, Liz Smith, and Sally Shell. A special thanks goes to Peggy Palmer who typed a number of manuscripts in French, which none of the other typists were familiar with, and who volunteered her valuable services to the Congress gratis. The layout of the illustrations was the work of Camille DeShazo, Lola Carlisle, and Erik Beck. Printing was done by Gammage Print Shop, Americus, Georgia. The preparation of the final version was done as carefully as possible within the constraints of time and budget. I realize that numerous typographical errors occur in this volume. When you realize that each reduced page herein represents seven to eight original manuscript pages, the number of typing errors is more acceptable. Of course, final responsibility for all errors rests with the editor. I would like to thank all the people who worked on these volumes for their dedicated and conscientious efforts. Special recognition must go to Terry Looney, Pat Morgan, and Camille DeShazo who accepted their jobs not as part-time work, but as professional responsibilities and who worked accordingly. For scientific knowledge to be acceptable it must be both timely and widely accessible. By prepublishing these volumes in multiple languages I hope my staff an~I have met both these criteria. Barry F. Beck, Editor Geology Department Georgia Southwestern College Americus, Georgia, 31709, U.S.A. ORDERING INFORMATION Additional copies of this two volume set will be available from the N.S.S., Cave Avenue, Huntsville, Alabama, 35610, U.S.A., at a cost of $46.00 per set, postpaid (surface. mail). We would appreciate it if all participants would bring. this to the attention of their university or Geological Survey library. iii

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PROPERTY OF WINDY CITY GRO LIBRARy Table of Contents: bv sessions, in chronoloqical order (A table of contents arranr:ed bOI the authors' last name beqins on paqe xvi.) Cave Management Symposium "The resource potential of transvaal caves", Frances Gamble ................................ 466-468 "Problems of management of transvaal caves", Frances Gamble ....................... 469-472 "Karst cave management modelling in the transvaal", Frances Gamble .................. 473-475 "Underground wilderness: A conservation principal and a management tool", Robert Stitt. ..... 185-186 "Interpretation as a primary tool in cave conservation management", Edward E. Wood, Jr ...... 582-584 "Protection of ice caves", Friedrich Dedl. 640-641 Hydrology I "Percolation Waters in Karstic Aquifers", Michel Bakalowicz ................... 710-713 "Scallops", Alfred Bilgli..................................................................... 8283 "Hydrology and Water Chemistry of Upper Sinking Cove, Franklin County, Tennessee", Jerry D. Davis and George A. Brook........................................................ 3841 "A Compound Karstic System: The Sakal Tutan Degirmenlik Karapinar System (Western Taurus, Turkey)", Claude Chabert.......................................................... 699-700 "An Underground Thermal Stream Discovered for the First Time in Kweichow Province, China", Mao Chian-chun.................................................................... 323 "Hydrology of the Rio Camuy Caves System, Puerto Rico", Arturo Torres-Gonzalez............... 475 "Recent Flood Pulse and Hydrological Studies on the Russett Well/Peak Cavern System, Castleton, Derbyshire, England", N.S.J. Christopher ............... ~ 522-525 "Hydrogeology of the Corchia Marbles (Apuane Alps-Italy): New Data from Water Tracing Experiments", Andrea Caneda, Paolo Forti and Stefano Querze ............... 743-746 "Dye Trace Studies of the Unsaturated-Zone Recharge of the Carboniferous Limestone Aquifer of the Mendip Hills, England", H. Friedeiich and P.L. Smart ........... 283-286 "The Geohydrology of the Ingleborough Area, England", R.A. Halliwell ............... 126-128 "Some Characteristics of Karst Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau, China", Song Lin Hua ..... 139-142 "Hydrochemical Facies--A Method to Delineate the Hydrology of Inaccessible Features of Karst Plumbing Systems", ~lichael T,. Johnson ..................... 627-629 Symposium: Evolution and Zoogeography of North American Terrestrial Session I "Review and Synthesis of the Evolution and zoogeography of North American Terrestrial Cave Faunas", S. Peck ....................................................... 506-507 "The Geological, Geographical and Environmental Setting of Cave Faunal Evolution", S. Peck................................................................................... 5015 0 2 "Isopods (Oniscoidca) from Caves in North America and Northern South America", George A. Schultz .................................................................... 551-552 "Cavernicolous Acari of North America'., W. Calvin Welbourn 528 "Evolution of Hypogean Species of Dpilionids of North and Middle America", Clarence Goodnight and Maria L. Goodnight ........................................................ 910 "Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions of North and Middle America", W.B. Muchmore .................. 381-384 Session II "The Zoogeography of Eastern U.S. Cave Co11embo1a", Kenneth Christiansen 618-622 "Cave Diplura of the United States", Lynn M. Ferguson ....................................... 1112 "The Carabidae (Coleoptera) in North American Caves", Thomas C. Barr, Jr 343-344 "Evolution of Cave Cholevinae in North America (Coleoptera: beiodidae)", Stewart PeeL 503-505 v

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, Denudation ,"Contemporary Limestone Erosion Rates in the Gunong Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia", Michael J. Day ................ .................. "A General Hodel of Karst Specific Erosion Rates", John Drake ........... "On Karst Denudation Research Problematic", Anton Droppa ............. "Specific Dissolution in the Mediterranean Karstic Areas of France", Guilhem Fabre ....... "Rates of Cave Passage Entrenchment and Valley Lowering Determined from Speleothem Age Measurements" I M. Gascoyne ............................................................ Pages 329 158 355 192-195 99-100 Geomorphology I "The Investigation of Old Karst Phenomena of the Bohemian Massif in Czechoslovakia: A Preliminary Regional Evaluation", Pavel Bo~"k and Ivan Horacek; .................... 167-169 "Phases of Karstification in the Paleogeographic Development of Poland's Territory", Jerzy Glazek.............................................................................. 25 "Glacial Controls of Speleogenesis", John E. Mylroie ..................... 689-691 "Subarctic Karst Geomorphology and the Development of Organo-Karst Landforms in the Hudson Bay Lowland, Ontario", Daryl W. CowelL............................................ 1315 "Karst, Covered Karst and Interstratal Karst in Glaciated Lowland Terrains of Canada", Derek Ford................................................................................ 20 "The Pre-Quaternary Palaeokarst of the Morecambe Bay Area, Northwest England", Stephen J. Gale ............................................. 210-212 Conservation/Management "Studies of the Climatic Conditions for the Conservation of Decorated Prehistoric Caves; Two Operations: Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume", J. Brunet and P. Vidal ...... 659-662 "Interfering in the Postojna Cave as Far as Protection of the Cave is Concerned", France Habe ................................ 437-441 "Visi tors and Climatic Regime of Caves", Irene Halbichova and Anton{n Jan~ar{k............... 125 "The Guacharo Cave", Eugenio de Bellard Pietre ................ 217-218 "Management of a Biological Resource Waitomo Glowworm Cave, New Zealand", Chris Pugsley ................................... 489-492 "Cave Conservation in the United States of America: An Overview in 1981", Robert Stitt ... 187-189 "Photomonitoring as a Management Tool", Peter J. Uhl. ......................... 476-479 "The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission", John H. Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W. Bradshaw and Philip C. Lucas ....................... 585-587 "Hultidisciplinary Research for Cave Management: The Waitomo Caves Research Program, New Zealand", P. Williams................................................................. 150 "Cave Closing as a Conservation Method", Gyula Hegedus ................... 401-402 Volcanospeleology/Pseudokarst "Pseudokarst on Mars", Victor R. Baker....................................................... 6365 "On Some Underground Forms, Pseudokarstic, in France", Yann Callot. ................ 682-685 "Impact of 1980 Eruptions on the Mount St. Helens Caves", William R. Halliday................ 174-176 "North Carolina's Bat Caves: A Significant Region of Tectonokarst", Cato O. Holler, Jr 190-191 "Pseudo-karst Caves of Arkansas". Albert E. Ogden .................................... 766-768 "The Genetic Relationship Between Breccia Pipes and Caves in Non-Karstic Terranes in Northern Arizona", Louise D. Hose and Thomas R. Strong .......................... 136-138 "The Control of Karst Development with Reference to the Formation of Caves in Poorly Soluble Rocks in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa", J. Martini ...................... 45 I "Soil Pipe Caves in the Death Valley Region, California", Bruce W. Rogers ................... 547-548 "Tunnelcaves in Swedish Noncalcareous Rocks". Rabbe Sjoberg ............................... 652-656 "F:ntwicklung und Typologie von Pseudokarst Untergrundformen der aussenflyschkreise in den west karpaten", Josef Wagner ............................................... 636-637 vi

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Geomorphology II "Palaeokarst as a Key to Paleogeography, Poland's Territory as an Example", Jerzy Glazek..... 27 "Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Carlsbad Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Hixico", Alberto A. Gutierrez........... 4547 "Equilibrium versus events in Blind valley Enlargement", J.N. Jennings, Bao Haosheng and A.P. Spate .. 1:3 "Glaciated Karst in Norway", Stein~Erik Lauritzen .. (10-411 "The High Perimediterranean Karsts", Richard Haire 788-792 "Karst Drainage Patterns in the Quatsino Limestone, Northern Vancouver Island, Canada", Paul Hills................................................................................ 117-119 "Geomorphologic Evolution of a Karst Area Subject to Neotectonic Hovements in the Umbria Harche Apennines (Central Italy)", Hauro Coltorti 8488 "The Development of the Lower Cretaceous Karst: A Comparison with the Plate Tectonics", Pavel Bosak 170-173 "Karstic Poljes Borders", J. Nicod 739-742 "Geomorphic Adjustments of Fluvial Systems to Groundwater Hydrology in Semiarid and Humid Karst", Steve G. Wells and Alberto A. Gutierrez........................................... 216 Applied Hydrology "Policy for Karst Protection in France", Gerard Aime 580-581 "Applications of Speleology in Civil Engineering Works in Turkey", Temucin Aygen............. 498 ,"Subsidence Susceptibility Hodels for Dougherty County, Georgia, from Sinkhole and Fracture Distribution Data", George A. Brook and Terry L. Allison 5052 ,"Karst Flooding in Urban Areas: Bowling Green, Kentucky", Nicholas C. Crawford 763-765 "On the Hydrogeological Characteristics of Karst Water_in China and its Exploitation", Yuan Daoxian .... '................. 316 "The Impact of the Agricultural Land-use Cycle on Flood Surges and Runoff in a Kentucky Karst Region", Percy H. Dougherty................................................ 267-269 "The Inner Bluegrass Karst Regions, Kentucky: An OverView", John Thrailkill, Phillip E. Byrd, William H. Hopper, Hichael R. HcCann, Lawrence E. Spangler, Joseph W. Troester, Douglas R. Gonzie and Kevin R. pogue : 336-338 "New Contributions to the Problem of Dam Building in Karstic Regions", Adolfo Eraso 348-350 "Affectations of the Cyclones in the Karst", Angel Grana Gonzalez 542-543 "The Deep Karsts in Wujiang Valley at wugiangdu Dam Site", Li Maoqiu 732-734 Karst and Caves of Castleguard Hountain, Rocky Hountains of Canada: A symposium Session II: Origin and Development of the Cave and Karst "Geology, Geomorphology, and Glaciology of the Castleguard-Columbia Icefield Area", o C. Ford................................................................................. 3 7 "Speleogenesis of the Castleguard Cave system", D.C. Ford.................................... 281 "Clastic Sediments in the Castleguard Cave", J. Schroeder 496-498 "The Antiquity of the Cave as Established by U-Series Dating of Speleothems", H. Gascoyne and A.G. Latham 101-103 "Glacier-ground Water Interactions and Quantitative Groundwater Tracing in the Vicinity of Mount Castleguard, Banff National Park, Canada", C.C. Smart 720-723 Session III: Modern Physical Processes in the~ "The Climate of castleguard Cave, Canada", T.C. Atkinson..................................... 322 "Radon Sources and Distribution in Castleguard Cave", P.L. Smart............................. 212 "The Hineralogy of Castle guard Cave", R.S. Harmon and T.C. Atkinson 428-432 "Mechanisms of Calcite Speleothem Deposition in Castleguard Cave, Canada", T.C. Atkinson..... 322 Session IV: Cave Biology' "The Fauna of Castleguard Cave", J.S. Mort and A. Recklies................................... 630 vii

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Session IV: Cave Biology (continued) "Stygobromus Canadensis, A Troglobitic Arnphipod Crustacean from Castleguard Cave, with Remarks on the Concept of Cave Glacial Refugia", J.R. Holsinger 9395 Speleogenesis I "Tunnel-caves and Natural Bridges of Northern Mediterranean Area", Jacques Choppy 707-709 "Speleogenesis Models for the Mammoth Cave Region, and Their Use as Predictive Tools for Southern Toohey Ridge, Hart and Barren Counties, Kentucky", James Currens : 7578 "On the Underground Stream and Cave Systems of Soliao Karst Area, Bama County, Guangxi, China", Yuan Daoxian .............. 317-318 "Dissolution Experiments with Facets", Stephen Kempe......................................... 647 "Some Results and Limitations in the Application of Hydraulic Geometry to Vadose Stream Passages", Christopher Smart ..... 724-726 "Subterranean Stream Piracy in the Garrison Chapel Karst Valley, Indiana, U.S.A.", David Des Marais ............. : 196-199 "Complex Groundwater Basin Migrations in Roppel Cave, Kentucky", Miles E. Drake and James D. Borden........................................................................... 2830 "Cavern Porosity Development in Limestone: A Low Dip Model from Mammoth'Cave, Kentucky", Ralph O. Ewers and James F. Quinlan ........ 727-731 "Genetical Observations on Some Natural Cavities of the Masua Mine (SW Sardinia)", Paolo Forti, Giuliano Perna and Bruno Turi ........... 779-781 "Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and Other Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains", Carol HilL .............. 143-144 "Dynamic Re-adjustments in a Cave System Speleogenesis--A Result of a Base Level Surface Stream Abandoning 8 km (5 miles) of a Surface Meander Streambed", Michael L. Johnson........................................................................ 630 Mineralogy "Muck Spreading on Speleothems", A.G. Latham ............. 356-357 "Moonmilk, Two Questions of Terminology", R. Bernasconi ................. 113-116 "Classification of the 'Stratified Calcareous Deposits in Function of Environmental Conditions", Jacques Choppy ............ 775-778 "Genetical Observations on Some Macrocrystal Cave Perals Found in Two Caves of Lombardia' (Northern Italy)", Alfredo Bini and Paolo Forti. ............. 747-750 "Hollow Calcite Crystals on Surfaces of Small Po~ls in the Liethohle/Sauerland, West Germany", G.F. Tietz ................... 362-363 "Morphological and Mineralogical Features of Phreatic Speleothems Occurring in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain)", Joaquin Ginbs and Luis Pomar ... 529-532 "Preliminary Report of the Cave Minerals in China, South Korea, and Japan", Naruhiko Kashima .................................. 250-251 "Manganese Deposition in Limestone Caves", George W. Moore ....... 642-644 "Systematics of Mineral Parageneses in Austrian Caves", Robert Seemann .... 256-259 "Recent Formation of Carbonate Mineral Association in Dolomite Caves, Franconia, West Germany", G.F. Tietz .................... 364-366 "Contribution to the Morphometries of Stalagmites", Ivan Gams ....... 276-278 Biology I "Notes on the Cave Spiders of Papua New Guinea", Paolo Marcello Brignoli ........... 110-112 "Invertebrate Interactions with Microbes During the Successional Decomposition of Dung", Kathleen H. Lavoie ........................ '. 265-266 "Cooperation of Speleologist and Microbiologist", Kinga Szekely and G.L. Nogrady............. 492 "The Incidence of Iron Bacteria in an Australian Cave", H. Jane Dyson and Julia James .. 7981 "On the Hyporheic Hydracarians of Cuba", Tr. Orghidan and Magdalena Gruia.................... 792 viii

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Biology I (continued) "Sur L'Equipement Adeno-sensoriel du Pedipalpe de L'opilion Troglophile Sabacon Paradoxum Simon (palpatores, sabaconidae)", C. Juberthie, Andre Lepex and L. Juberthle-Jupeau 810-813 "Ecology of the New Zealand Glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Caves at Waitomo, New Zealand", Chris Pugsley 483-488 "Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, for Exploitation of Unpredictable Food Resources", Ellen S. Levy.......................... 584 "Ecology of Malheur Cave, Oregon", Ellen M. Benedict and Esther Gruber 480-482 "The Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx Hudsonius (pallas) from a Pleistocene Cave Deposit in West Virginia", Frederick Grady and E. Ray Garton 279-281 "The Tactics of Dispersal of Two Species of Niphargus (Perenial Troglobitic Amphipoda)", Marie Jos~ Turquin 353-355 Sedimentology "The Palaeohydraulics of Karst Drainage Systems: Fluvial Cave Sediment Studies", Stephen J. Gale ... 213-216 "Morphogenesis and Sedimentology in a Quebec Cave: The Speos de la Fee (Matapedia)", Camille M. Ek 104-105 "Pebble Investigations in Slovene Caves (Yugoslavia)", Andrej A. Kranjc 1820 "Sedimentologic and Speleogenetic Implications of Clastic Deposits in Central Lilburn Cave, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, CA, USA", John C. Tinsley, D.R. Packer and S.R. Ulfeldt 291-294 "Probable Cave Deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains of West Antarctica", John P. Craddock and Gerald F. Webers...................................................................... 395-397 "Thermoluminescence: A Method for Sedimentological Studies in Caves", Yves Quinif 309-313 Speleogenesis II "Tectonism, Fractures, and Speleogenesis in the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, USA", Ernst H. Kastning.......................................................................... 692-695 "Gypsum Caves in Libya", Attila Kosa 156-158 "New Genetic Problems in Corrosion Caves in Gypsum", Walter Krieg 453-455 "Analysis of the Structural Control of Speleogenesis of Lilburn Cave, California, United States", Gail McCoy .... 319-321 "Cave Systems Speleogenesis at the Karst Poljes of Slovenia (NW Yugoslavia)", Rado Gospodaric .. '. 656 "Formation of Great Underground Systems in Nakanai Mountains (New Britain Papua New Guinea)", Richard Maire 782-787 ~The History of Exploration of Canadian Hole", Peter Zabrok 369-371 "Le Gouffre B.U. 56 = -1192 metres (Massif de la Pierre Saint-Martin)", Jean-Francois Pernette ..... 574-576 Microc11matology "The Air Movements in the 'Grotte de Niaux' (Ariege), Consequences", Claude Andrieux......... 323 "Mathema~~c Simulation of 'Thermic' Airflow in Complicate Dynamic Caves", Antonin Janc:arik.................................................................................. 103 "The Regularities in the Formation of Gas Composition of the Air in the Large Karst Caves of Podolia and Bukovina", A.B. Klimchuk, N.L. Yablokova and S.P. Olshtynsky 2123 "Ouaternary Climatic Change and Speleostratigraphic Development", S. Lang .. 448-450 "Carbon Dioxide in Coldwater Cave", Warren C. Lewis .... 91-'92 .,,' V v' "Mathematic Simulation of Baric Airflow", Jiri Botur and Antonin Jancarik.................... 142 "Cryospeleology", Garry D. McKenzie.......................................................... 266 "The Breathing of Coldwater Cave", Warren C. Lewis .. 8990 ix

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Tropical Geomorphology "Single and Double Fourier Series Analysis of Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico", George Brook and Ronald Mitchelson............................................................... 5355 "The Foot Caves in the Tropical China", Zhao-xuan Zeng....................................... 479 "Limestone Hardness and Tropical Karst Terrain TYpes", Michael J. Day 327-329 "The Geomorphological Features of the Karst in Guilin District", Zhu Dehau and Tan Pengjia.............. 145 "Karst and Caves in the Turks and Caicos Islands, B.W.I.", Vojtech A. Gregor 805-807 "The Submarine Caves of Bermuda", Thomas M. Iliffe 161-163 "Desert Gypsum Karst in Bir al' Ghanarn, Libya", Attila K6sa ... 154-155 I "An Analysis on the Palaeographic Elements of Karst Development in the Wumin Basin, Guangxi, Southern China", Lin Junshu, Zhang Yaoquang, Wang Yanra and Zhao Zhongru......... 738 "Towards a Numerical Categorization of Tropical Karst Terrains", Michael J. Day 330-332 "Study of Features of the Karstic Depressions in South China", Chen Zhiping 499-500 Geochemistry/Geophysics "Stalactite Growth in the Tropics Under Artificial Conditions", Eugenio de Bellard Pietre 221-222 "The Classification-of Karst Waters by Chemical Analysis", N.S.J. Christopher and J.D. Wilcock ...... 526-528 "Radiation Hazards in Natural Caves", Arrigo A. Cigna and Gian F. Clemente 420-423 "C0 2 Measurements in Cave Air: A Comparison Between Belgium and Quebec", Camille M. Ek 672-673 "The Relationship Between the Availability of Organic Carbon and Cavern Development in the Phreatic Zone", Julia James ......... 237-240 "Carbonaceous Sediments in a Gypsum Karst (Hainholz/South Harz, Fed. Rep. Germany)", Stephen Kempe and Kay Emeis .. 569-571 "Radioactivity in Venezuelan Caves", Eugenio de Bellard Pietre ... 219-220 "Deep Ice in the Cave of Scarasson, Marguareis Massif, Maritimes Alps, Italia~ Michel Siffre ............... 112 "Fluid Inclusions in Speleothems as Paleoclimate Indicators", Charles J. Yonge .. 301-304 "Etude comparee des variations des principales caracteristiques physico-chimiques de deux sources karstiques de Basse Provence en fonction de la nature geologique de L'aquifere", Tatiana Muxart .......... 518-521 "Groundwater Geothermal Energy from Subsurface Streams in Karst Regions", Nicholas C. Crawford.................................................................................. 820 Hydrology II "A Karst Hydrology Study in Monroe County, West Virginia", William K. Jones 345-347 .Sea Tide Effect Study in Karst Caves on the Rim of Trst/Trieste/Bay", Primo~ Krivic......... 355 "Hydrology of Harlansburg Cave", Kenneth M. Long and J. Philip Fawley 387-390 "Resultats das Observations Conduites Sur Ie Site Experimental de la Grotte du Lamalou (Causse de l'Hortus-France M~ridionale)", Henri Paloc, H. Bonin, M. Bonnet, J. Guizerix. A. Lal1emand-Barres. J. Margat and D. Thiery ........... 461-465 "Empirical Confirmation of Curl's (1974) Flow Velocity Calculations", James A. Pisarowicz and Mark Maslyn .. 772-774 "La Dissolution du Calcaire dans la Partie Superieure du Bassin de la Riviere aux Saurnons, Anticosti, Quebec", Jean Roberge 393-394 "Major Groundwater Flow Directions in the Sinking Creek and Meadow Creek Drainage Basins of Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia, USA", Joseph W. Saunders, R. Keith Ortiz and William F. Koerschner, III ... 398-400 "Quantitative Dye Tracing in an Alpine Karst Environment", Christopher Smart................. 587 "Variation of Conduit Flow Velocities with Discharge in the Longwood to Cheddar Rising System, Mendip Hills", P.L. Smart 333-335 "An Example of Karstic Drainage, the Hydrological System of Eynif (Western Taurus, Turkey)", Claude Chabert ... 701-702 x

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Hydrology II (continued) "Hydrogeology of Northern Fayette County and Southern Scott County, Kentucky, USA", Lawrence E. Spangler and John Thrailkill .......................................... 553-555 Aquatic Faunas I "Preliminary observations on foraging behavior in a hypogean crustacean community". D.L. Bechler and A. Fernandez ............................................................ 6667 "The effect of competition on species composition of some cave communities", D.C. Culver ..... 207-209 "Fauna of anchialine (coastal) cave waters, its origin and importance", B. Sket. ....... 645-647 "Ecosystem of a deep confined aquifer in Texas". G. Longley.................................. 611 "A Karst Ecosystem the Dorvan Massif (Ain. France) V-Drift of Invertebrates, Organic Matter and Minerals out of the Massif", J. Gibert ........................... 223-227 "Subterranean phreatic biocoenoses of northwestern Iran", G.L. Pesce ................ 566-567 "Ecology and taxonomy of marine cave invertebrates in the Bahama Islands", J.H. Carpenter 2425 "Respiratory metabolism comparison of Niphargus Rhenorhodanensis (subterranean crustacea, amphipoda) from two different karstic systems", J. Mathieu .................. 793-795 "Occurrence of Jaera (Isopoda, Asellota, Janiridae) in the hypogean domain", J.P. Henry 670-671 "Experimental breeding of the U.S. cavernicolous crustacean Caecidotea recurvata (Steeves, 1963)", G. J. Magniez ............................. 241-242 Aquatic Faunas II "The subterranean Caecidotea of the Interior Low Plateaus", J.J. Lewis ..... 234-236 "Comparison of acute toxicity of cadmium, chromium, and copper between two distinct populations of hypogean isopods (Caecidotea sp.) ", A.D. Bosnak and E.L. Morgan 7274 "Population ecology of the troglobitic isopod crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman (Cirolanidae) ", T.L. Collins and J.R. Holsinger ...................... 129-132 "Ecology of crayfishes from West Virginia caves", S.C. Van Luik ....... 657-658 "Agonistic behavior in the Arnblyopsidae, the spring, cave and swamp fishes", D.L. Bechler .... 6869 "Agressive behavior in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus", J. Parzefall, J P. Durand and B. Richard................................................................ 415-419 "Sensory compensation in the darkness: comparative study of the prey detection in the cave living vertebrate Proteus anguinus", J.P. Durand, J. Parzefall and B. Richard .. 3134 Speleochronology "Radiometric Dating of Polish Cave Speleothems: Current Results", Jerzy Glazek and Russell S. lIarmon ........................................................... 424-427 "A Late Pleistocene Chronologic Record in Southeastern Minnesota", Richard S. Lively, E. Calvin Alexander, Jr. and Jodi Milske ................. 623-626 "A Climate Record of the Yorkshire Dales for the Last 300.000 Years", M. Gascoyne .......... 9698 "Phreatic Speleothems in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) as Indicators of Mediterranean Pleistocene Paleolevels", Angel Ginls, Joaquin Ginls and Luis Pomar ..................................................................... 533-536 "Geological Development and Age of the Caves in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia)", Vojtech A. Gregor ........................................................................ 808-809 "Geochronology of Speleothems from the Flint Ridge Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky, USA", John W. Hess and Russell S. !Iarmon ...................................................... 433-436 "Magnetostratigraphy from Speleothems: Establishment and Applications", A.G. Latham 358-361 "The Archanthropinae of the Petralonian Cave", Nickos A. Poulianos ....................... 508-510 "Horsethief Cave: An Early Pleistocene Cavern", Wayne M. Sutherland 608-611 Geomorphology III "La Genese des Formes du Karst de.la Haute-Saumons, Facteurs Determinants". Jean Roberge ..... 391-392 xi

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Geomorphology III (continued) "The Shape of Gypsum Bubbles", Richard L. Breisch and Fred L. Wefer ............ 757-759 "Reflections on Karst Geomorphology Research in Italy: 1960-80", Ugo Sauro .......... 563-565 "Evapori te Karst Gypsum Plain, Culberson County, Texas", A. Richard Smith.................... 482 "Solute Uptake on a Magnesian Limestone Hillslope", S.T. Trudgill, A.M. Pickles and R.W. Crabtree .............................................. 351-352 "Simulation of Rock Pendants Small Scale Experiments on Plaster Models", Stein-Erik Lauritzen ........................ "' ..... 407-409 "Karst Development in Siliceous Rocks, Venezuelan Guiana Shield", France Urbani.............. 548 "Geography of the Friars Hole Cave System, USA", Douglas M. Medville ....... 412-414 "Gypsum-Anhydrite Karst on the Territory of the USSR", K.A. Gorbanova........................ 778 "Dinaric Karst Poljes and Neotectonics", Peter Habic......................................... 797 Archeology/Paleontology "The Scanning Electron Microscope as an Adjunct to Environmental Reconstruction in Archeological Sites", Peter A. Bull .......................... 340-342 "Archeological Investigations in Sand Cave, Kentucky", George M. Crothers ........ 374-376 "Cuban Rupestrian Drawings", Antonio N~nez Jiml!nez........................................... 282 "First Extinct Vertebrates from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky", Ronald C. Wilson.......... ..... 339 "The Geranium Cave of Rethymnon, Crete", Anna Petrochilou .............. 456-457 "Cave Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in the Cockpit Karst of Peten, Guatemala", Michel Siffre and Gerard Cappa. .. .. . . . .. 286 "Vertebrate Fossils in Lava Tubes in the Galapag9s Islands", David Steadman .... ; ... 549-550 "A Cups tone Petroglyph of Possible Astronomical Significance from an Early Woodland Site in the Karst Region, Jackson County, Kentucky", Ken Tankersley ....................... 760-762 "Paleontology and Archeology of Jaguar Cave, Tennessee", Louise Robbins, Ronald C. Wilson and Patty Jo Watson ............................................... 377-380 "The Mammalian Fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico", Lloyd Logan ........... 159-160 "The 'Karstic reactivation' theory and the Epipalaeoli thic sites of Northern Spain", Manuel R. Gonzalez Morales ...................................... 751-752 History "A Pioneer in Speleology: The Swiss Painter Casper Wolf (1735-1783)", Pierre Strinati....... 458 "Early American Speleological Writings", Jack Speece ........................... 183-184 "Pioneers of North American Cave and Karst Science Prior to 1930", Ernst Kastning ......... 247-249 "History and Contributions of the Western Speleological Survey", William R. Halliday 177-178 Documen ta tion "The Cave Research Foundation", Richard A. Watson and Philip M. Smith ..................... 372-373 "Some Problems of Cave Names", Paolo De Simonis ............................... 324-326 "Cave Research in Switzerland", Urs Widmer ...................................... 638-639 "Thesaurus of Hungarian Speleo1ogy, Project of an International 'Speleosaurus''', Laszlo Lenart .............................................................. 634-635 "Statistical Study of the Great Caves of the World", Jacques Choppy and Pascale Choppy 703-706 Techniques/Equipment "Accuracy Evaluation of Electromagnetic Locating", Charles Bishop and Frank S. Reid ......... 7071 "Matching Cave Gear to Cave Hazards", David R. McClurg ................................. 252-253 xii

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Technigues/Eguipment (continued) "The Relations Between Technique and Aesthetiques in Underground Photography: The Position of the Cameras and the Lighting", Fran90is-Marie Callot and Yann Callot .............. 679-681 "On Measuring Caves by Volume", Primoz' Jakopin ....................................... 270-272 "Self Tests for Conservation Awareness and Caving Skills", David R. McClurg .............. 254-255 "Le Secours Souterrain en France", Pierre Rias .......................... 674-678 "Long-term Single Free-Run Experiments and their Results as a Performance Predictability Index in Astronauts", Michel Siffre....................................................... 112 Mapping "Large Cave-System Database Management: A Simple Concept, Yet a Complex Solution", James D. Borden .................................. 615-617 "An Evaluation of the Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging System as a Tool for Cave Surveying", Richard L. Breisch and Michael Maxfield ............................ 753-756 "Analysis of the Propagation of Error in Cave Surveys", Thomas A. Kaye ....... 800-801 "A Comparison of Expected Survey Errors with Closure Adjustments", Robert Thrun ..... 648-649 "Der hypsometrische H6hlen-Ubersichtsplan", GUnter Sturnrner ......... 260-261 Evolutionary Ecology "Regressive Evolution and Phylogenetic Age", Horst Wilkens................................... 622 "Regression of the Locornotion-Controlling System in Cavernicolous Carabid Beetles", Friedrich Weber ............................. 667-669 "The Activity Controlling Time-System in Epigean and Hypogean Populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)", Wilhelmine Erckens ................. 796-797 "Demographic Characteristics of Carabid Cave Beetles", Thomas Kane ..... 451-452 "Variations in Life Histories of Linyphiid Cave Spiders", Thomas Poulson .... 6062 "Remarks on the Origin and Distribution of Troglobitic Spiders", Christa L. DeelmanReinhold .................... '" 305-308 "The Ecology of Bat Guano in Tamana Cave, Trinidad, W.I.", Stuart Hill. 243-246 "The Community Structure of Arthropods Associated with Bat Guano and Bat Carcasses in Tumbling Creek Cave, Missouri", Barbara Martin............................................ 3 Cave Diving "Rescue Cave Divers and Their Equipment", Thomas Cook ................... 314-315 "The World 0 s Longest Underwater Cave", Sheck Exley and Ned Deloach........................... 1617 "Techniques de Progression en Riviere Souterrain a Gros Debit", Jean-Francois Pernette .... 572-573 "Cave Diving in England in the 1950's", Oliver C. Wells .............. 735-737 "The NSS Cave Diving Section", Thomas Cook................................................... 315 Social Sciences "Caving Education in Quebec", Daniel Caron ................................... 577-579 "Le Medica1isation des Secours en France oLe Point en 1980''', F. Guillaume ........... 650-651 "Caving Activity and Sensation Seeking of N.S.S. Members: A Psychological Profile", Penny R. Lukin and Barry F. Beck ............................................... 798-799 "The French School of Speleology", Gerard Duclaux and Marcel Meyssonier ............. 636-666 "Subject Cave and Motivation for Speleology", Thomas Kesselring, Ursula Sommer and Urs Widmer .................................................................. 802-804 xiii

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Vertical Techniques "A Brief Look at Single Rope Techniques and Equipment from Around the World", Donna Mroc zkowsk i and Ne i 1 Mon tgome ry . 132 "Choosing a Rope for SRT (Single Rope Techniques)", Mike Cowlishaw ....................... 108-109 "The Weak Link", Andre,,' Eavis................................................................ 4344 "Development of Relevant Testing Procedures Leading Toward Establishing Standards for Caving and Static Loaded Rescue Ropes", Kyle Isenhart 179-180 "Some New Methods in Exploring Technique of Water and Vertical Caves", ~laden Gara~ic 146-147 "Provisional Specifications for Caving (S.R.T.) Ropes", Andrew Eavis............ 42 "Knots for Single Rope Techniques", Neil Montgomery and Donna Mroczkowski.. 479 Evolutionary Ecology II "How Food Type Determines Community Structure in Caves", Thomas Poulson and Thomas Kane ..... 5659 "Abiotic Effects on the Successional Decomposition of Dung", Kathleen Lavoie 262-264 "The Foraging Behavior of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus", Ellen Levy............. 581 "Ecological Studies of Openings into Underground Karst: I. The shaft wall of an entrance pit (Gouffre de Lent, Ain, France): First Results", J. Gibert, R. Laurent, J. Mathieu and J .L. Reygrobellet ....................................................... 228-233 "Ecological and Biological Implications of the Existence of a Superficial Underground Compartment", Christian Juberthie and Bernard Delay....................................... 203-206 "The Ecological Genetics of Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops Tellkampfii (Coleoptera, Carabidae)", George Brunner and Thomas Kane ........................................... 4849 "A Critique of the Analogy of Caves and Islands", Rodney Crawford ........................... 295-297 "Non-Relictual Terrestrial Troglobites in the Tropical Hawaiian Caves", Francis Howarth 539-541 "Soil Biology, Research Activity and Prospects of the Centro di Ecologia del Cansiglio, Venetian Prealps, Italy", Renato DaIle Mule, N. Martinelli, M. Paoletti and V. Toniello............................................................................... 568 Geomorphology IV "The Lower Cretaceous Paleokarst in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia)", Pavel Bosak 164-166 "Morphoclimatic Control a Tale of Piss and Wind or a.Case of the Baby Out With the Bathwater?", J .N. Jennings .............................................................. 367-368 "Morphogenetical and Chronological Aspects of some Karst Areas in the Italian Alps", Ugo Sauro ~56-562 "Karst Valley Development and the Headward Advance of the Sequatchie Valley of Tennessee Along the Sequatchie Anticline", Nicholas C. Crawford ................... : ..... 814-819 "The Karsts of the Oriental Part of Cuba", Nicasio Vi';;a ...................... 5]7-538 "Paleotemperature, Sea Level and Uplift Data from New Zealand Speleothems", Paul Williams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151 -1 53 Biology II "Ecological Analysis of Terrestrial Invertebrates in a Venezuelan Cave", C.V. Alvarez, M.L. Olivo and R.E. Urosa 631-633 "Molecular Isotopic Analyses.of Bat Guano Hydrocarbons and the Ecology of the Insectivorous Bats in the Region of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA", David J. DesMarais, J.M. Mitchell, W.G. Meinschein and J.M. Hayes 200-202 "Communication on a Preliminary Survey of the Fauna of Caves in Some Regions of Brasil", Eliana M.B. Dessen, Verena Eston, Marietta S. Silva, M. Thereza Temperini-Ileck and Eleonora Tra j ano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 123 -12 5 "Holarctic Cave Mites of the Family Rhagidiidae (Actinedida: Eupodoideal", Miloslav Zacharda and William Elliott ................................................... 604-607 "Composition and Origin of Underground Fauna in Poland", Andrzej Skalski 403-406 "Soil Biology in the Southern Italian Alpine Area. General problems of Biospeleology", Maurizio G. Paoletti...................................................................... 568 xiv

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Biology II (continued) "Canonical Analysis in the Genus Troglocharinus Reitter and Some Other Related Taxa (Col. Catopidae)", Olequer Escola......................................................... 500 "Biospeleological Researches in the Island of Ceylon", Pierre Strinati and Villy Aellen ... 459-460 "Diptera in British Caves", G.T. Jefferson ................................. 106-107 "Preliminary Report on the Biology of Sorcerer's Cave, Terrell County, Texas", Rodney L. Crawford ......................................... 298-300 "The Cavernicolous Fauna of Ohio, USA. Part I: Preliminary Report", H.H. Hobbs, III .... 444-447 "Sur la Presence D'un Rythme de Reproduction dans le Milieu Souterrain Superficiel: Etude Chez les Coleopteres Bathysciinae", Lysiane JUberthie-Jupeau ........... 714-716 Geology "Neotectonics in some Caves in Yugoslavia", Mladen Garasi6 .............. 148-150 "Fold Development in the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina and Its Influence on the Sistema Purificacion, M~xico", Louise D. Hose ................ 133-135 "The Karst Development of Rye Cove, Virginia", David A. Hubbard, Jr. and John R. Holsinger ................................. 515-517 "Development of Flow Routes and Cave Passages from Fault Segments in West Virginian Caves", Roy A. Jameson ........................ 717-719 "Fracture Control of Dolines, Caves, and Surface Drainage: Mississippian Plateau, Western Kentucky, USA", Karen M. Kastning and Ernst Kastning .... 696-698 "Organizational Principles of Complex Stationary Researches of Karst", A.B. Klimchuk, V.M. Shestopalov and G.V. Lisichenko ........... 3536 "Early Proterozoic Paleokarst of the Transvaal, South Africa", J. Martini .. 68 "Jointing as an Index of Sulphate Massif Karstification", I.A. Pechorkin, A.I. Pechorkin and G.B. Bolotov ..................... 181-182 "Karst Development in the Front Royal 7.5 Minute Quadrangle of Virginia", David A. Hubbard, Jr .................... 511-514 "Alpine Karst in the Sierra Nevada, California", Bruce W. Rogers ......... 544-546 "Lilburn Cave's Contribution to the National History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA", J.C. Tinsley, D.J. Des Marais, G. McCoy, B.W. Rogers and S.R. Ulfeldt ................ 287-290 Speleogenesis III "A Functional Classification of karst", John Mylroie ........... 686-688 "Speleogenesis of Arkansas Ozark Caves", Albert E. Ogden, Wyndal Goodman and Samuel Rothermel ................................... 769-771 "Hydrochemical Factors in the Origin of Limestone Caves", Arthur N. Palmer ...... 120-122 "A Graphic Method of Analysis of the Phreatic Caves", J. Schroeder ....................... 493-495 "The Toohey Ridge Cave System A Geographical Overview", James D. Borden and Miles E. Drake ........................................ 612-614 Commission Reports "Comparative Research of Limestone Solution by Means of Standard Tablets", Ivan Gams ...... 273-275 "Commission of Conservation and of Tourist Caves", France Habe .......... '.' ............ 442-443 "Cave Map Symbols", Ralph Muller ............................................. 588-603 Poster Sessions "Endangered Species Legislation in the U.S.", Thomas Lera ............................. 385-386 "Spatial Aspects of Histoplasmosis in the United States", George Huppert ............. 2627 "Facial Reconstruction of an Easter Island Skull", G.L. Nogrady ................. ~...... 138 xv

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Table of Contents: by authors, in alphabetical order Pages Gerard Aime, .Policy for Karst Protection in France ............ 580-581 C.V. Alvarez, M.L. Olivo and R.E. Urosa, .Ecological Analysis of Terrestrial Invertebrates in a Venezuelan Cave ............. 631-633 Claude Andrieux, .The Air Movements in the 'Grotte de Niaux' (Ariege) Consequences............. 323 Timothy Atkinson, .Mechanisms of Calcite Speleothem Deposition in Castleguard Cave, Canada................ ................. ....... 322 Timothy Atkinson, .The Climate of Castleguard Cave, Canada..................................... 322 Temucin Aygen, .Applications of Speleology in Civil Engineering Works in Turkey................ 498 Michel Bakalowicz, .Percolation Waters in Karstic Aquifers ............... 710-713 Victor R. Baker, .Pseudokarst on Mars ........... 6365 Thomas C. Barr, Jr., .The Cavernicolous Carabid Beetles of North America .......... 343-344 David L. Bechler, .Agonistic Behavior in the Amblyopsidae, the Spring, Cave and Swamp Fishes...... . .. . . .. . . . . . . 6869 David L. Bechler and Anna Fernandez, .Preliminary Observations on Foraging Behaviors in a Hypogean Crustacean Community........................................................ 6667 Ellen M. Benedict and Esther Gruber, .Ecology of Malheur Cave, Oregon ........... 480-482 R. Bernasconi, .Moonmilk, Two Questions of Terminology" .......... 113-116 Alfredo Bini and Paolo Forti, .Genetical Observations on Some Macrocrystal Cave Pearls Found in Two Caves of Lombardia (Northern Italy) .............. 747-750 Charles Bishop and Frank S. Reid, .Accuracy Evaluation of Electromagnetic Locating .... 7071 Alfred Bllgli, .Scallops........................................................................ 8283 .James D. Borden, .Large Cave-System Database Management: A Simple Concept, Yet a Complex Solution ......................... 615-617 James D. Borden and Miles E. Drake, "The Toohey Ridge Cave System A Geographical Overview ..................................... 612-614 Pavel Bosak, .The Development of the Lower Cretaceous Karst: A Comparison With the Plate Tectonics ................................. 170-173 Pavel Bosak, .The Lower Cretaceous Paleokarst in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia)" ... 164-166 Pavel Bosak and Ivan Horacek, "The Investigation of Old Karst Phenomena of the Bohemian Massif in Czechoslovakia: A Preliminary Regional Evaluation .......... 167-169 Arthur Bosnak and Eric Morgan, "Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Between Two Distinct Populations of Hypogean Isopods (Caecidatea sp.) .... 7274 Jirl Botur and Antonln Jan~ar{k, "Mathematic Simulationof Baric Airflow........................ 142 Richard L. Breisch and Michael Maxfield, .An Evaluation of the Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging System as a Tool for Cave Surveying ................... 753-756 Richard L. Breisch and Fred L. Wefer, .The Shape of Gypsum Bubbles ......... 757-759 Paolo Marcello Brignoli, .Notes on the Cave Spiders of Papua New Guinea ...... 110-112 George A. Brook and Terry L. Allison, .Subsidence Susceptibility Models for Dougherty County, Georgia, From Sinkhole and Fracture Distribution Data ......... 5052 George Brook and Ronald Mitchelson, .Single and Double Fourier Series Analysis of Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico.............................................................. 5355 J. Brunet and P. Vidal, .Studies of the Climatic Conditions .for the Conservation of Decorated Prehistoric Caves: TwO Operations: Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume 659-662 George Brunner and Thomas C. Kane, .The Ecological Genetics of Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae).......................................... 4849 Peter A. Bull, .The Scanning Electron Microscope as an Adjunct to Environmental Reconstruction in Archeological Sites ................ 340-342 Yann Callot, .On Some Underground Forms, Pseudokarstic, in France ........... 682-685 Fran~ois-Marie Callot and Yann Callot, .The Relations Between Technique and Aesthetiques in Underground Photography: The Position of .the Cameras and the Lighting ..... 679-681 Andrea Caneda, Paolo Forti and Stefano Querze, .Hydrogeology of the Corchia Marbles (Apuane Alps-Italy): New Data from Water Tracing Experiments ........ 743-746 Daniel Caron, .Caving Education in Quebec ................... 577-579 Jerry H. Carpenter, .Ecology and Taxonomy of Marine Cave Invertebrates in the Bahama Islands................................................................................... 2425 xvi

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I Claude Chabert, .A Compound Karstic System: The Sakal Tutan Degirmenlik Karapinar System (Western Taurus, Turkey)........................................................... 699-700 Claude Chabert, .An Example of Karstic Drainage: The Hydrological System of Eynif (western Taurus, Turkey) 701-702 Mao Chian-chun, .An Underground Thermal Stream Discovered for the First Time in Kweichow Province, China.................................................................. 323 Jacques Choppy, .Classification of the Stratified Calcareous Deposits in Function of Environmental Conditions.................................................................. 775-778 Jacques Choppy, .Tunnel-Caves and Natural Bridges of Northern Mediterranean Area 707-709 Jacques Choppy and Pascale Choppy, .Statistical Study of the Great Caves of the World 703-706 Kenneth Christiansen, .The Zoogeography of Eastern U.S. Cave Collembola .. 618-622 N.S.J. Christopher, .Recent Flood Pulse and Hydrological Studies on the Russet Welll Peak Cavern System, Castleton, Derbyshire, England 522-525 N.S.J. Christopher and J.D. Wilcock, .The Classification of Karst Waters by Chemical Analysis ~ 526-528 Arrigo A. Cigna and Gian F. Clemente, .Radiation Hazards in Natural Caves 420-423 L.T. Collins and J.R. Holsinger, .Population Ecology of the Troglobitic Isopod Crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman (Cirolanidae) 129~132 Mauro Coltorti, .Geomorphologic Evolution of a Karst Area Subject to Neotectonic Movements in the Umbria Marche Apennines (Central Italy) 8488 Thomas Cook, .Rescue Cave Rivers and Their Equipment 314-315 Thomas Cook, .The NSS Cave Diving Section...................................................... 315 Daryl W. Cowell, .Subarctic Karst Geomorphology and the Development of Organo-Karst Landforms in the Hudson Ray Lowland, Ontario.............................................. 1315 Mike Cowlishaw, .Choosing a Rope for SRT (Single Rope Techniques) 108-109 john Craddock and Gerald F. Webers, .Probable Cave Deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains of West Antarctica 395-397 Nicholas C. Crawford, .Groundwater Geothermal Energy from Subsurface Streams in Karst Regions................................................................................... 820 Nicholas C. Crawford, .Karst Flooding in Urban Areas: Bowling Green, Kentucky 763-765 Nicholas C. Crawford, .Karst valley Development and the Leadward Advance of the Sequatchie Valley of Tennessee along the Sequatchie Anticline .. 814-819 Rodney L. Crawford, .A Critique of the Analogy of Caves and Islands ; 195-197 Rodney L. Crawford, .Preliminary Report on the Biology of Sorcerer's Cave, Terrell Coun ty, Texas............................................................................. 298-300 George M. Crothers, .Archeological Investigations in Sand Cave, Kentucky 374-376 David C. Culver, .The Effect of Competition on Species Composition of Some Cave Communities.. 207-209 James C. Currens, .Speleogenesis Models for the Mammoth Cave Region, and Their Use as Predictive Tools for Southern Toohey Ridge, Hart and Barren Counties, Kentucky........ .. 7578 Yuan Daoxian, .On the Underground Stream and Cave Systems of Soliao Karst Area, Barna County, Guangxi, China ........ 317-318 Yuan Daoxian, .On the Hydrogeological Characteristics of Karst Water in China and Its Exploi ta tion. 316 Jerry D. Davis and George A. Brook, .Hydrology and Water Chemistry of Upper Sinking Cove, Franklin County, Tennessee ...... 3841 Michael J. Day, .Contemporary Limestone Erosion Rates in the Gunong Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia.................................................................... 329 Michael J. Day, .Limestone Hardness and Tropical Karst Terrain Types 327-329 Michael J. Day, .Towards a Numerical Categorization of Tropical Karst Terrains 330-332 Christa L. Deeleman-Reinhold, .Remarks on the Origin and Distribution of Troglobitic Spiders .......... '.' 305-308 Zhu Dehau and Tan Pengjia, .The Geomorphological Features of the Karst in Guilin District...... 145 Paolo De Simonis, .Some Problems on Cave Names................................................. 324-326 David Des Marais, .Subterranean Stream Piracy in the Garrison Chapel Karst Valley, Indiana, U.S.A............................................................................ 196-199 xvii

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David J. Des Marais, J.M. Mitchell, W.G. Meinschein and J.M. Hayes, .Molecular Isotopic Analyses of Bat Guano Hydrocarbons and the Ecology of the Insectivorous Bats in the Region of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA .................... 200-202 Eliana M.B. Dessen, Verena Estoni, Marietta S. Silva, M. Thereza Temperini-Beck and Eleonora Trajano, .Communication on a Preliminary Survey of the Fauna of Caves in Some Regions of Brasil.: .. ............................ 123-125 Percy H. Dougherty, .The Impact of the Agricultural Land-Use Cycle on Flood Surges and Runoff in a Kentucky Karst Region .......................... 267-269 John Drake, .A General Model of Karst Specific Erosion Rates .... :............. ... 158 Miles E. Drake and James D. Borden, .Complex Groundwater Basin Migrations in Roppel Cave, Kentucky............................................................................ 2830 Anton Droppa, .On Karst Denudation Research Problematic........................................ 355 Gerard Duclaux and Marcel Meyssonier, .The French School of Speleology ............ 663-666 J.P. Durand, J. Parzefall and B. Richard, .Sensory Compensation in the Darkness: Comparative Study of the Prey Detection in the Cave Living Vertebrate Proteus anguinus........................ .............. ................ 3134 H. Jane Dyson and Julia James, .The Incidence of Iron Bacteria in an Australian Cave 7981 Andrew Eavis, .Provisional Specifications for Caving (S.R.T.) Ropes............................ 42 Andrew Eavis, .The Weak Link ................................ 4344 Camille M. Ek, .C0 2 Measurements in Cave Air: A Comparison Between Belgium and Quebec ..... 672-673 Camille M. Ek, .Morphogenesis and Sedimentology in a Quebec Cave: The Sp~os de la F~e (Matapedia) ................................ 104-105 Adolfo Eraso, .New Contributions to the Problem of Dam Building in Karstic Regions .. 348-350 Wilhelmine Erckens, .The Activity Controlling Time-System in Epigean and Hypogean Populations of Astyanax Mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) .................. 796-797 'Olequer Escola, .Canonical Analysis in the genus Troglocharinus reitter and some Other Related ~ (Col. Ca topidae) . 500 Ralph O. Ewers and James F. Quinlan, .Cavern Porosity Development in Limestone: A Low Dip Model from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky" ...................... 727-731 Sheck Exley and Ned Deloach, .The World's Longest Underwater Cave" ........ 1617 Guilhem Fabre, .Specific Dissolution in the Mediterranean Karstic Areas of France ... 192-195 Lynn M. Ferguson, "Cave Diplura of the United States" .................... 1112 Derek Ford, "Karst, Covered Karst and Interstratal Karst in Glaciated Lowland Terrains of Canada................................................................................. 20 Derek Ford, "Geology, Geomorphology, and Glaciology of the Castleguard-Columbia Icefield Area....................................................... . . 37 Derek Ford, "Speleogenesis of the Castleguard Cave System"..................................... 281 Paolo Forti, Giuliano Perna and Bruno Turi, .Genetical Observations on Some Natural Cavities of the Masua Mine (SW Sardinia) ............................. 779-781 H. Friederich and P.L. Smart, "Dye Trace Studies of the Unsaturated-Zone Recharge of the Carboniferous Limestone Aquifer of the Mendip Hills, England" ................ 283-286 Stephen J. Gale, "The Palaeohydraulics of Karst Drainage Systems: Fluvial Cave Sediment Studies" .......................................... 213-216 Stephen J. Gale, "The Pre-Quaternary Palaeokarst of the Morecambe Bay Area, Northwest England" .................................................. 210-212 Frances Gamble, "Karst Cave Management Modelling in the Transvaal" ............. 473-475 Frances Gamble, "Problems of Management of Transvaal Caves" ...................... 469-472 Frances Gamble, .The Resource Potential of Transvaal Caves" ............................. 466-468 Ivan Gams, .Comparative Research of Limestone Solution by Means of Standard Tablets ...... 273-275 Ivan Gams, .Contribution to the Morphometrics of Stalagmites ........................... 276-278 ~ Mladen Garasic, "Neotectonics in Some Caves in yugoslavia ............................ 148-150 Mladen Garasi~, .Some New Methods in Explorinq Technique of Water and Vertical Caves ..... 146-147 M. Gascoyne, "A Climate Record of the Yorkshire Dales for the Last 300,000 years ............. 9698 M. Gascoyne, .Rates of Cave Passage Entrenchment and Valley Lowering Determined from Speleothem Age Measurements"... ........................... ..................... 99-100 xviii

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M. Gascoyne and A.G. Latham, .The Antiquity of Castleguard Cave as Established by Uranium-series Dating of Speleothems ........... 101-103 Janine Gibert, .A Karst Ecosystem the Dorvan Massif (Ain, France) V-Drift of Invertebrates, Organic Matter and Minerals Out of the Massif .. 223-227 Janine Givert, R. Laurent, J. Mathieu and J.L. Reygrobellet, .Ecological Studies of Openings into Underground Karst: I. The shaft wall of an entrance pit (Gouffre de Lent, Ain, France): First Results ............. 228-233 Angel Gin~s, Joaquin Gin~s and Luis Pomar, .Phreatic Speleothems in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) as Indicators of Mediterranean Pleistocene Paleolevels ..... 533-536 Joaquin Gin~s, Angel Gin~s and Luis Pomar, .Morphological and Mineralogical Features of Phreatic Speleothems Occurring in Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) .. 529-532 Jerzy Glazek, .Palaeokarst as a Key to Paleogeography, Poland's Territory as an Example........ 27 Jerzy Glazek, .Phases bf Karstification in the Paleogeographic Development of Poland's Territory........................ ............. ...... 25 Jerzy Glazek and Russell S. Harmon, .Radiometric Dating of Polish Cave Speleothems: Current Results .................... 424-427 Angel Grana Gonzalez, .Affections of the Cyclones in the Karst ..... 542-543 Clarence Goodnight and Maria L. Goodnight, "Evolution of Hypogean Species of Opilionids of North and Middle America" ................ K.A. Gordanova Gypsum-Anhydrite Karst on the Territory of the USSR .. Rado Gospodaric, .Cave Systems Speleogenesis at the Karst Poljes of Slovenia INW Yugoslavia) ............. 910 778 656 Frederick Grady and E. Ray Garton, .The Collard Lemming Dicrostonyx hudsonius (Pallas) from a Pleistocene Cave Deposit in West Virginia .. 279-281 Vojtech A. Gregor, .Geological Development and Age of the Caves in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) ...... ~ .. 808-809' Vojtech A. Gregor, .Karst and Caves in the Turks and Caicos Islands, B.W.I 805-807 F. Guillaume, .La Medicalisation des Secours en France 'Le Point en 1980' 650-651 Alberto A. Gutierrez, .Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Carlsbad Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Mexico........................................................................ 4547 France Habe, .Commission of Conservation and of Tourist Caves ...... 442-443 France Habe, .Interferinq in the Postoina Cave as Far as Protection of the Cave is Concerned ......................... 437-441 Peter Habic, .Dinaric Karst Poljes and Neotectonics............................................ 797 Irene Halbichova and Antonin Jancarik, "Visitors and Climatic Regime of Caves.................. 125 William Halliday, .History and Contributions of the Western Speleological Survey ... 177-178 William Halliday, .Impact of 1980 Eruptions on the Mount St. Helens Caves" .... 174-176 R.A. Halliwell, .The Geohydrology of the Ingleborough Area, England ........... 126-128 R.S. Harmon and T.C. Atkinson, 'The Mineralogy of Castleguard Cave ....... 428-432 Gyula Hegedus, .Cave Closing as a Conservation Method" .. : ........ 401-402 Jean-Paul Henry, .Occurrence of Jaera (Isopoda, Asellota, Janiridae) in the Hypogean Domain ... : .... ~. 670-671 John W. Hess and Russell S. Harmon, .Geochronology of Speleothems from the Flint Ridge Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky, USA ....................... 433-436 Carol A. Hill, .Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and Other Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains ................................ 143-144 Stuart Hill, .The Ecology of Bat Guano in Tamana Cave. Trinidad, W.I ....... 243-246 H.H. Hobbs, .The Cavernicolous Fauna of Ohio. Part I: Preliminary Report .......... 444-447 Cato O. Holler, Jr., .North Carolina's Bat Caves: A Significant Region of Tectonokarst ...... 190-191 John Holsinger, .Stygobromus canadensis, A Troglobitic Amphipod Crustacean from Castleguard Cave, with Remarks on the Concept of Cave Glacial Refugia .... 9395 Louise D. Hose, .Fold Development in the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina and its Influence on the Sistema Purificacion, M~xico .............. 133-135 Louise D. Hose and Thomas R. Strong, .The Genetic Relationship Between Breccia Pipes and Caves in Non-Karstic Terranes in Northern Arizona ................ 136-138 Francis Howarth, .Non-Relictual Terrestrial Troglobites in the Tropical Hawaiin Caves .... 539-541 xix

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13 Pages Song Lin Hua, .Some Characteristics of Karst Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau, China 139-142' David A. Hubbard, Jr., .Karst Development in the Front Royal 7.5 Minute Quadrangle of Virginia ... 511-514 David A. Hubbard, Jr. and John R. Holsinger, .The Karst Development of Rye Cove, Virginia .... 515-517 George Huppert, .Spatial Aspects of Histoplasmosis in the United States 2627 Thomas H. Iliffe, .The Submarine Caves of Bermuda .. '161-163 Kyle Isenhart, .Development of Relevant Testing Procedures Leading Toward Establishing Standards for Caving and Static Loaded Rescue Ropes .. ~ 179-180 Primo'f Jakopin, .On Measuring Caves by Volume 270-272 Julia James, .The Relationship Between the Availability of Organic Carbon and Cavern Development in tI'le Phreatic Zone ... 237-240 Roy A. Jameson, .Development of Flow Routes and Cave Passages from Fault Segments in West Virginian Caves ........ 717-719 v V J Antonin Jancarik, .Mathematic Simulation of 'Thermic' Airflow in Complicate Dynamic Caves............................................................................ 103 G.T. Jefferson, .Diptera in British Caves 106-107 J.N. Jennings, .Morphoclimatic Control A Tale of Piss and Wind or a Case of the Baby Out with the Bathwater? .. ~ 367-368 J.N. Jennings, Bao Haosheng and A.P. Spate, .Equilibrium Versus Events in Blind Valley Enlargement ........ Antonio NUnez Jimenez, .Cuban Ruperstrian Drawings............................................. 282 Michael L. Johnson, .Dynamic Re-adjustments in a Cave System Speleogenesis--A Result of a Base Level Surface Stream Abandoning 8 km (5 miles) of a Surface Meander Streambed......................................................................... 630 Michael L. Johnson .Hydrochemical Facies--A Method to Delineate the Hydrology of Inaccessible Features of Karst Plumbing Systems ......... 627-629 William K. Jones, .A Karst Hydrology Study in Monroe County, West Virginia 345-347 C. Juberthie and B. Delay, .Ecological and Biological Implications of the Existence of a Superficial Underground Compartment .......... 203-206 C. Juberthie, Andre Lopez and L. Juberthie-Jupeau, .Sur L'Equipement adeno-sensoriel du pedipalpe de L'Orilion Troglophile Sabacon Paradoxum Simon (palpatores, sabaconidae) 810-813 Lysiane Juberthie-Jupeau, .Sur la presence D'un rythme de reproduction dans Ie milieu souterrain superficiel: etude chez les coleopteres bathysciinae 714-716 Lin Junshu, Zhang Yaoguang, Wang Yanru and Zhao Zhongru, .An Analysis on the Palaeographic Elements of Karst Development in the Wumin Basin, Guangxi, Southern China............................................................................ 738 Thomas C. Kane, .Demographic Characteristics of Carabid Cave Beetles ..... 451-452. Naruhiko Kashima, .Preliminary Report of the Cave Minerals in China, South Korea, and Japan .. ............... 250-251 Ernst Kastning, .Pioneers of North .American Cave and Karst Science Prior to 1930 247-249 Ernst Kastning, .Tectonism, Fractures, and Speleogenesis in the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, USA........................................................................ 692-695 Karen M. Kastning and Ernst Kastning, .Fracture Control of Dolines, Caves, and Surface Drainage: Mississippian Plateau, Western Kentucky, USA ......... 696-698 Thomas A. Kaye, .Analysis of the Propagation of Error in Cave Surveys ... 800-801 Stephen Kempe, .Dissolution Experiments with Facets............................................ 647 Stephen Kempe and Kay Emeis, .Carbonaceous Sediments in a Gypsum Karst (Hainholz/ 'South Harz, Fed. Rep. Germany) ............... 569-571 Thomas Kesselring, Ursula Sommer and Urs Widmer, .Subject Cave and Motivation for Speleology. 802-804 A.B. Klimchuk, V.M. Shestopalov and G.V. Lis ichenko .Organizational Principles of Complex Stationary Researches of Karst.................................................... 35-' 37 A.B. Klimchuk, N.L. Yablokova and S.P. Olshtynsky; .The Regularities in the Formation of Gas Composition of the Air in the Large Karst Caves of Podolia and Bukovina..... . . .. . . 2123 Attila Kosa, .Desert Gypsum Karst in Biral Ghanam, Libya ....... 154-155 Attila KO'sa, -Gypsum Caves in Libya .................................................... ~ 156-158 xx

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Pages Andrej A. Kranjc, "Pebble Investigations in Slovene Caves (yugoslavia)" ... 1820 Walter Krieg, "New Genetic Problems in Corrosion Caves in Gypsum" .... 453-455 Primoz Krivic, "Sea Tide Effect Study in Karst Caves on the Rim of Trst/Trieste/Bay...... 355 S. Lang, "Quaternary Climatic Change and Speleostratigraphic Development" ..... 448-450 A.G. Latham, "Magnetostratigraphy from Speleothems: Establishment and Applications" ........ 358-361 A.G. Latham, "Muck Spreading on Speleothems ........................ 356-357 Stein-Erik Lauritzen, "Glaciated Karst in Norway" ..... 410-411 Stein-Erik Lauritzen, "Simulation of Rock Pendants Small Scale Experiments on Plaster Models ........... 407-409 Kathleen H. Lavoie, "Abiotic Effects on the Successional Decomposition of Dung ... 262-264 Kathleen H. Lavoie, "Invertebrate Interactions with Microbes During the Successional Decomposi tion of Dung" .................................... 265-266 Laszlo Lenart, Thesaurus of Hungarian Speleology, Project of an International 'Speleosaurus''' ......................... 634-635 Thomas M. Lera, "Endangered Species Legislation in the United States" ........... 385-386 Ellen Levy, "The Foraging Behavior of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus subterranous................. 581 Ellen Levy, "Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, for Exploitation of Unpredictable Food Resources.................. 584 J.J. Lewis, "The Subterranean Caecidotea of the Interior Low Plateaus" 234-236 Warren C. Lewis, "The Breathing of Coldwater Cave"............................................. 8990 Warren C. Lewis. "Carbon Dioxide in Coldwater Cave" ...................... 9192 Richard S. Lively, E. Calvin Alexander, Jr. and Jodi Milske, "A Late Pleistocene Chronologic Record in Southeastern Minnesota ........... 623-626 Lloyd Logan, "The Mammalian Fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico ....... 159-160 Kenneth M. Long and J. Philip Fawley, "Hydrology of Harlansburg Cave .. 387-390 Glenn Longley, "Ecosystem of a Deep Confined Aquifer in Texas................................... 611 Penny R. Lukin and Barry F. Beck, "Caving Activity and Sensation Seeking of N.S.S. Members: A Psychological Profile ........................... 798-799 Guy J. Magniez, "Experimental Breeding of the U.S. Cavernicolous Crustacean Caecidotea Recurvata (Steeves, 1963) ................................... 241-242 Richard Maire, "Formation of Great Underground Systems in Nakanai Mountains (New Britain Papua New Guinea) ............................................. 782-787 Richard Maire, "The High Perimediterranean Karsts ................................. 788-792 Li Maoqiu, "The Deep Karsts in Wujiang Valley at Wujiangdu Dam Site .................... 732-734 Barbara Martin, "The Community Structure of Arthropods Associated with Bat Guano and Bat Carcases in Tumbling Creek Cave, Missouri.............................................. 3 J. Martini, "The Control of Karst Development with Reference to the Formation of Caves in Poorly Soluble Rocks in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa .......... J. Martini, "Early Proterozoic Paleokarst of the Transvaal, South Africa ............. 45 68 J. Mathieu, "Respiratory Metabolism Comparison of Niphargus Rhenorhodanensis (Subterranean Crustacea, Amphipoda) from TwO Different Karstic Systems ......... 793-795 David McClurg, "Matching Cave Gear to Cave Hazards ............................. 252-253 David McClurg, "Self Tests for Conservation Awareness and Caving Skills .............. 254-255 Gail McCoy, "Analysis of the Structural Control of Speleogenesis of Lilburn Cave, California, United States .......................................... 319-321 Garry D. McKenzie, cryospeleology.............................................................. 266 Douglas M. Medville, "Geography of the Friars Hole Cave System, USA .......... 412-414 Paul Mills, "Karst Drainage Patterns in the Quatsino Limestone, Northern Vancouver Island, Canada............................................................................. 117-119 Neil Montgomery, "Knots' for Single Rope Techniques.............................................. 479 George W. Moore, "Manganese Deposition in Limestone Caves ............................. 642-644 Manuel R. Gonzalez Morales, "The Karstic Reactivation Theory and the Epipalaeolithic Sites of Northern Spain ............................. : ................... 751-752 xxi

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John Mort, "The Fauna of Castleguard Cave....................................................... 630 Donna Mroczkowski and Neil Montgomery, "A Brief Look at Single Rope Techniques and Equipment from Around the World............................................................ 132 W.B. Muchmore, "Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions of North and Middle America ................ 381-384 Ralph Muller, "Cave Map Surnbols ............................................... 588-603 Tatiana Muxart, "Etude comparee des variations des principales caracteristiques physicochimiques de deux sources karstiques de Basse Provence en fonction de la nature geologique de L'aquifere .................................................... 518-521 John r~ylroie, "A Functiona'l, Classification of Karst .................................. 686-688 John Mylroie, "Glacial Controls of Speleogenesis ................................ 689-691 J. Nicod, "Karstic Poljes Borders ............................... 739-742 G.L. Nogrady, K. Szekely and K. Arp"s, "Facial Reconstruction of an Easter Island Skull......... 138 Friedrich Oedl, "Protection of Ice Caves ................................. 640-641 Albert E. Ogden, "Pseudo-karst Caves of Arkansas .................................. 766-768 Albert E. ?ogden, Wyndal Goodman and Samuel RothermeL "Soeleoqenesis of Arkansas Ozark Caves ..................................................... 769-771 Tr. Orghidan and Magdalena Gruia, "On the Hyporheic Hydracarians of Cuba........................ 792 Arthur N. Palmer, "Hydrochemical Factors in the Origin of Limestone Caves ........... 120-122 Henri Paloc, H. Bonin, M. Bonnet, J. Guizerix, A. Lallemand-Barres, J. Margat and D. Thiery, "Resultats das Observations Conduites sur le Site Experimental de la Grotte du Lamalou (Causse de l'Hortus-France m~ridionalel .............................. 461-465 Maurizio G. Paoletti, "Soil Biology in the Southern Italian Alpine Area: General Problems of Biospeleology.................................................................. 568 Maurizio G. Paoletti, "Soil Biology: Activity and Prospects of the Research Carried Out by the 'Centro di Ecologia del Cansiglio', Venitian Prealps, Italy..................... 568 J. Parzefall, J.P. Durand and B. Richard, "Aggressive Behavior in the European Cave Salamander Proteux anguinus (Proteidae, Urodela)........................................... 415-419 I.A. Pechorkin, A.I. Pechorkin and G.B. Bolotov, "Jointing as an Index of Sulphate Massif Karstification .............................................. 181-182 Stewart Peck, "Evolution of Cave Cholevinae in North America (Coleoptera: beiodidae) ... 503-505 Stewart Peck, "The Geological, Geographical and Environmental Setting of Cave Faunal Evolution ............................................ 501-502 Stewart Peck, "Review and Synthesis of the Evolution and Zoogeography of North American Terrestrial Cave Faunas" ........................ 506-507 Jean-Francois Pernette, "Le Gouffre B.U. 56 = -1192 metres (Massif de la Pierre SaintMartin) ................................................. 574-576 Jean-Francois Pernette, "Techniques de Progression en Riviere Souterrain a Gros Debit ........ 572-573 Giuseppe Lucio Pesce, "Subterranean Phreatic Biocoenoses of North Western Iran .......... 566-567 Anna Petrohilou, "The Geranium Cave of Rethymnon, Crete .......................... 456-457 Eugenio de Bellard Pietre, "The Guacharo Cave ................................................ 217-218 Eugenio de Bellard Pietre, "Radioactivity in Venezuelan Caves ................................ 219-220 Eugenio de Bellard Pietre, "Stalactite Growth in the Tropics Under Artificial Conditions ...... 221-222 James A. Pisarowicz and Mark Maslyn, "Empirical Confirmation of Curl's (1974) Flow Velocity Calculations" 772-774 Nickos A. Poulianos. "The Archanthropinae of the Petralonian Cave ............................ 508-510 Thomas L. Poulson, "Variations in Life Histories of Linyphiid Cave Spiders .................... 6062 Thomas L. ;,oulson and Thomas C. Kane, "How Food Type Determines Community Structure in Caves 5659 Chris Pugsley, "Ecology of the New Zealand Glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Mycetophilidael in Caves at Waitomo, New Zealand" 483-488 Chris Pugsley, "Management of a Biological Resource Waitomo Glowworm Cave, New Zealand ...... 489-492 Yves Quinif, "Thermoluminescence: A Method for Sedimentological Studies in Caves ............. 309-313 Pierre Rias, tILe Secours Souterrain en France.' 674-678 Louise Robbins, Ronald C. Wilson and Patty Jo Watson, "Paleontology and Archeology of Jaguar Cave, Tennessee .................................................................. 377-380 xxii

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Jean Roberge, "La dissolution du clacaire dans la partie superieure du Bassin de la Riviere aux Saumons, Anticosti, Quebec .............. 393-394 Jean Roberge, "La Genese des formes du Karst de la Haute-Saumons, Factuers determinants......... 391-392 Bruce W. Rogers, "Alpine Karst in the Sierra Nevada, California 544-546 Bruce W. Rogers, "Soil Pipe Caves in the Death Valley Region, California .... 547-548 Joseph W. Saunders, R. Keith Ortiz and William F. Koerschner, III, "Major Groundwater Flow Directions in the Sinking Creek and Meadow Creek Drainage Basins of Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia, USA 398-400 Ugo Sauro, "Morphogenetical and Chronological Aspects of Some Karst Areas in the Italian Alps ......................... 556-562 Ugo Suaro, "Reflections on Karst Geomorphology Research in Italy: 1960-80" ...... 563-565 J. Schroeder, "Clastic Sediments in the Castleguard Cave ........................ 496-498 J. Schroeder, "A Graphic Method of Analysis of the Phreatic Caves" ...................... 493-495 George A. Schultz, "Isopods (Oniscoidea) from Caves in North America and Northern South America" ...................... 551-552 Robert Seeman, "Systematics of Mineral Parageneses in Austrian Caves .................. 256-259 Michel Siffre, "Deep Ice in the Cave of Scarasson, Marguareis Massif, Maritimes Alps, Ital ia" . . . . . . 112 Michel Siffre. "Long-term Sinqle Free-run Experiments and Their Results as a Performance Predictability Index in Astronauts......................................................... 112 Michel Siffre and Gerard Cappa, "Cave Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in the Cockpit Karst of Peten, Guatemala".................................................... 286 Rabbe Sjoberg, "Tunnel caves in Swedish Noncalcareous Rocks ............. 652-656 Andrzej Skalski, "Composition and Origin of Underground Fauna in Poland 403-406 Boris Sket, "Fauna of Anchialine (Coastal) Cave Waters, Its Origin and Importance" .. 645-647 Christopher Smart, "Glacier-Groundwater Interactions and Quantitative Groundwater Tracing in the Vicinity of Mount Castleguard, Banff National Park, Canada 720-723 Christopher Smart, "Quantitative Dye Tracing in an Alpine Karst Environment..................... 587 Christopher Smart and M.C. Brown, "Some Results and Limitations in the Application of Hydraulic Geometry to Vadose Stream Passages" ..................... 724-726 P.L. Smart, "Radon Sources and Distribution in Castleguard Cave ...................... 212 P.L. Smart, "Variation of Conduit Flow Velocities with Discharge in the Longwood to Cheddar Rising System. Mendip Hills ................................................. 333-335 A. Richard Smith, "Evaporite Karst Gypsum Plain, Culberson County, Texas........................ 482 Lawrence E. Spangler and John Thrailkill, "Hydrogeology of Northern Fayette County and Southern Scott County, Kentucky, USA" .......................... 553-555 Jack Speece, "Early American Speleological Writings ..................................... 183-184 David Steadman, "Vertebrate Fossils in Lava Tubes in the Galapagos Islands" .............. 549-550 Robert Stitt, "Cave Conservation in the United States of America: An Overview in 1981" 187-189 Robert Stitt, "Underground Wilderness: A Conservation Principle and a Management Tool" ....... 185-186 Pierre Strinati, "A Pioneer in Speleology: The Swiss Painter Caspar Wolf (1735-1783)"......... 458 Pierre Strinati and Villy Aellen, "Biospeleological Researches in the Island of Ceylon" 459-460 GUnter Stummer, "Der hypsometrische Hohlen-Ubersichtsplan" .............................. 260-261 Wayne M. Sutherland. "Horsethief Cave: An Early Pleistocene Cavern .......................... 608-611 Kinga Szekely and G.L. Nogrady, "Cooperation of Speleologist and Microbiologist....... ........ 492 Ken Tankersley, "A Cupstone Petroglyph of Possible Astronomical Significance from an Early Woodland Site in the Karst Region, Jackson County, Kentucky" ................... 760-762 John Thrailkill, Phillip E. Byrd. William H. Hopper, Michael R. McCann. Lawrence E. Spangler, Joseph W. Troester, Douglas R. Gonzie and Kevin R. Pogue. "The Inner Bluegrass Karst Regions. Kentucky: An Overview" 336-338 Robert Thrun, "A Comparison of Expected Survey Errors with Closure Adjustments" ............... 648-649 G.F. Tietz, "Hollow Calcite Crystals on Surfaces of Small Pools in the Liethohle/ Sauerland, West Germany" ................................................................ 362-363 G.F. Tietz, "Recent Formation of Carbonate Mineral Association in Dolomite Caves, Franconia. West Germany .............................................................. 364-366 xxiii

PAGE 23

John C. Tinsley, D.R. Packer and S.R. Ulfeldt, "Sedimentologic and Speleogenetic Implications of Clastic Deposits in Central Lilburn Cave, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, CA, USA" 291-294 J.C. Tinsley, D.J. Des Marais, G. McCoy, B.W. Rogers and S.R. Ulfeldt, "Lilburn Cave's Contribution to the Natural History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA" ..................................................... : ................. 287-290 Arturo.Torres-Gonzalez, "Hydrology of the Rio Camuy Caves System, Puerto Rico"................. 475 S.T. Trudgill, A.M. Pickles and R.W. Crabtree, "Solute Uptake on a Magnesian Limestone Hillslope" ............................................................................ 351-352 Marie Josli Turquin, "The Tactics of Dispersal of Two Species of Niphargus (Perenial Troglobitic Amphipoda) : ....................................................... 353-355 Peter J. Uhl, "Photomonitoring as a Management Tool" ..................................... 476-479 Franco Urbani, "Karst Development in Siliceous Rocks, Venezuelan Guiana Shield"................ 548 Sandra C. Van Luik, "Ecology of Crayfish from West Virginia Caves" ............................ 657-658 Nicasio Vina, "The Karsts of the Oriental Part of Cuba" .................................... 537-538 Josef Wagner, "Entwicklung und Typologie von Pseudokarst Untergrundformen Der Aussenflyschkreise in Den Westkarpaten" .............................................. 636-637 Richard A. Watson and Philip M. Smith, "The Cave Research Foundation" ....................... 372-373 Friedrich Weber, "Regression of the Locomotion Controlling System in Cavernicolous Carabid Beetles" ................................................................... 667-669 W. Calvin Welbourn, "Cavernicolous Acari of North America" ................................ 528 Steve G. Wells and Alberto A. Gutierrez. "Geomorphic Adjustments of Fluvial Systems to Groundwa ter Hydrology in Semiar id and Humid Kars t" . . . . . . . 216 Oliver C. Wells, "Cave Diving in England in the 1950's" ................................... 735-737 Urs Widmer, "Cave Research in Switzerland" .................................... 638-639 Hurst Wilkens, "Regressive Evolution and Phylogenetic Age"..................................... 622 P. Williams, "Multidisciplinary Research for Cave Management: The Waitomo Caves Research Program, New Zealand"............................................................ 150 Paul Williams, "Paleotemperature, Sea Level and Uplift Data from New Zealand Speleothems" ..... 151-153 John M. Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W. Bradshaw and Philip C. Lucas, "The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission" ............................................ 585-587 Ronald C. Wilson, "First Extinct Vertebrates from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky"...................... 339 Edward E. Wood, Jr., "Interpretation as a Primary Tool in Cave Conservation Management" ....... 582-584 Charles J. Yonge, "Fluid Inclusions in Speleothems as Paleoclimate Indicators" ................ 301-304 Peter Zabrok, "The History of Exploration of Canadian Hole" ................................ 369-371 Miloslav Zacharda and William Elliott, "Holarctic Cave Mites of the Family Rhagidiidae (Actinedida: Eupodoidea) ............................................... 604-607 Zhao-xuan Zeng, "The Foot Caves in the Tropical China"......................................... 479 Chen Zhiping, "Study of Features of the Karstic Depression in South China" 499-500 xxiv


Description
Sponsored by The National Speleological Society
Hosted by The Department of Geography and Geology,
Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S.A.
July 18 to 24, 1981
Edited by Barry F. Beck.
Table of Contents: bv sessions, in chronoloqical order
Cave Management SymposiumThe resource
potential of transvaal caves / Frances Gamble pp 466-468
Problems of management of transvaal caves/ Frances Gamble -
pp 469-472 Karst cave management modelling in the transvaal /
Frances Gamble. pp 473-475 Underground wilderness: A
conservation principal and a management tool / Robert Stitt -
pp 185-186 Interpretation as a primary tool in cave
conservation management / Edward E. Wood, Jr. pp 582-584
Protection of ice caves / Friedrich Dedl. pp 640-641
Hydrology IPercolation Waters in Karstic
Aquifers / Michel Bakalowicz pp 710-713 Scallops / Alfred
Bilgli pp 82-83 Hydrology and Water Chemistry of Upper
Sinking Cove, Franklin County, Tennessee / Jerry D. Davis and
George A. Brook pp 38-41 A Compound Karstic System: The
Sakal Tutan Degirmenlik Karapinar System (Western Taurus,
Turkey) / Claude Chabert pp 699-700 An Underground Thermal
Stream Discovered for the First Time in Kweichow Province,
China / Mao Chian-chun pp 323 Hydrology of the Rio Camuy
Caves System, Puerto Rico / Arturo Torres-Gonzalez pp 475
Recent Flood Pulse and Hydrological Studies on the Russett
Well/Peak Cavern System, Castleton, Derbyshire, England /
N.S.J. Christopher pp 522-525 Hydrogeology of the Corchia
Marbles (Apuane Alps-Italy): New Data from Water Tracing
Experiments / Andrea Caneda, Paolo Forti and Stefano Querze -
pp 743-746 Dye Trace Studies of the Unsaturated-Zone Recharge
of the Carboniferous Limestone Aquifer of the Mendip Hills,
England / H. Friedeiich and P.L. Smart pp 283-286 The
Geohydrology of the Ingleborough Area, England / R.A.
Halliwell pp 126-128 Some Characteristics of Karst
Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau, China / Song Lin Hua pp
139-142 Hydrochemical Facies--A Method to Delineate the
Hydrology of Inaccessible Features of Karst Plumbing Systems
/ Michael T. Johnson pp 627-629
Symposium: Evolution and Zoogeography of North
American Terrestrial Session IReview and Synthesis
of the Evolution and zoogeography of North American
Terrestrial Cave Faunas / S. Peck pp 506-507 The
Geological, Geographical and Environmental Setting of Cave
Faunal Evolution / S. Peck pp 501-502 Isopods (Oniscoidca)
from Caves in North America and Northern South America" /
George A. Schultz pp 551-552 Cavernicolous Acari of North
America / W. Calvin Welbourn pp 528 Evolution of Hypogean
Species of Dpilionids of North and Middle America / Clarence
Goodnight and Maria L. Goodnight pp 9-10 Cavernicolous
Pseudoscorpions of North and Middle America / W.B. Muchmore -
pp 381-384
Symposium: Evolution and Zoogeography of North
American Terrestrial Session IIThe Zoogeography of
Eastern U.S. Cave Collembola / Kenneth Christiansen pp
618-622 Cave Diplura of the United States / Lynn M. Ferguson
- pp 11-12 The Carabidae (Coleoptera) in North American Caves
/ Thomas C. Barr, Jr pp 343-344 Evolution of Cave
Cholevinae in North America (Coleoptera: beiodidae) / Stewart
Peel pp 503-505
DenudationContemporary Limestone Erosion
Rates in the Gunong Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East
Malaysia / Michael J. Day pp 329 A General Hodel of Karst
Specific Erosion Rates / John Drake pp 158 On Karst
Denudation Research Problematic / Anton Droppa pp 355
Specific Dissolution in the Mediterranean Karstic Areas of
France / Guilhem Fabre pp 192-195 Rates of Cave Passage
Entrenchment and Valley Lowering Determined from Speleothem
Age Measurements / M. Gascoyne pp 99-100
Geomorphology IThe Investigation of Old
Karst Phenomena of the Bohemian Massif in Czechoslovakia: A
Preliminary Regional Evaluation / Pavel Bosak and Ivan
Horacek pp 167-169 Phases of Karstification in the
Paleogeographic Development of Poland's Territory / Jerzy
Glazek pp 25 Glacial Controls of Speleogenesis" / John E.
Mylroie pp 689-691 Subarctic Karst Geomorphology and the
Development of Organo-Karst Landforms in the Hudson Bay
Lowland, Ontario / Daryl W. CowelL- pp 13-15 Karst, Covered
Karst and Interstratal Karst in Glaciated Lowland Terrains of
Canada / Derek Ford pp 20 The Pre-Quaternary Palaeokarst of
the Morecambe Bay Area, Northwest England / Stephen J. Gale -
pp 210-212
Conservation/ManagementStudies of the
Climatic Conditions for the Conservation of Decorated
Prehistoric Caves; Two Operations: Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume
/ J. Brunet and P. Vidal pp 659-662 Interfering in the
Postojna Cave as Far as Protection of the Cave is Concerned /
France Habe pp 437-441 Visitors and Climatic Regime of
Caves / Irene Halbichova and Antonin Jancarik pp 125 "The
Guacharo Cave", Eugenio de Bellard Pietre pp 217-218
Management of a Biological Resource Waitomo Glowworm Cave,
New Zealand / Chris Pugsley pp 489-492 Cave Conservation in
the United States of America: An Overview in 1981 / Robert
Stitt pp 187-189 Photomonitoring as a Management Tool /
Peter J. Uhl pp 476-479 The Evolution of the Virginia Cave
Commission / John H. Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W.
Bradshaw and Philip C. Lucas pp 585-587 Multidisciplinary
Research for Cave Management: The Waitomo Caves Research
Program, New Zealand / P. Williams pp 150 Cave Closing as a
Conservation Method / Gyula Hegedus pp 401-402
Volcanospeleology/PseudokarstPseudokarst on
Mars / Victor R. Baker pp 63-65 On Some Underground Forms,
Pseudokarstic, in France / Yann Callot pp 682-685 Impact of
1980 Eruptions on the Mount St. Helens Caves / William R.
Halliday pp 174-176 North Carolina's Bat Caves: A
Significant Region of Tectonokarst / Cato O. Holler, Jr pp
190-191 The Genetic Relationship Between Breccia Pipes and
Caves in Non-Karstic Terranes in Northern Arizona / Louise D.
Hose and Thomas R. Strong pp136-138 The Control of Karst
Development with Reference to the Formation of Caves in
Poorly Soluble Rocks in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa /
J. Martini pp4- 5 Pseudo-karst Caves of Arkansas / Albert
E. Ogden pp 766-768 Soil Pipe Caves in the Death Valley
Region, California / Bruce W. Rogers- pp 547-548 Tunnelcaves
in Swedish Noncalcareous Rocks / Rabbe Sjoberg pp 652-656
Entwicklung und Typologie von Pseudokarst Untergrundformen
der aussenflyschkreise in den west karpaten / Josef Wagner -
pp 636-637
Geomorphology IIPalaeokarst as a Key to
Paleogeography, Poland's Territory as an Example / Jerzy
Glazek pp 27 Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Carlsbad
Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Hixico / Alberto A. Gutierrez
- pp 45-47 Equilibrium versus events in Blind valley
Enlargement / J.N. Jennings, Bao Haosheng and A.P. Spate pp
1-3 Glaciated Karst in Norway / Stein~Erik Lauritzen pp
410-411 The High Perimediterranean Karsts / Richard Haire -
pp 788-792 Karst Drainage Patterns in the Quatsino Limestone,
Northern Vancouver Island, Canada / Paul Hills pp 117-119
Geomorphologic Evolution of a Karst Area Subject to
Neotectonic Hovements in the Umbria Harche Apennines (Central
Italy) / Hauro Coltorti pp 84-88 The Development of the
Lower Cretaceous Karst: A Comparison with the Plate Tectonics
/ Pavel Bosak pp 170-173 Karstic Poljes Borders / J. Nicod
- pp 27 Geomorphic Adjustments of Fluvial Systems to
Groundwater Hydrology in Semiarid and Humid Karst / Steve G.
Wells and Alberto A. Gutierrez pp 739-742
Applied HydrologyPolicy for Karst Protection
in France / Gerard Aime pp 580-581 Applications of
Speleology in Civil Engineering Works in Turkey / Temucin
Aygen pp 498 Subsidence Susceptibility Hodels for Dougherty
County, Georgia, from Sinkhole and Fracture Distribution Data
/ George A. Brook and Terry L. Allison pp 50-52 Karst
Flooding in Urban Areas: Bowling Green, Kentucky / Nicholas
C. Crawford pp 763-765 On the Hydrogeological
Characteristics of Karst Water_in China and its Exploitation
/ Yuan Daoxian pp 316 The Impact of the Agricultural
Land-use Cycle on Flood Surges and Runoff in a Kentucky Karst
Region / Percy H. Dougherty pp 267-269 The Inner Bluegrass
Karst Regions, Kentucky: An OverView / John Thrailkill,
Phillip E. Byrd, William H. Hopper, Hichael R. HcCann,
Lawrence E. Spangler, Joseph W. Troester, Douglas R. Gonzie
and Kevin R. Pogue pp 336-338 New Contributions to the
Problem of Dam Building in Karstic Regions / Adolfo Eraso -
pp 348-350 Affectations of the Cyclones in the Karst / Angel
Grana Gonzalez pp 542-543 The Deep Karsts in Wujiang Valley
at wugiangdu Dam Site / Li Maoqiu pp 732-734
Karst and Caves of Castleguard Hountain, Rocky
Hountains of Canada: A symposium Session II: Origin and
Development of the Cave and KarstGeology,
Geomorphology, and Glaciology of the Castleguard-Columbia
Icefield Area / D.C. Ford pp 37 Speleogenesis of the
Castleguard Cave system / D.C. Ford pp 281 Clastic
Sediments in the Castleguard Cave / J. Schroeder pp 496-498
The Antiquity of the Cave as Established by U-Series Dating
of Speleothems / H. Gascoyne and A.G. Latham pp 101-103
Glacier-ground Water Interactions and Quantitative
Groundwater Tracing in the Vicinity of Mount Castleguard,
Banff National Park, Canada / C.C. Smart pp 720-723
Session III: Modern Physical Processes in the
CaveThe Climate of castleguard Cave, Canada / T.C.
Atkinson pp 322 Radon Sources and Distribution in
Castleguard Cave / P.L. Smart pp 212 The Hineralogy of
Castle guard Cave / R.S. Harmon and T.C. Atkinson pp
428-432 Mechanisms of Calcite Speleothem Deposition in
Castleguard Cave, Canada / T.C. Atkinson pp 322
Session IV: Cave BiologyThe Fauna of
Castleguard Cave / J.S. Mort and A. Recklies pp 630
Stygobromus Canadensis, A Troglobitic Arnphipod Crustacean
from Castleguard Cave, with Remarks on the Concept of Cave
Glacial Refugia / J.R. Holsinger pp 93-95
Speleogenesis ITunnel-caves and Natural
Bridges of Northern Mediterranean Area / Jacques Choppy pp
707-709 Speleogenesis Models for the Mammoth Cave Region, and
Their Use as Predictive Tools for Southern Toohey Ridge, Hart
and Barren Counties, Kentucky / James Currens pp 75-78 On
the Underground Stream and Cave Systems of Soliao Karst Area,
Bama County, Guangxi, China / Yuan Daoxian pp 317-381pp 647
Some Results and Limitations in the Application of Hydraulic
Geometry to Vadose Stream Passages", Christopher Smart pp
724-726 Subterranean Stream Piracy in the Garrison Chapel
Karst Valley, Indiana, U.S.A. / David Des Marais pp 196-199
Complex Groundwater Basin Migrations in Roppel Cave, Kentucky
/ Miles E. Drake and James D. Borden pp 28-30 Cavern
Porosity Development in Limestone: A Low Dip Model from
Mammoth Cave, Kentucky / Ralph O. Ewers and James F. Quinlan
- pp 727-731 Genetical Observations on Some Natural Cavities
of the Masua Mine (SW Sardinia) / Paolo Forti, Giuliano Perna
and Bruno Turi pp 779-781 Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns
and Other Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains / Carol HilL pp
143-144 Dynamic Re-adjustments in a Cave System
Speleogenesis--A Result of a Base Level Surface Stream
Abandoning 8 km (5 miles) of a Surface Meander Streambed /
Michael L. Johnson pp 630
MineralogyMuck Spreading on Speleothems /
A.G. Latham pp 356-357 Moonmilk, Two Questions of
Terminology / R. Bernasconi pp 113-116 Classification of
the 'Stratified Calcareous Deposits in Function of
Environmental Conditions / Jacques Choppy pp 775-778
Genetical Observations on Some Macrocrystal Cave Perals Found
in Two Caves of Lombardia' (Northern Italy) / Alfredo Bini
and Paolo Forti. pp 747-750 Hollow Calcite Crystals on
Surfaces of Small Pools in the Liethohle/Sauerland, West
Germany / G.F. Tietz pp 362-363 Morphological and
Mineralogical Features of Phreatic Speleothems Occurring in
Coastal Caves of Majorca (Spain) / Joaquin Ginbs and Luis
Pomar pp 529-532 Preliminary Report of the Cave Minerals in
China, South Korea, and Japan / Naruhiko Kashima pp 250-251
Manganese Deposition in Limestone Caves / George W. Moore -
pp 642-644 Systematics of Mineral Parageneses in Austrian
Caves / Robert Seemann pp 256-259 Recent Formation of
Carbonate Mineral Association in Dolomite Caves, Franconia,
West Germany / G.F. Tietz pp 364-366 Contribution to the
Morphometries of Stalagmites / Ivan Gams pp 276-278
Biology INotes on the Cave Spiders of Papua
- New Guinea / Paolo Marcello Brignoli pp 110-112
Invertebrate Interactions with Microbes During the
Successional Decomposition of Dung / Kathleen H. Lavoie pp
265-266 Cooperation of Speleologist and Microbiologist /
Kinga Szekely and G.L. Nogrady pp 492 The Incidence of Iron
Bacteria in an Australian Cave / H. Jane Dyson and Julia
James pp 79-81 On the Hyporheic Hydracarians of Cuba / Tr.
Orghidan and Magdalena Gruia pp 792 Sur L'Equipement
Adeno-sensoriel du Pedipalpe de L'opilion Troglophile Sabacon
Paradoxum Simon (palpatores, sabaconidae) / C. Juberthie,
Andre Lepex and L. Juberthle-Jupeau pp 810-813 Ecology of
the New Zealand Glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera:
Mycetophilidae) in Caves at Waitomo, New Zealand / Chris
Pugsley pp 480-482 Morphological and Behavioral Adaptations
of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, for
Exploitation of Unpredictable Food Resources / Ellen S. Levy
- pp 584 Ecology of Malheur Cave, Oregon / Ellen M. Benedict
and Esther Gruber pp 480-482 The Collared Lemming
Dicrostonyx Hudsonius (pallas) from a Pleistocene Cave
Deposit in West Virginia / Frederick Grady and E. Ray Garton
- pp 279-281 The Tactics of Dispersal of Two Species of
Niphargus (Perenial Troglobitic Amphipoda) / Marie Jos~
Turquin pp 353-355
SedimentologyThe Palaeohydraulics of Karst
Drainage Systems: Fluvial Cave Sediment Studies / Stephen J.
Gale pp 213-216 Morphogenesis and Sedimentology in a Quebec
Cave: The Speos de la Fee (Matapedia) / Camille M. Ek pp
104-105 Pebble Investigations in Slovene Caves (Yugoslavia) /
Andrej A. Kranjc pp 18-20 Sedimentologic and Speleogenetic
Implications of Clastic Deposits in Central Lilburn Cave,
Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, CA, USA / John C.
Tinsley, D.R. Packer and S.R. Ulfeldt pp 291-294 Probable
Cave Deposits in the Ellsworth Mountains of West Antarctica /
John P. Craddock and Gerald F. Webers pp 395-397
Thermoluminescence: A Method for Sedimentological Studies in
Caves / Yves Quinif pp 309-313
Speleogenesis IITectonism, Fractures, and
Speleogenesis in the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas, USA /
Ernst H. Kastning pp 692-695 Gypsum Caves in Libya / Attila
Kosa pp 156-158 New Genetic Problems in Corrosion Caves
in Gypsum / Walter Krieg pp 453-455 Analysis of the
Structural Control of Speleogenesis of Lilburn Cave,
California, United States / Gail McCoy pp 319-321 Cave
Systems Speleogenesis at the Karst Poljes of Slovenia (NW
Yugoslavia) / Rado Gospodaric pp 656 Formation of Great
Underground Systems in Nakanai Mountains (New Britain Papua
New Guinea) / Richard Maire pp 782-787 The History of
Exploration of Canadian Hole / Peter Zabrok pp 369-371 Le
Gouffre B.U. 56 = -1192 metres (Massif de la Pierre
Saint-Martin) / Jean-Francois Pernette pp 574-576
MicroclimatologyThe Air Movements in the
'Grotte de Niaux' (Ariege), Consequences / Claude Andrieux -
pp 323 Mathematic Simulation of 'Thermic' Airflow in
Complicate Dynamic Caves / Antonin Jancarik pp 103 The
Regularities in the Formation of Gas Composition of the Air
in the Large Karst Caves of Podolia and Bukovina / A.B.
Klimchuk, N.L. Yablokova and S.P. Olshtynsky pp 21-23
Ouaternary Climatic Change and Speleostratigraphic
Development / S. Lang pp 448-450 Carbon Dioxide in
Coldwater Cave / Warren C. Lewis pp 91-92 Mathematic
Simulation of Baric Airflow / Jiri Botur and Antonin Jancarik
- pp 142 Cryospeleology / Garry D. McKenzie pp 266 The
Breathing of Coldwater Cave / Warren C. Lewis pp 89-90
Tropical GeomorphologySingle and Double
Fourier Series Analysis of Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico /
George Brook and Ronald Mitchelson pp 53-55 The Foot Caves
in the Tropical China / Zhao-xuan Zeng pp 479 Limestone
Hardness and Tropical Karst Terrain TYpes / Michael J. Day -
pp 327-329 The Geomorphological Features of the Karst in
Guilin District / Zhu Dehau and Tan Pengjia pp 145 Karst
and Caves in the Turks and Caicos Islands, B.W.I. / Vojtech
A. Gregor pp 805-807 The Submarine Caves of Bermuda /
Thomas M. Iliffe Desert Gypsum Karst in Bir al'Ghanarn,
Libya / Attila Kosa pp 154-155 An Analysis on the
Palaeographic Elements of Karst Development in the Wumin
Basin, Guangxi, Southern China / Lin Junshu, Zhang Yaoquang,
Wang Yanra and Zhao Zhongru pp 738 Towards a Numerical
Categorization of Tropical Karst Terrains / Michael J. Day -
pp 330-332 Study of Features of the Karstic Depressions in
South China / Chen Zhiping pp 499-500
Geochemistry/GeophysicsStalactite Growth in
the Tropics Under Artificial Conditions / Eugenio de Bellard
Pietre pp 221-222 The Classification-of Karst Waters by
Chemical Analysis / N.S.J. Christopher and J.D. Wilcock pp
526-528 Radiation Hazards in Natural Caves / Arrigo A. Cigna
and Gian F. Clemente pp 420-423 C02 Measurements in Cave
Air: A Comparison Between Belgium and Quebec / Camille M. Ek
- pp 672-673 The Relationship Between the Availability of
Organic Carbon and Cavern Development in the Phreatic Zone /
Julia James pp 237-240 Carbonaceous Sediments in a Gypsum
Karst (Hainholz/South Harz, Fed. Rep. Germany) / Stephen
Kempe and Kay Emeis pp 569-571 Radioactivity in Venezuelan
Caves / Eugenio de Bellard Pietre pp 219-220 Deep Ice in
the Cave of Scarasson, Marguareis Massif, Maritimes Alps,
Italia~ Michel Siffre pp 112 Fluid Inclusions in
Speleothems as Paleoclimate Indicators / Charles J. Yonge -
pp 301-304 Etude comparee des variations des principales
caracteristiques physico-chimiques de deux sources karstiques
de Basse Provence en fonction de la nature geologique de
L'aquifere / Tatiana Muxart pp 518-521 Groundwater
Geothermal Energy from Subsurface Streams in Karst Regions /
Nicholas C. Crawford pp 820
Hydrology IIA Karst Hydrology Study in
Monroe County, West Virginia / William K. Jones pp 345-347
Sea Tide Effect Study in Karst Caves on the Rim of
Trst/Trieste/Bay / Primoz Krivic pp 355 Hydrology of
Harlansburg Cave / Kenneth M. Long and J. Philip Fawley pp
387-390 Resultats das Observations Conduites Sur Ie Site
Experimental de la Grotte du Lamalou (Causse de
l'Hortus-France M~ridionale) / Henri Paloc, H. Bonin, M.
Bonnet, J. Guizerix. A. Lal1emand-Barres. J. Margat and D.
Thiery pp 461-465 Empirical Confirmation of Curl's (1974)
Flow Velocity Calculations / James A. Pisarowicz and Mark
Maslyn pp 772-774 La Dissolution du Calcaire dans la Partie
Superieure du Bassin de la Riviere aux Saurnons, Anticosti,
Quebec / Jean Roberge pp 393-394 Major Groundwater Flow
Directions in the Sinking Creek and Meadow Creek Drainage
Basins of Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia, USA / Joseph W.
Saunders, R. Keith Ortiz and William F. Koerschner, III pp
398-400 Quantitative Dye Tracing in an Alpine Karst
Environment / Christopher Smart pp 587 Variation of Conduit
Flow Velocities with Discharge in the Longwood to Cheddar
Rising System, Mendip Hills / P.L. Smart ..333-335 An Example
of Karstic Drainage, the Hydrological System of Eynif
(Western Taurus, Turkey) / Claude Chabert pp 701-702
Hydrogeology of Northern Fayette County and Southern Scott
County, Kentucky, USA / Lawrence E. Spangler and John
Thrailkill pp 553-555
Aquatic Faunas IPreliminary observations on
foraging behavior in a hypogean crustacean community / D.L.
Bechler and A. Fernandez pp 66-67 The effect of competition
on species composition of some cave communities / D.C. Culver
- pp 207-209 Fauna of anchialine (coastal) cave waters, its
origin and importance / B. Sket. pp 645-647 Ecosystem of a
deep confined aquifer in Texas / G. Longley pp 611 A Karst
Ecosystem the Dorvan Massif (Ain. France) V-Drift of
Invertebrates, Organic Matter and Minerals out of the Massif
/ J.Gibert pp 223-227 Subterranean phreatic biocoenoses of
northwestern Iran / G.L. Pesce pp 566-567 Ecology and
taxonomy of marine cave invertebrates in the Bahama Islands /
J.H. Carpenter pp 24-25 Respiratory metabolism comparison
of Niphargus Rhenorhodanensis (subterranean crustacea,
amphipoda) from two different karstic systems / J. Mathieu -
pp 793-795 Occurrence of Jaera (Isopoda, Asellota, Janiridae)
in the hypogean domain / J.P. Henry pp 670-671 Experimental
breeding of the U.S. cavernicolous crustacean Caecidotea
recurvata (Steeves, 1963) / G. J. Magniez pp 241-242
Aquatic Faunas IIThe subterranean Caecidotea
of the Interior Low Plateaus / J.J. Lewis pp 234-236
Comparison of acute toxicity of cadmium, chromium, and copper
between two distinct populations of hypogean isopods
(Caecidotea sp.) / A.D. Bosnak and E.L. Morgan pp 72-74
Population ecology of the troglobitic isopod crustacean
Antrolana lira Bowman (Cirolanidae) / T.L.Collins and
J.R.Holsinger pp 129-132 Ecology of crayfishes from West
Virginia caves / S.C. Van Luik pp 657-658 Agonistic
behavior in the Arnblyopsidae, the spring, cave and swamp
fishes / D.L. Bechler pp 68-69 Agressive behavior in the
European cave salamander Proteus anguinus / J. Parzefall,
J.P. Durand and B. Richard pp 415-419 Sensory compensation
in the darkness: comparative study of the prey detection in
the cave living vertebrate Proteus anguinus / J.P. Durand, J.
Parzefall and B. Richard pp 31-34
SpeleochronologyRadiometric Dating of Polish
Cave Speleothems: Current Results / Jerzy Glazek and Russell
S. Harmon pp 424-427 A Late Pleistocene Chronologic Record
in Southeastern Minnesota / Richard S. Lively, E. Calvin
Alexander, Jr. and Jodi Milske pp 623-626 A Climate Record
of the Yorkshire Dales for the Last 300.000 Years / M.
Gascoyne pp 96-98 Phreatic Speleothems in Coastal Caves of
Majorca (Spain) as Indicators of Mediterranean Pleistocene
Paleolevels / Angel Ginls, Joaquin Ginls and Luis Pomar pp
533-536 Geological Development and Age of the Caves in the
Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) / Vojtech A. Gregor pp
808-809 Geochronology of Speleothems from the Flint Ridge -
Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky, USA / John W. Hess and Russell
S. Harmon pp 433-436 Magnetostratigraphy from Speleothems:
Establishment and Applications / A.G. Latham pp 358-361 The
Archanthropinae of the Petralonian Cave / Nickos A. Poulianos
- pp 508-510 Horsethief Cave: An Early Pleistocene Cavern /
Wayne M. Sutherland pp 608-611
Geomorphology IIILa Genese des Formes du
Karst de la Haute-Saumons, Facteurs Determinants / Jean
Roberge pp 391-392 The Shape of Gypsum Bubbles / Richard L.
Breisch and Fred L. Wefer pp 757-759 Reflections on Karst
Geomorphology Research in Italy: 1960-80 / Ugo Sauro pp
563-565 Evapori te Karst Gypsum Plain, Culberson County,
Texas / A. Richard Smith pp 482 Solute Uptake on a
Magnesian Limestone Hillslope / S.T. Trudgill, A.M. Pickles
and R.W. Crabtree pp 351-352 Simulation of Rock Pendants -
Small Scale Experiments on Plaster Models / Stein-Erik
Lauritzen pp 407-409 Karst Development in Siliceous Rocks,
Venezuelan Guiana Shield;, France Urbani pp 548 Geography
of the Friars Hole Cave System, USA / Douglas M. Medville -
pp 412-414 Gypsum-Anhydrite Karst on the Territory of the
USSR / K.A. Gorbanova pp778 Dinaric Karst Poljes and
Neotectonics / Peter Habic pp 797
Archeology/PaleontologyThe Scanning Electron
Microscope as an Adjunct to Environmental Reconstruction in
Archeological Sites / Peter A. Bull pp 340-342
Archeological Investigations in Sand Cave, Kentucky / George
M. Crothers pp 374-376 Cuban Rupestrian Drawings / Antonio
Nunez Jiml!nez pp 282 First Extinct Vertebrates from
Mammoth Cave, Kentucky / Ronald C. Wilson. pp 339 The
Geranium Cave of Rethymnon, Crete / Anna Petrochilou
..456-457 Cave Explorations and Archaeological Discoveries in
the Cockpit Karst of Peten, Guatemala / Michel Siffre and
Gerard Cappa. pp 286 Vertebrate Fossils in Lava Tubes in
the Galapag9s Islands / David Steadman pp 549-550 A Cups
tone Petroglyph of Possible Astronomical Significance from an
Early Woodland Site in the Karst Region, Jackson County,
Kentucky / Ken Tankersley pp 760-762 Paleontology and
Archeology of Jaguar Cave, Tennessee / Louise Robbins, Ronald
C. Wilson and Patty Jo Watson pp 377-380 The Mammalian
Fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico / Lloyd Logan
- pp 159-160 The 'Karstic reactivation' theory and the
Epipalaeoli thic sites of Northern Spain / Manuel R. Gonzalez
Morales pp 751-752
HistoryA Pioneer in Speleology: The Swiss
Painter Casper Wolf (1735-1783) / Pierre Strinati pp 458
Early American Speleological Writings / Jack Speece pp
183-184 Pioneers of North American Cave and Karst Science
Prior to 1930 / Ernst Kastning pp 247-249 History and
Contributions of the Western Speleological Survey / William
R. Halliday pp 177-178
DocumentationThe Cave Research Foundation /
Richard A. Watson and Philip M. Smith pp 372-373 Some
Problems of Cave Names / Paolo De Simonis pp 324-326 Cave
Research in Switzerland / Urs Widmer pp 638-639 Thesaurus
of Hungarian Speleo1ogy, Project of an International
'Speleosaurus''', Laszlo Lenart pp 634-635 Statistical
Study of the Great Caves of the World / Jacques Choppy and
Pascale Choppy pp 703-706
Techniques/EquipmentAccuracy Evaluation of
Electromagnetic Locating / Charles Bishop and Frank S. Reid -
pp 70-71 Matching Cave Gear to Cave Hazards / David R.
McClurg pp 252-253 The Relations Between Technique and
Aesthetiques in Underground Photography: The Position of the
Cameras and the Lighting / Francois-Marie Callot and Yann
Callot pp 679-681 On Measuring Caves by Volume / Primoz
Jakopin ..270-272 Self Tests for Conservation Awareness and
Caving Skills / David R. McClurg pp 254-255 Le Secours
Souterrain en France / Pierre Rias pp 674-678 Long-term
Single Free-Run Experiments and their Results as a
Performance Predictability Index in Astronauts / Michel
Siffre pp 112
MappingLarge Cave-System Database
Management: A Simple Concept, Yet a Complex Solution / James
D. Borden pp 615-617 An Evaluation of the Polaroid
Ultrasonic Ranging System as a Tool for Cave Surveying /
Richard L. Breisch and Michael Maxfield pp 753-756 Analysis
of the Propagation of Error in Cave Surveys / Thomas A. Kaye
- pp 800-801 A Comparison of Expected Survey Errors with
Closure Adjustments / Robert Thrun pp 648-649 Der
hypsometrische Hohlen-Ubersichtsplan / Gunter Sturnrner pp
260-261
Evolutionary EcologyRegressive Evolution and
Phylogenetic Age / Horst Wilkens pp 622 Regression of the
Locornotion-Controlling System in Cavernicolous Carabid
Beetles / Friedrich Weber pp 667-669 The Activity
Controlling Time-System in Epigean and Hypogean Populations
of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) / Wilhelmine
Erckens pp 796-797 Demographic Characteristics of Carabid
Cave Beetles / Thomas Kane pp 451-452 Variations in Life
Histories of Linyphiid Cave Spiders / Thomas Poulson pp
60-62 Remarks on the Origin and Distribution of Troglobitic
Spiders / Christa L. Deelman-Reinhold pp 305-308 The
Ecology of Bat Guano in Tamana Cave, Trinidad, W.I. / Stuart
Hill. pp 243-246 The Community Structure of Arthropods
Associated with Bat Guano and Bat Carcasses in Tumbling Creek
Cave, Missouri / Barbara Martin pp 3
Cave DivingRescue Cave Divers and Their
Equipment / Thomas Cook pp 314-315 The World's Longest
Underwater Cave / Sheck Exley and Ned Deloach pp 16-17
Techniques de Progression en Riviere Souterrain a Gros Debit
/ Jean-Francois Pernette pp 572-573 Cave Diving in England
in the 1950's / Oliver C. Wells pp 735-737 The NSS Cave
Diving Section / Thomas Cook pp 315
Social SciencesCaving Education in Quebec /
Daniel Caron pp 577-579 Le Medicalisation des Secours en
France 'Le Point en 1980' / F. Guillaume pp 650-651 Caving
Activity and Sensation Seeking of N.S.S. Members: A
Psychological Profile / Penny R. Lukin and Barry F. Beck pp
798-799 The French School of Speleology / Gerard Duclaux and
Marcel Meyssonier pp 636-666 Subject Cave and Motivation
for Speleology / Thomas Kesselring, Ursula Sommer and Urs
Widmer pp 802-804
Vertical TechniquesA Brief Look at Single
Rope Techniques and Equipment from Around the World / Donna
Mroczkowski and Neil Montgomery pp 132 Choosing a Rope for
SRT (Single Rope Techniques) / Mike Cowlishaw pp 108-109
The Weak Link / Andrev Eavis pp 43-44 Development of
Relevant Testing Procedures Leading Toward Establishing
Standards for Caving and Static Loaded Rescue Ropes / Kyle
Isenhart pp 179-180 Some New Methods in Exploring Technique
of Water and Vertical Caves / Mladen Garasic pp 146-147
Provisional Specifications for Caving (S.R.T.) Ropes / Andrew
Eavis pp 42 Knots for Single Rope Techniques / Neil
Montgomery and Donna Mroczkowski pp 479
Evolutionary Ecology IIHow Food Type
Determines Community Structure in Caves / Thomas Poulson and
Thomas Kane pp 56-59 Abiotic Effects on the Successional
Decomposition of Dung / Kathleen Lavoie pp 262-264 The
Foraging Behavior of the Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus
Subterraneus / Ellen Levy pp 581 Ecological Studies of
Openings into Underground Karst: I. The shaft wall of an
entrance pit (Gouffre de Lent, Ain, France): First Results /
J. Gibert, R. Laurent, J. Mathieu and J .L. Reygrobellet pp
228-233 Ecological and Biological Implications of the
Existence of a Superficial Underground Compartment /
Christian Juberthie and Bernard Delay pp 203-206 The
Ecological Genetics of Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops
Tellkampfii (Coleoptera, Carabidae) / George Brunner and
Thomas Kane pp 48-49 A Critique of the Analogy of Caves and
Islands / Rodney Crawford pp 295-297 Non-Relictual
Terrestrial Troglobites in the Tropical Hawaiian Caves /
Francis Howarth pp 539-541 Soil Biology, Research Activity
and Prospects of the Centro di Ecologia del Cansiglio,
Venetian Prealps, Italy / Renato DaIle Mule, N. Martinelli,
M. Paoletti and V. Toniello. pp 568
Geomorphology IVThe Lower Cretaceous
Paleokarst in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) / Pavel
Bosak pp 164-166 Morphoclimatic Control a Tale of Piss
and Wind or a.Case of the Baby Out With the Bathwater? / J
.N. Jennings pp 367-368 Morphogenetical and Chronological
Aspects of some Karst Areas in the Italian Alps / Ugo Sauro -
pp 556-562 Karst Valley Development and the Headward Advance
of the Sequatchie Valley of Tennessee Along the Sequatchie
Anticline / Nicholas C. Crawford pp 814-819 The Karsts of
the Oriental Part of Cuba / Nicasio Vina pp 537-538
Paleotemperature, Sea Level and Uplift Data from New Zealand
Speleothems / Paul Williams. pp 151-153
Biology IIEcological Analysis of Terrestrial
Invertebrates in a Venezuelan Cave / C.V. Alvarez, M.L. Olivo
and R.E. Urosa pp 631-633 Molecular Isotopic Analyses.of
Bat Guano Hydrocarbons and the Ecology of the Insectivorous
Bats in the Region of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA / David J.
DesMarais, J.M. Mitchell, W.G. Meinschein and J.M. Hayes pp
200-202 Communication on a Preliminary Survey of the Fauna of
Caves in Some Regions of Brasil / Eliana M.B. Dessen, Verena
Eston, Marietta S. Silva, M. Thereza Temperini-Ileck and
Eleonora Trajano. pp 123-125 Holarctic Cave Mites of the
Family Rhagidiidae (Actinedida: Eupodoideal / Miloslav
Zacharda and William Elliott pp 604-607 Composition and
Origin of Underground Fauna in Poland / Andrzej Skalski pp
403-406 Soil Biology in the Southern Italian Alpine Area.
General problems of Biospeleology / Maurizio G. Paoletti. -
pp 568 Canonical Analysis in the Genus Troglocharinus Reitter
and Some Other Related Taxa (Col. Catopidae) / Olequer Escola
- pp 500 Biospeleological Researches in the Island of Ceylon
/ Pierre Strinati and Villy Aellen pp 459-460 Diptera in
British Caves / G.T. Jefferson pp 106-107 Preliminary
Report on the Biology of Sorcerer's Cave, Terrell County,
Texas / Rodney L. Crawford pp 298-300 The Cavernicolous
Fauna of Ohio, USA. Part I: Preliminary Report / H.H. Hobbs,
III. pp 444-447 Sur la Presence D'un Rythme de Reproduction
dans le Milieu Souterrain Superficiel: Etude Chez les
Coleopteres Bathysciinae / Lysiane JUberthie-Jupeau pp
714-716
GeologyNeotectonics in some Caves in
Yugoslavia / Mladen Garasic pp 148-150 Fold Development in
the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina and Its Influence on the
Sistema Purificacion, Mexico / Louise D. Hose pp 133-135
The Karst Development of Rye Cove, Virginia / David A.
Hubbard, Jr. and John R. Holsinger pp 515-517 Development
of Flow Routes and Cave Passages from Fault Segments in West
Virginian Caves / Roy A. Jameson pp 717-719 Fracture
Control of Dolines, Caves, and Surface Drainage:
Mississippian Plateau, Western Kentucky, USA / Karen M.
Kastning and Ernst Kastning pp 696-698 Organizational
Principles of Complex Stationary Researches of Karst / A.B.
Klimchuk, V.M. Shestopalov and G.V. Lisichenko pp 35-36
Early Proterozoic Paleokarst of the Transvaal, South Africa /
J. Martini pp 6-8 Jointing as an Index of Sulphate Massif
Karstification / I.A. Pechorkin, A.I. Pechorkin and G.B.
Bolotov pp 181-182 Karst Development in the Front Royal 7.5
Minute Quadrangle of Virginia / David A. Hubbard, Jr pp
511-514 Alpine Karst in the Sierra Nevada, California / Bruce
W. Rogers pp 544-546 Lilburn Cave's Contribution to the
National History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park,
CA, USA / J.C. Tinsley, D.J. Des Marais, G. McCoy, B.W.
Rogers and S.R. Ulfeldt pp 287-290
Speleogenesis IIIA Functional Classification
of karst / John Mylroie pp 686-688 Speleogenesis of
Arkansas Ozark Caves / Albert E. Ogden, Wyndal Goodman and
Samuel Rothermel pp 769-771 Hydrochemical Factors in the
Origin of Limestone Caves / Arthur N. Palmer pp 120-122 A
Graphic Method of Analysis of the Phreatic Caves / J.
Schroeder pp 493-495 The Toohey Ridge Cave System A
Geographical Overview / James D. Borden and Miles E. Drake -
pp 612-614
Commission ReportsComparative Research of
Limestone Solution by Means of Standard Tablets / Ivan Gams -
pp 273-275 Commission of Conservation and of Tourist Caves /
France Habe pp 442-443 Cave Map Symbols / Ralph Muller pp
588-603
Poster Sessions/ Endangered Species
Legislation in the U.S. / Thomas Lera pp 385-386 Spatial
Aspects of Histoplasmosis in the United States / George
Huppert pp 26-27 Facial Reconstruction of an Easter Island
Skull / G.L. Nogrady pp 138



