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Proceedings of the X, XI, and XII International Symposia on Vulcanospeleology

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Proceedings of the X, XI, and XII International Symposia on Vulcanospeleology
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International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE X, XI, AND XII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIA ON VULCANOSPELEOLOGY Edited by Ramón Espinasa and John Pint X Symposium September 9-15, 2002 Reykjavik, Iceland XI Symposium May 12-18, 2004 Pico Island, Azores XII Symposium July 2-7, 2006 Tepoztlán, Morelos, Mexico ASSOCIATION FOR MEXICAN CAVE STUDIES BULLETIN 19 / SOCIEDED MEXICANA DE EXPLORACIONES SUBTERRÁNEAS BOLETÍN 7 2008 Contents: X Symposium 2002 2002 Abstracts 2002 Papers XI Symposium 2004 2004 Abstracts 2004 Papers XII Symposium 2006 2006 Abstracts 2006 Papers 2006 Field Trip Guidebook
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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 196 ICELAND 2002 10th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology Greg Middleton ABSTRACT The IUS Commission on Vulcanospeleologys 10th International Symposium held at Reykjavk, Iceland, September 2002, is reported on, including field trips to Lei arendi lava cave, Tintron hornito, Geysir geothermal area, rnahellir lava cave and Surtshellir, Stefnshellir and Vi gelmir in Hallmundarhraun lava flow. There was a cross island post conference excursion to the Myvatn region and the Krafla geothermal area (vis iting the impressive ice adorned Lofthellir), following which the author participated in a trip to lava caves of the Snfellsnes peninsula which included visits to Borgarhellir and Vegamannahellir The 10th international meeting of people interested in lava tube caves and associated volcanic features was held on the north Atlantic island of Iceland, based in the capital, Reykjavk. (The name means smoky bay, reflecting the volcanic activity in the area when it was established in AD 874.) The meeting wa s hosted by the Hellarannsknaflag slands (Icelandic Speleological Society, ISS), in cooperation with the Nordic Volcanological Institute, the National Energy Authority, the University of Iceland, the Icelandic Institute of Natural History, the Nature Co nservation Agency and the Icelandic Parliament! (or Al ing pronounced Althing which proudly claims to be the worlds oldest). Attendance, at just over 30 (+ some spouses), was small, especially considering the closeness of the venue to continental Europe. Most remarkable was the overwhelming representation from Australia (John Brush, Marjorie Coggan, John and Jeanette Dunkley, Ken and Janeen Grimes, Julia James, Ruth Lawrence, David Wools Cobb and the author). There were 6 locals and 6 from the Azor es (who had a particular interest because they proposed to host the next symposium), 3 from the UK and Japan, 2 from the USA and one each from Switzerland, Italy, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands (Photo 1). The organisation was faultless and the weather, better than might have been expected. It goes without saying that prices were normal for Iceland: outrageously high, though the impact on us was minimised thanks to the local organisers. THE SYMPOSIUM The meeting commenced on 10 September with an excursion around the local Reykjanes Peninsula (see below), the first presentation of papers occurring on 11th, following the opening by Sigur ur Jnsson (Siggi), chair of the ISS. Dr Kristjn Smundsson, an eminent authority on Icelandic geology, gave the open ing presentation on the volcanic geology of the island. Other papers were by Dr Bill Halliday What is a lava tube?, on the caves of the Great Crack of Kilauea and (for D. & H. Medville) on the lava caves of the north flank of Mauna Loa; Dr Julia James, o n air quality in lava caves; Ruth Lawrence, on vulcanospeleology as tourism in Samoa; Arni Stefnsson, on the history of lava cave preservation in Iceland, the topography of the lower Hallmundarhraun and on five vertical conduits in Iceland (including # rh nkaggur, the worlds deepest); Chris Wood reported on his remote sensing of lava tubes in the Hallmundarhraun and recent successful expeditions to the Laki flow field of south Iceland (see Middleton & Kiernan 2002); Tsutomu Honda, on lava stalactite form ation in hollow tree moulds of Mt Fuji and discharge mechanisms of lava tubes; John Pint presented Mahmoud Alshantis paper on geology of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia, in relation to formation of lava tubes and his own on the lava tubes of Harrat Kishb; Ken Grimes on subcrustal drainage lava caves in Victoria and a small cave in a basalt dyke at Mt Fyans, Victoria; Francesco Petralia on the submarine growth of a lava tube at Ustica Island and on

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 197 Fig. 1 Iceland, showing places visited during Xth Internati onal Symposium. Mt Etnas Grotta dei Rotoli; Joo Nunes on education at Carvo Cave, Azores; Paulino Costa on the opening of the Gruta des Torres, Pico I., for tourism; Joo Constncia on a database and classification system for Azorean volcanic caves a nd (with others) on ranking Azorean caves based on geological, biological and conservation attributes; James Begley on a new database on Icelandic caves; Jakob Gu bjartsson on hyalocaves, a new type of small volcanic cave; Sigur ur Jnsson on the history of the mapping of the Surtshellir/ Stefnshellir system. Among less formal presentations, Arni Stefnsson gave a highly personal and moving side show Iceland, above and below; Chris Wood spoke on his assessment of the possible World Heritage nomination of the volcanic landforms and lava tube caves of Jeju Island, South Korea; Grald Favre showed a couple of his professional videos on lava caving in Hawaii and pushing the Kverkfjll ice caves in Iceland; and I showed digital images of the lava caves I had recently been documenting in Samoa. COMMISSION MEETING The IUS Commission on Volcanic Caves met on 14 September under the slightly reluctant chairmanship of Jan Paul van der Pas (who had advised he wished to stand down but agreed to continue until replace d). Matters discussed included the as yet unpublished proceedings of the 9th Symposium, the future of the Commission newsletter (JP will continue to produce), the possibility of an e mail list (Siggi to investigate), the unreasonable US$3 impost by IUS on commission meetings, the need to clarify the meanings of lava tube and lava tube cave. It was agreed that the next Symposium would take place in the Azores Islands in September 2004. THE EXCURSIONS see Fig. 1 The opening excursion on 10 September t ook us around the Reykjanes Peninsula. Guided by Dr Smundsson and Siggi, we were given a thorough grounding in the local geology, most of which seems to be Holocene, or at least Quaternary often they know the year

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 198 particular mountains and valleys for med! Our first Icelandic lave tube cave of the trip was Lei arendi (which, incidentally, means path end as, of course, it eventually does, after 800 m). The cave contains many black lava stalactites and stalagmites (Photo 2), and the skeleton of a she ep that must have wandered in and couldnt find the way out. A feature of particular interest is the fact that a younger lava has flowed into collapses of the underlying tube and partially blocked the passage at one point see Fig. 2. Next we visited a g eothermal power station near Grindavk where an enthusiastic PR man described its operation. A very high quality series of displays in the basement explains the geology and geothermal processes, complete with a powerful low frequency recording of an earth quake converted into the audible range. We were then given the opportunity to enjoy what the Lonely Planet guidebook (Swaney 1997) describes (accurately) as a chemical waste dump a pale blue pool of effluent from the Svartsengi power plant (which is fuelled by seawater that has been heated after seeping beneath the lava). Algae thrives in the 70C, 18% saline water that emerges from the pipes but, as the water cools in the air, the algae dies, leaving a sort of organic soup. Some people passed up the opportunity, but most enthusiastically plunged in and apparently enjoyed it. No adverse reactions have been reported. The second excursion (13 September), around south west Iceland, took us via another geothermal power site (Nesjavellir) to the lake # ingv allavatn (Icelands largest) and the ancient site of the Al ing, which just happened to be located right on the boundary between the North American and European plates, reflected in shear basalt cliffs which formed a backdrop for the meetings. Then to the Tintron hornito a small, spatter formed volcano about 4 metres high with a hollow central shaft (Photo 3). A brief visit was made to the geysers and hot springs of Geysir, followed by the impressive Gullfoss (Golden fall). After lunch we drove south via Selfoss to the coast and to lfus, near # orlkshofn. We then walked up the moss Larson (1993) defines a hornito as A conical structure built up by clots of fluid lava ejected through an opening in the crust of a lava flow; usually retains the central conduit. Aka (inter alia): driblet cone, rootless volcano, spatter cone. and low shrub covered Leitarhraun flow to rnahellir where ISS had set up a generator to illuminate the remarkable stalagmite chamber. A couple of months prior to our vis it this cave had been declared a national monument, ISS has installed a gate and, with the Nature Conservation Agency, carefully controls access. This cave is probably only in the order of 200 m long but its best decorated chamber is truly remarkable, with an unrivalled density of large stalagmites (there are numerous stalactites, too, but they are overshadowed by the mites) (Photo 4). More photos were snapped in this chamber than on any other scene we had beheld in Iceland to that time. The group then r eturned to Reykjavk. The third excursion, the longest, was to the Hallmundarhraun lava flow in central western Iceland where part of the time had been spent on the Laki 2000 Expedition (Middleton & Kiernan 2002; Wood et al. 2001). We drove straight to Su rtshellir where we had a packed lunch before entering the downflow part of the cave. Here a number of us took up the challenge of photographing the ice formations, somewhat the worse for the (relative) warmth of the recent summer (Photo 5) and made a brie f visit to the upflow section. Others explored more of the cave and some even reached Stephnshellir the cave which Chris Wood and associates have shown by remote sensing continues on beyond its lava seal (Wood et al. 2001; Wood et al. 2002). We then mo ved over to Vi gelmir (pronounced Vith gel meer), the privately owned cave on Fljtstunga farm which is about 1.5 km long. It features wall to wall ice in the entrance sections, some ice formations, a tube of huge dimensions (in places over 15 m high) a nd numerous lava stalactites and stalagmites (Photo 6). Some members of the party made it to the far end where there is a massive collapse (though the cave seems to end just past this, in a lava seal). The party returned to Reykjavk, dining at Borgarnes o n the way.

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 199 Fig. 2. Plan of Lei arendi (Path End) Cave, Sklatnshraun, south west Iceland

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 200 POST SYMPOSIUM FIELD TRIP While some of us would have preferred to return to Laki, the majority favoured a cross island trip to the Myvatn Krafla area. W e departed Reykjavk early on 16 September with Siggi driving a 16 seater minibus and Jakob and Bibi in Siggis 4x4 with the luggage. The party comprised Bill Halliday, Chris Wood, John & Jeanette Dunkley, Marg Coggan, John Brush, Julia James, Ruth Lawrenc e, Harry Marinakis, David Wools Cobb, Yuzo Kobori, Ogawa Takanori and the author. We travelled via Selfoss, Rt. 30, Arnes, Rt. 32 and 26 to Hrauneyjefossst [yes, thats 3 Ss!] where we paused for a coffee break. Beyond this we took the gravel road F26 t o the north east, past # risvatn (lake) and up a long valley between the ice caps Vatnajkull to the east and the much smaller Hofsjkull to the west (Photo 7). From here the only vegetation is the occasional patch of moss and most of the surface is black sand created by ice grinding over the lava. At one point we crossed a deep narrow gorge with a small river but generally the landscape was gently undulating. We stopped for lunch at a public shelter at Nyidalur, the only structure in a vast area of black s and with white glacial backdrops. It is remarkable only because it is about at the watershed between south and north drainage. A cold wind was blowing but at least the light rain had stopped. From there we continued on F26 through the Sprengisandur, which Siggi informed us meant exhausted sandsheet, though there seemed to be plenty of sand. For a long way we followed a ridge to the west of the river Skjlfandafljt and then made a short detour, plus a bit of a walk to view the spectacular waterfall Aldey jarfoss. This tumbles over a band of very striking columnar basalt (Photo 8). Smaller seepages could be seen at lower levels, demonstrating how water can flow at depth between basalt layers. From there it was a gentle descent to Fosshll on highway 1 wher e we stopped for another charge of caffeine and to view the Go afoss fall. Reaching the lake Myvatn, we walked around the trail at Skutusta ir which crosses a number of rootless vents, formed when the lava flowed over boggy ground and the steam resulting f rom the water boiling burst up through the lava to build a mini volcano. At the large black scoria cone, Hverfjall, we took a rough track east to Grjotagja literally rocky fissure a cleft in the lava partially filled with hot water. At about 45C i t is too hot for swimming. Siggi served afternoon tea of smoked salmon on dark rye bread. We drove on north to the Krafla geothermal power station where we were comfortably accommodated in the staff quarters and dined at their mess. That evening there was a choice of two thermal relaxations: a sauna heated by natural hot water or a hot cave pool. The pool in Vogagja is a few degrees cooler than Grjotagja; entry to it requires a walk across a lava field and negotiation of a couple of steep, rough ladders to a wooden platform perched above the pool. Its hot enough to take your breath away at first but becomes quite tolerable. The water is remarkably clear, at least 3 m deep and the cleft is swimmable for about 20 m either side of the platform. Bibi kindly brought some cold beer along to share (Photo 9). Every caving area should have such a facility. On 17th we left our quarters about 8am, drove back to the lake, past Hverfjall and followed a very rough track over the Ludentarborgir, north of Hvannfell int o the Burfellshraun lava field. From the end of the track we walked for about 30 minutes to the large pit entrance to Lofthellir (air cave). The name derives from the fact that Siggi spotted the gaping hole from a plane a few years ago. We descended a fixed ladder about 10 m into the collapse pit. The ladder has been installed by an adventure tourism group which brings the occasional adventurous tourist to this cave. Climbing around a large pool in the entrance, we reached a squeeze which the tour gro up has conveniently lined with tough sleeping mats, making it relatively easy to haul oneself up through the restriction. Almost immediately one encounters a steep ice slope but a rope makes it possible to ascend this to an ice floored chamber about 2.5 m high. In the centre is a large mound of ice reaching right to the roof. The visitors all stopped to photograph this impressive feature but the locals were eager to push on. A further icy ascent brought us to some thinner ice columns and a wall of ice almo st blocking the passage. Passing to the right, one entered the really specky ice chamber.

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 201 The walls were dripping with icicles, the floor was solid ice with sparkling ice mites rising from the floor here and there and the mass of ice which almost blocked t he passage appeared like a great ice castle looking back from below (Photo 10). This is a chamber Austrias great Eisriesenwelt would be proud to host. The photographers immediately went into overdrive, lighting from every possible angle, including from behind. Bibi carried a super torch which lit up the features remarkably well. We eventually dragged ourselves away from this remarkable chamber, slithered our way out of the cave and ambled back to the mini van where a packed lunch was consumed. At this p oint Bill performed a solemn ceremony, handing Siggi his knee pads, well worn undersuit and overalls which he didnt intend to take home with him. We drove back to the main road and south to Dimmuborgir, a fascinating region of lava towers, stacks, arches windows and caves, all adorned with birch trees. A group of us walked through to Kirkjuhringur (Church Cave), a very short, but intriguing cave with a somewhat church like entrance (Photo 11). Collapse has revealed a section through the passage which s hows a lava bed perhaps half a metre thick conforming to the shape of the passage in contrast to the surrounding more or less horizontally layered lava. Next stop was Reykjahli where we dropped Ruth who was to catch a bus to Akureyri, then fly to London a nd home via South Korea. We then visited the 1974 Krafla flow field which featured the small Viti lake, hot springs, steam vents, hornitos and extensive lava flows. This was followed by a visit to the obsidian mountain east of the powerstation. On the fina l day we departed Krafla about 8 am and drove to Akureyri, Icelands second city, where we dropped Bill Halliday to fly back to the States. We then drove south west along highway 1 through spectacular valleys to Varmahli and west to road 731, then south to 35 (gravel) and by it back into the central sand plains. We paused for a picnic lunch at Hveravellir between the Hofsjkull and Langjkull ice caps. Here there were hot springs (some people couldnt resist a swim) and a steaming fumarole. Then continu ing south through more spectacular scenery of glaciers and lakes, eventually reaching Geysir (coffee) and on to Reykjavk where the field trip wound up. SNFELLSNES PENINSULA For a bit of extra lava caving Chris Wood, James Begley (a British caver working in Iceland) and I rented a car and drove north to the Snfellsnes (which actually means Snfell or snow mountain peninsula) pausing on the way at Borgarnes for the obligatory coffee and to buy supplies. A veteran of many Iceland trips, Chris wanted to show us some impressive caves so we turned off the main road onto 55 and drove into Hnappadalur. On the way we passed the photogenic monogenetic shield volcano Eldborg, the source of some of the lava in this valley. We had a picnic lunch by the car and then set off across the Gullborgarhraun towards the cone, Gullborg. Although the ground was very uneven the going was made easier by the layer of moss over everything. In places we could walk in c. 4m deep channels that were probably collapsed tubes (tho ugh they could have been open lava channels). In due course Chris located Borgarhellir the identity of which was kindly verified by an official sign. We descended quite steeply through breakdown sections and areas with clear floors, generally of aa lava very rough and jagged. A feature of the cave is the very clear abrupt end of an intrusive lava flow. Presumably a later surge of lava flowed into the already partly cooled tube but stopped flowing before it could fill the tube, or even reach its end. T here are many lava stalactites festooning the walls (Photo 12) and ceiling in places and at the end (a lava seal) a large number of lava stalagmites, protected by a strategically placed chain. We signed the visitors book, placed by ISS, and returned, t aking a few photos on the way. Immortalised by Jules Verne when he placed the entry point to the underworld in the Journey to th e Centre of the Earth on the summit of Snfell The mountain has a permanent ice cap.

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 202 Photo 1. Attendees at the 10th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, September 2002 Photo 2. Guide Siggi and large solitary lava stalagmite in Lei arendi lava cave Photo 3. The Tintron hornito, a smal l, spatter formed volcano about 4 metres high Photo 4. The remarkable assemblage of lava stalagmites, and a few tites, in rnahellir. Photo 5. David with ice stalagmites in Surtshellir.

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 203 Photo 7. The Brush view of Hofsjkull and its glaciers, central Iceland. Photo 6. James and a few of the undamaged lava stalagmites towards the end of Vi gelmir. Photo 8. Aldeyjarfoss falls over a massive band of columnar basalt, central Iceland. Photo 9. Hot pool, Vogagja Phot 12. Megastal, Borgarhellir Photo 13. Pumice passage Photo 10. Ice formation, Lofthellir Photo 11. Church Cave, Kirkjuhringur

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 204 Nearby was Vegghellir (wall cave); its features of interest were a near vertical shaft up to daylight near the end and, about 70 m in from the entrance, an obvious wall of rocks (the origin of the caves name). Perhaps this was built to stop sheep straying far into the cave. (I had noted a similar structure in Surtshellir and in lava tubes in the Comoros.) The rock in parts of Vegghel lir is very colourful: red, orange, yellow, purple and blue and, of course, grey, black and white these are reflected in the wall. A section of lining has broken away from the wall nearby and revealed the contrast between the smooth, consolidated natu re of the lava forming the cave wall and the tortured, irregularly layered rock behind it, normally out of place. We returned to the car and drove to Hellnar where we located the guesthouse Brekkubaer where we arranged sleeping bag accommodation bunk s in an old barn fitted with a kitchen, showers, etc. That evening we drove around the coast to lafsvk where we dined on overpriced fish and chips. We returned by a road over the ridge of the peninsular (54) through driving rain, high winds and fog a touch of real Arctic weather. On 20th Arni Stefnsson had agreed to come and show us some caves, hornitos and other features of the peninsula. We met him on the road and drove up the cross peninsula road to Vegamannahellir a cave right beside the road wh ich, not surprisingly, had been found by road workers and was named after them. It comprises a complex of small tubes on two or three levels but the unusual feature of it is the large quantities of pumice (a light, cellular, glassy lava generally composed of rhyolite) which floor some passages (Photo 13). This may have been washed into the cave from an adjacent deposit as it floats The next feature Arni showed us was Holuborg a spatter cone (or hornito? ) with a complex multi level cave inside an unusu al occurrence in my experience. Then to Vatnshellir (lake cave), entered via an impressive pit, with the aid of a fixed rope. Larson (1993) describes a spatter cone as A steep sided cone of agglutinated spatter built up on a fissure or vent. Cf: hornito, open vertical conduit. Aka: agglutin ate cone, blow hole, blowout, chimney, pneumatogenic explosive cave, spatter vent, volcanello, vulcancito. A passage of large dimensions led to an impressive pit, the bottom of which we could not see. I found it impossible to photogr aph this pit. Going up flow we had to cross a snow/ice drift below the entrance; this led to a high chamber and a lava seal. Next we visited Grasholshellir (meaning, much as it sounds, grassy hill cave) through an opening at the base of a volcanic vent. The main feature was a shaft at the rear, down which had poured cindery chunks of material of bright orange and black colour. We didnt try to ascend. We then had look at Barhki Cave (named after its German discoverer). Our enthusiasm faded on finding it largely comprised low passages (<1m) with very rough aa floor; Barhki was obviously a very keen caver. Arni then took us on a long walk across the lava field near the coast, visiting various small caves and a number of hornitos, two of them of impress ive proportions. It was 7pm by the time we got back to the car and drove around to Hellissandur for dinner. Arni returned to Reykjavk. Jakob Gu bjartsson, a young and enthusiastic member of ISS joined us on 21st. He was keen to prospect the Purkholar hraun flow field, so we all went along to assist. We started near the coast at a volcanic vent called Purkholar and spread out in line, moving north west and investigating any holes we came across. I found only a few small surface features with no entera ble tubes. After a couple of hours of trudging through light rain, James (using his GPS) led us to Perkhellir It has an impressive (5 m high) entrance but appeared to go only about 100 m. Most notable features were a couple of fair sized lava stalagmit es. Walking back towards the car we ran into Jakob who was enthusiastically investigating any little hole he found, determined to break into a vast tube. We had lunch with him in the shelter of a small surface tube. While he continued prospecting, we ret urned to the car and drove part way up Snfell actually on the mountain Stapafell to have a look at Songhellir The Singing Cave. This cave, probably because it is close to the road, rates a mention in the Lonely Planet guide (Swaney 1997): it conta ins some old inscriptions. That it does, but as an interpretive sign nearby tells us, theres

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Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, 2003, 47(7): 205 more to the story: In the Saga of Bardur Snfellsas it is said that Bardur stayed in The Singing Cave for a while with his people while he built his houses at La ugarbrekka. The cave was full of echoes (dwarf talk) but Bardur didnt mind that as he was brought up among dwarfs. After his houses were built he used the cave for councils with his men and continued to do so while he lived. It is believed that The Singin g Cave is the first place name in Icelandic with reference to singing. In later ages people used the cave as a shelter on their travels and one can find many initials and dates which people carved into the cave walls while they stayed there. The cave is r eally only a single chamber and it is hard to imagine many people actually living in it but it does have remarkable acoustics. It is not a lava tube, but is formed in a tuffaceous breccia, perhaps by erosion by groundwater. We drove to the hamlet of Arnar stapi and checked that its restaurant was open. Finding it was, we returned to Hellnar to rest and clean up. On Jakobs return we went back to the restaurant for dinner. Jakob had had a successful afternoon, finding an interesting cave with a 2.5 m drop which halted his explorations. On the morning of 22nd James went with Jakob to further explore the new cave, while Chris and I walked down to the sea and along the cliffs. At the small fishing port there is a large sea cave, Ba stofa said to be home to large numbers of birds; we didnt see many. Jakob and James returned at 11:30, not having significantly extended the new cave. We left at 11:45 for Reykjavk, arriving at the (internal) airport at 3:15. I had booked a flight to Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar ( Westman Islands), hoping to spend a couple of days looking around the main island which had been largely remodelled by an eruption in 1973. A third of the village on the island was buried under lava but Heimaey survived. Unfortunately bad weather on the i sland prevented the plane from landing there that day and the next. I checked into the youth hostel and spent a couple of days getting to know Reykjavk better. NEXT SYMPOSIUM The XIth symposium on Vulcano speleology will be held in the Azores Islands ( Portugal) in September 2004. An interesting time is assured! REFERENCES L ARSON Charles V. 1993. An illustrated glossary of lava tube features. Western Speleological Survey Bulletin #87 C. & J. Larson: Vancouver, Washington. 56 pp. M IDDLETON Greg and K IERNAN Kevin 2002. The Laki 2000 Expedition: Skaftareldahraunn and Hallmundarhraun. Iceland, August September 2000. J. Syd. Speleol. Soc., 46(4):93 117. S WANEY D. 1997. Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Lonely Planet: Hawthorn, Vic. 3rd Edn, 628pp. W OOD Chris; C HEETHAM Paul; W ATTS Rob & R ANDALL Nicola. 2001 Laki Underground 2000: the Bournemouth/Dundee Universities Joint Expedition to Iceland. School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole UK. 36 pp. W OO D Chris; C HEETHAM Paul; W ATTS Rob. 2002 A mega tube system in the Hallmundarhraun, W. Iceland (abstract). Xth Int. Symp. Vulcanospeleol. Sep. 9 15, 2002 Abstracts. p. 35 Icelandic S.S.: Reykjavk. For other views of the symposium, see P INT John J. 20 02. Volcanospeleologists in Iceland. NSS News, 60(12):362 364. W OOLS C OBB David. 2002. Trogging in Iceland Troglodyte [Northern Caverneers, Tas.], 12(2):8 10.


Description
PROCEEDINGS OF THE X, XI, AND XII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIA
ON VULCANOSPELEOLOGY
Edited by Ramn Espinasa and John Pint
X Symposium September 9-15, 2002 Reykjavik,
Iceland
XI Symposium May 12-18, 2004 Pico Island,
Azores
XII Symposium July 2-7, 2006 Tepoztlan, Morelos,
Mexico
ASSOCIATION FOR MEXICAN CAVE STUDIES BULLETIN 19 /
SOCIEDED MEXICANA DE EXPLORACIONES SUBTERRANEAS BOLETIN 7
2008
Contents:
X Symposium 2002
2002 Abstracts
2002 Papers
XI Symposium 2004
2004 Abstracts
2004 Papers
XII Symposium 2006
2006 Abstracts
2006 Papers
2006 Field Trip Guidebook



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE X, XI, AND XII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIA ON VULCANOSPELEOLOGY

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Collapse entrance to Dahl Um Quradi in Harrat Khaybar, Saudi Arabia. Photo by John Pint.

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE X, XI, AND XII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIA ON VULCANOSPELEOLOGY Edited by Ramn Espinasa-Perea and John Pint X Symposium September 9, 2002 Reykjavik, Iceland XI Symposium May 12, 2004 Pico Island, Azores XII Symposium July 2, 2006 Tepoztln, Morelos, Mexico ASSOCIATION FOR MEXICAN CAVE STUDIES BULLETIN 19 SOCIEDED MEXICANA DE EXPLORACIONES SUBTERRNEAS BOLETN 7 2008

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 4 2008 Association for Mexican Cave Studies Authors, cartographers, and photogrphers retain the rights to their individual contributions. Association for Mexican Cave Studies PO Box 7672 Austin, Texas 78713, USA www.amcs-pubs.org Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas Ingenieros 29, Col. Escandn CP 11800, Mxico D.F., Mexico Printed in the United States of America Cover photograph by Tim Ball. James Begley in Flki, Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. Preface Held at the ex-Convent of Tepoztln, in the state of Morelos, Mxico, in July 2006, the XIIth Symposium of Vulcanospeleology was sponsored by the Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas (SMES), the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology (UIS), Grupo Espeleolgico ZOTZ, the Association for Mexican Cave Studies, and the State of Morelos Section of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). It gathered thirty-eight dedicated researchers and specialists from three continents, and over twenty-eight different papers were presented. During the symposium, the fact that no Proceedings had been published of the two previous symposia papers from the 2002 symposium are therefore included, together with the abstracts and seven papers from the 2004 symposium. Together with the eighteen 2006 papers, this volume therefore includes 30 is also included. Topics range from general cave descriptions to highly specialized discussions on volcanic cave geology, archaeology, and biology. The areas covered include Mxico (the 2006 host country), Hawaii, the Azores, the Middle East, Japan, and Iceland. Dr. Ramn Espinasa-Perea 2006 Symposium Convener

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5 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 11 X Symposium 2002 13 2002 Abstracts 29 2002 Papers paper abstract 13 Geology of Harrat Kishb. Saudi Arabia, in relation to the formation of lava tubes, Mahmoud A. Alshanti 13 Data base on Icelandic caves. James Begley 14 Ranking Azorean caves based on arthropod fauna, Paulo A. V. Borges 15 Ranking Azorean caves based on geological, biological and conservation attributes. Joo Paulo Constncia, Paulo Borges, Paulino Costa, Joo Carlos 15 Gruta das Torres Project. Manuel P. Costa 35 16 Subcrustal Drainage Lava Caves; examples from Victoria, Australia. Ken Grimes 45 16 A small cave in a basalt dyke, Mt. Fyans, Victoria, Australia. Ken Grimes 19 Preliminary data on hyalocaves in Iceland: Location, formation and secondary mineralogy. Jakob Th. Gubjartsson and Sigurur S. Jnsson 19 Proposals for future vulcanospeleological research in Iceland. Jakob Th. Gubjartsson and Sigurur S. Jnsson 48 20 What is a lava tube? William R. Halliday 57 20 Caves of the Great Crack of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. William R. Halliday 21 Investigation on Dischar ge Mechanism of Lava-Tube Cave. Tsutomu Honda 21 On lava stalactite formation in the hollow of tree molds of Mt.Fuji. Tsutomu Honda 23 Air Quality Measurements in Lava Tubes. Julia M. James 23 The mapping history of the Surtshellir/Stefnshellir cave system. Sigurur S. Jnsson 23 25 Years of Icelandic Cave Surveying Jay R. Reichs Maps. Sigurur S. Jnsson 23 C onservation of volcanic caves in Iceland status and update. Sigurur S. Jnsson, Jakob Th. Gubjartsson, and Gumundur B. Thorsteinsson 24 V ulcanospeleology as tourism: case study of Samoa. Dr Ruth E Lawrence 24 Patterns of Lava Tube Development on the North Flank of Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Douglas Medville and Hazel Medville 25 Carvo Cave (S. Miguel island, Azores, Portugal: An educational experience. 26 The Grotta dei Rotoli (Mount Etna, Italy). F. Petralia, R. Bonaccorso, A. Marino, and B. Sgarlata CONTENTS Xcontinued on next page The page numbers on the contents links. Clicking on one will take you to the page.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 6 26 Growth of a submarine lava tube at Ustica Island (South Tyrrhenian Sea). F. Petralia, C. Ferlito, and R. Cristofolini 29 26 Lava tubes of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia. John J. Pint 27 T opographical map of lower Hallmundarhraun. rni B. Stefnsson 27 The history of lava cave preservation in Iceland. rni B. Stefnsson 27 Five vertical conduits in Iceland. rni B. Stefnsson 27 Complex Tree Mold Labyrinth found in Ken-Marubi Lava Flow in Mt.Fuji. Hiroshi Tachihara, Yumi Kuroishikawa, Tadato Makita, Nobuyoshi Watanabe, Haruko Hinata, Kisara Nakaue, Takanori Ogawa, and Tsutomu Honda Chris Wood and Ed Waters 28 A mega-tube system in the Hallmundarhraun, W. Iceland. Chris Wood, Paul Cheetham, and Rob Watts 28 The volcanic landforms and lava tube caves of Jeju Island, S. Korea: candidates for World Heritage Site status? Chris Wood 65 XI Symposium 2004 67 2004 Abstracts 89 2004 Papers paper abstract 67 Em defesa do Patrimnio Geolgico. Antnio M. Galopim de Carvalho 67 Genetic processes of cave minerals in volcanic environments: an overview Paolo Forti 68 An unusual lava tube cave with an incipient hornito. William R. Halliday 69 O papel estratgico do centro de interpretao subterrneo da gruta Algar do Pena, no uso sustentado do patrimnio espeleolgico do Parque Natural das Serras de Aire e Candeeiros. Olmpio Martins 98 69 Under ground life in Macaronesia: geological age, environment and biodiversity. Pedro Orom 70 Gruta do Carvo (Carvo Cave) in the island of S. Miguel (Azores) and environmental education. 70 Ranking Azorean Caves base on management indeces. Joo P. Constncia, Paulo A.V. Borges, Manuel P. Costa, Joo C. Nunes, Paulo Barcelos, 71 Algar do Carvo volcanic pit, Terceira island (Azores): geology and volcanology. Victor H. Forjaz, Joo C. Nunes, and Paulo Barcelos 72 The project for the Visitors Center building of the Gruta das Torres volcanic cave, Pico island, Azores. Ins Vieira da Silva and Miguel Vieira 89 72 Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cava, Saudi Arabia. John J. Pint 74 A digital list of non-karstic caves in Hungary. Istvn Eszterhs and George Szentes 74 The Hibashi lava tube: the best site in Saudi Arabia for cave minerals. Paolo Forti, Ermanno Galli, Antonio Rossi, John Pint, and Susana Pint 105 75 Investigation on the dischar ge mechanism of Hachijo-Fuketsu lava-tube cave, Hachijo-jima island, Japan. Tsutomu Honda XI

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7 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 76 Lava caves of Jordan. Stephan Kempe, Ahmad Al-Malabeh, and Horst-Volker Henschel 78 Caverns in volcanic terrains in Costa Rica, Central America. Ral Mora, Guillermo Alvarado, and Carlos Ramrez 79 The lava tubes of Shuwaymis, Saudi Arabia. John J. Pint 79 Discovery and survey of Hulduhellir a concealed (entranceless) lava tube cave in the Hallmundarhraun, W.C. Iceland. Chris Wood, Paul Cheatham, Heli Polonen, Rob Watts, and Sigurur S. Jnsson 80 Long-term study of population density of the troglobitic Azorean ground-beetle Trechus terceiranus at Algar do Carvo show cave: implications for cave management. Paulo A.V. Borges, Fernando Pereira 109 80 Indicators of conservation value of Azorean caves based on arthropod fauna. Paulo A.V. Borges, Fernando Pereira, Joo P. Constncia cave entrances. Rosalina Gabriel, Fernando Pereira, Paulo A.V. Borges, Joo P. Constncia 119 81 On the nature of bacterial communities from Four Windows Cave, El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Diana E. Northup, Cynthia A. Connolly, Amanda Trent, Penelope J. Boston, Vickie Peck, Donald O. Natvig 82 Lar ge invertebrate diversity in four small lava tubes of Madeira Island. Elvio Nunes, D. Agun-Pombo, P. Orom, R. Capela Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii, USA. William R. Halliday 126 82 Climate modeling for two lava tube caves at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Kenneth L. Ingham, Diana E. Northup, and Calvin W. Welbourn 83 The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave, Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii: a lava tunnel Stephan Kempe, Ingo Bauer, and Horst-Volker Henschel 83 Kukaiau Cave, Mauna Kea, Hawaii: a water -eroded cave (a new type of lava cave in Hawaii). Stephan Kempe, Marlin S. Werner, and Horst-Volker Henschel 84 Feasibility of public access to rhnkaggur rni B. Stefnsson 86 V olcanic and pseudokarstic sites of Jeju Island (Jeju-Do), Korea: potential features for inclusion in a nomination for the World Heritage List. Kyung S. Woo, and S.-Y. Um tube systems. Chris Wood, Rob Watts, and Paul Cheatham 87 GESPEA: working group on volcanic caves of Azores. Manuel P. Costa, Fernando Pereira, Joo P. Constncia, Joo C. Nunes, Paulo Barcelos, Paulo A.V. Borges 87 Analysis of iron speciation microstructures in lava samples from Hawaii by position sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Stephan Kempe, G. Schmidt, M. Kersten, B. Hasse Buracos and Balces caves, Terceira, Azores. Fernando Pereira, Paulo Barcelos, Jos M. Botelho, Luis Bettencourt, Paulo A.V. Borges

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 8 133 XII Symposium 2006 135 2006 Abstracts 153 2006 Papers 275 2006 Field Trip Guidebook paper abstract 135 Importance of Lava-T ube Flow Emplacement in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Mexico. Ramn Espinasa-Perea 135 Lava Tubes of the Suchiooc Volcano, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico. Ramn Espinasa-Perea Ramn Espinasa-Perea 158 137 Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction of the Miocene Tepoztln Formation Using Palynology. N. Lenhardt, E. Martinez-Hernandez,A.E. Gtz, M. Hinderer, J. Hornung and S. Kempe 162 137 Comparison between the Texcal Lava Flow and the Chichinautzin Volcano Lava Flows, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico. Ramn Espinasa-Perea and Luis Espinasa 168 138 Surveyed Lava Tubes of Jalisco, Mexico. John J. Pint, Sergi Gmez, Jess Moreno, and Susana Pint 138 Cueva Chinacamoztoc, Puebla. Ramn Espinasa-Perea 171 139 Lava Tubes of the Naolinco Lava Flow, El Volcancillo, Veracruz, Mxico. Guillermo Gasss and Ramn Espinasa-Perea 139 The Lithic Tuff Hosted Cueva Chapuzon, Jalico, Mxico. Chris Lloyd, John Pint, and Susana Pint 153 139 Cueva Tecolotln, Morelos, Mxico: An Unusual Erosional Cave in Volcanic Aglomerates. Ramn Espinasa-Perea and Luis Espinasa 140 Limestone Dissolution Driven by Volcanic Activitiy, Sistema Zacatn, Mxico. Marcus O. Gary, Juan Alonso Ramrez Fernndez, and John M. Sharp, Jr. 177 140 Possible Structural Connection between Chichonal Volcano and the Sulfur-Rice Springs of Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de las Sardinas), Southern Mxico. Laura Rosales Lagarde and Penelope J. Boston 185 140 Investigation of a Lava-T ube Cave Located under the Hornito of Mihara-Yama in Izu-Oshima Island, Japan. Tsutomu Honda 141 Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes: Potential Sites for World Heritage Inscription. K. S. Woo 141 New Discovery of a Lime-Decorated Lava Tube (Yongcheon Cave) in Jeju Island, Korea: Its Potential for the World Heritage Nomination K. C. Lee, K. S. Woo, and I. S. Son 142 Structural Characteristics of Natural Caves and Yongchon Cave on Jeju Island. I. S. Son, K. S. Lee, and K. S. Woo 188 142 Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration by the Shepton Mallet Caving Club (UK). Ed Waters 142 Basalt Caves in Harrat Ash Shaam, Middle East. Amos Frumkin 197 143 Prospects for Lava-Cave Studies in Harrat Khaybar Saudi Arabia. John J. Pint 201 143 Al-Fahde Cave, Jordan, the Longest Lava Cave Yet Reported from the Arabian XII

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9 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 Peninsula. Ahmad Al-Malabeh, Mahmoud Fryhad, Horst-Volker Henschel, and Stephan Kempe 209 143 State of Lava Cave Research in Jordan. Stephan Kempe, Ahmad Al-Malabeh, Mahmoud Fryhad, and Horst-Volker Henschel 144 Gruta das TorresVisitor Center. Manuel P. Costa, Fernando Pereira, Joo C. Nunes, Joo P. Constncia, Paulo Barcelos, and Paulo A. V. Borges 144 GESPEA Field Work (2003-2006). Manuel P. Costa, Fernando Pereira, Joo C. Nunes, Joo P. Constncia, Paulo Barcelos, Paulo A. V. Borges, Isabel R. Amorim, Filipe Correia, Lusa Cosme, and Rafaela Anjos 145 Catalogue of the Azorean Caves (Lava Tubes, Volcanic Pits, and Sea-Erosion Caves). Fernando Pereira, Paulo A.V. Borges, Manuel P. Costa, Rosalina Gabriel, and Eva A. Lima 219 145 Thurston Lava Tube, the Most Visited Tube in the World. What Do We Know about It? Stephan Kempe and Horst-Volker Henschel 229 145 Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System in Mauna Loa Lavas, Naalehu, Hawaii. Stephan Kempe, Horst-Volker Henschel, Harry Shick, Jr., and Frank Trusdell 243 146 Archeology of the Kamakalepo/W aipouli/Stonehenge Area, Underground Fortresses, Living Quarters, and Petrogylph Fields. Stephan Kempe, Horst-Volker Henschel, Harry Shick, Jr., and Basil Hansen 147 Cave Detection on Mars. J. Judson Wynne, Mary G. Chapman, Charles A. Drost, Jeffery S. Kargel, Jim Thompson, Timothy N. Titus, and Rickard S. Toomey III 147 A Comparison of Microbial Mats in Pahoehoe and Four Windows Caves, El Malpais National Monument, NM, USA. D. E. Northup, M. Moya, I. McMillan, T. Wills, H. Haskell, J. R. Snider, A. M. Wright, K. J. Odenbach, and M. N. Spilde 253 148 Use of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 in Mapping the Biodiversity (Invertebrates and Bryophytes) of Caves in the Azorean Archipelago. Paulo A.V. Borges, Rosalina Gabriel, Fernando Pereira, Ensima P. Mendona, and Eva Sousa 260 148 Bryophytes of Lava Tubes and Volcanic Pits from Graciosa Island (Azores, Portugal). Rosalina Gabriel, Fernando Pereira, Sandra Cmara, Ndia Homem, Eva Sousa, and Maria Irene Henriques 148 First Approach to the Comparison of the Bacterial Flora of Two Visited Caves In Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Lurdes Enes Dapkevicius, Rosalina Gabriel, Sandra Cmara, and Fernando Pereira 264 149 Cueva del Diablo: A Batcave in Tpoztlan. Gabriela Lpez Segurajuregui, Rodrigo A. Medelln and Karla Toledo Gutirrez 271 149 T roglobites from the Lava Tubes in the Sierra de Chichinautzin, Mxico, Challenge the Competitive Exclusion Principle. Luis Espinasa and Adriana Fisher 149 Uranium in Caves. Juan Pablo Berna l 150 Development of a Karst Information Portal (KIP) to Advance Research and Education in Global Karst Science. D. E. Northup, L. D. Hose, T. A. Chavez, and R. Brinkman 150 A Data Base for the Most Outstanding Volcanic Caves of the World: A First Proposal. Joo P. Constncia, Joo C. Nunes, Paulo A.V. Borges, 151 Morphogenesis of Lava Tube Caves: A Review. Chris Wood

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 10 SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL ON THE CD some of the articles. In some cases there are additional photographs or maps. In others, I have judged a couple of nice color educational posters.Bill Mixon, AMCS Editor Folder 2002 Grimes 1 Supplement to X symposium paper Subcrustal Drainage Lava Caves . , by Ken Grimes. H-106 and H-108. Grimes 2002a, and Grimes 2002b. Folder 2002 Grimes 2 Supplement to X symposium paper A Small Cave in a Basalt Dike . , by Ken Grimes. published in Helictite in 2006. Folder 2004 Pint Supplement to XI symposium paper Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cave . , by John Pint. Al Hibashi. Folder 2006 Al-Malabeh Supplement to XII symposium paper Al-Fahde Cave, Jordan . , by Ahmed Al-Malabeh, et al. 202. Folder 2006 Espinasa Supplement to XII symposium paper Cueva Tecolotln . , by Ramn Espinasa-Perea and Luis Espinasa. 2, page 154. Folder 2006 Kempe Supplement to XII symposium paper Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System . , by Stephan Kempe, et al. Folder 2006 Pint Supplement to XII symposium paper Surveyed Lava Tubes of Jalisco . , by John Pint, et al. photograph with captions. Folder 2006 Waters Supplement to XII symposium paper Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration . , by Ed Waters. and Fjrhlahellir (page 194). Hellinger, and Holgma. photographs with captions. Folder Grimes posters prepared in 2005 by Ken Grimes, Lava Tube Formation and Sub-Crustal Lava Caves.

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Hosted by The Icelandic Speleological Society Supported by Icelandic Speleological Society The Icelandic Parliament Orkustofnun Rannsknasvi Hitaveita Suurnesja BM Vall Nordic Volcanological Institute Nature Conservation Agency Icelandic Institute of Natural History University of Iceland

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13 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 2002 SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS Compiled by Sigurur S. Jnsson Geology of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia, in Relation to the Formation of Lava Tubes Mahmoud A. Alshanti Geologist, Saudi Geological Survey Kishb, has an area of 5,890 square kilometers and is located 300kms northeast of Jeddah. The nature of lava found in this formation of lava tubes one million years ago. The lava tubes of Harrat Kishb are found in three differ ent structural and physical positions relative to their parent volcanic cones. The three-km-long lava tube associated with the Jebel Hil volcano was formed by the emptying of the arterial tube as the lava front advanced downslope. Instead, the Ghostly Cave and Kahf Muteb lava tubes are found 7km from the volcano which gave birth to them and were third manner of formation is seen in Dahl Faisal, where a thin part of the roof of the lava tube was sucked down to form a funnel-shaped entrance for surface air. More than 2000 basaltic volcanoes can be found in western Saudi Arabia and many of these are associated with multiple it is likely that many of these volcanoes have also produced lava tubes. Data Base on Icelandic Caves James Begley Shepton Mallet Caving Club, Priddy, Somerset, UK, and Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O.Box 342, 121 Reykjavk Hrarsson in 1990 in his book Hraunhellar slandi (Lava caves in Iceland). The list comprised a geographically sorted list of about 170 caves, mostly caves mentioned or described in earlier publications but also several newly discovered caves and caves only known to locals in the vicinity of the caves. Hrarssons list laid the foundation for a dbase IV table the dbase IV that format was abandoned and the whole list was imported and maintained in a large Excel spreadsheet. The author will present a whole new design of a cave database, running on Microsoft Access, using data and Attempt has been made to simplify data input, and general Figure 1 (Begley, Data Base). An example of ISS cave database table relations.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 14 ISS cave database now holds about 60 caves with known GPS-coordinates, but a large pile of data waits to be inserted into the ISS cave database. Ranking Azorean Caves Based on Arthropod Fauna Paulo A. V. Borges 1,2 1 Univ. dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, Terra-Ch, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo,Terceira, Azores, Portugal. pborges@angra.uac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 8, 9700 Angra do Herosmo,Terceira, Azores, Portugal. Endemic arthropods and in particular troglobian species were used to evaluate the conservation value of volcanic caves of the Azorean islands. For each of the 44 Azorean endemic species of arthropods recorded to caves, a rarity index was calculated, using distribution and abundance data obtained from the literature. In addition, several scoring indices based on diversity and rarity measures were used to rank 16 caves from which standardized sampling has been performed. About 47% of the 19 endemic troglobian arthropod species are single cave endemics, that is, are known from only one cave. Based on the Jackknife estimator we estimated the occurrence of 28 ( 3) species of troglobian arthropods in the Azores, which implies that there is the need of further biospeleological surveys in these islands. The most beautiful caves based on a Show Cave Index are also the most diverse in troglobites (r = 0.55; p = 0.01), which means that geologi cal diversity could be a good surrogate of fauna diversity. Moreover, there is more trogobite species on largest caves (r = 0.66; p = 0.0099). Based on the complementarity method, to preserve the Azorean arthropod troglobite biodiversity there is a need to protect at least 10 caves in order each spe cies is represented at least once. However further caves will be needed to have each species represented at least twice. The standardized sampling provided valuable guidance for achieving the goals of practical conservation management of Azorean biological cave diversity, but further research is required to have better knowledge on the real diversity of Azorean troglobites and their distribution. There is also the need of special measures of protection for the aboveground the cave environment. This study showed that cave fauna could be used to identify a network of caves for protection that are also of great geological interest. for the Azorean Volcanic Caves Joo Paulo Constncia 1 Joo Carlos Nunes 1,2 1 1 Amigos dos Aores Environmental NG. P.O. Box 29. 9500 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. constancia@mail.telepac.pt, teobraga@hotmail.com 2 Azores University Geosciences Department. Rua da Me de Deus. P.O. Box 1422.9500-801 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. jcnunes@notes.uac.pt The Azorean Regional Government, being aware of the importance of the volcanic caves and pits as elements of our natural heritage, created in 1998 a multidisciplinary task force to promote its study. One of the main objectives of this group was to act as a consultant to the government, by recommend ing initiatives concerning de conservation and preservation of these volcanic underground structures. which could be used as a managing tool for the Azorean volcanic caves and pits. To achieve this goal it was found possible, allowing a satisfactory description of the under ground volcanic structures, and also that could provide the principles for the database structure. Due to the geographical dispersion of the Azorean islands, and the number and diversity of the lava tubes, it was consider most relevant that managing decisions should be based on accurate knowledge. At that time it was settled the idea of an instrument that could organize the information, in a way it would be possible to evaluate among several parameters of each volcanic caves, to build different sorting accessions, and to produce meaningful lists. These fundaments gave origin to a computer application built over FileMaker Pro 4.0, combin The sorting and classifying systems presume an objectively chosen criteria set, so that the results are logical, coherent and established objectives and aimed to real applications. The Azorean Speleological Inventory and Classifying surrounding threats; available information and conservation the volcanic caves are sorted as a result of weight calculation upon the values given by nine criteria sets. These criteria are: biologic component; geologic features; accessibility; singu larity and beauty; safety; caving progress; threats; integrity and available information. For each of these criteria were established six parameters, where 0 is the lack of information ments that describe the cave within the criteria. Each volcanic cave is than characterized by choosing one of the six parameters of the different criteria, that allows among other possibilities to sort the caves in many different ways and to produce relevant lists. It is expected that this ap plication becomes a useful tool to managing Azorean caves for conservation, study and exploration.

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15 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Ranking Azorean Caves Based on Geological, Biological, and Conservation Attributes Joo Paulo Constncia 1 Paulo Borges 2,3 Paulino Costa 4 Joo Carlos Nunes 1,2 Paulo Barcelos 3 Fernando Pereira 3 1 1 Amigos dos Aores Environmental NGO. P.O. Box 29. 9500 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. teobraga@hotmail.com, constancia@mail.telepac.pt 2 Azores University Geosciences Department. Rua da Me de Deus. P.O. Box 1422. 9500-801 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. jcnunes@notes.uac.pt, pborges@angra.uac.pt 3 Os Montanheiros Speleological Society. Rua da Rocha. 9700 Angra do Herosmo. Azores. Portugal. paulo_barcelos@clix.pt 4 Direco de Servios da Conservao da Natureza. Matos Souto. Pico. Azores. Portugal. paulino.costa@mail.telepac.pt With the Azorean Speleological Inventory (IPEA) in a computer data base format it is possible to have a better characterization of the Azorean volcanic caves and pits, spread all over the nine islands of the archipelago. Once the existing data is often poor and incomplete, all the analysis and ranking should be considered, by now, as a preliminary approach. The IPEA data base comprises 206 records that correspond by the team created form that purpose. It is also important to emphasise that there are several reports and bibliographic notes that allows to expect, in a near future, to raise up that number. Moreover, 57% of these 206 caves are unsatisfactorily described, in particular on their biological and geological features, and only 67 are mapped. The Azorean volcanic caves are located at Pico (81), Ter ceira (66), So Miguel (17), So Jorge (16), Graciosa (11), Faial (8), Santa Maria (5), and Flores (2). About 63% are lava tubes, 13% pits, 4% fractures, 4% erosional caves and the remaining are combine or undetermined types. Troglobic species were identified in 25 underground structures, namely the blind ground-beetle, Thalassophillus azoricus which can only be seen in gua de Pau cave (So Miguel island) or the genus Trechus found in Pico caves. In 59 caves there are rare and uncommon geologic features, such as long lava stalagmites and sets of burst bubbles of lava, e. g. Soldo and Torres caves (Pico), and Natal and Agulhas in the surrounding area, and thus prevention and protection measures are needed. It is recognized for 22 underground structures their high integrity status, for example Gruta dos Montanheiros (Pico), Gruta da Beira (So Jorge) and Furna do Enxofre (Graciosa). Gruta das Torres Project Manuel P. Costa Direco Regional do Ambiente da Regio Autnoma dos Aores. Ed. Matos Souto 9930-210 Piedade, Aores, Portugal. paulino.costa@mail.telepac.pt In the Archipelago of the Azores there are a large quantity of lava tubes and pits, in almost every of the nine islands. At the Society of Speleologic Exploration Os Montanheiros, by the Ecological Association Amigos dos Aores, by the Crculo de Amigos da Ilha do Pico, and by the Regional Services for Nature Conservation, there are 239 volcanic caves marked in the Azorean Archipelago. This geological and biological richness lead the Regional Government of the Azores to promote, through its resolution nr. 149/98 of June 25, the creation of a working group respon sible for the study of the Azorean volcanic caves. This group will allow the raise of a management model for these caves. speleologic value of Gruta das Torres, its proximity to population centres and its great accessibility and therefore the facility of being visited, the Regional Environmental Services of the Azores has conceived this project and thus created a pilot experience in the Management and Explora tion of volcanic caves in this Region. Gruta das Torres is a volcanic cave, located in Criao Velha Pico Island, that had its origin in pahoehoe expelled from Cabeo Bravo. It is the biggest lava tube known in the Azores with a total extension of 5 150m. It consists of a main tunnel of large dimensions, attaining in some areas more smaller dimensions where, at times, it is necessary to crawl. Its interior is full of interesting lava formations, such as lava stalactites and stalagmites, silica deposits, lateral benches, The walking tour inside the cave is 400m long and the access to its interior is attained through one of the caves natural openings. The improvements to make in the cave, namely to turn the access more easy, will be minima in order to keep the caves aspect the most original as possible. In the caves interior only the ground will be cleaned, clear ing out breakdown of the ceiling and walls so as to facilitate the passing through of visitors. The visits will take place in small groups, with individual lightening system and in the presence of a guide who will give all the informations about the cave. Besides the route inside the cave, one intends to familiar through the creation of complementary routes to be explored at surface near the site. References: Borges, P.A.V., Pereira, F. & Silva A., (1991), Caves and Pits from the Azores with some comments on their geological origin, distribution and fauna. 6 th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. Hilo, Hawaii, pp. 121-151.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 16 Nunes, J.C., (1999), A Actividade Vulcnica na ilha do Pico do Plistocnico Superior ao Holocnico: Mecanismo Eruptivo e Hazard Vulcnico, Tese de Doutoramento no Ramo de Geologia Especialidade de Vulcanologia, Departamento de Geocincias, Universidade dos Aores, Ponta Delgada, pp. 239-241. Costa, M.P. & Barcelos, P., (2001), Cavidades Vulcnicas dos Aores, Congresso Internacional sobre Patrimnio Geolgico e Mineiro, Beja, Outubro, 2001. Costa, M.P & Verissimo, E.F. (2002), Projecto Gruta das Torres, 2 nd Pico Island Internacional Volcanological Meet ing, Abril, 2002. Subcrustal Drainage Lava Caves; Examples from Victoria, Australia Ken Grimes PO Box 362, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia. ken-grimes@h140.aone.net.au Most documented lava caves are large, linear or anastomos number of small shallow caves is being recorded that have simple to complex patterns of interconnected low chambers and small passages that form by a different process. In reviews of active volcanoes in Hawaii, Peterson & oth ers (1994) and Hon & others (1994) proposed two distinct over of linear surface lava channels; and secondly by the the second type: the smaller, but occasionally complex, caves illustrated in Figure 1. More recently Halliday (1998a & b) caves and hollow volcanic tumulus caves which he regards as being distinct. I will argue that these are just two of sev eral possible end-members of a continuum of forms which I will refer to as Subcrustal drainage lava caves. Examples are drawn from the basaltic Newer Volcanic Province of Victoria, Australia. Subcrustal drainage caves involve a broad array of styles ranging from simple single chambers (Figure 2) to multi-level, complexly-interconnecting systems of tubes and chambers (Figure 3). However, while we can identify distinctive types at the extremes, there are many that fall in the middle ground and are hard to classify. All members of the group have in common the dominance of shallow, low-roofed, irregular chambers and small-diameter tubes running just below the over time) into larger and more-linear tubes. In long-lasting to distinguish from, the large roofed channel type (eg. the proximal end of H-53, Figure 3). The simplest caves are small chambers; typically only 1m high with a roof about 1m or less thick, that occur scattered through the stony rises and have been called blister caves in Victoria. These can be circular, elongate or irregular in plan; up to 20m or more across but grading down to small cavities only suitable for rabbits. In section, the outer edges of the chamber may be smoothly rounded or form a sharp sag that would have formed while the crust was still plastic. Alternatively, the thin central part of the roof has collapsed at the edge of a shallow collapse doline (e.g. H-78, Figure 2). The more elongate versions grade into small tubes (e.g. H-31). These caves generally are found beneath low rises tumuli!), though some have no surface relief at all. neath the crust, either radially from a central feeder (H-33, Figure 2) or laterally from the breached levee of a lava channel (Figure 3). They are commonly branching systems with complexes of low passages that bifurcate and rejoin, or open out into broad low chambers. The form suggests A Small Cave in a Basalt Dyke, Mt. Fyans, Victoria, Australia Ken Grimes PO Box 362, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia. ken-grimes@h140.aone.net.au The Volcano: Mt. Fyans is a volcano within the Newer Volcanic Province of Victoria, Australia. The age of the province dates back at least 5 million years, but this is a youth ful eruption, undated, but possibly less than 100,000 years old judging by the well developed stony rises (remnants of the original hummocky lava surface) and minimum soil development. The volcano is a broad shield of basaltic lava with a low scoria cone at the summit and possibly a crater though an extensive quarry in the scoria makes the original The scoria at the summit has a thin cap of basaltic lava, and ropy patterns on the underside of this are well-exposed on the southern margin of the quarry. The loose scoria has been intruded by two large basalt dykes up to 12 m across (which would have fed the lava cap) and a number of smaller pipe drained to leave small cavities. The quarry operations have worked around the large dykes, but damaged the smaller in trusive features (which is how we know they are hollow!). The dyke cave: A small horizontal cave occurs within the largest dyke. It lies close to the west edge of the dyke and runs parallel to it (see map). Entry is via a small hole broken into the roof. The cave is about 17 m long and generally less than one metre high. The roof and walls have numerous which rises gently towards the northern end but the ropy The drainage points for the lava are not obvious. Both roof

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17 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figures for Grimes Subcrustal Drainage Lava Caves.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 18 Figure for Grimes Small Cave Mt. Fyans.

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19 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 the basalt possibly fumerolic alteration? There are welldeveloped rolled benches (10 cm diameter) along the edges opened into broken scoriaceous material. Related features: As well as the cave, the main dyke also has a drained vertical pipe at its southern end this has been broken into by the quarry operation and we found the upper part lying on its side 20 m to the NE. This pipe had spatter and dribble patterns on its inside walls. Elsewhere in the that have pushed up through the loose scoria. Several of these leave a hollow core, some with lava drips. Probably the most distinctive are conical Witchs hat structures. No other volcanic caves formed in dykes have been re ported in Australia, but a larger one has been reported from the Canary Islands (Socorro & Martin, 1992). Genesis: The dykes and other bodies would have been intruded into the loose scoria towards the end of the eruption, was lost those liquid parts that were still connected to the main feeder channels would have drained a little way back to leave the cavities. There may have been some oscillation to form the rolled benches in the dyke cave. Reference: Socorro, JS., & Martin, JL., 1992: The Fajanita Cave (La Palma, Canary Islands): A volcanic cavity originated by partial draining of a dyke, in Rea, GT., [ed] 6th Int. Symp. Volcanospeleology. National Speleol. Soc., Huntsville. pp 177-184 [in spanish]. Preliminary Data on Hyalocaves in Iceland: Location, Formation, and Secondary Mineralogy Jakob Th. Gubjartsson and Sigurur S. Jnsson Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O.Box 342, 121 Reykjavk. geokobbi@hotmail.com Hyalocave is a new type of volcanospeleological phenom ena. Hyalo is a word derived from Greek and means glass. Hyalocaves are associated with subglacial volcanic eruptions and are the result of entrapment of large ice-fragments inside or Evidence of basaltic subglacial eruptions have be found in Iceland, British Colombia in Canada and Antarctica. Subglacial eruptions form very distinctive geomorphological mountains called tindar (hyaloclastite ridges) and stapi (steep sided tuya). Interaction between magma and meltwater produces pillowlava or fragmented volcanic glass, depending on the hydraulic pressure inside the glacier. Scientist tend to associ ate subglacial eruptions with englacial lakes. Formation of basaltic subglacial eruption is often divided into three stages: 1) Magma under hydrostatic pressure, pillowbasalt is formed, 2) hydrostatic pressure is low explosive face; volcanic glass is formed when magma comes into contact with water, gravity the main magma feeder is blocked from the water and suba Hyalocaves have been found on the Reykjanes peninsula (Stapafell), Mosfellssveit (Mosfell), Laugarvatn-area (Lau garvatnsfjall, Hlodufell, Mosaskardsfjall, Kalfstindar), Snae fellsnes (Songhellir in Stapafell), Eyjafjallajokull glacier and Thorsmork. Most of them are small: only few meters in length, width and height, although few are tens of meters in size. These formations havent been given much attention, due to lack of understanding of basaltic subglacial structures and their chaotic fashion. Hyalocaves are clear evidence of ice in the system. They can help scientists to estimate the waterlevel in the englacial lake. They also indicate that the mountain was roofed by ice during the formation of the particular sedimentor pillow-pile. In the future hyalocaves might even in subglacial environments. Two new minerals in Iceland are associated with hyalo caves, these are monohydrocalcite (CaCO 3 *H 2 O) and wed dellite (CaC 2 O 4 *2H 2 O). Monohydrocalcite has been found in basaltic lava tubes in Hawaii, limestone caves and lake sediments in salty environment. Weddellite has been found in few limestone caves in Australia and Namibia in Africa. Weddellite is often associated with urea and feces of bats, birds, rats and other mammals. Ideally monohydrocalcite needs the following conditions to form: pH>8, Mg/Ca >1, temperature <40C, water droplets or aerosol, salt, bacteria or algae. Formation of monohydrocalcite in Iceland is associated with oceanic originated precipitation (pH 5,4) that becomes isolated from the atmosphere as soon as the water seeps into the hyaloclastite and comes into contact with volcanic glass. Volcanic glass is ten times more easily dissolved then crystalline rock. Elements from the glass are dissolved by exchanging positive ions from the glass (Mg ++ Ca ++ et. al.) while hydrogen ions go into the glass. Due to this hydrogen loss the pH increases and ends in 8-9. Micro-organism are know to exist in basaltic glass. Bacteria was seen in thinsections made from the site where monohydrocalcite was found. Monohydrocalcite was only found in selected hyalo caves and only in the entrance with clear evidence of great leakage and moss growth ( Hymenostylium recuroirostrum ). Minerals formed only in the roof and on walls. The crystals are very small and form thin layer on pillow-fragments or 1-3 mm knobs on both the pillow-fragments and the glassy matrix. The color is white to light-brown. Weddellite is white and powdery. It is located both on walls and ceiling. Its occurrence is associated with sheep feces and urea, but mineral described from an Icelandic cave. Proposals for Future Vulcanospeleological Research in Iceland Jakob Th. Gubjartsson and Sigurur S. Jnsson Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O.Box 342, 121 Reykjavk, Iceland. geokobbi@hotmail.com Icelandic speleology has contributed enormously from for eign expedition during the last 3-4 decades. Prior to that, very scant information was available on Icelandic caves, and only the general public knew a few caves. Furthermore Icelandic geoscientists have always rather reluctantly approached spe leological topics for whatever reasons. An accurate chronology

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 20 of foreign cave-expeditions to Iceland is not available, but an effort can be made to expose the highlights. that the main purpose of those journeys was general travelling around Iceland. The British Shepton Mallet Caving Club was active in surveying the larger known Icelandic caves in the seventies, and so were Jay R. Reich and his associates. Span ish, Dutch and French cavers are also known to have visited the country and some have produced important data. The highly successful expeditions to the eastern part of the Skaftreldahraun (Eldhraun) in 2000 and 2001 were jointly planned by the Icelandic Speleological Society and foreign participants and organizers. (Wood 2002. this volume). Main role of the ISS was to propose a potentially prominent area for speleological studies with acceptable remoteness and road-access The main purpose of the poster presented is to raise attention for two sites, considered to be of great vulcanospeleologi cal interest, and offer cooperation in logistical planning and research program. The ISS has some preliminary information about the two sites. age further ease along the peninsula. The ISS has conducted several short reconnaissance trips and small-scale surveying recent years, but also in Saxhlshraun and Klifhraun. Only few caves have been mapped, but a large number of caves and conduits await further research. The other site is a large lava shield northeast of lake Thingvallavatn, called jfahraun (Thjfahraun). The ISS has organized two reconnaissance trips to the area in recent years and concluded that there is a wealth of speleological features to be explored and surveyed. Many un-surveyed caves are known, both braided tube systems and pit-like structures. What Is a Lava Tube? William R. Halliday Honorary President, Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology. 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN USA 37205. bnawrh@webtv.net have led to its application to a wide range of features, some of them far removed from the ordinary meaning of the word TUBE: a hollow body, usually cylindrical, and long in pro portion to its diameter... The current American Geological and requires that they be formed in one of four accepted mechanisms. However it provides little guidance on whether a variety of injection structures traditionally termed LAVA entirely dfferent phenomena. ferentiate them from all other volcanic features, e.g., aa cores, lava tongues, tumuli, sills and related injection masses. The 1) the common meanings of TUBE and CAVE; 2) the presence of solid, liquid, and/or gaseous matter within them; 3) observations of all phases of their complex speleogenesis, e.g., crustal and subcrustal accretion and erosion; 4) their tendency to form braided and distributory complexes, and multlevel structures of at least two types; 5) their propensity to combine with or produce other volcanic structures, e.g., lava trenches, rift crevices, tumuli, drained The ideal may not be achievable at the present state of that the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the IUS develop concerned agencies and organizations, for consideration at the 2005 International Congress of Speleology. Caves of the Great Crack of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii William R. Halliday Honorary President, Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology. 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN USA 37205. bnawrh@webtv.net The Great Crack (17 Mile Crack) is the most prominent feature of Kilauea volcanos Southwest Rift Zone. Rather than consisting of a single crevice, much of the crack consists of en echelon crevices of various widths in a strip locally more than 1 km wide. Numerous grabens and collapse pits are present. Detailed studies of this complex have been begun only in the past decade. Some of the participating geologists have requested support and some leadership by speleologists in investigating cavernous pits at the bottom of steep talus slopes. The Hawaii Speleological Survey of the National Speleological Society consequently has cooperated with University of Hawaii and U.S. Geological Survey research ers in investigating cavernous pits in the principal axis of the crevice complex. thirdlabelled Pit H by University of Hawaii geologists immediately was seen to require SRT expertise. In 2001 it was explored and mapped to a depth of 183 m. Despite extensive on several levels. A total of 600 m of passage was mapped. In a similar crevice passage at the bottom of Wood Valley Pit Crater (which is nearby but off the principal axis of the rift zone), tube segments have been found along the crevice at a depth of almost 90 m. No such tube segments have been found in Pit H Cave, but numerous other pits remain to be investigated along the Great Crack.

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21 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Investigation on Discharge Mechanism of Lava-Tube Cave Tsutomu Honda Mt. Fuji Volcano-Speleological Society Discharge mechanism of lava-cave has been proposed in the tube(T.Honda,2000,2001). A simple model of steady analysis. Flow characteristics were studied as a function of param eters such as tube radius, viscosity, yield strength of lava and inclination of down slope. A critical condition was obtained for determining the discharge parameters in which the yield strength plays a dominant role. Some existing data base form the observation of lava cave were introduced to the critical condition and yield strength can be obtained. This model was applied to lava cave of Mt.Fuji, Etna, St.Helenes, Suchiooc, Kilauea, etc., and some deduced yield strength of lava of the caves for these area are found to be good accordance with yield strength estimated by other methods. as, f(t)=(t-f B )/v B (t>f B or r>r B ), f(t)=0 (tf B u=(R-r B ) 2 (d g sin a)/4v B (rr B ). For tw= (d g sin a )R/2f B or r>r B ), f(t)=0 (t
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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 22 Tables for Honda Discharge Mechanism set circular tube with pressure difference P1-P2 for stalac tite length L, the critical condition is tw=(P1-P2)r/2L=f B Here, (P1-P2)/L=dgL/L=d g. So the limiting radius for lava discharge is r=2f B /d g. For density d =2.5 g/cm 3 when r=2mm, f B =2.5x10 2 dyn/cm 2 For density d=1.5g/cm 3 when r=2mm, f B =1.5x10 2 dyn/cm 2 This low yield strenght suggests that the lava was in rather high temperature condi References: T. Honda: The formation process of lava stalactite in the of tree molds of Mt. Fuji. The 26th annual meeting of the Speleological Society of Japan, 2000, August, p.4 T. Honda: The investigation on the formation process of the lava tree-molds structure of Mt. Fuji. The 2000 Fall meeting of the Volcanogical Society of Japan, 2000, September, p.110 H. Lamb: Hydrodynamics, Dover 1945, p.19 I. Yokoyama et al: Measurement of surface tension of vol canic rocks. Technical Report of Hokkaido University, 1970, p.56-61.

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23 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Air Quality Measurements in Lava Tubes Julia M. James Heavy Metals Research Center, School of Chemistry, F11. The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. jmj@chem.usyd.edu.au Air quality in lava tubes is not normally recorded or in vestigated. Thus in some instances discomfort from poor air quality may have been misinterpreted as resulting from stress from high temperatures or high humidity. Only two gases have been recorded are ammonia from bat caves and carbon dioxide. The former is unlikely to reach hazardous levels and later has been known to reach hazardous levels in at least one lava tube. This paper will focus on the possible sources, concentrations, distribution and movement both spatially and temporally within lava tubes. The importance of air analyses including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapour will be stressed in order to establish the source of carbon dioxide. Analysis of also give additional information as to a CO 2 source. Simple CO 2 tests available to the exploration caver will introduced and assessed. The practical aspects of the exploration lava tubes found to contain poor air quality will be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using scrubber gases, oxygen re-breathers and scuba will be presented. The paper will include examples of where poor air quality has been experience with the Chillagoe Caving Club in Bayliss Cave, Undara the longest lava tube found in Australia. The Mapping History of the Surtshellir/Stefnshellir Cave System Sigurur S. Jnsson Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O.Box 342, 121 Reykjavk, Iceland. ssjo@os.is The nearly 2 km long cave Surtshellir is the best know lava tube in Iceland and is mentioned in many early manuscripts and publications of domestic and international origin. The cave is mentioned in the Icelandic Sagas and folklore and tales are associated with the cave. The cave has provoked many early travelers attention and curiosity and many explorers the cave was the work of native explorers Eggert lafsson and Bjarni Plsson and published in Denmark in 1772. Eggert in the summer of 1755 but they also toured the same region in 1773. The next map that follows is the work of German traveler/explorer Zugmeyer published in 1902. The presentation is an overview of the work carried out from Surtshellir with an unpenetrateable boulder-choke which also contains perennial ice. The maps presented are both of Surtshellir and Stefnshellir individually and of the both. It can be concluded that early travelers were not aware presence. Iceland and was formed in historical times (10 th century), just after the settlement of Iceland in 874 AD. Surthellir bears large and extensive remains of human habitation, but the archaeological remains have not been cared for by Icelandic archaeological authorities, and are now more or less ruined or at least seriously affected. The Icelandic novelist Halldor Laxness had pieces of bones 14 dating gave grounds to conclude that the remains where of 10 th later 14 C datings. Altogether 11 maps of different grades and quality are 25 Years of Icelandic Cave Surveying Jay R. Reichs Maps Sigurur S. Jnsson Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O. Box 342, 121 Reykjavk. ssjo@os.is The Pennsylvania born caver Jay R. Reich has contributed a lot to Icelandic speleology and his work on Icelandic caves is summarized. Four large and detailed maps are presented mapping and drawing, as well as his enormous interest in weather and other logistical problems prevented him from achieving his goal at that time. He was in Iceland three more times, and completed his map of Surtshellir/Stefnshellir in 1973. His next major project was the exploration and mapping of the extensive cave system of Kalmanshellir in the same year. The Icelandic Speleological Society collaborated with Jay in the mapping of Vgelmir, also in Hallmundarhraun, by Jay Reich, checked and corrected by ISS members and it Jay had in collaboration with ISS members and US cavers completed a map of the recently discovered nearly 1 km long cave of Leiarendi in 1993. In the last 30 years Jay and his collaborators have surveyed all three of the big caves of the completed maps of over 10 km of cave passage. Conservation of Volcanic caves in Iceland Status and Update Sigurur S. Jnsson, Jakob Th. Gubjartsson, and Gumundur B. Thorsteinsson Icelandic Speleological Society, P.O. Box 342, 121 Reykjavk. ssjo@os.is Since the founding of the Icelandic Speleological Society (ISS) in 1989 it has been the societys goal to enhance and further collaboration and cooperation with governmental bod

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 24 of volcanic phenomena. A bold and brave step was taken in 1974 by the Nature Conservation authorities, when all protruding and hanging lava formations (stalactites and stalagmites) were subject to an automatic and undisputable conservation as a Natural Monument, in accordance to the Nature Conservation leg islation valid at that time. The speleothems were protected regardless of their position in the cave and if the cave itself had any direct or indirect conservations status and if it was known or unknown. The speleotheme conservation is for mation oriented and bears resemblance to protection of bird species i.e. the protection is broadly aimed at the form and occurrence but not at an in-situ individual formation. After removing an ice-plug in Vgelmir in 1993 the ISS proposed the idea of gating the cave but it had been blocked since 1972 by the before mentioned perennial ice. The land owners were very positive towards the idea and participated in the project of building the gate. Since the installation of rents caving equipment and takes visitors on guided tours to the cave. The involvement of government authorities was not needed in the gating process of Vigelmir, but proper Following the discovery of the enormously decorated cave was legally declared a natural monument and subsequently the cave was closed by a steel-gate on the surface, leaving ture Conservation Agency. The lock on the gate was broken several times, but no serious damage was done to the cave, except a few specks of candle wax were left on some of the stalagmites. The gate was removed by ISS in September 1999 and a new chain-gate installed in a narrow passage. issue the be mentioned. The cave was discovered in 1985 and an escalating number of visitors was experienced in due time from the day of the discovery. In 1995 the ISS took a radical step in cave conservation when after some negotiation time a treaty was signed with the land-owner giving the ISS the sole right to take necessary steps to protect the cave, includ ing the installation of a gate. The treaty was notarized at the was legally binding, the ISS prepared for gating the cave. The cave has been closed since and access controlled by the ISS. This privatized conservation has been a little disturbing and irritating for the authorities but the latest development is very satisfying and encouraging for the ISS. In 2001 the ISS board signed a contract with the Nature Conservation Agency granting the ISS the right to maintain and manage all conservation effort or actions have been taken, i.e. natural and other reserves. This action of forwarding the authority to the ISS is a milestone for the ISSs efforts toward cave conservation in Iceland and the Minister of Environmental Affairs authenticated the arrangement in July 2002. The ISS/ land-owner treaty wassubsequently abandoned and rnahellir legally declared a Natural Monument. In the future the ISS will propose new specific cave conservation projects to the Nature Conservation Agency or if the matter allows, take the necessary steps unaided in power of the treaty made with the Nature Conservation Agency and Ministry of Environmental Affairs. Vulcanospeleology as Tourism: Case Study of Samoa Ruth E Lawrence Outdoor Education & Nature Tourism, La Trobe University, PO Box 199 Bendigo 3550, Australia. r.lawrence@bendigo.latrobe.edu.au The Independent State of Samoa is located in the South Line. Located to the north of the Tonga Trench, the country of Samoa comprises several small volcanic islands as part of a 1200 linear volcanic chain extending 550 km from Rose Atoll in the east to the Samoan island of Savaii in the west. The Samoan islands are composed almost wholly of basic volcanic rocks such as olivine basalt, picric basalt and olivine dolerite of the alkaline basalt suite. Although the age of the rocks is poorly known, it is thought that the oldest Fagaloa Volcanics erupted in the Pliocene period. The islands are still volcanically active, with the last eruptions in Savaii of Mauga There are an unknown number of caves located within the volcanic landscape of Samoa. Most caves appear to be river systems. The Samoan Visitors Center advertise tours through several caves including the Peapea Cave in the Le Pupu-Pue National Park, and the Paia Dwarfs Cave below the summit of Mt Matavanu. Other caves, such as the Piula Cave Pool between the Piula Theological College and the coast, are available for visitor exploration. This study aimed to identify as many vulcanospeleological features in Samoa as possible and to relate the location of the caves to geology and land tenure. A short inventory of the caves was undertaken by identifying physical and cultural known caves for tourism was examined, and the relation ship between cave tourism and local village ownership was explored. The challenges and impediments to the expansion of vulcanospeleology as part of tourism in Western Samoa was also examined. Patterns of Lava Tube Development on the North Flank of Mauna Loa, Hawaii Douglas Medville and Hazel Medville Hawaii Speleological Survey Mauna Loa is a shield volcano on the island of Hawaii with a surface area of about 5,500 sq. km and rising to an elevation of 4,170 meters above sea level. The U. S. Geological Survey estimates that about 40 percent of its surface area is covered period 1992-2001, members of the Hawaii Speleological Survey have surveyed 55 km of passage in 107 lava tubes within a 60 square km area on the north side of Mauna Loas

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25 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 commonly observed tube pattern consists of a single sinu ous conduit containing occasional loops and short branches. Other, more complex tube patterns are also observed in the (a) Unitary, multi-level tubes up to 20 meters deep and contain multilevel tubes in canyon like passages. These tubes appear to result from stable lava evacuated multi-level tubes with the crusted upper surfaces (b) Shallow complex tubes meters thick but contains a grid-like tube complex having 4,500 meters of surveyed passages in an area that is 700 meters long and 250 meters wide. This tube appears to have a maze-like pattern. (c) Single level tube complexes in broad flows Over 8 km of parallel tubes have been surveyed in the historic parallel lines. The tubes are at about the same depth beneath branches of large loops. (d) Giant tubes the largest surveyed tube on Mauna Loa. With a linear extent of over 8 km, a vertical extent of 436 meters, and having a surveyed length of 20.72 km, this single tube contains almost 40 percent of the total surveyed passage found in the northeast rift zone tubes. Although much of Emesine Cave consists of a unitary tube, some parts of the cave are a complex braided network of passages on more than one level. Carvo Cave (S. Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal: An Educational Experience Joo Carlos Nunes 1,2 2 and Joo Paulo Constncia 2 1 Azores University Geosciences Department. Rua da Me de Deus. P.O. Box 1422. 9501-801 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. jcnunes@notes.uac.pt 2 Amigos dos Aores Environmental NG. P.O. Box 29. 9500 Ponta Delgada. Azores. Portugal. teobraga@hotmail.com, constancia@mail.telepac.pt Gruta do Carvo (meaning Coal Cave) is the biggest lava cave in S. Miguel Island, and one of the most impressive underground structures in the archipelago. It is a well-known cave, reported in old manuscripts since the sixteenth century, and visited by many national and international explorers. Carvo Cave has nowadays a total acknowledged length of about 1650 m, with a general NNW-SSE trend and along wide. However, the original path of the main channel can be traced for about 2400 m from the coastline, and it might be able to have reached more than 5 km long. This cave devel ops in a basaltic s.s. 2 =45.6%; Na 2 O=2.53%, K 2 O=1.19%) probably extruded from the Serra Gorda scoria cone area. This strombolian cone is one of the about 200 volcanic cones pertaining to the Picos Volcanic Complex, an area of basaltic nature that extends in the western sector of aa and pahoehoe covering a pumice layer and a paleosoil, in witch some char coal remains were found and dated by 14 C conventional gas counting technique, at Geochron Laboratory (USA). The ages determined were 11,880 years BP (y) and 12,100 years BP (y), pointing a Holocene age to Carvo Cave. Owing to its size, a great variety of microstructures can be found inside the cave, which are undoubtedly an eloquent sample of the creative force of the Azorean volcanism. Among pahoehoe slabs, ropy and spongy lavas, burst bubbles of lava, branching galleries, superimposed channels and long extensions with benches at several steps. On the roof there are many fusion lava stalactites and other irregular deposition-type stalactites, sometimes over were affected by sand and clay deposition, which silt them up and block the cave in some places. Thus, it was needed some removing work in recent times to allow a permanent and easy walk inside the lava tube. Carvo Cave has been used for many years as warehouse of the local tobacco factory. Given its size and location, right in the urban area of Ponta Delgada city, close to the downtown, airport, schools and tourist facilities, the cave is the perfect spot for visitors interested in the speleological thematic, or in a wider sense, to all who want to know the natural volcanic underground landscape of the S. Miguel Island. Therefore, a project to open Carvo Cave to the general public is in progress, taking That project is based on well-sustained museum programme and the dynamics of several activities associated, including an exhibition area nearby the main entrance. In fact, it is believed that Carvo Cave is the perfect place to enhance the importance of the volcanic phenomena (specially of the basaltic volcanism) to the genesis and evolution of the life. This cave is also an excellent scenario for educational approaches, namely in terms of Environment Education, owing for a better knowledge of Man and Nature, calling attention to Environmental problems and creating a new behaviour. With these ideas in mind, a special attention is given to schools (with the appropriate connection with their teachers and school programmes) allowing that many students visited Carvo Cave, in what its expected to be a fruitfully educational experience.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 26 The Grotta dei Rotoli (Mount Etna, Italy) F. Petralia 1,2 *, R. Bonaccorso 1 A. Marino 1 and B. Sgarlata 1 1 Centro Speleologico Etneo, Via Cagliari 15, 95127 Catania, Italy 2 Universit di Catania, Dip. di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania, Italy Corresponding author. University of Catania, Dip. Sc. Geologiche, Corso Italia 55, 95123 Catania, Italy. fpetrali@mbox.unict.it Only few years ago discovered, the Grotta dei Rotoli ( cave of rolls the eruption of 1865. This basaltic effusion shows both pa the studied lava tube develops. Plan view, longitudinal and transverse sections of the cave are presented in this work. This lava tube has a length of only 260 meters but its importance is given by big rolling-over structures drapping the walls of the cave. In his short lenght the cave bifurcates twice, in general agreement with the observation that many lava tubes show an increase in size with increasing distance from the vent (Calvari and Pinkerton, 1999). Is supposed that the enlargement of the lava tube, join to a fast draining of lava (probably due to the opening of an ephemeral vent), promotes a slow longitudinal collapse of the still not self-supporting roof. This kind of collapse generates a downward directed bulge: because this bulge touches the the transverse section works as a stoppage for the new follow tube with fresh lava can lock the collapse of the roof, giving draining gives eventually rise to rolling-over structures that embrace the bifurcation. Thanks to thin sections studying, substantial differences in porphyritic indexes are detected between rolls and roof tion. Etna volcano. Growth of a Submarine Lava Tube at Ustica Island (South Tyrrhenian Sea) F. Petralia 1,2 *, C. Ferlito 1 and R. Cristofolini 1,2 1 Universit di Catania, Dip. di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania, Italy 2 Centro Speleologico Etneo, Via Cagliari 15, 95127 Catania, Italy Corresponding author. University of Catania, Dip. Sc. Geologiche, Corso Italia 55, 95123 Catania, Italy. fpetrali@mbox.unict.it The island of Ustica is a small (8 km 2 ) volcanic island, located in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 60 km north of Sicily. The island rises from the bottom of the sea of 2.000 m and reaches the elevation of 248 m a.s.l.. Several authors have recognised in the island an articulated volcanic succession, with different eruptive centers, the last of wich has been active 147 ky b.p. (Cinque et al., 1988; De Vita et al., 1998; Romano & Sturiale, 1971). The morpholo gies of lavas cropping in the island vary from pahoehoe to pillow. Explosive activity produced large amounts of tephra, going from hydromagmatic breccias to pumice. All exist ing geochemical data comes from subaerial outcrops, they indicate for the volcanics of Ustica a mostly alkaline and subordinately subalkaline character. Due to the reduced dimension of the island all subaerial morphologies of the transition from subaerial to submarine after its last period of activity allows us to see the subma breccias. In this work we want to point out the existence of a little lava tube (14x2 m) found in one of these submarine pillowbreccia levels. Such lava tubes are considered to be very rare occurrences in submarine lavas. The origin of this lava tube can be explained considering the formation of a mega-pillow in an advancing submarine of the tube from the water. Inside the tube the gas expanded, probably part of this gas was provided by the vaporization of small volumes of sea water that entered the tube. The a space in the tube so that liquid lava inside could develop tipically pahoehoe ropy morphologies. Tyrrhenian Sea. Lava Tubes of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint Cave Unit Consultant, Saudi Geological Survey This presentation features a Powerpoint slide show on the discovery and exploration of several lava tubes located in of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. investigate a series of collapse holes, visible in air photos, extending from an extinct volcano named Jebel Hil and sug gesting the presence of a lava tube at least three kilometers long. The second goal was to try locating several shorter lava tubes seen in this area by a hunter. A hair-raising, nearly impossible climb up Jebel Hil revealed an opening in the side of the crater, presumed to be the upper end of the long lava tube. A ground reconnaissance then gave of the tube was from 26 to 42 meters below the surface. Two days of searching the stark landscape of Harrat Kishb failed to reveal the location of the smaller lava tubes, but was surveyed to a length of 165.8 meters and was found to contain lava levees, stalactites and animal bones. A brief look at a nearby lava tube revealed that it was populated by tall,

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27 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 dove guano, giving this hole the name Ghostly Cave. During a second visit to Harrat Kishb, a survey of Ghostly Cave was undertaken. Samples were taken of the basalt and mineral coatings found on the walls and of the thick layer of were photographed and sampled. During the survey, two Lshaped throwing sticks were found inside the cave. These are A photography session held in Kahf Al Muteb resulted Neolithic age. Finally, a visit was made to a lava tube located much farther north in Harrat Kishb. Its entrance is unusual in that it is not a collapse, but apparently the result of surface air being sucked into the tube as the lava was draining from it. This cave, named Dahl Faisal, also features a dust volcano produced by the Topographical Map of Lower Hallmundarhraun rni B. Stefnsson Kambsvegi 10, 104 Reykjavk Hallmundarhraun is morphologically and speleogenetically one of the most interesting lavas in Iceland. Hallmundar hraun is in the authors opinion at least two different lavas. An older one, probably coming from southern main crater coming from the northen crater. It totally covers the older lava, except where the lavas meet east of rstapafell and in Laski south and south east of orvaldshls. There are other A geomorhological map of the lower two quarters of the lava showing surface features and the underlying caves is presented and discussed. The History of Lava Cave Preservation in Iceland rni B. Stefnsson Kambsvegi 10, 104 Reykjavk The author spent several summers as a child helping out at Kalmanstunga in the vicinity og the great caves in Hall caves and that new caves were found was very stimulating. But there was an other side, a black side that was only wispered about. The damage. The dwindling bone heap in Vgishellir in Surtshellir, deliberate breaking and taking of formations from all the caves. This had a deep effect on the author. The of a new cave had been presented in the newspapers and damage, intentional as well as unintentional, the well known evil cicle. All caves were easily accessible. By 1982 sensi tive formations in all known Icelandic caves had been either severly or totally damaged. The papes describes the steps taken after 1982 in the preservation of lava cave features as seen by the author. Five Vertical Conduits in Iceland rni B. Stefnsson Kambsvegi 10, 104 Reykjavk the author as either as pure chimneys or chimneys with some fourth is a 24m deep very well preserved mineature volcano. is presented and discussed. Complex Tree Mold Labyrinth found in Ken-Marubi Lava Flow in Mt. Fuji Hiroshi Tachihara, Yumi Kuroishikawa, Tadato Makita, Nobuyoshi Watanabe, Haruko Hinata, Kisara Nakaue, Takanori Ogawa, and Tsutomu Honda Mt.Fuji Volcano-Speleological Society complex tree mold is found and observed (H. Tachihara,T. Makita,1998). This tree mold is not a single tree mold, but combined labyrinth like tree molds which consist of 39 tree molds at tached one after another and total lenght of the cavity (the maximum diameter is about 1.5m) penetrable by personnel is 204 m by excepting unpenetrable cavity of less than 50cm diameter. The longest tree mold cavity reported in US hitherto was 40.84m (D.G.Davis et al,1983). The following table 1 shows length/depth and cross section of penetrables in the combined tree molds. Combined 39 tree molds are, one vertical standing tree mold, fourteen horizontally inclined tree molds, and other unpenetrable twenty four samall tree molds of branches or creepers. The inner surafece of some tree molds have a remelted layer of lava and lava stalactite are often observed. The remelting of the inner surface of the tree mold seems to be produced by gas burnig with oxygene by chemical reaction of carbon after carbonization of living tree or cellulose with water in the tree(T.Honda,1998). The tree molds located at the bottom area are laid down on a scoria layer and have no remelting surface. As for details on the origin of the structure of tree mold and vegetation succession stage at the eruption time, exten sive studies are still under going together with the historical At the symposium poster session, the photos and drawings of this combined tree molds will be presented. References: H. Tachihara: The press interview document, Mt. Fuji VolcanoSpeleological Society, 1998, p.1~3. T. Makita: Report on the lava tree mold of important memorial object no.102, The annual meeting of the Speleological

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 28 Table 1 (Tachihara et al. Complex Tree Mold Labyrinth). Depth/length and cross section of combined tree molds. Society of Japan, 1998, July, p.21. D.G. Davis, R.B. Scoville: Lost long Lava Labyrinth NSS news,1983 July, p.196. T. Honda: Interpretantion of remelting layer of inner surface of tree mold., The annual meeting of the Speleological Society of Japan, 1998, July, p.17. T. Honda: Physico-chemical explanation for remelting process of inner surface wall of Tainai-tree molds located on the Japan, vol.23, December,1998, p.29-38. Recent Discoveries on the Laki Flow Field, S. Iceland Chris Wood 1 and Ed Waters 2 1 School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, UK 2 Shepton Mallet Caving Club, Priddy, Somerset, UK *Corresponding author known as the upper Eldhraun. In an area of approx. 12 km, northeast of Miklafell, approx. 12 km of cave passage were located, explored and mapped. Many of the caves were short, but 4 were over 500 m long, and the longest had a survey traverse length of 1.982 km. The caves had impressive vol umes, varying forms and a diversity of internal features. Some others were members of complex cave groups. One group an origin related to the formation of a large collapse trench. Another, larger and more complex, group of caves, lay on lake, Laufbalavatn. Here approx. 5.0 km of cave passage underlay and had a close association with a range of surface landforms, including short collapse trenches, lava rises and closed depressions. Accurate mapping of the caves and their relationship with the surface landforms in the study area has provided evidence on which to base an interpretation of the morphogenesis and nature of emplacement of the upper Eldhraun. A Mega-Tube System in the Hallmundarhraun, W. Iceland Chris Wood*, Paul Cheetham, and Rob Watts School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, UK *Corresponding author Experimental work to track and map lava tube caves methods was undertaken with great success on the Hallmun and a survey method known as area survey, it was possible to accurately map the dimensions and route of an entrance of Stefnshellir. The work proved the presence of 300m of survey block and it is probable that a future survey will be able to map a further length of this passage. Farther east and extending over a distance of about 18 km each made of a ring of large blocks of lava crust and sitting like a crown at the summit of a low lava shield. Similar fea tures recently observed on Kilauea have been termed shatter a sinuous necklace. Magnetic survey between three revealed that cavities exist beneath and between them. Interestingly, that shatter rings and lava tubes may be genetically related. A working proposal is that the long necklace of rings formed valley. It is believed that the newly discovered entranceless cave is also a part of this mega-system. The Volcanic Landforms and Lava Tube Caves of Jeju Island, S. Korea: Candidates for World Heritage Site Status? Chris Wood School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, UK This paper will be a report-back on a visit to Jeju Island made by the author in mid-August, 2002. The purpose of the visit was to provide some advice to the S. Koreans on technical aspects of a bid to UNESCO seeking nomination of the lava tube caves and other volcanic landforms as a World Heritage Site. The island has over 100 caves, the three lon gest ranking 8, 10 and 18 on Bob Guldens list of the worlds longest lava tube caves.

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29 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 2002 SYMPOSIUM PAPERS Lava Tubes of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint Cave Unit Consultant, Saudi Geological Survey; thepints@saudicaves.com Introduction Prior to the year 2001, very few reports were made regarding lava caves in Saudi Arabia and no surveys are known to have been carried out. This situation changed in November of 2001 when Dr. John Roobol led an expedition to the vicinity of Jebel Hil Volcano in Harrat Kishb, of Jeddah. The explicit purpose of the expedition was to locate and survey lava caves, as well as to describe them accurately. The location of Harrat Kishb is shown in Figure 1. took place November 10-14, 2001, led by Dr. J. Roobol, J. Pint and M. Al-Shanti. The project took place at the urging of Dr. William Halliday, member and founder of the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology (UIS). By coincidence, Dr. Roobol had received, from geologist Faisal Allam, several photographs of cave entrances found some 6 km east of Jebel Hil in Harrat Kishb. Accordingly, the goals of the expedition were to locate the caves shown in the photographs as well as to precisely locate the collapse holes west of Jebel Hil which were observed by Roobol and Camp (1991) and thought to be entrances to a lava tube. After much searching, the photo graphed caves were located and one of them, Muteb Cave, was surveyed. In addition, the GPS locations of twelve collapse entrances of the Jebel Hil Lava since 12 km of mostly aa lava had to be traversed on foot. A second visit to Harrat Kishb was made from February 2-5, 2002, again led by J. Roobol, J. Pint and M. Al-Shanti. Ghostly Cave was surveyed and a new cave, Dahl Faisal, was located and sur veyed. The results of the Kishb Surveys were published in Roobol et al., 2002. Figure 2. Map of Muteb Cave.

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31 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 32 Figure 4. Map of Ghostly Cave. Figure 5. Throwing sticks found in Ghostly top to provide aerodynamic lift.

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33 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 6. Map of Dahl Faisal. Geology of the Hil Basalt All the surveyed caves found in Harrat Kishb are located in the Hil Basalt, which million years, with an area of 5,892 km, centered about 270 km northeast of Jeddah. These deposits comprise both probably formed during a moist climatic period or pluvial interval and which are distinguished from overlying subunits (Roobol et al., 2002). Muteb Cave Muteb Cave, or Kahf Al Muteb is registered as number 124 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 22 N,41 E. Note: seconds of latitude and longitude have been omitted in this paper in order to help protect these caves from vandal ism. The precise location of each cave is given in Pint, 2002. Geological setting The cave is found in a sinuous ridge of smooth, hard pa hoehoe lava curving around an older, obstructing scoria cone in the volcanic deposits of the Hil Basalt. Description A map of this cave is shown in Figure 2. Muteb Cave is 150 m long. The entrance to the cave mea sures 3 x 7 m and is found on the eastern side of a collapse 20 m in diameter. There are remains of an ancient, manmade wall across the front of the cave. A single passage trends east, sometimes reaching a width of 20 m. The passage height varies from 3 to 5 m. Sand or undetermined depth. The cave contains abandoned wasps nests, mounds of rock-dove guano, animal bones, and bat urine stains on the walls and ceiling. A 40-cm-long cord composed of long plant the cave (Roobol et al., 2002). Comments Because a man-made structure is found at the entrance to this cave and because an apparently ancient artifact was found deep inside, it is suggested that the cave be investi gated by archeologists. Note that Muteb Cave, in Harrat Kishb, is located ap proximately 55 km east of the celebrated Darb Zubaydah, a well-marked trail complete with shelters, water wells and reservoirs one days march apart (See Fig. 3). The trail led from Baghdad to Mecca and was built by Queen Zubay dah, the enterprising wife of Caliph Harun al-Rashid around the beginning of the ninth century A.D. Ghostly Cave Ghostly Cave or Kahf Al Ashbaah is registered as number 123 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 22 N,41 E. Geological setting The cave is found in the volcanic deposits of the Hil Ba salt Description The cave is 320 m long. The entrance is a collapse 10 m in di below. The passage leads off east and west. Up to 50 stalagmite-like mounds of rock-dove guano are found just in side the entrance to the western passage along with the remains of a stone wall partly buried beneath bird guano. The cave passages have a maximum width of 30 m and vary in height from 1 to 3 m. Both passages have white, calcareous patches on the ceiling and a thick layer of

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 34 mainly of calcium, potassium and phos phate. Bats are found at both extremes throwing sticks were found in dark areas of the two passages, resembling similar instruments depicted in Neolithic rock art found in Saudi Arabia. See Fig. 3 and 4. (Roobol et al., 2002) Comments Man-made constructions and two ancient throwing sticks were enter cave. Digging in the sediment may produce historically or archeologi comments on Muteb Cave, Ghostly Cave is Cave is located approximately 55 km east of the celebrated Darb Zubaydah (see Fig. 3). Dahl Faisal Dahl Faisal is registered as number 162 in Pint, 2002 and is located at 231 N,41 E. Geological setting. The cave is found basanite and alkali olivine basalt with small volumes of hawaiite, phonoteph rite and phonolite and are located in the northern portion of the Hil Basalt. Description Dahl Faisal is 22 m long. The cave is entered through a smooth, 3-m-long pipe, 80cm diameter at its nar rowest point, oriented at a 60 angle. This appears to have formed when the cave was created. Below the entrance tube lies a heap of rocks apparently piled up by people using the cave in the past. Dahl Faisal consists of one room, 17 x 22 m, with a maximum ceiling height of 3 m. Sediment of unknown depth covers basaltic stalactites, stalagmites and lava leves. Desiccated animal scat appar ently from wolves, hyenas and foxes was also found. See Fig. 5. (Roobol et al., 2002) Comments Dahl Faisal is located 60 km east of Darb Zubaydah and about 70 km southeast of Mahad adh Dhahab, an operating gold mine and reputedly the site of one of King Solomons Mines. See Fig. 3. Carbon-14 dating of wood 3 km long. However, the cave itself was not entered. A detailed map and description of these features are given in Roobol et al., 2002. Other caves located on Harrat Kishb Two other lava caves, First Cave and Bushy Cave were also located during the Kishb surveys. The entrance to First Cave is a collapse 20 m deep in what appeared to be a lava tube. It was not entered due to apparent instability of the entrance walls. Bushy Cave is a nearly round room 12X13 m, possibly formed by a gas bubble. It was sketched, but not surveyed. Conclusions The fact that six caves were located on caves in Saudi Arabia should encourage more attempts to carry out vulcanospele ological projects in this country, which The fact that three apparently Neolithic artifacts were found in two of the caves studied suggests that an archeological study of Saudi lava caves may produce interesting results. The SGS open-file report on the Caves of Harrat Kishb can be down loaded at http://www.saudicaves.com/ spspubs. The trip report and photos are at http://www.saudicaves.com/kishb/ kishb.htm References Pint, J. 2002: Master list of GPS coor dinates for Saudi Arabia caves: Saudi File SGS-CDF-2001-1. Roobol, M.J. and Camp, V.E., 1991: Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Direc torate General of Mineral Resources Geoscience Map GM-132, with ex planatory text 34 p. Roobol, M.J., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A. & Pint, S., with the collaboration of AlEisa, A.M., Allam, F., Al-Sulaimani, G.S., & Banakhar, A.S., 2002: Pre liminary survey for lava-tube caves on Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File report SGS-OF-2002-3, 35 p., 41 figs., 1 table, 4 apps., 2 plates. Figure 7. Collapse Structure 6 of the Jebel Hil lava tube, looking west, showing the upper part of the lava tube with geologists standing on the roof. Photo courtesy J. Roobol. gests that the mines are 3,000 years old. This information, to gether with historical studies, indicate that gold, silver and copper were indeed recovered from this region during the pe riod considered by some to be the reign of King Solomon: 961-922 B.C. Evidence of hu man use and the proximity of the cave to known historical sites, suggest that it could con tain artifacts. Jebel Hil lava tube This lava tube extends west wards from Jebel Hil. Along its length are aligned small rootless shields, collapse holes, subsided areas and one area of local up doming. Twelve such features were located, one of which is shown in Fig. 6. The lava tube is up to 20 m high and the depth varies from 28.5 to 42.5 m, mea sured by Disto Laser Measuring Device at each hole. The surface features of this lava tube were mapped and described, and they suggest that the tube is at least

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35 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Small Subcrustal Lava Caves: Examples from Victoria, Australia* Ken G. Grimes RRN 795 Morgiana Rd., Hamilton, Victoria, 3300, Australia; regmap1@ozemail.com.au Presented in 2002, revised in 2006. Introduction This paper discusses the formation of a type of small lava cave that forms by amples will be drawn from the Western District Volcanic Province of western Victoria, Australia (Figure 1). Caves from that province are numbered in the Australian Karst Index with a H H-70 (Matthews, 1985). In a review/study of active volcanoes in Hawaii, Peterson & others (1994) pro posed two distinct models for the forma over of linear surface lava channels (Fig ure 2); or by the draining of still molten former process produces relatively large and simple lava tubes. However, this paper will concentrate on the smaller, but commonly complex, caves formed subsequent partial draining a process that has been progressively recognised and described by Peterson & Swanson (1974), Wood (1977), Greeley (1987), Peterson & others (1994), Hon & oth ers (1994) and Kauahikaua & others (1998) and which is illustrated in Figure 3. Recently, Halliday (1998a & b) has described two types of small lava cave: canic tumulus caves which he regards as being distinct. I will argue that these are probably just two of several possible members of a continuum of forms which have been referred to as Subcrustal lava caves (e.g. Stevenson, 1999). features and their caves has become rather complex and confusing in recent years, so I will list here some terms and my intended usage. Surface lava features what is a tumulus? The changing usage of tumu cave Walker (1991) gave the term both expanded the term to incorporate all lava rises, including elongated ridges, and narrowed its usage to those rises by opened axial clefts on the crest, but which have no evidence of lateral com pression (if there was, Walker would call them pressure ridges). Unfortunately, on the relatively old (20-40,000 year) etation growth has reduced much of the surface to a cracked and jumbled rubble. to identify and the new (geneticallyFigure 1. Location map of the Western District Volcanic Province, and its main lava cave areas. Figure 2. Three ways of forming large

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 36 based) usage of the term tumulus has limited use. In Victoria the usage of tumulus has always been restricted to the distinctive, steep-sided, roughlycircular mounds described by Ollier (1964) in the Harman valley (many of which do have obvious large summit clefts) and the more general term stony rises is used for the chaotic complex of broader hummocks and hollows that occur on many of Victorias younger lava surfaces. This local usage of stony rises would seem to correspond to the hummocky pahoehoe of Hon et al (1994) but some have relatively flat surfaces that correspond to their sheet forms. In Walkers (1991) terminology the Victorian stony rises represent a mix of his tumuli, pressure ridges, lava rises and lava rise pits. For this paper I will use the descrip tive, non-genetic, term lava mound to describe all high areas within a lava for the formation of small drained sub crustal lava caves, whatever the process of mound formation. Cave types: In any discussion of lava caves and their genesis it is important to proto-caves and the drained tubes and chambers (i.e. caves) which appear at the end of the eruption as discussed by Halliday (2004). In an earlier paper (Grimes, 1995) I described complex, lateral, levee-breach systems associated with lava channels at Mount Eccles, and distinguished them from smaller, isolated, drained chambers in the surrounding stony rises but did not suggest a formal nomenclature. The terminology of Halliday (1998a,b), to apply to the Victorian subcrustal caves because of the problem in distinguish ing tumuli (sensu Walker, 1991) from other lava mounds. I also suspect that rather than two discrete genetic types of small subcrustal cave as proposed by volcanic tumulus caves), we have a broad continuum of forms with a number of distinctive end-members. should not be tied to the surface termi nology until the processes of cave devel opment are better known. Also, basing the cave nomenclature on the surface lava forms may be confusing cause and effectrather we should be explaining some surface mounds and tumuli as a tubes, not the cause (see conclusion). The unifying factor in all these caves is that they form by drainage from beneath will refer to them here collectively as subcrustal lava caves In this paper my discussion will concentrate on the smaller subcrustal lava caves, those that form originally, rather than the larger more evolved forms which can develop from them over time and which tend to become closer in of surface channels. In Victoria, the Mt. Hamilton lava cave (Figure 14) may be an example of the latter type. In Victoria, speleologists have used the term blister cave for the small, simple, isolated chambers found under the stony rises (Figure 4). However, care is needed to avoid confusion with another usage of that term for small chambers formed by gas pressure (Gib son, 1974, and Larson, 1993). I suggest usage of lava blister liquid lava (and later drained), and gas blister for those generated by gas pres sure. Blister should only be used on its own where the genesis is uncertain. The basaltic Western District Volca nic Province (previously known as the Newer Volcanic Province) of western points and it ranges in age mainly from Pliocene (about 5 Million years) up to very recent times (5ka), though there are some volcanoes as old as 7 Ma (Joyce, 1988, Joyce & Webb, 2003, Price & others, 2003). Lava caves are known across the whole province (Figure 1), but are most common in the younger flows associated with Mount Eccles (20-33 ka, Head, & others, 1991, and P. Kershaw, per comm, 2005) and Mount Napier (about 32 ka, Stone & others, 1997). Recent summaries of both the surface landforms and the volcanic caves of the province appear in Grimes (1995, 1999); and Grimes & Watson (1995). The earlier literature on lava caves of the region by Ollier, Joyce and others is reviewed in Webb & others (1982) and Grimes & Watson (1995) and only some of those papers are referenced here. ranging from strongly undulating (stony At Mount Eccles the main volcano is a deep steep-walled elongated cra ter which contains Lake Surprise. At the north-western end the crater wall has been breached by a lava channel two main channels (referred to locally as lava canals) running to the westnorthwest and to the south-southwest (Grimes, 1995, 1999). Extending to the southeast from the main crater there is a line of smaller spatter and scoria cones and craters. Several smaller lava channels run out from these. Lava caves occur in a variety of settings. Beyond this central area of explosive Figure 3. Formation of lava caves by sub crustal drainage of a series of advancing lava lobes. Step 3a is the situation if the source of lava ceases early in the develop ment; irregular caves form. Steps 3b and 4 indicate the further evolution into more linear feeder tubes as lava continues to

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37 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 about 16 km long and 8 km across. From southwards to the present coast and continues offshore for a further 15 km (sea level was lower at the time of the a major feeder tube, but no drained sec tions have been discovered to date. Mt Napier and the Harman Valley : Mt Napier, about 20 km northeast of Mt. Eccles, is a steep cinder cone capping a broad lava shield 10 km in diameter. Some lava caves occur on the lower slopes of the cone, and on the lava shield, but the main cluster is at the Byaduk Caves at the start of a man Valley for at least 20 km to the west. Other lava caves occur further down the valley, as do an excellent set It was at the Byaduk Caves that Ollier & Brown (1965) derived their layered lava model of tube formation which is still invoked by some authors (e.g. Stephenson, 1999). Mount Hamilton is a broad lava cone There is a large lava crater at the summit. The cone contains one group of complex lava tubes (Ollier, 1963). Mount Eccles and Mount Napier, in the Western District Volcanic Province, of Peterson & others (1994) and also isolated lava blister caves I will draw my examples from those areas. The complex lava cave system at Mount Hamilton appears to be a further-evolved feeder system. Most of the longer caves known at Mount Eccles are in or adjacent to the lava channels, but there are a number of small caves scattered throughout the area, and the known distribution may ploration along the main canals. There are several types of lava cave in the area. Roofed channels include Natural Bridge (H-10; Grimes; 2002b), which has the distinctive gothic ceiling of tubes formed by overgrowth of a levee bank (Figure 2c), and also possibly Tun nel Cave (H-9; Grimes, 1998). The remainder are shallow, low-roofed caves that fall into two types: complex, leveemajor lava channels, e.g. H-51 & H-70 (Figure 6); and small, isolated, drained chambers (lava blisters) within the stony rises (e.g. H-78; Figure 4). At Mount Napier and in its long both very large tubes (which might be roofed channels, though the evidence is ambiguous) and many small subcrustal caves. Some of the small subcrustal caves are exposed, along with their con walls of collapse dolines formed above the large tubes; for example, the upper of level of Fern cave (H-23, Figure 13) and H-74 and H-108 (Figure 12). Others surface (H-31, 90, 91 and 106; Figures 4 & 12). One shallow cave has an open feeder from below that connects to a larger feeder tube at depth (H-33, Figure 13). The shallow lava caves involve a broad array of styles ranging from simple sin gle chambers to multi-level, complexlyinterconnecting systems of tubes and chambers. All gradations occur between these extremes, but the group has in common the dominance of shallow, lowroofed, irregular chambers and smalldiameter tubes. They also grade (and possibly evolve over time) into larger and more-linear feeder tubes. Thus, while we can identify several distinc tive types, there are many transitional forms that are hard to classify. Their genesis is discussed in more detail later in this paper. Simple drained lava mounds and lava blister caves : Scattered through the stony rises there are small, shallow, low-roofed chambers; typically only 1m high with a roof 1m or less thick. These can be circular, elongate or irregular in Figure 4. Examples of small, simple, subcrustal caves; mostly associated with low lava mounds. H90, 91 and 107 would be called lava blisters; H-78 is a peripheral remnant left by the collapse of the roof of shallow chamber; H-31 is approaching a linear tube form; H-11, 33 and 106 are grading to the more complex forms. Figure 5. Turtle Cave, H-90, at Byaduk, is an example of a simple lava blister cave. The name derives from its resem blance to an empty turtle shell.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 38 plan; up to 10m or more across but grad ing down to small cavities only suitable for rabbits. Some Victorian examples are shown in Figure 4, and include Turtle Cave (which looks like an empty turtle shell) illustrated in Figure 5. In section, the outer edges of the chambers may be smoothly rounded or form a sharp angle sometimes has a central soft sag that would have formed while the crust was still plastic. Commonly, the thin central part of the roof has collapsed and we behind rubble at the edge of a shallow collapse doline (e.g. H-78, Figure 4). The more elongate versions grade into small tube caves; for example, Shallow Cave (H-31, Figure 4) described by Ol lier & Joyce, 1968, p70. These caves generally are found be neath low lava mounds (with or without the central clefts required to class them as tumuli!), though in some cases the surface relief may only rise half a metre! These small simple chambers have been locally called blister caves (see discus sion in the Terminology section). ( sensu Walker, 1991) occur in the Har man Valley (Ollier, 1964). One of these is reported to be hollow by G. Christie (pers comm) who entered it as a child, but has not been able to relocate it. There is a donut shaped tumulus which pre sumably has resulted from collapse of a central hollow. Within its annulus, one can squeeze through the rubble into a small peripheral remnant cave. More complex as sociated with the lava channels at Mt. Eccles are generally shallow systems formed in the levee banks on each side of the channels and would have fed small lateral lava lobes or sheets when the channel overflowed or breached through the levee (Grimes, 1995). Fig ure 6 shows the lateral caves associated with the South Canal at Mt. Eccles, and Figure 12 shows a group of shallow caves adjacent to a large collapsed feeder tube at Byaduk. Some of these lateral caves are simple linear tubes (e.g. H-48, 89, and the proxi mal part of H-53), but mostly they are branching systems with complexes of detail of H-70/72. A detailed map of H-51 is included in the supplementary material on the CD.

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39 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 7. Detailed map of Carmichael Cave (H-70) at Mt. Eccles.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 40 exposed in the wall of a large collapse doline (H-74, 106 & 108; Figure 12). The elongated doline formed over a deeper large feeder tube (up to 25 m the feeder tube, through roof windows. The three shallow caves comprise lowroofed branching passages and chambers very similar to those found beside the channel at Mount Eccles (Figure 11). In the lowest cave (H-74) there are intru sive lava lobes that may have entered through roof holes from the overlying est cave (H-108) a lava fall drops a metre to a short section of lower-level as H-74. More complex stacked systems also occur. These can be fed from below, through a skylight in a major feeder tube, or laterally from a remote source. The upper level of The Theatre (H-33) is a small subcrustal cave system obviously fed from below as the shallow branching tubes occupy an isolated raised mound and a drain-back tube allows access to lower levels of low-roofed chambers and eventually to a large feeder tube at depth (Figure 13). Lava would have welled up from this lower level and formed the surface rise in several stages (the different levels), then drained back to leave the small tubes and chambers. Fern Cave (H-23) comprises a large feeder tube at depth, but there is a higher level of low-ceilinged irregular Figure 8. Two-level passage in H-70, looking south from section X22 (Fig. 7). Note the window on left which might be the remains of a partition between two lava lobes. Figure 9. Small subcrustal tube, H-52 at Mt. Eccles. Figure 10. Chamber in H-74, showing sagged parts of roof. low passages that bifurcate and rejoin, or open out into broad low chambers. The shape suggests draining from be the passages are large enough to stand in, typically (but not always) those nearest the proximal end the channel entrance (e.g. H-48, H-53, H-70). Most passages are crawl-ways about a metre high with ure 8). Some of the smallest passages have smoothly-rounded cross-sections (Figure 9). The ceiling is generally only a metre or so below the present surface, and in places breakdown has exposed indicating that the original roof was less than a metre thick. In some chambers the roof has sagged down in a smooth Where not covered with introduced soil, smooth, platy or ropy surfaces; but sharp (e.g. H-51 and H-70). Some of these are late-stage additions; running over Where not disrupted by breakdown, the walls and roof typically have thin (2 20 cm) linings. These conceal the original wall, but in a few places fallen linings have exposed layered lava comprising thin sheets with ropy or hackly surfaces (eg the proximal end of H-70). Most caves are at a single level, but some show evidence of several lev els (only a metre or so apart vertically) that either have coalesced vertically into a single passage or chamber or are joined by short lava falls (e.g. H-48, H-70 (Figure 7) and H-108). At Byaduk, three caves occur in a

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41 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 chambers and passages which appears would seem to have been fed from the large collapsed tube to the south, which might have been an open channel at that time. The present connections between the upper and lower levels of Fern cave are later accidents of collapse of the lower tube roof. The Mount Hamilton Cave (H-2) is a complex system of moderately large bifurcating tubes at several levels (Figure 14; Ollier 1963, Webb et al, 1982). It is dominated by linear tubes rather than the broad low chambers typical of most other caves considered in this paper and may indicate a more evolved style of larger subcrustal lava cave (see below). Genesis When discussing genesis one must keep in mind the distinction between tubes (caves) as discussed by Halliday (2004). Only some active tubes will be drained and become accessible at the end and solidify. As long as a tube or cavity remains active, its form can evolve by, its stagnant parts including linings, and thirdly, partial drainage to form an open cave. Collapse of the roof can occur while the tube is active, as well as after it is drained. Ollier & Brown (1965) used the Vic torian lava caves, in particular those at Byaduk, to propose a layered lava model of tube development. This is similar to the more recent subcrustal models of Hon & others (1994) but their concept of layered lava is confusing as they seem to apply that term to two distinct types of layer. The lavas ex posed in the collapse dolines at Byaduk are distinguished by lobate ropy surfaces at top and bottom, with small gaps and partings between them and local areas subcrustal lava tubes (e.g. Figure 12) but those had not been mapped at the time of Ollier & Browns report. However, Ol layering within what are now recognised tened cavities which may have stretch structures or small lava drips. They rejected the suggestion that separate that all the layers were formed by dif ferential movement within one thick and that they were possibly shearing Figure 11. Low chamber in H-106, with lava drips and an intrusive lava tongue at left. and H-108 are in the supplementary material on the CD.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 42 but a detailed understanding of how this happened had to wait on the observations of active tube-fed lavas by later worker (e.g. Peterson & others,1994 and Hon & others,1994). Ollier & Brown did, however, recognise that the tubes, once formed, could enlarge by eroding the surrounding (layered) lava rock. For a more detailed description of the observed processes seen in active these, see Peterson & Swanson (1974), Wood (1977), Greeley (1987), Peterson & others (1994), Hon & others (1994) and Kauahikaua & others (1998). The model used here is essentially that de scribed in the last three of those papers (Figures 2 & 3). Isolated small lava blister caves found beneath low mounds in the stony rises would form by the irregular drain is similar to that which forms other subcrustal drainage tubes (see below), but less organised so that only isolated low-roofed chambers appear to result beneath the high points of the undulating surface. Commonly the chamber roof sags (while hot) or later collapses so that only a crescentic peripheral remnant survives, as at H-78 (Figure 4). Figure 3 illustrates the formation of more complex tubes and cavities by sub crustal draining from beneath a crusted Southern Canal at Mount Eccles, but similar effects occur at the front of an lava is delivered by a channel or major feeder tube, but then spreads out into a series of lobes. These lobes grow by a process of budding in which a small the lava pressure until the skin ruptures in one or more places. Lava escaping through the rupture develops new lobes and so on (Figure C-1, 2, 3). If the sup ply of fresh lava is cut off, the still-liquid parts of a lobe may be drained to form a broad but low-roofed chamber (Figure C-3a). However, if fresh hot lava con tinues to be delivered from the volcano it may become progressively concentrated into linear tubes that feed the advancing lobes, while the remaining stagnant areas solidify (Figure C-3b, 4, 5). Tubes formed by draining of lava can provide a thickness of ten metres or more in which larger subcrustal drain continues after they are formed, several small tubes within a lobe complex may coalesce by breakdown of their thin walls Hon et al, 1994, and Halliday, 1998b) to form a larger feeder tube. Also, a continuing flow of hot lava through a small feeder tube can enlarge it by & Swanson, 1974; Greeley, 1987). De struction of the crust above the active tube can form skylights or local surface hoehoe lobes can be stacked vertically as well as advance forwards so that a complex three-dimensional pattern of branching tubes and chambers can form. H-53 could be regarded as showing a transition from the low branching and chambered systems at the (younger) dis tal end, to the more linear unbranching tube systems at the proximal end that more localised and organised to feed an end of this cave approaches the character of a roofed channel tube and determin ing the origin of simple large lava tubes may have been removed by erosional enlargement of the original tube, or be hidden behind wall linings. The Mount Hamilton Cave (H-2, Fig ure 14) may be a further-evolved system in which the original irregular chambers and small passages of subcrustal drain combined and evolved into a more lin ear system of larger feeder tubes as Figure 13. Complex, multi-level lava caves at Byaduk. Shallow subcrustal systems overlie large feeder tubes at depth.

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43 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 low. This suggestion is supported by the presence of small proto-tubes, 20-60 cm in diameter, that are exposed by breakdown in the walls and ceiling of the larger tubes in several parts of the cave (Figure 15). Conclusion Small subcrustal lava caves form by drainage of lava from beneath a thin crust developed on a lava surface. In its simplest form, drainage of lava from beneath high areas on the crusted sur face will form simple isolated cham bers lava blisters. Complex nests of advancing lava lobes create equally complex patterns of active tubes and chambers which can later drain to form through these complex systems they will form larger, more streamlined, linear tube systems that act as feeder tubes to carry hot lava to the advancing lava tubes can converge on the form of the, generally larger, linear tubes formed by the genesis of many large lava caves The drained tumulus caves de scribed by Halliday (1998a) & Walker (1991) would be a special case of the small subcrustal type in which the crust was pushed up into a tumulus (sensu lato) before it drained. Hallidays (1998b) case tied to a particular surface form. I would expect all gradations between these features and the more extensive systems which can form under both stony rises. should not be tied to the surface ter minology until the processes of cave development are better known. Also, basing the cave nomenclature on the surface lava forms may be confusing cause and effectrather than argue that some types of caves form beneath/in it might be better to say that tumuli tend within a sheet (i.e. above lava tubes). ening of the crust above the tube or chamber so that it would be weaker and more likely to be uplifted by hydraulic Figure 15. A pair of small proto-tubes, with 10 cm thick linings, exposed in the wall of a larger, more-evolved, tunnel in the Mt Hamilton lava cave. Scale bar is 10 cm. Figure 14. Mt Hamilton lava cave is an evolved system of larger, linear, bifurcating, subcrustal tubes. pressure in these local areas. A linear lava tube could thus produce a linear tumulus or a chain of rounded ones. Wider chambers along the line of the tube would have weaker roofs and hence explain the localised nature of the sensu stricto tumuli. The unifying factor in all these caves is that they form by shallow drainage they can be referred to collectively as subcrustal lava caves Acknowledgements With acknowledgements to my pre decessors who conceived most of the ideas expressed here: In particular Don Peterson, Ken Hon, Bill Halliday, and many other speleo-geologists. This report draws on the exploration and mapping efforts of numerous speleolo gists from the Victorian Speleological Association and other groups over the last 50 years.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 44 References (Note: Nargun is the journal of the Vic torian Speleological Association) GIBSON, L.L., 1974: Blister caves as sociated with an Ethiopian Volcanic Studies in Speleology 2(6) : 225-232. GREELEY, R., 1987: The Role of lava tubes in Hawaiian volcanoes. US Geo logical Survey, Professional Paper 1350 1589-1602. *GRIMES, K.G., 1995: Lava caves and channels at Mount Eccles, Victoria. in BADDELEY, G., [Ed] Vulcon Preceedings 1995. Australian Spe leological Federation, Melbourne. pp 15-22. GRIMES, K.G., 1998a: Tunnel Cave, Mount Eccles. Nargun 30(10) : 172-173. GRIMES, K.G., 1999: Volcanic caves and related features in western Vic toria. in HENDERSON, K., [ed] Cave Management in Australasia 13 Proceedings of the thirteenth Australasian Conference on cave and Karst Management, Mt Gambier, South Australia. Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. Carlton South. pp 148-151. *GRIMES, K.G., 2002a: Carmichael Cave (3H): A complex, shallow, sub-crustal lava cave at Mount Eccles, Victoria. Nargun 35(2) : 13-17. *GRIMES, K.G., 2002b: Natural Bridge (3H10), Mount Eccles: a special type of lava tube. Nargun 35(2) : 18-21. GRIMES, K.G., & WATSON, A., 1995: Volcanic caves of western Victoria. in BADDELEY, G., [Ed] Vulcon Guide book 1995 Australian Speleological Federation. Melbourne, pp 39-68. HALLIDAY, W.R., 1998a: Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii. In ternational Journal of Speleology ., 27B (1/4) 95-105. caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii. International Journal of Speleology 27B (1/4) 107-112. HALLIDAY, W.R., 2004: Volcanic Caves, in Gunn, J. (Editor) Ency clopaedia of Caves and Karst Science Fitzroy Dearborn, NY., 760-764. HEAD, L., DCOSTA, D., & EDNEY, P., 1991: Pleistocene dates for volcanic activity in Western Victoria and im plications for Aboriginal occupation. in WILLIAMS, M.A., DE DEKKER, P., & KERSHAW, A.P. [eds] The Cainozoic in Australia, a re-appraisal of the Evidence. Geological Society of Australia, Special Publication, 18 : 302-308. HON, K., KAUAHIKAUA, J., DEN LINGER, R., & MACKAY K., 1994: on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geo logical Society of America Bulletin 106 351-370. JOYCE, E.B., 1988: Newer volcanic landforms. in DOUGLAS, J.G., & FERGUSON, J.A., [eds] Geology of Victoria Geological Society of Aus tralia, Victorian division. Melbourne. pp. 419-426. JOYCE, E.B. & WEBB, J.A. (co-ordi nators), 2003: Geomorphology, the evolution of Victorian landscapes (section 18.10.1, Volcanic Plains). in BIRCH, W.D., (editor) Geology of Victoria. Geological Society of Australia, Special Publication 23 : 553-554. KAUAHIKAUA, J., CASHMAN, K.V., MATTOX, T.N., HELIKER, C.C., HON, K.A., MANGAN, M.T., & THORNBER, C.R., 1998: Obser vations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea Volcano, island of Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 : 27303-27323. LARSON, C.V., 1993: An illustrated glossary of lava tube features. West ern Speleological Survey Bulletin 87 56 pp. MATTHEWS, P.J., 1985: Australian Karst Index, 1985. Australian Spe leological Federation, Melbourne. 481 pp. OLLIER, C.D. 1963: The Mount Ham ilton lava caves. Victorian Naturalist 79 331-336. OLLIER, C.D. 1964: Tumuli and lava blisters of Victoria. Nature 202 1284-1286. OLLIER, C.D., & BROWN, M.C., 1965: Lava caves of Victoria. Bulletin Vol canologique 28 : 215-30. OLLIER, C.D. & JOYCE, E.B., 1968: Further descriptions of Victorian lava caves. Victorian Naturalist 85 : 70-75. PETERSON, D.W., & SWANSON, D.A., 1974: Observed formation of lava tubes during 1970-71 at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Studies in Speleol ogy, 2(6) : 209-222. PETERSON, D.W., HOLCOMB, R.T., TILLING, R.I., & CHRISTIANSEN, R.L., 1994: Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Bul letin of Volcanology 56 343-360. PRICE, R.C., NICHOLLS, I.A., & GREY, C.M., 2003: Cainozoic Igne ous Activity (section 12.4.6, Western District province), in BIRCH, W.D., (editor) Geology of Victoria Geo logical Society of Australia, Special Publication 23 : 366-370. STONE, J., PETERSON, J.A., FIFIELD, L.K., & CRESSWELL, R.G., 1997: Cosmogenic chlorine-36 exposure Volcanics Province, western Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 109(2) : 121-131. STEPHENSEN, J., 1999: Emplacement and tube development in long tube-fed lavas in N. Queensland, Australia. Proceedings of the 9 th International Symposium of Vulcanospeleology of the UIS Centro Speleologico Etneo, Catania. pp. 134-145. WALKER, G.P.L., 1991: Structure and origin by injection of lava under sur face crust, of tumuli, lava rises, clefts in Hawaii. Bulletin of Volca nology 53 546-558. WEBB, J.A., JOYCE, E.B., & STE VENS, N.C., 1982: Lava caves of Australia. Proceedings, Third Interna tional Symposium on Vulcanospeleol ogy, Oregon, USA. pp 74-85. WOOD, C., 1977: The origin and morphological diversity of lava tube caves. Proceedings, 7th International Speleological Congress England. 440-444. *Papers Grimes 1995, Grimes 2002a, and Grimes 2002b are included in the supplementary material on the CD.

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45 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 A Small Cave in a Basalt Dyke, Mt. Fyans, Victoria, Australia Ken G. Grimes PO Box 362, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia; ken-grimes@h140.aone.net.au Abstract A small but unusual cave has formed within a large dyke that intrudes a scoria cone at the summit of Mt. Fyans, western Victoria. Draining of a still-liquid area, an open cavity. Features within the cave mimic those of conventional lava caves, and suggest that the lava levels oscillated within the cave several times. The volcano Mount Fyans is a volcano within the Newer Volcanic Province of western Victoria, Australia. The age of the prov ince dates back at least 5 million years, but Mt. Fyans is a relatively youthful eruption, undated, but possibly less than 100,000 years old judging by the well developed stony rises (remnants of the original hummocky lava surface) and minimum soil development. The volcano is a broad shield of basaltic lava with a low scoria cone at the summit and possibly a crater though an extensive quarry in the scoria makes the original The scoria at the summit has a thin cap of basaltic lava, and ropy patterns on the underside of this are well-exposed on the southern margin of the quarry. The loose scoria has been intruded by two large basalt dykes up to 12 m across (which would have fed the lava cap) and basalt bodies, some of which have been partly drained to leave small cavities. Figure 1 shows the quarry and the main dyke. An inset map in Figure 2 shows the location of the various feaatures described here. The quarry operations have worked around the large dykes, but damaged the smaller intrusive fea tures (which is how we know they are hollow!). Mt. Fyans Cave A small horizontal cave occurs within the largest dyke. It lies close to the west edge of the dyke and runs parallel to it (Figure 2). Entry is via a small hole broken into the roof by the quarry operation. The cave is about 17 m long and generally less than one metre high. The roof and walls have numerous lava drips (Figure hoe surface which rises gently towards the northern end but the ropy structures to north. The drainage points for the lava are not obvious; but there is a very patches of pale-cream coatings over the basalt possibly fumerolic alteration? There are well-developed rolled benches (10 cm diameter) along the edges of the lava rose and fell several times within the cavity. One small hole in the roof, near the entrance, opened into broken scoriaceous material. Related features As well as the cave, the main dyke also has a drained vertical pipe at its south ern end this has been broken into by the quarry operation and we found the upper part lying on its side 20 m to the NE (see inset map, Figure 2). This pipe had spatter and dribble patterns on its inside walls. Elsewhere in the quarry there are intrusive pipes and smaller through the loose scoria. Several of these have drained back after the outside had some with lava drips. Probably the most distinctive are conical Witchs hat structures (Figure 5). The area has other features of both geological and historic interest and war rants preservation. For example, the scoria is exposed in several places and shows a wrinkled belly with frag ments of the loose scoria stuck to it. The surrounding stony rises have some particularly elegant and distinctive drystone walls that were constructed by early European settlers. No other volcanic caves formed in dykes have been reported in Australia, but a larger one has been reported from the Canary Islands (Socorro & Martin, 1992). Figure 1. View of Mt. Fyans Quarry, looking north towards the large dyke. C = cave, P = Pipe, W = Witchs hats.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 46 Figure 2 (left). Map of Mt Fyans Cave, 3H-105. The inset map shows the volca nic structures within the quarry. Figure 3 (below left). View looking north from the cave entrance. Figure 4 (below right). Looking south from section X5. Note the small rolled bench against the foot of the wall and the pale patches on the wall.

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47 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 scoria, then drained back to leave a hollow core. Stereopair. Genesis The dykes and other bodies would have been intruded into the loose scoria to wards the end of the eruption, would then as pressure was lost those liquid parts that were still connected to the main feeder channels would have drained a little way back to leave the cavities. There may have been some oscillation to form the rolled benches in the dyke cave. Reference Socorro, JS., & Martin, JL., 1992: The Fajanita Cave (La Palma, Canary Islands): A volcanic cavity originated by partial draining of a dyke, in Rea, GT., [ed] 6 th International Sympo sium on Volcanospeleology National Speleological Society, Huntsville. pp 177-184 [in spanish]. This paper as published in Helictite in 2006 is included in the supplementary material on the CD. That version in cludes one additional photograph.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 48 What Is a Lava Tube? William R. Halliday Honorary President, Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology, 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN USA 37205 Abstract the term LAVA TUBE have led to its application to a wide range of features, some of them far removed from the ordinary meaning of the word TUBE: a hollow body, usually cylindrical, and long in proportion to its diameter... The current American Geological In term to roofed conduits and requires that they be formed in one of four ac cepted mechanisms. However it provides little guidance on whether a variety of injection structures traditionally termed LAVA TUBES actually are undrained or phenomena. Ideally, lava tubes and lava tube caves ferentiate them from all other volcanic features, e.g., aa cores, lava tongues, tumuli, sills and related injection masses. compatible with: 1) the common meanings of TUBE and CAVE; 2) the presence of solid, liquid, and/or gaseous matter within them; 3) observations of all phases of their complex speleogenesis, e.g., crustal and subcrustal accretion and ero sion; 4) their tendency to form braided and distributory complexes, and multlevel structures of at least two types; 5) their propensity to combine with or produce other volcanic structures, e.g., lava trenches, rift crevices, tu dikes, etc. The ideal may not be achievable at the present state of knowledge and tech notable opportunity to shape a clearer that the Commission on Volcanic Caves collaboration with the AGI and other concerned agencies and organizations, for consideration at the 2005 Interna tional Congress of Speleology. Introduction Some geologists recently have used the presence or absence of lava tubes or tube-fed lava for important inferences and conclusions. Thus it has become important to have a common under standing of the term. But the term lava tube currently is applied to a variety of features which are inconsistent with stan tions of the term (Jackson, editor, 1997; Larson, 1993), and different observers specify widely different parameters as characteristic of lava tubes. These inconsistencies are the result of several factors. Uninformed persons commonly confuse tree casts with lava tubes, and vice versa. Indeed, small scale examples lacking bark molds and differentiate; glaze, lava stalactites and accreted linings are sometimes found in tree molds and associated gas cavities (Honda, 2002). At least in Hawaii, the problem is even more complex. Here and else where, many persons have come to believe that any cave or rockshelter in lava necessarily is a lava tube cave, often simply mistermed a lava tube. are well-known littoral caves, e.g., Wai anapanapa Caves, Maui Island and Kaneana (Makua Cave), Oahu Island (Figure 2). Boatmen on the Na Pali Coast of the island of Kauai commonly refer to spectacular Queens Bath (Figure 3) as a vertical lava tube. Actually it is a large littoral cave which has lost most of its roof. Nonlittoral erosional features like Kauais Fern Grotto are not exempt from this misconception. Such misunderstand ings commonly appear in the popular Figure 1. Aerial view of Poikahe Crater and partially collapsed braided lava tube system, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii Island. Simi lar patterns have been photographed in several extraterrestrial sites. Photo by the author.