PAGE 1

Equilibrium Versus Events in Blind Valley Enlargement J. N. Jennings, Bao Haosheng and A. P. Spate The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Abstract The hypothesis that blind valleys will match sinking stream erosive power was tested with a small assemblage at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales. Only a 40% statistical explanation of while blind valley volume in terms of streams ink basin area was obtained; even for this certain anomalous and extreme cases had to be excluded. The volume depends also on age of underground capture and its timing is irregular because of the contradictory operation of erosive power, antagonistic to capture till it occurs, thereafter promoting incision at the sinking point. R1isum1i L'hypoth~se que les vall1ies aveugles alleront avec la puissance de d1igradation des fleuves engouffr1is est mis a 1'1ipreuve avec un petit assemblage a Yarrangobilly, New South Wales. Seulement une explication statistique de 40% s'1itablit que Ie volume entier de la vall1ie aveugle est en accord avec l'aire de drainage au dela de la perte; m1ime pour ceci des cas anomales et extremes doivent 1itre exclus. Le volume depends aussi de l'~ge de l'engouffrement et son reglement est irregulier a cause de l'effet contradictoire de la puissance de d~gradation, contra ire a la capture jusqu'elle est achev~e, ensuite avancant l'incision a la perte. Anongst other factors, stream erosion depends on discharge and velocity, long term measures of which are The closed river basins from the Appalachians studied by White & White (1979) do not correspond completely in definition to the Yarrangobilly ones, some being composite in nature; nevertheless they yield a'basically similar regression. In recent decades, geometric relationships established between morphometric characteristics of river basins and between them and river behaviour have been interpreted as dynamic equilibria. The same theme has been carried into karst geomorphology, and the idea has developed that karst landforms evolve in a manner akin to the modelling of fluvial relief. Streams inks and blind valleys have been investigated along these lines (Williams, 1966; White & White, 1979). Consistent with this work is the hypothesis that dynamic equilibrium will be achieved between the size of a blind valley and the energy of the sinking stream which has produced it. At Yarrangobilly Caves in New South Wales the incision which has taken place since certain streams went underground can be identified and this hypothesis can be tested here. This karst is a meridional strike belt, about 9 km by 1 km, of Silurian limestone, chemically pure, mechanically strong and of low primary permeability, with a strong dip to the west. The limestone forms a strath terrace between a ridge of underlying volcanics to the east and one of overlying impermeable clastic sediments to the west (Figure 1). The Yarrangobilly River occupies a V-valley or gorge, about 30 m deep where it encounters the limestone and over 150 m deep where it leave it at the southern end. This lies mainly along the western margin of the limestone with only a narrow strip of limestone on the west bank or none at all. There are seventeen blind valleys in the sense that a perennial or intermittent stream channel ends against a threshold and goes underground. None is large but t~e range in size is considerable; some are simply dolines with a stream running into them. They are mainly/found where streams run off the volcanics to the east onto the limestone strath. Only one is found to the west of the gorge where the limestone is narrow. The situation is more complex at the northern end of the strike belt where the Yarrangobilly River crosses the strike belt down dip and the outcrop is broken. Estimates of the volumes of these blind valleys have been made from either contoured maps in a few larger cases or survey traverses and cross-sections for the majority. There may be errors as great as 20% in these estimates but a case has been made for regarding their use in the present context as valid (Jennings, Bao & Spate, 1980). It is necessary to enquire whether the drainage basins truncated by underground capture have themselves maintained quilibria such as characterise normal fluvial systems. Long-term discharge data are not available so only morphometric relationships can be tested. Application of Strahler ordering gives the usual results from standard morphometry (Jennings, Bao & Spate, 1980). The regression of total stream lengths (L in km) against basin area (A in km 2 ) in these truncated catchments takes a form typical of normal systems. P = 0.001 not available for the blind valley streams. Basin area has been selected as a surrogate for stream discharge; close relationships have been established elsewhere between that area on the one hand and mean annual flood and mean annual runoff on the other. Schumm's relief ratio is a convenient basis for comparison of gradients between catchments. Since withdrawal of material into caves at streamsinks will also affect blind valley size, underground hydraulic gradients were calculated on the basis of altitudes of the streams inks and their connecting springs and the straightline distances between them. Surveying of the blind valleys for this enquiry brought to the fore complexities, the existence of which was known but the significance not appreciated. One complexity is that the point of sinking has shifted in some cases and another is that terraces and breaks of slope reveal separate phases of incision which have succeeded one another in the formation of the blind valley. Figure 2 is a sketch map of a blind valley affected in both ways. Two blind valley volumes were calculated therefore: (1) present incision related to the present position of the streams ink and/or the last phase of incision, (2) total incision defined by the saddle beyond which there is an overall downward gradient in the abandoned dry valley continuing from the streamsink. Logarithmic plots of blind valley volumes for both present and total incision against both basin relief ratio and underground hydraulic gradient show a wide scatter in all cases with no prospect of significant regression. There is, however, no great range in these two gradients in this set of catchments and any effects they may have will be readily obscured by other factors. There is a considerably greater range in basin area above streamsink. Even so when blind valley volume for present incision is plotted against it, again on a loglog basis (Figure 3a), the scatter remains as great and there is no significant relationship between the two. The implication of these results is taken to be that the times when the different streams started to excavate these volumes of rock have varied so much as to prevent the dvnamic factors controlling erosion from expressing themselves in the morphology in the manner hypothesised. Events have taken the upper hand and equiligrium not achieved. However, the periods of time for the whole formation of the blind valleys may have varied less than the ages of the final events registered in the landforms. The more time there has been for the influence of the overall relief and geological structure to operate the more it could even out other effects. Figure 3b is a log-log plot of the total volume of the blind valleys against the stream basin area and it gives better indication of a linear relationship. Moreover the four instances which depart most from this tendency are special cases which warrant exclusion from the set. (a) Northernmost Blind Valley (NBV) is hardly more than tangential to the short northern boundary of the limestone, a disposition different from that of the majority of the blind valleys. Moreoever there is a likelihood that this may be a sem~-blind valley where surface flow 10110ws round the margin of the limestone on occasion. (b) Wombat Creek (WC) is also distinctively located structurally, with much of its headwater area being on limestone; its lower valley runs along the contact of the limestone with the overlying impervious clastics. (c) Mill Creek (MC) has cut a gorge across the limestone and its streamsink close to the Yarrangobilly River r 2 = 0.95 r 2 = 0.88 L = 2.29 AO. 85 L = 2.24 Al. 13

PAGE 2

(1) length of present and/or former streamcourse over limestone whole length of streamcourse has been triggered by a geologically recent rockfall, even though there is a little incision associated with its underground route through the bedrock. (d) Rules Creek (RC) has also cut a gorge across the limestone. It has terrace remnants witnessing a longer, more complex history than Mill Creek's but its blind valley volume is small because of a recent cut through a former higher threshold. If these four cases are excluded, the remaining set of 13 blind valleys have a common structural arrangement with non-karst rocks in the headwaters and limestone in the lower basin. For these a significant regression can be obtained. where V ; blind valley volum in m 3 and A basin area above streamsink in km 2 Thus there is a tendency for a stream sinking underground here to produce a blind valley of a size matching its erosive power. Nevertheless this tendency is largely obscured by the variable timing of the underground captures. The streams have not had equal opportunities to achieve dynamic equilibrium since their drainage system was dislocated in this way. Details of geological structure are likely to have contributed to this but also the dynamic factors involved operate in contradictory fashion. Thus the bigger the stream is the more it will prevent or delay complete underground capture, although from the moment this happens the same factor will foster a larger blind valley. At Yarrangobilly this is evident when the stream is related to its opportunity for capture. Two ratios were calculated as measures of this for all streams which encounter the limestone: References Of the blind valleys, the lowest values are those of the Northernmost Blind Valley creek, Mill Creek and Rules Creek, thus helping to explain why these blind valleys are anomalous. The last two are the largest streams to have blind valleys and their size enabled them to evade underground capture till late and to cut gorges across the strath. The factor of gradient, which failed to find expression in the analysis of the blind valley volumes, also operates contradictorily. Thus, although steep gradient is properly expected to enhance blind valley growth once capture occurs, it also promotes runoff and restrains engulfment of streams. Of six right bank tributaries in the Yarrangobilly gorge, only one has a blind valley. Of the other five, two have low limestone total course ratios which are unfavourable to engulfment. Of the other three which are not explicable on that count, two have high basin relief ratios, which explain their behaviour. At the other end of the scale, low gradients are also not conducive to underground capture and this factor contributes to the failure of the Yarrangobilly River to sink completely along its long course over the limestone; meander spur cutoffs offer the best opportunity here. These several factors greatly vary the timing of captures so that only modest indications of dynamic equilibrium can be identified at Yarrangobilly. A capture represents an intervention in a fluvial system which is likely to derange morphometric relationships. Howard (1971) introduced capture simulation into computer modelling of surface river networks and improved morphometric prediction compared with the use of completely random walk models. Perhaps a larger population of blind valleys may provide a basis for more positive conclusions than Yarrangobilly does for the kind of study presented here. 0.025 P V ; 46724 A 1 36 Morphometric analysis of temperate Irish Speleology, 1, 23-31. (2) straight line length across limestone basin length The lower these ratios are the less the opportunity there is for a stream to form a blind valley. The Yarrangobilly River itselv, which crosses the limestone over three reaches, has low values; it only loses parts of its flow underground, most strikingly at the Natural Bridge, where however high flows follow the meander bend bypassed by the baseflow. Two tributaries with low ratios, Brownleys Back Creek and Traverse Creek, flow across their limestone reaches. The latter does so only in flood flow but it has not formed even a semi-blind valley. It was given its name by speleologists because it alone crosses the full width of the limestone strath on the surface. Howard, A.D. 1971 Simulation model of stream capture. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 82, 1355-76. Jennings, J.N., Bao Haosheng & Spate, A.P. 1980 Equilibrium versus events in river behaviour and blind valleys at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales. Helictite 18, 39-54. White, E.L., White, W.B. 1979 Quantitative morphology of landforms in carbonate rock basins in the Appalachian Highlands. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 90, 385-96. Williams, P.W. 1966 karst landforms. Schematic section across the Yarrangobilly River valley, N.S.W. V.E ; 3X. I Figure 2. Shifting streamsink and phasing of incision, Deep Creek, Yarrangobilly. Terraces Y6 Deep Creek Cave 100m gn 2

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GO (b) TOTAL INCISION ENe '" ./ /" 'Re ,2, 04 p, 0025 n:.1;J ,~IQ .. .' .DC Me /' BAe2 NBV acc NDC V4S EOC. sc. / RB2 / / .we / / / NS o BRCI ,e!' (oj PRESENT INCISION "'. '1,5 ~ EDC OC(2). Re ~ I>CC ENC '0 NS. t V" sc. GO ~. 3 RB2 .ocm '0 we ~ MC iii 2 SRC1. NDC 8RC2 NBV, '0 0.1 10 0.1 Basin area above streamsink (Km2) '0 Figure 3. Scatter plots and regression of blind valley volume against basin area above streamsink, Deep Creek, Yarrangobilly. The Community Structure of Arthropods Associated with Bat Guano and Bat Carcasses in Tumbling Creek Cave, Missouri Barbara J. Martin 334 Sunnyside Ave., Apt. #1, Ottawa, Ontario"KIS/OSI Canada Abstract The community structure of arthropods associated with bat guano and bat carcasses is examined in Tumbling Creek Cave, southern Missouri. Bat guano is the most abundant food resource in the cave. Sixty-seven species of arthropod were collected during a year's sampling. There was a high degree of local patchiness of distribution. There was no discernible seasonality at the community level of total number of species, total density or total biomass. There was a successional sequence of arthropods associated with the decomposition of guano and carrion. Dominance was high both in terms of number and biomass at all times and sites. Mites predominated on the guano piles in terms of number of species and relative abundance. A few species were consistently dominant: within the guano the fungivorous mite, Polyaspis sp., and the pseduoscorpion, Hesperochernes occidentalis; on both fresh guano and fresh carrion the predatory mite, Erynetes sp.; and at areas away from high concentrations of guano the fly, Bradxsia sp., and the collembolan group, Arrhopalites spp. The flies and the Collembola appear to be exclude from high concentrations of guano (~.e. guano piles) through predation. The decomposition of carrion in the cave differed from that of epigean carrion in three main respects: The prominence of Collembola and the absence of Hymenoptera, the prominence of fungi, and the great prolongation of decomposition in the cave. R~sum~ La structure de la faune d'arthropodes associ~e avec Ie guano et ies carcasses de chiropt~res dans la grotte de Tumbling Creek, au sud du Missouri, a ~t~ examin~e. Le guano de chiropt~res est la source la plus abondante de nourriture dans la grotte. Soixante-sept esp~ces d'arthropodes ont ~t~ recueillies durant une ann~e d'~chantillonnage. La distribution des animaux ~tait tres variable sur les distances courtes. II n'y avait aucune ~vidence des changements de saison au niveau de nombre total d'esp~ces, de densit~ totale, ou de biomass totale. II y avait une succession d'arthropodes associ~e avec la d~domposition de guano et de carcasses. La dominance ~tait ~lev~e en termes de nombres et de biomasse, partout et ind~pendemment du moment. Les acariens ont pr~domin~ sur les amoncellements de guano en termes de nombre d'esp~ces et d'abondance relative. Quelques esp~ces ~taient presque toujours dominantes: dans Ie guano l'acarien fungivore, Polyaspis sp., et Ie pseudoscorpion, Hesperochernes occidentalis; dans Ie guano frais et dans les carcasses fra1ches l'acarien de proie, Ereynetes sp.; et aux endroits ~liogn~s des grandes quantites de guano la mouche, Bradysia sp., et Ie groupe de collemboles, Arrhopalites spp. Les mouches et les collemboles parraissent exclues des grandes quantit~s de guano (i.e. les amrnoncellements de guano) par la pr~dation. It existe trois diff~rences majeures entre la d~composition de carcasses dans la grotte et la d~composition au dehors: l'importance de la Collembola et l'absence de la Hymenoptera, l'importance des myc~tes, et la grande prolongation de la d~composition dans la grotte. 3

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The Control of Karst Development with Reference to the Formation of Caves in Poorly Soluble Rocks in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa J. Martini Geological Survey, Private Bag Xl12, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa Abstract Caves are described in quartzite and barytes. In quartzite weathering progresses along joints and bedding planes, leading to general arenisation without development of karst topography, except in a few places where caves can develop by piping. In barytes, a small but typical solution cave is described from the Barberton Mountain Land. The fact that caves purely due to solution may form in barytes and not in silica rocks, although the former is less soluble that silica, gives some clues about a general rule of the control of karst development. It is suggested that the kinetics of dissolution may be a more important factor that solubility. Because the solution of quartz is extremely sluggish, dissolution in quartziet occurs along crystall boundaries, a process which leads to arensisation. In barytes, a mineral with a fast rate of solution although its solubility as such is very low, in contrast dissolution along crystall boundaries is not possible due to rapid saturation. Dissolution in this case is limited to larger voids like joints and bedding planes which appear to be an essential condition for karst development. It is suggested that if the dissolution rate of silica and silicates were faster, without increase in solubility, k~rst topography would develop extensively on quartzite, sandstones and possibly also on granite. R~sum~ Des ph~nomenes karstiques sont d~crits dans des quartzites et des barytines de l'Est du Transvaal, Afrique du Sud. Les grottes dans les quartzites se forment par action chimique m~t~orique Ie long des diaclases, suivi par excavation mecanique. Dans la barytine elle se sont essentiellement form~es par dissolution, quoique la solubilit~ de ce dernier mineral soit inferieure ~ celIe du quartz. On suggere que la vitesse de dissolution explique cette anomalie apparente et repr~sente un facteur important dans Ie developpement des karst en g~n~ral. Most of the caves of karst origin occur in rocks considered as "soluble", essentially limestone, dolomite, gypsum and salt. However, they are also found occasionally in "insoluble" rocks like quartzite, sandstone, granite and barytes. The genesis of the latter is of particular interest for the understanding of karst development in general. In the eastern Transvaal, in high rainfall areas, caves occur sporadically in quartzite of the Black Reef Formation and of the Chuniespoort Group. They are comparable to quartzite caves elsewhere in the world, particularly in Venezuela (Zawidski, et al., 1976). The quartzite karst of the eastern Transvaal has already been published (Martini, 1979, 1981) and therefore it will be only briefly described here. It is best developed 7 km north of Kaapsehoop, where the surface morphology is characterized by large dolines and fields of pinnacles; the cave systems consist of irregular passages and chambers developed immediately adjacent to the contact of an inter layered shaly bed of volcanic ash acting as an impervious horizon very close to the base of the Black Reef. As it has been observed elsewhere in the world, the caves develop close to cliff faces. A very small solution cave in barytes occurs in an area of high rainfall, on the farm Schoonoord 380 JU, at the point 31 ¡06 '42"E/25¡52 '22"S, in the Barberton Mountains, eastern Transvaal. In the Fig Tree Group (3 400 My) barytes forms two sedimentary layers, slightly overturned and dipping steeply. In these two beds the cave has been intersected by a small mining excavation at a depth of about 10 m. It consists of several narrow anastomoses showing corrosion figures typical of solution caves and with residual material accummulated on the floor (Fig. 1). The genetic model adopted for the formation of quartzite caves is by initial weathering along jOints and bedding planes, transforming quartzite into soft "neosandstone" in which caves develop by piping in a vadose environment (Martini, 1979). A karst topography cannot form on quartzite by dissolution alone as it is the case for carbonate rocks. Mechanical removal of quartz grains (piping) is essential for the appearance of such a morphology. As this process is restricted to specific areas, generally small, the great majority of the landforms on quartzite, on sandstone and on granitic rocks do not exhibit any karst characteristics. Most generally, weathering of quartzite leads to arenisation followed by surface erosion, without development of caves. The fact that arenisation is characteristic of the weathering of quartzite is mostly due to the extremely slow rate of silica dissolution (Siever, 1962), which therefore can act not only along joints, as it is the case for carbonate rocks, but also along crystal boundaries (Fig. 2). The voids along these boundaries are extremely thin and consequently water, due to its vicosity, can circulate only very slowly: saturation is achieved after a short distance unless the kinetics of reaction is very sluggish. It has been suggested that if the rate of silica solution would be faster, without change in solubility, a karst morphology would develop on quartzite and possibly also on granite thus 4 changing considerably the earth sceneries (J. Martini, 1979). Such conditions may have existed during archean time, when the surface temperature was possibly much higher than today (Knaut et al., 1978) or on other hypothetical planets characterized today by dense hot atmospheres, thus increasing both the rate and the solubility of quartz dissolution. The idea that the kinetics of dissolution is an important factor is confirmed when considering that true solution caves can exist in barytes and not in quartz rocks, although the former is less soluble (0,01 millimole/litre) than the latter 0,1 0,2 millimole/litre). The explanation is that the rate of barytes dissolution is several magnitudes higher than for quartz (Blount, 1977) and that therefore in barytes dissolution can occur only along joints, a necessary condition for the development of solution caves. The restricted number of caves in barytes is probably simply due to the scarcity of barytes outcrops, compared to the large surfaces occupied by carbonate and silica rocks. If barytes would be as common as carbonate rocks, caves, dolines and lapi~s would certainly occur much more frequently. However, as the solubility of barytes is very low, it would be essential that the rate of surface erosion would be inferior to the rate of karst dissolution, which is realized where the relief is not too accentuated and the vegetation cover well developed. Speculating further, it is possible to immagine a theoretical case of a mineral with a solution rate so fast that the enlargement of joints and bedding planes would not be possible and that dissolution would occur only at surface, thus preventing karst formation. Therefore it appears that there is a dissolution rate interval which is optimum for karst development: not too fast, not too slow (Fig. 2). The case of carbonate rocks is interesting as it is in fact exceptionally davourable for the formation of cave systems deep below surface, not only because the rate of dissolution is such that enlargement can occur along joints and not along crystal boundaries, but also because of the slow rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide absorption by water. Thanks to this last property, it is possible that the dissolution of carbonate can persist for along time provided that the water remains in contact with air containing carbon dioxide (Jennings, 1971). In dolomite, dissolution is observed along crystal boundaries (Martini et al., 1976) although the effect is not as marked as in quartzite. This is probably largely due to the slow rate of dolomite dissolution, alower than for calcite (Holland et al., 1964), although the strength of the bond between crystals may also be a factor. In conclusion it appears that the real control of karst development is not only the solubility, as karst features may occur on rocks which vary from very soluble (salt) to nearly insoluble (barytes), but also the rate of dissolution which seems to be another major factor to consider. References Blount, C.W. (1977). Barite solubilities and thermodynamic quantities up to 300¡C and 1400 bars. Am.

PAGE 5

I Min, 62, 942-957. Holland, H.D., Kirsipu, T.V., Huebner, J.S. and Oxburgh, V.M. (1964). On some aspect of the chemical evolution of cave waters. J. Geol., 72, 36-67. Jennings, J.N. (1971). Karst. M.LT. Press, Cambridge, Mass. and London, 252 p. Kanuth, L.P. and Lowe, D.R. (1978). Oxygen isotope geochemistry of cherts from the Onverwacht Group (3.4 billion years), Transvaal, South Africa, with implications for secular variations in the isotopic compositions of cherts. Earth Plan. Sc. Letters, 41, 209-222. Martini, J. (1979). Karst in Black Reef Quartzite near Kaapsehoop, Eastern Transvaal. Ann. geol. Surv. S. Afr., 13, 115-128. (1981). Karst in Black Reef and Wolkberg Group quartzite of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment, South Africa. Bol. Soc. Venezolana Espel. in press. and Kavalieris, I. (1976). The Karst of the Transvaal. Int. J; Spelaeol., 8, 229-251. Siever, R. (1962). Silica solubility, 0-200¡C, and the diagenesis of siliceous sediments: J. Geol., 70, 127-150. Azwidzki, P., Urbani, F;, and Koisar, B; (1976). Preliminary notes on the geology of the Sarisarinama plateau, Venezuela, and the origin of its caves. Bol. Soc. Venezolana Espel., 7, 29-37. Sh = siliceous shale c = natural cavity Section AB Ba = barytes r = residuals 2m Section along strike esc;lc ---------~ Mini;xcavatiO~-~f!IIPJ' IB IV ---11------II II II II 11 III Figure l. Cave in barytes on Schoonoord, Eastern Transvaal. II Crystal boundary I -rorrm-~.~(l[fJ::~ ~ ~~~~:l~~~ Itll~ ~11~ i~ I~~i~ rli l ~ ~'il' Figure 2. Schematic models of karst evolution according to rate of dissolution. I. Model before dissolution; II. Case of very slow rate of dissolution; note removal of matter evenly distributed from original void (surface, joint and crystal boundaries). III. Case of medium dissolution rate; the dissolution at surface is maximum; it decreases slowly with depth along joint, rapidly along crystal boundaries; only in this case enlargement of the joint is effective enough to form cavities in depth. IV. Case of high rate: dissolution is mostly effective at surface. 5

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Early Proterozoic Paleokarst of the Transvaal, South Africa J. Martini Geological Survey, Private bag Xl12, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa Abstract Numerous well preserved paleokarst features occur at the top of the Malmanie Dolomite and appear to have formed before the deposition of the Pretoria Group clastic sediments. They are especially well developed in the Western Transvaal where they have been the host for fluorspar, zinc and lead mineralization and where they have been exposed by mining. These features include paleocaves filled by residual chert and shale, forming extensive networks of phreatic passages, and breakdown chambers with terraced ceilings and scree accumulated on their floor; breccia bodies and "pitch-and-flat" structures represent completely collapsed chambers. Ancient surface features are marked by an irregular layer of chert breccia resting on the top of the dolomite and by paleosinkholes. Intense local deformation and brecciation in the Pretoria strata are linked to late compaction and late collapse of caves. The shale and chert filling associated with the paleokarts features represents the residuals left after dissolution of the dolomite. Compared with recent karst residuals, it is depleted in iron and manganese, and is enriched in carbon. This indicates a reducing environment during karst development, which is in agreement with the concept of an atmosphere still deficient in oxygen during the early Proterozoic. R~sum~ L'auteur d~crit un paleokarst vieux de 2.200 my. Les formes observ~es consistent en pal~odolines, en complexes reseaux de galeries et en salles d'effondrement. Le remplissage r~siduel est repr~sent~ actuellement par des argilites impures et siliceuses, caracteris~es par una teneur elevee en carbone et une deficient en Mn et Fe, ce qui indique que Ie karst s'est d~velopp~ dand un environnement pauvre en oxygi!ne. Geological Setting The paleokarst features described in this paper are linked to the disconformity separating the Chuniespoort Group form the Pretoria Group, of early Proterozoic age. The Chuniespoort Group includes the thin Black Reef Quartzite at the base, followed by the Malmanie Subgroup, 1500 m of Fe-Mn rich dolomite with bands and nodules of chert, and the Penge Formation at the top, consisting of banded iron formation. The Pretoria Group consists of several thousand metres of shale with intercalations of quartizite and lava. Most of the strata of these two groups are disposed in a 500 km long oval basin located in the south-western Transvaal and show generally shallow dips. These strata are strongly indurated and in places display contact metamorphism. The disconformity mentioned previously never exceeds a few degrees but nevertheless it cuts progressively across the entire succession of the Chuniespoort Group. The age of this disconformity is about 2 200 my (Button, 1973). The paleokarst features are developed in numerous places, but they are particularly spectacular south of Zeerust, western Transvaal, where they are associated with fluorspar, lead and zinc sulphides (Martini, 1976). Paleokarst Features Where the Pretoria Group is directly resting on the Malmanie Subgroup, an irregular layer of chert breccia marks the base of the former, representing the paleoresiduals left after the dissolution of the dolomite, also known as the Giant Chert. Paleosinkholes are most generally represented by abrupt thickening of the Giant Chert developing as pockets protruding deeply down into the dolomite. Where the Penge Formation is still present but reduced to a few metres, it was not thick enough to prevent percolation of rain water from reaching the dolomite and karst dissolution developed below cover, inducing local saging of the banded iron formation. Such palaosinkholes, where remnants of Penge Formation are overlying the paleoresiduals are frequent south of Zeerust (Fig. 1). In many paleosinkholes it is possible to observe that the shale of the Pretoria Group is also involved in the saging process, showing intense small scale chaotic folding, having obviously occurred when the sediment was still soft. This indicates that after the transgression of the sea of the Pretoria Group, differential compaction of karst residuals and collapse of caves took place. A peculiar paleosinkhole occurs south east of Zeerust, on the farm Rhenosterhoek 343 JP. It consists of a pipe filled with mudstone breccia in a matrix of similar lithologic composition (Fig. 1). This represents a typical paleoresidual and the genesis of this pipe can be attributed to a karst pond into which residuals were washed, accompanied by intermitent periodical subsidence brecciating the deposited sediments. Paleocaves are generally characterized by their residual filling forming elongated bodies of siliceous mudstone. In some favorable cases, where the topographic surf~ce cuts the paleoc~ve system alon?, its plane, compl1cated networks of paleo passages are exposed (Fig. 2). It seems that the ancient passages 6 were dominantly flat, their shape being essentially controled by bedding planes, which is in sharp contrast with the shape of the passages in modern dolomite caves of the Transvaal, which are nearly exclusively joint controlled. This can be explained by the fact that at the time of the formation of the paleokarst, the dolomite was not indurated but was a soft, poorly jointed rock. At one locality on the farm Strydfontein 326 JP, a paleocave channel filled with quartzite occurs. This is an example of a cave filled by clean marine sand from the base of the Pretoria Group (Pologround Member) Large chambers developed by ceiling breakdown are also present. The exhibit terraced ceilings and cones of debris accumulated on their floors. They have been subsequently filled by fluorspar which has been mined, thus restauring in their original state these caves which rank among the oldest in the world (Fig. 3). Nature of the Residual and Interpretation of the Paleokarst Environment The residual filling consists of shale and massive mudstone, grading to impure chert when the silica content is high. Its colour is often black due to finely disseminated graphite which is inherited from the dolomite. When the carbon content is low, the rock may exhibit a vivid green colour due to a chromiferous phengite. Rutile is a frequent accessory mineral. According to eleven analyses, the chemical composition of this material is as follows: Average Range S10 2 74,92 48,0996,52 T10 2 0,66 0,132,10 AR. 2 0 3 11,49 2,4928,22 Fe 2 0 3 1,29 0,094,12 MnO 0,04 0,014,12 MgO 3,00 0,10 13,67 CaO 0,52 0,071,97 K 2 0 3,67 0,099,74 C 0,99 0,144,53 'Probably mostly as FeO The origin of the high Ti-Cr content is probably linked to detrital minerals like chromite and ilmenite from the Archean greenstone belts. These mineral may have been concentrated in the tidal environment which prevailed during most of the deposition of the dolomite. They have been subsequently transformed into rutile and chromiferous mica by metamorphism. Actual resistate left after dolomite dissolution, consists of wad and red earth; ten samples of such material average 21,26 % Fe 2 0 3 and 11,71 % MnO. Compared with the above average analysis it is obvious that iron and especially manganese

PAGE 7

are strongly repleteq" in the paleofilling. Ano~~er difference is the high carbon content in the paleofilling (Fig. 4), which however, is slightly lower than in the theoretical residual calculated from dolomite analyses, but is higher than in the wad. The composition of the paleoresiduals seems to indicate a rather reducing environment for the development of the paleokarst, with an Eh below zero and a pH not higher than (-~. Under such conditions the organic matter is not oxidized, Fe and Mn are reduced to valency two and leached away (Garrels et al., 1965). According to what is observed today, there-is a drop of Eh from surface to ground water (Garrels et al., 1965). However in an actual karst system, the drop of Eh below the water-table is not sufficient to lead immediately to a strongly reducing environment. Such a reducing level may exist only in the deepest part of a system, where the water circulate slowly enough to be completely depleted in oxygen by reaction with the rock. If the atmospheric oxygen level decreases, the reducing zone mentioned above will raise from the deepest part of a karst system and will eventually reach the surface. However it is quite likely that it is not CD -B !) N 1 P \ 30m A Section 2 B Figure 1. 1. Paleosinkhole on Rhenosterfontein 304 JP; 1) dolomite 2) banded iron formation 3) breccia in black siliceous shale matrix (paleoresidual) 4) shale (Pretoria Group) 2. Paleosinkhole on Rhenosterhoek 313 JP; 1) dolomite 2) Pretoria Group shale 3) dolomite breccia in black shalemudstone matrix 4) Mudstone breccia in mudstone matrix, black and green. Figure 2. Paleocave passages filled with siliceous shale on southern part of Vaalkopje III JO. 7 necessary that this oxygen level drops to zero to reach such conditions, especially if the carbonate rock is rich in reducing agents. The nature of the paleokarst filling thus confirms the view that the oxygen level 2 200 my ago was zero (Cloud, 1976) or much lower than at present. References Button, A. (1973). The stratigraphic history of the Malmani Dolomite in the eastern and north-eastern Transvaal. Trans. geol. Soc. South Africa, 76, 229-247. Cloud, P. (1976). Major features of crustal evolution. Trans. geol. Soc. South Africa, Ann. vol 79, 33p. Garrels, R.M. and Christ, C.L. (1965). Solutions minterals and equilibria Harper, New York, 450 p. Martini, J. (1976). The fluorite deposits in the Dolomite Series of the Marico District, Transvaal, South Africa: Econ. Geol., 71, 625-635. Borehole

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0 0 <9 0 0 0 0 0 0 fsm 10m Figure 3. Sections of breakdown chambers filled with fluorspar, mined out. Note terraced ceiling and floor scree. I Blane's Quarry on Buffelshoek 301 JP, II Gubbin's Mine on Dog van Malmanie 333 JP. '" SiOz t AI 2 0 3 100% 90 80 70 60 50 0 40 30 20 10 0 I 0,1 q q II ~sm I 1 o o ACTUAL KARST RESISTATE PALEOKARST RESISTATE o DOLOMITE I 10 c SiOz t AI 2 0 3 X 100 (log scale) ~P~1;9:ur~.;-:4~.~~c;:a:;rbho~n;:-:c~o~n~'t:e:;:n';t"'7in~k~a:':r~s~t~r:e~si~d~u:;';a;'il::s:=.=-----------------------------------.J

PAGE 9

I Evolution of Hypogean Species of Opilionids of North and Middle America Clarence J. and Marie L. Goodnight Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 R(iswn(i La plupart des opilionides qui habitent les cavernes sont membres de la famille Phalangodidae. Les membres de cette famille se trouvent dans les feuilles mortes hwnides. Ainsi il n'est pas suprenant que beaucoup d'esp~ces (ipig(ies se trouvent a l'entr(ie des cavernes ou qu'un nombres de ces petites esp~ces ont (ivolu(i dans les habitats de cavernes. Entre certaines esp~ces, le rapport entre les esp~ces epig(ie et les esp~ces hypog(ies se voit ais(iment. De temps en temps les esp~ces hypog(ies son rencontres qui ne semblent pas avoir de rapport avec especes (ipig(ie. Aux Etats-Unis, il y a quelques esp~ces qui ont leur centre de distribution dans les montagnes Appalaches et sur l'(il(ivation des Ozarks. Au Texas, las cavernes du plateau d'Edward ont des esp~ces distinctes. Deux de ces esp~ces sont d'origine du nord et deux de Mexique du Nord. Un autre complexe d'esp~ces se trouve dans les cavernes de la Californie. Ces especes d(imontrent leur rapport avec l'esp~ce, main n'ont pas de rapport intime avec les esp~ces otre de l'Am(irique du Nord. Au Mexique, il y a un assemblage d'esp~ces au nord et un autre dans la r(igion de Vera Cruz et Oaxaca. Ces esp~ces ne sont pas bien connues. En Am(irique centrale et au Mexique au sud de l'isthme de Tehuantepec, quelques esp~ces ont (it(i (itudi(ies, mais leurs rapports son difficiles ~ comprendre. Otre familles d'opilionides ont les esp~ce hypog(ie, mais elles son peu nombreuses et leur distribution es mal connue. The opilionids or phalangids are abundant invertebrates which are found in a wide variety of habitats and may, at times, become important inhabitants of the cave community. Popularly, they are known under a variety of names such as daddy-long-legs, harvestmen, Shepherd spiders: scientifically they may be termed either phalangids or opilionids, with the latter name appearing to be somewhat more commonly used. They are classified as an order, Opiliones, within the larger class Arachnida. They are distinguished from the other members of this large class by the following characteristics: 1. An unsegmented cephalothorax, which is broadly joined to the faintly segmented abdomen. 2. The three segmented chelate chelicerae. 3. The six-segmented palpi. 4. A pair of simple eyes usually located on a tubercle located on the anterior third of the cephalothorax. Eyes may be either partially or totally absent from true troglobitic forms. 5. The genitalia open on the second abdominal segment, usually protected by a genital plate. 6. A pair of scent glands located at the anterior portion of the cephalothorax. 7. Respiration by means of tracheae. Within the order, two suborders are recognized: I. The Laniatores: these are tropical and subtropical forms with a few exceptions. This group contains a highly varied assortment of forms in the Western hemisphere which are represented by several families: Cosmetidae, Gonyleptidae, Phalangodidae, Erebomastridae, Triaenonychidae, and Travuniidae. Cave forms have developed within the last four families. So far as is known there are no troglobitic cosmetids or gonyleptids. II. The Palpatores. This group is represented primarily by long-legged forms which are found in both temperate and tropical regions. Two subgroups are recognized: Dypsnoi and Eupnoi. Among the former group, a few cave adapted forms have evolved. Relatively speaking, the'number of species of truly troglobitic opilionids is small. This is somewhat surprizing inasmuch as the habits of these forms are such that it would seem reasonable that a number could adjust to the cave environment. For example, many may be found within the vicinity of caves, even within the entrances, but still retain their epigeic form. In general, opilionids prefer to dwell in moist, somewhat protected areas--this is particularly true of the smaller forms. The exception to this generalization are some species of long-legged Leiobunwns and gagrellinids which are often encountered in relatively drier areas. These, also, under the stress of dry conditions, tend to move inot protected areas to avoid desiccation. Troglobitic forms developed primarily within those groups whose members are found among the cryptozoic fauna. These small, less conspicuouc forms, are typical members of this highly specialized environment, an environment that tends to be relatively constant in temperature and moisture. In such an optimwn habitat, a fauna of possible great antiquity has persisted to the present day. This fact has been born out by our own discovery of members of the genus Caddo in mountainous areas of southern Mexico and the more recent discovery by Briggs of representatives of the family Travuniidae in the Pacific northwest. These latter 9 forms were confined to caves in the moist coastal forest which are characterized by rotting wood or fallen bark within well established stands of spruce and fir. Though one may encounter members of several different opilionid groups within a given cave, most do not have the typical cave adaptations. It would appear that their presence within the cave is accidental. Those that are true troglobitic forms display certain specific adaptations: elongated appendages, reduced pigmentation, and lack of eyes or reduced eyes. Such adaptations are never found among the long-legged forms, the cosmetids, or the gonyleptids. It appears that the smaller cryptozoic forms are more pliable, possibly adapting to the cave situation more readily than the other larger forms. With only a few exceptions, caves within the United States are found in areas of limestone, and their estimated age varies. In Tennessee, it appears that most of the caves are probably not much older than the Pliocene and some of them as late as Pleistocene. An exception to the generalization that caves are found in limestone areas are the lava tube caves of our northwest. These, too, appear to be of relatively recent origin, dating from early postglacial periods. The possibility of relatively recent adaptation to the cave environment may be one explanation of the troglobitic forms, inasmuch as the caves are relatively recent. Thus there are two explanations for the presence of the cave forms: one is that they developed from epigean species and are relatively recent in this adaptation: the other possible explanation is that these species were already basically cave adapted and simply moved into the newly available habitat. This latter possibility is reinforced by the fact that seemingly fully-adapted cave forms have been found in niches considerably removed from caves. To these small forms, there is little or no difference between the environment afforded by the cave and that of the leaf litter. It is not unreasonable to asswne that they have been able to move through cracks in the soil or limestone and enter underlying passageways. Perhaps the explanation for the cave adapted forms is a combination of these two possibilities. With only a few exceptions, the true troglobitic opilionids of the eastern United States are all members of the families Phalangodidae and Erebomastridae. Among the phalangodids, the most clearly adapted species is Phalangodes armata Tellkampf which occurs in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky as well as in other Kentucky caves. Another population of this very distinctive species was found in the caves of Tennessee. This population, first described as a distinct species, Tolus appalachius, demonstrates the variability that may occur within a species--another characteristic of many troglobitic forms. The various small species of phalangodids described under the generic names of Crosbyella and Bishopella often are found in caves, and many of the populations show some degree of the development of distinctive cave characteristics. One species, Crosbyella distincta, from Arkansas caves has elongated legs and lacks eyes; thus though showing its relationship to the other members of the genus, it has distinctive troglobitic features. Erebomaster flavescens (family Erebomastridael is found in caves in southern Indiana. Though a cave dweller, this species does not show many true troglobitic characteristics. Other members of this family are found in forests along the Oregon coast and in Europe.

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Also found in the eastern portion of the United States is the species Nemastoma inops (Palpatores: Nemastomatidae) which was originally reported from caves in Kentucky. In the western United States, a number of caves may be found, but only a few distinctly cavernicolous forms have been encountered. In the Mother Lode country of the Sierra Nevada of California, several distinctive species have been found in numerous limestone caves. Briggs (1974) has placed these forms in the genus Banksula (Phalangodidae), the type species of which is B. californica (Banks) from Alabaster Cave, EI Dorado County, California. In this form, though there is an eye tubercle, the retina is absent and the corneas are very small or absent. Related forms, ~. tuolumne Briggs, ~. galilei Briggs, ~. melones, and ~. grahami do have eyes, though ~. grahami specimens have small corneas and retinas. All of these above were found in caves, with ~. grahami also being found under rocks. Sitalcina, a phalangodid genus with numerous species, is widely distributed throughout northern California. Briggs has collected these extensively and it appears that the presence or absence of functional eyes is a highly variable character. In some eyes are totally lacking, in others corneal lenses and retinas are lacking. It would certainly appear that these forms could very easily adapt to the cave environment. Only one truly troglobitic form is known from this genus, it is Sitalcina cloughensis Briggs and Hom from Cough Cave, Sequoia National Park. Briggs (1974) discovered interesting forms inhabiting lava tubes in Idaho and southern Washington. A Travunid discovered in this interesting habitat was Speleonychia sengeri Briggs, a species lacking eyes entirely and with somewhat elongate appendages. Speleomaster levi and ~. pecki (Erebomastridae) were described from caves in Idaho. Both are true troglodytes. Briggs (1974) points out that the animals present serious questions as to how did a taxonomic gap develop between surface and subsurface populations. Specimens collected in lava flows in Washington and Idaho were unrelated to known surface populations. Those collected in the lava fields were of the family Travuniidae, those of the surface were of the family Triaenonychidae. In central Idaho, the surface laniatorids were represented by the triaenonychids, with only erebomastrids in the caves. The possibility does exist, of course, that further collections will disprove this present distribution. Inasmuch as these animals are very small and secretive, such a possibility does exist. In Utah, a member of the genus Nemastoma, ~. packardi (Palpatores: Nemastomatidae) has been reported from a cave in southern Utah. In the southwestern United States, particularly in Central Texas, there are many caves. One phalangodid genus, Texella has been reported by Goodnight an~ Goodnight (1976). Two species are known. !. mulaik1 and T. reddelli. Related surface forms are unknown at this time. This genus has a wide distribution, throughout the caves of the Edwards Plateau and into New Mexico. This genus does appear related to more northern genera of this family. The other phalangodid genus found in Texas is Hoplobunus and is related to the fauna of northern Mexico. Two species are known from Texas. These are H. madlae Goodnight and Goodnight and ~. russelli. All of these species (including those of Texella) ,show various degrees of specialization to the cave enV1ronment. Eye tubercles are present in all, but the development of the eye itself varies from no eye at all to a very small retina. In northern Mexico, particularly in the states of San Luis Potosi, Neuva Leon, Queretero, and Tamaulipas, there are numerous cave systems with many cavernicolous forms. The opilionid species, while related to ~urface forms, often are very large, remarkably inte:est1ng forms. This fauna consists of numerous speC1es of the genera Hoplobunus and Karos, both of the family Phalangodidae. Members of the genus ~, though fairly common in caves, have not become so cave adapted as have the members of the genus Hoplobunus. These latter forms are often very large, with enormously elongated appendages, and with varying degrees of eye development. Some such as ~. inops totally lack eyes, while some specimens of ~. boneti have vary~ng degrees of development of the eyes. Troglostygnops1s anophthalma (Silhavy) from caves in Chiapas, Mex1co also is a true hypogean form. All these forms have the typical light coloration of cave animals. Also, ,~. boneti was one of the first forms observed in wh1ch,the unique habit of guarding the eggs was observed. :h1~ behavior appears to be common among tropical opil10n1ds and serves to protect the eggs from predation and 10 destruction by molds. Even less adequately known are the numerous caves to be found in central America. In Belize, two hypogean species were found. Both of these forms, Cynortina mistica and Stygnomma pecki are the first membe:s of their genera to show adaptation to the cave env1ro~ent. Both were from the Caves Branch area of Belize. Th1S latter species was later found in leaf litter in the area of the caves. It would appear that this species,moves freely through the porous limestone of this area of Belize. Little is known of the cave fauna of South America. Rambla (1978) studied material from caves in Venezuela, but did not encounter any true cave forms, though one species Virna checkeleyi, did show some increase in size as compared to related species. References Briggs, Thomas S. 1968. Phalangids of the Laniatorid Genus Sitalcina (Phalangodidae: Opiliones). Proceedings California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 36 (1) :1-43, 108 figs. 1974. Phalangodidae from Caves in the ------S-1-'e-r-r'a Nevada (California) with a redescription of the type genus (Opiliones: Phalangodidae) Occasional Papers, California Academy of Sciences, no. 108, 15 pp., 28 figs. 1974. Troglobitic Harvestmen recently discovered in North American Lava Tubes (Travuniidae, Erebomastridae, Triaenonychidae: Opiliones) Journ. Arachn. 1:205-214. Briggs, Thomas S. and Kevin Hom. 1966. Five new species of Phalangodidae from California (Opiliones). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 42(4) :262-269. 1967. New Phalangodidae from the Sierra ------N-e-v-a-d~a Mountains (Opiliones) The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 43 (1) :48-52. Crosby, C.R. and S.C. Bishop. 1924. Notes on the Opiliones of the southeastern United States with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, XL(1-2) :8-26. Goodnight, Clarence J. and Marie L. 1942. New Phalangodidae (Phalangida) from the United States, American Museum Novitates, no. 1188, pp. 1-18, 54 figs. 1960. Speciation among Cave Opilionids of the United States. The American Midland Naturalist, 64 (1) :34-38. 1967. Opilionids from Texas Caves ------(-O-p-1-'l-iones, Phalangodidae) 6 American Museum Novitates, no. 2301, 8 pp. 1971. Opilionids (Phalangida) of the Family phalangodidae from Mexican Caves. Association for ,Mexican Cave Studies, Bulletin 4 pp. 33-45. 1973. Opilionids (Phalangida) from Mexican Caves. Association for Mexican Cave Studies, Beuletin 5, pp. 83-96. 1977. Laniatores (Opiliones) of the Yucatan Peninsula and Belize (British Honduras). Assoc. Mex. Cave Studies, Bulletin no. 6, pp. 139-166. Rambla, Maria. 1978. Opiliones cavernicloas de Venezuela (Arachnida, Opiliones Laniatores). Speleon: 24:5-22. Roewer, C. Fr. 1952. Einige Phalangiiden aus dem Vereingten Staaten von Nord Amerika. Zoologische Anzeiger, 149(1/12) :267-273. Silhavy, Vladimir. 1973. Subterranean Fauna of Mexico, Part II. Academia Nazionale dei Lincei, Roma, no. 171, pp. 176-194.

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Cave Diplura of the United States Lynn M. Ferguson Department of Natural Sciences, Longwood College, Farmville, Virginia, U.S.A. Abstract The examination of over 380 collections of campodeid diplurans from more than 280 caves in 24 states has revealed at least 10 genera belonging to the subfamily Campodeinae. Species of the following genera are known from both cave (hypogean) and surface (epigean or endogean) habitats: Campodea, Podocampa, Tricampa, Metriocampa (new subgenus), Haplocampa, and Eumesocampa. The cavernicolous species belonging to the first four genera are troglophiles; cavernicolous species of the last two genera are troglobites. The following genera are known only from caves (all are troglobites): Litocampa (formerly Plusiocampa), two new genera from eastern Tennessee and Nevada which are related to Litocampa, and an undescribed genus from southeastern New Mexico and western Texas which is related to Meiocampa. The majority of the 42 known cavernicolous species are in two genera: Litocampa (20 or more species) and Haplocampa (8 or more species) R1!sum1! L'1!xamination de plus de 380 coll1!ctions des diploures campod1!id1!s de plus de 280 cavernes des 24 1!tats a r1!v1!l1! 10 genres qui appartient A la sous-famille des Campodeinae. L'esp~ces des genres suivant ont connu de la domaine des cavernes (l'hypog1!) et la surface (l'1!pig1! ou l'endog1!): Campodea, Podocampa, Tricampa, Metriocampa (une sous-genre nouvelle), Haplocampa et Eumesocampa. L'esp~ces cavernicoles du pr~mier quatre genres son les troglophiles; l'esp~ces cavernicoles des dernier genres sont les troglobies. Les genres suivant ont connu seul des cavernes (tous sont troglobies): Litocampa (autrefois Plusiocampa), les deux nouvelles genres d'est de Tennessee et de Nevada qui ont racont1! A Litocampa, et un genre in1!dits du sud-est de New Mexico et d'ouest de Texas qui est racont1! A Meiocampa. Le Plupart des 42 esp~ces cavernicoles qui ont connu sont A deux genres: Litocampa (20 ou plus des esp~ces) et Haplocampa (8 ou plus des esp~ces). During his presentation at the First International Congress of Speleology, B. Cond1! (1953) noted that only five species of cavernicolous campodeid diplurans were known from the United States. These five species were known from seven caves in four states (Cond1!, 1949). Today over 380 collections of campodeid diplurans from more than 280 caves in 24 states have been examined. At least 10 genera and 42 species belonging to the subfamily Campodeinae are represented. Species belonging to six of the genera are known from both cave (hypogean) and surface (epigean or endogean) habitats in the United States. The cavernicolous species of the genera Campodea, podocampa, Tricampa (former subgenus of Metriocampa), and Metriocampa are presumably all troglophiles. Specimens of these genera show little or none of the characteristics associated with cave adaptation in campodeid diplurans. The characteristics cornmon to troglobitic campodeids include an overall increase in body size, a relative increase in the length of appendages (legs, antennae, and cerci) the presence in some genera of well-developed laterotergal crests on the pre tarsal claws, and an increase in the number of sensilla in the cupuliform organ of the apical antennal segment (Cond1!, 1956). The cave inhabiting members of Tricampa have five sensilla in each antennal cupuliform organ instead of four, the number generally found in epigean species. The following information concerning the distribution of epigean species of campodeid diplurans in the United States is primarily from the published articles of Silvestri (1912, 1933), Gardner (1914), .Hilton (1932, 1936), Chandler (1956), Cond1! and Thomas (1957), Bareth and Cond1! (1958), Cond1! and Geeraert (1962), and Ferguson (1978). A new species (and subgenus) of Metriocampa is known from Wind Cave in South Dakota (Fig. 1). Six epigean species of Metriocampa are known from South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and California. A species of Campodea is known from two caves in Iowa. Twenty or more epigean species of Campodea are reported from the midwestern and western states as well as from North Carolina and Florida. This genus is essentially cosmopolitan in the warm to temperate regions of the earth (Paclt, 1957). Several species of Podocampa are known from caves in Oklahoma and Texas. Five epigean species are known to occur in Texas and Louisiana. Cavernicolous species of Tricampa are knonw in Illinois, Oklahoma, and New Mexico; four epigean species are known from Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, California, Washington, and Alberta, Canada. Cavernicolous species of the genera Eumesocampa and Haplocampa are probably troglobites. Two epigean species of Eumesocampa have been described from northcentral Colorado. A third epigean species which apparently belongs to the genus is ~. frigillis (Hilton), which is found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland. An undescribed species is known from a cave in West Virginia where it occurs sympatrically with Litocampa fieldingi (Cond1!). The mid-western cavernicole is morphologically similar to the two Colorado species; the West Virginia Eumesocampa is more like the eastern species. 11 Eight or more hypogean species of Haplocampa are known from lava tubes in southern Washington, Idaho, and Oregon, from a placer mine overlain by a lava flow in northern California, and from lines tone caves in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and in Utah, Missouri, and Illinois. Six or seven epigean species of Haplocampa are known from northern California, northern Oregon, southern Montana, central and northern Washington (on Mount Rainier at an elevation of 1700 meters and on Mount Baker at an elevation of ca. 1600 meters), and in Alberta, Canada (in Banff National Park). Overall, the distribution of species of Haplocampa appears relictal. The last mentioned occurrence in the Banff region of Alberta, along with the presence of hypogean amphipods and isopods in the same area (Holsinger, 1980), suggests the presence of an ice-free refugium on the eastern side of the Canadian Rockies during the Wisconsin glaciation. Similar distributional patterns exist for members of the genera Tricampa, Eumesocampa, and Haplocampa. All three have epigean members at high latitudes or at high altitudes in the western mountains, and cavernicolous members at lower latitudes and altitudes. Species identical or very similar to Tricampa rileyi or !. remingtoni are known from three caves in Illinois. Epigean !. remingtoni is known only from Colorado. !. rileyi is known from the mountains of the western states and Alberta, Canada, as well as from the plains of Iowa to Louisiana. In the mountains of Utah and Colorado, it has been found above 3000 meters; specimens were collected at Cottonwood Pass, Colorado, which at 3615 meters is one of the highest locations known for Campodeids. Eumesocampa lutzi Silvestri inhabits the same region, at elevations near 3000 meters (Cond1! and Geeraert, 1962). In the United States, species of the following genera are known only from caves; all are troglobites: Litocampa (former subgenus of Plusiocampa) with 20 or more species, two new genera from eastern Tennessee (undescribed genus B of Fig. 1) and Nevada (undescribed genus X) which are related to Litocampa, and an undescribed genus (S) from southeastern New Mexico and western Texas which is related to Meiocampa (former subgenus of Parallocampa). A cavernicolous species from central Texas is tentatively identified as a member of the genus Allocampa, which is currently represented by. a single epigean species in Cuba (Silvestri, 1931). The majority of the known cavernicolous species are in two genera, Litocampa and Haplocampa. The United States species of Litocampa are concentrated in the southern Appalachian region (17 species), with two species in Missouri and Arkansas (the southern Ozarks Plateau), and one species in New Mexico. Species belonging to the group with the most ancestral characters are found in the southern Appalachian ~ountains: in the Blue Ridge Province of Tennessee and North Carolina and in the eastern-most part of the Valley and Ridge Province of Virginia. Other United States species of Litocarnpa could have evolved from the ancestral stock of this species group. Although the single species of Litocampa in New Mexico may be derived from the southern Appalachian stock, future research could show that it is more likely derived from Mexican stock. Mexico may prove to be another point of radiation for species of this genus.

PAGE 12

Wygodzinsky (1944) has already indicated the presence of three species of Litocampa there. The Missouri and Arkansas species of Litocampa are morphologically intermediate between Litocampa and Haplocampa. If cavernicolous Litocampa species were ancestral to the Haplocampa, this would help to explain the presence of well-developed latero-tergal crests on the pre tarsal claws of all known Haplocampa--even in the epigean species. The occurrence of a generalized species of Haplocampa in caves of Missouri and Illinois supports this hypothesized affinity of the two genera. However, if Litocampa gave rise to Haplocampa in the Ozarks, it must have occurred long ago (in the Tertiary ?) in order to allow time for the western dispersal of ancestral Haplocampa during favorable climatic periods, followed by speciation during the Pleistocene. The climatic events of the Pleistocene Epoch most certainly accounts for some of the ranges of Haplocampa and Litocampa in the United States today. However, the overall distribution of Litocampa in North America, Europe (France, Spain, and Switzerland) South America (Guyana and northeastern Brazil), and western Africa (Republic of Guinea), along with their generalized (primitive ?) morphology, suggests an ancient group whose range has been fragmented by plate tectonics. I would like to thank collectively here all those people who have provided specimens for study, or who have aided me in other ways in the collection of material. These individuals will be more properly acknowledged elsewhere. References Cited Bareth, C., and B. Cond~. 1958. Campod~id~s endog~s de l'ouest des Etats-Unis (Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona). Bull. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 27:226-248, 265-276, 297-304. Chandler, L. 1956. The orders Protura and Diplura in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 66:112-114. Cond~, B. 1949. Campod~id~s cavernicoles de la r~gion des Appalaches. Notes Biosp~ol., 4:125-137. 1953. G~on~mie, morphologie et phylog~nie des Campod~id~s troglobies. Premier Congr. Int. Sp~l~ol., 3:85-88. ___________ 1956. Mat~riaux pour une monographie des Diploures Campod~id~s. M~m. Mus. Nat.\Hist. Natur., s~r. A. Zoo!., 12(1955}, 202 pp. ___________ and P. Geeraert. 1962. Campod~id~s endog~s du centre des Etats-Unis. Arch. Zool. Exp. G~n., 101:73-160. ------f~a-u-n-e-'d:~dC~~p~~~~~~~ d;9~~iif~~~i~i~~~;~~t:sla Diploures}. Bull. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 26:81-96, 118127, 142-155. Ferguson, L. M. 1978. A preliminary report on the Eurnesocampa (Insecta: Diplura: Campodeidae) of North America. Virginia Journal of Science, 29(2}: 60. (Abstract.) Gardner, R. E. 1914. Some notes on the distribution of Cinura in the vicinity of Claremont, with description of a new species. J. Entomol. Zool. (Clar,mont), 6: 86-92. Hilton, W. A. 1932. The Campodea of California. Ibid., 24:47 51. 1936. Campodea from the United States. Ibid., 28:5-10. Holsinger, J. R. 1980. Stygobromus canadensis, a new subterranean amphipod crustacean (Crangonyctidae) from Canada, with remarks. on Wisconsin refugia. Can. J. Zoo!., 58(2):290-297. Paclt, J. 1957. Diplura. Genera Insectorurn de P. Wytsman, fasc. 212E, 123 pp. Silvestri, F. 1912. Nuovi generi e nuove specie di Campodeidae (Thysanura) dell'America settentrionale. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. Portici, 6:5-25. 1931. Campodeidae (Ins. Thysanura) di Cuba. Ibid., 24:299-318. ______ ~~~~~ 1933. Quarto contributo alIa conoscenze dei Campodeidae (Thysanura) del Nord America. Ibid., 27:156-204. Wygodzinsky, P. 1944. Contribuicao ao conhecimento da familia Campodeidae (Entotrophi., Insecta) do Mexico. An. Escuela Nac. Cienc. BioI., 3:367-404. o ...... ; : : GENERA a: CAVERNICOUlJS G1-IProEIDS -"". ... .ciSlO' ClO o ...... \ ... 1M ................ I Figure 1. United States, showing distribution of genera of cavernicolous campodeids: Litocampa (small x), Eurnesocampa (E), Campodea (C), Metriocampa (M), Tricampa (T), Podocampa (P), Ha p locam 7 a (H), Allocarnpa ? (A), undescribed genus B (B), undescribed genus X (large X), and undescribed genus 55). 12

PAGE 13

Subartic Karst Geomorphology and the Development of Organo-Karst Landforms in the Hudson Bay Lowland, Ontario Daryl W. Cowell Lands Directorate, Environment Canada, Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario, Canada, L7R 4A6 Abstract The Hudson Bay Lowland is an area of unconfined peat land underlain by Paleozoic strata .. Silurian limestone outcrops 90 km west of James Bay along the Attawapiskat River. It is also found on either side of the river in the form of glacially-scoured biohermal reef knobs, within an otherwise continuous organic cover. Circumneutral to acid organic groundwaters are in contact with the limestone reefs and the peatland plain is consequently undergoing active karstification. Prominent sinkholes surround the reefs and are expanding at the expense of the peatland. Three distinct karst morphologies have evolved depending on the height of the reefs relative to the peat surface. The result is an extensive organo-karst complex. Paralleling each bank of the river is a zone of fluvio-karst characterized by sinkholes and active ponors. Karren forms are poorly represented because of the local lithology but good examples of pit karren and rillen karren have been observed. Resume Les basses-terres de la baie d'Hudson constituent une region de tourbieres qui s'etendent ~ perte de vue et dont Ie sous-sol se compose de strates paleozoique. La Riviere Attawapiskat s'est creusee un lit de 30 m dans du calcaire biodetritique silurien qui a son centre a environ 90 km ~ l'ouest de la baie James. On trouve des escarpements de 12 a 15 m Ie long de la riviere, mais, ~ l'interieur des terres, Ie terrain est plat et recouvert de 1.5 m de tourbe ou davantage. Le terrain organique occupe environ 70% de la superficie et des tourbieres emergees et basses, dont l'eau souterraine va d'un pH ~ peu pr~s neutre un pH acide, predominent. La deglaciation des basses-terres a commence il y a de cela 8000 ~ 9000 ans et la zone qui fait l'objet de l'etude a emerge de la mer de Tyrrell il y a environ 4000 ans. Depuis lors, il s'est forme deux zones hydrogeologiques et morphologiques de karsts. Ce sont, d'une part, une zone fluvio-karstique longeant la riviere et, d'autre part, une plaine organo-karstique ~ l'interieur des terres. Les karsts fluvieux recouvrent 16% de la superficie et se caracterisent par des dolines, des ponors actifs, des lapies-fosses et des lapies-rigoles. Le drainage de cette zone se produit surtout dans les eaux vadoses et alimente les sources de la riviere Attawapiskat. La zone de karsts organiques represente un exemple unique de plaine de tourbiere subissant une karstification active. Elle consiste en affleurements de roches coralliennes denudees par les glaciers, entoures par des tourbieres. La ligne de contact entre Ie manteau organique et Ie calcaire est ponctuee de dolines tres visibles qui s'agrandissent actuellement aux depens des tourbieres. Trois reliefs karstiques dis tincts se sont developpes en fonction de la hauteur des pinacles corralients par rapport ~ la surface de la tourbe. Le niveau phreatique demeure eleve dans les tourbieres de des cOnes de depression des eaux souterraines entourent les dolines. I Introduction The conditions which give rise to karst and wetland landscapes are so divergent that the likelihood of their co-existing seems improbable. Karst terrains are best displayed where chemically agressive waters may readily pass into and through a rockmass. Wetland terrains are the product of very poor drainage, usually where impermeable material such as clay or crystalline rock prevents water loss via groundwater seepage. Unconfined peatlands, such as those in the Hudson Bay Lowland, require extremely flat plains where the regional water table lies above the mineral substrate; hence, they are one of the least likely places to find karst processes and landforms. This paper describes an example of subarctic karstification in the Lowland and discusses the development of karst landforms within a peatland plain, herein termed organo-karst (Cowell, in press) Geology and Morphology The study area lies 90 km west of James Bay on the Attawapiskat River, at approximately 60 m above sea level (Figure 1). The karst covers at least 200 km 2 It has developed in the Attawapiskat Formation (Middle Silurian). This is a thick-bedded bioclastic limestone with thin-bedded interreefal facies surrounding massive bioherms (Sanford et al., 1968). Strata are flat-lying and jointing is~he-only structural feature evident. Glacial scour and post-glacial fluvial erosion have exposed many biohermal reef cores which now stand as isolated rock knobs throughout the area. The study area was inundated by a late-glacial marine transgression (the "Tyrrell Sea") 7000-8000 years B.P. (Lee, 1960), and only emerged approximately 4400 years B.P. Since that time the Attawapiskat River has entrenched 30 m into the limestone along a reach of 45 km. The main karst lies at the upstream end of the reach, where abrupt cliffs of 12 to 15 m occur along the river. These grade laterally into expansive peatlands punctuated by numerous bioherman reefs (Figure 2). A veneer of calcareous silty alluvium 40 to 100 cm thick underlies organic deposits between reef knolls. The area lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, having a mean annual temperature of -3.3¡C and a coldest month (January) averaging -23¡C. Peatland Morphology 'Peatland' encompasses a suite of wetland types characterized by net accumulation of organic material and formation of organic landforms. Peatlands, averaging 1.5 m of organic deposits, cover 70% of the study area. These occur predominately as typical 13 lowland acid bogs (groundwater pH 3-5) characterized by sphagnum mosses, labradortea (Ledum groenlandicum), leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calcyculata) and in places, black spruce (Picea mariana). Where lateral movement of water is possible over or through calcareous alluvial substrates, e.g., near to karst dolines or in seepageways draining large bog complexes, less acid fen peatlands occur (pH 5-7). These are characterized by a variety of grasses and sedges, 'rich' mosses (Drepanocladus sp. and Scorpidium scorpioides) and some shrubs. Karst Geomorphology There are two distinct karst geomorphological zones in the study area (Figures 2 and 3). These are 1) a fluvio-karst zone on islands in the river and extending up to 1 km inland and 2) the organo-karst zone in the inter-fluvial peatlands. In the fluvio-karst zone individual dolines have developed on bare limestone or where overburden is shallow 40 cm). They consist of solutionally enlarged jOints which drain small depressions of solution or reefal origin (Figure 3). These features are probably common in this zone, forming wherever water collects on the reef surfaces. Two intermittent lakes were examined (A6-1 and A7-3, Figure 2). A6-1 is located near the peatland margin and occupies an abandoned channel of the Attawapiskat River. Its surficial overflow drainage flows southwest via a silt-floored channel grown over with trees. Water marks, indicating that the channel is seasonally active, were observed about 60 cm above the base of the trees. Depth of the lake at high stage would be about 1.5 m. Clusters of shallow dolines primarily of collapse origin occur at both ends of the lake. The deepest is 1.5 m below the lake floor. No conduits of explorable dimensions could be penetrated from the dolines. Karren forms are poorly represented in the area but well developed pit karren and rillen karren were observed in the fluvio-karst zone; Pit karren occur mainly on the dense reef-core rocks. Fine etching occurs on most outcrops of the dense, less-fossiliferous limestone but only 2 examples of true pit karren were found. Pitting was high density and individual pits were sharp-edged. Rillen karren were observed at only one site. Four rills occurred on a near-vertical face of interreefal strata. The largest sloped at 78¡, was 90 cm long, crossed 3 bedding planes and narrowed from 5 cm at the top to 1.5 cm at the bottom, bifurcating below the second bedding plane. The entire rock surface at the site, including the rills, was sharply etched.

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In general karren and fine-honeycomb etching occurs only on the most dense limestone. Most outcrops in the study area however are composed of porous often very fossiliferous limestone which inhibits the development of recognizable karren forms. In the organo-karst zone three distinct morphologies have evolved as consequences of differing relationships between the elevations of reef knolls and peat surfaces. The first is found where the top of the knoll is higher than the surrounding bog (Figure 3). Dolines often with intermittent ponds or small lakes, form at the edge of the reef, e.g., sites A6-2 and A8-1, Figure 2. In one case (A6-2) at least six separate dolines almost completely encircle the reef, The largest doline was 70 x 20 m in dimension and 2.5 m deep. The second morphology occurs where the reef surface is at the same elevation as the surrounding peatland. The bog may encroach onto the reef, particularly if alluvium protects the limestone. In these cases dolines develop wherever water may seep into the rock, e.g., at prominent joints. Site A6-3 is an example of this morphology; there are five sinkholes, the largest being 2 m deep and 16 m in diameter. It has a small circular cave at the base. The third type of organo-karst morphology develops where the reef surface is lower than the surrounding peatland, e.g., Site A6-4. It has developed on the edge of a bog-pond complex, partly draining it. The surrounding open bog now declines gently into the depression and is broken by annular cracks, evidence that it is slumping into the doline. Karst Hydrogeology and Development of the Organo-Karst Rapid peat accumulation has occurred throughout the Hudson Bay Lowland since emergence because of the cool climate and low gradient. In the study area the Attawapiskat River has entrenched significantly into the limestone, creating a fringing zone of higher hydraulic gradients. The fluvio-karst zone, which currently occupies 17% of the area, developed contemporaneously with river entrenchment. Groundwater potential hydraulic gradients in this zone are steeper than 1:100 and there is groundwater circulation into the river channel. Dolines and ponors are hydrologically isolated in small closed basins or drain lakes and small streams perched on alluvium. Inland, the limestone was protected by alluvium and poor groundwater circulation, enabling organic material to accumulate to 1.5 m. Once a hydraulic gradient steeper than 1:500 was established, karst circulation occurred wherever the aquiclude could be breached (Cowell, in press). This created cones of groundwater depression within the peatland limestone phreatic aquifer. The organic water could not have been in direct contact with bedrock until after peat had accumulated to nearly its present thickness, because early karst drainage would have prevented the rising water table necessary for organic accumulation. Karst 14 features therefore occur primarily where the peat blanket comes into lateral contact with reef knolls. However the alluvium beneath the peat may have been breached by organic waters in those instances where the reef surface is currently lower than the surrounding peatland. In these cases the increasing hydraulic gradient, concurrent with river dissection, was probably the main control of karstification. Organo-karst features occupy approximately 13% of the area. To date the effects on the peatland are limited to the immediate vicinity of the sinkholes. The lowest part of the dolines are below the pearched groundwater level in the peat thus limiting its continued accumulation. In places the peat has been visibly disturbed by drying-out and slumping. All the sinkholes and ponors shown flooded in Figure 2 (representing conditions in 1970) were completely drained when studied in 1977. This can be attributed to unusually low precipitation in the previous year because they were again flooded when visited in 1980. This indicates immature karst drainage. It is expected however that drainage will continually improve at the expense of the peatland as karst circulation continues and as potential hydraulic gradients are increased in response to continued isostatic uplift (currently 1.0-1.2 mil00 years) and accompanying river entrenchment. Conclusion The organo-karst of the Attawapiskat River is a young, hydrologically immature karst intimately associated with the occurrence and growth of organic deposits. It postdates withdrawal of the Tyrrell Sea and is likely younger than 2500 to 3000 years, allowing for up to 1.5 m of peat accumulation prior to karstification. This is a relatively short time for the formation of well developed surface karst forms. Such rapid development may, perhaps, be attributed to the high acidity of the peatland waters. The juxtaposition of these two landform and hydrologic types, which in the long term are mutually exclusive, provides many insights to the early stages of karstification of a relatively young land mass. References Cited Cowell, D.W. (in press). Karst hydrogeology within a sub-artic peatland: Attawapiskat River, Hudson Bay Lowland. Proc. V.T. Stringfield Symp. on Karst Hydrol., J. Hydrol. Lee, H.A., 1960. Late glacial and postglacial Hudson Bay Sea episode. Science 131. pp. 1609-1611. Sanford, B.V., Norris, A.W., and Bostock, H.H., 1968. Geology of the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 67-60. pp. 1-45. HUDSON BAY Scale o 100 roo km ('::::;; HUDSON BAY LOWLAND Figure 1. The Hudson Bay Lowland showing the location of the study area.

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/-/' A6-3 .8 LEGEND FLUVIAL ZONE I PEATLAND ZONE BOUNDARY LIMESTONE PEAT COMPLEXES IN PEAT LAND ZONE FLOW DIRECTION SITE NUMBERS WATER SAMPLE LOCATIONS Figure 2. A portion of the Atawapiskat karst showing the area and features investigated during July 1977 (from National Air Photo Library, aerial photo No. A21495-162, taken in August 1970). Figure 3. Idealized cross section from south-shore of Attawapiskat River showing karst-peatland relationships (horizontal distance about 3.0 km).

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The World's Longest Underwater Cave Sheck Exley and Ned DeLoach Florida, U.S.A. R!!;sum!!; Le systeme "Peacock Springs. Cave" dans la Comt!!; de Suwannee en Floride, est un labyrinthe d'embranchement horizontal develop!!; principalement ~ la base du couche Calcaire Suwannee de l'age Oligocene. Les vingt-cinq ans d'exploration continuelle de cette grotte sont uniques non pour la longueur d'atteinte (7 Km.) ni pour la profondeur parvenue (67m) mais plutOt pour la maniere d'exploration utilis~ pour relever la caverne: Ie plong~e de caverne sousmarine. C'est la grotte la plus longue de la Floride, mais plus impressionant c'est Ie fait que ~a continue ~ etre la plus longue caverne sousmarine connue au monde. "Peacock Springs Cave" a jou~_un role de grande port!!;e dans Ie d~velopement de l'equipement pour Ie plong!!;e de caverne dans les Etats Unis en etant us!!; comme "endroit de preuve" pour les equipages et les proc~s nouveaux. Depuis l'usage d'un seul caisson primitif, avec un regulateur a double tuyau et lampe de poche dans un sac a plasti plastique, utiliz~ par Vasco Murray en 1956 pour la premiere exploration de l'entr!!;e de la caverne, l'~quipement a progressivement evolu!!; jusqu'a permettre les explorateurs NSS ~ penetrer plus que 700m de l'entree la plus proche les voies sousmarines et jusqu'a 67m de profondeur de l'eau. Les doubles caissons de 33m, les tuyauteries a double soupape, les lumieres de quartz halagene, les scaphandres, les scooters sousmarins et des techniques a plong~e nouvelles sont en train d'etre utilis~ par les scaphandriers NSS pour atteindre des temps de submersion saufs pendant plus de 3.5 heures et continuer a maintenir une marge de securit~ 100%. Pendant l'evolution de cet ~quipement tout les 7 entr~es passables du systeme Peacock ont !!;te conjugu~s et de fait tout les passages ont ~te explor~s et relev~s, quoique des petits passages de cOte continuent a etre decouvertent. The exploration and survey of the Peacock Springs Cave System by N.S.S. divers is probably the crowning achievement of American cave diving. While the distance records for individual dives have left the U.S. for England and Australia, the discoveries ~f extensive air-filled galleries beyond sumps in America have yet to rival the success of the British at Ogof Ffynnon Ddu, Peacock remains the world's longest known underwater cave at over 7.0 km. It has now held that distinction since October of 1975, and appears unlikely to be surpassed for quite some time to come (Exley, 1979) Located 3 km from the Suwannee River in westcentral Suwannee County, Florida, the cave is almost entirely developed in the thinly-bedded, highly fossiliferous Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene age (Fisk and Exley, 1977). Water flow in the cave, which is entirely submerged, is from the north to the south, paralleling the trend of the majority of cave passage. In two areas short sections of the cave descend into the uppermost limestone beds of the thick Eocene Ocala Group. In both areas the general north-south trend of the cave is broken by the development of secondary passages with an east-west orientation. It is estimated that half of the total volume of water moving through the cave moves through these ~econdary passages to flow downward into the Ocala Group. Of the remaining half that eventually exits at Peacock Springs (measured at 15.0 cfs on 12/6/75), over 90% of the water re-enters the ground at Peacock III Cave. The remaining fraction trickles down a broad, sluggish stream through a picturesque cypress swamp to the Suwannee River. Contrary to some descriptions (Erving, 1968, O'Keefe, 1975) Peacock is not a maze cave but fits more closely t~e classic branchwork pattern described by Palmer (1975). The exploration of the cave has been facilitated by the presence of eight passable entrances spaced at regular intervals throughout the system so that no point in the cave exceeds 700 m from the nearest entrance. Further, the water depths generally encountered are relatively shallow (12 to 21 m), with the deeper areas (up to 61 m) being short in nature and close to entrances. These facts have enabled investigation of a substantial portion of the cave at a time when the technology of cave diving was, at least by modern standards, quite primitive. The exploration of Peacock began with Vasco Murray's tentative dives in the Peacock Springs I and OrangerGrove Sink entrances in 1956. However, not until 1965 were any of the entrances connected, when George Krasle, Howard Lilly and Dick Olsen entered the Peacock entrance and exited via Pot Hole 135 m away. Within the next few years Rick Wright and Howard Bradbeer pushed on to the Cis teen Sink and Olsen Sink entrances, then in 1970 Tom Mount and Frank Martz followed a winding tunnel 429 m northward from the upstream Olsen entrance to emerge in Challenge Sink. Later that year John Harper, Randy Hylton and Frank Martz linked Orange Grove Sink Cave to the Challenge entrance via a 538 m-long conduit. The latest and most significant connection came on 7/7/73, when David Fisk, Dana Turner and Sheck Exley connected Waterhole III Cave to Peacock with a world record (for then) cave diving through trip of 704 m. A 5 m breach of the cave at Olsen Sink which effectively divided the cave into two separate systems was bypassed through exploration by Court Smith, Lewis Holtzendorff and Exley on 9/3/73 (Exley and Fisk, 1978). 16 The survey of the cave, which began in 1975, has been a project of the N.S.S. Cave Diving Section. Using guideline knotted at 3 m intervals, a Suunto diver's compass and depth gauges, more than 7.0 km of passage has been mapped using procedures described in detail by Exley and Maegerlein (1981). A relatively high degree of accuracy has been obtained by correcting to a surface transit survey of the entrances. The fifteen divers who have helped survey the cave have accounted for more than 1000 dives in Peacock since 1965, with absolutely no accidents of any kind. Perhaps Peacock's greatest contribution has been the role it has played in the development of American cave diving equipment and procedures. From the early days of single tanks with double hose regulators and flashlights in plastic bags, explorers have progressed to twin 100 cu. ft. tanks, dual valve manifolds, octopus regulators and nicad-powered quartz-halogen lights in their quest for the means to explore the more remote areas of the cave. Improved safety procedures such as the "third rule" method of air planning, sharing air in emergencies and silt avoidance practices have also evolved as well as underwater cave surveying techniques. While they have not been necessary for exploration of that particular cave, Peacock has also been used as a proving ground for the most recent innovations in American cave diving technology such as multiple tank staging and the use of motorized Farallon Mark VI scooters. For these reasons alone it is probably that, even should another cave someday eclipse its record length, Peacock will still be revered as the cradle of American cave diving. The authors would like to thank Ned DeLoach of New World Productions for the slides and film, "Underground Underwater" used in presenting this paper. Literature Cited Erving, John. 1968. World wide skindiver's guide. Erving Publishing Co. p. 108. Exley, Sheck. 1979. World's longest underwater caves, 12/31/79. Underwater Speleology, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 57. Exley, Sheck and David Fist. 1978. The Peacock Springs Cave Systerr NSS News, vol. 36, no. 3. pp. 43-44. Exley, Sheck and Stephen D. Maegerlein. 1981. Surveying underwater caves. NSS Cave Diving Manual, pp. 150-167. Fisk, David W. and Sheck Exley. 1977. Exploration and environmental investigation of the Peacock Springs Cave System. Hydrologic Problems in Karst Regions, Western Kentucky University, pp. 297-302. O'Keefe, M. Timothy. 1975. International divers guide. Toss, Inc. p. 52. Palmer, Arthur N. 1975. The origin of maze caves. NSS Bulletin, vol. 37, no. ", pp. 57-76.

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Ned Deloach in the entrance of Orange Grove sink. Photo by Pete Velde. PEACOCK SPRINGS CAlf SYSTEM PfDIlAEO BY I 5 EXLEY .... ..,. SJtVEYEDBY CAVE DIVING SECTION NAT'ONAl. sP£LEOLOGlCAl SOCIETY GEOLOGIC MAP OF PEACOCK SlOUGH AND V1CINrry SUWANNEE CO,. FLORIDA (AfTER VERNON AND PURl 19641 t c:::::J PL[ISTOCEN(MIOClN[ fTMTA H es;g OlIGOCENE. Sl1W4JrtH[[ RllIU .. TlON ~ UPP[Jt EOCENE OCAL.4 G'IDlJ" I I ,~,~" t ,.,._V ~t.~ '\.e:A~ m CAVE. ENTRANCE ~ ~.. ~G~D CA~ PASSAGE :::;: PRELIMINARY 9..IN'EY a....T 0"" o DOME 0IRECTlCN OF SLOPE DiRECTION "Q.RRENT F1DIN SCALE IN FEET '1...21" 17

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Pebble Investigations in Slovene Caves (Yugoslavia) Andrej A. Kranjc Inst. for Karst Research, SAZU, Titov trg 2, 66230 postojna, Yugoslavia Abstract The author has investigated about 30 samples, mostly from active caves. Lithology, size and shape of pebbles were analysed and the following indices were found out: sphericity, flatness and roundness. Indices as well as standard deviation are calculated by computer. The comparisons between the data from different caves in the same water basin (ponor and spring caves) as well as along the water course in one cave (Skocjanske jame, Jama near Predjama) were made. Some attempts to find out the rate of pebble formation are given too. Rt;sumt; L'auteur examinait ~ peu prt;s 30 t;chantillons de graviers des grottes actives. Les analyses lithologiques et morphoscopiques ont t;tt; fait pour obtenir les indices de sphericitt; de l'aplatissement et d't;mouss~. Les indices ainsi que les courbes de frt;quences et les dt;viations standard ont ~tt; fait par l'ordinateur. On a fait les comparaisons entre les r~sultats des analyses des grottes diff~rentes situ~es dans un seul bassin fluvial (grottes-pertes et grottes-sources) et Ie long d'un cours d'eau dans une seule grotte (Skocjanske jame, Jama pr~s de Predjama). On a essayer de trouver l'intensivitt; de l'alt"ration de roche calcaire c'est Ie proces qui donne Ie matt;riel pour les galets calcaires. The deficiency of data about cave fluvial sediments is felt at us as well as in the world. Analytical studies of structure, size and shape of pebbles, sand and silt could give us some informations about the material origin. The descriptions and analyses of cave sediments from archaeological finding places predominate, but "archaeological" and "palaeontological" layers are less useful in karstology, because they are not included in local speleomorphological development (Renault 1976, 199). Much more descriptive work is needed before more accurate conclusions can be drawn and diagnostic tables set up. Size ranges of pebbles and sand, roundness tests and variations in stream flow stage need to be related to each other in as many areas as possible, and in turn they must be compared against a background of different source rocks in different climates, past and present (Ford 1976, 59). The first who started the modern studies Sf cave gravel at us was J. Corbel (1956, 1962) in Skocjanske jame (jama cave) and in Postojnska jama, but his investigations were limited to some occasional samples. In recent time R. Gospodari~ set to this question (1970, 1974, 1974a) but more from chronological than from morphological point of view. Therefore we decided on our Institute to try to fill the above mentioned deficienty at least for sloverne karst within the several years lasting study aimed to fluvial cave sediments research. The investigations include descriptive, analytical, and synthetical parts. In this paper I report about done gravel investigations and about previous results. In this period about 30 samples from different slovene caves were studied. On principal the sample is composed by 300 pebbles. According to slovene circumstances we are interested mostly in: origin and gravel composition (lithology), gravel morphology, carbonate pebble morphology emphasized, formation of carbonate gravel. The samples were treated by uniform methodology. Lithological composition is quite various, depending on rocks in the flow basin, where the sediment was deposited. Usually carbonate pebbles represent an uniform group, while sometimes even the carbonate gravel is distinguished in different groups. Till now the gravel of eight lithological groups was found: limestone, dolomite, quartz, sandstone, shale, marl, magmatic rocks and conglomerate. Gravel morphology: length, width and thickness of particular pebbles were measured by hand and the data were put on to diskettes (IBM 3741). The computer (IBM S/3 32 K) calculates the parameters for particular pebbles flatness and roundness (after Cailleux) and sphericity (after Krumbein). The mean values with standard deviations and a part of unexplained variance were calculated too, the extreme values were separated, the pebbles lengths were gathered into groups and the corresponding graphs were drawn. The formation of carbonate gravel: often in the samples of the cave gravel carbonate pebbles predominate, originating from the cave itself or well from the upstream part of carbonate rocks. To know more about the carbonate pieces formation, from which water is making rubble, we started the investigations in the entrance part of Jama (Predjama). We intend to study the recent superficial and cave rubble to get the properties of that carbonate material of which the gravel originates. Just for illustration there are some interesting results of previous work. 18 Gravel lithology: podpe~ka jama is the spring cave in the border of about 3 km wide limestone ridge Mala gora. The creek Locica flows on normal relief. Coming to Mala gora it sinks, flows thorugh Finkova jama and reappears in Podpeska jama. The changes in lithological gravel composition among Lo~ica, through Finkova to Podpeska jama are shown on fig. 1. Between the Locica ponor and Finkova jama there is 0,5 km of distance, between Finkova and Podpe~ka jama there are 2,5 km. The second case, also shown on fig. 1, belongs to Reka river basin. Reka flows across Eocene flysch, sinks into ~kocjanske jame and reappears in Kacna jama. In middle course the river flows only across flysch (mostly sandstone), in Skocjanske jame it sinks after 2,5 km long course through limestone canyon, between the sinking point and Kacna jama there are about 4,5 km of underground flow. In both cases the decrease of the rate of non-carbonate pebbles is characteristic and at the same time the increase of the rate of carbonate pebbles. Changes of pebbles shape along the flow are illustrated by two examples gravel from Reka and from ponor creek Lokva near Postojna (fig. 2,3). The mean royndness of carbonate gravel of Reka on sinking point into Skocjanske jame (after 2,5 km long course through limestone canyon) is 163, in Kacna jama (after 4,5 km long underground flow) is 217. Lokva originates in flysch rocks, mostly sandstones, and after about 200 m long flow along limestone slope sinks into Jama (Predjama). The water finally appears in some 12 km distant Vipava springs. On teh ponor the mean roundness of limestone gravel is 117. From the entrance to the first siphon, where the second gravel sample was taken, there are 160 m. On this point the mean roundness of carbonate gravel reaches 155, while in Vipava springs 366. If we calculate the roundness ratio increase to distance unit the difference is considerable: in Reka course the roundness of limestone gravel increases for index 12/km, in river bed Lokva up to first siphon for 237/km and up to Vipava springs for 18/km. In short I tried to present the previous work of cave gravel investigations in Slovenia, the previous results and the project of the whole work. I would like to mention that on such limited space it is not possible to give the detailed descriptions and therefore I have chosen only some interesting cases. When we shall know the recent fluvial cave sediments well enough, it will be, after my opinion, much easier to interpret the fluvial sediments in actually dry (fossil) caves. References Corbel, J., 1956. Le Karst proprement dit. Etude morphologique. Revue de G~ographie de Lyon, 31, 303-317, Lyon. Corbel, J., 1962. Recherches nouvelles sur les grottes. Spelunca Mt;m., No.2, 35-40. Ford, T. D., 1976. The geology of caves. The Science of Speleology, 11-60, London. Gospodari~, R., E. Grobelj~ek, 1970. 0 limonitnih prodnikih na Postojnskem krasu (=About Limonite Pebbles in the Postojna Karst). Nase jame 11 (1969), 83-88, Ljubljana. Gospodaric, R., R. Pavlovec, 1974a. Izvor apnencevega proda v Planinski jami (=The Origin of the Limestone Gravel in the Cave of Planina). Acta carsologica 6, 169-182, Ljubljana. Gospodari~, R., 1974. Fluvialni sedimenti v Krizni jami (=Fluvial Sediments in Krizna Jama). Acta carsologica 6, 327-366, Ljubljana. Kranjc, A., 1980. Fluvialni jamski sedimenti v razvoju krasa. Sklepno porocilo (=Fluvial Cave Sediments in Karst Development. Final Report). Elaborat, IZRK

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SAZU, I-Ill', Postojna. Renault, Ph., 1976. Les karstifications pendant Ie Quaternaire. La pr~histoire francaise, 192-200, Paris. o 100 '1oquartz o 100 Fig. 1 Chan~es in gravel lithology'between Lo~ica creek Podpeska jama and downstream Reka river 1 Ponor of Locica 2 Finkova jama 3 Podpeska jarna 4 middle course of Reka river 5 Reka river sinking point in Skocjanske jame 6 Kacna jarna s 500 s £ N o N u o R 30 ~ >c..:> :z:: 20 ..... 11 II I ::::> I ~ ~ ... 10 I ce: w... Fig. 2 Roundness of limestone pebbles in the Reka river bed 1 Ka~na jarna v 2 Reka river sinking point into Skocjanske jame 19

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30 s s 500 [ N o N 1\/ : : f \ f \ \f :: ... ~ ...... ~ ........ \\ \ / \.:0 "'. ................... u o R c."! >c..=> 20 z:: .... == ~ 10 I ..... I I ce: I I .... I 0 I ......... : 0 Fig. 3 Roundness of limestone pebbles in the Lokva Vipava river bed 1 ponor of Lokva 2 siphon in the Lokva ponor cave 3 Vipava springs Karst, Covered Karst and Interstratal Karst in Glaciated Lowland Terrains of Canada D. C. Ford Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4Kl Abstract Palaeozoic reefal, lagoonal and platform limestones and dolomites of great variety, very extensive salt deposits, abundant gypsum and anhydrite, cover the Canadian craton between the Shield and the Western Cordillera. There is little tectonic deformation, 25% of the strata outcrop today, the remainder are covered by varying depths of Mesozoic siliciclastic rocks. Topographic relief is low. The entire area has been repeatedly glaciated by continental ice sheets; the Wisconsin (Wurm) sheet receded 14.5-8.0 Ky B.P. in different localities. The region is south of the modern limit of continuous permafrost. Inhibiti;lg, obstructing and erasing effects of glacial action upon karst forms and karstification are considered. They most profoundly affect the carbonate rocks, which are least soluble; postglacial karst is limited to 'point-to-point' systems and a few integrated, but small, regional karsts developed because of local preferential factors. An extensive dolomite pavement is preserved intact, hydrologically active but hydrochemically inert, beneath glacial clays at Winnipeg. Karstification of gypsum is scarcely inhibited but the extent to which modern landforms are truly postglacial in origin, rather than rejuvenated, is uncertain. Salt karst shows the greatest variation; some buried palaeokarst forms have been inert since the Palaeozoic, others were rejuvenated as recently as the last deglaciation, some collapses have propagated through 1000 m of cover strata during postglacial times. The role of glacial isostatic flexing as a deep groundwater pumping (rejuvenating) mechanizm is discussed. Resume Entre Ie Bouclier et la cordilliere occidentale, Ie craton Canadien est recouvert d'une grande varlete de calcaires et dolomies recifals, laguniers et de plateforme de l'age paleozoique, de depOts salins tres vastes et de gypse et d'anhydrite abondants. II y a plu de deformation tectonique. Seulement 25% de la strate est expose a ce jour, Ie reste etant recouvert de roches siliciclastiques MesozoIques d'epaisseur variable. La topographie est peu accentuee. Toute la region a ete recouverte a ~aintes reprises par de grands glaciers continentaux; Ie retrait du glacier Wisconsin (WUrm) remonte a 14500-8000 ans A.P. dans differentes laocalities. La region se trouve au sud de la limite moderne du pergelisol continuo L'inhibition, l'obstruction et l'obligation de formes et procedes karstiques par l'action glaciaire sout discutes. Ces facteurs affectent Ie plus profondement les carbonates, qui Ie moins solubles; Ie karst post-glaciaire est limite a des systemes "point-a-point" et a quelques karst regionaux integres, mais de petite etendue, developpes par l'action de facteurs preferentiels locaux. A Winnipeg, un vaste pave de dolomie est preserve intact, hydrologiquement actif mais hydrochimiquement inerte, sous les argiles glaciaires. La karstification du gypse est a peire inhibitee, mais a quel point les formes modernes de terrain sout veritablement glaciaires d'origine, plutot que rajeunies, demeure incertain. Le karst salin "exhibe la plus grande variation; quelques paleokarts enter res sont demeures inertes depuis Ie paleozoYque, d'autres furent ra)eunis aussi recemment que la derniere glaciation. Quelques effondrements furent propages a travers 1000 m de strates superieures pendant 1 'holocene. Le role due rebondissement isostatique entant que mecanisme de pompage d'eaux souterraines profondes (rajeunissement) est discute. 20

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The Regularities in the Formation of Gas Composition of the Air in the Large Karst Caves of Podolia and Bukovina A. B. Klimchuk 1 N. L. Yablokova 1 and S. P. 01shtynsky2 lInstitute of Geological Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrain, Kiev, USSR and 2Institute of Geochemistry and Physics of Minerals, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrain, Kiev, USSR Knowledge of gas composition of the air of the karst caves is rather poor. In some of the few publications dealing with this problem an increase of the carbon dioxide content in the air of the karst caves is considered to be a general law. Some regularities were revealed by a special investigation of the gas composition of the air in the caves of the Crimea, which was carried out in 1963-1973 by V. Dublyansky and U. Shutov. According to these authors (2,3) CO 2 content of the air in the caves is normally 10-30 times that on the surface. In the cavities laid in the vicinity of fractural dislocations and large faults, carbon dioxide content of the air increases up to 1-7, 5 volume per cents (a 250 times increase compared with the average composition of the atmospheric air). At the same time in fractured zones of the karst caves and' shafts the nitrogen content increases (up to 82%), CH 4 appears (from traces to 6,7%) and heavy hydrocarbons (ethene, propene, isobutene, n-butene from traces to 1,08%). V. Dublyansky and U. Shutov consider the anomalies in the content of these components in cave air to be related to the inflow of the dry gas currents of different composition from the abyssal parts of the section along the fractures. V. Dublyansky have noted (2) that carbon dioxide component is of more complex genesis. The quantity of CO 2 in the air of the caves can change influenced by the inflow of the dry gas currents of the C02 composition along .the fractures, carbon dioxide being taken from the soil together with the air and infiltration waters, in oxidizing processes in zone of aeration, in connection with thermodiffusion processes, owing to C02 separation in the formation of carbonate and cave hydrogenous ice (2). The part of each of these processes in the formation of gas composition of the cave air is difficult to determine. Our knowledge of the dynamics. of variation of the gas composition of the cave air is rather poor. ,A, season character of the variations of gas compos~t~on may be traced for some caves of the Crimea. In the warm period of the year the abundance of the most variable gases mainly of carbon dioxide, increase, which is connected with decrease of the intensity of the air exchange with the surface as compared to the cool season (2,10). Recently, a special study of the gas composition of the air of some gypsum labyrinth caves of Podolia and Bukovina (West Ukrain) was fulfiled. Up to present only scanty information about the air composition of some caves of Podolia are available, which could be found in the works on speleotherapy (1). Method of Investigation The gas composition of the air of the caves was investigated by means of sampling and their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. The samples were taken into special glass amplules provided with a vacuum rubber t~be and a clip at each end. The ampule volume is 50 "cm). A control measuring has shown stability of the gas composition of such hermetically sealed samples during their transportation and storage. It was established at the same time that if the air samples were sealed in the turned bottles with the salt plug (which is widely used in sampling) their gas composition changes considerably and this mode of sampling does not fit. Analysis of the ampluled samples had been carried out in the laboratory with the gas chromatograph LHM-7A, on the cores with polysorb-l of 5m long and molecular sieves lOX of 3m long. Helium was used as a gas bearer with the velocity of 70 ml/min. In some cases the measurings of CO 2 content were carried out by express-method (8) in the places of sampling with the control purpose (directly in the cave). The agreement with the chromatographic data are within 0,1 volume %. The total sampling and measurements were made at 1 m height over the floor. There places of sampling were recorded. At some places the samples were taken successively at 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5 height to.study gas stratification through the cross section of a cave. At the moment of sampling air pressure and temperature were measured. To solve the problem of carbon dioxide genesis in the air of the caves some samples were taken for analysis of isotopic composition of carbon of their CO 2 21 The analysis was made by a precision mass-spectrometric method. CO 2 separation for analyzing was carried out by barbotation of the air through sodium hydrate solution. In the laboratory the concentrated product was subjected to the phosphoric acid procession and the escaped CO 2 gas after refining was introduced into mass-spectrometre MI-1201 through' the three-channeled injection system SNI3. The 13 C abundr~ce is measured relative PDB standard as the value of 0 C with fO,4% deviation. The Object of Investigation Large labyrinth caves of the Western Ukraine, the gas composition of which was studied, are located within the South-West edge of the East-European platform, in the interstream surface of the left sub-parallel tributes of the river Dniester. These are well known caves: Optimisticheskaya, Ozhernaya, Cristalnaya, Mlynky, Verteba, Atlantida, formed in the 10-30 metres thickness of upper Neogene and loose Quorternary deposits. In 1975 a new large cave Zolooshka is found in the DniesterPrut interflave (7). About 60 km of galleries have been mapped in the cave Zolooshka by now. The cave is located in the zone of the Precarpathian depression and the thickness of sedimentary cover increases, as well as of surrounding gypsum. All these caves are horizontal, some of them showing a storied structure. Noegene deposits of the left bank of the river Dniester are highly dissected by erosion and caves, formed in these deposits are very well aired. In respect of microclymate they all related to,the dynamic type. Air exchange factor for various caves ranges from 1 to 2,5 times a day (4). In natural conditions the cave Zolooshka was in the zone of absolute saturation and moved into the zone of aeration as a result of a strong fall of water level, produced during 30 years by a nearby quarry. In the course of studying of the gas composition of the air of these caves 130 samples are analysed. The most detailed analysis and reanalysis in different seasons was made of the caves Atlantida (70 samples, 15 sampling points, in two of them the samples were taken from different levels) and Zolooshka (30 samples, 4 sampling points, in two of them the gas was sampled from different levels). In the rest of large caves some particular samples or the groups of samples were taken mainly in a summer period (Optimisticheskaya, Ozhernaya, Cristalnaya, Mlynky, Verteba, Bucovinka, Kievlyanka). Results and Discussion As a result of present studies considerable variations are established in a gas composition of the air of different caves, in different points of one and the same cave, and in different seasons of the year in the same sampling points. The variations in the CO 2 content range from 0;05 to 4,24 volume %, that of the oxygen from 12,74 to 21,97 vol.%, and of the nitrogen from 77,54 to 84,69 vol. %. No other gas was found in the composition of the air of the caves. Carbon dioxide is the most changeable component, its content being in all cases considerably greater than the average C02 content in the atmospheric air (up to 142 times). The distribution of CO content perpendicular to the floor of the cave appeared Eo be very interesting. Layer by layer sampling was carried out in the caves Atlantida and Zolooshka in 4 points; in some of them the sampling was made in different seasons. The CO 2 content in these sets of samples was found to decrease from the level of 0,1 m to 0,5 m and increases at the level of 1,0 m (reaching, as a rule, peak values) and decreases again by the level of 2,5 m. This regularity is illustrated in Figure 1. It is evident from this Figure that the variation of oxygen perpendicular to the floor is in most cases of the opposite character. The sampling in different seasons was not strictly regular, still allowing to establish some definite peculiarities in season variation of the air in the cave of the air. Thus, the average CO 2 content in 14 points the cave Atlantida at the end of December 1979 the beginning of January 1980 was 0.61 vol. % varying from 0.17 to 0.95 vol. %. In February 1980 the ,gas composition of the air was rather variable: C02 content of the air in different points of the cave ranged from 0.47 to 3.97 vol. %; the average content. was 1.67%. In June the range of C02 variation,was 0.14 0.5 vol.%; the average

PAGE 22

content being 0.29 vol. %. In November the range of C02 variation was 0.19 0.55, the average value being 0.36 vol. %. Considerably higher content of carbon dioxide is characteristic for the gas composition of the cave Zolooshka as a whole: the average content in December January was 2.74, in May 1.75, in August 0.96, in September 1.40, in October 1.82 vol. %; the minimum C02 content being 0.5 vol. %, and the maximum 4.24 vol. %. A seasonal variation of the gas composit~on of the air in the cave is illustrated in Figure 2. Oxygen reveals the opposite type of variation, and that of nitrogen is similar to CO 2 variation. In some samples, taken during a summer autumn period in Optimisticheskaya, Ozhernaya, Cristalnaya, Mlynky caves CO 2 content ranged from 0.05 to 0.31 vol. % Thus, carbon dioxide content in the air of the caves in Podolia and Bukovina clearly shows a seasonal variation. Maximum CO 2 contents correspond to winter period, minimum to summer autumn period. It is contrary to the seasonal gas composition variation characteristic of the Crimean caves (2). Somehwat lowered values of oxygen content in the samples of the cave Zolooshka are worthy of attention. The average oxygen content for all samples from this cave is 17.5 vol. % ranging from 12.74 to 20.58 vol. %; having low values in summer and winter periods. Low 02 content are established for some points in February for Atlantida cave. Seasonal variation of gas composition of the cave air of this region is to be related to seasonal character of the processes, forming the peculiarities of gas composition of the cave air on one side, and to seasonal changing of the microclimate regime of the caves on the other hand. The results of gas analysis being in volume per cents does not permit to evaluate a real degree of changeability of a component from the data on its variations. As the effect of the atmospheric air is the main factor, forming the gas composition of the air of the caves it is necessary to relate the measured gas contents with a certain atmospheric standard. For each sample the following estimations have been made. The relation of any two gas components of the atmospheric air was taken as a standard. On this relation "atmospheric"contents of these two gases for each sample were found by substitution a measured value of the third component. "Atmospheric" contents were compared with measured content of the gas in question in the sample and thus a degree of changing of a given component under the influence of subterranean factors was evaluated. The analysis performed made it possible to find out that nitrogen content in the cave Atlantida in all seasons of the year appears to be close to a theoretical value, but in February the nitrogen content in several points increases as compared to the theoretical by 3-6%. The ratio of measured oxygen to theoretical 02 approximates 1 in December January, July and November. In February the decrease of measured O 2 content as compared to the theoretical value reached 14.5%. A measured carbon dioxide content many times exceeds a theoretical one for all samples (from 6 to 142). In the air of the cave Zolooshka, all components of the air are subjected to changes. Here as in Atlantida carbon dioxide content is subjected to the largest changing as compared to the theoretical value: the ratio of measured to theoretical value of CO 2 content ranges from 10 to 150. In all the seasons tfie measured value of oxygen is less than a theoretical value by 4 20%, reaching sometimes 37%. A measured value of nitrogen content exceeds a theoretical one by 3-10%. The data presented show that all components of the initial atmospheric air mixture are subjected to some or other degree of changing. In the aerated zone of a sedimentary rock mass subjected to karstification processes occur resulting in carbon dioxide enrichment of the initial atmospheric air, oxygen consumption and producing certain amount of additional nitrogen. At least some of the processes, producing anomalies in subterranian air medium should have distinct seasonal variations. Processes, resulting in oxygen consumption in the air of the caves, its CO 2 and nitrogen enrichment are the most intensive in the cave Zolooshka. A variety of possible sources of carbon dioxide supply to the cave air makes it difficult to define the processes, causing the increase of its content in the air of the caves in question only on the basis of the data presented. Some additional information may be receiv 7 d from isotopic analysis of CO 2 carbon of the cave a~r. The analysis was made of eight samples taken 22 i f i t f th cave Zolooshka in August and Octon our po n s 0 e i ber. o13 C abundances for analysed samples are given n Table 1. Table 1. Isotopic carbon composition of carbon dioxide in the air of the cave Zolooshka. N of sampling August October points CO2 vol. % ol3 C % CO2 vol. % ol3 C % 1 0.5 -38.9 0.8 -42.4 2 1.18 -30.7 1. 61 -28.2 3 0.81 -28.3 1. 01 -36.4 4 2.57 -31.7 4.24 -38.4 An average o13 C value for atmospheric air is known to be -7.0% (6). 12 C enrichment of carbon dioxide in the air of the cave Zolooshka (average value of o13 C = 34.4%) excludes the influcnec of the an inflow of endogenous carbon dioxide along the fractures and makes us to look for such sources of CO supply which could provide that considerable light car~on enrichment of CO 2 in the air of the caves. For conditions characteristic of the cave Zolooshka two most probable processes which could be responsible for the carbon dioxide enrichment of the initial atmospheric air: 1) inflow of soil CO 2 together with infiltration water; 2) oxidation of organic matter present in surrounding deposits and cave clays. The effect of the former and partly of the latter processes is well correlated with seasonal variations established in CO 2 content. Beside CO 2 generation the latter process would have to result in an oxygen consumption and producing a certain amount of nitrogen which is f2 s0 established by present study. However, the observed C isotope enrichment of carbon dioxide of the air of the cave Zolooshka cannot be explained by these only sources of carbon dioxide. According to E. M. Halimov (5) the average o13 C value of soil carbon dioxide is -24.7% ranging from -21.1 to -27.5% and isotopic organic carbon composition of lagoon and fluvial deposits has o13C -26.2%, according to W. Sackett and R. Thompson (9) Carbon dioxide whose carbon is enriched in 12 C as compared to organic matter, may be genetically related to not~ing else but methane (5). The conditions in Neogene deposits of the region of the cave Zolooshka are favourable for development of anaerobic microorganisms, methane being one of the products of their metabolism. Methane, produced by anaerobic microorganisms in sedimentary rocks is enriched in light carbon (o13 C = -63.0%), and with its oxidation to CO 2 this carbon is included to the C02 composition. Mixture of carbon dioxide of such genesis with carbon dioxide of the abovementioned sources results in a carbon isotopic composition of carbon dioxide, which is observed in the air of the cave. The fact that we failed to find methane in the samples tested may be due to its complete oxidation into CO 2 on one hand, and on the other hand with high migration ability of the gaseous methane and its transferance into overlying reservoirs or with the outcrop into atmosphere through overlying deposits. The works carried out are considered to be as a preliminary stage of the more extensive specialized study of gas composition of the air of the caves in order 'to establish the laws of its formation. To achieve this purpose it is necessary to conduct regime investigations: study of daily and seasonal dynamics of gas composition changing, including isotopic research. The changes in gas composition of the air of the caves are to be closely related to the peculiarities of cave morphology and their current dynamics. References Apostolyuk, V., Gorbenko, P. 1977. Perspektivy ispolzovaniya pester Podolya v lechebnyh tselah (Prospects of using the caves of Podolia for medical purposes). "Hydrogeologiya i Karstovedenie", v. 8, Perm. Dublyansky, V. 1965. Gazovyi sostav vozdyha v karstovyh resterah i shahtah Gornogo Kryma (Gas composition of the air of karst caves and shafts of the Rocky Crimea). "Hydrogeologia i karstovedenie", v. 6, Perm. Dublyansky, V., Shutov, U. 1966. Gazovyi sostav vozduha v karstovyh polostyah Gornogo Kryma (Gas composition of the air of karst cavities of the Rocky Crimer). "Docl. AN SSSR", v. 171, n. 2, Moscov.