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49 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 press and in a few compilations which unwisely have relied on the supposed accuracy of press accounts. In the geological literature, various solid features in volcanic terranes have (1929) and Wentworth (1925) described caste of lava tubes exposed by erosion on the islands of Oahu and Lanai. Palmer analyzed and depicted features char acteristic of these fossil lava tubes: near-concentric bands of vesicles and a very slight tendency toward radial jointing which is not impressive on the accompanying photographs. The ex ample he reported may be considered the prototype of cores of solid lava tubes. In contrast, Waters (1960) proposed that the elliptical war bonnet struc are undrained lava tubes 15 to 35 m in diameter. This was not widely accepted. Greeley (1998) pointed that these fea tures lacked linings typical of lava tubes, nor had they the concentric vesicle pat terns which he considered characteristic of lava tubes. Harper (1915) previously had cited and depicted a rosette pat tern of smaller radiating features in at ridges of dense Permian basalt in Aus tralia, but did not refer to lava tubes as did two recent reports on this locality (Campbell et al, 2001; Carr and Jones, 2001). Others have applied the term to and lava rises, to intermittent volcanic ridges, to at least one laccolith and a partially hollow dike, and to a variety of inferred structures. Solid and inferred structures cited as lava tubes Radiating columnar jointing in digi tate littoral ridges of Permian basalt tubes (Campbell et al, 2001). Imprecise wording has hindered understanding of features at these and other sites. Carr and Jones (2001) asserted that the larger, more laterally continuous lava masses (at this Australian site) are interpreted as lava tubes while the smaller, less later ally continuous masses are interpreted as may contain radially arranged columnar joints and less pronounced concentric joints 5 to 20 m in diameter. An example which they depict appears somewhat similar to an undescribed light-colored Figure 2 (top). Entrance of Ka neana (Makua Cave), a littoral cave formed along a dike complex on the northwest tip of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. In the popular literature, it commonly is termed a lava tube. Photo by the author. Figure 3 (middle). Interior of Queens Bath, Na Pali Coast of Kauai Island, Hawaii, a large littoral cave which has lost most of its roof. Boatmen commonly refer to it as a vertical lava tube. Photo by the author. Figure 4 (bottom). Solid invasive structure on the northwest face of Makapuu Point, Oahu, Hawaii. This structure has been termed a solid lava tube. Photo by the author.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 50 Figure 5 (right). Laccolith exposed in the west wall of Kilauea Caldera. At one time, this was termed a lava tube. Photo by the author. Figure 6 (below). Detail of central part of structure shown in Figure 7. Note complex Photos by the author. Figure 7 (below right). Complex structure on the east fact of Makapuu Point, Oahu, Hawaii. This structure has been termed a solid lava tube. Photo by the author. feature exposed in the northwest side of Makapuu Point, Hawaii which rests on a narrow outcrop of pyroclastic material (Figure 4) and has baked adjacent lava. In local geological circles it is said to communication, 1999). A light-colored laccolith exposed prominently in the west wall of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii (Figure 5) also was proposed as a solid lava tube until its actual structure was determined conclusively (Anonymous, cited by Don Swanson, oral communica tion 1999). An especially complex feature termed and by Kesthelyi and Self (1998) is located on the northeast side of Oahus Makapuu Point It is much lower in the stratigraphic column than the feature discussed above and is not aligned with it The two features have little in com mon. Contrary to the cited reports, the jaggedness of its lateral margins (Figure 6) indicates that it was a tectonic crevice and by discrete injections, much as in the case of the Great Crack of Kilauea Volcano (Halliday, this volume). Pres ent are two cores of dense lava (Figure 7) similar to those reported by Palmer (1926) and several solid tubes of less dense lava (Figure 6) which meet criteria published by the American Geological Institute (Jackson, editor, 1998). A few somewhat similar groups of more or in roadcuts on Hawaii Island. tubes. Fornari (1986) considered that that it is a lava tube. Some lunar rills have been termed collapsed lava tubes, but are many orders of magnitude larger Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai Island,

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51 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Hawaii (Figure 10), Kauhako Channel is of similar size and also has been termed a collapsed lava tube (e.g., Coombs et this structure, however, revealed that it is a lava channel complex contain ing eruptive foci (Halliday, 2001) as the peninsula (Okubo, 2001). Coombs et al (1990) considered three land bridges (channel-wide accumulations of talus) to be proof of collapse of a lava tube, but such land bridges also are present in grabens along the Great Crack of the Southwest Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano (Okubo and Martel, 1998). Four aligned vents are present downslope from the channel (Okubo, 2001). Coombs et al (1990) asserted that the collapsed tube was the feeder for these vents but no evidence is known that these are tubefed rather than crevice-fed. Evidence of a huge, deep-lying tube also was said to be evident in Ka Lua o Kahoalii, a pit crater complex open ing downward on a level bench within Kauhako Crater (Figure 11). Coombs et al (1990) interpreted it as a collapse skylight of the tube. The vertical shaft of this pit complex opens downward from the surface of a partially destroyed lava pond within Kauhako Crater and is 8 m from the rim of its funnel-shaped inner pit All of its cavernous exten sion is beneath the talus-covered slope of the inner pit (Figure 11), and slants downward toward it (Halliday, 2001). The total volume of some thinly glazed cavities in the complex (Figure 11, 12) is >> 1% of the volume of Kauhako Channel. Ka Lua o Kahoalii appears to be part of the vertical conduit system of Kauhako Crater and its pond rather than the beginning of some enormous collapsed lava tube. nomena which are fully congruent with surface expressions of subaerial lava tube caves (e.g., Figure 13) may be considered to indicate the presence of lava tubes with a high degree of certainty (Halliday, 1966). Others are much less conclusive. Flow lobes and lava rises as lava tubes Whitehead and Stephenson (1998) con jectured the existence of even larger undiscovered lava tubes in northeastern Australia. Others have written of cores Figure 10. Lava trench on Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai Island, Hawaii said to be a col lapsed lava tube extending to small volcanic shield beneath lighthouse in background. Photo by the author. Figure 9. Cross sections of small lava tubes in aa exposed in road cut along highway between Kailua and Captain Cook, Hawaii County, Hawaii, USA. Maximum height of open tubes is about 10 cm. Photo by the author. Figure 8. Detail of top of structure shown in Figure 7. Dense solid cylinder with offset concentric vesicle rings is like that reported buried crevice. Photo by the author.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 52 lava as being lava tubes. Whitehead and Stephenson emphasized how much in relation to most known lava tubes... duits were as great as 500 m. . . They explained this seeming dichotomy as the product of a new concept which developed in the decade prior to 1998: any feeder beneath a lava surface now may be considered a lava tube. Others (e.g., Fornari, 1986) appear to believe that any subcrustal conduit of lava is a stated, this presumably extends the con cept to include crevices, dikes and sills as well as the cores of lava rises and cally proposing this concept has been located, however. It may be that it has moved from theory to partial acceptance Conduit tubes and drain tubes consider still other tubular structures in lava. Numerous investigators (e.g., For nari, 1986; Calvari and Pinkerton, 1998) the other hand, some tubular structures consistent with subcrustal drainage caves (Grimes, 1999, 2002; Grimes and Wat son, 1995; Halliday, 1998 a and b). Lack of downcutting, rheogenic abrasion and accretion all show that such caves have than the small volumes drained from the structures themselves). Most of the shallow, thin-roofed surface tubes which formed in profusion on some pa of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii), also are drain structures rather than conduits. depressions are present where still-plas tic cave roofs slumped when their feeder halted abruptly. A variety of more or less tubular voids are associated with these closed depressions. Some are shallow, relatively featureless corridors locally split by as many as three subparallel slumps. Others are boundary ridge pas sages on one or both sides of a wide lin ear or sinuous depresssion. Nearby, caves Molokai Island, Hawaii, commonly said to be the start of a lava tube extending from Kauhako Crater to the lighthouse at the tip of the peninsula.

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53 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 12. Small lava upwelling at start of break down area, Ka Lua o Kahoalii, Kalaupapa Penin sula, Molokai, Island, Hawaii. Photo by the author. Figure 13. Full length of Poikahe Crater lava tube system, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. Poikahe Crater is just below top center. Extraterrestrial and submarine phenomena which are fully congruent with such surface features indicate the presence of lava tubes with a high degree of certainty. Photo by the author. in sinuous hollow tumuli are essentially featureless but otherwise are much like those of conduit tubes. Cross-sections of donut-shaped boundary ridge caves of lava rises with depressed centers (Figure 14) are similar to those of conduit tubes, and complexes exist combining two or three of these forms. In areas with pat cavities are interconnected by essentially featureless drain tubes. Individually, these short tubular segments can easily be accepted as lava tubes, but as a whole, the resulting cave complexes resemble giant ant nests rather than lava tube conduit caves (Figure 16). At least one basaltic dike (Figure 17) drained and assumed the form of a lava tube cave (Figure 18) where it ap proached the face of a sea cliff (Socorro and Martin, 1981). lava tube From the above, it is easy to conclude that the term lava tube should be re Ideally, both hollow and solid forms parameters which differentiate them Figure 14. Tube-like circumferential boundary ridge passage, Lava Rise C-3 Cave, Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii. Photo by the author.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 54 connecting passages.

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55 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 15. Plan of Lava Rise C-3 Cave, Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii. A typical cross section of the tubular circumferential passsge is depicted in Figure 14. Figure 17. Dike exposed in ceiling of inner chamber formed in pyroclastics, Cueva de la Fa janita, La Palma Island, Canary Islands. This dike is hollow from a point a few meters behind the photographer to the sea cliff. Photo by the author. from all other volcanic features (e.g., aa cores, lava tongues, tumuli, sills, self-propagating crevices and related injection masses. But the ideal may not be achievable at the present state of knowledge and technology. However, recent discoveries and new concepts (e.g., Hon et al, 1994) offer a notable of this elusive term. istics should be compatible with: 1) the common meanings of tube and cave. 2) the presence of solid, gaseous, or liquid matter within them. 3) observations of all phases of their complex speleogenesis, e.g., crustal and subcrustal accretion and ero sion. 4) their tendency to form braided and dis tributory complexes, and multilevel structures of at least two types. 5) their propensity to form within, com bine with or produce other volcanic structures, e.g., lava trenches, rift lava rises, dikes, etc. I propose that the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the IUS take the lead collaboration with the American Geo logical Institute and other concerned agencies and organizations, for consider ation at the 2005 International Congress of Speleology. References Calvari, Sonia and Harry Pinkerton. 1999. Lava tube morphology on Etna ment mechanisms. Journal of Volca nology and Geothermal Research. Vol. 90, p. 163-280. Campbell, L. H., P. J. Conaghan and palaeogeographic reconstruction of volcanic activity in the Permian Ger ringong Volcanic Complex, southern Sydney Basin, Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 48, p. 357-375. Carr, Paul F. and Brian G. Jones. 2001.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 56 submarine, near-shore Late Perm ian basalt lavas, Sydney Basin (Aus tralia). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. Vol. 112, p. 247-266. Coombs, C. R., B. R. Hawke, and L. Wilson. 1990. Terrestrial analogs to Lunar sinuous rilles: Kauhako Crater and Channel, Kalaupapa, Molokai and other Hawaiian lava tube con duit systems. Proceedings of the 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Confer ence, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 195-206. Fornari, Daniel J. 1986. Submarine lava tubes and channels. Bulletin of Vol canology. Vol. 48, p. 291-298. Greeley, Ronald et al. 1998. Erosion by of Geophysical Research. Vol. 103, no. B11, p. 27,325-27,345. Grimes, Ken G. 1999. Volcanic caves and related features in western Hawaii County, Hawaii. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 27B, no. 1/4, p. 95-105. caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 27B, no. 1/4, p. 107-112. Halliday, William R. 2001. Caves and cavernous features of Kalaupapa Pen insula, Molokai, Hawaii. Report no. 01-1, Hawaii Speleological Survey of the National Speleological Society, July 2001. 48 p. Halliday, William R. 2002. Caves of the Great Crack of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (abstract). Abstract volume, Xth International Symposium on Vul canospeleology, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 9-15, 2002. P. 19. Harper, L. F. 1915. Geology and min eral resources of the Southern Coal Field: Part I: the south coastal portion. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales. Department of Mines, William Appleton Gullick, Government Printer, Sydney. Honda, Tsutomu. 2002. On lava sta lactite formation in the hollow of tree molds at ML Fuji (abstract). Abstract volume, Xth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Reykjavik, Iceland. September 9-15, 2002. P. 22. Jackson, Julia A. 1997. Glossary of Geol ogy: 4th Edition, Alexandria (Virginia), American Geological Institute. Kesthelyi, L. and S. Self. 1998, Some physical requirements for the em Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 103, no. B11, p. 27-447-27,464. Larson, Charles V. 1993. An illustrated glossary of lava tube features. Western Speleological Survey Bulletin no. 87. Vancouver, WA. (ABC Printing), 56 p. Okubo, Chris. 2001. Preliminary geo logic map of Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai, Hawaii. Figure 1 in Hal liday, 2001, op. cit Okubo, Chris and Steve Martel. 1998, Pit crater formation on Kilauea vol cano, Hawaii. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. Vol. 86, p. 1-18. Palmer, Harold S. 1929. A fossil lava tube. Journal of Geology. Vol. 37, no. 3, April-May, 1929. P. 272-274. Socorro, J. and J, Martin. 1984. The Fajanita Cave (La Palma, Canary Islands): a volcanic cavity originated by partial drainage of a dike. Proceed ings, 8th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands, November 1984, p. 177-184. Waters, A. C. 1960. Determining the can Journal of Science, vol. 258A, p. 350-366. Wentworth, Chester K. 1925. The ge ology of Lanai. Bernice P. Bishop Bulletin no. 24, p. 50. Whitehead, P. W. and P. J. Stephenson, 1998. Lava rise ridges of the Toomba of Geophysical Research. Vol. 103, no. B11. p. 27,371-27,382. Figure 18. Ascending into the sea cliff entrance of the tubular hollow section of the dike of Cueva de la Fajanita, La Palma Island, Canary Islands. Photo by the author. Victoria, Proceedings of the 13th Australian Conference on cave and karst manage ment, Mt Gambler, Australia, p. 148-151. Grimes, Ken G. 2002. Subcrust al drainage lava caves; exam ples from Victoria, Australia (abstract). Abstract volume, Xth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Reyk javik, Iceland. September 9-15,2002. p. 12-13. Grimes, Ken G. and Tony Wat son. 1995. Volcanic caves of western Victoria. In: Baddeley, G., editor. Vulcon Guidebook (20th Australian Speleological Federation Conference), Victoria Spe leological Association Inc, Melbourne, p. 39-68. Halliday, William R. 1966. Terrestrial pseudokarst and the lunar topography. Na tional Speleological Society Bulletin. Vol. 28, no. 4, p. 167-170. Halliday, William R. 1998a. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera,

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57 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Caves of the Great Crack, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii William R. Halliday Hawaii Speleological Survey, 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN. USA Abstract The Great Crack ( Mile Crack) is the most prominent feature of Kilauea volcanos Southwest Rift Zone. Rather than consisting of a single crevice, much of the crack consists of en echelon crevices of various widths in a strip lo cally more than 1 km wide. Numerous grabens and collapse pits are present. Detailed studies of this complex have been begun only in the past decade. Some of the participating geologists have requested support and some lead ership by speleologists in investigating cavernous pits at the bottom of steep talus slopes. The Hawaii Speleological Survey of the National Speleological So ciety subsequently has cooperated with University of Hawaii and U.S. Geologi cal Survey researchers in investigating cavernous pits in the principal axis of the crevice complex. Two pits yielded labelled Pit H by University of Hawaii geologistswas found to require SRT expertise. In 2001 it was explored and mapped to a depth of 183 m. Despite extensive breakdown, accretion by lat several levels. A total of 600 m of pas sage was mapped. In a similar crevice at the bottom of Wood Valley Pit Crater (which is nearby but off the principal axis of the rift zone), accreted linings and tube segments have been found along the crevice at a depth of almost 90 m. No such tube segments are present in Pit tube formation is not essential to lateral in some locations. Numerous other pits remain to be investigated along the Great Crack and elsewhere. Introduction The Great Crack (17 Mile Crack) is the most conspicuous feature of the Southwest Rift Zone of Hawaiis Kilauea Volcano (Figure 1,2). The section of this feature discussed in this report is about 2 km long and is located about 2 km north (up-rift) of the historic 1823 its lower end. Okubo and Martel (1998) identified and described 14 collapse pits here, located along two dominant crevices (or paired crevices). The pres ent study reports initial investigations of crevice caves associated with some of these collapse pits, as conducted by members of the Hawaii Speleological Figure 3. Main (lower) entrance. Cathedral Cave, Pit B of the Great Crack. Photo by the Author. Figure 4. Looking upward along talus slope to up per entrance of Cathedral Cave located at edge of Pit A. Photo by the Author.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 58 Figure 1. Section of 1981 US Geological Survey 1:24,000 Wood Valley Quadrangle showing the Great Crack and Wood Valley Pit Crater.

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59 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 2. October 1988 NASA aerial photo of study area showing collapse pits B to N. Courtesy Chris Okubo.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 60 Figure 5 (top). Hollow dike, Cathedral Cave. Photo by the Author. Figure 6 (middle). Entrance sink, Pit H Cave of the Great Crack. Photo by the Author. Figure 7 (bottom). Entrance of Pit H Cave, located beneath dense lava core. Photo by the Author. Survey of the National Speleological Society in cooperation with Okubo and Martel and with Don Swanson of the U.S. Geological Survey. It compares those by Favre et al (Favre, 1993) during exploration of the nearby Wood Valley Pit Crater Complex. Overview of the study area The term Great Crack implies that the principal rift structure here consists of a single dominant crevice, but this is not the case. Instead, the feature consists of a complex of en echelon crevices of various widths. These are encompassed in a strip locally more than 1 km wide. The area is geologically active, and at least one important collapse pit has developed in the last few years (Okubo and Martel, 1998). As Okubo and Martel have shown, the pits are from 8 to 45 m in diameter and 6 to 28.5 m in depth. They occur in two groups along shal low linear depressions which are not quite aligned with each other. Pairs of deep, near-vertical cracks with apertures of several cm are characteristic of the collapse pits, Pits A through E (Figure 2) are lo cated along a narrow graben 5 to 7 m wide and 2 to 15 m deep. Locally it is Individual pits are separated by septae of talus extending almost to ground level. Pits F through N are in a slightly wider depression which is generally shallower but locally contains steep-walled troughs 5 to 7 m wide and 2 to 3 m deep. No tephra is present south of Pit F. Lava exposed in their walls largely consists of to several m thick. Rubble and blocks of talus of similar dimensions mantle pit and cave floors and lower walls. Overhanging pit walls are common; some overhangs initially were mistaken

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61 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 8, Map of Pit H Cave, redrawn by the author from map courtesy Don Coons. for cave entrances. Some unusual lava injection features also are seen locally (Figures 5, 10) these are discussed below. Farther downrift are additional collapse pits, then a continuous steep-walled depression from which emerged the Initial investigations Based primarily on views from the ground surface, Okubo and Martel (1998) listed all pits from Pit A to Pit I as having known caves. In July 1998 and August 1999, this writer and Chris Okubo investigated cave entrances in the northern group (Pits A Pit E) which were accessible without special climbing gear. At the north (up-rift) end of Pit B we clambered down into a spacious crev ice cavern. Locally almost 10 m wide, its lower portion was both impressive contain unusual lava structures which from within the wall (Figurers 5, 10). The upper portion of this cave extends steeply upward through large talus fragments to a narrow upper entrance which is just within the down-rift margin of Pit A a vertical extent of nearly 20 m. Because of the spaciousness of its main chamber, we called it Cathedral Cave. Investigations of Pit H Cave We planned to return and map Cathedral Cave. On 18 February 2000, however, Okubo and I investigated Pit H Cave in the lower group, Descending a steep entrance slope with large talus blocks at

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 62 Figure 9. Mapping the entrance slope of Pit H Cave. Photo by the Author. Figure 10. Hollow dike in twilight zone of Pit H Cave. Photo by the author. Figure 11. Composite photograph of upper level of Pit H Cave, looking across pit at end of twilight. Photos by the Author. Figure 12. Don Coons at narrows of pit leading to lower levels. Photo by the Author.

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63 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2002 Figure 13. Plan and longitudinal section of Wood Valley Pit Crater Complex. Courtesy Gerald Favre. the angle of repose, we mapped as far as a funnel-shaped pit in wedged talus, located at the inner margin of twilight This pit extended completely across a near-horizontal passage 5 to 6 m wide, not be determined but eventually was found to be 26 m. We photodocumented the accessible area (including a hollow dike exposed in section Figure 10) but could do no more without specialized climbing gear. On August 7, 2000 Don Coons ac companied Don Swanson and myself to Pit H Cave. Coons traversed the pit about 25 m of additional passage on this level. Then he descended the pit to the next level, 26 m below. After a minor initial ascent here, he encountered an additional pit for which he needed ad ditional rope and a support team (Coons, 2001). Coons was designated chairman of a formal project of the Hawaii Speleo logical Survey. On 23 February 2001 he returned to Pit H Cave, accompanied by Rick Elhard and Cindy Heazlitt. In one vigorous day, 30 survey stations yielded 600 m of passages which reached a depth of 183 m. The second vertical pitch was found to be 37 m, with a third pitch of 22 m farther downslope (Figure 8). Remnants of accreted linings were found at several levels in Pit H Cave. Near the lowest point in the cave, the lining was found to be 25 cm thick and composed of two units: a porous brown ish inner layer and a dense black outer layer. Closer to the surface, the accreted lava is increasingly thin and none was found above the second pitch. Nothing suggesting the presence of a lava tube was observed (Coons, 2001). Comparison with previous observations Okubo and Martel (1998, page 10) sum marized Jaggars 1947 observations of lava entering the principal Southwest Rift Zone conduit in the wall of Hale maumau. They concluded that Jaggar described stoping into a previously widened subsurface fracture, rather than a rift tube. This is consistent with On the other hand, Favre (1993) re passage in the nearby Wood Valley Pit Crater Complex. Wood Valley Pit Crater also is within Kilauea volcanos South west Rift Zone, but is off its principal axis (Figure 1). Here, totally glazed lava tube segments were found along the crevice, forming most of a cave more than 460 m long at a depth of almost 90 m. Average height of the tube segments is 8 m, average width, 12m. Two large linear chambers also are present. One is directly beneath the shaft of Wood with talus. The other is 80 m farther along the crevice and is 40 m high, 10m wide and 40 m long. It is intact and is lined with accreted lava (congealed with those in Pit H Cave indicates that lava tubes can form in active rift crevices formation. ings, much more exploration and inves tigation of volcanic crevice caves and pit craters is needed, along the Great Crack and elsewhere. References Coons, D. 2001. The Great Crack, an update on recent exploration. Hawaii Speleological Survey Newsletter no. 9, June, p. 27-28. Favre, G. 1993. Some observations on Hawaiian pit craters and relations with lava tubes. Proceedings, 3rd International Symposium on Vulcano speleology, William Halliday, Chair man. Bend, Oregon, July 30-August 1, 1982. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle, p. 3741. Jaggar, T. 1947. Origin and develop ment of craters. Geological Society of America Memoir 21. Okubo, C. and S. Martel. 1998. Pit cra ter formation on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. Vol. 86, p. 1-18.

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ORGANIZING COMMITTEE: Eduardo Carqueijeiro (President) Emanuel Verssimo Paulino Costa Joo Paulo Constncia Paulo Barcelos Fernando Pereira SPONSORS: Assembleia Legislativa Regional Presidncia do Governo Regional Direco Regional da Cultura Direco Regional do Turismo Cmara Municipal das Lajes do Pico Cmara Municipal da Madalena Cmara Municipal de So Roque do Pico Cmara Municipal de Velas Cmara Municipal da Horta Cmara Municipal de Ponta Delgada Cmara Municipal de Angra do Herosmo Cmara Municipal de Santa Cruz da Graciosa Junta de Freguesia do Capelo Casa de Povo do Capelo Museu do Pico Museu da Horta Amigos do Aores, Associao Ecolgica S.E.E. Os Montanheiros Escola Bsica e Integrada/S da Madalena Escola Bsica e Integrada/S de So Roque do Pico Bombeiros Voluntrios de Velas Cooperativa Vitivincola do Pico SIRAM-Aores

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 66 PREFACE We are honored to welcome everyone to the XIth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, held at Escola Cardeal Costa Nunes, in the town of Madalena (Pico Island). The meeting is hosted by the Secretaria Regional do Ambiente (Environmental Department of the Regional Government of the Azores). This is the volcanoes and volcanic caves are very important features of the natural landscape. Pico is the second largest island in the Azores. It is about 1000 miles (1600 km) from the Portuguese mainland. Its area is 447 km 2 and the population is 14,804. Its inhabitants are grouped in three municipalities (Lajes, Madalena and So Roque do Pico). The island presents a wide range of volcanic landforms, including approximately 90 known volcanic caves and pits. Most of its lava tube caves are located on the part of the island, which is the 3rd highest active volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Among these caves is Gruta das Torres, the longest in the Azores with about 5,150 m of passages. This Abstracts Book includes all presentations at the XIth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Azores 2004, including invited lectures and oral and poster symposium. Pico, May 2004 SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Joo Carlos Nunes (President) Paulo Alexandre Borges Victor Hugo Forjaz Antnio Galopim de Carvalho William Halliday (USA) Pedro Oromi (Canary) Paolo Forti (Italy) HOSTED BY

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67 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 2004 SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS Edited by Joo Carlos Nunes and William Halliday Invited Lectures Em Defesa do Patrimnio Geolgico Antnio M. Galopim de Carvalho Museu Nacional de Histria Natural, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politcnica, 58, 1250 Lisboa. galopim@netcabo.pt semelhana de qualquer patrimnio construdo que, considerado monumento e, portanto, um recurso cultural a preservar, tambm algumas ocorrncias naturais e, em particular, as geolgicas tm caractersticas que nos levam geomonumentos entendidos como valores a incluir numa concepo de cultura alargada ao sociedade. Como resposta ao chamado desenvolvimento e imparvel ocupao do espao natural pelos mltiplos e variados equi pamentos civilizacionais, importa divulgar e impor a ideia de georrecurso cultural aplicvel a alguns exemplos do patrimnio geolgico, por natureza no renovvel. A experincia de muitos anos de busca de solues que salvaguardem e valorizem alguns dos nossos mais importantes geomonumentos tem sido, nas duas ltimas dcadas, uma tarefa rdua e uma preocupao do Museu Nacional de Histria Natural da Universidade de Lisboa. A grande resistncia sobretudo e em ltima anlise, de uma generalizada falta de cultura geolgica na sociedade portuguesa, a comear pelos responsveis da administrao. Genetic Processes of Cave Minerals in Volcanic Environments: An Overview Paolo Forti Italian Institute of Speleology, University of Bologna, Italy. forti@geomin.unibo.it Volcanic caves are widespread in the world and are fre published descriptions of their exploration, speleogenesis and morphology. But lava tube caves and other volcanic cavities traditionally have been considered of little interest from the standpoint of secondary minerals (Forti, 1994). Thus detailed studies of their speleothems are comparatively new. Recently, it has become evident that volcanic cavities are very favourable environments for the actions of differ ent processes of mineral development (see Tab. 1). Two of these (sublimation and deposition from aerosols) are largely restricted to volcanic caves. Most known volcanic caves have conditions favourable for development of at least a few small true speleothems (apart from lava stalactites and stalagmites), term speleothem (Hill and Forti, 1997). Even from these recent studies of a small number of vol canic caves, 40% of the entire list of cave minerals of the world is known to occur in volcanic caves. Furthermore, 35 of them (about 10% of all known cave minerals) are found only in volcanic caves. Among the published list of ten caves leading the world in terms of speleothems (Hill and Forti, 1997), two are vol canic: the Alum cave on Vulcano Island, Italy and Skipton Cave, Australia. Even detailed mineralogical studies have been made just for a few volcanic cavities, the choice of selection criteria for such a list is far from simple. Clearly, the importance of a cave cannot be selected entirely by the number of differ ent minerals which developed within it. Other factors to be considered include the size and beauty of their speleothems, peculiarity of genetic mechanisms, different types of speleo genesis, and the geographical location of the cave. On the basis of these parameters, it was made a tentative list of the ten most important volcanic caves of the world from the standpoint of mineralogy (Tab. 2). This overview on the present knowledge on cave minerals in volcanic caves is short and surely not exhaustive. However the extreme importance of volcanic cave environments in the development of cave minerals. Volcanic caves which have been the subject of mineralogical observation to date, are far less than 5% of those presently known around in the world. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that in the near future, broad systematic study of secondary the number of known cave minerals. Final remark: This research was performed within the MIUR 2002 Project Morphological and Mineralogical Study of Speleothems to Reconstruct Peculiar Karst Environments , Resp. Prof. Paolo Forti. References: Forti P. 1994. Cave minerals in volcanic caves Acta I Encontro Internacional de Vulcanoespeleologia das Ilhas Atlanticas, Terceira, Aores, 1992: p. 1-98. Forti P. 2000. Minerogenetic mechanisms and cave minerals in the Volcanic caves of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) Mitt. Verb.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 68 Hill C.A., Forti P. 1997. Cave minerals of the World Nat. Spel. Soc., Hintsville: 464 pp. An Unusual Lava Tube Cave with an Incipient Hornito William R. Halliday Honorary President, IUS Commission on Volcanic Caves, 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN USA 37205. bnawrh@webtv.net contains a few typical mature lava tube caves and about 200 caves of other types. These include hollow tumuli, drained complexes. One is a complex cave in a long sequence of subcrustal injection features 2-3 km from the vent. Its main passage is overlain by a small, partially hollow hornito. A puckered cupola is present in the cave ceiling beneath the hornito. The main passage continues as a featureless imma unusual features are present. Alternative interpretations of this and other unusual injection structures of Kilauea Volcano will be discussed. Table 2 (Forti). The ten most important volcanic caves from the mineralogical point of view. Table 1 (Forti). Temperature range, process, genetic mechanisms, and related chemical deposits in volanic caves

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69 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 O Papel Estratgico do Centro de Interpretao Subterrneo da Gruta Algar do Pena, No Uso Sustentado do Patrimnio Espeleolgico do Parque Natural das Serras de Aire e Candeeiros Olmpio Martins Parque Natural das Serras de Aire e Candeeiros. cisgap@oninet.pt O Centro de Interpretao Subterrneo da Gruta Algar do Pena (CISGAP) uma infraestrutura do PNSAC, vocacionada para a valorizao do patrimnio espeleolgico crsico. O CISGAP deve a sua existncia descoberta de uma importante cavidade, em 1985, pelo Sr. Joaquim Pena, na sequncia do desmonte de uma bancada de calcrio para produo de pedra para calada. A Gruta Algar do Pena assim denominada em honra do seu descobridor uma cavidade muito interessante do ponto de vista paisagstico, integrando a maior sala subter rnea actualmente conhecida em Portugal. (125 000 m 3 de volume aproximado). Inaugurado em 1997, o funcionamento do CISGAP as senta em 4 vertentes: no domnio da Espeleologia. 2. Divulgao alargada, do meio espeleolgico crsico e fenmenos associados, com especial relevo para o pblico escolar. 3. Apoio s estratgias desenvolvidas pelo Parque, no domnio do turismo e desporto de natureza. pelelogos. No decurso dos quatro anos que antecederam a sua abertura ao pblico, foram desenvolvidos vrios estudos prvios des tinados a caracterizar a cavidade do ponto de vista biofsico, os quais posteriormente serviram de base ao estabelecimento do regime de visitas e das medidas minimizadoras de impactes provocados pela visitao. So catorze, as principais medidas minimizadoras de impactes negativos exercidos sobre a Gruta: 1. Estabelecimento da capacidade de carga. 2. Escalonamento de visitas. 3. Posicionamento do Poo do Elevador. 4. Uso de meios de descontaminao. 6. Uso de estruturas transparentes de apoio visita, em materiais no oxidveis e removveis. 7. Uso de uma rea mnima dedicada circulao de visitantes no interior da gruta. 8. Ausncia de fontes de luz branca, exceptuando as auto transportadas. 10. Aplicao de penumbra nas zonas de maior presso. 11. Uso de um sistema de controle climtico e monitorizao, das alteraes climticas provocadas pelos visitantes. 12. Limitao do tempo de permanncia dos visitantes na gruta. 13. Estabelecimento de perodos de repouso da gruta. 14. Proibies vrias de carcter genrico. Para os grupos mais numerosos, por forma a minimizar o efeito de espera de visita gruta, dada a sua baixa capacidade de carga 12 pessoas por sesso de visita foram criadas, vrias actividades pedaggicas e de lazer, desenvolvidas no edifcio de apoio e nos espaos exteriores. Assim, os visitantes podero optar, por participar em jogos de orientao e simulao de uma explorao espeleolgica completa, actividades que permitem a interpretao biofsica dos carsos tpicos. Na visita gruta, o enquadramento de visitantes efectuado por guias, com formao espeleolgica de base. O apoio observados, est assegurado pelo uso de sistemas automti cos de telecomentrio. Os vrios programas de visita visam sempre a integrao da cavidade no contexto geolgico e Mas o CISGAP possui outras atri buies no domnio da espeleologia, a infra estrutura de apoio equipa de espe leologia do PNSAC, o centro do cadastro espeleolgico do PNSAC, funcionando ainda como centro de apoio rede de medio dos recursos hdricos desta rea Protegida. O CISGAP, no seu gnero, uma estrutura impar e sem precedentes no nosso pas, contribuindo tambm para a in interpretativas singulares nesta rea Protegida, o futuro CARSOESCPIO, Centro Cincia Viva do Alviela. Underground Life in Macaronesia: Geological Age, Environment, and Biodiversity Pedro Orom Depto. Biologa Animal, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands. poromi@ull.es The Macaronesian islands (Azores, Madeira, Canary Is lands and Cape Verde Islands) are of volcanic origin but are at different stages of eruption and erosion. Their ages and especially those of their surface rocks affect the existence of caves, especially lava tubes. Availability of caves for hypogean-adapted life is linked to the stage of ecological succession, which in turns depends on the age of terrains and on the local climate. The existence of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) also permits development of adapted fauna in terrains and even islands lacking volcanic caves. Since all troglobites on islands must have evolved after local epigean species, biogeographical conditions and faunal of underground faunas. The wellknown disharmony of island faunas provides new and different evolutionary opportunities toward troglomorphism, so animal groups unexpected in these latitudes have colonized the underground. An outline of known hypogean animal diversity in Maca ronesian archipelagos is presented, relating it to their biogeo graphical and environmental conditions. A comparison with such faunas of distant volcanic archipelagos (e.g. Hawaii or the Galapagos islands) is also made.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 70 Oral Session I Vulcanospeleology of the Azores Islands Gruta do Carvo (Carvo Cave) in the Island of S. Miguel (Azores) and Environmental Education Amigos dos Aores, Ecological Association (Speleology Working Group), Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores. teobraga@hotmail.com ogy of the Atlantic Islands in 1992, the author presented a pioneer initiative for the Azores: a videotape about Gruta do Carvo.. Its main objectives were to provide teaching material material) and also to promote environmental education. The present work is intended to provide a brief history of the Amigos dos Aores Association in publicizing the value of Gruta do Carvo as well as describing its activities since 1992. Main focus has been to demonstrate the importance of that volcanic cave for the purpose of environmental educa tion, namely to create a knowledgeable public with necessary information, ability, mindsets and motivation to work to solve environmental problems. In addition to environmental workshops in various schools (primarily for grades 5 to 12) and intended to arouse environ mental consciousness, between 1998 and 2003 the Association led 41 guided visits to Carvo Cave for 1,441 students. Ranking Azorean Caves Based on Management Indeces Joo P. Constncia 1,5 Paulo A.V. Borges 2,4 Manuel P. Costa 3 Joo C. Nunes 2,5 Paulo Barcelos 4 Fernando Pereira 4 and 5 1 Museu Carlos Machado, Natural History Department, Convento de St. Andr, 9500 Ponta Delgada, S. Miguel, Azores. constancia@mail.telepac.pt 2 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias & Dep. Geociencias, Angra do Herosmo & Ponta Delgada, Azores 3 Matos Souto, Piedade, 9930 Lajes do Pico, Pico, Azores 4 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores 5 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores The Azorean Speleological Inventory (IPEA) is a data base with information about all known Azorean volcanic caves and pits. 86 caves are known on Pico, 67 on Terceira, 27 on So Miguel, 18 on So Jorge, 11 on Graciosa, 9 on Faial, 5 on Santa Maria, and 2 on Flores (Fig. 1). About 60 of these 225 caves have been mapped, with a total of 41,122 m of passages. About 71% are lava tube caves, 10% are pits, 7% are erosional caves, 4% are crevice caves and the others are multiprocess or undetermined types. To date, about 65% of these caves are unsatisfactorily studied, in particular its biological and geological features. IPEA includes a classifying system which relies on objec tive sets of criteria which yield logical, coherent and reli able results. Its multi-criteria sets also can provide complex potential for tourism, access, surrounding threats, available information and conservation status. Each topic is assigned Figure 1 (Constncia, et al.). Distribution of volcanic caves in the Azores (total = 225).

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71 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 by an index (from I to V), based on weighted factors for biological components, geological features, accessibility, sin gularity and beauty, safety, caving progress, threats, integrity, the cave characteristics within the factor. An initial analysis based on a multi-criterion approach yielded the Table: 1. using positive weighting for geological features, biologi cal components, singularity and beauty, available information, and integrity, 15 caves were found to have especially high 2. using positive weighting for geological features, ac cessibility, singularity and beauty, safety, caving progress, available information, and integrity, and a negative weight ing for biological components, 13 caves were found to have great touristic potential; 3. using positive weighting for geological features, biologi cal components, available information, threats, and integrity, 7 caves were found to merit high conservation status. Algar do Carvo Volcanic Pit, Terceira Island (Azores): Geology and Volcanology Victor H. Forjaz 1 Joo C. Nunes 1 and Paulo Barcelos 2 1 Universidade dos Aores, Departamento Geocincias, Rua Me de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores. vhforjaz@notes.uac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores The Algar do Carvo pit is an impressive volcanic conduit located in the Basaltic Fissural Area, in central Terceira island. Initially it was included in a Geologic Natural Reserve (Re gional Legislative Decree nr. 13/87/A, of July 21). Recently to unique volcanic features and additional ecological and conservation importance. Among this features are siliceous speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites of amorphous silica), refusion walls, obsidian dripstones, a lake, vegetation around the vent and along the pit walls, and a troglobitic fauna. In general terms, the pit had a two-phase genesis. It par tially corresponds to the volcanic conduit of a scoria cone

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 72 of Algar do Carvo is developed on older trachytic domes and/or coules related to the silicic polygenetic volcano of Pico Alto. 14 C age determinations in charcoal trunks collected near the lake level and on trachytic formations inside the Algar do Carvo gave ages of 3,200 40 years BP. Similar radiometric dating analysis on charcoal found beneath the basaltic lava 14 C sample was close to the main road and outside the pit. It also should be empha sised that another 14 C analysis done on a Pico Alto Volcano pumice deposit, NE of Algar do Carvos scoria cone gave an age of 2,610 70 years BP. these age determinations allowed us to conclude that Algar do ago. Subsequently, other silicic eruptions occurred on the pumice, one of which occurred about 2,600 years ago. More recently (about 1,700 to 2,100 years ago), several (?) basaltic conduit of the scoria cone and allowed the formation of Algar do Carvo pit as it exists today. The Project for the Visitors Center Building of the Gruta das Torres Volcanic Cave, Pico Island, Azores Ins Vieira da Silva and Miguel Vieira Direco Regional do Ambiente, Rua Cnsul Dabney, Colnia Alem, Apartado 140, 9901 Horta, Faial, Azores. inesvs@hotmail.com Gruta das Torres is a notable volcanic cave in the parish of Criao Velha, municipality of Madalena on the island of Pico in an agricultural landscape. This paper presents the project for a Visitors Center building for this cave (Table) developed from two primary standpoints: 1) to enclose the access skylight, to control the entrances and provide security; 2) to provide support and information services to the visitor. To response simultaneously to these two standpoints, a stone wall 1.80 meters high is planned to surround the skylight entrance (Figure) and at the same time to allow the drawing of the building to emerge from it. Outside the building, will be a small courtyard with a wait for the guided tour in a Waiting Room, then proceed to and other necessary equipment will be available in the Au ditorium. Entry into the cave will be by a stairway already built with local pahoehoe slabs. It will continue inside the cave where an overpass 40 m long will allow visitors to avoid existing breakdowns, without the need to remove this debris. Tours will be about 400 m long, 200 m in each direction. After each tour, visitors will returns to the Waiting Room, through the same stairway and by way of a ramp which bypasses the Auditorium. Thus, several groups of visitors can tour the cave simultaneously without crossing each other. The buildings structure will consist of reinforced concrete, built on a rail, also of reinforced concrete. This solution avoids the use of foundations, believed to cause excessive vibrations in the surrounding area and also being subject to puncture. The Visitors Center building is continuous with the stone wall protecting the skylight (Figure), not only because both elements were created from a single formal gesture, but because different techniques for emplacement of the local materials will be used. Thus, the wall will consist of stone mortar and the whole south facade of the building will be made in stone and employing the local construction technique all along the wall of the building. The remaining facades will be covered by a black waterproof surface that resembles the texture of the glassy lava in the cave. Vegetation in the area is most impressive on the edge of the skylight and just inside (Figure). Thus, the building and the wall around the skylight just reinforce the whole ensemble, incorporating this vegetation into an architectural unit within an agricultural landscape. Even bearing in mind that the build ing is itself a constructed architectonic volume. Oral Session II Vulcanospeleology of the World Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cave, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint thepints@saudicaves.com Ghar al Hibashi, located 300 kms SE of Jeddah in the mapped in Saudi Arabia (565 m long). Lava levees, stalactites and stalagmites are found throughout the cave and it has a lava channel 13 m long. A bed of loess, up to 1.5 m thick Coprolites from hyenas, sheep, wolves and foxes are found in many parts of the cave and may be very old. Two areas are covered with burnt bat guano and samples taken from one of these areas were found to contain a number of rare cave minerals. A human skull found in the cave has been carbon dated at 450 years BP and shows possible evidence of foul play. Researchers working with the Field and Space Robotics Lab at MIT to develop microrobots for cave exploration on Mars recently requested permission to use photos of Hibashi Cave to illustrate the possible interior conditions of lava tubes on Mars. the past, possibly affecting bio-stalactities: soft, yellow ish concretions thought to be formed of bat urine. Nineteen minerals were detected in samples collected, mostly related to the mineralization of bones and guano deposits. Hibashi Cave is occasionally visited by local people and is in need of protection from vandalism.

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73 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Illustrations for Vieira da Silva and Vieira.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 74 A Digital List of Non-Karstic Caves in Hungary Istvn Eszterhs and George Szentes Alte Frankfurter Str. 22B, 61118 Bad Vilbel, Germany. szentesg@aol.com The Volcanspeleological Collective has carried out the study and cataloguing of non-karstic caves in Hungary since 1983. They have compiled descriptions, surveys and photographs from each recorded cave. The cave documenta notes. However, access to this documentation is restricted. We decided to compile an easily accessible, standard list, of non-karstic caves in Hungary, where changes and updates can be easily made. We decided that a digital list would be the most suitable format. We began to compile the register in 2002. We have listed each known non-karstic cave and located their positions on a map. Cave surveys and photographs, accompanied by short descriptions were also included in the list Eighteen regions are represented where non-karstic caves occur. Index Maps were prepared for most of the regions. These are linked to the detailed maps with tabular summaries. The language of the list is Hungarian with an English translation, mainly to facilitate the use of the homepage. The digital presentation of non-karstic caves was carried out using Arcview GIS as well as available digital map material. Detailed Maps and Index Maps with different scales were Maps were then prepared. The layout maps were exported in to generate regional data sheets. The digital data from the non-karstic cave list facilitates its use by various presentation software programs and allows transfer of the cave registry to other formats. to be found on the Home Page of the cave list. All relevant The Hibashi Lava Tube: The Best Site in Saudi Arabia for Cave Minerals Paolo Forti 1 Ermanno Galli 2 Antonio Rossi 2 John Pint 3 and Susana Pint 3 1 Italian Institute of Speleology, University of Bologna, Italy. forti@geomin.unibo.it 2 Geological Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy 3 Saudi Geological Survey, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Systematic exploration of lava tube caves in Saudi Arabia started only recently, but several large examples have been country. One of the largest examples in Saudi Arabia is Hibashi east of Jeddah. It primarily consists of a huge rectilinear gallery (over 400 m long and 15 m wide) accessed down a breakdown slope in a wide collapse which gives entrance locally thick loess. The cave was utilized long ago as shelter by wild animals including bats, hyena, wolf and fox. Many bones and copro burning overlying bones. The only true speleothems consist of a few small translucent yellow stalactites hanging from the ceiling. Three different expeditions were conducted in 2003. A few samples of secondary mineral deposits were collected for analysis. Despite the paucity of the samples, 14 different minerals already have been detected (Table). Most are related to biogenic mineralization of bones and guano deposits. Besides other rare but well understood cave minerals (like arcanite and archerite), pyrocoproite, pyrophosphate, and arn hemite are extremely rare organic compounds strictly related to combustion of guano. Previously these had been observed only in a few caves in Africa. In this paper the SEM images sidered the most important volcanic cave in Saudi Arabia and, by far, the richest mineralogical shelter in this Country. Final remark: This research was made within the MIUR 2002 Project Morphological and Mineralogical Study of Speleothems to Reconstruct Peculiar Karst Rnvironments , resp. Prof. Paolo Forti. Hibashi lava tube (Saudi Arabia).

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75 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Investigation of the Discharge Mechanism of Hachijo-fuketsu Lava Tube Cave, Hachijo-jima Island, Japan Tsutomu Honda Mt. Fuji Volcano-Speleological Society, Tokyo. hondat@itergps.naka.jaeri.go.jp Hachijo-fuketsu lava tube cave is located on Hachijois believed to have been formed by the eruption of Hachijowith silica content of 50.5%. Hachijo-fuketsu is the second longest lava tube cave in Japan. Despite good accessibility, it is well preserved. Its upper and middle sections have moder In modelling the discharge mechanism of this type of lava tube we used an inclined circular tube model for the sloping these two models were similar and comparable to those of Regarding the inclined circular pipe case, the discharge mechanism of lava tube caves already has been established, (Honda 2000, 2001a). A simple model of steady state iso circular pipes were used for analyses. Comparison studies Flow characteristics were studied as a function of param eters such as tube radius, viscosity, yield strength of lava and slope inclination. A critical condition was determined for the discharge parameters in which the yield strength plays a dominant role. Existing observational data were introduced to the critical condition. This model was applied to lava tube cave of Mt. Fuji, Mt. Etna, Mount St. Helens, Suchiooc volcano, Kilauea volcano and others. Some deduced yield strengths of lava of the caves in these areas were found to be in good accordance with yield strength as estimated by other methods (Honda 2001b). as f(t)=(t-f B )/v B (t>f B or r>r B ), f(t)=0 (tf B u=(R-r B ) 2 (d g sina)/4v B (rr B ). For tw= (d g sin a )R/2
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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 76 tube (Honda 2003). Very rough relation between drained (d g R)H/2L=f B by replacing (sin a) by (H/L). From Table 2, f B =2x10 4 dyne/cm 2 was obtained for Hachijo-jima. In summary, obtained basaltic yield stress from slope angle and height of some lava caves (Table 3) are reasonable values as compared with the yield stress obtained for Mt. Fuji. References: Honda, T. 2000. On the formation of Subashiri-Tainai cave in Mt. Fuji. The 26 th Annual Meeting of the Speleological Society of Japan, August: p. 64. Honda, T. 2001a. Investigation on the formation mechanism of lava tube cave The 27 th Annual Meeting of the Speleo logical Society of Japan, August: p. 11. Honda, T. 2001b. Formation mechanism of lava tube caves in Mt. Fuji The 2001 Fall Meeting of the Volcanological Society of Japan, October: p. 66. Honda, T. 2003. Formation mechanism of lava tube caves of Hachijo-fuketu in Hachijo-jima The 2003 Fall Meeting of the Volcanological Society of Japan, 0ctober; p. 160. Lava Caves of Jordan Stephan Kempe 1 Ahmad Al-Malabeh 2 and Horst-Volker Henschel 3 1 University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Schnittspahnstr 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan 3 POB 110661, D-64221 Darmstadt, Germany The central section of Jordan is covered by young alkalic These are part of the large intracontinental Harrat Al Scham the existence of a continental intraplate hot spot plume. Its eruptive site should appear to move southward as the Arabian Plate moves northward due to the opening of the Red Sea. years old (Tarawneh et al., 2000). In these lavas we explored, surveyed and studied four natural lava tunnels (Abu Al-Kursi, Beer Al-Hamam, Al-Howa Cave and Dabie Cave) and two other lava caves (Azzam Cave and Dahdal Cave) in September 2003 and March 2004 (Table). The two smaller caves are most probably pressure ridge caves formed by the buckling-up of the upper layers Table (Kempe et al.). Data of Jordan lava caves (locations WGS 84). Figure 1 (Kempe et al.). Survey of the Abu Al-Kursi lava tube cave, in Jordan.

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77 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Figures for Kempe et al..

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 78 while they were still hot and plastic. Abu Al-Kursi (Figs. 1, 2, 3) and Beer Al-Hamam (Fig. 4, 5) are large lava tunnels, up to 15 m wide and 8 m high. Al Howa is the section of a medium-sized lava tunnel while Dabie Cave is the smallest of these conduits, less then 4 x 2 m in cross section. These tunnels served to transport lava subterraneously over long distances, i.e. in case of the large caves possibly over several tens of kilometres. Now they are accessible through ceiling collapses, which allow studying the structure of their roofs. These consist of uninterrupted sets of lava sheets which show that these natural tunnels did not form by over-crusting of been studied in Hawaii (e.g., Kempe, 2002) and now can be tunnels shows that the basaltic lava must have been very hot upon eruption, and that it was piped through the tunnels over or less than 2, comparable to the distal slopes of Hawaiian volcanoes. In fact, there should be many subparallel tunnels the Island of Hawaii. Thus it came as a surprise that such lengths of the tunnels still are accessible. Dahdal Cave, Abu Al-Kursi, Beer Al-Hamam and Dabi Cave contain thick sediment deposits. In the case of the three latter caves, this sediment causes their terminations. During torrential rains, the stream in a wadi washes surface sediment into Beer AlHamam. The lower part of the cave ponds during such rains, water are seen in the sediment surface in the upper part of illite and koalinite (in decreasing order of amount) compose most of the sediment. That indicates a wind-blown origin, possibly a glacial loess. In the upper centimetres the sediment also contain large concentrations of ammonium nitrate. This is derived from pigeon droppings. In both sections of Abu All these caves were known locally. Until recently, Azzam Cave was used as a sheep pen. Its entrance was excavated recently, and a nearby sediment pile contains pot shards. Black drippings caused by the use of plastic irrigation pipes as makeshift torches reveal visits by adventurous explorers in Abu Al-Kursi. Visiting Beer Al-Hamam requires climbing down an overhanging pit 5 m deep, but it must have been visited in the past because we found stone cairns inside. Dahdal Cave contains a stone wall so it, too, was visited in the past. Some of these visits, however, may have been in were found in the neighbourhood of Dahdal Cave and in two digs in the entrance of Abu Al-Kursi. Dahdal Cave, both sec tions of Abu-Al-Kursi and Dabi Cave contain camel bones and were used as dens by hyenas (Fig. 3). Shallow circular pits are seen throughout Abu Al-Kursi. They do not appear to be anthropogenic since no excavated material is present. Possibly they are hyena or wolf sleeping pits. The mandible hyena was found in Dabi Cave. Considering the age of these caves, they could contain very valuable deposits of faunal fossils covering a large section of the Pleistocene. References: Genese. In: W. Rosendahl & A. Hoppe (eds.): Angewandte Geowissenschaften in Darmstadt Schriftenreihe der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 15 : 109-127. Tarawneh, K., Ilani, S, Rabba, I., Harlavan, Y., Peltz, S., Ibrahim, K., Weinberger, R., Steinitz, G. 2000. Dating of the Harrat Ash Shaam Basalts Northeast Jordan (Phase 1). Nat. Res. Authority; Geol. Survey Israel. Caverns in Volcanic Terrains in Costa Rica, Central America Ral Mora 1,2 Guillermo Alvarado 1,2,4 and Carlos Ramrez 1,2,3 1 Red Sismolgica Nacional. raulvolcanes@yahoo.com.mx 2 Escuela Centroamericana de Geologa, Universidad de Costa Rica 3 Centro reinvestigaciones Geofsicas (CIGEFI), Universidad de Costa Rica 4 Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad Costa Rica is located in an evolved volcanic arc (< 30 ma), which is a product of the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate. This country contains many diverse volcanic landforms, developed during the last 200 Ma of its caverns and grottos in volcanic areas of Costa Rica, together with a preliminary inventory: a) volcanic caverns The majority of its caverns of volcanic origin are small and Los Angeles). Also included are possible collapsed lava tubes of lava or jameos, and a grotto which forms part of a crater in Turrialba volcano. All these are less than 11,000 years BP. b) caverns of marine origin (littoral caves) These are small caves mostly located in areas frequented by tourists. Thus they are comparatively well known. Most of them are located in cliffs and platforms of marine abrasion developed in oceanic basaltic complexes (ophiolites s.l. ) These rocks are part of an accreted Cretaceous-Eocene complex lo littoral caves also exist at Bajamar-Guacalillo beach in cliffs avalanches). These are comparatively large caverns, some of which are interconnected. They are adjacent to sandy beaches, and usually are visited by tourists at the low tide. In addi tion, submarine and subaerial littoral caverns exist on Cocos exposure of the submarine Cocos volcanic range. This type of cave is uncommon in Costa Rica and is less known than the others. An example is present in Late Pliocene

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79 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 lava on the left margin of Peas Blancas River, and a small grotto known as Cave of Death is present on the left bank of the Toro River. It contains lethal concentrations of CO 2 Probably the best known and most spectacular example is a natural bridge formed in Middle Pleistocene ignimbrite called Puente de Piedra (Bridge of Stone). It provides a vehicular crossing of a creek in a town named Tacares of Greece. d) anthropogenic grottos The most important of these are pre-Columbian shelters part of the country. These include the Indian Cave in Caas and a cave in Salitral of Bagaces.) Other grottos are present on pumice fall deposits dated of 0.30 ma (the Tibs layer), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. In general terms, all the caves and grottos are located on Upper Quaternary age formations and were inhabited by humans or were used for rituals. Because of their small size, those investigated to date have low speleological potential. Some of them, however, have a local tourism potential as well as geoarchaeological value not yet investigated nor exploited. In particular, caves of the spectacular Bajamar-Guacalillo beach have obvious value in geological tourism. Not yet investigated are a probable natural lava tunnel at Turrialba volcano and a reported erosional tunnel at Liberia River. The Lava Tubes of Shuwaymis, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint Consultant, Saudi Geological Survey. thepints@saudicaves.com Kahf Al Shuwaymis, located 204 km N of Medina in the so far mapped in Saudi Arabia. The lava source is Hazim al Khadra volcano, which is characterized by a series of large collapses terminating with the entrance to Kahf Al Shuwaymis. Several fumaroles are active on the slopes of this volcano, one of which emanates from inside a shelter cave. A small pressure-ridge cave was also noted in the area. Dahl Romahah is located 168 kms N of Medina in the secondary minerals which have leaked through the ceiling and walls. The cave contains a large cache of bones as well as coprolites from wolves, hyenas and foxes. The radon level in Dahl Romahah is considerably higher than in other Saudi lava tubes. In bygone days, this cave was used as a water reservoir by local people, who built a long wall on the surface to channel water into the cave. Aerial photographs, maps and other reports suggest that many other lava tubes will be found south of these two caves. Discovery and Survey of Hulduhellir, a Concealed (Entranceless) Lava Cave in the Hallmundarhraun, W. C. Iceland Chris Wood 1 Paul Cheatham 1 Heli Polonen 1 Rob Watts 1 and Sigurur S. Jnsson 2 1 Environmental and Geographical Sciences Group, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole BH12 5BB, UK. cwood@bournemouth.ac.uk 2 Icelandic Speleological Society (Hellarannsknaflag slands), PO Box 342, 121 Reykjavik, Iceland Research undertaken on the Hallmundarhraun in 2000 to ascertain the effectiveness of different geophysical methods revealed the possibility of a concealed continuation of the cave Stefnshellir. The 2000 survey by magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) indicated that the roof of the main passage of Stefnshellir lifted on other side of the 20m over 350m of cave passage. In 2003 the team were interested chain of 20 or more shatter rings (or collapsed tumuli) and the Surtshellir-Stefnshellir lava tube cave system and extended the survey to embrace the three nearest shatter rings. The results were quite remarkable, showing that the con cealed cave now given the Icelandic name Hulduhellir (Hidden Cave) passed directly beneath the shatter rings, Stefnshellir. The geopysical data infers that Hulduhellir is in places a large diameter passage, although the form that it takes beneath the shatter rings is not clear. In order to better understand the pattern of magnetic anomalies around the cave, a comparable geophysical survey was made over the acces sible, large main passage of Surtshellir, while attempts are also being made to replicate anomaly patterns with specialist modelling software. Figure (Mora et al.). Grotto that forms part of a volcanic crater in Turrialba volcano.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 80 Oral Session III Biospeleology of Volcanic Caves Long-term Study of Population Density of the Troblobitic Azorean Ground-Bettle Trechus terceiranus at Algar do Carvo Show Cave: Implications for Cave Management Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 and Fernando Pereira 2 1 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. pborges@angra.uac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores Trechus terceiranus Machado (Coleoptera, Carabidae) is the commonest trogobitic insect species in several lava tube caves and pits and in the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) on Terceira (Azores). One of the sites where this ground beetle reaches highest densities is the show cave Algar do Carvo, an impressive volcanic pit. The troglobitic fauna in this cave is particularly rich, with at least two endemic spider species occurring only in this site. Cave arthropods were sampled once per month for three years (2001-2003) using baited pitfall traps. All collected with the exception of the abundant Trechus terceiranus which were counted and returned to their environment. We found that adults are common all year-round, with some activity-density peaks in months between March and in activity-density of T. terceiranus from year to year. The these three years and this could have caused this decrease. We discuss the implications for management of the cave. Indicators of Conservation Value of Azorean Caves Based on Arthropod Fauna Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 Fernando Pereira 2 and Joo P. Constncia 3 1 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. pborges@angra.uac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores All Azorean lava tubes and volcanic pits known to contain hypogean fauna (37 cavities) were evaluated for species di versity and rarity, based on arthropod populations. To produce an unbiased multiple-criteria index ( importance value for conservation, IV-C) incorporating diversity and rarity based indices and geological and management based indices, an iterative partial multiple regression analysis was performed. In addition, an irreplaceability index and the complementarity method (using heuristic methods) were used to select the most important caves for conservation management. Most hypogean endemic species have restricted distribu tions; some are known from only one cave. It was concluded that several well-managed protected caves per island are neces sary to preserve an adequate fraction of endemic arthropods. For presence/absence data, suboptimal solutions indicate that protection of at least 50% lava-tubes with known hypogean fauna is needed if the goal is representation of 100% of en demic arthropod species in a minimum set of reserves. The most diverse arthropod assemblages occur in large (and beautiful) caves; thus cave size plays an important role in explaining the faunal diversity of arthropods in the Azores. Based both on the uniqueness of species composition and/or high species richness, conservation efforts should be focused on the following unmanaged caves: Algar das Bocas do Fogo (S. Jorge); Gruta dos Montanheiros, Gruta da Ribeira do Fundo, Furna de Henrique Maciel, Gruta do Soldo and Furna das Cabras II (terra) (Pico); Gruta das Anelares and Gruta do Parque do Capelo (Faial); Gruta dos Balces, Gruta das Agulhas and Gruta do Chocolate (Terceira); gua de Pau (S. Miguel). Indicators of Conservation Value of Azorean Caves Based on Its Bryophyte Flora at Cave Entrances Rosalina Gabriel 1 Fernando Pereira 2 Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 and Joo P. Constncia 3 1 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. rgabriel@angra.uac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores Cave entrances in the Azores are particularly humid habitats. These provide opportunities for the colonization of a diverse assemblage of bryophyte species. Using both published data rarity of bryophytes at the entrance of all known Azorean species includes the liverworts Calypogeia arguta Jubula hutchinsiae Lejeunea lamacerina and the mosses Epiptery gium tozeri Eurhynchium praelongum Fissidens serrulatus Fissidens viridulus Isopetrygium elegans Lepidopilum virens Tetrastichium fontanum Several rare Azorean bryophyte species appear with dense populations at some cave entrances (e.g. Archidium alternifolium ; Asterella africana ; Pla giochila longispina ), which highlights the importance of this habitat in terms of conservation of these plants. To produce an unbiased multiple-criteria index ( importance value for conservation IV-C), several indices were calculated (based on bryophyte diversity and rarity, and also on geological and management features) and an iterative partial multiple regression analyses was performed. Preliminary data sows that three pit caves are particu larly diverse in bryophytes (e.g. Algar do Carvo, Bocas do Fogo and Furna do Enxofre). This indicates the importance of shaded and humid openings. Lava tubes with a diverse

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81 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 troglobitic fauna also are diverse in terms of bryophyte spe cies (e.g., Algar do Carvo, Gruta dos Montanheiros, Gruta da Agostinha, Furna do Henrique Maciel). We also evaluate the utility of several cave management indices as surrogates of bryophyte diversity in Azorean volcanic cavities. On the Nature of Bacterial Communities from Four Windows Cave, El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA Diana E. Northup 1 Cynthia A. Connolly 2 Amanda Trent 1 Penelope J. Boston 3 Vickie Peck 4 and Donald O. Natvig 1 1 Biology Department, University of New Mexico. dnorthup@unm.edu 2 Socorro High School 3 Earth and Environmental Science Department, New Mexico Tech 4 Sandia National Laboratory One of the striking features of some lava tubes is the ex tensive bacterial mats that cover the walls. Yet, despite their prominence in lava tubes, little is known about the nature of these bacterial communities. To rectify this situation we have investigated the bacterial mats that cover the walls of Four Windows Cave, a lava tube in El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico (see Figure). These bacterial mats, which oc cur in the twilight zone adjacent to algal mats, and in dark zone of the lava tube, cover from 25-75% of the wall. Their macroscopic and microscopic visual appearance suggests that these bacterial mats are composed of actinomycetes, bacteria that commonly inhabit caves. Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that break down complex organic matter and thrive in environments where nutrients are sparse and conditions extreme. With a temperature of 0-2C and seeping organic matter for nourishment, Four Windows provides an excellent habitat for these bacteria. Some types of because they excrete antibiotic products to repel invaders. Cave bacterial mats may have such antibiotic properties. Vacuuming of the bacterial mats and the adjacent algae, demonstrated the presence of collembola and mites on the algae and no invertebrates on the bacterial mats. In an effort to phylogenetically characterize bacterial colony members, we extracted DNA from wall rock com munities, using a soil DNA extraction technique developed products were cloned, and thirty clones were sequenced in their entirety. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 11 clones exhibited unique banding, an indicator of genetic diversity. Comparison of our sequences with those in the Ribosomal Database II revealed that the Four Windows bacterial sequences are most closely related to actinomycetes, as suspected. Some clones also showed similarities to environmental soil strains. Other clones are related to genera such as Nocardia and Frankia although not closely. These results reveal a diverse community of bacteria and the presence of several novel bacterial species. To investigate the degree to which the actinomycetes had adapted to the lava tube environment, we also investigated the ability of bacteria cultured from these mats to withstand the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Bacteria from the mats and from the surface rocks above the lava tube were cultured on R2A medium on-site in Four Windows Cave, were allowed to grow for 24-hours in the cave environment, and were then transported to the laboratory where they were grown at 2C in an incubator. We subjected twelve isolates from the lava tube to one dose (100 seconds) and a half dose (50 seconds) of UV radiation. For controls, we subjected six isolates from the cave surface to the same radiation treatments and also allowed replicates of all the isolates to grow without any radiation. The results showed a general trend in which microbes isolated from the lava tube were much more UV sensitive than the microbes isolated from the surface. However, all of the microbes tested displayed at least slight sensitivity to UV radiation. Based on the results, the bacterial colonies currently inhabiting the Four-Windows lava tube appear to be at least somewhat cave-adapted. Our studies of the actinomycete communities in Four Windows Cave reveal a diverse community of bacteria that may produce secondary compounds that make them unpalat able to invertebrates. These bacteria appear to have become at least somewhat cave-adapted as evidenced by their loss of UV resistance. Figure (Northup, et al.). Mats of actinomycete bacteria spread across wall of Four Windows Cave, El Maplais National Monument. During some seasons the bacterial mats are hydrophobic and the walls appear silvered when light is shown upon them.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 82 Large Invertebrate Diversity in Four Small Lava Tubes of Madeira Island Elvio Nunes 1 D. Agun-Pombo 1,2 Pedro Orom 3 and R. Capela 1,2 1 Department of Biology, University of Madeira, Campus Universitrio da Penteada, 9000 390 Funchal, Madeira. panama@net.sapo.pt 2 CEM, Centre for Macaronesian Studies, Campus Universitrio da Penteada, 9000-390 Funchal, Madeira 3 Depto. Biologa Animal, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands The epigean fauna of Madeira is well known, highly cave-dwelling fauna was not very well known. Madeira is a comparatively old island (5 My) with few modern lavas and therefore only a comparatively small number of lava tube caves are known: 21 volcanic caves have been reported. Of these, some already have been destroyed and others (e.g. So studied: So Vicente (Cardais Caves) and Machico (Cavalum Caves). The Machico lava tubes are under serious pressure because of frequent visitation but still represent the best preserved group of lava tubes in Madeira. Yet their cavedwelling fauna is little known. Although a few reports have been published, they have dealt only with few taxa. Further, these were reported merely from the complex as a whole without indication of which individual species was noted in which cave. At present, its fauna is at special risk because of current plans for construction of a tunnel. The resulting urgent need for detailed information led us to study biodiversity in Invertebrates were sampled by sight and by 32 baited pitfall traps set during a seven months period. Of 8,497 sampled specimens, 14.3% were Phoridae, representing 9 species. This family was excluded from further consideration. The remaining specimens belong to 69 taxa. Of these, 8 were known endemisms, 5 were new species and 1 was a new record to Madeira. Previously only 18 species were known from these caves, and 8 of these were not found in this study. The estimated number of species in this complex is 79. For a small cave complex with less than 300 m in total length, this is a considerable number. Cavalum II had the greatest num ber of species. Although many species were present in more than one cave, some were found in only one. For example the endemic spider Centromerus sexoculatus was sampled only in Cavalum I, the pseudoescorpion Microcreagrina madeirensis in Cavalum III and the carabid Trechus fulvus maderensis in Landeiros Cave. This sampling thus demonstrated that protective mea sures are urgently needed.for the cave-dwelling fauna of the Machico complex. Oral Session IV Theoretical Studies, Conservation, and Management of Caves Speleothemic Minerals Deposited as Condensates from Vapors, 1919 Lava Flow, Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii, USA William R. Halliday Honorary President, IUS Commission on Volcanic Caves, 6530 Cornwall Court, Nashville, TN USA 37205. bnawrh@webtv.net Few publications acknowledge the existence of cave min erals deposited from fumes and/or steam. The 1919 Postal Included are lava tube caves, hollow tumulus caves, drained in the fumes of different areas are readily detected by human its caves is at least intermittently hyperthermal, with varied patterns of steam and fume emissions and varied mineral deposition along hot cracks and in other locations on ceilings, Working conditions include up to 100% relative humidity and temperatures up to 130 degrees F, but as a result of ther can be measured in speleothemic areas. Sulfates, chlorides and (rarely) elemental sulfur are believed to be present. An initial tion of the position of Cave Specialist at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. A new project is strongly indicated. Climate Modeling for Two Lava Tube Caves at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA Kenneth L. Ingham 1 Diana E. Northup 2 and Calvin W. Welbourn 3 1 Kenneth Ingham Consulting, LLC. ingham@i-pi.com 2 Biology Department, University of New Mexico 3 The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services who manage caves for human visitation, protection, and the conservation and restoration of bat roosts. Both published and unpublished information about cave climates is limited, however. Mathematical models of cave climate are even more limited, and for lava tube caves, these appear to be totally lacking. Because they are simpler than many limestone caves (thus making the task of modelling tractable) we tested the use of lava tube caves as laboratories in which to do climate modeling. We present the results of investigating temperature and humidity in two lava tube caves at El Malpais National Monu ment, New Mexico, USA. One cave was a single-entrance to/from cracks on the surface. In these two tubes, we col lected 1.5 years of temperature and humidity data with Onsett

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83 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Hobo dataloggers. Using the data, we investigated how temperature and humidity change with season and distance from the entrance, and we now propose mathematical models surface as well as advection. This implies that, at least in these lava tube caves, accurate prediction of temperature is possible. Paauhau Civil Defense Cave, Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: A Lava Tunnel (Pyroduct) Stephan Kempe 1 Ingo Bauer 1 and Horst-Volker Henschel 2 1 University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Schnittspahnstr 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 POB 110661, D-64221 Darmstadt, Germany Paauhau Civil Defense Cave was surveyed and geologi cally inspected by the authors in 2001. It is located on the Hamakua volcanics (200-250 to 65-70 ka). It is the largest lava tunnel (pyroduct, lava tube) known on this volcano. Typical morphologic elements of natural lava tunnels are present, including secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, lava falls, and lava stalactites. The cave has only a moderate exceed 1-2 m 2 The cave has a dendritic passage pattern and is only a section of a once longer system (Fig. bottom). The present entrance is situated at the downhill end of the cave. It looks out into a modern canyon (Kahawailiilii Gulch). Upslope, the Alpine Stream Passage of the cave ends in breakdown at the wall of the same gulch. The Main Passage ends at a lava choke, and Mudcrawl and other side passages end in mud and sand chokes. The presence of casts of large trees shows that the cave lava transgressed a forested terrain. Plunge pools expose a diamict which contains large blocks cave lava. The Table lists some of the morphometric char acteristics of the cave. Water of the gulch entered the cave upslope and traversed much but not all of the cave modifying it substantially (see Fig. top). It left polished walls and ceilings, large plunge pools, elevation passages which then fed water back to the main gallery. It excavated four large plunge pools, cutting through the dense base sheet of the lava and exposing underlying strata. Polished ceilings show where the water sumped in enough to create potholes and to remove blocks of the lava from the caves margins and grind them to rounded boulders and gravel. Even though dripwater presently collects in the charcoal shows that nearly all the caves passages were visited by ancient Hawaiians. They left numerous piles of stones, cairns, and stone rings, and also placed stones on the walls. The purpose of this is unknown. The presence of caves eroded Kukaiau Cave, Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Water-Eroded Cave (A New Type of Lava Cave in Hawaii) Stephan Kempe 1 Marlin S. Werner 2 and Horst-Volker Henschel 3 1 University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Schnittspahnstr 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 P.O. Box 11509, Hilo, Hawaii 96721-6509, USA 3 POB 110661, D-64221 Darmstadt, Germany From 2000 to 2002, Kukaiau Cave (alias ThatCave/ ThisCave) was explored, traversed from end to end for the in the Hamakua volcanics (200-250 to 65-70 ka). Together with Paauhau Civil Defense Cave (a natural lava tunnel) lavas of Mauna Kea volcano. Furthermore, we assert that it entirely to stream erosion. Kukaiau Cave is ca. 1,000 m long. It is used by an episodic river that enters the cave by a series of waterfall pits. The resurgence of the stream is 108 m lower than its insurgence: thus the average slope is 9.8 (Fig. 1). 200 m before the exit upward over a series of gravel chutes into a vadose passage which follows the dip of the strata (Fig. 2 a-d). The cave is essentially erosional in origin. We concluded this from the geology of the strata exposed in the cave, from its morphology and from the lack of typical lava tunnel fea tures (such as pahoehoe sheets of the primary roof, secondary ceilings, lava falls, glazing, etc.). At the upper entrance the cave is located in a thick series of aa. The lower section was created by removing aa and diamict layers, thus excluding the possibility that the cave developed from a precursor lava tunnel (pyroduct; lava tube). Also, in its phreatic sump section, the cave makes several right angle turns and moves upward through a series of pahoehoe sheets, unlike any lava tunnel. Furthermore, the major section of the upper cave has Table (Kempe et al., Civil Defense Cave). Morphometric characteristics of the cave.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 84 Map for Kempe et al. Civil Defense Cave. developed along a red paleosoil which forms a base layer. Allophane and halloysite (minerals produced by weathering) helped in sealing the primary porosity of this base layer causing a locally perched water table. Water moved along this base layer on a steep hydraulic gradient through the interstices in aa and through small pahoehoe tubes. This exerted a high pressure on the porous diamict of the lower cave, causing its removal by erosion. These observations of water-eroded caves in lavas in Hawaii offer a new perspective on deepFeasibility of Public Access to rhnkaggur rni B. Stefnsson Kambsveg 10, 104 Reykjavk, Iceland. gunnhildurstef@simnet.is Spring 1991. Public access to this tremendous volcanic bottle-shaped chimney subsequently has been proposed and discussed several times. A tunnel to the bottom of the vault has been considered repeatedly. That proposal is not attractive. Although the vault is impressive from the bottom, the view basically is of bare country rock devoid of its original lava coating and formations, for tens of meters upward. This is not especially exciting, nor is standing on the pile of fallen rock at the bottom. Because of weathering of the uppermost part of the shaft and because of falling snow, ice and other debris, danger from rockfall and shatter exists within a radius of 10m from the center line. The possibility of additional rockfall from the overhanging sides of the shaft has not been investigated. A spiral stairway down the shaft would damage notable lava formations in the narrow funnel at the top. It also would spoil the view of the impressive crater opening at the top of the cinder cone. For the vault to be enjoyed, a spiral lad der hanging from the top would have to be 65m long. Its construction would not be feasible, nor for most persons to descend and ascend it. A few months ago, a new idea came to the author. At about -60 m, the shaft could be accessed through a 200 m tunnel. more attractive. At that level, a grid view balcony under the closed NE vent would be under an overhang of solid rock

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85 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Figures for Kempe et al. Kukaiau Cave

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 86 where the shaft widens. Thus it would be sheltered from falling rock and snow. Intact lava formations are impressive at this level, and would be in no danger of damage. The sight downward into the widening chamber is as if one were standing on the top of a 20-story building inside a mountain. openings of two tunnels about 4 x 4 m would occupy only about 1:1000 of the wall space. Between such tunnels, a balcony for lighting would do trivial damage to the walls. A light, stable chain fence around the opening at the top would accessible and conserving it at the same time. Whether or not this engineering project can really be done has not been decided, but preliminary work has begun. The author would welcome constructive input. Volcanic and Pseudokarstic Sites of Jeju Island (Jeju-do), Korea: Potential Features for Inclusion in a Nomination for the World Heritage List Kyung S. Woo 1 and S.-Y. Um 2 1 Cave Research Institute of Korea, Dep. of Geology, Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon, Kangwon 200-701, Korea. wooks@kangwon.ac.kr 2 Information Management Division, Cultural Properties Administration, Daejeon, 302-701, Korea Jeju Island, looking toward a nomination as a World Heritage Site. The Island contains a variety of volcanic landforms and more than 100 lava tube caves of geological and speleologi volcano, Hallasan (Mt. Halla), with satellite cones around its parasitic cones (Geomunoreum and Seongsan-Ilchubong), giant lava tubes (Bengdwi Cave, Manjang Cave, Gimnyeonsa Cave, Dangcheomul Cave and Susan Cave), an exposure of columnar jointing at Daepodong, a volcanic dome (Mt. Sanbang) and the Suwolbong tuff deposits. Especially notable and display perfectly preserved internal structures despite their age of 0.2-0.3 Ma BP. Dangcheomul Cave contains calcareous speleothems of superlative beauty. status: 1) The volcanic exposures of these features provide an accessible sequence of volcanogenic rocks formed in three dif ferent eruptive periods between 1 million and a few thousands years BP. The volcanic processes that made Jeju Island were quite different from those for adjacent volcanic terrain; 2) The listed features include a remarkable range of in ternationally important volcanic landforms that contain and The environmental conditions of the eruptions have created diverse volcanic landforms; 3) The largest and most spectacular lava tube caves are located in the western and north eastern parts. With a length of 7.416 km, Manjang Cave is one of the longest and most voluminous. Its single passage contains two (locally three) levels. Other, shorter caves (i.e., 4.481 km Bengdwi Cave) are more complex in form. Susan Cave is a beautifully formed classical lava tube with 4.393 km in length; leothems seen in some low elevation lava tube caves. This phenomenon is very uncommon, and the spectacular caves in which it occurs on Jeju Island are generally acknowledged to be worlds leading examples. Dangcheomul Cave can be considered to be the worlds most beautiful lava tube cave containing calcareous speleothems. Closed Depressions on Pahoehoe Lava Flow Fields and Their Relationship with Lava Tube Systems Chris Wood, Rob Watts, and Paul Cheatham Environmental and Geographical Sciences Group, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole BH12 5BB, UK. cwood@bournemouth.ac.uk been greatly misinterpreted. Many depressions have been the presence of collapse forms and regard all such features as lava rise pits. In their study of Icelandic pahoehoe lava different types of closed depressions, which they classify as: open skylights in the roofs of lava caves, conical depressions caused by surface collapse into underlying voids, lava rise pits, shallow sags from the draining of lava rises, shatter rings or collapsed tumuli. This paper will describe examples of the different types of and the Hallmundarhraun, and will discuss the role of lava tubes in their formation. It will be seen that an understanding of the forms of closed depressions assists interpretation of

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87 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Poster Presentations GESPEA: Working Group on Volcanic Caves of the Azores Manuel P. Costa 1 Fernando Pereira 2 Joo P. Constncia 3 Joo C. Nunes 3,4 Paulo Barcelos 2 and Paulo A.V. Borges 2,4 1 Matos Souto, Piedade, 9930 Lajes do Pico, Pico, Azores. paulino.costa@mail.telepac.pt 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores 4 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Geociencias & Dep. Cincias Agrrias, Ponta Delgada & Angra do Herosmo, Azores In 1998, the Regional Government of the Azores established a working group (called GESPEA) to be in charge of studying volcanic caves of the archipelago. This was done because of the rich geological and biological resources and values of the volcanic caves of this region, and their uniqueness. This intended to gather all available information on these caves. It also intends to streamline management of Azorean caves The various volcanic caves the Azores jointly form a dis biological and aesthetic patrimony that must be publicized and protected in ways consistent with each of these factors. In the GESPEA is working on policies for overall protection, Analysis of Iron Speciation Microstructures in Lava Samples from Hawaii by Position Sensitive X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Stephan Kempe 1 G. Schmidt 2 M. Kersten 2 and B. Hasse 3 1 University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Schnittspahnstr 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Geosciences Institute, Gutenberg University, Becherweg 21, D-55099 Mainz, Germany 3 DESY-HASYLAB, Notkestr 85, D-22603 Hamburg, Germany homogeneous. However, many of them contain fragmented minerals which formed before the eruption and are evident the rock may contain numerous vesicles formed by gases expanding within the melt. Iron is a common element in volcanic rocks. It may be present in different states of oxidation, depending on the time and speed of oxidation processes during and after cooling. shiny bluish-grey layer on surfaces of natural lava tunnels, which have been active for a long time. This shiny layer is commonly called glaze. become a powerful, widely-used method of speciation analysis. It allows direct, non-destructive determination of chemical bonding forms of selected elements, provided that they are ence data are available. Analysis of the near-edge structure (XANES) of the absorption spectrum provides information about the valence state and coordination geometry. The valence determines the exact location of the absorption edge on the energy axis, called the edge energy (E0). The coordination The standard application of XAFS is bulk analysis of homogenized samples. If a sample contains several different species of the selected element, it may be possible to iden tify all components from the resulting absorption spectrum although without gaining any information on their spatial distribution. Spatial XAFS analyses of metal speciation in solid samples at the micrometer scale have been largely lim ited to spot analyses, using a microfocussed beam directed at a few pre-elected spots on the sample. The investigation of entire sample areas by this method is not practicable because a spot-by-spot collection of absorption spectra is extremely time-consuming. Only a few attempts have been made to perform XAFS imaging experiments by parallel detection (Kersten and Wroblewski, 1999, Mizusawa and Sakurai, 2004). Lava glaze samples from Three Fingers Mauka Cave, Mackenzie State Park, Hawaii were analyzed. The rocks which form these lava tubes are known to contain different ratios of FeO / Fe 2 O 3 depending on their location (Kempe, 2003). In thin sections, some particles up to 1 mm in diameter will be presented. The micro XAFS experiments were conducted at HASY LAB Beamline G3. A spatially resolved image of the sample area penetrated by the monochromatic beam (approx. 10 mm wide and 5 mm high) was recorded directly on the X-ray sensitive CCD chip of the camera (Hamamatsu C-4880, chip dimension 13 x 13 mm, pixel resolution 13 m, cooled down to 65 C). The shutter was synchronized with the readout of the CCD and the ioniza tion chambers (I0 in front of the sample, I1 behind it) so the exposure time could be optimized by normalizing it to the I1 reading. The energy range was from 7000 to 7400 eV with incremental steps of 1 eV, so each scan contained a sequence of 401 images along with the readings from the ionization chambers. The monochromator was stabilized electronically. routines and the remote sensing software ENVI. After creat Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was calculated for an energy range of 100 eV around the absorption edge. Thus the areas on the sample with the most evident differences in the image range around the absorption edge were found. two eigenimages. The according spectra were obtained by

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 88 summarizing the absorption spectra of all pixels which were the absorption edge. The varying shape and height of the absorption edges with a clear resemblance of the map to the visible structures. The E0 values obtained from the average of three scans are 7117.73 eV for class 1 and 7118.15 eV for class 2. These must be interpreted with some caution. A precise calibration of the monochromator was not possible, and since energy steps of 1 eV were used, the difference between the E0 of classes 1 and each scan showed the same E0 with only negligible variation, and the same difference between classes 1 and 2: thus it is believed that the average can be trusted quite well. The edge energy of trivalent iron species is known to be approximately 2 eV above E0 of divalent species. The results of the present study suggest that the samples contain an inhomogeneous mix of different iron species with slightly different valence states. Pyroxenes and/or olivines are the most likely components, and some hematite particles also may be present, although they could not be seen in the sample. Due to the lack of calibration and the small difference of species is not possible at this point. For this purpose, a better signal to noise ratio is needed so that the full EXAFS spectra can be analyzed, not just the XANES region. With this setup, position sensitive x-ray absorption spec troscopy is possible at about 10m spatial resolution. By detailed examination of the XANES spectra, information about differences in Fe concentration and oxidation state between areas was obtained. Future efforts will focus on samples with clearly visible hematite glazing while avoiding the presence of holes in the samples. With an improved setup, we will seek to make the full EXAFS range usable for analysis. References: Kersten, M., Wroblewski, T. 1999. Two-dimensional XAFS Topography of amorphous oxyhydroxide layers in Mn/ Fe-nodules. In: W. Laasch et al. (eds.): HASYLAB Annual Report 1998. Mizusawa, M, Sakurai, K. 2004. XAFS imaging of Tsukuba gabbroic rocks: area analysis of chemical composition and local structure. J. Synchrotron Rad ., 11: 209-213. ihre Genese. In: W. Rosendahl & A. Hoppe (eds.): Ang ewandte Geowissenschaften in Darmstadt Schriftenreihe der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 15: 109-127. New Data on the Probable Malha Grande Lava Flow Complex Including Malha, Buracos, and Balces Caves, Terceira, Azores Fernando Pereira 1, 2, Paulo Barcelos 1 Jos M. Botelho 1 Luis Bettencourt 1 and Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 1 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. fpereira@notes.angra.uac.pt 2 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores is the longest cave on Terceira island. The current length of its mapped passages is 4.421 km. tube caves are probably isolated segments of the principal tube of Gruta dos Balces: Gruta dos Buracos and Gruta da Malha Grande. This would make the total length of Gruta dos Balces system about 5.021 km. Further, other lava tube caves north of Gruta dos Balces (e.g. Terra Mole, Cascata, Principiantes, Opala Branca and Chocolate) are in the same this is true, the total length of the Gruta dos Balces Complex is around 6 km. This would make Gruta dos Balces the longest lava tube system in the Azores, surpassing the Gruta das Torres lava tube system on Pico island. The Malha Grande lava tubes are believed to have been formed by the eruption of Pico do Fogo volcano 240 years ago. Its caves are occasionally visited by local people and need protection from vandalism above and below ground. Moreover, the presence of cattle is creating some disturbance in and around entrances to some of the caves. We recom mend that this notable area of large and beautiful caves be underground resources.

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89 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 2004 SYMPOSIUM PAPERS Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cave, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint thepints@saudicaves.com Abstract Ghar Al Hibashi is a lava tube situ (Mecca) Saudi Arabia. The cave has 581 m of mainly rectilinear passages containing a bed of loess up to 1.5 m deep, OSL-dated at 5.8.5 ka bp at its lowest level, as well as many bones and the desiccated scat of hyenas, wolves, foxes, bats, etc., well preserved due to a temperature of C 20-21 and humidity of 48%. Phytoliths have been found inside plant material preserved in samples of this scat. A human skull, 425 years old and the remains of an old wall indicate a potential for historical or archaeological studies. The loess bed is under study for testing microrobotic designs to navigate inside lava tubes on Mars. Two large bat guano deposits in this affecting bio-stalactites : soft, yel lowish, accretions, c. 4 cm long by 1 cm wide, thought to be formed of bat urine. Nineteen minerals were detected in samples collected, mostly related to the biogenic mineralization of bones and guano deposits. Three of them, pyro coproite, pyrophosphite and arnhemite are extremely rare organic compounds strictly related to the guano combustion, observed until now only in a few caves in Africa. Hibashi Cave may be one of the richest mineralogical shelters of the Arabian Peninsula, and has been included in the list of the ten minero logically most important lava caves in the world. Introduction In the year 2001, the Saudi Geological Survey initiated subproject 4.1.3 Map ping of underground cavities (caves) in Phanerozoic rocks. Studies of caves located in the Phanerozoic limestone belts of the country demonstrated that some contained artifacts, bones, etc. of historic, environmental and archeologi cal value (Pint, 2003), while others were judged aesthetically and structurally suitable for purposes of tourism (Forti et al, 2003, Cigna, 2004). In light of these studies, the investigation of cavi ties in Saudi Arabia was broadened to include lava caves in order to determine touristic purposes. Saudi Arabia has approximately Harrats (Fig.1). In late 2001 and early 2002, a preliminary survey for lavatube caves was carried out in Harrat an area of 5, 892 kms centered circa 270 km northeast of Jeddah. Six lava caves were located, three of which were mapped. These three caves were found to contain items of historical, geologi cal and archeological interest (Roobol et al, 2002). From November 2002 to the present writing, other lava caves were located in Harrats Ithnayn, Buqum-Nawasif and northern, central and southern areas of Harrat Khaybar. Two of these caves, Dahl Romahah and Kahf Al Shuwaymis, are still under study. Hibashi Cave appears to be deserving of special attention due to the wealth of mineralogical data which has come to light from the analyses of speleothems found in it. It has, in fact, recently been included in the list of the ten mineral ogically most important lava caves in the world (Forti, 2004). In addition, 1.5 m in depth, of considerable interest to sedimentologists as well as scientists studying the lava tubes of Mars, whose sediment, according to NASA, 2004. Hibashi Cave is also the site of two been described in speleological publica tions (Martini, 1994b) and whose effect on secondary cave minerals is of interest to speleo-mineralogists. The casual discovery of a human skull and a man-made wall inside Hibashi Cave give hope that archeologists and historians could carry out fruitful studies in this cave. In addition, the considerable quantities of bones, guano and animal scat inside the cave may shed light on Peninsula. In particular, phytoliths found from Hibashi Cave may be of value in Arabia. It is hoped that this publication will and will be of use to government au thorities in protecting the cave from vandalism and intrusions. Geology of Harrat Nawasif-Buqum Ghar Al Hibashi is located in Harrat encompassing about 11,000 km and roughly situated between the towns of Turubah and Ranyah, E of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The origin of the basalts in Harrat Nawasif-Buqum is attributable to the period of magmatic eruptions that began in the Miocene and continued until historic times. These basalts can ternary. They are primarily titaniferous olivine basalts, including alkali basalts, basanites and nepheline-basanites, oc casionally interlayered with pyroclastics. Hotzl et al (1978) took two samples

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91 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 of Harrat Nawasif-Buqum basalts for potassium-argon age-dating, yielding ages of 3.50.3 million years for the older basalts and 1.1.3 million years for the younger. Because of the relatively unweathered condition of the basalt in which it is found, it can be assumed that Ghar Al Hibashi lies within one of the noted that the younger sample dated by Hotzl et al (1978) was taken from the area of Shaib Hathag, some 63 kms NE of Ghar Al Hibashi. Arno et al (1980) report ages of 22.8, 15.8, 7.3, 4.4 and 2.8 million years for samples taken from age of the basalt in which Hibashi was formed, very much in question. Ziab and Ramsay, 1986, state that the Buqum basalt is between 20 and 25 m thick in the Turubah area but much thinner farther north. The depth of Ghar Al Hibashi (about 22 meters from the the cave may lie within the basalt stud ied by Ziab and Ramsay, which they describe as gray to dark gray, vesicular, medium grained and prophyritic, con taining phenocrysts of olivine, titanaug ite, plagioclase and opaque minerals. They further state that it has an SiO 2 content ranging from 42 to 47 percent, high TiO 2 (1.42-2.79 percent), and high P2O5 (0.32-0.67 percent). Almost all the rocks they studied were undersaturated, with 0.3 to 7.8 percent nepheline, 8-21 percent olivine and no quartz in the norm. All the rocks were highly sodic and normative alibite exceeded norma tive orthoclase, typically by a factor of Figure 2 is an aerial photograph cinder cones in the vicinity of Ghar Al to be at least four different events can be seen within one km distance from the cave entrance. While steep-walled scoria cones less than 200,000 years old lie less than two kms from the cave, the entrance to Ghar Al Hibashi appears to Description of Ghar al Hibashi The exact location of Hibashi Cave is given in Pint, 2001, where it is registered as Cave number 180. The cave is located approximately in the center of Harrat Nawasif-Buqum inside a vasicular Figure 4. The entrance to Ghar al Hibashi. No rigging is required to visit the cave. basaltic area, in a slightly raised por from a large crater to the southeast. The cave lies approximately 22 m below the surface and contains 581 m of passages. runs east and west, intersected by a side passage running NW-SE, downsloping of the cave are shown in Figure 3 and the cave entrance in Figure 4. Secondary Minerals of the Cave. During three different expeditions

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 92 Figure 3. Map of Ghar al Hibashi. A larger version of this map is included in the supplementary material on the CD.

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93 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 carried out in 2003, a few samples of secondary chemical deposits were collected inside Ghar Al Hibashi to be analysed from the mineralogical point of view. This research was carried out as part of the MIUR 2002 Project Mor phological and Mineralogical Study of speleothems to reconstruct peculiar karst environments under the direction of Prof. Paolo Forti and is described in detail in Forti et al, 2004. The minerals detected in samples from Hibashi cave are listed in table 1. Mineralogical importance of Ghar Al Hibashi A great variety of minerals developed within the cave environment thanks to the peculiar conditions which in time made it possible for different minerogenetic mechanisms to become active. Among these the one related to guano combustion is quite unusual and allows a better description of some very rare cave minerals, which were observed until now only in a few caves of Namibia. Thanks to these findings, Hibashi lava tube has been referred to as the most important volcanic cave of Saudi Arabia and the richest mineralogical shelter of the country (Forti et al, 2004). For this reason, Hibashi cave has been inserted in the top ten volcanic caves for hosted minerals (Forti, 2004). This recently advanced opinion that amongst the different cavern environments, the volcanic one is the most favourable for the development of minerogenetic mechanisms and consequently of cave minerals. Loess Floor Cover. To date, six vol canic caves located in Saudi Arabia have been studied and mapped by spe leologists. In each of these, sediment covers most, if not all of the original compound were found in lava caves on Harrat Kishb (Roobol et al, 2002) while Kahf al Shuwaymis in Harrat Ithnayn of Dahl Romahah in Harrat Khaybar. In addition, eight lava caves surveyed in Jordan show similar characteristics (Kempe, 2004). The sediment in Saudi Arabias Ghar Al Hibashi, however, seems to consist mainly of a thick (up to 1.5 m deep) layer of powdery silt. In order to better understand the nature of the Hibashi sediment, researchers par ticipating in the SGS Loessic Silt Project were invited to visit the cave. Collection of samples. Two samples of silt were taken on August 31, 2003, in each case from the very lowest level possible, immediately above the original order to access the bottom of the sedi ment layer. A pressurized water sprayer content of lava channels; Hi13: lower extreme content of lava channel; Hi14: burnt coating on ceiling; Hi15: sticky stalactite between stations 18w-19w; HiZZ: sticky stalactites near station 12w. The following, detrital and/or not cave-related, minerals have been also detected: calcite (Hi2), dolomite (Hi2), feldspar (Hi2, Hi7, Hi8, Hi9, HiZZ), illite (Hi9) and pyroxene (Hi8); no minerals at all have been detected in Hi10.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 94 was used to strengthen the side walls as the holes were dug and also to minimize the amount of dust in the air. Sample number one was taken from a point 4 m SE of station 11W, in the middle of the passage. The sediment was 40 cm deep at this point. The sample was forced into a heavy-duty PVC tube which was Desiccated hyena scat, twigs and frag ments of basalt were found lying on the sample was taken from the bottom of a hole dug halfway between stations 8W and 9W, equidistant from the walls of the passage. At this location, 60 meters sampling point, the sediment was found to be 1.5 m deep (Fig. 5). Analyses of loess content. The re sults of analyses carried out on these samples will be reported in Vincent and Kattan, 2005. Below we briefly summarize comments on the Hibashi sediment communicated to the chief author by Dr. Peter Vincent. A laser granulometer indicates that this sediment is loess with a mean par silt dominated by quartz, feldspar and kaoline, as determined by XRD analysis. The kaoline indicates that it was derived from deep weathering because it is an end-product clay mineral that now only U.K., using a Danish instrument from Riso. The age of sample 1 (depth: 40 cm, circa 150 m from the cave entrance) was found to be 4.50.2 ka while the age of sample 2 (depth: 150 cm, circa 90 m from the entrance) is 5.8.5 ka. Both of these dates are post-Holocene wetphase (7 ka bp) and presumably relate to the onset of aridity and more frequent windstorms (Vincent, 2004). Role of Hibashi loess for design of microrobots for Mars A joint project by the Field and Space Robotics Labora tory of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and the Cave and Karst Studies Program at New Mexico Tech. (NM Institute of Mining and Technol ogy) is using Hibashi Cave as a model for lava tubes on Mars. This project, funded by the NASA Institute for Ad vanced Concepts (NIAC) is looking at microrobotic technology for accessing such systems in extraterrestrial locations (Dubowsky et al., 2003). Interest in lava tubes on other bodies including Mars and the Moon for future space missions has been suggested by a number of investigators (Boston, 2003, Frederick, 1999, Horz, 1985). A detailed NIAC study over four years has produced a set of enabling technologies that will allow robotic and ultimately human use of Martian lava-tube caves. One of those highly capable miniature robotics for ground-based detection, reconnaissance, and mapping of lava-tube structures, has led to the most recent project. Mars has many lava tubes of great size that are quite conspicuous on or bital imaging data from various Mars mission instruments. The NMT team these. Because of the large amount of ally distributed on Mars by planet-scale dust storms occurring at fairly regular intervals, the NMT workers have hy pothesized (Boston, 2004) that such materials would sift into lava tubes and with such material and presents a perfect analog for such a situation. According to Boston, 2004, the detailed map of the system, shown in Figure 3, has been invaluable in producing robotic motion simulations created by the MIT team to test the capabilities of the candidate microrobotic designs to navigate into and around such a challenging environment. The project is continuing with a Phase II proposal to be submitted to NASA in the near future. Animal and avian excreta in Ghar al Hibashi The arid climate of Saudi Arabia results in relatively low humidity within most of the countrys caves and, therefore, the preservation of much of the caves contents which, under wetter conditions, would be destroyed by decomposition or water movement. The humidity of Hibashi Cave, for example, is typically 48%. Animal and avian excreta introduced into the cave environment have been re markably well preserved in Hibashi Cave and merit study, as will be explained below. In contrast, so little evidence of the presence of fauna has been found inside most of the worlds caves, that the International Union of Speleology (UIS) has only one symbol for excreta, a v-shaped drawing which represents the guano of bats or birds. Hibashi Cave, however, contains the desiccated excreta of at least six species in such quantity that they are useful not only as land marks, but also for understanding the area, both inside and outside the cave. Figure 5. Measuring the depth of the loess bed at the second sampling point. forms in humid tropical condi tions. The quartz is almost cer tainly derived from the deeply weathering laterites which are There is abundant evidence that deep weathering of the Shield took place in Miocene times after the uplift, releasing the quartz silt. Because the silt could not have come from the basalt in the area (which is a basic rock and quartz poor), it is not be related to the weathering un derneath the local basalt or must almost certainly carried into the cave by air (Vincent, 2004). Age dating of Hibashi loess. Optically Stimulated Lumines cence (OSL) was used to date the two samples from Ghar Al Hiba shi. The procedures were carried out during a six-month period in 2003 at Oxford University,

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95 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Unlike typical coprolites, this dry scat can easily be broken apart and its con tents examined. By far the most frequently found type of scat is tan, sometimes white, in color, less than 4 cm long and less than 2 cms wide, sometimes tapered at one end. Benischke found large quan tities of similar scat in B7 (or Murub beh) Cave, located on Saudi Arabias Summan Plateau. Toothmarks on bones found near these droppings led experts in Austria to identify them as hyena scat (Benischke et al, 1988). Although hyenas are not normally found in most parts of Saudi Arabia today, they can still be seen in the southwestern part of the kingdom where they are considered unwelcome predators. In 1998, speleolo gists observed the body of a recently killed hyena hanging in the air near Al Jawah village, approximately 103 kms SSW of Hibashi Cave. The great amount of hyena scat found in caves all over Saudi Arabia (Pint and Pint, 2004; Pint, 2000; Roobol et al., 2002; Al-Shanti et al., 2003) indicates that these animals were more prevalent in the past than they are today. Larger, cylindrically shaped scat, brownish in color, is less frequently found in Hibashi Cave. This is thought to be wolf scat, based on the opinions of local people regarding scat of similar size, shape and color found in other Saudi limestone and lava caves (Al-Shanti et al., 2003). Figure 6 shows the three types of animal feces most frequently found in Saudi caves. Hyena scat is seen on the left and wolf scat on the right. It seems likely that the scat in the middle is from a fox. Similar scat was found in Black Scorpion cave where foxes were observed outside the cave, at night. Live foxes were also seen near and inside Murubbeh/B7 cave where the desiccated body of an Arabian Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica) was found. Carbon dating indicated the remains to be 1890 years old, suggesting that foxes have long lived deep inside caves in Saudi Arabia. Mounds of rock-dove guano are found between stations 3 and 4 and probably once covered a much larger part of the sun-lit portion of the cave, but have been Researchers at Oxford University, U.K. have discovered phytoliths in plant cave. According to Mulder and Ellis (2000), plant opal-phytoliths are of great and Hibashi Cave in particular, may for the study of climate change and de Observations on a human skull found in Ghar al Hibashi Parts of a human skull were found in Ghar Al Hibashi by SGS geologist Ab dulrahman Al-Jouid on January 7, 2003. The two pieces were lying at the edge of a patch of sand 8 m NE of station 26 near the far eastern end of the cave. Because human skulls previously had been stolen from Murubbeh-B7 cave (see Forti et al, 2003, pp 18-19) and because Hibashi Cave has no gate and is occasionally visited by the general cave entrance and inside, it was decided to remove the skull parts from the cave for safekeeping. Photographs of the skull parts (Fig. 8) were shown to Donald A. McFarlane, Associate Professor at the W. M. Keck Science Center, Claremont Colleges, California. He stated (McFarlane, 2003) that both pieces were obviously hu man and appeared to be in quite good condition, even though the parietal and occipitals of the cranium were missing. the back of the cranium, the hole be ing the magnum foramen into which the spinal column connects. McFarlane noted the cranium had apparently split off along the coronal and squamosal sutures, possibly suggesting a relatively young (adult) individual, since these sutures increasingly fuse with age. He also noted that the skull appeared to have only seven teeth per quadrate. The 3 molar which typically develops be tween 15 -21 years of age appeared to be un-erupted. Since the second molar Figure 6. The three types of animal feces most frequently found in Saudi caves. From left: hyena, fox, and wolf. are microscopic bodies that oc cur in the leaves, roots, etc. of plants. They are composed of opaline silica or calcium ox alates and have unique shapes that act as signatures for the plants that produced them. In Ghar Al Hibashi, the age of phytoliths may be determined from the vertical position of the scat in the bed of loess or by carbon-dating scat samples. found in hyena and wolf scat (Fig. 7), caves in Saudi Arabia

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 96 comes through at about 11-12 years, McFarlane was of the opinion that the individual had been about 14-18 years old at the time of death. Photographs of the teeth were also that in this skull the canines were not fully erupted and baby tooth 5 was still skull belonged to a person 12 to 14 years old, using norms that apply to modern man. In 2003, samples were taken from the larger skull piece and sent to the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory at the Institute of Physics of the Silesian University of Technology, Gilwice Poland. Collagen was successfully extracted from the sample and a radiocarbon age of 42530 years BP was established. As may be noted in Fig. 9, the upper portion of the skull appears to have been such as from a sword or axe, suggesting the possibility of foul play in the death of this individual. Conclusions and recommendations A number of rare and unusual secondary cave minerals were found in Ghar Al Hibashi in a small number of samples taken mainly from one area of the cave. It is recommended that similar studies be carried out on samples from the extreme western end of the cave. In like manner, a thorough study could be made of the cave silt and of the phytoliths contained To date, no attempts have been made to dig for artifacts nor to study the bones, horns and other primate remains scat tered throughout the cave. The subsur interest to historians, archeologists and perhaps paleontologists. Although Hibashi Cave as been de clared of world-class importance, it is, at present, not protected by a gate or a fence and is occasionally visited by the general public, as indicated by sev near the entrance and deep inside. If the cave cannot be preserved exclusively ful to control the spontaneous tourism now going on there. Visitors might be restricted to certain areas of the cave and a walkway might be built (perhaps of native basalt cobbles) to reduce the dispersion of loess into the air. Such a walkway might benefit both tourists and scientists. Ghar Al Hibashi appears to be an unusual and important cave and it is hoped that studies of this lava tube will continue. References Al-Shanti, M.A., Pint, J.J., Al-Juaid, A.J., and Al-Amoudi, S.A., 2003: Prelimi nary survey for caves in the Habakah region of the Kingdom of Saudi Ara bia: Saudi Geological Survey OpenFile Report SGS-OF-2003-3, 32 p., Arno, V., Bakashwin, M.A., Bakor, A.Y., Barberi, F., Basahel, A., Di Paola, G.M., Ferrara, G., Gazzaz, M.A., Giuliani, A., Heikel, M., Marinelli, G., Nassef, A.O., Rosi, M., and San tacroce, R., 1980. Recent volcanism within the Arabian plate prelimi nary data from Harrats Hadan and Nawasif-Al Buqum, in Geodynamic evolution of the Afro-Arabian rift system: Atti dei convegni lincei (Ac cademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, Rome) Figure 8. The skull found in Ghar al Hibashi. It is approximately 425 years old. Figure 9. The upper portion of the skull appears to have been axe, suggesting the possibility of foul play in the death of this individual.

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97 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 no. 47, p. 629-643. Benischke, R., Fuchs, G., Weissen steiner, V., 1988, Karstphenomena of the Arabian Shelf Platform and their Second Report, Volume 1, Speleologi cal Investigations in the ShawyahMaaqla Region, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Austrian Academy of Sciences-KFUPM, pp. 49-50. Boston, P.J., 2004. Email sent to J. Pint on November 24, 2004 from Dr. Pe nelope J. Boston, Director, Cave and Karst Studies Program, Assoc. Prof. Earth and Environmental Sciences Dept., New Mexico Institute of Min ing and Technology. Boston, P.J. 2003. Extraterrestrial Caves. Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Sci ence. Fitzroy-Dearborn Publishers, Ltd., London, UK. Dental Consultant, formerly of King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh. Cigna, A., 2004. Development of show caves in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Report submitted to Saudi Geologi cal Survey, summarising the results obtained during Dr. Cignas visit to Saudi Arabia from 15 to 25 March, 2004. Dubowsky, S., Iagnemma, K., and Boston, P.J. 2004. Microbots for Large-scale Planetary Surface and Subsurface Ex ploration. Phase I Final report for NIAC CP. 02-02. http://www.niac. Forti, P., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A., and Pint, S.I., 2003. The development of tourist caves in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2003-6, Forti P., 2004. Minerogenetic processes and cave minerals in volcanic envi ronment: an overview. XI Int. Symp. on Vulcanospeleology, Pico Island, Azores; now in press for the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, National Speleological Society Forti P., Galli, E., Rossi, A., Pint, J., Pint, S., 2004. Ghar Al Hibashi lava tube: the richest site in Saudi Arabia for cave minerals. Manuscript accepted for publication in Acta Carsologica, December 2004 Frederick, R.D., 1999. Martian lava tube caves as habitats. Second Annual Mars Society Convention, Boulder, CO, Aug. 12-15, 1999. Horz, F., 1985. Lava tubes: Potential shelters for habitats. In, W. Mendell, ed., Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. pp. 405-412. Lu nar and Planet. Inst., Houston, TX. Hotzl, H., Lippolt, H.J., Maurin, V., Moster, H. And Rauert, W., 1978. Quarternary Studies on the recharge area situated in crystalline rock re gions, In: S.S. Al-Sayari and J.G. Zotl (eds.), Quarternary period in Saudi Arabia, pp. 230-239. Springer Verlag. Kempe, S., 2004. Email sent to J. Pint on November 16, 2004 by Prof. Dr. Stephan Kempe, Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany. Martini J.E.J., 1994b. The Combustion of Bat Guano A Poorly Known Phenomenon. South African Spe leological Association Bulletin 33, p.70-72. McFarlane, 2003. Email sent to John Pint on Feb. 10, 2003 from Donald A. Mc Farlane, Associate Professor, W. M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711-5916 USA. Mulder, C., Ellis, R.P., 2000. Ecological Grass Leaf Phytoliths: A Climatic Response of Vegetation Biomes to S.W.L. Jacobs & J. Everett (eds.), Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. Proceedings of the Second Interna tional Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons (MONOCOTS II: Sydney) CSIRO: Melbourne Pint, J.J., 2000, The Desert Cave Jour nal 1998-2000, NSS NEWS, October 2000, pp. 276-281. Pint, J. 2001, Master list of GPS coor dinates for Saudi Arabia caves (up dated to October 31, 2004): Saudi File SGS-CDF-2001-1, pp. 1-12 Pint J., 2003. The Desert Caves of Saudi Arabia. Stacey International, London, 120 pp. Pint J., 2004. The lava tubes of Shuwaymis Saudi Arabia. XI International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Pico Island, Azores. Pint, J. and Pint, S., 2004, The Caves of Ar Ar, NSS NEWS, March 2004, pp. 68-73. Roobol, M.J., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A. and Pint, S., with the collaboration of AlEisa, A.M., Allam, F., Al-Sulaimani, G.S., and Banakhar, A.S., 2002: Pre liminary survey for lava-tube caves on Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File report SGS-OF-2002-3, 35 p., 41 figs., 1 table, 4 apps., 2 plates. Vincent, P., 2004. Email sent to J. Pint on November 10, 2004 by Dr. Peter Vincent, Geography Dept., Lancaster University, U.K. Vincent, P. and Kattan, F., 2005: Loessic alluvial silts on the Arabian Shield. Manuscript in preparation for publi cation by Saudi Geological Survey, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ziab, A.M. and Ramsay, C.R., 1986. Explanatory notes to the Geologic Map of the Turabah quadrangle, Sheet 21E, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Min istry of Petroleum and Mineral Re sources, Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jeddah.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 98 Biospeleology in Macaronesia Pedro Orom Dept. of Animal Biology, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands Geographical and speleological background In the biogeographical sense Maca ronesia is a subregion of the Western Palaearctic which includes southwest continental Portugal, part of the coastal zone of south Morocco, and the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canaries and Cape Verde. Since the establishment of the term in the 19th century by the British botanist P.B. Webb, much has been discussed about the validity of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit, about its appropri ate space and boundaries, and about its different meaning for vegetal and animal organisms. Two continental Macaronesia. The islands are of oceanic origin with no surface connection with other land since they emerged from the sea bottom. Independently to other biogeographic considerations, in this text we only pay attention to the strictly vol canic Macaronesian archipelagos, which constitute an insular geographic reality very different to that of the continental Macaronesian enclaves. From a political point of view the Azores, Madeira and Selvagens belong to Portugal, the Canary Islands to Spain, and the Cape Verde form an independent country, though with a strong Portuguese character for obvious historical reasons. The Macaronesian archipelagos have common geological features mainly derived from their volcanic origin. All the islands have been built up from the sea bottom by successive accumula emerged over the marine surface along the Tertiary and Quaternary. Actually the volcanism is still active on the Azores, the Canaries and the Cape Verde islands. Almost all the rocks forming these archi pelagos are volcanic. However, in some of the Canary Islands (i.e. La Palma, La Gomera and Fuerteventura) there are plutonic rocks that belonged to their original basements, were uplifted over the sea level and are now exposed on the surface by the effects of erosion. On other islands like Santa Maria (Azores) and Porto Santo (Madeira) some lime stone rocks of marine origin have been formed and are actually emerged because of eustatic movements of the sea level. These non volcanic rocks are anyway very scarce, and have developed such a not found at all inside them. Therefore, in the Macaronesian islands the caves enough developed as to be considered of speleological interest occur only in volcanic terrains. Such particular cavities have a gen esis, morphology and a life span very different than limestone caves. The main types of volcanic caves are lava tubes and volcanic pits, each with their variants depending on the type of speleogenesis (see Montoriol, 1973). The lava tube caves are formed only nature. They originate after more or less permanent lava channels that consolidate by cooling of the peripheral layers, and differences are established between the temperature of the tube allows the lava stops, the liquid empties totally and the system becomes a hollow tube. These caves are therefore usually shallow and follow parallel to the surface topography at the moment of being formed. Great accumulation of further new lavas on that containing the cave, and changes on the relief by important erosive effects can alter this parallelism between lava tubes and the actual surface upon them. A particular type of lava tubes are those originated by the emptying of a dyke. They usually have a different morphology and since their origin are located much deeper below surface than the so called rheogenetic lava tube caves (Socorro & Martn, 1992). These dyke caves do not necessarily follow the sur face topography, and normally open to outside at cliffs and other steep terrains due to erosion. Some examples of this kina of caves are Gruta dos Anjos (Santa Maria), Gruta do Inferno (Selvagem Grande) or Cueva de la Fajanita (La Palma). The volcanic pits often derive from the emptying of volcanic chimneys when the eruption stops and the remaining lava contracts. The spatter cones are hollows with limited dimensions, while other volcanic pits can exceed 100 m deep, like Algar do Montoso, in So Jorge (Azores). They are usually bell-shaped, though they often show more complex structures with connected cavities and multiple vents. The geysers and the vents of gaseous phreatomagmatic eruptions can originate remarkable pits, like that of Sima de Tinguatn in Lanzarote. Some times the retraction cracks originated after cooling trachytic, viscous lavas can also originate remarkable pits, like the 70 m deep Sima Vicky (Tenerife). Also lava tubes can be combined with volcanic pits in a single but complex cavity with several levels at different depths, like it occurs in Sima de Las Palomas (El Hierro) and Cueva del Sobrado (Tenerife). Speleogenesis and ecological succession on volcanic terrains Besides their peculiar speleogenesis when compared to karstic caves, lava tube caves have a geological cycle and an ecological succession also very differ ent (see Howarth, 1996). The formation of a lava tube is very quick, sometimes just a few days, and immediately starts tion as a cave, which will take place within a period of 100,000 to 500,000 years depending on the local climate and erosion (Howarth, 1973). Volca nic pits, however, can last longer time. The cycle of lava tubes is very short in geological terms, compared to that of limestone caves (millions of years)

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99 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 which needed at least 100,000 years to initiate its formation. On the other hand, lava tube caves usually have much less permanent water than limestone caves (which need it for their formation and is only absent in fossil, inactive caves), and are in general much shallower so that the roots of surface plants often reach and invade the cave. A recently formed lava tube starts with a juvenile phase characterized by its dependence on the outside climate due to the network of cracks of the lava, easily connecting the cave to the exterior. As ecological succession goes on over the lava, the soil seals the surface, shallower passages retain moisture and the cave enters in a mature phase with the sub sequent climatic isolation (temperature and humidity). Thus, there is a simulta neous ecological succession inside and outside the cave, which is very impor tant to determine the living community inhabiting this environment (Ashmole et al. 1992). There is a particular way to accelerate this process when a thick layer of small-sized pyroclasts (cinder and lapilli) are deposited upon the re cent lavas, which isolate the cave from outside temperatures, keep the moisture and allow many plants to grow up and provide roots to the cave. Many caves in recent or very dry areas of the Canary and the Cape Verde islands have good conditions for troglobites thanks to be the erosion leads the cave to a senile stage, in which silting of the network of cracks and voids in the surrounding lava isolates the system, the inner space of the cave can be even stuffed up by clay destroy the cavity. Volcanic pits usually have a much longer senile stage due to their larger volume and their verti cal shape and more solid architecture. Thus volcanic pits last much longer than lava tube caves, reaching a few million years and being the only caves in the oldest terrains of the islands (Orom et al. 1985). In the lava tube caves ecological suc cession typically progresses upwards (Howarth, 1996) in such way that deep levels reach maturity before the upper levels, which need better soil cover on the surface to maintain ideal conditions for troglobites. For example Cueva de Todoque (La Palma, Canary Is.) formed in the lavas of San Juan eruption (1949) some troglobites have been found in the deepest passages, while lavicolous spe cies are the only inhabitants in the rest of the cave (Ashmole et al., 1992; Martn, 1992). In limestone caves instead, the oldest habitats are closer to the surface and ecological succession progresses downwards. The older is a lava tube, the higher probability to be covered by further lava surface. In such conditions the roots do not reach the cave, and provision of organic matter by percolating water is poor fauna or are even abiotic, as it also happens in dyke caves. Animal communities in volcanic caves When a lava tube has attained maturity, its environmental conditions are similar to that of limestone caves: absence of light, temperature stability, humidity close to saturation. Scarcity of organic matter is also severe, with lesser provi sion by water than in limestone caves but frequently compensated by the presence of roots (if there are). In the Macaron esian islands bat colonies are very few inside the caves, therefore the guano is negligible. Volcanic pits are usually richer in food because they operate as pitfall traps for many organisms; on the contrary, in lava tubes the input of energy through the entrance only affects a few metres inside, and hardly progresses into the cave. Adaptations to cave life are the same for volcanic and limestone troglobites: depigmentation, eye reduction, elonga tion of body and appendages, slow me tabolism, starving resistance, longer life span, inability to live outside the cave, k reproductive strategies (more limited but successful offspring), etc. Higher tolerance to temperature changes has been observed in island troglobites with respect to temperate continental species, both in the nature and in laboratory ex periences (Izquierdo, 1997); this could be related to the shallower lava tubes to which they are adapted, and maybe also to the less marked seasonal differences in oceanic islands. In these volcanic hypogean commu nities the root-feeding species are par ticularly abundant with respect to other trophic categories. It is remarkable the richness of sap-sucking plant-hoppers (Cixiidae and Meenoplidae) on three of the archipelagos, while in Europe and North Africa these groups are unknown in the caves. It is also peculiar of these island cave-dwelling communities the presence of troglobitic species belong ing to taxonomical groups absent in caves of the nearby mainland, and even very rare all over the world. This is the case for landhoppers (Amphipoda: Talitridae), earwigs (Dermaptera) and thread-legged bugs (Hemiptera: Redu viidae) which have troglomorphic spe cies only in the Canary Islands and in Hawaii. The diversity and abundance of troglobitic cockroaches (Blattaria) in the Canaries contrasts with the absence of these insects in caves of the whole Palaearctic. Troglobitic species are unable to sur vive outside their hypogean environ ment, and therefore they cannot colo nize other islands. This implies that all troglobites in Macaronesia are always endemic to a single island. The pres ence of a troglobite in two islands could only be explained when these islands had been connected in relatively recent past times due to regressions of the sea level (for example Pico and Faial in the Azores; Fuerteventura and Lanzarote in the Canaries). Types of caves and biological richness species in different, distant caves formed This is due to the existence of the so called Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS: Juberthie, 1983; Culver, 2001), an extensive network of cracks and voids connecting large areas, which is suitable to be occupied by many troglobites. There is a particular type of MSS in volcanic islands made up by the lava clinker covered by a thin soil (Orom et al., 1986), which has provided a rich adapted fauna in places without caves on the Canary and the Azores islands (Medina & Orom, 1990 and 1991; Borges, 1993). Actually troglobites occupy the ex tensive network of spaces in the appro priate underground, either good caves, crevices or MSS. In general they often prefer small tubes and cracks than proper caves that are for us just windows to reach the hypogean habitat. But in

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 100 general the abundance of cavities is a good indicator to the richness of well adapted fauna in an area, especially lava tube caves which are found in basaltic terrain, the best for a good network of spaces. Besides the stage of ecological suc cession and the geographic situation of a cave, the animal communities occurring in it also depends on its morphology and depth. Mature lava tubes are more isolated from the surface than volcanic pits concerning direct input through the entrance. Thus the pits can hold a richer fauna with many epigean species, while in the tubes the community is poorer but with much higher proportion of troglo bites. The dyke caves are usually very poor because of their location very deep underground, where neither roots nor percolating water with organic matter arrive easily. Most of the dyke caves we have studied had a scarce fauna and always close to the entrance. Other pits like big crevices are also poor because they are usually formed in acidic la vas, which are more impermeable and unconnected to the Mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS), an important reser voir of the hypogean fauna in volcanic terrains without lava tubes. The erosion caves generally formed close to the sea shore are very often also dyke caves, and lack an adapted hypogean fauna. Main features of the terrestrial cave fauna in Macaronesia Island faunas are always peculiar be cause of their disharmony, with many absent animal groups that are found in the continent. This is also the same concerning to cave animals, in such way that these lacking species are partially replaced by other species preadapted to hypogean life, very often belong ing to unusual taxonomic groups in the continental cave faunas. This is due to the inability for some of these groups to colonize oceanic islands, being their potential hypogean niches occupied by other groups that commonly dont do it in the mainland. All Macaronesian troglobites have evolved locally, in such way that all spe cies are endemic to a single island with the exceptions above mentioned. This implies allopatric speciation and many independent colonisations of the under ground. However, some genera include various related troglobitic species in one island (3 Trechus spp. in Pico, 5 Cixius spp. in La Palma, 11 Loboptera spp. and 8 Dysdera spp. in Tenerife, etc.) In some of these cases two or more congeneric species are found together, but they have different epigean sister species, which also implies independent invasions of the underground. Moreover, many of the epigean sister species are actually occurring on the surface in the same area to their corresponding hypogean sister species, what means that the latter have evolved by parapatric speciation. This is a common situation in Macaronesian islands and agrees with the adaptive shift hypothesis for the origin of troglobites (Rouch & Danielopol, 1987; Howarth, 1987). However, there are also troglo bites with no epigean relatives at all on their island and even on the whole archi pelago. This is the case for the threadlegged bugs Collartida anophthalma (from El Hierro) and Collartida tanausu (from La Palma), several species of the pseudoscorpion genus Tyrannochthonius and the planthopper genus Meenoplus Some of the species belong to endemic genera, like the harvestman Maiorerus randoi from Fuerteventura, the ground beetles Spelaeovulcania canariensis from Tenerife and Pseudoplatyderus amblyops from La Gomera, with no re lated species elsewhere in the world. It is according to the classical climatic relict hypothesis proposed for the troglobites from Europe and North America (Van del, 1964; Barr, 1968), since glaciations didnt affect these islands of the mid Atlantic. Maybe their relict condition was due to secondary climatic changes derived from glaciations (drought, forest withdrawal). Azores Islands This is the western and northernmost archipelago, being located on the Midat lantic ridge. This implies interesting geo logic consequences, with predominance of Hawaiian type volcanism and there fore basaltic rocks, very suitable for the formation of lava tubes. Its geographical situation divides the archipelago in two groups of islands, one at west (Flores and Corvo) and the other at east (rest of the islands) of this ridge, in such way that the former shift westwards together with move eastwards towards Europe. The age of each island varies depending on the distance to the ridge, the youngest being those of the central group (Faial, Pico and So Jorge) and the oldest one Santa Maria. The greatest abundance on lava tube caves is in general in the youngest islands, though older islands can be also rich in such caves whenever recent volcanism (in geological terms) have took place and have modern ter rains, like for instance So Miguel. On the contrary, modern islands like Flores (2.16 Ma) but lacking recent eruptions, are poor in such caves. All the Azores islands are rather rich in lava tube caves except Corvo, Flores and Santa Maria, and at least some troglobitic species are so far known from all the rest except Graciosa (see Table II). The studies on cave biology had been very sporadic before the 1980s, and only a few freshwater species occurring in pools at the bottom of pits were known. The knowledge on the terrestrial fauna started in 1987, when an expedition by researchers from Edinburgh Univer sity (UK) and La Laguna University Geographic Society and with the valu able collaboration of Os Montanheiros members (Angra do Herosmo) stud ied the cave fauna from Terceira, Pico, cave-dwelling species (see Orom et al. 1990). The same team visited again the Azorean biospeleologist (Paulo Borges) Table I. Types of caves and animal richness.

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101 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 for the study of caves in So Miguel, where they also were helped by the Aores). They also visited Pico, So Jorge, Faial and Graciosa, and found new troglobitic species in all except Graciosa (Orom et al. 1990; Orom & Borges, 1991; Mahnert, 1990; Merrett & Ashmole, 1989). Since then the biospe leologist team created in Universidade dos Aores at Terceira, has continued the research on cave fauna from the different islands, and now they have an advanced knowledge on the Azorean hypogean fauna, both from caves and from the MSS. The BALA Project carried out in 1998-2001 and directed by Prof. Paulo Borges provided a remarkable improve on the knowledge of the Azorean fauna (Borges et al. 2005a, 2005b). Actually 20 species of troglobites have been found on the archipelago, belonging to eight different orders of arthropods (Borges & Orom, 1994 and in press). All of them are endemic to a single island, except a few which are found both in Pico and Faial, This is nection existed between the two islands in the past allowing troglobites to move to each other, separated by less than 50 m depths (see Eason & Ashmole, 1992); however, this hypothesis is con troversial since the western part of Pico is extremely recent, probably younger than the descent of sea level during the last glaciation (Joo C. Nunes, pers. comm.). The hypogean species from the Azores have a moderated degree of troglomorphism, with an obvious reduction of eyes but never reaching the eyeless condition, and never with a very marked lengthening of appendages. The most remarkable case of splitting is found in the genus Trechus which includes seven different cave-dwelling species in the archipelago (see Orom & Borges, 1991; Borges & Orom, 1991 and in press; Borges et al. 2004). Madeira Islands The archipelago of Madeira is located at latitude of 33N and is formed by two main islands, Madeira and Porto Santo, and the Desertas islets. Porto Santo is an old island (15 Ma), without lava tube caves and troglobitic fauna known so far. Madeira is younger (5.5 Ma) but with scarce recent volcanism, and therefore with few caves. How ever, the island had often been visited by entomologists which sporadically entered the caves and discovered a few troglobitic species of woodlice (Vandel, 1960), spiders (Wunderlich, 1992) and beetles (Erber, 1990; Serrano & Borges, 1995). In 2000 the GIET team from the University of La Laguna organized a research expedition to Madeira and vis ited Grutas do Cavalum (Machico) and Grutas de So Vicente, but it has been after 2002 when Dora Agun and Elvio Nunes, from Universidade da Madeira, accurate study of Machico caves, and discovered several unknown troglobites (Nunes et al. 2003). The cave-dwelling fauna from Ma deira is not very rich in species, which have a little marked degree of troglomor phism (Serrano & Borges, in press). This is the only archipelago in Macaronesia where no cave-adapted planthoppers have ever been found. Not a single genus of arthropods includes various troglobitic species, which probable indicates that its limited underground environment has not promoted the radiative evolution in this habitat. Selvagens Islands This very small and isolated archipelago is between Madeira and the Canaries, at 30 N. It originated some 24 Ma but it after remained under the sea level for a long time, when new eruptions emerged again the islands between 12 and 8 Ma. They are low islands (less than 150 m) and only Selvagem Grande has one cave, formed in a dyke by marine erosion when it was at the sea level (now the cave is higher up). It was recently visited by a biologist from La Laguna who was looking for cave fauna. The conditions are not good for trogobites, and just a troglophilic spider was collected ( Sper mopohorides selvagensis Wunderlich) (Arechavaleta et al. 2001). Canary Islands This is the larger archipelago and the closest to the mainland (110 km from Fuerteventura to the Sahara coast), being situated between 27 and 29 N. Their ages rank from 21 Ma (Fuerteventura) to less than 1 Ma (El Hierro), in such way that the age decreases from east to west (see Table III). The origin of the Canaries is not related to the mid-Atlantic ridge like the Azores but to a hotspot model with the peculiarity that the older islands still continue with volcanic activity (Car racedo et al. 1998). This has allowed the presence of modern lavas on all the islands except La Gomera where no eruptions have occurred along the last 3 Ma (Cantagrel et al. 1984). The islands with more volcanic caves are Lanzarote, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. The lava tube caves in Lanzarote are large and abundant, but the aridity of the cli mate and the scarce soil covering the lavas prevents the existence of the neces sary humidity for the existence of a true troglobitic fauna. The islands containing more troglobites are Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. In Fuerteventura they are also rare because of the dry climate, but there are two species. In Gran Canaria there are few caves, but recent research points to the presence of an adapted fauna. A similar situation occurs on La Gomera, where there are no caves at all but a few hypogean species inhabit the MSS in the humid forest. The studies on the underground fauna in the Canaries early started in 1892 when the crab Munidopsis polymorpha was described from the anchialine cave Jameos del Agua (Lanzarote), together with some other adapted species (Koel bel, 1892). The animal community of this cave and the neighbouring Tnel de la Atlntida has been intensively studied along the last century, and as much as 25 species adapted to this particular habitat are so far known (Orom & Izquierdo, 1994, in press). It is remarkable the existence of Speleonectes ondinae the only Remipede crustacean known from Table II. Islands of the Azorean archipelago. Ages in million years (after Frana et al., 2004). Presence or absence of volcanic caves with apparent conditions to hold troglo bitic fauna. Presence or absence of troglobites.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 102 the oriental part of the Atlantic. described was Collartida anophthalma discovered in the early 80s by catalan cavers in El Hierro (Espaol & Ribes, 1983). At this time was created the Grupo de Investigaciones Espeleolgicas de Tenerife (GIET) from the University of La Laguna (Tenerife), which has been regularly studying the hypogean fauna with a remarkable success (Orom & Izquierdo, 1994, in press). In the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Tenerife also the late J.J. Hernndez Pacheco was ac tive on cave research up to his death in 1993 (Hernndez Pacheco et al. 1995), and in La Palma island members of the G.E. Benisahare caving club also studied many caves with discoveries of many interesting hypogean species (Garca & Orom, 1996; Machado, 1998). The organization in 1992 of the 10 th Int. Symposium of Biospeleology in Tenerife by the GIET team, and the 7th Int. Symposium on Vulcanospeleology in 1994 in La Palma by Junonia and GIET groups, show the intense activity and the relevance of their studies. Between 1999 and 2001 this team from La Laguna car ried out a research LIFE-Nature project on the cave fauna from the Canary Is lands and its conservation. The hypogean fauna from the Canar ies is the richest in Macaronesia, 132 of terrestrial troglobitic and 57 aquatic sty gobiont (either freshwater or anchialine) species having been found so far. This is also the fauna with the most advanced degree of troglomorphism among these Atlantic islands, including some species such as the thread-legged bug Collartida anophthalma (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and the rove-beetle Domene vulcani ca (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) easily comparable to the most troglomorphic species from the Palaearctic. The most adapted fauna to the underground occurs in the modern terrains of Tenerife, while the hypogean species from the western islands (La Palma and El Hierro) are usually more ambimorphic with some exceptions. Various genera having undergone radiative evolution on the Canaries are also represented in the underground fauna, like the spiders Dysdera (9 spp.) and Spermophora (5 spp.). In other gen era such as the cockroaches Loboptera (Blattaria), the planthoppers Meenoplus (Hemiptera) and the beetles Domene and (Coleoptera) this ra diation has originated only troglobitic species(see Table IV). There are also hypogean species with no relatives on the surface, neither belonging to the same nor to close genera, for which they can be considered as relict species whose epigean ancestors disappeared from the islands after originating the actual hy pogean forms. In this sense they are re markable the cases of Tyrannochthonius and Lagynochthonius (Pseudoscorpiones Table III. The islands of the Canary archipelago set from west to east according to their geographic position. Ages in million years. Presence of caves apparently suitable to hold terrestrial adapted fauna. Number of troglobitic species. are indicated (H: El Hierro; P: La Palma; G: La Gomera; T: Tenerife; F: Fuerteventura).

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103 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Chthoniidae), Maiorerus (Opiliones Laniatores), Collartida (Hemiptera Reduviidae) or Spelaeovulcania and Canarobius (Coleoptera Carabidae). One of the most interesting features of the Canary hypogean fauna is the pres ence of unexpected groups in such fau nas of the neighbouring mainland. The cave-adapted cockroaches are unknown in the whole Palaearctic, while landhop pers (Amphipoda Talitridae), earwigs (Dermaptera) and thread-legged bugs (Hemiptera Reduviidae) have troglobitic species only in the Canary Islands and in Hawaii. Cape Verde Islands The Cape Verde Islands are the south ernmost in Macaronesia, being located some 500 km west of Dakar, in Senegal. They form a double arch of islands, the windward islands (Ilhas de Barlavento) and the leeward islands (Ilhas de So tavento) with ages decreasing from east to west. The easternmost islands (Sal, Boavista and Maio) are low and rather caves due to erosion in such old terrains. Santo Anto, So Vicente, So Nicolau, and Santiago are mountainous but with hardly any recent volcanism for which lava tubes are also scarce: only a few unexplored caves in Santo Anto and the clay-silted Gruta do Lzaro in Santiago are known. But in Fogo island there is an active recent volcanism (last eruption in 1995) with abundant basaltic lavas which have originated abundant caves, though never as large as those from the Azores and the Canary Islands. The relatively recent lava tube caves related to the main volcano (both in Ch das Caldeiras and on the eastern slopes of the island) are better preserved than those in older terrains of the rest of the island. Knowledge and popularization of caves has been scarce in Cape Verde. Besides some popular believes (the so called grutas de Lzaro on Santiago, where supposedly this Robin Hood like bandit hid his treasures) and a few refer ences in modern tourist guides (Schleich & Schleich, 1995), very little is pub lished about this subject. The serious surveying of lava tubes started with the Espeleo Clube de Torres Vedras expedi tion in 1997, and in 1999 the GIET team from La Laguna University carried out a biological study in eight caves, dis of an adapted fauna on this archipelago. Troglobites were found only in caves above 2000 m from the sea level, be ing remarkable for their adaptations the planthopper Nysia subfogo (Hemiptera, Meenoplidae), a Cryptopidae centipede and two still undescribed spiders (Hoch et al. 1999). The aridity of Cape Verde prevents most of its caves to be inhabited by tro globites, since the inner environment is Only in Fogo the Ch das Caldeiras caves covered by a thick layer of cinders are isolated and keep humidity enough for the development of true cave-dwelling species. More visits and research are needed to better know this adapted fauna, which is probably richer than the few species so far discovered. The hypogean fauna from Macaron esia is abundant in spite of being recently studied, it is varied and has a special interest for the peculiarities due to the insular condition. All troglobitic species are endemic to reduced areas, since they are almost always exclusive to a single island. They are the result of local pro cesses of speciation, with the appearance of troglomorphic characters in groups often unexpected in other parts of the world. But they are often threatened species as well, since the fragility of their environment is remarkable. Many caves on the Azores are silting up due to transformation of forest in pastureland, the few caves in Madeira are absolutely spoiled for tourist use without any sen sibility by the owners (case of Grutas de So Vicente) or very damaged by uncontrolled visits and vandalism (case of Grutas do Cavalum); and many caves on the Canary Islands are more and more severely polluted by sewage (case of Cueva del Viento and other lava tubes in Icod de los Vinos), stupidly transformed as show-caves in spite of the presence of protected species (case of Cueva del Llano in Fuerteventura and the endan gered Maiorerus randoi ), or spoiled by uncontrolled visits. The troglobitic fauna has a low resistance to environmental changes and they can easily disappear from the caves. References ARECHAVALETA, M., N. ZURITA & P. OROM. 2001. Nuevos datos sobre la fauna de artrpodos de las Islas Salvajes. Revista Academia Canaria Ciencias 12 (3-4) (2000): 83-99. ASHMOLE, N.P., P. OROM, M.J. ASHMOLE & J.L. MARTIN. 1992. Primary faunal succession in volcanic terrain: lava and cave studies in the Canary Islands. Biological Journal Linnean Society, 46: 207-234. BARR, T.C. 1968. Cave ecology and the evolution of troglobites. Evolutionary Biology, 2: 35-102. BORGES, P.A.V., C. AGUIAR, J. AMA RAL, I.R. AMORIM, G. ANDR, A. ARRAIOL, A. BAZ, F. DINIS, H. ENGHOFF, C. GASPAR, F. IL HARCO, V. MAHNERT, C. MELO, F. PEREIRA, J.A. QUARTAU, S. RIBEIRO, J. RIBES, A.R.M. SER RANO, A.B. SOUSA, R.Z. STRAS SEN, L. VIEIRA, V. VIEIRA, A. VITORINO, & J. WUNDERLICH. 2005a. Ranking protected areas in the Azores using standardized sam pling of soil epigean arthropods. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2029-2060. BORGES, P.A.V., R. CUNHA, R. GA BRIEL, A. F. MARTINS, L. SILVA, & V. VIEIRA, (eds.). 2005b. A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores Direco Regional do Ambiente and Universidade dos Aores, Horta, Angra do Herosmo and Ponta Delgada, 318 pp. BORGES, P.A.V. 1993. First records for the Mesocavernous Shallow Stratum (MSS) from the Azores. Mmoires Biospologie 20: 49-54. BORGES, P.A.V. & P. OROM. 1991. Cave-dwelling ground beetles of the Azores (Col., Carabidae). Mmoires Biospologie, 18: 185-191. BORGES, P.A.V. & P. OROM. 1994. The Azores. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeologica vol. I. Soc. Biospologie, Moulis and Bucarest, 605-610. BORGES, P.A.V. & P. OROM. In press. The Azores. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeologica vol. I. Soc. Biospologie, Moulis and Bucarest, in press. BORGES, P. A. V., A. R. M. SERRANO & I.R. AMORIM. 2004. New spe cies of cave-dwelling beetles (Co leoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae) from the Azores. Journal of Natural His tory 38: 1303-1313. CANTAGREL, J. M., A. CENDRERO,

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 104 J.M. FUSTER, E. IBARROLA & C. JAMOND. 1984. Bulletin Volcanol ogy 47 (3): 597-609. CARRACEDO, J.C., S.J. DAY, H. GUILLOU, E. RODRGUEZ BA DIOLA, J.A. CANAS & F.J. PREZ TORRADO. 1998. Hotspot volcanism close to a passive continental mar gin: the Canary Islands. Geological Magazine 135 (5): 591-604. CULVER, D.C. 2001. Subterranean eco systems. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 527-540. ERBER, D. 1990. Thalassophilus pieperi n.sp., a new cavernicolous carabid beetle from Madeira. Bocagiana 140: 1-12. ESPAOL, F. & J. RIBES. 1983. Una nueva especie troglobia de Emesinae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae) de las Islas Canarias. Speleon 26/27: 57-60. GARCA, R. & P. OROM. 1996. Lap arocerus zarazagai n.sp., un nuevo coleptero microftalmo de Canarias (Curculionidae, Mylacini). Vieraea 25: 153-157. HERNNDEZ, J.J., P. OROM, A. LAI NEZ, G. ORTEGA, A.E. PEREZ, J.S. LOPEZ, A.L. MEDINA, I. IZQUI ERDO, L. SALA, N. ZURITA, M. ROSALES, F. PEREZ & J.L. MAR TN. 1995. Catlogo espeleolgico de Tenerife. Cabildo de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 168 pp. HOCH, H., P. OROM & M. ARECHA VALETA. 1999. Nisia subfogo n.sp., a new cave-dwelling planthopper from the Cape Verde Islands (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Meenoplidae). Re vista Academia Canaria Ciencias, 11 (3-4): 189-199. HOWARTH, F.G. 1973. The caverni colous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes, 1. Introduction. 15 (1): 139-151 HOWARTH, F.G. 1987. The evolution of non-relictual tropical troglobites. International Journal Speleology 16: 1-16. HOWARTH, F.G. 1996. A comparison of the ecology and evolution of caveadapted faunas in volcanic and karstic caves. Abstracts 7 th Int. Symposium Vulcanospeleology, Los Libros de la Frontera, Sant Climent de Llobregat, Barcelona, pp. 63-68. IZQUIERDO, I. 1997. Estrategias ad aptativas al medio subterrneo de las especies del gnero Loboptera Brunner W. (Blattaria, Blattellidae) en las Islas Canarias. Tesis Doctoral (unpublished), Universidad de la La guna, Tenerife, 324 pp. JUBERTHIE, C. 1983. Le milieu sou terrain: tendue et composition. M moires Biospologie, 10 : 17-65. KOELBEL, K. 1892. Beitrage zur Ken ntnis der Crustacean der Kanarischen Inseln. Ann. K.K. Naturhistorische Hofmuseums 7: 1-105. MACHADO, A. 1998. Un nuevo Para zuphium Jeannel anoftalmo de La Palma, Islas Canarias. Vieraea 26: 163-167. MAHNERT, V. 1990. Deux nouvelles es pces du genre Pseudoblothrus Beier, 1931 (Pseudoscorpiones, Syarinidae) des Aores (Portugal). Vieraea 18: 167-170. MARTN, J.L. 1992. Caracterizacin ecolgica y evolucin de las comu nidades subterrneas en las islas de Tenerife, El Hierro y La Palma Un published Doctoral Thesis, University of La Laguna, 342 pp. MEDINA, A.L. & P. OROM. 1990. First compartment on La Gomera (Canary Islands). Mmoires Biospologie 17: 87-91. MEDINA, A.L. & P. OROM. 1991. Wolltinerfia anagae n.sp., nuevo coleptero hipogeo de la isla de Tener ife (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Mmoires Biospologie 18: 215-218. MERRETT, P. & N.P. ASHMOLE. 1989. A new troglobitic Theridion (Araneae: Theridiidae) from the Azores. Bul letin British arachnological Society 8 (2): 51-54. MONTORIOL, J. 1973. Sobre la ti pologa vulcanoespeleolgica. Com. III Simp. Espeleologia, Matar : 268-272. NUNES, E., D. AGUIN-POMBO, P. OROM & R. CAPELA. 2003. A preliminary analysis of the cavedwelling fauna from Machico lava tubes (Madeira island). Abstracts II Symposium of Island Ecosystems, Funchal OROM, P. & P.A.V. BORGES. 1991. New Trechodinae and Trechinae from the Azores (Col., Carabidae). Boca giana 145: 1-11. OROM, P., J.J. HERNANDEZ, J.L. MARTIN & A. LAINEZ. 1985. Tubos volcnicos en Tenerife (Islas Canarias). Consideraciones sobre su distribucin en la isla. Actas II SimposiumRegional Espeleologa, Burgos : 85-93. OROM, P. & I. IZQUIERDO. 1994. Canary Islands. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeo logica. Soc. Biospologie, Moulis and Bucarest, 631-639. OROM, P. & I. IZQUIERDO. In press. Canary Islands. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeo logica Soc. Biospologie, Moulis and Bucarest, in press. OROM, P., J.L. MARTIN, N.P. ASH MOLE & M.J. ASHMOLE. 1990. A preliminary report on the cavernicolous fauna of the Azores. Mmoires Bios pologie 17: 97-105. ROUCH, R. & D.L. DANIELOPOL. 1987. lorigine de la gaune aquatique souterraine, entre le paradigme du refuge et le modle de la colonisation active. Stygologia 3 : 345-372. SCHLEICH, H.H. & K. SCHLEICH. 1995. Cabo Verde Kapverdischen Inseln Verlag Stephanie Naglschmid, Stuttgart, 197 pp. SERRANO, A.R.M. & P.A.V. BORGES. (1995). A new subspecies of Trechus fulvus Dejean, 1831 ( Trechus fulvus madeirensis n. ssp.) from the Madeira Island with some biogeographical comments. Proceedings of the First Symposium Fauna and Flora of the Atlantic Islands, Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal Suppl. no. 4: 663-670. SERRANO, A. R. M. & P. A. V. BORG ES (in press). The Madeira archipela go. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeleologica. Tome Ia Amrique et Europe pp. ???. So cit de Biospleologie, Moulis. SOCORRO, J.S. & J.L. MARTIN. 1992. The Fajanita Cave (La Palma, Canary Islands): a volcanic cavity originated by partial draining of a dyke. Pro ceedings 6 th International Symposium Vulcanospeleology : 177-184. VANDEL, A. 1960. Les Isopodes ter restres de larchipel Madrien. M moires du Musum dHistoire na turelle 12 (1): 3-148. VANDEL, A. 1964. Biospologie. La Biologie des Animaux Cavernicoles Paris, Gauthier-Villars diteur. WUNDERLICH, J. 1992. Die SpinnenFauna der makaronesischen Inseln. Taxonomie, kologie, Biogeographie und Evolution. Beitrge zur Arane ologie 1: 1-619.