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CO 2 vol 5P Dublyansky, V., Smolnikov, B. 1969. Karstologogeofizicheskie issledovaniya karstovyh polostei Pridnestrovskoi Podolii i Pokutya (Karstgeofisical study of karst cavities of Pridnestrovskaya Podolia and Pocutye). Kiev. Galimov, E. 1968. Geohimiya stabilnyh izotopov ugleroda (Geochemistry of stabile isotopes of carbon). Moscov. Keeling, Ch. 1961. The concentration and isotopic abundances of carbon dioxide in rural and marine air. "Geochim. et Cosmoch." Acta, v. 24, n. 3/4. Korzhick, V. 1979. Novaya krypnaya gipsovaya pestera Aolyshka (New large gypsum cave Zolooshka). "Docl. AN YSSR", ser. B, n. 11, Kiev. CO 2 vol$ Laptev, A., Malysheva, I. 1975. Rykovodstvo k prakticheskim zanyatiyam po gigiene (A practical guide on hygiene). Moscov. Sackett, W., Thompson, R. 1963. Isotopic organic carbon composition of recent continental derived clastic sediments of eastern Gulf Coast, Gulf of Mexico. "Bull. Amer. Ass. Petro Geologysts", V. 47, n. 3. Shutov, U. 1966. Izychenie gasovogo sostava vozdyha iz karstovoi shahty na g. Agarmysh v Krymy (Gas composition study of the air from a karst shaft of the rock Agarmysh in the Crimea). "Peshchery", V. 6 (7), Perm. 4 ._.. -," ./ ./ ./ ._--_.-.' ...:;:; 7" ~ :---::.:-...:-.:.=:.: 1 Gol 0,5 l,D ]12' voI," 84 "I \ as I \ I \ 82/ '81 IJO 0,1 2.0 2,5 l1,lIl ~,f 2,f 1.5 11 m 14 81 I r n ][ iii !if v. the samples from the Zolooshka the samples from the cave Atlantida (1980) the samples from the cave Zolooshka (1980) Figure 1. the The distribution of separate components of caves air gas composition perpendicular to the floor. samples from the Atlantida Figure 2. Seasonal variation of gas composition of the air in the caves of Podoliya. The points of selection of the samples are given by numbers; the month of selection are given by letter indexes: ja January f February ju June a August s September o October 23 the samples from the cave Zolooshka (1978) The points of selection of the samples are given by numbers

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Ecology and Taxonomy of Marine Cave Invertebrates in The Bahama Islands Jerry H. Carpenter Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41076 U.S.A. Abstract The invertebrates of Lighthouse Cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, have been studied since 1978 to determine species diversity, food chains, habitat specialization, salinity tolerances, and biological rhythms. Over 25 species have been collected including the following: six isopods, four sponges, three snails, three featherduster worms, one shrimp, two copepods, two ostracods, one tunicate, two pseudoscorpions, one wasp, and one cockroach. At least five of these species are new to science and are in the process of being described by the author and his colleagues. Several other species are suspected to be new. The entrance to Lighthouse Cave is about 2 km from the ocean, but sixty-cm tidal fluctuations in the cave show that underground connenctions to the ocean exist. The unusual habitat provides a protected area for the volution of endemic marine cavernicoles. Time-lapse movies indicate that some species maintain tidal rhythms after being removed from the cave. At least one endemic appears to have a fairly great tolerance to changes in salinity (from 35% to 12%). Observations in the cave and laboratory have lead to several tentative conclusions about the food web: (1) bat and cockroach guano seems to provide much of the food for the other terrestrial species; (2) any terrestrial organisms that fall into the water may be eaten by aquatic scavengers, especially crustaceans; (3) aquatic filter-feeders such as sponges, tunicates, and featherdusters grow in fairly large populations due to the tidal mixing of bottom sediments high in organic debris. The faunas of Some other Bahamian caves are compared to that of Lighthouse Cave. R~sum~ Les invert~br~s de la Caverne Lighthouse de I' lIe San Salvador, Bahamas, sont ~tudi~s depuis 1978 pour d~terminer la vari~t~ des esp~ces, les chaInes alimentaires, la sp~cialisation de l'habitat, la tol~rance de salinit~, et les rythmes biologiques. On a colletione~ ~( esp~ces parmi lesquelles: six isopodes, quatre ~ponges, trois escargots, trois vers-plumeaux, une crevette deux cop~podes, deux ostr~id~s, un tuniqu~, deux pseudoscorpions, une gu~pe, et une blatte. An moins cing de ces esp~ces sont nouvelles pour la science, et l'auteur et ses coll~gues sont en train de les d~crire; On suppose que plusieurs autres esp~ces soient nouvelles. L'entr~e de la Caverne Lighthouse est situ~e ~ environ 2 km de l'oc~an, mais les fluctuations de la hauteur de l'eau dans la coverne--fluctuations d'environ 60 cm, dUes ~ la mar~e -indiquent qu'il y a des connexions sous-terraines avec l'oc~an. L'habitat sp~cial offre un milieu prot~j~ pour l'~volution des cavernicoles maritimes end~miques. Les films realis~s indiquent que certaines esp~ces maintiennent leurs rythmes de mar~e, m~me apr~s avoir ~t~ enlev~es de la caverne; Au moins une end~mie para It avoir un remarquable degr~ de tol~rance aux variations de salinit~ (de 35% a 12 %). Les observations faites dans la caverne et au laboratoire nous ont permis de tirer plusieurs conclusions provisoires en ce qui concerne Ie reseau alimentaire: (1) Ie guano des chauves-souris et des blattes parfaIt fournir la plupart de la nourriture des autres esp~ces terrestres; (2) chaque organisme terrestre qui tombe dans l'eau peut ~tre mang~ par less ~boureurs aquatiques, surtout par les crustac~s; (3) les animaux aquatiques qui se nourissent de plancton, tels les ~ponges, les tuniqu~s et les vers-plumeaux, se multiplient d'une fayon consid~rable grace au m~lange -caus~ par la mar~e -des s~diments des profondeurs riches en d~bris organiques. Je vais pr~senter une comparaison entre la faune maritime de la Caverne Lighthouse, et celIe des cavernes des autres lIes de l'archipel Bahamas. Introduction In 1978-81 I examined for invertebrates five caves on San Salvador Island and two on Cat Island, Bahamas. Most of the caves are not presently connected to the ocean, although they were formed thousands of years ago by movements of tidal waters (Mylroie, 1978); these isolated caves contain few organisms and will be mentioned later. This paper deals mostly with Lighthouse Cave on San Salvador. This small cave differs much from the others in that it connects with the ocean (about 2 km away) so that tidal fluctuations of about 60 cm occur twice daily. Biologically it is the richest, most interesting cave I have seen. This richness comes from a rare combination of factors: (1) large populations of bats and cockroaches provide much food for other organisms, (2) the cave is in a tropical environment, so food supply is fairly constant, (3) the tides bring in food, and (4) ocean water seeps in so slowly that horizontal water movement is nearly undetectable, thus, the aquatic organisms live in a calm, protected, organic soup. The result of these factors is an unusually large assemblage of terrestrial and marine organisms; many of the species grow in rather big populations, some are troglobitic, some are apparently endemic to Lighthouse Cave, and at least five are new species, which are being described by my colleagues and myself. I have observed the species enough to analyze the trophic levels and their interactions and have studied in detail the behavior and ecology of some of the cave's inhabitants. Materials and Methods: I found over 25 -different species of animals in Lighthouse Cave and a few in other Bahamian caves. These were identified through taxonomic keys, identification guides, original descriptions, taxonomic experts (e.g., from Harvard Museum, Smithsonian Institution, and Scripps Institution), and comparison with museum specimens. In this report I do not identify most species by their species names because in lOOM! cases the species descriptions are not yet 24 published and in others the species are not yet conclusively identified; where I do not use species names I use other taxonomic categories. Food webs were determined by observing the location of organisms in the caves, by baiting the caves, and by studying feeding mechanisms and predatorprey relationships of cultured animals. I studied activity rhythms of the cirolanid isopods (a new genus and species) by taking time-lapse 8 rom movies of the organisms in plastic cubicles 3 em square. A Bell and Howell movie camera with close-up lenses was activated by a timer to shoot one frame every 2 minutes. Thus, a 50-foot (=15,3m) film was exposed over about 3 days. After development, the films were analyzed to see how many times/hour each organism moved. I tested the cirolanid isopods' tolerance to reduced salinity by adding small amounts of freshwater to the culture container over several weeks. Results and Discussion: Because Lighthouse Cave contains relatively large amounts of food from several sources and because there are so many species interacting, food webs are complex. To illustrate the interactions simply, I have outlined the food webs by listing the food sources and placing species in trophic levels characterized by type of habitat (terrestrial or marine), type of feeding mechanism, and type of food source. I. Food Sources at base of detritus food chain: A. Affecting terrestrial and aquatic webs; 1. bat guano containing bacteria, arthropod parts, plant parts from insect gut 2. bat bodies containing above 3. roach guano containing bacteria, plant and animal parts from food outside 4. roach bodies containing above 5. urine from bats 6. flying insects: flies, evaniid wasps B. Affecting aquatic web only: 1. saltwater seeping in from ocea -brings food for suspension feeders 2. algae growing in cave

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II. Aquatic food chain: A. Sedentary suspension feeders feeding on bacteria from tide waters, feces, decay: sponges, colonial tunicate, protozoans (e.g., Vorticella), rotifers, featherdusters (Spirorbis, tube worms) B. Motile suspension feeders: protozoans (e.g., Paramecium), planktonic cyclopoid copepods C. Deposit feeders: benthon1c harpact1co1d copepods, ostracods, burrowing polychaet worms, and asselote isopods D. Scavengers and/or predators: cirolanid isopods, Barbouria cubensis shrimps, and Rivulus marmoratus k11ifish III. Terrestr1al food cha1n: A. Scavengers: snails (3 spp.), isopods (4 spp.) roaches (perielaneta americana) B. Predator -pseudoscorp10ns Studies on the rhythmicity of organisms from Lighthouse Cave should be interesting b 7 cause the habitat is unique. While many terrestr1al and freshwater troglobites have apparently lost th 7 ir diurnal rhythmicity after thousands of generat10ns in a cueless environment, this may not be the case with species from Lighthouse Cave because of the tidal influence. preliminary experiments were performed on five cirolanid isopods several weeks after removal from the cave and transport to Kentucky. Three specimens seemed to show increased activity roughly every 12.8 hours, indicating some association with tidal activity; I did not detect rhythmicity in the other two. Subsequent tests were also inconclusive. Thus, although I believe tidal rhythmicity exists in this species, more experiments are needed to determine under what conditions the rhythmicity is expressed. My interest in the cirolanid isopod's tolerances to salinity changes is due to the fact that this is the only troglobitic cirolanid found in a marine environment. This is in contrast to about 180 nontroglotibitic marine species in the family and about 20 troglobitic species in the freshwater caves in Mexico, Cuba, Texas (U.S.A), and Virginia (U.S.A.). It is generally assumed the~e freshwater species had marine ancestors which were left stranded when high sea waters receded; gradually, with the influx of rain, the marine waters changed to freshwater. For some species this probably occurred in the'Cenozoic Era (about 55 million years ago); for others, it probably occurred in the Late Cretaceous Era (about 135 million years ago) (Bowman, 1964). Since the waters of Lighthouse Cave still have a more-o~-less direct connection to the ocean the hab1tat could be described as anchialine. Holthuis (1973) coined the term anchialine (from the Greek anchialos, "near the sea") for the habitat 1n a "pool with no surface connection to the sea, containing salt or brackish water, which fluctuates with the tides." The cirolanid from this cave may have existed in the subterranean habitat for millions of years. However, since it is the only troglobitic cirolanid known in an anchialine habitat, it is an "ecological missing link" in the evolution of troglobitic cirolanids. It would be interesting to learn how tolerant such a "missing link" is to changes in salinity to determine if it has a pre-adaptation to hyposalinity. Thus, the following experiment was performed. One specimen was placed in a jar containing 100 ml of saltwater (35%). Small amounts of freshwater were addeded every day for more than 2 weeks, at which time the salinity was calculated to be 12%; the animal acted normal during this period of salinity reduction, but at 12% it became very lethargic, sickly, and lacking in equilibrium. I increased the salinity to 17% by adding water at 35%, and the animal returned to normal within 24 hours. A week later I again started reducing salinity by daily adding small amounts of freshwater; after 10 days and at a salinity of 12% the animal became lethargic and sickly. I again increased the salinity to 13%, let the animal adjust for 3 weeks, then gradually reduced salinity over a period of 6 weeks, at which time the salinity was 10% and the animal suddenly died. Although I used only one specimen in this experiment, the results are fairly clear. This species apparently can tolerate surprisingly wide ranges in salinity, but it cannot quickly adapt to freshwater conditions. It could probably adapt to freshwater in a few generations, if changing conditions necessitated such adaptation for survival. In contrast to Lighthouse Cave, other Bahamian caves I have explored contain relatively few organisms even when bats and/or cockroaches arp. present. However, a few discoveries are worth noting. An unidentified species of symphlan (a uniramian arthropod) was found under a rock in Little Bat Cave on San Salvador. An unidentified amblypygid (a chelicerate arthropod) was found under a rock in Goat Cave on Cat Island. Most caves contained terrestrial isopods, Porcellionides pruinosus and Stenoniscus~. Blackish Well Cave on Cat Island conta1ns brack1sh water with numerous unidentified nontroglobitic aquatic snails. Coastguard Cave on San Salvador contains saltwater tidal waters similar to that of Lighthouse Cave; one red shrimp (Barbouria cubensis) was seen, but the physical proport10ns of the cave make exploration for other marine organisms very difficult. Conclusion The marine cave habitat is extremely fruitful for investigation. The food web is surprisingly complex. Few Biologists have explored such caves for several reasons including the fact that this type of cave is relatively rare. I encourage fellow biospeleologists to seek out and study marine caves from around the world. Literature Cited Bowman, Thomas E. 1964. Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglob1t1c c1rolan1d isopod from Madison Cave, Virginia. Intern J. Speleology 1 (1+2) :229-236. Holthuis, L. B. 1973. Caridean shrimps found in landlocked saltwater pools at four Indo-West Pacific localities (Sinai Peninsula, Funafuti Atoll, Maui and Hawaii Islands), with the description of one new genus and four new species. Zool. Verh. Leiden 128:1-48. Mylroie, John E. 1978. Speleogenesis in the Bermuda Islands. The NSS Bull. (Quart. J. Nat. Speleological So.) 41:116. (Abstr.). Phases of Karstification in the paleogeographic Development of Poland's Territory Jerzy Glazek Institute of Geology, Warsaw University, 02-089 Warszawa, Poland Abstract Within the territory of present day Poland the paleokarst of various ages.was recorded in many pla 7 es. This records in the platform territory outside. the Carpathians may be grouP7d 1n four p~ases: post-Var1~can Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic, post-Old Cimerian/Upper Triassic-M1ddle Jurass1c/, post-Young Cim~rian/Lower Cretaceous and post-Laramian/Whole Cenozoic. In the northern Carpathians two phases are proved: post-Turonian pre-Eocene and post-Middle Miocene. In every phase of karstification on the karst development was long and may be divided in some stages. 25

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Spatial Aspects of Histoplasmosis in the United States George Huppert Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, Wisconsin Abstract The dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, is the etiologic agent in causing histoplasmosis, a systematic mycosis of animals including humans. The disease manifests itself in a wide variety of symptoms with a great rang of severity. Histoplasma capsulatum is closely associated with animal droppings, in particular those of birds and bats. In addition, it seems to require moist conditions, low altitudes, a river basin location, and moderate to slight temperature changes. These conditions correlate highly with the environmental conditions which exist in the classic karst areas of much of the United States. Histoplasmosis was discovered to be endemic in the human populations of many of these areas from tests which showed positive results in over eight~ per cent of the sampled populations in some locations. Specific regions found to have a high incidence of the disease are the central Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries, sections of the .Appalachians, central Texas, and southern New Mexico. R~sum~ Le champignon dimorphique Histoplasma carsulatum est l'agent ~tiologique responsable de l'histoplasmose, une mycose g~n~ralis~e dans Ie systeme des an maux, humains inclus. La maladie se manifeste par une grande veri~t~ de syrnptOmes dont la gravit~ est tr~s ~tendue. L'Histoplasma capsulatum est en rapport ~troit avec la fiente des animaux, surtout celIe des oiseaux et des chauvessouris. De plus, ce champignon semble exiger des conditions climatiques humides, de basses altitudes, une localisation dans Ie bassin d'une rivi~re, et des changements de temp~ratures allant du mod~r~ au faible. Ces conditions correspondent tout ~ fait avec les conditions du milieu qui existe dans les zones de Karst classiques de beaucoup des Etats-Unis. On a d~couvert que l'histoplasmose ~tait end~mique dans la population de plusieurs de ces zones, d'apr~s des tests qui ont r~v~l~ des r~sultats positifs dans plus de 80% des populations ~chantillonn~es dans certaines locations. Les r~gions sp6cifiques, ou l'on a trouv~ un grand nombre de cas de la maladie, sont localis~es dans la vall~e centrale du fleuve Mississippi et de ses affluents, dans certaines parties des Appalaches, au centre du Texas, et dans Ie sud du Nouveau-Mexique. Speleological literature contains little reference to histoplasmosis with the exception of descriptive writings by W. R. Halliday (1949, 1959, 1966, 1974, and 1976). This is in spite of the fact that it can infrequently be a debilitating, even fatal, disease to which many speleologists are commonly exposed. This author will explain the nature of histoplasmosis and its spatial distribution to a group of individuals intimately exposed to it. Histoplasmosis is a noncontagious systemic mycosis of animals, including man, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsula tum. The name was erroneously given to the fungus in 1906 by Dr; Samuel Darling, an Army pathologist, in the belief that it was a protozoan (Emmons, 1955, p. 627). Human infection can present itself in a variety of clinical manifestations including an uncommon disseminated type which is often fatal if left untreated. Davies and Jessamine (1975) describe five forms of histoplasmosis, including asymptomatic, acute benign, acute disseminated, chronic disseminated, and chronic pulmonary. The authors (Davies and Jessamine, 1975) describe the types of the disease as follows: The asymptomatic form, as its name implies, shows no overt symptoms of its presence, It is usually only detected by a skin test and/or by X rays of the lungs. Generally no medical action is necessary. The acute benign type is the most commonly occurring variety of histoplasmosis; however, it is often misdaignosed or overlooked as it is frequently quite mild and can mimic other respiratory illnesses. The manifestations of the infection can range from a slight cold to a high fever, cough, and chest pains. Usually recovery is assured without specific treatment. Acute disseminated cases are most often found in infants and young children. Frequently it can resemble tuberculosis. If not properly treated, this form of histoplasmosis is usually fatal. The chronic disseminated type ordinarily occurs only in adult males and exhibits a wide variety of symptoms, depending upon which organs are affected. Fever, anemia, weight loss, endocarditis, and meningitis are typical afflictions. In some victims intestinal lesions suggest that infection was not due to inhalation but rather to ingestion of the spores. The prognosis for disseminated histoplasmosis is poor if left untreated. Various drugs are effective in combatting it as well as chronic and progressive cases. The last form of histoplasmosis is chronic pulmonary which greatly resembles chronic pulmonary tuberculosis on X rays. This variety is again most commonly found in adult males. It generally progresses over a long period of time, though occasionally it goes into remission; sometimes even a spontaneous cure occurs. The chance of cure for primary pulmonary cases is good, with bedrest and decreased activities prescribed. Darling's later research and that of others shows that histoplasmosis has a spatial pattern of occurrence that is largely restricted to river valleys in warm temperate to tropical climates, but the disease is not 26 unknown in cooler areas. According to Emmons (1955) the determination of the geographic distribution of histoplasmosis has been hindered by the lack of modern laboratory facilities in many of the endemic areas, and because of the ability of the disease to mimic other afflictions, especially in tropical areas. Ajello (1958) states that the disease was considered rather rare until the benign form was detected in 1945. Histoplasmosis soon became recognized as a widely prevalent disease and a serious health problem. Edwards and Billings (1971) shows, through the use of skin test surveys of human populations, that the greatest prevalence of histoplasmin sensitivity is in the United States. Other areas of high occurrence are localized in Central and South America and southeast Asia. Histoplasma capsulatum has temperature and humidity requirements that limit the infection geographically. Furcolow (1965, p. 5) states: These conditions have not been defined, but are associated with rather low altitude, river basins, lack of excessive temperature changes, and rainfall, which in the endemic areas in the United States appears to be between 35 inches and 50 inches per year. Even in the endemic area of ~. capsulatum infection, where skin test rates may be as high as 80% among adults, it is clear that the infection is not evenly distributed throughout the area, but is localized to certain areas where the environmental conditions are satisfactory for the growth of the organism. Another very important factor for the growth of the organism is edaphic enrichment with the manure of birds or bats. With the knowledge that these environmental factors are needed for the growth of the fungus, it can now be seen that the association of histoplasmosis with karst areas is more coincidental than causative, more related to the fact that many karst areas are located in warm, humid regions as are large bat populations.. Histoplasmosis is endemic in the human population of much of the Missouri, Mississippi, Illinois, Ohio, and Tennessee River valleys, and much of the southeastern United States, the heart of North American karst country. Incidentally, the south central and southeastern United States are also major regions of poultry production, a source of the necessary manure. Positive skin test reactions are higher that 80% in adults of some localities (Edwards and Billings, 1971, p. 189). Edwards and Billings (1971, pp. 290-310) also list the results of skin test programs from around the world, which supports their premise of the occurrence of histoplasmosis largely in warm temperate to tropical climates with some exceptions. Interestingly, they record the highest sensitivity (93%) in a group of 14 teenagers who visited a cave near Aguas Buenas, Puerto Rico (p. 305). They also point out an unusual paradox of the disease (p. 310): Results of skin-test surveys indicate that

PAGE 27

millions of persons have been infected with H. capsulatum, yet only a small proportion of the infected persons develop Lsic] clinical disease. Is this a function of the size of the infecting dose or the route of infection? Do most infections involve such small numbers of organisms that development of skin sensitivity is the only sign, whereas clinical disease develops from an unusually large infecting dose? The available evidence tends to support this latter possibility. Reports of attempts to isolate ~. capsulatum from soil illustrate the most invariable association between successful isolations and outbreaks of acute clinical disease in a small group of persons who had a common experience a week or so before the first clinical case appeared. In most instances, a patient's history of possible exposure during some unusual type of activity, such as exploring a cave or cleaning out an old barn, suggested the most likely place to look for the fungus in [sic] the soil or other material. However, they (Edwards and Billings, 1971) point out that isolating the source of infection is not always that easy, especially in cases where there is no common history of exposure from a point source of contamination. Several studies (Manos, Ferebee, and Kerschbaum, 1956; Ajello, 1958; Edwards and Palmer, 1963; Edwards, et al., 1969; and Goodwin and Des Prez, 1978) present or reproduce earlier maps of the distribution of positive histoplasmin reaction in the United States. The highest instances of sensitivity in the country are the already mentioned warm temperate to subtropical river valleys. However, some anomalous areas also appear on all of the maps. Some possible explanations for the more notable anomalies are as follows: 1. The high incidence of histoplasmosis in south central Texas, southern Arizona, and southern New Mexico can be related to the occurrence of many caves and large bat populations in all three areas. 2. All of the maps show a high positive reaction level for human populations of the Central Valley of California. Probably this is due to the numerous poultry farms in the area, the warm though dry climate, and moisture provided by the extensive irrigation projects in the area. This is also an area of high occurrence of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), which is a similar disease that may obscure the mapped intensity of histoplasmosis (Halliday, 1974, pp. 253-254). 3. The Appalachian Mountains show as an area of high positive reaction on all of the maps. Again this is aue to the warm, wet climate and the large bat populations, many roosting in caves. 4. The Delmarva Peninsula of the Mid-Atlantic states is another center of poultry farming, which may explain its high positive reaction. There are several other small and widely scattered areas of high incidence of positive reaction to histoplasmin skin tests which elude immediate explanation without more detailed information on the specific occurrences. They are most likely related to exposure to a point source of infection such as a bat or starling roost or a poultry farm. Furcolow (1965, p. 4) estimates that in 1965 there were some 30 million Americans infected with the fungus, with an additional 500,000 individuals contacting it each year. Chick (1971, p. 310) estimates that the number of infected individuals had risen to 40 million with the rate of increase still at 500,000 per year. At the present time, ten years later, that growth rate would give an amazing number of 45 million. This means that about 20% of all United States citizens have been infected with histoplasmosis, and this is most likely a conservative estimate. It can readily be seen that histoplasmosis is not an uncommon disease and that quite high rates of infection exist in the classic karst areas of the United States, though for reasons generally unrelated to the karst. Speleologists should be aware of the possibility of contacting the disease; that some of its forms, while quite rare, can be very severe or even fatal; and that it can frequently go unrecognized by the medical profession. References Cited Ajello, L., 1958, "Geographic Distribution of Histoplasma capsulatum," Mykosen, Band 1, Heft 5, pp. 147-155. Chick, E. W., 1971, "Histoplasmosis--Quo Vadis?," Chest, Vol. 60, No.4, pp. 310-311. Davies, J. W. and G. Jessamine, 1975, "Histoplasmosis," Canadian Nurse, Vol. 71, No.8, pp. 38-40. Edwards, L. B., et al., 1969, "An Atlas of Sensitivity to Tuberculin PPD-B and Histoplasmin in the United States," American Review of Respiratory Disease, Vol. 99, Supplement, p. 1. Edwards, P. Q. and E; Billings, 1971, "Worldwide Pattern of Skin Sensitivity to Histoplasmin," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 20, No.2, pp. 288-319. Edwards, P. Q. and C. E. Palmer, 1963, "Nationwide Histoplasmin Sensitivity and Histoplasmal Infection," Public Health Reports, Vol. 78, pp. 241-159. Emmons, C. W 1955, "Histoplasmosis," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Vol. 31, No.9, pp. 627-638. Furcolow, M. L., 1965, "Environmental Aspects of Histoplasmosis," Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 10, NO.1, pp. 4-10. Goodwin, R. A. and R. Des Prez, 1978, "Histoplasmosis: State of the Art," American Review of Respiratory Disease, Vol. 117, pp. 929-956. Halliday, W. R., 1949, "Cave Sicknesses," National Speleological Society Bulletin, Vol. 11, pp. 28-30. __________ 1959, Adventure is Underground, Harper and Brothers, New York, 206p. __________ 1966, Depths of the Earth, 1st ed., Harper and Row, New York, 398p. __________ 1974, American Caves and Caving, Harper and Row, New York, 348p. ___________ 1976, Depths of the Earth, 2nd ed., Harper and Row, New York, 432p. Manos, N.E., Ferebee, S. H., and W. F. Kerschbaum, 1956, "Geographic Variations in the Prevalence of Histoplasmin Sensitivity," Diseases of the Chest, Vol. 29, pp. 649-668. Palaeokarst as a Key to Paleogeography, Poland's Territory as an Example Jerzy Glazek Institute of Geology, Warsaw University, 02-089 Warszawa, Poland Abstract CUrrent paleogeographic synthesis are constructed on the interpretations of marine or huge continental formations. But these formations cover less than 50% of geological time in platform areas. Within the time of stratigraphic gaps here and there were preserved deposits filling the karst forms. These deposits had recorded very important data for palaeogeographic speculations, but they need special care during investigation. Some examples are diScussed. 27

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Complex Groundwater Basin Migrations in Roppel Cave, Kentucky Miles E. Drake and James D. Borden Box 357, Franconia, New Hampshire 03580 and 9315 Friars Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20034 Abstract The Central Kentucky Karst, the area surrounding the Flint-Mammoth Cave System, is certainly one of the most famous karst regions of the entire world. This area has been extensively dye-traced to delineate the basic, modern groundwater basins. As present cave streams may somewhat reflect past groundwater basins, general flow-trends can be inferred from dye-tracing. Several major cave systems have been found in this region; and one, in particular, seems to lie in an area that straddles several groundwater basins, past and present. Roppel cave,.one kilometer east of Mammoth Cave National Park, consists of a series of large tubes and canyons that 1nterconnect in a complex way that can be shown to be indicative of multiple groundwater basin migration. Past basins were clearly undercut by encroaching, more efficient basins. Series of individual intra-basinal cutoffs were found in the vicinity of a beheaded basin's previous boundary. Each successive cutoff represents headward propagation in an attempt for the basin to achieve its own equilibrium. These cutoffs may be separated from the true interbasinal stream piracies. Two modern groundwater drainage basins; one draining to Pike Spring, to the northwest, and the other to Turnhole Spring, to the west; have been dye-traced from active streams in Roppel Cave. Some of the low-gradient passages of the Turnhole Basin were pirated into the lower-level, higher gradient Black River component of the Pike Basin. There is some evidence indicating that other passages, perhaps in other paleohydrologic groundwater basins, may have had streams that migrated to both the Turnhole and Pike Basins. As groundwater studies and surveys of caves continue in the Central Kentucky Karst, it is likely to be found that groundwater basin migration in the vicinity of Roppel Cave is more complex than presently known; and may include other major groundwater drainage basins, such as Lawler Blue Hole, Echo, and others. Work on this very complex problem will continue with earnest into the future. Rlisumli Le Karst du Kentucky Central, la rligion qui entoure Ie syst~me des grottes Flint-Mammoth, est certainement une des r~gions les plus connues du monde entier. Cette r~gion a litli colorlie assez souvent pour suivre la piste des bassins souterrains de base modernes. Comme les ruisseaux actuels peuvent avoir un certain rapport A des bassins souterrains anciens, on peut inflirer la direction glinlirale d'licoulement. Plusieurs syst~mes majeurs de grottes ont litli dlicouverts dans cette rligion; un d'entre eux, en particulier, semble se trouver dans une region con tenant plusieurs bassins souterrains anciens et actuels. La Grotte Roppel, d'un kilom~tre a l'est du Parc National de la Grotte Mammoth, comprend une serie de grands conduits et de canyons qui se relient d'une mani~re complexe qui indique la migration multiple des bassins souterrains. Des bassins anciens litaient lividemment interceptlis de dessous par d'autres bassins plus efficaces qui s'avan~aient. Une slirie de dlitachements intra-bassinals isollis litait trouvlie dans les environs des bornes antlirieures d'un bassin tronquli. Chaque dlitachement successif reprlisente la propagation vers Ie cours suplirieur tandis que Ie bassin essaye de parvenir a un equilibre. On peut sliparer ces dlitachements des interceptions reguli~res des ruisseaux interbassinals. Deux bassins de drainage souterrains modernes, l'un qui draine dans l'eau de source Pike au nordouest, et l'autre qui draine dans l'eau de source Turnhole a l'ouest, litaient traclis par coloration des ruisseaux actifs dans la Grotte Roppel. Quelques passages de gradation bas du Bassin Turnhole litaient enlevlies au niveau plus bas et A la gradation suplirieure de la Rivi~re Black, une partie composante du Bassin Pike. II y a des indications que d'autres passages existent, peut-etre dans d'autres bassins souterrains palliohydrologiques, et qui ont pu avoir des ruisseaux limigrant au bassin de Turnhole, ainsi qu'au bassin de Pike. Pendant que les litudes des eaux souterraines et des grottes continuent dans Ie Karst du Kentucky Central, il est probable qu'on dlicouvrira que la migration du bassin souterrain aux environs de la Grotte Roppel est plus complexe que ce qu'on connait actuellement. It pourrait exister d'autres bassins de drainage majeurs, comme Ie Lawler Blue Hole et l'Echo. Le travail sur ce sujet trlis complexe continuera avec beaucoup d'effort dans l'avenir. Roppel Cave is located under the Mammoth Cave Plateau within the Central Kentucky Karst, two km east of Mammoth Cave National Park. Although the entrance is in a small valley that drains part of the western flank of Eudora Ridge, most of the surveyed passages lie under the northern lobe of Toohey Ridge. Roppel Cave has more than 40 km of surveyed passages. Passage configurations vary from low, wide elliptical tubes to high, narrow canyons. At least 12 km of Roppel Cave are passages suggestive of regional origin, having carried water from the sinkhole plain three km to the south and east, to springs along the Green River. Complex interrelationships between at least two groundwater basins has led to the development of a zone of interbasinal piracies. In this zone, a long history of groundwater basin migration can be observed. Two modern groundwater basins have been delineated by dye-tracing from active streams in Roppel Cave with the cooperation and support of Dr. James F. Quinlan, National Park Service, Mammoth Cave National Park. Black River has been traced to Pike Spring, 6.3 km to the northwest. Upper Logdon's (Hawkins) River has been traced to Cedar Sink of the Turnhole Spring basin, 13.3 km to the west. As will be shown, many of the major known passages in Roppel Cave at one time drained to the vicinity of one or the other above mentioned streams. For the purposes of this paper, some of the past basins shall be defined as Turnhole or Pike Basin when suggested paleoflow seems to have drained to the Vicinity of the present groundwater basin. The distinction between "piracy" and "cutoff" shall be defined in terms of their basinal relationships. Piracies occur between two groundwater basins. 28 Cutoffs occur within the same groundwater basin. Migration of the groundwater basins through piracy is suggested by radical changes of flow direction, which can be found within Roppel Cave. The oldest known evidence of a master river within Roppel Cave is the Currens Corridor/Yahoo Avenue drainage (Map I), whose flow direction was north and west. This is supported clearly by scallop configuration. Several associated levels suggest that this was a primary corridor for an extended period of time. At "B" (Map I) Yahoo Avenue trends more westerly, first as a breakdown filled stoopway, then for over a kilometer as a 3-4 meter high, 5-7 meter wide tube with excellent solution pockets in the ceiling. Yahoo Avenue is lost at a deep canyon known as the Rift. It is expected that paleoflow continued at the same elevation prior to the formation of the Rift, but further exploration of this area is needed to confirm this. Water was "pirated" away from Yahoo Avenue at liB" down a slightly lower-level passage, Downy Avenue. Welldefined scallops on the walls confirm paleoflow from "B" to "E". The ,,?assage at "E" has been more recently interrupted by a series of ,1omepits. Although plugged with breakdown at this point, the continuation may be reached by way of another passage. Down Avenue continues beyond this breakdown to the north at the same elevation with similar size and paleoflow to "F", where it becomes almost filled with sediment and is lost. This abrupt change of flow direction is believed to be an indication of an early basin migration. Water flowing down Yahoo Avenue to a spring to the west is pirated to a groundwater basin draining to a spring to the-northeast. A later piracy, this one from Downy Avenue, occurred at "D". A three meter high and five meter wide passage, Arlie Way, formed to the east, turned south at "Gil to "I"

PAGE 29

Traces done in cooperation with James F. Quinlan, National Park Service, Mammoth Cave National Park Table l. Dye Tracing Data Trace Distance Transit Time Logsdon's River to Turnhole Spring (Cedar Sink) 13.3km 40d Black River to Pike Spring 6.3km 8d Entrance to Pike Spring 7.6km 14d South Arlie Way to Pike Spring 7.5km lOd The Rift to Pike Spring 5.5km 32d Table 2. Paleohydrology \ and beyond. This latter point has been hydrogically connected to the stream dye-traced to Turnhole Spring. Paleoflow from "0" to "G" was confirmed by scallop analysis but paleoflow from "G" to "I" was difficult to determine. Two intersections give evidence suggestive of southward flow. The floor of Hobbit Trail grades into Arlie Way and the passages join at a graded angle to the south. The direction of paleoflow in Hobbit Trail has been established by scallops and associated canyons as being towards Arlie Way. It does not seem likely that water flowing down Hobbit Trail would make such an abrupt turn back to the north. At "H", where Arlie Way splits into Walter's Way and South Arlie Way, the former is incised below the latter. If flow was to the south, water must have abandoned South Arlie Way for Walter's Way. Floors slope southward along both passages, and because the incision would most likely have been made under more vadose conditions, flow would have had to be to the south. The Arlie Way piracy may be the most extreme example of groundwater basin migration yet to have been discovered in Roppel Cave. Water flowing north out of Downy Avenue was captured by another basin which attracted the flow to the south underneath its headwaters. The outlet to the west for this piracy may have been in the vicinity of Turnhole Spring. A series of lower levels intersect Arlie Way south of the junction of Hobbit Trail. These levels are sub-parallel to Arlie Way and are for the most part vadose canyons with scallops and ceiling gradient clearly showing paleoflow to the south, This evidence strongly indicates a southward paleoflow in Arlie Way. The North Crouchway is a phreatic tube eight to 12 meters wide and less than two meters high that meanders between "G" and "K". Paleoflow evidence is lacking, thus no strong conclusions can be made. No scallops have been found and the various passage intersections provide conflioting evidence. Local drainage trends, however, do suggest flow was possibly to the north as a later, parallel component to Downy Avenue. Several cross passages connecting Downey Avenue and North Crouchway suggest such a relationship. The Black River Complex (Map II) contains many examples of intrabasinal cutoffs. At its earliest, the flow trended westward in Kangaroo Trail as a tributary to the North Crouchway. The flow was later beheaded in the vicinity of Pirates Pot, and flowed as a tributary to Lower Level Arlie Way, part of the Turnhole drainage. Later, water was again pirated-this time northward towards Pike Spring. This northward flow, Black River, pirated water from Kangaroo Trail in increasingly more efficient routes ("Xn"s on Map II). At present, water flows down a vertical shaft, Pirates Pot, to flow directly into Black River, en route to Pike Spring. As Roppel Cave is viewed from an overall perspective, it is apparent that a complex hydrologic history was involved in the formation of its passages. Roppel Cave is one of the few caves known in the Mammoth Cave Region that straddles such a large number of major groundwater basins. Roppel Cave is a large and crucial piece in the overall hydrologic puzzle of the famous cave region. As groundwater studies and surveys of caves continue in the Central Kentucky Karst, it is likely to be found that groundwater basin migration in the vicinity of Roppel Cave is actually more complex than presently known. As the cave is explored further, other groundwater basins may be encountered such as Lawler Blue Hole, which receives drainage from Crumps Cave to the north and Echo Spring, which receives some drainage from Mammoth Cave. Work in this very complex system will continue through the very determined efforts of its project members. 29 Flow Currens Corridor/Yahoo Avenue Currens Corridor/Downy Avenue Currens Corridor/Downy Avenue/ Arlie Way Kangaroo Trail/North Crouchway Kangaroo Trail/Lower Level Arlie Way Kangaroo Trail/Black River Key to Map I ABC ABDEF ABDGHI LJ LM LXY AssociatEd Spring ? ? Turnhole UndeterminEd Turnhole Pike

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w o Hap 1. R:>ppel Cave-Barren and Hart Colmties, Kentuc:l:y. o 5,0 MET£.R,S Map 2. 1CHJe1 Cave-Black River-Hart and Barren Counties, Kentucky. --=t "P""U 't" r Fl ~ :p.Jee '&/0

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Proteidae Prey Detection and the Sensory Compensation Problem J. P. Durand 1 J. parzefal1 2 and B. Richard 1 1 CNRS MOUSIL 09200, France and 2zoologische Institut, D 2000 Hamburg Abstract This series of experiments is intended to show the possibility of blind cave living animals perceiving their preys at a distince by chemoreception. The experiment was conducted in choice chambers which received two kinds of water: tap water and water which passed over the Garnrnarus or the Chironomid larvae. The Proteus much better than the epigean Proteidae, Necturus, show a definite preference for the water which had passed over living preys. An experiment was done with preys, immobilised by freezing, to eliminate detection by vibrations. The reaction of the animals is the same as in the previous experiments but only the delay of reaction is lengthened. In all these experiments Proteus react slowly but more regularly and resolutely than Necturus. Rlisurnli Dans cette slirie d'expliriences on montre la possibilitli pour les animaux cavernicoles aveugles de percevoir leurs proies A distance par la chlimorliception. Les expliriences sont faites dans des "chambres A choix" qui re~oivent deux sortes d'eau: de l'eau sans rien et de l'eau qui a traversli une chambre contenant des Garnrnarus ou bien des larves de Chironomidae. Le Protlie bien mieux que Ie Proteidae lipigli Necturus montre une nette prliflirence pour l'eau ayant passli sur des proies vivantes. Une explirience est faite avec des proies immobilislies par conglilation pour liliminer la dlitection par les vibrations. La rliaction des animaux est la m~me que prliclidemment, mais les dlilais de rliaction, quand il y en a, sont allonglis. Dans toutes ces expliriences, Proteus rliagit lentement mais~us franchement et avec plus de rligularitli que Necturus. ------Preface In memory of Albert Vandel, Member of the Institute, founder of the subterranean Laboratory of Moulis, deceased in 1980. His scientific work in Evolutive Zoology and in Biospeleology will always have a place in our work. Introduction From Murray (1857) to Matic (1958), na~uralists think that the loss of vision, confirmed in real cave animals, is necessarily accompanied by a "conpensatory hypertrophy" of other sensory organs. The history of research on cave living animals is based mainly on the idea of "regressive evolution". In 1909, Eigenmann called his work on the cave Vertebrates of America "A study in degenerative evolution", and after works of other authors, Thines in 1969, published "Regressive evolution of cave and abyssal living fishes". However, Jeannel (1926-1930) points out errors in the theory of sensory compensation. Vande 1 (1964-1965) states that the negative cases are as frequent as the positive if one compares the cave living animals to their.counterparts on the surface. This phenomenon appears not only with the cave animals, see Vandel, 1965, but also in the same manner with the abyssal fishes, see Thines, 1969; Menzies et al., 1973. We compared the chemoreceptors performances of Proteus anguinus with those of another Proteidae, Necturus maculosus, of the lakes and streams of North America. First it was necessary to prove the existence of the chemoreception of the two species, this faculty not yet having been proved with many Caudata living on the surface, as Madison (1977) and Joly (1979) state. For this purpose we used the vital necessity for a blind animal living exclusively in a cave biotop to localise its prey and to identify its sexual partners. Material and Methods The tests were conducted with 10 Proteus of 150 to 250 mm in length and 28 Necturus of 250 to 350 mm in length, maintained in brightness of 2 to 4 lux. The animals were placed in methacrylate choice chambers. The preys were placed in a receptacle which communicated with the chambers by a filter and a tube of 2 meters long. In another identical tube tap control water flowed. Wilcoxon matched-pairs-signed ranks test was used in the calculation. Results A. Detection of Living Prey at a Distance Test 1 Detection of Chironomidae Larvae b I Proteus. After trial test the flow of water isixed at"'I2O ern 3 /rnn and the number of larvae at 30. The Proteus significantly chose the tube receiving water from the Chironomidae receptacle. Test 2 Detection of Chironomidae Larvae by Necturus. After trial test the number of Chironomidae larvae was 40. After 5 minutes there was no significative response; but after 3 hand 8 h, the response was significative. The movements of Necturus are more rapid but the choice is established after a longer period of time, while the number of larvae is 25% greater. Test 3 Detection of Garnrnaridae by Proteus. The water flow is 250 ern3/rnn. The number of Garnrnarus is 60. ~ clearly prefer water coming from the 31 Garnrnarus receptacle. Test 4 Detection of Garnrnaridae by Necturus. The number of Garnrnarus is doubled (120). No significative response, but a slight preference is shown for water corning from Garnrnaridae. Test 5 Detection of Lumbricidae by Necturus. The poor performance of Necturus with Garnrnarus and Chironomus led us to test its favourite food in rearing, the Lumbricidae (12 gr) but without success: 5 rnn (n = 12, ns), 3 h (n = 12, ns) and 8 h (n = 12, ns). B. Detection of Dead Prey at a Distance The preys are frozen to isolate the chemical information transported by the particle or dissolved in water; Test 6 Detection of Dead Chironomidae Larvae by Proteus. Proteus significatively prefer water flowing from 8 g Chironomidae. Tests 7 and 8 Detection of Dead Chironomidae Larvae by Necturus. The test is insignificative with 8g and 24 g of Chironomidae: 5 mn (n = 14, ns), 3 h (n = 14, ns) and 8 h (n = 14, ns). Test 9 Detection of Dead Garnrnaridae by Proteus. The choice of Proteus is insignificative with 6 g of dead Garnrnaridae after 5 minutes but is however significative after 3 hours. Test 10 Detection of Dead Garnrnaridae by Necturus. Results insignificative with 6 and 8 g of dead Garnrnaridae; a slight preference evident with 12 g. --------The 10 tests lead us to believe that Proteus recognize water having passed over prey but the Necturus performance is lower. C. Control Experiments Test 11 Control with Proteus. The animals can choose between 2 tubes receiving the same water. The test indicates that null hypothesis can be accepted: 5 mn (n = 10, ns), 3 h (n = 10, ns) and 8 h (n = 10, ns). Test 12 Control with Necturus. No difference for Necturus. 5 ron (n = 15, ns), 3 h (n = 13, ns) and 8 h (n = 12, ns). Test 13 Reinforcement of the Choice of Proteus by its Markings. After a short delay (5 to 10 ron) the animal doesn't recognise the tube visited, but after a longer delay (3 to 8 hrs) a reinforcement is possible. Test 14 Reinforcement of the Choice of Necturus by its Markings. Necturus perhaps recognises its tube after a short delay (5 to 20 mn) but not after. Test 15 Influence of Rheotropism on Proteus. The rheotropism test is very positive. Test 16 Influence of Rheotropism on Necturus. Necturus shows only a slight preference for running water. In conclusion, thigmotactism and rheotropism can incite animals to enter the tubes but cannot influence them on their choice. This choice is perhaps fixed after many hours by the marking of the animal. Proteus can mark their substrat by a substance it secretes which remains stable for 3 or 5 days (Parzefall, 1976). Chemical information plays a social role by marking of territory by the male and the recognition of sexes. This substance has been found with the Necturus. Intra and inter-specific recognition can also be made by substance transported by water (Parzefall, et al., 1980). Discussion Proteus, and in a less degree Necturus, can recognise territory, hiding place, sexual partners and related

PAGE 32

species by chemoreception. Proteus performances are superior to that of Necturus in detection of prey by substance transported by water. The good performance is a sign of adaptation to aquatic life. Proteus only take live and mobile prey and its mecanoreceptors have a place in predation. The difference between the chemoreceptors performances of Proteus and Necturus is probably not only sensory. On the other hand, Poulson (1963) in connection with the cave fishes, underlines that "capacity to integrate sensory information as reflected by ability to detect prey and avoid obstacles or remember their position also increases". Proteus is probably better adapted to find prey more rare-rn its biotope than that of Necturus. The problem of compensation that we have raised would be badly posed if it were posed in anthropomorphical terms of intentional compensation to the loss of vision. If it evokes the possibility of life in a particular environment as the hypogean one despite the loss of vision and owing to the development of other senses such as the olfactive sense, it enters into the general case of adaptation to its biotope. Our results therefore show that with cave living animals there is no compensation but supplying and improving of senses. References Eigenmann, C. H. 1909. Cave Vertebrates of America. Carn. Inst. Washington Pub. Jeannel, R. 1926. Monographie des Trechinae. L'Abeille. J. Soc. Ent. France, 32-36, p. 1802. Joly, P. 1979. Le comportement pr~dateur de Triturus alpestris. Donn~es pr~liminaires. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 103, 4, p. 501-503. 32 Madison, M. 1977. Chemical communication in Amphibians and Reptiles. In Muller, Schwarze and Mozel (Ed.) Chemical signals in Vertebrates. Plenum Press, N.Y. Mativ, Z. 1958. Contribution a la connaissance des LithobUdes cavernicoles. de France. Biospeologica. Notes biosp~ologiques 13, 2, p. 155-168. Menzies, R. J., George, R. Y., and G. T. Rowe. 1973. Abyssal environment and ecology of the world oceans. Wiley Sons, N.Y. Murray, A. 1857. On the insect vision and blind insects. Edinburgh New Philos. Jour., N. S., p. 32l. Parzefall, J. 1976. Die Rolle der chemischen Information im Verhalten des Grottenolms Proteus anguinus Laur. (Proteidae, Urodela). Z. Tierpsychol. 42, p. 29-49. Parzefall, J., Durand, J. P., and Richard, B. 1980. Chemical communication in Necturus maculosus and his cave-living relative Proteus anguinus (proteida~ Urodela). Z. Tierpsychol., 53, p. 133-138. Poulson, T. L. 1963. Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes. Amer. MidI. Nat., 70, 2, p. 257-290. Thines, G. 196~. Li~volution r~gressive des Poissons cavernicoles et abyssaux. Masson, Paris. Vande1, A. 1965. Biospeleology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 1-~24. t

PAGE 34

9' Ser. Tests Proteus 10' Ser. Tests Necturus 10 c E In ... c E 5 Q) .5 ... Cl .: ... III Q) a:: o Freezed Gam. Water Control n=18 peO,Ol Proteus 10 5 o m Freezed Gam. Water o Control n.12 ns 8 Necturus n.l0 pcO,025 10 c E In ... c E Q) 5 E ... Cl C .. III Q) c:: o 63 No Change o Change n.ll ns + + +++ +++ +++ +++ ......... ........ ... + .... .. + .. +++ .. ++ +++ +++ .. + .. +++ ++ .. +++ +-t--t+++ +++ +++ +++ ++ .. +++ Long time Tests Proteus 10 5 o 63 No Change o Change n.15 ns ong time Tests Necturus (ill Water. 400 cm1/mn o Water. 0 11.7 liS I 8 lI.tO liS 3 11.14 I!s 5 o 10 n.l0 pcOp05 11.10 peO,005 n.9 pc 0,005 mJ Water. : : : 120 cm1/mn iii o Water = 0 jj i :'" : jgj j~j :N: i:= .. 10 = c .. en Q) a:::: c E o c E Q) 5 E Figure 2. SImllaIY of test results (9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16). 34

PAGE 35

Organizational Principles of Complex Stationary Researches of Karst A. B. Klimchuk, V. M. Shestopalov, and G. V. Lisichenko Institute of Geological Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrain, Kiev, USSR I 1. Karst-speleological researches, active conducted last decades, give us a possibility to reveal many important general and regional regularities in karstification. In spite of wide scope, detailization and duration of these works, even for well-studied regions of the USSR in kars-speleologic respect mainly is typical "ronte" degree of research. For all that, many important problems of karstology and hydrogeology of karst area can not be decided (especially in quantitative respect) on the stage of "ronte" researches. Statement of regime stationary investigations of karstification in typical natural situations is up to date. In connection with preparation of such works in some karst regions of the Ukrainian SSR there were defined principles of organization of complex stationary investigations of karst, problem and direction of created stationary, mastered of optimal composite of methods and ways for the complex investigation of karst in different conditions. 2. Karstologic stationar is natural object which offers active karst system of that or another level (order) or functionally significant element of such system, which for long time was investigated on quantitative parameters of karst process. Stationary investigations in karstology can have narrow direction in the decision of any private problems. But most important in science and practical relation is stationary directed to reveal regularity of the dynamic process in whole. Surface water and underground water are the main active agent in karst, which different interaction with rock are the essence and specific character of karst process; the peculiarities and display of these interactions, mainly define hydrodynamic and chemical characteristics of kars water. It is clear that in karstological stationary of general type the principal attention must be spared to investigation of formation and regime of karst water in hydrodynamic and hydrochemical aspects. All-round research is a detail calculation and investigation of different factors (climatic, landscape, geostructural, lithological) which define main character of the dynamic of karst process, character interaction of underground with rock, and phenomenons which formed under these conditions. 3. The problem of definition of the level (order) of the object for karstological stationary of general type is principal too (drainage basin cave spring system; block with some elements of water-bearing system or karst system of more high level). Orientation of this stationary on elemental karst water-bearing system (drainage basin cave spring) is ineligible in connection with difficulties of the distinguish of this system which has a distinct and constant hydrogeological individuality. An individual element of this system, which has only private functional role (drainage basin recharge; cave transit; spring discharge) is so much the more useless from this point of view. Statement of the regime stationary karstological investigation on the karstifiable block is methodically correct at that such block must has evidential hydrogeological independence and it is possible to make quantitative estimation of the recharge and discharge, to investigate peculiarities of the formation of different components of underground runoff under different conditions, and regime of underground runoff to investigate cooperations of elemental water-bearing systems within limits of block in different regimes. The choice of the concrete object for the organization of the regime karstological stationar is very important (according to principales formulated above of karstifiable block). The main demands for this block are: sufficient level of primary geological and karst-speleological research; typical geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions for a great part of territory; presence in this territory complex of surface and underground karst forms, which represented of this region in whole; independence of hydrogeological regime of block (recharge, transit, discharge in the limits of block). It is necessary to note, that in some cases is expedient organization of regime stationary researches in the objects which don't present the great part of territory and are unique, but permit to research some regularity of the process in a "pure" condition and the 35 second and third points of demands formulated above are not absolute. 4. As an example we shall give characteristic of karstifiable block, choiced for the organization of regime karstilogical stationar in Podolsko-Bykovinsky karst region. Block is situated within the limits of monoclinal slope of southwestern outskirst of EastEuropean platform. Sedimentary cover of old folded foundation of this territory is presented in the region of investigation by Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. Among them subjected to karstification carbonate rocks Silurian and Cretaceous period, greatly, Neogene gypsum and anhydrite deposits. Left subparallel tributaries of river Dnister out into sedimentary cover at the depth of 100-150 m and divide this territory on separate platean-shaped massif. One of this massif interstream of r.r. Seret-Nichlava was chosen for the organization of the regime karstological stationar. From the south this block is limited by r. Dnister, from the west and east by r.r. Seret and Nichlava, and from the north by large tectonic dislocation, which has regional character. Surface of the block are characterized by the presence of typical closed karst basins with swallow holes and karst ponors. Groundwater recharge of the block is provided by influent and infiltration way. Discharge of different water-bearing horizons take place in slopes of erosional pattern and valleys of rivers both by means of descending springs from the upper water-bearing horizons and by means of discharge hearths of pressure waters from fissure-karstic zones in Silurian deposits. This hearths of discharge is covered by alluvium of r.r. Seret, Nichlava and Dnister and seldom visual observed. The choice of this block for regim stationary investigations was conditioned also by so an important fact as presence of the great flooding karst caves such as Ozhernaya (109 km), Optimisticheskaya (140 km), Verteba (8 km) founded in gypsum stratum inside of the block. Presence of large cave systems in the region of block allow: detail investigate lithology-textural peculiarities of enclose rocks; detail investigate of jointing with distinguishing of hydrogeologically active systems; give objective quantitative estimation of inside karstification of gypsum series; to establish conditions and quantitative characteristics of recharge of underground water of waterbearing horizon of typsum stratum and lower situated water-bearing horizons by infiltrational, influational and condensational components; directly to researche the character of movement of underground waters in different parts of karst water-bearing systems; to receive calculate characteristics of underground flows; to estimate of underground water value storaged inside of karst caves; to study the character of co-operation of waterbearing horizon of Neogene gypsum with upper and lower situated water-bearing horizons; to obtain materials for differential estimation of intencity of sulphate karst at components of underground runoff and for different parts of karst water-bearing system; to obtain paleohydrogeological and paleogeographical information to the history of karst territory development and speleogenesis by means of morphologosedimentational analysis of caves and their deposits. Therefore, the presence of large cave systems inside of the block choosed for the organization of regime karstological stationar is one of main demand to them. 5. Even under good initial geology-hydrogeological and karst-speleological study of block, choosed for stationary, detail complex "ronte" and half-stationar researche of territory must be first. Having purpose a quality estimation and something like quantitative study of conditions and factors of karstification in this block, these works must give a detail and concrete information for a very important stage in the preparation of stationar programme-methodical stage. In the result of preceding stationar detail karst-speological researches must be secured opportunity: to elaborate common programm and method of regime stationar investigation, including common calculation schemes corresponding to studed natural conditions of this block; to elaborate concrete methods for each type of regime observations on stationar, include concrete calculation schemes, corresponding to the object of

PAGE 36

application and its place of block; -.composition of surveyor network plan securing method1cally well-grounded quantitative characteristic of the regime of process in whole and distinguish the most essential of it components. The stage of detail complex "ronte" and halfstationar researches of block and programme-methodical stage are the most important moments in the organization of stationar, securing of it representative character, science and practical effectiveness, revealing the most essential regularities and correct quantitative characteristic of karst process. 6. On the Figure 1 is given a scheme of consecution and co-ordination of main stages of organization of regime stationary researche of karst. 7. As an example of optimal and necessary complex of research at the stage of detail investigation we show the programme for karstifiable block in West Podolye, characterized above. This programme being executed at a present time; separate types of these works and methods, which contain this programme, were mastered during hydrogeological and karst-speleological researches in different regions of Podolye conducted by the authors last years. The contents of this programme is given below. a} The research of tectonic, neotectonic, lithological and geomorphological conditions of karst block development. Types of researches: aerial photograph interpretation; morphometric analysis of topograptic maps by Filisofov method with distinguishing of main tectonic dislocations, corresponding them zone of jointing and local morphostructures; geological survey of the block (1:10000) with complex investigations of different lithological series of the block section and jointing in outcrops; research conditions of disclosure of different lithological-stratigraphic series of geological section by erosional-karst pattern; researche of geology of containing rocks under speleological observesion: researche of lithologystructural changes of gypsum stratum along the area (within the bounds of cave fields) and in section, researche of jointing typsum stratum with distinguishing of speleoinitiating, pre-speleogenetic passive and post-speleogenetic jointing systems. Revealing of geology-structural conditionality of different morphological elements of caves. b) Research conditions of recharde of underground water of the block. Types of researches: complex survey drinage basin of block with cartographical characteristic of landscape, topographic and geomorphological, conditions, defining redistribution of surface runoff (soil cover, vegatation, talwegs and lines of runoff, nidus of inflow); dismemberment of block alimentation region on elemental drainage basins and its classification according to the character of transferense surface runoff into underground runoff; analysis of meteorology data; definition maximum, minimum and average of several years seasonly and yearly characteristics of meteoelements; half-stationar and experimental researches for the definition of the landscape conditions of drainage basins (gradients, explosure of slopes, soil, vegatation, etc.) at a correlation of infiltration with surface runoff (or inflow). c) Research of underground water discharge of the block. Types of researches: mapping of all watercourses and springs in the area of the block, ascertainion belonging of springs to different water-bearing horizon, half-regime research 36 of discharge and chemical composition of springs; by means of hydrometrical and radonometrical investigations revealing of nidus of intake runoff in watercourse of r.r.Seret, Nichlava and Dnister; by means of electrical profiling revealing and tracing of watery fissure-karstic zones, connected with these nidus, in Silurian carbonaceous deposits. d) Research of underground water transit and interconnections of different water-bearing horisons of the block. Types of researches: drilling works on divides and in the river valleys and conducting of water performance tests; mapping and studying of all types of waters in the caves of the block (dropwater, watercourse, laces, etc.); half-stationar observation for a level regime of underground water in caves; revealing of conditions, character and quantity inflowing water from surface and infiltration from situated above water-bearing horizons on the level of gypsum stratum; research of conditions and character of trasferense of underground water of the gypsum stratum into the situated below water-bearing horizons; estimation of cave of underground water quantity, storaded in caves; research of chemical composition of different components of underground runoff in several part of waterbearing complex (water sample taking on the point of intake in boreholes from different water-bearing horizons in different parts of caves of flowing, lake and condensational waters) ; by means of water trasing experiments revealing of interconnections between separate water-bearing horizons, between elemental drainage basins on one side and concrete points of discharde on the other hand; revealing of transit directions and velocities of underground streams in different parts of the block. i) Research of genesis and the history of development karst and caves of the block. Paleohydrogeological and paleogeographical reconstruction. Types of researches: special morphological survey in Optimisticheskaya, Ozhernaya and Verteba caves with mapping of hydrogeologically significant mesoand microforms; definition and research of geologo-structural, lithologo-textural, hydrogeological factors of speleomorphogenesis. Morphological analysis with attraction of data from sedimentational and geochronological research of cave deposits revealing of relative and absolute age of different morphological elements of cave systems and historical stages of cave systems formation; research of secondary deposits of caves, especially fluvial deposits; lithologic and stratigraphic parting of fluvial cave deposits sections; research of granylometric, mineralogical and chemical compositions of deposits along of sections and in different parts of cave systems, dating of cave deposits by paleomagnetical, palynological and other methods, that can be applied; paleohydrogeological analysis of the received data with definition of paleodischarges and paleorates of underground water on different stages of karst water-bearing systems development. Fulfilment of this programme at the stage of detail complex research of karstifiable block, have been chosen for the organization of stationar, give a possibility to work out method and programme of redime stationar research in supplement of this block and at that properly take into consideration the concrete conditions of karst development. Only in this case one may to hope that organized a many years stationar research will be scientifical and practical effective and will be reveal of actually general and essential regularities of karst process. I

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Figure 1. Scheme of consecution and co-ordination of general stages of organization of regime stationary researche of karst. Elaboration of methods and organization of additional investigations on the stationary The prognosis of the process and phenomenon connected with it The regime stationary investigations The estimation of representative receiving regulations, elaboration of methods of special estimation bounded up with karst (engineeringgeological esti mations of territory, estimations of ground water recources of karstifiable territory, etc.) Detail investigation of conditions and factors of karstification preceding stationary Elaboration of programme and methods of stationary investigation The using of received data for mathematics, physics and natural modelling Choice of karstifiable block for stationary Revealing of regularity and quantitative characteristic of the process and it determined active factors The definition of principles and tasks for stationary investigations Geology, Claciology and Geomorphology of the Castleguard-Columbia Icefield Area D. C. Ford Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. LBS 4Kl Abstract The karst and caves are developed in a plinth of resistant middle Cambrian limestones and dolomites BOO+ m in thickness. At the base, the Cathedral Formation (300+ m, base unseen) is of very massively bedded, crystalline limestones: it hosts the principal caves. Succeeding it is the Stephen Formation, GO m of argillaceous limestone, calcareious shale, minor gypsum and a prominent dolomite; it functions as an aquitard. The Eldon and pika Formations total 400 m of limestone and dolomite laminates. Strata dip SE at 5-Go. Joints are few but of great lateral and vertical extent, as are a remarkable series of sedimentary dykes. The karst strata form a benchland intersected by a broad strath, the Meadows, and bounded by deep glacial valleys. Upper Cambrian clastic rocks are weaker and survive as horn-arete summit masses on the benches; they supply copious glacial debris. The Columbia Icefield is a temperate icecap 10+ kID in diameter and 300+ m thick resting on the highest benches. Saskatchewan and South glaciers drain it via the deep valleys. There are lesser, cirque glaciers draining to the Meadows or underground. Modern glaciers have receded 500-1000 m from prominent Neoglacial Terminal moraines. Outside of these, the benches are felsenmeere surfaces above 2300 m asl. At lower altitude are patches of till and moraine ridges of Wisconsin (Wurm III) age. In Holocene times and alluvial fan has built on the Meadows and local river gorges have been incised. Elsewhere, the carbonate terrain is a karren and doline alpine karst. Resume Le karst et les cavernes sont developpees dans un socle de calcaires et dolomies resistants datant du milieu du Cambrien et BOO+ m d'epaisseur. A la base, la formation Cathedral (300+ m, base invisible) est composee de calcaires cristallins massivement stratifies: on y retrouve les cavernes principales. Suit la formation Stephen d'une epaisseur de GOm, composee de calcaire argilleux, d'argile schilsteuse calcaire, de gypse mineur, et de dolomie proeminente; la formation agit en tout qu'aquitard. Les formations Eldon et Pika, d'une epaisseur totale de 400 m, sont formees de calcaire et de dolomies laminees. Le pendage des strates est de 5-Go. On compte peu de joints mais ils sont d'une etendue latera Ie et verticale considerable, tout comme une serie remarquable de dykes sedimentaires. Les strates karstiques forment traverse par une large vallee, les meadows, et delimite par de profondes vallees glaciaires. Les roches clastiques du Cambrien superieur sont plus faibles et subsistent sous la forme de sommets pic-arete sur les planches: ils provient beau coups des depots morainiques. Le champ de glace Columbia est une calotte glaciaire temperee, 10+ m de diametre et 300+ m d'epaisseur, reposant sur les planches plus eleves. Les glaciers Saskatchewan et South Ie drainent via les vallees profondes. II existe de plus petits glaciers de cirque, drainant vers les Meadows ou sous la surface. Les glaciers modernes se sont retires a une distance de 500-1000 m de moraines terminales neoglaciaires proeminentes. a part celles-ci, les planches sont les surfaces de felsenmeere au dessus de 2300m anm. A basse altitude, on retrouve des morceaux de till et des cretes de moraine datant du Wisconsin (Wurm III). Au cours de 1 'Holocene, une delta fluviale onto developpe sur les Meadows et des gorges de riviere ont ete incisees. Ailleurs, Ie terrain carbonate est un karst alpin de lapies et de dolines. 37

PAGE 38

Hydrology and Water Chemistry of Upper Sinking Cove, Franklin County, Tennessee Jerry D. Davis and George A Brook Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 Abstract Upper Sinking Cove, consisting of three closed depressions: Cave, Farmer, and Wolf Coves, developed when part of a former stream system that originated on the Pennsylvanian-age sandstone caprock of the Cumberland Plateau, was pirated underground as it encountered the underlying Mississippian-age carbonates. All three depressions collect acid surface runoff from the surrounding sandstones. In Cave Cove, the most headward depression, Cave Cove Creek has a total hardness of 5 p.p.m. CaC03 on the sandstones but aC9uires an additional 71 p.p.m. from the Mississippian carbonates before sinking in the depression floor. pH 1ncreases from 5.4 to 7.9, SIc from -7.90 to -0.64, and 10gPC02 from -3.62 to -3.30. At times of low and moderate discharge, water sinking in Cave Cove passes beneath Farmer Cove where it is joined by flow from Farmer Cove Creek (total hardness 94 p.p.m., pH 7.3, SI -1.21, 10gPC02 -2.65). After heavy rains, however, some water may ent 7 r Farmer Cove via an estavelle in its f~oor, and together with surface inputs inundate the floor of the depress10n. In March 1980 Farmer Cove flooded to a depth of 12 m. Diffuse recharge (total hardness 167 p.p.m., pH 7.6, SIc -0.47, 10gPC02 -2.76) added to conduit recharge from Cave and Farmer Coves eventually resurges at the' western end of Wolf Cove (~otal.hardness 134 p.p.m., pH 7.7, SIc -0.58, 10gpc0 2 -2.94) and after a short dista~ce ~s ~ surface stream s1nks 1n a blocked ponor at the eastern end of the depression. The stream reappears 1n S1nk1ng Cove Cave 400 m downvalley and can be followed a further 1.5 km downvalley to Sinking Cove Cave spring. Fourteen measurements of soil 10gPC02 made at a variety of locations in upper Sinking Cove during summer 1980 ranged from -2.77 to -1.77 and help explain the pattern of solution in the area and the higher than atmospheric levels of C02 in both conduit and diffuse groundwater recharge. Zusammenfassung Das Upper Sinking Cove, bestehend aus den drei in sich geschlossenen Poljen Cave Cove, Farmer Cove und Wolf Cove, bildete sich, als ein Teil eines ehemaligen Flussystems, das seinen Ursprung auf den Sandsteindeckschichten pennsylvanischen Alters des Cumberland-Plateaus hatte, bei Erreichen der darunter gelagerten Karbonate von Mississippi-Alter angezapft wurde. Alle drei Depressionen sammeln sauren Oberflachenablfluss von den umliegenden Sandsteinen. 1m Cave Cove, der am weitesten stromaufwarts gelegenen Eintiefung, hat der Cave Cove Creek (=Bach) eine Gesamthdrte von 5 p.p.m. CaC03 auf Sandstein, erhlilt aber zus~tzliche 71 p.p.m. von den Mississippikarbonaten, bevor er im Boden der Depression versickert. Der pH-Wert nimmt von 5.4 auf 7.9 zu, SIc von -7.60 auf -Q.64 und 10gPC02 von -3.62 auf -3.30. Zu Zeiten niedriger und gemlissigter Schilttung stromt das im Cave Cove versickernde Wasser unter dem Farmer Cove durch, wo sich ihm Wasser aus dem Farmer Cove Creek (Gesamtharte 94 p.p.m., pH 7.3, SIc -1.21, 10gPC02 -2.65/ anschliesst. Nach schweren Regenflillen jedoch kann eine gewisse Wassermenge durch eine Estavelle (reversibles Schluckloch/ in das Farmer Cove eindringen und zusammen mit Oberflachenzufluss den Poljenboden ilberfluten. 1m Mlirz 198+ war das Farmer Cove 12 m ilberflutet. Sickerwasser (Gesamthtirte 167 p.p.m., pH 7.6, SIc -0.47, 10gPC02 -2.76), das sich zum Stromungwasser von Cave Cove and Farmer Cove hinzuaddiert, taucht schliesslich am Westende des Wolf Cove wieder auf (Gesamthtirte 13': p.p.m., pH 7.7, SIc -0.58, 10gPC0 2 -2.94), ausserdem nach einer kurzen Strecke, wo ein Oberfl~chengew~sser sich in ein blockiertes Ponor am Ostende des Polje ergiesst. Das GewasRer erscheint von neuem in Sinking Cove Cave 400 m talabwarts und kann weitere 1.5 krn talawarts bis zur Sinking Cove Cave Quelle verfolgt werden. 14 Messungen der 10gPC0 2 -Werte des Bodens, im Sommer 198+ an einer Reihe von Messorten im Upper Sinking Cove durchgefilrt, reichen von -2.77 bis -1.77 und helfen die Losungsmechanismen in dieser Region sowie die hoher als in der Atmosphare anzutreffenden C02-Werte in Grundwasserzufluss aus Sickerund Stromungswasser erklaren. Introduction Upper Sinking Cove in Franklin County, Tennessee consists of three closed depressions: Cave, Farmer, and Wolf Coves. These are aligned along the head of Sinking Cove, a blind valley 6.5 km long, which dissects the eastern flank of the Cumberland Plateau (Fig. 1). This system of closed depressions developed when a former stream system flowing on the Pennsylvanian sandstone caprock of the Cumberland Plateau encountered the underlying Mississippian carbonates and was pirated underground. Cave and Farmer Coves are shallow depressions approximately 20 m deep developed in the Bangor Limestone. Wolf Cove, down valley from Farmer Cove, is a 70 m deep uvala that has breached the resistant shale and sandstone beds of the Hartselle Formation and has penetrated the less resistant underlying Monteagle Limestone (Fig. 1). This paper examines the hydrology of upper Sinking Cove and looks at spatial and seasonal variations in water chemistry. Hydrology Cave, Farmer, and Wolf Coves collect surface runoff from the surrounding sandstones. The main flow into the most headward depression, Cave Cove, is Cave Cove Creek, which has its headwaters on Warren Point Sandstone at 540 m a.s.l. When this stream reaches the upper Pennington Formation limestones at the base of a sandstone bluff it sinks in Still Cave at 520 m elevation. The stream res urges several times at major shale beds before returning to the surface when it encounters the dolomites and shales of hte lower Pennington Formation. It finally sinks in massive Bangor limestones at the head of Cave Cove at an elevation of 410 m. Underground flow from Cave Cove has been traced using Rhodamine W.T. dye and activated charcoal inserted at several springs in the area. The water was found to pass beneath Farmer Cove and to resurge 2 kn down valley in Wolf Cove, drop 10 m over a series of waterfalls and then sink again at 310 m elevation in a p~nor i~ M~nteagle limestones. This water then flows 1nto S1nk1ng Cove Cave, which is accessible from an entrance at the eastern 38 end of Wolf Ccve. The stream flows through the lowerlevel passages of the cave for 2 km before resurging at Sinking Cove Cave Spring at the head of Sinking Cove 260 m a.s.l. (Fig. 2). Even under low and medium flow conditions perched water is common in the trunk vadoes cave system that drains upper Sinking Cove. Perching usually occurs above the Hartselle Formation; for example several water bodies perched above this formation have been discovered in the lower passages of Cave Cove Cave. Because there are restrictions to flow, heavy rainfall may overload the conduit drainage system causing water to back up at various locations along it. After a heavy storm in March 1980, the floor of Farmer Cove, which is underlain by the Hartselle Formation, was flooded to a depth of 10 m. Flooding resulted partly because of increased surface and spring flow into the heavily alluviated cove, and partly because of increased surface and spring flow into the heavirly alluviated cove, and partly because water sinking in Cave Cove filled the lower passages of Cave Cove Cave causing water to flow from an estavelle in the floor of Farmer Cove. These combined inputs to the cove exceeded the drainage capacity of the alluviated ponor system causing flooding. Surface and Ground Water Chemistry Spatial Variations in Summer 1980 Between August 14 and 21, 1980, water samples were collected to examine spatial variations in surface and ground water chemistry in upper Sinking Cove (Table 1, Fig. 2). The headwaters of Cave Cove Creek on Pennsylvanian sandstone were found to be acid (ph = 5.4), highly undersaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite (total hardness = 4 p.p.m. CaC0 3 ), and in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (Tl). Hardness increased rapidly once Cave Cove Creek encountered the Pennington Formation limestones. At an elevation 20 m below the sandston-limestone contact hardness had increased to 31 p.p.m. and pH to 7.3 (T2). Water had picked up carbon dioxide from soils on the limestone increasing 10gPC0 1 to -3.20. At the sink point in Cave Cove the stream was still undersaturated (SIc = -J.64)

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but had acquired an additional 44 p.p.m. CaC0 3 and pH had increased to 7.9 (T6). When water flowing in the trunk vadose cave system surfaced again in Wolf Cove its hardness had increased to 131 p.p.m. and logPC0 2 to -2.96. These changes in chemistry resulted from continued solution in the cave system between Cave and Wolf Coves, and from mixing with waters sinking in Farmer Cove. The main recharge at Farmer Cove is from a spring in the western wall which sinks after flowing a short distance across the alluvia ted floor of the depression (f). The spring water had a higher hardness (94 p.p.m.) and a higher carbon dioxide content {log PC02 = -2.6~ than waters sinking in CaveCove. At Wolf Cove there is additional mixing of conduit flow waters. Dye tracing has revealed that" flow through Wolf and Waterfall Caves in the northern wall of Wolf Cove joins the trunk vadose drainage in Sinking Cove Cave (W). This tributary vadose flow has a hardness of 86 p.p.m., it is rich in carbon dioxide (logPC02 = -2.38) and is highly undersaturated (SIc = -0.91). After mixing occurs water in Sinking Cove Cave has a hardness of 140 p.p.m., a logPC02 of -2.96, and is still undersaturated (SIc = -0. 57). Between Wolf Cove and Sinking Cove Cave Spring the main ground water flow is through Sinking Cove Cave. There is conduit recharge at the Boulder Entrance (B) and also diffuse recharge in the form of cave drip waters. In summer 1980, 8 cave drip waters were samples. They had a mean total hardness of 167 p.p.m. and a mean logPC0 2 of -2.76 (D 1-8). There was little change in water chemistry as water flowed through Sinking Cove Cave to the spring indicating that diffuse recharge was not significant enough to affect water chemistry (T9). Seasonal Variations It is apparent that water chemistry in upper Sinking Cove varies considerably with season. Samples collected in December 1980 were of lower hardness and lower logPC02 than those collected in August 1980, flow conditions were similar (Table 1). In both summer and winter all water samples were undersaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite. At Sinking Cove Cave Spring, for example, summer and winter values for hardness, logPC02 and SIc were 133 and 55 p.p.m., -2.94 and -3.25, and -0.58 and -0.52 respectively. These differences reflect reduced soil carbon dioxide levels rather than differences in discharge. The mean soil carbon dioxide at two sites with both summer and winter measurements was -2.07 in August and -2.38 in December. Discussion Upper Sinking Cove has an underground vadose drainage system. This system is dominated by a trunk conduit, two parts of which Cave Cove Cave and Sinking Cove Cave have been thoroughly explored. This trunk conduit parallels the floor of the Sinking Cove blind valley. Several caves in the walls of Cave, Farmer, and Wolf Coves feed water into the trunk conduit either directly or first via springs onto the floors of the three closed depressions. The largest of these tributary flow systems that has been discovered to date is the Wolf-Waterfall Cave system in the norther wall of Wolf Cove. It is clear, however, that the drainage network is not a simple underground dendritic system. Water sinking in Farmer Cove has been dye traced to a spring at the western end of Wolf Cove and also to the trunk passage of Sinking Cove Cave. Water flowing in Wolf Cove Cave has been dye traced to Sinking Cove Cave and also to the spring at the western end of Wolf Cove. The caves of upper Sinking Cove therefore form a braided or anastomosing system in three dimensions explaining why ground water may take alternate routes to reach the same destination. High-level cave passages have been discovered in the walls of the three coves. They contain stream cobble deposits and appear to be relics of a former vadose conduit drainage system in the limestones. Flow directions indicated by imbricated stream deposits and scallops on the floors and walls of these caves indicate that paleoflow directions broadly paralleled those of today. Chemical analysis has revealed that ground waters in upper Sinking Cove are undersaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite. Low saturation levels probably reflect the predominance of conduit ground water recharge and low aquifer residence times. Substantial conduit recharge is also 39 indicated by the range of logPC02 in summer ground water (-3.62 to -2.94). These waters were not in equilibrium with summer soil carbon dioxide (range of 8 measurements was -2.70 to -1.77) as would be expected if diffuse recharge were siqnificant. Seasonally variable soil carbon dioxide levels lead to lower water hardness in the winter compared to the summer months.

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Table 1 Chemical Characteristics of Surface and Ground Waters in Upper Sinking Cove, Tennessee samples a Season Chemical Variable Tl T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 F W B summer b pH 5.4 7.2 7.7 7.8 8.0 "1.9 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.3 7.7 7.8 Total Hardness (p.p.m. CaC03l 4 31 53 53 68 75 131 140 133 94 86 121 log PC0 2 -3.62 -3.20 -3.33 -3.34 -3.35 -3.30 -2.96 -2.96 -2.94 -2.65 -3.17 -3.06 SI -7.66 -2.17 -1. 25 -1. 01 -0.59 -0.64 -0.61 -0.57 -0.58 -1.21 -0.91 -0.56 c Winter C pH 5.7 7.2 7.6 7.8 7.9 7.7 8.1 8.1 8.2 7.8 8.1 7.5 Total Hardness (p.p.m. CaC031 5 10 20 23 30 29 54 66 68 55 43 59 log PC02 -2.07 -3.30 -3.45 -3.59 -3.49 -3.45 -3.50 -3.45 -3.55 -3.17 -;3.60 -1. 65 SIc -5.38 -3.15 -2.17 -1.83 -1.45 -1. 81 -0.76 -0.63 -0.52 -1.02 -0.96 -1. 29 a Sample locations are shown in Fig. 2 b August 14-21, 1980 c December 23-31, 1980 ELEV. --w> ;;'\'.i:': WARREN POINT Pwp SANDSTONE 1520-530 '.:'. '.-' 500-1520 ; .... P'a RACCOON MTN. FM ... ... :: .. :.; .... .. -:'.::' Shale/Sandstone PENNINGTON FORMATION Shale interbedded with: Mp I .Limealone (upper2/3) / / / -Dolomite and / / / Dolomitic Limestone / / / (lower 1/3) 400-420 BANGOR Mb I LIMESTONE I 340.3t51S h H,Il,RTSfLLf .",.. 5" 1./5 S 335.3150 I I I MONTEAGLE I I Mm LIMESTONE I Ch.rt bed t ba -270 -"ST. LOUIS Mol LIMESTONE ~ Met.r. M.S.L. Figure 1. Topography and Geology of Upper Sinking Cave, Tennessee. ) 40 r--T-E-N-N-E-S-S-E-E-~------' location map

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q Spring ) Surface ( ;, Sink eo .. :". Dye-traced 0.' connection .. 0 o Eslavelle En~cave passage SAMPLING SITES WATER CHEMISTRY, o Trunk system 6 Tributary \leave dripwater o I meler~ 500 SOIL CO 2 Figure 2. Hydorology of Upper S1nkinq C"ve Tenne,see anu Water and Soil CO 2 S"mplinq Sites. 41

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Provisional Specification for Caving (S.R.T.) Ropes Andrew J. Eavis 5 Sycamore Close, Selby, North Yorkshire, Y08 OHZ England Abstract In the next few years a U.I.S. standard for caving ropes will be produced in the same sort of form as the U.I.A.A. standard for climbing ropes. This paper puts forward a basic format and hopefully will be a step in this direction. Introduction Ropes have been used in caving for a great many years, but only comparatively recently has their importance been magnified by the advent of Single Rope Techniques. These methods of ascending and descending vertical subteranean passageways have been used in the USA for the last 20 years or more. Gradually the rest of the speleological world has transferred to single role techniques, Britain being one of the last to fall in line in the last six years or so. Obviously in SRT work one is totally dependant on the rope and failure will result in serious injury or worse. As soon as these rope methods were use d people became more interested in the quality of the ropes they were using. In the USA "Nylon Highway" has contained much useful information on SRT equipment for many years. In Britain a certain amount of investigation into the properties of certain ropes with regard to SRT started in about 1974. It soon became apparent that people were using unsuitable ropes and fatal rope accidents resulted. In 1976 after the setting up of the National Caving Association Equipment Committee the British Standards Institute invited members of the above to attend their meetings on climbing ropes with the idea of eventually producing a BSI specification for caving ropes. During the 1977 International Congress many ideas and work by Michael Kipp extended work in Britain by Andy Eavis and others were discussed. In 1979 a working group to produce the caving rope specification was set up, the convenor being Andy Eavis the chairman of the UIS Equipment Commission. The object now is to produce a British Standards Institute specification for caving ropes and use this as a basis to set up a UIS specification similar to the UIAA specification for climbing ropes. At this point in time there are a lot of things still to be decided and one reason for publishing it here is to stimulate feedback from the caving world to help fill in some of the blanks. The full specification for SRT caving ropes will follow the following format. 1. Material The rope shall be composed of man-made fibres. 2. Size The rope shall have a maximum diameter of 12mm measured in accordance with the UIAA procedure. 3. Construction The tope shall be of a balanced combination showing no tendency to rotate when a mass is freely suspended from the end. 4. Mass The rope shall not weigh more than Il.0kg per 100m after it has been wetted in the manner that will be prescribed later. 5. Pretreatment All ropes tested shall be pretreated by several cycles of immersion in water and air drying at room temperature. Only new ropes that have been pretreated will be subjected to the tests and during pretreatment a measure of the shrinkage of the rope will be noted. The rope should not become shorter than the manufacturers specified length. Where requirements are specified herein for "dry" ropes this should refer to the dry pretreated state. In cases of dispute the pretreated ropes shall be conditioned in accordance with UIAA requirements. Where requirements are specific for "wet" ropes this should refer to ropes which have been soaked for 24 hours in water at room temperature and drip dried for a prescribed length of time. 6. Ultimate Tensile Strength The minimum breaking strength of a rope tested in accordance with procedures to be laid down later shall be 20 kN and shall be at least twice the peak force measured in the dynamic test (9). (There may be some provision here for also testing the ropes at elevated temperatures. ) 42 7. Elasticity The elongation under the force exerted by a mass of 80kg shall not exceed 2%. This shall be measured in accordance with UIAA procedure. 8. Flexibility in Knotting The mean performance shall be greater than 50% and less than 130% when measured according to UIAA procedure. 9. Maximum Dynamic Force The maximum force developed at a fall factor of 0.75 with a weight of 80kg shall not exceed 12kN. 10. Energy Absorption It is preferable that there is some sort of specification for energy absorption but this has not yet been decided. It could consist of a destruction test where the dynamic energy needed to break the rope is measured or a durability test where the number of drops with fall factor 0.75 and 80kg are counted until the rope fails. 11. Sheath Slippage The maximum displacement of the sheath when tested in accordance with UIAA procedures shall be measured and not exceed a value to be decided later. 12. Abrasion Resistance The minimum number of cycles to give total failure of the rope when it is reciprocated over a stone edge with a prescribed weight shall be specified. The edge radius and material, the weight on the rope and the distance of reciprocation have not yet been decided. It may be that both horizontal and vertical reciprocation at the edge is necessary to give a true measure of abrasion resistance. 13. Marking Caving ropes complying with the above specifications shall be predominately light in colour and h~ve one or more coloured yarns. New ropes shall have a label attached giving: 1 The manufacturers name and address and the product name; 2 The type of material the rope is made from; 3 An indication that the tope complies with the above specification; 4 The length of the rope which should not be less than that measured after preconditioning; 5 The diameter of the rope; 6 Any particular warnings. For example, susceptability to acids or alkalis, ultra violet light, high or low temperature, etc.; 7 Date of manufacture. Conclusions It can be seen that a lot more work is needed to complete the UIS specification for caving ropes but the above forms a basis. Hopefully before the next equipment review in 1981 many of the gaps will have been filled in. Once the above specification for SRT ropes has been completed it is hoped to amend certain sections to include life lining ropes. Subteranean climbing conditions are covered by existing UIAA specifications.

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The Weak Link Andrew J. Eavis 5 Sycamore Close, Selby, North Yorkshire, YOS OHZ England Abstract This article examines the various pieces of an S.R.T. system from belay to caver. It includes figures derived from practical tests and ideas gained from caving experience. Arguments for and sometimes against increasing the strength of component parts are put forward and some recommendation on a device utilization made. When considering the strength of an S.R.T. system you have to look at the strength of each individual component. There is little point in insisting on using karabiners with an operating strength of 3,500 kgf. if the actual usable strength of the reap is only 1,000 kgf. To start with it is worth going through the system starting with the body and finishing with the belay. The Body There have been many discussions over what force a human body can withstand in an S.R.T. situation without permanent damage. A figure for a person taking a dynamic load onto a good seat or body harness of 1,200 kgf is often used as the point up to which only bruising occurs. This has been arrived at by looking at a lot of test data produced by the U.S.A. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and also actual drop tests performed by climbers. From personal experience 600 kgf in a good sit harness is painful and I would think that bones could start breaking at nearer 1,000 kgf than 1,200 kgf. The Harness Most modern harnesses when new are adequately strong, but after hard use they can soon suffer damage sufficient to reduce their strength very considerably. Caving must be the most punishing use harnesses are put to arid most climbing harnesses are not designed for continuous rubbing as in a tight cave situation. Most harnesses fail in a progressive manner and are fairly so they have reasonable energy dissipating characteristics. In a dynamic load situation on an S.R.T. system one would not expect the harness to fail unless it had been damaged by abrasion, etc. The Karabiner There are a lot of popular falacies connected with karabiners. People have tended to think of them as being so super strong there is no chance of them ever failing; this has now been shown to be totally untrue. Karabiners are normally very strong when the gate is closed and they are loaded along their long axis (typically 2,000 kgf), if the gate is not closed this drops dramatically to say 1,000 kgf or less, and if loaded across the long axis this strength is typically below 500 kgf. This means that in practice that if a caver takes a fall, if in the moment before the rope goes tight the karabiner twists or the gate opens, it could easily fail. The most common reason for this happening are the use of badly designed karabiners, not screwing up screw-gates and carrying gear on load bearing karabiners. The Descenders It is possible that a dynamic load could be applied to an S.R.T. system while the participant is descending, so it is worth considering the strength of descenders. The weakest common descender will be the rapel rack, destruction tests have unrolled a simple pig-tail at less than 500 kgf and snapped rack bars at forces only slightly higher. It must be remembered however that unless the falling caver has his rope locked off to his rack, slip must occur to dissipate energy. The rack itself fails progressively again dissipating energy so it is fairly unlikely to totally fail. The same is not true of self-looking descenders where rope slippage is unlikely as a falling caver would probably release the operating handle thus locking-off the device. The Ascenders The philosophy of the strength of a prussiker/rope system is an interesting one. It is no real advantage if the device is very strong but cuts through the rope at a low force. In many situations it is going to be much more serious if the rope is cut through than if the device fails. If the top device fails in a fall situation, the second or third prussiker will almost certainly hold, but if the top device cuts through the rope it is obviously a disasterous situation. 43 Appendix 1 gives some idea of the strength of some devices. It is interesting to notice that the strongest sprung cam device has an ultimate tensile strength of 550 kgf, whereas the strongest rope walker is about 1000 kgf. If we consider a human body capable of taking 1,000 kgf there is obviously a good arguement for the other components in the system taking the same force or dissipating energy in a way that prevents this force being produced. Since with a fall onto an ascender there will be little or no slip it would be ideal if they would fail at a force between 1,000 and 1,200 kgf without curring through the rope. The Rope Modern S.R.T. ropes should be carefully designed pieces of engineering. If the human body is fatally damaged by a certain force there is no real point in making the actual useable strength of the rope higher than this. Ideally an S.R.T. rope is not to be elastic when being used normally, and very elastic when having to arrest a falling body. This is difficult to achieve in practice. Some ropes have a very stiff core which actually fails at a load greater than that normally applied, the elastic sheath then holds the fall giving forces never greater than 1,000 kgf. If an absolute figure has to be given for the recommended strength you could say that a body would be very badly damaged at 1,500 kgf so to take into account the knots in the system, wear, degredation etc this should be doubled to give say 3,000 kgf. There seems little point in an S.R.T. rope being very much stronger than this. The Belay This is the first link in the chain where the rope is attached to the rock. If the rope is tied to a natural bclay the attachment is as strong as the knot or the cutting action of any sharp rock etc. This is largely taken into account if a 3,000 kgf rope is used. If a second belay material is used (tape or wire rope for example) they must also be at least 3,000 kgf as must the karabiner. l1any wire belays are not as strong as this and often badly placed tape slings would fail considerably below this force. If a bolt is used as a belay each component of this system must be examined. The shear strength of a 7mm bolt may not be as high as 3,000 kgf and if it has been overtightened the actual tensile strength available could and often is very much lower than this figure. The holt hanger is also a potential weak link with a strength often as low as 500 kgf. If the main bolt fails any back-up bolt will almost certainly then fail from the shock load. Conclusion human hody is able to withstand a force of about 1,000 kgf in a good harness and dynamic fall situation. This means that the other components of the system should be at least as strong as this. At present many components are not this strong. Many descenders fail below this force as do all sprung-loaded ascenders. Ropewalker type devices often cut through the rope below this force and many types of artificial belays are not strong enough. Manufacturers should be striVing to increase the strength of the component parts of the S.R.T. system. Rope manufacturers should be trying to reduce the peak force produced in a fall but not at the expense of losing inelasticity at low loads.

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Appendix 1 ASCENDERS Rope Walkers Gibbs Lewis Sprung Devices Jumar CM! 5000 Petzl Jammer (Early) Ultimate Tensile Strength 1,000 kgf 775 kgf 550 kgf 530 kgf 500 kgf Elongation of holes in sheath allowed cam to turn inside out. Rope damaged and probably close to breaking. Distortion of sheath holes and deformation of rope contact area on sheath allowed cam to turn inside out. Slight increase in sheath thickness would give much stronger device. Distortion of cam which allowed device to turn inside out. New Jumar has stronger cam. The wrap around opened out allowing the cam to pull through. New device is stronger in this respect. The cam distorted and pulled through. Later devices have stronger carosa N.B. The spring clamps are very much stronger if the cams are prevented from turning inside out. the top hole of most of them stops this and greatly increases the strength of the rope/device system. rope would fail by severe cutting by the cam at about 1,000 kgf. 44 A karabiner in Typically the

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Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Carlsbad Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Mexico Alberto A. Gutierrez 7927 Jones Branch Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102 Abstract The geomorphic evolution of fluvial systems developed on gypsum karst is complicated by the dependence of both fluvial and solutional landforms on the hydrologic of karst ground water. Rapid recharge from floodwaters results in temporary storage in the zone of ground-water fluctuation and local increases in the groundwater table. A corresponding increase in hydraulic head produces flow felocities exceeding 1 m/sec, calculated according to the method described by Curl, 1974. Recovery times for sinking streams in the study area are very rapid (10-24 hrs.). Surface drainages are largely inactive and alluviated except downstream from resurgences. Arroyo incision and terrace development result from base-level lowering and subterranean capture. Sinking streams above blind valleys' termini are characterized by single, paired terraces, but below resurgences several unpaired terraces result. Late Quaternary geomorphic history involves a successive lowering of baselevel and formation of fluvial terraces and associated cave levels; however, correlation of terraces in semiarid karst is complicated by the interdependence of surface and subsurface drainage. Joint and fracture trends in the Castile Formation control cave-passage orientation, morphology, and sinkhole development. Zusammenfassung Die geomorphische Entwicklung von fluvialen Systemen, welche sich im Gips des Karsts gebildet haben, wird durch die Abhangigkeit der fluvialen wie auch der solutionalen Landformen von der Hydrologie des Karstgrundwassers. Schnelle Auffullung durch Oberflachenwasser bewirkt eine temporare Wasseransmmlung und damit eine lokal begrenzte Erhohung des Grundwasserstandes. Die damit verbundene Erhohung des hydraulischen Druckes erzeugt Stromungsgeschwindigkeiten von mehr als 1 mBsek wie aus der Curl'schenBerechnungsmethode (1974) hervorgeht. Die Normalisierungsperiode fur diese Strome in der untersuchten Gegend zu durchschnittlichen Geschwindigkeiten ist sehr kurz (10 bis 24 Studen). Die Oberflachenwasserkanale uber den unterirdischen Wasserkanalen sind relativ inaktiv und mit Sedimenten aufgefullt. Arroyo Erosion and Terrassen sind abhangig von dem Hohenunterschied der Wasseroberflachen. Die gemorphische Entwicklung im spaten Quartar weist ein aufeinanderfolgendes Einsinken der unter~und Oberirdischen Wasserlaufe auf. Die Identifizierung verschiedener Terrassen im halbwustenartigen Karst wird jedoch erschwert durch die Abhangigkeit unter-und oberirdischer Wasserlaufe von einander. Die Richtung der Joint und Fracture in der Castile Fromation bestimmt die Orientierung der Wasserlaufe, die Morphologie und die Sinkhole-Entwicklung. Bedrock Geology The Carlsbad Gypsum Plain is underlain by the Permain Castile Fm. (Hayes, 1957). It is a thich (1,800 ft.) sequence of nearly horizontal anhydrite, g6Psum and limestone beds. These beds have a slight 1 dip to the N.E., although dips may vary locally due to flowage of gypsum. Very little work has been done on the structural geology of the Castile, although a series of small N.E. trending faults have been identified in the S.W. portion of the study area (Yeso Hills) (Hayes, 1957). A prominent series of joints are possibly associated with the same tectonic activity that created the small displacements in the Yeso Hills. Northeast and northwest trending joints measured on the surface and in caves in the study area coincide with the general trends of surface drainages and clearly exert a s strong control over cave-passage orientation and initial sink development. Surficial Geology Several episodes of erosion and deposition are visible in the surficial deposits of the study a!ea. Filled paleochannels incised into an uneven erOSion surface on the Castile are exposed in arroyos and caves and are visible on the surface, in addition to bedrock and gypsiferous residual material. Hunt (1977) has mapped the surficial deposits of the area as residual gypsiferous deposits. Most of the paleochannel fills in the Gypsum Plain are characterized by poorly sorted deposits ranging from clay and silt particles to angular gypsum gravels and cobbles. The geometry of these paleochannels appears similar to that of existing low WID ratio channels incised into the Castile Formation. "Surface Drainage and Karst Development The most distinctive features of the Gypsum Plain result from dissolution and the creation of extensive Karst topography. Two main types of sinks have been identified on the Gypsum Plain. The classic' solution sink filled with unconsolidated material weathered in place has been observed in the south-central portion of the study area, near Ben Slaughter Draw (Fig. 1). These sinks are closed, approximately circular depressions usually less than 1.5 m deep, ranging from 10 to 80 m in diameter. These sinks comprise approximately 3-5\ of the recharge points to the subsurface drainage of the study area. The majority of the sinks on the Gypsum Plain are better described as sinking stream sinks. These are elongate depressions containing a defined channel which nearly always sinks rapidly and directly into a solutionally widened fracture or joint. These sinks drain areas ranging 45 from .1 to .5km 2 Small sinking streams with well defined drainage areas are especially common in the Yeso Hills and in the interfluves between Ben Slaughter Draw and the north fork of Hay Hollow (Fig. 1). These features are easily recognized in the field and from the air as they characteristically have large bushes or trees growing on top of or near the swallow hole due to the increased avialable moisture. In areas where unconsolidated material overlies the bedrock the streams are developed on the fill and sink into fractures in the bedrock at the contact between the fill and the bedrock surface. The channels contained in the small sinks of the Ben Slaughter Draw and the Yeso Hills area develop as a result of successive flows sinking into fractures within enclosed depressions. Some sinking streams contain more than one swallow hole at different levels, possibly representing either a change in base level or a flood flow route. In areas where the alluvial cover is thin to non-existant, similar features are developed entirely in bedrock. In contrast with the sinking-stream sinks described above, sinking streams with larger drainage areas, characteristic of the Chosa Draw region, are dinstinctly related to the surface drainage development of a basin. These sinking streams appear to be developed along preexisting surface-flow paths and do not sink into obvious fractures in the bedrock. The discharge in these sytems are usually much greater due to the increased drainage area. It is not uncommon to find several of these sinking streams aligned along areas of past concentrated surface flow grading to the local base level of Chosa Draw (Fig. 1). Another type of recharge to the subsurface drainage system is characterized by Chosa Draw sink located in Sec. 28, T.25S., R.25E. Upstream of this sink Chosa Draw is a deep incised channel with a low WID ratio flowing on bedrock or shallow alluvial fill. At this point all the flow that is produced by the 2.8 km 2 drainage area of upper Chosa Draw sinks into a cave system. This has caused the abandonment of an old, alluviated, wide, channel-surface downstream of the sink. Approximately 1,500 m downstream the channel-surface downstream of the sink. Approximately 1,500 m downstream the channel again becomes incised below a resurgence (Blowhole exit of Chosa Draw Cave) characterized by a steep deposit of large rounded gypsum cobbles. Flood flows in Chosa Draw Cave appear to exit via the Blowhole when normal subsurface flow routes are backed up. This resurgence releases approximately 1/3 of the flood flow that enters at Chosa Draw sink back into the channel of Chosa Draw. Cave development is most extensive in the Chosa Draw area between the Yeso Hills and the Black River. Passage orinetations are strongly controlled by joint patterns, except in the lower portion of caves near the

PAGE 46

ground-~ater table where passages widen along bedding planes. Base flow through the caves is supplied by springs and is usually very low. In the lower levels of the caves of the Chosa Draw area, wide passages are developed along bedding planes and end in pools ~hich fill the passages to the ceiling, apparently lntersecting the local ground-water level. Flood flows fill these caves to the :~iling, flushing out sediments accumulated during small flow evcnts and modifying the entire height of the main passages. Flow velocities and discharges calculated from measurements made in caves on the Gypsum Plain are given in Table 1. Table 1 Flow Velocities and Discharges of Selected Caves incised by thc combined effect of karst processes (incision below insurgences) and adjustment to the local Rlack River base lcvcl. References Curl, R.L., 1974. Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, Thc NSS Bulletin, vol. 36, ~o. 2, 1'. 15. Hayes, P.T., 1957, Geology of thc Carlsbad Caverns East Quandrangle, New ~Iexico, MAP GQ-98, Geologic Quandrangle Maps of the United Statcs, U.S. Geological Survcy, Washington, D.C. Hunt, C.B., 1977, Surficial Gcology of Southeast New Mcxico, Geologic Map 41, New Mcxico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Rcsources, Socorro, New Mexico. Location of Scallop Measurements Plunging Stream Cave Chosa Draw Sink Bowhole Resurgence Velocity (m/sec) 1. 21 14.55 9.39 Discharge (m.)/sec)" .971 15.87 5.64 .Velocity calculated from scallop measurements on walls of caves according to the method presented by Curl, 1974 Discharge of peak flow calculated full passage using: Q = IT Axsec where U = calcuated average velocity and Axsec = passage cross-sectional area. There are four perennial resurgences in the study area: Jumping, Ben Slaughter, Terrace and Cottonwood Springs. These springs characteristically occur in the bottom of washes with well developed incised chanels below the spring and wide flat alluviatcd reachcs above the springs. The springs have small discharges (usually less than 1 cfs) except during floods when flows increase significantly. After flooding, there is no evidence of flow in the channels above the springs; but below the spring, flood stages occur 1-2 m abovc channel bottom. Hydrology, Channel Morphology and Geomorphic History The hydrologic system of the Carlsbad Gypsum Plain is a complex intersection of both surface and subsurface processes that produce characteristic solutional features and channel morphology. The ratio of surface to subsurface drainage increases toward the Black River (closer to base level) reflected in the more active incised channels of Chosa Draw, as compared to the Ben Slaughter Draw arca. Large trunk-passages in the Chosa Draw area (Chosa Draw Sink) enable flood discharges to be carried rapidly in the subsurface recharging groundwater levels and discharging to the surface at Terrace Spring and Blowhole resurgences. It is evident from scallop data and field observation that the movement of the flood pulse is extremely rapid in both the Ben Slaughter and Chosa Draw areas (Fig. 2). The recovery time to normal base flow ranges from several hours to one day, depending on the magnitude of the event. Specific conductance and salinity were measured in all the resurgences in the area and no appreciable seasonal variations were noted. During flood events specific conductance and aslinity decreased, but 10 hours after a major flood event, springs showed no significant variations from mean levels. This phenomena is due t9 the rapid movement of the flood pulse and the rapid return to base flow conditions. It is evident from the channel morphology and soil development in alluviated channels that they presently they carry little or no runoff. The sandy residum provides rapid infiltration and most runoff produccd on bedrock surfaces sinks directly intb the subsurfacc. Most of the flow carried on the surfacc occurs immcdiatcly below resurgences that discharge flood flows. Channel cross-sections above and below resurgences show apprcciable differences in morphology. Width to dcpth ratios are significantly higher in the "abandoned" alluviatcd channesl above resurgences. Belo~ resurgences channels, incised in bedrock, have characteristically low width to depth ratios. Broad alluviated washes in the Ben Slaughter Draw and Yeso Hills areas are parts of a largely abandoned drainage network which neither controls nor resembles the present fluvial system. In areas downstream of resurgences, however, incised channels usually follow pre-existing drainage trends. Chose Draw represents an abandoned drainage network which has becn 46

PAGE 47

R.24E. Sou,ce: C.rlebed e.vern, E I, U.S.G.S. lS-toUnule Serle", 1945. Figure 1. Distribution of Karst Features R.2eE. t 6 Springs Passable Caves Small Stream Sinks N Large AlluYlated Sinks j /' Aligned Blind Valleys a 3 ......." MILES 1.265. TIME IN HOURS Figure 2. Hydrograph for Chosa Draw Silk Cave System 47

PAGE 48

The Ecological Genetics for Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops tellkampfi (Coleoptera: Carabidae) George Brunner and Thomas G. Kane Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA Abstract The troglobitic carabid species Neaphaenops tellkampfi has an extensive range in the caves of west central Kentucky. Barr (1979) has recogn1zed four subspec1es based on morphological and geological criteria. Using gel electrophoresis, we have measured genetic variability within and genetic similarity among these subspecies. Three of the subspecies, N.t. tellkampfi, N.t. henroti and N.t. meridionalis, show levels of heterozygosity (H=O.lO-O.17) and pOlymorph1sm (p=o.50T equ1valent to those occurr1ng 1n simliar surface inhabiting invertebrates. These results are somewhat unique for cave limited species. Data for N.t. viator suggest that it is less genetically variable. -----The phosphoglucose isomerase locus (PGI) has been particularly useful in examining genetic similarity and gene flow among the subspecies. Three variants have been uncovered at this locus with meridionalis populations fixed for the slow migrating form, viator populations fixed for a form with intermed1ate mobility, and both tellkampfi and henroti fixed-ror-a variant coding for a fast migrating protein. One pOlymorphic populat1on, containing~he fast and slow migrating variants, has been found. This population is also morphologically intermediate for meridionalis and tellkampfi characteristics. Zussammenfassung Die troglobitische Carabidenart Nea P haeno 1 s tellkampfi besitzt einen ausgedehnten Lebensraum in den HBhlen des westlichen Zentral-Kentucky. Barr 179) hat auf Grund morphologischer und geologischer Kriterien vier Unterarten identifiziert. Durch Gel-Elektrophorese konnten wir die genetische Variabilitat innerhalb und die genetische ~nlichkeit zwischen diesen vier Unterarten bestimmen. Drei der Unterarten, ~.t. tellkampfi, ~.!. henroti und ~.!. meridionalis, zeigen Werte der Heterozygositat (H=O.lO-O.17) und des Polymorphismus (P=O.50) die denen von ahnlIchen, an der Oberflache lebenden Invertegraten entsprechen. Diese Resultate sind fUr ausschliesslich in HBhlen lebende Arten in gewissen Sinne einzigartig. Die Daten fUr N.t. viator lassen den Schluss zu, dass diese Unterart genet!sch weniger variabel ist. -----Das Phosphoglucose-Isomerase (PGI) Gen hat sich als besonders nUtzl!ch erwiesen fUr die Untersuchung der genetischen Xhnlichkeit und des Genflusses zwischen den Unterarten. Ore! Varianten d!eses Gens wurden entdeckt, wobei meridionalis Populationen auf die in der Elektrophorese langsam wandernde Form f!xiert sind, viator Populationen auf eine Form mit mittlerer Beweglichkeit und sowohl tellkampfi wie henroti auf eine Variante, die fUr ein schnell wanderndes Protein codiert. Eine polymorphe PopulatIon wurae-gerunden, die sowohl die langsam wie auch die schnell wandernde Variante enthtilt. Diese Population steht auch morphologisch zwischen den fUr meridionalis und tellkampfi charakteristischen Merkmalen. Introduction Neaphaenops tellkampfi (Coleoptera: Carabidael is one of several troglobitic trechines which inhabit the caves of west central Kentucky. Barr (1979), using morphological and geological criteria, has divided the species into four subspecies. The degree of cave adaptation in N. tellkampfi suggests that it has a farily long history of cave isolation (Barr, 1979; Peck, 1975). Local populations of N. tellkampfi are often quite large and ~. tellkampti 1S generally more abundant than the speC1es of the closely related genus Pseudanophthalmus with which it co-occurs. Two studies (Giuseffi et al., 1978; Turanchik and Kane, 1979) have examined genetic variability within and genetic relationship among eight populations of the nominate subspecies N.t. tellkampfi using gel electrophoresis. The levels of genetic variability in N.t. tellkampfi populations (average heterozygosity (H) = 0.154; average oplymorphism (P) = 0.47) approach those reported for surface dwelling invertebrates (Selander, 1976). The genetic similarity values (Nei, 1972) among the eight populations (1-0.94-0.99) fall within the range reported by Selander and Johnson (1973) to be common for continuously distributed conspecific populatins in continental regions. Further, these data suggest that surface rivers, such as the Green and Barren Rivers which lie between some of these populations, are not dispersal barriers for this species. It is of interest now to examine the qenetic relationships among all four subspecies of"N. tellkampfi. The nominate subspecies ~.t. tellkampf1 occurs in the west central portion or-tne range including the caves of Mammoth Cave National Park. This subspecies also tends to be locally most abundant of the four. Barr (1979) notes that morphologically N.t. meridionalis, the southern subspecies, is the-most distinct of the four. This subspecies overlaps narrowly with tellkampfi fomring apparently hybrid populations in two known caves. Neaphaenops tellkampfi viator, the eastern subspec1es, is morphologically more similar to nominate tellkampfi than is meridionalis. Barr suggests a rather broad zone of hybr1dization between viator and nominate tellkampfi with several caves harboring hybrid populations. Neaphaenops tellkampfi henroti, the northern subspecies, is the most puzzling of the four subspecies. It possesses a high deqree of morphological similarity with nominate tellkampfi 48 and viator, yet there are no known cases of hybridization between henroti and either viator or nominate tellkampfi (Barr, 1979). The lack of hybridization is the apparent result of the presence of a sandstone ridge and an extensive fault zone at the southern edge of the henroti range (Barr, 1979). Methods Three populations of N.t. viator, two populations of N.T. henroti and two populat1ns of N.T. meridionalis were sampled in 1979 and 1980. In addition asingle population reported by Barr (1979) be morphologically intermediate between tellkampfi and meridionalis was also sampled during th1s per10d. IndIv1dualS-Were returned to the laboratory live where they were prepared for vertical slab gel (polyacrylamide) electrophoresis using an Ortec apparatus. Data have been obtained on all populations for five enzyme systems encoding for a total of seven loci. These systems include xanthine dehydroqenase (XDH) (1 locus), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (2), posphoglucose isomerase (PGI) (1), and phosphoqlucomutase (PGM) (1). The average proportion of heterozygous loci per individual (H) and the proportion of polymorphic loci per population (P) were calculated for each population of each subspecies sampled. Also, comparisions of genetic similarity and qenetic distance (Nei, 1972) were made for populations within and between subspecies. Similarity comparisions were also made between the three subspecies examined in this study and N.t. tellkampfi using the data of Turanchik and Kane (197~): -----Results and Discussions Genetic variability estimates (Table 1) suggest that meridionalis, viator and henroti populations have levels of heterozyqos1ty and polymorphism which are relatively high for cave invertebrates and approach the levels reported for nominate tellkampfi (Turanchik and Kane, 1979). Although varia6111ty seems to be lower in the hypothesized meridionalis x tellkampfi hybrid population (Table I), it 1S d1ff1cult to attr1bute much significance to this given the small sample sizes we were able to obtain. The phosphoglucose isomeras (PGI) locus has proven to be particularly interesting in assessing genetic relationships among the four subspecies. Three alleles have been uncovered at this locus for N. tell~ampfi. Turanchik and Kane (1979) showed that all-eIg t populations of N.t. tellkampfi they examined were fixed for

PAGE 49

an allele coding for a fast migrating protein. The present work shows that the viator populations examined are all fixed for an allele coding for a protein with intermediate mobility and that the two meridionalis populations are fixed for yet a third allele coding for a slow migrating protein. The henroti populations are fixed for the fast allele and are identified to nominate tellkampfi in this regard. The only population thus far that has been shown to be polymorphic at the PGI locus is one which Barr (1979) has reported to be morphologically intermediate between nominate tellkampfi and meridionalis and therefore an apparent hybrid of the two subspecies. The fact that this population is uniquely polymorphic and contains what can be considered to be the nominate tellkampfi (fast) and meridionalis (slow) alleles would seem to be conclusive evidence of this hybridization. The overall similarity data for the seven loci examined (Table 2) are for the most part consistent with Barr's (1979) morphological data and his taxonomic designations. All comparisins of populations within subspecies yield similarity values in the range of 0.70-0.80. These are remarkably close to those reported by Ayala et al. (1974) for subspecies of Drosoehila. The meridionalis x tellkampfi hybr1d population has a much h1gher aff1n1ty w1th tellkamefi than with meridionalis. This is consistent w1th the fact ~although this population was polymorphic at the PGI locus, the tellkampfi allele has the highest frequency (0.97). Therefore, thi~ population appears to receive a much greater amount of gene flow from nominate tellkampfi than it does from meridionalis. The large degree of similarity between henroti and nominate tellkampfi (Table 2) is contrary to Barr's (1979) taxonom1C designation. Geological evidence suggests that henroti should be the most isolated of the four subspec1es with no gene flow between it and subspecies to the south or east. It is interesting to note that the genetic similarity data are consistent with the fact that henroti and nominate tellkampfi are the most similar morphologically of the four subspecies. It should be noted that the two henroti populations examined in this in this study-occur-in caves located near the southern margin of the henroti range. It will be important to examine some northern henroti populations in order to more accurately assess 1tS genetic relationship to the other subspecies. This research was partially supported by a grant from the National Speleological Society to George Brunner and by grants from the American Philosophical Society (Penrose Fund No. 8718) and the University of Cincinnati Research Council to Thomas C. Kane. References Ayala, F.J., M.L. Tracey, D. Hedgecock and R.C. Richmond. 1974. Genetic differentiation during the speciation process in Drosophila. Evolution 28: 576-592. Barr,~.C., 1979. The taxonomy, distribution, and affinities of Neaphaenops, with notes on associated species of Pseudanoehthalmus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Am. Mus. Nov1tates 2682: 1-20. Giuseffi, S., T.C. Kane and W.F. Duggley. 1978. Genetic variability in the Kentucky cave bettIe Neaphaenops tellkampfi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Evolution 32: 679-681. Nei, M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. American Naturalist 106: 283-292. Peck, S.B. 1975. The allopatric distribution of the cavernicolous beetles Ptomaphagus hubrichti and Ptomaehagus barri in Tennessee (Le10d1dae, Catop1nae). Ann. Speleology 30: 467-470. Selander, R.K. 1976. Genic variation in natural populations. In: F.J. Ayala, ed., Molecular Evolution. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass. Selander. R.K. and W.E. Johnson. 1973. Genetic variation among vertebrate species. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4: 75-91. Turanchik, E.J. and T.C. Kane. 1979. Ecological genetics of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Oecolog1a 44: 63-67. 49 Table 1 Genetic Variability in Four Subspecies of Neaphaenops tellkampfi SUBSPECIES P H henroti 0.571 0.091 viator 0.428 0.082 meridionalis 0.500 0.137 tellkampfi 0.470 0.154 tell. x merid. 0.429 0.050 (hybnd) A locus was considered polymorphic if the commonest variant had a frequency less than 0.95. P = proportion of loci polymorphic. H= average heterozygosity. Data for N.t. tellkampfi taken from Turanchik and Kane (1979). Table 2 Genetic Similarity Values (I) Above the Diagonal and Genetic Distance Values (D) Below the Diagonal For Four Subspecies of Naephaenops tellkampfi henroti viator merid. tell. tell.x merid. henroti 0.982 0.733 0.777 0.966 0.970 viator 0.311 0.940 0.758 0.767 0.674 meridionalis 0.252 0.277 0.958 0.785 0.758 tellkampfi 0.035 0.265 0.242 0.973 0.923 tell.x merid. 0.030 0.394 0.277 0.080 NA Values of the principal diagonal represent within subspecies similarities. Data for N.t. tellkampfi were calculated from Turanchik and Kane (1979).