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105 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Investigation of the Discharge Mechanism of Hachijo-Fuketsu Lava Tube Cave, Hachijo-jima Island, Japan Tsutomu Honda Mt. Fuji Volcano-Speleological Society; tsutomuh@jx.ejnet.ne.jp Abstract investigation of Hachijo-fuketsu lava tube cave in Japan. From the size and tube cave such as tube length, inclination angle, tube diameter(height), the yield strength of the lava was obtained. The obtained yield strength was compared with other lava which formed lava caves and found to have a reasonable value as basaltic. Introduction Hachijo-fuketsu lava tube cave is located on Hachijo-jima island south of Tokyo in located on the volcanic front of the izuOgasawara(Bonin) arc, consist of two stratovolcanoes: Nisiyama and Higasi yama. Nishiyama is a scarcely dissected cone called Hachijo-fuji. Nishiyama began its volcanic activities about 10000 years ago. Many lateral volcanoes exist around Nishiyama. Hachijou-fuketsu is believed to have been formed by the eruption of Hachijo-nishiyama volcano saltic, with silica content of 50.5%[2]. Hachijo-fuketsu is the second longest lava tube in Japan. Despite good acces sibility, it is well preserved as shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 2, its upper and middle sections have moderates zontal[3]. Modelling, Assumption and Analysis In modelling the discharge mechanism of this type of lava tube, we used an in clined circular tube model for the sloping section of the cave as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. 4. The yield strengths obtained from these two models were similar and comparable to those of other Regarding the inclined circular pipe case, the discharge mechanism of lava tube caves already has been established, based on Bingham characteristics of in circular pipes were used for analyses. Comparison studies were based on the Flow characteristics were studied as a function of parameters such as tube radius, viscosity, yield strength of lava and slope inclination. A critical condition was determined for the discharge param eters in which the yield strength plays a dominant role. Existing observational data were introduced to the critical con dition. This model was applied to lava tube cave of Mt.Fuji, Mt.Etna, Mount St.Helens, Suchiooc volcano, Kilauea volcano and others. Some deduced yield strength of lava of the caves in these areas were found to be in good accor dance with yield strength as estimated by other methods[6]. B B f B or r r B ), f B or r r B ). Here, f B B is sharing stress at r. tube on the slope, the equation of the w f B u=(R-r B ) 2 B (r r B ), u=[R 2 -r 2 -2r B B (r r B ). w f B u=0. ity acceleration, R: radius of the tube, r B Bingham yield stress takes f B Figure 1. Inside of Hachijou-Fuketsu (photo by T. Honda).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 106 Figure 2. Horizontal and vertical cross section of Hachijo-fuketsu[3].

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107 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 B is the limiting tube can be drained out. For given and known relation between slope angle and diameter(height) of the tube, this critical condition can give the yield strength f B as shown in Fig. 5. This critical condition means that when the yield strength of f B =2.5x10 4 dyne/cm 2 can be obtained for Hachijo-fuketsu. The above model is, however, valid of inertial as driving force due to the the inclined tube[7]. Very rough relation between drained tube length and mean head of the flow can be obtained as B Table 2, f B =2x10 4 dyne/cm 2 was obtained for Hachijo-jima as shown in Fig. 6. In summary, obtained basaltic yield stress from slope angle and height of some lava caves(see Table 3)are reason able values as compared with the yield stress obtained for Mt. Fuji[7]. Conclusions As a results of this study, Bingham for an explanation of formation process of lava tube cave. Further application Table 1. Relation between slope angle and height of Hachijo-fuketsu lava tube cave of Table 2. Relation between head and length at horizontal location of Hachijo-fuketsu Table 3. Yield strength obtained from the critical condition. Figure 5. Relation between Slope angle and Tube height in sloped area.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 108 of this model to other lava tube caves will be necessary and interesting for only plays a main role in this steady state model, for a future study, the analysis by using time dependent transition equation should be performed. In this case, the viscosity of lava will be involved. References [1] S.Sugihara and S.Shimada(1998): Stratigraphy and Eruption Ages of Deposits at the Southeast Side of Nishiyama Volcano, Hachijo Island during the Last 2500 Years. Journal of Geography 107(5) p695-p712, 1998. [2] M.Tsukui and K.Hoshino(2000): Magmatic Differentiation of HachijoNishiyama Volcano,Izu Island,Japan. Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan, Vol.47, No.2, p57-p72. [3]T.Ogawa(1980): The lava caves and lava tree-molds of Mt.Fuji. The jour nal of the Association of Japanese Cavers, Vol.2, No.3, August 1980. [4]T.Honda(2000): On the formation of Subashiri-Tainai cave in Mt.Fuji. The 26 th Annual Meeting of the Spe leological Society of Japan, August; p.64. [5] T.Honda(2001): Investigation on the formation mechanism of lava tube cave. The 27 th Annual Meeting of the Speleological Society of Japan, August; p.11. [6] T.Honda(2001): Formation mecha nism of lava tube caves in Mt.Fuji. The 2001 Fall Meeting of the Volca nological Society of Japan, October; p.66. [7]T.Honda(2003): Formation mecha nism of lava tube caves of Hachijofuketsu in Hachijo-jima. The 2003 Fall Meeting of the Volcanological Society of Japan, October; p.160. [8] H.Tsuya(1971): Geography and Ge ology of Mt.Fuji. Study on Mt.Fuji. puplished by Fuji-kyu,1971.

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109 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Indicators of Conservation Value of Azorean Caves Based on its Arthropod Fauna Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 Fernando Pereira 2 and Joo P. Constncia 3 1 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores; pborges@mail.angra.uac.pt. 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores. 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel. Abstract All Azorean lava-tubes and volcanic pits with fauna were evaluated for species diversity and rarity based on arthropods. To produce an unbiased multiple-criteria index ( importance value for conserva tion IV-C) incorporating arthropod spe cies diversity based indices and indices qualifying geological and management features (e.g. diversity of geological structures, threats, accessibility, etc.), an iterative partial multiple regression analysis was performed. In addition, the complementarity method (using heuristic methods) was used for priority-cave analyses. Most hypogean endemic spe cies have restricted distributions, occur ring only in one cave. It was concluded that several well-managed protected caves per island are absolutely necessary to have a good fraction of the endemic arthropods preserved. For presence/ absence data, suboptimal solutions in dicate that at least 50% lava-tubes with known hypogean fauna are needed if we want that 100% of endemic arthropod species are represented in a minimum set of reserves. Based both on the unique ness of species composition and/or high species richness and geological value of the caves, conservation efforts should be focused on the following caves: Gruta da Beira, Algar das Bocas do Fogo (S. Jorge); Montanheiros, Henrique Maciel, Soldo, Furna das Cabras II and Ribeira do Fundo (Pico); Algar do Carvo, Bal ces, Agulhas and Chocolate (Terceira); gua de Pau (S. Miguel); Anelares and Parque do Capelo (Faial). Introduction Caves as islands are isolated entities, and, as a consequence, they lack the rescue effect: only source species can be maintained in ecological and evolutionary time (Rosenweig 1995). Thus, cave species could be considered as very restricted in distribution due to their low dispersal abilities and cave islo lation. However, cave-adapted species could disperse between cave systems throughout the MSS (Milieu souter Substratum sensu CULVER, 2001). This is the case of Trechus terceiranus a troglobian species found in many caves from Terceira island (Azores) but also in the MSS (Borges 1993). Than, it is important to investigate how widespread are cavernicolous fauna to better con serve it. The conservation of the rich Azorean cave-adapted fauna (Borges & Orom 1994) is urgent but the resources are not enough to protect all caves. Conse quently, there is a need to set priorities for conservation. The aim of this study was to examine the faunistic relative value of a set of well sampled lava tubes and volcanic pits in the Azorean islands as a management tool to improve the conservation of Azorean cave-adapted arthropod biodiversity. We examined the following hypotheses: (a) Using an iterative partial regres sion analyses to produce a multiplecriteria index incorporating diversity and rarity based indices, at least one cave per island will be highly ranked. This follows the assumption that the dispersal rates of species are low and consequently there is a high level of island-restricted endemism. (b) The restricted distribution of endemic species will imply that most caves are unique and largely irreplace able. Consequently, most caves will be needed to ensure each species is included at least one time in a complementary based approach. Methods Sites and data. This study was con ducted in the Azores, a volcanic Northern Atlantic archipelago that comprises nine islands, as well as several islets and seamounts distributed from Northwest to Southeast, roughly between 37 and 40 N and 24 and 31 W. The Azorean islands extend for about 615 km and are situated across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which separates the western group (Flores and Corvo) from the cen tral (Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and Figure 1. The nine Azorean islands with indication of their geological age based on data from Nunes (1999).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 110 Graciosa) and the eastern (S. Miguel and S. Maria) groups (Figure 1). All these islands have a relatively recent volcanic origin, ranging from 8.12 Myr B.P. (S. Maria) to 250 000 years B.P. (Pico) (Nunes 1999). In this study a total of 37 volcanic cavities distributed on six of the nine Azorean islands (excluding S. Maria, Flores and Corvo) were surveyed and are listed in Table 1. Some of those caves were surveyed intensively dur ing 1988 and 1990 with two expedi tions of National Geographic under the supervision of Pedro Orom (Univ. de La Laguna) and Philippe Ashmole (Univ. de Edinburg) (see Orom et al 1990). However, many of the caves were also sampled by investigators of the University of the Azores and Os Montanheiros (see Borges & Orom 1994). Part of the arthropod data on the presence/absence in the caves is unpub lished and resulted from recent surveys performed by PB and FP. Arthropods tion categories: natives, endemics and introduced. In cases of doubt, a species was assumed to be native. Moreover, fol lowing information available in Borges & Orom (1994) all the species were also and non cave-adapted. Data analysis. For prioritizing the 37 caves two techniques were used: i) indices for scoring conservation priori ties based on comparative analyses; ii) the complementarity method. i) Scoring method. Due to its sim plicity a scoring approach was used with 9 different indices, incorporating arthropod species diversity based in dices, but also indices qualifying cave geological and management features (data from IPEA database, Constncia et al. 2004). (see Table 2). However, as the several indices give quite different ranking of the caves results a multiple criteria index was applied. Multiple criteria Index: Importance Value for Conservation (IV-C). When different values or criteria are combined what the single value obtained from it represents (see Borges et al. 2005). Moreover, the different indices used to describe a cave value may not be unrelated, thus leading to the possibil ity of giving a higher weighting to a given feature in the construction of the complex index. To avoid possible prob lems of collinearity we have used partial regression analysis techniques (Legendre & Legendre 1998, see also Borges et al. 2005), which allow the separation of the variability of a given predictor that is independent (i.e., non related) from the variability of another variable, or set of variables. To do this, we ap plied generalised linear models (GLM) with natural logarithm link functions, in which the predictor is regressed against this variable, or group of variables, and the resulting residuals are retained as the independent term of the variable. In this particular case, we have developed iterative partial regression analyses, each time extracting the variability of a pre dictor that is independent of the formerly chosen indices. That is, after selecting any transformation in the Importance Value for Conservation (IV-C) calcula tions, we regressed the second one (B) against A, obtaining its residuals (rB). In successive steps, each index (e.g., C) is regressed against the formerly included (in this case, A and rB) in a multiple regression analysis, obtaining to be used without any transformation was the total number of endemic spe cies (S trogl. ), since cave-adapted species richness was considered to be of major importance to cave conservation. The other indices entered in the model by decreasing order of their r 2 values of a GLM regression of each index with S trogl. for Conservation (IV-C) composite index is as follows: IV-C = [(S trogl. / S trogl. max) + (RS end. / RS end. max) + (RShow / RShow max) + (RSrare / RSrare max) + (RGEO / RGEO max) + (RDif.Expl. / RDif.Expl. max) + (RIntegrity / RIntegrity max ) + (RThreats / RThreats max ) + (RAccess. / RAccess max )] / 9 in which for a reserve the value of the residual variance (R) of each of the ad ditional indices is divided by the maxi mum value (max) obtained within all reserves. For instance, the residuals of Show were obtained after the follow ing polynomial model: Show = a + b S trogl. + c RS end. This composite index has a maxi mum value of 1 (see also Borges et al. 2005). ii) Complementarity To obtain the minimum set of caves that combined have the highest representation of spe cies we applied the complementarity method (Williams 2001). We used a heuristic suboptimal simple-greedy reserve-selection algorithm in an Ex cel Spreadsheet Macro. First, the cave with the highest species richness was selected. Then, these species are ig nored and the cave with the highest complement of species (that is, the most species not represented in the previ ous selected cave), and so on, until all species are represented at least once. This method was applied to a dataset comprising only presence-absence data for the cave-adapted arthropods, to have the minimum set of caves to represent all species at least once. Results We recorded 35 species of endemic ar thropods in the 37 caves (see Appendix 1). From those species, 19 (54%) are Table 1. List of the lava tubes (LT) and volcanic pits (VP) investigated.

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111 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Table 2. The list of indices used to rank the caves.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 112 cave-adapted species. Most hypogean endemic species have restricted dis tributions, occurring only in one cave (Fig. 2). using the multiple criteria index (IV-C) belong to four out of the six studied is lands. No caves from Graciosa and Faial were included in the top ranked list. On the other hand, Pico and Terceira have the highest number of cavities elected in the top ten cavities. The 10 top caves include both large caves (e.g. Montanheiros, Table 3. Ranking of the 37 caves in terms of the multiple criteria index, Importance Value for Conservation (IV-C). Figure 2. Frequency distribution of Azorean troglobitic species in volcanic caves. Balces, Henrique Maciel) and small caves. Three currently protected caves, also used as Show-caves, (Algar do Carvo, Torres, Furna do Enxofre), are not listed in the top 10, but Algar do Carvo (Terceira) and Torres (Pico) are 11 th and 13 th respectively. Using presence/absence data, heuris tic (suboptimal) solution show that only 9 caves are needed to have all caveadapted species represented at least once islands have at least one cave represented in the minimum complementary set of caves (Table 4). Conclusions In this study we aimed to quan tify the relative value of Azorean caves using both arthropods and cave geological features. Inter estingly, data from this study shows that a regional conserva tion approach, which value at least one cave per island, will be required to conserve arthropod biodiversity in the Azores (see Tables 3 and 4). Remarkably, Gruta dos Mon two completely different selec tion approaches, which highlight the importance of this beautiful lava tube located in the island o Pico. Using a single criterion may not allow us to cover all conser vation goals. Therefore, based both on the uniqueness of spe cies composition and/or high species richness and geological value of the caves (Tables 3 and 4), conservation efforts should be focused on the follow ing caves: Gruta da Beira, Algar das Bocas do Fogo (S. Jorge); Montanheiros, Henrique Maciel, Soldo, Furna das Cabras II and Ribeira do Fundo (Pico); Algar do Carvo, Balces, Agulhas and Chocolate (Terceira); gua de Pau (S. Miguel); Anelares and Parque do Capelo (Faial). Acknowledgements We wish to thank to Azorean Govern ment for supporting our trip to Pico to participate on the XI nd International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology (Madalena, Pico, May 2004). References Borges, P.A.V. (1993). First records for the Mesocavernous Shallow Stratum (MSS) from the Azores. Mmoires de Biospologie 20: 49-54. Borges, P.A.V., Aguiar, C., Amaral, J., Amorim, I.R., Andr, G., Arraiol, A.,. Baz A., Dinis, F., Enghoff, H., Gaspar, C., Ilharco, F., Mahnert, V., Melo, C., Pereira, F., Quartau, J.A., Ribeiro, S., Ribes, J., Serrano, A.R.M., Sousa, A.B., Strassen, R.Z., Vieira, L., Vieira, V., Vitorino, A. and Wunderlich, J. (2005). Ranking protected areas in the Azores using standardized sampling of soil epigean arthropods. Biodiversity and Conser vation 14: 2029-2060. Borges, P.A.V. & Orom, P. (1994). The Azores. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeleologica.

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113 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Table 4. Minimum complementarity set of caves to have all troglobian species represented at least once. Tome I pp. 605-610. Socit de Bio spleologie, Moulis. Constncia, J.P., Borges, P.A.V., Costa, M.P., Nunes, J.C., Barcelos, P., Perei ra, F. & Braga, T. (2004). Ranking Azorean caves based on management ndices. Abstract book of the XIth International Symposium on Vulca nospeleology (Pico, Aores). Culver, D.C. (2001). Subterranean Eco systems, in S. Levin (ed.) Encyclo paedia of Biodiversity Volume 5, pp. 527-540, Academic Press. Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. 1998. Nu merical Ecology, Second english edi tion edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Nunes, J.C. (1999). A actividade vul cnica na ilha do Pico do Plistocnico Superior ao Holocnico: mecanismo eruptivo e Hazard vulcnico Ph.D Thesis, Universidade dos Aores, Ponta Delgada. Orom, P., Martin, J.L., Ashmole, N.P. & Ashmole, M.J. (1990). A preliminary report on the cavernicolous fauna of the Azores. Mmoires de Biospolo gie 17: 97-105. Rosenzweig M.L. (1995). Species di versity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Whittaker, R.J. (1998). Island Bioge ography Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Williams P. 2001. Complementarity. In: Levin S. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, Volume 5. Academic Press, pp. 813-829. Appendix 1. List of the species endemic species recorded in the Azorean caves. The cave-adapted species are also marked (C).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 114 Abstract Cave entrances in the Azores are par ticularly humid habitats. These provide opportunities for the colonization of a diverse assemblage of bryophyte spe cies. Using both published data and new diversity and rarity of bryophytes at the entrance of all known Azorean lava Frequent species include the liverworts: Calypogeia arguta J ubula hutchinsiae or Lejeunea lamacerina and the mosses: Epipterygium tozeri Eurhynchium prae longum Fissidens serrulatus Isoptery gium elegans Lepidopilum virens and Tetrastichium fontanum Several rare Azorean bryophyte species appear at some cave entrances (e.g. Archidium alternifolium ; Asterella africana ; Pla giochila longispina ), which reinforces the importance of this habitat for the Indicators of Conservation Value of Azorean Caves Based on its Byrophyte Flora at the Entrance Rosalina Gabriel 1 Fernando Pereira 2 Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2 and Joo P. Constncia 3 1 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal; rgabriel@notes.angra.uac.pt. 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 4-8, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Aores, Portugal. regional conservation of these plants. To produce an unbiased multiple-criteria index ( Importance Value for Conserva tion IV-C), several indices based on bryophyte diversity and rarity, and also geological and management features, were calculated for each cave, and an iterative partial multiple regression analyses was performed. Data sows that three pit caves are particularly diverse in bryophytes (Algar do Carvo, Terceira Island, Bocas do Fogo, S. Jorge and Furna do Enxofre, Graciosa). Lava tubes with a diverse troglobitic fauna also are diverse in terms of bryophyte species (e.g., Algar do Carvo, Gruta dos Mon tanheiros, Gruta da Agostinha, Furna do Henrique Maciel). We also evaluate the utility of several cave management indi ces as surrogates of bryophyte diversity in Azorean volcanic cavities. occupy a wide variety of habitats and substrates. Bryophytes assume an im portant functional role in the ecosystems where they occur, performing water interception, accumulation of water and their mineral contents, decomposition of organic matter and physical protection of soils (Longton, 1992). Many bryophyte species are used as bioindicators, and their presence is associated with atmo spheric and aquatic purity (e.g. Hylander, Jonsson, & Nilsson 2002). ries micro-organisms, leaves, seeds, spores, small arthropods, etc. Some will survive (mainly algae, fungi, ferns and bryophytes), modifying the bare rock. Some will form an important part of the food chain for cave dwelling or ganisms. In most places, the species found at the caves (either in entrances or areas above) are common species. However, these species add greatly to the diversity of the plant species at the caves and the scenic value of the rocks and rocky outcrops. Four hundred and thirty eight bryo phyte species are given to the Azores (Gabriel et al 2005), but few data are available concerning their relative im portance in the Azorean cave environ ment. The aims of this manuscript are: a) To evaluate species diversity and rarity of bryophytes at the entrance of the known Azorean lava tubes and volcanic b) To evaluate the utility of several cave management indices as surrogates of bryophyte diversity in Azorean vol canic cavities. Methods Sites and data All main literature for the Azorean cave bryophytes was surveyed, and data was updated using the Her barium of the University of the Azores Table 1. List of the Azorean lava tubes (LT), volcanic pits (VP) and other type (OT) of cavities investigated for bryophytes in this article. Introduction The study of the Azorean bryo peditions of the National Geo graphic Foundation (1988, 1990), under the co-supervision of Pedro Orom (Univ. de La Laguna) and Philippe Ashmole (Univ. of Ed inburgh) and with the support of the speleological Azorean group Os Montanheiros (see Orom et al. 1990, Gonzlez-Mancebo et al. 1991). After those two ex peditions, the University of the Azores and Os Montanheiros performed most of the bryophyte survey work in the Azores (e.g. Gabriel & Dias 1994, Gabriel & Bates 2005). Bryophytes include mosses (Class Bryopsida), liverworts (Class Marchantiopsida) and hornworts (Class Anthocero topsida), all of which are small, non-vascular, primitive plants that

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115 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 (AZU). Besides, during the summer of the year 2000, 18 Azorean caves were prospected for bryophytes by FP, search ing the main substrata available: rock and However, the quality of the data only allowed to perform statistical analysis for the 19 caves listed on Table 1. Data analysis For prioritizing the 19 caves we used a multiple criteria index: Importance Value for Conser vation (IV-C) (based on Borges et al. 2005). The multiple criteria index was built using 9 different indices (see Table 2), based on the diversity and rarity of bryophytes, but also on geological and management features of the caves (data from IPEA database, Constncia et al. 2004). We also used the total number of cave-adapted arthropods in caves based on information obtained from Borges et al. (2007, this volume). To avoid problems of collinearity we have used partial regression analysis techniques (Legendre & Legendre 1998, see also Borges et al. 2005), which al low the separation of the variability of a given predictor that is independent (i.e., non related) from the variability of another variable, or set of variables. To do this, we applied generalised linear models (GLM) with natural logarithm link functions, in which the predictor is regressed against this variable, or group of variables, and the resulting residuals are retained as the independent term of the variable. In this particular case, we have developed iterative partial regres sion analyses, each time extracting the variability of a predictor that is indepen dent of the formerly chosen indices. The any transformation was the total number of bryophyte species (S Bryo. ), since total species richness was considered to be of major importance to cave conservation. The other indices entered in the model by decreasing order of their r 2 values of a GLM regression of each index with S Bryo. for Conservation (IV-C) composite index is as follows: IV-C = [(S Bryo / S Bryo max) + (R_S ECCB / R_ ECCB max) + (R_SBryo end / R_SBryo end max) + (R_S trogl / R_S trogl max) + (R_Show / R_Show max) + (R_GEO / R_GEO max) + (R_Integrity / R_Integrity max) + (R_Threats / R_Threats max ) + (R_Access / R_Access max )] / 9 in which for a cave, the value of the residual variance (R) of each of the addi tional indices is divided by the maximum value (max) obtained within all caves. For instance, the residuals of SBryo end were obtained after the following poly nomial model: SBryo end = a + b S Bryo + c R S ECCB in which a is the value of the intercept, variable and c is the value of the slope of the second variable. This composite index has a maxi mum value of 1 (see also Borges et al. 2005). Results and discussion The majority of bryophytes found at the cave entrances may be found elsewhere in the Azorean islands, and there are no known exclusive cave species. However it is remarkable that 151 species out of the 438 Azorean bryophytes (34.5%) have been recorded for this habitat. For an updated list of bryophytes pres ent at the Azorean caves see Pereira et al. (2006, in press). Among the most frequently recorded moss species are: Eurhynchium praelongum Fissidens bryoides s. l. F. serrulatus Tetras tichium fontanum and T. virens while among the most recorded liverworts there may be found Calypogeia arguta Jubula hutchinsiae ssp. hutchinsiae and Figure 1. Number of endemic (Azores, Macaronesia) or red-listed (ECCB, 1995) bryophyte species present at the entrances of the studied Azorean caves.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 116 Table 2. Explanation of the list of indices used to rank the Azorean caves. Lejeunea lamacerina Besides, there are noteworthy occur rences on the Azorean Caves, of either endemic (Azores and Macaronesia) or European red-listed species, and some species according to the ECCB (1995) (see Figure 1). Caves such as Gruta do Frei Matias and Gruta das Torres (both in Pico) or Algar do Carvo and Gruta dos Balces (both in Ter bryophytes and only three of the 19 analysed caves (Furna dos Vimes, Gruta dos Anjos e Gruta de Ponta species (see Figure 1, Pereira et al. 2006, in press). Among the most interesting species that may be found at cave entrances, are the bryophytes Aphanolejeunea teotonii Asterella africana Cephalozia crassifo lia, Echinodium renauldii Plagiochila longispina and Radula wichurae These European vulnerable species occur at cave entrances at different islands, and for instance Asterella africana has not been referred outside that habitat in the Azores, recently. The endemic moss Echinodium renauldii an epilithic spe cies, which is generally found at lower altitudes (below 500 m), has also been referred for at least three caves (Furna do Henrique Maciel, Furna da Ago stinha e Gruta das Torres all in Pico Island). Thus, caves may serve as

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117 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 a refuge to some species that otherwise would not be present at that particular altitude and these data highlight the importance of the habitat for the regional conservation of these plants. was observed between the diversity of cave-adapted arthropods and the species richness of bryophytes in the Azorean cave entrances (r = 0.59; p = 0.008) (Figure 2). In spite of the fact that the relationship is not perfect, there are some caves that are diverse both in troglobitic fauna and bryophyte species (e.g., Algar do Carvo, Gruta dos Montanheiros, Gruta da Agostinha, Furna do Henrique Maciel). Bryophyte richness could, with caution, be used as an indicator of the diverse cave adapted arthropods. The ranking obtained with the mul tiple criteria index, Importance Value for Conservation (IV-C) for the 19 caves may be observed in Table 3. Eight caves, have IV-C values equal or above 0.50 (maximum value is 1.00). All of these caves are located in Pico, Terceira and Graciosa Islands. Considering the present state of spele ological and biospeleological knowledge of the Azores, none of the most interest ing caves are to be found on S. Miguel Island, the largest and most populated island of the Azorean archipelago. Cave entrances in S. Miguel are highly dis turbed, mainly due to land use changes in the surrounding areas. Also in view of the calculated index, caves, at the present. This indicates that there are other caves with potential for tourism exploitation, and that their bio logical value should be highlighted. Care should be taken when developing showcave projects, in order to preserve their biological and geological features. Conclusions Unlike other cave entrances, Azorean caves bear an exquisite and wonderful bryophyte flora. Many species com monly found in this habitat are endemic or red-listed and their populations are important to the survival of the species in the Azores. These species add greatly to diversity of the plant species at the caves and the scenic value of the rocks and rocky outcrops. In the Azores, the importance of cave entrances to bryophytes is twofold: i) since these are particularly humid, shel tered habitats, they support a diverse assemblage of bryophyte species; in fact circa 35% of the Azorean bryophytes is referred to this habitat and ii) species, either endemic or referred in the Euro pean Red List (ECCB 1995) due to their vulnerability or rarity (19 species). Bryophyte diversity was shown to be a surrogate of cave adapted arthropods, indicating that well preserved caves have a global importance for both the organisms living inside the cave system and to those adapted to cave entrances, hence bryophytes. In view of the calculated conserva caves are show-caves, at the present. This indicates that there are other caves with potential for tourism exploitation, and that their biological value should be highlighted. Care should be taken when developing show-cave projects, in order to preserve their biological and geological features. Acknowledgements We wish to thank to Azorean Govern ment for supporting our trip to Pico Island to participate on the XI nd Interna tional Symposium on Vulcanospeleol ogy (Madalena, Pico, Aores, Portugal. May 2004). We wish to acknowledge Centro de Investigao e Tecnologia Agrria dos Aores (CITAa/UAores) for sup porting our fieldwork in Pico Island (2000). References Borges, P.A.V., Aguiar, C., Amaral, J., Amorim, I.R., Andr, G., Arraiol, arthropod species (S Trogl) and the logarithm of the number of bryophyte species (S Bryoph) found at the entrance of caves. Table 3. Ranking of the 19 caves using the multiple criteria index, Importance Value for Conservation (IV-C).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 118 A.,. Baz A., Dinis, F., Enghoff, H., Gaspar, C., Ilharco, F., Mahnert, V., Melo, C., Pereira, F., Quartau, J.A., Ribeiro, S., Ribes, J., Serrano, A.R.M., Sousa, A.B., Strassen, R.Z., Vieira, L., Vieira, V., Vitorino, A. and Wunderlich, J. (2005). Ranking protected areas in the Azores using standardized sampling of soil epigean arthropods. Biodiversity and Conser vation 14: 2029-2060. Borges, P.A.V., Pereira, F. & Constncia, J.P. (2007). Indicators of conservation value of Azorean caves based on its arthropod fauna. Proceedings of the Xth, XIth and XIIth International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. Constncia, J.P., Borges, P.A.V., Costa, M.P., Nunes, J.C., Barcelos, P., Perei ra, F. & Braga, T. (2004). Ranking Azorean caves based on management ndices. Abstract book of the XIth International Symposium on Vulca nospeleology (Pico, Aores). ECCB (1995). Red data book of Europe an bryophytes European Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes. Trondheim. Gabriel, R. & Bates, J.W. (2005) Bryo phyte community composition and ests of Terceira, Azores. Plant Ecol ogy 177, 125-144. Gabriel, R. & Dias, E. (1994). First approach to the study of the Algar in: Actas do 3 Congresso Nacional de Espeleologia e do 1 Encontro Internacional de Vulcanoespeleologia das Ilhas Atlnticas (30 de Setembro a 4 de Outubro de 1992), pp. 206-213. Angra do Herosmo. R., Srgio, C., Frahm, J.-P. & Sousa, E. (2005) List of bryophytes In A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores (eds P.A.V. Borges, R. Cunha, R. Gabriel, A.M.F. Mar tins, L. Silva, & V. Vieira). pp. ???, Direco Regional de Ambiente e do Mar dos Aores and Universidade dos Aores, Horta, Angra do Herosmo and Ponta Delgada. Gonzlez-Mancebo, J.M., LosadaLima, A. & Hrnandez-Garcia, C.D. (1991). A contribution to the Azores. Mmoires de Biospologie 18: 219-226. Hylander, K., Jonsson, B. G. & Nilsson, C. 2002. Evaluting buffer strips along boreal streams using bryophytes as indicators. Ecological Applications 12 (3): 797-806. Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. 1998. Nu merical Ecology Second English edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Longton, R. E. 1992. 2. The role of bryophytes and lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. in: Bates, J. & Farmer, A. (eds.) 1992. Bryophytes and Li chens in a changing environment pp.: 32-76. Claredon Press. Oxford. Orom, P., Martin, J.L., Ashmole, N.P. & Ashmole, M.J. (1990). A preliminary report on the cavernicolous fauna of the Azores. Mmoires de Biospolo gie 17: 97-105. Pereira, F, Borges, P A V, Costa, M P, Constncia, J P, Nunes, J C, Barcelos, P Braga, T & Gabriel, R (2006, in press). Catlogo das cavidades vul cnicas dos Aores (grutas lvicas, algares e grutas de eroso marinha). Direco Regional do Ambiente, Horta, 286 pp.

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119 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 The Nature of Bacterial Communities in Four Windows Cave, El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA Diana E. Northup 1 Cynthia A. Connolly 1 Amanda Trent 1 Vickie M. Peck 1 Michael N. Spilde 2 W. Calvin Welbourn 3 and Donald O. Natvig 1 1 Biology Department, University of New Mexico. 2 Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. 3 The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Abstract One of the striking features of some lava tube caves is the extensive bacte rial mats (a.k.a. lava wall slime) that cover the walls. Despite their promi nence little is known about the nature of these bacterial communities. We have investigated the bacterial mats on the walls of Four Windows Cave, a lava tube in El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA. These bacterial mats in the twilight zone adjacent to algal mats, and in the dark zone of the lava tube, cover from 2575% of the wall. Their macroscopic and micro scopic visual appearance suggests that these bacterial mats are composed of actinomycetes, bacteria that commonly inhabit caves. Vacuuming of bacterial mats and the adjacent algae revealed collembola and mites on the algae but no invertebrates were recovered from the bacterial mats. DNA was extracted ing PCR, cloned, and approximately 1000 bases were sequenced from thirty clones. Comparison of Four Windows bacterial sequences with the Ribosomal Database II revealed that some were most closely related to actinomycetes. Others grouped with members of the the Verrucomicrobia and the Betaproteobacteria Closest relatives of two of the clones were from Mam moth Cave samples. The latter appear to be novel bacterial species. The ability of bacteria cultured from these mats to withstand the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation revealed the microbes isolated from the lava tube were much more UV sensitive than the microbes isolated from the surface. However, all of the microbes tested displayed at least slight sensitivity to UV radiation. Based on the results, the bacterial colonies currently inhabiting the Four-Windows lava tube appear to be at least somewhat cave-adapted. Our studies of the actinomycete communities in Four Windows Cave reveal a diverse community of bacteria that appear to be unpalatable to invertebrates. Introduction A revolution in microbiology occurred with the introduction of 16S ribosomal methodology to discover the great di versity and distribution of life through genetic sequences. Standard culturing techniques used to cultivate microorgan isms from caves, have met with limited success (Amann et al. 1995; Hugenholtz et al. 1998). Culture-independent mo lecular phylogenetic techniques allow us to reveal the diversity present in many varied environments (Pace 1997). Many novel prokaryotic species have been de tected as a result of this new technology. Bacteria have been found in some of the most extreme areas including deep-sea thermal vents, within rock cores, and in caves. These microorganisms are important participants in the precipita tion and dissolution of minerals, in caves (Northup and Lavoie 2001) and on the surface (Ehrlich 1999). However, we have barely begun to characterize the microbial diversity of caves and the roles of microorganisms in the subsurface. Humid lava tube caves contain highly visible mats of bacteria and other mi croorganisms nicknamed lava wall slime, (Figure 1), but they have received even less attention than limestone caves (Northup and Welbourn 1997). These microbial mats do contain fungi and aerobic bacteria and serve as a habitat for arthropods that feed on nutrients captured in the slimes, e.g. springtails (Insecta: Collembola), mites (Arachnida: Acari), (Oligochaeta), a water treader (Insecta: Hemiptera), and carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) (Howarth, 1973, 1981). Stone and Howarth (Howarth, 1981) also have suggested that the slimes are important sites of nutrient recycling (e.g. nitrogen). Ashmole et al. (1992) have found slimes present in humid caves in the Canary and Azore Islands, but never in dry caves. In the Northwestern USA (Washington) lava tube slimes consist of different species of bacteria, includ ing actinomycetes in the genus Strep tomyces (Staley and Crawford 1975). Staley and Crawford (1975) observed two main types: a white slime that is occurs alone, is hydrophobic, and oc curs in warmer areas (>6 degrees C), and an orange slime that underlies the white slime and is seen in colder areas. Associated with the slime, Staley and tera: Mycetophilidae), overwintering harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones), a troglobitic harvestman, Speleonychia sp. ( Opilionides: Travuniidae), and a millipede (Diplopoda: Polyzoniidae). We remain almost completely igno rant of the nature of these bacterial mats due to the lack of culture-independent studies. Thus, this study was undertaken using culture-independent methods to characterize the nature of the lava wall slime in Four Windows Cave. We also investigated the sensitivity of cultured isolates to ultraviolet (UV) radiation to determine whether the bacteria of lava tubes have lost resistance to UV radiation in comparison to their surface bacteria. Previous studies of the sensitivity of deep subsurface bacteria found no dif ferences in sensitivity between deep subsurface and surface bacteria (Arrage et al. 1993a,1993b). Most cave animals lose non-essential traits as they adapt to the subsurface environment, but this has never been investigated in bacteria inhabiting caves.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 120 During a previous investigation of the arthropod community inhabiting Four Windows Cave (Northup and Welbourn 1997), we noted the presence of mites on the algal mats on the walls of the twilight zone, but not on the bacterial mats. A more systematic vacuuming experiment was undertaken to document this anec dotal observation that might suggest that the bacterial mats are distasteful or toxic to invertebrates. These preliminary studies of the mi crobial mats present in one lava tube, Four Windows Cave, will allow us to more fully understand the lava tube eco system and will lay the groundwork for future studies in other lava tubes. Experimental Methods Cave Description Four Windows Cave, located in El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA is a moderately long lava tube with four skylights that give the cave its name. An extensive invertebrate community exists in the moss garden growing under the skylights. These sky lights provide light for the moss garden directly below them and the algal com munities on the walls of the twilight zone, both of which support moderately diverse invertebrate communities. Four Windows is cold, ranging from -2 to +2 C with ice stalagmites form in the winter. During the rainy season (July and August), moisture seeps into the cave through cracks and supplies moisture and organic matter for the microbial and invertebrate communities. The walls and ceiling of Four Win dows Cave have extensive deposits of bacterial mats. The distribution of bacterial colonies is patchy (Figure 1), a National Park Service collecting per mit. These samples were chipped from the parent wall rock with an ethanolThe samples were then caught in a sterile container, sealed, and placed on dry ice for transport. Upon arriving at the lab, the samples were stored in a -80 C freezer. Both algae and bacteria were vacu umed with an Insect Vac (BioQuip) to examine the invertebrate communities that inhabit each environment. First, the collection tube of the vacuum was placed inside. Bacteria patches were vacuumed for one minute, the collec tion chamber was washed thoroughly with ethanol, and its contents repeatedly transferred to an appropriately labeled, caught in this container and sealed. This procedure was repeated on an algae patch adjacent to the bacterial mats. Bacterial and algal washes were analyzed sepa rately microscopically. Scanning Electron Microscopy Samples of the lava tube wall rock covered with microbial colonies were Figure 1. Close-up view of the bacterial colonies on the walls of Four Windows Cave. Photo by Kenneth Ingham. Figure 2. Cal Welbourn sampling invertebrates from algal colonies on the wall of Four Windows Cave. Photo by Kenneth Ingham. but appears to be most dense in areas of lower light and possibly where moisture enters the cave through cracks. Mat coverage ranges from isolated, individual colonies to dense mats several mm thick (Lavoie and Northup 1994). The visible color of both individual and massed colonies was predominately whitish-tan, but a few gold colored colo nies and veins of colonies oc cur. Observation shows that colonies are hydrophobic, with up on the surface. This water Senger and Crawford (1984) associate the hydrophobicity to the presence of spores produced by the bacteria. Sample Collection for DNA Extraction and Invertebrate Study Small samples of wall rock covered with bacterial slime were collected from Four Win dows Cave in July, 1996 under

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121 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 examined on a JEOL 5800 scanning elec tron microscope (SEM) equipped with an Oxford (Link) Isis energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDX). Rock samples with adherent bacterial colonies were mounted directly on an SEM sample stub while in the cave and then coated by evaporation with Au-Pd in the lab prior to imaging. Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Community Extraction of DNA. Nucleic acids 0.5 gm aliquots of sample by using the bead-mill homogenization procedure described by Kuske et al. (1997). Fol lowing bead-mill disruption and centrifu gation, the supernatant was transferred and the bead pellet was washed once with 1 ml of TE buffer (10 mM Tris [pH 8.0], 1 mM EDTA), re-homogenized for 5 sec, and centrifuged again. This supernatant was pooled with the original supernatant. Nucleic acids were pre cipitated from the solution by using 0.1 volume of 3 M sodium acetate (pH 5.2) and 2.5 volumes of ethanol, incubated on ice, and centrifuged for 30 min at 12,000 x g. Precipitated nucleic acids were suspended in TE. DNA was puri equilibrated in TE, as described previ ously (Kuske et al. 1997). The clear column eluate containing DNA was precipitated and suspended in TE buffer. Negative control samples were prepared with TENS buffer alone containing no sample addition and were subjected to the same procedures as used with the samples. rRNA genes from environmental DNAs. The forward primer used was 533F and the reverse primer used was the 1492R primer (Lane 1991). Amplification reaction mixtures contained 30 mM Tris-HCL (pH8.3), 50 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl 2 5 g bovine serum albu min (Boehringer-Mannheim), 200 M (each) deoxynucleoside triphosphates, 100 pmol of each primer, and 5 U of Taq polymerase (AmpliTaq LD; PerkinElmer, Foster City, Calif.) in a final reaction volume of 100 l. PCR was conducted with a Perkin-Elmer 9600 thermal cycler as follows: 2 min at 94 C (denaturation), followed by 35 cycles of 60 sec annealing at 48 C (anneal ing), 60 sec at 72 C (extension), and 5 sec at 94 60 sec at 48 C (annealing) and 5-min at 72 C (extension) step after cycling was complete. Five microliters of each reaction mixture was analyzed on 1% SeaKem agarose gels and the desired UV illumination of the gels. Small-subunit rDNA libraries. A clone library of small subunit rRNA gene copies was generated from the Four Windows sample. PCR products tions were ligated into pGEM-T plasmid vectors (Promega, Madison, Wis.) using T4 DNA ligase and overnight incubation at 4 C, according to the manufacturers protocols. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells (Promega), and colonies containing plasmids with inserts were tion on LB/ampicillin/IPTG/XGal agar plates. RFLP. To assist in determining the genetic diversity of the bacterial colony, the 16S ribosomal DNA of seventeen clones were cut with enzymes to pro duce RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms): one l of plasmid DNA, two l of React Buffer 3, six teen l of double distilled water, and one l of enzyme were used to digest the DNA. Enzymes used were EcoR1 Bstu 1 and RSA1 with one enzyme per reaction. Sheared DNA patterns were visualized using a 4% Metaphor (FMC Rockland, Maine) electrophoresis gel in TAE, stained with 1 l of ethidium bromide and exposed to UV light. DNA Sequencing. PCR products from 32 clones with inserts of the correct size (approximately 1.0 kb) were puri kit (Qiagen, Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.). a template in cycle sequencing reactions with thermo sequenase dye terminator cycle sequencing pre-mix kit (Amersham Life Science, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio) and ABI PRISM dye terminator cycle sequencing kit (Perkin-Elmer, Foster City, Calif.) on an ABI 377. Primers used for sequencing were T7 and SP6. Fulllength insert sequences were obtained for a subset of clones by using primers for internal sequencing (906F, 907R, and 765F) of the rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis. Each sequence was submitted to the CHIMERA\_ CHECK program of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP; Maidak et al. 2001; (http://rdp8.cme.msu.edu/html/)) to detect the presence of possible chime ric artifacts. All sequences were initially analyzed using BLAST (NCBI; Altschul et al. 1997) and SIMILARITY\_MATCH (RDPII; Maidak et al. 2001) to identify related sequences available in public databases and to determine phylogenetic groupings of clone sequences. Clone insert representatives of each phyloge dataset was accomplished using the RDP II alignment software and manually using the BioEdit editor (http://www. mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html), guided by 16S primary and secondary structure considerations. Identity values were generated by the similarity identity matrix program in BioEdit (http://www. mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html). Distance analyses were performed using PAUP (version 4.0b10, distributed by Sinauer; http://paup.csit.fsu.edu/) with the Jukes-Cantor model. The tree of highest likelihood was found by repeated tree building using random sequence input orders. Bootstrap analyses were conducted on 1000 resampled datasets using PAUP. UV Sensitivity Experiments Bacterial inoculation, isolation and growth. To obtain bacterial isolates from the rock walls and surface rocks, we swiped polyester fiber-tipped swabs across the rock and inoculated thirty R2A medium (low-nutrient) plates using the standard streak isolation method. We obtained water samples with sterile 5 ml syringes from a pool of water that had accumulated inside the cave and dispensed 0.2ml of the water onto ten R2A plates, which were spread with a in the cave. Inoculated plates were incubated in the cave for 16 hours be fore transport to a 3C incubator in the laboratory where they remained in the dark for two weeks. Surface inocu lates were stored for just under three weeks at 37C. Morphologically unique colonies from both sets of plates were sub-cultured to provide pure cultures for UV experiments. In addition, we sub-cultured the surface colonies onto nutrient-rich LB plates.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 122 UV Radiation Treatment. Once the subcultures were grown, we chose twelve of the most interesting cave colonies and six of the surface colonies to expose as the most morphologically different and slowly growing (likely to be more cave-adapted) colonies. Three replicate plates of colonies per R2A plate were inoculated for each of two treatments plus the control. Immediately after in oculating the plates, we placed the plates, with lids off, under the sterile hood and exposed the plates to a UV light from a germicidal lamp for 100 seconds (1 Dose) or 50 seconds (-dose plates). After the treatment, we covered the plates, wrapped them in foil to prevent photoreactivation and placed them in the appropriate incubators. The control replicates that were not exposed to UV light were also wrapped in foil and in cubated. We monitored the growth of the cultures with visual checks of colony growth for six days, and documented them with a digital camera. Results Invertebrate Vacuuming Visual observation of the bacterial colonies in Four Windows Cave revealed no macroscopically visual invertebrates. Therefore, bacterial and algal mats were vacuumed as described above to more thoroughly investigate the presence of invertebrates. No invertebrates were found within the bacterial mat collec tion tube. The algal mat collection tube contained fourteen collembola. Eleven of these belonged to the family Hypogas turidae and three belonged to the family Entomobryidae. Previous vacuuming had also yielded Acari (mites) in the Nanorchestidae, and undetermined Orib atida and insects in family Chironomidae (Diptera) were also found. Scanning Electron Microscopy Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of samples of white bacterial mat samples from Four Win dows Cave revealed a dense mat of bacteria (Figure 3), some of which were from their visual appearance. Additional morphologies observed with SEM (not shown) resembled planctomycete-like or Verrucomicrobium -like bacteria. RFLP Analysis and Nucleotide sequences All eleven RFLP clones examined exhibited unique banding. Several clone sequences appeared to be chimeras and were removed from the analysis. Com parison of our sequences with those in the Ribosomal Database II and Blast revealed that some Four Windows bacte rial sequences are most closely related to Actinobacteria as suspected. Other clones grouped with members of the the Verrucomicrobia and the Betaproteobacteria Two of the closest relatives to our clones were se quenced from Mammoth Cave samples. The latter appear to be novel bacterial species. Figure 4 shows a phylogenetic tree of representative clone sequences and their closest relatives. UV Sensitivity Six days after the UV treatments, we scored the UV sensitivity of the different strains based on comparisons with the control strains. Each replicate was rated from one to three, with three being the most sensitive. Overall, every strain showed at least some sensitivity to the 1 dose (100 sec) of UV radiation and all but four strains (all surface) showed some sensitivity to dose (50 sec) of UV. All of the cave strains showed surface strains and seven of the cave replicates showed no growth at all with both 1 and doses. All cave bacteria replicates were scored a three. Figures 5 and 6 show the dramatic differences in growth after UV exposure in surface and cave isolates respectively. Discussion The lack of invertebrates on the bacte rial mats while invertebrates were found on adjacent algal mats suggests that the bacterial mats may contain toxic or dis tasteful compounds. Scanning electron microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analysis suggest the presence of ac tinomycete ( Actinobacteria ) bacteria in the bacterial mats. Actinomycetes are a highly varied group of Grampositive bacteria that have the unusual and exospore production. They may make up 1033% of total soil microbes, Figure 3. Scanning electron micrographs of sampled white bacterial colonies showing the presence of unusual morphologies (left) and

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123 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Figure 4. Phylogenetic tree of bacterial rDNA clone sequences from Four Windows Cave lava wall microbial mats. Partial rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1000 nucleotides) from clones (designated FW in bold type) were analyzed with most closely related se quences obtained from the databases, as well as other representatives of major bacterial groups. Synechococcus sp. PCC 6301 was used as the outgroup. The tree was inferred by maximum likelihood analysis of homologous nucleotide positions of sequence from each organism or clone. Numbers indicate percentages of bootstrap resamplings that support branches in maximum likelihood (above branch) and maximum parsimony (below branch) analyses. Bootstrap results are reported only for those branches that attained >70% support with at least one of the methods used.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 124 with Streptomyces and Norcardia being the most abundant genera. They are relatively resistant to desiccation, and prefer alkaline or neutral pH environ ments. Metabolically, their main role in nature is in decomposition of organic matter and they thrive in environments where nutrients are sparse and condi tions extreme. Many actinomycetes either in association with some plant roots or as free-living cells. The role in caves has not been explored (Lavoie per. comm. 1993). With a temperature of -2 to +2C and seeping organic matter for nourishment, Four Windows Cave provides an excellent habitat for these bacteria. Some types of actinomycetes are medicinally and agriculturally sig products to repel invaders. The antibiotic properties of many bacteria species make them interesting to the medicinal indus try. The lack of invertebrate life on the bacterial slime communities could be an indicator that the environment may be excreting antibiotic compounds toxic or distasteful to these small animals. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of bacteria adhered to the rock walls of Four Windows Cave revealed that the community is not merely actinomycetes, but contains organisms from three other major bacterial groups: Ver rucomicrobia and the Betaproteobac teria None of these relationships are especially close as evidenced by the long branch length for many of the Four Windows Cave clones. The closest relatives are those from Mammoth Cave environmental isolates and other soil environmental isolates, indicating the novel nature of these isolates. Clone FW34 grouped with the a mentous organisms. However, other studies have shown cave bacteria group ing with the (Engel, personal communication 2005), and in this case, the association is not a close one. The closer relative of clone FW34 is an iso late from the soils of Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. The lack of a close relation ship to a cultivated bacterial species and the fact that close relatives can have different physiologies does not allow us to draw any conclusions concerning this clone. Several clones, as represented by FW2b and FW9b, group with the Verrucomicrobia a recently proposed division that has been elevated to phy lum status within the Bacterial Domain (Schlesner et al. 2001). The genera Verrucomicrobium and Prosthecobacter within the Verrucomicrobia are prosth appendages) extensions from their tips. Their morphology is similar to some of the morphologies seen in the SEM photomicrographs of Four Windows samples. The Verrucomicrobia have been found in a variety of aquatic and ter restrial habitats worldwide. While most cultivated members are heterotrophic, we are just beginning to learn about their physiology. Thus, little can be said about the physiology of the Four Windows clones based on their association with the Verrucomicrobia The grouping of isolate FW19B with Herbaspirillum seropedicae in the Be taproteobacteria probably reveals an isolate from the surface rhizosphere. Bacteria in the Herbaspirillum are usu ally associated with plant roots, often as nitrogen-fixers. Isolate FW32B groups with another Mammoth Cave environmental isolate within the Be taproteobacteria Overall, the molecular phylogenetic analysis of a small clone library from Four Windows Cave points to the nov el nature of the isolates and the need to learn more about their physiology through enrichment culture studies. Of note is the observation that the closest relatives come from another cave, Mam moth Cave in Kentucky. It is tempting to speculate that this is a small bit of evidence for the existence of an indig enous cave microbial community, but much remains to be learned about the microbial diversity of caves. Our UV sensitivity experiments with cultured isolates from Four Windows Cave showed a marked sensitivity to UV radiation in comparison to surface cul tured isolates, showing a different trend than that seen by Arrage et al. (1993b). Figure 5. Comparison of replicate 1 surface strains A D. 1= full UV dose, = half UV dose, C= no UV. Replicates 2 and 3 showed similar UV sensitivity (data not shown). Figure 6. Comparison of replicate 1 cave strains I L. 1= full UV dose, = half UV dose, C= no UV. Replicates 2 and 3 showed similar UV sensitivity (data not shown).

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125 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 rigorous manner, we are repeating the experiments with isolates from other sensitivity may represent an adaptation to the cave environment by bacteria that have no need of UV radiation resistance in the dark environment of the cave. Many of the same genes ( recA ) that control for UV resistance/repair also control repair for other environmental stresses such as desiccation. This study represents some small steps in adding to our understanding of the bacterial mats that coat the walls of many lava tubes worldwide. We have established that there is a morphologi cally and genetically diverse community in these mats, that the culturable bacteria are UV sensitive, and that these mats are distasteful to invertebrates who preferen tially feed on adjacent algal mats. These studies will hopefully spark interest in these interesting and novel communi ties, allowing us to further investigate their nature. References Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSIBLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25:3389-3402. Amann, R. I., Ludwig ,W., and K. Schle and In Situ Detection of Individual Microbial Cells without Cultiva tion. Microbiological Reviews 59 : 143-166. Arrage, A.A., Phelps, T.J., Benoit, R.E., Palumbo, A.V. and White, D.C. 1993a. Bacterial sensitivity to UV light as a model for ionizing radiation resis tance. Journal of Microbiological Methods 18(2) : 127-136. Arrage, A.A., Phelps, T.J., Benoit, R.E., Palumbo, A.V. and White, D.C. 1993b. Survival of subsurface micro organisms exposed to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59(11) : 3545-3550. Ashmole, N. P., Orom P., Ashmole, M. J., and Martin, J. L. 1992. Primary faunal succession in volcanic terrain: Lava and cave studies on the Canary Islands: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 46 : 207-234. Ehrlich, H.L. 1999. Microbes as geo logic agents: Their role in mineral formation. Geomicrobiology Journal 16 (2): 135-153. Howarth, F. G. 1973. The caverni colous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes, 139-151. Howarth, F. G. 1981. Community struc ture and niche differentiation in Ha waiian lava tubes; pp. 318-336. In : Mueller-Dombois, D., Bridges, K. W., and Carson, H. L. (eds.). Island Eco systems: Biological Organization in Selected Hawaiian Communities. US/ IBP Synthesis Series 15: Stroudsburg (PA): Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company. Hugenholtz, P., Goebel, B.M., and Pace, N.R. (1998) Impact of cultureindependent studies on the emerg ing phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity. Journal of Bacteriology 180 :4765-4774. Kuske, C., Barns, S., and J. Busch. 1997. Diverse uncultivated bacterial groups from soils of the arid southwestern United States that are present in many geographic regions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63 : 3614-3621. Lane DJ. 1991. 16S/23S rRNA sequenc ing. p. 115-175. In : Stackebrandt E., Goodfellow M., (eds.) Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics New York: John Wiley and Sons. Lavoie, K.H. and Northup, D.E. 1994. Distributional survey of actinomycet es in a limestone cave and a lava tube cave. pp.44-45. In: Sasowsky I.D., Palmer M.V. (eds.) Breakthroughs in karst geomicrobiology and redox guide for the symposium held Febru ary 16 through 19, 1994 Colorado Springs, Colorado. Special Pubication 1 Charles Town, WV: Karst Waters Institute, Inc. Maidak, B.L., Cole, J.R., Lilburn, T.G., Parker Jr., C.T., Saxman, P.R., Far ris, R.J., Garrity, G.M., Olsen, G.J., Schmidt, T.M., Tiedje, J.M. 2001. The RDP-II (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Research 29 :173-174. Northup, D.E. and Lavoie, K.H. 2001. Geomicrobiology of caves. Geomi crobiology Journal 18 (3): 199-222. Northup, D.E. and Welbourn, W.C. 1997, Life in the twilight zone: Lava tube ecology. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources Bul letin 156 : 69-82. Pace, N.R. 1997. A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere. Science 276 (5313): 734-740. Schlesner, H., Jenkins, C. and Staley, J.T. 2001. The phylum Verrucomicrobia: A phylogenetically heterogeneous bacterial group. In : M. Dworkin et al., eds., The Prokaryotes: An Evolving Electronic Resource for the Micro biological Community 3rd edition, release 3.19, Springer-Verlag, New York, http://link.springer-ny.com/ link/service/books/10125/. Senger, C.M. and Crawford, R.L. 1984. Biological inventory: Mount St. Hel port. Unpublished report prepared for the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, St. Helens Ranger Dis trict. 526 pp. Staley, J. T. and Crawford, R. 1975. The biologists chamber: lava tube slime: Cascade Caver 14 (2-3): 20-21. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Herschel Schultz, El Malpais National Monu ment, for access to Four Windows Cave and a collecting permit that allowed us to pursue this research. We especially thank Kenneth Ingham for his photo documentation of our study site and methods. Penny and Ariel Bostons help in collecting samples is greatly appreci ated. Sandy Brantley provided valuable collected during the vacuuming experi ments. Jessica Snider provided valuable comments on the manuscript.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 126 Climate Modeling for Two Lava Tube Caves at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico USA Kenneth L. Ingham 1 Diana E. Northup 2 and W. Calvin Welbourn 3 1 Kenneth Ingham Consulting, LLC.; ingham@i-pi.com 2 Biology Department, University of New Mexico; dnorthup@unm.edu 3 The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Abstract Reliable data on cave microclimate ben visitation, protection, and the conserva tion and restoration of bat roosts. Infor mation, both published and unpublished, on cave climates is limited. Mathemati cal models of cave climate are even more limited, and for lava tube caves, these appear to be totally lacking. Because lava tube caves are simpler than many limestone caves (thus making the task of modeling tractable) we tested the use of lava tube caves as laboratories for climate modeling. We present the results of investigating temperature and humidity in two lava tube caves at El Malpais National Monu ment, New Mexico, USA. One cave was a single-entrance cave with an ice sheet, to/from cracks on the surface. One and one-half years of data were collected in these two tubes using data loggers. Using these data, we investigated temperature and humidity changes with seasons and distance from the entrance, and propose mathematical models to predict future the surface as well as advection. equation This implies that, at least in these lava tube caves, accurate prediction of temperature is possible. Introduction Cave managers need temperature and humidity data to assess the impact of visitors, conservation and restoration of bat roosts, etc. For example, in an ice cave, the question might arise, Is human visitation melting the ice? We show that for some caves, a manager could start by collecting data during a time without visitation. Once the baseline data exists, the predictions can allow the manager to know if the visitation is affecting the cave climate. This paper presents the results of a cave climate study from October 1993 through August 1995 of two lava tubes at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, USA. The original goal was to lava tube caves; however, for political curred. If we had planned to do a cave climate study, we would have placed data loggers differently. Description of the caves Both of the lava tubes are located in an open Ponderosa pine forest on El Malpais National Monument, in westcentral New Mexico, USA (Figure 1). Lava Wall cave (also known as Peel Bark cave) is the smaller of the two lava tubes. It has a large wide entrance (Figure 2) approximately 6.5m x 1.5m, and it gets progressively narrower and lower. Within 6m, it turns into a muddy crawl which continues for at least 24m. The crawl shows evidence of repeated monly-felt breeze implies that it connects to cracks in a nearby (30m distant) sink. Figure 3 shows an approximate crosssection of the cave. Note that this cave is Figure 1. Approximate location of El Malpais National Monument, where the two lava tubes are located.

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127 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 relatively level once you are inside. Frozen Mat cave is larger, with two rooms and a passage. The small (less than 1 meter square) entrance leads into a breakdown room (about 4m x 9m). Over a breakdown pile is a second room (about 5m x 20m) containing a 5m x 6m ice sheet (Figure 4), covered with up to 2.5cm of water in the summer. The ice is about 3m-4.5m below the entrance and about 20m from the entrance. The ice sheet varies in extent and depth through out the year and year-to-year. The room extends no more than about 7.5m beyond the ice. Figure 5 shows an approximate cross-section of the cave. On the left side of the entrance room in Frozen Mat is a low passage that proceeds for at least 13m and appears through this passage. Literature Review airflow can move heat around. As a result, we review previous work by look and caves, and then looking at previous Heat Heat is important for two reasons. First, to predict the temperatures inside caves, we need to know from where the heat comes. Second, heat is sometimes Heat in caves comes from three sources: Earths core (geothermal heating). transported by conduction through the soil and rock. carried into the cave by air movement (advection). a cave (which does not apply to the caves we studied). Figure 2. Entrance of Lava Wall cave. Figure 3. Cross section of Lava Wall cave. Figure 4. The ice sheet in Frozen Mat cave. Figure 5. Cross section of Frozen Mat cave.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 128 Geothermal heating. Atkinson, Smart, and Wigley [2] used geothermal heating to explain the difference between the mean annual temperature and the actual measured temperature deep in Castle guard cave in Alberta Canada. Most likely, geothermal heat is omitted from studies because most caves (especially the lava tubes we were studying) are close to the surface, and the other factors dominate their temperature. Solar heat transported by conduc tion Daily variations in temperature in the soil and rock die out about 1m deep [16]. Annual variations in temperature may be observed as deep as 20-24m [16] depending on the rock and soil types. At depths below below where the surface cave should be stable at the mean annual surface temperature [4, 8, 14, 16]. Heat transferred by advection. Ad vection is the transfer of heat by air movement. In this case, rather than the heat which is being moved causing the movement (as in convection), some other factor is causing the air movement. at the factors that can cause air to move in caves: temperature variations, their relative elevation, and factors considered below. The single most important factor af a cave has and the relative height of these entrances. A cave with multiple entrances where those entrances are not at the same level will nearly always have a breeze blowing through it. When the tempera ture inside is lower than the temperature outside (as it is in summer), the cool (and therefore denser) air will exit the lower entrance, and the outside, warmer air will enter at the upper entrance. Conditions reverse when the temperature inside is higher than the temperature outside (as it is in winter). During times when the inside and outside temperatures are nearly the same, no breeze may blow or The velocity of the air movement in this chimney effect is directly related to the temperature (and to some extent the humidity) differences between the air velocities will also be affected by the volume of the cave as well as the sizes of the entrances. Wigley and Brown [19] and Atkinson, Smart, and Wigley [2], note that a cave may have extra entrances in terms of fractures leading to the surface which may be too small for humans to travel ney effect to occur even in what appear to be single entrance caves. This effect probably occurs in Lava Wall cave. For caves with a single entrance, lection of factors including: how it is changing, and trance. Additionally, surface roughness, and by making it more turbulent and hence slowing it down. Since warm air is less dense that cool upper part of the cave. Similarly, cool passages. The slope of the cave and orientation of the entrance will deter mine if or how convection will cause air exchange with the interior portions of the cave [19]. This convection was the primary air movement discovered at Altimira Cave in Spain by Villar et Glowworm Cave in New Zealand [6]. Another example where convection is tigated by Smithson [15]. He looked at vertical variations of temperature in Pooles Cavern U.K. and saw the effects Convection explains why singleentrance caves which slope downward are cold traps. In the winter cold air becomes stagnant, and hence remains cool and in some cases collects ice [3, 8]. In upward-trending caves, the reverse would happen and cooler air would fall out the entrance when it was cooler in the cave than outside [19]. results whenever the barometric pressure outside is different from the pressure inside. When this difference occurs, the cave will inhale or exhale to equalize the pressure. Lewis [12] and Wigley and Brown [19] noted many factors which affect the atmospheric pressure outside and hence the breathing of a cave: sure systems move across, the cave lags the outside by a small amount as atmosphere absorbing heat directly from the sun and from the heat re typical tidal curve has two maxima and two minima in 24 hours. equivalent of the waves we commonly associate with the ocean. They have periods from about three minutes to three hours. aurora, nuclear blasts, distant storms, waterfalls, the jet stream, volcanic explosions, earthquakes, waves on the ocean, large meteorites, super sonic aircraft. across an entrance, much like a bot tle resonates when blown across its opening. Wigley and Brown [19] noted that a cave with widely separated entrances which has a strong storm (such as a summer thunderstorm) over one en trance may have a notable difference of pressure between the entrances which Wind blowing into an entrance can In multi-entrance caves, the wind may blow in one entrance and out another. Wind blowing across an entrance will lower the pressure at that entrance which Any of the above mechanisms for all the way up to wind which moves gravel [19]. Temperatures in the cave When the temperatures are different from the mean annual temperature, it is due to one of the causes mentioned

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129 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 above. First, we note that rock stores heat, and it will release that heat to cooler air or will absorb heat from warmer air [18]. Second, adding humidity to air cools it [7, 18] because of the heat needed to change liquid water to water vapor (about 540 calories/gram, depending on temperature). Therefore unsaturated air (from the surface) moving across a source of water (such as water percolat ing in from the surface) will cool as the water evaporates into it. Taking these two factors into consid eration, Wigley and Brown [18] develop the following formula to describe the temperature in the cave: where T a is the deep cave rock tem perature, T 0 is the temperature of the air entering the cave, X is the ratio of the distance from the entrance ( x ) and the relaxation length ( x 0 ), L v is the latent heat of vaporization, c p heat of air, w is cave wetness which indicates the fraction of the cave wall which is wet, q 0 of the air entering the cave, q a is the it is cooled to T a The relaxation length, x 0 = 36.44 a 1.2 V 0.2 where a is the radius of the cave in cm and V is the velocity of the air moving into the cave in cm/sec. It is the distance it takes the temperature T a to decay to T a e -1 In some caves it may be easier to calculate this distance rather Brown [19] found relaxation lengths in the range of 10 to 500m. Given the equation of Wigley and Brown along with data obtained from monitoring the cave, we can predict the temperatures in the cave based on tem perature and humidity outside the cave, on the wall of the caves. Preceding a tored, a plan suggested by Smithson and Wigley and Brown [13, 19]. These pre dictions then should be compared with actual conditions observed to determine how the cave varies from predicted. can be noted as divergence from the predicted values. Humidity Humidity is of interest because when water evaporates, it absorbs heat. Con versely, when it condenses, heat is re leased. So humidity is tied together with heat. Additionally, Howarth [1, 10, 11] states that the key environmental fac tor that determines the distribution of troglobites is the degree to which the atmosphere is saturated. As you travel deeper into a lava tube (provided there are not additional en trances), evaporation decreases. How arth [9] found that the rate of potential evaporation in the deep cave zone was only 8% of that of the twilight zone and hypothesized that the rate within the mesocaverns was much lower still. Cave organisms further take advan tage of areas with low evaporation by moving into the small voids, which are often sites of accumulation of organic matter [1]. The degree of saturation of air in lava tubes is dependent on several surface factors and is a dynamic phenomenon. movement of air in lava tubes. When the temperature is lower outside than inside, as often happens at night in the winter, the vapor pressure of water is higher inside the cave than outside caus ing moist air to diffuse out of the cave. If the daytime water vapor pressure is still less than that in the cave, the water vapor will continue to diffuse out of the cave in the daytime, resulting in a winter drying of the cave known as the wintering effect [1]. When conditions reverse, the cave will gain moisture from the surface air. The wintering effect does not seem to apply to the blind tubes at El Malpais. Frequent snowpacks that remain for days or weeks provide moisture for the lava tubes both in the form of atmospheric moisture and as melting water percolat ing through cracks. Ice in the lava tubes accumulates over winter, reaching a peak in early spring. The deeper in to the cave you go, the longer the lag between changes in the surface conditions and the correspond ing changes in the cave environment. Similarly, the amount of change becomes less with increasing distance from the entrance [1]. Materials and methods Onset Hobo (Onset Computer, 470 MacArthur Blvd., Bourne, MA 02532, +1-508-759-9500, http://www .onsetcomp.com/) temperature and hu midity data loggers capable of storing 1800 observations were used to collect the data. The recording interval varied from 5.6 minutes to 96 minutes, and was based on our expected return date to download data. During the winter, access to the caves was often impossible. The data loggers themselves were stored in plastic containers to shield them from the elements, with the temperature sensor outside of the container. Unfortunately, animals destroyed some of the remote sensors. To protect the sensor, we moved the sensor for two data loggers inside the plastic container. This changed the reaction time from two to 40 minutes. Results Plotting raw data from the data loggers results in a graph such as the one from Frozen Mat cave (Figure 6). The data from the other data loggers were similar, and all exhibit a diurnal cycle. A Fast Fourier Transform requires data with equal intervals, a requirement we could not meet due to the varied data collection intervals. We tried a tradi tional Fourier Analysis, but the resulting spectrums were not helpful in predicting temperatures. We used a least-squares algorithm By using both the sine and cosine, we are able to represent the annual/diurnal cycles, as well phase information. The resulting equations for Lava Wall are in Table 1, and for Frozen Mat are in Table 2. Discussion Not surprisingly, diurnal cycles are strongly evident in all temperature data. Both caves are small, and have an interaction coupled to the surface temperature. The oscillations diminish as you go deeper in the cave. In Frozen

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 130 Mat cave, the ice sheet melting produces nearly constant temperatures until the ice retreats far enough from the data logger. The humidity is lowest mid-afternoon, which corresponds to the high point in the diurnal temperature cycle. The error values show that the daily plus annual sine and cosine functions that the temperatures in these caves are predictable. Other, simple caves should be as predictable. More complex caves, e.g., those with multiple entrances, may factors affecting the temperature and/ or humidity. Because each cave has a different geometry, airflow, etc., the optimal placement for climate sensors will vary. Since our data loggers were placed able to test the prediction by Wigley and additional temperature data in order to determine the relaxation length. Conclusion Cave managers can use temperature and humidity predictions for guiding their decisions for cave management. For example, bats require temperature and humidity within certain tolerances in order to use the cave. Ice formations in lava tubes may melt from the heat produced by humans visiting the cave. We have shown that for simple caves, accurate prediction of temperature and humidity is possible. References 1. G. A. Ahearn and F.G. Howarth. Physiology of cave arthropods in Hawaii. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 222:227-238, 1982. 2. T. C. Atkinson, P. L. Smart, and T. M. L. Wigley. Climate and nat ural radon levels in Castleguard Canada. Artic and Alpine Research 15(4):487-502, 1983. Karst hydrology and physical speleology Springer-Verlag, 1980. conditions on temperatures in large cave systems. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society 27(1):1-10, January 1965. 5. C. R. De Freitas and R. N. Littlejohn. Figure 6. A week of data from the ceiling data logger in Frozen mat cave.

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131 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2004 Cave climate: assessment of heat and moisture exchange. Journal of Climatology 7:553-569, 1987. 6. C. R. De Freitas, R. N. Littlejohn, T. S. Clarkson, and I. S. Kristament. and ventilation. Journal of Climatol ogy, 2:383-397, 1982. 7. Adolfo Eraso. Tentative nomogram for cave climate calculations. In Dr. Ota kar Stecl, CSc., editor, Problems of the Speleological Research: Proceedings of the International SpeleologicaCon ference held in Brno June 29-July 4 1964. Academia, Publishing house of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1965. 8. William R. Halliday. Ice caves of the United States. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society 16:3-28, De cember 1954. 9. Francis G. Howarth. The evolution of non-relictual tropical troglobites. International Journal of Speleology 16:1-16, 1987. 10. Francis G. Howarth. Evolutionary ecology of aeolian and subterranean habitats in Hawaii. Trends in Ecol ogy and Evolution, 2(7):220-223, July 1987. 11. Francis G. Howarth. Hawaiian cave faunas: macroevolution on young islands. In E. C. Dudley, editor, The unity of evolutionary biology: fourth international congress of systematic and evolutionary biology, College Park, Maryland, USA, June 30-July 7, 1990 volume v1,v2, pages 285-295, Portland, Oregon, April 1991. Di oscorides Press. 12. Warren C. Lewis. Atmospheric pres view. The NSS Bulletin 53(1):1-12, June 1991. 13. P. A. Smithson. Temperature varia tions in Creswell Crags Caves (near Worksop). East Midland Geographer 8:51-64, 1982. 14. P. A. Smithson. Inter-relaton ships between cave and outside air temperature. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 44:65-73, 1991. 15. P. A. Smithson. Vertical tempera ture structure in a cave environment. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 8(3):229-240, 1993. 16. A. K. S. Thakur and M. Musa Mo moh. Temperature variation in upper Earth crust due to periodic nature of solar insolation. Energy Convers. Mgmt 23(3):131-134, 1983. 17. E. Villar, P. L. Fernndez, L. S. Quin dos, J. R. Solana, and J. Soto. Air temperatures and airinterchanges at Altimira Cave (Spain). Transactions of the Britsh Cave Research Associa tion 11(2):92-98, July 1984. 18. T. M. L. Wigley and M. C. Brown. Geophysical applications of heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe boundary-layer meteorology 1:300-320, 1971. 19. T. M. L. Wigley and M. C. Brown. The physics of caves chapter 9, pages 329-358. Academic Press, 1976.

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JULY 2 7, 2006

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 134 The XII International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology is sponsored by the Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas (SMES), the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology (UIS), Grupo Espeleolgico ZOTZ, Club de Exploraciones de Mxico A.C., Veracruz Section (CEMAC), the Association for Mexican Cave Studies (AMCS), and the State of Morelos Section of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). A total of 37 abstracts were presented, of which 24 will be oral presentations, 10 will be posters, and there will be three papers in absentia Eleven are about Mxico, the host country. There are papers about Jeju island in Korea, the Azores islands of Portugal and Iceland in the Atlantic Ocean, Arabia, Jordan and Israel in the Middle East, and of course, several papers on Hawaii and one on papers, and several miscelaneous or theoretical papers. All these information has been arranged into four different Sessions: Mxico, Rest of the world, Biology and Theoretical. Mxico Session, Chairman C. Lloyd: Several papers give information about the Sierra Chichinautzin, where Mxicos most important lava tubes discovered to date are located. Other papers will be about lava tubes in other regions of Mxico. Of special interest are erosional (or solutional) caves hosted in volcanic deposits, and two papers on the role of volcanic sulfur in the development of caves in limestone. Rest of the World Session, Chairmen K. S. Woo, Joo C. Nunes and J. Pint: Most papers in this session are special studies on numerous caves distributed around the world. We will get a glimpse of recent advances in the exploration of lava tubes and other volcanic caves in various geological settings (Continental, Island Arch, and Midoceanic). Biospeleology Session, Chairman Luis Espinasa: Several papers will introduce recent advances in the knowledge of microorganisms in lava tubes, while the studies of bat population and other species in the Sierra Chichinautzin provide information on biospeleological aspects of caves discussed in the Mxico Session. Theoretical Session, Chairman J. P. Bernal: A paper on the possible uses of Uranium dating and paleoenvironmental studies, several proposals for cave data bases, and a very welcome review of lava tube morphogenesis round up the discussions of the symposium.

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135 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 2006 SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS Edited by Ramn Espinasa-Perea and John Pint Mxico Session Inaugural Address Importance of Lava-Tube Flow Emplacement in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Mexico Ramn Espinasa-Perea Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx The Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF), located in the central portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, is a volcanic highland elongated in an E-W direction, extending stratovolcano to the west. It is made up by over 220 scoria drainage divide that separates the closed basin of Mxico, ernavaca and Cuautla, which drain south and the Lerma river Toluca and especially Mxico City, together with several other populated locations, are located nearby, so renewed activity might represent a serious risk for them. phology. Some are compound andesite or basaltic andesite long to the calc-alkaline suit, and are genetically linked to the subduction of the Cocos plate (Martin del Pozzo, 1982). sequences and intercalated alluvial sediments that make up the Sierra Chichinautzin cover an area of approximately 2,500 km 2 Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that most exposed rocks were produced during the normal Brunhes Chron and are therefore younger than 0.73-0.79 Ma (Urrutia and Martin del Pozzo, 1993), which is not surprising in view of the very young morphological features of most tephra Recent studies by Siebe (2000) and Siebe et al (2004, 2005) have published dates for 10 of the youngest volca noes in the SCVF, several of which were emplaced by lava tubes. These and other previously published dates imply a recurrence interval during the Holocene for monogenetic eruptions in the SCVF of <1,250 years (Siebe et al., 2005). Siebe et al. (2004) conclude erroneously that very long lava rate eruptions, and do not consider that tube-fed pahoehoe (Peterson et al. 1994). In this paper an attempt is made to quantify the importance tions of lava tubes have been plotted on the topographic maps the surface area of the SCVF is covered by these kind of lava youngest eruptions known in the area were emplaced through very common in the SCVF, a fact that should be taken into account when performing risk assesments. References: Martin del Pozzo, A.L., 1982, Monogenetic vulcanism in Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico: Bull. Volc., 45, 1, p. 9-24 Peterson, D.W., Holcomb, R.T., Tilling, R.I., and Christiansen, R.L., 1994, Development of lava tubes in the light of ob servations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii; Bull. Volcanol. 56, p. 343-360. Siebe, C., 2000, Age and archaeological implications of Xitle volcano, southwestern basin of Mexico City; J. Volcanol and Geother. Res. 104, pags. 45-64. Siebe, C., Rodrguez-Lara, V., Schaaf, P., and Abrams, M., 2004, Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico-City: implications for archaeology and future hazards; Bull. Volcanol. 66, pags. 203-225. Siebe, C., Arana-Salinas, L., and Abrams, M., 2005, Geology and radiocarbon ages of Tlloc, Tlacotenco, Cuauhtzin, Hijo del Cuauhtzin, Teuhtli, and Ocusacayo monogenetic volcanoes in the central part of the Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico; Jour. Volcanol. and Geotherm. Res. 141, pags. 225-243. Urrutia Fucugauchi, J., and Martin del Pozzo, A.L., 1993, Implicaciones de los datos paleomagnticos sobre la edad de la sierra de Chichinautzin, Cuenca de Mxico: Geof. Int., 33, p. 523-533. Oral Presentation Lava Tubes of the Suchiooc Volcano, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico Ramn Espinasa-Perea Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx Suchiooc volcano is the youngest of a cluster of tephra cones collectively known as Los Otates, roughly aligned in

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 136 a WNW-ESE direction, and located at the crest of the Sierra Chichinautzin. The tephra cone is 200 m high and culminates at 3,100 m.a.s.l. Its tube-fed pahoehoe lavas (SiO 2 <52%, until reaching the Sierra de Tepoztln, a range of mountains made of Miocene vulcanosedimentary deposits which have been heavily eroded, creating large pinnacles with very steep to vertical sides, often separated by very narrow, vertical-sided ravines and gorges. This Tepoztln Formation consists of al breccias, in layers that have a variable dip of 0 to 6 to the north. Numerous E-W and N-S fractures and small faults cut these rocks. They are considered the erosional remnant of the middle portion of a volcaniclastic fan, possibly originating from the Zempoala volcanic center to the northwest. among the Tepoztln pinnacles, before continuing south to wards the Oaxtepec plains, where it stopped at 1,280 m.a.s.l., having covered over 1,800 m in height at an average slope of 5.7. With over 18 km in length, it is one of the longest lava average thickness of 20 m and an area of 25 km 2 covered by 3 3 for the tephra cone was calculated, giving a total of almost 0.6 km 3 for the entire Suchiooc products. surrounding Tepoztln was known for many years, no sys tematic surveys had been done until the SMES started the survey of Cueva del Ferrocarril in 1990. Since then, nearly 30 kilometres of lava tubes have been surveyed in detail in gest lava-tube caves in continental America, Cuevas de la Iglesia-Mina Superior and Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior, 5 and 6 kilometers in surveyed length respectively, separated only by a small collapse, and also the deepest lava tube in the same continent, Sistema Chimalacatepec, with 201 meters of vertical extent. Lava tubes have been found in the vent or proximal area, and in widely variable slope conditions. Morphology of the lava tubes is correspondingly very variable and include very complex anastomosing tubes, simple and unbranched unitary evolution of the lava tube during activity. Thanks to the detailed survey and the study of the numerous primary and secondary features present inside these caves, a model was developed for the evolution of lava tubes through time, and the downslope growth of feeder conduits (master tubes) through coalescence and thermal erosion of the original simple or anastomosing tubes. Poster Presentation Sistema Tlacotenco, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico: Ramn Espinasa-Perea Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx Suchiooc volcano is the youngest of a cluster of tephra cones collectively known as Los Otates, roughly aligned in a WNW-ESE direction, and located at the crest of the Sierra Chichinautzin. The tephra cone is 200 m high and culminates at 3,100 m.a.s.l. Its tube-fed pahoehoe lavas (SiO 2 south along very steep slopes (up to 12) until reaching the Sierra de Tepoztln, a range of mountains made of Miocene vulcanosedimentary deposits which have been heavily eroded, creating large pinnacles with very steep to vertical sides, often separated by very narrow, vertical-sided ravines and gorges. This Tepoztln Formation consists of alternating layers of that have a variable dip of 0to 6 to the north. Numerous E-W and N-S fractures and small faults cut these rocks. The Sierra Tepoztln is considered the erosional remnant of the middle portion of a volcaniclastic fan, possibly originating from the Zempoala volcanic center to the northwest. among the Tepoztln pinnacles, before continuing south to wards the Oaxtepec plains, where it stopped at 1,280 m.a.s.l., having covered over 1,800 m in height at an average slope of 5.7. With over 18 km in length, it is one of the longest lava To date over 25 kilometers of lava tubes have been sur the caves that together form Sistema Tlacotenco, a group of 14 anastomosing caves with a total surveyed length of 16 kilometers along a 301 meter diference in height, developed under the town of San Juan Tlacotenco. These caves include Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior, which at 6,538 m is the longest surveyed lava tube in con tinental America, and which is only separated from Cueva de la Iglesia-Mina Superior, 5,278 m long, by a collapsed trench less than 20 meters in length. Other important caves in the group include Cueva de Marcelo, 1,268 meters long; Cueva del Capuln, 820 meters long and separated from Fer Mxico-Cuernavaca railroad; Cueva de Tepetomatitla, 554 meters; recently discovered Cueva del Castillo, 455 meters, and Cueva de la Tubera, 428 meters long but 116 meters in vertical extent. The complex relations among these caves, and their control by the underlying topography is presented through a series of dilucidate the evolution of this complex lava-tube system, and is also illustrated with several photographs that exemplify the different types of primary and secondary structures and features that decorate these amazing caves. Aditionally, evidence was found which allowed the devel opment of a model for the evolution of lava tubes through time, and the downslope growth of feeder conduits (master

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137 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 tubes) through coalescence and thermal erosion of the original anastomosing tubes. Poster Presentation Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction of the Miocene Tepoztln Formation Using Palynology N. Lenhardt 1 E. Martinez-Hernandez 2 3 M. Hinderer 1 J. Hornung 1 and S. Kempe 1 1 Institute of Applied Geosciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany. lenhardt@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Mxico, DF, Mexico. 3 Institute of Geosciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. To date, palaeobotany in volcanic settings has dealt with sandstones, peat or lignites. Even when authors worked on or charcoals. Publications on palynology in pyroclastic rocks and their reworked deposits (lahars) are rare. In this study we investigated a volcaniclastic section of the Mid-Miocene Tepoztln Formation with respect to pa laeoenvironment using palynology. The Tepoztln Formation crops out in the States of Morelos and Estado de Mexico and ments, attaining a total thickness of several hundred meters. of about Early to Mid-Miocene. of those deposits. The samples reveal a diverse pollen and terpretation of the Tepoztln Formation. Pollen assemblages dominated by Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae and Cupressaceae indicate dry conditions, whereas spore dominated associations accompanied by Cyperaceae pollen types indicate wet to aquatic conditions. Characteristic strati graphical vegetation patterns are interpreted in terms of shortterm destruction-recolonization cycles which are controlled by volcanic eruptions and intermittent quiescence. Present day vegetation of Central Europe is very similar to that recorded in the Tepoztln section. Thus, a rather temper ate climate is appropriate for the depositional environment of the Tepoztln Formation. Poster Presentation Comparison between the Texcal Lava Flow and the Chichinautzin Volcano Lava Flows, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico Ramn Espinasa-Perea 1 and Luis Espinasa 1,2 1 Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx 2 Marist College. espinasl@yahoo.com Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near the city of Cuernavaca. known in the area. Recent work by Siebe et al .(2004) dated this volcano at between 2,83575 and 4,69090 years before present (ybP), and made morphological comparisons between it and the nearby Chichinautzin volcano, dated at 1,835 been emplaced at a very high effusion rate to have reached such a tremendous length with a relatively low total volume, while they consider that Chichinautzin volcano was of low effusion rate, created lava tubes, and therefore had a much lavas. Flow channels limited by prominent levees are easily up of pahoehoe, as can be seen on most surface outcrops which show the typical ropy texture. Five large lava tubes them representing a huge master tube, in places over 10 meters wide and 20 meters high, and with evidence of continuous and sustained activity which caused thermal erosion of the Cueva Grande, Cueva Pelona, Cueva Redonda, Cueva de la Herradura and Cueva del Naranjo Rojo, for a total of nearly We therefore conclude that Chichinautzin volcano lavas were emplaced at a high effusion rate, which prevented the formation of large lava tubes and caused the Aa or toothpaste to moderate effusion rates, which favored the formation of lava tubes. As has been well documented previously, lava tubes favoring the development of extensive and very long lava ment for the cities of Cuernavaca and Mxico, which could easily be affected in case of renewed activity at the Sierra Chichinautzin, should take this into account, since lava tube emplacement has not been considered by any of the authors Reference: Siebe, C., Rodrguez-Lara, V., Schaaf, P., and Abrams, M., 2004, Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico-City: implications for archaeology and future hazards; Bull. Volcanol. 66, pags. 203-225.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 138 Oral Presentation Surveyed Lava Tubes of Jalisco, Mexico John J. Pint 1 Sergi Gmez 2 Jess Moreno 3 and Susana Pint 1 1 Grupo Espeleolgico Zotz. RanchoPint@Yahoo.com 2 gomezsergi@hotmail.com 3 Grupo Espeleolgico Zotz. jesusmna2@terra.com.mx La Cueva Cuata, also known as La Cueva de Tequilizinta, The cave is situated 52 kms northwest of Guadalajara in a canyon wall overlooking the Santiago River and appears to be in the Rio Santiago alkali basalts, which are from 1.3 to 0.4 million years old. The cave is 280.79 m long with passages varying in height from 1.9 m to .25 m and ranging in width of the entrance room while the rest of the cave contains a thick layer of mud or clay. The cave has lava stalactites less than 4 cm long and a pool of water measuring 15 x 20 m and less than 60 cm deep, contaminated by the droppings of vampire bats which roost above it. Two other species of bats have been observed in the cave. Cuata Cave was surveyed by Grupo Espeleolgico Zotz in 1990. In 2006, La Madriguera de los Lobos, a cave located directly beneath La Cueva Cuata, was also surveyed by Zotz. The passages in this cave total approximately 100 m in length, ranging in width from 25 m to 1 m. The average powdery sediment, bat guano and, in places, what appears to be the dry scat of wolves. Calcite stalactites less than 10 cm long were observed on the ceiling. Bats were found in several parts of the cave and an air current was noted among breakdown at the back of the cave. Oral Presentation Cueva Chinacamoztoc, Puebla Ramn Espinasa-Perea Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx The Los Humeros Caldera was formed by the collapse of a pre-existing stratovolcano due to the eruption of very 0.560.21 Ma (Ferriz and Mahood, 1984), distributed mostly to the north of the Caldera. Much later activity generated ex known from east to west as the El Limn, Tepeyahualco and also emplaced through lava tubes, explaining their lengths of up to 16 kilometers. (1910) calculated its length at about 500 meters. Finding upwards leaving a void underneath. The portion of the cave visited by Haarmann is no longer accessible. Wittich (1921) in a study of the geology of the entire area, describes the cave as being almost two kilometers long, and suggests that the stream deposits seen by Haarmann entered the cave onwards, leaving a void behind. No other references have been found about this cave. In may 2006, members of Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas (SMES) and Veracruz section of the Club Explo raciones de Mxico A.C. (CEMAC), visited and surveyed the lava tube. Chinacamoztoc cave is a large master tube 10 to 30 meters wide and >10 meters high in most places. The original passage, now inaccessible, as being of similar dimensions. He also mentions that the upper portion of the cave ends at an wall was accessible through a lower entrance. Sometime in wall, probably believing it hid a treasure, and the completely tunnel for about 15 meters. A total of eight skylights break up the lava tube, of which three actually segment the 1,577 meters long tube into 4 caves The skylight areas are used by large white owls as nesting sites, so please try to avoid disturbing them. On some of the skylights, the entrances to small anastomosing tubelets are visible high up the wall, near the ceiling level, and probably represent the original braided tubes from which the master tube evolved through thermal erosion. Separation of the canyon passage into superposed levels is only visible in two sections close to skylights that might have been open during activity, but other skylights are probably post-activity collapses. The ceiling and walls of one of the lower levels is decorated with many small tubular stalactites. The segregates were extruded straight from the wall, which does not show lining breaks. In two other places, evidence of thermal erosion is seen where collapse of a lava lining exposes tephras and the Xaltipan ignimbrite. This is on a ledge still References: Ferriz, H. and Mahood, G.A., 1984, Eruption rates and compositional trends at Los Humeros Volcanic Center, Puebla, Mexico: Journal of Geophysical Research, V. 89, p. 8511-8524. Haarmann, E., 1910, Sobre una cueva en una corriente de lava en el estado de Puebla: Boletn Soc. Geol. Mexicana, Tomo VII, p. 141-143. Virlet dAoust, 1865, Coup doeil gnral sur la topographie et la gologie du Mexique, et de lAmerique centrale: Bull. Soc. Gol. de France, 2 serie, V. XXIII, p. 14.

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139 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Poster Presentation Lava Tubes of the Naolinco Lava Flow, El Volcancillo, Veracruz, Mxico Guillermo Gasss 1 and Ramn Espinasa-Perea 2 1 Comisin de Espeleologa, Club de Exploraciones de Mxico, Seccin Veracruz, A.C. vggassos@yahoo.com.mx. 2 Socieded Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas A.C. ramone@cablevision.net.mx Antecedents: The Speleology Commission of the Club de Exploraciones de Mxico Seccin Veracruz, A.C., has been prospecting and exploring caves since 2005 on the Ro 800 years ago. When we noticed the vulcanospeleological potential we decided to create this project with the aim of locating caves of volcanic origin. To date we have explored the following caves in the Municipio of Jilotepec, although we believe many more caves are to be found. Cueva de la Virgen N 19 1.77 W 96 26.752 1388 m.a.s.l. Cueva de los Cochinos N 19 1.77 W 96 26.752 1388 m.a.s.l. Cueva de la Envidia N 19 1.77 W 96 34.987 1379 m.a.s.l. Sistema del Falso N19 13.099 W96 10.890 1358 m.a.s.l. Cueva del Tirantes N 19 17 W 96 31 1384 m.a.s.l. Hoyo del Becerro N 19 13 W 96 58 22 1667 m.a.s.l. Purpose: To develop a vulcanospeleological investigation of the Municipio of Jilotepec, originated on the Ro Naolinco Obtain a photographical and topographi cal documentation of the caves and pits already found. Analyze the microbiological characteristics of the water found in the caves. Give alternatives to diminish the contamination of the caves due to bad management of residual waters in the towns of La Virgen and Piedra de Agua, Mpio. De Jilotepec. Generate a data base for future geomorphology and biospe leology studies. Aims: Involve the competent institutions and local au thorities in the research. Edit and publish a report with all the results. Conclusions: Making local inhabitants aware of the under ground richness and importance of their area is vital if we want to preserve the caves as geological vestiges of other times. Oral Presentation The Lithic Tuff Hosted Cueva Chapuzon, Jalico, Mxico Chris Lloyd, John Pint, Susana Pint Grupo Esplelolgico Zotz. cjlloyd@prodigy.net.mx Chapuzon Cave is hosted in a rhyolite lithic tuff about 25km west of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The host forma was produced by a caldera eruption of about 400 cubic km in size about 1 million years ago. The cave is hosted in a sec tion with about 50% heterolithic lithic fragments varying in size from 1 to 15cm and located about 30km from the likely source caldera. The cave was mapped by Grupo Zotz in 1988 to 623m in length with a vertical range of about 30m.The cave development appears to be typical dissolution of more bedding plane. Initial development from the controlling bed ding plane was phreatic in the upper part of the cave eroding both above and below the bedding plane, while in the lower part of the cave, there appears more vadose development with deep incised trenches below the same bedding plane. The cave still has an active stream for 6 months of the year which helped maintain a short swim in the lower entrance estimated roughly of at least 10,000 individuals from at least 7 different species. This cave was featured in a television movie produced for National Geographic about bat phobias that has yet to be aired. Poster Presentation Cueva Tecolotln, Morelos, Mxico: An Unusual Erosional Cave in Volcanic Aglomerates Ramn Espinasa-Perea 1 and Luis Espinasa 1,2 1 Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas. ramone@cablevision.net.mx 2 Marist College. espinasl@yahoo.com Tecolotln cave, located near the town of Cuentepec, Morelos, with a suveyed length of 870 meters and a vertical extent of 105 meters, is one of the longest erosional caves known in non-calacareous conglomerates. It is contained glomerates and a few intercalated ash layers belonging to the Cuernavaca formation, which constitute the Buenavista volcaniclastic fan, which has its apex at the Sierra Zempoala volcanic complex and extends south to the limits with the state of Guerrero. This volcaniclastic fan has been eroded by numerous streams running almost paralel to the south, which have excavated deep barrancas or gullies. In particular the bar ranca of the Ro Tembembe is over 100 meters deep near the location of the cave. The cave captures the drainage of a surface arroyo, and is developed along a single passage which for almost 600 meters follows a single fracture, oriented almost east-west. This passage is a subterranean canyon, typically vadose in its are developed along lithological changes, and deep plunge pools have developed at their bases. The only chamber is located under a collapse which formed a skylight almost 40 meters high, but no collapse debris remain, as they have during the rainy season. phology when the passage abandons the main fracture to develop along the contact between two different lahar deposits,

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 140 marked by a small ash layer. The huge canyon turns into a a phreatic passage in karstic caves. The cave resurges at the wall of a small tributary of the Ro Tembembe canyon, almost 45 meters above the river level. The lithology in which the cave is developed prevents solution from playing an important role in the generation of the cave, which owes its origin entirely to mechanical ero sion, probably aided in the beginning by a process similar to piping in unconsolidated deposits. The morphology of the development when the Ro Tembembe was at its level or just above it. Oral Presentation Limestone Dissolution Driven by Volcanic Activitiy, Sistema Zacatn, Mxico Marcus O. Gary 1 Juan Alonso Ramrez Fernndez 2 and John M. Sharp Jr. 1 1 The University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX, USA. marcusgary@mail.utexas.edu 2 Universidad Autnoma de Nuevo Len, Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Linares, N.L. Mxico. Volcanically formed caves are typically considered to be those formed in volcanic terrain, such as lava tubes or other limestone as a result of volcanic activity is hypothesized to have developed the deepest phreatic sinkhole in the world, El Zacatn. Sistema Zacatn in northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas is an isolated karst area juxtaposed to the Pleis by unique hydrothermal cenotes. The volcanic activity in the area is characterized by the presence of effusive products and explosive deposits. Their compositions range from alkali basalts to trachytes, and the structures developed in the area Shallow level syenitic and granitic plutons crop out north younger magmatic activity in the Eastern Mexican Alkaline Province. This igneous activity introduced elevated levels of CO 2 and H 2 S to the groundwater within the Upper Cretaceous limestone. Pre-existing fractures focused circulation of this hyper-acidic groundwater in the localized area of Sistema Zacatn, thus radically accelerating dissolution rates of the carbonate rocks. The source of acidity in this model of karst from surface geochemical processes. This pattern of deep phreatic karst development is also observed in Pozzo del Merro, the deepest underwater cave in the world. Pozzo del Merro lies in Mesozoic limestone adjacent to the Pleistocene volcanic region near Rome, Italy. Poster Presentation Possible Structural Connection between Chichonal Volcano and the Sulfur-Rich Springs of Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de las Sardinas), Southern Mxico Laura Rosales Lagarde and Penelope J. Boston New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place 2421, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 USA. lagarde@nmt.edu paths from the active Chichonal Volcano to the Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de Las Sardinas, CLS). In this cave, located near Previous studies have linked the CLS spring sulfur source to basinal water and an alkaline active magma volcano, but understanding of the sulfur origin will provide insights into the possible sources, the extreme microbial environment, the sulfuric acid speleogenetic mechanism (i.e. creation of caves by strong acid dissolution), the subsurface water-rock cano and CLS location in the Chiapas Strike-Slip structural Province, suggests a left-strike slip fault may be serving as a to carry the sulfur-rich water that is dissolving the limestone at CLS. Detailed geological mapping of the surface and the caves in between, coupled with chemical analyses of the water the area will be sampled as part of the surface expression of groundwater interaction with the subsurface rock. Rest of the World Session In Absentia Presentation Investigation of a Lava-Tube Cave Located under the Hornito of Mihara-Yama in Izu-Oshima Island, Japan Tsutomu Honda Vulcano-Speleological Society. tsutomuh@jx.einet.ne.jp A lava-tube cave recently found under the hornito of Ocean at 120 km south of Tokyo, was surveyed and investi gated by the Vulcano-Speleological Society. This lava cave at the edge of the inner crater of Mihara-yama. The lava tube length is about 40 m. Inside of the lava-tube cave, general characteristics such as lava stalactites and lava benches can be found. Two important lava characteristics, yield strength and surface tension, were obtained from the observation of this lava tube cave. By using a simple model of steady from the height and slope angle of the lava tube on the sloped region, the yield strength of the lava can be obtained as 50000 dyne/cm 2 This value is very near to the value calculated as 43000 dyne/cm 2 by G.Hulme (1974) for the 1951 eruption

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141 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 From the pitch of lava stalactites on the roof surface (3 to 4 cm), the surface tension of lava was determined as 600 to 1000 dyne/cm. This value agrees well with the extrapolated value obtained by I.Yokoyama (1970) in the melting lava surface tension measurement experiments carried out in the laboratory. Oral Presentation Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes: Potential Sites for World Heritage Inscription K. S. Woo Cave Research Institute of Korea, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwondo, 200-701, Korea. wooks@kangwon.ac.kr Mt. Halla, Seongsan Ilchulbong Tuff Cone and Geomu norem Lava Tube System were proposed to be included in the World Heritage Sites by the Korean government in February, 2006. Jeju Island contains a variety of volcanic landforms and more than 120 lava tubes of geological and speleological features include the parasitic cone (Seongsan Ilchubong Tuff Cone), which shows a Surtseyan-type underwater volcanic eruption. Most notable is a variety of lava tubes (Bengdwi Cave, Manjang Cave, Gimnyeonsa Cave, Yongcheon Cave and display perfectly preserved internal structures despite their old age. Dangcheomul and Yongcheon Caves contain calcareous speleothems of superlative beauty. 1) The volcanic exposures of these features provide an ac cessible sequence of volcanogenic rocks formed by at least three different eruptive stages between one million and a few thousand years BP. The volcanic processes that made Jeju Island were quite different from those for adjacent volcanic terrains, in that Jeju Island was formed by huge plume activ ity (hot spot) at the edge of the continent. 2) The nominated features include a remarkable range of internationally impor information on the history of the Earth. The environmental conditions of the eruptions have created diverse volcanic landforms. 3) Eroded by the sea, Seongsan Ilchulbong Tuff Cone discloses the inner structure of the volcano of the value illustrating a large variety of sedimentary and volcanic characteristics of phreatomagmatic eruption, in addition to with various dimensions, shapes, internal morphology and secondary carbonate mineralization to be found in two of the low-elevation lava tubes, Yongcheon and Dangcheomul Lava Tubes, which can be considered to be the most beautiful lava are acknowledged to be the best of this type of lava tubes in the world. Oral Presentation New Discovery of a Lime-Decorated Lava Tube (Yongcheon Cave) in Jeju Island, Korea: Its Potential for the World Heritage Nomination K. C. Lee 1 K. S. Woo 2 and I. S. Son 3 1 Department of Resources Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwondo, Korea 2 Cave Research Institute of Korea, Chuncheon, Kangwondo, Korea 3 Jeju Island Cave Research Institute, Jeju, Jejudo, Korea Jeju Island in Korea is essentially made of one shield volcano with more than two hundred parasitic cones around it. Among more than 120 lava tubes can be found a series Geomun Oreum (parasitic tuff cone), called the Geomun Oreum Lava Tube System. The system includes several lava tubes such as Seonheul Vertical Cave, Bendwi Cave, Buko reum Cave, Daerim Cave, Manjang Cave, Gimnyeong Cave, Yongcheon Cave and Dangcheomul Cave. All these caves are estimated to be developed between about 300 and 100 ka BP. Two lava tubes (Yongcheon and Dangcheomul Caves) in low elevation areas contain calcareous speleothems. Yongcheon Cave was recently discovered accidentally in May, 2006, during the installation of a telephone pole. Yongchoen Cave became especially famous for its superlative Dangcheomul Cave, and has become a potential site for the World Heritage Nomination. The cave is about 3 km long, and lies across the gentle northeastern slope of Mt. Halla, where there is a large area of basalt lava plains, largely in alkaline olivine basalt. This lava tube is situated between Gimnyeong and Dangcheomul Lava Tubes. Inside, a majestic arched ceiling is met by vertical walls, mostly creating a dome-shaped cross and shows diverse morphology and micro-topography such as lava shelves, lave benches, lava stalactites, lava stalagmites, extensive lava rolls, lava falls and a spring-water lake. In ad dition, the cave contains a variety of carbonate speleothems such as soda straws, stalactites, stalagmites, columns, cave blown sediments, forming carbonate sand dunes, transported from beaches nearby, are present over the tube. Calcium and carbonate ions responsible for the formation of carbonate speleothems are supplied by dissolution of the carbonate sediments by meteoric water and transportation through plant roots and cracks. Animal skeletons, abalone shells, wooden torches and historical earthenware make Yongcheon Cave

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 142 Oral Presentation Structural Characteristics of Natural Caves and Yongchon Cave on Jeju Island I. S. Son 1 K. S. Lee 2 K. S. Woo 3 1 Jeju Island Cave Research Institute, Jeju City, Jejudo, Korea. caveson@hanmail.net 2 Jeju Island Cave Research Institute, Jeju City, Jejudo, Korea. chejuway@hotmail.com. 3 Cave Research Institute of Korea, Chunheon, Kangwondo, Korea. wooks@kangwon.ac.kr Jeju Island is a volcanic island which was formed after large scale and over a hundred times on a small scale. This island is located at a latitude of 33 11 27 33 33 50 north and a longitude of 126 08 43 126 58 20 west. The island covers an area of 1,845.92 km 2 The island runs approximately 73 kilometers from west and east and 31 kilo meters from north to south. Volcanic caves and sea caves are distributed widely on this small island. The total number of to exist on Jeju Island according to the studies conducted by the author from the year of 1975 through June of the year of 2006 amounts to 172 which include 137 volcanic caves and 35 sea caves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the fundamental academic research which was undertaken for the purpose of having volcanic caves such as Manjang Cave, Beungdwi cave, Dangcheomul Cave and Yongchon Cave be recognized as World Natural Heritages. Further, this research centers on examining Yongchon Cave, which was discovered on May 2005, as a Non-Limestone Cave (also known as Lava cave, Pseudo Limestone Cave, Lime-decorating Lava cave). The summary of this paper is as follows: 1. The total length of the part of the Yongchon cave that is after a survey of the lake and its vicinity is complete. 2. The height of the cave to the ceiling is between 1.5 meters and 20 meters and the width is between 7 and 15 meters. The cave runs mainly west and southward and north and eastward. 3. The cave has her marvelous features, such as a gigantic lava roll which is approximately 140 meters long, a lava ter race, a lava fall, a lava shelf and other formations. 4. Those carbonate sediments that are distributed variously inside the Yongchon Cave include stalactites, soda straws, and rimstones along with other sediments in eccentrical shape. A cave that reminds people of a chandelier is very rare anywhere in the world. 5. Those materials that were considered to have been brought inside the cave include earthenware allegedly from an ancient period, animal bones, burnt wood and metal ware including a poker. The earthenware which has been subject to archeological study has been determined to belong to the period of between eight and nine centuries. 6. The animal bones which are found inside the cave will be employed as important material to study the ecosystem both inside and outside the cave. These types of bones are various and determined to have been brought in by humans and still being under study. 7. The survey and research has been currently on hold on a temporary basis due to safety and hazard concern after a large scale lake had been found. Once further and closer examination is carried out, the determinations regarding will be greater. Oral Presentation Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration by the Shepton Mallet Caving Club (UK) Ed Waters Shepton Mallet Caving Club and UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves. Hilltop House, Windwhistle Lane, West Grimstead, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP5 3RG, United Kingdom. ednandhayley@homecall.co.uk The Shepton Mallet Caving Club has a connection with Icelandic cave exploration going back 35 years to 1971. The interest in caving in this country was re-awakened by participation in the Laki Underground Expeditions in 2000 & 2001 (in association with Bournemouth University). Since these visits, members of the club have carried out further work in 2003 and 2005 on the Reykjanes Peninsula and the This work has been a mixture of original exploration and surveying of previously known sites, in conjunction with Hellarannsknaflgs slands. Major sites surveyed on Reykjanes include Flki, a 1-km-long maze cave, and Bri, just under 1 km of huge trunk passage recently found by shaft called Hellingur, which revealed over 500 m of large well decorated passage. This is now the longest cave known in this part of the country. In Absentia Presentation Basalt Caves in Harrat Ash Shaam, Middle East Amos Frumkin Cave Research Section, Department of Geography, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. msamos@mscc.huji.ac.il in the Middle East, ranging across the north-western Arabian plateau, from Saudi Arabia through Jordan and Syria to Israel. The present study deals with voids in Pleistocene basalts, mostly of the last 500,000 years. Circular voids, probably associated with large volcanic gas bubbles, commonly ap pear on the surface as circular depressions, with vertical or sloped walls. Lava tubes and pressure ridge caves are common around Jebel Druze plateau. The pressure ridge caves are commonly some tens m long, located very close to the surface, within the entered through central skylights, has one level with tributary

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143 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 of the tube, covering a former pahoehoe surface. Oral Presentation Prospects for Lava-Cave Studies in Harrat Khaybar, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint The Desert Caves Project (www.saudicaves.com), UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves. thepints@saudicaves.com To date one lava tube, Dahl Rumahah, 208 m long, has been 12,000 square km, located north of Medina in western Saudi Arabia. However, lava-cave entrances have been observed and/ or photographed in the northern, central and southern parts be found in this area. Strings of collapses up to 25 km long, observed by helicopter, indicate the possibility that some of The lava caves of Harrat Khaybar may have been frequented and used by ancient peoples, but no archeological study has typically covered by a meter or more of sediment. One of the to 70,000 years would have brought early Man close to the edge of Harrat Khaybar. Lava caves in this area would have provided much needed water and shelter to these people. In later years, these caves lay within reach of the Nabatean spice trail between Yemen and Petra. In addition, one of the richest sites of petroglyphs in Saudi Arabia is situated at the edge of Harrat Khaybar. This paper suggests that Harrat Khaybar is an ideal place to search for unexplored lava tubes in Saudi Arabia and recom mends the undertaking of a vulcanospeleological survey of archeological study of lava tubes in Harrat Khaybar. Oral Presentation Al-Fahde Cave, Jordan, the Longest Lava Cave Yet Reported from the Arabian Peninsula Ahmad Al-Malabeh 1 Mahmoud Fryhad 2 Horst-Volker Henschel 3 and Stephan Kempe 4 1 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan. Am@hu.edu.jo 2 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan 3 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. dr.henschel@henschel-roperz.de 4 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de The northeastern region of Jordan is volcanic terrain, part of a vast intercontinental lava plateau, called the Harrat Al Shaam. The centre is formed by young alkali olivine basaltic Harrat (Al-Malabeh, 2005). The top most and therefore 2000). There we explored, surveyed and studied a total of twelve lava caves since September2003, among them six lava This includes the 923.5 m long Al-Fahda Cave (Lioness Cave), which was surveyed September 16 th and 19 th 2005 by the authors. It is currently the longest reported from the Arabian Peninsular (J. Pint, pers. comm.). Two entrances exist. The main entrance is a roof collapse at the apex of a 15 m wide hall, dating much later than the activity of the cave. This entrance gives access to the cave stretching for almost 490 m downslope and almost 190 m upslope. The tunnel is on the one hand amazingly wide (av erage > 7m!) but also very low (average 1.2 m). The slope measured apparently is less than one degree (8.6 m altitude change on 755 m). This is very low, even compared to the lower levels of Hawaiian lava tunnels and an important ob servation since it shows why the Harrat lavas could spread so far: They were tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. Oral Presentation State of Lava Cave Research in Jordan Stephan Kempe 1 Ahmad Al-Malabeh 2 Mahmoud Fryhad 3 and Horst-Volker Henschel 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan. Am@hu.edu.jo 3 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan 4 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de The northeastern region of Jordan is volcanic terrain, part of a vast intercontinental lava plateau, called the Harrat AlShaam. The centre is formed by young alkali olivine basaltic (Al-Malabeh, 2005). The top most and therefore youngest these lavas we explored, surveyed and studied a total of twelve lava caves since September 2003. 2,525 m of passages were surveyed as of September 2005 (Table 1). The discovery of so many lava tunnels in the Harrat Aland 2006 came as a surprise, considering the old age of these volcanics. It also is surprising considering the fact that the Harrat is covered by loess that can be easily washed into caves Dabie and the two Abu Al-Kursi Caves are all terminated by sediments. Only Al-Howa Cave is terminated on both ends by roof collapse due to the loading of a later aa lava is noted only at both ends of Al-Fahda Cave, but not in the others. Other features, so typical for Hawaiian lava tunnels,

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 144 like lava falls, plunge pools, and secondary ceilings seem to be absent. Shelves are prominent only in Dabie Cave. The presence of the lava tunnels underscores the fact that the Harrat consists of tube-fed pahoehoe. Oral Presentation Gruta das TorresVisitor Center Manuel P. Costa 1,4,5 Fernando Pereira 2,4,5 Joo C. Nunes 2,5 Joo P. Constncia 3,5 Paulo Barcelos 4,5 and Paulo A. V. Borges 2,4,5 1 Matos Souto, Piedade, 9930 Lajes do Pico, Pico, Azores. manuel.ps.costa@azores.gov.pt 2 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Geociencias & Dep. Cincias Agrrias, Ponta Delgada & Angra do Herosmo, Azores 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores 4 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. montanheiros@montanheiros.com 5 GESPEA (Working Group on Volcanic Caves of Azores) Located in Pico Island, at 285 m altitude, Gruta das Torres is a volcanic cave originated from pahoehoe extruded from Cabeo Bravo. It is the longest lava tube known on the Azorean Islands: it is around 5 150 m in total length and 15 m in maximum height. It is composed of one main, large-sized tunnel and several secondary lateral and upper tunnels. Gruta das Torres, because of its size, beauty, cave fauna and geological formations, was therefore designated a Regional Natural Monument by regional decree nr. 6/2004/A of March, 18 th In the year 2000, the Azorean Environmental Services initiated the process to transform part of Gruta das Torres into a show cave creating a visitors center, improving accessibilities, and attributing the tourist exploration to the NGO Os Montanheiros. The visits will take place in small groups of 15 visitors, for a 45 minutes guided tour, along 450 meters, with individual lightening system which will also work as an emergency device. After the opening of Gruta das Torres Visitor Center to the public on the 24 th of May, 2005, large numbers of tourists have visited this volcanic cave, reaching the number of 3525 visitors in the period of June to December 2005. Poster Presentation GESPEA Field Work (2003) Manuel P. Costa 1,4,5 Fernando Pereira 2,4,5 Joo C. Nunes 2,5 Joo P. Constncia 3,5 Paulo Barcelos 4,5 Paulo A. V. Borges 2,4,5 Isabel R. Amorim 6 Filipe Correia 1 Lusa Cosme 3 and Rafaela Anjos 3 1 Matos Souto, Piedade, 9930 Lajes do Pico, Pico, Azores. manuel.ps.costa@azores.gov.pt 2 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Geociencias & Dep. Cincias Agrrias, Ponta Delgada & Angra do Herosmo, Azores 3 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Azores 4 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Azores. montanheiros@montanheiros.com 5 GESPEA (Working Group on Volcanic Caves of Azores) 6 University of California, Los Angeles, Dep. of Organismic Biology, Ecology and Evolution, 621 Charles E.Young Dr. So., Box 951606, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606 In 1998, the Regional Government of the Azores estab lished the GESPEA Working Group on Volcanic Caves of Azores, with the aim of studying the volcanic caves of the archipelago. That decision was taken because of the geologi cal and biological interest and diversity of the volcanic caves, their importance in terms of Natural Heritage, educational purposes and also their uniqueness and importance in terms of tourism. Table 1 (Kempe et al.). List of currently known and surveyed lava caves in Jordan, arranged by total passage length.

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145 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 expeditions in three different islands: Picospel 2003 (Pico island), Beira 2003 (So Jorge island), Pico 2004 (Pico island) and Graciosa 2005 (Graciosa island). On those expeditions, 76 caves were visited, 22 new caves were discovered, and geological and biological information were collected to update the Azorean Speleological Inven tory and Classifying System (IPEA). Also new topographies, schemes, videos and photos were performed for some of those caves. New records of animals and plants were obtained for many of the caves. A new species of beetle was discovered in a volcanic pit from S. Jorge during the pre-symposium activities of the XI International Symposium on Vulcano speleology (Pico Island, Azores, 2004). Poster Presentation Catalogue of the Azorean Caves (Lava Tubes, Volcanic Pits, and Sea-Erosion Caves) Fernando Pereira 1,2,3 Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2,3 Manuel P. Costa 2,4 Joo P. Constncia 2,5 Joo C. Nunes 2,5,6 Paulo Barcelos 1,2 5 Rosalina Gabriel 3 and Eva A. Lima 5,6 1 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal 2 GESPEA Grupo de Estudo do Patrimnio Espeleolgico dos Aores 3 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Aores, Portugal 4 Direco de Servios da Conservao da Natureza, Edifcio Matos Souto, Piedade, 9930 Lajes do Pico, Aores, Portugal. 5 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel. Portugal. 6 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Geocincias, 9500 Ponta Delgada, Aores, Portugal. currently known Azorean caves, namely lava tubes, volcanic pits and sea-erosion caves. This was possible due to: i) the wealth of information compiled by several Azorean envi ronmental associations (e.g. Os Montanheiros, Amigos dos Aores and Speleological group of CAIP Circulo dos Amigos da ilha do Pico) and ii) to the development of the Group, created by the Regional Government of the Azores in 1998. A total of 250 structures (185 lava tubes, 23 volcanic pits, 8 pit-caves, 18 sea-erosion caves, and 6 other type of structures) are described in the Catalogue, and for each of them is included information about: name, name synonyms, location (island, locality), length/depth, general description, main geological features, biological interest, main references and a map with the location of the cave/pit in the island. When available, a detailed topography or sketch is also provided. The catalogue also includes comprehensive lists of the fauna and biospeleological literature from the Azores. Several of these volcanic caves harbour great geological and biological biological and aesthetic patrimony that must be protected It is hoped that the present catalogue may help to achieve a better management of the Azorean caves. Oral Presentation Thurston Lava Tube, the Most Visited Tube in the World. What Do We Know about It? Stephan Kempe 1 and Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Survey by Stephan Kempe, Matthias Oberwinder, Holger Buchas, Klaus Wolniewicz 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de Thurston Lava Tube, discovered in 1913, is a celebrated tourist attraction in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. It is visited daily by hundreds, if not thousands. Hardly any other lava tube in the world can match its popularity. In spite of its many references in literature, not much is known about its speleogenesis and previously published maps have not been very detailed (Powers, 1920; Wood, 1979; Halliday, 1982). To get a more detailed view we surveyed it on March 9 th 1996 in high precision, using digital compass and level mounted on antimagnetic tripods (Table 1). Vulcanologically the cave is important since it is situated very near to the original vent of the Ai-laau Shield at 1195 m a.s.l., the site of the last massive summit eruption of Kilauea (Holcomb, 1987) ending about 350 years ago and producing Kazumura Cave. When inspecting the cave, a series of ques tions arise. For the casual observer the cave appears strangely dull, without many detailed features. Also the typical smooth, continuous glazing found in lava tubes is missing throughout. a puzzle. These questions will be discussed in light of what is currently known about the cave. Oral Presentatiion Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System in Mauna Loa Lavas, Naalehu, Hawaii Stephan Kempe 1 Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Harry Shick, Jr. 3 and Frank Trusdell 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.d 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de; 3 General Delivery Keaau 96749 Hawaii, USA 4 Hawaii Volcano Observatory, P.O. Box 51, Hawaii Nat. Park 96718 Hawaii, USA. trusdell@usgs.gov The Kamakalepo Cave system south of Naalehu, Hawaii, consists of four larger sections of a once much longer tunnel in Mauna Loa lavas. It formed in very olivine phenocrystrich, picritic lavas of high density and moderate vessicularity. to the west, from which one 14 C age is available, dating the

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 146 The system is entered through two pukas (holes): Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo (Pigeon Hole of the Common People) and Waipouli (Dark Waters). Both give accesses to uphill (mauka) and downhill (makai) caves totalling almost 1 km underground brackish tidal lake 200 m. Two further pukas belong to the system, Pork Pen Puka (mauka of Lua Nunu) and Stonehenge Puka (makai of Waipouli). Pork Pen Puka is a depression set into the roof of Lua Nunu Mauka, the bottom of which is a secondary ceiling to the cave below. Stonehenge Puka is a 60 40 m large and up to 20 m deep crater, which not only issued lava as a rootless vent but from which large blocks were swept out, that today mark its rim (giving it a certain resemblance with the real Stonehenge). detailed geological maps we discuss the genesis of the system and its fate due to later lava intrusions. Oral Presentation Archeology of the Kamakalepo/Waipouli/Stonehenge Area, Underground Fortresses, Living Quarters, and Petrogylph Fields Stephan Kempe 1 Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Harry Shick, Jr. 3 and Basil Hansen 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de 3 General Delivery Keaau 96749 Hawaii, USA 4 P.O. Box 759 Naalehu, 96772 Hawaii, USA South of Naalehu, Hawaii, near the coast, the Kamakalepo area contains unique archaeological features both above and below ground (Bonk, 1967; Kempe, 1999). A large cave system consisting of four sections of a once much longer tunnel in Mauna Loa lavas was used extensively by the native Hawaiians. The system is entered through two pukas: Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo (Pigeon Hole of the Common People) and Waipouli (Dark Waters). Both of these pukas give ac cesses to uphill (mauka) and downhill (makai) caves, totalling together 1 km in length. Underground, the caves of the Lua Nunu are the ones used primarily. Retaining walls are found at both entrances provid ing for dwelling platforms. The main features are two large defence walls across the cave erected by stacking breakdown blocks. The wall in the Makai Cave collapsed mostly, but the one in the Mauka Cave, ca. 60 m into the cave, is well preserved. It has all the characteristics of a medieval defence Both of the Waipouli Caves show little signs of Hawaiian presence. In the mauka sections just a few places with charcoal are found and a few bits of seafood shells. The makai part is stone on the steep entrance slope and a whale vertebra in the water ( 14 C dating in progress). Above ground the area shows many signs of usage: beachTable 1 (Kempe, et al. Thurston Lava Tube). Survey data for Thurston Lava Tube. Table 1 (Kempe et al. Kamakalepo Cave). Length of Kamakalepo Cave System (north to south).

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147 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 stone covered paths, platforms (heiaus), lava dug up for ag ricultural purposes, animal pens, and areas with petroglyphs, some of them post-contact. In Absentia Presentation Cave Detection on Mars J. Judson Wynne 1,2 Mary G. Chapman 3 Charles A. Drost 1 Jeffery S. Kargel 4 Jim Thompson 5 Timothy N. Titus 3 and Rickard S. Toomey III 6 1 USGS-Southwest Biological Science Center, Colorado Plateau Research Station, Flagstaff, AZ. Jut.Wynne@NAU.EDU 2 Corps of Discovery International, Flagstaff, AZ 3 USGS-Astrogeology Division, Flagstaff Field Center, Flagstaff, AZ 4 Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 5 The Explorers Club, St. Louis Chapter, St. Louis, MO 6 Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning, Mammoth Cave National Park, Mammoth Cave, KY Exploration of the Martian subterranean environment offers a unique avenue for: (1) investigating promising localities to search for extinct and/ or extant life; (2) identifying areas likely to contain subterranean water ice; (3) evaluating the suitability of caves for the establishment of human habitation areas; and, (4) investigating subsurface geological materi detection. Due to the long and widespread volcanic history of Mars, the low gravity, possible low seismicity, and low tubes are expected to be common and widespread. Detec tion of these features on Mars involves: (a) development and interpretation of thermal dynamic models of caves to identify the thermal sensor requirements for detection; (b) evaluation of available imagery of both Earth and Mars for their utility in cave detection; and, (c) collection, analysis and interpretation of ground-based measurements of thermal dynamics of terrestrial caves (and then relating these data to detection of Martian caves). both time of day and geological substrate. We have also de termined that certain bands in THEMIS IR are best for cave detection and have examined cave size in relation to thermal detectability. Thermal data from terrestrial caves supports model results indicating imagery capture at the appropriate time of day is critical to detection. These data also reveal numerous interesting thermal characteristics of caves, which will improve our understanding of thermal properties of caves on both Earth and Mars. Biospeleology Session Oral Presentation A Comparison of Microbial Mats in Pahoehoe and Four Windows Caves, El Malpais National Monument, NM, USA D. E. Northup 1 M. Moya, 1 I. McMillan 2 T. Wills 2 H. Haskell 2 J. R. Snider 1 A. M. Wright 1 K. J. Odenbach 1 and M. N. Spilde 3 1 Biology Department, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA 2 Sandia Preparatory School,Albuquerque, NM, USA 3 Institute of Meteoritics, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Colorful microbial mats exist in lava tubes in many ar eas of the world, yet little is known about the composition of these microbial communities. Earlier studies of white microbial mats in Four Windows Caves revealed the pres ence of members of the Actinobacteria Betaproteobacteria , and Verrucomicrobia We have expanded our research to determine whether microbial mats of yellow/ gold coloration, and located in another lava tube, Pahoehoe Cave, have different or similar community compositions. We also wished to ascertain whether novel microbial species are present. Scanning electron microscopy of white and yellow/ gold colonies showed the presence of a variety of cellular planctomycete-like shapes, and rods. To avoid the pitfalls of culture-based studies, we extracted DNA from colonies adhered to rock samples collected aseptically. The DNA cloned, and sequenced. We compared the resultant 16S rDNA sequences against the BLAST and RDPII databases to determine closest relatives, which we aligned and used to generate a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary relationships. This analysis revealed that (1) the only overlap between the two caves occurred in the Actinobacteria but even here the sequences were not closely related; (2) samples from the white colonies in Pahoehoe Cave were most closely related to Enterobacteriaceae such as E. coli and Shigella spp., pos sibly originating from surface contamination; (3) additional groups found in Pahoehoe Cave included Alphaproteobacteria and other Gammaproteobacteria ; (4) several novel species

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 148 Oral Presentation Use of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 in Mapping the Biodiversity (Invertebrates and Bryophytes) of Caves in the Azorean Archipelago Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2,3 Rosalina Gabriel 3 Fernando Pereira 1,2,3 Ensima P. Mendona 3 and Eva Sousa 3 1 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. 2 GESPEA Grupo de Estudo do Patrimnio Espeleolgico dos Aores. 3 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Aores, Portugal. In this contribution the software ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 is described as a promising tool to be used in the conservation management of the animal and plant biodiversity of caves in Macaronesia. In the Azores, the importance of cave entrances to bryophytes is twofold: i) since these are particularly hu mid, sheltered habitats, they support a diverse assemblage is referred to this habitat and ii) species, either endemic or referred in the European red list due to their vulnerability arthropods are also diverse in the Azores and 21 endemic obligate cave species were recorded. Generally these spe cies have restricted distributions and some are known from only one cave. ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 allows the mapping of the distribution of all species in a 500 x 500 m grid in a GIS interface. This allows an easy detection of species rich caves (hotspots) and facilitates the interpretation of spatial patterns of species distribution. For instance, predictive models of species distribution could be constructed using the Using this new tool we will be better equipped to answer the following questions: a) Where are the current hotspot caves of biodiversity in the Azores? b) How many new caves need to be selected as specially protected areas in order to conserve the rarest endemic taxa? c) Is there congruence between the patterns of richness and distribution of invertebrates and bryophytes? d) Are environmental variables good surrogates of species distributions? Poster Presentation Bryophytes of Lava Tubes and Volcanic Pits from Graciosa Island (Azores, Portugal) Rosalina Gabriel 1 Fernando Pereira 1,2 Sandra Cmara 1 Ndia Homem 1 Eva Sousa 1 and Maria Irene Henriques 1 1 Universidade dos Aores, Departamento de Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, Centro de Investigao de Tecnologias Agrrias dos Aores. 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Aores, Portugal. 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. Mainly due to historical reasons, Graciosa Island is the poor est island of the Azores regarding the number of bryophytes (119), especially of rare and endemic species. However, Lava Tubes (Furna da Maria Encantada, Furna do Abel, Galeria Forninho) and Volcanic Pits (Furna do Enxofre) seem to of fer refuge to some interesting plants. Previous studies have recorded, among others, the European endemic moss, Homalia webbiana present only in four of the nine Azorean Islands and with less than 10 localities recorded in the archipelago. may be observed in the volcanic formations of Graciosa; ii) to identify in those formations, endemic bryophyte species (from the Azores, Macaronesia and Europe) and species with a conservation risk associated, according to the European Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes (ECCB). The results show that although no Endemic plants from the Azores were found at this point, six European endemic spe in the entrances of these volcanic formations, including one Vulnerable species and three rare species, according to ECCB criteria. In conclusion, besides the rich geological interest of the caves in Graciosa, their entrances continue to harbour rare or endemic bryophytes, not commonly found on other parts of the island, possibly due to the greater stability of these habitats. This is an additional reason to preserve the caves and a further possible motive of interest to all that visit them. Poster Presentation First Approach to the Comparison of the Bacterial Flora of Two Visited Caves in Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal Lurdes Enes Dapkevicius 1 Rosalina Gabriel 1 Sandra Cmara 1 and Fernando Pereira 1,2 1 Universidade dos Aores, Departamento de Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, Centro de Investigao de Tecnologias Agrrias dos Aores. 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Aores, Portugal. 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. Algar do Carvo and Gruta do Natal are two interest ing volcanic show caves in Terceira Island. The purposes of this work were: i) to characterize the main groups of bacteria observed on their walls and ceiling in four different illumina natural light; ii) to look for Actinomycetales mainly from the family Streptomyceteae due to their ability to produce highvalue biochemical products; iii) to investigate if the human activities associated with the economic exploitation of the in their vicinities) had ecological impacts on the composition isolate Actinomycetales at this point, the preliminary results different isolates were obtained, and these are mostly the result Carvo, the half-light area supported the highest diversity associated with the grazing activity that occurs above the Algar. The most interesting species isolated was Sphingobacterium multivorum which has the natural ability to accumulate zeaxanthin, a molecule used as a food pigment and which recently has been considered important in eye-health, reducing

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149 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 the risk for age-related macular degeneration. The darkness microhabitat of Gruta do Natal was the most diverse of the sampled areas of that cave, producing 13 isolates, the majority of which not associated with faecal contaminations. human activities, mainly cow and goat grazing, are affecting their composition. It is hoped that a management plan could incorporate this information, in order to ensure that only the Oral Presentation Cueva del Diablo: A Batcave in Tepoztlan Gabriela Lpez Segurajuregui 1 Rodrigo A. Medelln 2 and Karla Toledo Gutirrez 3 1 Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates, Ecology Institute, UNAM. polichinilla@yahoo.com.mx 2 Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates, Ecology Institute, UNAM. medellin@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx 3 Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates, Ecology Institute, UNAM. d_huevos@hotmail.com In Mexico, almost half of the 138 species of bats use caves as alternative or primary roosts. One volcanic cave that houses important colonies of these animals is Cueva del Diablo in Tepoztlan, Morelos, central Mexico. At least three bat species have been reported in this cave. One of them, the Mexican long-nosed bat ( Leptonycteris nivalis ), is of particular importance in economical and ecological terms. This species migrates from central to northern Mexico and southern United States in mid spring and come back in mid autumn. In Mexico, L. nivalis species, and in the U.S. as an endangered one. Owing to the fact that Cueva del Diablo is the only known roost in which this species mates, the cave was proposed by us as a sanctuary to the CONANP (National Commission of Natural Protected Areas) in 2004. In addition to this proposal, the PCMM (Program for Conservation of Mexican Bats) has conducted environmental education efforts in the region as an attempt to modify the negative ideas about bats and to share the information concerning their importance and that of caves for them. Other PCMM studies conducted in this cave focus on the diet of the species and understanding its mating system, document represents a compilation of those works in Cueva del Diablo with emphasis in their importance for the general conservation of bats and caves. Oral Presentation Troglobites from the Lava Tubes in the Sierra de Chichinautzin, Mxico, Challenge the Competitive Exclusion Principle Luis Espinasa 1 and Adriana Fisher 2 1 Marist College. espinasl@yahoo.com 2 Shenandoah University. 1460 University Drive, Winchester, In ecology, the Competitive Exclusion Principle establishes that no two species in the same ecosystem can occupy the ing in identical ways, eat the same food, and compete for the same limited resources, are unable to coexist in a stable fashion. If two species try to occupy the same niche, one will out-compete and drive to extinction the other. Multiple lava tubes from the Sierra de Chichinautzin, Anelpistina viduals appear morphologically uniform as expected when they belong to a single species, but when DNA analyses were performed, it was established that despite their morphological similarity, individuals within these caves belonged to at least two distinct species. As individuals of these different species live side by side, most likely occupying the same niche, the Competitive Exclusion Principle is challenged. The lava tubes inhabited by these troglobites were formed that Nicoletiid troglobites cannot only cross the boundary bilities can be tracked and roughly dated. Theoretical Session Oral Presentation Uranium in Caves Juan Pablo Bernal Departamento de Geoqumica. Instituto de Geologa, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico. jpbernal@geologia.unam.mx Uranium is ubiquitous, it is found everywhere, caves and spelean formations and minerals are no exception. How ever, its presence represents no harm, as it is only present at decay of U produces minute amounts of several isotopes, radioactive themselves, with half-lives ranging from sec onds to several thousand years. This provides the basis for one of the most widely used geo-chronometers which, only until recently, has been applied to the understanding of cave processes and evolution. The abundance of shortand long-lived U daughter iso topes in different spelean formations and minerals allows us to establish geochronological constrains on their evolution. Furthermore, such information has allowed an increasing

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 150 number of scientists to use spelean formations as indicators of past climatic and hydrologic conditions. For example calcite as archives of climate change as they can be dated relatively easy measuring the relative abundance of 238 U234 U230 Th. On the other hand opal and silica varnishes in lava tuffs 500 m below the surface, have been used to track paleohydrological activity during the last 500,000 years. The basic principles for dating such mineral phases will be presented, along with more detailed information on the above examples and the potential to apply U-dating methods to spelean formations in lava tubes. Oral Presentation Development of a Karst Information Portal (KIP) to Advance Research and Education in Global Karst Science D. E. Northup 1 L. D. Hose 2 T. A. Chavez 3 and R. Brinkmann 4 1 Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA. dnorthup@unm.edu 2 National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 1400 Commerce Drive, Suite 102, Carlsbad, NM 88220, USA 3 Library Administration, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, LIB122, Tampa, FL 33620, USA 4 Department of Geography, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES107, Tampa, FL 33620, USA The University of New Mexico, the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, and the University of South Florida are developing the Karst Information Portal (KIP) to promote open access to karst, cave, and aquifer information and link ages among karst scientists. The resulting connectivity and collaboration will drive innovative solutions to the critical human and environmental challenges of karst. Our purpose is to advance karst knowledge by: (1) facilitating access to and preservation of karst information both published and unpublished, (2) developing linkages and communication amongst the karst community, (3) promoting knowledgediscovery to help develop solutions to problems in karst, (4) developing interactive databases of information of ongoing karst research in different disciplines, (5) enriching funda mental multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary science, and (6) facilitating collection of new data about karst. The KIP project is currently (1) transforming A Guide to Speleologi cal Literature of the English Language 1794-1996 into the institutional repository of scanning electron micrographs from research in caves that includes social software to promote linkages among karst scientists. In the future, thematic areas, geo-engineering, and speleothem records of climate change, are among the many topics to be included in the portal. A key project focus is the gathering of lesser-known materials, maps, images, and newsletters. Thus, this project responds to disciplinary needs by integrating individual scientists into a global network through the karst information portal. Oral Presentation A Data Base for the Most Outstanding Volcanic Caves of the World: A First Proposal Joo P. Constncia 1 Joo C. Nunes 1 Paulo A.V. Borges 1 Manuel P. Costa 1 Fernando Pereira 1 Paulo Barcelos 1 2 1 GESPEAGrupo de Estudo do Patrimnio Espeleolgico dos Aores. Edifcio Matos Souto, Piedade 9930 Lajes do Pico, Aores, Portugal. 2 Amigos dos Aores, Avenida da Paz, 14, 9600-053 Pico da Pedra, S. Miguel, Aores, Portugal. During the XI International Symposium on Vulcanospeleol ogy (Pico Island, Azores, 2004), the Commission on Volcanic Caves (CVC) of the UIS recognized the interest of a database for the most important volcanic caves of the world. At that time it was suggested that the Azorean speleological group GESPEA ought to present a proposal to accomplish this task. Following the challenge of the CVC, the GESPEA designed a proposal, as follows: Aim: Assemble in a database the world most relevant volcanic caves, grouped into 3 major classes, and selected by dimensions, geological exceptionality and biological exclusivity. Methodology: Main Tool: A database (the WoMOVoC World Most Outstanding Volcanic Caves database) will be available in the Internet, having a non complex structure, but tion of the volcanic cave, namely: the caves name, location (e.g. country/region), geographic coordinates, length/depth, main geological features, biological singularity, general description, main references, location map, topography and photos. New Proposals: Each proposal must be submitted using an electronic form, available in the web site, and comply with the instructions and the criteria for acceptance. To be accepted, the cave must obey the criteria for each main class of relevance: Class Relevant Dimensions: caves more than 3 km long and pits more than 100 m depth. Class Geological Exceptionality: one or more rare speleothem. Class Biological Singularity: one or more troglobian, endemic species. Selection: The proposal evaluation will be done by a sci by the CVC-UIS. The selection of the volcanic caves will be according to the accepting criteria and having in mind other important aspects, as the information accuracy and conser vation status. The committee might accept other geological and biological features, if very well documented and if it is a relevant and unambiguous case of uniqueness. Data Incorporation mittee, the new cave will be added to the database by an executive committee, which can be the GESPEA group.