PAGE 50

Subsidence Susceptibility Models for Dougherty County, Georgia From Sinkhole and Fracture Distribution Data George A. Brook and Department of Geography, University of Georgia Athens, Georgia 30602 Terry L. Allison Phillips Petroleum Company, 266-H Frank Phillips Building Bartlesville, Oklahoma 74004 Abstract Dougherty County is a covered karst with 1,011 subsidence sinkholes that are developed in surface residuum over fracture-located cavities in the Eocene Ocala limestone. In the last five years thousands of wells have been drilled into the Ocala aquifer to provide water for pivot irrigation systems. Continued extraction could lower the piezometric surface and increase the likelihood of ground subsidences. Subsidence susceptibility maps have therefore been developed using a geographic information.system DBMANG/CONGRID. DBMANG is used to build a grid-format data base, CONGRID to ~anipulate the data base and procuce maps. Dougherty County was partitioned into 855 cells each 1.18 km in area. Five cell variables were used in the modeling: sinkhole density, sinkhole area, fracture density, fracture length, and fracture intersection density. Cells most susceptible to subsidence were assumed to be those with moderate values for sinkhole area and high values for the other four variables. Sinkholes were mapped from 1:24,000 scale color infrared images. Bedrock fractures, obscured by up to 52 m of residuum, were mapped by a new method involving detailed analysis of sinkhole distributions and shapes. Broadly similar subsidence susceptibility models were developed from cell data by intersection, and separately by linear combination. In the intersection technique cells having specified value~ for all variables were located and mapped. In the linear combination technique a map value MV = WI rl+ ",W n r n where W is an assigned variable weight, and r an assigned value weight, was calculated for each ce 1. The subsidence susceptibility and fracture maps generated should prove useful in water resource and land use planning. Zussammenfassung Das Dougherty-County ist ein bedecktes Karstgebiet mit 1011 Dolinen, die in der Oberflachen-Deckschict Uber in Bruchzonen angelegten Hllhlungen in Eozanen Okala-Kalkstein ausgepr:igt sind. In den letzten filnf Jahren wurden zur Gewinnung von Wasser .fUr Sprinkler-Bewasserungsanlagen Tausende von Brunnen in die wasserspeichernde Okalaschicht gebohrt. Fortgesetzte Pumptatigkeit kllnnte den hydrostatischen Spiegel sinken lassen und die Wahrscheinlichkeit von Bodensenkungen erhllhen. Daher wurden Kartzen zur Darstellung der Sekingsanf~lligkeit angefertigt, die sich auf das geographische Informationssytem DBMANG/CONGRID stliten. DBMANG dient zur Erstellung eines Datenkorpus im Flachenraster, CONGRID zur Verwertung der Daten~rundlage und zur Anfertigung von Karten. Das Dougherty-County wurde in 855 Flacheneinheiten von je 1.18 km Flache aufgeteilt. Zur Erstellung des Modells wurden fUnf Parameter benutzt" Dolinendichte, Dolineneflache, Verwerfungsdichte, Verwerfungslange and Dichte von Werwerfungsschnittpunkten. Als Rastereinheiten mit der grossten Senkungsanfalligkeit wurden diejenigen Planquadrate angenommen, die massige Werte fUr die Dolinenflache und hohe Werte fUr die anderen vier Variablen aufweisen. Zur Kartierung der Dolinen dienten Infrarot-Farbaufnahmen im Masstab 1"24,000. Verwerfungen im Grundgebirge, durch die bis zu 52 m machtige Deckschicht verwischt, wuraen nach einer neuen Methode kartiert, die eine eingehende Analyse der Dolinenverteilung und -form beinhaltet. Weitgehend ahnliche Modelle fUr die Senkungsanfalligkeit wurden aus den Rasterdaten per Kreuzungspunkt und, getrennt davon, in linearer Anordnung entwickelt. 1m Kreuzungsverhafren wurden Rastereinheiten lokalisiert und kartiert, die spezifizierte Werte fUr aIle Variablen aufweisen. 1m linearen Kombinationsverfahren wurde ein Kartenwert MV = WI rl + ... W r n fUr jede Flacheneinheit ermittelt, wobei W eine Festgelegte Variablengewichtung und r eine festgelegte ~ertgewichtung haben. Die erstellten Karten zu Senkungsanfalligkeit und Bruchzonen dUrften sich als nUtzlich in der Wasservorratsund Landnutzungslanung erweisen. Introduction The Dougherty Plain of southwest Georgia is underlain by upper ~ocene Ocala limestone, which is covered almost everywhere by Oligocene to Recent Surface residuum up to 5+ mm thickness. The area is a highly developed covered karst region with numerous dolines, uvalas, semi-blind and blind valleys, sinking streams, and springs. Closed depressions have developed by subsidence and/or suffosion of residuum into cavities in the underlying Ocala limestone. As a re-~lt of severe droughts during the 1954 and 1977 growing seasons agriculture in the Dougherty Plain has become increasingly dependent upon ground water from the Ocala aquifer for irrigation. In 1970 less than 8 million m 3 of water were withdrawn from irrigaion, in 1977 more than 150 million m 3 were withdrawn. In Alabama an estimated 4,000 man-induced sinkholes or related features have formed since 1900, most of them due to a decline in the water table (Newton, 1977). Increased use of the Ocala aquifer, therefore, even if it does not ultimately lower the regional piezometric surface, could accelerate sinkhole development across the Dougherty Plain near cones of depression produced when irrigation wells are in use. An attempt has been made to develop maps of ground subsidence susceptibility, which could be of use to land use and water resource planners, by using easily available sinkhole and bedrock fracture data. A sample area Dougherty County was selected for study. The county covers an area of 845 km 2 and only the extreme southeast corner lies outside of the Dougherty Plain topographic province. Modelling Procedure A geographic information system DBMANG/CONGRID was used in data analysis (Hokans, 1977). The program DBMANG builds and maintains grid-format data bases. CONGRID is used to display data in choropleth form via a line pointer. CONGRID has four maps output options: (1) simple variable display, (2) intersections of variables, (3) unions of 50 variables, and (4) linear combinations of variables. Options 2 and 4 were used in this study. The relative susceptibility of an area in Dougherty County to ground subsidence was considered to depend on the number of subsurface cavities in the Ocala limestone, and on the likelihood of subsidence or suffosion of residuum into them. Ogden and Reger (1977) concluded from studies in Monroe County, West Virginia, that areas underlain by the most cavernous rock display the most dolines. Ford (1964) has demonstrated that in the central Mendip Hills of England the formation of one doline (the "mother") tends to promote subsurface conditions that are conducive to the formation of additional dolines (the "daughters") in the same area. Data on sinkhole density and on the percent area in sinkholes were used as being indicative of both the number of cavities in the limestone and of the likelihood of further subsidence or suffosion of residuum occurring. In addition, as there is preferential development of solution voids in zones of high secondary premeability because these concentrate ground water flow, data on fracture density, fracture intersection density and total length of fractures in an area were also used in modelling the presence of solution cavities in the limestone. In order to develop sinkhole and bedrock fracture date files in DBMANG, Dougherty County was partioned into 855 cells in 19 rows and 45 columns. Cell size was 1.0 x 1.1 km. Sinkhole and Fracture Data Collection Sinkholes were mapped from 1973, 1:24,000 scale, color infrared images. Planimetric control was established by also mapping roads. Photographic distortion was removed and sinkhold boundaries transferred to 1: 24,000 topographic maps using a Bausch and Lomb Zoom Transfer Scope. In total 1,011 sinkholes were mapped giving a density of 1.1 sinkholes/km 2 The number of sinkholes in each cell and the percent area of each cell covered by sinkholes were measured, encoded, and entered into DBMANG. The maximum number of sinkholes

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Table 1 Values of Variables Specified for Intersection 1-4 Analysis of Dolines for Predicting Ground Subsidence, Monroe County, West Virginia. In R. R. Dilamarter and S.C. Csallany (eds.) Hydrologic Problems in Karst Regions, Western Kentucky University Press, 130-139. SPECIFIED VALUES OF VARIABLES INTERINTERINTER~ INTERSECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION 1 234 in any cell was 15, 32 cells contained more than 10 sinkholes. Five cells had more than 30% of their area covered by sinkholes, 26 cells had more than 20% covered. The distribution and shapes of sinkholes were used to map possible fractures in the underlying OCala limestone. Mapping was completed in three stages. In the first stage all prounounced sinkhole long axes and other linear shape elements were identified and marked. In the second stage linear shape elements were connected where these appeared to lie along a single fracture. In addition, fractures were drawn where several sink fell along a straight line. In the final stage of mapping the color infrared images were examined for evidence of additional fractures. In total 1,298 possible fractures were mapped the mean length being 1.9 km/km 2 DBMANG data files were developed for the number of fractures, the number of fracture intersections, and the total length of fractures in each cell. Thirty cells had more than 9 fractures and 276 cells more than 5 fractures; 155 of the 855 cells had no fractures. Three cells had more than 15 fracture intersectins and 20 cells had more than 45 km of fractures. VARIABLE Number of Sinkholes Percent Area of Cell Covered by Sinkholes 12-15 15-24 10-15 10-29 4-15 5-35 2-15 5-35 Subsidence Susceptibility Models The sinkhole and fracture data files in DBMANG were used to model via CONGRID the relative susceptibility of cells in Dougherty County to ground subsidence. Separate models were produced by intersections and by linear combination of the five variables. The susceptibility of a cell was assumed to increase with an increase in all variables except sinkhole area. For this variable susceptibility was assumed to reach a maximum when 15-24% of the cell was occupied. This assumption was based on the observation that when 20% of the cell area is covered by sinkholes further development is dominated by lateral growth and coalescence of sinkholes rather than by the development of new sinkholes. Intersection Intersection modelling of susceptibility involved the use of CONGRID to identify and map cells with specified value of the five variables. Four intersections were mapped (Table 1). Intersection 1 identified only one cell, which is considered to be the most susceptible to ground subsidence (Fig. 1). Linear Combination In linear. combination modelling the variables and the values for each variable were weighted according to their judged influence on the susceptibility of an area to ground subsidence (Table 2). Each cell was assigned a map value based on the equation: map value = W kl r kl + W k2 r k2 + W kn rk n where W = variable weight, r = .value weight, and k -n = index of the variable. Map values for each cell w~re calculated by CONGRID and then were classified into five groups, each group covering an equal portion of the total range of map values assigned for mapping (Fig. 2). Discussion The interception and linear combination models of relatively susceptibility to ground subsidence shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are broad agreement. Furthermore, their accuracy is supported by other data. The most susceptible areas correlate with: (1) areas of shallow residuum (particularly less than 10m) where subsidences may be more rapid, (2) troughs in the potentiometric surface of the Ocala aquifer, which probably indicates areas in which the limestone is cavernous, and (3) regions where the difference between the lowest potentiometric surface on record (December 1977) and the highest potentiometric surface on record (March 1978) exceeds 3 m; in these areas there is a maximum loss of hydrostatic support for the residuum during drought periods. References Ford, D. C.,1964. Origin of Closed Depressions in the Central Mendip Hills. Abstracts of Papers, 20th International Geographical Congress, London, 105-106. Hokans, R. H., 1977, DBMANG/CONGRID. The University of Georgia, School of Forest Resources, Athens, Ga. Newton, J.G., 1977. Induced Sinkholes--A Continuing Problem Along Alabama Highways. Abstract in J.S. Tolson and F. L. Doyel (eds.), Karst Hydrogeology, University of Alabama Press, Huntsville, 303-304. Ogden, A.E. and Reger, J. P., 1977. Morphometric 51 Number of Fractures 7-9 5-9 3-9 1-9 Number of Fracture Intersections 12-19 8-19 4-19 2-19 Length of Fractures (km) 3.7-7.2 2.8-7.2 1.9-7.2 1.0-7.2

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SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SINKHOLE DEVELOPMENT High Cells included in intersection 1. Moderately high Cells added by intersection 2. Moderate Httt:f! Cells added by intersection 3. Moderalely low k::::::::::1 Cells added by intersection 4. Low 0 Cells not included in intersection 1 4. Figure 1. Intersection Model of Relative Susceptibility to Ground Subsidence, Douqhcrty County. o N 5Km. I SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SINKHOLE DEVELOPMENT High Moderately high Err:rl Moderate o Moderately low o Low o I N 5Km. I Figure 2. Linear Combination Model of Relative Suspectibility to Ground Subsidence, Dougherty County 52

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Single and Double Fourier Series Analysis of Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico George A. Brook and Ronald L. Mitchelson Department of ~eorgraphy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 Abstract Fourier transforms have been used to quantitatively analyse the topography of a 2x2 km area of cockpit karst in the Utuado region of Puerto Rico. The karst is predominantly developed in Oligocene and Mio=ene Montebello limestone but a few depressions penetrate to the underlying Oligocene Lares limestone beds. Single Fourier series analysis of E-W and N-S linear transects with 26 data points used to determine a suitable fundamental wavelength for double Fourier series analysis. Results showed the cockpit karst to be a relatively simple landscape with a few frequencies adequately describing transect topographies. It also i~dicated that the fundamental wavelength of topographic variation lay between 2,100 m and ~,900 m and suggested discrete values within this range which might be appropriate for further analysis. Double Fourier series analysis of 996 irregularly spaced values, including all depression floor and hill summit elevations and 656 elevations collected at the intersections of a 26x26 grid superimposed on a map of the study area, indicated that the best representation of the karst landscape could be obtained using a fundamental wavelength of 2,200 m. Sequential filtering of high, medium, and low frequency spectral bands within this wavelength revealed that the greatest relative contribution to this representation came from medium sized wavelengths in the range of 265 m to 700 m. Fourier series analysis may provide a new means of characterizing karst styles such as doline, cockpit, and labyrinth karst. It may also be useful in isolating the various topographic elements that make up a karst landscape and in determining the degree and character of structural control. Zussammenfassung Unter Vermendung von Fourier-Transformationen wurde eine quantitative Analyse der Topographie eines Kegelkarstgebietes von 2x2 krn Fldche in der Utuadoregion von Puerto Rico durchgefUhrt. Der Karst ist vorwiegend in oligozanen und miozanen Montebello-Kalken ausgerpragt, aber einige Depressionen dringen in die darunter lagernden oligozagt, Lares-Kalkschichten vor. Einen einfache Fourier-Analyse wurde auf West-Ost und Nord-SUd verlaufende linlenhafte Abschnitte mit 26 Datenpunkten angewandt, urn eine geeignete Baiswellenlange fUr eine doppelte Fourier-Serienanslyse zu ermltteln. Die Ergebnisse zelgten, dass der Kegelkarst elne relativ elnfache Landschaft darstellt, wobel ein paar Frequenzen die Streifentopographie ausreichend widersplegeln. Ebenso wurde deutlich, dass dle Basiswellenlange der Topovarianz Werte liefert, die fUr weitere Untersuchungen geeigent seln k6nnten. Von 996 raumlich unregelmassig verteilten Messwerten, einschliesslich aller Depressionsgrundflachen udn HUgelkuppen sowie 656 Erhebungen an den Schnittpunkten elnes auf eine Karte des Untersuchungsgebletes Ubertragenen 26x26 Rasters, wurden Fourier-Dopple-Serieanalysis durchgefUhrt. Dabei stellte sich heraus, dass die beste Darstellung der Karstlandschaft unter Verwendung einer Basiswellenlange von 2200 mm zu erzielen war. Schrlttweises Herausfl1tern von hohen, mittleren und niedrigen Frequenzbandern innerhalb dieser Wellenlange ergab, dass der gr6sste relative Beitrag zu dieser Darstellung von den Wellenlangen mittlerer Gr6ssenordnung im Bereich 265 m bis 700 m geleistet wurde. Die Fourier-Serienanlyse dUrfte einen neuen Weg zur Charakter isierung von Karstformen wie Dolinen-, Kegelund Labyrinthkarst weisen. Ebenso kann sie zur Isolierung der verschiedenen topographischen Elemente dienlich sein, die eine Karstlandschaft ausmachen, sowie zur Bestimmung des Ausmasses und der Beschaffenheit struktureller Beeinflussung. Introduction Morphometric techniques have been applied to the study of karst to develop unambiguous methods of karst landform description, to search for any fundamental organization or interrelationships, and to provide new data useful in the formulation of hypotheses of karst landscape evolution. To date, there has been only limited application of Fourier analysis in karst landform studies and yet it is one of the most powerful and efficient methods for describing topographic variation. In addition, the technique may be particularly appropriate for karst analysis where the topographic data may be contain spatially repetitive elements. Davis (1973, p. 364) has noted that the mechanical response of crustal rocks may be such that perodicities, or a form of regularity, are inherent in the location of the major fracture systems. As karst depressions develop preferentially along fractures, which are lines of increased secondary premeability, this implies that there may be spatial regularity in karst topography. In double Fourier series analysis map data are fitted by an approximating function based on the geographic coordinates of the data points. This approximating function is used to separate the variability of the data into two components: a regional trend represented by the function, and local residuals represented by deviations. In addition, the approximating function can be filtered in the frequency domain and then inverse transforms used to reconstruct filtered versions of the original topography in the spatial domain. A complex karst topography can therefore be broken down into a series of simpler component models which together make up the terrain. These models could provide an important insight into the spatial organization of karst topography, and could provide information pertinent to the development of hypotheses of karst landscape evolution. This paper is essentially a report of work in progress on several different karst terrains, and is limited to illustrate the methods being employed and some early results. Stud" Area T~e 2x2 km study area is included on the Utuado topographic quadrangle of Puerto Rico. It is located east of the Rio Grande de Arecibo 1-2 km northeast of Laao dos Eocas, and has been described as a mogote region with karst valleys and some dolines (Monroe, 1966). Elevations range from 180 m to 365 m a.s.l. The area is located on the norther flank of the principal fold of the Puerto Rican anticlinorium. S~diments in the study area are uniformly titled at 4-5 0 N and locally they have been gently warped. A majority of the closed depressions are developed in the Oligocene and Miocene Montebello limestone, a member of the Cibao Formation. This limestone reaches a maximum thickness of 275 m. In the southeast of the area a few depressions penetrate into the underlying Oligocene Lares Limestone, which ranges up to 180 m thick. Data Collection Topographic data used in Fourier analysis were obtained by digitizing two samples of elevations from the 1:24,000 scale Utuado topographic map, which has a 10 m contour interval. The first sample consisted of 340 irregularly spaced observations of all depression floor and hill summit elevations. The second sample consisted of 656 regularly spaced observations collected at the intersection of 26x26 grid superimposed on the study area. In total 996 topographic elevations were recorded. Single Fourier Series Analysis Single Fourier Series analysis of the 26 east-west and 26 north-south linear transects of the study area prov,ded by the 656 regularly spaced observations was undertaken to provide a initial assessment of the relatively complexity of the cockpit terrain and to aid in the selection of a fundamental wavelength of topographic variation that could be used in double Fourier series analysis. A generalized subroutitJe "Spectra,1I which assumed a fundamental wavelength tqual to the dimensions of the study area, (2,000 m) was used in the analysis (Sal!, 1979). One-dimensional Fourier transformation of the 26 east-west transects and examination of their periodograms showed that wavelengths ranging from 2,100 m also appeared significant. The results of single Fourier series analysis therefore suggested that the fundamental wavelength for the two-dimensional data array was either 2,100, 2,200, 2,300, 2,700 or 2,900 m. Examination of the entire set of 52 periodograms also revealed that the topoaraphy of the cockpit karst

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1S relatively simple. Transcets could be represented adequately with an uncomplicated Fourier transformation composed of a few wavelengths. Double Fourier Series Analysis Two-dimensional Fourier coefficients are easily obtained from gridded data where the fundamental wavelenths are chosen as the grid lengths plus one. Coefficients are more difficult to estimate for irregularly spaced data but a major advantage of this approach is that there is no restr1ction on choice of fundamental wavelengths, this can lead to more meaningful trend maps. Also fundamental wavelengths may be chosen so that extrapolation beyond the control area is possible, in the case of algorithms designed for gridded data the surfaces merely repeat themselves upon extrapolation beyond the control grid. For these reasons double Fourier series analysis was conducted using an algorithm designed for surface fitting of irregularly spaced data (James, 1966). All five candidate fundamental wavelenths were used in double Fourier series analysis of the cockpit terrain. The 2,200 m wavelength was found to give the best statistical fit, explaining approximately 75% of the variation in the topographic data. The Fourier transform for this fundamental wavelength was then filtered inthe frequency domain to ascertain the relative importance of low, medium, and high frequency spectral bands. Bands 1 and 2, the long and medium wavelength bands, were found to contribute the greatest proportion of the explained variation. The high frequency, short wavelength band 3 appeared to be relatively unimportant (Table 1). This indicates a predominance of topographic elements spaced at intervals of ~ 275m and the relative unimportance of relief elements spaced at 183-275 m. Table 1 Relative Contributions of Low, Iledium, and High Frequencies to the Two-dimensional Fourier Transform of Cockpit Karst Topographic Data Fundamental Filtered WaveReduction FFrequency lengths In SS Ratio Band (m) (low) 733 5721 35.8 2,200 2 (medium) 7891 48.9 (high) 183-275 1739 10.5 Attention was therefore focused on bands 1 and 2. Inverse transforms were used to reconstruct each band separately in the spatial domain to allow the spatial doma1n to allow the spatial characteristics of their contributions to the cockpit karst topography to be assessed. The reconstruction of band 1 depicts the most general trends in the karst topography to be assessed. The reconstruction of band 1 depicts the most general trends in the karst and provides an insight into the broad pattern of solutional denudation that produced it. In the spatial doma1n band 1 is a subdued surface dominated by elongated relief elements that parallel mapped fracture directions in a limestone area 20 km to the northwest (Rinker, 1974). The most prominent of these elements are oriented east to west or parallel with the regional strike of host limestones (Fig. lC). Broad scale variations in the topography of the cockpit karst are therefore controlled by the distribution and orientation of the major fracture zones. Probable tensi0n fractures, parallel with the bedrock strike, appear to have had the greatest influence on topographic development. The reconstruction of band 2 closely resembles that of band 1 depicting the same elongated relief elements. Band 2, however, identifies a number of additional hills and depressions and therefore better represents the cockpit karst topography (Fig. ID). When the two bands were combined in the spatial domian using a low pass filter, which excluded all wavelengths of less than 260 m, the resulting trend surface was a relatively close approximation of the landscape of the study area (Fig. lA and B). 54 Conclusions Single and double Fourier series analyses of topographic data have shown that what appeared to be a relatively complex and chaotic cockpit karst terrain in Puerto Rico is in fact a simple landscape with a farily high degree of spatial regularity. The terrain can be represented adequately by an uncomplicated two-dimensional Fourier transform composed of a relatively small number of wavelengths. The low and medium frequency components of this transform, when reconstructed in the spatial domain, have revealed a highly oriented karst topography with regularly spaced cones and cockpits. The locations of these hills and depressions appear to be controlled by four major fracture systems. These results illustrate the benefits of an analytical procedure that can filter karst topographic variation into several frequency components and thereby emphasize broad relief trends and spatial regularity. It is possible that filtered versions of different karst styles may help reveal basic similar1ties and/or differences between them. Low frequency spectral bands may contribute significantly to topographic variation in some styles, they may be unimportant in others. Fourier series analysis could be useful in the quantitative description of karst landforms and could provide a means of differentiating between landform styles on a substantive basis. References Davis, J. C., 1973. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 550 pp. James, W. R., 1966. Fortran IV Program Using Double Fourier Series for Surface Fitting of Irregularly Spaced Data. Computer Contribution 5, State Geological Survey, University of Kansas, 19 pp~ Monroe, W. M., 1966. Formatin of Tropical Karst Topography by Limestone Solution and Reprecipitation. Caribbean Journal of Science, 6 (1-2), 1-7. Rinker, J. N., 1974. An Application of Air Photo.Analysis to a Cave Location Study. Papers from the 40th Annual Meeting American Society of Photogrammetry, March 1974, 281-289. SaIL, J. P., 1979. Spectra, in Statistical Analysis System Users GU1de, Raleigh, N.C., 381-388.

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Variable Number of Sinkholes Percent Area Covered by Sinkholes Table 2 Variable and Value Weights Used in Linear Combination Modelling Variable Values (V) and Value Weights (VW) Weight 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-1] 14-15 20 VW 1 4 4 6 6 9 9 9 V 0-4 5-9 10-15 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-30 35 6 VW 1 4 6 9 9 4 4 1 Number of Fractures Number of Fracture Intersections 20 15 V VW V VW o 1 0-1 1 1 4 2-3 4 2 4 4-5 4 3 6 6-7 6 4 6 8-9 6 5 6 10-11 6 6 9 12-13 9 7 9 14-15 9 8 9 16-17 6 9 9 18-19 9 Length of Fractures (km) 12 V VW 0-0.9 1 1.0-1.8 1.9-2.7 2.8-3.6 3.7-4.5 446 6 4.6-5.4 9 5.5-6.3 9 6.4-7.2 9 ri(lUre 1. Depression ~orphology and uouble t'our1er Series Trend Surfaces of a Cockpit Karst in Puerto Rico. Closed depressions in the karst are shown in A, B shows a reconstruction in the spatial domain of bands 1 and 2 combined, C shows band 1 and 0 band 2 reconstructed separately in the spatial domain. ~umbers 1-4 identify simIlar depression features on all four maps. 55

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How Food Type Determines Community Organization in Caves Dr. Thomas L. Poulson and Dr. Thomas C. Kane Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680, U.S.A. and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinatti, Cincinatti, Ohio 45221, U.S.A. Abstract The terrestrial fauna in the Mammoth Cave System involves six component communities. Each community is characterized by the rank ordered importance values of the species found in that community. Each species has a total importance value obtained by summing its frequency + density + biomass across all seven food-community types for 18 consecutive months of census. Of the 44 regular species, 30 have 95'+ of their total importance values on one food, 7 on two, 6 on three, and 2 on four of the six foods. Seasonal stress of excess water or deficient moisture reduces densities of some species. Deep within the cave, addition of a food found at entrances, such as fresh leaf litter, attracts only expected specialists but an unnatural food, such as horse manure, repels local specialists, attracts new species, and allows rare species to become highly dominant. More species occur and specialist importance values decrease when component food types are mixed in a compound community setting. Energy availability is the main basis for species specialization to food type. The ave raga and variance of energy available / area / time is highest for raccoon feces and lowest for water-leached litter. Cave rat feces, fresh leaf litter, cricket guano, and highly scattered cricket and beetle feces are between the extremes. Species occurring on mutliple foods face similar energy availability by picking different times in successional decomposition or different places along a .gradient of food ~oncentration. Rl;suml; La fauna terrestre dans Ie syst~me des grottes Mammoth enveloppe six communautl;s composantes. Chaque communautl; est caractl;risl;e par les valeurs en ordre d'importance des esp~ces trouvl;es dans cette communautl;. Chaque esp~ce a une valeur totale d'importance obtenue par l'addition de sa frl;quence, sa denistl;, et sa biomasse pour toutes les six communautl;s de type d'aliments pendant 18 mois consl;cutifs d'l;tude. Parmi les 44 especes habituelles, 30 ont 95'+ de leur valeur totale d'importance pour un seul aliment, 7 pour deux, 5 pour trois, et 2 pour quatre des six aliments. Un exccs d'eau ou une humiditl; insuffisante dOs aux changements de saisons rl;duit les densitl;s de quelques esp~ces. Dans la profondeur de la grotte, 1 'addition d'un aliment trouvl; aux entrl;es, tel que la liti~re fralche des feuilles, attire seulement les spl;cialistes attendus, mais un aliment non naturel, tel que Ie fumier de cheval, rl;pugne les spl;cialistes locaux, attire les nouvelles esp~ces, et permet aux esp~ces rares de devenir tr~s dominantes. Quand il y a un ml;lange des types d'aliments dans une communautl; composl;e, plus d'espcces arrivent et les valeurs d'importance des spl;cialistes diminuent. La disponibilitl; d'l;nergie est la raison principale pour Ie spl;cialisation d'esp~ces au type d'aliment. La moyenne et la variance de l'l;nergie disponible / la region / Ie temps sont les plus hautes pour les f~ces de raton laveur et les plus basses pour la lit~re filtrl;e par l'eau. Les f~ces de rat cavernicole, Ie lit~re fralche des feuilles, Ie guano des grillons, les f~ces de grillon et de coll;opt~re tr~s dispersl;es sont entre les deux extremes. Les esp~ces se nourissant de divers aliments font face ~ une disponibilitl; semblable d'l;nergie en choisissant des temps diffl;rents de dl;composition successive our des places diffl;rentes Ie long d'un gradient de concentration de nourriture. It is not clear whether communities are real entities. If real then they might be expected to show emergent properties which cannot be deduced from the collective properties of their species as studied alone. Most evolutionary ecologists agree that species interactions that result from coevolution are emergent and that the chance of coevolution is greater with stronger selection of species on one another. Thus +/interactors such as parasite/host are more likely to coevolve than a general predator with a variety of prey. Also, -/competitors that harm or interfere with each other are more likely to coevolve than if they just exploit the same food resource. It is not clear or agreed that all species in a community interact enough to coevolve nor is it clear whether boundaries are distinct enough to have real communities. Many forest community ecologists believe that tree species react individually to abiotic factors and that is why species composition changes gradually along environmental gradients of soil, nutrients, moisture, and temperature. From a zoological perspective the difficulty of delimiting boundaries of a community of mobile organisms are even greater but this has been somewhat alleviated by the concept of component and compound communities. A component community includes all the organisms associated with a common resource whether it is a food source or a welldefined microhabitat. A compound community occurs when resources are interspersed and so it is made up of many component communities. This is the approach we take for food resources in caves. The forest floor and caves are both decomposer systems but the cave has the advantage of being simpler and more amenable to study. The forest floor is different only in having more food types, more interspersion of food types, and more topographic, microclimatic, soil, and seasonal differences which affect the availability of each food type and complicate the analysis. The forest litter is also hard to study becuase it grades vertically into the soil so that indirect methods of sampling, such as Berlese, must be used to extract the animals. In caves leaf litter and other food types rest on firm substrates so the only gradation possible is horizontal and complete censuses can be made visually and combined with unbaited pitfall tr,'ppin" fC'1" r:tre species and tiny inunaturcs of the smallest rlitc~ ilnd collembola. finally, the patches of food are C'fte" discrete. This has allowed us to compare isolated component communities to the same communities in a compound setting with several food types interspersed. The first step in our analysis of the Mammoth Cave System terrestrial fauna was to determine whether there is sufficient species specia11zation to be the basis for distinct component communities. We censused all individuals of all species for 18 consecutive months in patches either where the food types occurred alone naturally -raccoon feces, cave rat feces, cricket guano, beetle feces, and flood-leached fine and dissolved organic matter with clay-mud -or had to be created by us on mud in non-flood zones -for fresh leaf-twig litter. We did not do a detailed assessment of some other food types because they are either rare, as with wood and carrion, or their study would disrupt the animals that contribute to the foods that we did study, in the case of nests of cave rats. The minimum size of food patches censused was determined by the area where no new species are added with increased census area. Such species-area curves are obviou~ly steeper, and so require less census area, for an energy-rich resource like feces compared to an an energy-poor one like flood-leached organic matter with clay-mud. finally either of flooding or cold-dry-windy conditions near entrances. There is little or no winter effect at the near entrance sites where we have censused. We have used the plant ecologists' Importance Value to assess the species specialization to food types. It is a composite measure based on Distribution + Abundance + Biomass. It is used hecause no one measure of occurrence adequately reflects a species impact on the food or other species. Distribution is measured on a frequency basis by month for at least t~o pure patches 05 ellch food type. Abundance is m(~il5Urcd as numbers / m Biomass is based on live weight. \ole have mt)
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Q1fferent for highly concentrated vs highly dispersed types (see above and Figure 2) Figure 1 summarizes the evidence for food specialization and suggests that it is based on energy availability of different food types. Refer to Figure 1 where all qraphs are on a common horizontal scale from 103 to 10~6 calories / m 2 / month. The vertical lines, from top to bottom of the figure, represent the average energy availability for each food type specified at the top of the figure. The top graph gives semiquantitative values for the actual availability, as area under each food type curve. It is the area available of each type in the cave as a whole reduced by the time that some of the areas are not available for use because of seasonal flood or winter effects. The second graph shows that potential energy availabilities for some food types overlap with energy availabilities of adjacent food types. This overlap is either in successional = decompositional time, mainly for the energy-rich concentrated foods to the right, and/or in seasonal time and in space = dispersion, mainly the energy-poor dispersed foods to the left. However, the overlap of actual availabilities (top graph) is less since the energy-poor and rich ends of each food type distribution are less common than the mid ranges and since patches of some types are relatively rare, small, and not usable because of high abiotic risk of flooding or desiccation. Using data only for pur patches of each food type, we see that the total species importance values, summed across all the food types on which each occurs, tend to be separated enough to suggest that there is specialization to food type as well as to energy availability per se. The area under each species curve (bottom half of Figure 1) represents its total importance value. In fact, of the 44 species, 30 have 95%+ of their total importance value on one, 7 on two, 5 on three, and 2 on four of the six food types. We believe that the basis for food specialization is primarily energy availability. This availability is modeulated by abiotic risk, resource predictability in time and space, area of a patch, vertical structure, and horizontal dispersion of the food resource. This is illustrated by four fecal food types in Figure 2. Fecal resources in the cave have clear specialists because the patches are discrete and they are neither leached by rain nor removed quickly by the dung-rolling and burying scarab beetles present outside of caves where the dung is rare and highly dispersed. In contrast there is little or no clear specialization on litter in the cave even though it is the most available resource outside on the forest floor. There are two kinds of experimental evidence which reinforce our view that energy availability is paramount. First, Lavoie (these Proceedings) has taken one facal type, rat, and formed it into the shapes and structures of natural raccoon and cricket feces (Figure 2). She finds that invertebrates and fungi treat it all like rat feces as 57 long as the amount mimics that available fresh in a new and natural rat latrine. The abundances of the species are affected, however, because of great differences in surface area/volume for the different shapes. Secon~" we find that an unnatural fecal type, horse manure, attracts the species expected for natural raccoon dung if the horse manure pieces are the same size as raccoon scats. In greater amounts the energy availability is more than for any natural" cave food and this energy-rich manure attracts some new species, repels some of the raccoon dung specialists, and allows otherwise rare generalists to become highly dominant. Our indirect evidence for the influence of energy availability is shown by the results on Figure 1. That is, species that occur ac 2 0ss more than one food type face similar calories / m / month by picking different times in successional decomposition or different places along a gradient of food concentration. Two millipede species illustrate this point. For Scoterpes, most of the total importance value is centered on the dispersed cricket guano. It has a much lower importance value on very dispersed leaf litter that has completed any successional decomposition, and on leached bits of organic matter washed in through vertical shafts and then deposited by gentle back flooding as thin veneers on passage walls and ceilings. Beetle feces are in the range of energy availabilities used by Scoterpes but the sand where most beetles forage for cricket eggs (Kane and Poulson, 1976) seems to be problematic for millipede locomotion. Like Scoterpes, Antriadesmus specializes on cricket guano but occurs over a narrower and more energyrich zone and has a higher proportion of its total importance value there. The basis for millipede specialization to different energy availabilities, as with other pairs of species such as spiders (Poulson, these Proceedings), is difference in foraging, energetics, and life history. Scoterpes is a mobile searcher and reproduces on an irregular basis when adults find a patch of food slightly richer in energy concentration than that needed by adults. Adults may live 3-5 years and reproduce sever~ times after the 3-4 year immaturity period. In contrast, Antriadesmus is nearly sedentary and the entire population of adults mate in near synchrony in spring. Then the adults die and the young grow quickly, mature, and mate the next spring in the same place. Interestingly the snail Carychium and pselaphid beetle Batrisodes are, like Antriadesmus, nearly sedentary, specialized on cricket guano, and have relatives in deep litter outside of caves. References Kane, T.C. and T.L. Poulson. 1976. Foraging by cave beetles: Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of prey. Ecology, 57(4): 793-800. Poulson, T.L. 1978. Community organization. Annual Report of the Cave Research Foundation. pp 41-45. Poulson, T.L. and D.C. Culver. 1969. Diversity in terrestrial cave communities. Ecology, 50(1) :153-157.

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TYPE NAME.5 TYPE AVAJ LABILITY (AC'TVAL' .it SPACE (c!llfe a.rea. II. repIiCll~J) + ,;, TIME (4.vCliIClbiliry by SeASOn) "1Y',,c:f (Ilooil,. t!"'J/e"'~) .""-:.J,,. 41r + (mel("".WIL/ J#oj ,.ni"" 1 ""pori) POTENTIAL AVAilABILITY, (lIilll/n porlc-JI"J)-CALORIES/~a( MoNTl4 Z. slDpe ,...fa of dtlL"J~ ",~n ... ~1A,4r dult.tl. hM. "4rtft'~ Oh J ns;"".,J /"''' -H.i." ;r.-posHi_ '<: 'u Figure 1. Summary of evidence for food specialization. 58

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E'NeRq.'l' AVAILABILITY ;I Re.sOURCe: P"EOIC. TAB1L.IT'I' FOUR FECAL RESOURCES FOOD STRuau~E Figure 2. Characteristics of four fecal food types in the Mammoth Cave System.

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Variations in Life History of Linyphiid Cave Spiders Dr. Thomas L. Poulson Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois, 60680, U.S.A. Abstract Two species of small (about 1 mg) and closely related obligate cave spiders have different life histories. On the basis of eye degeneration, which results from absence of selection against loss mutations, Anthrobia monmouthia has been isolated in caves for a longer evolutionary time than Phanetta subterranea. On the other hand, reduction of exoskeleton thickness and in the amount of silk used in egg cases and webs by Anthrobia can be regarded as due to both accumulation of loss mutations and mutations favored by energy economy in a food-poor environment. Phanetta lives in a somewhat variable and unpredictable abiotic and biotic environment near cave entrances and is short-lived with a high reproductive effort. It is extremely flexible in its energy efficiency, developmental rate, and final size at maturity. Anthrobia lives in a stable environment far from entrances and is long-lived with a low reproductive effort. It is essentially inflexible: All of its biology involves adaptations for extreme energy efficiency. Between cave, site, and year differ~nces in Phanetta are accounted for by its range of physiological, developmental, and life history flexibility as observed in the laboratory. There is very little between site or year difference for Anthrobia. Resume Deux esp~ces de petites (environ 1 mg) araignees, de proche parente et obligatoirement cavernicoles, ont des histoires de vie differentes. Sur Ie fondement de la degeneration des yeux, qui provient de l'absence de la selection naturelle contre les mutations de perte, Anthrobia monmouthia a ete isole dans les grottes pour un temps d'evolution plus long que Phanetta subterranea. De l'autre cote, la reduction de l'epaisseur de l'exosquelette et Ie reduction de 10 quantite de soie employee pour l'enveloppe des oeufs et les toiles par Anthrobia peut etre regardees ~ cause de l'accumulation de mutations de perte et aussi de mutations favorisees par l'economie d'energie dans un environnement pauvre en nourriture. Phanetta habite dans un environnement pres des entrees des grottes quelque peu variable et non predicable en abiotique et biotique. II a une vie courte avec un grand effort reproductiv. II est extremement flexible pour son efficacit6 de l'usage d'energie, son taux de developpement, et sa grosseur ~ maturite. Anthrobia habite dans un environncment constant, loin des entrees et a une vie longue avec un petit effort reproductif. II est essentiellement inflexible: toute sa biologie engage les adaptations pour l'efficacite extreme de l'usage d'energie. Les differences en Phanetta entre les grottes, entre les endroits, et entre les annees sont expliqees par son etendue de flexibilite en la physiologie, Ie developpement et l'histoire de vie remarquce dans Ie laboratoire. II y a peu de difference entre les endroits ou les annees pour Anthrobia. This is another of my studies that show how variability, predictability, and rigor (extremes) of abiotic and biotic factors have constrained life history, foraging behavior, and energetics during evolutionary adaptation to different environments. Both within and between sites Phanetta faces more kinds of and more variation in prey, predators, competitors, microhabitats, and microclimates than for Anthrobia (Poulson, 1977 figures 11 and 14). Phanetta avoids twilight areas but occurs close enough to entrances to experience seasonal fluctuations in microclimate which are associated with cycles of high to moderate food availability which have somewhat'unpredictable durations between sites and years. Anthrobia is restricted to areas of stable and non-rigorous microclimate with very low food availability and only slight differences between sites and years. The separation of the two species is not the result of ongoing competition because the pattern holds whether the species are along or together along a transect from entrance to deep cave. I have both direct and indirect evidence which shows that Anthrobia cannot tolerate either seasonal desiccation or high risk of predation near entrances and that Phanetta cannot tolerate the low food availability away from entrances; if the food supply is artificially increased then Phanetta can survive in deep cave areas. The spiders are superficially similar but close examination shows differences in body shape and build (Figure 1). When compared to Phanetta at the same cephalothorax length of 0.6 mm, Anthrobia is less robust, has more attenuated legs, shows no external eye remnants, and has a thinner exokeleton (seen in the translucent legs with transmitted light). Anthrobia has a lower ratio of weight to length but has relatively longer legs. This results in lower food needs but with no sacrifice in mobility. Spider density and web spacing in the field are similar and density dependent web patterns and spacing in the laboratory do not reveal the differences in competitive intensity predicted by the theory of rvs K-selected species (Pianka, 1970). However the life history of Phanetta is toward the high r end and that of Anthrobia toward the low r end of a continuum between r-selected and K-selected species. Figure 2 is a reconstruction of these life history patterns. It is based on field data on densities of egg cases, immatures, and adults coupled with lab data on time to hatch, grow, mature, and lay eggs. For Phanetta there is an even risk of mortality throughout life. It is based on redation by staphylinid and carabid beetles on immaiures and adults. This mortality is balanced by a high output of eggs, most of them early in adult life when a 60 female's reproductive value is highest. This also allows Phanetta to capitalize on the high densities of prey that are available in summer and fall before bad times return again with cold-dry air in winter. Anthrobia has most of its mortality at the hatchlingimmature stages and it is due to starvation; adequate densities of small Collembola are rarely present so Anthrobia spreads this risk of early mortality by continued output of single egg clutches. Figure 3 shows how the energy bottleneck for young Anthrobia'is partially reduced by large egg size. The result is that hatchlings are large and so can eat slightly larger prey and can go longer without food. As an adult laying single egg clutches Anthrobia need not be large and the small size is an advantage with reduced food needs. For Phanetta there is little food restriction and the large adult size allows the female to lay large clutches of eggs when food is plentiful. Long life with repeated reproduction is critical for Anthrobia given the rarity with which it survives the energetic bottleneck between hatching and maturity. This explains why behavioral specializations which reduce the risk of predation have been so favored by selection (Table I, column 3 bottom). The selection of clay-mud over silt or sand substrates is seen over distances less than a meter along which spider density decreases from 3.5 to 0.1 and the predator Neaphaenops increases from 0.2 to 3.3 per square meter (see Kane and Poulson, 1976). Anthrobia is rarely seen out of a web in the field and lab observations show that it often jumps when touched; this would interrupt chemical tracking by a predator. We also have shown that Anthrobia does not move to areas of high prey concentraion as close as 1-2 meters away when food is artificially increased (Poulson, 1977 Fig. 16). Such food enrichment attracts a variety of general predators which are not normally present. In contrast Phanetta is not only attracted by local food enrichment but also increases its reproductive rate after arrival. The wandering behavior of Phanetta results in finding and capitalizing on local concentrations of prey and the increase in reproduction more than offsets the increased risk of predation. This behavioral flexibility is a reflection of an overall plasticity in Phanetta and is characteristic of many short-lived troglobites that face different conditions from site to site and from year to year. Figure 4 summarizes the kinds of data I have for flexibility in Phanetta when it is given the maximum food it can eat vs 1/4 of the maximum ration. Note that Anthrobia food rations are about 5-fold lower due both to a lower body weight (4 E) and lower matabolic rate (4 D). Flexibility, coupled with a short life, allows

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Phanetta to maX1m1ze reproduction in the best times and still adjust to poor times of low food and/or short growing season; The departure from maximum food conditions in the lab of eggs per egg case (4 B), wandering (4 C), body weight (4 D), and mature size (4 E) tells how close a field population approaches optimum conditions. Thus the life history data of Figure 2 are for a population with egg output and adult body size about 60% of the maximum measured for the same population in the laboratory. The web is the only trait in which Anthrobia is as flexible as Phanetta but even here the flexibility is in spacing and not in amount, density, or rate of spinning with different food rations (4 A). The web spacing by Anthrobia is, as with most of its traits, an adaptation for energy economy. With low prey densities of a sedentary prey, such as Folsomia, Anthrobia builds small webs interconnected by trip lines and alternates its time among the webs. This "traplining" is not obvious in Phanetta even though it could conceivably spread the time it waits evenly among all parts of its large and continuous web. Having dealt with most of the progressive traits of Anthrobia it si appropriate to now consider regressive traits and those that may be a mix of regressive and progressive in their origin (Table I). Whether or not Anthrobia had the same common ancestor as Phanetta or passed through a Phanetta-like stage in its evolution, the two species are similar enough to meet the criteria needed for valid comparisons of evolutionary adaptation to different cave environments (Culver and Poulson, 1971). Referring to column I of Table I, I agree with Wilkens (these Proceedings) that structures that are not maintained by selection will regress as loss. mutations accumulate and I extend this argument to losses in metabolic, developmental, and reproductive flexibility. Unlike eyes, pigment, or epicuticular wax which require little energy for development or maintenance, the regression of exoskeleton, egg case, and web may be reinforced by selection for energy economy (column 2, Table I). The exoskeleton is metabolically active, is a high proportion of a small arthropod's weight, and is renewed at each molt. The reduction in egg case complexity is also an energetic economy. Phanetta has a3-layered egg case with a weight of .30 mg, about 10 times that of a single egg. The outer layer is shiny and S.E.M. shows only small spaces between the dense strands. Then there is a dense middle layer and a looser but sticky inner layer. This layering has the dual function of reducing predation by mites and desiccation. Neither of these selection pressures is a problem for Anthrobia which maintains only the inner sticky layer. The case weight is only.015 mg, about a quarter that of its single egg. The reduced prey-catching web is less of an energy saving since it is a one time investment and can be eaten and recycled if damaged. Anthrobia food needs are reduced and the only common prey, Arrhopalites, is small compared to the Sinella and Tomocerus Collembola that are potential prey for Phanetta. In conclusion I suggest implications of past cave adaptation for future evolutionary change. The extreme phenotypic flexibility of Phanetta allows adjustment to a wide range of conditions without genetic differentiation. Such flexibility will allow adaptation to major quantitative change in the future and perhaps even evolution of 'innovations' in the face of qualitative change. Deme sizes of 50-200, high migration rates, and phenotypic flexibility reduce the chance of local genetic differentiation for Phanetta. In contrast for Anthrobia deme sizes of 15-40, little or no movement, with little phenotypic flexibility increase the chance of local differentiation. This may preclude adaptation to rapidly changing environments but such small populations do not necessarily result in genetic drift or lack of genetic variability (Lande, 1980). Literature Cited Culver, D.C. and T.L. Poulson, 1971. Oxygen consumption and activity in closely related amphipod populations from cave and surface habitats. American Midland Naturalist, 85(1) :74-84. Kane, T.C. and T.L. Poulson, 1976. Foraging by cave beetles: Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of prey. Ecology, 57(4) :793-800. Lande, R., 1980. Genetic variation and phenotypic evolution during allopatric speciation. American Naturalist, 116 (4) :463-479. Pianka, E.R., 1970. On rand K-selection. American Naturalist, 104:592-597. Poulson, T.L., 1977. A tale of two spiders. Cave Research Foundation Annual Report. Table I. Evolutionary Trends in Anthrobia (as compared to Phanetta). REGRESSIVE TRAITS not maintained by selection REDUCTION/LOSS DUE TO ACCUMULATION OF MUTATIONS OF POLYGENES (each with a small effect) Eyes Pigment Melanin Ommochromes? Epicuticular wax? F lexibi li ty Metabolic: 4D Weight loss Developmental: time to and size at maturity--4E Reproductive: timing and number of eggs per egg case --4B MIXED TRAITS Regressive and/or Progressive REGRESSIVE (no desiccation) PROGRESSIVE (no energy economy) Exoskeleton thinner Egg case reduced from 3 to I layer REGRESSIVE (large prey rare) PROGRESSIVE (energy economy) Web reduced--4A Area Strand density 61 PROGRESSIVE TRAITS favored by selection ENERGY ECONOMY (low food) body size and weight per length reduced--I Web placement efficiency. Trapline. I egg clutch STARVATION FOR YOUNG Egg size increased: bigger hatchling--3 Long life with repeated reproduction --2 PREDATION RISK FOR ADULTS Avoid sand-sild carabid habitat No wandering--4C No emigration to areas of high food density Jump if touched

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A-D food "0 fooc( food' "0 ~ooc( 600 600 '/4m&ll '4",u. 000 000 / ",.,,/1t "'.'1' Z -.Ju 1",.,,1/, ltI.y 2. _e/u A. Web l>ensity ~ Sp,!-c:.in') /r\ ;1.0 e b ",,1 PhaneHa I/exiMe An!hrol>ia ;"I'I~JC ;b1~ 0-10,,"0 ""hdl.er "'&lC, ./ or 110 foo" max. I ( z,.. ) '.0 "'AX 0.5 1/+ 0 2 ..,.eks 2 3 4 C. W4nderi,,') "''''0.'1 fro w.b B 1;99 La.yinq 'II ~ .a.eh X. u ~ I.,'" ... ~. d ~" Z-Q. Estimates of age-specific survivorship (1 ) and reproduction (m x )' Egg (E), inunature x (I), and adult (A) stages are shown. Figure 1. Body shape and build in P~anetta (P) and Anthrobia (A) of the same cephalothorax length (0.6 nun) 0 1 ¡1 1'¡ l( "~ ¡ ~ I IZ IOO~ Anfhl'oJ,;a t 1 10] 10 A o I ~ 0 ""i r o-=o:o-=-. Q.8 e )( ,224 36 48 60 months Figure 2. en N Figure 4. Lab Comparisons. 1.0 1.0 o 0 2 3 4 IIIDf1f/,S 1.5 -e .~ 1.0 ) 01 0.5 t F. Tll1\e 1::0 ~ Sl~e Ma.~ ri~y (fi o:> I".fdri"') r 1.00 .~ ...... ,10 -...:: .~ ~ .01 0 6 12. Monl-hS Figure 3. Phanetta (P) has small eggs and hatchlings but large adults whereas Anthrobia (A) has large eggs and hatchlings but small adults. Lab data with no food limitation.

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Pseudokarst on Mars Victor R. Baker Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 Abstract Features resulting from piping, suffosion, thermokarst, and related phenomena appear to be widespread on Mars. Piping is probably a significant process in the development of valley networks that extensively dissect the ancient heavily cratered terrain of Mars. The Martian valleys locally terminate at depressions and reappear as surficial features at points further fown the topographic gradient. Piping on Mars may have been facilitated during an ancient epoch of warmer climate and denser atmosphere on Mars. A thick megaregolith of impact breccia and hydrothermally altered volcanic rock probably formed a relatively weak medium for subsurface fluid movement that undermined more resistant cap rocks of pristine lava flows. Probable thermokarst forms on Mars include immense collapse features and prominent examples of backwasting. Scalloped cliff lines and broad, flat floored depressions are common and may form by analogous processes to thermocirques and alas valleys, respectively. Thermokarstic development on Mars was probably facilitated by extensive ice-rich permafrost, perhaps 1 to 3 kilometers thick. Resume Topographies resultantes de la formation de retassures, suffosion, thermokarst, et de tels phenomenes sont apparement universe Is sur la planete. La formation de retassures est apparement un procede important dans Ie development des reseaux de vallees qui traversent partout l'ancien terrain pleins de crateres de Mars. Les val lees de Mars se terminent localement aux depressions et reparaissent comme traits superficiels 3 certaines localites plus bas sur la rampe topographique. Surs Mars la formation de retassures etait peut~tre facilitee pendant une epoque ancienne du climat plus chaud et d'atmosphere plus dense. Un megaregolith epais de breche d'impact et du rocher volcanique altere hydrothermiquement a probablement fa~onne un moyen assez maigre pour Ie mouvement sousterrain de fluide lequel a 0rode Ie terrain de recouvrement plus resistant de la lave premiere. Formations probable due recourvrement plus resistant de la lave premiere. Formations probable du thermokarst sur Mars y comprennent topographie d'affaissement in~ense, et exemples pronounces d'erosion. Communs sont bords de falaises en feston et vastes depressions ~ plat, lesquels 6tait peut-~tre formes par un procede analogue aux thermocirques et val16es alas, respectivement. Le d6veloppement thermokarstique sur Mars etait probablement facilite par un permafrost tres r6pandu et plein de glace, qui etait peut-etre d'un 3 trois kilometres d'epaisseur. Introduction The N.A.S.A. Viking Space Mission generated nearly 60,000 orbital images of the planet Mars. The highest quality images can resolve surface features as small as 10 meters. The landscape revealed by these images is fascinating for the indicated abundance and variety of geomorphic processes that have probably operated on the Martian surface. Reviews of the research results are only now appearing in the literature (Arvidson and others, 1980); Carr, 1980a; Sharp, 1980). This paper will treat one element of Martian geomorphology; space limitations preclude the necessary development of background information on Martian geography (Batson and others, 1979), geology (Mutch and others, 1976; Carr, 1980b), and climatology (Pollack, 1979) Pseudokarst landforms are those similar in morphology to karst but formed by processes other than solution. Otvos (1976) would restrict the definition to processes and forms involving predominantly piping (suffosion) and thermokarst. These features appear to be abundant on Mars and will be emphasized here. However, the problems of remote viewing of a planetary surface (Mutch, 1979), preclude such a rigorous restriction. The paper will therefore also consider karst-like forms that develop in Martian volcanic terrains and labyrinthine tophographies. True karst has not yet been identified on Mars. However, the C02 atmosphere, evidence of past surface water (Baker, 1978, 1979), and conditions favorable to carbonate accumulation (Booth and Kieffer, 1978) allow for its local occurrence and possible future discovery. Thermokarst Thermokarst is the process of melting ground ice to produce local collapse of the ground surface (French, 1976; Washburn, 1980). The extent of thermokarst development depends on the ice content of the ground material and on the degree and rate of disruption of the thermal equilibrium in the permafrost. The process is most effective in materials with high ice contents, such as the eolian silt deposits of Siberia which contain up to 90% ice by volume (Czudek and Demek, 1970). In addition to vertical collapse, thermokarstic development also proceeds by a backwasting process, leading to extensive cliff retreat by the headward recession of scarps exposing the ground ice. Often the scarp retreat is localized, perhaps by higher water contents, to produce a scalloped cliff line known as "thermocirque" topography (Czudek and Demek, 1970). The backwastinq process may produce broad depressions with steep slopes and flat floors. 63 Extensive alas development occurs in Siberia where the features range up to 15 km in diameter (Washburn, 1980). Carr and Schaber (1977)
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complex of smooth, flat, lowland areas separated by abrupt escarpments from relatively heavily cratered uplands. The planimetric pattern is strikingLY irregular. Outliers of the heavily cratered uplands are often separated from the main escarpments, and sinuous flat-floored chasms often are developed for hundreds of kilometers back into the main zones of cratered uplands. These-chasms were named "fretted channels" by Sharp and Malin (1975). The Martian fretted terrain is best developed in a SOO-km wide band along the cratered upland/northern plains boundary from about 220 0 W longitude to 30 0 W longitude (Mutch and others, 1976). Along this band, which extends half way around the planet, the fretted terrain has clearly developed at the expense of the old cratered uplands (Sharp, 1973). The escarpments along the fretted terrain margins seem to have a remarkably uniform height of about 1 to 2 km. Sharp (1973) suggested that this may result because the otherwise relatively homogeneous nearsurface Martian material has a sharp, planar, physical discontinuity at a depth of 1 to 2 km. This discontinuity may have formed because of the development of ice-rich permafrost to that depth. The planet-wide evidence for such a layer has been summarized by Soderblom and Wenner (1978). Thermokarst on Mars derives from various disruptions of this permafrost zone. Brook (1980a) noted that the various landforms of labyrinth karst (Brook and Ford, 1978) are very similar to the Martian fretted terrain. However, the process of fretted terrain development is probably not solutional, but rather thermokarstic (Brook, 1980b). Some fretted terrain has a similar appearance to the ice-wedge thermokarst actively occurring today on Banks Island, Canada (French, 1974). Volcanic Features Volcanic features abound on Mars (Carr, 1975). Viking pictures of Alba Patera, one of the largest volcanic structures on the planet, reveal wellpreserved lava flow features extending from the central caldera complex (Carr and others, 1977). By analogy to Hawaiian lavas (Carr and Greeley, 1980), the lavas comprise anastomosing complexes of channel fed and tube-fed flows. These data plus other considerations all converge on a probable iron-rich basaltic composition for Martian lavas (Arvidson and others, 1980). The low viscosity basaltic lavas of Mars probably produced numerous examples of tubes and collapse, as in Hawaiian pahoehoe flows (Greeley, 1971; Swanson, 1973). Chain craters occur along the flows of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons, perhaps indicating over lava tubes. Some Martian volcanism appears to have been of the explosive variety (Malin, 1977), perhaps because of phreatic eruptions generated by the interaction of magma with an ice-rich permafrost (Riemers and Komar, 1979). In the Elysium volcanic field, where such activity appears highly probable, large collapse troughs abound on the volcano flanks. Large channels, sculpted by fluid flows, emanate from some of these troughs (Mouginis-Mark and Brown, 1980), perhaps indicating karst-like relationships. Piping and Suffosion The theater-headed valleya that dissect some Martian volcanoes appear similar to terrestrial valleys formed by piping and spring sapping (Baker, 1980a). Networks of theater-headed valleys are abundant in the heavily cratered terrain of Mars (Figure 1) and also appear to form by the erosion of subsurface fluids (Baker, 1980b; Pieri, 1980). Small filamentous channels appear to drain crater rims and ejecta blankets, while larger valleys drain the intercrater plains. Many channels or valleys begin and/or terminate in depressions. piping is the intraformational erosion of rock or soil by the mechanical action of groundwater flow (Parker, 1963; K;lin, 1977). "Suffosion" is a related term that includes chemical attack on certain grains or cements in otherwise insoluble rocks and sediments (Otvos, 1976). These processes can produce networks of valleys by the headward growth of springs (Dunne, 1980). The only requirements appear to be a suitable medium and the requisite ground-water flow system. Parker and Jenne (1967) found that materials rich in smectite clays were highly susceptible to 64 piping. Mars appears to have abundant smectite clays. Many of the Martian lavas were probably erupted into subsurface ice, forming palagonite, which is highly susceptible to decomposition (Soderblom and Wenner, 1978). The Viking lander experiment results suggest that the lava alteration products are predominantly iron-rich smectite clays, plus some sulfates, carbonates, and iron oxides (Toulmin and others, 1977). The Martian ground-water system is more speculative. Mars probably has an immense regolith of impact debris or eolian sediment. Under present conditions, permanent ice can exist to within a few centimeters of the Martian surface for latitudes poleward of ~400(Farmer and Doms, 1979) Equatorward the ice could exist at greater depth, especially if blanketing deposits of fine-grained soil inhibit diffusion and equilibrium with the atmosphere (Smoluchowski, 1968). The permafrost zone, limited by internal heat flow from the planet, might extend to depths of 1 km at the equator and 3 km or more at the poles (Fanale, 1976). Beneath this ground ice zone would be liquid water, perhaps in confined aquifers (Carr, 1979). Outbursts of water confined by ice, climatic warming, local volcanism, impact events, and scarp retreat may have all led to disruptions of the ice-water subsurface system on Mars. Extensive valley networks formed by sapping where slow seepage undermined resistant caprocks. These networks are extremely ancient (Pieri, 1980) and may have formed during an epoch of warmer climate and denser atmosphere (Pollack, 1979). Thermokarstic collapse occurred where melting was localized. Differences in scale and morphology of Martian features, in comparison to terrestrial ones, may derive from (1) the immense spans of time available for pseudokarstic development on Mars, and (2) the apparent absence of rainfall and related overland flow processes on Mars. Acknowledgments This study is an outgrowth of my participation in the Mars Channel Working Group, sponsored by the Planetary Geology Program, National Aeronautical and Space Administration. My Mars research has been supported by NASA Grant NSG-7557, "Morphogenetic Studies of Martian Channels," a part of the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program. References Arvidson, R. E., and others, 1980, Rev. of Geophys. and Physics, v. 18, p. 565-603. Baker, V. R., 1978, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 9th, p. 3205-3223. 1979, NASA Conf. Publ. 2072, p. 4-6. 1980a, NASA Tech. Mem. 82385, p. 234-235. -----1 980b, NASA Tech. Mem. 81776, p. 54-56. Batson, R. M., and others, 1979, NASA Spec. Publ, 438, 146 p. Booth, M. C., and Kieffer, H. H., 1978, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 83, p. 1809-1815. Brook, G. A., 1980a, NASA Tech. Mem. 81776, p. 57-59. _____ 1980b, NASA Tech. Mem. 82385, p. 369-372. Brook, G. A., and Ford, D. C., 1978, Nature, v. 275, p. 493-496. Carr, M. H., 1975, Sci. American, v. 234, p. 32-43. _____ 1979, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 84, p. 2995-3007. 1980a, Space Science Reviews, v. 25, p. 231-284. ====:1980b, American Scientist, v. 68, p. 626-635. Carr, M. H., and Greeley, R., 1980, NASA Spec. Publ. 403, 211 p. Carr, M. H., and others, 1977, JOur. Geophys. Res., v. 82, pp. 3985-4015. Carr, M. H., and Scaber, G. G., 1977, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 82, p. 4039-4054. Czudek, T., and Demek, J., 1970, Quat. Res., v. 1, p. 103-120. Dunne, T., 1980, Progress in Phys. Geog., v. 4, p. 211239. Fanale, F. P., 1976, Icarus, v. 28, p. 179-202. Farmer, C. B., and Doms, P. E., 1979, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 84, p. 2881-2888. French, H. M., 1974, Can. Jour. Earth Sci., v. 11, p. 785-794. 1976, The Priglacial Environment; London, Longman, --309 p. G~eeley, R., 1971, Modern Geology, v. 2, p. 207-233. Kalin, M., 1977, Canadian Geotech. Jour., v. 14, p. 107124. Malin, M. C., 1977, Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 88, p. 908-919. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., and Brown, S. H., 1980, NASA Tech. Mem. 82385, p. 258-260. Mutch, T. A., 1979, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., v. 17, p. 1694-1722. Mutch, T. A., and others, 1976, The Geology of Mars Princeton, N. J., Princeton Univ. Press, 400 p: Otvos, E. G., Jr., 1976, Geol, Soc. America Bull., v. 87,

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Slumps All mapped craters are C, unless otherwise noted p. 1021-1027. Parker, G. G., 1963, Internat. Assoc. of Sci. Hydrol. Publ. 65, p. 103-113. Parker, G. G., and Jenne, E. A., 1967, 46th Ann. Meeting Highway Res. Board, Washington, D. C., 27 p. Pieri, D. C., 1980, Science, v. 210, p. 895-897. Pollack, J. B., 1979, Icarus, v. 37, p. 479-553. Riemers, C. E., and Komar, P. D., 1979, Icarus, v. 39, p. 88-110. Sharp, R. P., 1973, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 78, p. 4073-4083. EXPLANATION Hilly and cratered region Major channels Small fi lamentous channels Scarps of various origins Fretted terrain 1980, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 8, p. 231-261. Sharp, R. P., and Malin, M. C., 1975, Geo1. Soc. America Bu~l., v. 86, p. 593-609. Smoluchowski, R., 1968, Science, v. 159, p. 1348-1350. Soderblom, L. A., and Wenner, D. B., 1978, Icarus, v. 34, p. 622-637. Swanson, D. A., 1973, Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 84, p. 615, 626. Theilig, E., and Greeley, R., 1979, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 84, p. 7994-8010. Toulmin, P., and others, 1977, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 82, p. 4625-4634. Washburn, A. L., 1980, Geocryo1ogy, N. Y., Wiley, 406 p. K9IJ Relatively young crater (rai~ed rim) [@ Older crater (degraded rim) ~ Crater modified by channel processes ~ Very old crater (buried, degraded rim) ~ Crater rims and hummocky margins o ~ IOOkm I! I Approximate leO" ~.""'. Figure 1. Geomorphic map of valley (channel) networks near Lat. 21¡S, Long. 9 0 S. on Mars. 65

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Preliminary Observations on Foraging Behavior in a Hypogean Crustacean Community David L. Bechler Mundelein College, 6363 Sheridan Dr., Chicago, IL 60660 USA Anna G. Fernandez Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, LA 71201 USA Abstract Foraging behaviors in three syntopic, hypogean crustaceans were examined in the laboratory a~d in the, field. The troglobitic isopod, Caecidtoea h~ygia, was not observed to eat in the laboratory., Wh1le forag1ng, the troglophilic amphipod, Garnmarus troglop 1lus, moved twice as fast as the troglobitic amph1pod, Bactrurus brachycadus, covered two-th1rds as much distance and located food three times faster. Bactrurus brachycaudus was more efficient at locating a food source once it was within 20 em of the food source than was ~. trogk o philus. In the field, the two amphipods engaged in a scramble type of competition at the food source. ~ e largest individuals of each species appear to have an advantage over their competitors. Caecidotea styg1a does not compete directly for the food source, but forms a loose column downstream from the food source. Smaller individuals are forced to the rear and periphery of the column by the action of the larger isopods. Once the amphipods have reduced their feeding frenzy, the larger isopods will move in and eat. From these findings it is predicted that ~. brachycaudus and f. stygia, which appear less proficient at locating a~d securing food, will have significantly lower active metabo11c rates, thus compensating for the behavior d1fferences between them and ~. troglophilus. R!isum!i On a observ!i au laboratoire et aux champs Ie comportement fourrageur chez les trois crustac!ies syntopique; On n'a jamais pu observer l'isopod Caecidotea ~ en train de manger au laboratoire; L'amphipod troglophilique, Garnmarus troglophilus, s'est d!iplac!i deux fois plus vite que l'amphipod troglophilique, Bactrurus brachycaudus en cherchant de quoi manger. lIs ont couvert deux tiers plus de distance et ont trouv!i leur proie trois fois plus vite; Une fois A 20 cm de la source de leur nourriture Ie Bactrurus brachycaudus !itait plus habile A la degager que ne l'!itait Ie G. troglophilus. Hors du laboratoire les deux amphipods ont fait concurrence devant leur proie; Les plus grands de chaque !ispeces semblent avoir I' ascendance sur leur concurrents; Caecidotea stygia ne s'engagent pas directement dans la lutte, mais ils se groupent en colonne en aval de la source de nourriture. Les plus petits se sont d!iplac!is en arri!ire et de cOt!i de la colonne par l'action des plus grands des isopods; Lorsque la faim fr!in!itique des amphipods s'est calm!ie, les plus grands des isopods s'approchent pour manger; De lA on pr!ivoit que ~. brachycaudus et f. stygia qui paraiisent moins efficaces A procurer leur nourriture auront une allure m!itabolique nettement moins active, compensant ainsi les diff!irences dans Ie comportement entre eux et Ie Q. troglophilus. Introduction A comparative study of the foraging behaviors of three syntopic, hypogean crustaceans was begun in order to determine the relative foraging efficiency of each species and competitive interactions involved in the acquisition of a localized food source. This paper presents the preliminary findings of this study, and draws some tentative conclusions. Rice cave is located in 'the northern edge of Jefferson County, Missouri. Running the length of the cave is a small stream ranging between 0.5 to 1 m wide and 3 to 30 em deep in the pools. Riffles rarely exceed 3 em 'in depth. One small tributary is known to feed the main stream. Heavy rains result in only a 4 to 8 cm increase in the depth of the main stream with almost no change in the tributary. Increased flow resulting from heavy rains tends to lag 24 to 48 hours behind the rains. This, combined with the fact that the only two accessible entrances are at the mouth of the spring, has resulted in an extremely low input of organic matter. The result is a stable aquatic system markedly depauperate in visible, organic debris which can serve as a food source for the crustacean community. Food found in the aquatic cave system can be classified as either a point source or a nonpoint source. Point sources or localized food items in Rice Cave include guano from a species of solitary bat, larva from Eurycea salamanders, an occasional dead adult Eurycea, and crustaceans from within the community. A f1fth point source may be leaf particles which work their way through the ceilings of two domes at the end of the cave. Heterotrophic microorganisms living in the mud substrate of the pools may serve as a nonpoint source of food for some members of the crustacean community (Poulson and White 1969, Dickson 1975). The crustacean community consists of a troglobitic isopod, Caecidotea stygia, a troglobitic amphipod, Bactrurus brachycaudus, and a troglophilic amphipod, Garnrnarus trosloPhiluS. No other troglophilic invertegrates have een observed in the cave str7~' On occasion, a very small apparently troglob1t1c planarian has been seen. Approximately 67% of the individuals observed in the cave were Q. troglophilus, 28% C. stygia and 5% ~. brachycaudus. Immature f. fi tY91 b and B. brachcaudus approx1mately 5mm long ave een observed 1n the cave but no small ~. trorloPhilUS. This suggests that the Q. tro£lophi us populati~n.may not ~lway~ reproduce, ut, consists of ind1v1duals em1grat1ng from the spr1ng and creek outside the cave. Field observations were made by placing a piece of smelt or salaman~er musc1 7 in the upper portion of a pool. The t1ffie, spec1es, number and actions of individuals approaching the baits was recorded for periods of 1.5 to 3.0 hours. Laboratory observations were made using glass trays 30 by 45 cm with a glass top placed over them. The bott~m ~f the trays were covered with 1 em of sand and de10n1zed 66 water 7 em deep. A piece of smelt muscle stuffed in a glass tube was placed in the midline of the tank 10 em from the opposite end where the test specimen was located. The path of the individual was then traced on the lid as it approached the bait. Caecidotea stygia was not observed to eat during the foraging pattern test, but was observed eating smelt and salamander muscle in the field. The fact that native clays from the cave were not included in the substrate of the experimental chambers may have impaired f. stygia's ability to feed. Similar effects involving the absences of native substrates have been observed in other subterranean fauna (Poulson and White 1969). Significant differences in both the elapsed times and distances traveled were found to exist between Q. troglophilus and ~. brachycaudus. Garnmarus troglophilus located ba1t 222 s. after 1t was placed 1n the test chamber, while ~. brachycaudus traveled 312 cm before locating the bait (P
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I and the pools in the field was the presence of a current. Species composition and frequence also varied between pools. Brod (1971) divided the first 930 meters of the cave into three segments. The last of these segments and the areas beyond are the only regions of the stream where pools contained all three species. The first two sections of the cave contained all three species. The first two sections of the cave contained only ~. stygia and ~. troglophilus. Gammarus troglophilus appeared to be much denser 1n the f1rst segment than in the rest of the cave, and the density of C. fitygia appeared to be lower. T e presence of a current strongly influenced the foraging patterns of all three species. As expected, all individuals approached from downstream. Both C. stygia and ~. brachycaudus.crawled across the sub-~ strate. Gammarus trogloph1lus frequently swam up 1nto the water column as 1t moved towards the bait. This behavior was observed as far as 3 meters downstream, but was not observed prior to placing the bait in the pool. Generally,~. troglophilus moved steadily up against the current. If 1t passed the bait it would swim back and forth at right angles to the current. Eventually it would move back downstream and reapproach the bait. Bacturus brachycaudus and ~. stygia were never observed to overshoot the bait. Once at the bait, both amphipods would move onto it and engage in scramble competition (Smith 1980) in order to gain access to the bait. This resulted in considerable pushing and shoving with larger individuals possessing an advantage over smaller ones. Occasionally an amphipod strongly flicked its uronites to repel another individual. The~. brachycaudus that engaged in this scramble competit10n were equal in size or larger than the G. troglophil(us. Small ~. brachycaudus were only observed to approach bait occup1ed by small ~. stygia. Caecidotea stygia moved onto the bait if it was not occup1ed by amph1pods or if the number of amphipods was low, leaving much of the bait exposed. Generally, though, the bait would be covered with amphipods. In this case ~. stygia formed a loose column up to 16 em long by 3 or 4 em wide. As more individuals joined the column a distinct, size related pattern would develop. Small~. stygia were forced to the rear and sides, leaving the larger ones at the anterior and center of the column. Mere contact was often enough to force the small individuals to the edge of the column. Occasionally a large individual would simultaneously swing its anterior and posterior ends toward a conspecific, forming a U-shaped pattern. The result would be the rapid movement of the smaller individual away from the interior of the column. The isopods maintained the column until disturbed by an amphipod or until an opening developed on the bait .. Once enough room exi~ted on the bait .to accomodate the isopods, the largest individuals advanced forward and moved onto the bait. Smaller ~. stygifi did not advance forward, but simply maintained t eir positions in the column. Gammarus troglophilus under controlled conditions in the laboratory and the field, was able to find a localized food source more rapidly than either of the troglobites, but other evidence suggests that its behavior may not be as economically efficient .. The rapid movement during foraging and propensity for swimming rather than crawling probably requires a greater percentage of G. troglophilus' energy budget than the slower crawling of the two troglobites. The greatest densities of G. troglophilus are towards the front of the cave so that the maJor1ty of the population engages in intraspecific competition with large numbers of individuals of roughly equal ability and behavior. Non-foraging G. troglophilus moved rapidly with an average speed of 36.6-cmlffiIn. Bactrurus brachycaudus was much more conservative and moved at an average speed of 4.1 cm/min. The factthat G. trog~ophilus may not be reproducing in the cave suggests~that t e high ~ctivity rate ao not permit this species to budget adequate energy for reproductive success in this food scarce cave. The troglobites possess other advantages over ~. troglophilus. During the intensive phase, B. brachcaudus made fewer turns and followed a more direct path as 1t approached the food. Similar results were obtained by Cooper (1969) working with hypogean and epigean Orconectes. This suggests that the increased efficiency observed may be a relatively universal trait that hypogean crustaceans possess over epigean species. The larger size of the ~. brachycaudus allowed it to displace the smaller ~. troglophilus and ga1n access to the bait even though it arrived later. Intraspecific competition was controlled by body size in ~.stygia, but this species is even more conservative than the amphipods with the smaller individuals readily acquiescing to the touch of the larger ones. The'troglobites may exploit a nonpoint food source in the form of heterotrophic microorganisms (Poulson and White 1969, Dickson 1975) not available to ~. troglophilus. This combined with lowered activity rates and suspected lowered metabolic rates associated with cave adaptation (poulson 1963) may provide the troglobites with sufficient caloric intake to successfully reproduce and thus outcompctc G. Troq~hilus in this stable, but resource-depauperate aquatTc cave system. Literature Cited Bond, A. B. 1980. Optimal foraging in a uniform habitat: the search mechanism of the greenlace wing. Anim. Behavior. 28:10-19. Brod, L. 1971. Rice cave. Missouri Speleol, 12:11-20. Cooper, M. R. 1969. Sensory specialization and allometric growth in cavernicolous crayfish. Proc. Intern. Congr. Speleol. 4:203-208. Dickson, G. W. 1975. A Preliminary study of the heterogrophic microorganisms as factors in subtrate selection of troglobitic invertebrates. Nation. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 37:89-93. Morse, D. H. 1980. Behavioral mechanisms in ecology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 383 1'1" 8 7 .-G. TROGLOPHILUS 6B. BRACHVCAUDUS ~. .~ ,~=O~~~ I I I I I A Z 3 4 S 6 RINGS -J 0.45 ~ a ~0,35 o Z ~2S ~ u ~O.IS l.f) ~ ~O.OSI~ i Figure 1. For~ging pattern turning rates. The number of turns/IO em /individual is given for each ring and each amphipod species. Rings land 2 correspond to the intensive phase of the foraging patterns. All other rings represent the extensive phase of the foraging patterns. Food was located at the center of ring 1. 67

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Agonistic ,Behavior in the Amblyopsidae, the Spring, Cave and Swamp Fishes David L. Bechler Mundelein College, 6363 Sheridan Rd., Chicago, IL 60660 USA Abstract The diversity of behavior found in the Amblyopsidae was analyzed using "Shannon's H". No agonistic behavior was observed in the epigean species, Chologaster cornuta. It was found that diversity decreased with increasing cave adaptation, and occurred in the order Cholog~gassizi, Amblyopsis spela 7 a, Typhlichthys.subterraneus and Amblyopsis rosae. This decrease in divers1ty was typified by reduced repert01re, a decrease 1n the frequency of all aggressive acts except tail-beating which increased, and an increase in the interrelatedness of acts. The frequency and length of bouts also decreased in the more highly adapted cave species. Bouts involving C. agassizi and A. spelaea were determined by body size. Amblyopsis ~ bouts were dependent on prior residency and T. subterraneus employed a combination of prior res1dency and body size as the primary determinant of the outcome of a bout. The overall picture is one of decreasing overt aggressive behavior paralleled by a concomitant improvement in the efficiency of energy utilization. The changes observed represent a shift from overt agonistic behavior to some other life history trait such as longevity, parental care, etc. as the primary competitive trait determining the fitness of an individual. Resume En se servant du "H" de "Shannon", on a analyse la diversite de comportement chez l'Amblyopsidae. On n'a observe aucune manifestation de comportement antagonique dans les especes epigiennes Cnologaster cornuta. On a trouve que plus l'espece s'adaptait A la cave, plus la diversite se diminuait. Ce phenomene avait lieu dans l'orde des Choloqaster agassizi, Amblyopsis spelaea, Typhlichthys subterraneus et Amblyopsis ~. Cette diminution de diversite ce manifestait par un respertoire reduit: tous les actes agressifs estaient moins frequent sauf les battements de queue qui augmentaient par contre elle se maniiestait aussi par plus de relations mutuelles en correlation: La frequence et la duree des luttes se sont diminuees aussi chez les especes mieux adaptees A la cave: Des buttes entre le f. agassizi et ~. spelaea se determinaient par la taille des corps; Les luttes entre Amblyopsis rosae dependaient des droits de territoire tandis que !. subterraneus gagnaient par raison droits de territoire et selon la taille des corps. Dans l'ensemble on voit que le comprotement aggressif se diminue au fur et A mesure que les combattants se servent de leur energie de fa~on plus efficace. Les changements observes representent une evolution depuis la periode d' autres caracteristiques tells que la longevite, les soins maternels etc. C'est cette evolution qui semble ~tre le trait principal de concurrence qui determine le bien-etre et le survivance des mieux adaptes. Biospeleogical research has made considerable progress during the last 25 years, but detailed studies of complex behavior involving mating, territorial defense and aggression are lacking in the literature. This paper describes agonistic behavior in five of the six known amblyopsid species and discusses the relative importance of the observed behaviors as they relate to other life history traits. Five to seven individuals of each species were paired conspecifically in all possible pairwise comparisons and all agonistic acts recorded on video tape. The standard length of the intruder or second fish placed in the tank was divided by the standard length of the resident ,or first fish placed in the tank 24 hours earlier. This produced an I/R ratio such that the lowest values represented the small intruder and the largest resident, and vice versa for the other end of the scale. A value of 1 would then represent an intruder and resident of equal size. These I/R ratios were then grouped by quintiles producing five classes of pairings such that 20% of the smallest intruders matched against 20% of the largest residents made up class 1. Class 3 then represented 20% of the pairs which centered around the central I/R ratio of 1, and class 5 represented 20% of the smallest residents. First and second order diversity as computed from "Shannon's H" was then examined against each size class. It should be noted that the size classes are not strictly comparable since differences exist in the relative sizes of each species, therefore only comparisons in the trends observed can be made. Six aggressive acts and two submissive acts made up the agonistic repertoire of the family (Table I). Chologaster cornuta, an epigean species, engaged in no observable agon1stic behavior. Chologaster agassizi, a troglophile, and Amblyo~sis spelaea, a troglob1te, employed all eight agon1st1c acts. Of the two remaining troglobites, Typhlichthys subterraneus employed all acts but jaw-lock1ng, and Affiblyops1s rosae used both submissive acts, tail-beating and neacl-butting. First order diversity or H l provided a measure of the number of agonistic acts and their frequency used during a bout. From Figure 1 it can be seen that C. agassizi and T. sub terrane us displayed increasing divers1ty as the-size of the 1ntruder approached and exceeded that of the resident. Once the intruder was sufficiently large, the diversity then decreased markedly as seen in size class 5. The. observed. increases in diversity resulted from an 1ncrease 1n both the number of acts employed by a pair of combatants and a more uniform distribution of the frequencies of the acts performed. Amplyopsis rosae follows a s1m11ar trend, but in actual1ty probably possesses a pattern similar to that of A. spelaea. Amblyopsis ~ engage~ in very fe~ bouts per observat10n per10d. Amblyops1s rosae re~1dents almost always won a bout regardless of the S1ze of the intruder. Tail-beating was employed almost to 68 the exclusion of other aggressive acts. It was also unusual for the intruder to display any aggressive behavior. Because of this uniformity in bouts involving A. rosae, two unusual events served to elevate the diversity of size classes 3 and 4. A single act of headbutting occurred in size class 3 and the only time an intruder behaved aggressively and the resident submissively, occurred in size class 4. Had these two unusual events not occurred, the diversity of size classes 3 and 4 would have more nearly equaled the others. Relatively little change occurred in diversity from one class size to another in ~. spelaea. This resulted from the fact that pairs of ~. spelaea employed about the same number of agonistic acts w1th roughly equal frequencies regardless of the size differences between combatants. Second order diversity or H2 provided a measure of the interrelatedness or probabi11ty that one act would follow another. The trends observed for H2 were similar to those observed for Hl' Greater randomness developed as the size of the intruder approached and exceeded that of the resident for both ~. agassizi and !. subterraneus. The occurrence of head-butting 1n class 3 and aggress10n by the intruder and submission by the resident in class 4 increased the diversity in these 2 classes for ~. rosae. T~e primary difference is seen in ~. spelaea. The d1vers1ty of H 2 across the 5 size classes more nearly resembles that of T. subterraneus. The increase in diversity seen in !. subterraneus resulted mainly from the addition of new acts to 1tS repertoire. These new acts changed the interrelationship of acts, but the frequency with which one act followed another did not change appreciably. Amblyopsis s~elaea is different. It did not vary its repert01re S1ze markedly from one size class to another. But, as the size of the intruder became larger, the randomness with which one act followed another increased. This resulted in more similar patterns for the 2 species as they pertain to H Size dilferences between two opponent strongly influenced the length of C. agassizi and A. spelaea bouts. Bouts involving individuals of nearly equal S1ze lasted as 10n9 as 5?Os ~or.~: agassizi and 450s for ~. spelaea. Bouts 1nvolv1ng 1nd1v1duals of considerable S1ze d1fference were relatively brief with C. agassizi bouts less than 50s and ~. spelaea less than 255. Regardless of size differences, T. subterraneus bouts and A. rosae bouts were relatively un1form in length. TyphIichthYS rarely exceeded 50s and A. rosae rarely exceeded 20s with no observable increase in bouts involving opponents of equal size. Dominance and the eventual outcome of a series of bouts was strongly dependent on the size Of C. agassizi and ~. spelaea opponents. In most instances-the larger fish displayed more aggression towards an opponent and controlled or won the last bouts engaged in. Amblyopsis ~ b~uts were de~endent on prior residency. Regardless of S1ze, the res1dent was the aggressor and winner of a series of bouts in all but 1 of 20 pairings.

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Figure 1. First order and scoond on.ler di""rsity for each arrLlyopsid '''pecies. Size classes represent intnklers' standard 1ength/ residents I standard length. 'lhe resulting ratios >Ere then grouped by quintiles to produce 5 size classes. A single bit equals log22. (~aqassiE,1 Ts--L, subg:rrapeusl As= ~ ~~!!: 1Ir=f:, nl:iiH:). enviroment. It appears that the amblyopsids have evolved a similar reduction in agonistic behavior, but this reduction is due to a difference in their perception of the food supply. As energy was con-. served the competitive emphasis shifted from 10cat1ng food to the production of more mature offspring better able to survive the rigor of the cave environment. Literature Cited Parzefa11, J. 1974. Ruckbildung aggressiver verhaltensiveisen bei einer hohlenform von Peocilia s~henops (Pisces, Poecilidae). Z. Tierpsychol. 35:6 -84. Pianka, E. R. 1974. Evolutionary ecology. Harper and Row, publishers, N. Y. 356 pp. Poulson, T. L. 1961. Cave adaptation in amblyopsid fishes. Ph.D. dissertation. U. Michigan. 185 pp. (Mic. 61-2787) U. Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Poulson, T. L. 1969. Population size, density and regulation in cave fishes. Proceed. Internat. Congr. Spe1eo1. 4:189-192. Poulson, T. L. and Wm. B. White. 1969. The cave environment. Science 165:971-981. 5 3 4 CLASS 2 SIZE c'" ~------..Ts ---------::I~'-""'&.-. ~ --.... ~ .-.,,'eAr >5 I~ 4 w 3 > o 2 I 4 3 V') 2 ~ ml Body size was important in the determination of T. subterraneus bouts, but prior residency also played a strong part in the outcome of some bouts. An intruder had to be approximately 30% larger than its opponent before it consistently gained dominance and won a series of bouts. Bouts involving intruders less than 30% larger than the resident were controlled by the resident, suggesting that prior residency conferred an advantage on these residents. Taking into account the basic trends observed in the analysis of first and second order diversity and the importance of body size and/or prior residency upon the length, dominance relationships and eventual outcome of a series of bouts, I have ranked the hypogean amblyopsids according to decreasing overall diversity as follows: ~. a9assizi, ~. spelaea, !. subterraneus and A. rosae. Th1S ranking represents what I be11eve to be the evolutionary steps involved in the development of agonism in the family. Using as a base past works on the amblyopsids, it is possible to intepret these findings with respect to possible selection pressures and the role of agonistic behavior in the overall life history strategies of the various species. Cholosaster a~assizi, which is believed to currentlye colon1z1ng a subterranenan environment (Poulson 1961) unlike its epigean relative C. cornuta, has encountered a food-depauperate environment (Poulson 1961, Poulson and White 1969). Additionally, C. agassizi and the other hypogean amblyopsids have assumed the top trophic position in the subterranean community, a position where energy transfer between trophic levels may be considerably poorer (pianka 1974). These facts combined with relatively energy costly life history traits such as higher fecunoity and metabolic rates, and less. efficient swimming, have caused ~. agassizi to perceive its energy supply as scarce. In order to defend this food supply, C. agassizi has developed long bouts involving relatively strong, diverse agonistic behavior. As cave adaption increased, fecundity and metabolic rates were reduced, swimming efficiency improved (Poulson 1961), and the caloric demand per individual on the aquatic environment was decreased (Poulson 1969). These adaptations allowed the more highly evolved amblyopsids to consume energy and redirect it into reproductively profitable traits such as larger ova, greater longevity, and increased foraging time. These adaptations also allowed the more cave adapted species such as A. rosae to perceive the food supply as more abundan~he end result was a decrease in selection for agonistic behavior, with bouts becoming shorter and less diverse. Concomitantly, the more advertisement of an individual's presence via tail-beating became sufficient to cause an opponent to move to other feeding areas. This resulted from the fact that an opponent not only perceived food as being more abundant, but possessed the physiological capacity to abstain from eating while it searched for an unoccupied feeding area. Parzefall (1974) concluded that Peoci1ia sphenops reduced its agonistic behavior to tail-beat1ng as a means of insuring successful mating in an aphotic Table I. Repertoire of agonistic acts. A plus (+) indicates the agonistic act was performed by the species, and a minus (-) indicates agonistic acts not performed. C. cornuta C. agassizi A. spelaea T. subterraneus A. rosae Submissive Acts Freeze + + + + Escape + + + + Aggressive Acts Tail-beat + + + + Head-butt + + + + Attack + + + Bite + + + Chase + + + Jaw-lock + + 69

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Accuracy Evaluation of Electromagnetic Locating Charles S. Bishop and Frank S. Reid Frankfort, Kentucky, U.S.A. 40601 Abstract Horizontal positions on the surface and depths to underground points are being obtained using electromagnetic locating equipment. Accuracy of the results obtained has been mostly speculative. Work ~as been conducted to obtain quantitative values for the errors associated with positions and depths obta1ned using this equipment. Sixty determinations were made at Blue Springs Cave, Indiana, and Mamm~th C~v~, Kentucky, determining both horizontal position and depth. These results were then compared w1th s1m1lar results obtained from precise surveys. Surveys were to a precision exceeding 1:5000 but less than 1:10,000 for horizontal position. Elevation differences were based on leveling that exceeded third order accuracy requirements. The accuracy of horizontal positions obtained is directly related to depth. At depths of less than 30 meters, errors in horizontal position of less than 15 cm resulted. At depths of 60 meters, the error in horizontal position averaged 2.1 meters. Depth determinations were consistently less than the actual value. At a depth of 22.5 meters, the determined depth was 97.6% of the actual value, and at 60 meters, 95% of the actual value was obtained. Results of this project indicate that there are limitations to the capabilities of this type of equipment. The values for the errors are directly related to depth and the associated factors of signal strength, null width, and atmospheric noise. With the limiting factors "known, it will be possible to better plan the use of electromagnetic locating equipment to obtain the most accurate results for controlling and checking cave surveys. R/!;sum/!; On obtient des points horizontaux a la surface, et la profondeur des points souterrains, par un /!;quipment de rep/!;rage /!;lectromagn/!;tique. L'exactitude des mesures obtenues avait surtout /!;t/!; conjecturale. On a essay/!; de trouver des valeurs quantitatives pour les erreurs de position et de profondeur dues a cet /!;quipment. On a fait soixante d/!;terminations avec un point horizontal et un point en profondeur a Blue Springs Cave, Indiana et a Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Ensuite on a compar/!; les mesures obtenues avec d'autres mesures obtenues par des relev/!;s pr/!;cis. Ceux-ci /!;taient d'une pr/!;cision d/!;passant 1:5000 mais inf/!;rieure a 1:10,000 pour les points horizontaux. Les diff/!;rences de niveau se basaient sur une d/!;nivellation qui d/!;passait les exigences requires pour une exactitude de troisi/!;me ordre. L'exactitude des points horizontaux obtenus est en fonction directe avec la profondeur. A des profondeurs de moins de 30 m/!;tres, la moyenne d'erreur pour Ie point horizontal etait de 2,1 m/!;tres. Les d/!;terminations de profondeur /!;taient r/!;guli/!;rement inf/!;rieures a la valeur r/!;elle. A une profondeur de 22,5 m/!;tres, la profondeur d/!;termin/!;e /!;tait 97,6 pour cent de la valeur r/!;elle, et a 60 m/!;tres, on a obtenu une a valeur de 95 pour cent de la valeur r/!;elee. Les conclusions de ce travail indiquent qu'il y a des limites aux possibilites de ce genre d'/!;quipement. Les valeurs pour les erreurs sont li/!;es directement a profondeur et aux facteurs associ/!;es a celle-ci, c'est-a-dire, la puissance du signal, la largeur nulle, et les bruits atrnosph/!;riques. Une fois connues les facteurs limites, il sera possible de mieux /!;stablir des plans pour l'emploi de l'/!;quipment /!;lectromagn/!;tique de rep/!;rage afin d'obtenir les mesures les plus exactes en vue de controler et de v/!;rifier les relev/!;s des cavernes. Introduction Horizontal positions on the surface and depths to underground points can be obtained using electromagnetic locating equipment. The accuracy of the results obtained has been mostly speculative in the past, being based on personal experiences and intuitive reasoning. In only a few instances has the accuracy been checked in any manner. A need has existed to determine quantitatively the accuracy of the results obtained using this equipment. To make an evaluation of the results obtained with electromagnetic locating equipment, the exact location, horizontal position and elevation, of the underground point has to be compared to the location of the point determined on the surface. Having bench marks and control surveys of known accuracy, both underground and on the surface, is essential. Without appropriate levels of accuracy, the data obtained would be meaningless. During the fall of 1974, planning and field work were begun to obtain the required data. The site chosen for performing the field work was Mammoth Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. This site provided the unique situation of having numerous surface and underground bench marks which. are well monumented. Thirty-four bench marks were placed in the cave during the 1935-36 survey by H. D. Walker (1). All marks in the Park are of third order traverse and leveling accuracy. Blue Springs Cave in Indiana was also chosen for making determinations. It provided an ideal situation for depths of less than 30 meters, with a minimum of control surveying required. The electromagnetic locating equipment used on this project was constructed by F. S. Reid. It operated at a crystal controlled frequency of 3500 Hz. Both transmitting and receiving coils were 48.3 ern in diameter. Power was supplied to the transmitter by a 12 volt battery. Power output from the transmitter was 10 watts. The receiving unit operated at+ 9 volts and had an operating band width of 3 Hz. Range of the equipment was 400 to 500 meters from the ground zero point. Accuracy of Control Surveys In Mammoth Cawe r the Walker surveys provided the 70 control. They were run using third order transit and tape techniques. Six angles were turned at each station both above and below ground using a 30-second transit. Distances were double-taped and further checked with stadia rod readings. Observations on Polaris were made at surface stations which tied to underground lines. Third order traverse accuracy calls for a closure precision of not less than 1:5000 for the unadjusted traverse data. As a check on survey accuracy, the latitudes and departures were summed for one loop through the cave and over the surface using data from the Walker field books, which are stored in the archives at Mammoth Cave National Park. The resulting value for closure precision was 1:14, 524. Level lines were also run by Walker through the cave to determine elevations for the bench marks. The level lines were run using a Dumpy level and Philadelphia rods or sawed-off New York rods where low ceilings required. These were also run to third-order accuracy. Review of the field books shows no error of elevation" closure greater than 3.1 cm. At Blue Springs Cave, an open traverse was required to provide control both in the cave and on the surface. These traverses were run using a wild T-2, I-second instrument set up. Distances were measured twice using either a 30-meter steel tape under 9 kg pull with slope and temperature corrections being applied, or with a wild 01-10 electronic distance meter. To provide elevation control, temporary bench marks (TBM's) were set in close proximity to the surface and underground points. Three-wire leveling procedures were used to include the TBM's in closed loops. In all cases elevation closures of 1.5 em or less resulted. In order to determine the relative accuracy of horizontal positions obtained, plane coordinates need to be used. At Mammoth Cave the obvious choice was the Kentucky State Plane Coordinate System which is based on the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. During the 1935-36 survey, Walker calculated values for geodetic position to 0.001 second. These values appear in his field books and were used for this project because it was felt that they would more truly represent the relationships between bench marks. Plane coordinates were calculated based on procedures given in the

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71 TABLE 1. HORIZONTAL POSITION DETERMINATIONS Field Procedures and Data Reduction Results for Depth Determination The results for depth determinations are summarized 97.6 95.1 94.B: 92.1 Determ1ned!Actual (%) Depth 22.5 60.4 64.6 90.B Actual Depth (Meters) 19 7 10 17 Depth determinations at an actual depth of 22.5 meters yielded a value which was 97.6% of the actual. At 60.4 meters 95.1% resulted and a correspondingly close value of 94.B% resulted at 64.6 meters. A value for depth of 92.1% of the actual value resulted at the depth of 90.B meters. Conclusions and Recommendations The capabilities and limitations of electromagnetic equipment and procedures were evaluated to somp. extent by this project. Accuracy appears to be directly related to depth. Reasons for this relation can be directly tied to the decrease in signal strength and increasing diameter of the null with increasing distance from the transmitter. These factors limit the capabilities of the equipment. The following general statements with regard to the accuracy of the results can be made: 1. At depth of 30 meters or less, the error in the determined surface position (ground zero) will be less thah 15 cm. Depth determinations will be approximately 97% of the actual depth. 2. At depths of 60 meters, the error in the determined surface position will be approximately 2.1 meters. Depth determinations will be approximately 95% of the actual depth value. For the position determinations made at 91 meters the average error of 9.92 meters appears to be too large considering the average distance difference of 42.4 em. An error in horizontal position of 4 to 5 meters would be more reasonable. The accuracy of depth determination would be greater than the 92% obtained. From the experience obtained on this project the following recommendations regarding electromagnetic locating can be made: 1. When deterrning the position and depth of underground points, multiple determinations should be made. 2. For the multiple determinations a pattern of points should be used. One determination should be directly on the desired point and one or more additional points at known distances and directions from the desired point would constitute a known pattern. 3. How well the pattern of points reproduce on the surface will give an indication of the relative accuracy of the determinations made. These results and recommendations should make it possible to better plan the use of electromagnetic locating equipment for obtaining most accurate results to control and check cave surveys. References Hosley, Robert J., Bench Marks in Mammoth Cave, Ken97~:' Natural SC1ences Resources Stud1es Group, Mixon, William, and Blenz, Richard, "Locating an underground Transmitter by Surface Measurements," The Wind~ City Seeleonews, Vol. IV, No.6, 1964, pp. 47-5. Repr1nted 1n Speleo Digest 1964, McGrew, Wesley, Wesley, and Haarr, Allan P., eds., Speleo Digest Press, Vienna, Va., 1966, p. 3-1. TABLE 2. DEPTH DETERMINATIONS Number of Deterl'\inations in Table 2. Each determination consisted of 10 or more field inclination measurements taken at various distances from ground zero. For all the determinations made the determined depth was consistently less than actual. Reviewing the data of Table 2, it can be seen that a nearly linear relationship exists between the percentage of actual depth determined and actual depth. With increasing depth, the error in determined depth increases approximately linearly. Applying theories of error propagation to the formula for depth determination, we found that the error in the determined depth was directly related to the error in the ground zero position. were 91 of -1.5 17.4 17.5 42.2 D1stance Difference (CM) RANDOM N 80¡ E N 45¡ W N 15¡ E D1rect10n 0.09 2.68 2.08 9.92 Average Error (Meters) 22.5 60.4 64.6 90.B Depth (Meters) 19 7 10 20 NUiiiber of Determinations (2) d = (3+9+BTan 2 S) 4TanS Equation .2 was used to determine the depth of the transmitter. Readings of S were taken at several 1 distances and the equation solved for all values, after which an average was taken. Horizontal position and depth determinations made at four depths, those being: 23, 61, 65 and meters. Twenty determinations were made for each the three depth ranges. This allowed statistical evaluations to be made. At the 22.5 meters depth, the average error in horizontal position was 8.B em, the direction of the errors was random, and the relative positions of the points in the cave reproduced almost exactly on the surface as indicated by the distance difference. At a depth of 60.4 meters the average error in position was 2.6B meters and at a depth of 64.6 meters the average error was 2.0B meters. The errors which resulted were in a consistent direction and had distance differences of 17.5 em. For the 90.B meters depth, the average error in horizontal position was 9.92 meters, the direction of the error was consistently in one direction, and the distance difference was 42.4 em. Of the 60 position determinations, 4 had such large errors in position that they were excluded from the averages. Results for Horizontal position The results for horizontal position determinations are summarized in Table 1. Errors in position were calculated from the differences in plane coordinates for the transmitter and the determined ground zero point. All values given in Table 1 are average values for all determinations at that depth. The direction is the bearing of the error taken from the underground transmitter point to the surface point. Distance difference is the difference between the distances between transmitter points and the distances between ground zero points. Distance differences can be considered to be a measure of how well the pattern of points in the cave reproduced on the surface. The field procedures and measurements to make location and depth determinations using the electromagnetic equipment followed very closely those described by Mixon and Blenz (1964) (2). Horizontal position (ground zero point) was found using a systematic search routine and depth was determined by multiple measurements of magnetic field inclination at various distances from ground zero. On completion of the needed measurements with the electromagnetic equipment, the actual position and elevation of ground zero was obtained. The position of ground zero waS determined by on~ of two methods: turn angle and distance, or trilateration, which involved measuring the distance from two-TMB's. All distances were obtained using horizontal taping procedures. To establish:the elevation of the ground zero point, differential leveling procedures were used to tie to a TBM or bench mark. Similar procedures were used underground to determine the horizontal position and elevation of the transmitter. Calculations for depth determination were made based on the equations from Mixon and Blenx (1964) (2) given below. The inclination of the magnetic field is described by Equation '1 below, where d = depth, 1 = distance from ground zero, and a = angle of magnetic lines of force from vertical. Solving this equation for depth using the quadratic formula yields Equation '2 below. (1) S = Tan _I 31d 2d z -.e! u.s. Cost and Geodetic Survey publication G-115, Plane Coordinate Projection Tables in Kentucky. At Blue Spr1ngs Cave 1n Indiana-an arb1trary coordinate system was used.

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Comparisons of Acute Toxicity for Cd, Cr, and Cu Between Two Distinct populations of Aquatic Hypogean Isopods (Caecidatea ~.) Arthur D. Bosnak and Eric L. Morgan Department of Biology, Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38501 U.S.A. Abstract It has been documented that heavy metal pollution is occurring throughout the ~ubterranean karst ~rainages of the United States. Little attention has been given to the toxicological eval~at10n of wa~tes enter1ng th~ aquatic hypogean ecological system. To provide insight into these concerns, stud1es were des1gn~d to evaluat10n the lethality of selected heavy metals imposed on two distinct populations of aquatic hypogean 1sopods. In the late summer and fall of 1980, isopods of the genus Caecidatea were collecte~ and tested under laboratory conditions to establish acute ~50 values for cadmium, chromium, and copper 1n flo~-t~rough aquatic toxicological assays. Caecidatea!E£. employed in these_studies were taken from two d1st1nct stream habitats: Merrybranch Cave wh1te County Tennessee and Caney Branch Cave, Clinton County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Resulting acute LC SO v~lues and thei; 95% confidence intervals for each toxicant were derived by logprobit analyses and are discussed in light of species specific responses. Rl!suml! La pollution par ml!taux lourds des bassins karstiques souterrains de drainage ~ travers les Etats-Unis a l!tl! documentl!e. Jusqu'ici peu d'attention a l!tl! consacrl!e ~ l'l!valuation de l'effet de ces l!ll!ments toxiques sur les organismes hypogl!s. Dans le but d'l!claircir cette question, nous avons con~u des l!tudes qui essaient la sensibilitl! des organismes hypogl!s ~ certaines substances toxiques; Pendant la fin d'l!tl! et l'automne de 1980, nous avons rl!unis et soumis ~ des essais de laboratoire des isopodes du genre Caecidatea afin d'l!stablir les valeurs LeSO (concentration mortelle pour 50% des individua) ~ court terme pour le Cd, le Cr et le Cu dans des essais toxicologiques en courrant d'eau. Les Caecidatea !E. utilisl!s dans ces l!tudes ont l!tl! pris dans la grotte Merry Branch Cave, White County, Tennessee, et dans la grotte Carney Branch Cave, Clinton County, Kentucky, U.S.A. Les valeurs de la LCSO qui en rl!sultent et leurs intervalles de fiabilitl! ~ 95% pour chaque l!leml!nt toxique ont l!tl! dl!terminl!es par des analyses logarithmiques-probabilistes. Ces valeurs sont discutl!es ~ la lumil!re des rl!sponses spl!cifiques ~ l'espl!ce. Introduction Although not as dramatic and apparent as surface water pollution, degradation of the quality of subsurface waters in karst aquifers has become widespread (Bransletter 1974; Smithson 1975; Barr 1976; Quinlan and Rowe 1977). Studies show that man-induced stresses introduced as toxic heavy metals and organic substances may bring about impositions which alter the community of aquatic organisms (Cairns 1977). A paucity of literature exist on the fate of heavy metal pollutants in waters which flow through subterranean karst drainages and the subsequent impositions on hypogean benthic macroinvertebrates communities. In meeting the objective of this investigation, studies were designed using aquatic toxicological assay methods to establish acute LCSO values (a toxicant concentration estimated to result in 50% mortality of members of a population within a specified period of time) for Cd, Cr, and Cu subjected to two distinct populations of troglobitic isopods (Caecidotea bicrenata and Caecidotea stygia) Materials and Methods Troglobitic isopods (C. bicrenata) were collected from Merrybranch Cave, White County, Tennessee, and (C. stygia) were taken from Caney Branch Cave, Clinton County, Kentucky, U.S.A., by removing rocks from the water, washing the isopods and small amounts of food material into a S-L plastic containers, and covering containers with black plastic for transport to the laboratory. Isopods were acclimated in the laboratory to 13tlOC and to small additions of dilution water (dechlorinated city tap water) for at least 4 days before exposure to experimental treatments. Routine physical/ chemical water quality characteristics for the dilution water are reflected in analyses done on control treatments (Table l). Procedures for acute toxicological testing were taken from U.S. EPA (1975) and Sprague (1973). All tests were carried out in the fall and winter of 1980. A vacuum siphon proportional diluter was used to administer toxic treatments and was based upon modified design and construction materials suggested by Mount and Brungs (1967). The diluter was designed to generate a range of treatment solut10ns over which the mortality response of the isopods was evaluated, i.e., by delivering in replicates five different toxicant concentrations plus a control to 20-L glass aquaria with slate bottoms at 10 min. intervals. Ten isopods were positioned at random in each aquarium giving a total of 20 organisms per. treatment. PhotoperiOd was total darkness except for d1r~ct fluorescent lighting during placement, morta11ty checks, and collecting of water samples. Once tests were initiated, observed mortality for eac~ organism was. determined by probing the organisms w1th a small pa1nt brush to note lack of movement. The following parameters were measured at the start and termination of each test: temperature (OC) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) values, YSI Oxygen Meter (model SlA); pH, Orion Specific Ion Meter (model 407A); conductivity (~MHOS/cm), YSI S-C-T Meter (model 33); 72 and total alkalinity and hardness (as CaC0 3 ) measured by titrametric analysis (American Public Health Association 14th ed. 1975). Water samples for heavy metal detection were taken at the beginning and every 24-hr. interval thereafter for each test. Heavy metal water samples were acidified with concentrated HN0 3 and analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin-Elmer 372) Regent-grade chemicals were used for all toxicity tests. They were: cadmium chloride (CdC12.2~H20), potassium dichromate (K Cr 0 ), and cupric chforide (CuC1 2 ). Concentrated oxtc~nt solutions of each chemical compound were premixed in SO-ml of concentrated nitric acid and brought to volume in an 18-L Mariotte bottle with dilution water. The Mariotte bottle containing the concentrated toxicant solution was then connected to the toxicant metering system of the dilutor. Results were statistically evaluated by the method provided by Litchfield and wilcoxon (1949) using log-probit transformation for dose-effect mortrality curves. Results and Discussion An aquatic toxicity study typically identifies the lethal effect of a chemical or toxicant on selected species in a specified time period. In the laboratory this will provide a LCSO value for that toxicant under known water quality conditions. Changes in a single water quality parameter (i.e. temperature, pH) may alter the toxic effect. Resulting LC SO values thus found are then multiplied by an "application factor" (A.F.) for that waste to estimate a "safe" concentration believed to have no biological consequence for the species (maximum acceptable toxicant concentration). Application factors for a particular toxicant may be derived by long term life history studies or selected on the bases of best scientific judgement, i.e. 0.01 (Table 2). Wastewaters flowing into subterranean drainages may exhibit multivariate impositions to stream communities. The toxic potential of substances entering these drainages may not only be regulated by existing water quality characteristics but influenced by associated wastes relationship~h Additionally, interplay between numerous biologica~ functions are key factors in regulating the intoxication-detoxication mechanisms important to the Success of the aquatic organism, i.e. behavioral, morphological, physiologial. Water quality criteria established for known toxicants are based upon the st~~s of epigean aquatic organisms and do not take i~to account the unique environment of hypogean ecological systems. Since surface water drainages contribute in large part to the subsurface contamination, comparative aquatic toxicological efforts are crucially needed to assure that the permisable levels of tox1cants allowed will be sufficiently low to maintain the biological integrity of simplified hypogean communities. Cadmium Toxicity Tests Lethal cadmium values have been reported for 10 freshwater invertebrate species from 8 families. Acute lethal sensitivities range from 0.0035 mg Cd/l for the

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I Cladoceran, Slmocephalus serrulatus to 28.0 for the Mayfly, Eehemerella grand1s grand1s. However, insects and other 1nvertebrates are more sensitive during molding, which usually does not occur among most individuals during tests lasting 96 hr. or less (U.S. EPA 1980a). Criteria established by U.S. EPA (19&Oa) provide concentration limits of total recoverable cach'lium that should not exceed O.OOlS, 0.0030, and 0.0063 mg Cd/l at the corr.esponding hardnesses SO, 100, 200 at any time or 0.00002S for a 24-h average. After 96-h exposu:e, ~. stygia were found to be more sensitive to cadm1um treatments than C. bicrenata, revealing LCSO's of 0.29 (0.20 to 0.41) and 1.20 (0.S7 to 2.S0) mg Cd/l, respectively. By taking the recommended 24-h average value of 0.00002S, we may derive an A.F. of 0.0001, which is considerably lower than the typical value used several years ago and may imply increased tolerance of these organisms over the estimated mean epigean community tolerance. Therefore, should a potential waste discharger wish to acquire a variance to release greater amounts of Cd into the aquatic ecosystem, he must first prove that higher levels have no biological consequence via accepted long-term studies before permitted consideration for a larger A.F. possible causes of the fourfold increase in Cd tolerance of C. bicrenata over ~. stygia have been discussed elsewhere by Bosnak and Morgan (1981, in press) and appears to be related to high ambient levels of Cd in the stream water of Merrybranch Cave. Hexavalent Chromium Toxicity Test Acute values for lethal concentrations have been reported for six freshwater invertebrate species from five families. Toxic levels range from 0.067 mg Cr/l for the scud, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus to a high concentration of approx1mately 60 for a midge larvae. Invertebrate species are generally more sensitive to hexavalent chromium than fish species (U.S. EPA 1980b). Recommended criterion set by U.S. EPA (1980b) establish a concentration of total recoverable hexavalent chromium that should not exceed a maximum at any time of 0.021 mg Cr/l or a 24-h average of 0.00029. ~. st?gia had SO% mortality at 2.4 (1.7 to 3.8) mg Cr 1 1n the 96-h toxicity test. Based on our 96-h LCSO' a calculated A.F. of 0.0001 would be necessary to yield the 24-h average concentration of 0.00029 mg Cr/l. Thus, a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the generally employed A.F. of 0.01 could be projected in meeting the new criterion recommended by Y.S. EPA (1980b). Copper Toxicity Tests Acutely lethal concentrations of copper have been reported for 10 freshwater invertebrate species from 7 families. These acute values range from 0.007 mg Cull for the water flea, Daphnis pulicaria to 8.3 for the Stonefly, Acroneuria IBcorlas (U.S. EPA 1980c). Criteria recommended y U.S. EPA (1980c) establish concentrations of total recoverab copper that should not exceed 0.012, 0.022, and 0.043 mg Cull at the corresponding hardnesses (mg/l as Ca C0 3 ) SO, 100, and 200 at any time or not to exceed an average 24-h level of 0.00S6. In our 96-h tests, SO% mortality was observed in C. bicrenata at 2.2 (l.S to 3.S) mg Cull and~. S~yg1i s1m11arly responded to 2.3 (1.4 to 3.4). T e sightly lower value obtained for C. bicrenata may have been influenced by a shift Tn the pH from 7.6 in the control to S.8 in the maximum copper treatment. When considering the theoretically safe short-term concentration of 0.022 mg Cull at hardness of 100 mg/l as Ca CO and then multiplying our LCSO'S by the 0.01 A.~., we calculate concentrations that meet the EPA recommended maximum instantaneous levels. A factor of approximately 1/400 (0.0026) would be needed to achieve the EPA 24-h average value of 0.00S6 (Tables 1 and 2). 73 Conclusion Theoretically safe toxic concentrations believed to have no biological consequence to epigean aquatic ecosystems under representative water quality conditions are being recommended by U.S. EPA. Considering these guidelines in light of heavy metal LeSO values obtained for two species of hypogean isopods, we find that application factors ranging from approximately 0.01 to 0.0001 would be derived in meeting recommended epigean criteria. Transformations of this magnitude mayor may not prove adequate in establishing acceptable concentrations of heavy metals subjected to aquatic hypogean communities. We must emphasize that these results should be viewed with considerable caution since assumed rather than actual A.F.'s were used in calculating "safe" levels. Before making sound judgements in this regard, long-term reproduction and growth studies need to be performed over several generations in order to establish observed "safe" concentrations from which actual A.F. values may be derived. Acknowledgment Appreciation is extended to Dr. Jerry Lewis of University of Louisville for the identifications of the two troglobitic isopods species and for additional help and advice in sexing isopods. References American Public Health Association. 1975. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 874 pp. Barr, T. C., Jr. 1976. Ecological effects of water pollutants in Mammouth Cave. Final Technical Report to the National Park Service. Contract No. CXSOOOS0204. Bosnak, A. D., E. D. Morgan. 1981. Acute toxicity of cadmium, zinc, and total residual chlorine to epigean and hypogean isopods (Asellidae). NSS Bulletin, in press. Branstett~r, J. A. 1974. Groundwater pollution as related to sewage disposal and water supply in a limestone terrane, Horse Cave, Kentucky. Independent Research Report. University of Kentucky. 4Spp. Cairns, J., Jr. 1977. Quantification of biological integrity, in U.S. EPA. The integrity of water. Proceedings of a symposium, March 10-12, 1975, Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 171-187. Litchfield, J. T., and F. Wilcoxon. 1949. A simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments. J. Pharm. and Exper. Thera. 96:99-113. Mount, D. I., and R. E. Warner. 1965. A serial-dilution apparatus for continuous delivery of various concentrations of material in water. Public Health Service Publ. No. 999-WP-23. 1-16. Quinlan, J. F., and D. R. Rowe. 1977. Hydrology and water quality in the central Kentucky Karst: phase I. Research Report no. 101. University of Kentucky, Lexington. 1-94 pp. Smithson, K. 1975. Some effects of sewage effluent on the ecology of a stream ecosystem. M.S. Thesis. Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee. Sprague, J. B. 1973. The ABC's of pollutant bioassay using fish. Pages 6-30 in Cairns, J., Jr., and K. L. Dickson. Biological methods for the assessment of water quality. ASTM, Philadelphia, pennsylvania. U.S. EPA. 1973. Methods for acute toxicity with fish, macroinvertcbrates, and amphibians. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/3-7S-009, Corvallis, Oregon. 1980a. Ambient water quality criteria for cadmium. -----u.s. Environmental Protection Agency,-EPA-440/5-80-02S Washington, D.C. 1980b. Ambient water quality criteria for chromium. -----U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-440/5-80035, Washington, D.C. _____ 1980c: Ambient water quality criteria for copper. U.S. Env1ronmental Protection Agency, EPA-440/5-BO036, Washington, D.C.

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Table 1. Mean physical/chemical water quality values for the control and the various toxic treatDents in 96-hr. toxicological tests with Caecidotea bicrenata and Caecidotea ~, 1960 Caecldotea stygia Caecldotea blcrenata Parameters C 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 2 3 4 5 Alkalinity (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) 58 57 54 53 55 55 66 66 55 66 66 66 pH Conductivity (\lMHOS/em) Hardness (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) C A D Dissolved Oxygen M (mg/l) I u M 130 8.0 68 7.6 131 7.9 68 7.5 131 8.0 70 7.5 131 7.9 70 7.5 131 7.9 72 7.4 132 7.9 73 7.5 130 8.3 78 7.3 139 8.2 78 7.3 139 8.2 82 7.2 139 8.2 84 7.2 140 8.2 86 7.2 141 8.1 88 7.2 Toxicant (mg Cd/l) N.D. 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.3 N.D. 0.3 1.0 1.6 2.2 3.5 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) Hardness (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) I 22 180 40 155 48 145 54 140 56 136 72 130 42 81 158 154 86 7.1 7.6 6.9 81 85 48 3.9 148 7.1 151 7.7 86 81 50 2.9 140 7.8 150 7.1 81 62 7.7 86 7.2 138 147 1.8 63 81 86 7.7 145 132 1.0 7.2 63 92 81 130 7.3 7.8 140 N.D. Alkalinity (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) conductivity (\lMllos/em) Toxicant (mg Crill Alkalinity (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) Conductivity (\lMllos/em) C H R o M I U M pH pH Hardness (mg/l as CaC0 3 ) C Dissolved Oxygen o (mg/l) P P E R 8.1 72 7.3 8.1 72 7.2 8.1 70 7.0 8.0 70 6.9 8.1 68 6.7 8.0 68 6.6 8.2 84 7.6 8.1 84 7.0 8.1 82 6.7 8.1 82 6.4 8.0 82 6.3 8.0 80 5.8 Toxicant (mg Cu/l) N.D. N.D No detection C 0.85 1.40 Control. 2.20 3.20 5.00 0.03 0.85 2.50 3.10 4.40 6.30 Table 2 Estimated 96-h LC 50 and "safe" concentration values with 95% C.l. and EPA criteria (mg/l) for Cd, Cr, and Cu for Caecidotia bicrenata and Caecidotea stygia, 1980 Treatments 96-h LC 50 values (mq/l) Typical Application factors (0.01 x LC 50) EPA Criterion (mq/l) Cadmium f. bicrenata C. stygia Chromium 1.20(0.57 to 2.50) 0.29(0.20 to 0.41) 0.0120(0.0057 to 0.0250) 0.0029(0.0020 to 0.0041) 0.0030* 0.000025** 2.4 (1. 7 to 3.8) 0.024(0.017 to 0.038) 0.021 0.00029 Copper f. bicrenata C. styqia 2.2(1.4 to 3.5) 2.3(1.5 to 3.4) 0.022(0.014 to 0.035) 0.023(0.015 to 0.034) 0.022 0.0056 *Maximum instantaneous concentration at hardness of 100 mg/l as CaCo 3 **24-h average concentration 74

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I Speleogensis Models for the Mammoth Cave Region, and Their Use As Predictive Tools for Southern Toohey River, Hart and Barren Counties, Kentucky James C. Currens Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, 311 Breckinridge Hall, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 Abstract Several speleogenesis models for the Mammoth Cave region, or which are applicable to the region, have been proposed in the English literature. These models were reviewed and compared for compatibility with recen cave discoveries in the norther half of Toohey Ridge, a significant geographic feature in the region. The models which seemed to best explain the trend and location of major passages in northern Toohey Ridge are used to snythesize predictions of major passsage locations and trends in southern Toohey Ridge. It is hypothesized that a series of vertically separated tubular passages, developed at base level, cross southern Toohey Ridge from east to west. The trends of these passages would be controlled by a local structural high and the regional hydologic gradient. Their location would be controlled by the presence of a topographic low crossing the ridge. Ground water from part of the west flank of Toohey Ridge and parts of Roppel Cave drained south to this base level passage in a series of tubular passages. Water from the eastern flank of the ridge and Monroe Sink drained north to the base level passage in a complex series of canyons. Zusammenfassung In der englischen Literatur sind mehrere Modelle fUr die Bildung der Hohlen in der Gegend von Mammoth Cave, wie auch andere Modelle die far dieses Gebiet angewendet werden konnen, hervorgesetzt worden. Diese Modelle wurden Uberschaut and mit neugefundenen H-hlen in der nordlichen Halfte von Toohey Ridge verglichen. Toohey Ridge ist ein geographich bedeutender Grundzug in selben Gebiet wie Mammoth Cave. Die besten Modelle fUr die Vorhersagung der Lage und Richtung der grossen DurchflUssen im nordlichem Toohey Ridge wurden dann gebraucht um die Lage und Richtung von grossen DurchflUssen in sUdlichem Toohey Ridge vorherzusagen. Es wird vorausgesetzt dass das sUdliche Toohey Ridge von ostlich auf westlich von einer Serie von senkrecht getrennten rohrenatigen DurchflUssen von verschiedenen Denudationsniveaus geschnitten worden ist. Die Richtungen der DurchflUssen wurden von einem ortlichem Hohepunkt der Struktur, und von der hydologischem Neigung des Gebietes.kontrolliert. Die Lag~ wurde von einem topographischem Tietfgebiet dass den Hohenzug scheidet kontrolliert. Grundwasser von Teils der westlichen Seite von Toohey Ridge und von Teilen von Roppel Cave. floss sUdlich in diesen Durchfluss des Denudationsniveau, in einer Serie von rohrenartigen DurchflUssen hinein. Wasser von der ostlichen Seite von Monroe Sink, floss nordlich in den Durchfluss des Denudationsniveau in einer komplizierten Serie von Canonen hinein. Geologic Setting Toohey Ridge is one of several flat-crested ridges in the Mammoth Cave Plateau. The Plateau is bounded on the east by the Chester Cuesta and to the west by Green River. A thick (100-140m) sequence of relatively pure carbonates dips gently to the northwest and is roughly concordant with local hydrologic gradient (Figure 2). The ridge is capped by up to 40 meters of Mississippian Upper Chester clastics and carbonates. Toohey River lies on the eastern edge of the Plateau and forms about 2 miles of the Chester Cuesta. The ridge is approximatley equal in area to Mammoth Cave Ridge. Knowledge of past and present sursurface drainage basins is a significant factor in applying the speleogenesis modesl for the Mammoth Cave region. Dye tracing indicates that the present drainage divide between Pike Spring drainage and Echo-Turnhold Springs drainage crosses Toohey Ridge about 200 meters north of the Barren-Hart County boundary, and rougly parralels it (Quinlan, personal communication, 1980; Quinlan and Rowe, 1977). White and Deike (1964) confirmed that "drainage in Mammoth Cave has been consistently to to west and that of Flint Ridge Sy3tem has been to the north" (p. 86). Preliminary paleohydrology in Roppel Cave indicates southern migration of the divide in passages at 600 feet elevation (185 meters). Dieke (1967) theorized resurgence sites developed progressively along the Green River in a downstream direction as entrenchment increased. The shift in the sites available for the development of springs, alld their increased number, had a profound effect on the size and sequence of development of the underground drainage routes. Speleogenesis Models Davies (1960) noted a strong relationship between passage location and the flanks of ridges and plateaus. The formation of passages parallel to surface valleys was ascribed to the inclination of the piezometric surface towards major surface valleys (i.e., regional base level). Hence, the greatest concentration of subsurface flow tended to parallel the smaller valleys. Deike studied the relationship between joining and passage trends in the Mammoth Cave Region (Deike, 1967). Most passage orientations were apparently controlled by "vagaries of the bedding" and not jointing. On the otr-er hand, Cushman (1968) held that jointing had a profound effect on the control of passage trends. "The orientation of the caverns, such as a Mammoth Cave and the estimated paths of subsurface drainage coincides roughly with the joint pattern in the rocks in the area, trending northwest and northeast" (p. 246). Deike also 75 noted these joint trends, but demonstrated that jointing was not a regional factor in controlling passage trends. John Thrailkill (1968) published a model which held that in areas where impermeable rocks capped ridges of karstic rocks, depressions occurred in the piezometric surface beneath the capped ridge. Ground water would tend to move toward these depressions, resulting in a concentration of flow and passage development under the ridge crest. In a summary of their investigation of the relaionship between the passages of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System and surrounding topography, Miotke and Palmer (1972) discuss several factors governing the location and trend of major passages. They restate Davies' observation that "the large upper-level passages such as Salts Cave and similar trunk passages in Mammoth Cave are apparently related to preglacial valleys." They also observed that "the few passages that do cross under the undissected parts of the ridge are generally isolated trunk passages with angular trends that alternate between strike and dip orientation" (p. 10). Palmer (1977) states that "canyons were found almost invariably to extend directly down the local dip," while tubular passages were "most commonly oriented along the local strike" (p. 409). Both canyons and tubes initiate development on top of less soIuable units at the bedding plane parting. Flow routes, active at any given time, are roughly dendritic. The complexity of the cave systems derives from the superposition of the dedritic systems with time and the development from the interconnecting complex of piracy routes. In his dissertation on the hydrology of the "coves" of eastern Tennessee Crawford (1978) noted that during the retreat of an escarpment, similar to that of the Mammoth Cave region, breaching of the caprock overlying the karstic rocks may occur back of the retreating escarpment front. This may happen "where there is a structured high (such as a slight anticline), in back of the retreating escarpment." Then the caprock will be eroded away and the underlying limestone invaded by the stream. This author believes similar processes occur in the Mammoth Cave region. This author believes similar processes occur in the Mammoth Cave region. Monroe Sink, near the southern end of Toohey Ridge, is one possible example. The breaching of the caprock at Monroe Sink may have played an important role in the development of passages in southern Toohey Ridge and must be taken into account in any predictive scheme. The genesis of Monroe Sink is beyond the scope of this paper but three observations may be made from geologic and topographic maps: (1) it is centered on the axis of a locally significant anticline, (2) its size indicates it probably began developing early in the erosive

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history of the surface valleys in its vicinity, and (3) it probably resulted from the headward migration of a surface stream flowing to the south. Models Relevant to Northern Toohey Ridge Passages in norther Toohey Ridge are located along ridge flanks. The norther end of the ridge is dissected into four prominent spurs, and much of the cave can be found under the flanks of these spurs. The models of Davies (1960) and Miotke and Palmer (1972) both note the tendency of passages to locate along ridge flanks. Besides following the ridge flanks, several major passages in Roppel Cave underlie a shallow linear depression crossing northern Toohey Ridge from the southeast to the northwest. This depression may be a "preglacial valley" (terminology of Miotke and Plamer, 1972). Miotke and Palmer note that major passages crossing ridges are frequently beneath preglacial valleys. In northern Toohey Ridge exceptions seem to be limited to passayes crossing surface divides between closely approaching valleys. Comparison of the map of the Toohey Ridge Cave system and a structure map for the area on the base of the Big Clifty Sandstone (Haynes, 1964) suggests that local passage orientation is generally controlled by structure. However, detailed structure maps of Toohey Ridge have not been prepared for any horizon below the Big Clifty, and only rudimentary relationships can be recognized. Portions of two phreatic, tubular trunks in Rappel Cave are strike are strike oriented and a third tubular crawlway is also strike oriented. Reaches of these passages aligned wi~h the dip grade into more canyon-like cross sections. Canyon passages in Roppel Cave tend to be normal to the strike, and paleoflow is down dip. The relationships conform to those observed by Miotke and Palmer (1972) and Palmer (1977) in the Flint-Mammoth system. Unfortunately, subsurface explorations in Toohey Ridge have not yet revealed a situation comparable to Crawford's area of study in Tennessee. There is no basis, then, for accepting or rejecting the suitability of his model for Toohey Ridge. However, the probability that water has been draining to the subsurface in Monroe Sink for a long time, and its situation on a structural high, lend credence to applying the model. In summary, passages in Toohey Ridge tend to be located along ridge flanks or other areas where cover is relatively less than surrounding areas such as preglacial valleys and valley head conjunctions. Their trend tends to be controlled by the local hydraulic gradient, the trends of the valleys, and local sturcture. Areas where the caprock was breached early provided points of infiltration where speleogenesis may be relatively more concentrated. Hypothesized Speleogenesis in Southern Toohey Ridge A glance at a topographic map of Toohey Ridge quickly reveals that, in comparison to the norther half, the southern part is relatively compact and undissected by karst valleys. Also, there are few obvious linear topographic lows suggestive of shallow preglacial valleys crossing this part of the ridge. However, there is one impressive topographic feature at the south end of the ridge, Monroe Sink. Early speleogenesis in Toohey Ridge was primarily influenced by the youthful karst topoyraphy and the local structure of the region (Figure 3a). Although they are obscure, one or possibly two preglacial valleys do cross the southern part of the ridge (Figure 2). The most distinctive valley, and the one most likely to have influenced early cavern development extends from the vicinity of Renick Cove, westward to the cemetery (Figure 1). Also, high-level caverns are likely to have developed south of Monroe Sink, in alignment with the valley to the south. Due to the overriding effects of topography and hydrology, structure had relatively less control of the passags trends but did determine the cross section (i.e, canyon vs. tube). The development of Indian Cave was also early in the karst development of Toohey Ridge. Its alignment with the strike, hydraulic gradient, and a series of sinks, possibly derived from a preglacial valley, portend major segments in its vicinity. During the middle stages of karst development, the developing karst valleys surrounding Toohey Ridge began to have a profound influence on its caverns. The 76 retreating Chester Cuesta to the east provided a high volume of ground water flow to the west. The developing Hamilton Valley to the west created ridge flanks for cavern development and additional recharge area. Although regional hydrologic gradient was more to the north, a de'"eloping master conduit from the east created a local base level attracting the flow to the south. The base level, tubular conduit from the east took advantage of the shallow preglacial depression mentioned earlier and followed closely the contours of the structural high repsonbile for Monroe Sink (Figure 3b). The originally southernly flow from Monroe Sink was increasingly pirated to the master conduit flowing just north of it. The downdip orientation of this flow probably produced canyon passages. Speleogenesis in the vicinity of Indian Cave may also have continued during this period. Trend and location of the conduit would be similar to the known cave, but at a lower level than the earlier conduit. The late stage of development is a continuation of the middle phase (Figure 3c). Most of the flow in the northern half of Toohey Ridge has been diverted to the north, primarily to Pike Spring (Quinlan, personal communication, 1980). The base level tubular conduit coming in from the east shifted downdip, to the north, following lowering of base level. Most drainage from the eastern flank of Toohey ridge and Monroe Sink flows downdip to this passage. The steep dip off the flanks of the structural high at Monroe Sink overcomes the thick cover. Some flow from Monroe Sink may flow downdip to the southwest. While this paper was in preparation, a major base level trunk (Logsdon River) was discovered by Don Coons and the Cave Research Foundation in Morrisons and Proctor Caves. Although as of this writing no information has been released on its exact location, reliable hearsay indicates it to be very close to the predicted location. Recent explorations in Toohey Ridge have also revealed a major base level trunk, again aligned with the postulated location and trending towards Logsdon River. The passage is blocked by permanent siphons. Dye tracings work supported by Quinlan indicates Turnhold Spring is the outlet of this water. The prediction of the location of this base level trunk was fixed prior to both of these discoveries. In summary, it is postulated that southern Toohey Ridge has been crossed from east to west by a series of base level tubular pass~les. The location of these passages ha been locally controlled by topography and structure. The base level trunks provided outlets for draina'le from Monroe Sink and the western and eastern flanks of the ridge, and parts of Rappel Cave. References ---_._-Borden, J.D., Currence, J.C., Walter, W.G., and Crecelius, D.W., 1980, Toohey Ridge Cave System: National Speleological Society News, v, 38, no. 4, p. 79-99. Crawford, N.C., 1978, Subterranean stream invasion, conduit cavern development and slope retreat: A surface-susurface erosion model for areas of carbonate rock overlain by less soluable and less permeable caprock: Clark University, Ph.D. dissertation, 415 p. Cushman, R.V., 1968, Recent developments in hydrogeologic investigations in the karst area of central Kentuck: International Association of Hydrogeologists Memoir 8, p. 236-248. Davies, W.E., 1960, Origin of caves in folded limestone, in Moore, G.W., ed~, Origin of limestone caves, a symposium with discussion: National Speleological Society Bulletin, no. 22, pt. I, p. 5-18. Deike, G.H., III, 1967, The development of caverns of the Mammoth Cave region: Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D. Dissertation, 234 p. Haynes, D.D., 1964, Geology of the Mammoth Cave quadrangle, Kentucky: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-351. Miotke, F.D., and Palmer, A.N., 1972, Genetic relationship between cave and landforms in the Mammoth Cave National Park area: Hannover, West Germany, privately pub., 69 p. Palmer, A.N., 1977, Influence of geologic structure on groundwater flow and cave development in Mammoth Cave National Park, U.S.A., in Karst Hydrogeology: Huntsville, Alabama Geological Survey, International Association of Hydrogeologists, 12th Congress, Memoir 12, p. 405-414. Quinlan, J.F., Rowe, D.R., 1977, Hydrology and water quality in the Central Kentuck Karst: Phase 1: Lexington, University of Kentucky, Water Resources Research Institute Research Report 101, 93 p. Thrailkill, John, 1968, Chemical and hydrologic factors in the excavation of limestone caves: Geological I

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Society of America Bulletin, v, 79, p. 19-46. White, W.B., and Deike, G.H., III, 1964, Preliminary results of the paleohydrology of Mammoth Cave and the Flint Ridge Cav~ System (abs.): National Speleological Society Bulletin, v. 26, p. 86. Figure 1. Topograph~map of Toohey Ridge and parts of Eudora and Gisher Ridges showing passages in Indiana. Renick. and Roppel Caves. 77

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3b: Middle Figure 3. Hypothesized trends and I locations of major passages in southern Toohey Ridge. Development is illustrated at three arbitrary stages depicting youthful karst development (early), currently active development (late), and an intermediate development (middle). The intermedicate period is approximately the same age as passages at 185 meters elevation in Rappel Cave. Mainly canyon passages Mainly tubular passaoes 3a: Early 3c: Late Figure 2. Simplified geologic map of Toohey Ringe and Vicinity. Structure ~ontours are solid where transcribed from the Mammoth Cave geologic quadrangle map and dashed where constructed from published geologic maps .. The dotted lines delineate topograph1c lows which may be vestiges of preglacial valleys.

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The Incidence of Iron Bacteria in an Australian Cave H. Jane Dyson and Julia M. James School of Chemistry, University of N.S.W., Kensington, N.S.W. 2033, Australia and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia Abstract Colonies of iron bacteria can be observed in many surface streams in Australia, preferring shallow semi-stagnant conditions. Such a colony can be observed intermittently in the pool at the bottom of Odyssey Cave, Bungonia, N.S.W. These bacteria appear to thrive under conditions different from those generally accepted for similar iron bacteria which live in surface waters. The colony in the cave is particularly convenient for study, as this cave is the subject of an extended research project on the composition of its atmosphere and waters. Studies to determine the conditions under which the colony flourishes, and what physical and chemical components are necessary in the cave to allow the growth of the colony will be discussed. Rl!suml! Des colonies de bactl!ries de fer peuvent etre observl!es dans un grand nombre de ruisseaux de surface en Australie, les conditions semi-stagnantes et peu profondes de ces ruisseaux l!tant celles prl!ferl!es par ces bactl!ries. Une telle colonie peut l!tre observl!e par intermittence dans une mare situl!e au fond d'Odyssey Cave, Bungonia, N.S.W. Ces bactl!ries semblent se dl!velopper vigoureusement dans des conditions diffl!rentes de celles gl!nl!ralement acceptl!es pour de semblables bactl!ries de fer qui vivent dans les eaux en plein air. 11 est particuli~rement convl!nient d'l!tudier la colonie de cette caverne parce que la composition de son atmosph~re et de ses eaux a l!tl! le sujet d'un projet de recherche pendant plusieurs annl!es. Nous allons dl!crire ici des l!tudes dont le but est de dl!terminer les conditions sous lesquelles la colonie fleurit et quelles sont les facteurs chimiques et physiques nl!cessaire ~ sa croissance dans la dite caverne. Results and Discussion Measurements of total dissolved iron for three caves and the spring associated with them are shown in Table 1. Locations of these sites are shown in Figure 2. aquated Fe 2 +, complexed Fe 2 + in solution, colloidal ferric oxides and Fe 3 + complexes present. Some of the iron analyses may be abnormally high, due to the presence of solid matter, especially sediment material, which may contain a high proportion of ferric oxides (James, 1975). Part of the method of preparation of samples for AAS involves acidification to a pH at which these compounds would dissolve. Table 1 Mean Total Fe (ppb) n l Remarks Foul air cave, large amounts of banded sediments. Stream collects from other foul air caves. Foul air cave, drainage from laterites, limestone and argillite. Low C02 level, drainaoe from limestone and argillite. no no yes no Presence of colony 10 25 50 37 500 37 10 30 10 200 120 1000 Odyssey Cave Cave Grill Cave Argyle Cave The Efflux Introduction Iron bacteria are members of a loosely associated group of microorganisms which appear to metabolise iron. Many of them require large amounts of soluble iron, in the form of aqua ted or complexed Fe 2 +, and a characteristic heavy and extensive precipitate of hydrated ferric oxide is associated with the bacterial colony. These organisms inhabit the soil or surface streams normally. Different members of the group exist in widely different habitats, for example, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans grows at very low pH in acid mine waters, while other organisms live at intermediateacid and neutral pH's. When the pH is close to 7, as is usually found in natural systems, the organisms are of the type Leptothrix or Gallionella (Figure 1). A colony of iron bacteria periodically exists in a pool in Knockers Cavern, at the bottom of Odyssey Cave, Bungonia Caves, N.S.W., Australia (Ellis et al., 1972). The colony has been identified (Trudinger-pers. comm.) as probably Leptothrix sp., containing some Gallionella sp. Colonies of similar microorganisms are found in typical conditions on the surface: semi-stagnant water, fairly shallow and with a sufficient through flow of water that a constant supply of the iron nutrients required by the colony is maintained. Within the cave, conditions are somewhat different to those on the surface. The constancy in some factors (temperature, humidity, light level) allows the effects of other .factors (atmospheric C02 and 02' dissolved C02 and 02' pH) to be estimated, since these vary considerably in Knockers Cavern, which is unusual in that high levels of CO 2 (in the order of 4%) persist over long periods. Conditions in this cave are at present being monitored (James, 1975). Results presented in this paper correlate the appearance of the colony with conditions in the cave. Iron bacteria have been studied as a group extensively and for a long time. They are implicated in the formation of iron ore bodies, especially Precambrian banded iron formations (James, 1966), which contain some of the earliest known bacterial fossils. There is only scant data on their metabolism and the conditions under which they thrive. Some evidence is presented in this paper for an absolute requirement for iron, implying a definite dietary role for Fe 2 + in the colony. Methods Bungonia Caves are located about 200 km from Sydney. A programme of sediment, air and water sampling in several caves and springs (Figure 2) has continued over a period of seven years. Water samples are collected and air temperature, atmospheric CO 2 water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen measured. A less extensive series of similar measurements has been made in other caves in the area. Analysis for atmospheric C02 was by Draqer anparatus, and for dissolved 02 was by an International Biochemical dissolved oxygen meter 300. The iron content of the water samples was analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotomet~ (AAS) on a Varian Techtron AA6. The figures quoted are for total iron, which includes In number of estimations 2 s standard deviation It is noticeable that the cave in which the colony of iron bacteria is observed is also the one which has the highest total dissolved iron in the water. There is very little iron emerging from the spring only a few hundred meters from the pool containing the iron bacteria in Odyssey Cave. This indicates that there must be a mechanism for the removal of iron from the water in the unexplored passages between the two sites, possibly an extensive series of iron bacteria colonies. 79

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The colony of iron bacteria is variable, and sometimes disappears entirely over periods of months at a time. These disappearances are correlated with the amount of total dissolved iron (Figure 3). At values of less than 600 ppb Fe the colony is not visible, while above this figure it is apparently viable. Three data points are present on the left of the line representing 600 ppb, and would appear to indicate that the colony was present even in conditions of low dissolved iron. These may signify times when the colony was in fact non-viable, although the ferric oxide debris from the colony was still visible. The data points from 1978, most of which appear on the left of the line at 600 ppb, show the effects not only of the iron concentration, but also the mechanical effects of flooding in the cave. 1978 in particular was a very wet year, and several floods occurred in the cave. Flooding has several effects on the colony increased water flow disturbs the colony, and it may be washed away or covered with a layer of silt. In addition, dissolved 02 in the water increases. Dissolved iron decreases, due both to the elevated 02 level and to dilution. After a flood the colony may take a while to re-establish itself. Therefore we believe that the figure of 600 ppb may be a high lower limit for the iron concentration above which the bacteria will live. A lower figure would be consistent with the observation of small colonies in other caves (Drum Cave and Hogans-Fossil Extension) under conditions of low 02 and high CO 2 The data have been plotted as a function of the percentage of atmospheric C02' Data plotted in Figure 4 show the definite inverse correlation of the dissolved 02 with total iron in the water. The existence of the colony of iron bacteria in Odyssey Cave is probably a function of the very high concentration of dissolved iron in the waters of the stream in Knockers Cavern. The behaviour of this quantity as a function of dissolved 02 in the water indicates that a significant proportion of the iron is present as Fe 2 +, since colloidal Fe203.xH20 and any Fe 3 + species present would be unaffected by changes in oxygen tension. At the pH and Eh of the system (6.9 t 0.2, 0.25 v) the Fe 2 + would not be stable as the equated species, but would be rapidly oxidised to Fe 3 + and thence precipitated as the hydrated ferric oxide, even in the absence of bacteria or similar agents. The Fe 2 + must therefore be present as complexes. Possible ligands include organic material, common in the system, and carbonate or bicarbonate, which would be present in abundance in the water, due both to the solution of limestone and the high atmospheric C02 levels. The source of the iron in Argyle and Grill Caves is probably the limestone itself, which contains a minimum of 0.1% Fe203 (Carne and Jones, 1919). The Grill Cave figure is supplemented from the laterites which overlie the cave. Dye-tracing has established that the stream in Odyssey Cave has its source in the other deep caves of the Bungonia Plateau (Figure 2), with only a small.contribution from the Odyssey Cave stream itself. The water would therefore be expected to have a similar composition to that of the other caves. It has, however, a much higher concentration of iron. Cal~ulations using flow data and the concentration of Ca + in the Odyssey Cave water indicate that the contribution of solution of the limestone to the total figure is approximately 180 ppb. We believe that the source of the considerable additional iron is a series of banded sediments present in the cavern which are at present being eroded and which are known to contain bands of hydrated ferric oxide and other bands rich in decayed organic matter with some sulphides. The initial establishment of these iron-rich banded sediments indicates a local source of iron. A likely source is the bands of iron oxide react ate along stylobedding planes (terminology of Logan and Semeniuk, 1976), which are present in Knockers Cavern (Francis pers. comm.) The increase in dissolved iron with increase in atmospheric CO 2 may be symptomatic of several conditions which occur under circumstances when C02 is elevated (James, 1977). The pH of the water falls (due to solution of C02)' atmospheric 02 falls (due to its use by the aerobic microorganisms which produce the C02)' dissolved Ca 2 + and CO~increase (due to solution of limestone caused by increased acidity of the waters) All of these conditions would be conducive to mobilisation of iron: more limestone is being dissolved by the acid waters, whose acidity would also increase the stability of the Fe 2 + in solution. Lowered 02 would contribute to this stability, and increased microbial activity in the water would increase the availabilitY of organic material for complexing of the iron. In addition, a major effect may occur due to the CO 2 itself, which undoubtedly forms carbonate complexes 80 with ions in solution, and may also affect the growth of the iron bacteria directly. The iron bacteria present in Odyssey Cave are known to be of the type whose sources of food (reducing power and carbon) are in doubt. The bacteria produce large quantities of hydrated ferric oxide as a by-product of their growth. For these genera it is not known whether this accumulation reflects an actual metabolic waste product (of the process Fe2+~Fe3+) or simply a product of the utilisation of the organic matter attached to the Fe 2 +, which, stripped of its ligands, is rapidly oxidised by 02 and precipitates as the ferric oxide. The data presented in this study indicate that, under the fairly static conditions of the cave, the bacteria only thrive when sufficient iron is present in the water. No colonies of iron bacteria are observed in Grill Cave (200 ppb Fe). Small colonies are occasionally present in Drum Cave and the Hogans-Fossil Extension under conditions of high CO 2 A large and thriving colony exists for long periods in Odyssey Cave and has been observed to be present as long as the dissolved iron exceeds 600 ppb. If the effects of flooding are taken into account, this figure may be considered high for a lower limit. Accordingly we give as the estimated lower limit of viability of the iron bacteria a figure of 400 ppb total iron in the water, under the conditions described. The dependence of the total dissolved iron on the absence of dissolved 02 indicates that the iron figures represent a substantial proportion of Fe 2 +. Iron in this form is utilised by organisms known to be true "iron bacteria" as an electron source, and would thus be available for use by the bacteria in Odyssey Cave. The theory that it is the complexed material around the Fe 2 + which is being used by the bacteria seems less likely in this case, in view of their apparent absolute requirement for iron in a medium rich in organic matter and complexes of other metals. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Helen Gay and Mark Hayes for performing the analyses and to many cavers who collected samples and helped with other measurements. This work was supported by a University of ~ydney.Research Grant and the Australian Research Grants Committee. References Carne, J.E. and Jones, L.J., 1919. The limestone deposits of N.S.W. Mineral Resources, 25, 133136, 139-141. Ellis, R., Hawkins, L., Hawkins, R., James, J., Middleton, G., Nurse, B., and Wellings, G., 1972. Bungonia Caves. Sydney Speleological Society. James, H.L., 1966. Chemistry of iron-rich sedimentary rocks. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 440-W, 60 pp. James, J.M., 1975. Cold water mineralisation processes in an Australian cave. Trans. Brit. Cave Res. Assoc., 2, 141-150. James~, 1977. Carbon dioxide in the cave atmosphere. Trans. Brit. Cave Res. Assoc., 4, 417-429. Logan, B.W. and Semeniuk, V., 1976. Dynamic-metamorphism; process and products in Devonian rocks, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Spec. PubIs. Geol. Soc. Aust., 6, 1-138. Lundgren, D.G. and Dean~ W., 1979. Biogeochemistry of iron. in Biogeochemical Cycling of MineralForming Elements, P.A. Trudinger and D.J. Swaine (eds). Elsevier.

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Foaail Cave Hogana Hole ---dry atream bed -stream o cave entrance ~ water connection (unexplored) cave passage (approximate poait1on) ./ Grill Cave 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 .. I Fe3+ ThiobaC:illua f errooxidana' I I "', .. Fe~{ .. Sideroc:apaa , Leptothrix ,,' Gallionella /' 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Eh 0.0 -0.4 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 Figure 1. Eh-pH Diagram for Iron, showing areas where various iron bacteria are viable (after Lundgren and Dean, 1979). Figure 2. Water Connections Between the Deep Caves at Bungonia "iron bacteria present "iron bacteria present ()doubtful result 10 XX () doubtful result x iron bacter ia absent X iron bacteria absent (1978) X (1978) Nov78 X ,pec:78 X 80 X 11k Nov74 Sep78 0 X 3 60 Mar76 X at. X Nov78xtt. CO 2 d0 2 ..X Dec:78 (X) (%) 2 40 Nov74 X 0 X 20 X )( >e X 400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 tlltal diaaolved iron (ppb) total diaao1ved iron (ppb) .Figure 3. Total dissolved iron, plotted as a function of atmospheric C02' monthly measurements in Odyssey Cave, 1974, 1976, 1978. Figure 4. Total dissolved iron, plotted as a function of dissolved 02 (d0 2 ), monthly measurements in Odyssey Cave, 1974, 1976, 1978 81

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Scallops Alfred Bog11 Hitzkirch and ZUrich (Switzerland) Abstract Scallops and flutes are explained as corrosional forms. The hydrological important equation by Curl (1974) for the computation of v m of the cave water flow with the help of scallops is based upon this hypothesis. But many facts speak against it: a) Occasionally scallops are found on hard insoluable rocks (granite, gneiss, quartzite). These forms may be explained only by mechanical erosion. b) The distribution of flutes and scallops in a cave passage reveals the effect of gravity. That manifests the activity of solid components in water: mechanical erosion too. c) If scallops and flutes were formed by corrosion each place in a cross-section of a passage would be of the same morphologic value and independent of gravity. But scallops are normally found only on the floor of the passage and flutes at the inclined adjacent flancs. As a rule scallops are missing at the roof and never are flutes found there. However, where water flows towards overhanging rock-surfaces, e.g. the roof, a pressure-component occurs and by a sufficiently great water speed silt, sand or gravel hurled up form scallops. d) Dents at the roof of a passage are always flat and much larger than scallops and flutes. Moreover the typical longitudinal section of normal scallops is missing, especially the steep part looking in the direction of the water flowing away. Only corrosion is active in this cae and mechanical erosion is absent. Zusammenfassung Scallops und Flutes (Fliessfazetten) werden als Korrosionsformen gedeutet. Die dydrologisch wichtige Formel von Curl (1974) fUr die Berechnung der mittleren Fliessgeschwindigkeiten von Hohlengewassern mit Hilfe dieser Formen beruht auf der Annahme einer Entstehung durch Korrosion. Es sprechen jedoch zahlreiche Fakten gegen diese Hypothese. a) Gelegentlich werden Fliessfazetten auf harten, unloslichen Gesteinen (Granit, Gneis, Quarz/ gefunden. Diese Formen konnen nur durch mechanische Erosion entstanden sein. b) Die Verteilung der Fliessfazetten in Hohlenquerschnitt verrat die Wirkung der Erdanziehungskraft. Das lasst auf die Wirkung fester Bestandteile in Wassef schliessen' mechansiche Erosion. c) Wdren die Fliessfazetten durch Korrosion entstanden, dann ware jede Stelle eines Gangquerschnittes anntihernd von gleichem morphologischem Wert und unabhtingig von der Erdanziehungskraft. Aber die Scallops sind meist nur nur am Gangboden und Flutes nur an den seitlich anschliessenden starker geneigten Flaken zu finden. In der Regel fehlen die Scallops an der Decke und Flutes wurden dort noch nie gefunden. Wo jedoch Wasser gegen Uberhangende Felspartien oder die Decke stromt, da entsteht eine Druckkomponente und bei genUgend hoher Fliessgeschwindigkeit werden dort Schluff, Sand und Kies mitgerissen und formen die Scallops jedoch nie Flutes. d) Dellen in der Gangdecke sind dagegen immer flach und viel grosser als Fliessfazetten, und es fehlt der typische assymmetrische Langschnitt. In diesem FaIle ist nur Korrosion wirksam, wtihrend mechanische Erosion vollig fehlt. 1. Introduction Scallops and related forms originate from the degradation of rocks by flowing water. This effect is mainly found in caves. Their morphology was studied by a great number of authors, partly by field surveys, partly by experimental investigations. H. Bock (Graz, Austria) was the first to study the problem of scallops intensively (1913). He assumed that they are caused by mechanical erosion ~corrasion/. He propounded a formula concerning the depdendence of the scallop size from the velocity of the water flow. With new methods Curl has set the formula which is since accepted J1966, 1974). For that purpose he used the flutes, a special type of scallops. As cause he assumed corrosion. Allen investigated all types of erosional marks by experiments and published a comprehensive report. He wrote (p. 177): "These marks, now recognized to be of solutional origin, .... From this we may suppose that he previously assumed corrasion as right. The following statements are based on field studies and on literature but not on experimental investigations. ~. Morphography of the Erosional and Corrosional Marks in Caves My principal places for investigations are alpine caves, first of all Holloch (Hell-Hole, Switz land) with a length of 141 km and a vertical interval of 856 m (2-1-1981). This cave lies within very pure Urgonian limestone (upper part of the lower cretaceous) called "Schrattenkalk". That is a dense homogeneous, thick bedded rock. And I kept an eye on the scallops in Flint Ridge Cave (KY, MCNP) too. There are three different main types of shell-shaped marks. ~ The scallops are the most frequent. They are shell-like with a small side and an adjacent concave surface. The steep parts shows in the direction of the water flowing away. For details see Benalt (1967, 1967a), Curl (1966, 1974), Allen (1971, 1972), Blumberg (1970) and Bogli (1978, 1980). They form homogeneous, conjugate assemblages of marks'. In Holloch they occur on many thousands of m 2 and on many km of passages. Obviously they originate mostly under phreatic conditions but under vadose ones, too. In the "Sulitude" (Holloch) 82 a passage floor with an inclination of more or less 10' has been overflown for a long time and shows very typical, relatively small scallops. In the last more than 100,000 years this area of the cave was never fallen under phreatic conditions. Type A predominantly happens on the passage floor; it is irrelevant for the occurence whether it is horizontal or inclined. But under special conditions there are exceptions, e.g. in narrownesses and in narrow passages, whereever the water velocity is great, scallops are found on the walls and more rarely on the roofs, eto. (see 3.2, last section). ~: On the lower parts of the walls which are inc11ned to the floor we find the wave-shaped flutes. The angle between the axes of the flutes and the direction of flo respectively of the passages is not only a function of the surface dip but also of the water velocity. It should therefore be possible to calculate the velocity of flow by these parameters and a coefficient which must be found especially. Because well developed flutes are rare in Holloch it was impossible to specify critical values or ti state mathematical relations. ~: On the passage celing flat concave cavities oft.en occur, being much larger than the scallops on the floor (Type A) in the same cross-section. They are more uniform in size, and the steep size of the scallops is absolutely missing. It is evident that they are of phreatic origin. ~: Exceptionally there occur very small flute-shaped forms on the roof. According to their appearance they could have been formed by flowing water but the cause of their origin is not yet cleared. This Type is not a main-one, not to mention that it is frequently overlooked. 3. Corrasion or Corrosion? The question is, whether corrasion or corrosion are forming scallops and flutes. The answer to this is important, then Curl's formula for the calculation of the water velocity in a cave passage with the help of the size of flutes is based on corrosion. But there are some arguments for corrasion! 3.1. Scallops and flutes are found on insoluble and very hard rocks (Maxson, 1940). Allen (1971, p. 182) writes: "Flutes are widely known from rock surfaces affected by powerful currents of sand-laden

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water. I took pictures of assemblages of scallops on gneiss at different places in the riverbed of the Maggia near Po~te Brolla (Switzerland, Ct. Ticino), each a few m. On the granite at Handegg (Grimselpass, Switzland) I found others. They were formed by mechanical erosion (corrasion). I do not see why scallops in limestone, which is much less hard than granite, would not have been formed by corrasion. Feldspar and quartz the main minerals in granite and gneiss are 8 respectively 16 times harder than calcite, the main mineral of limestone (Klockmann, 1978). 3.2. Scallops and flutes are predominantly located on the floor and on the adjacent rising rock surfaces. This localization is easily explained by gravity. Therefore, the presence of solid particles e.g. of sand and gravel, must be assumed. By their weight they put pressure on the surface of the rock. If the particles move the surface becomes affected and dragged away. It forms erosional marks, scallops and flutes. In narrownesses and narrow passages high velocities happen and sand and gravel are hurled up to the walls and even to the roof. In contact with the rock a pressure-component originates and consequently the particles can erode and form scallops. According to Hjulstroem (1935, cit. in B5gli, 1980) fine sand with a granulometrical diameter of 0.1 rom needs a minimal velocity of flow v m of 0.9 ern s-l to be transported. Coarse sa~d with a diameter of 2 rom needs a v of 15 cm s(540 m h); this is equal to a discWarge of Q of 0.4 m 3 s-l on each m 2 of the cross-section. That is a high value but real for phreatic conditions. The granulometry of fine deposits in H5lloch shows normally about 90% of silt and sand. This almost correspond to the values of the diameters and v m mentioned before. In short: The localization of scallops and flutes in the lower part of the passages in Holloch and in many other caves shows the dominant influence of gravity and with that the presence of solid particles driven by the flow which cause corrasion. Sometimes scallops are missing on the passage floor but occur on the walls. May be that they are destroyed on the floor by gravel or covered up with debris. Remaineders of former deposits often prove that thick layers of loose sediments protected the floor. The surface of these sediments was the old river bed in the cave conduit; in the formerly narrow passage the ~ flew faster and with the sand dragged along the wall scallops formed on the rock. 3.3. Corrosive water dissolves limestone and consequently shows a gently higher density at the contact area with the rock. That induces a convection flow which is so small that it is normally irrelevant in comparision to moving cave-water. For that reason each place in a water-filled crosssection of a passage has the same morphological value in regard to gravity. If scallops and flutes were formed by corrosion they ought to occur everywhere without preference, in consequence on walls and roofs as well as on the floor but normally they do not: Moreover I have never seen flutes on overhanging rocks: 3,4, Corrosion by flowing water has a molding effect and creates marks of the Type C. They are formed by slowly moving water, too perhaps exclusively by slowly moving water. They are mostly found on the roof of larger passages with lenticular cross-sections. At inclined axes of the lens the hollows of the Type C occur not only on the roof, but as well on the upper part of the rising slope where moving sand does not get, or on the inner side of a bend. The Type C shows some differences to the scallops in the same cross-section. The most striking differences are the rounded borders of the marks which do not show sharp rims, the lack of the steep side, the larger size which at least is two times longer. The directions of the flow cannot be deduced from this form. Why do the marks of the Type c not appear in the whole cross-section? Theoretically they ought to do so: But in the slowly moving water at the bottom and on the upper sides of rocks it forms thin coatings of clay which hinder the corrosion of limestone. The removal of this clayey cover demands a velocity of 100 cm sby pure water but only 5 to 10 cm s-l in case of corrasion by sand-laden one. And with such velocities it is possible that scallops are formed which destroy all former marks of the Type C. 83 4. Some Unsolved Problems 4.1. Does corrosion have an influence on the forming of scallops which originates by corrasion? At the actual state of the investigations it is not possible to give a clear answer, but I think that it is probable. In this case corrosion would work more or less in the same direction like corrasion. That leads to the next question. 4.2. Is Curl's formula (1966, 1974) for the dependence of the size of flutes on v m valid if the forming is not due to corrosion but to corrasion? The density, the vicosity coefficient and Reynolds number of sand-laden water are different from those of pure water. That is the field of the physicists and the answer must be given by them. 4.3. It is possible to determine v m by the size of scallops which are much less regular than the flutes? This problem is under treatment by statistical methods. But the investigations are not advanced enough to give a negative or positive answer. References Allen, J.R.L. 1971, Transverse erosional marks of mud and rock: Their basis and geological significance. In: Sedimentary Geology, Intern. J. of applied and regional sedimentology, pp. 165-385. Allen, J.R.L., ~n the origin of cave vlutes and scallops by the enlargement of inhomogeneities. Atti Rass. Speleol. Ital. pp. 3-19. Bock, H., 1913, Der Karst und seine Gew~sser. Mitt. H5hlenkde 6B3 85gli, A., 1980, Karsthydrology and physical speleology. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 284 pp. Curl, R.L., 1966, Scallops and flutes. Trans. Cave Res. Group G.B. pp. 121-160. Curl, R.L., 1974, Deducing flow velocity in cave conduits from scallops. Natl. Spel.Soc.Bull. 36/2, pp. 1-5. Hjulstroem, F., 1935, Studies on the morphological activiies of rivers. Bull. Geol. Inst. Uppsala 25, pp. 221-257. Klockman, F., 1978, Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. F. Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, 867 pp. Maxson, J. H., 1940, Fluting and facetting of rock fragments. J. Geol. 48, pp. 717-757. Renault, Ph., 1961, Une microforme speleologiqup: vagues d'arosion. Spelunca 1, pp. 15-25. Renault, Ph., 1961a, Caractere des vegues d'erosion .. 3eme Congr. Int. Speleol.,Vienne, vol. 2, pp. 105-114.

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Geomorphologic Evolution of a Karst Area Subject to Neotectonic Movements in the Umbria Marche Apennines (Central Italy) Mauro Coltorti Scienze Geologiche, Via Lauro de Bosis 17, 60035 Jesi (AN) ITALY Abstract The Frasassi gorge, covered by the Senti no stream from West to East, dissects with the same direction the northern portion of an Adriatic vergency anticline of the Umbria-Marche Apennine (NNW-SSE). Inside the gorge and on the eastern side of the structure there are more than 100 hollows, situated on at least 8 subhorizontal and superimposed levels, sometimes connected by wells and chutes, from the talweg (m 200 a.s.l.) to over m 600 a.s.l The four most important levels (I, III, V, VII from the bottom) drained to the same height of alluvial terraced deposits attributed to Olocene, WUrm, Riss and Mindel respectively and correlated with these periods while the interposed floors involve minor events. The higher galleries and the Gorge are mainly developed on jurassic fractures trending EW testifying primitive drainages formed by parallel and independent pipes. Afterwards, during a sudden sinking of the water table, the activity of close fractures and side-slip faults trending NE catched the older drainages orienting the karstification of the new galleries that widened alos owing to the reaction of mixed water-table with sulphureous waters arising along neoformation fractures. The older galleries were dislocated with dip-slip higher than 100 m and new levels set up during this strong tectonic Mindel/Mindel-Riss phase increasing the structural asimmetry. The new lefts ide karstic network flowing with acute angles into the Sentino enlarged more than those on the opposite side that, joining upstream became few and small galleries. Inside the hypogeal system are recorded the macroscopic swinging of the water-table, connected with climatic or tectonic events occurred after the Villafranchian smoothing and during the pleistocene differentiated uplifting. Rl!suml! La Gorge'de Frasassi, traversl!e par Ie torrent Sentino de W vers E coupe dans la ml!me direction la partie septentrional d'un anticlinal, se tournant vers l'Adriatique, de l'Apenin Umbro-March giano (NNWSSE). A l'interieur de la gorge et dans la ~Otl! oriental de la structure s'ouvrent plus de 100 cavites, plac6es au moin sur 8 niveaux subhorizontaux superposes et parfois communicants par des puits et des glissi~res de la nappe phrl!atique (m 200 s.n.m.) jusqu'a plus de 600 m s.n.m .. Les quatre niveaux principaux (I, III, V, VII de bas en haut) drainaient a la ml!me hauteur de depOts alluviaux terrassl!s attribues respectivement au Oloc~ne, au WUrm, au Riss et au Mindel et ils sont contemporains tandis que les niveaux interposes montrent des evenements moin importants. Les galleries les plus elevees ainsi que la gorge se developpent sur des fractures EW d'epoque giurassique, temoignant ainsi que le primitif drainage etait constitue par des conduits paralleles et entre eux indeependants. Par la suite et lors d'un brusque approfondissement de la nappe phrl!atique, l'activation d'une nombreuse sl!rie de fractures et failles a direction NE, captura les drainages primitifs en orientant la karstification des nouveaux conduits, qui grAce aux reaction de melange entre les eaux de nappe et celles sulfureuses montantes le long des fractures nl!o-forml!es, prirent des dimentions considl!rables. Le conduits precedents furent deplaces par des rejects qui complessivements sont supl!rieurs aux 100 m et des nouveaux niveaux furent instaures pendant cette intense phase tectonique Mindelil!n et Mindel-Rissien qui augmenta l'asymmetrie de la structure. A partir de ce moment, Ie reseau karstique dans sa droite hydrographique en confluant par de angles aigus dans Ie torrent Sentino, fut enormement etendu, tandis que celui du versant oppose, en confluant a contre-courant, s'est reduit e peu de galierie minuscules. A l'interieur du complexe hypogee, on peut done enregistres les oscillations de la nappe phreatique, dUes soit a des raisons climatiques ou neotectoniques, avenues apres l'aplanissement villafranchien et pendant l'"uplifting" differentie pleistocl!nique. The Umbria-Marche Apennines, that lie on the northern side of the Central Apennine chain, are formed by a series of NW-SE anticlinoria and sinclinoria. The higher zones of this structure correspond to the top of the anticline composed of jurassic-eocenic rocks; the lower ones to the sincline where miocenic formations are known. The mountain chain has a series of farily homogeneous reliefs whose altitude are seldom higher than 2000 metres and normally constitute the watershed of the streams flowing to the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. The most karst-bearing formation is the "Calcare Massiccio (Hettangiano-Sinemuriano P.P.) composed exclusively of limestone thicker than 600 metres. This formation is normally placed in the anticline nucleous surrounded by less karst-bearing and/or water-tight rocks. Some of the largest italian karst complexes like the one we are going to describe open inside it. The Frasassi karst area is located in the Valmontagnana anticline, on the eastern side of the "Dorsale Marchigiana", an anticlinoria oriented in apenninic direction with adriatic vergency. The northern side of this structure is more than 500 metres cut down into the "Calcare Massiccio" by the Sentino stream, a tributary of the Esino river. The "Bugarone" (Early Lias-Early Titonico), the "Maiolica" ~Late Titonico-Aptiano), the "Marne a Fucoidi" (AptianoCenomaniano) and the "Scaglia Bianca" and "Rosata" (Cenomaniano-Middle Eocene) formations outcrop on the top and on the northern side of the anticline. The first two of these are partly karst-bearing because of their secondary porosity (fractures and faults) (Passeri, 1976), while the "Fucoidi" represent the typical impermeable horizon that prevents the seepage into the lowlying rocks. The jurassic heteropic rocks of the "structural high" Bugarone formation, outcrop on the heteropic rocks of the "structural high" Bugarone formation, outcrop on the eastern side of the structure, beneath the "Maiolica", with a much thicker deposits. This sedimentary differentiation lies along a NS fault scarp which borders the eastern side of the anticline. Similar differentiations, in this area, sometimes follow the EW 84 direction, whilst the "Basso strutturale" formations are buried. In fact it is the "Fucoidi" one to delimit the karst basin on this side. This formation, which is placed like a barrier against the karst rocks, orientates the hypogeal sought toward the Frasassi Gorge entry (Bocchini-Varani, 1971; Bocchini & Coltorti, 1978), where some uncovered risings of conspicous mineralized water (solphoureous) are known. The first dry and concretioned subhorizontal galleries lie few metres above, testifying a drainage no more in equilibrium with the actual one. Seven subhorizontal main sistem, located at progressive elevation on the water-table, have been recognized at the Grotta Sulfurea, on the right side of the Sentino stream. These karst floors are represented by subparallel galleries forming a very thick network. Room more than two dozen metres large and hundred metres long, often very straight because of their fault-line origin, lie where the primitive pheatic tubes anastomozed or where the water level had a free air flow. Also the collapses have contributed to the widening of the primitive tunnels. Sometimes two or more superimposed ones joined to form rooms higher than 100 metres. The communication between two or more superimposed floors are often due to the erosion connect eighter with vadose water or with a sudden sinking of the water-table. Thus many chutes and waterfall wells are present. Many deep lakes, located at about the same altitude, are known in the lowermost parts of this caves. Their waters flow slowly towards the above mentioned emergences where the flow-speed increases and some subterraneous stream with good competency and energy appear. The speleogenetic motions are still acting and furnish the key to the comprehension of the growth of the older galleries. Apart from the areas of intense drip, only a few thin water veins percolating toward the water level are present in the upper galleries. Anyway the karst network is well developed, given that the greatest capacity periods of the hypogeal streams, almost immediately follow the rainy seasons. The main water laid deposits, apart from the concretionary ones, are represented by thin layers of marl and clay sometimes interposed by microcrystalline gypsum levels and, more rarely, by alloctonous gravel deposits

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normally located in the rooms close to the entrance. On the same side of the gorge, at higher elevation, there are some other caves like the Paradiso, Faticchiana and Orso Bruno, while the Diavolo, Buco Cattivo, Infinito, Grottone and Inferno-Valle Stretta caves open on the south eastern side. The collapses and the concretions obliterate the primitive morphology of these caves. In fact, deposits similar to the above mentioned ones have been observed only at the Buco Cattivo, a cave more than 3 kID long. One floor lying above the seven ones of the Grotta Fiume-Vento is known in this cave. It corresponds to the galleries of the Grotta Paradiso. All the caves opening at high altitude in and outside the gorge, are connected with the older karst phases (7th and 8th floors). Furthermore, the Grotta Inferno-Valle Stretta, which developes along the jurassic fault scarp is now dissected from the stream erosion. It is hanging 50m above the stream bed. This cave, which is the closest to the terminal areas of the karst system, like an open air stream near the water-shed, is represented by fairly gradient galleries. Besides these there are about 100 caves which can be entered only a few dozens of metres. In the previous chapter we have been discussing the right side of the gorge. It is here, in fact, that the larger parts of the "Calcare Massiccio" outcrop, and that, subsequently most of the caves open. Only a few small caves are present on the right side, near the talweg, whilst the Mezzogiorno-Frasassi (more than 2 km), the Occhialoni, the Grotta Verde, of appreciable length, lie at higher altitude. None of these ever reaches the dimention of the ones known on the other side. Also these last caves develop on subhorizontal floors coinciding with the 7th and the 8th ones. The whole area should be envisaged as a wide unic karst complex although the connection between the caves were obliterated by breakdown, concretions and neotectonic movements we will talk about later. For a chronological frame of the karst phenomena I have been looking for their links with the alluvial terraces of the Esino valley and the Frasassi gorge. All along the Esino valley side, there are three alluvial terraced units situated at progressive altitude on the talweg. After a morphological, pedological and palaeoetnological study, they have been ascribed to ~he WUrm, Riss and Mindel glaciation (Coltorti, et al., 1980). In the Marche, the periglacial climate favoured the deposition and the superelevation of the gravel deposits, while at the advent of the biostasia conditions the deepening processes of the talweg prevailed. At the entrance of the gorge, the top of the wUrmian terrace is about 12 m above the talweg, whilst the rissian one lies about 22 metres. The mindelian one is located some 100 m higher, even it is deeply embanched inside the canan. On the tope of the gorge the landscape becomes suddenly gentle, without steep slopes, and one can reach the top of the mountain easily (930 m). This summital morphology correspond to the "Surface Villafranchien" also known in the nearby Abruzzo region (Demangeot, 1965). It is modelled inside an older smoothing surface that the above mentioned Author refers to Pliocene morphology (Surface de sommets). These data allow us to say that the karst phenomenon of the Frasassi gorge is later than the villafranchian modelling actions. It is _h this moulding that the reliefs began to have m0'~ energy than before. This suggest that the upljr_ Lng movements, active so far, started in that pe-.Jd. To these uplifting conditions followed anothe~ut-tendecy that formed the deepening of '.,e Sentino and consequently the opening of the gorgu. At the same time, on the eastern side of the structure, the Esino river was deepening its talweg and the calcareous rocks were brought to light progressively. This allowed a major water flow inside the karst complex. The uppermost caves of the anticline open on EW, NNW-SSE and NS fractures and faults of jurassic age (8th floor). They constitute a series of drainages oriented both towards the Frasassi gorge and the Esino river (Figure 2). Therefore it seems to me that besides the high primarily porosity of the rock, it was the tectonic dislocation to direct the hypogeal flow. The 8th floor of the Frasassi gorge is represented by a phreatic tube, probably formed by leaks of the Sentino towards the Esino across the Anticline. The existence uf this phreatic tube shows that the tectonic movements where not very intense. In fact they showed generalized uplifings that favoured the reactivation of the jurassic faults. These pipes were later dislocated by side NE faults. It is only thanks to their vertical and/or horizontal karstification that today one can enter most of these old galleries. A new water table equilibrium allowed the 85 development of a new subhorizontal level. The difference in height with the upper floor varies from place to place depending on the intensity of the tectonic movements meanwhile occurred. Inside the Grotta MezzogiornoFrasassi there are 25-40 m between the two levels while, on the opposite slope of the gorge, more than 50 m separate the Paradiso from the Orso Bruno cave. About the same situation is known inside the Buco Cattivo. During this new equilibrium the karstification mainly interested the neoformation fractures, so that the new karst floors developed mostly along the NE trending that will carryon to direct the karstification until the most recent floors. One of these faults lies at the entrance of the Frasassi gorge dislocating the watertight covering of the "Fucoidi", bringing into contact the karstified rocks. The progressive deepening of the talweg was favoured in this was as well as the progressive piracy of the whole hypogeal system towards this area. It is along this fault that the Fiume-Vento system opens. The first gypsum deposits have been observed in the NE galleries of the 7th floor. They show that these fractures reached the lowlying "Anidriti di Burano" formation (Upper Trias). Between watertable and solphoureous water rising along the new fractures start miscelation corrosion reactions that contributed to the enlargement of the karstic network. The rising of solphoureous water is testified by the mineralize of halloisite and barite (Bertolani, et al., 1977) along the trending NE fault planes and bY-the high percentage of C1 an S04 inside the waters (Centamore, et al., 1976). This new dislocations delimits some short-gaITeries raising at their approach with the anticline axis, so that the NE faults, trasverse to the structure, are closely connected with the differentiated uplifting movements increasing the anticline structural asimmetry. The climatic condition that made the equilibrium profile of the stream stationary, favoured the horizontal karstification that, interacting with the uplifting of the anticline, allowed the formation of the hanging galleries along the dislocation lines. The 7th floor, which is correlated with them, drained at the same altitude of the mindelian alluvial deposits. At a later stage, also the pipes of this floor were dislocated along more than 60 m during a period of morphological crisis (Final Mindel-Early Mindel-Riss (? that caused a new change in the profile of the fluvial equilibrium. In this period the hanging galleries stopped forming and chutes and waterfall wells began to open. On the left side of the valley, the conditions favourable to a horizontal karstification seem to stop at the 7th floor, given that when the wide karst floors of the Grotta Fiume-Vento formed on the opposite side, only small caves opened on this one. This phenomenon is due to the changed relationship between the hypogeal pipes and the Sentino stream, because only neotectonic events occurred during the deepening of the hypogeal network. Before this period, the drainage took place with normal angles to the stream, but now, after the activation of the NE fractures, the confluence has low angles on the right side, while on the opposite side it is against the stream way. Furthermore, the NE faults displace the NNW-SSE jurassic fractures which should be normal to the isopheatic lines, so that the water has to follow a tortous way between the neoformation and the more or less removed jurassic faults in search of the shortest way of confluence, dispersed in thousand small veins which can karstify only short galleries (Gr. Bagno, Baffoni, Buco del Falco, Leonardo). Other hanging galleries can be seen in the karst floors developed on the right side in a later period showing even though with less throw. The lowermost of the other six floors stratified below the mindelian one, opens above the actual talweg. It is separated by active zone by a small cutting. That is why it can be referred to the Olocene. The second floor opens at the same altitude of the terraced wUrmian alluvium. The third floor at the top of the rissian one. Faunal remains attributed to the WUrm have been found in the hypogeal rooms of the third floor (Coltorti & Sala, 1978). This might confirm our chronological "ante quem" attribution. The 4th, 5th and 6th floors did not yield any find so that no proof of their chronological attribution can be confirmed so far. In fact it is not a sequence of older and older galleries from the bottom to the top, but a sequence where the tunnels originated during the periglacial climate lie above those of the preceding and of the following interglacial. Conclusions At the light of the data available is widely accepted that, in this area, the floors formed both during the periglacial and the interglacial periods, when

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the deepening of the alluvial deposit stopped. Less important floors, often hanging, indicate the persistence of differentiated upliftings also when the equilibrium profile remained the same. On the contrary, wells and chutes suggest the existence of hard variation of the neutral point along the stream, usually connected with the passage from periglacial to mediterranean climatic conditions. If, during these periods of talweg deepening, the tectonic differentiated upliftings we:e in action, the differences in height between the hor1zontal level and still forming one were increasing. The karst has different aspects according to the climatic conditions. The tectonic regime of the UmbriaMarche area has been essential for his origin. In fact the karst did not develop since the pleistocene uplifting did not permit the erosion of the impermeable covering and the jurassic fractures did not reestablish. Furthermore one can observe that the increasing of galleries happened after the area was interested by a new system of faults. The dislocation line did form immediately an ideal subterraneous passage between the rainfall on the top of the relief and the watertable. However the orientation of the new fractures is extremely important as regards the Sentino. If they are oriented with the flow isophreatic lines, they are strongly karstified, while if they oblige the water to have a long and tortuous way, they are karstified only a little. The macroscopic swingings of the watertable are recorded inside the hipogeal system. They are connected with climatic and/or tectonic events occurred after the villafranchian smoothing and during the pleistocene differentiated uplifting. Estimating the slip of the horizontal floors and the difference in height between one floor and the subsequent one, it's possible to locate the tectonic succession and to attribute to the 86 Mindel/Mindel-Riss a strong phase of differentiated upliftings in connection with the faults trasverse to the anticline. These movements, still active, affected the following growth of the karst network but also conditioned the present landscape of the Umbria-March region. References Avias, J.V., 1977. "Mem. 12th Congr. LA.H.", pp. 57-72, Huntsville-Alabama. Bertolani, M., Garuti, G., Rossi, A., Bertolani-Marchett~ D., 1976. "Le Grotte d'Italia" s. vol. VI, pp. 109141, Bologna. Bocchini, A., Coltorti, M., 1978. "Atti XIII Congr. Naz. Speleol.", preprints, Perugia. Bocchini-Varani, M.A., 1971. "Boll. Soc. Geogr. It." n. 1-3, pp. 31-85, Roma. Cattuto, C., 1976. "Boll. Soc. Geol. It.", 95 (1-2), pp. 313-326, Roma. Centamore, E., Idrotecneco, Valletta, M., 1976. "Note Ill.F.29I" Servo Geol. D'It. Roma. Coltorti, M., 1980. "Ann. Un. Ferrara", N.S., sez. IX, vol. VII, n. 2, pp. 21-36, Ferrara. Coltorti, M., Cremaschi, M., Peretto, C., Sala, B., 1980. "Atti XXIII Riun. Sc.LLP.P.", (in the press), Firenze. Coltorti, M., Galdenzi, S., 1981. "Studi tr.Sc.Nat.", A.G., (in the press), Trento. Coltorti, M., Sala, B., 1978. "Natura e Montagna", I, pp. 27-31, Bologna. Demangeot, J., 1965. "Mem. et Doc.", C.N.R.S.,n.h.s., pp. 1-403, Paris. Passeri, L., 1976. "Le Grotte d'Italia", s. 4, vol. III, pp. 55-60, Bologna. "J. Stringfield, V.T., Rapp, J.R., Anders, R.B., 1979. Hidrology", 43, pp. 314-332, Amsterdam.

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_13 -1-14 +15 /16 _......--17 5 [J]l]6 ~7 08 e9 .10 ffim11 ~12 o Figure 1. Geologic map of the karst-area of Frasassi with the entry and planimetry of the main caves. Geology: 1, Alluvium; 2, slope waste deposits; 3, landslide; 4, Scaglia Variegata e Cinerea; 5, Scaglia Rosata; 6, Scaglia Bianca; 7, Marne a Fucoidi; 8, Maiolica; 9, Calcari Granulari con Selce; 10, Formazione del Bosso; II, Formazione del Bugarone; 12, Calcare Massiccio; Strata: 13, vertical; 14, inclined; 15, horizontal; 16, jurassic fault scarp; 17, fault. Caves: 1, Frasassi; 2, Mezzogiorno; 3, Occhialoni; 4, Verde; 5, Baffoni; 6, Fiume; 7, Bella; 8, Solfurea; 9, Vento; 10, Orso Bruno; 11, Paradiso; 12, Diavolo; 13, Buco Cattivo; 14, Infinito; 15, Grottone; 16, Valle Stretta; 17, Inferno. 87

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Figure 2. Schematic diagram showing the evolutional phases of the Frasassi-Karst. P.I, before Mindel and after the Villafranchian smoothing; P.2, Mindel/Mindel-Riss; P.3, Today. 88

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The "Breathing" of Coldwater Cave Warren C. Lewis, M.D. 119 N. Church Street, Rockford, Illinois, 61101, U.S.A. Abstract Coldwater Cave acts as a microbarometer. Studies were made of the movement of air in and out of the cave. The apparatus was sensitive to periods from 10 seconds to 12 hours. One series of irregular oscillations were recorded in the 55 to 70 second band. These were found to correspond to gravity acoustic waves that are primarily of auroral type originating in the ionosphere or below it in the stratosphere. The second type with periods from 6 to 30 minutes corresponds to gravity acoustic waves generated primarily by the jet stream at about 10 km. in height. These observations may throw light on some of the problems of "cave breathing". Rl!suml! "Coldwater Cave" est identique A un microbarom?!tre. La circulation de l'air A l'intl!rieur et A l'extl!rieur de la chambre a l!tl! l!tudil!e. La sensitivitl! de l'instrument allant de 10 secondes a 12 heures. Une sl!rie d'oscillations irrl!gulieres ont l!tl! enregistrl!es entre 55 et 70 secondes; e1les correspondent A des ondes de gravitl! accoustique de type auroral prenant naissance dans l'ionoshp?!re ou en dessous, dans la stratosph?!re. Une deuxieme sl!rie enregistrl!e entre 6 et 30 minutes correspond A des ondes accoustiques produites principalement par le jet de courant A 10 kilom?!tres (kms.) d'altitude. Ces observations pourraient apporter certaines clarifications A quelque probl?!mes concernant le "cave breathing". In 1977 we discovered quit~ by accident that the flow of air was periodically reversing at an artificial opening of Coldwater Cave. The cave was "breathing". On subsequent trips we continued to monitor this phenomenon each time that it was present. We gradually refined equipment to record the alteration of air flow into and out of the cave. In 1947 a party composed of Petrie, Mitchell, Carter, Stephenson, and Faust were exploring "Salt Petre Cave" near Burnsville, Virginia, U.S.A. While waiting in a narrow spot in the righthand crawlway, Burton Faust observed a periodic reversal of air movement. The air would start moving slowly, increase rapidly to a maximum, slow down to an apparent standstill and remain stationary for a period of time. It would then start moving in the opposite direction, passing through a maximum velocity to rest. After remaining so for a period of time, the cycle would start over again. The entire cycle occupied about four minutes. They renamed it Breathing Cave. While Dan Nigh was observing Cassell Windy Cave, Pocohantas County, West Virginia, U.S.A., he beheld to his great consternation a tongue-shaped cloud of fog emerge from the entrance. It floated across the ground in front of the cave for about 1 3/4 minutes. Suddenly further progress stopped. The air currents changed for no apparent reason causing the fog to retrace its path back into the opening. The time of inhalation was similar in duration to the time of exhalation. Clyde M.Senger was investigating a talus cave in Skagit County, Washington. He was hiking over very rough terrain in the rain. He reported a distinct layer of cold air in the low places. Several times he saw a distinct layer of fog form and then dissipate in one of the depressions. I. o. Chapman found that Cave No.2 at Crooked Swamp was inhaling for 38 seconds and exhaling for 40 seconds. Cass Cave was reported to have a period of about 2 minutes. Air reversal was observed in the upstream portion of Mystic Cave above the Big Room. It was also noted at the Jumping Off Place in Schoolhouse Cave. Casparis Cave was also observed to reverse its flow. A blow hole on McKittrick Hill in New Mexico was noted to reverse in 90 minutes. Further observations at Breathing Cave on one occasion showed a period of approximately one minute. On other occasions, the reversal varied from two minutes to over twenty minutes. Air reversal has been reported in the passage leading to an ice chamber in Dobsima Cave in Slovakia. In August the period was 1 minute, 30 seconds and winter 1 minute, 40 seconds. Some longer periods were observed. July 17, 1977 air was noted to be moving in and out of a drill shaft connected to Coldwater Cave. Nine complete cycles were noted ranging in duration from 50-96 seconds. Then after two long cycles, the cave blew continuously outward. We chose to monitor the air movement by a temperature-sensing device. We utilized the difference in temperature between the temperature on the surface and the temperature of the cave air. A sensing element of fine copper wire wound on a micarda frame was used. It was chosen because of its fast response to temperature change. The associated circuitry consisted of a 12 volt battery, a voltage regulator and the bridge. The voltage regulator was to compensate for changes in the battery voltage. The copper sensing element was connected to the bridge. The voltage output from the bridge varied with the resistance of the sensor. This, in turn, would 89 change as the air temperature changed. Initially we used a 50 microamp. ammeter to monitor these changes. Manual recording of the readings was necessary. When an 120 volt gasoline-powered generator became available, we added a strip chart recorder. The chart speed showed some variation due to variations in the output of the generator. Because of this the time was marked periodically on the chart. Our drill pipe extends 25 metres to the Mainstream Passage or Master Trunk of the system. This is 3 to 10 metres wide and 2 to 10 metres high. It is about 5 km. long with 8 km. of mapped side passages. The main passage is sealed to air flow at each end by sumps or siphons. The side passages have openings to the surface. This is shown by the rapid influx of water into the cave with each heavy rain. Such openings to the surface have not been traced. On October 20, 1977 we placed the temperat~rerecording device in the shaft. We recorded ten hours of air movement. At the start the cave blew air constantly so that we recorded a straight line on the graph. By evening the cave air was moving in and out strongly four or five times an hour. Toward the end of the recording period, small oscillations appeared on the inward blowing segments of the tracing. Twenty-nine cycles were recorded in 27 minutes. On December 17 and 18 we recorded the temperature for 32 1/2 hours. Short cycles were recorde~ In 8 segments of the tape, 196 cycles were recorded. On January 21 and 22, 1978, we recorded for 29 hours and 50 minutes. On February 18, 1978, 19 hours were recorded. From the start we recorded two types of waves. One had a period of about 1 minute. The other varied from 10 to 15 minutes or more. We had hoped that the waves would tell us something about the size and perhaps the shape of the cave. Each set of waves showed variations in the period. They were quasi-sinusoidal in form or pseudosinusoidal. We attempted to apply resonance theory to our findings. Helmholtz resonator and organ pipe formulas were applied to the average period of the cycle~ The results did not seem to fit the size of our cave. We attempted to apply the theories of air or water trapping. We failed to find a place in the cave that would act as a trap for water or moving air. We were unable to find an opening across which the wind might blow with force. The drill shaft itself was located within a metal farm building and was not subjected to the direct force of the wind. The cave waterfalls seemed to be inadequate sources of resonant energy for the air in such a large system. We finally turned out attention to sources of variable pressure lying outside the cave. We found a body of meteorlogical studies that matched quite well the waves we were recording at Coldwater. Our periods corresponded with those generated by long acoustic waves in the atmosphere. There are two distinct regimes of internal waves on the dispersion diagrams. (I follow the nomenclature of Beers.) One regime exists with a period less than the acoustic cut-off frequency of Vaisala-Brunt. This is a frequency at which air will not support a traveling wave with a vertical component. These are identified as acoustic waves. The second regime consists of long period waves lying above the isothermal Vaisala-Brunt frequency. These low-frequency, long-period waves are the internal atmospheric gravity waves.

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Slow waves originating in the jet stream 10 to 20 km. high. Convection waves from heating and cooling of the atmosphere. Nearby weather systems. Semi-diurnal and diurnal tides. Origin from ocean waves ,during storms at sea Fast waves from geomagnetic polar storms in the ionosphere and below. Earthquakes. Volcanic eruptions. Many other sources. No waves 24 hours 900 sec. 306 sec. 40-80 sec. or more 3600 sec. Subsonic Atmospheric Waves Period 4-7 sec. ~ Microbaroms I First Regime nonperiodic waves due to turbulence Daily variations Vaisala-Brunt discontinuity II Second Regime Trophospheric gravity waves. More uniform sinuoidal waves generated in areas of turbulence. More irregular waves Bibliography Faust, B., An Unusual Phenomenon: NSS Bull. 9, p. 52, Spet. 1947. Cournoyer, D.N., The Speleo-Barometer Bull. 16 of NSS, Dec. 1954, p. 91. Dunn, J.R., Casparis Cave: Speleo-Digest, p. 1-90, 1956. Schmidt, V., The Ins and Outs of Breathing Cave: Netherworld News, p. 236, Nov. 1958. Plummer, W.T., The Breathing Phenomenon: Balti, Grotto News, p. 2, Jan. 1960. Eckler, A.R., Speleo-Digest, 1963. Nigh, D., Winds of the Netherworld: Karst Kaver 4 (3) 5-9, Speleo-Digest, 1970. Cook, R.K., Atmospheric Soudn Propagation, p. 633, Vol. 2 of Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Panel on Remote Atmospheric Probing, Jan. 1969. Beers, T., Atmospheric Waves: New York, 1974. Conn, Jan and Herb. N.S.S. Bulletin. Acknowledgments The engineering was done by Jim Klager and Tom Backer, Barber-Colman assisted. Thanks to librarians Nancy Dale and Bill Torode, typist Jean Friske, and members of the Coldwater Cave Project. most "breathing" caves with a period over 306 seconds are of this type. Coldwater Cave acts like a microbarometer. It has a large well-insulated air chamber. It has slow leaks to the outside air. These maintain the internal pressure in near equilibrium with outside pressures when barometric changes are slight. It has a tube in which air motion can be measured. The Conns demonstrated that much major air movement in and out of caves was of barometric origin. We show that minor air movement is also possibly associated with slight changes in the pressure of the outside air. Second Regime Internal Atmospheric Gravi ty Waves Period over 306 seconds. Velocity below 333 m/sec. These waves are seen almost continually but at irregular intervals when the cave is "breathing". They are generated by the jet stream. This band of rapidly moving air flows across mid-American much of the year. It may be 200 km. wide, 5 km. thick and a thousand km. long. It is approximately 10 km. high. It swings its position, divides, converges and dips in unpredictable ways. It is tipped or tilted from South to North. It is often associated with storm fronts, tornados and clear air turbulence. A series of waves are generated at right angles to the direction of the jet stream. They advance along the ground as a plane wave with the jet stream flow. These slower moving waves are weakened by wind and temperature changes. They rarely carry over 200 km. They may be recorded for weeks or months from a suitably located station. Similar waves of somewhat longer period may be generated by local storm fronts. This regime blends imperceptibly with variations cause by convection movements from heating and cooling of the atmosphere. It shows the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides. This type of wave was also recorded by Don Cournoyer at Breathing Cave as seen in his article on The SpeleoBarometer in the NSS Bulletin. It would appear that First Regime Acoustic Waves (Subsonic or Infrasonic Atmospheric Waves) Period below 306 seconds. Velocity over 333 m/sec. They may reach 500 to 740 m/sec. Waves of this type are constantly found on microbarographs tuned to this frequency. They are increased in amplitude during periods of high geomagnetic activity. They are the background "noise" of the meteorologist and originate primarily in the outer layers from turbulence induced by solar ratiation. This regime also registers waves of great interest to the meteorologist. These include atmospheric waves caused by earthquakes, volcanic explosions, auroral discharges, tornados and meteorites. It includes such man-made noises as large explosions, rocket and satellite firing and reentry. It even records the firing of large guns, traffic noises and surface winds. Waves may travel long distances at high speeds. They may be channeled between atmospheric layers. It would appear that most "breathing" caves with a period of less than five minutes were responding to atmospheric waves of this type. A good example was recorded by a team led by Don Cournoyer to Breathing Cave. This was published by Morre and Sullivan in Speleology The Science of Caves. These waves originate"""'Iilauroral or lower atmospheric waves or objects traveling at suprasonic speeds. They may appear in groups. Continuous sinusoidal wave forms from a harmonic source sar rarely if ever seen. Waves from secondary sources are best seen on superimposed records from an array of microbarographs. These give much information on the wave itself and eliminate artifacts due to local conditions. 90

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Carbon Dioxide in Coldwater Cave Warren C. Lweis, M.D. 119 N. Church Street, Rockford, Illinois, 61101, U.S.A. Abstract Levels of carbon dioxide gas are higher than normal in the atmosphere of Coldwater Cave. Readings from 0.5% to 2.5% are not uncommon in the mainstream passage. Elevated readings are associated with a lowering of the oxygen content. From our experience on many trips into the cave, we have learned to recognize the signs and symptoms of CO 2 toxicity. This has allowed us to accomplish much work in the cave even at times when the air was of poor quality and to do this with an adequate margin of safety. Rtisumti Le pourcentage de gaz carbonique dans une atmosph~re de "Coldwater Cave" est dtifinitivement au dessus de la normale. Des valeurs allant de 0.5% a 2.5% ont titti obtenues dans le conduit principal, et ces tiltivations sont associties A une baisse de contenu en oxyg~ne. Apr~s avoir titti dans la cave en plusieurs occasions, nous avons finalement appris A bien reconnaitre les signes et symptomes associtis A la toxicitti du gaz carbonique. Ceci nous a permis de travailler plus longuement et avec une suffisant marge de sticuritti meme pendant des ptiriodes 00 l'air environnant a titti impur. Carbon dioxide is one of the most common pollutants of air of caves. It is heavy and inert. It will neither burn nor support combustion. Being 1.53 times as heavy as air it tends to collect in low areas in caves. In such locations the oxygen content of the air may be greatly reduced. Carbon dioxide has a direct effect on the respiratory center of the brain. At modest elevations there is stimulation of the respiratory center causing rapid, deep breathing. At higher levels the respiratory center is inhibited and breathing is slowed. The burning of matches, candles and the acetylene of carbide lamps may be affected at higher levels. The carbon dioxide most commonly encountered in caves is a product of the decomposition of organic material. It is commonly found in soil where it is produced by organic processes. It is produced in many chemical and physical reactions of limestone. It is released from seepage water in the deposition of calcium to make cave formations. It is given off by soda springs and from other geothermal waters. It may be a product of volcanic activity. The respiration of animals, especially bat colonies, produce significant amounts of carbon dioxide. Almost any organic substance especially when it is decomposed in the presence of oxygen can be a source of this gas. Of the breakdown processes perhaps that of fermentation is one of the oldest known. The Roman writer Pliny, the Elder, knew of the toxic gas from fermentation of grapes. He warned that before a person be allowed to enter a wine vat, a lighted candle should be lowered into it to see whether or not the air was fit to breathe. He died in the "bad air" of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. Tamozzini in 1713 warned that grain stored in underground places in Tuscany gave off a gas the might cause death to a person entering there. McNally in 1937 noted that CO 2 was often the cause of death of persons entering wells, caves or other low-lying or confined spaces. Coldwater Cave lies under a broad expanse of rich Iowa farmland. Every rain brings fresh mud and fine organic debris into the cave from the fields and temporary waterways. It is deposited as mud banks along the stream and its tributaries as the high water recedes. It settles out in the stream bed wherever there is slow flow or standing water. The degradation of the organic debris in the soil by bacteria, molds and fungi is apparently the chief source of carbon dioxide in Coldwater Cave. The levels of carbon dioxide are highest in the warm months of the year. The reason for this is unclear. The temperature of the air 48¡F and water 47¡F in the cave remain almost constant throughout the summer and winter. One exception is a rapid drop in water temperature due to rapid influx of rain water or snow melt. We believe the carbon dioxide rise has to do with the greater availability of the organic substrate with the spring and summer rains. Concentrations of the gas vary from one part of the cave to another but no definite pattern has been found. In general the highest concentrations are found in crawlways in which no air movement can be detected. Some caving teams have reported high levels in the far downstream portion of the cave because it lies at a slightly lower altitude than the rest of the cave. Coldwater is basically a horizontal dendritic stream cave so few low areas exist. The mainstream drops about 3 meters per kilometer. All side passages rise from this level. Fifty domes or dome pits are present but all extend upward from base level. If carbon dioxide moves down the mainstream passage, the movement must be slow because of the low gradient. The 91 role of the stream in solution and transportation of carbon dioxide is unknown. The formation of carbon dioxide from vegetation uses oxygen in most of the biologic processes. When this occurs in a closed space, there is a reduction in the level of oxygen. In Coldwater, a rise of 1% in the level of carbon dioxide is associated with a drop of almost 1% in the oxygen level. Almost all the signs and symptoms are a combination of the effects of changes in the levels' of these two gasses. The air in Coldwater Cave is undergoing constant change with outside air. When the shaft is opened, there is almost always an immediate movement of air in or out of the cave. When National Weather Service maps show a high pressure weather system lying over the cave, the air will be entering the cave sometimes at a rapid rate. The cave is said to be sucking air. When a low pressure system is passing, the cave will be blowing air. If such a system is stable, then over a period of several days a large volume of air will enter or leave the cave. The entrance of outside air lowers the level of carbon dioxide in the cave especially near the shaft opening. The major barometric changes act as a pUmp to remove carbon dioxide from the cave. The per cent of air exchanged at anyone time is small though the volume of air exchanged may be large. Under extreme shifts of barometric pressure, for example from 29.5 to 30.5 mm. of mercury, one thirtieth of the cave air might be exchanged This will depend on the size of the cave openings and the duration of the pressure system. Coldwater Cave is lacking in large openings to the surface. Air exchange in the main passage is retarded when the shaft is closed. On two occasions a heavy rain has caused a rapid change of cave air. The reason for this is not clear. Few horizontal stream caves present problems with bad air. The lower portion of Mystery Cave, Perry County, Missouri above the downstream sump is one that accumulates high levels of the gas. Many pit-type caves are known to have high C02' These include Cave Canem and Anderson Pit in Clayton County, Iowa and Level Crevice, Dubuque, Iowa. Culvert Cave, Perry County, Missouri, Bad-Air Cave in Arkansas, Vanishing River Cave, Colorado and Gorman Falls Cave, Texas have air that restricted exploration. Many of the large Texas bat caves have high CO 2 levels when the bats are present. The air in the nursery chamber of Frio Cave will not support the flame of a carbide lamp. Avoid Webb Cave, Margarite Cave, 10 Mile Cave, Kyser Cave, Longhorn Bad Air Cave and Snelling Cave. In Twiggs Cave, West Virginia, a rescue was effected under extremely difficult conditions because of the presence of high levels of carbon dioxide. Bugnonia Caves in Australia have extremely high levels. Special technique and apparatus have been devised by local caving groups to allow exploration and study of these caves. The cave literature reports a number of harrowing experiences from CO 2 One rescue was necessary in an atmosphere of only 0.5%. Another rescue was mentioned that might have had very serious consequences. See reports by Julia M. James and others. In some pits the drainage area and organic debris carried into the cave seem inadequate to account for the high levels of carbon dioxide. One might suspect that such pits were part of a deeper and more extensive cave system. Atmospheric pressure changes may bring the carbon dioxide into the upper level pits from deeper levels depending on the geometric configuration of the cave. High CO 2 levels may be a helpful clue to persons who are search1ng for an unknown cave. We enter Coldwater Cave through a 94 foot shaft with a fixed ladder installed. A corrugated metal farm building has been constructed over the shaft. This building has been fitted with bunks and furniture for use of the

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CO 2 is felt more keenly by some persons than It seems to be more toxic to those in poor condition. Each person entering the cave must of the possible effects of high CO 2 and low 02 Table of Estimated Values of Combined High CO 2 and Low 02 Levels. Bibliography Halliday, William R. The Texas Caver, Vol. VI, Bad Air Caves. Hazard of Carbon Dioxide J.A.M.A. Dec. 13, 1958. The Intercom, Vol. V Iowa Grotto Bad Air in Cave Can~ James, Julia M. Trans. British Cave Research Assoc. Dec., 1977 Carbon Dioxide in Cave Atmosphere. Report on Coldwater Cave Iowa Geological Survey Dec., 1974. Russell, William H. The Texas Caver, Vol. VI, Bad Air Caves of Texas. Schaeffer, Karl E. Ind. Med. & Surg. Acclimatization to C02 Jan., 1963. Troisi, F.M. Brit. J. Ind. Med., Vol. 14 Delayed Death from CO 2 Williams, H.I. Brit. Med.,J. C02 Poisoning Oct., 1958. Wood, G. Arkansas Caver, Vol. 4 Bad Air Pit. CO 2 ¡2 0.03 20.9 0.5 20.5 Mildly toxic. 1.0 20.0 2.0 19.0 Moderately toxic. 3.0 18.0 Outside air. Severe symptoms. Carbide lamp, poor. Carbide lamp, out. Most cavers tolerate this well. No equipment problems. Weakness common with exertion. Crews are able to work. Candle burns poorly. Shortness of breath at rest or with minimal exertion. Other symptoms. Candle, matches, propane lighter will not stay lit. Some persons get nauseated and weak. This is the level set by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the upper limit allowable for an 8 hour day. 16.0 Highly toxic. 11.0 Rapidly lethal. 5.0 10.0 cavers. We used to leave the shaft open when caving teams were in the cave. We woke up some mornings with a headache. Our oil stove would not work properly, perhaps for a number of reaSOns. One evening our trip coordinator could not light his cigarette. He used up a whole pack of matches unsuccessfully. He finally stepped outside and lighted it with the first match. The cave was blowing air. After that we kept a plexiglass cover on the shaft. We had unwittingly been exposing ourselves to the toxic atmosphere when the cave was blowing. On only one or two occasions carbide lamps gave trouble due to bad air in the cave. One member reported that his burned with a long smoky yellow flame. His lamp went out in about twenty minutes. This is a warning sign. The water had been used up. Usually there is no lamp trouble even on long trips in bad air. One early symptom of CO 2 intolerance is nausea. The most common is shortness of breath. One will find that he is panting from only mild exertion. Experienced cavers can estimate the degree of "bad air" by the effort it takes to travel at a normal pace. Some get headaches. It is not uncommon to get a headache after coming out of the cave. These are due to vasoconstriction and dilitation of cerebral blood vessels. These are usually relieved by aspirin or its compounds. We have not seen symptoms of severe toxicity. Some Twiggs Cave rescue team members vomited repeatedly while working in the crawlway. Another became confused. He stared at his Gibbs ascender for twenty minutes before he could turn it over to put it on the rope. Disorders of thinking may assume any form. Twitching and shaking have been described. Others get dimness of peripheral vission. Air hunger is .almost universal. Fatigue sets in rapidly. Discoordination is common. The primary treatment is to remove the victim to the outside air. If this is impossible, he may be given oxygen or air to breathe. Oxygen should not be continued any longer than necessary. Gas masks filled with fresh soda lime will remove CO 2 Air hunger will remain. This can be temporarily relieved by a few whiffs of oxygen. Only experienced rescue personnel should operate such equipment except in extreme emergency. If a visitor of novice caver feels sick, he is escorted out of the cave. Experienced cavers try to estimate the degree of bad air and plan the trip accordingly. In spite of elevated CO 2 the goals of the work have usually been accomplished, even in 12 or 15 hour trips. On only a few occasions trips have been cut short. Low others. physical be aware levels. Acknowledgments Thanks to Nancy Dale, librarian and Jean Friske, typist for their assistance. 92

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Stygobromus Canadensis. A Troglobitic Amphipod Crustacean from Castelguard Cave, with Remarks on the Concept of Cave Glacial Refugia John R. Holsinger Dept. of Biological Sciences. Old Dominion University, Norfolk. Virginia 23508. U.S.A. Abstract Stygobromus canadensis, the first troglobitic amphipod recorded from Canada, wa~ discovered in Castleguard Cave 1n 1977 and described in 1980. The species is not closely related taxonom1cally to any other member of the genus. In addition to ~. canadensis. 11 other subterranean amphipods (9 in StrgObrOmUs; 2 in Bactrurus) occur in glaciated areas of North America and 6 are local endemics. Several spec es of subterranean isopod crustaceans (Asellidae) occur in glaciated parts of North America as well, including Salmasellus steganothrix, which is also found in Castelguard Cave. The occurrence of small, subterranean crustaceans with limited powers of dispersal in isolated ground water biotopes in areas formerly covered'by Pleistocene glaciers poses some interesting biogeographic questions. Did these species migrate northward following retreat of Pleistocene ice sheets as some workers have suggested. or were they established there prior to glaciation and thus able to su~vive a part of the Ice Age in subglacial refugia? There is now good evidence in support of a hypothesis suggesting that some species, such as ~. canadensis. which lacks close affinity with species living farther south_in_unglaciated areas. survived glacial periods in unfrozen groundwater habitats beneath the ice and have remained in the same general locality for long periods of time. The availibility of Castelguard Cave, which was previously covered by glaciers and even today remains partly covered. as a potential habitat for both amphipods and isopods for at least 155.000 years and possibly for 700.000 years is strong evidence for the theory of subglacial refugia. Zusammenfassung Stygobromus canadensis, der 1977 in der Castleguard Hohle entdeckt und 1980 beschreiben wurde. ist der erate Amphipod der in Kanada gefunden wurde .. Diese Art ist taxonomisch nicht nahe mit anderen Arten dieser Gattung verwandt. Ausser~. canadensis kommen noch 11 andere unterirdische Amphipoden (9 in Stygobromus: 2 in Bactrurus). von denen 6 in dieser Gegend endemisch sind. in vereisten Bereichen:Nordamerikas vor. Mehrere Arten unterirdischer isopoden Crustaceen (Asellidae). einschliesslich Salmasellus steganothrix der auch in der Castelguard Hohle gefunden wurde. kommen ausserdem in vereisten Teilen Nordamerikas vor. Das Vorkommen kleiner, unterirdischer Crustaceen mit begrenzten Verteilungsmachten in isolierten Grundwasserbiotopen in Gegenden. die ehemals von Pleistozan Gletschern bedeckt waren. werfen einige interssante biogeographische Fragen auf. Sind diese Arten nordwarts gewandert. nachdem die pleistozanen Eisschichten zurUck gewichen sind. wie einige Wissenschaftler andeuten. oder waren sie schon vor der Ausbildung der Geltscher dort und Uberlebten einen Teil der Eiszeit im subglazialem Refugium? Gegenwartig gibt es gutes Beweismaterial das die Hypothese unterstUtzt. welche nahelegt. dass einige Arten. wie S. canadensis der nahe Verwandschaft mit anderen. weiter sUdlich in unvereisten Gegenden lebenden Arten-fehlt. glaziale Zeiten in ungefrorenen Grundwasserhabitaten unter dem Eis Uberlebt haben und in diesem Standort fUr lange Zeitperioden geblieben sind. Starkes Beweismaterial dieser subglazialen Refugium Hypothese kommt von dem Vorhandensein der Castleguard Hohle. die vorhergehend mit Gletschern bedeckt war und sogar heute noch teilweise vereist ist den Amphipoden und Isopoden die dort ein potentielles Habitat seit weningsten 155 000 Jahren und wahrscheinlich sogar seit 700 000 Jahren haben. Introduction Troglobitic and/or phreatobitic organisms (i.e obligatory cave and/or groundwater species) are rarely found in glaciated areas of the northern hemisphere. and it is generally assumed that subterranean faunas which might have existed there prior to the Pleistocene were subsequently extirpated by the effects of glacial or periglacial conditions (Vandel, 1965). In North America only a small number of subterranean amphipod and isopod crustaceans are recorded from glaciated regions, and most workers have attributed their presence there to postglacial dispersal from the south (See Holsinger. 1980). In Canada. which was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, troglobites or phreatobites were unknown (see Fenton et al., 1973) until the recent discovery of a subterranean isopod. Salmasellus steganothrix, in Alberta (Bowman, 1975; Clifford and Berstrom. 1976). Shortly thereafter, a subterranean amphipod, ~bromus canadensis, was collected from Castleguard Cave in Alberta (Holsinger, 1980). More recently, a second subterranean amphipod was found in a spring near Rocky Mountain House in Alberta (Bousfield and Holsinger, in ms.). The discovery of these subterranean crustaceans is of great interest zoogeographically, not only because they are the first phreatobites reported from Canada. but because they occur in glaciated areas farther north than any other subterranean species in North America. At present a total of 12 subterranean amphipod species (2 in Bactrurus, 10 in Stygobromus) are recorded from the region north of the southern limit of glaciation in North America, and 7 of them do not occur outside of glaciated areas (Fiy. 1). In addition to ~. steganothrix; several species of subterranean isopods also occur in the glaciated region (see for example. Peck and Lewis, 1977). Observations In two recent papers (Holsinger, 1978, 1980) I suggested that under certain conditions some subterranean species might have survived extended periods of glaciation in deep groundwater refuge beneath the ice, and that their present ranges have not resulted from northward migration since Wisconsin time but instead probably reflect very old, preglacial distribution. 93 This theory was discussed in greater depth in my 1980 paper and the arguments in favor of the hypothesis are summarized as follows: (1) a significant number of amphipod species living at present in glaciated areas are local endemics and some are only distantly related taxonomically to species living in unglaciated areas. (2) it is improbable that tiny, hypogean crustaceans would have migrated great distances northward in the relatively short period of time since the Wisconsin glacial age. (3) the fact that groundwater remains unfrozen beneath glaciers depending on depth and is thus potentially available for colonization by subterranean crustaceans. (4) the occurrence of certain species of crustacenas beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. 475 km from the open Ross Sea in Antarctica. (5) the low metabolic rate, slow growth rates. reduced energy budgets and tolerance for lowered water temperature of hypogean crustaceans which might allow for their extended existence in an austere. subglacial environment, and (6) Castleguard Dave. itslef. which is located in a glaciated area. is presently inhabited by both troglobitic amphipods and isopods. extends in part beneath an alpine glacier. and has apparently remained internally ice-free and available as a potential habitat for aquatic organisms for at least 155,000 years. What does a careful examination of the ranges of the 12 subterranean amphipods from glaciated North America tell us about the historical biogeography of these species? Do all of the ranges reflect old distributional patterns from preglacial ti~es or can some be attributed to postglacial dispersal? How substantial is the evidence for subglacial refugia? A brief biogeographical analysis follows. Exclucing the range of S. lucifugus. a probable synonym of s. subtilis (HolsInger. 1969). three different types of ranges are indicated by the distributions plotted in Fig. 1: (1) contiguous distributions extending north and south of the Pleistocene glacial limit (~. brachycaudus and ~. subtilis); (2) disjunct distributions not contiguous from glaciated to unglaciated areas (~. ~~.;!.. ~. alle';!heniensis and S. tenuis); ~nd (3) d1stribtu1ons restr1cted to the glaciated region (S. borealis. S. canadensis. S. iowae. ~.' ElUtealis, and undescrib"d species from Alberta--ancr

PAGE 94

Montana) Type 1 ranges. The ranges of these two sp=C'ies do not extend for more than 150 km into the glaciated regi:n; both species are more common and widespread in unglaciate
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STYGOBROMUS \ i i i i I ,. I, '. j t, 2 i ~ ," ~. j ,. ',J i '! I i ........ \ i I ".". "" ") T _. '. ~A '7,..._~ -lr.--... T -.L. _. -r-U:~ '. / '. \J \_~_-i-, .......... --.-4 '. \ ~ ; (, i \ ~ .... '_'\ (, !-. -, .. tDR1F;'J-ESS ) ._.-! ... ,' r_.,AR-"'~~/' !_ -: '", !.J ". ,. 1Jl1 .,'-._.;... I ,!-._._.-.-t I 5 .. (3-! ,. -"' ..,J, t ~.-. .,\/ "; I I I \', '. \ ~ ---:-, I \ '7'.'r \ .--_.. ""! \ \ .. __ .{. \ I i \ I ,_.-'-' \..8 i '" 'J_I .'" '. ~ I '-t-__ ,~r~, .J _._._.-.l. .J _.-., ':' I Figure 1. Geographic distribution of subterranean amphipods in North America with ranges completely or partly north of the southern limit of Pleistocene glaciation. Disjunct or single localities for species indicated by closed circles; contiguous distributions shown as solid ranges. Heavy dashed line indicates approximate maximum extent of continental glaciation. Discontinuous alpine glaciation in western mountains not shown. Stygobromus (upper map): (1) S. canadensis, (2) new sp. from Alberta, (3) new sp~ from Montana, (4) S. iowae, (5) S. putealis, (6) subtilis, (7) ~.-luCIIU9us, (8)~. tenu1s, (9) S. borea11s, (10) S. allegheniensis. Bactrurus (lower map): (1) ~. brachycaudus, (2) B. mucronatus. Map based on Seyfert and Sirkin 11973).