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151 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 and, by that, a broader recognition of the value of this geo logical heritage. Oral Presentation Morphogenesis of Lava Tube Caves: A Review Chris Wood Environmental and Geographical Sciences Group, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, U.K. cwood@bournemouth.ac.uk It is now many years since there was a published scien tube caves. Possibly the last was this writers chapter on volcanic caves in the BCRAs 1976 The Science of Spele ology although entries in the more recent encyclopedias of caves and karst update some of this information. Yet the last 30 years, including exploration of new cave areas (for example, in Iceland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Jordon, Hawaii and Mexico), a more comprehensive appreciation of the extent of the worlds vulcanospeleological resource, creation of regional cave databases (eg, Azores, Iceland, Jeju Island), an increasingly higher standard of mapping of cave forms revealing new details of both labyrinthine complexes and long axial systems, acquisition of improved data on the position of caves and cave groups within their parent lava cavities in lavas. been supplemented by highly revealing observations of ac tive tube-forming processes, principally from the 1969-74 eruptions of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, and the recent activity of Mount Etna, Sicily. These observations have contributed emplacement. The period is also one in which there has been building of Hawaiian-type shield volcanoes and, possibly, the of active and ancient lava tube systems on planetary bodies of the solar system, for example, most recently on Jupiters innermost moon, Io. Trying to piece this information together to provide one or more coherent theories of cave formation is challenging. For one thing, despite all the observations of active systems, we still do not observe the most important process of allthe method by which principal feeder conduits, or master tubes, grow (extend) downslope. Another shortfall has been analy activity within an active tube system and subsequent postto draw together evidence and ideas on the morphogenesis of lava tube caves, in particular to identify areas of uncertainty

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153 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Cueva Tecolotln, Morelos, Mxico; An Unusual Erosional Cave in Volcanic Agglomerates Ramn Espinasa-Perea 1 and Lus Espinasa 2 1 Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas A.C., ramone@cablevision.net.mx 2 Marist College, USA, espinasl@yahoo.com Abstract Tecolotln cave, located near the town of Cuentepec, Morelos, with a surveyed length of 870 meters and a vertical ex tent of 105 meters, is one of the longest erosional caves known in non-calcareous conglomerates. It is contained in volcani conglomerates and a few intercalated ash layers belonging to the Cuernavaca for mation, which constitute the Buenavista volcaniclastic fan, which has its apex at the Sierra Zempoala volcanic complex and extends south to the limits with the state of Guerrero. This volcaniclastic fan has been erod ed by numerous streams running almost parallel to the south, which have excavated deep barrancas or gullies. In particular the barranca of the Ro Tembembe is over 100 meters deep near the location of the cave. The cave captures the drainage of a surface stream, and is developed along a single passage which for almost 600 meters follows a single fracture, ori ented almost east-west. This passage is a wide and three to over 20 meters high, with several vertical pits or cascades along its length. Deep plunge pools have developed at their bases. The only cham ber is located under a collapse which formed a skylight almost 40 meters high, but no collapse debris remain, as they rainy season. completely in morphology when the passage abandons the main fracture to develop along the contact between two canyon turns into a small round tube, a phreatic passage in karstic caves. The cave resurges 12 meters up the wall of a small tributary of the Ro Tembembe canyon, and almost 45 meters above the river level. The lithology in which the cave is developed prevents solution from play ing an important role in the generation of the cave, which owes its origin entirely to mechanical erosion, probably aided in the beginning by a process similar to piping in unconsolidated deposits. The seem to indicate that the cave started its development when the Ro Tembembe was at its level or just above it. Introduction Although karstic phenomena in con glomerates is relatively common, in almost all cases described, either the matrix or the blocks are calcareous in nature, and few if any described caves are developed in volcanic aglomerates of andesitic nature. A recently mapped cave, developed in the Buenavista volca niclastic fan to the south of the Zempoala volcano, in central Mexico (Figure 1), seems to have developed by erosion, possibly aided by a process similar to piping, along a fracture, but its morphol ogy perfectly mimics an active stream cave in a karstic environment. The Buenavista volcaniclastic fan The Buenavista volcaniclastic fan (BVF) is a conspicuous geomorphologic unit to the south of the Zempoala volcano, mapped by Fries (1960), who described the Cuernavaca Formation as a series of thickly bedded conglomerates with sub rounded andesitic blocks up to metric and mud, and occasional thin ash layers. 2006 SYMPOSIUM PAPERS Figure 1. Map showing the tectonic setting and location of Volcan Zempoala, in the central portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 154 Figure 3. Upper portion of the Buenavista volcaniclastic fan, with the location of Cueva Tecolotln. The Cerro Zempoala volcano can be seen at the apex of the fan. The canyon which drains its west slopes and then cuts through the fan is the Ro Tembembe Figure 4. Location of the three entrances of Cueva Tecolotln.

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155 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 3). The cross section of the valley is V-shaped, with a rim to rim distance of about 200 meters on average, and about 100 meters deep, but at the bottom of the V is a vertical walled gorge 20 to 70 meters deep. Cueva Tecolotln The entrance to the cave is at the end of a small ravine whose headwaters are barely a kilometer away (Figure 4), and which has carved into the conglomer ates to a depth of 30 meters at the cave entrance (Figure 5), which is a 2 meters wide and 5 meters high tunnel that heads almost west following prominent frac tures, almost vertical, which are clearly visible in the cliff above the entrance (Figure 6). After nearly 100 meters, the passage reaches the bottom of a 40 meter high skylight formed by ceiling collapse in a widening of the passage to almost 20 meters in width. No collapse blocks emptied from this room has been car ried away by the seasonal stream. The controlling fractures are again visible in the walls of the skylight chamber (Figure 7). The passage continues perfectly straight, shaped like an underground Figure 5. Entrance sink of Cueva Tecolotln. Two cavers can be seen on the left slope. The average dip of the fan can be seen from the slope of the road behind the cave entrance. Figure 6. The actual entrance is triangu lar in shape and follows a near vertical fracture. Figure 7. On the skylight walls the vertical fractures that control the cave develop ment are clearly visible. Figure 8. Most of the passage is a tall, canyon-shaped passage. The large andes itic subrounded blocks on the walls form the cave is excavated. Ortiz-Prez (1977) believes that the fan was formed in response to climate changes during the Pleistocene deglacia tion of Zempoala volcano, although no proof of such a glaciation is given. Recent studies show that this volcano collapsed to the southwest sometime during the Pliocene (Capra et al., 2002). The resulting horseshoe-shaped crater probably directed Pleistocene eruptive towards the south, creating the huge vol caniclastic fan. Since the end of activity has excavated numerous deep ravines on the surface of the Buenavista fan, the largest of which, Can del Ro of the Cerro Zempoala and then cuts south through the entire fan (Figure

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 156 Figure 9. Plunge pool at bottom of third drop. The large andesitic subrounded boulders that form the host rock are per fectly visible. Figure 10. Rounded cross-section of the lower passage of the cave. Notice the change in lithology which is the stratigraphic contact which controlled the development of this portion of the cave. Figure 11. Hourglass cross-section of the lower passage of the cave. Notice the en original passage. Figure 12. Resurgence hanging 12 meters Ro Tembembe. Notice the lithology of the Cuernavaca Fm, in which the cave is hosted, is a sequence of volcanic debrislaharic origin, layers. canyon (Figure 8); two hundred meters beyond the skylight, a three meter climb able drop is found, followed a hundred meters later by another two meter climb able drop. Sixty meters later, a deep 10 meter pitch is found (Figure 9). Fifty meters later a second pitch, four meters deep, is found. All drops and pitches are followed by deep, round plunge pools where swimming is necessary. A third pitch of 9 meters follows after another 50 meters. The plunge pool at the bottom is followed by a narrow canal, and suddenly the passage turns left, quitting the fractures that controlled its development to this point, and meander plane between two conglomerate de posits, marked by a <1 centimeter thick ash layer. The passage consequently diminishes in size, turning into an almost round tunnel which perfectly mimics a phreatic tube in karstic caves (Figure 10), 1 to 2 meters wide and 1 meter high. As the passage aproaches the exit, a small 11). This ends at the resurgence, which is a hole hanging 12 meters above the

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157 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Tembembe, and still 45 meters above the present level of the river (Figure 12). The lithology in which the cave is de veloped prevents solution from playing an important role in the generation of the tion would seem to indicate that the cave initiated its development when the Rio Tembembe was essentially at its level, which coincides with the change in slope the cave might have been aided, at least in the beginning, by a process similar to piping in unconsolidated deposits. Above the cave the morphology of the cave is essentially that of a vadose canyon. Since the inception of the cave, the Tembembe has excavated a verticalwalled canyon at least 45 meters deeper. The slope change in the valley walls relief, and the deepening of the valley drained the cave (Figure 13). References Capra, L., Macas, J.L., Scott, K.M., Abrams, M. and Garduo-Monroy, V.H., 2002, Debris avalanches and de in the Trans-MexicanVolcanic Belt, Mexico behavior, and implications for hazard assessment: Journal of Vol canology and Geothermal Research 113, p. 81-110. Fries, C. Jr., 1960, Geologa del Estado de Morelos y de partes adyacentes de Mxico y Guerrero, regin central meridional de Mxico: Univ. Nal. Autn. Mxico, Inst. Geologa, Bo letn 60, 236 p. Ortiz-Prez, M.A., 1977, Estudio geo morfolgico del glacis de Buenavista, Estado de Morelos: Univ. Nal. Au tn. Mxico, Inst. Geografa, Bol. p. 25-40. Figure 13. Geological cross-sections showing the development of Cueva Tecolotln. tom portion of the cave, probably aided by some sort of piping, at least at the beginning, fractures (second stage). Finally, as the Tembembe river eroded the deep gorge below the resurgence, the cave drained its phreatic portion, but stream erosion continues to be active every rainy season.

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158 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction of the Miocene Tepoztln Formation (Central Mexico): Preliminary Results of Palynological Investigations Nils Lenhardt 1 Enrique Martinez-Hernandez 2 3 Matthias Hinderer 1 Jens Hornung 1 Ignacio S. Torres Alvarado 4 and Stephan Kempe 1 1 Institute of Applied Geosciences, University of Technology Darmstadt, Germany, (lenhardt@geo.tu-darmstadt.de) 2 Instituto de Geologia, UNAM, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, 3 Institute of Geosciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany 4 Centro de Investigacin en Energa, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos, Mexico Introduction In Miocene times, a major volcanotectonic change took place due to a re or gan ization of the tectonic plates in Mid-Miocene, the Transmexican Vol canic Belt (TMVB, Fig. 1) began to form (Delgado-Granados et al. 2000). However, there is still a controversial The aim of our study is to establish a stratigraphic framework and a palae oenvironmental interpretation of the Mid-Miocene Tepoztln Formation. To date, palaeobotany in volcanic settings has dealt with intercalated sedi clastic sandstones, peat or lignites (e.g., Lund 1988, Hilton et al. 2004). Even authors working on tuffaceous mate (e.g., Pole 1994) or charcoals (Scott and Glasspool, in press). Publications on palynology in pyroclastic rocks and vial deposits) are rare (Satchel 1982, Taggert & Cross 1990, Jolley 1997, Bell & Jolley 1997). In this study we investigated a volcaniclastic section of the Mid-Miocene Tepoztln Formation with respect to palaeoenvironment using palynology. This method has not been applied to this formation previously. Geological setting The study area is situated along the southern edge of the TMVB in the state of Morelos, where Tertiary volcaniclastic series emerge underneath Quaternary volcanics (Fig.1). In spite of the spec tacular outcrops of these up to 800 m thick volcaniclastic successions around the towns of Malinalco, Tepoztln and Tlayacapan, the so called Tepoztln For mation belongs to the least studied rocks of the TMVB. The Tepoztln Formation is underlain by the Balsas Formation, a terrestrial-lacustrine sedimentary suc cession also rich in volcaniclastics. It is probably representing the earliest volcanic phase of the region (Fig. 2). The Tepoztln Formation consists of a characteristic succession of lahars attaining thicknesses of several hun dred meters. K/Ar geochronology on the Tepoztln Formation and a younger dike reveals an age of the formation of between 21.85 0.21 Ma and 15.83 1.31 Ma. Thus, a deposition between Early to Mid-Miocene is proposed (Len hardt et al. 2006). Figure 1. Extend of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt in Central Mexico. The position of the study area is indicated. Figure 2. Stratigraphic succession in the study area.

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159 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 3. Ideal sedimentary succession of volcaniclastic sediments and characteristic sedimentary organic particles: (1) pyroclastic A charcoal, B Lycopodium Selaginella Quercus Betula Salix Acer Pinus sp.

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160 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Materials and methods For palynological analyses we investi gated samples of 150 g each represent reworked deposits, lahars, ash-flow deposits, and clayey layers on top of these deposits. All samples were processed following the standard palynological processing techniques, which include the treatment with HCl (30%), HF (73%) and heavy liquid separation with ZnCl 2 solution. All samples were centrifuged and washed with distilled water after each step. The residue was cleaned by sieving using an 11 m mesh. For strew mounts we used Eukitt, a commercial mounting medium on the base of resin. The counting is based on 50 pollen grains and spores per slide. All samples reveal a well preserved and diverse pollen and spore assemblage, enabling a preliminary palaeoenviron mental interpretation of the Tepoztln Formation. Preliminary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction analyses, the pyroclastic and volcani clastic sediments show characteristic stratigraphical vegetation patterns (Fig. re-colonization involves herbaceous plants, mostly Compositae, and grass as a mature mixed forest develops (Fig. 4c and 4d). Modern botanic studies on the Canary Islands (Dale et al. 2005) show that the pioneer phases on volcanic ash take about 20 to 30 years, trees appear analogue of the Tepoztln Formation, Fig. 5 shows volcaniclastic deposits of the eruption of the Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador) in 1877 with four sedimenta tion phases recognized. After the initial the following years were characterized storms. After tens of years, the lack of further sediment supply caused the sition (Fig. 5c, d). Todays development of the vegetation of this area (130 years after the eruption) is characterized by the transition from grassand scrub-land to Present day vegetation of Central Europe is very similar to that recorded in the Tepoztln section. Thus, the depo sitional environment of the Tepoztln Formation displayed a rather temperate climate. These palaeoclimatic signatures, indicating moderate temperatures in Miocene low latitudes may be caused by a high palaeoaltitude. This in turn may point to an early uplift of Central Mexico. Further studies and statistical methods based on modern analogues have to clarify this hypothesis. Acknowledgements This study is part of a project on the Miocene development of the Trans mexican Volcanic Belt in Central Mex ico, supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG), Project No. HI 643/ 5-1. References Bell, B. & Jolley, D.W. 1997. Appli cation of palynological data to the chronology of the Paleocene lava Province. J. Geol. Soc., London, 154: 701-708. Camus, J.M., Gibby, M., Johns, R.J. (eds.) 1996. Pteridology in Perspec tive. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 704 pp. Collinson, M.E. 1996. What use are is marked by a high amount of charcoal particles (unit 1 in Fig. 3), wood material that was burned due to the heat during a volcanic eruption, whereas the top is after an eruption (Spicer et al. 1985). This points to the development of thin palaeosoil layers although a sedimentary record is lacking. The lahars (unit 2 in Fig. 3), repre senting reworked deposits that were formed within days to tens of years after the initial eruption, show the develop ties. These are dominated by the plant families Graminae, Compositae and lacustrine sediments (units 3 and 4 in Fig. 3) show the tree population of a mature mixed forest that is dominated by oaks and pines. The above described stratigraphic vegetation patterns are interpreted in terms of short-term destruction-recoloni zation cycles that are controlled by erup tions and intermittent quiescence (Fig. 4). After an initial eruption (Fig. 4a), the volcanic deposit is settled quickly by ferns and other opportunists, colonizing open and disturbed ground (Collinson 1996). The aftermath of the eruption is characterized by the deposition of lahars (Fig. 4b). The second stage of

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161 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 fossil ferns? 20 years on: with a review of the fossil history of extant pteridophyte families and genera. In: Camus, J.M., Gibby, M., Johns, R.J. (eds.): Pteridology in Perspec tive. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: 349-394. Dale, V.H., Delgado-Acevedo, J. & Mac Mahon, J. 2005. Effects of modern volcanic eruptions on vegetation. In: Marti, J. & Ernst, G.G.J. (eds.): Vol canoes and the Environment. Cam bridge University Press, Cambridge: 227-249. Delgado Granados, H.; Aguirre-Daz, G.J. & Stock, J.M. (eds.) 2000. Ce nozoic tectonics and volcanisms of Mexico Preface. Geological Soci ety of America, Special Paper, 334, 275 pp. Hilton, J., Shi-Jun, W., Galtier, J., Glasspool, I. & Stevens, L. 2004. An Up per Permian permineralized plant assemblage in volcaniclastic tuff from the Xuanwei Formation, Guizhou Province, southern China, and its Mag., 141: 661-674. Jolley, D.W. 1997. Palaeosurface and the age of the British Tertiary volcanic province. In: Widdowson, M. (ed.): Palaeosurfaces: Recogni tion, Reconstruction and Palaeoenvi ronmental Interpretation. Geol. Soc., Spec. Publ., 120: 67-94. & Hornung, J. 2006. A new reference section from volcaniclastic rocks of Miocene terrestrial palynomorphs in Central Mexico. Geophys. Res. Abstr. Vol. 8: 03121, 2006 Lockley, M.G. & Rice, A. (eds.) 1990. Volcanism and Fossil Biotas. Geol. Soc. Amer., Special Publication, 244: 125 pp. Lund, J. 1988. A late Paleocene nonmarine microflora from the inter basaltic coals of the Faeroe Islands, North Atlantic. Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 37: 181-203. Marti, J. & Ernst, G.G.J. (eds.) 2005. Volcanoes and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cam bridge, 468 pp. from the Taratu Formation at Living stone, North Otago, New Zealand. Austral. J. Bot. 42: 341-67. Satchell, L.S. 1984. Patterns of distur bance and vegetation change in the Idaho) [Ph.D. thesis]: East Lansing, Michigan State University, 153 pp. Scott, A.C. & Glasspool, I.J. (in press). the emplacement temperature of pyro Spicer, R.A., Burnham, R.J., Grant, P. & Glicken, H. 1985. Pityogramma calomelanos, the primary post-erup tion colonizers of Volcan Chichonal, Chaipas, Mexico. Amer. Fern J., 75: 1-5. Taggart, R.E. & Cross, A.T. 1990. Plant successions and interruptions in Mio west. In: Lockley, M.G. & Rice, A. (eds.). Volcanism and Fossil Biotas, Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Publ., 244: 57-68. Widdowson, M. (ed.) 1997. Palaeosur faces: Recognition, Reconstruction and Palaeoenvironmental Interpre tation. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 120, 330 pp. Figure 5. Modern analogue of the Tepoztln Fm. (here with volcaniclastic deposits and their vegetation from the recent eruption of

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162 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Lava Tubes of the Texcal Lava Flow, Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico Ramn Espinasa-Perea 1 and Lus Espinasa 2 1 Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas A.C., ramone@cablevision.net.mx 2 Marist College, USA., espinasl@yahoo.com Abstract south of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volca nic Field, near the City of Cuernavaca. With 24 km in length, it is the longest cent work by Siebe et al. (2004) showed that it originates from the Guespalapa group of volcanic cones, and dated the lava flow at between 2,83575 and 4,690 y.b.P. They conclude that the been emplaced at a very high effusion rate to have reached such a length with a low total volume. emplaced pahoehoe lava, as evidenced by surface structures such as ropy lava, hornitos, tumuli and lava-rise struc tures. Field work has also resulted in the discovery, exploration and survey of 5 lava-tube caves, known in a down Pelona, Cueva Redonda, Cueva de la Herradura and Cueva del Naranjo Rojo, for a total of nearly 3 kilometers of lava caves (Grande, Pelona and Redonda) are basically sections of a large, multilevel master tube over 10 meters wide and 20 meters high, with evidence of continu ous and sustained activity which caused thermal and/or mechanical erosion of the underlying lithology, made up of volcaniclastic agglomerates belonging to the Cuernavaca Formation, which can be seen in at least one section of Cueva Pelona behind a collapsed lava lining. Cueva Grande contains a section with numerous tubular stalactites and drip stalagmites of segregates and several curling Aa levees. The lowermost caves (Herradura and Naranjo Rojo), in re duced slopes, also contain a master tube of similar dimensions, but are further complicated by the presence of upper level braided side passages which mark the originally emplaced lava tubes, one of which pirated the lava from the others as it eroded a canyon tube downwards. The superposed levels on the master tube represent growth of successive crusts as the lava level gradually lowered. moderate effusion rates, which favored the formation of a large master lava tube been well documented previously, lava tubes isolate the lava from the air and with relatively low total volumes. Risk assessment for the cities of Cuernavaca and Mxico, which could easily be af fected in case of renewed activity at the Sierra Chichinautzin, should take this into account, since lava tube emplace ment has not been considered by most authors who have studied this volcanic Introduction: The Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field The Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF) is a volcanic highland elongated in an E-W direction (Figure 1), extending including Popocatepetl stratovolcano of Xinantecatl (Nevado Toluca) strato volcano in the west, in the central por tion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (Martin del Pozzo, 1982). over 220 scoria cones and associated block, Aa or pahoehoe lava flows. SCVF forms the continental drainage divide that separates the closed basin of north, from the valleys of Cuernavaca and Cuautla which drain south, and from According to Fries (1966), the Basin of Mxico drained to the south before the Pleistocene. Since then, formation of the SCVF sealed the basin to the south (Mooser, 1963). siderably in their morphology. Most are compound andesite or basaltic andesite belong to the calc-alkaline suit, and are genetically linked to the subduction of the Cocos plate (Martin del Pozzo, 1982). The tephra cones, lava shields, and intercalated alluvial sediments that make up the Sierra Chichinautzin cover an area of approximately 2,500 km 2 1982; Lugo-Hubp, 1984). Paleomag netic measurements indicate that most exposed rocks were produced during the normal Brunhes Chron and are therefore younger than 0.73-0.79 Ma (Urrutia and Martin del Pozzo, 1993), which is not Figure 1. Location map of the Sierra Chichinautzin, showing the tectonic setting.

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163 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 surprising in view of the very young morphological features of most tephra Recent studies by Siebe (2000) and Siebe et al. (2004, 2005) have published dates for some of the youngest volcanoes in the SCVF, several of which were emplaced at least partially by lava tubes: Teuhtli (>14,000 years B.P.), Pelado (9,620 to 10,900 years B.P.), Guespalapa (2,83575 to 4,69090 years B.P.), Chichinautzin (1,83555 years B.P.), and Xitle (1,670 years B.P.). Other undated volcanoes whose lava are morphologically very young include Yololica and Suchiooc. These and other previously published dates imply a recur rence interval during the Holocene for monogenetic eruptions in the SCVF of <1,250 years (Siebe et al., 2005). Guespalapa Volcano Guespalapa volcano (3,270 m.a.s.l.) is a group of four small (80-150 m high) overlapping cinder cones, known locally as El Caballito, El Palomito, Manteca and El Hoyo (from West to East), located three are obviously contemporaneous, but El Hoyo is probably the remnant of an older volcano. Lava issued from the southeast side of El Caballito and from a subsidiary vent to the southeast of Manteca, producing the Texcal basalt (1937), which is the most extensive lava (Figure 2). It traveled south far into the Cuernavaca plain, where it stands out due to its relative lack of vegetation (Texcal means badland in Nhuatl). Siebe et al. (2004) conclude that this to be Aa, must have necessarily been emplaced by a high-effusion rate erup tion, and do not consider that tube-fed low to moderate-effusion rates (Peterson et al., 1994). tube-fed pahoehoe. Near the vent area, hornitos or rootless vents produced short tubes. Los Cuescomates hornitos These rootless vents developed when Figure 2. Image of the southern slopes of the Sierra Chichinautzin, with the location of the caves known along the upper slopes of the

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164 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 just north of the Tres Cumbres volcanic edifice. Thick ash and soil deposits, ponded area and probably were in part responsible for the formation of the hornitos In Nahuatl, Cuescomate means conical gourd or container. Group 1 consists of 8 different root less vents aligned along a single ENEWSW fracture (Figure 3). Four of them created small scoria cones, while the other four built spatter cones in which The three middle vents have verticalwalled craters which can be entered with caving equipment and are connected lava lining covers the inner reaches of these rootless vents. of hornitos , formed several small lava tubes located to the NW and SE of the central vents. The area must have been covered by pine trees similar to the ones growing there today, as evidenced by several lava tree molds, up to 5 me ters long, preserved to the east of the cones. Group 2 is a group of 5 vents, three of which are tephra cones and the other two spatter cones (Figure 4). Only one of the vents, the easternmost, has a vertical-walled crater, which is con small hole on the northern base of the cone. A lava lining covers most of the inner walls of this vent, which is also lined with a large inner levee marking a former lava level inside the crater. Since this small cone is used as a quarry, its structure made of scoria fragments is easily seen. Lavas issued from this cone to the south generated well formed levee bounded channels, and growth of the levees formed small caves. A collapsed cave to the north is used as an animal enclosure (Potrero). Less than 100 meters away is Group 3, which includes the largest of these small hornitos (Figure 4). El Cuescomate Mayor is 20 meters high and almost entirely made up of spatter (Figure 5). The crater is easily enterable, and still preserves part of a lava lining. At its southern base, a very interesting ventchannel structure is found, from which emitted, developing small lava tubes. One of them contains Cueva de la Lagu na, with 62 meters of small passage and a little lake which gave it its name. Further west, three other small vents or spatter, and are only recognizable by of small lava tubes. One of the vents has Figure 3. Plan of Cuescomates (Group 1). Figure 4. Plan of Cuescomates (Groups 2 & 3).

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165 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 a crater about 15 centimeters wide but at least 3 meters deep, as sounded with a stick that didnt reach the bottom. Lava tubes Field work has resulted in the discovery, exploration and survey of 5 lava-tube as Cueva Grande, Cueva Pelona, Cueva Redonda, Cueva de la Herradura and Cueva del Naranjo Rojo (Figure 2), for a total of nearly 3 kilometers of lava Cueva Grande: The entrance to this cave is located at the bottom of a surface depression about 4 kilometers from the vent, and just above the break in slope that marks the beginning of the steep de scent towards the valley of Cuernavaca. It gives access to a huge tunnel (Figure 6) over 15 meters wide and high, with the or huge, broken Aa levees or linings. After a hundred meters, the walls and blocks, are covered by abundant drip stalagmites (Figure 7), while several tubular stalactites decorate the ceiling, proving that most of the collapse hap pened right after activity declined, the tube had emptied, and crystallization of the lava was producing the segregates that constitute the decorations (Allred & Allred, 1988a, 1988b). Further ahead large Aa levees line the walls, and on occasion have partially peeled and curled down (Figure 8). Eventually the cave narrows and the levees join to form ends in a lava sump, but the lower level continues past a narrow and very windy spot to a point almost 50 meters beyond the end of the upper level, where it closes down. Before the end, a narrow crack in the ceiling takes the air and allowed us to see into a possible continuation of the upper level. No cave is known between the end of Cueva Grande and the upper entrance of Cueva Pelona, making this an especially intriguing lead. Cueva Pelona and Cueva Redonda are both located in the steepest and nar of a large, multilevel master tube over 10 meters wide and 20 meters high. Cueva Pelona has two skylight entrances (Figure 9), and the area between the two presents evidence of continuous and sustained activity which caused thermal and/or mechanical erosion of Figure 5. Los Cuescomates rootless vents are dwarfed by the surrounding 20 meters tall pine trees. Cuescomate Mayor is the one on the right. Figure 6. Map of Cueva Grande, a large master tube over 20 meters wide and high. Figure 7. Lava drip stalagmites in Cueva the passage. Figure 8. Curling Aa levees on the walls of the deeper passages in Cueva Grande.

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166 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 9. Plan view of Cueva Pelona. The outcrop of the Cuernavaca Fm. behind a lava lining is located between the two entrances. Figure 10. Outcrop of the Cuernavaca Formation (below and to the right of the authors hand) on the wall of Cueva Pelona, covered by lava linings. Figure 11. Plan map of Cueva Redonda. The entrance pitch of 25 meters was an open skylight during activity, as evidenced by primary features on its walls.

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167 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 12. Plan map of Cueva de la Herradura, with a large main passage and upper level braided tunnels branching from it. Figure 13. Plan map of Cueva del Naranjo Rojo, which contains a large multilevel master tube and upper level braided side passages, and is incompletely mapped. the underlying lithology, made up of volcaniclastic agglomerates belonging to the Cuernavaca Formation, which can be seen behind a collapsed lava lining (Figure 10). Cueva Redonda is entered through a skylight over 30 meters deep, which was active during activity as shown by levees surrounding the 20 meter wide pit. It gives access to a short segment of tube which contains a vampire bat colony (Obispo Morgado et al. 2004; they incorrectly refer to it as Cueva Pelona). A longer upper level can be reached halfway down the entrance pitch (Figure 11). The lowermost caves (Herradura and Naranjo Rojo, Figures 12 and 13), in reduced slopes, also contain a master tube of large dimensions, but are further complicated by the presence of upper level braided side passages which mark the originally emplaced lava tubes, one of which pirated the lava from the others as it eroded a canyon tube downwards. The superposed levels on the master tube represent growth of successive References Allred, K., and Allred, C., 1998a, The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms; Interna tional Journal of Speleology 27B, p. 135-145. Allred, K., and Allred, C., 1998b, Tubu lar lava stalactites and other related segregations; Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 60(3), p. 131-140. Ordoez, E., 1937, Tepoztln, Estado de Morelos: Gua para la excursin de la Sociedad Geolgica Mexicana: Boletn de la Soc. Gel. Mex., Tomo X (3-4), pags. 91-112. Siebe, C., Rodrguez-Lara, V., Schaaf, P., and Abrams, M., 2004, Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico-City: implications for ar chaeology and future hazards; Bull. Volcanol. 66, pags. 203-225.

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168 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Surveyed Lava Tubes of Jalisco, Mexico John Pint 1 Sergi Gmez 2 Jess Moreno 3 and Susana Pint 1 1 Zotz, RanchoPint@Yahoo.com 2 gomezsergi@hotmail.com) 3 Zotz, jesusmna2@terra.com.mx La Cueva Cuata and La Madriguera de los Lobos are the only lava tubes surveyed in the Mexican state of Jalisco and so far the only lava tubes reported in Western Mexico (Jalisco, Colima and Nayart). The caves are situated in CerroTequilizinta, 52 kms northwest of Guadalajara, in a canyon wall overlook ing the Santiago River, at N205 08.3 W103 11.6 Both caves are in the Rio Santiago alkali basalts, which are from 1.3 to 0.4 million years old Their approximate location in Mexico is shown in Figure 1. Cuata Cave Cuata cave is 280.79 m long with pas sages varying in height from 1.9 m to .25 m and ranging in width from 15 m to 1 m. A map of the cave is shown in Figure 2. Members of Grupo Espeleolgico 1990 and surveyed it during the same year. The cave can be reached via a paved road from Amatitn to the pueblo of Chome, after which dirt roads lead to a tequila distillery called La Taberna. From here it is necessary to hike north west for one hour along a narrow trail which leads to La Barranca de Santa Rosa. La Cueva Cuata is one of numer ous caves in a wall of a precipice on the south side of the Santiago River and at least 100 m above the river bed. Care must be taken in order to climb up to the cave entrance, but no gear or rigging are required (see Fig. 3). The cave entrance is protected by a low, man-made wall at the very edge of the precipice. The entrance room, shown in Figure 4, is nearly 2 m high, 20 m long and 8 m wide. Dry, powdery sediment of this room. A seven-tiered, man-made religious altar of recent origin is found against the north wall of the room. This was placed here by a sect which believed this cave would be one of seven sites spared at the end of the world. A low passage connects this room to another entrance in the precipice wall. Figure 1. Location of Cuata and Madriguera de los Lobos Caves in Mexico. Figure 2. Map of Cuata Cave. Figure 3. The approach to Cuata Cave requires an exposed climb high above the Santiago River.

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169 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 4 (top). The entrance room viewed from the edge of the precipice. Note dry Figure 5 (middle). Typical passage in Cuata Cave, less than 1 m high. One of three species of bats inhabiting the cave is shown in this photograph. Figure 6 (bottom). Lava stalactites on a passage ceiling with double-A battery for scale. The interior of the cave consists beneath an arched roof (Fig. 5). Trenches have been dug through the mud in some places to facilitate access. Throughout most of the cave, the original ceiling appears to have spalled off long ago. However, 83 m south of the main entrance, lava stalactites, black in color and less than 4 cm long were observed in an indentation on the pas sage ceiling (Fig. 6). These were taken to be an indication that this cave is, in fact, a lava tube. The cave contains a pool of water (The Black Lagoon), roughly 15 x 20 m and less than 60 cm deep, contaminated by the droppings of vampire bats which roost above it. At the far western end of the cave, an area of sticky clay is found. The cave continues in a westerly direc was not explored. La Madriguera de los Lobos On April 6, 2006, John Pint and Sergi Gmez investigated the accessible holes beneath Tequilizinta Bluff. In one of these, lava stalactites were observed and in another, a lava stalagmite about 50 cm high and wide was found (Fig. 7). The largest of these holes is located directly underneath La Cueva Cuata and turned out to be a cave with passages totalling approximately 100 m in length, ranging in width from 25 m to 1 m. This cave was named Madriguera de los Lobos. A map of the cave is shown in Fig. 8. The entrance is 7 m wide and 1.3 m high. Flat layers of rock in the entrance room appear to be layers of lava. The

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170 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 dery sediment, bat guano and, beginning about 60 m inside, what appears to be the dry scat (Fig. 9) of wolves or coy otes. Calcite stalactites less than 10 cm long were observed on the ceiling. Bats were found in several parts of the cave. In most parts of this cave the ceiling height is around 70 cm. About 80 m from the entrance, the roof rises and chunks Airflow through the breakdown was bats in and out of a further extension of the cave. Because this breakdown area seemed rather unstable, no attempt was Figure 7. Outdoor lava stalag mite found approximately 20 m south of La Madriguera de los Lobos. Figure 8. Map of La Madriguera de los Lobos Cave. Figure 9. Typical sample of dry scat found about 50 m inside the cave. There are additonal photographs for this article in the supplementary material on the CD.

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171 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Lava Tubes of the Naolinco Lava Flow, El Volcancillo, Veracruz, Mxico Guillermo Gasss 1 and Ramn Espinasa-Perea 2 1 Club de Exploraciones de Mxico, Seccin Veracruz, A.C. 2 Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas A.C., ramone@cablevision.net.mx Abstract Six caves up to nearly a kilometer long have been discovered on the Naolinco Volcancillo 870 years ago and reached a length of about 50 kilometers. All of the caves seem to be remains of a master tube which probably fed most of lar interest is the fact that at least two of the caves capture and carry surface streams of considerable size. The water does not return to the surface until the spring known as El Descabezadero, the birthplace of the Actopan River. Las Lajas Cinder Cones North of Cofre de Perote a series of small eruptive vents are called the Las Lajas Cinder Cones. Over a dozen volcanic vents have been recognized and some of them have been dated (Siebert and Carrasco-Nez, 2002). La Joya cinder cone complex is one of the oldest, and produced about 20 km 3 that extend about 14 kilometers SE to underlie the city of Xalapa, capital of the state of Veracruz, about 42,000 years B.P. Many younger volcanic vents and El Volcancillo Siebert and Carrasco-Nez (2002) originated from El Volcancillo (2,700 m.a.s.l.), a twin crater located 4 kilo meters southeast of the town of Las

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172 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Vigas which erupted 87030 y.B.P. The cone complex straddles a sharp crested ridge between two valleys carved into the slope of Las Lajas volcano, a sub sidiary cone of Cofre de Perote. It fed ferent drainages. The Toxtlacoaya Aa crater, has a length of approximately 12 kilometers, while the Ro Naolinco northwestern crater, traveled over 50 kilometers. The eastern crater occupies the sum mit of a steep sided scoria cone that is breached in two places on its southern side. Large lava benches surround the inner crater and mark the highest stand which shortly stopped at the end of the issued not from the breached upper cone but from a pair of vents at the northeastern base of the cone, based on lava flow morphology. The lava large lava tube with a big sky light, 20 meters in diameter, forming a small shield. Quar rying of a lower entrance and the building of an Oleoduct col lapsed most of the cave, leaving a semi-natural rock arch giving the cave its name, Cueva del Arco (Figure 2) Siebert and Carrasco-Nez (2002) claim that the 35 meter thick lava pile visible on the walls of Cueva del Arco (Figure 3), actually 45 meters, accord ing to our survey, represent the minimum thickness of the lava could have been originally much smaller, and the present height was caused by thermal erosion, as suggested by the passage cross section. The western or main crater is 200 meters wide and 90 meters deep. It partially truncates the eastern scoria cone and was produced by collapse of a small same sequence of events: building of a scoria cone by lava fountaining, followed by the emission of lava which formed a lava lake. In the western crater, the scoria cone was overtopped over an arc were truncated by the crater collapse. The uppermost entrance to Cueva de El Volcancillo is exposed in the upper northern wall, and marks the main out The whole of the Ro Naolinco lavas were fed through lava tubes, as evidenced Figure 2. Map of Cueva del Arco. Figure 3. Cueva del Arco. Notice the two cavers, one on rope and the other at the bottom.

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173 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 clefts and ropy textures throughout. After 15 kilometers and a steep fall near the town of Tlacolulan, the lavas entered the deep valley of the Naolinco River and followed it for nearly 35 kilometers. The of the town of Chicuasen at an altitude of 360 meters, immediately beyond the popular Descabezadero Cascades, the birthplace of the Actopan River, which with underlying conglomerates. With over 50 kilometers in length, it is one Mxico. To date, 6 different caves have been have been surveyed properly, or even completely explored. They are possibly all part of what must have been a large master tube which probably fed most of the lava. Undoubtedly, many more caves probably exist and await discovery, exploration and mapping. The known Cueva de El Volcancillo: This cave is located right at the north side of the west crater. It is a tube segment 685 meters long, in two sections separated by a large collapse. The upper one goes for less than 50 meters between the cra ter wall and the surface collapse, after which the entrance to the main cave is encountered (Figure 4). It is a beautiful master tube with up to three superposed levels separated by the growth of wall levees In those sections where the le vees do not join, their surface texture is especially beautiful (Figure 5). Af ter nearly 350 meters, a small skylight entrance is encountered, below which is a seven meter pitch which can be rigged with a wire ladder and a safety rope. Shortly afterwards the cave ends in breakdown. Cueva de la Escalera: Located near Cueva de El Volcancillo, it is the prob tube beyond the breakdown. It is a col lapse of the ceiling of a large and deep tube, but it has not been entered yet. Cueva del Ro Huichila: This cave is a large segment of a master tube, beauti fully preserved in sections, and with the added interest of containing a substantial river. It has been explored for 625 meters (Figure 6), through numerous pools which required swimming and frequent Figure 4. Plan map of Cueva del Volcancillo. Figure 5. The beautiful wall levees in Cueva de El Volcancillo.

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174 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 rapids that have to be climbed around, to a skylight, but the cave continues unexplored beyond (Figure 7). Cueva de El Tirantes: Small cave 278 meters long (Figure 8). It is located in the back patio of the El Gaviln restaurant on the Naolinco road, near the town of La Virgen, Municipio de Jilotepec, and was named in honor of the owner, a former AAA Wrestling referee. Unfortunately, one of the pas sages receives waste from bathrooms located above. Cueva de La Higuera: This tube is relatively narrow but quite long at 625 meters. It has been explored to a break down choke but it may continue beyond (Figure 9). The entrance is in front of the El Gaviln restaurant, south of the previous cave. Both these caves are also known as Cueva de La Virgen, the name of the nearest town. Cueva de Tengonapa: This lava tube is located near the town of the same name, in the Municipio of Tlacolula. It has been surveyed for 477 meters between two skylight entrances, but continues beyond in both directions (Figure 10). The up per portion contains two paralel and superposed tubes that lower down merge into a canyon shaped master tube over 10 meters in height. In the upper levels found, and locals relate that during the Figure 7. The Huichila River under one of the skylights in the cave.

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176 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 cave and washes away any trash they throw inside. The presence of active streams in sev eral of the caves is unusual. No springs are known except for El Descabezadero, which gives birth to the Actopan River, so the water from the above caves prob ably resurges there (Figure 11). The known instances of pollution of some of the caves is therefore more problematic than usual, since those contaminants could easily be transported by the cave streams, polluting the entire Actopan basin. References Siebert, L. and Carrasco-Nez, G., 2002, Late-Pleistocene to precolum in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt; implications for future hazards: Jour nal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, V. 115, p. 179-205. Figure 11. El Descabezadero, birthplace of the Ro Actopan and terminus of the

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177 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Possible Structural Connection between Chichn Volcano and the SulfurRich Springs of Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de las Sardinas), Southern Mexico Laura Rosales Lagarde 1 Penelope J. Boston 1, 2 Andrew Campbell 1 and Kevin W. Stafford 1 1 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place 2421, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 USA, lagarde@nmt.edu 2 National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 USA Abstract Regional strike-slip faults may serve as Chichn Volcano to the Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de Las Sardinas, CLS). In this cave, located near Tapijulapa, Tabasco, several springs carry hydrogen CLS spring sulfur source to basinal water and an alkaline active magma volcano, to be reviewed. Understanding the sulfur origin in the cave will provide insights into the possible sources, the extreme microbial environment, the sulfuric acid speleogenetic mechanism (i.e. creation of caves by strong acid dissolution), the subsurface water-rock interactions and volcano and CLS location in the Chiapas Strike-slip Fault Province, suggests a left-strike slip fault may be serving as a source magmatic water to contribute sulfur to the water that is dissolving the limestone at CLS. Detailed geological mapping of the surface and the caves inbetween, coupled with chemical analyses of the cave and spring waters may help to prove this connection. Introduction Although Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de Las Sardinas, CLS) is forming in may be connected to the active Chichn Volcano by regional, siniestral strike-slip faults. Although previous studies suggest a possible contribution of volcanic sulfur to the cave waters [Hose et al. 2000; Spilde et al. 2004], the groundwater gested. Although CLS is 50 kilometers east from the active Chichn Volcano, lateral faults in the area and the struc tures associated with it, can provide the water. The study of other sulfur springs between the cave and the volcano will also help to provide evidence to support the geology, the water chemistry and isotope composition of sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen at three sulfur spring areas will be acquired and analyzed in order to accomplish this goal. Chichn Volcano produced an un usually sulfur-rich magma in its last explosive eruption in 1982, leaving an active hydrothermal system. The unusu ally high sulfur concentration of that eruption has not yet been explained. Nevertheless, evaporitic subsurface de thermal water composition and/or act as a sulfur source to the Las Sardinas Cave sulfur springs. This cave is typi most of the springs present in the cave. These conditions produce a sulfur-rich microbial environment resembling deepsea hydrothermal-vents [Boston et al. in the cave reacts with the limestone enlarging the cave by the sulfuric acid speleogenetic mechanism (i.e. creation of caves by strong acid dissolution). The study of this system will provide insight to this process. The understanding of the sulfur origin to Villa Luz Cave and sulfur springs in the area will help to identify the rel evance of the possible sources as well as the subsurface water-rock interactions occurring. A review of the geological setting and the main characteristics of the Chichn Volcano and the Villa Luz Cave, fol lowed by the proposed methodology to test the volcano-cave groundwater con nection will be presented in this paper. Further results and conclusions are not yet available because the main part of this project is still in progress. Geologic Setting Location: Villa Luz Cave is located 50 km east of Chichn Volcano, near the border of the states of Tabasco and Chiapas, southern Mexico (Figure 1). In addition to Chichn, Villa Luz Cave enced by the Chiapas-Tabasco Oil and Gas Fields with high-sulfur content to the north, the ~5 Ma Santa Fe and Victoria granodiorite intrusive rocks to the west, and southwest of the area. Structural setting: CV and CLS are located in the north of the Strike-slip Fault Province defined by MenesesRocha, [2001]. The Strike-slip Fault Province occupies the Sierra de Chiapas, to the north with elevations ranging from 100 to 2000 m.a.s.l. This province is formed by upthrown and downthrown blocks, formed during a transtensional phase, bounded by lateral strike-slip faults. Northwest trending en-echelon anticlines with middle Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks in their center are pres ent in most of the upthrown blocks while tectonic basins filled with Cenozoic rocks are present in the downthrown blocks [Meneses-Rocha, 2001]. The aforementioned author states that syn depostional tectonism is evidenced by local unconformities, thickness changes and lithologic variations along structural trends. The orientation of faults in this province is the basis for a further sub division [Meneses-Rocha, 2001]: a) a western area, with variably oriented faults; b) a central area, with northwest oriented faults and, c) an eastern area, with west oriented faults. The eastern most part of this province is where our study area is located (Figure 2). The detachment surface of the central and western areas is comprised of Callovian salt deposits, while in the eastern area a Lower Cretaceous anhydrite (Cobn

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 178 (besides the aforementioned detach ment level) (Figure 3). These detach ment levels could provide sulfur to the groundwater feeding Chichn Volcano 1982 magma and/or the Villa Luz Cave springs. A basement involvement in some of the faulting is evidenced by the presence of Pliocene-intrusives (Santa Fe granodiorite, 5 Ma) and PlioceneQuaternary volcanoes (Chichn Volcano) at the ends of some faults [Capaul, 1987; Garca-Palomo et al. 2004; MenesesRocha, 2001]. Geologic history: Rocks from Cre taceous to Quaternary age outcrop in the area (Figure 4 and Figure 5). The basement is considered to be Paleozoic granites that crop out in the Chiapas massif and metamorphosed sediments south and east from the area, respec tively. Paleozoic granitoids and Mis sissippian to Permian slightly meta morphosed sediments (shale, sandstone and limestone) are also present. The post-Permian Upper Jurassic open ing of the Gulf of Mexico produced discordant conglomerate, sandstone and ably syntectonic to salt and evaporitic deposits. Evaporite deposit extension in the area, shown in Figure 3, is respon sible for the distribution of compres sional salt tectonics [Garca-Molina, 1994] and for the deformational response in the different structural provinces. Basinal to shallow platform carbonates, to littoral and alluvial fan environment Jurassic times. The basinal facies served later as a hydrocarbon source. Carbon ate sediments dominated Cretaceous deposition from the Yucatan Platform Figure 1. Location of the CLS (Cueva Las Sardinas or Villa Luz Cave) and Chichn Volcano (CV). H 2 S-rich springs are pre sented by stars while no-H 2 S springs are presented by squares. The possible sulfur sources to the sulfur-rich springs in CLS are also shown. Figure 2. Structural provinces present in the study area. Chichn Volcano (CV) and Villa Luz Cave (CLS) are located in the StrikeSlip Faults Province. Volcanos from the Chiapas Volcanic Belt or Rocha [2001]). Figure 3. Type of evaporite deposit underlying the area (Call ovian salt, halite or Cobn Formation, anhydrite). These deposits

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179 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 to the west of the Chiapas range, uncon formably covering older rocks. This age sedimentary environments vary from supratidal to reef and pelagic. Between Paleocene and middle Eocene, during the Laramide orogeny, the area was subject to gentle deformation causing carbonates to disconformably deposit in flexural basins [Meneses-Rocha, 2001]. The Cayman Trough insertion and Polochic-Motagua Fault began at the end of the Paleocene forming normal and lateral faults. From Late Eocene to Early Miocene, the Strike-slip Fault province movement along the faults was predominantly vertical, changing to sinistrally transcurrent at the beginning of the Middle Miocene (transtensional phase). During the late Miocene-early Pliocene, a coarse-continental sequence was deposited in response to normal block faulting of the basement caused by the shift of the main bounding faults. Meanwhile carbonate platform units deposited on the Yucatan platform and some parts of Chiapas. At the end of the Pliocene, a transpressive episode deformed some of the previously formed basins. This event was related to the rise of the Neogene Chiapas fold and thrust belt by basal decollement movement over the Jurassic salt, and recession of the shoreline to its present position. This last compression event relates to the intrusion of granitoid bodies. Dur ing the Quaternary, volcanic sediments were deposited in angular unconformity on the continental sediments. The total sinistral shear across the Strike-strip Fault province is estimated to be of approximately 70 km, and the individual faults in this province has a displacement greater than 16 km [Men eses-Rocha, 2001]. The importance and participation of the structures present in the groundwater control are not fully understood yet. Volcanic rocks associated with an arc have been present from the Permian until present [Garca-Molina, 1994]. Chichn Volcano Chichn or Chichonal Volcano is the youngest and western most K-rich an desitic volcano of the Chiapas Volcanic Belt or Arc (Figure 1 and 2), [Macas et al. 1997], with deposits at least 8000 years old [Espndola et al. 2000]. Lo cated in a still-debated tectonic setting [Espndola et al ., 2000; De Ignacio et al. 2003], it is proposed as one of the possible sources for the CLS cave sulfur-rich water springs [Hose et al. 2000; Spilde et al. 2004]. The Chichon volcanic cone was built on folded Creta ceous dolomitized limestone underlain by Jurassic evaporites and covered by alternating sequences of Tertiary shale and marl [Macas et al. 1997], (Figure 5). Structurally, this volcano is located in a strike-slip regime, at the junction of three main structures (Figure 6): (1) the Chapultenango extension Fault System; (2) the NW-SE trend Buena Vista Syn cline; and (3) the San Juan Fault System (strike-slip), with an E-W orientation. The latter is proposed as the K-alkaline magma feeding-system [Macas et al. 1997; Garca-Palomo et al. 2004]. These structural features control the pattern of rivers and determine the topographic irregularities around the cone [Scola macchia and Macas, 2005]. After its last eruption, in March-April 1982, a crater lake formed and the associ [Taran et al ., 1998; Rouwet et al. 2004] with active fumaroles depositing elemen tal sulfur (Figure 7). Luhr and Logan [2002] estimate that 2.2 x10 13 g of S were emitted on the 1982 CV eruption, from which 58 wt.% of the sulfur was present as anhydrite prior to eruption, with the remainder in a vapor phase, with H 2 S/ SO 2 sedimentary provenance to the anhydrite based on sulfur isotopes, supported by chemical evidence indicating absence the underlying evaporites or basement rocks [Taran et al. 1998]. Nevertheless, Espndola et al. [2000] suggest that the high-sulfur magma of the 1982 eruption, and probably previous eruptions, was the underlying limestone. Although the 1982 eruption produced anhydrite-rich pyroclastic deposits [Luhr and Logan, 2002; Taran et al. 1998], the hydrothermal system until 1997 showed Figure 4. Generalized geologic map of the study area, showing the location of Chichn Volcano (CV) and Villa Luz Cave (CLS), as well as other sulfur spring areas. The ori [1983] and Meneses-Rocha [2001]). geology (Figure 4, vertical thickness of the formations are not in scale). Ju=Upper Jurassic, Kl=Lower Cretaceous, Ku=Upper Cretaceous, Tp=Tertiary Paleogene, Tni=Tertiary Neogene intrusive, Q=Quaternary.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 180 relatively low sulfur content. Between 1998 and 1999, sulfate concentration increased in the lake water, decreasing in 2000 while H 2 S/SO 2 ratio increased in the fumaroles [Rouwet, 2004; Taran et al. 1998; Tassi et al. 2003]. The variability of the sulfur concentration magma movement [Horwell et al. 2004; Taran et al. 1998]. Villa Luz Cave (a.k.a. Cueva de las Sardinas, CLS) CLS is located on the northeast side of the study area (Figure 1). The cave formed on a folded block of Cretaceous micritic limestone bounded to the south by a normal fault, with structure prob ably controlling the cave inlets location [Hose et al. 2000]. Due to the normal fault orientation, it may represent a per meable conduit connecting the cave to the San Juan lateral Fault at the Chichn Volcano (Figure 4). 1962]. Pisarowicz [1994] attracted in ternational attention to the cave, result ing in further studies [Estrada B. and Meja-Recamier, 2005; Hose et al., 2000; Langecker et al. 1996; Northup et al. 2002; Plath and Heubel, 2005; Plath et al. 2006; Spilde et al., 2004; Boston et al ., 2006]. Plath et al. [2006] also present a brief review of the studies history at Cueva de las Sardinas and Hose and Pisarowicz, [1999] provide a detailed map and description of CLS, (Figure 8) while Hose et al. [2000] com prehensively describe CLS, including the caves speleogenetic mechanism, based on detailed morphologic and chemical measurements. They also conducted preliminary biological analyses empha sizing the microbiological importance in the cave development. At least 26 springs have been identified in CLS (Figure 8). Based on their chemical nature and physical appearance, Hose et al. [2000] classify the springs in the cave as two end members: A and B. End member A is characterized by [H 2 S]= 300-500mg/l and [O 2 ]< 0.1mg/l. This water is slightly supersaturated with calcite and undersaturated in gypsum and dolomite; recognizable in the cave by elemental sulfur coating the walls above the spring (Figure 9), white bacterial pyrite deposits on the sediments/rocks covered by water. Spring water B has [H 2 S] <0.1mg/l and [O 2 ] <4.3mg/l. These inlets are characterized by travertine precipitation and red-yellow iron oxides, calcite and dolomite supersaturation and undersaturation in gypsum. AB water springs end members. AB composition water is the most abundant present in the cave (pH, P CO2 and SI similar to B and characterized by white coloration probably produced by colloid-size sulfur particles [Hose et al., 2000]. Based on total dissolved solids and general chem istry, a similar origin and composition was proposed for the A and B springs inside the cave, suggesting oxidation of H 2 S in the B springs before arriving to the CLS. The causes or controls for the water oxidation are still unknown. In this paper, we will refer mainly to the A-member springs as sulfur-rich springs, focusing on its possible connection to the Chichn Volcano. In Villa Luz Cave, sulfur-rich springs are actively dissolving bedrock (i.e., Sulfuric Acid Speleogenetic mechanism) while supporting abundant sulfur-based microbial life and providing energy to the cave ecosystem [Hose et al., 2000]. spring water oxidizes to elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid. The latter one reacts with the limestone to produce selenite crystals or gypsum paste (Figure 9). Figure 6. Plan view of Chichn Volcano (CV), showing the E-W lateral San Juan Fault (SJF) interpreted to control the Garca-Palomo et al. [2004]) and which sulfur water from CV to Villa Luz Cave. Other major structures are: CF=Caimba Fault, ACF=Arroyo de Cal Fault, ChFS= Chapultenango extension Fault System, and BS=Buenavista Syncline. Figure 7. A view of Chichon Volcano crater lake from the west rim and sulfur deposits on the internal west crater wall associated to the fumaroles.

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181 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Although different sources have been suggested for the sulfur origin of the cave springs, the dominant hypothesis is that basinal water [Hose et al., 2000] rich magma of Chichn Volcano [Spilde et al., 2004]. Nevertheless, neither the relationship with other possible sulfur sources in the area, nor the ground Molina, 1994], a Tertiary age skarn system (Figure 1) [Castro-Mora, 1999; Pantoja-Alor, 1968], a thick underlying evaporite layer [Garca-Molina, 1994], and decomposition of organic matter under anoxic conditions [Stoessell et al., 1993] could also be potential hydrogen Previous evidence of connection: Based on He isotopic relations of one gas sample and water samples from four springs Spilde et al. [2004] determined that at least 22% of the gas at CLS has a magmatic component (mixing of mantle and crustal sources), while 6% of the water has a hydrothermal origin, and the rest of meteoric origin. Several other sulfur springs have only those at Villa Luz Cave, at Cueva Luna Azufre [Pisarowicz., 2005] and a small cave north from CLS [Siegel and Amidon, 2006] (GS, Graciano Snchez in Figure 4), have been found to be as sociated with caves; the rest of them are either covered by alluvial depos its, underwater and/or too small to be humanly entered. The only sulfur-spring that has been further studied, besides the ones at CLS, is at El Azufre, Teapa, Tabasco [Hose, personal communica tion; Nencetti et al., 2005; Spilde et al., circles), streams skylights and limestone columns. The position of the main entrance, resurgence and areas with elemental sulfur is chambers ( I-XII ) from Gordon and Rosen [1962]; Plath et al. [2006] is integrated for reference. Figure 9. Photographs of Villa Luz Cave: A. End member springs, H 2 S-rich in the left and H 2 Spoor to the right [Hose et al ., 2000], (Photograph by Kenneth Ingham); B. Sulfur deposits on the ceiling, associated to H 2 S-rich springs; and C. Selenite deposits

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 182 2004; Taran, personal communication]. Hose [personal communication] found a good correlation in the sulfur concen tration and other chemical parameters of El Azufre area sulfur-rich springs with those of Villa Luz Cave (Figure 4). Also, El Azufre springs were the only ones rich in H 2 S from those sampled by Nencetti et al. [2005]. Based on gas and/ or water samples from nine springs in the Sierra de Chiapas, south of the study area, Nencetti et al. [2005] proposed a close association between the thermal spring location and the Cenozoic vol canic centers. They also suggested a strong fault and fracture control on the spring presence, as well as a mixture between shallow aquifer water and a more saline member, with higher rockwater interaction. Therefore, a geologic and geochemical characterization of the springs be tween Chichn Volcano and Villa Luz Cave will help to determine the per meability/connectivity between both, flow-paths which may be of help to understand water and oil migration in the area. Methodology The determination of the Chichn Vol cano (CV) Villa Luz Cave (CLS) con studies which the development of this project is still in process. The project is discussed below. Background: A review of the geo logical and water chemistry informa tion available in the area from different sources, including surface and subsur face geology, river water chemistry and weather conditions provide initial data for the project. Subsurface strati graphic variations will be determined by log correlation of available wells. The characteristics at depth of the structures present in the area will be determined based on the available interpreted seis mic sections. Preliminary field and laboratory other sulfur springs areas in-between CLS and CV. Based on these data three smaller regions with sulfur springs were selected for further geological mapping and water sampling: 1) Santa Fe region; 2) Puyacatengo region; and 3) Villa Luz region (Figure 4). This will provide an east-west section from the volcano to the cave where concentration variations can be determined, for example sulfate, H 2 S, cations concentration, etc. Geological mapping: Geological mapping will focus on the selected study regions. Since the study area is highly vegetated, the mapping techniques to be used in the selected study regions are outcrop mapping combined with geologic sections focusing on lithologic contacts and structures [Garca-Palomo et al. 2004; Marshak and Mitra, 1988]. the study area [Meneses-Rocha, 2001; INEGI, 1983, Castro-Mora, 1999], will controlling the surface and groundwater movement will be determined at differ ent scales. Satellite radar images will be analyzed to determine preferential regional lineation direction (Figure 10), while cave maps in the selected regions will be studied to determine preferen Instances of caves and karst surface terrain will be documented and serve as alternative outcrops in highly vegetated areas of the study area [Dasher, 1984]. Available cave maps and locations from the Caves of Tabasco Project of the Na tional Speleological Society will enable further geomorphologic and structural evaluation. Joints and structures will be measured at an outcrop level close to the springs to determine main struc tures involved and its relation to major structures. Rock samples will be taken for petro sulfates or elemental sulfur will be pro cessed for sulfur stable isotopes. them, including: pH, temperature, con ductivity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity. Air temperature measurements will help to detect the presence of hydrothermal water, discarding altitude differences. The information collected at each spring will include its geographic location, the host lithology, associated geological Diagenesis in some cored-rock sam ples of oil/exploratory wells in the area will be examined in thin sections to pro vide the extent of sulfur mineralization/ sulfate reduction and/or related processes occurring at depth and their relative timing (samples provided by Explora tion and Production Department of the Mexican Oil Company, PEMEX). Water sampling and chemical analy sis: the springs in the selected regions and their major chemical parameters, some of them will be selected for further Figure 10. Major lineations on a radar image of the study area (white lines), showing the location of Chichon Volcano, Villa Luz Cave, and other sulfur springs regions (Santa Fe, Puyacatengo, El Azufre, and Graciano Snchez sites). Darker color represents lower with Global Mapper). [The color elevation scale on the version on the CD is easier to understand.]