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A Climate Record of the Yorkshire Dales for the Last 300,000 Years M. Gascoyne Department of Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, ',Canada Abstract The Craven District of the Yorkshire Dales is thought to have been glaciated at least three times during the Quaternary period. Broken, buried and eroded speleothems in many of the caves in this area are mute testimony to major depositional/erosional cycles in the past, and are possibly related to these climatic events. Uranium-series dating of over 80 speleothems from this area, has clearly shown abundant growth in the periods 0 15 ky, 90 130 ky and greater than 180 ky (1 ky = 1000 years before present). These events can be correlated to the Flandrian, Ipswichian and earlier interglacials in the British Quaternary sequence. Periods of almost zero growth are 15 35 ky, 70 90 ky, and 140 170 ky which correspond to the Devensian and perhaps Wolstonian glaciations. Intervening cool periods are recognised by lower speleothem abundance. A detailed reconstruction of climatic variations between 170 and 300 ky has been obtained from stala~ites and flowstones from one cave. Analysis of stable isotopic variations (mainly 18 0 expressed as a 1 0c) in the calcite of these speleothems shows marked warm and cool events which can be correlated to the paleoclimate curv~ determined from marine sediments. The speleothem record also contains several very steep changes in a 18 0 c which are interpreted as rapid cooling and warming trends, occuring perhaps over periods of 2 ky or less. If these are real, then they are of the utmost importance in the prediction of future changes in global climate. Rlisumli On croitque Ie district de Craven, faisant partie des vallons du Yorkshire, fut soumis ~ au moins trois glaciations au cours du quaternaire. Des splillioth~mes brislis, enterrlis et lirodlis retrouvlis dans plusierus cavernes tlimoignent de cycles majeurs de dliposition/lirosion dans Ie passli et sont possiblement relilis ~ ces irlinliments climatiques. Le datage (par radio-isotopes de l'uranium) de plus de 80 splillioth~mes provenant de cette rligion a clairement indiquli une croissance abondante au cours des pliriodes 0-15 Ky, 90-130 Ky, et plus de 180 Ky (Ky = 1000 ans avant Ie prlisent). Ces livlinements peuvent ~tre mis en corrlilation avec Ie Flandrien, l'Ipswichien et des interglaciaires prliclidents dans la sliquence quaternaire britannique. Les pliriodes ou on remarque une croissance presque nulle sont 15-35 Ky, 70-90 Ky et 140-170 Ky, ce qui correspond aux glaciations du Devensien et peur-~tre du Wolstonien. Des drminutiens dans l'abondance des splillioth~mes sont indicatives de pliriodes fratches intermlidiaires. Une reconstruction dlitaililie des variations climatiques entre 150 et 300 Ky fut obtenue ~ partir de stalagmites et de concrlitions d'licoulement lichantillQnnlis dans une caverne. L'analyse des variations isotopiques stables (principalement Ie rapport 18 0/ 16 0) de la calcite de ces splil~oth~mes r~v~le I' existence d'livlinements ti~des et frais qui peuvent ~tre mis en corrlilation avec la courbe pallioclimatique litablie ~ partir de slidiments marins. De plus, les donnlies obtenues de l'analyse des splil~oth~mes indiquent plusieurs changements tr~s abrupts dans Ie rapport 18 0/ 16 0, interprlitlis comme ~tand des refroidissements et r~chauffements rapides se produisant en 2 Ky ou moins. Si ces changements sont v~ritables, ils rev~tent alors une grande importance dans la prlidiction de futurs changements du climat terrestre. Introduction There is almost a complete absence of surficial deposits in north-west England which are older than the last glaciation. Evidence of earlier warm and cold events in Britain can only be found south of this area, in the Midlands, East Anglia and southern England. Most of these deposits cannot be dated by radiometric methods and .so only complex and often tenuous intercorrelations and relative age determinations can be assembled, based largely on stratigraphy and floral and faunal assemblage data. In the caves of the Yorkshire Dales in north-west England, however, many ancient and modern speleothems may be found, attesting to past climatic events by their presence or absence in the cave, and their relation to clastic sediment sequences. In the last fifteen years, several workers have shown that speleothems can be used to obtain both the chronology and intensity of past climates from uranium-series dating methods and variations in stable isotopic content of speleothem calcite. These methods are reviewed by Gascoyne et al. (1978) and their climatic significance is summari zea-be low. Climate and Age Distribution Frequency of Speleothems Because speleothems require flowing water and excess bicarbonate ion in solution to grow, their very presence in a cave suggests that the climate at the time of deposition was non-glacial (so that water was not frozen as ice) and, more probably, it was mild to warm (so that the excess bicarbonate may be acquired by solution of CO 2 produced by vegetation overlying the cave). Periods of abundant speleothem growth may therefore be characteristic of a warm, interglacial-type climate, whilst periods of low or zero growth may indicate a periglacial or full-glacial climate. This type of approach has been used by Harmon et al. (1977) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and North West Territories, and by Atkinson et al. (1978) in the Mendips, England, to determine ageS-o~interglacial and glacial events in the Middle and Late Pleistocene. Climate and 18 0 Content of Speleothems Variation in 18 0 content of speleothem calcite (expressed in the notation a 18 0 c ) is a function of climate change for deposits formed in isotopic equilibrium with their drip waters. Such variations are caused1~y change in temperature of deposition and change in a 0 ~6 of the drir8water, which in turn varies in response to a shift in a 0 of the source, i.e. seawater, (due to ice accumulation or wasting on the continents) and to changes in the temperature gradient between the sites of evaporation and precipitation of the rainwater. The latter factor is not only of opposite sign to the other two, but its value may vary depending on proximity of the cave to the ocean, and vapour exchange with other air and water masses. Therefore the resulting effect of temperature change on the isotopic composition of speleothem calcite may be an inverse or a direct relationship. The sign of this relationship may be obtained by comparison of a 18 0 c of fossil speleothems from cooler periods than the present, with that of modern speleothems (present-day values will be typical of interglacial conditions). Such an approach has been used by Emiliani (1971) in southern France, Thompson et al. (1976) in West Virginia, Harmon et al. (1978) in several North American sites, and Gascoyne-e~al. (1980) in Vancouver Island. In the present study, U-series methods have been used to date over 80 speleothems collected from major cave systems in the Yorkshire Dales and their age distribution frequency is interpreted in terms of paleoclimatic variation and correlated to the British Quaternary sequence. Variations in a 18 0 c for one dated flowstone deposit are correlated to the global climatic record as determined from deep sea sediment cores. Results A. Aqe Frequencv Distribution Figure 1 shows the age frequency distribution for speleothems from caves io the Yorkshire Dales. Ages were determined by the l30 T h/ l34 U dating method. Speleothem growth frequency in the Holocene is artificially suppressed in Figure 1 because although many obviously-young speleothems were initially collected, few were dated because interest lay mainly in older deposits. The periods 90 130 ky (1 ky = 1000 years before present) and greater than 180 ky are periods of abundant growth which may be correlated with the last interglacial (Ipswichian + ?) and penultimate interglacial stages (Hoxnian ?; Cromerian ?) of the British Quaternary sequence. Lower abundance is seen between 35 70 ky, corresponding to the Upton Warren interstadial complex (35 45 ky) and earlier interstadials. Periods of zero growth are 15 35 ky and 140 170 kyo The former is well-recognised as defining the Late Devensian. glaciati~

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and the latter may be correlated with the penultimate glaciation which is regarded as the Wolstonian stage by most British workers. The low, but finite, abundance in the interval 70 90 ky indicates that full glacial conditions were not attained for most of the Early Devensian stage, in good agreement with other Quaternary evidence. B. Variations in 018 0c Seven out of eight 230 T h/ 234 U age determinations show good agreement with stratigraphy for a complex flows tone sequence about 30 em deep from Victoria Cave, near Settle. Continuous growth is found between 300 and 250 ky and from about 220 ky to 190 ky (the tope of the deposit). The break in growth shows clear erosional and clastic sediment inclusions. Most of the deposit was formed in isotopic equilibrium with its seepage water (determined bv stable isotooic analvsis of five growth layers) although one section dated at about 260 270 ky shows some kinetic isotope fractionation, prgbabl y due to evaporation of water. The variation in 01 0c along the growth axis is shown in the lower part of Figure 2. Two periods of comparable warmth to the pr~sent (determined by comparison to modern cave calcite 0 1 Dc) are seen at about 220 and 280 ky, and cooler periods occur at about 200 ky and 270 ky (although the latter is probably exaggerated by kinetic isotope effects). Excellent agreement can be seen between the speleothem record and t?S marine record, represented here by variations in 0 0c of benthonic foraminfer in cores V19-29 and V19-30 from the eastern Pacific Ocean (data from Ninkovitch and Shackleton 1975, Shackleton pers. comm.). The warm periods at 220 and 280 ky are tentatively correlated to isotope stages 7c and ge respectively and the prominent break in growth correlates to glacial stage 8. The speleothem results are realistic because there are few 'one-point' spikes in the record and good continuity of data is found for most peaks and troughs. Of special interest are the steep changes in 018 0c seen at several sites in the speleothem, suggesting rapid changes in climate, possibly occuring over 2 ky or less (determined from the observed growth rate). Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate the possibility of obtaining paleoclimate records for the Pleistocene period using U-series dating methods and stable isotopic analysis of speleothem. The results presented here, and other isotopic records will be published in greater detail elsewhere. References Atkinson, T.C., Harmon, R.S., Smart, P.L., and Waltham, A.C. 1978 Palaeoclimatic and geomorphic implications of 230Th/234U dates on speleothems from Britain. Nature 272 24-28. Emiliani, C. 1971 The-rist interglacial: paleotemperature and chronology. Science 171 571-573. Gascoyne, M., Schwarcz, H. P., and Ford, .D.C. 1978 Uranium series dating and stable isotope studies of speleothems: Part I. Theory and techniques. Tran~ Brit. Cave Res. Assoc., 5 91-111. 1980 A paleotemperature record for the mid-Wisconsin in Vancouver Island. Nature, 285 474-476. Harmon;-R.S., Ford, D.C., and Schwarcz, H.P. 1977 Interglacial chronology of the Rocky and MacKenzie Mountains based on 230 T h/ 234 u dating of calcite speleothems. Can. J. Earth Sci. 14 2543-2552. Harmon, R.S., Thompson, P., Schwarcz, ~P., and Ford, D.C 1978 Late Pleistocene paleoclimates of North America as inferred from stable isotope studies of speleothems. Quat. Res. 9 54-70. Ninkovitch, D., and Shackleton, N.J. 1975 Distribution, stratigraphic position and age of ash layer 'L' in the Panama Basin. Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 27 20-34. Thompson, P., Schwarcz, H.P., and Ford, D.C. 1976 Stable isotope geochemistry, geothermometry and geochronology of speleothems from West Virginia. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. ~ 1730-1738. 12 (f) ~ w IIO Io w L!1 8 Q.. (f) l.i. 6 o 0::: W 4 CO ~ :J Z 2 0 0 50 100 150 AGE (Ky) 200 250 300 350 Figure 1. Age frequency distribution for speleothems dated by the 230 Th /234 u method, from caves in the Yorkshire Dale~ north-west England. 97

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/ Growth hiatus. c d e ----9 ------~IO-core isotopic record speleothem isotopic record (77151) Growth -hiatus -+ V 19-29 -4.0 -3.5 -4.5 -5.0 -5.5 alBO e (o/ lXll 5.0 Figure 2. 200 220 240 260 280 300 AGE (x 10 3 y) Comparison Os a speleothem isotopic record (lower) with marine core isotopic record (upper). The position of modern 6 1 0 c is shown on the left and the numbered and lettered sections refer to isotope stages and substages respectively. 98

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Rates of Cave Passage Entrenchment and Valley Lowering Determined from Soeleothem Aqe Measurements M. Gascoyne Department of Geology, Md1aster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract Conventional techniques for determining rates of cave development and karst denudation include bedrock erosion monitors and water chemistry budgets. Because these methods are all based on measurements that describe intervals which are short relative to the age of the cave or karst surface, their applicability to different climatic regimes in the region is therefore questionable. A more realistic assessment of average local and regional erosion rates may be obtained from the ages of in situ speleothems and their relation to the cave passage and modern stream level. Uranium-series ageS-of flows tones from four caves in the Craven District, northern England, give maximum rates of passage entrenchment of 2.2 to 8 em/lOOO y over the last 300,000 y. Comparison of these ages with the present difference in levels between the speleothem and the valley floor into which the caves debouch, indicates an extreme maximum rate of valley lowering of 20em/lOOO y. A similar study of age-elevation relationships for speleothems from caves in Jamaica suggests a maximum passage entrenchment rate of 15 em/I 000 y and a valley lowering rate of 20 em/IOOO y. Although tentative, these results do suggest that limestone erosion occurs more rapidly in the tropics than in temperate climates. Rl'isuml'i L'usage de moniteurs d'l'irosion de la roche-m~re et Ie budgetage de la chimie des eaux sont par mis les techniques conventionnelles employl'ies dans la dl'itermination des taux de dl'iveloppement de cavernes et de dl'inudation du karst. Parce que toutes ces ml'ithodes sont basl'ies sur des mesures dl'icrivant des intervalles de temps courts par rapport A l'age de la caverne ou de la surface karstique, leur applicabilitl'i A diffl'irents rl'igimes climatiques est par consl'iquent douteuse. On peut obtenir une l'ivaluation plus rl'ialiste des taux d'l'irosion moyens A l'l'ichelle locale et rl'igionale en se basant sur l'age de spl'ill'ioth~mes in situ et de leur relation avec la galerie de caverns et Ie niveau moderne des sources. La dl'itermination par radio-isotopes de l'uranium de l'age de roches d'l'icoulement en provenance de quatre cavernes du district de Craven, dans Ie nord de l'Angleterre, donne des taux maximums de retranchement de galerie de 2.2 A 8 cm/lOOO ans au cours des derni~res 300,000 annl'ies. La comparaison de ces ages avec la diffl'irence prl'isente de niveau entre Ie spl'ill'ioth~me et Ie fond de la valll'ie dans laquelle les cavernes dl'ibouchent indique un taux maximum extreme d'abaissement de valll'ie de 20 em/lOOO ans. Une l'itude semblable de la relation age-l'ill'ivation dans Ie case de spl'ill'ioth~mes provenant de cavernes en Jamalque sugg~re un tau x maximum de retranchement de galerie de 15 em/lOOO ans et un taux d'abaissement de valll'ie de 20 em/lOOO ans. Bien que prl'iliminaires, ces rl'isultats sugg~rent bien que l'l'irosion du calcaire s'effectue plus rapidement sous un climat tropical que sous un climat templ'irl'i. Introduction Conventional methods available to the geomorphologist for measuring the rate of limestone erosion include solute budgets for runoff from limestone areas, solution of limestone tablets held in suspension in aggressive streams, and erosion meters clamped directly onto an eroding limestone surface. Sweeting (1972) describes results of the solutional methods and Coward (1975) has used the erosion monitoring technique in caves in West Virginia. Unfortunately, the results of all these methods are based only on periods of measurement that are short relative to the age of exposure of the limestone. Furthermore, they apply only to modern climate regimes. The effects of climate change at the site may accelerate or retard solution rates and only analyses made over periods of several thousands of years will adequately describe these effects. A method of determining more realistic rates of erosion and downcutting in karst terrains involves the measurement of ages of speleothems which are in a fixed position relative to local base levels. This is best described by an example: consider a speleothem with a basal age of 100 ky (1 ky = 1000 years before present) still in its growth position, at an elevation of 2m above a stream in a cave passageway. Providing that the stream has always taken the same route, a mean maximum passage entrenchment rate of 2 em/ky may be calculated for the 100 ky period since deposition. This method may also be used to determine rates of valley deepening, based on ages and elevations of in situ speleothems in caves located in valley walls. Atkinson et al. (1978) used this technique to interpret ages of two ancient speleothems from the Yorkshire Dales, north-west England, as evidence that most of the valley deepening occurred prior to 400 ky, and was probably caused bv an early qlaciation. Ford et al. (1981) have recently determined entrenchment rates for two areas in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, using the greatest ages obtained for speleothems in these areas. This paper presents relevant results obtained in the course of dating over 100 speleothems from caves in Jamaica and north-west England and then discusses their significance in terms of valley-deepening rates and the age of prominent landforms. Method Basal ages Sf several in situ speleothems were determined by l3 Th/ 234 U dating methods, summarized by Gascoyne et al. (1978). Estimations of the present elevationlOf~he speleothem with respect to the floor of the cave passage, and with respect to valley floor level adjacent to the cave, were made using published 99 cave surveys. Results Relatively few ancient speleothems were found still in the growth position and near to active stream passageways. Most of the older deposits were no longer in situ and it was not immediately clear where they had -----originally grown. The results for three fossil, in situ speleothems from the Yorkshire Dales and two deposits from Jamaica are given in Talbe 1. Results are also included for two other ancient deposits which were not in the growth position when collected, but whose location suggested that little vertical displacement had occurred since deposition. Discussion For the temperate caves, mean maximum passage entrenchment rates range between 2 and 8 cm/ky, whereas for the tropical caves, the rates appear to be substantially larger, from 13 to 20 em/kyo Although insufficient data are available for tropical sites, these findings are in general agreement with values of karst denudation rates for temperate (2 10 em/ky) and tropical (7 cm/ky) regions (from Sweeting, 1972, p 42). The main shortcoming in this method of determining down-cutting rates is that the erosive agent may have bypassed this section of the cave for part of the time following deposition of the speleothem, and so the calculated entrenchment rate is no longer a maximum value. It is therefore necessary to choose speleothems in cave passageways which do not contain alternative drainage routes. For most of the sites described in Table I, no alternative route for the stream is known. Kingsdale Master Cave and Ingleborough Cave are possible exceptions. The Lost John's site best demonstrates this requirement because the deposit lies directly above the stream in the 'Main Drain', a passage which acts as a master cave for several systems in that area and for which no alternative routes are known or even suspected. The remarkably low rate of entrenchment given here 2.2 em/ky) therefore appears to be a definitive result. Rates of valley down-cutting for the Yorkshire Dales may also be determined from these data. Usinq the present elevations of valley floors and cave passages containing the dated speleothems, mean maximum rates of about 10 to 20 em/ky may be determined for the valleys of Kingsdale and Chapel-Ie-Dale, for the last 350 kyo Because this period contains probably three glacial/ interglacial cycles (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973;

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Gascoyne et al., 1980), the amount of valley deepening, therefore, ranges from about 12m to 25m per cycle. If this rate can be extrapolated into Early Pleistocene times, then the minimum period required to deepen the Yorkshire Dales from the upper limestone benches to their present form, ranges from about 0.8 to 2 million years. Conclusions The use of uranium-series age measurements of ancient, in situ speleothems enables the determination of more realistic down-cutting rates than conventional methods, for the following reasons: (1) time periods approaching the age of the landform (several hundred ky) are used in the calculation rather than short intervals 0.1 ky), (2) the effect of changing climate regimes at the site are incorporated into the age-elevation method; in conventional methods only estimates can be made of the effect of climate on solution rate. Providing that optimum deposits are available, at clearly definable locations, the age-elevation method may be used either to closely determine the rate of cave passage entrenchment by a perennial stream, or to determine the relative importance of glacial and interglacial erosive power in developing a karst landscape. Coward, J.M.H. 1975 Paleohydology and streamflow simulation of three karst basins in southeastern West Virginia, U.S.A. Unpub. PhD thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Ford, D.C., Schwarcz, H.P., Drake, J.J., Gascoyne, M., Harmon, R.S., and Latham, A.G. 1981 Estimates of the age of the existing relief within the southern Rocky Mountains of Canada. Arctic and Alpine Res. 13 (1) (in press). Gascoyne, M., Schwarcz, H.P., and Ford, D.C. 1978 Uranium series dating and stable isotope studies of speleothems. Part I. Theory and techniques. Tran& Brit. Cave Res. Assoc. 5 91-111. "___________ 1980 Paleoclimate data from British speleothem and correlation to the marine isotopic record. Geol. Soc. Amer. Ann. Meet., Atlanta, Georgia. Nov. 1980, Abstracts, p. 432. Shackleton, N.J., and Opdyke, N.D. 1973 Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of Pacific core V28-238: Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 year and 10 6 year scale. Sweeting, M.M. 1972 Karst Landforms. Macmillan Press Ltd., London. I References Atkinson, T.C., Harmon, R.S." Smart, P.L., and A.C. 1978 Palaeoclimatic and geomorphis tions of 230Th/234U dates on speleothems. 272 24-28. Waltham, implicaNature Table 1. Age and elevation data with calculated down-cutting rates for caves in northwest England and Jamaica. Location Cave Type of deposit Height above Stream (m) Basal age (ky) Mean maximum down cutting rate (cm/ky) North-west Lost John's wall flows tone -2.5 115 2.2 England Cave Kingsdale re-solutioned -11 300 3.7 Master Cave roof flows tone Ingleborough flows tone 4 .> 120 3.2 Cave Easegill Caverns loose flowstone* 20 240 8.3 Whi te Scar Cave loose flowstones* ,J 20 ~ 350 5.7 Jamaica Coffee River stalagmite origi,J 10 -80 -13 Cave nally in roof of cave Oxford Cave wall flm~stone ,.. 40** 190 ,.. 20 N.B. samples were not in growth position **estimate of height above valley floor outside cave 100

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I I I I I :x ID:l1I8TI .OJ,J,OlID All:::> Aam 3:Hl dO AlH3:dOlid The Antiquity of Castleguard Cave as Established by Uranium-Series Dating of Speleothems M. Gascoyne A. G. Latham Department of Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton. Ontario, Canada and Abstract Several sections of Castleguard Cave contain abundant, massive fossil speleothem deposits. Many have been dated by the 230-Th/234-U method and, in most cases, were found to be older than 350 ky (1 ky = 1000 Y before present). Included in this group are 1) a massive in situ flowstone in the Waterfall Chamber along First Fissure, 2) a prominent indurated stalagmite projecting through the false floor in the Grottos, and 3) the base of a large flowstone boss near the start of Second Fissure. More recent deposits include a false floor overlying laminated mud in the Grottos (144 ky) and a similar veneer between Holes-in-the-Floor and Second Fissure (38 ky). It is possible to correlate these few finite ages with known warm events in the past, but the size and relative abundance of the deposits older than 350 ky suggests that they grew during a period much warmer than present, when a more extensive, temperate vegetation must have been established above the cave. Speleothems (1) and (2) above,. have been found to be magnetically reversed, indicating an age of greater than 700 ky, but probably less than 1 My from examination of their 234-U/238-U ratios. These ages clearly demonstrate the antiquity of the cave and show that 1) First Fissure, the Grottos and at least the lower part of Second Fissure were vadose by 700 ky, 2) the mud deposits along First Fissure and in the Grottos are older than 100 ky, and if of glacial origin, must therefore be from the penultimate glaciation, or earlier, and 3) the presently active (but unexplored) drainage system of the cave is likely to be very old and, therefore, well developed. R~sum~ Plusieurs sections de la caverne de Castleguard contiennent des d~pOts fossiles, abondants et massifs de sp~l~oth~mes. Plusieurs ont ~t~ dat~s par la m~thode 230-Th/234-U et, dans la plupart des cas, leur age fut estim~ a plus de 350 Ky (1 Ky = 1000 ans avant Ie pr~sent). Inclus dans ce groupe sont 1) une roche d'~coulement massive, in situ, dans la chambre Waterfall Ie long de la Premi~re Fissure, 2) un stalagmite endurci prom1nant~projetant a travers Ie faux-plancher dans les Grottes, et 3) la base d'une grosse bosse de concr~tion d'~coulement pr~s de l'origine de la Deuxi~me fissure. Des d~pOts plus r~cents incluent un faux-plancher recouvrant de la boue lamell~e dans les Grottes (144 Ky), une couche de concr~tion d'~coulement recouvrant apparamment de la boue lamell~e dans la Premi~re Fissure (110 Ky) et un couvert semblable entre Holes-in-the-Floor et la Deuxi~me Fissure (38 Ky) C'est possible d'~tablir une corr~lation entre as quelques ages d~finis et des p~riodes temp~r~es connues dans Ie pass~. Apendant, les dimensions et l'abondance relative des d~pOts exc~dant 350 Kyen age sugg~re que leur croissance prit place au cours d'une p~riode beaucoup plus chaude que Ie pr~sent, lorsqu'un couvert v~g~tal luxuriant ~tait peut~tre ~tabli au-dessus de la caverne. On a trouv~ que les sp~l~oth~mes 1) et 2) d~crits ci-haut ~taient d'un magn~tisme invers~, indiquant un age exc~dant 700 Ky, mais probablement inf~rieur a 1 My d'apr~s leur rapport 234-U/238-U. Ces ages d~montrent clairement l'autiquit~ de la caverne et montrent que 1) la Premi~re Fissure, les Grottes et au moins la partie inf~rieure de la Deuxi~me Fissure ~taient vadoses d~s 700 Ky, 2) l'age des d~pOts de boue Ie long de la Premi~re Fissure et dans les Grottes d~passe 100 Ky, et s'ils sont d'origiue glaciaire, doivent donc dater de l'Illinoien ou d'avant, et 3) Ie pr~sent syst~me de drainage de la caverne (encore inexplor~) est vraisemblablement tr~s ancien et, par cons~quent, bien d~velopp~. Introduction One of the most striking aspects of Gastleguard Cave is the presence of massive fossil flows tone deposits in many sections of the cave, which are in marked contrast to the limited growths currently forming. This would suggest that at some time(s) in the past, the climate in this area had been comparative Iv warmer than at present, with a greater vegetal activity at the surface. Over the last ten years of exploration in the cave, a comprehensive suite of samples of these speleothem deposits has been assembled for uranium series dating by several workers. Initially, little evidence of the cave's great antiquity was found, because the oldest speleothem ages obtained only extended to 150 ky (Harmon et al., 1977, Table 1). This paper reports data which clearly demonstrate the antiquity of the cave and allow better estimations of the age of the clastic sediment accumulations, and of the vadose entrenchment of the phreatic sections. Analytical Techniques Small samples (10 30 g) ~O ca~!!te from the speleothems were dated by the 2 Th/ U method, developed for speleothems by Thompson (1973) and modified and fully described by Gascoyne (1977). One sample was analysed i2 dupl~~8te, using the alternative dating technique 31Pa/ Th. Two in situ speleothem samples were also analysed to determine paleomagnetic polarity by the method described by Latham (1981). Results Radiometric ages and sample descriptions are summarized in Table 2. Over half of the ages determined ~ere found to be > 350 ky, the useful limit of the 2JOTh/ 234 U dating method. Of the remaining ages, most correlate approximately to recognised warm periods in the Late Pleistocene (100 140 ky: the last interglacial (Sangamon); 38 ky: the mid-Wisconsin interstadial). Two flowstone veneers apparently overlying laminated mud deposits in First Fissure and the Grottos, were dated as about 110 ky and 140 ky respectively (Table 2), suggesting that the mud is of pre-Sangamon age, possibly resulting from the penultimate glaciation. Most of the older speleothems analysed came from 101 massive flowstone deposits showing re-solution features, and in many cases, these deposits have been dissected by vadose streams. Paleomagnetic analysis of oriented samples from the speleothems represented by samples 77033/79014 and 77034 has shown that certainly the former, and probably the latter, are of reversed polarity, indicating a minimum age of 700 ky (the end of the Matuyama chron). The relatively low 234u/238u ratios for these deposits (see Table 2) concur ~ith this age estimation and, when compared to modern 234 u /238 u values, suggest that the deposits are < 1 MyoId. These results indicate that: 1) First Fissure and the Grottos were de-watered and partially entrenched by over 700 ky ago, but from the eroded nature of speleothem 77033/79014, it is clear that the Grottos has returned to a phreatic state at least once since this time. The adjacent flowstone (79016), overlying the mud deposits which surround this ancient speleothem, is dated at about 140 ky, therefore indicating that this phreatic condition occurred prior to 140 kyo It is not clear whether the massive flowstone in the Waterfall Chamber of First Fissure (77034) was similarly innundated because the deposit may simply have been eroded and dissected by the stream inlet at this point. 2) Second Fissure was de-watered and probably entrenched by at least 350 kyo No paleomagnetic data is currently available for the deposits in this section of the cave although it is likely that at least the lower part of Second Fissure was de-watered by 700 ky because of the proximity of the deposit of this age in the Grottos. Some clastic sedimentation prior to 38 ky is indicated near the Holes-in-the-Floor, by the flowstone currently forming a raIse floor (77036) in this area. 3) Significant vadose development by 350 ky is also indicated in the farther reaches of the cave, from the flowstone (77031) collected from the aven just upstream of the Big Room and the eroded flowstone (80025) in ~ in the passage below the Crutch. Summary and Conclusions The results summarized in Table 2 and the paleomagnetic data, clearly demonstrate the antiquity of

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Castleguard Cave, indicating that most of the cave was de-watered, entrenched by vadose streams, and had become a site of active speleothem deposition, over 350 ky, and in places over 700 ky ago. It is therefore likely that the main drainage of the area, which has abandoned the known cave for up to 700 ky or more, will be found in well-developed passages, at a lower level. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Peter Smart in recovering speleothem samples for paleomagnetic analysis, and Dr. Derek C. Ford and Dr. Henry P. Schwarcz for use of equipment in the analysis of speleothem samples. References Gascoyne, M. 1977 Uranium-series dating of speleothems: an investigation of technique, data processing and precision. Tech. Memo. 77-4 Dept. of Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Onto Canada. Harmon, R.S., Ford, D.C., and Schwarcz, H.P. 1977 Interglacial chrono!ogy of the Rocky and MacKenzie Mountains based on 30 Th /234 u dating of calcite speleothems. Can. J. Earth Sci. 14 2543-2552. Latham, A.G. 1981 The paleomagnetism;-rock magnetism and U-Th dating of speleothem deposits. Unpub. PhD Thesis, McMaster Univ. Hamilton, Onto Canada. Thompson, P. 1973 Procedures for extraction and isotopic analysis of uranium and thorium. Tech. Memo. 73-9, Dept. of Geology, M~~aster University, Hamilton, Onto Canada. Table 1. Sample descriptions, analytical data and 230 Th /234 u ages of speleothems from Castleguard Cave (from Harmon et al. 1977) Speleothem Location and description Analysis U con. 234 u 230 Th 230 Th Age Ienumber number (ppm) 238 u 232 Th 234 U (ky) 73008 bulk sample of fs from de-3 2.6 1. 08 42 0.405 57 2 posit in First Fissure 73009 top layer of short sg from -3 5.0 1.33 >1000 0.012 0.5 Camp I basal layer of same -4 19.1 1.34 35 0.024 3 0.2 73010 top layer of sg growing on -7 2.5 1. 09 26 0.58 92 3 eroded boss in Grottos basal layer of same -6 2.5 0.08 159 0.75 147 12 73011 bulk sample of edge of sg -2 8.7 1. 34 68 0.69 120 6 found loose at base of 80 feet pitch 80501 bulk straw sc from end of -1 3.3 1.54 17 0.05 6 0.7 Holes-in-the-Floor 80502 bulk sc from Ice Passages -1 15.4 0.82 >200 0.11 13 80503 bulk sc from Pools -1 2.4 1. 65 >200 0.06 7 0.6 fs flows tone sg stalagmite sc stalactite Table 2. Sample descriptions, analytical data and 230 Th /234 u ages of recent collections of speleothems from Castleguard Cave. Speleothem number 77031 77032 77033 79014 77034 77035 Location and description Analysis U conc. 234 U 230 Th 230 Th Age Ienumber (ppm) 238 u 232 Th 234 u (ky) base (?) of loose fs from -1 4.16 1.036 330 0.964 332.0 +> 34.7 bottom of aven upstream of 44.4 Big Room base of loose 15cm long sg -1 2.62 1.401 202 1.080 >350 from bottom of 80 foot pitch top of same -2 2.51 1.362 274 0.995 277.8 + 26.1 21.6 duplicate of -2 -3 1.334 430 >350* top layer of youngest secB-1 1. 96 1.065 105 0.982 >350 tion of massive eroded sg in Grottos approximately equivalent B-1 2.34 1. 067 61 1.019 >350 sample to 77033 B-1 top layer of huge eroded fs A-I 1. 07 1.117 33 1.007 >350 boss at Waterfall Chamber, First Fissure base of same F-l 1. 66 1. 057 35 1.066 >350 base of large eroded sg boss -1 2.16 1. 087 58 1.053 >350 in Second Fissure 102

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Table 2 continued Speleothem number 77036 77037 79011 79012 79016 80024 80025 Location and description piece of 1.Scm thick fs forming false floor between Holes-in-Floor and Second Fissure (appears to overlie mud deposits) top layer of loose fs block in Helictite Passage, near 80 'pitch base of 3cm thick veneer of fs apparently overlying mud deposits in First Fissure top (?) layer of loose fs in floor of inlet into Helictite Passage basal layer of same top layer of Scm thick false floor in Grottos, upstream of cave pearls pool (overlies most of mud deposits) piece of fs forming false floor in narrow passage below Big Room top layer of eroded fs boss in passage below Crutch Analysis number -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 A-I U conc. (ppm) 4.13 1.90 0.99 1.34 1.52 1.03 3.11 2.00 0.368 1.172 1.270 1.102 1.075 1.221 1.113 0.090 61 >1000 11 635 116 19.1 134 161 0.300 0.107 0.654 0.916 1. 027 0.759 0.683 0.987 Age t le; (ky) 38.0 t 1.5 >350 109.3 + 3.6 3.5 242.8 + 22.0 18.4 >350 144.0 + 6.6 6.3 121.1 + 6.2 5.8 >350 231 pa /230 Th date ** decreases to 99.5 + 4.0 if corrected for detrital thorium contamination using (230 Th /232 Th )o 1.5 3.9 fs = flows tone sg = stalagmite Mathematic Simulation of "Thermic" Airflow in Complicated Dynamic Caves Antonin Jancarik Institute of Geology and Geotechnis, Prague Abstract There are three basic causes of airflow in dynamic caves: different weight of air columns at different temperature (thermic airflow) changes of air pressure in free atmosphere (baric airflow): airflow in free atmosphere (dynamic airflow). In this contribution a mathematic simulation of airflow generated by different weight of air columns at different temperatures (thermic airflow) is described. Air temperature in cave from heat balance of system "air-wall" is computed. The surface temperature of wall using this balance, changes of temperature in free atmosphere and geothermic gradient is computed. Friction forces are expressed by the aerodynamic resistance. For airflow nets aerodynamic modification of Kirchhofs laws are used. System of equations by a numerical integration is computed. This model on caves of Koneprusy (Bohemian karst, Czechoslovakia) on a simulation of microclima before opening for public partly, for a simuation of microclima changes after opening a new entrance partly was aplicated. Rl!suml! L'l!coulement de l'air dans les cavernes dynarniques et causl! par trois raisons fondarnentales: poids diffl!rent des colonnes de l'air A templ!rature diffl!rente (l!coulement thermique): changements de la pression de l'air dans l'atmosphere libre (l!coulement barique): l'l!coulement de l'air dans l'atmosph~re libre (l!coulement dynamique). On dl!crit le modelage mathl!matique des courants de l'air, provoques par Ie poids diffl!rent des colonnes d'air A templ!ratures diffl!rentes (l!coulement thermique). La temperature dans la caverne (grotte) est calcull!e A partir du bilan thermique du syst~me "air taille". Pour les calculations de la templ!rature superficielle des tailles, on utilise Ie bilan mentionnl!, les changements de la templ!rature de surface et Ie gradient gl!othermique. Les forces de friction sont expriml!es A l'aidede la rl!sistance al!rodynarnique. Pour les points nodaux des courant de l'air, on utilise les modifications al!rodynarniques des lois Kirchhoff. La solution du syst~me de ces l!quations est rl!alisl!e par intl!gration numl!rique. Le mod~le dl!crit a l!tl! appliqul! A la situation concr~te des grottes de Kon~prusy (Le karst bohl!mien, Tchl!coslovaquie) pour Ie modelage des conditions climatiques avant l'ouverture des grottes pour Ie public et pour la calculation des changements du climat aprl!s l'ouverture envisagl!e d'un nouvel acc~s public. 103

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Morphogenesis and Sedimentology in a Quebec Cave: The "Speos de la Fee" (Matapedia) Camille M. Ek Universite de Li~ge, Belgium Abstract The "Speos de la Fee" has a total known length of 1000 ft. The main passage-way is a long "tube" dipping at 20¡. The upper end of the tube is connected to open air by a 15 ft pit. The cave study gives rise to two major problems. At first, the entrance pit now opens on to the open air, at its upper end, on a small hill: there is thus to-day no drainage area at all, and one can wonder how water and sediments could reach the entrance pit. Secondly, the sediments in the "tube" indicate a downward stream, but scallops on the wall show an upward current. The sedimentological study gives the main outlines of a solution to these problems. The sediments are partly derived from a till and the cave was for the main part hollowed out before the end of the last glaciation. Resume Le Speos de la Fee a un developpement total de 300 m. La galerie principale de la grotte est une longue conduite forcee cylindrique en forte pente qui s'ouvre A l'exterieur par un puits aboutissant A l'extremite la plus elevee du "tube". Deux probl~mes majeurs se posent lorsqu'on etudie la grotte: Ie puits s'ouvre A l'exterieur, A son extremite superieure, sur une petite eminence: son bassin d'alimentation potentiel est donc actuellement nul et on peut se demander comment l'eau et les sediments l'ont envahi. D'autre part, si la conduite forcee est partiellement cornblee de sediments venus de la surface (et qui ont donc descendu la pente de la conduite), elle presente cependant des traces de longs coups de gouge indiquant que l'eau a jadis parcouru la galerie en remontant. L'etude sedimentologique apporte une interessante contribution A la solution de ces deux problemes. Les sediments sont en partie derives de dep5ts glaciaires et la grotte a donc ete essentiellement creusee avant la fin de la derni~re glaciation. Introduction The Appalachians form the southeastern part of Quebec, and particularly the whole of Gaspe Peninsula. The "Speos de la Fee" is located in this region, at La Redemption, Co. Matapedia. This cave is the first one in Gaspe Peninsula to provide reworked glacial sediments (Ek, 1980). The field study was supported by a generous grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Canada. Geological Structure and Morphology of the Cave The Lake Matapedia Syncline displays the Silurian Sayabec Formation, which is part of the Gaspe Connecticut Valley Synclinorium (Heroux, 1975; Heroux, et al., 1977; Beaupre, 1980). The lower part of the formation includes mainly massive and stratified limestones and dolomites, and the upper part, mainly limestone nodules in a mudstone matrix. The "Speos de la Fee" is developed in this formation. It is a 1000 ft long, two-entrance cave. The geological structure is clearly expressed by the morphology of the cave: the main and most graded passage-way (the so called "galerie Ti-Panthe-Plante") is a tube dipping north at 20¡, exactly as the bedding planes (see the map, fig. 1). The part of the cave which lies in the massive and stratified limestones is much better developed than the part lying in the nodular limestone; the latter part display cave breakdowns, gelifraction talus and a very irregular morphology. Sedimentology Various minor solution forms occur at the roof of the cave (roof pendants, etc.), indicating that almost the whole of it was at one time filled with sediments. In the "galerie Ti-Panthe-Plante", running water brought silt, sand and pebbles. In the northern part ("la Grande Allee"), deposits are predominantly clayey, and related to shallow-phreatic condi tions. In the western part ("Ie Petit Speos") frost shattered talus occur. Speleothems are generally small: they consist mainly of stalagmites, stalactites and curtains; but moonrnilk is abundant. A stalactite was dated 7355 + 190 by Cl. Hillaire-Marcel (UQ 101). Three sections were studied in greater detail in the "galerie Ti-Panthe-Plante", respectively at 110, 150 and 230 ft from the entrance shaft. At the three places, the material is mainly silt and sand, but includes. pebbles at the top. These pebbles are bigger in the first section than in the second one, and in the second one than in the third one: the filling was thus corning from the entrance shaft; this is confirmed by the dip of internal bedding. The lower layers, and particularly the layers n02 and n03 in each section, consist of well-sorted stratified silt and sand; 20 to 33% of the sand grains are angular polycrystalline (composite) grains, indicating the regional origin of an important part of the material; 30 to 50% of the sand grains are calcareous. Fine sediments consist thus of a partly regional material, settled in running water, in conditions where limestone solution was slow. Sedimentological analyses have shown that the same material is abundant in proglacial 104 deposits outside the cave. The upper layers are different; bed n04, particularly, is a diamicton, including rolled pebbles in a poorly sorted matrix. Pebbles display a roundness index (following Cailleux) around 120; some of them are facetted and some display striae; more than one half of them consist of limestone or dolomite. All these features indicate a not much reworked till material. Morphogenesis The main passage of the cave (the "galerie TiPanthe-Plante") is a pressure flow tube whose dip is controlled by structure. Older stages of the history of the cave are not obvious. The entrance shaft is younger: it cross-cuts the tube. The shaft now opens at the top of a 20 ft hillock; however at the time when sediments filled the tube, the shaft must have been in a depressed area. This can be explained in three ways: 1¡) the shaft may have absorbed sediments before the last erosional phase, i.e. before the hill was etched into relief; this is not very likely, since some of the sediments of the cave were deposited at the end of the last glaciation; 2¡) the filling may have occurred when the bedrock topography was as to-day, but covered by a thin glacier, split by the hillock and featuring there a "moulin" (glacier mill) ; 3¡) the end of the last glaciation gave rise to thick proglacial deposits whose remnants are widespread in the basin of the Lake Matapedia Syncline: the filling can have occurred when the hillock was enveloped by these fluvio-glacial and lacustrine sediments, some of which are very similar to those observed in the cave. Flutes on the walls of the tube are older than the filling, since some of them are still buried under the cave fill. These flutes clearly indicate an upward flow (Roberge, 1980); water was then rising from the cave. After the filling of the tube, small-scale solution sculpture occurred on the roofs: meandering roof channels and rock pendants (see the map, fig. 1). The northern and western parts of the cave display typical features of a very slowly moving groundwater: a succession of broad and narrow passages, sculptured in spongework and displaying clay as only detrital material. Thaw floods are still active to 30 ft above the bottom of the cave. In the upper part of the cave, frost shattering is the present-day main process; it is very active near the western entrance, where limestone is nodular, and where frost action extends up to 100 ft from the entrance. Also still active to-day are the processes of water condensation on the walls and moonrnilk formation. References Beaupre, M. 1980. Le karst barre de la Redemption. Geologie. p. 37-55, in: Le karst de plate-forme de Boischatel et Ie karst barre de La Redemption. Livret-guide de l'excursion de l'AQQUA, J. Schroeder, ed. Societe quebecoise de Speleologie, Collection "Documents", 110 p.

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Ek, C. 1980. Le Sp~os de la F~e. p. 65-71 et 78-89, in: Le karst de plate-forme de Boischatel et la karst barr~ de Le Redemption. Livret-guide de l'excursion de l'AQQUA, J; Schroeder, ~d. Soci~t~ qu~b~coise de Sp~l~ologie, Collection "Documents", 110 p. Heroux, Y. 1975. Stratigraphie de la Formation de Sayabec (Silurien) dans la Vall~e de la Matap~dia (Qu~bec). Ph.D. thesis, Universit~ de Montr~al, 130 p. Heroux, Y., Hubert, C., Mamet, B., and Roux, A. 1977. Algues siluriennes de la Formation de Sayabec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 14, p. 2865-2908. Roberge, J. 1980. Les coups de gouge de la Galerie TiPanth~-Plante. p. 72-77, in: Le karst de plateforme de Boischatel et Ie karst barr~ de La R~demption. Li vret-guide de 1 i excursion de l' AQQUA', J; Schroeder, ~d. Soci~t~ qu~b~coise deSp~l~ologi~ Collection "Documents", 110 p. ," y v 20m 15 10 o Other water actions predominantly solutlOnal Scallops Chimney Spongework Rock pendants Shaft Flutes Roof channel o e vv o 00 Legend of the map A_ WATER ACTION illIIIIIJ] Pressure f low tube SPEOS DE LA FEE MORPHOLOGICAL MAP by C. M. EK B_ MECHANICAL ACTION DEVELOPED PROFILE c::J f~~~:;"""~!] Collapse and frost shattering Structural flat roof with frost shattered debris on the floor Vertical scale not exaggerated Topographical survey by D. Caron .r J. Roberge. Soc. qutibecois. de Sptiltiologie Figure 1. M:>rphological map of Specs de la Fee. 105

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Diptera in British Caves G. T. Jefferson Department of Zoology, University College, P.O. Box 78, Cardiff, CFl lXL, Great Britain Abstract Many species of Diptera have been recorded from British caves but only a few occur with sufficient regularity to be considered truly cavernicolous and these are either regular trogloxenes or troglophiles. In the cave threshold adult Diptera such as Culex pipiens, Limonia nubeculosa, and Heleomyze ~ form part of a 'parietal association'. Heleomyza serrata also occurs, sometimes in considerable numbers, far into the dark zone, but only where the thickness of rock overburden is not very great. Such occurrences present a problem: H. serrata is presumably a trogloxene since only adults are normally found, but it is not markedly seasonal-an~ mode of access is unknown. These flies represent an appreciable input of organic matter but there seems to be little direct exploitation of this by other cave animals. Trichocera maculipennis is widespread in British caves, sometimes even deep in them. Adults are usually at low density but oviposit readily on proteinaceous baits; in some caves the natural source of food is far from obvious. This species is a troglophile, as also are some sciarids and possibly some sphaerocerids and phorids. The most completely cavernicolous fly in Britain is Speolepta leptogaster; it is rarely seen on the surface but is common in caves, both in the dark zone and the deep threshold. Adults show some variation in wing venation, but there is, here, little evidence to support claims either that the larvae are predatory or may have depigrnented eyes. Resume Bon nornbre d'esp~ces de Dipt~res ont ete enregistrees provenant de grottes britanniques mais seulement quelques-unes se presentent avec assez de regularite pour etre regardees comme veritablement cavernicoloes et celles-ci sont soit des troglox~nes reguliers soit des troglophiles. Dans l'entree de la grotte les Dipt~res adultes, par example Culex pipiens, Limonia nubeculosa, et Heleomyza serrata font partie d'une 'association parietale'. On trouve aussi Ie Heleomyza serrata, parfois en grand nornbre, loin dans la region obscure, mais seulement lA ou la roche n'est pas tr~s epaisse au-dessus de la tete. De telles manifestations pres en tent un probl~me: H. serrata est probablement un trogloxene vu qu'on n'en trouve normalement que des adultes, mais son apparition n'est pas tr~s saisonni~re et sa mode d'entree est inconnue. Ces mouches representent un apport sensible de mati~res organiques muis apparemment les autres animaux cavernicoles n'en font pas beaucoup d'exploitation directe. Le Trichocera maculipennis est fort repandu dans les grottes britanniques, meme quelquefois dans les regions profondes. Les Adultes sont d'habitude A densite basse mais pondent volontiers sur les appats proteiques; dans certaines grottes leur source nature lIe de nourriture est loin d'etre evidente. Cette esp~ce est un troglophile comme Ie sont aussi certaines Sciaridae et, peut-etre, certaines Sphaeroceridae et Phoridae. La mouche Ie plus compl~tement cavernicole en Grande-Bretagne est Speolepta leptogaster; on la voit tr~s rarement A l'exterieur, mais elle est frequente dans les grottes, tant dans la region obscure que dans l'entree profonde. Les adultes presentent quelques variations de la nervation de l'aile, mais il y a, ici, peu de preuves a l'appui de l'affirmation soit que les larves sont carnassi~res soit qu'elles ont quelquefois les yeux depigrnentes. Over 120 species of dipteran flies have been recorded from caves in the British Isles, but few of these occur underground with any great regularity and the vast majority can only be considered as accidentals. There are some, however, which are found in caves with sufficient frequency to appear truly cavernicolous although even these can only be ranked as either regular trogloxenes or as troglophiles; it is very doubtful whether any dipteran occurring in Britain can be consjdered to be troglobitic although at least one species comes close to it. Matile (1970) has published a comprehensive treatment of cave diptera with an extensive bib~iography, and my intention in this paper is merely to review some of the British cavernicolous species and to discuss their status. A 'parietal association' in the original sense in which Jeannel (1926) used the term can be recognized in British caves. This is an association of species, all either insects or arachnids, occurring on the walls of cave thresholds. The composition of the association changes with the seasons but several characteristic species can be recognized. Those occurring most regularly in Britain are two spiders, Meta menardi (Latreille) and Meta merianae (Scopoli), two moths, Triphosa dubitata-TL.) and Scoliopteryx libatrix (L.), a trichopteran, Stenophylax permistus McLachlan, and three dipterans: the tipulid Limonia nubeculosa Meigen, the mosquito Culex pipiens L., and the heleomyzid Heleomyza serrata (L.). The two spiders are present throughout the year, being threshold troglophiles, but the moths and the trichopteran are regular trogloxenes, the former overwintering underground and the latter apparently aestivating. The dipterans also differ in their seasonality: Culex pipiens is usually seen in caves in winter and Limonia nubeculosa in summer; both are regular trogloxenes, but the status of Heleomyza serrata which occurs underground throughout the year .is doubtful and will be discussed shortly. Other dipterans which, although less common in British caves, also form part of the parietal association include the mycetophilid Rymosia fasciata (Meigen) and the sphaerocerids Copromyza nigra (Meigen) and Leptocera silvatica (Meigen). 106 In most British caving areas Heleomyza serrata is probably the most numerous component of the parietal association but is also occurs in the dark zone. It is not unusual to find adults in appreciable numbers I have counted as many as twelve to the square metre of cave wall far from any known entrance, but in my experience this is a reliable indication that the cave is running close to the surface at that point. They are never present in such numbers in those parts of the dark zone where the depth of rock overburden is at all great. Since only adults are found, Heleomyza serrata would appear to be a trogloxene and those occurring far into the dark zone are presumably accidentals, although how they corne to be there is far from clear. It may be that the larvae are coprophagous on the surface and burrow into the soil to pupate. Perhaps some drop into fissures with the possibility that the adults eventually emerging might find their way into any underlying cave. Unlike observers in some countries I have not found Heleomyza serrata in Bratain to be markedly seasonal in its appearance underground. Such a lack of seasonality might be taken to indicate that this species is troglophilic were it not for the fact that neither larvar nor puparia seem to be found in caves. A noticeable feature, also commented upon by Leruth (1939), is the considerable variation in size of the adults. Whatever the means by which Heleomyza serrata may gain access to parts of the dark zone, many certainly die there and represent an appreciable input of organic matter into such parts of the cave. Their dead bodies, in various stages of fungal decomposition, are often numerous on the cave walls but, curiously, one sees very little evidence of this material being utilized directly as food by the cave fauna. Nevertheless the spores eventually produced and dispersed by the fungi must make some contribution to the organic detritus which is a major source of food for cave invertebrates. Trichocera maculipennis (Meigen), one of the Trichoceridae or 'winter gnats' is widely distributed in British caves. It occurs in the dark zone and although generally more numerous in the shallower parts of cave systems, it can also be found at considerable depth. The adults are not usually very numerous, but if baits of animal protein, particularly rotting liver, are put down,

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these are often oviposited upon and yield large numbers of larvae which can be reared without difficulty. This is true of parts of caves which are otherwise devoid of abvious sources of suitable organic matter and it is not at all clear how, in the absence of artificially introduced food material, the populations manage to maintain themselves. Incidentally this is the species which Cabidoche (1968) found to have oviposited regularly on baits consisting of crusts of ewes '-milk cheese put down in the course of work on Aphaenops in La Verna, deep in the Pierre-Saint-Martin system. Trichocera maculipennis is distinctly uncommon in surface habitats and there is little doubt that it is a troglophile. Some sciarids also maintain themselves underground and are troglophilic, but the specific identity of these is uncertain and further work on them is needed. The sphaerocerid Leptocera racovitzai (Bezzi) v. microps (Duda) has been recorded from a few caves in the more southerly parts of Britain where it may be a troglophile as it is in continnental Europe. Several phorids have been found in British caves and of these one, Triphleba antricola (Schmitz), is a common and widely distributed troglophile in Europe. It is, however, quite rare in Britain and there is little evidence that it is troglophilic here. Dr. R. H. L. Disney (personal communication) considers that Triphleba antricola is part of a complex group of forms and I understand that there is considerable doubt about the precise identity of the British records. The mycetophilid Speolepta leptogaster (Winnertz) is both common and widely distributed in British caves and similar underground habitats; it occurs in both the dark zone and the deep threshold. The adults are rather short-lived and are seen less frequently than the larvae or even the pupae. Matile (1962), in a detailed account of the adult, has drawn attention to the curious variations which occur in the wing venation, particularly differences in the shape of the radial cell resulting from the variable position and length of the transverse vein which he labels R2+5. British specimens vary in much the same way, supporting Matile's view that this is not a case of geographical variation, and, as he also found, in an appreciable number of individuals the wing on one side differs from that on the other. The glistening, transparent larvae of Speolepta leptogaster must be familiar to many cavers as the species seems to be distributed throughout much of the Holarctic region. In Britain they are most often seen on bare rock walls surrounded by a few filaments of webbing attached to irregularities of the rock, apparently in a more or less random fashion. The food of Speolepta leptogaster larvae has been the subject of much discussion; they have been said to feed on guano and there have been claims, among the more recent being one by Thines and Tercafs (1972), that they are predatory. Most authors, however, have suggested that they feed on micro-organisms or general organic detritus and this accords with my observations. I have never seen any evidence to indicate that they are predatory and they certainly occur commonly in situations devoid of guano. 107 Examination of gut contents is not very helpful although fungal spores can often be recognized. The larvae characteristically sweep the head from side to side over the rock surface in what appears to be a browsing action, and it seems likely that they feed on particles of organic detritus including the micro-organisms it contains. It has sometimes been stated that the larvae of Speolepta leptogaster have depigmented ocelli (e.g. Leruth, 1030). This seems to have arisen from a misreading of Schmitz (1913) who, as far as I am aware, is the only person actually to have observed this. Of the many larvae examined he found just five devoid of eye pigment and a sixth with partial depigmentation; these were all collected on one day in 1909 near Maastricht. The only loss of pigment I have observed has been an artefact caused by certain procedures used in mounting the larvae, something specifically excluded by Schmitz. Presumable larvae with unpigmented eyes are mutant forms occurring very infrequently. Speolepta leptogaster is usually considered to be a troglophile; adults have been found above ground but only rarely, and in the more northern parts of its range. This does not preclude the possibility of troglobitic status; it would have to be shown to breed in surface habitats for that. It is true that the usual troglobite modifications are absent, at least in the adult which is heavily pigmented and has well developed eyes, but whether an animal is troglobitic or not is strictly a matter of ecology, depending on where it occurs and not on morphology. Perhaps Speolepta leptogaster is a regional troglobite, being merely troglophilic in the more northerly parts of its range. Certainly in Britain it comes nearer to being a troglobite than any other of our limited number of cavernicolous dipterans. References Cabidoche, M. (1968). Bioc~nose cavernicole de la Salle de La Verna (Gouffre de la Pierre-SaintMartin), m~thode d'~tude en milieu naturel. Ann. Sp~l~ol. 23, 667-688. ---Jeannel, R. (1926). Faune cavernicole de la France. Encyclop~die entomologigue VII, Paris. Leruth, R. (1939). La biologie du domaine souterrain et la faune cavernicole de la Belgique. M~m. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belgigue, 87, Brussels. Matile, L. (1962). Morphologie et biologie d'un Diptere cavernicole Speolepta leptogaster Winnertz (Mycetophilidae). M~m. Mus. nation. Hist. nat., S~r. A. Zool. 20, 219-242. Matile, L. (1970). Les Dipteres cavernicloes. Ann. Sp~l~ol. 25, 179-222. Schmitz, H. (1913). Biologisch-anatomische Untersuchungen an einer hBhlenbewohnenden Mycetophilidenlarve (Polylepta leptogaster Winn.). Natuurhist. Genootschap in Limburg. Jaarboek 1912, 65-96. Thines, G. and Tercafs, R. (1972). Atlas de la vie souterraine. Les animaux cavernicoles. de Visscher, Brussels.

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Choosing a Rope for SRT (Single Rope Techniques) Mike Cowlishaw Hilston, 29 Cleveland Walk, Bath, BA2 6JW England Abstract It is no longer intuitively obvious which ropes are safe for vertical caving; and with the introduction of ropes of composite construction, traditional measures of strength have become misleading. The author has used practical testing, computer modeling, and other techniques to investigate the low-stretch performance, strength, and energy absorption of most of the ropes used for vertical caving around the world. Figures on nearly twenty different "speleo" ropes are presented, and the trade-offs between the safety and other desirable characteristics of caving ropes are discussed. Also included are some practical suggestions on how the intelligent caver should choose his or her ropes, depending on the conditions under which they are to be used. Rlisumli 11 n'est plus livident de dliterminer quelles cordes sont sare pour effectuer les des centes en splilliologie; d'autre part avec l'introduction de cordes composlies de plusieurs matliriaux, les mesures traditionelles de rlisistance deviennent trompeuses. L'auteur A l'aide de testes practiques, de mod~le sur ordinateur, et d'autre techniques a analyser l'lilasticitli, la rlisistance, et la rlisistance au choc de la plupart des cordes utilislies dans la monde pour les descentes en splilliologie. Les rlisultats d'environ 20 cordes difflirentes sont prlisentlis, ainsi que les compromis entre slicuritli et autres charact~ristiques des cordes sont discustlis. Enfin l'auteur donne quelques suggestions practiques sur la fa~on dont le splilliologue intelligent doit choisir ses cordes, suivant les conditions dans lesquelles elles sont utilis~es. Introduction Cavers have always taken the breaking force of a rope to be a guide to its strength and hence its suitability for use in caving. Over the last few years however, the introduction of very low stretch ropes and ropes composed of more than one type of fibre means that the breaking force is no longer a good measure, and indeed can be very misleading. The highest stress in a rope will occur when the caver accidentally puts a shock load on a rope, for example by falling a short distance while attempting to leave the rope at the top of a prusik climb (Cowlishaw, 1977). In this event we must consider two aspects of rope safety: first, in the (small) falls possible in caving, the rope must not break; and second, in arresting such a fall the forces involved must not be so high that the caver attached to the rope is badly injured (or that his attachments to the rope fail). These qualities are called the energy absorption which is a measure of the ropes ability to absorb the energy of a fall, and the peak force which is the highest force in the rope while the fall is being arrested. My work over the last few years has shown that with the aid of a computer these figures may be estimated to an adequate accuracy from static tests of the ropes, and the results and conclusions are presented in the following sections. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Arova (Switzerland), Bridon Fibres, and Marlow Ropes for carrying out many of the tests on which these results are based; and also my employers, IBM UK Laboratories, for the computer time for analyses. The Energy Absorption of Speleo Ropes The simplest useful measure which I have been able to devise to indicate the ability of a rope to absorb energy is the "shock strength". This is the amount of energy which can be absorbed by the rope before the force in it reaches one half of the breaking force. This allows some margin for reduction in the breaking force of the rope due to knots, water, mud, abrasion, or the cutting effect of a rope passing over rock. I have chosen the 50% point as a realistic figure, although there is some evidence (Kipp, 1977) to suggest that 30% might be a safer criteria. The shock strength is a handy figure, since it may be divided by the weight of the caver (in Newtons; approximately kilograrnrnes multiplied by 10) to give the fall factor (severity of the fall) that will in the worst case produce the 50% breaking force. For example, if we have a rope with shock strength of 600 J/m, and a caver of mass 80kg, then dividing 600 by 800 gives a fall factor of 0.75. Thus a fall of 3 metres on to 4 metres of rope could produce a force which reaches half the breaking force. I have also been able to ,calculate the worst case peak force for a number of ropes. This figure is quoted for a small fall which might be expected in caving, i.e. a fall factor of 0.75. Even with this mild fall it is surprisingly easy to achieve a very high force with many of the ropes listed in the table below. A suggested maximum figure for this is 12kN. Fortunately, the figures obtained in practice will be rather lower than that shown in the table, as in small falls a significant amount of energy (30% ?) is absorbed by one's body and harness. Even so, the forces 108 which can be realised with modern low stretch ropes can be very high, and could easily exceed 8kN (1760 lbf over 3/4 of a ton). Therefore ascending/descending devices and the way you are attached to the devices should be at least this strong. Also of course the rope attachment point must be adequately strong: in most cases the only sensible way to try and ensure this is to backup every attachment. For increased safety, the slack should be kept to a minimum in the rope between the attachment points. Since true climbing in caves could result in fall factors of 1.5 or higher, low stretch caving ropes must never be used for this purpose. The high forces resulting from a severe fall would surely break the rope or the caver. Table 1 All tests refer to dry new ropes, and the columns have the following meanings: A The breaking force in thousands of Newtons. Divide by 10 to get kg force, or by 4.55 to get pounds force. Note that there is little correlation between this figure and the others. B The extension (stretch) under a force (load) of 80kg (1601b), measured according to the ISO draft specification (ISO, 1979). C The shock strength in kiloJoules per metre. This is derived from the results of a static test by setting up a computer model for each rope. Anything over 400 J/m is adequate. D The peak force expected for a small fall of F.F. 0.75. This figure includes an allowance for dynamic effects, but does not allow for energy absorption by body, harness, etc. A B C D Break Extn. Shock Peak Rope type (Nylon unless stated) Force @80kg Strg. Force kN % J/m kN llrnrn Typical climbing rope 25.00 5.0 1500 5.6 llrnrn Bluewater II 28.94 1.1 655 12.3 10rnrn'Bridon staple polypropylene 14.71 3.1 517 7.3 10rnrn Bridon Super-Braidline 27.47 3.7 783 9.6 10rnrn Bridon Super-Braid polyster 18.15 2.7 282 12.4 llrnrn Bridon Viking nylon/kevlar 16.19 1.9 175 11.1 llrnrn Columbian R.C. Goldline 25.86 8.8 1386 5.3 10rnrn Downs polyster spin. sheet 27.27 1.5 607 12.1 10rnrn Edelrid Riverdry 25.51 4.8 910 7.4 llrnrn Edelrid Speleo Superstatic 30.90 3.1 917 9.6 10rnrn Edelweiss (Yellow) 23.05 2.6 904 7.3 10rnrn Edelrid Speleo Superstatic 25.19 2.8 706 9.9 llrnrn Interalp (1979 version) 26.70 1.2 698 10.1 10.5 Marnrnut Spe leo 22.96 1.5 621 10.1 11 rnrn Mar low SRT 28.25 0.9 434 14.6 1 Ornrn Marlow 16-plai t matt 16.97 2.1 339 10.4 11rnrn Pigeon Mountain Industries 28.92 0.9 693 11.1

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The Trade-Offs Between Safety and Other Characteristics Clearly, shock strength and peak force are not the only characteristics to be considered when choosing a rope, although they are probably the most important. This section discusses most of the other characteristics, and their relationship to those described above. Abrasion resistance: This is a very important characteristic, even though most cavers take care to minimise rope abrasion. A rope with a high resistance to abrasion should be chosen if possible, and Brian Smith's results (Smith, 1980) may be used for this comparison. In general, most of the ropes listed have an adequate resistance to abrasion, though 10mm ropes, and those ropes not designed specifically for caving, should be rigged with extra care. Melting point: Nylon and polyester ropes have a melting point which is high enough for this not to be a big concern. However, a polypropylene ropes have a low melting point which means that they have a poor abrasion resistance (in dry conditions at least), and are more likely to fail when cut by an edge. It is possible, too, for a descender to reach a temperature which exceeds the me ling point of polypropylene (Eavis, 1974). For these reasons, polypropylene ropes should only be used on short wet drops, and are perhaps best avoided altogether. Resistance to chemicals: Nylon is affected by many chemicals, but especially acids. Polyester can be affected by strong alkalis. Polypropylene and Kevlar fibres are hardly affected at all by either acids or alkalis. A polyester or Nylon/Kevlar rope is probably preferable to a pure Nylon rope from this point of view. Loss of strength with use: This is a largely unexplored subject, but there is some evidence to suggest that waterproofing treatment reduces the loss of strength with use (Smith, 1980). The only ropes listed above that are treated in this way are the Edelweiss and the Edelrid Riverdry. Intuitively, a tightly braided rope should help prevent deterioration, but there is as yet no conclusive evidence of this. Sheath Slippage: This is not a significant problem once a rope has been washed or shrunk (Ramsden, 1977). Stiffness: Very stiff ropes have grown to be fashionable recently, however a stiff rope only helps for the first few metres of climbing near the ground. It is always awkward to handle, and may lead to unsafe knots. All Nylon ropes get stiff with use, and PMI and the Bridon Viking ropes are especially unpleasant to handle. Polyester ropes do not appreciably stiffen up with use, and are to be preferred in this respect. Stretch at low loads: A low stretch under body weight is highly desirable for prusiking up big pitches, and it is mainly this characteristic that identifies true epeleo ropes. However a low stretch tends to imply a low shock strength (see table), and this should be remembered. In many situations the need for increased safety must override the need for comfort and ease of prusiking. The figures shown in the table are from my tests on the ropes listed, all performed to the draft ISO standard for climbing ropes, It should be noted that the figures are for a dry rope: untreated Nylon ropes get much more stretchy when wet as a rule of thumb, double the figure shown for these ropes. Polyester ropes are hardly affected by water: add about a third to the figures in the table to allow for wet conditions. Spin: The three strand ropes (Goldline, polyproplene) spin unpleasantly if used on a free drop. None of the other ropes cause significant spin. Weight: The lighest ropes are polypropylene, followed by Nylon and then polyester. In general, good polyester ropes are about 20-25% heavier than the equivalent Nylon ropes (Eavis, 1978). There are currently no waterproofed polyester ropes, though this would help in wet conditions. 109 Diameter: All of the ropes listed have a suitable diameter (i.e., less than 12mm). The thinnest ropes are more susceptible to damage, and are psychologically less reassuring. Thicker ropes tend to be heavy. Cost: The ropes designed for cavers tend to be more expensive than more general purpose ropes, and imported ropes are more expensive anywhere. This will be relevant for many cavers especially younger ones but probably for most the cost of ropes is small compared to costs of transport and entertainment, and should not therefore be a major criteria. How to Choose a Rope No rope is perfect for all conditions, and in certain caves it may be necessary to take along several types. The choice of a rope will be governed by any or all of the factors mentioned in the last section, and by personal preference. The following guidelines are presented as an opinion only, and are based on my experiences underground with most of the ropes discussed. Some cavers will (rightly) disagree with parts of this section. For "wild" caving, big river caves, etc.: Choose a rope mainly for safety. Unless big or free drops are expected (see below) it takes a lot to beat a 3-strand climbing rope (e.g. Goldline), especially if there is likely to be any technical climbing involved. In general avoid Kernmantle climbing ropes, most are not designed to cope with the conditions experienced underground. For big (deep) drops: Use a low stretch rope (e.g. Bluewater II, Marlow SRT, PMI, Interalp) for big drops: on damp or wet drops PMI or Marlow perform best. People naturally tend to be extra careful over big drops, so the safety of a rope is less important. For drops of up to 30 metres in known caves (i.e. general vertical caving): Use any of the ropes with a shock strength greater than 400 J/m, according to personal preferences. In general avoid 3-strand, very stiff, or very thin ropes. Reliable ropes include Bluewater, Edelrid Superstatic, Marlow SRT, Mammut, and Edelweiss. Use a polyester rope if you want the best handling characteristics and/or you do many wet trips; but expect to have to carry extra weight and take care to minimise slack between attachment points. For handlines, short traverse lines, etc.: Use a stretchy rope which is easy to handle: e.g. a 3-strand Nylon. Polypropylene is worth considering, being cheap and light, but be careful of abrasion and don't be tempted to use it for "real" pitches. References Cowlishaw, M. F. The shock strength of ropes for SRT. BCRA Bulletin, November, 1977. Eavis, A. J. Results of rope tests. (Pers. Comm., 1978) Eavis, A. J. The rope in SRT caving. Trans. BCRA, Vol. 1, No.4, pp. 181-198, December, 1974. ISO. 4th working draft specifications for Climbing Ropes, International Standards Organisation, 1979 (Private circulation). Kipp, M. Paper presented at the International Speleological Congress, Sheffield, England. September, 1977 Ramsden, P. Sheath Slippage on SRT ropes. (Pers. Comm., 1977). Smith, B. J. Rope Review. Caving International Magazine, January & April, 1980, pp. 71-75.

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On Some Cave Spiders From Papua-New Guines Paolo Marcello Brignoli Istituto di zoologia dell'Universita, L'Aquila (Italy) Abstract Some general biogeographical considerations are made on the cave spiders of Papua-New Guinea and some neighbouring countries, based primarily on the material collected by Dr. P. Beron (Sofia, Bulgaria) during the British Speleological Expedition. Introduction In recent years our knowledge on the spiders living in tropical caves has greatly advanced, but still much has to be done in this field. The importance of this kind of research is considerable, not so much because of the large number of taxonomic and faunistic novelties that easily derive from it, but because of the problem of the existence, also in a tropical environment, or species adapted to a subterranean way of life. For along time it was believed that the troglobites (blind or with reduced eyes, depigmented etc.) were limited to the termperate caves in which the conditions of life are, as a whole, harsh (principally through scarceness of trophic resources) and were derived from ancestors "pushed" in the caves by climatic changes influenced by the Pleistocene glaciations. In a recent paper (Brignoli, 1980) I have exposed my own conclusions on this problem, but through lack of space, considered only the Paleartic species. What we know on the spiders living in tropical caves (or, more exactly, in caves with a tropical climate) is still not enough for coming to any definitive conclusion; a considerable number of apparently adapted speices is already know (see my review of 1973, which is not more completely up-todate) but most of these seem more soil-dwellers than true troglobites. Still, a certain number of my conclusions in 1973 are supported by the examination of these New Guinean spiders: tropical caves have a characteristic spider fauna which is more or less the same (at family or even genus level) allover the world. Review of the Examined Material As my definitive taxonomic paper shall appear much later than the present article and as some minor problems must still be cleared (through examination of tyeps, etc.) I shall abstain from using specific names (which, as most of the material is formed by species new to science, would be nomina nuda). The Beron-Chapman collection includes 43 species belongin to 15 families; for appreciating these numbers it may be noted that from the caves of Southern Mexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan), which is probably the best explored tropical region, about 76 species of 19 families are known (Gertsch, 1971, 1973a, 1977; Brignoli, 1972a, 1974), but no less than 33 of these 76 species belong to the single family Pholcidae. Of a well explored not tropical country, as Italy, no less than 200 species of 30 families are known (Brignoli, 1972b, 1981b). From this it may be concluded that no tropical country is biospeleologically sufficiently explored. A considerable number of arachnological papers of the period 1880-1910 has deal with New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, but nothing at all was known of the cave spiders of this region; it is highly unfortunate that very little is known of the smaller spiders living on the ground, in the forest-litter and undergrowth. It is therefore exteremly difficult, if not impossible, to understand how many species of this collection are truly cavernicolous. Even five blind or microphthalmic species may be litterdwellers. For the reasons already exposed, I shall limit myself to list the collected families and to make a few general notes. Fam. Dipluridae: two not adapted species, one from New Britian and another from New Guinea (a juvenile Masteria). This last genus (see Raven, 1979) includes few species living in litter and caves. Diplurids are not rare in tropical caves; some species are blind and may be troglobites. Fam. Oonopidae: three blind or microphthalmic species, all from New Guinea; they belong to the probable cosmotropical genera Ischnothyreus and 110 and Opopaea. Many blind or microphthalmic Oonopids are known (Brignoli, 1973), but all are probably litterdwellers or termitophiles. Fam. Pholcidae: eight species of four genera were collected; in the caves of the Bismarck Archipelago were found only the common not cavernicolous Pholcus ancoralis (L. Koch, 1865) and a species apparently belonging to the poorly known genus Uthina (of which only three Oriental species were known.--rnJNew Guinea were found three species each of the genera Spermophora and Trichocyclus (?). Spermophora is a rather Ethiopian Oriental element, many African species are known from caves and, according to Gray (1973) also two Australian species are cavernicolous. Of the three collected species one (represented unfortunately only by a juvenile) is blind. From my experience the Spermophora are quite common in the tropics on the undergrowth of well preserved forests. What I call Trichocyclus (a poorly known genus, of which only one Austra11an species was known) is probably identical with the psilochorus or Physocyclus of the other authors; many individuals of each of the three species were collected in different caves, it can be therefore concluded that members of this genus are normal components of the cavernicolous communities of New Guinea. Fam. Araneidae: two closely related species of a genus still not identified were found in some caves of New Guinea and New Britian; until now no species of this family (from which I separate the Metidae) may be considered troglophilous. Fam. Metidae: two closely related species of a genus provisionally identified with the exclusively Oriental Neohrolochus were found in many caves of the Bismarck Arc 1pelago and a few of New Guinea; to this family belong Meta and Metellina which are quite common in the European caves, Gray (1973) noted the presence of some unmodified Orsinome in Australian caves. The finding of comparatively large orb-web builders in this region is quite interesting as until now no species of this group had been recorded from tropical caves. Fam. Linyphiidae: in tropical caves species of this family (very common in the Holartic caves) are quite rare; of the two individuals collected in New Guinea one is somewhat similar to an Erigone described from a cave in Hawaii (Gertsch, 1973b) and the other belongs to the Nynogleninae which, until now, were known for sure only from Africa and New Zealand (Blest, 1979). The family was practically unknown from New Guinea, but I am fairly sure that this is only due to insufficient field-work. Fam. Theridiosomatidae: in some New Guinean caves a species related to the Australian Theridiosoma brauni(Wunderlich, 1976)was found; many not adapted species of this group have been found in recent years in tropical caves probably by chance as, from my own experience, members of this family (including small and not brightly coloured species) are very common on forest undergrowth. Fam. Mimetidae: two closely related species from New Guinea", of a possibly undescribed genus. Juding from recent findings in caves of Ceylong and Indonesia (Brignoli, 1972c, 1981d) species of this curious group, including spider-eating spiders, arp. relatively easy to find in tropical caves (see also Gray, 1973, about their presence in Australia). As the Spermophora and Theridiosomatidae, also the Mimetidae may be captured by beating the forest undergrowth. Fam. Nesticidae: no less than six closely related species were found (three each of the Bismarch Archipelago and New Guinea); all belong to the OrientalAustral genus Nesticella (Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980) of which, very recently, some species have been described from Papua-New Guinea. Until a few years ago this group was considered typical of caves (and especially of those of the Holartic region); in recent times it has been discovered that it is quite common in the forest-litter of many tropical countries. Fam. Theridiidae: four species of the genera Argyrodes, Achaearanea and Theridion were collected (some also in more than one cave). Our knowledge on

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the Oriental and Austral species of these large genera is too poor to come to an~ conclusions. As a whole, very few Theridiids are in some way linked with caves; some Steatoda, Robertus and Achaearanea are troglophies and probably more species of these (and other) genera shall have to be included in this category. Fam. Gnaphosidae: two species from New Guinea, one of a genus unknown to me (apparently only by chance captured in a cave) and another, blind, of a possibly undescribed genus of the "Prodidominae" (represented unfortunately only by a juvenile). To this last group belong mostely deserticolous (?) species but a few (even blind or microphthalmic) have been found in forest litter, termites' nests or even caves (Platnick & Shadab, 1976). As in the case of the Oonopids, also these species are probably no true troglobites. Fam. Eusparassidae: many juveniles and a single adult (of a genus unknown to me) of this group including large, wandering species living on trees and vegetation were found in New Guinean caves. No troglobites of this family are known until now; their frequent presence in tropical caves (see also Gray, 1973) may bring to consider some species as troglophiles. Fam. Agelenidae: a single specimen from a New Guinea, belonging apparently to Orepukia, until now believed endemic of New Zealand (Forester & Wilton, 1973). Species of this family (sometimes even adapted) are common in Holartic caves, but are quite rare in tropical caves. Fam. Stiphidiidae: some specimen of a large Cambridgea from New Ireland (a genus known until now only from New Zealand and New Caledonia); of this small, exclusively Austral group, a few cavernicolous (also adapted) species are known, from Australia and New Zealand. Fam. Desidae: three species, probably of Badumna (a poorly known Oriental and Austral genus) from New Guinea and New Ireland; some species of this group, morphologically somewhat recalling the Amaurobiidae common in the Holartic caves, are known from Australian caves (Gray, 1973). Fam. Uloboridae: three species of three (?) genera from New Guinea and New Ireland; one belongs certainly to a typically Austral genus (Daramulunia). Not adapted species of this widespread family are rather common in tropical caves. Biogeographical Conclusions As could be expected, the cave spiders of New Guinea and of the Bismarck Archipelago are a mixture of Oriental and Austral elements (with perhaps a certain predominance of the second group). Most of the species seem both to fit in already described genera (not endemic) and to be new to science (probably endemic}. This points to an ancient territorial connection with the Oriental region and with Australia and to a successive, comparatively recent separation. The three investigated areas in New Guinea (in the Western, West Sepik and Chimbu provinces) are faunistically rather similar at generical but not at specifical level. Only one species seems to be present in two of these areas, but most of the genera including the commonest cave spiders are known from all three areas. New Britain and New Ireland have a cave spider fauna; this would not be surprizing in the case of the presence of a large number of troglobites, but most of the examined species are simple troglobites or have been captured in caves purely by chance. This diversity could be attributed to insufficient collections, but it must be noted that in the cases of no less than five genera common to two or more areas, all congeneric species were apparently allopatric. Until now, judging by what is known on few well-studied families of tropical spiders (as the Theridiidae and some Araneidae), it seemed that most tropical species were quite widely distributed; the apparently limited range of these New Guinean spiders and of many (not adapted) Southern Mexican cave spiders justifies the supposition that what is true for the larger forms living on vegetation is not true for all spiders. Very remarkable is the finding in PapuaNew Guinea of some species related to groups III believed "typical" of New Zealand; still, we know too little on the spiders of Australia, where the "missing links" may well exist. It is still too early to appreciate the value of the proposal of Lehtinen (1980), of abandoning the traditional Oriental and Austral regions in va four of an Indo-Pacific and a South Gonduanian region, but I would like to observe that, if it is probably possible to accept the limited value of Wallace's and Weber's lines for spiders, I do not see avery definite border between the two new regions proposed by Lehtinen. Biospeleological Conclusions No cave spider of New Guinea, with the possible exception of the blind Spermophora, is similar to the classical Holartic troglobites. The species with reduced eyes are on the other hand similar to many litterdwelling species of other tropical countries. This evidently does not mean at all that there are no "true cave-spiders" in New Guinea; it means simply that there are none adapted in the way we consider typical of a troglobite. The equation "blind = troglobite" has a limited value in my opinion. Metabolic changes (on which we know still very little) may be more important than blindness. New Guinea has a richer cave spider fauna than the Bismarck Archipelago, which is demonstrated by the presence of only 9 (against 15) families found in these last islands. This fact may be interpretated in many different ways, but the most obvious explanation is the different age and size of these islands. If we compare the Beron-Chapman collection with the Australian cave-fauna, we can observe that, according to Gray (1973), Australia has a rather similar fauna, but richer (90 species of 23 families) and that some groups, present in Australia, are lacking in New Guinean caves (as the Gradungulidae, Hickmaniidae, Miturgidae, Textricellidae, etc.). The Hawaiian cave spider fauna (Gertsch, 1973b) on the other hand, is much poorer in species (20 of 14 families) hand has apparently very little in common with that of New Guinea. Acknowledgements This study was based on material collected during the British Speleological Expedition to Papua-New Guinea of 1975 by Mr. P. Beron and Ph. Chapman; a smaller collection made by Mr. N. Plumley during the same expedition arrived too late to be considered. My thanks go to the collectors and specially to Mr. Beron through whom I obtained in study this material. References Blest, A.D., 1979. Linyphiidae-Mynogleninae in The spiders .of New Zealand. Otago Mus. Bull. 5: 95-173. Brignoli, P.M., 1972a. Some cavernicolous spiders from Mexico. Quad. Acc.Naz. Lincei l71 (1): 129-155. Brignoli, P.M., 1972b. Catalogo dei ragni cavernicoli italiani. Quad. Speleol. Circ. Speleol. Rom.l :5-212. Brignoli, P.M., 1972c. Ragni di Ceylon I. Missione biospelelogica Aellen-Strinati (1970). Rev. Suisse Zool. 79: 907-930. Brignoli, P.M., 1973. 11 popolamento di ragni nelle grotte tropicali. Int. Journ. Speleol. 5: 325-336. Brignoli, P.M. 1974. Notes on spiders, mainly cavedwelling, of Southern Mexico and Quatemala. Quad. Ace. Naz. Lincei 171 (2): 195-238. Brignoli, P.M., 1980. La valeur biogeographiques des araigness cavernicoles. Verh. VIII Int. Arachn. Kongr. (Wein, 1980): 427-432. Brignoli, P.M., 1981a. Richerche nell' Asia Sudorientale dell'Istituto di zoologia di L'Aquila.I.Due nuovi ragni di Celebes. Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital. (in press). Brignoli, P.M, 1981b. I ragni cavernicoli italiani, stato attuale delle nostre conoscenze. Lav. Soc. Ital. Biogeogr. (in press). Forster, R.R. & C. L. Wilton, 1973. Agelenidae, Stiphidiidae, Amphinectidae, Amaurobiidae, Neolanidae, Ctenidae Psechridae in The spiders of New Zealand. Otago Mus. Bull. 4: 1-309. Gertsch, w.J., 1971. A report on some Mexican cave spiders. Ass. Mex. Cave St. Bull. 4: 47-111. Gertsch, W.J., 1973a. A report on cave spiders from Mexico and Central America. Ass. Mex. Cave St. Bull. 5: 141-163. Gertsch, w.J., 1973b. The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes, 3. Araneae. Pacif. Ins. 15: 163-180. Gertsch, W.J., 1977. Report on cavernicole and epigean spiders from the Yucatan peninsula. Ass. Mex. Cave St. Bull. 6: 103-131.

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Gray, M.~. Survey of the spider fauna of Australian caves. Helictite. 11: 47-75. Lehtinen, P.T., 1980. Arachnological zoogeography of of the Indo-Pacific region. Verh. VIII. Int. Arachn. Kong. (Wein, 1980): 499-504. Lehtinen, P.T. & M.I. Saaristo, 1980. Spiders of the Oriental-Australian region. II. Nesticidae. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 17: 47-66. Platnick, N.I. & M.U. Shadab, 1976. A revision of the spider genera Lygromma and Neozimiris. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2598: 1-23. Raven, R.J., 1979. Systematics of the mygalomorph spider genus Masteria. Austral. Journ. Zool. 27: 623-636. Wunderlich, J., 1976. Spinnen aus Australien. 1. Uloboridae, Theridiosomatidae und Symphytognathidae. Senckenberg. biol. 57: 113-124. Deep Ice in the Cave of Scarasson, Marguareis Massif, Haritimes, Italia Michel SHfre 34 Rue Trachel, Nice 06000, FRANCE Abstract Thirty meters deep stratified ice has been found between 100 and 130 meters of depth in an alpine cave, the gou ffre du Scarasson". Ice taken from a bore-hole has been analyzed cristallographically and electrically, by means of pollens and deuterium analysis, in order to discover its age and origin. Analysis of radioactivity and C14 analysis has failed. A list of pollens is given. 018/016 shows values almost identical to those found in bore-holes made by U.S. and French scientists in Antartica, indication that this glacier is possibly a relic. Observations made in 1962, 1963, and cave discoveries made in 1976 and 1979 has shown definitely how fresh snow can accumulate to this depth and can be kept under O.C. Rlisumli Le gouffre du Scarasson, ~ 2,050 mlitres d'altitude, posslide, entre 100 et 130 mlitres de profondeur, une masse importante de glace stratiflie une carotte de glace et divers prlillivements ont litli exlicutlis sur les deux fronts principaux de fusion. La glace a litli analyslie par deux glaciologues rliputlis aux points de vue cristallographique, lilectrique, palynologique dans l'espoir de dlicouvrir son ~ge et son origine. Les analyses du Deuterium montrent des valeurs trlis proches de celles observlies par les glaciologues dans les forages rlicents de l'Antartique indiquant par l~ que le glacier souterrain est peut-etre une relique fossile. Des observations faites depuis 1962 et de nouvelles dlicouvertes splilliologiques rlialislies en 1976 et 1979 ont permis de comprendre comment la neige pouvait s'accumuler ~ si grande profondeur et se maintenir en dessous de zliro. Long~Term Single Free-Run Experiments and Their Results as a Performance Predictability Index in Astronauts Michel Siffre 34 Rue Trachel, Nice 06000, FRANCE Abstract During one decade the Institut Francais de Speleologie has conducted some of the longest and most sophisticated human biological studies made in a constant environment known as "free-run" or beyond time experiments. Caves have been chosen, for their constant climatic environment, in France and The U.S.A. (Texas). These experiments have been conducted under the supervision of top U.S. and French scientists belonging to universities, or military, space, or atomic agencies and working in the field of sleep, biological rhythms, performance, vision and time. Some of the results are the following: 1. Living beyond time in caves induces in man a 48 hour sleep-wakefulness rhythm with the following distribution: 34-36 hours of continuous activity without undue fatigue for only 12-14hours of natural sleep. 2. The quality of the sleep has been studied by 3,000 hours of electroencephalography recording allowing us to study the restoring value of the various sleep sta 8 es (REMS,S4, Sl-2-3)' 3. Quantitative evaluat10n of phsyco-motor performance haseen made during circadian (~ 24 hours) and bi-circadian (T ~ 48 hours) rhythms. 4. Intensive computer analyses in the biological and psychological functions have been made authorizing us to predict in any human, following his or her duration of sleep and his or her amount of the rapid eye movement stage (REMs) the quality of performance (reaction time) the following day. Rlisumli Pendant dix ans, l'Institut Francais de Splilliologie a rlialisli sur l'homme quelques unes des plus longues et plus sophistiqulies expliriences en librecours en milieu constant. Les expliriences ont litli supervis lies par des scientifiques de haut niveau, francais et amliricains, appartenant ~ l'Universitli et aux organismes de recherche militaire, spatiable et atomique. Les cavernes ont litli choisies pour leurs conditions climatologiques constantes. Parmi les rlisultats et litudes exlicutlies, on peut citer: 1. La vie en libre-cours induit chex l'homme un rythme veille-sommeil de 48 heures faisant alterner 34-35 heurs d'activitli continue ~ 12-14 heures de sommeil. 2. La qualitli du sommeil a litli litudilie gr~ce ~ l'enregistrement de 3.000 heures d'enregistrements lilectroencliphalographiques. Nous avons pu ainsi contrOler la valeur restoratrico des difflirents stades de sommeil (Rlive, Sommeil 4, Sommeil 1-2-3). 3. L'licaluation quantitative des performances psychosensorielles et psycho-motrices a litli etudilie lors des rhythmes circadiens (~24 hrs) et bi-circadiens (~ 48 hrs) de l'organisme. 4. Des analyses intensives sur ordinateur ont litli exlicutlies sur les fonctions biologiques et psychophysiologiques. Nous pensons etre capables de prlidire la qualitli des performances psychomotrices d'un individu en fonction de ses difflirents stades de sommeil, en particulier en fonction de la durlie et du rythme du sommeil paradoxal (REMs). 112

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Mondmilch (Moonmilk): Two Questions of Terminology R. Bernasconi CH-3053 MUnchenbuchsee, Switzerland Abstract For all subterranean two-phases-systems, of which the solid phase is either a chemical deposit or a detrital deposit of white colour and of which the liquid phase is water, a new general term "plastic white mass" is suggested. It is proposed that the historical term "Mondmilch" (moonmilk) be no longer used to indicate a facies and that it be reserved to plastic white masses of which the solid phase is composed of a minimum of 90% mineralogically verified calcite. The second question regards the term lublinite used to describe the solid phase of calcitic moonmilk. This term should be either abandoned or newly defined. Rlisumli Pout tout syst~me ~ deux phases souterrain, dont la phase solide est soit un dlip~t chimique, soit un dlipOt dlitritique de couleur blanche et dont la phase liquide est de l'eau, on propose un nouveau terme glinliral, soit "masse blanche plastique". On propose que Ie terme historique "Mondmilch" (lait de lune) ne soit plus employli pour dlisigner un faci~s et qu'il soit rliservli aux masses blanches plastiques dont la phase solide est formlie d'au moins 90% de calcite identifilie minliralogiquement. Le deuxi~me question concerne Ie terme de lublinite utilisli pour dlisigner la phase solide du mondmilch calcitique. Ce terme devrait soit etre abandonnli soit etre redlifini de mani~re prlicise. Table 2. Presence of lublinite in calcitic moonmilk Table 1. Original lublinite from government of Lublin in the same sample (see Appendix 2), the great variety of possible genesis and juxtaposition of genesis in the same sample (see Appendix 3) the actual uncertainty about correlation between genesis type and crystal type (e.g. type b/1; g/5), the incomplete knowledge on the crystal growth of calcite (Cser and Fejerdy, 1965; Reddy and Nancollas, 1971) the fact that only crystal types b + c associated with the genesis type 1 can be identified with reliable certainty with the original lublinite, the fact that interpretations of lublinite made later than Morozewicz differ more and more from the original description (see Tables 1 and 2), (*) samples from Gora Pulawski (**) samples from Wyskoie ? 2.1. 2.1. 5 2.2. ? 2.1. 3.2. Genesis Type (See Appendix 3) Genesis Type (See Appendix 3) b+c+h b + c b + c f b + c (b + c ?) i a a + b i d (or f) b + c + g Morphology Type (See Appendix 2) Morphology Type (See Appendix 2) Author Opolski, 1921 Morozewicz, 1907 (**) Iwanoff, 1906 (*) Author Broughton, 1972a Muegge, 1914 Tschirwinsky, 1906 (*) Balogh, 1956 Melon and Bourguignon, 1962 Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957 Coase, 1977 Stoops, 1976 (*) Urbani, 1977a (*) (*) cauliflower samples The first question to be treated here is the term of mondmilch itself. The term "lac lunae = mondmilch" (Gessner, 1555) (moonmilk) relates etymologically and historically (Bernasconi, 1959; Heller, 1966) to twophase systems consisting of water and calcite in subterranean cavities. This was verified and documented by numerous authors (Geze et al., 1956; Gradzinski, and Radomski, 1957; Baron et al., 1959; Melon and Bourguignon, 1962; Geze ana-Pobeguin, 1962; Thrailkill, 1963; Lis and Stepniewski, 1967; Habe, 1970;" Mattioli, 1970; Tintilozov et al., 1974; Rajman and Roda, 1974; Bernasconi, 1975;lMaalev and Philipov, 1975; Keupper and Niggli, 1976; Harman and Derco, 1976; Coase, 1977). After Geze (Geze, 1961; Geze and Pobeguin, 1962) had interpreted the term "mondmilch" as a facies, numerous subterranean two-phase systems have been described, their solid phase being of chemical or detrital origin and composed of different minerals belonging to carbonates, sulphates, phosphates, silicates (see Appendix 1). This is confusing. It is recommendable to use from now on the new term "white plastic masses" for all moonmilklike subterranean deposits. This term includes all two-phase systems where the solid phase is either a chemical or a detrital deposit colored clay deposits being excluded and the liquid phase is water. Roda and Rajman (1976) proposed the term "soft sinter" for calcitic moonmilk; however the sense of this term is too restricted and is only suitable for chemical deposits. The historical term of "mondmilch" (moonmilk) should no longer be used as facies, but should be reserved for white plastic masses the solid phase of which is composed of at least 90% mineralogically identified calcite. The second question concerns the term "lublinite". Iwanoff discovered in 1905 a new type of calcium carbonate, in the shape of mould or cottonwool between joints and fissures of little cavities in Paleocene marly rocks near Nowo-Alexandria (=Pulawy). This mineral was examined and described by Iwanoff (1906) and Tschirwinsky (1906), then by Opolski (1921). Iwanoff interpreted it as a hydrocarbonate, Lang (1914, 1915) as a new monocline modification of calcium carbonate. Morozewicz (1907, 1911) named this mineral "lublinite" with regard to its origin (government of Lublin) and interpreted it as a calcite of which the rhomboedron was elongated in the direction of the pole edge, forming a felt of thin needles and fibres able to imbibe water. This interpretation was confirmed by crystallization experiments by Thugutt (1929) and by X-ray diffractometry by Mizgier (1929). Other authors (Quercigh, 1921; Pelisek, 1944) characterized lublinite found particularly in cretaceous rocks as a fibrous variety of calcite. Table 1 recapitulates the characteristics of original lublinite. First Kristafowitsch (1906), then Morozewicz (1907) thought that mondmilch (moonmilk) or Bergmilch (mleko gornego) was identical with lublinite and Muegge (1914) described as lublinite a moonmilkdeposit found in a cave near Brno. Table 2 recapitulates the characteristics of lublinite in the shape of moonmilk according to various authors. In consideration of the great variety of calcite crystal forms especially of the fibrous ones which constitute the solid phase of calcitic moonmilk and can coexist 113

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Contribution ~ l'~tude -Actes 2. Congr~s Bari 1958 (Castellana the fact that formerly Geze (1961) thought that it is of no interest to maintain and utilize the term lubl1nite, we ro ose that the term lublinite will not be used longer in relation with calcitic moonmilk an will be definitively abolished. References Balconi, M., and Giuseppetti, G. 1959. Sull'idromagnesite della Grotta de su Marmori. -Studi e ricerche Instituto mineral. petrogr. Univ. Pavia; 1. Balogh, E. 1956. La lublinite, ses produits de transformation et ses modifications de Bergmehl. -Bolyali embl~kk6nyve. Cluj 1956 (hongrois) (Cit. in Cser and Fejerdy, 1965). Baron, G., Caillere, S., Lagrange, R., and Pobeguin, T. 1957. Sur la pr~sence de huntite dans une grotte de l'H~rault (La Clamouse). -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 245: 92-94. Baron, G., Caillere, S., Lagrange, R., and Pobeguin, T. 1959. Etude du Mondmilch de la grotte de la Clamouse et de quelques carbonates et hycrocarbonates alcalino-terreux. -Bull. Soc. Franc. Min~ral. Cristall. (Paris) 82: 150-158. Bernasconi, R. 1959. 2. Contributo allo studio del mondmilch studio storico. -Rassegna speleologica italiana (Como) 11(no. 2): 39-56. Bernasconi, R. 1961. L'~volution physico-chimique du mondmilch (4~me contribution ~ l'~tude du mondmilch). -Atti Symposium Internazionale Speleol. "Riempimenti naturali di grotte" Varenna 1960, in: Rassegna speleol. ital. (Como) Memoria no. 5, T. II: 75-100. Bernasconi, R. 1975. Le mondmilch calcitique ~t ses formes cristallines (6~me contribution ~ 1 ~tude du mondmilch). -Stalactite (Neuch~tel) 25(no. 2): 6-10. Bernasconi, R. 1980. Ueber ein mondmilchartiges Sediment aus einem alten Stollen am Torri, Breno TI. -(7. Beitrag zur Kenntnis von Mondmilch). -Stalactite (Neuch~tel) 30(no. 1): 19-23. Billy, C., and Blanc, Ph. 1979. Application du microscope ~lectronique ~ balayage (M.E.B.) et des techniques associ~es ~ la pal~ontologie et ~ la s~dimentologie. V. contribution: Le Mondmilch, essai bibliographique et observations au M.E.B .. -Travaux du Laboratoire de micropal~ontologie, Universit~ Pierre-et-Marie-Curie (Paris) no. 8: 127-143. Billy, C., Fournie, J., Carpentier, P., and Chetail, M. 1979. Bact~ries clacifiantes et anhydrase carbonique. -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 288: 1687-1690. Bonzano, C., Calandri, G., and Ramella, L. 1980. Il Pozzo del Becco sul Monte Saccarello (Provincia di Imperia). -Riviera dei fiori (Imperia) maggie 1980: 55 pp. Broughton, P. L. 1972a. Secondary mineralization in the cavern environment. -Study in Speleology (London) vol. 2, part. 5: 191-207. Broughton, P. L. 1972b. Monohydrocalcite in speleothems, an alternative interpretation. -Contr. Mineral. Petrol. (Berlin) 36: 171-174. Broughton, P. L. 1974. Protodolomite and hydromagnesite in cave deposits of Sumidero Tenejapa, Chiapas, Mexico. -Bol. Soc. Venezolana espeleologia (Caracas) 5(no. 1): 19-25. Calandri, G. 1979. I cristalli di gesso in grotte calcaree. -Speleologia (Soc. Speleol. Ital.) (Milano) no. 2: 45-47. Caumartin, V. 1957. Recherches sur une bact~rie des argiles de cavernes et des s~diments ferrugineux. -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 245: 1758-1760. Caumartin, V., and Renault, Ph. 1958. La corrosion biochimique dans un r~seau karstique et la gen~se du mondmilch. -Notes biosp~l~ol. (Paris) 13: 87-109. Coase, A. C. 1977. A preliminary investigation of the white deposit in Salubrious passage, Ogof Ffynnon Ddu II. -South Wales Caving Club Newsletter (Bradford) no. 87: 1-7. Cser, F., and Fejerdy, I. 1965. Formation of the polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate and their transition one into another. -Karszt es Barlangkutatas (Budapest) 4 (1962): 15-39. Davies, W. E., and Moore, G. W. 1957. Endellite and hydromagnesite from Carlsbad Caverns. -Bull. National Speleological Society (Huntsville, Ala) no. 19: 24-27. Diaconu, G. 1974. Quelques consid~rations sur la pr~sence de l'anhydrite dans la grotte Pestera Diana (Baile Herculane, Roumanie). -Travaux 114 Institut Sp~ologie E. Racovitza (B ucarest) vol. 13:. 191-194. Diaconu, G. 1976. Quelques consid~rations sur la gen~se du mondmilch calcitique dans les grottes. -Travaux Institut Sp~ologie E. Racovitza (Bucarest) vol. 15: 107-210. Diaconu, G., Medesan, A., and Viehmann, I. 1977. Une nouvelle paragen~se min~ralogique dans la grotte Pestera Fagului, d~p. de Bihor (huntite, hydromagn~site, aragonite, calcite). -Travaux Institut Sp~ologie E. Racovitza (Bucarest) vol. 16: 203210. Empa (Eidg. MaterialprUfungsund Versuchsanstalt fUr Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe), DUbendorf (1973): Untersuchungsbericht betr. Mondmilch aus Schacht Hattig Seelisbergtunnel. Fischbeck, R., and Mueller, G. 1971. Monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite, aragonite and calcite in speleothems of the Fr~nkische Schweiz, Western Germany. -Contr. Mineral. Petrol. (Berlin) 33: 87-92. Gessner, K. 1555. Descriptio mantis fracti sive Montis Pilat ut vulgo nominant, juxta Lucernam in Helvetia. -Lucernae 1555. Geze, B. 1955. A propos du montmilch ou mondmilch. -Bull. Comit~ Nat. Sp~l~ol. (Paris) 5 (no. 3): 2-5. Geze, B. 1961. Etat actuel de la question du Mondmilch. -Spelunca (Paris) 4e s~rie, M~moires no. 1 (Actes III Congr. nat. sp~l~ol. 1960): 25-29. Geze, B., Lagrange, R., and Pobeguin, T. 1956. Sur la nature du rev~tement occasionnel des parois ou du sol des grottes (Montmilch). -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242: 144-145. Geze, B., and Pobeguin, T. 1962. des concr~tions carbonat~es. international de sp~l~ologie Grotte). Tome I: 396-414. Gradzinski, R., and Radomski, A. 1957. Cavern deposits of rock-milk in the Szczelina Chocholowska Cave. -Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologiczvego (Annal. Soc. Geol. Pologne) (Krakow) 26 (1956): 64-90 (polish; engl. summ.). Habe, F. (1970: Bergmilch in der H6hle Brezno za Hramon. -Nase Jame (Ljubljana) 11 (1969): 73-81 (slov~ne; r~sum~ allemand). Halliday, W. R. 1961. More dolomite speleothems. -Nat. Speleol. Soc. News (Huntsville) 19 (no. 11): 143. Harman, M., and Derco, J. 1976. Problems of mineralogy and genetics in soft sinters in the Slovak caves. -Slovensky Kras (Liptovski Mikulas) 14: 61-81 (slovak; russian summ.). Heller, F. 1966. Mondmilch oder Montmilch? -Geol. Bl~tter NO-Bayern (Erlangen) 16 (no. 1): 56-66. Hock, R. 1962. Das Bergmilchartige Produkt des Gesteinszerfalls, in Trimmel, H.: Die Arzbergh6hle bei Wildalpen (Steiermark). -Actes 2. Congr~s internat. sp~l~ologie (Bari 1958), vol. I: 334-336. Hoeg, O. A. 1946. Cyanophyceae and bacteria in calcareous sediments in the interior of limestone caves in Nord-Rana, Norway. -Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene (Oslo) 85: 99-104. Iwanoff, L. L. 1906. Ein wasserhaltiges Calciumcarbonat aus der Umgebung von Nove-Alexanderia (Guv. Lublin). -Annuaire g~ol. et min~ral. de la Russie vol. 8: 23 -25 (1905/1906) (russe; r~s. allemand). Jaton, C., Rochon, J., Delvert, J., and Bredillet, M. 1966. Etude du mondmilch de grottes du Cambodge. -Ann. Institut Pasteur (Paris) 110: 912-919. Koenigsberger, J. 1926. Konstanz und Variabilit~t in Kristallhabitus und Tracht erl~utert an Hand zentralalpiner Vorkommen. -Ztschr. f. Kristallographie (Leipzig) 63: 159-160. Krischtafowitsch, N. 1906. Bibliographische Notiz zu dem Artikel von Herrn L. L. Iwanoff "Ein wasserhaltiges Calciumcarbonat aus den Umgebungen von Nowo-Alexandria, Gouv. Lublin". -Annuaire g~ol. et min~ral. de la Russie 8: 124-125 (1905/1906) (russe) Kuepper, T., and Niggli, E. 1975. Untersuchungen an Montmilch aus der Taubenlochh6hle. -a) Arbeiten aus dem Mineralogisch-petrographischen Institut der UniversitHt Bern Nr. 339 b) Jahresbericht Bernischer H6hlenforscher (Bern) 1975-1976: 43-53. Lang, R. 1914. Lublinit, die monokline Modifikation des Calciumcarbonats. -Neues Jahrbuch f. Mineral. Geol. PalHontol. (Stuttgart) Beilage-Band 38: 121-184 (1915). Lang, R. 1915. Ist Lublinit eine neue monokline Modifikation des Calciumcarbonats? -Centralblatt f. Mineral. Geol. PalHontol. (Stuttgart) (Jahrgana 1915): 298-305.

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Krumbein, W. 1964. mondmilch. -Compt. 5113-5115. Mondmilch aus dem SeelisbertBaublatt, Jahrgang 86 (no. 97): Lis, B., Lis, J., and Stepniewski, M. 1967. Preliminary results of the geochemical and structural analyses of the rock-milk from Szczclina Chocholowska Cave in the Tatra Mts. -Prace Muzeum Ziemi (Warszawa) no. 11: 271-279 (polish; engl. summ.). Maalev, M. N., and Philipov, A. P. 1975. Dislocation growth mechanism of calcite filamentary crystals forming moonmilk from the Vodopada Cave, Bulgaria. -Proceedings 6th Intern. Congress of Speleology, Olomouc 1973, vol. I: 499-508 (Bulgarian; engl. summ.) Mason-Williams, M. A. 1959. The formation and deposition of moonmilk. -Trans. Cave Research Group Great Britain (Ledbury) 5(2): 133-138. Mason-Williams, M.A. 1961. Biological aspects of calciet deposition. -Atti Symposium Intern. Speleol. "Riempimenti naturali di grotte", Varenna 1960, in: Rassegna Speleol. Ital. (Como) Memoria 5, T. II: 235-238. Mattioli, B. 1970. Considerazioni genetiche su alcuni depositi di mondmilch dell'Italia centrale. ~Rassegna speleologica italiana (Como) 22 (no. 1-4): 3-17. Melon, J., and Bourguignon, P. 1962. Etude du mondmilch de quelques grottes de Belgique. -Bull. Soc. fran9. min~ral. cristall. 85: 234-241. Minieri, V. 1957. Sulla genesi del bergmilch rinvenuto in una grotta della provincia di Taranto. -Boll. Soc. Nat. (Napoli) 65: 79-83. Mizgier, S. 1929. a) Ueber die Struktur des Lublinits. -Zeitschrift f. Kristallographie (Leipzig) 70: 160-163, b) Sur la structure de la lublinite. -Compt. Rend. Soc. Polan. Physique (Warszawa) 4: 19-26. (polonais; r~s. fran9ais). Moore, G. W. 1961. a) Sinterbildung aus Dolomit. -Die HBhle (Wien) 12 (no. 4): 150-151; b) Dolomite speleothems. -Nat. Speleol. Soc. News (Huntsville) 19: 82. Moore, G. w., and Sullivan, N. 1977. Speleology. -Zephyrus Press, Teaneck, New Jersey. Morozewicz, J. 1907. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des kohlensauren Kalziums. -Kosmos (Lwow) 32: 487-495 (polonais). Morozewicz, J. 1911. Ueber Lublinit, eine neue Varietat des Kalkspates. -Centralblatt f. Mineral. Geol. Palaontol. (Stuttgart) Jahrg. 1911: 229-230. Muegge, O. 1914. Ueber die Lublinit genannte, angeblich neue Modifikation des kohlensauren Kalkes. -Centralblatt f. Mineral. Geol. Palaontol. (Stuttgart) Jahrg. 1914: 673-675. Novak, D. 1974. The aragonite moonmilk from Mezica mine. -Nase Jame (Ljubljana) 16: 101-106 (slovene; engl. summ.). Ohde, S;, and Takii, S. 1978. Environment and microorganisms associated with the formation of moonmilk. -J. Speleol. Soc. Japan (Yamagucki) 3: 44-52. (japanese; eng. summ.). Opalski, Z. 1921. La lublinite: l'~tude optique (premiere partie). -Kosmos (Lwow) 46: 549-581 (polonais; r~s. fran9.). Pelisek, J. 1944. Lublinite du Cretac~ sup~rieur de Kretina (sz. Morava). -Priroda (Brno) 36: 272273 (tcheque) (Cit. in: Pakr, A;, Ceskosl. Kras 1976: 13-21). Pobeguin, T. 1955. Sur les concr~tions calcaires observ~es dans la Grotte de Moulis (Ariege). -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 241: 1791-1793. Pobeguin, T. 1960. Sur l'existence de giobertite et de dolomite dans les concr~tions du type mondmilch. -Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 250: 2389-2391. Pochon, J., Chalvignac, M. A., and Recherches biologiques sur Ie Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 258: Quercigh, E. 1921. Sulla lublinite di Sassari. -Rend. Ace. Lincei Roma 30: 282-284; Abstr. in: Neues Jahrbuch f. Mineral. Geol. Palaont. (Stuttgart) 1923 Bd. 2: 320. Rajman, L., and Roda, S. 1974. On the investigation of the origin of plastic sinters in selected caves of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. -Slovensky Kras (Liptovski Mikulas) 12: 3-38 (slovak; russian summ.) Reddy, M. M., and Nancollas, G. H. 1971. The crystallization of calcium carbonate. I: Isotopic exchange and kinetics; II: Calcite growth mechanism. -J. of Colloid and Interface Sci. (Washington) 36: 166172; 37: 824-830. Roda, S., and Rajman, L. 1976. Beitrag zur Forschung Uber die Genesis von plastischen Sintern in einigen Hohlen der CSSR. -Proceedings 6th Intern. Congress of Speleology, Olomouc 1973, vol. 3: 261-266. Rogers, B. W., and Moore, G. W. 1976. A scanning microscope study of moonmilk. -Nat. SpeleologicaY Society Convention (Morgantown, 1976) in: a) Geo 2 (Cincinnati) vol. 3 (no. 3): 37-38; b) Nat; Speleol. Soc. Bull. (Huntsville) 40 (no. 3): 81 (abstract). Rose, G. 1856. Ueber die heteromorphen Zustande der kohlensauren Kalkerde. -Abhandlungen der kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) Phys. Kl.: 176. Schneider, T.R. 1975. Tunnel. -Schweiz. 5-6. Stoops, G. J. 1976. On the nature of lublinite from Hollanta (Turkey). -American Mineralogist (Lancaster Pa.) 61: 172. Sztrokay, K. I. 1959. Mineralogische Beobachtungen aus der Aggteleker TropfsteinhBhle. -Foldtani KBzlBny (Budapest) 89: 280. Thrailkill, J. 1963. Moonmilk, cave pearls, and pool accretions from Fulford Cave, Colorado. -Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull. (Huntsville) 25: 88-90. Thrailkill, J. 1971. Carbonate depositions in Carlsbad Caverns. -J. Geol. (Chicago) 79: 683-695. Thugutt, S. J. 1929. Sur la nature de la lublinite et sa solubilit~ dans l'eau distill~e. -Archiwum mineralogiczne (Warszawa) 5: 97-107 (polonais; resume fran9.). Tintilozov, A. K., Akhvlediany, R. A., and Batlashvily 1974. Moonmilk of the Tsakhy Cave. -Peschery (Perm) no. 14-15: 51-53 (russian). Trimmel, H. 1962. Die Arzberghohle bei Wildalpen (Steiermark). Ein Beitrag zu den Problemen der HBhlensedimente, der Bergmilchbildung und der Spelaogenese. -Actes 2. Congres intern. Sp~leologie (Bari 1958), Vol. I: 330-340. Trombe, F. 1952. Trait~ de sp~l~ologie. -Ed. Payot, Paris. 376 pp. (pp: 147; 235). Tschirwinsky, P. N. 1906. Die kUnstlichen und natUrlichen Wassercarbonate des Calciums. -Annuaire geol. et min~ral. de la Russie vol. 8: 238-249 (1905/1906) (russe; resum~ allemand). Ulrich, R. 1938. Fungi as destructive and constructive agents of minerals and rocks. -Veda Prirodni (Praha) 19: 45-50 (czech) Abstr. in: Mineralogical Abstracts (London) 7 (1940): 408. Urbani, F. 1977a. Espeleotemas de calcita (lublinita), yeso y de materiales de guano, cueva La Milagrosa, Venezuela. -Bal. Soc. Venezolana espeleologia (Caracas) 8 (15): 5-15. Urbani, F. 1977b. Notas sabre algunas muestras de leche de luna de cuevas de Venezuela. -Bal. Soc. Venezolana espeleologia (Caracas) 8 (no. 16): 109-115. Appendix 1: Minerals which form the solid phase of white plastic (moonmilk-like) masses other than calcitic moonmilk 1. 2. Carbonates (often associated Aragonite Hydromagnesite Magnesite (Giobertite) Nesquehonite Huntite Dolomite, Protodolomite Sulphates Gypsum with calcite) :Geze, 1961; Geze and Pobeguin, 1962; Fischbeck and Mueller, 1971; Thrailkill, 1971; Novak, 1974; Diaconu et al., 1977 :Geze, 1955; Geze et al., 1956;lDavies and Moore, 1957; Baron et al., 1959; Balconi and Giuseppetti, 1959; Halliday, 1961; Geze and Pobeguin~1962; Fischbeck and Mueller, 1971; Thrailkill, 1971; Broughton, 1972a, 1974; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Diaconu et al., 1977 :Pobeguin, 1960;-Broughton, 1972a :Geze, 1955; Fischbeck and Mueller, 1971; Broughton, 1972a :Baron et al., 1957, 1959; Geze, 1961; Geze and Pobeguin, 1962; Thrailkill, 1971; Broughton~1972a; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Diaconu et al., 1977 :Pobeguin, 1960; Geze, 1961; Moore, 1961; Fischbeck-ana-Mueller, 1971; Broughton, 1972a, 1974; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Urbani, 1977b :Diaconu, 1974; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Urbani, 1977b, associated with dolomite; Calandri, 1979 115

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3. Phosphates Brushite, Monetite tri-Calcium phosphate Calcium phosphocarbonate Aluminium and Calcium phosphate 4. S"ilicates Palygorskite Quartz Kaolinite Muscovite :Sztrokay, 1959 :Baron et al., 1959, associated with calcium carbonate :Geze and Pobeguin, 1962 :Minieri, 1957; Geze, 1961: minervite :Schneider, 1975/Empa, 1973, associated with calcite :Rogers and Moore, 1976, doubtful :Urbani, 1977b, associated with calcite and quartz :Bernasconi, 1980 Appendix 2: Types of crystals which form the solid phase of calcitic moonmilk Author = with figures (a) macro-lamellae and lamellar rods 20 to 300 x 4 to 30 x 0,5 to 4/um (b) macro-needles and prismatic rods 20 to 300 x 1 to 3/um (c) macro-fibres (filamentary rods) ~ 1000 x 1 to 3/um (d) micro-lamellae and lamellar rods 2 to 30 x 0,5 to 6 x ~ l/um (e) isodiametrical microcrystals 1 to 10 x 1 to 10/um (f) micro-needles and prismatic rods 2 to 30 x 0,2 to 2/um (g) micro-fibres ~ 30 x 0,03 to O,3/um (h) rods sensu latu with serrated edges or surfaces with + diagonal structure (owing to secondary crystallization, recrystallization or deposit of colloidal clay) (i) rods sensu latu stepped (en ~chelons) (owing to juxtaposition of microcrystals or to corrosion) (k) particular forms (triangles, lamellae terminating in a needle; dendrites) :Rose, 1856; Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Baron et al., 1959; Melon and BOUrguignon, 1962; Bernasconi, 1975; Kuepfer and NIggIi, 1976; Coase, 1977 :Rose, 1956; Muegge, 1914; Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Melon and BOUrguignon, 1962; Hock, 1962; Bernasconi, 1975; Bonzano et al., 1980 :Rose, 1856; Meugge, 1914; Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Baron et al., 1959; Melon and Bourguignon, 1962; Maalev and Philipov, 1975; Bernasconi, 1975 :Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Rajman and Roda, 1974; Coase, 1977 :Rose, 1856; Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Geze, 1961; Ohde and Takii, 1978 :Rose, 1856; Baron et al., 1959; Broughton, 1972a; Rajman and Roda, 1974; Harman and Derco, 1976; Kuepfer and Niggli, 1976; Urbani, 1977a; (Coase, 1977 ?) :Muegge, 1914; Habe, 1970; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Moore and Sullivan, 1977; Coase, 1977; BITTY and Blanc, 1979 :Rose, 1856; Rajman and Roda, 1974; Maalev and Philipov, 1975; Harman and Derco, 1976; Moore and Sullivan, 1977; Coase, 1977; Urbani, 1977a; Billy a:i1d1l1anc, 1979 :Stoops, 1976; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Moore and Sullivan, 1977; (Coase, 1977 ?); Urbani, 1977a; Billy and Blanc, 1979 :Broughton, 1972a; Harman and Derco, 1976; Billy and Blanc, 1979 Appendix 3: Types of possible genesis of the solid phase of calcitic moonmilk 1. Slow crystallization of evaporation or cooling of a calcium bicarbonate solution, frequent in caverneous masses (geodes) (Geze, 1961; Geze and Pobeguin, 1962; Melon and Bourguignon, 1962; Bernasconi, 1975; Bonzano et al., 1980). A low temperature may bring about the elongation of the principal axis of calcite crystals (Koenigsberger, 1926) and the degree of saturation of the solution may determine the crystal variety (Pobeguin, 1955). 2. Precipitation in a calcium bicarbonate solution, either by exceeding the solubility product or by fall of CO 2 partial pressure; 2.1. the ions are the result of classical karst corrosion (limestone + water + CO 2 ) (Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Bernasconi, 1961; Melon and Bourguignon, 1962; Mattioli, 1970; Rajman and Roda, 1974; Diaconu, 1976; Urbani, 1977a) ; 2.2. the ions are the result of metabolism of microorganisms, e.g. reaction of ammoniac and CO 2 on calcium (Pochon et al., 1964; Billy et al., 1979); particularly of Macromonas bipunctata (Mason-Williams, 1959, 1961); of arnmonifying microorganisms (Pochon et al., 1964; Jaton et al., 1966); of heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms (Ohde and Takii, 1978); or-Bacillus brevis (BillY-et al., 1979). 2.3. the ions are the result of biochemical corrosion of sinter and rock by organic acids produced by microorganisms such as Cyanophyceae (Hoeg, 1946), Perabacterium spelei (Caumartin, 1957; Caumartin and Renault, 1958) Actinomycetes and Algae (Broughton, 1972a, 1974). 3. Corrosion of sinter and rock 3.1. Inorganic process by aggressive water and by classical reaction of karstic corrosion (Trimmel, 1962; Diaconu, 1976) 3.2. Organic (biochemical) process by organic acids produced by microorganisms such as Perabacterium spelei (Caumartin and Renault, 1958). 4. Paramorphoses on aragonite (Rose, 1856; Harmon and Derco, 1976; Urbani, 1977a). 5. Pseudomorphoses on mycelia of Fungi, on filaments of Algae or Bacteria, on chains of Bacteria (Muegge, 1914; Ulrich, 1938; Rogers and Moore, 1976; Moore and Sullivan, 1977; Billy and Blanc, 1979). 6. Particular mechanisms: 6.1. Crystallizations, such as secondary crystallizations on monocrystalline needles (Harmon and Derco, 1976; Billy and Blanc, 1979); screw dislocation growth (Maalev and Philipov, 1975); whisker crystals growth (Kuepfer and Niggli, 1976); juxtaposition of microcrystals giving stepped polycrystals (Stoops, 1976; Urbani, 1977a); twingrowth of needles (Gradzinski and Radomski, 1957; Bonzano et al., 1980); formation of dendrites (Melon and Bourguignon, 1962; Broughton, 1972a; Harman and Derco, 1976);-6.2. Partial isomorphoses, such as partial substitution of calcium by magnesium (Geze et al., 1956; Broughton, 1974; Novak, 1964); partial substitution of carbonate by hydrocarbonate (OH)2C03 (LiS-and Stepniewski, 1967); partial substitution of carbonate by phosphate (Billy and Blanc, 1979); 6.3. Formation or transformation of hydrated calcite, such as hydrocalcite and ice (Trombe, 1952), monohydrocalcite (Fischbeck and Mueller, 1971; Broughton, 1972b); triand pentahydrocalcites (= lublinite ?) (Novak, 1974). 116

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Karst Drainage Patterns in the Quatsino Limestone, Northern Vancouver Island, Canada Paul Mills Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract Karst drainage patterns in the steeply dipping and massively bedded Quatsino Limestone are controlled by the framework of structural pathways available to route groundwater. Allongenic stream sinks are concentrated only along one side of the valley, where the hydraulic gradient is roughly concordant with the stratal dip. The dip exceeds the topographic gradient in most situations and sinking waters utilize joints to move upwards stratigraphically or along the strike to their outlets. Separation between springs discharging allogenic waters and springs discharging autochthonous infiltration is made by consideration of their topographic position. The ability of this classification to separate different waters was affirmed by statistical analysis of spring chemical data. R~sum~ Dans Ie calcaire Quatsino fortement inclin~ et massivement stratifi~, les r~seaux de drainage karstiques sont controll~s par l'ensemble de voies structurales disponibles au cheminement des eaux souterraines. Les trous d'infiltrations de ruisseaux allog~nes sont concentr~s seulement Ie long d'un des cOt~s de la vall~e, lA 00 la pente hydraulique concorde A peu pr~s avec Ie pendage stratal. Le pendage exc~de la pente topographique dans la plupart des cas et les eaux qui s'infiltrent utilisent des fissures pour remonter stratigraphiquement ou Ie long de diaclases longitudinales vers leur sortie. On a s~par~ les sources d~versant des eaux allog~nes et les sources d~versant des infiltrations autochtones en consid~rant leur position topographique. La capacit~ de cette classification de s~parer diff~rentes eaux a ~t~ confirm~e par une analyse statistique de donn~es chimiques provenant des sources. TABLE 1 (i) both streams sink on faults (ii) stream perched on deltaic deposits The structural dip of the limestone is greater than the topographic gradient in most situations. Few sinking waters reach their outlets along pathways composed of single structural elements except where waters are routed along faults. A notable example of the latter is the Vanishing River-Reappearing River cave system where waters move some 2 km within a fault zone, from Structural Controls on Cave Development The influence of geologic structure on drainage patterns in the Quatsino Limestone is of fundamental importance. Pathways for subsurface routing occur along bedding planes, joints orientated along the strike and joints parallel to the dip. Locally, infrequent high angle faults of variable orientation control groundwater movement. The various structural pathways are not of equal importance. Allogenic streams reach the limestone along the east and west flanks of the valley, but the pattern of subsurface recharge is distinctly asymmetric (see Table 1). Streams invading the limestone from the east, where the hydraulic gradient and stratal dip are roughly concordant, sink close to the geologic contact and resurge at base level springs. However, streams invading the limestone from the west, where the dip is into the mountainside and direct bedding plane routes to the base level do not exist, remain at the surface and incise gorges up to 20 m in depth. the watershed of the Benson River into the Raging River valley. The more common situation, however, is where karst conduits are driven below local base level subsequently to rise upwards in the stratigraphic sequence and/or to drain along the strike to an outlet. The greatest change in stratigraphic position between sink and spring points is found in the Malook Creek cave system where sinking waters were traced over a straight line distance of 1.1 km, in limestone dipping at 28¡-33¡. This implies a stratigraphic rise in excess of 500 m. Four karst windows provide the only observation points along the drainage route. Short sections of passage up and downstream of the windows terminate in sumps and exhibit vertical joint or bedding plane structural control. The karst windows are apparently drained apices of a cave system composed of phreatic loops descending to an unknown depth (see Figure 1). The height to which water will rise in an individual joint or "joint chimney" (Ford, 1968) is dependent on the stratigraphic distance between penetrable bedding planes, the planimetric spacing of vertical joints and the externally defined hydraulic head above the base of the joint chimney. Two cave systems in the Benson Valley exhibit situations where water is inferred to have risen over 30 m and 60 m respectively in single shafts. The larger lift occurred in the Devil's Bath system (see Figure 2) where piracy of the Benson River occurs over a distance of 600 m. During summer base flow periods all discharge in the Benson River is routed downdip to the Devil's Bath, a large cenote-like depression. Drainage from here is along the strike to the Devil's Springs, 400 m away, where waters debouch along a major vertical joint. The Devil's Bath measures 80 m x 60 m in plan with the elongation along the strike orientation. The water level is approximately 20 m below the rim of the near-vertically walled depression. Scuba divers report reaching the base of the depression 25 m below the water surface where a discrete input shaft, rising from an unknown depth, was encountered. Drainage from the river sinks 150 m away rises stratigraphically through 80 m of limestone to reach the present water surface in the Bath, although the extent of any individual lift is unknown. The Devil's Bath is a large collapse feature not readily explained by development under the present hydraulic conditions. It appears that prior to collapse, waters were sinking at a higher level into a cave system developing under greater hydraulic head. A bedding plane, solutionally modified by large scale phreatic scalloping, is located at the downdip margin of the Bath, perched 12.5 m above the present water level. Extrapolation of this bedding plane to a position above the input shaft in the Bath demonstrates that water may have ascended 40 m above the present water level, i.e. 20 m above the depression rim, in the joint chimney before the shaft was destroyed (see Figure 2). The maximum elevation of observed paleosinks above the present Bath water surface is 30 m, but many meters of bedrock were probably removed from this valley bottom position during the Pleistocene glaciations. Consequently a high level sink may have been erased. The drainage competency of the cave system is apparently reduced from an earlier maximum, most probably in association the collapse and head loss resulting from lower input sites. The present SINK REMAIN ON SURFACE 2 (i) 4 7 1 (ii) Introduction This paper outlines the influence of geologic structure on groundwater drainage patterns in a steeply dipping carbonate terrain. Research was carried out in the Benson River Valley on northern Vancouver Island. Investigative techniques included dye tracing, water chemistry, mapping of geological structure, and interpretation of surficial and subsurface geomorphology. Karst development in northern Vancouver Island occurs primarily in the Upper Triassic Quatsino Limestone. The limestone is a massively bedded deep water carbonate, which was subjected to uplift, faulting and dyke intrusion during late Mesozoic and early Tertiary tectonism, (Muller, Northcote and Carlisle, 1974). Extensive karst occurs in a 30 km long section of the strike-oriented Benson Valley. Relative relief in the valley exceeds 1,000 m but the Quatsino Limestone is restricted to the basal 600 m, outcropping along the valley floor. The stratal dip is to the West at 30¡, across the valley. The valley floor is uplifted into cuesta blocks which reach 1 km in length and 400 m in height. The Benson River and its principal tributary, the Raging River, dissect the inclined karst surface and function at the base level for surficial and subsurface drainage. Allogenic streams from West Allogenic streams from East 117

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discharge of the system does not exceed 1 m 3 S-l. The narrow incised gorge channelling the Benson River, comprising several 1 m and 2 m waterfalls, is probably of more recent origin and has developed by routing drainage more efficiently along a shorter route at the expense of the cave system. Thus in the present situation there is river piracy of a cave system. The ground plan of most known cave systems in the Benson Valley is an asymmetric pattern consisting of a relatively large, strike oriented, "subsequent passage" (Ford, 1968) developed by the integration of drainage from smaller dip tubes aligned in a sub-parallel array along the up-dip side. Drainage along the strike in this manner occurs in steeply dipping strata where available discharge sites are along the strike at the flank of the outcrop or in joint chimneys developed above certain dip tubes. Similar cave systems are described in other steeply dipping karst terrains e.g. the Mendip Hills of England (Ford, 1968) and the Long Mountains of the Eastern United States (Saunders, Medville and Koerschner, 1977). Ewers (1977, and in preparation) has demonstrated from physical analogues of such situations that subsequent drainage routes develop from the stepwise integration of individual strike segments between the dip tubes in sequence from the outlet. In the Benson Valley one major dip tube/subsequent passage cave system, Minigill Cave, occurs in limestone compartmentalised by vertical dykes oriented parallel or sub-parallel to the dip. Nine ,dykes, raning from 40 ems to 1 m in width, traverse the subsequent passage along its 700 m length. All are breached by the active vadose stream routed through the system, but two remain as sumps even in lowest water conditions. Two shafts ascend 32 m and 24 m from the river passage to the surface in particular compartments between dykes. The hydraulic head required to raise waters through these shafts would have been available from sink points located on the adjacent mountainside. Prior to complete breaching of the dykes and the lowering of the water table of its present position, waters flowing down the dip were apparently drained by short subsequent passages connected to the shafts. Springs Eleven of the fourteen springs known in the Benson Valley occur along the flanks or down dip margins of the limestone outcrops. No active or fossil exsurgences were discovered along the scarps at the up-dip margins of the cuesta blocks. The springs were divided into two groups, based on their topographic/stratigraphic position. Group A springs occur down-dip of allogenic stream sinks and are assumed to discharge allogenic waters routed in large conduit passages. Group B springs occur at the margins of the cuesta blocks. These sites are assumed to discharge only autochthonous infiltration routed in networks of small passages: their waters consequently have longer residence times in the aquifer. The saturation status (SI ) of the waters was employed to test the validity 8f the classification. Table II demonstrates that the chemistry at springs debouching allogenic waters is distinctly undersaturated with respect to CaCO J while the percolation waters discharged by the cuestA block springs are saturated or slightly supersaturated. Group C comprises allogenic streams at the limestone contact and is presented for comparative purposes. TABLE II SIC No. of samples mean s.d. Group A 6 -1. 02 0.34 Group B 5 +0.31 0.19 Group C 6 -1. 66 1.07 The Student's t-test affirmed the validity of the spring separation into the two groups at the 99% significance level. It is pertinent to note that 5 of the 6 springs in Group A were connected to stream sinks by dye traces. A second Student's t-test was employed to test the contention that the allogenic waters routed in large conduits would exhibit little evolution towards saturation between sink (Group C) and spring points (Group A) along the average conduit flow path length of approximately 950 m. No significant difference in the means of Groups A and C was apparent at the 95% significance level, which demonstrates that extensive solution or addition of different waters does not occur in the underground flow paths. Summary Karst drainage patterns in the Benson Valley are controlled by the distribution and orientation of structural pathways in the limestone. The nature of this structural control is exhibited clearly in many cave systems. The asymmetric pattern of sinking allogenic streams and the concentration of springs along the flanks and down-dip margins of the limestone outcrops demonstrate that the various structural pathways are not of equal importance. References Ewers, R.O., 1977. A model for the development of broadscale networks in steeply dipping carbonate aquifers. Proceedings of VII Int. Congo Speleol, Sheffield, England. Ewers, R.O., In preparation. Ph.D. Thesis, McMaster University. Ford, D.C., 1968. Features of cavern development in Central Mendip. Trans. Cave Res. Grp. of G.B., 10, pp. 11-25. Ford, D.C. and R.O. Ewers, 1978. The development of limestone caves in the dimensions of length and depth, Can. Jnl. Earth Sci., Vol 15, 11, pp. 17831798. Muller, J.E., Northcote, K.E. and D. Carlisle, 1974. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Alert-Cape Scott map area Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Geol. Survey of Canada, paper 74-B. Saunders, J.W., Medville, D.M. and W.F. Koerschner, 1977. Karst drainage patterns in the Long Mountains of the Eastern United States. Proceedings of VII Int. Congo Speleol, Sheffield, England. 118 Figure 1. Idealized Drainage Pattern in the Malook Creek Cave System. A. Stream Sink, B. Karst Windows, D. Spring, D. Benson River.

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", '< .... \ .... \ \ \", ",'" .... .... \ "\ \ ", 119 ", ",\ .... .... ", Figure 2. Idealised Drainage Pattern in the Devil's Bath Cave System. A. Input Shaft, B. River Sink in Gorge, C. Intermediate Level Sink, D. Paleo River Level.

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Hydrochemical Factors in the Origin of Limestone Caves Arthur N. Palmer Department of Earth Science, State University College, Oneonta, New York 13820 Abstract Within the normal pH limits for ground water, experiments show that the solution rate of limestone is controlled mainly by the chemical reactions at the rock-water interface. Combining the equation for solution rate with those for velocity and mass balance, the major factors controlling the rate and pattern of cave development can be determined. The following conclusions are support by laboratory and field data: (1) the rate of passage enlargement (rate of wall retreat) rises with increasing discharge, but levels off at a maximum of roughly one rom/year, depending on the solute concentration and the saturation concentration. (2) A cave passage grows large only if it is active for a long time, not because it contains a large discharge. When forming, a large passage contains a large discharge because the passage has been active long enough for it to have captured an extensive recharge area. (3) If the discharge remains constant while a passage enlarges, the rate of wall retreat decreases with time. (4) When local hydraulic gradients increase during a flood (particularly in the vicinity of a passage constriction), many alternate paths of flow become competitive and enlarge at rapid rates. Anastomotic mazes and some network mazes form in this way. (5) Where ground water has a low gradient, alternate paths of flow generally enlarge at far different rates. Downstream branching to form closed loops is rare, and a dendrftic pattern develops. Rl!suml! Dedans les limites de l'aciditl! dans l'eau karstique, les expl!riences hydrochemiques indiquent que la vitesse dissolutionale du calcaire est rl!gler surtout par les rl!actions chemiques A la surface des roches. En combiner des l!quations dynamiques pour la rl!action et pour l'l!coulement d'eau avec cela de la continuitl!, peut on dl!montrer Ie rapport entre ces variables et la vitesse d'agrandissement des cavernes: (1) la retraite dissolutionale d'une surface calcaire s'accroit avec Ie d6bit, mais avec une vitesse maximale d'approximativement un rom de l'an, dl!pendent de la concentration ionique et la concentration saturl!e. (2) Un passage parvient grand surtout A cause de la durl!e prolongl!e, au lieu des dl!bits forts. Les passages les plus grands avent les debits aussi grands, parce qu'ils ont Ie temps suffisant pour la capture d'un l!coulement etendu. (3) Si Ie dl!bit reste constant en meme temps qu'un passage s'aggrandit, la vitesse d'agrandissement diminul!. (4) Ouand l'inclinaison hydraulique s'accroite pendent un dl!luge (surtout dans les environs d'un resserrement), peuvent beaucoups des routes d'l!coulement alternatives se prl!senter en concours, une situation qui produit les labyrinthes anastomotiques ou fissures. (5) Les routes alternatives avec les inclinaisons hydrauliques faibles s'agrandent Ales vitesses tr~s diverses, et rien qu'un petit nombre des passages se forment, dans un configuration dendritlque. where dV/dt = rate of increase in cale volume, 0 ) discharge of water through the cave (em /sec) dC increase in concentration of dissolved rock within th~ water, (mg/liter), and p = density of wall rock (g/cm ). Within an increment of passage length (dL) in a conduit of circular cross section, (5) Equations (5) and (6) are plotted on the accompanying graph for dr/dt in em/yr, (Cs-C o ) = 200 mg/liter CaC0 3 equivalent, a typical value tor cave water, and p = 2.7 gm/em 3 the maximum density of calcitic limestone or marble. In passages where 0 and r are small ~ L is large, water exits from the passage almost totally saturated with dissolved calcite, so k values are used that vary from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the 0.0003 cm-liter/g-sec used at the top of the graph. Closed-conduit flow is assumed, and the relationship shown between hydraulic gradient (i) and discharge (0) is valid only for laminar flow. The solution rates shown on the graph agree well with experimental values obtained by Howard and Howard (1967) and Rauch (1972), with field measurements by Coward (1971), and with the rates required for the evolution of postglacial caves (e.g., Palmer, 1972). In narrow openings the solvent water approaches saturation in a very short distance. If it were not for the great decrease in k beyond about 90% saturation, almost all of the solution would occur near the entrance of such a passage, restricting the solutional growth of the downstream sections almost to zero. The reduction where Co = concentration of dissolved rock in the water at the upstream end of the passage segment. Integrating equation (4), solving for C, and recognizing that A/V w = ~ in a condUi~t O(f.:~;::::: cro:: se)~~Jion, C = C s 10 + c-=cmg/liter (6) s 0 and Morse, 1974, see also discussion by White, 1977). Equation (4) is strictly valid only where C is measured at the rock surface, but because the ions disperse so rapidly through the water, C can represent approximately the average concentration of solute throughout the entire volume of water that exits from a given length of passage. Combining equations (1) and (4), the solutional history of almost any cave passage can be determined with numerical analysis, solving for r in increments of L, C, and t, provided the solution takes place by the co 2 -cac0 3 reactions. However, for geomorphic interpretations a more generalized approach is useful. If r is constant over a given length of passage (L), equation (3) becomes dr O(C-Co) 6 dt = 21TrpL x 10em/sec (2) (1) dV = 21TrdrdL where r = passage radius. (A circular cross section is chosen only for convenience. The dynamics within other passage shapes are similar, and although numerical values vary from those of a circular cross section by as much as 50%, the geomorphic principles outlined here are no different.) The growth rate of such as passage increment is therefore drl = -..JL [dC) x 106 em/sec (3) dt dL 21Trp dL Plummer and Wigley (1976), building on work by Berner and Morse (1974), have shown that within the pH range 4-6, typical of most solutionally aggressive ground water, the solution rate of calcite is controlled mainly by the chemical reactions at the bedrock/water contact, rather than by the diffusion rate of ions through the water. Hydraulic factors such as turbulence are therefore less significant than in a system where the solution rate is controlled by mass transfer in the water. Curl (1968) and Picknet (1976) give additional insight into reaction rates. The following semi-empirical equation for the solution rate of calcite at pH 4-6 is modified from Plummer and Wigley: dc = k ~ (C s -C)2 dt x 103 mg/liter (4) w where k = reaction constant (em-liter/g-sec), A = surface area of calcite in contact with water, V = volume of water, and C s = saturation concentration ol dissolved calcite (mg/liter). Experiments.by Plummer and Wigley show that k is approximately 0.0003 em-liter/g-sec for pure, finely crystalline calcite at 25¡C and slightly less for impure or coarsely crystalline calcite. However, this figure is valid only at solute concentrations less than about 90%. Beyond 90% saturation, the value of k drops sharply one to two orders of magnitude (Berner Rates of Solutional Cave Development One of the major constraints in the solutional enlargement of a cave is that the increase in cave volume must be equal to the volume of dissolved rock carried away by flowing water. This mass balance can be expressed as 120

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(7) of solution rate caused by the decrease in k allows the remaining 10% or so of the solution to be spread out over a long distance. Otherwise cave passages more than a few meters long would be very rare, except where different chemical reactions are involved. Relationship Between Discharge and Rate of Passage Growth In any given passage, the graph shows that as Q increases, the solution rate (dr/dt) also increases but begins to level off as the solute concentration at the downstream end falls below 90%, approaching the following maximum solution rate: [ d ) 0.0316k(C -C ) 2 r s 0 cm/yr dt max P This equation also applies to the rate of wall or floor retreat in stream passages only partly filled with water, provided the discharge is comparable to that shown for closed-conduit flow at the top of the graph. For (Cs-C o ) = 200 mg/liter, (dr/dt)max is approximately 0.14 cm/yr, equivalent to an increase in diameter of one meter in only 357 years. This surprisingly high solution rate agrees well with measurements by Coward (1971), which show an average rate of floor retreat of 0.12 cm/yr during periods of high flow in stream passages in a West Virginia cave. Mechanical abrasion by stream-borne sediment may cause even higher enlargement rates (Palmer, 1972). If the hydraulic gradient (i) is held constant while the passages grow, as in the case of underground conduits fed by a body of surface water, the maximum solution rate can be reached rapidly, especially in short conduits. Where the gradient is particularly steep, for instance in the vicinity of artificial dams, the maximum solution rate may be achieved in cracks in limestone almost immediately, causing rapid growth of numerous solution conduits and significant leakage through the bedrock, even where there are no preexisting solutional openings. As shown on the graph, if a cave passage does not increase in groundwater discharge as it enlarges, the rate of enlargement decreases. Only those openings that can acquire an increasing discharge, at least during the initial stages of solution, are able to develop into traversable cave passages. For this reason, only a few of the numerous fractures and partings in a limestone formation become caves. Because large cave passages generally have (or once had) a correspondingly large discharge, it is often assumed that the size of a passage depends mainly on the amount of flow through it. This idea is not necessarily valid, as nearly all turbulent flow having the same values of (C -Co) will dissolve limestone at the same rate, regardiess of discharge. Although underground flow having a large discharge commonly has a lower value of CO! as well as a relatively large area of contact with the cave walls in vadose passages, the existence of an upper limit for solution rate at given (Cs-C o ) suggests that the length of time a passage carries water is more important than discharge in forming a large cave. As it grows, a passage that is active for a long time acquires a greater drainage area, mainly by piracy (Palmer, 1975; Ewers, 1978). Large passages therefore develop under the combined influence of increasing discharge and duration of active flow paths. Dendritic Caves Most caves fed by drainage from an overlying karst surface have a predominately dendritic pattern, although the branching pattern of many dendritic caves is obscured where there are few enterable tributaries or several superimposed stages of passage development. Because the initial openings in limestone have a broad variety of widths and flow rates, there are great differences in their rate of early solutional growth. In a closed loop, where the flow of water divides into two branches that combine again further downstream, one of the branches almost always has a significantly greater rate of growth. Therefore, closed loops in caves of this type are rare, except where they form as the result, of diversion of 121 water from one flow path to a different (usually lower) path. Maze Caves Maze caves can form in two different ways (Palmer, 1975): (1) Where water enters the limestone initially through an overlying permeable but insoluble rock such as sandstone, each fracture in the limestone receives nearly identical amounts of water of similar chemical character, regardless of the relative sizes of the fractures, creating network caves. (2) Where limestone is subjected to steep hydraulic gradients, particularly during floods, many alternate flow path3 are enlarged by solution to form an anastomotic maze or crude network maze, depending on the relative prominence of beddingplane partings versus fractures. In case (1), the discharge per unit fracture length at the sandstone/limestone contact increases only logarithmically with crack width (Palmer, 1975). This small increase in discharge is not enough to allow wide cracks to enlarge any faster than narrow cracks, so a network of rather uniform fissures is formed. In case (2), a local obstruction such as breakdown can act as a barrier to groundwater during high flow. Turbulent floodwater becomes ponded upstream from the passage constriction. Steep hydraulic gradients develop around the constriction that increase with the square of the discharge. The rate of laminar flow through the fractures and partings in the limestone increases proportionally to the hydraulic gradient. Solutional enlargement reaches its maximum rate in many alternate flow paths, regardless of carck width, creating a local maze pattern in which every crack enlarges at roughly the same rate. In such a situat!on, local values of ilL may reach values as high as 10-. Under these temporary flood conditions, all openings with an effective radius (or crack width) greater than 0.1 em enlarge at virtually the same rate, and openings as small as 0.01 em require only a few years of this type of flow before they reach the same solution rate. Openings much narrower than this grow so slowly that they probably never become competitive in size. References Cited Berner, R. A., and J. W. Morse, 1974, Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in sea water IV; Theory of calcite dissolution: Amer. Jour. Science, v. 274, p. 108-134. Coward, Julian, 1971, Direct measure of erosion in a streambed of a West Virginia cave (Abstract): Caves and Karst, v. 13, no. 5, p. 39. Curl, R. L., 1968, Solution kinetics of calcite: Proc. 4th Int. Congress of Speleology, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, p. 61-66. Ewers, Ralph, 1978, A model for the development of broad-scale networks of groundwater flow in steeply dipping carbonate aquifers: British Cave Res. Assoc. Transactions, v. 5, no. 2, p. 121-125. Howard, A. D., and B. Y. Howard, 1967, Solution of limestone under laminar flow between parallel boundaries: Caves and Karst, v. 9, no. 4, p. 25-38. Palmer, A. N., 1972, Dynamics of a sinking stream system: Onesquethaw Cave, New York: Natl. Speleological Soc. Bull., v. 34, no. 3, p. 89-110. __________ -, 1975, The origin of maze caves: Natl. Speleological Soc. Bull., v. 37, no. 3, p. 56-76. Picknett, R. G., 1976, The chemistry of cave waters, in The science of speleology: T. D. Ford and C. H.ID. Cullingford, eds., London, Academic Press. Plummer, L. N., and T. M L. Wigley, 1976, The dissolution of calcite in CO 2 -saturated solutions at 25¡C and 1 atmosphere total pressure: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 40, p. 191-202. Rauch, H. W., 1972, The effects of lithology and other hydrogeologic factors on the development of solution porosity in the middle Ordovician carbonates of central Pennsylvania: Ph.D. dissertation, Penn. State Univ., 530 p. White, W. B., 1977, Role of solution kinetics in the development of karst aquifers: Internatl. Assoc. Hydrogeologists, Memoirs, v. 12, p. 503-517.

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0 .. >. .... 101 E U 0.5 '0 102 .. '0 0.9 lit t :J '0 0 103 a: 0 ~ II 01 0 0 U lit !::: en 104 0 ~ 0.. cJ' c: "'u ~ ~ c 10 105 0 0 ~ c .. .. () .= c: c en 10-. 0 0 ~ .. 0 co a: 0 107 .01 0.1 I 10 100 Passa e Radius (em) Rate of increase in passage radius (dr/dt) in cm/yr, for (C s Co) = 200 mg/liter, at different values of discharge (0), passage length (L),' and radius (r). Hydraulic gradients (i) are for laminar flow only. High-calcite limestone or marble is assumed. Rates of solution are valid only for closed-conduit flow, although the maximum solution rate also approximates the rate of wall or floor retreat in open-channel flow. 122

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Communication on a Preliminary Survey of the Fauna of Caves in some Regions of Brazil Eliana M. B. Dessen, Verena R. Eston, Marietta S. Silva, M. Thereza Temperini-Beck, and Eleonora Trajano Consolacao 2570, op. 42, 01416 Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract This article presents a preliminary survey of the faune of 28 caves in 5 regions of Brazil. The identification of many of the animals is restricted to the higher taxonomic levels, because of the lack of knowledge, in Brazilian scientific circles, of the systematics of cave-dwell fauna. It was found that the populations of the caves studied were smaller and less diversified than the cave-dwellers of the northern hemisphere. In relation to the distribution of the fauna and their relative abundance, five different situations were found: groups which were frequent in all the caves: groups frequent in some caves and rarely found in others: groups frequently found in some caves and not found in others: groups not very frequent but widely distributed, and groups rarely observed. Amongst the invertebrates the most frequent groups are: Araneae, Opiliones, Amblypygi, Diplopoda, Orthoptera and Diptera and amongst the vertebrates the Siluriformes. The existence of morphological adaptations characteristic of cave-dwellers was observed in many groups: lack of pigmentation and eyes with a high degree of reduction (Aegla, Trichomycterus, Tiphlobaqrus some Diplopoda and few Opiliones): reduction of wings in different stages (Grylloidea and Blattariae): greatly elongated antennae (Grylloidea and Aeqla) and highly developed feelers (Siluriformes). Evidence of reproduction in the cave environment, such as females with eggs in ootheca, cocoons, larvae and pupae were found for many groups (Araneae, Diptera, Opiliones, Amblypygi, Oligochaeta, Crustacea and Siluriformes) R~sum~ Ce travail presente une estimation preliminaire de la faune de 28 gouffres de 5 regions du Bresil. L'identification de plusieurs animaux s'est limit~ aux niveaux taxonomiques les plus elev~s, ~ cause de la petite connaissance, au milieu scientifique bresilien, de la sistematique de la faune cavernicole. On ~ constat~ que les populations des gouffres etudi~s sont plus petites et moins diversifi~es que celles-Ia des cavernicoles du himisph~re nord. En ce qui concerne la distribuition de la faune et ~ sa abondance relative cinq situations distintes ont ~t~ observ~s: groupes fr~quents dans tous les gouffres: groupes fr~quents dans quelques gouffres, et peu souvent reucontr~s dans les autres: groupes fr~quents dans quelques gouffres, mais non reucontr~s dans les autres: groupes peu fr~quents mais amplement distribu~s: et groupes rarement rencontr~s. Parmi les invertebr~s. les groupcs les plus fr~quents sont: Araneae, Opiliones, Amblypygi, Diplopoda, Orthoptera et Diptera et parmi les vertebr~s, les Siluriformes. On a constat~ l'existence d'adaptations morfologiques caracteristiques des cavernicoles obligatoires dans plusieurs groupes: depigmentation et yeux avec gros reduction (Aeqla, Trichomycterus, Tiphlobarrus, quelques Diplopoda et rares Opiliones): reduction des ailes en ~tages distintes (Grylloidea et Aeqla et barbillons developp~s (Siluriformes). Evidences de reproduction dans Ie milieu cavernicole, tets que femmelles en portant des oeufs, des ooth~ues, cocons, larves et pupes de plusieurs groupes ont ~t~ reucontr~s (Araneae, Diptera, Opiliones, Amplypigi, Oligochaeta, Crustacea et Siluriformes). This communication pretends to bring some light, incomplete as it may be, on the fauna observed in some caves of different areas of our country. There is no biological survey of brazilian caves, which may lead to a better understanding of the relations between cave organisms, their specialization, and their evolutive origin. Few are the papers on biospeleology and those existent are usually restricted to registration and description of some species (Costa-Lima, 1940: Pavan, 1945: Schubart, 1946: Lebret, 1966: Vedovini, 1968: Strinati, 1968: Strinati, 1971: Brignoli, 1972: Turkay, 1972: Mauri~s, 1974, Silhavy, 1974: Eickstedt, 1975: Strinati, 1975). Cave-dwell animals are also mentioned at some papers not especifical of cave fauna (MelloLeitao, 1937: Schubart, 1956: Nogueira, 1959: Jakobi, 1969: Christoffersen, 1976). This absence is explained by scarce divulgation of speleology in Brazil. Methodoloqy Samples have been made sporadicly and irregularly since 1971, by biologists as well as people with different professional backgrounds. This survey is therefore not complete, both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Survey may be considered complete however at caves as Santana, Alambari de Cima, Paivo (Sao Paulo) and the Sao Matheus-Imbira system (Goias) since they have been subjected to a systematic sample. Most of the specimens were collected by hand, using glasses and plastic bags. In some instances however formaline traps for Arthropoda, sucking pumps, hand-held nets for fishes and zooplancton nets were used. During our activities no special light was used, only carbide lamps as is usual at our cave visits, and which give a rather limited field of vision. In the cases when capture of a specimen has not been possible, its occurrence was registered on notebooks. The specimens obtained however were labelled, prepared, and preserved, and afterwards directed to institutions as Butantan Institute, the Museum of Zoology, and the Oceanographic Institute of the University of Sao Paulo for identification. Areas Studied 28 caves of 5 different limestone areas of Brazil were included at this survey and their geographioal situation is shown below at a map of Brazil: 123 A Ubajara (Ceara) B IrecA-Morro do Chap~u (Bahia) C Sao Desid~rio (Bahia) D Sao Domingos (Goias) E Ribeira Valley (Sao Paulo) Caves of the IrecA-Morro do Chap~u area (Bahia), Sao Desid~rio (Bahia) and Sao Bomingos (Goias) are situated on limestone plateaus of the Bambu! group, to which is also stratigraphically related the limstone at Ubajara (Ceara). Limestone of the Ribeira Valley (Sao Paulo) belongs instead to the A~ungu! group: it is limestone of syncline origin favoring development of caves with great level differences, in opposition to the former areas which feature caves with a preferable levelled development. The Ubajara area (with a single cave included) is situated on the morphoclimatic domain of the "caatingas", with a local moist climate however, which favours an exuberant vegetation there enclaved. Sao Domingos (which also includes only one cave, the Sao MatheusImbira system, with about 22 km the longest one in Brazil) and Sao Desid6rio areas belong instead to the "cerrado" morphoblimatic domain, while IrecA-Morro do Chap~u (with two of its caves here included) is situated on the transition belt between both "caatinga" and

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"cerrado" domains. On the other hand the Ribeira Valley area (to which most of the caves studied belong, a total of 18 included at this survey) is situated on the transition between the araucaria woods domain and the tropical atlantic domain. (Ab'Saber, 1977). Discussion As can be seen in the results (which are much too lengthy for presentation here, but are available to whoever really gest interested in them), the identification of most of the animals has been restricted to higher toxonomic levels, in some cases not surpassing their Classes. That was due both to lack of specialists in certain groups, as well as to little knowledge in our scientific circles, of the systemcatic of tropical cave fauna. We have used surveys of northern hemisphere caves (Vandel, 1964; Reddell, 1969; Mitchell, 1971; Reddell, 1971; Juberthie, 1975), as a means of comparison with the fauna of the caves studied. It was found that there is not a significative difference On the representation of the higher taxa, although on those of northern hemisphere diversity in all toxonomic levels is greater. That can be seen to be the case of spiders, whose survey at our caves is considered to be complete. While at Texas caves 100 species of spiders were registered (from which 30 were troglobia), here only a few dozens occur, all troglophyla or trogloxena. The.Arthropoda are the prevailing animals at our caves (as well as on caves all around the world), especially Araneae, Opiliones, Amblypygi, Diplopoda, Orthoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera, common to all caves. Yet there is a great difference with regard to Coleoptera and Crustacea, prevailing at northern hemisphere but poorly represented at our caves. Among non-Arthropoda one must emphasize the existence of Nemathelminthes and Platyhelminthes at northern hemisphere caves, but not observed here. About vertebrates, bats and fishes characterize the cave-dwell fauna, as all around the world. Amphibia are also largely distributed on caves: cave Urodela, typical of temperate regions however do not occur here, because the distribution of this Order does not include Brazil. Outstanding differences were found on the size of populations: although precise quantitative figures are not available, we can affirm that populations on the caves studied were smaller than those of related species on temperate regions. As this survey has a rather qualitative character, more than a quantitative one, we have not used absolute figures of individuals; a relative density was looked for instead. When we say therefore that a certain species is frequent at a cave, we mean its population slthough small, is greater than that of other species around. The following situations were found at present survey, regarding the distribution of the fauna and its relative abundance: (a) Groups frequent at all caves: Chiroptera, Grylloidea, Diplopoda, Opiliones, and Araneae (specially Ctenidae and Scytodidae families); (b) Groups frequent at some caves but seldom observed at others: Siluriformes and Blatariae, frequent at the Sao Domingos area but rare at the other regions studied; Keroplatidae at Sao Paulo caves, especially those crossed by a river; Theridiosomatidae, especially in some caves at Sao Paulo; Chironomidae and Oligochaeta, more frequent at the Sao Domingos area and at some caves of Sao Paulo. (c) Groups frequent at some caves but not o~served at others: Gymnotoidei were found only at the Sao Domingos area; Amblypygi and Araneae-Orthognata only at Goias and Bahia; Aeglidae at Sao Paulo caves; Tiphlobagrus at the Areias system (Sao Paulo) (d) Groups not very frequent, but widely distributed at the caves studied: Anura, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera, near entrances. (e) Groups rarely observed: Lycosidae, Pholcidae, Drassidae, Theraphosidae, Coleoptera, Chilopoda, Symphyla and Characidae are really rare, although the method detected their presence quite well. Mustelidae and Didelphidae are hardly seen, probably because they feel the human presence and hide quickly. Hyallela, Isopoda and Pseudoescorpiones were hardly seen due to the difficulty of their observation, although specific methods for their capture would certainly enlarge their occurrence. (As a matter of curiosity one of the Pseudoescorpiones was really only discovered back at home, while examining a close-up picture of a mould at the floor of the cave.) The presence of a given group in a cave is subjected at least to two conditions: a) its geographic 124 distribution comprehending at least in some geologic period, the area around the cave and b) pre-adaptation of the group to cave environment. Available data allow only a few considerations about present geographic distribution. Therefore Aegla is found only at southern Brazil caves, since the northern border of the distribution area for the genus is placed at the north of Sao Paulo (Schmitt, 1942). Also related to geographic distribution is the occurrence of Peripatus at the Sao Domingos area, where it is fairly common, although it has not been registered at areas of south of Minas Gerais (Peak, 1975). The fact that the Sao Matheus river belongs to the Amazonic basin explains the greater amount of fish species found, as the Amazonic basin represents a source of new taxa of South American fishes (Menezes, 1976). Therefore, genus Sternachorhyncus found at the Sao Matheus-Imbira system could not possibly have been registered at any other studied cave, as it does occur only at the Amazon basin. Siluriformes and Gymnotoidei are among fishes, the best represented groups in caves, something related to their nocturnal habits, a preadaptation cave live. On the other hand Characidae, diurnal animals, are rarely found at caves. The occurrence of certain groups at some caves but not at others can not always be explained only by its geographical distribution, as is the case of Theraphosidae (Araneae) which, while occurring all around Brazil, do only enter caves at Goias and Bahia. Some animals are restricted to the entrance of caves, not surpassing their twilight areas as is the case with Gastropoda. These animals look for such areas due to their microclimate's favorable conditions. Other groups as Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Heterocera, Armadillidae and Peripatus although'found at the dark zone, are restricted to the entrance's vicinity. Animals as Mustelidae, Didelphidae and Rodentia do visit caves in search of food or to build nests. Although not typically cave-dwellers, they play an important role in cave communities, contributing to its food chain, likewise as other animals which have entered by accident and not returned (represented by bones and dying individuals). In many cases it is difficult to tell apart visitors from those astray, as is the case with Anura. Adaptations to the cave environment were observed in some groups: in cases as of Aegla, Trichomycterus and Tiphlobagrus, some Diplopoda and a few Opiliones, depigmentation was absolute and eyes presented considerable atrophy. Wing's reduction at distinct stages was observed in Grylloidea and Blattariae. Quite elongated antennae occur in Grylloidea and Aegla, and developed feelers in Siluriformes. Evidence of reproduction within caves exists for several groups. Females with eggs, eggs in ootheca or cocoons were found for: Aegla, Theridiosomatidae, Loxoscelles adelaida, some Opiliones, Amblypygi and Oligochaeta. Individuals at different sizes were observed in these groups, an indication that development occurs within the cave. Survival of populations of Hyallela curvispina and Trichomycterus in entirely isolated water pools, also suggests a life cycle within the cave although no clearer evidence of reproduction was observed. Hatching adults, larvae and pupae of Keroplatidae observed within the caves prove their reproduction in the environment. Once hatched, the adults probably leave the cave, as they were only found outside. Evidence of predatory attitude within the cave was observed in: a) Theridiosomatidae feeding on Diptera captured on its net. b) Ctenus and Loxoscelles adelaida seen hunting. This is an-unusual behaviour for ~. adelaida, as outside it uses a net to capture its prey. c) Hemiptera sucking Opiliones. d) Otters having preyed Aegla, as is clear by the presence of depigmented shelles of this crustacean on their feces within the cave. Our cave-dwelling fauna although less diversified than that of northern hemisphere (especially regarding troglobia), presents a similar pattern of adaptation to the life within the cave. Cave animals use such environment in a similar way, both as shelter and as a source of food, and present the same kinds of morphologic adaptations, a similarity certainly due to the same physical characteristics common to all cave environments. Differences regarding diversity of fauna are then probably due to historic factors. Caves are doubtless a shelter for animals which are unable to survive ~hanges of climate, be it progressive cooling or desiccation of the area. We have observed within the caves studied, a

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lesser diversity leading to the formation of troglobia fauna, when comparing our cave-dwelling animals to those of northern hemisphere. Such phenomenon may be explained by the lesser intensity of climate changes which happened at the southern hemisphere during quaternary glacial cycles. That does not explain however the great diversity of cave fauna on some tropical areas as Venezuela (Pietri, 1956) and southern Mexico (Reddell, 1971), something that warns that the problem of diversity of cave-dwell fauna represents a field still open to newer contributions. References Ab'Saber, A.N. 1977. Os domfnios morfoclimaticos na Am~rica do SuI. Inst. Geografia Univ. Sao Paulo, Geomorfologia, 52:1-21. Brignoli, P.M. 1972. Sur quelques araign~es cavernicoles d'Argentine, Uruguay, Br~sil et Venezuela r~colt~es par Ie Dr. P. Strinati (Arachnida, Araneae). Rev. Suisse Zool., 79 (11) :361-85. Costa-Lima, A. da. 1940. Urn novo grilo cavernfcola de Minas Gerais. Pap. Dep. Zool. Sec. Agric. S. Paulo, 1:43-50. Christoffersen, M.L. 1976. Two species of Fridericis Mich., 1889 (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from Brazil. Bol. Zool. Univ. S. Paulo, 1:239-56. Eickstedt, V.R.D. von. 1975. Aranhas coletadas nas grutas calcarias de Iporanga, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butanta, 39:61-71. Jakobi, H. 1969. 0 significado eco16gico da associa9ao Bathynellacea-Parastenoscaris (Crustacea). Bol. Univ. Fed. Parana, Zoologia, 3(7):167-91. Juberthie, C. e Juberthie-Jupeau, L. 1975 La r~serve biologique du Laboratoire Souterrain du C. N. R. S. A Sauve (Gard.) Ann. Sp~l~ol., 30(30) :539-51. Lebret, M. 1966. Estudos espeleo16gicos no Vale do Alto Ribeira. Bol. Inst. Geog. S. Paulo, 47:73123. Mauri~s, J.P. 1974. Un cambalide cavernicole do Br~sil. Pseudonanolene strinatii S.sp. (Myriapoda-Diplopoda). Rev. Suisse Zool., 81(2): 545-50. Mello-Laitao, C. 1937. Un Gryllide et deux Mantides nouveaux du Br~sil (Orth.). Rev. Entomologia, 7 (1) :11-3. Menezes, N.A. 1976. On the Cynopotaminae, a new subfamily of Characidae (Osteichthyes, Ostariophysi, Characoidei). Arch. Zool. S. Paulo, 28(2) :1-91. Mitchel, W. e Reddell, J.R. 1971. The invertebrate fauna of Texas Caves. In Lundelius, E.L. e Slaughter, B.H., org., Natural History of Texas Caves:35-90. Dallas, Gulf Nat. Hist. Nogueira, M.H. 1959. 0 g~nero Elaphoidella (Harpacticoidea-Cop. Crust.) nas aguas do Paran4. Dusenia, 8(2):61-8. Pavan, C. 1945. Os peixes cegos das cavernas de Iporanga e a evolu9ao. Bol. Fac. Fil. Cienc. Letras Univ. S. Paulo, Biologia Geral, 6:1-104. Peck, S.B. 1975. A review of the new world Onychophora with the description of a new cavernicolous genus and spp from Jamaica. Psyche, 82:341-58. Pietri, E.B. 1956. La espeleologia en Venazuela: flora y fauna hipogea. Bol. Venezolana Cienc. Nat., 27 (85) :25-46. Reddell, J.R. e Mitchell, R.W. 1969. A checklist and annotated bibliography of the subterranean aquatic fauna of Texas. Texas Technological College Special Report, 24 :1-48. Reddel, J.R. 1971. A checklist of the cave fauna of Mexico. III. New records from southern Mexico. Bull. Assoc. Mex. Cave Stud., 4:217-30. Schmitt, W. 1942. The species of Aegla, endemic south American fresh-water crustaceans. Proc. United States Nat. Museum, 91(3132) :431-519. Schubart, O. 1946. Primeira contribui9ao sobre os dip16podos cavernfcolas do Brasil. In Livro de Homenagem a D'Almeida, R.F.:307-14. 37 s.l.,s.ed. Schubart, O. 1956. Cryptodesmidae do Litoral do Estado de Sao Paulo (Diplopoda, Proterospermophora). An. Acad. Bras. CL, 28(3):373-86. Silhavy, V. 1974. A new subfamily of Gonyleptidae from Brasilian caves, Pachylospeleinae subfam. n. (Opiliones, Gonyleptomorphi). Rev. Suisse Zool. 81 (4) :893-8. Strinati, P. 1968. Expeditions biosp~ologiques en Am~rique du Sud. Stalactite, 18(1) :6-9; Strinati, P. 1971. Recherches biosp~ologiques en Am~rique du Sud. Ann. Sp~l~ol., 26(2) :439-50. Strinati, P. 1975. Faune des Brutas das Areias (Sao Paul~ Brasil). In Proc. Symp. Cave Biology and Cave Paleontology:37-8. Oudtshoosn, s. ed., p. 37-8. Turkay, M. 1972. Neue HBhlendekapoden aus Brasilien (Crustacea). Rev. Suisse Zool., 79(1) :415-18. Vandel, A. 1964. Biosp~ologie, la biologie des animaux cavernicoles:Paris Gauthier-Villars. 619 p. Vedovini, A. 1968. Contribution a l'inventaire faunistique des cavit~s souterraines des environs de Marseille. Ann. Sp~l~ol. 23(1) :230-42. Visitors and Climatic Regime of Caves Irene HalbichovA & Antonin Jan~arik CSS ZO 1-02 "tetin", Beroun, Institute of Geology and Geotechnics, Prague, Czechoslovakia Abstract In this contribution the computation of influence of visitors on climatic regime of caves is described. Influence of heat "pollution" on changes of airflow regime (using the mathematic simulation of thermic airflow) partly, on heat strain of surface layer of wall partly is computed. The used method is applied to a concrete situation in caves of Kon~prusy (Bohemian karst, Czechoslovakia). ~ On d~crit, dans cette contribution, l'influence d'un nombre reletivement ~lev~ des visiteurs sur le r~gime climatique d'une caverne (grotte). On calcule l'influence de la "pollution" thermique sur les al~rations du r~gime des courants d'air (en utilisant Ie mod~le math~matique des ~coulements thermiques), ainsi que l'effort thermique qui se manifeste sur les couches superficielles des tailles de roches. Les m6todes discut~es sont appliqu~es sur la situation r~elle des grottes de Kon~prusy (Le karst boh~mien, Tch~coslovaquie) 125

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The Geohydrology of the Ingelborough Area, England Dr. R. A. Halliwell Academic Office, The University, HULL, HU6 7RX, England Abstract This paper reviews the geological and meteorological factors influencing the karst geohydrology of the Ingelborough area of west North Yorkshire, England. The effects of overlying and underlying nonlimestone rocks on water input, resurgence location and cave passage direction are discussed. Surface water sampling results are used to classify the risings in the area into five groups based On CaC03 mean. content and variability. Water sampling within th: caves revea~ed that althoug~ m:an CaC0 3 h~rdness var~ed little with depth, variability of CaCO] hardness d~d decrease w~th depth. Stat~st~cal analys~s and water tracing results suggest flowthrough times of 30 to 40 days for m~st diffuse-flow ~aters and a~ound l.day for most conduit-flow waters. A model of the hydrology of a typ~cal cave system ~n the area ~s outl~ned. Zusanunenfassung Die geologischen und meteorologischen Faktoren, welche die Karsthdrogeologie im Ingleborough Gebiet im westlichen Teil von North Yorkshire, England, beinflussen, werden hier untersucht. Die Wirkungen von daruberund darunterliegenden nicht kalkaltigen Gesteinen auf den WasserzufluB und -austritt und auch auf die Hohlengangrichtung werden besprochen. Die Ergebnisse der Oberflaschenwasserproben werden zur K~a~sifizierung der sich in diesem Gebiet befindenden Quellen in funf auf Durchschnittsinhalt und Variabil~tat von CaC03 gegrundeten Klassen verwendet. Wasserproben innerhalb der Hohlen zeigten, daB, obgleich die Durchschnittsharte von CaC03 nur in geringem MaBe von der Tiefe bestimmt wurde, die Verringerung der Harte mit der Tiefe verbunden war. Statistische Analysen und die Ergebnisse von Markierungsversuchen deuten darauf hin, daB der unterirdische AbfluB fur die meisten "Diffuse-flow waters" von 30 bi~ 40 Tagen, fur die meisten "Conduit-flow waters" aber ungefahr 24 Stunden dauert. In groBen Zugen w~rd ein Modell der Hydrogeologie von einem typischen Hohlensystem in Ingleborough Gebiet dargestellt. Introduction The Ingleborough area has always been regarded as one of the best developed karst areas in Britian. The Geological Survey in their report (Tiddeman, 1890) stated ... the neighbourhood of Ingleborough presents examples of this kind of underground erosion which are second to none in the Kingdom for numbers, extent and interest .... The geological structure of the area is the key to much of its unique character. In a much simplified approach the geology can be considered to consist of three elements; the older basement beds, the Carboniferous {Great Scar} limestone, and the younger overlying beds. At the base of the limestoen is a major unconformity with a marked fossil topography. As a consequence of this the nearhorizontal limestone varies widely (100-205m) in thickness around Ingleborough. Lithologically the rock is mainly a fine grained bioclastic limestone of a pale gray to cream colour with around 50% micrite and sparite matrix and only 2% insoluable residue. Joint directions, integral shale beds and lithological variations within the limestone have all been shown to influence thepresent day hydrology (Halliwell, 1979). The area has been heavily glaciated with the valleys cutting deeply into or through the limestone allowing vadose erosions at great depth. The area is bounded to the south by a major fault zone, the Craven Fault. Annual precipitation averages 2000mm/year with a fairly even distribution throughout the year. Heavy rainfalls are common with 31% of the rain falling on days when the daily total was in excess of 20mm. The average annual temperature is just below 8 0 C giving estimated annual evapotranspiration losses of around 600mm. The rainfall contains 4 to 7ppm caC03. Effects of Rocks Overlying the Limestone Around Malham there are no large areas of rock overlying the limestone and the result of glaciation has been the production of large areas of limestone pavement with no major sinkholes. In contrast Ingleborough has a large area of overlying rocks on which rainfall can gather and form streams before flowing onto the limestone and sinking in the extensive cave systems. Intermediate between these two extremes is the Scales Moor area. Here there was once a caprock cover which has since been removed. Cave systems can be found around the presumed edges of the now removed cover but these caves are tight and immature reflecting the short period of time when streams were available to develop them. Precipitation falling on the area now is not longer concentrated into these cave systems but sinks equally across the whole area. Differences within the overlying rocks are reflected in the water chemistry of the water flowing off them. Water flowing off the grit and peat areas tends to have a CaC03 content of 5 to 7ppm whilst the water which has drained through the Yoredale Series, which includes thin limestone beds, 126 has a CaC0 3 content of 35 to 50ppm. Influences of Rocks Underlying the Limestone The impermeable basement beds which act as a baselimit on the erosion of the limestone are exposed in parts of the deeply cut valleys around Ingleborough. The unconformity at the base of the limestone has a high amplitude fossil topography and this influences the present day hydrology. This influence may be most easily seen in the location of risings at the base of the limestone. All the major risings in the area are located in troughs in the impermeable basement with only minor risings being situated at high points on the basement fossil topography. This locational influence can be extended to include the caves themselves which provide some evidence for influence of their lower regions by the basement topography. This influence is not often total with the bed of the cave stream being developed on the impermeable basement although this does occur. It may be seen near the downstream end of Skirwith Cave; and near the rising and at Grit Falls in White Scar Cave. Indirect evidence of flow very close to the basement is provided by the basement pebbles in the streambed of Dry Gill Cave. Even more indirect evidence is provided by the flooded passages of Meregil Skit developed behind the basement ridge of God's Bridge. It may also be argued that the northward underground flow of the streams sinking on Fountains Fell is evidence of their diversion by the fossil hill to the west of them, isolating them from the normal southward surface drainage. Classification of Rising Into Types Using solute variability, water temperatures and rising location, it is possible to identify five groups of sites (Halliwell, 1977). The first group of those sites where streams flow off the overlying rock onto the limestone mass. These sites have low mean CaC03 contents (56ppm) and great variability of CaC0 3 concentration. The annual range of values at individual sites varies from 20 to 68ppm with an overall group mean coefficient of variation of 40.2%. This reflects high maximum values under low flow conditions resulting from water flow through the thin Yoredale limestone beds and very low minimum hardnesses (down to 8 ppm) under high lfow dilution conditions. Being surface sites these sites also experience wide ranges of water temperature (range at individual sites 0 to 22.5 0 C, group mean coefficient of variation 50.8%) The second group are the major risings situated in troughs in the basement rocks at the base of the limestone. This group has mean CaC03 hardnesses (89ppm) slightly above that of the surface samples in group 1 but the variations in hardness are less extreme (mean coefficient of variation 25%). The variations in hardness which do occur result from the flowthrough of flood pulses which rapidly lower the solute concentration from their seasonal norms. As with solutes so water temperatures at these sites are only slightly

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less variable than at surface s~tes. Individual temperatures recorded at sites vary from 3.3 0 C to 12.6 0 C with the mean temperature at each site being in the range 7.1 to 8.3 0 C. Distinct flood related events have been recorded with 4 0 C snowmelt pulses passing through White Scar Cave, the speed of their passage having restricted normal heat exchange processes. The third group are the permanent flow smaller risings which comprise the majority of the risings in the area. Like themajor risings these are usually sited at the base of the limestone but at relatively high spots on the fossil landscape. These sites all have farily consistent discharges, solute concentrations and water temperatures. All the sites have mean CaC03 contents within the range 100 to 200ppm with an overall group mean of 143ppm. The coefficients of variation of CqC03 content range from 7% to 32% with a mean of 18.7%. Only a few of the sites have coefficients in excess of 20% and these are thought to be in use as flood overflows by major resurgence systems. Many of the sites, especially those at the foot of Scales Moor, have coefficients of less than 10%. The fourth group of sites consists of many of the small risings within the Craven Fault zone. These sites all have mean CaC03 concentrations in excess of 200ppm with coefficients of variation in excess of 10%. It is believed that these sites are fed at least partially by local soil drainage with the high CaC03 content reflecting erosion at the soilbedrock interface. These sites mainly drain better quality agricultural land than the groups mentioned above. Hence it appears likely that within their catchments soil biological activity and therefore soil carbon dioxide contents will be higher thus accounting for the high solute values whilst still allowing the variability. The final group of sites are similar to the previous group with agricultural catchments and mean CaC03 contents in excess of 200ppm. However the coefficients of variation of the sites within this group are all "below 10% and in one case the coefficient is only 1.8%. This is taken to imply that the sites are entirely diffuse-flow fed with little or no conduit-flow water reaching them. Both the group 4 and group 5 sites have above average magnesium contents for the Ingleborough area and it is believed that this reflects dolomitization of this area of the Craven Fault zone. Such dolomitization has been recognized in other areas of the zone where the faults are more clearly exposed. Subsurface Sampling Samples were collected over a 12 month period from a 300m near horizontal section of Swinsto Hole approximately 13m below the surface, and from over 2km of the White Scar streamway at an average depth of 150m. The initial, and not unexpected, result to emerge from the sampling was that the diffuse-flow inlets joining the main conduit-flow streamway had higher mean CaC03 content than the streams. The shallow depth Swinsto inlets were considerably more variable in solute content than the deeper Wite Scar inlets whilst the streamway content was only slightly more variable. This was found to be true regardless of season with the solute concentrations in both caves rising in the summer. On the diagram (Fig. 2) the degree of discharge control of solute concentration is indicated by ,the line length. Thus, for Swinsto discharge related variations in solute concentration are greater than seasonal related variations. In the case of the inlets the effects of catchment size must also be taken into consideration, in dry weather some of the Swinsto inlets ceased to flow whilst the White Scar inlets although reduced in flow under drought conditions never ceased to flow. Streamway sampling, expecially under high flow conditions, supported the conclusions of Stenner (1970) that increases in solute concentration were stepwise reflecting inlets joining the cave streams rather than resulting from streambed erosion. Water temperatures were measured in both caves and the streamways were found to have very similar mean water temperatures, 7.5 0 C for Swinsto and 7.6 0 C for White Scar. These are both close to the average air temperature for the area of just below 8 0 C. However, the two streamways did diffuse in their temperature variability reflecting the fact that Swinsto is a sink/input whilst White Scar is a resurgence/ output. The mean annual range of streamway temperatures recorded in White Scar was 1.3 0 C whilst in Swinsto the mean was 9.6 0 C; but this itself covered 127 a spread from an annual range of 14.4 0 C near the entrance to 7.3 0 C 250m into the cave. As with solute variations the two caves were found to differ significantly in their inlet water temperatures, again reflecting the more direct precipitation response of the Swinsto inlets. In Swinsto the inlets were found to have a mean temperature of 7.36 0 C, a mean coefficient of variation of water temperature of 20.5% and a mean range of 5.2 0 C; similar figures for White Scar are 8.1 0 C, 3.3% and 1.10C. Flowthrough Times The fluctuations in solute concentrations at the sampling sites were linked in partial and multiple linear correlation and regression analysis with variations in antecedent meteorological conditions for differing delay periods. The theoretical background to this methodology has been detailed by Pitty (1966, 1968) and the practical problems outlined by Halliwell (1977). The analysis produced farily consistent results across the area as a whole with all the sites which showed evidence of experiencing dilution pulses having strong negative correlations with rainfall one day prior to sampling. The majority of sites also revealed a fairly strong positive relationship with air temperatures together with a negative response to precipitation, 30 to 40 days prior to sampling. This was interpreted as the average flowthrough time for the diffuse flow water onto which is superimposed the effects of the 1 day dilution effect conduit-flow water. Hydrological Summary Figure 3 attempts to outline water flow under average conditions. Measurements of sink-resurgence systems around Ingleborough suggest that under average conditions the sinks input about 20% of the outflow water. Study of catchment characteristics, especially the area of limestone pavement, suggests that 20% of input is from bare rock. Surface sampling above Swinsto suggested that much of the clay rich soil drains almost horizontally to closed depressions rather than vertically. However, once the water enters the limestone it tends to travel along fast response routeways. Under high flow conditions the percentage input from stream sinks may rise as high as 45% of output flow. The percentage of water entering via the bare rock routeways will also rise because of this pathway's speedier response to increased precipitation. Sampling under flood conditions in both Swinsto and White Scar has shown that the streamway and fast flow vadose trickles respond very rapidly to preCipitation although there may be a delay between the peak discharge and minimum solute concentration reflecting push through effects. Under low flow conditions the percentage input via swallets decreases to around 10% whilst the bare rock input will drop to around zero. The cave streamway and to a lesser degree the fast flow vadose trickles decrease in flow but the flow seepages remain fairly constant in real terms and thus become more important in percentage terms. References Halliwell, R.A., 1977. Aspects of limestone waters near Ingelton, N. Yorkshire. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Hull. Halliwell, R.A., 1977. Influence of contrasted rock types and geological structure on solutional processes in north-west Yorkshire. in Geographical Approaches to Fluvial Processes, Ed. A.F. Pitty. Geobooks, Norwich, England. pp. 51-71. Pitty, A.F., 1966. An approach to the study of karst water. Univ. of Hull Occasional Paper in Geography No.5. Pitty, A.F., 1968. Calcium carbonate content of karst water in relation to flowthrough time. Nature, 217, 939-940. Stenner, R.D., 1970. Preliminary results of an application of the procedure for the measurement of aggressiveness of water to calcium carbonate. CRG Trans., 12 (4), 283-289. Tiddeman, R.H., 1890. The Caves. in the geology of the country around Ingleborough, Dakyns, Jr. et al. HMSO, London. pp. 33-34.

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:.~I'3I"'Olr,' LPeCk,~ : .. /. .I .. ~ ~ :, l .,. \ : impSon', :Po\. .. ........ :' WlnstO r".... HOI~: "?... ~ K~ Head ..... ~..... : ... Figure 1: Map of Study Area WhIt. Scar Cave Swln$to HoSe 100 I L 100 L M_ [ H 5treomway 80 eo Value, .. ... ; ~60 ~ r i Ueo I H H ~ ; .. summer wtnt summer I 110 I~ lGO L ~ \40 I L H I Mean 120 120 1111.1 i V-. 100 100 L rf' PI ~ 110 ~ U 80 H eo 60 H willi summer wimer ....... L:LowFIow H: High Flow Figure 2: CaC0 3 (ppm) ranges recorded in Swinsto Hole and White Scar Cave. 128 Figure 3: OUTFLOW Theoretical hydrological pabhways in the limestones of the Ingelborough area (average conditions).

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Po~ulation of the Troglobitic Iso~od Crustacean Antrolana Lira Bowman (Cirolanidae) T. Lynn Collins and John R. Holsinger Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion Unversity, Norfolk, Virginia, USA Abstract The cirolanid isopod Antrolana lira is known only from population in deep lakes in Madison Saltpetre Cave, Augusta Co., Virginia, and a nearby limestone fissure. The family Cirolanidae is predominantly marine. Most of the species living in freshwater are subterranean and occur near coastal marine areas or in parts of the world exposed to marine transgressions in the Cretaceous or Tertiary. A. lira is the only cirolanid found in an island area unexposed to marine waters since the Paleozoic. ---Populations from one of the cave lakes and the fissure were sampled monthly for one year, using frozen shrimp as bait. All specimens obtained were measured alive and returned to their habitat. In addition, preserved samples were ta:~en seasonally and examined closely in the laboratory for size, sex and state of reproduction. Data from the samples provided approximate monthly size frequency distributions, seasonal size frequency distributions and sex ratios. Both the lake and fissure populations fluctuated monthly in numbers of isopods accessible to baited areas. The size range for animals in both populations was 3.5-21.0 mm, but there was a domination by animals in the size range of 9-16 mm. Although large females were common, all lacked brood plates. However, dissection revealed that some females contain what are apparently oocytes. The overall population structure is both the cave lake and fissure was skewed toward larger animals dominated by females, with some seasonal change in size frequency distribution. It is tentatively concluded that ovigerous females are rare and secretive, and do not forage in areas accessible to sampling. Zusammenfassung Der cirolanidische Isopod Antrolana lira ist nur von Populationen in tiefen Seen der Madison Saltpetre Hohle im Augusta Co., Virginia and den benachbarten' Kalkstein Spalten bekannt. Die Familie Cirolanidae kommt hauptsdchlich im Meer vor. Die meisten Arteu, die im SUsswasser leben sind unterirdisch und sind in KUstengegenden in der Ndhe des Meers oder in Teilen der Welt zu finden die Meerstransgressionen in der Kreide oder in Tertiar ausgesetzt waren. A. lira ist die einzige cirolanid Art die in einem Inselgebiet vorkmmt, das seit dem Paaozoikum nicht mehr von Meerswasser beeinflusst wurde. Populationen einer dieser Hohlenseen und Spalten wurden monatlich fUr ein Jahr lang gessammelt. Garnelen dienten hier bei als Koder. Alle gesammelten Exemplare wurden ausserdem saisonrnassig gesammlt, preserviert, und im Labor entsprechend genau nach Grosse, Geschlecht, und Fortpflanzungsstadium untersucht. Die Ergebnisse dieser Proben geben ungefahre Hdufigkeiten der Verteilung, saisonbedingten Grosse und Geschlechtsquotienten wieder. Die Seenund Spaltenpopulationen schwankten monatlich in der Anzal der Isopoden die Zugang zu den Kodern halten. Die Korpergrosse der Tiere in beiden POFulation varierte von 3,5-21, 0 mm, wobei die dominierende Korpergrosse im Bereich von 9-16 mm lag. Obwohl grosse Weibchen haufig aufraten, fehlten ihnen die Brutlamellen. Oocyten dhnliche Strukturen konnten jedoch in einigen Weichen gefunden werden, wenn diese seziert wurden. Die allgemeine Populationsstruktur der Hohlenseen und Spalten war jedoch zu den dominierenden grossen Weibchen hin verschoben, wobei einige Saisonlinderungen in der Grossenverteilung auf traten. Es wird somit vorldufig angenommen das die"eiertragenden Weibchen selten sind und abgescholossen leben und nicht in Bereichen Futter suchen die fUr die Sapmlung zugagnlich waren. Introduction The subterranean isopod Antrolana lira is known only from lakes of phreatic water in Madisons Saltpetre Cave and Stegers Fissure on the east side of Cave Hill just west of South River in Augusta Co., Virginia (Figs. 1, 2). This rare species was first described by Bowman (1964) and further details on its biology were given by Holsinger (1979). A brief description of Madisons Cave and its geology are found in Holsinger (1975). Antrolana lira is the only subterranean, freshwater cirolanid isopod found in North America"north of Texas, Mexico and the West Indies and is therefore of great interest biogeographically and ecologically. Because only a small number of cirolanids inhabit freshwater and the majority of them are troglobitic/phreatobitic species which live either in close proximity to the sear or in old marine embayment areas, it has been hypothesized that the subterranean, freshwater forms were derived directly from marine ancestors (Bowman, 1964; Vendel, 1965; Cole and Minckley, 1966; Holsinger, 1979; J. H. Carpenter, in ms.). If this theory is applied to the evolution of A. lira, then it can be speculated that this species Is a relicit of an ancient lineage dating back to the Paleozoic when the Appalachians were last subjected to marine transgressions. In order to learn more about the ecology of this unusual species and to augment our meager knowledge of the biology of subterranean cirolanid isopods in general, we began a l-year ecological study of A. lira in the late summer of 1979. Some preliminary results of this investigation are given in this paper. A more detailed treatment will follow at a later time (TCL, in thesis). Methods ---IsOpods were sampled monthly from the east lake in Madisons Cave and from Stegers Fissure (Sept. 1979Sept. 1980). A fruit jar baited with frozen shrips was submerged for 30 minutes at each site. Isopods attracted to the jars were removed, counted and measured alive to the nearest 1 mm; then returned to their habitat. Seasonal samples were made in Nov. 1979, and Feb., May and Sept. 1980 by the same method, except 129 that they were restricted to the nearest 0.1 mm. Isopods less than 9 mm in length could not be sexed and were designated juveniles. Females were also examined for state of reproduction. Observations and Results The physical habitat of A. l"ira consists of 3 lakes of deep phreatic water which occupy passages developed along bedding planes in strata dipping ca. 67 0 NW (Fig. 2). The fissure lake is 165 m NNE of the cave lakes, and, although the lakes were not physically connected by scuba divers, all presumably share the same boyd of phreatic water. The water temperature varied only slightly during the year; the range in the east lake was 11-12.5 0 C and in the fissure, 12-14 0 C. Temperature differences did not appear to correspond closely with change of seasons. Organic material (usually wood) was present in all 3 lakes but was more abundant in the fissure. The isopods were usually relatively common in the east lake and the fissure but very rare in the west lake. Troglobitic amphipod crustaceans, Stygobromus stegerorum Holsinger, also inhabit the lakes but were much less common than the isopods. There was a wide variation monthly in numbers of isopods attracted to the bait in both the cave lake and fissure (Fig. 3). The mean size (length) varied also, but greater fluctation was recorded in the fissure population (Fig. 3). Seasonal variation in size was less than that recorded from month to month in both populations. although a rather sharp decrease was noted in the fissure samples from late summer (Sept. 1980). The mean length of the animals from the fissure tended to be slightly greater throughout the year. The size frequency histograms (Figs. 4, 5) probably give the best estimate of the population structures. The size range of the 2 populations combined was 3.5-21 mm, but the majority of animals fell within the range of 9-16 mm. Females greatly outnumbered males ~lroughout the year. Juveniles were absent from both populations in the fall sample, but were present in the cave lake samples during the following 3 seasons. Juveniles did not appear in the fissure sample until spring but were present again in summer. With the

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exception of the appearance of juveniles, the structure of the cave lake propulation remained relatively stable. The structure of the fissure population, however, although relatively stable during fall, winter and spring, shifted to smaller individuals in late summer (Figs. 3, 5). The appearance of juveniles approximately mid-way through the year and the shift to a smaller size structure in one of the populations probably signaled the recruitment of young isopods into the population and may also, with more careful analysis, indicate something about reproductive timing in this .species. However; as pointed out below, the lack of ovigerous females makes it difficult to reach any conclusions about reproductive cycles. Females with brood plates or pouches were not found in the seasonal samples and because of this, larger females were dissected to determine whether they were brooding eggs internally as has been occasionally reported for other cirolanid isopods (see Bowman, 1971). The results were negative except that a few females from the fissure contained tiny, spherical structures (ca. 0.1-0.3 mm diameter) believed to be oocytes. Because most isopods brood their eggs externally, the absence of females with brood plates is surprising. Ruling out ovoviviparity for the time being because fertalized eggs or embryos were absent internally, we have tentatively concluded that reproducing females are probably rare and either do not forage in areas accessible to sampling or for some reason are not attracted to bait. ANTROLANA LIRA Acknowledgements For their assistance with the fieldwork, we thank G. D. Corbett, J. A. Estes, J. Prado, S. C. VanLuik, K. E. Wark and D. G. Whall. We are grateful to L. O. Steger, Jr. for allowing us free access to his property. This study was supported in part by a grant to TLC from the Research Advisory Committee of the National Speleological Society. References Bowman, T. E., 1964. Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod from Madison Cave, Virginia. Int. J. Speleol. 1:229236, 8 pIts. ____________ 1971. Excirolana kumari, a new tubicolous isopod from Malaysia~staceana 20 (1): 70-76, 1 pIt. Cole, G.A. and W.L. Minckley. 1966. Speocirolana therrnydronis, a new species of cirolanid isopod crustacean from Central Coahuila, Mexico. Tulane Studies Zool. 13:17-22. Holsinger, J.R. 1975. Descriptions of Virginia caves. Virginia Div. Min. Res. Bull. 85:1-4500, 7 pIts. 1979. Freshwater and terrestrial arthropods freshwater and terrestrial isopod crustaceans (order Isopoda), pp. 130-148. In D. W. Linzey (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Endangered and Threatened Plants and Animals of Virginia. Virginia polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg. Vandel, A. 1965. Biospeleology. Pergamon Press, Oxford Figure 1. Range of Antrolana lira in Virginia, U.S.A. Shaded area indicates Appalachian Vally and Ridge province. ~South River ___ u c;;: .. ,,:.;~., ..... r 30m 15 o I Conjectured Water I Tar =fl;,.Eas:~= --------------------"ii~~if io'Iug.1974 Aug. 1974 .... ,;':.; .... : .. ;.:. Figure 2. East-West profile section showing relationship of lakes and entrance of Madisons Saltpetre Cave, Stegers Fissure, South River and conjectured water table. From overland survey by J.A. Estes and G.D. Corbett, 24 Aug. 1974, and underwater survey by D.G. Whall and K.E. Wark, Dec. 1980. 130

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SONDJFMAMJJAS 1979 1980 MADISONS CAVE LAKE 215 37 32 13 6S 34 19 20 70 19 15 3 44 SON 0 J F M A M J J A S 1979 1980 STEGERS FISSURE 20 126 1 31 :M05931'1l1600 50 2 2 135 18 16 E ~ 14 :I: lCl 12 z I1l ..J 10 ~ 0 8 en 6 4 MONTHS Figure 3. Monthly variation in length of Antrolana at 2 stations as indicated. Dots represent means; bar lines represent 1 standard deviation above and below the mean for seasonal samples taken in Nov. 1979, and Feb., May and Sept. 1980. The numbers of specimens sampled each month are indicated at the top of the figure. MADISONS CAVE LAKE 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 NOV. 1979 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 :I: t; 25 ~ 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 z ~ 19 ~ 18 g17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 ~~~W505W~~ ~~~W505W~~ PERCENT FREQUENCY Figure 4. Seasonal size frequency distribution of Antrolana lira from lake ~adisons Saltpetre Cave. Females shown by hatched bars to left of vertical line, males by open bars to right, juveniles (<. 9.0 nun) blackened. 131

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STEGERS FISSURE 20 19 18 17 18 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 E 8 ~ 5 ::c 4 l; z III ..J NOV. 1979 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 ~2015W5051015~ ~2015W505101520 PERCENT FREQUENCY Figure 5. Seasonal size frequency distribution of Antrolana lira from Stegers Fissure. Females shown by hatched bars to left of vertical line, males by open bars to right, juveniles (<9.0 mm) blackened. A Brief Look at Single Rope Techniques and Equipment from Around the World Donna Mroczkowski & Niel Montgomery 1218 S. Marguerita Ave., Alhambra, CA 91803 Abstract Since its beginning, SRT has undergone many changes and developments bringing onto the scene a variety of techniques and equipment some which have lasted and some which have completely disappeared. This paper deals with much of the SRT equipment available throughout the world today, including how it is being tested, both by the manufacturers and interested cavers. A few of the more popular climbing systems will also be mentioned. R~sum~ Depuis son d~but la SRT a subi beaucoup de changements et s'est d~veloppe~ en introduisant une vari~t~ de techniques et d'equipements-pour lesquels certains sont rest~s et d'autres ont compl~tement disparu. Cet article donne une description de l'equipmernent SRT se trouvant aujourd'hui sur le marche dans le monde; avec les diff~rents tests faits a la fois par le fabriquant et les sp~l~ologues int~ress~s. Quelques unes des techniques d'escalade les plus populaires sont ~galement mentionn~es. 132 I

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Fold Development in the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina and Its Influence on the Sistema Pur1iicacion, Mexico Louise D. Hose Geology Department, California State University, Lose Angeles, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles California 90032, U. S. A. Abstract Sistema Purificacion in northeastern Mexico is developed in a thick sequence (more than 400 meters) of middle Cretaceous carbonates, the Tamaulipas and Tamabra Formations. The units were formed in a basinal to peri-platform environment near the Plataforma Valles San Luis Potosi, allarge carbonate platform that was simultaneously developing to the south and southwest. Much of the material in the Tamabra Formation was derived from turbidite and debris flows off of the the platform. The cave system is situated on the west flank of the Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina in the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Formed between the Late Cretaceous and the Eocnen Epoch, during the Laramide Orogeny, the anticlinorium is one of the many folds that make up the Sierra Madre Oriental. Associated with the regional structure are large concentric folds complemented by smaller kink and chevron folds on the flanks. Few faults resulted from this deformation. Strong joint sets, trending N5W and N85E, parallel and perpendicular to the regional fold trend, have provided zones of higher permeability and enhanced karst conduit development. Passages in Sistema Purificacion are developed predominantly along these joint sets. Much of the development of the cave system has been controlled by a large syncline and anticline, numerous smaller kink folds, with axes parallel to the regional trends and accompnaying axial fractures. The sumps in the lowest parts of the cave represent a perched water table, the result of underlying impermeable shale beds and the synclinal trough in which it is developed. Zusarnrnenfassung sich die Schichten entwickelt, Einheiten wurden in Karbonat Plateau, das der Tamabra Formation Sistema Purificacion in nord-ost Mexico ist in dicken (mehr als 400 Meter) aus Kreide-Karbonaten, den Tamaulipas und der Tamabra Formation bestehen. Dies Beckengegenden geformt nahe der Platforma Valles-San Luis Potosi, einem grossen zur gleichen Zeit im SUden und SUdwesten entwickelte. Viel von dem Material in starnrnt vom truben Fluss und Einsturzen aus dem Plateau. Das H5hlensystem liegt an der Westflanke der Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina im nordlichen Teil der Sierra Madre Oreintal. Das Antiklinorium ist eine von vie len der grossen Falten, aus denen die Sierra Madre Oriental besteht und wurde zwischen der Spaten Kreide und der Eozanischen Epoche qahrend der Laramide Orogeny geformt. Verbunden mit dieser regionalen Struktur gibt es grosse konzentrische Falten zusarnrnem mit kleineren Knicken und Chevron Falten an den Flanken. Wenige Verwerfungen resultierten aus dieser Deformation. Starke conjugale Verbindungen, die sich N&W und N85E parallel und recht-winklig zur Faltenrichtung halten, liessen Zonen mit hoher Durchlassigkeit und angehobener Karst Enwicklung entstehen. Durchgange im Sistema Purificacion wurden vorzUglich entlang dieser Verbindungen entwickelt. Die Entstehung des H5hlensystems wurde hauptsachlich von zwei grossen, knozentrischen synkline-antikline Falten, zahlreichen kleineren Knickfalten mit Achsen parallel zur geionalen Richtung und damit verbundenen axialen Frakturen kontrolliert. Lange lineare Durchgange entwickelten sich entlang oder nahe synklinalen und antiklinalen Achsen. Die Schlarnrngrube im untersten Teil der H6hlen representiert einen gehobenen Wasserspiegel, der das Result der unterliegenden Tonschieferschichten und der synklinalen Rinnen, worin sie gebildet sind, ist. Sistema Purificacion, the longest known cave in Mexico and the 18th longest in the world, is located in the northern protion of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mixico (Figure 1). In addition to its world-class surveyed length of 38 kilometers, the system's total depth of 895 meters is the second deepest known in the Western Hemisphere. The potential for extending both the known length and depth of the system by further exploration and survey is excellent. The cave is developed in a thick section of carbonates within a mountain range that extends two kilometers above the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The carbonates were deposited in a basinal to peri-platform environment during the middle Cretaceous while contemporaneous development of the Plataforma Valles-San Luis Potosi, a large carbonate platform, occurred to the south and southwest. The upper levels of Sistema Purificacion are formed in the Tamabra Formation, a thick sequence of autochonous mudstone, massive allochthonous channelized debris flows, bedded allochthonous debris flows, and turbidity currents deposits of dolomite and limestone primarily derived from the platform (Hose, in prep.). The middle and lower levels of the system are in the Tamaulipas Formation, a unit of limestone and minor quantities of interbedded shale representing a long, uninterrupted period of quiet, basinal deposition. The limestone is a fine calcarenite to calcilutite. It is a nearly pure carbonate with a low initial permeability. The Taraises and La Caja Formations are sequences of interbedded limestone and shale below the Tamaulipas Formation. While no cave has been found in these units, the water from Sistema Purificacion apparently passes through them and emerges at the La Caja-La Joya contact (Hose, in prep.). The La Joya is a Jurassic flysch deposit. The cave-forming tendencies of the limestone unit varies. Some parts of the heterogeneous Tamabra Formation are more susceptible to conduit-development than others. The nearly homogeneous, thick-bedded Tamaulipas Formation restricts passage development except along fractures. The inhibited conduit development characteristics of the underlying Taraises and La Caja Formations and the impermeable shale beds in the La Joya Formation change the manner of groundwater flow. Conduits in the lower parts of the system are filled by water as flow is slowed, following smaller, more diffuse paths through the Taraises and La Caja Formations. The cave system is situated on the west flank of the Anticlinorio Hizachla-Peregrina, one of many large folds that make up the Sierra Madre Oriental. The area was raised and folded between Late Cretaceous and the Eocene Epoch, during the Laramide Orog~y. The area has been tectonically stable since the Bocene. Large thrust faults formed during the Laramide Orogeny throughout western North America and the eastern edge of the Laramide Thrust Belt is approximately 20 kilometers west of the study area (Tardy et al., undated). Apparently, the stress that caused the large thrust faults to the west was accomodated by folding and bedding plane slippage in the Cretaneous beds in the Sistema Purifi. cacion area. t1any of the folds in the area die at depth along decollement surfaces. Except for slippages along bedding planes, faults are rare and have offsets of less than three meters. The few faults exposed in the cave have had only minor effects on passage development. In three places, passages have formed along the trends of a fault. All other observed faults cross passages causing only a slight enlargement of the diameter of the passage or no effects at all. The area is on the western flank of an anticlinorium and the overall dip of the beds is to the west. A large, second-order fold, the Sinclinal de Infiernillo is about 150 to 400 meters west of the western known edge of the system and is parallel to the dominant passage trend (Fibure 2). This fold has significant influence on the cave's development. As a direct effect, the trough formed by the fold combined with the underlying, less soluable formations and the impermeable La Joya Formation, has caused a perched water table represented by a series of sumps in the lowest known passages of the system. Increased compressional stress with increased elevation along the limbs of the syncline has formed thirdand fourth-order folds. The folding on the west limb 133

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is intense and seems to have inhibited significant cave development probably because the frequency of the folds prevents accumulation of water along specific paths. The folds 0 the east limb are less frequent and, generally, concentric with limbs of relatively low-angle dips. Because of the variability of the conduit-forming tendencies of the various rocks in the area, these folds have had a significant influence on the development of Sistema Purificacion. In the middle and upper beds of the Tamabra Formation, chert beds up to 12 centimeters thick act as hydologic barriers, often forcing groundwater to the surface. However, fourth-order chevron folds in Sotano de la Cuchilla, a physically unconnected but probably hydrological part of the systems, have fractured the chert and allow infiltration of water and cave development. The upper part of the system is formed in the Tamabra Formation. Passage development was influenced by both the lateral and stratigraphic changes in the unit but tends to follow the intersection of bedding planes and prominent joints or, in one case, a small >fault, that trend approximately N85E. This trend is parallel to the regional dip and the upper cave becomes depper to the west. A syncline and anticline in the middle part of the cave are parallel to the predominant N5W trend of the system. They are third-order folds that disappear along a decollement surface within the lower cave. On the surface, they are exposed in the village of Conrado Castillo. In two places, a near sump is caused by the trough formed by this third-order syncline and the nearly impermeable underlying Tamaulipas Formation. Just west of this trough, in the World Beyond, the water flow south along strike. This passage is nearly on the syncline's west-dipping axial hinge line and formed along parallel fractures in the top of the Tamaulipas limestone. Usable to pass through this unit, the passage continue along a low-gradient path to Lisa's Lampfall, where the passage changes dramatically. The main passage trends to the west and northwest, rapidly dropping in elevation and stratigraphic levels. Remaining in the east-dipping limb of the folds, the water follows a path through the thick-bedded, nearly homogeneous Tamaulipas Formation along fractures that are parallel and perpendicular to the regional fold trend. Presently, the water follows a younger, similar path along fractures a few hundred meters to the north. The water and most of the cave follow fractures in the limestone until reaching the decollement surface below the third-order folds. The slippage has fractured the rock, also parallel to the regional trend, and much of the lower-half of the middle cave is formed along the intersections of joints and the decollement surface. The cave passes under the anticline's axial hinge which is exposed only in passages and rooms where ceiling collapse has resulted in exposing beds above the level of solutional enlargement. The lower part of the system, Cueva de Infiernillo, is in the lowest section of the Tamaulipas Formation in uniformly west-dipping beds. Most of the known passages are part of an irregular networktype maze cave, probably formed by floodwater recharge as described by Palmer (1975). This area is appropriately named the Confusion Tubes. Most of this part of the cave is formed along hte intersections of joints, or in two places small faults, and bedding planes. The lowest-known points in the cave are four sumps where water levels have been observed to fluctuate more than 64 meters in elevation but remain approximately level with respect to each other. They apparently are the result of perchment caused by the poor conduit-forming character of the underlying Taraises and La Caja Formations, the impermeable La Joya Formation, and the trough created by the Sinclinal de Infiernillo. The variability in the stratigraphy, the folds, and the joints resulting from the folding have been primary factors influencing the development of Sistema Purificacion. The joint sets trend N5W and N85E, parallel and perpendicular to the regional fold trend and were probably produced during the Laramide Orogeny. Since the Late Cretaceous, 1200 to 1500 meters of overburden have been removed from above the cave (Carrillo B., 1961). The release of the lithostatis stress has probably had a significant effect on enlarging joints during isostatic rebound. Throughout the cave, the intersections of joints and bedding planes control the path of development. 134 Acknowledgements My thanks to Peter Sprouse, Terri Tracey, David MacKenzie, and other~ in the Proyecto Espeleologico Purificacion and the Association for Mexican Cave Studies for assistance in the field and providing survey data on the system; to Gerald L. Atkinson, Thomas R. Strong, and Dr. Perry L. Ehlig for assistance in the field and many helpful suggestions and discussions; to Dr. Diego A. Cordoba and Dr. Zoltan de Cserna of the Instituto de Geologia for providing aerial photographs, geologic maps, and official approval of my work; and to the National Speloelogical Society Research Advisory Committee and the Graduate Research Grants Committee of the Associated Students of California State University, Los Angeles for grants supporting my field work. References Carillo B., Jose, 1961, Geologia del Anticlinorio Huizachal-Peregrina al Noroeste de Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, Bol. Assoc. Mex. Geol. Petrol., vol. XIII, nos. 1 y 2, 1-98. Hose, Louise D., in prep., The geology and hydrogeology of the Sistema Purificacion Area, Municipio Villa Hidalogo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, M.Sc. thesis, California State University, Los Angeles. Palmer, Arthur N., 1975, The origin of maze caves, The NSS Bulletin, 37 (3), 58-76. Tardy, Mac, Calixto Ramirez R., and Manuel Patino A., undated, El frente de la napa de Parras (conjunto Cadena Alta Antiplano Centraol) en el area de Aramberri, N.L. Sierra Madre Oreintal, Mexico, unpublished manuscript.

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Tomobro D Tamoulpoll Torol"5 EI La Caja IIII La Joya SCALE o O~ : KILOMETERS Contour Int.rvol 100 m.t.rs Datum il Mean Sea Level fORMATION ~ Landslide """--"'Contoct + Antlclin., dOl hid .here int.rrtd .... --Srnclln dalhed .htr. Inferrtd -tAlymmetrlc Anticlintj It.tp.r limb to louth tJ..A.. Tioht, 3rd a 4th ordtr 'oldl Afttr Holt (In rt.) .Figure 1 Geologic Map of the Area Figure 2 Location of Map of Mexico Lila', Lampl.1I PLAN VIEW o I !l00 I meIer. 1000 I Om. !lOOm. 1000m. PROFILE' 250.0 DEGREE VIEW ELLIPSE, FEBRUARY 1981 PROVECTO ESPELEOLOGICO PURIFICACION ASSOCIATION FOR MEXICAN CAVE STUDIES SISTEMA PURIFICACION Figure 3 Maps of the Sistema Purificacion 135

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The Genetic Relationship Between Breccia Pipes and Caves in Non-Karstic Terranes in Northern Arizona Louise D. Hose and Geology Depa~trnent, California State University Los Angeles, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, U.S.A. Thomas R. Strong 1134 S. Holland St., Lakewood, CO 80226, U.S.A. Abstract Caves and pits in the Late Paleozoic formation of the Colorado Plateau region in northern Arizona are the result of collapse into underlying voids. One of the largest of these features is Paiute Cave, the second-deepest cave in Arizona (-lSI meters). At least some of the caves are second-stage collapse features associated with previously developed breccia pipes. Prior to the deposition of the Pennsylvanaian Watahomigi Formation, extensive cavers development took place in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone. Deposition throughout the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic left 1800 to 2600 meters of sediments over the Redwall. Blocks from the overlying beds collapsed into the voids, sometimes creating breccia pipes extending hundreds of meters above original caverns. Water flowing through the pipes and in the Redwall conduits removed the soluble material within the collapsed debris. With the uplift of the Colorado Plateau during the Tertiary Period, the groundwater base level became progressively lower in the Paleozoic section. Dissolution of calcareous material in the pipe occurred. As the base level approached the Redwall Limestone, dissolution of that unit was revitalized. Further collapse into the enlarged voids was initiated. These processes probably continue in areas where the present groundwater level is near the top of the Redwall, such as the Paiute Cave area. Caves now exist about 600 meters above the original voids in the Redwall Limestone. Zusammenfassung HBhlen und Gruben in den spat-paleozoischen Formationen in der Colorado Plateau Gengend von Nord Arizona sind das Resultat von Einbruchen in die unterliegenden HBhlungen. Eines der grBssten dieser Vorkommen ist die Paiute HBhle, die zweit-tiefste HBhle in Arizona (-151 m). Manche dieser HBhlen sind zweit-stufige EinbrUche, die mit frUher entwickeltem Breccia RBhren in Zusammenhang stehen. Vor der Deponierung der Pennsylvanischen Watahomigi Formation entwickelte sich ein ausgedehntes HBhlensystem im Mississippianischen Redwall Kalkstein. Wahrend der spaten paleozoischen und der mesozoischen Periode wurden 1800 bis 2000 Meter Sedimentschichten deponiert. BlBchke aus den oberen Schichten brachen in die HBhlungen und so entstanden manchmal Breccia Rohren die mehrere hundert Meter tiefer als die originalen HBhlungen waren. Das wasser, welches durch die RBhren und die Redwall Schichten floss, entfernte alles wasserlBsliche Material von dem eingebrochenen TrUmmer. Mit der Hebung des Colorado Plateaus wtihrend der Tertidren Periode sank der Grundwasserspiegel fortschreitund tiefer in die paleozoischen Schichten. In der RBhren wurde kalkiges Material aufgelBst. Als der Wasserspiegel die Redwall Schicten erreichte, wurde die AuflBsung dieses Gesteins new belebt. Einbruch in die vergrBsserten HBhlungen begann erneut. Diese Prozesse gehen wahrscheinlich noch heute in Gegenden weiter, wo der jetztige Grundwasserspiegel nahe dem oberen Ende der Redwall Schichten liegte wie zum Beispiel in der Paiute HBhlen Gegend. HBhlen existieren heute ungefar 600 Meter Uber den originalen HBhlungen in dem Redwall Kalkstein. Several caves and pits in the Colorado Plateau region of northeastern Arizona are in non-karstic, Late Paleozoic formations. They result from collapse into underlying voids, and their walls, ceiling, and floors show no evidence of solutional activity. One of the largest in Paiute Cave, the second-deepest cave in the state of Arizona with a total depth of 151 meters. Two similar features are Indian Pit and Ah HoI Sah, also near Marble Canyon on the Navajo Indian Reservation (Figure 1). In the same area, and directly associated with some of the caves, are breccia pipes and surface subsidence troughs. Breccia pipes are common throughout the southwestern Colorado Plateau. TO the east and north of Marble Canyon, breccia pipes are of a volcanic origin (Hack, 1942). In the Grand Canyon there are numerous breccia pipes, same of which have been mined for copper and uranium (Billingsley, 1974). These pipes result from collapse of everylying rocks into voids created by dissolution of the Mississippian Redwall Limestone. None of the breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon is known to extend below the base of this unit, and therefore, they cannot be of a volcanic origin. The breccia pipes in the Marble Canyon vicinity lack volcanic material, their clasts are derived from the adjacent or stratigraphically higher beds, and the clasts are angular even near the pipe boundaries. For these reasons, the pipes are believed to be the result of collapse. The lowest cavernous unit below the caves is the Redwall Limestone, approximately 600 meters below the entrance of Paiute Cave (Figure 2). It is a fine-grained, thickto massive-bedded limestone with some dolomitebeds. The Redwall contains many caves and is about 175 meters thick in Marble Canyon. Prior to the deposition of the Pennyslvanian Watahomigi Formation, the oldest unit of the Supai Group, extensive karst developed in the Redwall Limestoen (McKee and Gutschick, 1969). In many areas a sinkhole plain formed on the surface, and large caverns developed. Throughout the Late Paleozoic and the Mesozoic, deposition of various sediments buried the karst surface to a depth of 1800 to 2600 meters. Stopping of blocks from the overlying beds into the previously developed voids was initiated. Because of the enhanced premeability in the brecciated zones, plumbing systems developed 136 that allowed groundwater to flow through the pipes at greater rates than through the surrounding country rock. The pipes were enlarged by continuing dissolution of carbonate clasts and cement and of the Redwall at the base of the pipes. The process further undermined the area and promoted additional collapse. Changing water chemistry may have dissolved and redeposited the pipe matrix materials and the cement in the sandstone clasts several times. Ultimately, some breccia pipes nearly reached the top of the Kaibab Limestone and were consolidated by a matrix of calcareous cement and sand. The uplift of the Colorado Plateau during the Tertiary Period led to the removal of the Mesozoic strata in this area and the erosion of deep canyons through the Paleozoic rocks. As the groundwater level became progressively lower in the Paleozoic section, there was renewed dissolution of calcareous material in the pipes, including the cement bonding the clasts. As the base level approached the Redwall limestone, dissolution in this unit was revitalized. Since the Colorado River in Marble Canyon is presently near the top of the Redwall, these processes are probably still continuing. Large, linear slump features in the surface exposures of the Kaibab Limestone indicate underlying collapse activity. In several places near Paiute Cave and Indian Pit, strata of nearly horizontally-bedded Kaibab Limestone have slumped into troughts up to 10 meters deep and 50 meters wide. One of the most prominent slumps in the area trends N68E in two segments separated by flat-lying beds. The segments are terminated at the eastnortheast by Paiute Cave and Indian Pit. At Paiute Cave a previously-developed breccia pipe was less competent than the surrounding wallrock, possibly due to the removal of the calcareous cement in the matrix, and the brecciated rocks collapsed more readily. Paiute Cave is the void left between the predominantly brecciated breakdown and the more competent wallrock (Hose and Strong, in press). Throughout much of the cave there is no original bedding left in the Kaibab and Toroweap formations. The walls and ceiling in those areas are a breccia that has obliterated bedding (Figure 3). The clasts in the breccia above the Kaibab-Toroweap contact are derived entirely from the Kaibab. Clasts below that contact are a mixture of rocks derived from the Kaibab and Toroweap formations. The clasts are predominantly

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subangular. The breccia has a clast-supported framework with a calcareous, sandy matrix. Although not indicated in Figure 3, this breccia pipe is exposed across the ceiling of the passage from northeast to southwest, and collapsed breccia blocks are on the floor immediately below the entrance. The only distinctive structural feature within the cave, otherthan the pipe, is a fault wall approximately 115 meters east of the entrance. Slickensides indicate vertical movement, but there is no displacement of the wall relative to surrounding beds. The slickensides were caused by local stoping along a joint and not by tectonic movement. Paiute Cave is one large room. The floor is entirely breakdown and slopes down from the entrance area at about 45 0 angle. In plan view, the room has a traversable length of 165 meters. The edge of the room throughout the cave is defined by the convergence of the ceiling with the breakdown floor. The cave extends through the lowest 66 meters of the Kaibab Limestone, the entire Toroweap Formation, a sandstone and argillaceous limestone with some thin, discontinuous gypsum lenses, and most of the Coconino Sandstone, a siliceous, well-sorted, cross-bedded, eolian deposit. The Hermit Shale and the Supai Group are not exposed in the cave as the breakdown has apparently filled the voids within them. The top of the Redwall Limestone is approximately 450 meters below the lowest explored part of Paiute Cave. Indian Pit has a vertical entrance drop of 30 meters and reaches a total depth of 69 meters. It is also one large room, but unlike Paiute Cave, the Toroweap Formation is not exposed, nor has breccia been found within the cave. However, aerial photographs reveal a nearby breccia pipe. Although the evidence is less conclusive than at Paiute Cave, we believe Indian Pit is presently forming by the mechanism previously described and is probably the site of an older karst breccia pipe that has collapsed and the remnants are now covered by breakdown. Ah Hol Sah is another pit in the Marble Canyon area. It is approximately 150 meters in diameter and 50 meters deep with no traversable cave passage .. It has also formed by collapse of the Kaibab Limestone, exposed on the surface, into an underlying void. Unlike the two nearby caves, neither slumping nor breccia has been noted in association with this feature. McKee, Edwin D. and R.O. Gutschick, 1969, History of the Redwall Limestone of northern Arizona: Geological Society of America Memoir 114, 726 p. G 2 : l ---,,/ .,/ .-,/ .... oUilOU, NAVAJO INOIAN RESERVATION Figure "1. Location map. Conclusions IlUAY L' c hi... .,. .r ... ,'.111 _. 1I t TIU"L~ IUTfl L'. 0 1 L ,IU 111 II .. To.o a '... Ct 1 ,., IUt 11_ ItAlla, L' 1... C 111 1I t 11 ," It I.'.ALL U 'U'U'.,I 111'., "., I t C;OCO.'O II .. 1... er.". tlff.'".'e, ".""T '1IM.1. ,... _, 111 lIhr T"' _t,.' t "'T 111. IMALI. c .. 1 It ,,, t 'UPAI HO'" '1 1 .. .,.1... ... r., ............... I._.t .. T"HaT' II,. C_...... er :::~:~ ..... t... ......... '.': .~ ; :' '.:', -:',.:,' :.';:. ::.: : ~ -: '.'::.-:.:' :'.,~::: :::: :.:':':'. :,: .. '. ~. .:.: ::::':, 'f. '.:'.: ;1':' :::::.-. ~:::. Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic column (after Hamblin, 1968). Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their appreciation to the wembers of the National Speleological Society who helped survey Paiute Cave and to Dr. Peter W. Huntoon and R. Mark Maslyn for helpful discussions and suggestions. Billingsley, George H.,"1974, Mining in Grand Canyon, in, Breed, W.J. and E. Roat (eds.), Geology of the Grand Canyon: Museum of Northern Ar1zona, Flagstaff, Arizona, p. 170-177. Hack, J.T., 1942, Sedimentation and volcanism in the Hopi Buttes, Arizona: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 53, p. 335-372. Hamblin, W. Kenneth and J. Keith Rigby, 1968, Guidebook to the Colorado River, Part 1: Lee's Ferry to Phantom Ranch in Grand Canyon National Park: Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 16 p. Hoffman, Monty E., 1977, Origin and mineralization of breccia pipes, Grand Canyon District, Arizona: M.S. Thesis, University of Wyoming, 51 p. Hose, Louise D. and Thomas R. Strong, in press, Paiute Cave, in, Kastning, E. (ed.), Proceedings of the NSS Pseudokarst Symposium, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 1979. Kofford, M.E., 1969, Orphan Mine, in, Four Corners Geological Society Guidebook,-p. 100-194. References Caves and pits on the Navajo Indian Reservation in northeastern Arizona are developed in nonkarstic terranes and result from toping of overlying rocks into older caverns developed in the Redwall Limestone. At least one, Paiute Cave, is a secondgeneration stoping feature resulting from the renewed collapse of a karst breccia pipe. Part of the collapse was concurrent with further dissolution of the Redwall and carbonate clasts and matrix material in the breccia. It is likely that this process is still active at the present time. 137

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r ~,o .~ .. itOI'lL! ,' IIlAI''''I'Io4. I .0 TCMOW[A" I'll. I I I otnM Ullll '00 Figure 3. Map of Paiute Cave. Facial Reconstruction of an Easter Island Skull G. L. Nogrady, K. Szekeley and K. Arpas Univeristy of Montreal, Canada, Hungarian Cave Protection Agency, Budapest and National Museums of Hungary Abstract The Medical Expedition to Easter Island in 1964-65 included beyond medical studies also a soil microbiology project. At the occasion of one soil sampling operation, an apparently man-made mound was spotted. Hoping that the interior chamber if any existing will yield a quite undisturbed sample, it was decided to enter. One of the boulders gave way, leaving a passage, which lead to a cavity, open on the top. In the centre there was a skull, but no other skeletal remains. Later, in Canada, it was identified as that of a male Polynesian. Age determination was not attempted, because it would have led to the entire destruction of the sample. Instead, a silicone rubber mould and an epoxy cast were prepared and a facial reconstruction was performed. When completed, it depicted a man in his thirties. The same estimate was made independently based on the bone structure. Thus, this sculpture represents a unique reconstruction of Polynesian physiognomy of a man who lived once on Easter Island. Caves provide many skeletal findings related to man and this method would permit to reconstruct the physiognomy of long extict races, which is missing from illustrations in prehistoric cave art. Rlisumli En plus des litudes mlidicales, l'Expedition mlidicale A l'lle de paques comprenait un projet sur la microbiologie du sol. A l'occasion d'un lichantillonnage du solon a observli une butte faite apparemment par l'homme. Esplirant trouver une chambre intlirieure (s'il y en a) ou nous pourrions trouver un lichantillon de sol vierge, nous avons dlicidli d'y entrer. Un bloc a laissli un passage menant A une cavitli avec une ouverture au plafond. Au centre il y avait un crane, sans aucun autre ossement. Plus tard, au Canada, il a litli identifili comme originaire d'un male polynesien. La dlitermination de l'age n'a pas litli tent lie car elle aurait dernandli la destruction totale de l'lichantillon. Au lieu, un moulage de caoutchouc silicone et une rliplique de rlisine lipoxy a litli prliparlie et la reconstruction faciale exlicutlie. Quand elle fut achevlie, elle montrait un homme dans la trentaine. La m~e estimation a litli conclue indlipendamment baslie sur la structure osseuse. Ainsi, cette sculpture reprlisente une reconstruction unique de la physionomie polynlisienne d'un homme qui a vli9u jadis A l'lle de Paques. Les cavernes permettent A l'homme d'effectuer de nombreuses fouilles squelettiques d'homme et cette mlithode pourrait permettre la reconstruction de la physionomie des races disparues depuis longtemps et qui manquent dans l'illustraction de l'art prlihistorique des cavernes. 138

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climate, warm and humid. Regional geological in the Quarternary, All these conditions are Some Characteristics of Karst Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau, China Song Lin Hua Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China. Abstract Guizhou plateau is about 1000-1500 m above sea level. It has a subtropical Carbonate rocks cover c. 110,000 km 2 64% of the total area of Guizhou province. structure is very complicated. Since Yens han Movement (Triassic) and especially Guizhou plateau has been continuously exposed to erosion by intermittent uplift. very favourable to the development of karst geomorphology hydrology. Some main features of karst hydrology are as follows: (1) karst ground water is directly fed by meteoric water, it fluctuates with the meteorologic factors. (2) Surface and subsurface drainage systems have a convex profile. In the upper reaches, the gradient is gentle and valleys have a wide "Un shaped cross section, a narrow "un shape in the middle reaches, and narrow and deep "V" shape with high gradient in the lower part. At the knock points, waterfalls and rapids are usually formed. (3) The development of karst drainage systems shows a series of superimposed levels, each deeper than the last. (4) Vertically, the circulation of karst groundwater may be divided into three zones, vertical, horizontal and deep circulations. Some big caves extending deep beneath the drainage base resulted from deep circulation. (5) Capture is common between the surface and subsurface drainage systems. (6) The main hydrochemistry patterns are HC03-Ca, Mg or HC0 3 S04_' Ca, Mg. Water qualities in different carbonate rocks are very different, hardness of dolomite water is higher than of limestone water. Introduction Guizhou plateau, with a mean altitude of 10001500 m above sea level, forms the eastern part of Yunnan-Guizhou plateau (Fig. 1). It is the one of the best karst development provinces in China. Carbonate rocks cover about 110,000 Km 2 64% of total area of Guizhou province. The total thickness of carbonate rocks which were deposited from Sinian Period to the Tertiary is several thousand metres. Guizhou plateau has undergone several serious tectonic movements, and folds and faults are well developed. Since Yenshan Movement (Triassic) created the basic geomophological framework of Guizhou plateau, it has been intermittently uplifted and continuously exposed to erosion. Since the Wuarternary, uplift has totalled at least 500-1000 m. Intermittent strong uplift of Guizhou plateau has caused the development of multiple levels or erosion surfaces and made the deep valleys of the Wujiang, Yuanjiang, Nanpanjiang and Beipanjing rivers as the regional drainage bases strongly cut down (Fig. 1). Since the Quaternary, the climate has been warm and humid which greatly strengthens karst development. Today the climate is subtropical, with annual mean temperature l2-l6¡C, precipitation 1000-13000 rom. The peculiar and marvellous karst landforms and hydrology have attracted geologists, geographers, tourists and others. The great geographers Xu xia Ke (1586-1641), Wang Shi Xing, Te Wuang, Chen Ting and others investigated karst geomorphology and hydrology (Ju Ji We and Pan Fong Ying, 1979). More recently, Chen Su Pan (1954), Zeng Zhao Xuan (1964), Zhou Hui Xiang (1965) and others have done a lot of research work on karst geomorphology and hydrology. Recently Geographic Institute of Academia Sinica, Nanjing University, Guizhou Technical College, Guizhou Hydrogeological Team and other units have studied karst hydrology in detail and have got very good results. Factors Affecting karst hydrology The basic types of karst ground water in Guizhou plateau are voidfissure water and conduit or cavern water. Karst ground water within a certain catchment area collects and flows in a fixed course and drains at one or several points as springs. This kind of karst flow may be defined as a karst drainage system which may have both underground and surface sections or may be totally subsurface. In the process of development, the subsurface conduit is continuously enlarged and the conduit ceiling may consequently collapse and expose the conduit to form a surface flow. The unexposed part, or the underground section, caused by the surface stream sinking down into carbonate rock through a sinkhole is termed subsurface flow. The bigger subsurface flow may be called underground rivers with some properties of surface streams. The development of karst hydrology in Guizhou is controlled by the following factors: a. Lithology The amount of calcite and dolomite in carbonate rocks caries with the evolution of geological history and depositional environment (Fig. 2). The degree of kar~tification of carbonate rocks is essentially determ1ned by the amount of dolomite and insoluble materials, the weaker the karstification, the higher t~e c?ntent of dolomite (Jing Yu Zhang, 1962; L1 CU1.Zhong and Zhang Shou Yue et aI, 1962; Rauch and Wh1te, 1977; Sweeting, 1979). Karst underground 139 drainage systems are chiefly developed in the pure and thick limestones such as the Ordovician Honghuayuan Limestone, CArboniferious Huanglong-Maping Limestone, Permian Qixia, Maokou and Zhangxing Limestones and Triassic Yulongshan Limestone. There generally is voidfissure water in dolomite. b. Geological structure Geological structure is the dominant influence on the development of karst hydrology, by providing the best structural conditions for water circulation. In an anticline, the disperse flow is commonly formed, although sometimes conduit flow also occurs along faults. A Syncline is a good structure for collecting and storing water. There, karstification is very strong and large underground channels such as the Shilinguang cave could be developed (Song Lin hua and Zhang Yao Guang et aI, 1978). In the nose pitching anticlines and axial closures of synclines or mid-limb sections of various folds, the fault structures and underground drainage systems are well developed. Sometimes subsurface drainages such as the Chaoshuihe system are formed in these structural settings even in dolomite in which karstification is usually very weak. c. Drainage base The changes of the drainage base greatly control the development and distribution patterns of water systems. In areas where the drainage base is relatively stable, the distribution pattern is dendriform or netted form such as the upper reaches of Huanghe underground drainage system. Large downward shifts of the drainage base caused by uplift and major valley downcutting will raise the underground water gradient and promote the water circulating, corrosion and erosion. In this case, the movement and distribution of ground water become extremely nonhomogeneous, the water flow mainly concentrates in the conduits. The intermittent downward movement of the base level results in the development and distribution of karst water systems with multi-levels and terraces. In the transitional zone between two terraces, the hydraulic gradient is steeper. Some Features of Karst Hydrology in Guizhou Plateau a. Water Table and Discharge Fluctuations Because karst ground water 1S d1rectly fed by meteoric water, its regime depends on the climatic factors. Though there is a Chinese word to describe Guizhou climate, "No three days without rain", it may be divided into rainy season and dry season according to distribution of rainfall in a year. The precipitation in rainy season is more than 80% of annual rainfall. The high level and discharge of karst ground water are also in the rainy season, the lowest in dry season. The ratio of highest to lowest discharge may reach over 100 for subsurface drainage, the ratio is big surface rivers such as Wujiang may be up to 50 (at Sinan Gauging Station in 1967). The fluctuation of the water table differs from place to place. For instance, in the upper reaches of Huanghe drainage system, it is several metres, but 54-90 m in the middle reaches. The regime of karst void-fissure water is very sensitive in response to rainfall, for example, the peak values of ground water table in some boreholes in Guiyang appear only 4 days after rain. The curves of both water table fluctuation and discharge have an irregular dogtooth shape. b. Erosion Surfaces and Effects on Karst Hydrology GU1zhou plateau was tecton1cally stable for a long time after the basic geomorphological framework formed during Yenshan Movement, and as a result the Daloushan

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erosive surface was formed (Fig. 3). Later the region underwent several elevations and stopages and new erosive surfaces were formed i.e. two Shanpen Stage surfaces. During the Quaternary, the strong uplift of the plateau caused Wujiang, Yuanjiang Nanpanjiang and Beipanjiang drastically to cut down and form the Xiagou (narrow valley) Stage surface (Fig. 3). The multiple levels of surfaces can give rise to several levels of local drainage bases. A good example is in Dejiang, the ground water systems in both Longtang valley and Jingtouba valley (both with altitude 700 m) drain into Dejiang basin with 500-600 m altitude, but the springs are about 5-15 m higher than the bottom of the basin. In the Quaternary, the strong uplift of the earth crust lead to the sapping and headward erosion of the drainage systems but the capacity and speed of the sapping and erosion of the branches were smaller than the main course. Therefore, the branch valleys hang above the main valley (Fig. 4), and sometime waterfalls of several dozen metres may be formed (Zhou Cheng Jie and Dai Chun Jing, 1962). Upstream of the knickest points of highest headward erosion the karst water system will keep their original features, for example, the Xiasi-Mawei part of the Huanghe underground drainage system in Dushan County is characterized by small hydraulic gradient, shallow water table, frequent alternation between surface flow and subsurface flow with a large channel, many deep karst lakes, some of them over 50 m deep, and a Fenglin-basin* landscape (Institute of Geography, Academic Sinica, 1977). The longitudinal profiles of karst drainage systems are convex in shape (antiequilibrium profile). The turning point of gradient is named as knick point. There are six knick points in Huanghe system (Song Lin Hua, 1979). The f~ous Huanggoushu waterfall is a knick point of Dabanhe River which is a tributary of Beipangjiang. The subsurface flow of the underground drainage system generally occurs where the hydraulic gradient is steepest (Group of Karst, Institute of Geology, 1979). One of the principle features of underground drainages on Guizhou Plateau is alternation of surface streams and subsurface streams, for example, Liuchonghe River sinks into underground about six times. c. Deepening and Succession of Karst drainage s*stems T e uplift of the earth's crust causes karstification downwards as its main direction; and when it is stable, the main function of karstification is to widen its course. The alternation of uplift and periods of stability in the earth's crust result in interchange of vertical and lateral karstification, and lateral karstification widening and ramifying the lower parts of the channels formed by vertical development. The strongest karstification always takes place in the most favourable location in lithology and structure. Therefore, karst develops in time and space by deepening and a succession of levels. Take for example, Shantang underground river, Zhijin County, which has developed four levels of channels. The first and second levels are now dry, the third is a flood course, and the fourth, lowest channel, is a small modern river still developing downwards. The different levels of channels are connected with shafts (Ghizhou 114 Geological Team, 1978). d. Zones of groundwater circulation The movement of karst groundwater may be vertically divided into vertical, horizontal and deep conduit circulation zones (Zhou Shi Jie, Dai Chun Jiang, 1962; Yang Ming De, He Cai Hua, 1976). The thickness of the vertical circulation zone varies greatly from place to place. In the upper reaches of Huanghe underground drainage system it is only several metres, in the middle reaches about 54-90 m, in the lower reaches up to several hundreds of metres. The thickness of horizontal circulation is controlled by fluctuation of the ground water table. The deep circulation can reach down to several hundred metres below_beds of major rivers, for instance, the 9.4 m high cave found by drilling about 220 m below Wujiang bed is the result of karst water circulation along faults. e. Drainage capture Capture ~s common between surface and subsurface karst drainage systems. For example, in Tianshengqiao (natural bridge) area (Fig. 5) at the first stage, Shuiliandong-Tianshenqiao underground river captured the Shanchahe surface river and made a meander of the river dry. Later, Gengjaba-Zianrendong subsurface 140 river developed very quickly and seized the water from the upper part of Shanchahe. It is believed that the latter capture will eventually make the valley from Gengjaba to Zianrendong completely dry (Fig. 5). (Duan Zhi Chang, Chen Zhen, 1978). In Dejiang County, Naoshuiyan Subterranean drainage system pirates the water from Lengshuiyan system, and the underground watershed has been forced to move toward Lengshuiyan system (Song Lin Hua, Zhang Yao Guang et al., 1978). f. Chemistry of karst water The surface water strongly alternating with groundwater causes hydrochemistry differences to be small in vertical direction (Yang Ming De, He Chai Hua, 1976, Jan De Pu, Mo Zhong Da, 1978). Generally, the total dissolved solids content of karst water is less than 0.5 gil (Group of Karst, Chengdu Geology College, 1962). The chemical patterns belong to HC03-Ca, Mg or HC0 3 -Ca, Mg groups, the latter just occuring in gypsum limestone or in belts near sulphide minerals. According to regional hydrochemistry study, it has been found out that the karst water hardness in dolomite, 10-24 German degrees, is higher than that in limestone, generally less than 15. G.D, while the water hardness in deep buried dolomite may reach up to 66 G.D. *Fenglin a landform name given to tower karst in which the bases of the towers are contiguous or separate. References Chen Su Pan 1954 Karst geomorphology in southwest China. Dili Zhishi (Geographical Knowledge) March 1954. Zhou Hui Xiang 1965 Characteristics of karst in China. Dili (Geography) No. 2 1965 Duan Zhi Chang, Chen Zhen. The problems and application of karst ground water in Tianshengqiao area, Shanchahe River. The Second National Karst Symposium, Geology Society of China, 1978, Guilin. Guizhou 114 Geological Team. Development of Shantan underground river system, Zhijin County, Guizhou. The Second National Karst Symposium, Geology Society of China, 1978, Guilin. Group of Karstology, Department of Hydrogeology and Engineeering Geology, Chendu Geology College: (1) Some features of karst development and hydrogeological conditions in Triassic stratigraphy, West Guizhou. (2) Karst development and hydrogeological conditional in Liuzhi area, Guizhou. Selected Archives of National Karst Symposium. Academic Press, 1962. Group of Karstology, Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica. The distribution of underground drainage systems and assessment of water resources in South Dushan Guizhou. Dushan Keji, No.1, 1977. Group of Karstology, Institute of Geology, Academia Sinica. China Karst Study. Academic Press, 1979. Jiang De Pu and Mo Zhong Da, et al. 1977. Assessment of karst water and study on the natural conditions preventing from sinking, Qingping Reservoir. The Second National Karst Symposium, Geology Society of China, 1978, Guilin. Jing Yu Zhang, Laboratory experiment of carbonate rocks of Guangxi. Selected Archies of National Karst Seminar. Academic Press, 1962. Ju Ji We and Pan Fong Ying, 1979. The ancient knowledge of karst phenomena in China. Guiyana Karst Geomorphology Symposium, 1979. Li Cui Zhong, Zhang Shou Yue et al. The basic law of karst development in Guangxi. Selected Archives of National Karst Seminar. Academic Press, 1962. Henry W. Rauch and Williams B. White, 1977. Dissolution kinetics of carbonate rocks. I: Effects of lithology on dissolution rate. Water Resources Research 13 (2) 1977 p. 381-394. Song Lin Hua and Zhang Yao Guang et al., 1978. Karst development and assessment of water resources in Dejiang Town and Shaqi areas, Dejiang County, Guizhou Province. The Second National Karst Symposium, Geology Society of China, 1978, Guilin. Song Lin Hua 1979. Preliminary study of karst hydrochemistry in Huanghe subsurface drainage system, Dushan County, Guizhou. Guiyang Karst Geomorphology Symposium, 1979. M. M. Sweeting. Karst morphology and limestone petrology. Progress in Physical Geography Vol. 3, No.1, 1979. Yang Ming De, He Cai Hua, 1976. The basic characteristics of Geomorphology, Guizhou. Zeng Zhao Xuan, 1964. Some problems on limestone geomorphology types in South China. Geologica Acta Vo. 44 (1964) No. L

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LOCA TlON OF GUIZHOU PLATEAU GUIZHOU PLATEAU ... is I SOUTH CH INA SEA 800 Km a WUJIANG RIVER c BElPmJlANG RIVER b VlWiJIANG RIVER d -..JIANG RIVER Figure-l ... .. ... CaO% MgO% 70 20 60 16 50 12 40 8 70 BOKm 60 50 40 Maotiaohe Wui iang Shanchahe I 1"-'_ I I I I I I I I I I I I 20 30 Maotiaohe I I I D la I300 I 1600 M Ql 1400 II,"-'+oo -g 120 100
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M 1400 I knick point \!Y fI valley shape I I upper reaches --;-Middle+Lower I reachesl I lW 60 o Wujiang Km Miao u 900 800 1300 Q)1200 '0 ::> :':1100 1000 Figure-4 Longitudinal profile branch and major valleys, Maotiaohe River. He R. Figure-5 The capture between the rivers, Tianshenqiao area. ==== Underground river = Dry valley (Based on Duan Zhi Chang et.al, 1978) Mathematic Simulation of "Baric Airflow" Jir! Botur & Antonin Jancar!k Institute of Geology and Geotechnics, Prague, Czechoslovakia Abstract Changes of air pressure in free atmosphere are one of basic causes for airflow in caves. In contribution a mathematic method of simulation of airflow generated in this way is described. Model is based on a premise of air compressibility and on definition of aerodynamic resistance. There are two methods of measurement of air pressure differences described and their accuracy is estimated. Results of computation are compared with those of measurements. R~sum~ Les changements de la pression de l'air dans l'atmosph~re libre repr~sentent une des causes fondamentales de l'ecoulement de l'air dans les cavernes. Das cette contribution, on d~crit la m~thode du modelage math~matique de l'ecoulement ainsi provoqu~. Le mod~le s'appuit sur la pr~misse de la compressibilit~ de l'air et sur la d~finition de la r~sistance a~rodynamique. On d~crit aussi deux m~thodes fondamentales de la mesure des diff~rences de pression et on compare leur pr~cision. Les r~sultats du calcul sont compar~s avec les r~sultats r~els, obtenus par m~surage. 142

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Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and Oth~r Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains Carol A. Hill Cave Research Foundation, Box 5444A, Route 5, Albuquerque, Nex Mewico 87123, USA Abstract Sulfur isotope data, whole rock analyses, and pH-dependence of the clay mineral endellite, Al Si ¡ (OH)4'2H 0, support the hypothesis that the caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, southeastern New Mexfco~ 5 were dis~olved primarily bY3~UlfUric acid solutions. The gypsum blocks and native sulfur in the caves are significantly enriched in S : os34 values as low as -21.1 indicate that the sulfur and gypsum are the end products of biological (Thiobacillus and Desulfovibro) oxidation and reduction reactions. The general stratigraph1~ sequence of cave depos1ts is (oldest to youngest): limestone bedrock, endellitized clay, spar, rounded cobbles, orangish silts, primary gypsum blocks, breakdown, and speleothems. Clay and spar fillings have been truncated by large cave passages and date from an earlier solution episode. The spar record a slow-flow regime of supersaturated water in the aquifer, possibly contemporaneous with Pliocone Ogallala gravels and peneplain conditions. As the Guadalupe Mountains were uplifted and tilted to the northeast in late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, hydrogen sulfide migrated updip into the Capitan reef from the gas and oil fields of the Permian Basin. It mixed with downward-moving oxygenated groundwater at the water table, thereby forming sulfuric acid. The acid dissolved the limestone, but insoluble, residual clay filtered out of suspension to the cave floor as finely laminated orange silts. Gypsum chemically precipitated on tope of the silts: H 2 S0 4 + CaC0 3 + 2H 2 0. HCO + H+ + CaS0 4 '2H 0+. Laminations, microfolding, angular unconformities, breccia texture, and limesione inclusions withfn the gypsum blocks attest to precipitation and solidification mechanisms. possible reflooding interrupted the final subaerial, speleothem-forming episode. Sulfuric Acid Dissolution of Solution II Caves b. s~ar Episode S agnant aquifer conditions prevailed in the Pliocene when Ogallala gravels were being deposited on the above, low-lying peneplain. Calcite spar crystallized in Solution I cavities from the static, highly mineralized water. Ogallala sands and gravels washed into Solution I caves to become sandstone dikes and possibly the cobble gravels found in Carlsbad Caverns. These cobble gravels unconformably underlie cave silts and recently rounded black chert pebbles (Ogallala?) have been found in the cobble gravels. Three different lines of evidence ~upport a sulfuric acid hypothesis: 1. Endellitized clay. Endellite is a kaolin mineral which forms under low pH, sulfuric acid solutions (Keller et al, 1966). Sulfuric acid dissolved the large "Solution II" cave passages and changed the insoluble residues already present in Solution I cavities into endellite. 2. primary Gypsum Deposits. Caves with thick (up to 7.5 m) gypsum blocks occur over a regional area of 650 sq krn and an elevation range of 840 m. Chemistry experiments indicate that when cave limestone reacts with sulfuric acid, gypsum forms as a precipitate. The silt-gypsum stratigraphic sequence as seen in the caves has been duplicated by the chemsitry experiments. 3. Sulfur Isotope Ratios. Cave gypsum and native sulfur are significantly enriched in the light isotope of sulfur (S32) (i.e. they have large negative oS34 values; see Table 1). These results are extremely important because they imply that: (a) The gypsum could not have been deposited according to the Bretz, Queen-Palmer-Palmer, or Jagnow models of speleogenesis. The gypsum of the Castile Formation has an average value of oS34 =+10 and redeposition of cave gypSlli~ from a castile-derived brine (such as has been proposed by Bretz and QueenSpeleogenesis Based on the stratigraphic sequence of cave deposits, a number of sequential cave episodes can be identified. a. Solution I Caves Large cave passages cut across smaller, spongework passages of an earlier (Cretaceous?) "Solution I" episode. These maze caves were dissolved along primary pores, joints, and bedding planes to produce a honeycombed network of passages. The insoluble residue released from the dissolvernent of Solution I caves filtered down into maze pockets. This same clay residue was changed to the mineral endellite in a later geologic episode. R6sum6 Les points de rep6re des isotopes du soufre, les analyses de la roche totale, et la d6pendance-Ph du min6ral d'argile endellite, A1 2 Si 2 0 5 (OH) '2H 2 0, corroborent l'hypoth6se que les grottes des Montagnes Guadalupe au sud-est du Nouveau-Meixque ont 4 6t6 dissoutes principalement par des solutions d'acide sulfurique. Les quartiers de gypse et le soufre natif des grottes sont enrichis de mani6re significative en S32: des valeurs oS34 aussi basses que -2L, 1 indiquent que le soufre et le gypse sont les produits finis de l'oxydation biologique (Thiobacillus et Desulfovibro) et des r6actions de r6duction. La succession stratigraphique g6n6rale des gisements de grotte (du plus vieux au plus r6cent): roche de fond calcaire, argile endellitis6e, spath, gaillettes, lais orang6s, quartiers de gypse primaire, d6bris, et sp6l60th6mes. Les cornblements d'argile et de spath ont 6t6 tronqu6s par de larges couloirs de grottes et remontent ~ un 6pisode de dissolution plus ancien. Le spath enreigstre un d6bit au ralenti d'eau sursatur66 dans la roche aquif6re, peut-etre contemporain des cailloux de l'Ogallala datant du Plioc6ne et des conditions de la p6n6plaine. Alors.que les Montagnes Guadalupe 6taient soulev6es et pench6es vers le nord-est vers la fin du Plioc6ne-debut du Pleistoc6ne, de l'hydrog6ne sulfur6 s'acheminait par le pendage vers le haut jusqu'au recif calcaire du Capitan en partant du gaz et des champs de p6trole du Bassin Permien. Il se melait au niveau de la nappe aquif6re avec l'eau souterraine oxyg6n6e qui se dirigeait vers le bas, formant ainsi de l'acide sulfurique. L'argile dissolvait le calcaire, mais de l'argile rl!siduel et insoluble s'6chappait de la suspension et venait se d6poser sur le sol de la grotte en lais orange finernent lamin6a. Du gypse se pr6cipitait alors chimiquement sur les lais: H S04 + CaC0 3 + 2H 0'. HC0 3 + H + + CaSO 2H 0+. Des laminages, des micro-plissements, des angles i~atfendus, une co~texture de br6che, et Aes in~lusions de calcaire dans les quartiers de gypse rendent tl!moignage de m6canismes de pr6cipitation et de solidification. Une autre inondation a peutetre interrompu l'6pisode final suba6rien ou se forment les sp6l60themes. Introduction The origin of Carlsbad Caverns and other caves of the Guadalupe Mountains remains one of the great unsolved mysteries of speleogenesis. Geomorphically these caves bear little.similarity to other cave systems of the world. Rooms are huge--yet, passages are not l~g and they terminate abruptly. The caves seem unrelated to surface topography or to recharge and resurgence points. Especially eni~~atic are the large blocks of primary gypsum and the colorful waxy endellitized clays in the caves. For over thirty years the prevailing theory of speleogenesis has been that Guadalupe caves formed similar to other caves--that is, by carbonic acid dissolution (Bretz, 1949). In the last seven years three new hypotheses have been proposed, all of which differ significantly from one another and from Bretz's theory. Jagnow (1979) speculated that sulfuric acid derived from overlying pyritic limestones helped dissolve the caves. Egemeier (1973) and Davis (1979) also invoked sulfuric acid as the dissolving agent but with. hydrogen sulfide as the source of the acid. Queen, Palmer, and Palmer (1977) proposed a completely different origin for the caves: limestone replacement by gypsum.at the mixing zone between fresh meteoritic water and saturated brine. 143

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References Analyses done by Krueger Enterprises, Geochron Laboratories. Table 1. Stable Isotope Ratio Analyses, Gypsum and Sulfur, Guadalupe Caves. Acknowledgements I wish to thank the National Park Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and the joint venturers of the Cave Research Foundation for their research support. -17.6 -19.9 -21.1 -20.0 (sulfur) -19 .. 0 (gypsum) -14.6 0.8 -13.9 Gypsum Block, Polar Regions, Carlsbad Caverns: Level n Level #2 (0.3 m below Level ill Level i3 (0.3 m below Level i2) Sulfur mixed with gypsum, Jumping Off Place, Carlsbad Caverns Sulfur, Lower Gypsum Passage, Cottonwood Cave Gypsum Block, Salt Flats, Big Room, Carlsbad Caverns Sample Description oS34 Gypsum Block, Balcony Room, Dry Cave -12.4 Gypsum Block, Lower Maze, Endless Cave 8.6 Gypsum Block, Upper Gypsum Passage, Cottonwood Cave + 5.0 Gypsum Crust (secondary speleothem), Lower Gypsum Passage, Cottonwood Cave Bretz, J. H., 1949, Carlsbad Caverns and other caves of the Guadalupe block, New Mexico: Jour. Geol., v. 57, no. 5, p. 447-463. Davis, D. G., 1973, Sulfur in Cottonwood Cave, Eddy Co., New Mexico: Natl. Speleol. Soc. Bull., v. 41, no. 1, p. 21-22. Davis, D. G., 1979, Geology and speleogenesis of Ogle Cave: Discussion: Natl. Spel. Soc. Bull., v. 41, no. 1, p. 21-22. Egemeier, S. J., 1973, Cavern development by thermal waters with a possible bearing on ore deposition: Stanford University, PhD dissertation, 88p. Goodwin, A. M., Monster, J., and Those, H. G., 1976, Carbon and sulfur isotope abundances in Archean jron-formations and early PreCambrian life: Econ. Geol., v. 71, p. 870-891. Ivanov, M. V., 1962, The role of microorganisms in the formation and destruction of sulfur deposits: In Kuznetsov, S. E., (ed), Geologica Activity of Microorganisms: Trans. of Instit. of Microbiology, no. 9, USSR Acad of Sci. Press, Moscow, p. 22-32. Jagnow, D. H., 1979, Cavern development in the Guadalupe Mountains: unpub. Master's thesis, Univ. of New Mexico, 55 p. Keller, W. D., McGrain, P., Reesman, A. L., and Sauro, N. M., 1966, Observations on the origin of endellite in Kentucky and their extension to "Indianai te", Clay and Clay Minerals, v. 13, p. 107-120. Queen, J. M., Palmer, M. V., 1977, Speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico: Gypsum replacement of carbonate by brine mixing: Proc. Int. Spel. Congress, Sheffield,England, p. 33-3336. Subaerial Episode Most of the breakdown fell after a short subaerial episode subsequent to gypsum precipitation and water subsidence from the caves. Subaerial deposition of speleothems has occurred for at least 200,000 years. vadose drippage is the most obvious method of gypsum reduction, aquifer resolution contemporaneous with gypsum deposition was probably far more extensive. Normal fluctuations of the water table before the final drainage of the caves carved out such resolution features as "commodes", rounding on the undersides of gypsum blocks, and streamlined shapes of gypsum blocks next to pits and fissures. Gypsum Precipitation and Solidification The primary gypsum precipitated from solution and is not a replacement of limestone as suggested by Queen, Palmer and Palmer (1977). Evidence for this interpretation is: 1. Laminations and other textures in the gypsum blocks. 2. Very low sulfate (abg. value: 0.008%) up to 20 em into the wallrock as determined by drilling experiements. 3. Presence of orange silt beds between limestone bedrock and gypsum blocks: the gypsum and limestone should be in direct contact if one waS 'replaced by the other. 4. A low percent 1%) of insoluble residue (chert and rounded quartz) and lack of orange clay and silt in the gypsum: if the gypsum replaced the limestone it could have the same amount and type of insoluble residue as the limestone. Laminations (transparent selenite alternating with the opaque gypsum) formed at the time of precipitation. Slickensides, slumping, angular unconformities, and flow features occurred while the gypsum was still in a plastic state. Microfolding probably resulted from shrinking of the blocks. pieces of hardened crust sunk down at various angles into the plastic ooze to create the breccia texture and pieces of limestone (sometimes fossiliferous) fell into the coalescing gypsum. Origin of Sulfur Native sulfur (S) occurs in Cottonwood Cave (Davis, 1973) and has recently been discovered in Carlsbad Caverns. In both caves the native sulfur is intermixed with gypsum and has been exposed by erosion of a gypsum block. In Carlsbad Cavern, the sulfur occurs in a secondary, probably subaeriallyformed, coarsely crystalline crust. This occurrence suggests that the sulfur derived from the gypsum, possibly. by outgassing of H 2 S in ~caves after the water table had dropped. Tfie proposed reaction for the origin of the native sulfur in the caves is: S04= + H 2 S + 4S + 2H 2 0 + 2 OHResolution of Gypsum The primary gypsum is highly eroded in many cave passages and is completely absent in others. While Cave Silts The orangish-tan silts present in Guadalupe caves are authigenetic residuum liberated from the limestone when it dissolved under low velocity flow in the aquifer. Support for this claim is: 1. The silts are always located near argillaceous or arenaceous limestone facies. 2. The floor silts correspond in abundance, color, grain size, and composition to clastic residues within nearby limestones (as determined by insoluble residue experiments). 3. Thin laminations and fine cross-bed sets in the silts indicate that they settled out of suspension in quiet water. 4. No evidence of active streams (scallops, incised meanders, or graded bedding) exists in the caves. The authigenetic cave silts do not support Bretz's claim of a vadose stream episode in Carlsbad Caverns, or his corollary hypothesis that an "ancestral" Pecos Valley must have existed at the time of speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains. Based on this interpretation, large cave passages date from the Pleistocene, not the Pliocene. Palmer-Palmer) should have 8s 34 values of +10 to +13. The heterogeneity of isotopic values (+5 to -21) discredits a pyritic source for the gypsum blocks as proposed by Jagnow. pyrite-derived sulfates which are oxidized at their source should be relatively homogeneous in 8s 34 by the time they reach the caves. (b) The extreme enrichment of s32 is the result of biological oxidation and reduction reactions. According to Ivanov (1962), compound of sulfur with a 8S 34 value more negative than -4.4 is usually of biogenetic origin. Heterogeneity of 8S 34 values is another diagnostic indication of biologically-derived systems (Goodwin et aI, 1976). Based on the isotopic data, I propose that the sulfuric acid ultimately derived from the oil and gas fields of the Permian Basin; first from reducing conditions in the basin and later from oxidizing conditions in the Capitan reef aquifer. 144

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The Geomorphological Features of the Karst in Guilin District Zhu Dehau and Tan Pengjia Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, China Abstract ____ Guilin is situated at latitude 25¡15'N with an altitude 155m above sea-level. It has a humid subtropical climate with mean annual temperature 19¡c and average annual precipitation of 1900 mm. The total thickness of carbonate rocks in this district reaches 3000m mostly belonging to the upper Palaeozoic age. In this district karst landforms may be classified into two major types, namely: peak-clusterdepression type and peak-forest-plain type. In the vicinity of Guilin city limestone towers arise from peak-forest plain, and the mean height of tower is 74m (n=221). Their diameters range from 59 to 700m and have an average value of 208m. Tower width/length ratios show a range from 0.197 to 1.00, with a mean of 0.66 (n=221). A proper correlation exists between tower height and diameter in this area (r-0.77). Balazs' morpho-genetic index range from 1.013 to 8.25, and an average value is 3.0. Of those towers, 55.7% have diameter/height ratios between 1.5 and 3.0. This figure characterizes the tower of Guilin between the Organos type and Sewu type. Directional orientation of the long-axis of towers are evidently. The occurrence of cliffs may be correlated into three main levels namely: 160 m, 190m and 250m above sea-level. Their dominant strikes are between 80¡ to 90¡, and 290¡ to 300¡ (n=378). The elevations of more than 600 summits are analysed statistically, and correlation betweeen tower height and it's distance from main limestone mass is calculated. Both of them show that there are not obvious multi-leveled summit planes in the area and that peak-forest plane type and peak-cluster-depression type have their particular different evolutionary processes. R~sum~ Guilin est situ~ a latitude 25¡ 15' N. et d'un altitude de 155 m. Le climat y est humide et subropical avec la temp~rature annuelle moyenne de 19¡ c et une pr~cipitation annuelle de 1900 mm. L'~paisseur totale des roches carbonat es dans cette r~gion atteint presque 3000 m. dont la plupart appartient au Paleozoique supp~rieur. Les reliefs karstiques de cette r~gion peuvent etre classifi~s en deux types majeurs soit: 1) Ie type de pitons en groupe enfermant des d~pressions et 2) Ie type de plaine parsem~e de pitons isol~s. Au voisinage de la ville de Guilin, des monts calcaires en forme de tourelle se dressent sur la plaine karstique d'une d~niv~lation moyenne de 74 m (n=221). Les diam~tres de leur bases varient de 59 a 700 m. avec un moyen de 208 m. Le rapport largeur longueur des tourelles varie entre 0.197 et 1.00 avec un moyen de 0.66 (n=221). La r~partition des hauteurs des pitons isol~s a une obliquit~ positive. II semble qu'une corr~lation assez bonne existe entre la hauteur et Ie diam~tre d'un piton de cette r~gion (r=0.77). L'indice morpho-g~n~tique de Balazz est de 1.OL3 a 8.25 avec Ie moyen de 3.0. De ces tourelles calcaires 55.7% ont Ie rapport diam~tre/hauteur tombant entre 1.5 et 3.0. Ce chiffre place les tourelles calciares de Guilin a une position interm~diaire entre Ie type Organos et Ie type Sewu. L'orientation pr~f~rentilles des axes longitudinales est ~vidente. Les escarpements se rencontrent souvent autour des cotes de 160 m., 190., et 250 m. Les directions dominantes de ces escarpements sont 80-90, 290 et 300 (n=378). Nous avons mesur~ les distances entre 600 sommets isol~s et Ie massif calcaire et les fait confronter avec les cotes des sommets. Nous n'en ont pas trouv~ des ~tages multiples ~vidents des sommets. II est proabable que les deux types de relief karstique mention~s ci-dessus se sont ~volues dans des processu~ particuliers et diff~rents. .ltt!.1Ji.ill>."t:"jJ~IA-IoJtJL!fr ~ i.l:lJ ~1JLT~tJli2 15~ II' d~~1i ~ II 15 -*. ,l(.lMII:I.ltf.rW4t 1Jt Jf-'i'":It8~ ~ 1l"C ~-'t:1t8 JIt1Jc:J'1 nooaa. :If.:1K f,j(f1Uf~.IJL IX. 1! 3000 -*. IltfC.:!:f-;il!:ti!£:f\:IltM. ~li.-C-;jJ.JI!!.J .:ft-;V'::'1'.:!:*~~: ~.lf'"J1I-~ ~.itt!-tt*l'Jf ~Jlli:llt #--'i'"W-lf:5. ( 4 J 1:I~j(;jitll~:J'1 7 4. :lit (a2U J :5~1~~~T511-700:llt~~'~~:J'1208:l1t.~~.~~ :ft-lIi;it.iEiI!W~. :5*X~~*lX.ll9ltllH-O. n 7 jlJ ~ 0 0 ~j(;jl\:j; 0.611J(.-22~J-~.~~~:5.I*~**~M~(r ~1Vl.p'1Iii1i'TUJ' ~&t''' ~ B"u~~~rJiJ *ftt~IiiJI:I:ffIiiJft.~B. ~1fj~1I9~'ft:tl.=.1' iW.. ~ji~1ijli;tl(~. o;ift. 2>11 o:llt~a 15 o;lft. Xl-e~l'.~~~~fir~~~*'~~T~.~IX.~.~~~~ ~~~~~~I19~**~'~~~1K~~~~.~~a.~* *~ .~.£~.ltt!.~~~~I:I~~II9~~~~. 145



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Some New Methods in Exploring Technique of the Water and Vertical Caves Mladen GarCl,sic President of Caving Techniques and Equipment, Carom. Speleological Association of Yugoslavia,4l00 Zagreb, Nova Ves 73 a Vugoslavia Fig. 1. Before Cave Div~ny making waterfalls through which is the only possible way down, the walkie-talkie is used, but constructed to be operated without using of hands. The sets are on, while the aparthus itself can be transported in the plastic wrapping, the receiver and microphone are in the helmet. This kind of constant radio connection is very useful in exploring and rescue work, but in the most countries, from unknown reasons, the radio is not used in speleology at all, only the wire telephone which is the source of the constant problem. I believe that I have pointed but some ideas about the direction which should be followed in the development of the speleological equipment in the following period, likewise its practical usage, based on the experience of Yugoslav cavers which can be used in the conditions similar to that in Yugoslavia (the classical Dinaric karst area). Safety, easier and quicker climbing (ascending) in pairs, (c) While teaching and training the young and less experienced members of the team, the instructor is always beside the caver, (d) in the case of eventual rescuing, the less work is to be done in securing the second rope, (e) it is easier to transport the equipment if somebody is climbing (ascending) along it. This method is used only in the very deep pits, more than 200 m deep, and it has confirmed value in the matters of safety and usefulness. In the deep caves (vertical pits) with waterflows In the latter years the great surge in the development of the speleological equipment is noted. Most of it is completely new and replaces the earlier improvisations. The bigger part of this new equipment is made to be used with speleological ropes (ascenders; descenders, spits, etc.) and a much smaller part of the equipment is made for the exploration of water caves~ It is well known today what kind of the equipment is necessary and evaiable to speleologists divers and what is the cost of it. The water caves for whose examination the scuba diving is not necessary, but which are full of water all around the year, are being explored by using only the diving suits, without the breathing aparathus. In some of the countries, like Great Britain,.due to the morphology, size and temerpature of caves, this kind of exploring is almost always used (with the diving suits). The Yugoslav speleologists (cavers) are not generally in favour of the usage of this suite, because they are useful only in explortion of the water flows and barriers. Moving in this kind of suits in the dry parts of the caves is very difficult, mostly because of the increase of the temperature. They consider that the waterproof overalls, which are put over the usual ones, are much more useful. Mainly they are put on just before the need arises. Because tlley are very light and of small volume, they are easier to transport in deeper parts of the caves (types: "Speleoglys", "Frankstein", etc.). The Yogoslav cavers also constructed and assembled some of the aparathus which greatly help in examination of the water caves. The constructions are mostly very simple and cheap. (a) Being in the narrow and low cave channel with 15 cm of water covering the floor, results for cavers, with the intense coldness and quick tirednessthe possible movements are greatly restricted. To evade this the idea of "bench klupica" was realized. The caver lies on such a bench while the water is going under it. They are very light, easy to dismantle, very cheap and simple in the construction. It was shown that the use of such a bench is much better than to thread through the water even in the waterproof diving suits. Two benches are always used in pairs, forward motion is made by their conveyance. It might look that this kind of going on is very slow, but, it is often of much more importance that the cavers are not cold. For the deeper waterflows and for short "crawling", the diving suit are indispensable. (b) While going through the small and short periodical siphons that is the places in which the channel is completely submerged in the water, only a few cm of air is left under the ceiling, the cavers tend to use the diving suits. But, if it is necessary that some part of the equipment of some members of the team stay dry, the following could be done: One member of the team crosses to the next side of the siphon, tugging along the plastic PVC tube 0.5 m in diameter. The rest of the group can go through the tube without any disturbance, taking care that the tube is not damaged anywhere. This way had shown it usefulness for the short crossing of 5 m (in 1977, the siphon of 3 m was covered in that way, as well as some of 900 m of channels in Veternica Cave) In vertical caves, which are very often in Yugoslavia about ten thousands in number .(BOl), not a rare occurrences are shafts, more than a hundred meters, and that is why in this kind of caves the combination of two ropes are used for the several reasons. (a) (b) 146

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Fig. 2. Inside Great Vertical Water Cave Rokina bezdana in Yugoslavia Fig. 3. 147 Diving Suites in Use in Yugoslav Caves

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Neotectonics in Some of the Speleological Objects in Yugoslavia Mladen Garasic 41000 Zagreb, Nova Ves 73 a, Yugoslavia Introduction The neotectonic shifting or moving is the tectonics movement, generated from the middle of Miocene (Tertiary) through the Quarternary till today. Generally, almost all tile movements in the speleological objects (caves) in Yugoslavia, although genetically they belong to the relatively younger period, are considered as the neotectonic movements (Nikolaev, N., 1962). By.this work we would like to point out some of the regularities of this movements and fundamental methods for their researches. The Survey of the Up Today Researches Neotectonics, as the specific science in the field of the science of geology, appeared rather lately so it is understandable that the number of the work in this field is not great. The first good neotectonic map of Yugoslavia was made by Arsovski, M. & sur. (1974), a little bit later the neotectonic map of Croatia was made by Prelogovic, E., (1975). The neotectonic movements in the speleological objects (caves) in Yugoslavia were also written upon by Garasic, M. (1976) in the work describing the detailed working out and use of morphometric maps in the exploration of the longerst cave in Croatia Jopiceva spilja (Jopic's cave). The neotectonic map of the surrounding of the cave was also made, by which the great similarities of the cave channels found inside and the supposed neotectonic fault or fissures are noted. Garasic, M. (1980) and his coworkers, speleologists from Zagreb, placed the measuring (scale) instruments in some of the caves in the Western part of Yugoslavia, following the movements of marked rock blacks. The rates of absolute movements are collected, but measuring is still going on. Elements for the Researches into the Neotecton1C Activ1ty in Caves The data from up today neotectonic maps and detailed geological mapping, which were made in the surroundings of the chosen object, were used for the analysis of the neotectonic activity. In the first place, the use were made of the areas of diffusion of the Neogene-Quarternary strata with its anomalies (deformations), erosive denudation and accumulative areas, morphostructural elements and all other elements obtained by working out the morphostructural (geomorphologic) maps. In the caves which were chosen between cca 12000 explored objects in Yugoslavia, the new surveying, with the special addition of the tectonic elements and structural geology, were made. Noted and marked were all the separated block, all faults and fissures. Accounts were taken of the sediments, especially in places were the measurements of the movements were taken. Instruments self constructued (inductive microprocessors) were put exclusively on the primary blocks of stones (fundamental, basic) and not on the stalactite or stalgmite (speleolothems) so that the records of the movements of the stalactite overaly should be avoided (the sliding of the speleothems overaly over the rock is an often occurence). The several block diagrams were made by which was easier to calculate the intergrity of the rock mass inside the observing interval in the cave. The special attention was payed to the measurings of the vertical parts (shafts) of the caves. The Survey of the Composition of the Prognostication Maps of the Tectonic in Caves, Based on the Morphometric Methods Garasic, M. (1976) tried in 1977, to assert using the outside and during the 1977 using inside geomorphological methods, the (neo) tectonic connection and diffusion of the cave channels. The following elements were used: observation of the various midsts of sediments, facies layers and lithological relations, assertation of the geomorphological maps (morphometric and morphostructural) composition of the prognostication tectonic maps with the presupposed measures of the vertical movements, geomorphological analysis of the air photos. After complex work, following the above mentioned, 148 some of the basic elements for any of the speleological object neotectonic map can be deducted: (a) Fault indications: the sharp contures of .. the .cave channels an"river beds, anomalies in cave channels and river beds, elevation above the erosion surfaces, the sharp changes in the heights of the channels, levels or terraces, their reduction or sudden discontinuence, appearance of the cascades, waterfalls, shafts, and sharp anomalies of the longitudinal profile, uniting of the tributaries along one direction, the series of the dolines, ponors, pits, springs, the new land slides, geologically abnormal contact between the layers (beds) in the caves. (b) The elevation indications: the sudden narrowing of the cave channels, valleys, terraces, thining of the alluvium thickness along with the increase of the heavy grim material and heavy materials, increasement in the number of the levels and longitudinal profiles (inclination), meandar incisements of the cave river beds (erosion) the lowering of the underground water level, increase of the erosive denudation and accumulative areas in caves, etc. (c) Depression indicates: enlargements of the cave channels, increase of the alluvium thickness, increase of the light grain material, decrease in number of the terraces and levels, the lower decline of the longitudinal profile, increase of the underground water level, decrease of the horizontal disjointment of the relief and decrease of the bed erosion. The Direct Method of the Measuring and Following the Movements in Caves To know better the neotectonic movements, it is necessary to measure their intensity (dimensions). Up to now, the dimensions of the movements were measured only in the sha~e of relative relations absolute values were not known. After the consultation and with help of the professional team of the "Gradjevinski Institut" in Zagreb, the inductive microprocessor was constructed able to note the slightest movements. The accuracy of the instrument is high, the price rather low and it was shown by the tests that it can answer all the conditions prevailing in Yugoslav caves. The main working principal of the instrument is following: the mechanical movements (neotectonic movements) are transmitted by the electronic concatenation into the electric impulses, whose voltage is measured by the precise digital microvoltmetre. The voltage change of 1 microvolt is corresponding to move of 1 micron (micrometre). This construction allows measuirng to be taken on the distance of ~ 1 Omm (2 cm), which is enough for present movement discernible by naked eye. The microprossesscr is tested and prepared for the temperature between the -20 0 C till 40 0 C, it can also work without any difficulties under the water because the complete electronic part of the instrument is enveloped in the plastic. Types and Manifestations of the Neotectonic Movements In Some Caves in Yugoslav1a The author of this article, after chosing of the objects (caves) in the tectonic active parts in western Yugoslavia, had put the instruments down in the underground. The measuring is going on uninterrupted from December of 1979. the new data are added all the time. After the first reading of the recorded movements, the diagrams of them were made. The results are following: the horizontal movements are of the Dinaric direction with the average intensity of 15 till 20 microns by month, vertical movements are of the greater intensity 32 till 59 microns by month. From the majority of measurements already made and area diagrams it could be concluded that the horizontal movements are mostly of the primary origin, while the vertical movements are of

PAGE 4

secondary origin. That is why the vertical movements i 0;, one oJ; the grea te): intensi ty (J;or example the vertical movement on the nOrthern Velebit mountain is + 0.624 rom/ by year, while on the northwest o~rt of the southern Velebit is even + 2.147 rom/ bv vear. One of the reasons of the aooearance of the great number of the caves in this area of Yugoslavia is constant presence of the vertical movements. The best example of this is the pit Panor na Bunovcu (Ponor on Bunovac). with depth of 534 m (Fia. 1). Summary Here by the relation between the neotectonic and appearances of caves, mothods of t.ile followir.g and the direct noting of the present movements in caves is shown. The author describes the inductive microprosessor which notes the horizontal and vertical as well as other movements in the area. By measuring it was concluded that the horizontal movements are of primary and vertical of the secondary origin. Accuracy of the measured data is 1 micron. It is to be believed that this data will greatly help in future composition of the neotectonic map of the karst, and in the sesismological researches becuase ven now it ~uuld be indubitably stated that the naotectonic movements are in the direct connection with seismic activities. References Arsovski, M. & sur. (1974). Neotectonic map of Yugoslavia. Seminar UNESCO on the neotectonic seismotectonic map of Balcan region, Skopje. Garasic, M. (1976). Upotreba morfometrijskih karata pri otkrivanju novih dijelova Jopiceve spilje. 7th Yugoslav Speleological Congress, Herceg Novi 1976, str. 119-126, Titograd 1980. Garasic, M. (1980). Speleoloski objekti u krsu, njihova povezanost s hidrogeologijom, neotektonikom i seizmologijom, Mast. scie. zagreb. Nikolaev, N. (1962). Neotektonika, pp. 1-391, Moskow. Prelogovice, E. (1975). Neotektonska karta SR Hrvatske. Geoloski vjesnik br. 28, str, pp. 97-108, Zagreb. Geomorphology in environmental management, Oxford, 1977. Fig. 3. In this cave much instrumen~s weLe put for measuring m0vements (Horvatova Cave; Yugoslavia) Diqital Microproccessor (inductive) for in caves Result of tectonic and seismio activity in Yugoslav cave Fig. 2 149

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BUNOVAC Fig.~. Profile of Bunovac Ponor. Multidisciplinary Research for Cave Management: The'Waitomo Caves Research Programme, New Zealand Paul W. Williams Department of Geography, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract The tourist caves at Waitomo in the North Island of New Zealand, famous for their subterranean glowworm (Arachnocampa luminosa) displays, have been the subject of a major interdisciplinary study, designed to provide scientifically sound data for management purposes. Results are available for research on siltation and flooding, geochemistry of the cave atmosphere, cave microclimate, glowworm ecology, plant growth and lighting practice, cave cleaning, and control of lampenflora. Major conclusions are presented. R!!sum!! Les grottes touristiques de Waitomo, dans l'lle du Nord de la Nouvelle-Z!!lande, c!!l~bres pour leurs "glowworms", (Arachnocampa luminosa) ont !!t!! l'objet l'une !!tude qui entralne plusieurs disciplines, dans le but de fournir des donn!!es scientifiques, afin d'aider l'am!!nagement des grottes. Des r!!sultats ont !!t!! obtenus pour la recherche sur la s!!dimentation fluviatile et l'inondation, la g!!ochimie de l'atmosph~re souterrain, le microlimat des grottes, l'!!cologie des "glowworms", l'effet de limi~re sur la pr!!sence des plantes; le nettoiement des grottes et le controle de "lampenflora". On pr!!sente les conclusions principles. 150

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Paleotemperature, Sea Level and Uplift Data from New Zealand Speleothems Paul W. Williams Department of Geography, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract Isotopic analysis of New Zealand speleothems commenced with the work of Hendy and Wilson (1968), when a paleotemperature curve was published. More recent research has investigated the relationship between cave levels and coastal terraces, using uranium series and carbon-14 dating of speleothems. In the northwest of the South Island, at least seven coastal terraces are known .up to an altitude of 200 m, with still more (and presumably older) terraces at higher levels. A cave at 225 m above present baselevel has speleothems beyond the range of Th/U dating; while a 60 m coastal terrace is shown to be at least 275,000 years old. Speleothems in cave levels from 10-30 m above baselevel range in age up to 120,000 years. Samples from still lower levels, even in zones commonly inundated by floodwaters near sea level, can be 16,000-19,000 years old. Unequivocal evidence is also presented for invasion of a karst cave by the sea sometime in the interval 120,000-175,000 years ago. Rates of uplift in the northwest of the South Island over approximately the last quarter of a million years have been 0.22-0.36 mm/ year. R!isum!i L'analyse isotopique des stalactites n!io-z!ilandais a commenc!i par Ie travail de Hendy et Wilson (1968), avec la publication d'une courbe de pal!iotemp!irature. Des recherches plus r!icentes ont examin!i Ie lien entre les niveaux des cavernes et les terrasses littorales, en utilisant la datation par Th/U et C-14 des stalactites. Au nord-ouest de l'fle du Sud, on reconnaft au moins sept terrasses littorales jusqu'A une hauteur de 200 m, avec encore des terrasses (vraisemblablement plus vieilles) A des niveaux plus !ilev!is. Dans une caverne A 225 m au-dessus du niveau de bas actuel se trouvent des stalactites au-delA de la porte!i de la datation Th/U, tandis qu'une terrasse littorale A 60 m date de 275,000 ans, au moins. Les stalactites dans les !itages de grottes de 10 A 30 m au-des sus du niveau de bas peuvent dater de 120,000 ans. Des stalactites des !itages encore plus bas, meme des zones d'inondation pr~s du niveau de la mer peuvent dater de 16,000-29,000 ans. On fournit l'evidence sans !iquivoque de l'invasion d'une caverne karstique par la mer A une !ipoque il y a 120,000-175,000 ans. Les taux de soul~vement au nord-ouest de l'fle du Sud dans les derniers 250 mille ans sont etablis A 0.22-0.36 mm par an. Introduction Pioneering research on the interpretation of paleoclimatic data from speleothems was published in 1968 by Hendy and Wilson for a series of New Zealand sites. Further detail was presented in subsequent publications (Hendy, 1969, 1971). A difficulty with this early work was that absolute dating was only possible to 40,000 years B.P. using carbon-14; thus beyond that limit the paleotemperature curves could only be fitted to a nominal time scale based on speleothem growth rates. Nevertheless, as Harmon et al. (1978) also concluded for North American speleothem data, good general overall agreement was displayed between the speleothem record and foraminiferal paleoclimatic interpretations. With the advent of uranium series dating of spe leothems, the opportuni ty exis ts. to extend and provide better time control for the New Zealand speleothem paleoclimate record, and this research is underway. However, current attention is being focused mainly on another problem that Gf dating coastal terraces and deriving uplift rates, which forms the main subject of this paper. Marine Terraces in New Zealand As a tectonically active country, New Zealand has many areas of rapid uplift. The rates of uplift (and subsidence) are of considerable interest to those studying the origin of the Southern Alps and crustal deformation near the undian/Pacific plate boundary (e.g. Walcott and Cresswell, 1979; Yoshikawa et al., 1980), as well as to students of paleosea levels (e.g. Chappell, 1974, 1975). The lower marine terraces and beach ridges have often been dated using carbon-14 techniques, while in the North Island where volcanic activity is widespread tephrachronology has been applied very successfully. Ash layers over terrace deposits have been dated by carbon-14 on included organic materials and by fission-track methods; thus yielding minimum ages for the terraces. However, in regions where ash fall deposits are not available and where terraces are beyond the range of carbon-14 considerable problems arise in dating terraces. This applies to much of the South Island and to sizeable portions of the North. Nevertheless, opportunities arise to such terraces where they cut across limestone lithologies with caves and speleothems suitable for isotopic analysis. An area of particular interest is the northern half of the west coast of the South Island (Figure 1). It lies to the west of the Alpine Fault, a major transcurrent dislocation with 600 km offset. An important series of coastal terraces has been described in the area by Suggate (1965), Bishop (1971) and Nathan (1975), at least seven terraces having been recognised up to 200 m with others at still higher elevations, but their ages are speculative. In the Westport area, Suggate has assigned a last interglacial (Oturian in 151 terminology) age to two terraces between 34 and 45 m and an interglacial before last (Terangian) age to a 65-72 m terrace. A major terrace at 55-60 m in the Paturau area has also been tentatively assigned to the Terangian (Bishop, 1971). Limestone caves run beneath or close to some of these terraces and the record from them provides the only known means of dating the terrace sequences. Cave Levels and Sea Levels Dating terrace levels using speleothems has a number of problems. Firstly, it is assumed that, unless there are any deposits or re-solution effects that might indicate otherwise, a cave is contemporaneous with or younger than the terrace which it lies beneath. Hence its oldest speleothems will provide a minimum age for the terrace. Secondly, it is assumed that the geochemical and analytical assumptions and techniques for isotopic dating are valid. In the ideal case, an approximately horizontal phreatic passage is genetically related to a coastal water-table and thus to sea-level. Upon uplift the passage drains and speleothems immediately commence to form. Thus they would be only slightly younger than the sea-level, the true age of which could lie within the standard deviation of the speleothem data. A. The Paturau District Paturau is located in the northwest corner of the South Island (Figure 1). The karst of the area has been briefly described elsewhere (Williams, 1978; in press). An important characteristic of the region is that a 3050 m zone of Tertiary limestones dips gently to the WNW, with the result that these rocks descend from 260 at the summit of coastal hills in the northeast to below sealevel in the southwest and, in so doing, obliquely cut across a set of emerged coastal terraces. Thus caves are associated with higher altitude terraces in the northeast than in the southwest. The most well developed coastal terrace at Paturau extends inland, usually for 400-600 m, to a height of approximately 60 m at the foot of a degraded cliffline. A site of particular interest is Cascade Cave, a phreatic passage which extends just beneath the level of the 60 m terrace at its inland end. The passage is essentially horizontal, meanders slightly and has a narrow, deep slot in its floor descending to a lower, active level. The passage has very little fill of any kind except for a few speleothems, one of which was sampled and dated by 23 0 Th/ 234 U methods as 275,000 r 70,000 years old. The implication, therefore, is that the 60 m terrace at Paturau dates from at least the interglacial before last, being more than a quarter of a million years old. A few kilometres northeast is Wet Neck Cave, a site of considerable significance because it was in existence prior to the 60 m sea which invaded it, filling it to the level of the terrace (Figure 2) with well rounded boulders, cobbles, and pebbles of igneous and metamorphic origin identical to those found on the modern beach. It is significant that the small cave stream has a catchment

PAGE 7

entirely in sedimentary rocks; thus could not have been responsible for i~troducing the gravelly fill. A speleothem sample collected from a site at the top of the fill (but not ~ctually on the fill) was dated three times, the replicate assays yielding ages of 108,000 and 125,000, indicating that the sample was growing in the last interglacial. The marine deposits were therefore introduced before the last interglacial and presumably by the 60 m sea about 275,000 years ago. However, they are being re-excavated by the present cave stream, which has incised through and beyond them into underlying clastic rocks beneath the limestones. B. Metro Cave and the Westport Terraces Approximately 170 kID to the southwest of Paturau along the same coastline is a superb set of at least seven terraces cut mainly in emerged deltaic sediments and in underlying Tertiary rocks at the mouth of the Buller River near Westport (Suggate, 1965; Nathan, 1975) (Figures 1 and 3). These terraces extend southwestwards against a rugged, rainforest covered plateau of polygonal karst (Williams, 1978; in press) that is occasionally traversed by rivers set in gorges over 200 m deep. Numerous caves exist in the area and one of them, Metro Cave, is of particular importance because of its association with a coastal terrace assumed to date from the interglacial before last (Terangian). Metro Cave is a floodwater maze cave developed in the basin of Ananui Creek, which drains to the Nile, one of the main rivers cutting through the karst plateau (Figure 3). The cave is situated 5.5 km upstream from the coast and its stream res urges at the1 level of the trunk river about 30 m above sea-level. The entire cave is developed below the level of, and is set into, the Terangian terrace, which i.s cut across mudstones that stratigraphically overlie gently dipping Oligocene limestones. Metro Cave could only develop when Ananui Creek incised and breached tne mustone caprock and the limestones became exposed. Thus the oldest levels of the cave are significantly younger than the terrace. Furthermore, as the Southern Alps were uplifted, so the main trunk river through the karst plateau cut a still deeper gorge and the cave stream, its tributary, migrated to lower levels. Several former resurgences now remain abandoned in the sides of the gorge up to 37 m above the level of the modern Nile River (Figure 3). Eight speleothem samples from various passages in Metro Cave have been dated. These range in age from 16,000 140 years for a sample taken within the modern flooding zone to 120,000 t 4,500 years for a sample from an older gallery at a level about 30 m higher. The ages of three of the youngest samples were crosschecked by carbon-14 dating. The implications of these dates are, firstly, that Metro Cave is older than 120,000 years and consequently will have started to form before the last interglacial, since extensive older passages overlie those from which samples have been dated; hence the overlying surface terrace is at least that old. And, secondly, that the cave stream had cut down virtually to its present level by 16,000 years ago, close to the peak of the last major glaciation in New Zealand. Conclusions Recent isotopic work on New Zealand speleothems is yielding valuable information on the ages of coastal terraces that otherwise could not be dated. From preliminary evidence, uplift on the coast of northwest Nelson near Paturau has been at an average rate of 0.22 mm/year, while near Westport it appears to be about 152 0.25 mm/year. Uplift rates of similar order are found in the Takaka Valley (Figure I), where a speleothem from Irvine's Cave near the top of a 70 m terrace was found to be >195,000 years old, indicating an uplift rate of up to 0.36 mm/y. In neighbouring Manson's Cave, 225 m above 1~~al ~~8elevel, speleothems occur beyond the range of Th/ U dating. These uplift rates are greater than those proposed by Wellman (1979) for the same areas, based on an assumed age of a summit erosion surface, and provides the first quantitative data for the region. Acknowledgement Samples were dated by Dr. C.H. Hendy of the Chemistry Department, University of Waikato, whose generous cooperation and interest is gratefully acknowledged. References Bishop, D.G. 1971 Sheet S2 Kahurangi (1st edition), "Geological Map of New Zealand 1:63,360", N.Z. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington. Chappel, J. 1974 Geology of coastal terraces, Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: a study of Quaternary tectonic movements and sea-level changes. Geological Society of America Bulletin 85: 553-70. Chappell, J. 1975 Upper Quaternary warping and uplift rates in the Bay of Plenty and West Coast, North Island, New Zealand. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics 18(1): 129-55. Harmon, R.S., Thompson, P., Schwarcz, H.P., and Ford, D.C. 1978 Late Pleistocene paleoclimates of North America as inferred from stable isotope studies of speleothems. Quaternary Research 9: 54-70. Hendy, C.H. 1969 The Isotope Geochemistry of Speleothems and its Application to the Study of Past Climates. Ph.D. thesis, Victoria University, Wellington. Hendy, C.H. 1971 The isotopic geochemistry of speleothems I. The calculation of the effects of different modes of formation on the isotopic composition of speleothems and their applicability as paleoclimatic indicators. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35: 801-824. Hendy, C.H. and Wilson, A.T. 1968 Paleoclimatic data from speleothems. Nature 216: 48-51. Nathan, S. 1975 Sheets~nd S30 Foulwind and Charleston (1st edition), "Geological Map of New Zealand 1:63,360", N.Z. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington. Suggate, P. 1965 Late Pleistocene geology of the northern part of the South Island, New Zealand. N.Z. Geological Survey Bulletin 77, 91 p. ---Walcott, R. I., and Cresswell, M.M. (editors) 1979 The Origin of the Southern Alps. Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 18, 148 p. Wellman, H.W. 1979 An uplift map for the South Island of New Zealand and a model for the uplift of the Southern Alps. In Walcott, R.I., and Cresswell, M.M. (Editors) The Origin of the Southern Alps. Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 18: 13-20. Williams, P.W. 1978 Interpretations of Australasian Karsts. In Davies, J. and Williams, M. (editors), Landform Evolution in Australasia: 259-286. Williams, P.W. in press Karst in New Zealand. In Selby, M. and Soons, J. (editors) Landforms of New Zealand, Chpt. 7. Yoshikawa, T., Ota, Y., Yonekura, N., Okada, A;, and Iso, N. 1980 Marine terraces and their tectonic deformation on the northeast coast of the North Island, New Zealand. Geographical Review of Japan 53-4: 348-262.

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Figure 2. Relationship of caves to emerged marine terrace, Paturau LfIJ I ... Source: N.Z. Geological Sur vey KARST ROCKS IN N.W. NELSON l 'A JOll'" -.....==...:. ---""'=== L ~ L Imestoroe -.,rn Morbi£> Figure 1. Karst Rocks in NW Nelson ... '" w Figure 3. Relationship between Metro Cave and the Westport terraces

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Desert Gypsum Karst in Bir al Ghanam, Libya Attila K6sa Budapest, XIV, Kover Lajos U. 46, HUNGARY Abstract The outcrop of the upper Triassic to middle Jurassic Bir al Ghanam Gypsum Formation lays West of its namesake town at the foot of the Jabal Nefusa escarpment. The thickness of the dolomite-intercalated formation reaches 400 meters at is main body. According to indices calculated upon meteorological data the local climate is desertic, the annual rainfall does not exceed ISO rom. Authigenic karstification is observable in the typsum hills which appeares besides underground drainage: caves in a landform very similar to the well known tropical "cone-karst". The karst of tropical appearence could develop in desertic conditions only due to the high solubility of gypsum. More precipitation would destroy the observed forms and develop a different landscape. R~sum~ Au pied du massif Nefusa en Libie pr~s du village Bir al Ghanam afleure la formation de meme nom gypseuse triasique superieure-a meso-jurassique. L'~paisseur de la formation ~maill~e d'intercalaires dolomitiques s'~l~ve A 400 m~tres par endroit. Selon les indices calcul~ des donn~es m~t~orologiques, Ie climat local est d~sertique; la quantit~ annuelle de la pr~cipitation n'excede pas les ISO rom. Au col lines gypseuses on peut observer une karstification autog~ne, qui apparait en outre de l'~coulement souterrain: les cavernes en formes tr~s similaire au "Karst conique" bien connu dans les regions tropiques. Le karst tropique n'est developp~ parmi des conditions desertiques que grace a la solubilit~ extr~me du platre. Une plus grande quantit~ de precipitation aurait r~sult~ une ~rosion plus forte. The Tripoli-Nalut /-Ghadames/ road crosses a strange landscape West of the town of Bir al Ghanam. Hills resembling beehives roll South to the foot of the Jabal Navusa escarpment. It is easy to observe in the roadcut that the rock composing the hills is gypsum. The gypsum outcrop is known as the Bir al Ghanam gypsum Formation. The age of the Formation is from upper Triassic to middle Jurassic, its thickness at its namesake town and West reaches 400 meters. The most recent parts of the outcrop are positioned between Bir al Ghanam and Bir Ayyad. These parts are the highest, 300-S00 m of altitude. The rest of the Formation extends to the Tunisian border and is intensively weathered, almost level with the Jeffara Plain. /Fig. 1/ Geological knowledge is scarse about the Formation, detailed description is nonexistant. Some boreholes were drilled at its lower part along the highway, but the stratigraphy of the upper 300 m thick part of the Formation is practically unknown. According to what had been published /Ref. No. S/ and the Author's field investigations it is known that algunal gypsum, dolomite, dolomitic-limestone and clay layers vary at the upper part with anhydrite towards the bottom. Gypsum beds are predominant, their thicknesses reach 30-40 m. Thickness of the dolomite intercalations vary from millimeter to several meters. The climate of the area can be defined as desertic according to the data of nearby weather stations, the type of scarse vegetation and field observations. The available /discontinuous/ data correlated to the center of the gypsum outcrop /elevation 340 m above sea level/ permits to estimate the following normal data: Minimal temperature/mean/ 10.0¡C Maximal temperature 30.0¡C Mean temperature 20.0¡C Mean annual Rainfall 200 rom Number of rainy days/annual/ 30 Temperature varies between the extremes of -SoC and +SS.7¡C /Highest ever measured in nearby Aziziya/ Calculation of the de Martonne aridity index classifies the climate of the gypsum area desertic, according to the Emberger index it is arid. Karstification of soluble rocks is influenced by the quantity of precipitation and runoff conditions. Observations show that in the 1971-72 hydrological year there occured 16 active runoff periods in the Wadi at Tall that bisects the discussed part of the outcrop. The Wadi at Tall collects the runoff of a large area originating on the plateau of the Jabal Nefusa meaning, that the shorter internal valleys of the gypsum area flood less frequently. Observations of the author prove that some caves flooded three times in the winter 197879. On of these floods was observed directly with extreme luck. The flood was preceded by a 12 houres varying intensity rain. Than a IS minute shower of extreme intensity followed in the fifth minute of which surface runoff started instantly flooding the cave. The flood was about two houres of duration. The value of the observation is that it can be said now under what conditions and with what a duration the runoff occures in the gypsum area. Thus for any runoff extreme conditions are necessary and the valleys that originate within the gypsum hills do not flood more than several houres annually in the rainy winter season. lS4 The relief of the Bir al Ghanam gypsum outcrop is a product of its geological position and structure as well as the prevailing hydrogeological factors. The gypsum formation is a member of the sequence of strata of the Jabal Nefusa and as such its outcropping depends on the recession of the escarpment. Active points of this recession are at the rim of the scarp where streambeds cross it. Because of the high gradient erosion is very energetic, streams cut through the outcropping gypsum beds. In the elongation of the mountain noses between the deeply cut wadis the gypsum outcrop remains intact of the intensive erosion in strips up to 20 km length. Local hydrological systems develope on the gypsum surface during the runoff of local rainfall. At first "sheet flow" starts. As the primary porosity of the gypsum rock is very small, infiltration is negligible at this phase. Sheet flow concentrates to intermittant streams which cut the surface. The corrosion effect of the water in the sheet flow forms a multitude of rounded gypsum hills. /Fig. 2./ Discussing the classification indices for tropical karst surfaces the hills in the Bir al Ghanam Gypsum Karst could be considered Sewu /Java/ type. /Morphogenetical index: diameter /~eight:3-8, ralative height 30-120 m, occurence lS-30/km / /Ref. No. 1./ In spite of the extreme similarity the karst of Bir al Ghanam cannot be classified as Sewu type since the karstified rock itself is different /limestone in Sewu/ and forms different of the Gunung Sewu karst develope as well. Dolomite and clay beds intercalated in the gypsum mass behave differently against the weathering forces. The weathering of dolomite is slower than that of gypsum, clay weathers quicker. Accordingly dolomite surfaced plateau areas and gypsum capped clay cones develop. After the weathering of the dolomite bed the "cone karst" develops once again at a lower level. The weathering of the dolomite layer is not karstic but mechanical in nature due to the karstification of the underlaying gypsum beds. Streams accumulated from the sheet flow deeply cut between the cone-hills, intersect "planes of weaknesses" /Ref. No. 6./ i.e. joints, bedding planes, vadose subsurface drainage develop the well know way. Considering that the deposit originally formed as anhydrite and transformed to gypsum only during weathering in the upper layers the Bir al Ghanam Karst is of vadose nature as a whole, a continuous karst water body does not exist in its depth. The Bir al Ghanam gypsum Karst is authigenic, runoff from non-karstic surfaces does not karstify but denudes it without development of karstic phenomena. There are widely published statements about the two extremes of karst types; the desert and tropical karst such as: "Deserts are typified by the absence of karst phenomena" and "tropical karst can develop beyond the threshold of a mean annual temperature of 17 to 18¡C and 1000 to 2000 rom of annual rainfall." These statements are true concerning the dolomites and limestones in the upper Jabal Nefusa Formations /Ref. No. 7/ but are not applicable in the case of gypsum. The karstification of gypsum occures at relatively low temperatures /only in winter/ at very little rainfalL The Bir al Ghanam gypsum Karst resembles the tropical karsts in appearance and origin. Still it is not equal with the tropical karsts as it is a desert phenomenon where unfavourable climatic conditions i.e. scarce

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rainfall are balanced by a petrographic factor namely the high solubility of gypsum. References 1. Balazs, D. /1970/: Relief Types of Tropical Karst Areas. Symposium on Karst Morphogenesys, HUNGARY, papers of 2. Balazs, D. /1971/: Intensity of the Tropical Karst Development Based on Cases of Indonesia. Karst es BarlangkutatAs, 1968-1971, p. 33-37. 3. Geological Map of Libya. /1970/: Sheet Tarabulus. Industrial Research Center, Libya. 4. Gefli /Groupment d'Etude Francias en Libie/ /1972/: Soil and Water Resources Survey for HydroAgricultural Development. GHANAM YA THE 3ABAL NAFU E:SCAAPMENT General Water Authority, Libya. 5. Gualtieri, J.L. /1976/: Exploration of the Jefren Gypsum-Anhydrite Deposit. Libya, Ministry of Industry. 6. Jennings, J.N. /1971/: Karst. MIT Press, Cambridge 7. Kosa, A., Smykatz-Kloss, W. /1978/ Solution Phenomena in the Dolomites of North Tripolitania. Karszt es Barlang, 1978I.-II. p. 43-48. 8. Kosa, A. /1979/: Discoveries in Libya. British Caving Summer Issue, 1979. 9. Kosa, A. /1980/: Gypsum Karst Discovered in Libya. Karszt es Barlang, I. 1980. p. 23. 10. Kosa, A. /1981/: Gypsum Caves in Libya /see elsewhere in this volume/ o 5 10 15 eOkm Figure 1. Map of the karstified part of the Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst 155 Figure 2. Typical gypsum cone-hill area with sinkhole in the foreground

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Gypsum Caves in Libya Attila Kosa Budapest, XIV, Kover Lajos U. 46, HUNGARY Abstract The Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst area lies at the foothils of the Jabal Nefusa escarpment. The karst area which resembles the tropical "cone-karsts" is rich in underground drainage: sinkhole cave resurgence systems. Partial exploration showed that two types of sinkholes can be classified. Ones developed on gypsum and ones on dolomite surface. Both are joint oriented at the early stage of development. The continuing caves are mostly oriented by bedding planes of the gypsum beds, blat and meandering, tube-like or composite at later stages. All caves are vadose stream caves. Cave development is presumably slow in spite of the high solubility of the gypsum since the annual pluvial period of the cave systems does not exceed several houres. Length of the longest known system is more than a kilometer. Rl'isuml'i L'aire plAtreuses-karstique de Bir al Ghanam s'l'itend au pied du massif Jabal Nefusa. L'aire karstique qui ressemble aux formes "cOne-karstiques" tropicales est riche en cours souterrains: systl!me de pouor caverne rl'isurgence. Une exploitation partie lIe a prouvl'i que les pouors peuvent etre classifil'is en deux types. Notarnrnent ceux qui sont forml'is sur une surface gypseuse et tels forml'is en dolomite. Les deux types sont orientl'is en faille dans la premil!re phase du dl'iveloppement. Les cavernes continul'ies sont principalement orientl'ies par les jonctions des couches gypseuses, elle sont planes et ml'iandriques, tubull'ies our hybrides dans les phases postl'irieures. Toutes cavernes sont forml'ies par des cours d'eau 'alimantation pluviales. Le dl'iveloppement des cavernes est probablement lent, malgrl'i la solubilitl'i supl'irieure du plAtre, cornrne la periode pluvieuse du systeme de cavernes ne dure que quelques jours par an. La langeur du plus long systl!me connu est plus qu'un kiloml!tre. The Bir al Ghanam Gypsum Karst is situated at the foot of the Jabal Nafusa escarpment between the towns of Bir al Ghanam and Bir Ayyad. The gypsum outcrop which is karstified in 1he character of tropical "cone karsts" is about 400 km of surface area. Speleological research was started by the author and resulted in the discovery of a number of caves. Study of these caves which originated in various petrographic conditions and represent different stages of development, exploration of swallets and resurgences, survey of these phenomena yielded a new picture about subsurface drainage developed under unusual conditions: dry desert climate and gypsum as soluble rock. All the caves thus far discovered and explored are vadose stream-caves. The petrographic properties of the karst may be characterised as a several hundred meter thick sequence of gypsum strata intercalated by dolomite beds from one millimeter to several meters of thickness and occasional clay lenses. The beds of the gypsum formation contain other minerals than gypsum and anhydrite. /CaCo 3 ,CaMg/ co 1 / 2 ,Si0 2 clay minerals, etc./ The composition basieally determine~ the solubility of the layers. The landscape reflects the stratigraphical conditions. Most of the area is composed of conehills the multitude of which is interrupted at places by dolomite plains which are the outcrops of the dolomite intercalations that are much less destructible than the gypsum layers. At surface conditions of both types sinkhole-caveresurgence systems develop. The sinkholes discovered can be specified as: A. Sinkholes /swallets/ on gypsum surface B. Sinkholes /swallets/ on dolomite surface The origin and development of the type A sinkholes can be described as follows. Swallets on Gypsum Surface A.l. a. The runoff of the rain that falls on the gypsum surface begins as sheet flow; Joints appearing on the surface swallow increasing quantities of sheet flow and due to their enlargement of size they become concentrated swallets of certain areas. The initial type of these primary swallets shows typical joint character. /Fig. 1/ A.Lb. The initial primary type swallets draw increasing quantities of runnoff during their widening and deepening as cuts develop leading to them. The resulting swallets are circular, 5-10 m deep potholes with the original joint tracable on their opposite walls. /Fig. 1/ The A.l. type swallets are classified primary because the primary runoff, the sheet flow is responsible for their development. The swallowed quantity of water is relatively small and the swallet development is possibly slow. Type A.l. swallets are usually positioned between the conical karst-hills. A.2. Secondary swallets develop at points where joints are crossed by streambeds and by initial infiltration the development of swallets. begin. During their development the swallets and continuing caves drain the surface runoff in increasing quantities until taking over the role of the surface valley. Type A.2. swallets are specified secondary because they swallow already concentrated runoff. The streamflows occur relatively oftener and the floods are richer in carried 156 materials resulting a possibly quicker cave development. Depending on the relative position of the joints and the valleys dry valleys or deep canyons develop. /Fig. 1/ Swallets on Dolomite Surface Dolomite plains develop after the disappearance by weathering of the overlaying gypsum beds. The dolomite plains are almost horizontal, the sheet flow has a good chance to infiltrate through the joints of the dolomite. This process has little effect on the dolomite in desertic conditions but karstification begins in the underlying gypsum layers. Cavities develop under the most intensive points of infiltration, the covering dolomite collapses and gives way for larger amounts of water. /Fig. 2/ From both types of sinkholes karstic water conduits originate developed along joints or bedding planes of the gypsum. Joint oriented passages are characteristic in the conduits that join the shafts of the type A swallets. These develope in the continuation of the original joint along which the swallet itself developed. Considering that the downward development of the swallet-shaft stops at a relatively less soluble layer the passage is horizontal and looses its joint character in a short distance and becomes a meandering, tube-like conduit of 0.3-0.5 m of diameter. Caves belonging to type A or B swallets are more or less of the same nature. The round cross section can be explained by the full section flow which originates from the seldom but high intensity runoff. The rate of solution is equal at any side of the conduit. Reaching a certain size full section flow is not characteristic all during the flood any more, solution at the bottom of the conduit becomes more intensive. Further development of the passage depends on the solubility of the bottom layer. Relatively low solubility results in a side-way enlargement to 6-8 m at extreme cases. In the case of thick pure gypsum layers high narrow passages develop. Both cases were found in clear forms but composite sections also often occur. /Fig. 3/ Caves originating from type B swallets develop more or less the same way as type A-s do. The important difference is that while development and positioning of type A caves is 'independent of the surface topography and the overburden can be thicker than the height of the cone hills, rock covering of type B caves is thin as they develop parallel to the dolomite surface. It is another difference that in the vicinity of the thicker dolomite layers the sequence of strata is disturbed, clayey, marly beds also occur. The nature of passages is rather flat, instead of deeper cuts development along the bedding planes is characteristic, even multiple levels develop. The thin rock covering and the wide-flat passages result in cave-ins which enlarge the cave or open it up finally resulting in the destruction of the caves and thus the dolomite plains. According to the above description caves belonging to type A or B swallets can be specified as type A or B caves. Meaning: type A caves make systems with type A swallets where the main agent of cave development is solution while type B caves make systems with type B swallets where beside solution mechanical agents also play a significant role in cave-space enlargement and swallet development. Because of the mechanical agents caves of B type are less stabile their destruction is I

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relatively quicker. This fact is verified by a number of "cave-wrecks" discovered. The foregoing speleo-genetic description is a result of the exploration and survey of a number of caves discovered in a rather small part of the gypsum karst. Information about the karstic phenomena in the rest of the area is sporadic but there does not seem to be much difference in cave types and development in the whole of the area. The longest and most intricate known system thus far is the Abu an Niran Cave system which consists of two sizable caves with interconnecting passages that are mostly unprooved because of their flat difficult nature. Seven sinkholes belong to the system. /Fig. 4/ Continued research in 1981 will throw light on many other detailes, speleological as well as biological, archeological and others. /See References at the end of the paper titled Desert Gypsum Karst in Bir al Ghanam, Libya by the same author in this volume./ A. 1. o. SHeeT FLOW JOIN, J J J J J J ~ .. A. 1. b. v, ~ A.2.. Figure 1. Development of type A sinkholes I DOLOMITE Figure 2. Development of type B sinkholes HYE NA CAVE [TYP£ B) \ ,. e ----,-_'--~ ~~~ 11/. MAIN CA V £ (TYPE A) 3rT! 2 c o SPRING CAVE (TYPEA) Figure 3. Various composite cave sections 157

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..................... \ .... ..... ......... I ..... i o y" VALLEY DRY VALLEY PROBABLE CONN£CTJON-'-'-', CA VE -.... SIiVALLE:.T E-" Figure 4. The Abu an Niran Cave System 50 100 ISO A General Model of Karst Specific Erosion Rates John J. Drake Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 4Kl Abstract The concentration of ions in waters in a karst terrain is equivalent to the specific erosion rate i.e. the erosion per unit of water per unit time. Variations in specific erosion rates in regional karst terrains throughout the world have been analysed by a General Linear Model which divides variation in mean values into variations associated with the level or absence of controlling attributes, and with the value of controlling variables. In the karst context, parameters such as soil porosity, geologic homogeneity and recharge timing are extremely difficult to quantify for regional aquifers worldwide, many of which have not been studied extensively. Nevertheless, it is usually possible to estimate the general level of such parameters (for example, soil texture as sandy, intermediate or clayey) from published information and theoretical work has suggested that such a division is sufficient. Other parameters, such as temperature, are easily quantified for most parts of the world and are incorporated as controlling variables. Results show that regional mean annual temperature has a significant effect, but that attributes such as the presence/absence of overburden carbonates determine the nature of the temperature effect. The model allows the estimation of probably changes in specific erosion rates due to anthropogenic factors such as agricultural liming and acidic precipitation or to natural factors such as climatic change. ~ Dans un terrain karstique, la concentration des ions en solution est ~quivalente A l'~rosion sp~cifique, c.-A-d. l'~rosion par unit~ d'eau par unit~ de temps. Les variations des taux d'~rosion sp~cifique furent analys~es pour des terrains karstiques r~gionaux situ~s,A travers Ie monde, A l'aide d'un mod~le g~n~ral lin~aire. Le mod~le s~pare la variation dans les valuers moyennes en deux groupes: d'une part, les variations associ~es au niveau ou A l'absence d'attributs exer~ant un contra Ie et d'autre part, les variations associ~es A la valeur de variables exer~ant un contrale. Dans Ie contexte karstique, la qunatification de param~tres tels la porosit~ du sol, l'homog~n~it~ g~ologique et la distribution temporelle de la recharge s'av~re extremement difficile dans Ie cas d'aquif~res r~gionaux A travers Ie monde et qui, dans plusieurs cas, n'ont pas ~t~ ~tudi~s en profondeur. N~ammoins, i1 est ordinairement possible d'estimer Ie niveau g~n~ral de ces param~tres (par example, la texture du sol comme ~tant sablonneuse, interm~diaire au argilleuse) A partir de renseignements publi~SI des travaux th~oriques ont sugg~r~ qu'une telle distinction suffit. D'autres param~tres, comme la temp~rature, sont facilement quantifiables pour la plupart des r~gions du monde et sont incorpor~s en tant que variables exer~ant un contrOle. Les r~sultats d~montrent ~ue la temp~rature annuelle r~gionale moyenne exerce un effet significatif, mais que certains attributs tels que la pr~sense/absence de carbonates dans Ie sol d~termine la nature de l'effet de la temp~rature. Le mod~le permet l'~valuation de changements probables des taux d'~rosion sp~cifique caus~s par des facteurs anthropog~niques tels que Ie chaulage agricole et les pr~cipitations acides, ou par des facteurs nature Is tels que les changements climatiques. 158

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I \ The Mammalian Fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico Lloyd E. Logan Assistant Curator, Museum of Natural History, Unviersity of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. Abstract Muskox Cave is located on the eastern face of the Guadalupe Mountains, within the boundaries of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Eddy County, New Mexico. The sinkhole entrance, at an elevation of 1600 meters, trapped both montane and grassland mammals from the surrounding area. Forty-six percent of the mammals identified from these deposits are either extinct or no longer occur in the area. Extinct forms include Canis dirus, Acinonyx trumani, Felis atrox, Camelops sp., Equus sp., Tetrameryx onusrosagris, Stockoceros----conklingi, Preptoceros sinclairi and an undescribed bovid closely related to the modern Orearnnos americanus. Extant species recovered from the deposit, but no longer occurring in the area, include Sorex cinereus, ~. vagrans, ~. palustris, ~. merriami, Cryptotis parva, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, Marmota-IIaviventris, Neotoma cinerea, Microtus pennsylvanicus, and ~. ochrogaster. Both paleomammalian and paleobotanical evidence from the area indicate a spruce-fir forest with open grassy meadows, probably with a small permanent stream along the valley floor, instead of the desert shrub community that exists in the vicinity of the cave today. This drastic habitat change probably explains the local extinction of extant forms. Radiocarbon dates on bone collegen indicate an age of 25,500 1,100 YBP to 18,140 t 200 YBP for much of the deposit. Rlisumli La Caverne Muskox est localislie sur le flanc est des Montagnes Guadalupe, dans les limites de Carlsbad National Park dans le comtli d'Eddy, Nouveau Mexique, L'entrlie de la ab!me qui se trouvent ~ 1600 m~tres d'altitude, a attraquli les mammif~res vivant dans les montagnes et les prairies environnantes de la rligion. Quarante-six pourcent des mammif~res identifilis dans ces couches sont liteintes ou ne vivent plus dans le secteur. Parmi les esp~ces liteintes sont Canis dirus, Acinonyx trumani, Felis atrox, Camelops sp., Equus sp., Tetrameryx onusrosagris, Stockoceros conklingi, Preptoceros sinclairi, et un bovidli dont les traits n'ont pas lite definis qui est apparentli au Orearnnos americanus moderne. Les esp~ces qui n'existent plus dans le secteur mais qui ont lite dans les couches sont Sorex cincereus, ~. vangrans, ~. palustris, ~. merriami, Cryptotis parva, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, Marmota flaviventris, Neotoma cinerea, Microtus pennsylvanicus, and ~. ochrogaster. Les indices palliomammif~res et palliobotaniques indiquent que la region comportait autrefois une foret d'lipiclias avec de riches prairies et probablement un petit cours d'eau au fond de la valllie, alors que maintenant dans evirons de la cave, elle ne reste qu'une rligion dlisertique avec une vliglitation d'arbustes. Ce changernent radical de milieu explique le fait que les esp~ces encore vivantes n'habitent plus dans la region. La datation au carbon des os de collagen indique qu'ils ont un age variant de 25,000 t 110 YBP ~ 18,140 t 200 YBP pour la plupart des couches. the fauna of species make Thus 46 perCave are no Introduction Muskox Cave is located at an elevation of approximately 1600 meters on a southwesterly facing slope of the eastern face of the Guadalupe Mountains, within the boundaries of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Eddy County, New Mexico. The present entrance is a small, partially boulder-choked shaft which flares with depth to a moderately large, joint-controlled room with the present floor approximately thirty-five meters below the surface. The primary Pleistocene entrance, which was a sinkhole approximately 20 meters in diameter, is now filled to within five to ten meters of the surface with breakdown block and debris. The Peistocene entrance must have been an effective trap as evidenced by the presence of numerous herbivores (Camelops, Tetrameryx, Stockoceros, Prepto~, Equus, and an undescribed bovid similar to the modern Oreamnos) and carnivores (Felis, Acinonyx, Lynx, Canis, and several smaller carnivores). The fall, possibly as much as 75-80 meters, must have been fatal or at least disabling for most large animals since there is very little evidence of carnivore gnawing on the bones recovered. Many of the large bones recovered show evidence of rodent gnawing, most probably Neotoma sp., which are common fossils in the site. Botany The present flora near Muskox Cave can be characterized as a complex Chilhuahuan desert scrub community mixed with chaparral and grassland species, including Agave sp. (Century plant), Cercocarpus montanus (Mountain Mahogany), Dasylirion sp. (sotol), Echinocerus sp. (hedgehog cactus), Ephedra sp. (Morman tea), Lesquerella sp. (bladder pod), Oenothera sp. (Evening primrose) Opuntia imbricata (cane cholla), Opuntia sp. (prickly pear), Quercus sp. (oak), and Yucca sp. (yucca). While the only plant macrofossils recovered from Muskox Cave are seeds which represent Celtis reticulata (hackberry) and Opuntia sp. (cholla or prickly pear cactus), the faunal assemblage indicates a sub-alpine forest with open glades similar to the area near Upper Sloth Cave (Logan and Black, 1979), Lower Sloth Cave (Logan, 1977), and Dust Cave on the west face of the Guadalupe Mountains during the late Pleistocene. Since Muskox Cave is over 300 meters lower i" elevation than the west side caves, it is possible that there was more grassland and less forest. This interpretation is supported by the large numbers and variety of grassland species (antelope, horses, camels, and a cheetah) present in the deposit. Van Devender et al. (1978 and 1979) characterized the flora near the-West side caves in the late Pleistocene as a sub-alpine forest with Picea sp. (spruce), Juniperus sp. (juniper), ~. communis (dwarf' juniper), 159 Pseudostuga menziesii (douglas fir), Pinus strombiformis (southwestern white pine), P. edulis (Colorado pinyon), Ostrya knowltonii (hop hornbeam), Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Arctostaphylos sp. (manzanita), Robina neomexicana (New Mexico locust), and Rubus strigosus (raspberry). This interpretation is based on plant macrofossils and pollen profiles from Upper and Lower Sloth Caves, Dust Cave, and Williams Cave. These four caves are located in Culberson County, Texas which is adjacent to Eddy County, New Mexico on the south. Conclusions The mammalian fauna of Muskox Cave represents material from late Sangamon to Recent time. The sediments below the major Pleistocene entrance, including the Muskox Pool Room, Three Muskox Room, and the crawlway and chimney areas above these rooms are filled with vertebrate fossils commonly associated with Pleistocene sediments. The mammalian fossils recovered from below the present entrance represent primarily Recent mammals, with most of these mammals occurring in the immediate vicinity of Muskox Cave today (Findley et al., 1975). It is anticipated that the debris cone beloW-the present entrance could reach a depth of five to six feet and span,the gap between the older material (greater than 20,000 YBP) from the Muskox Pool Room and the early Holocene material recovered from below the present entrance. Extinct mammals make up 18 percent of Muskox Cave, and extant, but extralimital, up an additional 28 percent to the fauna. cent of the mammals identified from Muskox longer found in the area (Table 1). Nearly all the extant mammals which no longer occur in the area may be found in more mesic habitats in the mountains of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The modern ranges of these mammals are primarily to the north or northwest of Muskox Cave, with only Cryptotis parva providing a truly eastern influence to the fauna. Although fossil Cryptotis have previously been reported from several sites in the Guadalupe Mountains (Harris et al., 1973; Logan, 1977; Logan and Black, 1979), the -closest modern record is from Lubbock County, Texas, over 325 kilometers to the northeast (Packard and Judd, 1968). Based on the paleobotanical evidence (Van Devender et al., 1978 and 1979), as well as the habitat preferences of the mammals recovered from Muskox Cave, the area surrounding Muskox Cave was most likely as sprucefir forest interspersed with grassy glades or meadows. The valley floor probably held a small permanent stream. The flat lands at the base of the Guadalupe Mountains was probably rather open, much as it is today, but undoubtedly with a much richer grassy cover.

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Table 1. Fossil mammals of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Extinct forms are designated by the symbol ** and extant forms which no longer occur in the area are represented by the symbol Acknowledgements This investigation was supported jOintly by U.S. National Park Service (Southwest Region) and the Smithsonian Institution (Department of Paleobiology). Personnel from the National Park Service and Cave Research Foundation provided many hours of assistance in excavating this site, their contribution is gratefully acknowledged. Ms. Rita Morgan translated the abstract. Literature Cited Findley, J., A. Harris, D. Wilson, and C. Jones. 1975. Mammals of New Mexico. Univ. of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, xxii + 360 pp. Harris, A.H., R. Smartt, and W. Smartt. 1973. £ElEtotis parva from the Pleistocene of New Mexico. J. Mamm. 54:512-513. Logan, L.E. 1977. The Paleoclimatic Implications of the Avian and Mammalian Faunas of Lower Sloth Cave, Gaudalupe Mountains, Texas. Unpub. M.S. Thesis (Geosciences), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, pp. 1-72. Logan, L.E. and C.C. Black. 1979. The Quaternary Vertebrate Fauna of Upper Sloth Cave, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. In: H.H. Genoways and R.J. Baker (eds.), Biological Investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. Nat. Park.Service, Washington, D.C., pp. 141-158. Packard, R.L., and F.W. Judd. 1968. Comments on Some Mammals from Western Texas. J. Mamm., 49:535-538. Porter, L.S. 1978. Pleistocene Pluvial Climates as Indicated by Present Day Climatic Parameters of Cryptotis parva and Microtus mexicanus. J. Mamm., 59: 330-338. Van Devender, T.R., P.S. Martin, A.M. Phillips, III, and W.G. Spaulding. 1978. Late Pleistocene Biotic Communities from the Guadalupe Mountains, Gulberson County, Texas. In: Transactions Symposium on the Biological Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region, U.S. and Mexico. R.H. Wauer and D.H. Risking (eds.), Nat. Park Service, Washington, D.C. pp. 107-113. Van Devender, T.E., W.G. Spaulding, and A.M. Phillips, III. 1979. Late Pleistocene Plant Communities in the Guadalupe Mountains, Culberson County, Texas. In: H.H. Genoways and R.J. Baker (eds.), Biological Investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. Nat. Park Service, Washington, D.C. pp. 13-30. Order Insectivora Family Soricidae *Sorex cine reus *Sorex vagrans *Sorex palustris *Sorex merriami *cryptotis parva Notiosorex crawfordi Order Chiroptera Family Vespertilionidae Myotis velifer Myotis thysanodes Eptesicus fuscus Plecotus townsendii Antrozous pallidus Family Molossidae Tadarida sp. Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae Sylvilagus cf. floridanus *syIVITagus cf. nuttalli Masked Shrew Vagrant Shrew Water Shrew Merrian's Shrew Least Shrew Desert Shrew Cave Myotis Fringed Myotis Big Brown Bat Townsend's Big-eared Bat Pallid Bat Free-tailed Bat Eastern Cottontail Nuttall's Cottontail 160 Table 1 continued Order Rodentia Family Sciuridae Eutamias sp. *Marmota flaviventris Sj?ei'iiiOPh il us variegatus *Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Family Geomyidae Thomomys cf. bottae Family Heteromyidae Perognathus merriami Family Cricetidae cf. Reithrodontomys fulvescens Peromyscus sp. Onychomys leucogaster Onychomys torridus Neotoma sp. NeOtOma micropus Neotoma albigula Neotoma mexicana *Neotoma cinerea *MICrotUs pennsylvanicus Mi~mexicanus *Microtus ochrogaster *Ondatra zibethicus Erethizon dorsatum Order Carnivora Family Candiae Canis sp. **Canis dirus Family Procyonidae Bassariscus as tutus Family Mustelid-ae-----Mustela frenata spII09ale gracilis Conepatus sp. Family Felidae Felis concolor **Felis atrox **ACIilOnyx trumani Lynx refuS-Order Perissodactyla Family Equidae **Equus sp. Order Artiodactyla Family Camelidae **cf. Came lops sp. Family Antilocapridae cf. Antilocapra americana **Stockoceros conklingi **Tetrameryx onus rosagris Family Bovidae **Preptoceros sinclairi **Ovis canadensis **Undescribed bovid Chipmunk Yellow-bellied Marmot Rock Squirrel Red Squirrel Botta's Pocket Gopher Merriam Pocket Mouse Fulvous Harvest Mouse White-footed Mouse Northern Grasshopper Mouse Southern Grasshopper Mouse Woodrat Southern Plains Woodrat White-throated Woodrat Mexican Woodrat Bushy-tailed Woodrat Meadow Vole Mexican Vole Prairie Vole Muskrat Procupine Wolf Dire Wolf Ringtall Long-tailed Weasel Western Spotted Skunk Hog-nosed Skunk Mountain Lion American Lion American Cheetah Bobcat Horse Camel Pronghorn Conkling's Pronghorn Quentin"s Pronghorn Bush Ox Bighorn Sheep Mountain Goat (

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! I \ ~ The Submarine Caves of Bermuda Thomas M. Iliffe Am., Con. Gen. BUCH, APO, New York 09757 Abstract Bermuda consists ~f a small group of islands situated atop a volcanic seamount in the Northwest Atlantic. The islands themselves are composed of marine and eolian, Pleistocene and Recent limestone completely capping the volcanic pedistal. Three types of submarine limestone cave morphology have so far been identified in Bermuda, with a fourth type suspected. The first type is reef caves which form at the base of the platform's fringing coral reefs in 10-20 m water depths. These caves consist of cavities and roofed fissures within the reef itself. A second type of cave occurs inland and is characterized by fissure entrances and large collapse chambers, both above and below sea level. This type of cave is primarily found on the strip of land between Harrington Sound and Castle Harbour. The third type consists of long, nearly level, anastomosing passages at'depths of 18 m connecting Harrington Sound with the North Shore. Dur~ng glacial periods of low sea level, these caves probablv served to transport runoff waters alonq the surface of the water table from the then enclosed Harrington Sound to outside of the north fringing reefs. A related type of caYe may connect both Harrinqton Sound and Castle Harbour with the South Shore. Since the south reefs are only 1 km distant from these two inshore basins, while the north reefs are 15 km, caves followin the water table to beyond the south reefs would be expected to be larqe. sinqle. steeply dipoina linear passaqes. Zusammenfassung Bermuda besteht aus einer kleinen Inselgruppe, die auf einer vulkanischen Kuppe im Nordwestatlantik liegt. Die Inseln selbst bestehen aus marinem und aeolischem, pleistozaenem und rezentem Kalkstein, deL die vulkanische Basis voellig bedeckt. Bisher sind drei Typen submariner Kalkhoehlen identifiziert worden, und ein vierter wird vermutet. Der erste Typ ist die Riffhoehle, die sich in 10-20 m Tiefe an der Basis der Plattform-Saumriffe bildet. Diese Hoehlen bestehen aus Raeumen und gedeckten Rissen innerhalb des Riffs. Ein zweiter Typ findet sich inland und ist durch Riss-Eingaenge und Einsturz-Raeume qekennzeichnet; er kommt hauntsaechlich im Landstreifen zwischen Castle Harbour und Harrington Sound vor. Der dritte Typ besteht aus langen, fast horizontalen, kommunizierenden Passagen, die in 18 m Tiefe Harrington Sound mit der Nordkueste verbinden. zu Zeiten niedrigen Wasserstandes waehrend der Eiszeiten dienten diese Hoehlen wahrscheinlich dem Abtransport von Grundwasser entlang des Grundwasserspiegels vom damals isolierten Harrington Sound nach aussen, ausserhalb der noerdlichen Saumriffe. Ein verwandter Hoehlentyp verbindet moeglicherweise sowohl Castle Harbour wie Harrington Sound mit der Suedkueste. Nachdem die Suedriffe nur 1 km von dies en beiden Lagunen entfernt sind (im Gegensatz zu 15 km fuer die Nordriffe), kann man erwarten, dass diese dem Grundwasserspiegel folgenden Hoehlen grosse, einzelen, steil abfallende lineare Passagen sind. Bermuda is the world's northernmost coral stoll (Garrett & Scoffin, 1977) located near latitude 32 0 N and longitude 65 0 W in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. It consists of a volcanic platform (Pirsson, 1914) completely capped with marine and eolian, Pleistocene and Recent limestones (Land et al., 1967). The major physiographic provinces of the Bermuda Platform are an 18 m deep main terrace, a shallow rim consisting of fringing reefs, a central lagood containing patch reefs, and a series of over 150 islands and islets composed of Pleistocene eolianites interbedded with terra-rosa paleosols (Fig. lA). Although considerable attention had been qiven to the terrestrial caves of Bermuda (Verrill, 1980; Swinnerton, 1929; Forney, 1973; Harmon, 1974; Palmer et al., 1977; Iliffe, 1979), little was known of th extensive submarine portions of these caves. In 1979, systematic exploration and mapping of the underwater caves of Bermuda was initiated utilizing advanced cave diving equipment and methodology (Exley, 1979). Dives have since been conducted in 27 different inland cave pools as we~l as numerous reef caves. From these explorations, three distinct types of submarine cave morphology have so far been identified. ,Reef Caves Numerous submarine caves are found along the seaward base of the platform's fringing reefs in 1020 m water depths (Fig. lA). These reefs are locally referred to as boiler or breaker reefs since they extend to the sea surface and have waves breakinq over them. The reefs consist primarilv of encrustinq coralline red alqae. encrustino vermetid oastrooods and Millepora corals with few or, no other corals. Reef caves are generally tens of meters in length and consist of cavities or roofed vertical fissures within the reef itself. Stanley and Swift (1967) have proposed a solutional origin under subserial conditions for these caves stating that reef caves resemble oartiallv collaosed caves from the interior of the island. However. there are at least three siqnificant differences between reef caves and inland collapse caves. First. speleothems are completely absent from the reef caves. while they are very common in the inland caves both above and below sea level. Second. the collapse features observed in reef caves cannot compare in maqnitude or character with that found in inland caves. Reef caves contain only limited numbers of well rounded boulders, while extensive 161 angular collapse blocks are prominent features of inland caves. Third, reef caves are generally composed of small irregular rooms or roofed vertical fissures, contrasting with the inclined fissures and large collapse rooms of inland caves. Thus it is unlikely that reef and inland caves were formed by similar means. The most likely origin of reef caves is that of a constructional void within the reef being enlarged and shaped by wave and surge erosion. Collapse Caves (Walsingham Area) The inland caves of Bermuda were probably formed during periods of continental glaciation when sea level was as much as 100 m below its present level. Consequently, Bermuda was a much larger island since the entire top of the platform was emergent and thus, unlike today, substantial bodies of fresh ground water were present. Cave formation probably occurred primarily in the phreatic zone along the surface of this paleo water table (Palmer et al., 1977). Collapse of roof rock and deposition of secondary drips tone contributed to the isolation of the caves. As interflacial sea-levels rose, substantial portions of the caves were drowned in sea water. Today, most of Bermuda's inland caves contain deep tidal sea level pools, indicating that the terrestrial sections may only represent a small portion of Bermuda's cave systems with the majority of cave passages, including the original phreatic passages lying deep below present sea level. The Walsingham area, located between Harrington Sound and Castle Harbour (Fig. lB), contains the largest known concentration of caves in Bermuda approximately 100-150 caves. These caves are characterized by fissure entrances and large collapse chambers (Palmer et al., 1977). Divers in these caves have reached depths of -24 m where the traversable cave terminated in collapse. It is possible that these large chambers have resulted from collapse into deeper passages lying at the limestone-basalt interface. This interface may be as shallow as -35 m in the Walsingham area (Newman, 1959). During periods of lower sea level, ground water would penetrate the very porous eolianite limestone until reachinq the impermeable basalts. At the interface, horizontal transport of the qround water would likely have formed larqe solutional cave passaqes. The underwater portions of the Walsingham caves closely resemble the terrestrial morphology found in the same caves, even to the variety of large speleothems found at all depths within the caves.

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Passage Caves (Shelly Bay Area) Dives in inland caves in the Shelly Bay area of Bermuda (Fig. lB) 'have revealed very extensive caves with long, nearly level, anastomosing passages reaching from Harrington Sound to the North Lagoon (Iliffe & Warner, 1980). The largest of these caves, and also the longest cave in Bermuda terrestrial or marine is the 1.5 km long, totally underwater Green Bay Cave System (Fig. 2). This cave and other caves in the Shelly Bay area probably acted to transport water between the nearly enclosed Harrington Sound and the North Lagoon or possibly even the North Rim, 15 km distant. The 18 m average depth of these caves corresponds with the depth of the main reef terrace indicating that both features may have formed during a stationary stand of sea level at this position. Devil's Hole Caves A fourth type of submarine cave, as yet still theoretical, may exist in the area of Devil's Hole, located between Harrington Sound and the South Shore (Fig. lB). Four caves containing sea water pools are known from this area. However, only a few preliminary dives have been made in these caves without any significant discoveries. Since the distance between Harrington Sound and the South Rim is only one km, it is possible that caves from the Devil's Hole area may consist of large, single, steeply dipping linear passages transporting water from the then totally enclosed Harrington Sound during low stands of sea level. Even today, approximately 50% of the tidal exchange in Harrington Sound in through caves. Diving explorations in Bermuda have so far identified three different types of submarine cave moroholoav. Reef caves are probably of constructional origin, modified by erosion. Caves in the Walsingham area are probably the product of collapse into deeper solutional voids. Caves at Shelly Bay, and possibly at Devil's Hole, probably formed in response to water transport into and out of the nearly enclosed Harrington Sound. A 162 Acknowledgements The Author gratefully acknowledges the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Exploration Club, the National Speleological Society and the Bermuda Biological Station. P. Hobbs, G. Irving, P. Meng, R. Poer and B. Warner assisted with the cave diving explorations. Rada Buglar provided the illustrations. This paper is Contribution No. 867 of the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. References Exley, S. (1979). Basic Cave Diving. National Speleological Society, Hunstville, AL., USA. Forney, G.G. (1973). Bermuda's caves and their history. J. Spel. Hist., 6:89-103. Garrett, P. & T; P. Scoffin (1977). Sedimentation on Bermuda's stroll rim. Proceedings, Third International Coral Reef Symposium, University of Miami, FL., USA, p. 87-95. Harmon, R. S. (1974). An introduction to the caves of Bermud~Can. Caver, 6:52-57. Tliffe, T.M. (1979). Bermuda's caves; A nonrenewable resource. Environ. Conserv., 6:181-186. Iliffe, T.M. & B. Warner (1980). Mid ocean cave diving. Underwater spel., 7:46-48. Land, L.S., F.T. Mackenzie & S.J. Gould (1967). Pleistocene history of Bermuda. Bull. Geol. Sec. Am., 78:993-1006. Newman, W.S. (1959). Geological significance of recent borings in the vicinity of Castle Harbour, Bermuda. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Preprints Intern. Oceanog. Cong.: 46-47. Palmer, A.N., M.V. Palmer & J. M. Queen (1977). Geology and origin of the caves of Bermuda. Proc. Seventh Intern. Congr. Speleol, Sheffield, UK, p. 336-339. Pirsonn, L.V. (1914). Geology of Bermuda Island: The Igneous Platform. Am. J. Sci., 38: 189-206; 331-334. Stanley, D.J. & D. J. P. Swift (1967). Bermuda's southern aeolianite reef tract. Sci., 157:677-681Swinnerton. A.C. (1929). The caves of Bermuda. Geol. Maa., 66:79-84. Verrill. A. H. (1980. The Caverns of Bermuda. Trop. and Sub. Trop. Am., 1:107-111. @ REEF CAVE AREAS {~ WALSINGHAM AREA o SHELLY BAY AREA o DEVIL'S HOLE AREA I I. 1---

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I f'Vrt h Lagoon Shore Castle Harbour o 2 3 4km 200m I 150 100 I Harrington Sound 50 Scale n meters o I Bay Cave System Figure 2: 'Figures lA and IB: Physiographic Provinces and Cave Areas in Bermuda North 163

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The Lower Cretaceous Paleokarst in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia) Pavel Bosak P.O. Box 8, CS 14500 Praha 4, Post Office 045, (Czechoslovakia) Abstract Relatively large Lower Cretaceous (pre-Cenomanian) paleokarst forms are known. If not exhumed and destroyed, they are filled by sediments of the Rudice-Formation (kaolin-laterite weathering products of tropics and subtropics). The formation of the paleokarst passed in the period from the Middle Malmian to the Cenomanian along the paleolatitude approximately 30 0 N. Morphologically diversified paleokarst forms were developed which represent the cockpit-type of the tropical karst. Filling of depressions was synchronous with their deepening. Only minor forms were formed before the sedimentation. The deposition took place in environments of rivers, alluvial cones, lakes and by mudflows, as indicated by analysis of granulometrical curves. Zusammenfussung Der unterkreide Paleokarst in den Mahrischen Karst (Tschechoslowakei). Die relativ grossen unterkreide (vor-Cenomanische) paleokarstis~hen Formen sind bekannt. Wenn sie nich exhumiert und vernichtet sind, so sind sie mit Sedimente der Formation Rudice (kaloinisch-lateritischen Verwitterungen der Tropen and Subtropen) geftillt. Die Bildung des paleokarstes ging im Zeitabschnit von den mittleren MaIm bis zum Cenoman in dem Niveau der Paleobreite approximately 30 0 N. Die morphologisch gegliederten paleokarstischen Formen entwickleten sich die den Typus Cockpit representieren. Die AusfUllung der Depresionen verlief gleichzeitig mit ihrer Vertiefung, nur eine Minderheit der Forman entstand vor der Sedimentation. Die Sedimentation ging in der Umgebung von FIUssen, alluvialischen Kegeln, Seen und Schlammstr5men vor sich, vie uns die Analysen der granulometrischen Kurven indizieren. Introduction I I The Moravian Karst represent the largest karst area in Czech countries. Morphologically depression form wide several kilometres and long several tens of kilometres (Fig. lC) lies to north from Brno. Paleokarst forms have been investigated by many authors and more than 40 publications deal with the Lower Cretaceous paleokarst (see Bosak 1978). The main interest is paid to occurrences of the Rudice Formationk sands of which are exploited as moulding sands. The Moravian Karst is built by Middle Devonian (Givetian) to Lower Carboniferous (Tournai sian) shelf carbonate sequence to 1000 m thick with irregular layer of basal clastics at the base. The basement of the Paleozoic is formed by Upper Proterozic magmatites (both acid and basic) of the Brno Eruptive Massif. Lower Carboniferous limestones transtitionally pass to flysh shales, greywackes and conglomerates (Visean). So called Nemcice belt of the Devonian is the continuation of the Moravian Karst to the north. Carbonate rocks of this belt are only several hundreds meters wide (Fig. lC). Devonian carbonate sequence of the Moravian Karst was uncovered to weathering already during the Permian. Intermontane depression had originated since the Triassic (Panos 1962-63). This broad and relatively shallow form with the axis N-S was filled during the ingression of The Jurassic epicontinental sea (Callovian to Kimmeridgian) by sandy and pure carbonate rocks (Hanzlikova and Bosak 1977). Intensive weathering in the Lower Cretaceous caused rich development of karst and nearly whole Jurassic sediments were destroyed. The evolution of karst relief was interrupted by the Cenomanina transgression. Karst Phenomena Relicts of the Lower Cretaceous karst are concentrated in the norther part of the Moravian Karst and in the Nemcice Karst. Their occurrences are dependent on the course of main sunkened zones parallel to Saxonian tectonic grabens of NNW-NW SSE-SE direction. Regions in vicinities of village Rudice and Nemcice represent such zones, i.e. the Rudice sunkened block parallel with the Blansko Graben (Burkhardt 1974) and sunkened zone along the Valchov Graben between viallages Nemcice and Vratikov (Fig. lC). Southern parts and also certain zones in the northern part of the Moravian Karst had rather elevation character and therefore Lower Cretaceous karst phenomena have been fully destroyed since the uppermost Cretaceous. Morphologically diversified relief is preserved, where it is covered by weathering products or/and by younger sediments. The levelled surface of corrosioanl origin with cupola-shaped elevations and isolated inselberges was originated during the Lower Cretaceous. According to Panos (1962-63) it represents the basic planation surface in the Moravian Karst. Marginal zones of the Moravian Karst in neighbourhood of nonkarstic relief (magmatites, flysh clastics) 164 were modelled by gradually arranged outwash pediments (Panos I.e.). The evolution of karst phenomena was characteristic for the centre of large intermontane depression rimed by relatively high relief on nonkarstic rocks. Tropical karst relief was developed and contemporaraneously filled by redeposited weathering products of crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Depressions of old karst have various shape and size. Uvales, dolines, complex and