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183 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 sampling and water analysis. Rainwater and produced water from producing oil wells in the area will also be analyzed for comparison. The water samples will be analyzed for cations (Na + K + Ca 2+ Mg 2+ ) and anions (SO 4 2, Cl F NO 3 ) [Greenber et al. 1992]. These are the most commonly used elements to clas sify water because their concentration and groundwater sources [Appelo and Postma, 1993]. Cation samples will be by ICP-OES. Samples for anions will be Ion Chromatography. Separate samples 18 O, and total carbon analysis. Sediment and rock samples of the sulfur springs will be taken for the stable tated, while the dissolved sulfate will be precipitated with barium chloride [Bot tcher, 1999; DeCaritat, 2005; Rajchel, 34 S of both precipitates and 18 O of the sulfate precipitate will be determined, to compare the source and reactions occurring in the H 2 S and the water sulfate, determine the source of oxygen to the sulfate and the biological participation in these reactions [Hoefs, 2004]. Expected results D-O isotopes of the analyzed water sam ples will help to determine the input of meteoric (rain) water, and evaporation/ condensation in the sulfur springs of Villa Luz Cave and along the east-west transect. Sulfur isotopes are one of the main tools that will be used to determine the possible connection between the cave and the volcano. Isotopic concentra 34 S [Hoefs, 2004] relative to CDT (Canyon Diablo Troilite 34 S is near 0, so Chichon Volcano sulfur values may be close to this value, unless the magma is assimilating sedimentary anhydrite, while if sulfates are just coming from the subsurface anhydrite, they will show 34 S~+17 2) com pared with the values spread in marine Since microorganisms strongly prefer the lighter isotope, 32 S, sulfate reducing 34 S val Therefore biological participation in the in the groundwater may indicate the groundwater, which may be related to an increase in permeability along the detachment level or salt ascension. The coupling of all the elements mentioned above will provide a better description of the relationship/connec tivity between the Chichn Volcano and the Villa Luz Cave. General chemistry and stable isotopes analysis of some preliminary samples are being analyzed in order to determine a better sampling/ planned to start on January 2007. References Appelo, C.A.J., and Postma, D., Geo chemistry, Groundwater and Pol lution: Balkema, Rotterdam, 536, 1993. Speleology: Springer-Verlag, Ger many, 284, 1980. Boston, P.J, Hose, L.D., Northup, D.E., Spilde, M. The microbial communi ties of sulfur caves: A newly appreci ated geologically driven system on Earth and potential model for Mars, in Harmon, R.S., and Wicks, C., eds., Perspectives on karst geomorphol ogy, hydrology, and geochemistryA tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White: Geological Soci ety of America Special Paper 404, 331-344, 2006. chemistry of the Carbon and Sulfur Cycles in a Modern Karst Environ ment: Isotopes and Environmental Health Studies 35, 39-61, 1991. isotopes. Reviews of Mineralogy 43, 607-636, 2001. Capaul, W.A. Volcanoes of the Chiapas volcanic belt, Mexico. Thesis, Master of Science in Geology: Michigan Technological University, 93, 1987. Castro-Mora, J. Monografa GeolgicoMinera del Estado de Chiapas: Serie Monografas Geolgico-Mineras, Consejo de Recursos Minerales: Secretara de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, Coordinacin General de Minera, Mxico, 180 p., 1999. Condie, K.C. Earth as an Evolving Planetary System: Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, 447, 2005. Dasher, G. R. On station: National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama, 240, 1994. De Caritat, P., Kirste, D., Carr, G., McCulloch, M. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia: rec ognising interaction with bedrock and mineralization using S, Sr and Pb isotopes: Applied Geochemistry 20, 767-787, 2005. De Ignacio, C., Mrquez, A., Oyarzun, R., Lillo, J. and Lpez, I. El Chichn Volcano (Chiapas Volcanic Belt, Mxico) Transitional Calc-Alkaline to Adakitic-like Magmatism: Pet rologic and Tectonic Implications: International Geology Review 45, 1020-1028, 2003. Espndola, J.M., Macas, J.L., Tilling, R.I., and Sheridan, M.F. Volcanic his tory of El Chichn Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity: Bulletin of Volcanology, 62, 90-104, 2000. Estrada B., D.A. y Meja-Recamier, B.E., 2005. Cunxidos de la Cueva de Las Sardinas, Tabasco, Mxico. in UMAE. VII Congreso Nacional de Espeleologa. Monterrey, N.L., Mxico.Febrero 2 al 6. p. 44-46. Garca-Molina, G., Structural evolu tion of SE Mexico (Chiapas-TabascoCampeche) offshore and onshore. Doctoral Dissertation. Rice Univer sity, Houston, Texas. 1994. Garca Palomo, A., Macas, J.L., Es pndola, J.M. Strike-slip faults and K-alkaline volcanism at El Chichn volcano, southeastern Mexico. Jour nal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 136, 247-268, 2004. Gordon, M.S. and Rosen, D.E. A caverni cilia sphenops from Tabasco, Mexico: Copeia (2), 360, 1962. Greenber, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Standard Methods for the ex amination of Water and Wastewater: American Public Health Association, 18th edition, 1992. Hoefs, J. Stable isotope geochemis try: Springer, 5th edition, NY, 244, 2004. Horwell, C.J., Allen, A.G., Mather, T.A., and Patterson, J.E., Evaluation of a novel passive sampling technique for monitoring volcanogenic hydrogen sulfide: Journal of environmental monitoring 6, 630-635, 2004. Hose, L.D., Palmer, A.N., Palmer, M.V.,

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 184 Northup, D.E., Boston, P.J., DuChene, H.R. Microbiology and geochemistry in a hydrogen-sulphide-rich karst environment. Chemical Geology 169: 399-423, 2000. Hose, L.D. and Pisarowicz, J.A. Cue va de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico: Reconnaissance Study of an Active Sulfur Spring Cave and Ecosystem: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 61(1): 13-21, 1999. Hose, L.D. personal communication, 2005. INEGI, 1983. Villahermosa E-15-8. Carta Geolgica escala 1:250,000. Tercera edicin. Mxico. Langecker, T.G., Wilkens, H., Parzefall, J. Studies on the trophic structure of an energy-rich Mexican cave Cueva de las Sardinas containing sulphurous water: Memoires de Biospeologie XXIII, 121, 1996. Luhr, J.F. and Logan, A.V. Sulfur isotope systematics of the 1982 El Chichn trachyandesite: An ion microprobe study: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66, 3303-3316, 2002. Macas, J.L., Espndola, J.M., Taran, Y., Sheridan, M.F. and Garca, A. Explosive Volcanic Activity during the last 3,500 years at El Chichn Volcano, Mxico. Excursion No. 6, Field Guide. I.A.V.C.E.I. Plenary Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mxico. January 12-18, 1997. Marshak, S. and Mitra, G. Basic Meth ods of Structural Geology: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988. Meneses-Rocha, J. J. Tectonic evolution of the Ixtapa graben, an example of a strike-slip basin in southeastern Mexico: Implications for regional petroleum systems, in C. Bartolini, eds., The western Gulf of Mexico Basin: Tectonics, sedimentary basins, and petroleum systems: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 75, 183-216, 2001. Nencetti, Tassi, F., Vasseli, O., Macas, J.L., Magro, G., Capaccioni, B., Minissale, A. and Mora, J.C. Chem ical and isotopic study of thermal springs and gas discharges from Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: Geofsica Inter nacional 44(1), 39-48, 2005. Northup, D.E., Boston, P.J., Spilde, M.N., Schelble, R.T., Lavoie, K.H., Alvarado Zink, A. Microbial sulfur in Tabasco, Mexico. GSA Abstracts with Programs. 34(6): 20, 2002. Pantoja-Aloja, J. Informe geolgico minero de la mina de Santa Fe, mu nicipio de Solosuchiapa, Chiapas: Mxico, D.F., Compaa Minera de Cerralvo S.A., informe tcnico, 35 p. (indito), 1968. Pisarowicz, J. The Acid Test: Cueva de Villa Luz: Association of Mexican Cave Studies 24, 48-49, 1994. Pisarowicz, J. Return to Tabasco, with contributions by Philip Rykwalder, Louse Hose and Chris Amidon: As sociation for Mexican Cave Studies Activities Newsletter 28, Mixon, B. ed., 2757, 2005. Plath, M., and Heubel, K.U. Cave molly females (Poecilia mexicana, Poecilii dae, Teleostei) like well-fed males: Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology, 58: 144, 2005. Plath, M., Tobler, M., Riesch, R., Garca de Len, F.J., and Schlupp, I. Evo lutionary Biology and Cueva de Villa Luz: Ichthyological Research in a for Mexican Cave Studies Activities Newsletter 29, Mixon, B. ed., 64-68, 2006. Rajchel, L., Rajchel, J., Szaran, J., and Halas, S. Sulfur isotopic composi tion of H2S and SO42from mineral springs in the Polish Carpathians: Isotopes Environmental Health Stud ies 38(4), 277-284, 2002. Rouwet, D., Taran, Y.A., and Varley, N.R., Dynamics and mass balance of El Chichn crater lake, Mexi co: Geofsica Internacional 43(3), 427-434, 2004. Scolomacchia, T., and Macas, J.L., Dis tribution and stratigraphy of deposits produced by diluted pyroclastic den sity currents of the 1982 eruption of El Chichn volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Ge olgicas 22(2), 159-180, 2005. Siegel, V. and Amidon, C. Tabasco 2006: Association for Mexican Cave Stud ies Activities Newsletter 29, 111-114, 2006. Spilde, M.N., Fischer, T.P., Northup, D.E., Turin, H.J., Boston, P.J. Water, Gas, and Phylogenetic analyses from Sulfur Springs in Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mxico: Geological Society of America Abstract with Programs v. 36, no. 5, paper 106-11, 2004. Stoessell, R.K., Moore, Y.H., and Coke, J.G. The occurrence and effect of tion on coastal limestone dissolution in Yucatan Cenotes: Groundwater 31(4), 566-575, 1993. Taran, Y., Fischer, T.P., Pokrovsky, B., Sano, Y., Armienta, M.A., Macias, J.L. Geochemistry of the volcanohydrothermal system of El Chichn Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Bulletin of Vulcanology 59: 436-449, 1998. Taran, Y., personal communica tion, 2005. Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Capaccioni, B., Macas, J.L., Nencetti, A., Monte grossi, G., and Magro, G. Chemical composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from El Chichn volcano, Mexico: causes and impli cations of the changes detected over the period 1998-2000: Journal of Vol canology and Geothermal Research 123,105-121, 2003. Acknowledgements The Graduate Student Association from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology supported the presentation of this work. Tapijulapa inhabitants of fered their hospitality and opportunity to study the caves in the area. Authorities of Tapijulapa, Tacotalpa, Ixtacomitn, Solo suchiapa and Arroyo Grande supplied the permits required to do water sampling. Kenneth Ingham kindly contributed with two photographs. Villa Luz Research team has been and is supporting these studies. Villa Luz Cave drafted map Richards. The National Speleological Societys Caves of Tabasco Project par ticipants offered invaluable cave maps and help.

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185 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 in the tube (T.Honda,2001) and from the height and slope angle of the lava tube on the sloped region, the yield strength of the lava can be obtained as 50000 dyne/cm 2 This value is very near to the value calculated as 43000 dyne/cm2 by G.Hulme(1974) for 1951 eruption lava flow configuration observed by T.Minakami(1951). From the pitch of lava stalactites on the roof surface (3 to 4cm), the surface tension of lava was determined as 600 to 1000 dyne/cm. This value agrees well with the extrapolated value obtained by I.Yokoyama (1970) in the melting lava surface tension mea surement experiments in Laboratory. Introduction The hornito with lava tube cave is lo cated on Izu-oshima island south of Abstract A lava tube cave recently found under the hornito of Mihara-yama in Izu-Oshima 120km south of Tokyo, was surveyed and investigated by the Vulcano-Spe leological Society. This lava cave was deposited at the edge of inner crater of Mihara-yama. The lava tube cave con whose total length is about 40m. Inside of the lava tube cave, general character istics such as lava stalactites and lava benches can be found. Two important lava characteristics, yield strength and surface tension, were obtained from the observation of this lava tube cave. By using a simple model of steady state island, located on the volcanic front of the izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, consists of Mihara-yama which has large outer crater and small inner crater. This hornito and lava cave were formed inside of edge of inner crater of Mihara-yama. Its degree is basaltic, with silica content of 52~53%[1]. The existence of the hornito of Mi hara-yama has been well known since the eruption of 1951 of Mihara-yama. The formation process was also remotely well observed by volcanic researchers at that time and precisely described in the the eruption, any research inside of the lava tube cave under the hornito has not been tried though the accessibility is Investigation on the Lava Tube Cave Located under the Hornito of Mihara-yama in Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan Tsutomu Honda 1 Hiroshi Tachihara, Osamu Oshima, Masahiro Tajika, Kazuyuki Kawamura,Yumi Kuroishikawa, Kazutoshi Suzuki, Chihiro Tanaka, Yutaka Ito, Hirofumi Miyasita, Toru Miyazaki, Norio Ito, Masami Sato, Isao Sawa, Akira Suzuki, Makoto Mizukuchi, Tadamasa Isobe, Yuriko Kondo, Yuki Mitsumori, Michio Ohi, Ichitaro Niibe, and Ken-ichi Hirano Vulcano-Speleological Society Japan 1 Tsutomu Honda: hondat@jupiter.ocn.ne.jp Figure 1. Horizontal and vertical cross section of the lava tube cave under the hornito. (Right side is crater side, left side is outer sloped crater wall side).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 186 very good. Recently in 2005 and 2006, members of Vulcano-Speleological So ciety of Japan investigated the hornito and the lava tube cave. formation process cave is shown in Fig.1. The lava tube of the inner crater and a sloped region in the outer slope. The total length of the cave is about 40m. Formation process of the lava tube cave and hornito is schematically shown in Fig.2. The lava supplied from the underground will get over the edge of slope to the foot. The cooled surface of lava will drain out when the supply of the lava from the crater is terminated. Thus the lava tube cave will be formed. The formation of hornito seems be only parasitic. When the solid surface has par tially a vulnerable part and the eventual level change of lava will exercise the additional pressure on the solid inner surface, the surface will break and in around the hole. Based on this model, we can obtain the important physical property of lava: yield strength. Discharge mechanism, modeling, assumption and analysis In modeling the discharge mecha nism of this type of lava tube, we used an inclined circular tube model for the sloping section of the cave. Regarding the inclined circular pipe, the discharge mechanism of lava tube caves already has been established, based on Bing ham characteristics of intratubal lava circular pipes was used for analyses. Flow characteristics were studied as a function of parameters such as tube radius, viscosity, yield strength of lava and slope inclination. A critical condition nated. (C) The eventual level change of lava will exercise the additional pressure on the around the hole.

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187 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 was determined for the discharge pa rameters in which the yield strength plays a dominant role. The equation B is the limiting condition the tube, r B where Bingham yield stress takes f B For given and known relation between slope angle and diameter (height) of the tube, this critical condition can give the yield strength f B This critical condition means that when the yield strength of From Table 1, f B =5x10 4 dyne/cm 2 can be obtained for the lava of Miharayama. The deduced yield strength from lava of the caves was found to be in good accordance with yield strength (4.3x10 4 dyne/cm 2 ) as estimated by other meth ods[7]. In summary, obtained basaltic yield stress from slope angle and height of some lava caves(see Table-2)are also reasonable values as compared with the yield stress obtained for Mt.Fuji[6]. Observation of inside surface Inside of the lava tube cave, lava sta lactites are positioned periodically on the surface of the ceiling wall as shown in Fig.3. From the periodical pitch of the stalactites, we can obtain the sur face tension of the lava. The pitch will be critical wave length of the occur attached on the surface of the ceiling of the lava tube cave. The pitch is shown as L ) 1/2 L is density of liquid, g is gravity acceleration. From the pitch of lava stalactites on the roof surface (3 to 4cm), the surface tension of lava was determined as 600 to 1000 dyne/cm. This value agrees well with the extrapolated value obtained by I. Yokoyama et al.[9] in the melting lava surface tension measurement experi ments in Laboratory. Conclusions The lava tube cave under the hornito of Mihara-yama, though this is a small scale lava tube cave, is a typical lava tube cave Table 2. Yield strength obtained from the critical condition. Figure 3. Lava stalactite on the ceiling wall surface in the lava tube cave. which can be explained by discharge mechanism of lava by gravity under the As a results of this study, Bingham an explanation of formation process of lava tube cave. Obtained yield strength has a well accordance with the results obtained by other method. As for sur face tension, it seems to be obtained by simple model of instability of liquid estimated surface tension agree with the experimental results by melting the lava in the Laboratory. References [1] T. Minakami (1951) Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst, vol 29, p 487. [2] H. Tsuya and R.Morimoto (1951) Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. vol 29, p 563. [3] S. Murauchi (1951) Journal of Geol ogy, vol60, No.3, p 117. [4] T. Honda (2000) On the formation of Subashiri-Tainai cave in Mt.Fuji. The 26 th Annual Meeting of the Spe leological Society of Japan, August, p 64. [5] T. Honda (2001) Investigation on the formation mechanism of lava tube cave. The 27 th Annual Meeting of the Speleological Society of Japan, August, p 11. [6] T. Honda(2001) Formation mecha nism of lava tube caves in Mt.Fuji. The 2001 Fall Meeting of the Volca nological Society of Japan, October; p 66. [7] G. Hulme (1974) Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., vol 39, p 361. [8] H. Tsuya (1971) Geography and Geology of Mt.Fuji. Study on Mt.Fuji. puplished by Fuji-kyu,1971. [9] I. Yokoyama et al. (1970)Technical Report,Hokkaido Univ. p 57.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 188 Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration by the Shepton Mallet Caving Club (UK) Ed Waters Shepton Mallet Caving Club & UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves. Hilltop House, Windwhistle Lane, West Grimstead, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP5 3RG, United Kingdom; ednandhayley@homecall.co.uk Introduction The Shepton Mallet Caving Club exploration in Iceland (and indeed Vul canospeleology) with the clubs 21 st An niversary Expedition to Raufarhlshellir in 1971. In the following years club members made a series of visits to the country, exploring and surveying many lava tube caves. The last of these visits was in 1975. The clubs links with Iceland were renewed 25 years later in 2000 with participation in the Laki Underground Expedition (in conjunction with Bournemouth University), led by Chris Wood. Following the success of the second Laki expedition in 2001, club members decided to return to Iceland to carry out more work. This paper describes the highlights of three visits to Iceland since the second Laki Underground Expedition. These visits were in May 2003, June 2005 and August 2005 and cover work on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest in central Iceland. The material contained in this paper is drawn from the full reports of these expeditions which have been published in the Shepton Mallet Caving Club Jour nal. Reykjanes Peninsula The Reykjanes Peninsula forms the south western extremity of Iceland. The area is attractive for visiting cavers since access is relatively easy by Icelandic standards and there are plenty of caves to visit. Despite the proximity to Reyk javk, there is still much exploratory and surveying work to be done in the area. The SMCC have carried out work across all areas of the peninsula, but highlighted below. Flki This cave lies in the Tvbol and has been known for many years. Survey of Flki.

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189 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Top right: Unusual formations in Flki(Terence Fitch). Middle right: James Begley in Flki (Tim Ball). Bottom right: Floor formations in Rsahellir (San Howe). formations (Terence Fitch). The cave name translates as the tangled one due to its complex nature. Prior to the SMCC visit in 2003 the cave was unsurveyed, the only maps being sketches of dubious accuracy. This had resulted in uncertainty as to the length of passage in the cave, with estimates ranging from 500 900m. Our survey showed a total passage length of some 1096m, making Flki only the 8 th known cave over 1km in length in Iceland. The cave is mostly made up of a complex of low crawls connecting small windows to the surface. There are however some sections of larger walking height passage. As well as its complex nature the cave is notable even more spectacular due to the vivid red colour of some of the lava. Blfjllhellar This is a series of well known caves close to the ski centre just outside of Reykjavk. Prior to the SMCC visit only one of these caves (Djpihellir) had received an accurate survey. During the 2003 expedition all the major caves were surveyed, and those surveys were tied together with a

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 190 Map of the Blfjollhellar.

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191 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Tanngarshellir (San Howe). Main Passage in Bri (Ed Waters). Lava Fall in Bri (Ed Waters). surface survey. This allowed a map to be constructed showing the relationship The major caves surveyed included: Langihellir (660m) which consists of a large walking size passage, with some braiding at the upstream end. Rtahellir (380m), a series of low crawls close to the surface and Djpihellir (220m) which is a fascinating multi-level system including a 15m shaft to the surface. As well as the major caves, two smaller caves are worth noting due to their terning Leitarhraun Our interest in this lava flags slands discovery of a major new cave (Bri) in early 2005. SMCC members were invited to survey the cave in June 2005. From this visit it was clear that Bri was part of a much larger system, including the well known caves of Arnahellir and Arnaker, and during a visit in August 2005 the other caves presumed to be part of the same system were also surveyed (except for the protected Arnahellir). This survey to enter new cave between Arnahellir and Bri. Hellarannsknaflags slands have started to dig through the boulder chokes which terminate both caves in the hope of major discoveries, and even a possible connection. The two major caves in this system, Bri and Arnaker both consist of very large passages (up to 15m in diam eter). dahraun The SMCC expedition to this area in August 2005 was without doubt the most ambitious visit we have yet made to Iceland. The dahraun is Europes largest area of lava at 6,000km 2 and lies in the heart of Iceland, to the north tial cave areas were physically remote and required long walks to reach them. Work in 2005 was severely hampered by unseasonal snow falls. Lofthellir Prior to our expedition

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 192 Map of the Leitahraun. formations (Keith Batten). Entrance to Lofthellir. this cave was the longest known in the area. The cave was discovered by Hel larannsknaflags slands in 1990? After a short dig to enlarge a constriction. Beyond this the cave passage is very ice formations. As the cave had never been accurately mapped, it was surveyed during our visit. Despite excellent po tential all efforts to extend the cave or Brrafell weathered volcano that nestles against the slopes of the huge Kollottadyngja shield volcano. It is also the location of a small hut owned by the Akureyri walking club, and more interestingly cave entrances had been reported in the area. The emplacement of the lava tions do not match those of previous geologists. Major caves mapped were: Fjrhlahellir lies about 2km west of the hut, and the approximate location was given by Kri Kristiansson. This approximate location coincided with interesting features on the aerial pho tographs which proved to be the cave. Our survey gives a total passage length of 452m of generally large passage, some of which contains large quantities of sand. It is unknown how much of this cave had been entered before. Hellingur had been noted by Kri, but not descended as it was vertical. The

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193 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Survey of Lofthellir. A larger version is included in the supplementary material on the CD.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 194 Survey of Fjrhlahellir. A larger version is included in the supplementary material on the CD.

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195 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Terminal Chamber in Hellingur (Keith Batten). Lava Formations in Hellnigur (Keith Batten). carried out during August 2005. The entrance pitch proved to be 15m deep, and leads to over 500m of generally lava stalagmites and straws. The cave is formed in a low hill, and may represent a feeder for a rootless crater (there is a large hornito close to the entrance) from a larger tube (now sadly full of lava) beneath. Situated about 300m from Hellingur is another low hill which also contains a series of caves, the Holgma Group. The longest of these is Holgma. Again pas sages are generally large and are sealed with lava at a similar level to the base of the hill. This again suggests that the caves fed some form of rootless crater. In Holgma is an unusual formation, named the Marmari Drottning (Marble Queen) by Kri. This is a 0.8m high lava stalagmite which is encrusted with white crystals (probably gypsum). Fjrhladyngja / Litladyngja This is a large shield volcano about 10km south cave entrances on this mountain, and the aerial photos indicated several interest ing features. Unfortunately only a brief reconnaissance to the area was possible, and a planned return was prevented by a worsening of the weather. Thus our been partially explored. Much work remains to be done here.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 196 Holgma, Main Chamber (Keith Batten). Passage in Holgma (Keith Batten). Marmari Drottning a large lava stalag mite encrusted with secondary minerals. Future Work There remains a huge amount of spe leological exploration and mapping to be carried out all over Iceland. In the areas we have been working in there are still many sites around the Reykjanes peninsula that are partially explored or unmapped. In addition new entrances are still being found as a matter of course. In the dahraun the partially explored caves at Litladyngja clearly need to be fully explored and surveyed. However there also remains many thou sands of square kilometres of lava to examine. Most of this is extremely remote, and detailed examination of aerial photos will be the best way to prioritise research. Hrarssons new book on Icelandic caves should be available later this year, and will identify all known Icelandic volca nic caves. Hopefully this will spur a new generation of Icelandic cavers to take up the gauntlet of speleological research in the country. At present most of the serious work is carried out by foreigners and only a couple of Icelanders. Any caver wishing to visit Iceland is strongly advised to contact Hel larannsknaflags slands (Icelandic Speleological Society) References published by Vaka-Helgafell/Edda tgfa 2006. ISBN 9979 2 1972 6 Clark. H & Waters. E, 2005, Return to Reykjanes, SMCC Journal Series 11 No.8 Kri Kristinsson, 1992, Undir hlum Herubreiar (Under the slopes of Herubrei) SURTUR rsrit 1992, pp7-9, ISSN 1017-2742 Waters. E, 2003, Under the Smoky Land Report of the SMCC 2003 Expedition to the Reykjanes Penin sula, Iceland, SMCC Journal Series 11 No.4 Waters. E, 2006, SMCC dahraun Expedition 2005, SMCC Journal Series 11 No.9 [Additional maps and photographs as sociated with this article appear in the supplementary material on the CD.]

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197 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Prospects for Lava-Cave Studies in Harrat Khaybar, Saudi Arabia John J. Pint UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves, thepints@saudicaves.com Introduction Lava-cave entrances have been observed in several parts of Harrat Khaybar, Saudi Arabia, and one lava tube has been sur veyed. Strings of collapses up to 25 km long indicate the possibility that very long caves may be found in this ancient caravan trail skirts the western fringe of Harrat Khaybar, suggests that archeological studies of caves in this area may prove fruitful. Harrat Khaybar Harrat Khaybar is located north of Me dina in western Saudi Arabia, between 39 and 41 longitude E and 25and 26 latitude N (Fig. 1). It has an area of approximately 12,000 square km. The lavas and volcanoes in Harrat Khaybar are mildly alkaline with low Na and K content and include alkali olivine basalt (AOB), hawaiite, mugearite, benmoreite, trachyte and comendite. The age of the Khaybar lavas ranges from ~5 million Roobol-Camp reports Roobol and Camp (1991) reported the existence of lava-tube caves up to 10 m high on Harrat Khaybar. In one of these Qidr Volcanodelicate lava stalactites were observed. A 100-meter-long lava tube in southern Harrat Khaybar was found to contain a fumarole at its deepest point. Roobol and Camp also describe numerous collapses along whale-back formations. These strings of collapses are up to 25 km long and in some cases are situated up to 25 km from the source volcanoes (Roobol and Camp, 1991). Dahl Rumahah Dahl Rumahah (also spelled Romahah) is registered as number 176 in Pint, 2002 and is located 169 km NNE of Medina in the northern part of Harrat Khaybar, at 25 N, 39 map of the cave is given in Figure 2. Dahl Rumahah is described in Pint, 2004 and Pint 2006. The cave is 208 m long and has a horizontal entrance 1 m high by 1.5 m wide, set in a small depression. A long, low wall outside the entrance channels rainwater into the cave, which local people say was used as a reservoir. Most of the cave is a single, from 1.5 to 7 m wide and 2.5 m high. Rooms north of station 7 and south of station 11 terminate in very low crawls which may be connected. In September of 2003, it was found that dry sediment Figure 2. Map of Dahl Rumahah.

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199 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 portion and occurred along part of the eastern wall. Water droplets and cave slime cover the ceiling at the far north western end of the cave. A natural bridge 1.5 m thick crosses the passage near its western end. Calcite-rich percolation water leaked through ceiling cracks, producing white stalactites, curtains bones, including hedgehog and por cupine quills, mixed with desiccated hyena, wolf and fox coprolites. The highest radon level noted in Saudi caves was found in Rumahah: 119 Pci/l. The caves temperature was measured at 25. Within a period of four hours the relative humidity rose from 68% to 74% at one point in the cave. The radon level found in this cave seems high for a lava tube. It is pos sible that radon gas is entering the cave plete skeleton of an unknown animal is found in this cave, cemented to the evidence (including construction of a water-retaining wall) that this cave has long been used as a water reservoir. Um Quradi Cave In February of 2003, an attempt was made to survey Dahl Um Quradi, a lava tube located in southern Harrat Khaybar. Just outside the cave entrance, a member of the team was seriously injured and had to be rescued by helicopter, result ing in the cancellation of the survey. However, it was noted that the cave has a walk-in entrance measuring 2 x 3 m and a vertical (collapse) entrance 4 m in diameter and ca. 5 m deep (Fig. 3). This lava tube may be 100-200 m long. Information from several sources suggests that there are other lava tubes in the area, but data is not available at this time. (Pint 2006) Collapses on Jebel Qidr Sometime in the late 1990s, German explorer Uwe Hoffman visited the ba saltic stratovolcano Jebel Qidr, located near the center of Harrat Khaybar. At the foot of the volcano, he observed and photographed collapses which appear to be in lava tubes, one of which is shown in Fig. 4. In 2004, J. Pint, S. Pint and A. Gregory traveled to Jebel Qidr with the hope of entering these caves. Lack of time did not permit visits to these caves, but the apparent entrances to several Qidr were observed and photographed by A. Gregory (Fig. 5). According to Roobol et al. (2002), this volcano may have last erupted in 1800 A.D., suggest among the youngest and most pristine in Saudi Arabia. Proximity to archeological sites and ancient trails The National Geographic Societys Genographic Project is based on evi dence that all modern human beings are descendants of people who left Af rica 50,000 to 70,000 years ago. These emigrants apparently followed two basic routes: one around the northern tip of the Red Sea and the other via the Bab Al Mandab at the southern end of the Red Sea. Those who followed the lat ter route and then traveled north on foot would quickly have found that the interior of the Arabian Peninsula was as harsh and unfriendly in the past as it is today, as has recently been proven by the attempted dating of stalagmites taken from limestone caves in the interior of Figure 3. Collapse entrance to Dahl Um Quradi in Harrat Khaybar. man.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 200 Saudi Arabia. The U/Th dating method indicated no stalagmite growth for at least the last 400,000 years, implying that the interior of the Arabian Peninsula has been arid for at least this long a period (Fleitmann et al., 2004). The most practical route north from what is now Yemen, would have been along the shore of the Red Sea itself or slightly inland, where people would have been forced to make their way between cover 89,000 square kilometers of the Arabian Shield. would have provided one very practical advantage: access to water. Most lava water, which frequently drains from the settlement of Khaybar, in fact, is located at the western edge of Harrat Khaybar precisely because water is abundant. Here, in fact, are found the ruins of Sed Kasaybah or Kasaybah Dam which is thought to be at least 1000 years old. Some of the lava caves in Harrat Khaybar are natural water catchments. One of these is Dahl Rumahah, whose entrance, even in recent years, was dis guised by local peoples because of its usefulness as a reservoir. If ancient peoples sought these caves in their search for water, it is possible that they then took advantage of them for shelter from the elements, for caching food supplies, or for hiding valuables. A typical yearround cave temperature of 25 C would have offered relief from the unbearable heat of the area in the summer and escape from the cold winds and frigid tempera tures of winter. Today, artifacts may lie buried in the sediment which typically tubes. Powdery sediment covering the in Harrat Nawasif-Buqum was found to be up to 1.5 m deep and up to 5.80.5 ka old, measured by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (Pint et al., 2005). To date, 50% of the lava tubes studied in Saudi Arabia have exhibited evident signs of man-made constructions outside or inside the cave entrances. Flat, aero dynamically shaped throwing sticks possibly Neolithichave been found in lava caves as well as large quantities of bones, horns and coprolites (Roobol et al., 2002, Pint et al., 2005). Dahl Rumahah, the northern most known lava cave in Harrat Khaybar, lies only 22 km south of a major Neolithic rock-art site with hundreds of petro glyphs. Much of the western edge of Harrat Khaybar lies alongside the old Nabatean Incense Trail connecting Ye men and Petra. Unfortunately, no archeo logical or paleontological studies have yet been carried out in any limestone or lava cave in Saudi Arabia. Conclusions 1. Harrat Khaybar offers excellent pos sibilities for the discovery of many lava longest lava caves in the world. 2. Archeological and paleontological surveys of the caves in Harrat Khaybar should be undertaken because of their proximity to archeological sites and ancient migration and trade routes. References Fleitmann, D., Matter, A., Pint, J.J. and Al-Shanti, M.A. 2004: The spele othem record of climate change in Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Sur vey Open-File report SGS-OF-2004-8, Pint, J. 2002: Master list of GPS coordi nates for Saudi Arabia caves (updated August, 2005): Saudi Geological CDF-2001-1. Pint, J., 2004: The lava tubes of Shuwaymis, Saudi Arabia, presentation given at the XI International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Pico Island, Azores. Pint, J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A., & Forti, P., with the collaboration of Akbar, R., Vincent, P., Kempe, S., Boston, P., Kattan, F.H., Galli, E., Rossi, A., & Pint, S., 2005: Ghar al Hibashi, Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p. 43 Pint, J. 2006: Vulcanospeleology in Saudi Arabia, accepted for publica tion by Acta Carsologica. Roobol, M.J. and Camp, V.E., 1991: Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Directorate General of Mineral Resources Geoscience Map GM-131, with explanatory text, 60 p. Roobol, M.J., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A. & Pint, S., with the collaboration of AlEisa, A.M., Allam, F., Al-Sulaimani, G.S., & Banakhar, A.S., 2002: Pre liminary survey for lava-tube caves on Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File report SGS-OF-2002-3, 35 p., 41 figs., 1 table, 4 apps., 2 plates. Qidr. Photo by Arthur Gregory.

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201 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Al-Fahda Cave (Jordan): The Longest Lava Cave Yet Reported from the Arabian Plate Ahmad Al-Malabeh 1 Mahmoud Frehat 2 Horst-Volker Henschel 3 and Stephan Kempe 4 1 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan, Am@hu.edu.jo 2 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan 3 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, dr.henschel@henschel-roperz.de 4 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de The northeastern region of Jordan is volcanic terrain, part of a vast inter continental lava plateau called the Har rat Al-Shaam. The centre is formed by the Harrat Al-Jabban volcanics or Jor danian Harrat (Al-Malabeh, 2005). The are ca. 400 000 years old (Tarawneh et al., 2000). There we explored, surveyed and studied a total of twelve lava caves since September 2003, among them six pressure ridges caves. A total of 2,525 m of passages have been surveyed until September 2005. This includes the 923.5 m long Al-Fahda Cave (Lioness Cave) that lies about 85 km east of Al-Mafraq, and 18 km northeast of Al-Safawi (Fig. 1). It was surveyed September 16 th and 19 th 2005 by the authors (Figs. 2 to 5). It is currently the longest reported from the Arabian Plate (J. Pint, pers. comm.). Table 1 gives the pertinent topographic data of the lava tunnel. the Harrat by following an anthropo genic line along which stones had been cleared away. It led from a wadi Rajil (830 m a.m.s.l) in the north downslope to the main entrance of the cave (730 m a.m.s.l). It appears to have been a water during winter rains and used as a reservoir throughout the year (Fig.6). If this ever was very successful must sediments and some rough retention walls indicate that water does enter the cave occasionally and that its manage ment was attempted. Two entrances exist (Fig. 3). The main entrance (Fig. 7) gives access to the cave stretching for almost 490 m downslope (makai) and almost 190 m up slope (mauka). The tunnel is on the one hand amazingly wide (7.5 m) but also very low (average 1.2 m). The surveyed slope, with little guaranty to its accuracy, apparently is less than one degree (8.6 m altitude change on 755 m). This is very low, even when compared to the lower reaches of Hawaiian lava tunnels, and an important observation since it shows why the Harrat lava could spread so far: they were tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. The cave shows, compared to Hawai ian tunnels (see data in Kempe, 2002; Kazumura, Keala and Huehue, some of the longest caves on Hawaii have sinu osities of 1.30, 1.25 and 1.2), a rather low sinuosity (1.13), in spite of the fact that it has a lower slope than the mentioned Hawaiian caves (1.51, 1.51, 4.58 resp.). The intuition that there should be a reverse relation between slope and sinuosity can therefore not be proven. The winding of the cave should have provided for a Thalweg, i.e. a path with slip-off and undercut slopes to the sides depending on curvature. The main entrance (to which the sur face channel was directed) is a cold puka, i.e. a roof collapse at the apex of a 15 m wide hall, dating much later than the activity of the cave. Breakdown blocks allow easy access to the highest section of the cave. The second, much smaller entrance, 60 m to the NE of the main puka, poses a riddle: it is situated to the side of the cave.(Fig. 8). It was certainly opened by humans, who removed blocks from a natural hole. A low crawl descents to the NW, gradually enlarging and joining the main tunnel after 15 m. This passage appears not to be a lava tube, but a wide and low separation between two lava sheets. Where the passage descents to the main tunnel we noticed remains of ceiling linings. Also benches composed of stranded and welded thin plates are found on both sides of the lower passage. This bench can be followed into the main tube, mostly makai. The next larger deposit is at St. 32 (niche or cove) and at St. 33. Each niche is smaller than the one before. These benches occur mostly on the southern wall, but also on the northern wall at Station 15. These lava benches mark a lava high-stand, when surface of the lava and stranded on the lagmites, composed of lava blisters (Fig. 9), pressed out of the ceiling, a rather interesting formation, suggesting that the degassing and solidifying of the primary roof was still going on at the below the platy benches. Both the lining Figure 1. Location map of Al-Fahda cave and the extent of Harrat Al-Shaam (altered after Al-Malabeh, 1994).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 202 and the existence of the benches prove that the passage existed when the lava appears that the 2 nd entrance passage resulted from the upward bending of It opened early on in the formation of the tube, when the surface sheets were still partly plastic. This mechanism ex plains also the niches found at St. 32 and 33. This interpretation could be tied together with the observation that the cave is widest at the 1 st entrance where the cave makes a notable 90 turn (Fig. 3). This turn could be caused by the lava obstacle, such as the side of a previous of lava tumulus. It could then have been ings of the sheet due to the shear caused by the top lava sheet pressing against the obstacle. The hot lava immediately plates. Only the 2 nd entrance passage, which rose upward was not clogged. clearly shows, that this branch of the cave does not have anything to do with The cave does not have much break down, indicating a very stable roof. The entrance puka reveals that the primary roof is composed of two pahoehoe sheet only, the upper one being 2.5 m thick and the lower one being 1.2 m thick. This may explain the long-term stability of the roof, which caved in geologically re cently only at one of its widest spots. Surface loess has been washed into the cave through cracks and through the the upper stretches and for some part in the lower stretches, but leaving some of of small aa rubble, wall to wall (Fig. 11). Only at the lower end, where the cave branches, crude pahoehoe ropes makai (Fig. 12). The aa ends mauka of this junction (St. 50) in a sort of terminal wall. It is conceivable that this aa forms before is became too cool to keep lava event that invaded the cave after it was Figure 2. Map of Al-Fahda Cave (by the authors), sheet 1. The uphill and Mahmouds CD.

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203 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 3. Map of Al-Fahda Cave (by the authors), sheet 2. The Mud, Large and Aa Halls. Also the both entrances. Figure 4. Map of Al-Fahda Cave (by the authors), sheet 3. The Crawl Halls.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 204 Figure 5. Map of Al-Fahda Cave (by the authors), sheet 4. Monument and, Pahoehoe and terminal Halls. Figure 6. Anthropogenic channel consists of unworked stones led from Wadi Rajil in the north down slope to the main entrance.

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205 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Table 1. Survey results of Al-Fahda Cave.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 206 Figure 7 (above). Main Entrance of Al-Fahda Cave. Figure 8 (right). The second entrance, 60 m NE of the main entrance. Figure 9 (below). Stalagmites composed of lava blisters. Figure 10. The second entrance passage resulted from the upward bend evacuated by the original lava flow. This interpretation appears however less likely since invasion into a cold tube should stop very quickly due to fast cooling of the low volume of the Hawaiian caves, such as the Kazumura lava which intruded the mauka end of the Keala Cave and can be followed for 190 m with the characteristics of a surface low height of the tunnel compared to its also explain why we only found a few were simply buried by the late lava event. How far mauka of st. 14 the aa extends, the mauka tunnel seems to suggest, that it extents all the way to the present end. Digs through the sediment may help to solve this question. The cave is also remarkable for its paleontological and biological value: It was (is?) visited by hyenas (stripped hyena, Hyena hyena ) all the way to both ends (Fig. 13). According to a search of pers. comm.) this is so far the furthest distance of hyenas penetrating caves on record. Since the cave is so low, the hyenas must have been crawling through some of the low spots, just as the modern cave explorer does. The hyenas also dragged in an appreciable amount of bones, among them at least three human skull caps (Fig. 14). Most of the bones appear though to be camel bones. But remains of sheep, gazelle,

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207 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 porcupine, and hyenas were also noticed. The hyenas also left plenty of coprolites, which might be interesting objects to study, possibly revealing much about the ecology of these animals throughout thousands of years and possibly even longer time periods. In the sedimenthyena dens, mostly along the walls, that the animals seem to prefer. Sometimes the sediment appears to form a ridge in the center of the passage due to the digging activity of the carnivores along the sides. In one instance we even think that they were digging for water along a crack. Parts of the ceiling were still wet in mid-September, suggesting that the hyenas may have been going into the caves not only for shelter, to con sume bones, give birth or die, but also in search of water. Human presence is seen also in the cave. Low walls (Fig. 16) or retaining dams have been erected at stations 5, 15-18, 14 and 30. Actually, the makai part near the entrance up to St. 30 could house comfortably a large number of people. However, the cave appears to be rather clean and has not been used for sheep shelter as have some of the other caves in the area. Two very in we found a pile of lining plates stacked by people on a large breakdown block near station 44, i.e. 330 m from the entrance. To get there, we had to move rocks in one of the crawl ways. Whoever stacked the stones must have been an ardent caver. So far we do not see any possibility to date this Monument Figure 11. Aa small rubble stones cover the downhill section from wall to wall. Figure 12. Pahoehoe ropes found at the lower end of the terminal Hall. Figure 13. A dead hyena in its den nearby the end of the terminal Hall. Figure 14. Human skull cap (St. 40) one of three skulls found in the downhill section.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 208 (Fig. 17). Next we found (S. Kempe) a well preserved Byzantine oil lamp (Fig. 18), forgotten in a ceiling pocket near the entrance ca. 1500 years ago. It is now at the Hashemite University to be studied. At the surface we found a series of walls and crescent-shaped shelter walls along with pottery shards this suggests that both paleontological and archeological investigations in the cave might give valuable data on the history of the Jordanian desert. Literature cited Al-Malabeh, A., 1994. Geochemistry of two volcanic cones from the intracontinental plateau basalt of Harrat El-Jabban, NE-Jordan. Geochemical Journal (28): 517-540. Al-Malabeh, A., 2005: New discoveries supporting eco-tourism in Jordan. 1st Economic Jordanian Forum. Abstr. Book, P. 6. Jordan. ucts) auf Hawaii und ihre Genese. In: W. Rosendahl & A. Hoppe (Hg.): Angewandte Geowissenschaften in Darmstadt.Schriftenreihe der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Heft 15: 109-127. Tarawneh, K., Ilani, S, Rabba, I., Har lavan, Y., Peltz, S., Ibrahim, K., Weinberger, R., Steinitz, G., 2000: Dating of the Harrat Ash Shaam Basalts Northeast Jordan (Phase 1). Nat. Res. Authority; Geol. Survey Israel. Figure 17. Monument formed of stacked stones (man-made) in the Monu ment Hall. Figure 18. A well preserved Byzantine oil lamp dis covered in a ceiling pocket near the main entrance. of the main entrance.

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209 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 State of Lava Cave Research in Jordan Stephan Kempe 1 Ahmad Al-Malabeh 2 Mahmoud Frehat 3 and Horst-Volker Henschel 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, email: kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de. 2 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan, Am@hu.edu.jo. 3 Hashemite University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka 13115, Jordan. 4 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de. The northeastern region of Jordan is volcanic terrain, part of a vast intracon tinental lava plateau, called the Harrat Al-Shaam (Fig. 1). The centre is formed by young alkali olivine basaltic lava or Jordanian Harrat (Al-Malabeh, 2005). The top most and therefore youngest Formation, are ca. 400 000 years old (Tarawneh et al., 2000). We have ex plored, surveyed and studied a total of 14 lava caves since September 2003. Altogether 2,544 m of passages were surveyed until May 2006 (Table 1). Of this 1,486 m, or close to 59 % of the total, was surveyed in September 2005, among them the 923.5 m long Al-Fahda Cave (see Al-Malabeh et al., this volume). The caves represent six lava tunnels (one has and two caves of doubtful origin. Of the six lava tunnels (Abu Al-Kursi has two caves) so far investigated three Table 1. List of currently (May 2006) known and surveyed lava caves in Jordan, sorted by total passage length. Figure 1. Study area and extent of Harrat Al-Shaam (altered after Al-Malabeh, 1994). are rather wide, Al-Fahda Cave, AlBadia Cave (Beer Al-Hamam) (Fig. 2, 3), and the two Abu Al-Kursi Caves (Fig. 4), while Al-Howa (Fig. 5a, b), Hashemite University Cave (Fig. 6) and Dabie Cave (Fig. 7) are of smaller dimensions. All have very low gradient, in the case of Al-Fahda as low as ca. 0.7. Lava falls, so often encountered in Hawaii, were not found in these caves. Benches and in Dabie Cave (Fig. 8), Al-Fahda and in one place in Hashemite University Cave. Branching is rare, apart from Al-Fahda Cave only Hashemite University Cave displays branching. Apart from Al-Fahda Cave, speleo logically, Hashemite University Cave is the most interesting. Hashemite Uni versity Cave is reached through a col lapse hole at the crest of a ridge. There the primary 7 m thick roof is exposed consisting of only three pahoehoe layers (see Fig. 6). The mauka passage (uphill) apparently running NW is blocked by breakdown but from the north another The open tunnel leads makai (downhill) for about 180 m where the cave opens up to a nearly circular room of almost 20 m diameter and ends in a lava sump

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 210 Figure 2. Map of Al-Badia Cave (by the authors). The cave is entered through a large breakdown hole, overhanging on all sides. This

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211 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 4. Map of Abu Al-Kursi (by the authors). Abu Al-Kursi has two separate caves (East and West) separated by a breakdown depression.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 212 entrance is through a later breakdown hole in the center of the cave.

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213 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 3. Entrance of Al-Badia Cave. It forms a sink in a small wadi. It is ca. 5 m deep and overhanging on all sides, exposing the uninterrupted lava sheets of the primary ceiling. Figure 8. Panorama of Dabie Cave with prominent benches on both sides of the passage.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 214 Figure 6. Map of Hashemite University Cave (by the authors). Entrance is through a breakdown hole.

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215 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 7. Map of Dabie Cave (by the authors). Entrance is at the side of a Wadi that has cut

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 216 Figure 10. Map of Al-Ameed Cave (by the authors). Entrance is through centrally collapsed low and wide hall below up-domed lava sheets.

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217 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 11. Map of Al-Hayya Cave (by the authors). Entrance is through a collapse hole which possibly dissects the cave in to two parts. The western part is yet unknown. Figure 14. Pit of Beer Al-Wisad. Figure 13. Pillow basalts of Miocene age near Beer Al-Wisad. Fig 12. Passage view of Al-Hayya Cave. Bones (mostly from camel) in foreground are left-overs of hyenas.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 218 (Fig. 9). In a way, this is similar to the lava sump at the end of Thurston Lava Tube (see Kempe et al., this volume). It poses a geological riddle since one would expect that the back-up of the the cave at a narrow point but not at a wide passage. One possible solution of the riddle could be the assumption that we are standing on top of a secondary ceiling. A blowhole, situated near station 26, indicates that there is an open passage underneath, giving some credibility to this hypothesis. The proportion of pressure ridge caves ing. When compared to the population tunnels to be in majority. Here we use the term pressure ridge cave collective for a class of caves which does not show through them. These cavities rather seem to have been created by doming the lava surface sheet either by lateral compres sion or by lifting them up through lava injection with consecutive drainage of the lava. This upward doming often occurs with axes perpendicular to the direction of pressure (Ibrahim & AlMalabeh, 2006). Considering that the lava in Jordan forms rather thick sheets, low, but wide and astonishingly long caves may result. The longest pressure ridge cave we surveyed up to date is Al-Ameed Cave (Fig. 10), with over 200 m in length. Actually, the cave seems to consist of two caves under two different tumuli connected by an over 30 m long, low, but wide passage. The tumulus with the entrance collapsed centrally, so that the cave leads around the breakdown almost in full circle. One can stand at only a very few places, the rest of the cave is too low and the north-eastern and south-western ends of the cave sink in The newly surveyed pressure ridge cave of Al-Hayya Cave (Snake Cave) and Al Raye Cave (Sheep Cave) are of a different nature. They are elongated cavities which are comfortably high at their centres and of moderate width. Al-Hayya averages ca. 1 m high and 4.6 m wide (Fig. 11, 12). Al-Raye Cave has been used as a free-of-charge sheep pen for the winter. Al-Hayya opens in the centre of a tumulus, but then leads away from the tumulus without giving access to the interior cavity below the tumulus, if there is any, while the col lapse entrance to Al-Raye is not bound to a tumulus. Several other tumuli nearby have central collapses, but stones need to be removed to access their caves. These stones have been placed in the past to prevent hyenas from using the caves as hiding places. Beer Al-Wisad (Arabian for Pillow Pit) in one of the most outstanding fea tures in the Jordanian Harrat. It is a pit located in pillow lava. This lava is one (Miocene). The pillows are spheroidal and have about 40 70 cm in diam eter (Fig. 13). The entrance of the pit is not wider than 1 m and bellows out downward (Fig. 14). At a depth of 9 m the massive, melanocratic basalt ends and is underlain by a ca. 50 cm thick sheet of layered basalt. This is followed downwards by vesicular basalt; its ves Along this layer a chamber of about 11 m length and 5 m width is developed. peck marks made by a very slender tool. sand, shifted-in down the entrance and partly covered with pigeon dirt (dung, eggshells, twigs). The pit appears not to be anthropogenic, it is not a man-made well or quanat and the peck marks seem to be of a more recent age (treasure hunters?). It remains a riddle how it could have formed naturally within a layer of massive pillow basalts and even extending into underlying strata. Due to the high age of the lavas, one would expect that the pit if it would have formed during the deposition of the or aeolian sediments. It is hoped that further petrological investigations might give clues about the pits genesis. All in all, we are still at the begin ning of lava cave research in Jordan, and when we began detailed work three years ago we would not have thought that we would encounter such a variety of caves. We are even more astonished that these caves are still partly accessible considering their great age. Literature cited Al-Malabeh, A., 1994. Geochemistry of two volcanic cones from the intracontinental plateau basalt of Harrat El-Jabban, NE-Jordan. Geochemical Journal (28): 517-540. Al-Malabeh, A., 2005. New discoveries supporting eco-tourism in Jordan. 1st Economic Jordanian Forum. Abstr. Book, P. 6. Jordan. Ibrahim, K., & Al-Malabeh, A., 2006: the associated pressure ridges. J. Asian Sci., in press. Tarawneh, K., Ilani, S, Rabba, I., Harla van, Y., Peltz, S., Ibrahim, K., Wein berger, R., Steinitz, G., 2000: Dat ing of the Harrat Ash Shaam Basalts Northeast Jordan (Phase 1). Nat. Res. Authority; Geol. Survey Israel.

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219 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Thurston Lava Tube, the Most Visited Tube in the World. What Do We Know about It? Stephan Kempe 1 and Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Survey by Stephan Kempe, Matthias Oberwinder, Holger Buchas, Klaus Wolniewicz 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, email: kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de. 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, email: dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de. Thurston Lava Tube (or Keanakakina, i.e. Tunnel of Thurston, keana mean ing the cave and kakina being the Hawaiian Name of Thurston), is a cel ebrated tourist attraction in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. It is visited daily by hundreds, if not more than a thousand tourists. Since the National Park does not open any other cave for regular visits, it is also the only cave readily accessible to the tourist in Ha waii. Hardly any other lava tube in the world can match its popularity. In spite of its many references in literature not much is known about the speleogenesis of this cave and previously published maps have not been very detailed (Pow ers, 1920; Wood, 1979; Halliday, 1982). In order to get a more detailed view we surveyed it on March 9 th 1996 in high precision, using a digital compass and level mounted on antimagnetic tripods from the rock (Figs. 1a,b,c; 2). We also used forward and backward shots to rock (which is small anyway according to long-term experience from surveying in Hawaiian caves). We also measured width and heights every 5 m into the cave. The most important results are summarized in Table 1 below. The cave was discovered 1913. Hal liday (1997) reported an account signed by Wade Warren Thayer in the visitors book of the Volcano House stating: On Aug.2nd a large party headed by L.A. Thurston explored the lava tube in the hole, caused by roof collapse much after the cave has cooled (Fig. 4). Here the tourist is led out of the cave via a stone staircase. The tourist section (Fig. 5) is lit by yellow lights in order to minimize gravel (and often with puddles) obliterat the stairs, a gate is installed with a sign advising tourists to visit this part of the cave only with proper lighting, announc ing that this section is 343 m long (357 m would be correct). Vulcanologically the cave is impor tant since it is situated very near to the original vent of the Ai-laau Shield, the site of the last massive summit erup tion of Kilauea (Holcomb, 1987) that lasted from about 500 to 350 aBP. The Ai-laau lavas cover a very large area east of Kilauea Caldera all the way to the ocean near Hilo. They were tube-fed pahoehoe lavas, containing not only the longest lava cave known (Kazumura Cave) but also a number of other very long lava tunnels (Keala Cave, John Martin Cave, Pahoa Cave). Since Thur ston runs underneath the highest point of the Ai-laau shield (the 3840 foot contour), it appears to be the tube that producing the lava which reportedly invaded Kazumura (Allred & Allred, 1997). Thurston is heading 45N, end ing just inside the Park Boundary. It the NE of the Shield. The upper end of Kazumura runs in parallel slightly less than a kilometre further to the north near the highway (Allred et al., 1997). This makes is unlikely that both caves the northward turn of Thurston shortly before its end indicates a sharp bend in the tunnel system (Fig. 6). When comparing the sinuosity and slope of the cave with those of others in Figure 3. Entrance of tourist section over a bridge that leads across part of an elongated collapse structure, called Kaluaiki. twin Craters recently discov ered by Lorrin Thurston, Jr. Two ladders lashed together gave comparatively easy ac cess to the tube and the whole party, including several ladies, climbed up. No other human beings had been in the tube, as was evidenced by the per fect condition of the numerous stalactites and stalagmites. Dr. Jaggar estimated the length of the tube as slightly over 1900 feet. It runs northeasterly from the crater and at the end pinch come together. . . The cave has two openings used as an entrance and exit for the tourist trail. The primary entrance is reached via a bridge (Fig. 3). It opens in the wall of an elongated collapse hole, called Kaluaiki, most prob ably very near to the site of the former vent that delivered the lava producing the cave. The other entrance is a ceiling

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 220 Figure 1a, b, c. Three-part map of Thurston Lava Tube.

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221 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 5. Tourist section looking makai.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 222 Figure 2. Longitudinal section of Thurston Lava Tube.

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223 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 7. Map showing locations of some of the major lava caves on Hawaii.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 224 Figure 11. The second lava fall viewed mauka. The bottom sheet seems to have been warped, i.e. it was still plastic when the ero sive back-cutting of the lava fall occurred. Tube is devoid of the otherwise in lava Figure 8. Typical cross-section of Thurston Lava Tube. Figure 9. Thurston Lava Tube ends in a Chamber, were the up-welled from below forming a low bulge. the bottom sheet is clearly visible.

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225 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 12. Ledge of former lava-stand. It bends downward at the lip of the lava falls. we have data) (Fig. 7) Thurston shows similar characteristics (Table 2). When inspecting the cave, a series of questions arise. For the casual observer the cave appears strangely dull, without many detailed features (Fig. 8). Also the typical smooth, continuous glazing found in lava tubes is mostly missing. lava sump, which poses quite a puzzle (Fig. 1a and 9). However, the more careful observer will notice several interesting details. Among them is the presence of two lava falls (Figs. 10, 11), below which the cave is wider and higher than above. When viewed mauka (uphill) one can see the undercutting of the former bottom sheet of the tube and of the wall linings. Also ledges are present (Fig. 12), bent down ward at the lip of the lava fall. One can follow them for some distance upstream, The cave also features ceiling cu polas of different sizes. Powers (1920) noted that the cupolas become larger and wider along the tube. For those nearer to the entrance he suggested that they resulted from a blow torch effect, i.e. from the melting of the primary ceiling ing lava beneath. This certainly is an interesting interpretation. However, the blow torches should have been moving cupolas or ceiling notches should have been formed. Some of the cupolas are elongated, others not. For the cupolas further down Powers suggested break down as their cause, the blocks of which have been carried out of the tube during its activity. Most of the cupolas have received a new lining and some have horizontal rims, indicating former lava stands. Our survey shows (Figs. 1, 2), that there are seven cupolas in the ceil section and eight in the beginning of the wild section. None occur further in. That they become wider makai cannot be corroborated. There are smaller and more cylindrical and larger and more elongated cupolas in both sections. All of them occur in the center of the pas sage. This, and their forms, speak (at least for the cylindrical) against their origin as a breakout cupolas. We suggest that they are former hornitos, vents in the primary ceiling to allow hot gases and spatter to escape. Thin secondary of the eruption. Powers (1920) suggested that the Great Hall (Figs. 1, 2), shortly before the end of the cave is actually a window (caused by breakdown of the interven ing ceiling in between) up into another tube above Thurston, explaining why the the Thurston tube. This certainly merits a closer look and if it were true, then Thurston may not represent the latest faces skin to be rippled. In the lower part, walls, forming large polygons. Cracks, possibly caused by cooling, extend deep thickness of the bottom sheet of the cave is extending (which is just a few cm thick), again indicative of very hot conditions far beyond the bottom sheet number of squeeze-ups (termed vol canoes by Powers, 1920) (Fig. 15), partly related to the cracks, forming very very hot conditions when they where extruded from the underlying lava by On the walls many runners occur, partly bleeding in series out of horizontal partings in the wall (Fig. 16). irregular on the cm-scale. The mm-thick, continuous, and shining glazing, so typi cal for most lava caves, is missing (Fig. 17), possibly being destroyed by the ongoing degassing of the lava surround ing the cave after the evacuation of the cave, again speaking for sustained and very hot conditions. Also the typical cylindrical lava stalactites are missing, save for short stumps (Fig. 18). They may, however, have been removed over the years by visitors since the initial description of the cave talks of a rich decoration (see above). Regarding the lava sump at the end

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 226 as if the lava welled up from under neath. Powers (1920) already noted ropy textures are noticed which would Thus it is not entirely inconceivable that Thurston represents an upper level of a much larger conduit system, as suggested by the hypothesis of Halliday (1982), stating that the cave is part of a Jameo System, i.e. a multi-leveled lava con further makai than the cave roof, i.e. that something collapsed right underneath the present entrance, could be taken as a hint towards the existence of a cave below. If this is so, then the two caves above each other were certainly not created by down-cutting and consecu tive formation of a secondary ceiling separating a canyon-like tunnel. Such separations are clearly later additions and can be recognized at cross-sections (Kempe, 2002). Inspection of the lava below the cave at its entrance shows secondary ceiling. If Thurston belongs to a multi-storied cave system, then it must have formed during an increase in eruption volume, exceeding the capac ity of the lower tube and establishing a contemporaneous upper conduit above it, which, when lava supply subsided, fell dry and was sealed at the end by lava up-welled from the lower conduit. Technically speaking only the end of of a secondary ceiling. Another feature speaks also against Table 1. Survey data Thurston Lava Tube. length, which is shorter than the total cave length, in order to calculate slope. [for comparison length by Powers (1920): 1494 feet total (455 m), straight: 1360 feet (425m); slope 2.5] Figure 15. One of many low, dome and cone shaped mounds on Figure 16. Runners form where residual melt is squeezed out from the cooling lava of the walls.

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227 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 1: Allred et al., 1997; 2: Kempe 1997; 3 4; 5: unpublished data; 6: Wood, 1980; 7: Kempe et al., 1997. Volcano: K, A: Kilauea, Ai-laau is a secondary ceiling within a larger, canyon like tunnel, and that is the pres ence of the two lava falls in the cave. clear signs of their back-cutting (Figs. 10, 11). Thus, if we assume the presence of multi-storied conduits, then they must have been established by consecutive on top of each other. Such situations have rarely been documented. Parts of Kulakai Cavern could represent such a cave type, based on the geological mapping of its surface (Bienkowsky & Kauer, 2002; unpublished). On the far side of the collapse crater another section of cave was found, as reported by W.R. Halliday and J. Martin (Halliday, 1992) (Fig. 7). It has a NW-SE direction, at a 90 angle from Thurston. Its relation to Thurston and to a presumed multi-story tube system remains unclear from the available map (Halliday & Martin, unpublished) both with regard to its slope and altitude. The correct interpretation of the na ture of Thurston lava tube is intimately associated with the question of where the Ai-laau vent exactly was. Holcomb (1987) suggests it was at the eastern notch of the Kilauea Iki collapse struc ture. There vertical lava sheets are pre served. However, the topographic high is to the east of it, above Thurston Lava Tube (Fig. 6). Therefore it is conceiv able, that Kilauea Iki served as a gas vent, while a second vent produced the the Kaluaiki collapse crater. Otherwise one would need to explain how the topo graphic high came about. This question and some of the others posed in the paper suggest that we do not understand the speleogenesis of Thur ston Lava Tube very well, in spite of the fact that it may be the most visited and the most often mentioned lava tube world-wide. Cited Literature Allred, K. & Allred, C., 1997: Develop ment and morphology of Kazumura Cave, Hawaii. J. Cave Karst Stud. 59(2): 67-80. Allred, K., Allred, C. & Richards, R., 1997: Kazumura Cave Atlas, Island of Hawaii. Spec. Pub. Hawaii Speleol. Surv.: 81pp. Halliday, W.R., 1982: Kulaaiki and Thur ston Lava Tube: An unrecognized jameo system? Proc. 3rd Intern. Symp. On Vulcanospeleology, Bend Oregon, July 30-Aug. 1, 52-55. Halliday, W.R., 1992: Mauka Thurston and Ash caves, Kau District, Hawaii County, HI. Cascade Caver, MayJune: 37. HSS Chairmans Letter. Hawaiian Speleological Survey, 7. Halliday, W.R., 1997: Thomas A. Jaggar JR. Speleologist and Caver. Geo 2 v 24 (3) p 87. Holcomb, R.T., 1987: Eruptive history and long-term behavior of Kilauea Volcano. In Volcanism in Hawaii, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350(1): 261-350. Kempe, S., 1997: Lavafalls: a major factor for the enlargement of lava tubes of the Ai-laau Shield phase, Kilauea, Hawaii.Proc. 12 th Intern. Congr. Speleol. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, Vol. 1: 445-448. ucts) auf Hawaii und ihre Genese. In: W. Rosendahl & A. Hoppe (Hg.): Angewandte Geowissenschaf ten in Darmstadt.Schriftenreihe der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Heft 15: 109-127. Kempe, S., Buchas, H., Hartmann, J., Oberwinder, M., Strassenburg, J. & Wolniewicz K., 1997: Map tubes: the Keauhou Trail/Ainahou Ranch Flow Field, Kilauea, Hawaii. Proc. 12 th Intern. Congr. Speleol. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, Vol. 1: 453-455. Neal, C.A. & Lockwood, J.P., 2004: Geologic map of the summit region of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. US Geol. Survey Geol. Investig. Ser. I 27-59, Figure 17. The surface of Thurston Lava Tube is quite irregular; the smooth glazing otherwise typical for Hawaiian lava tubes is largely missing.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 228 http://pubs.usgs.gov/imap/i2759/ Powers, S., 1920: A lava tube at Kilauea. Bull. Hawaiian Volc. Oberv., March 1920: 46-49. Wood, C., 1979: Caves of glass, lava tube caves of Kilauea Volcanoe, Hawaii. Wood, C., 1980: Caves of the Hawai ian volcanoes.Caving Intern. Mag. 6&7: 4-11. Figure 18. This is an exceptionally well decorated section of Thurston Lava Tube which is otherwise devoid of spectacular stalactites.

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229 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System in Mauna Loa Picritic Lavas, Naalehu, Hawaii Stephan Kempe 1 Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Harry Shick 3 and Frank Trusdell 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany; email: kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de. 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany, email: dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de. 3 General Delivery, Keaau 96749 Hawaii, USA. 4 Hawaii Volcano Observatory, P.O. Box 51, Hawaii Nat. Park 96718 Hawaii, USA; email: trusdell@usgs.gov. mentioned by Bonk, 1967 and Kempe, 1999) consists of four larger sections of a once much longer tunnel in Mauna Loa lavas. It is situated south of Naalehu, Hawaii (Figs. 1, 2, 3). The system is en tered through two pukas (holes) (Fig. 4): Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo (Pigeon Hole of the Common People) and Waipouli (Dark Waters). Both of these pukas give accesses to uphill (mauka) and downhill (makai) caves totalling almost 1 km in length (Table 1) (Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8). Within the Lua Nunu Puka, a small cave along the W-Side has also been discovered (see Fig. 6). Two further pukas belong to the system, Pork Pen Puka (mauka of Lua Nunu) and Stonehenge Puka (makai of Waipouli) for which no local names are known. Pork Pen Puka is a depression set into the roof of Lua Nunu Mauka, the bottom of which is a secondary ceiling to the cave below. Stonehenge Puka is a 60*40 m large and up to 20 m deep crater, which not only issued lava as a rootless vent but from which large blocks were swept out that today mark its rim (and therefore the puka bears a certain resemblance with the real Stonehenge) (Fig. 9). Waipouli is occupied by a 200 m long lake (see Fig. 8; Fig. 10), ending in a ca. 30 m long underwater cave, (i.e., Herbert and Christine Jantschke, Andy Kchl, Wolfgang Morlock). The lake level is 34 m below the surface and shows tides. Depending on groundwater discharge rate it contains either fresh or brackish water. The lake is up to 10 m deep and sometime a halocline can be observed at depth. The groundwater has a temperature of around 20C and is low in dissolved CO 2 suggestive of a high altitude source. The Kamakalepo System is formed by very olivine phenocryst-rich, picritic lavas of high density and moderate ves sicularity (Fig. 11). Olivines are up to 3 mm in size and iddingsitized along frac tures, coloring them giving them brown. group crop out further to the west, from which one 14 C age is available, dating Lua Nunu plus Pork Pen and Stone henge form two local kipukas, i.e. they are situated on topographic crests, not covered only by a relatively thin layer of ash (a few decimetres) possibly winddeposited and derived from the thicker genuine Pahala Ash deposits mauka. The still active (so called hot pukas) and they served as rootless vents, issuing lava, thereby forming local shields that rose above the surrounding topography. In contrast to this the site of Waipouli was (Upper and Lower Waipouli Flows) (Fig. 12 and Fig 13). The Waipouli Puka therefore is a cold puka collapsed thousands of years after the activity of the tube. Detailed geological mapping (by Philip Stankiewicz and Stephan Kempe in 2000, unpublished; Fig. 13) of the area shows the presence of a series among them a wide-spread black pa of the area (Table 2). This black pahoehoe played a vital role in transforming the Kamakalepo System to its present state by intruding it at several places. First of all, it (or a lava comparable to it) entered a puka of the Kamakalepo system mauka that today is down the tube eventually sealing its Figure 10. View of the underground lake in Waipouli from the entrance (note small rub ber dingy in about a distance of 30 m from the lake shore).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 230 Figure 1. Map of Hawaii with major cave systems.

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231 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 2. Google Earth picture of the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. Figure 3. Aerial picture of Kamakalepo area. The light area is marks the grasscovered Pahala Ash outcrop.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 232 Figure 5 a. Map of Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Mauka Cave.

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233 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 4. Location of pukas and caves and some archaeological features in the Kamakalepo area. Figure 5 b. Longitudinal section of Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Mauka Cave.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 234 Figure 6. Map and longitudinal section of Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Makai Cave.

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235 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 7. Map and longitudinal section of Waipouli Mauka Cave.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 236 Figure 8. Map and sections of Waipouli (Makai) Cave. For lon gitudinal section of entrance Puka see Figure 7. [A larger copy of this map appears in the supplementary material on the CD.]

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237 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 9. Map and cross-section of Stonehenge Puka.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 238 Figure 11. Petrographic thin section of the Kamakalepo-Waipouli-Stonehenge olivine vesicular picrite (plain light). The groundmass consists of opaque oxides; plagioclase is absent both as phenocrysts or in the groundmass; olivine is euhedral, forming a glom eroporphyritic texture with two generations of crystal sizes (large and medium-sized). Section from sample of Stonehenge Puka. (Petrographic description pers. com. A. AlMalabeh, Hashemite Univ. Zarka, Jordan). the Kamakalepo tunnel system before the puka collapsed (so-called cold puka). upper end. Enough heat was transferred into the system to oxidize much of the surface in the mauka part of Kamakalepo rendering it hematite-red. The black lava apparently was only stopped by break down. Further down, the black pahoehoe Pen Puka situated on top of the Lua Nunu black lava cascaded into Lua Nunu from its eastern and southern rims forming veritable curtains and large stalagmitic columns (Fig. 14). Inside the tunnel the way into Waipouli Mauka Cave or even further, thereby sealing the connection between Luna Nunu and Waipouli caves. In Waipouli Mauka Cave, its surface reappears as rough aa while it is still pahoehoe in the Lua Nunu Makai sec tion; there it even formed its own tube that can be entered. The Hawaiians deliberately hid this Secret Passage (campe Fig. 6). Finally, large volumes of the pahoehoe intruded Stonehenge Puka through a breech of its rim in the east, sealing the former entrances to the tunnel below at both ends (Fig. 15). few hundred meters mauka to seal the lower end of Waipouli, where is appears underwater covered with glass shards, already at the time of the black pahoehoe intrusion (Figs. 16, 17). The makai sec completely. The pukas give opportunity to study the roof sequence of the Kamakalepo more detail: that of the Lua Nunu Mauka (Fig. 18) and that of Waipouli Makai (Fig. 19). These sections show that the formation of the cave itself appears to have been a complex process. The evi dence that the primary cave roof at those tion of pahoehoe sheets is inconclusive. Such a process would have produced a roof consisting of a set pahoehoe sheets stacked upon each other, with the oldest sheet on top, having a rope pattern on its surface (e.g., Kempe, 2002). This mode of tube formation is observed in present day Kilauea lavas (e.g., Hon et al., 1994) and is applicable to most of the long lava tunnel caves so far known on Hawaii.

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239 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 13. Geological map of the Kamakalepo area (by P. Stankiewicz, 2000, unpubl., University of Darmstadt). Stratigraphy (from top to bottom). Black Pahoehoe Flow Flow (UW); Lower Waipouli Aa Flow (LW); S Waipouli Aa Flow (SW); Pahala Ash kaleopo Lava but older than the Black Pahaehoe Flow occur to the SW; yellow marks a Figure 14. View of large stalagmite cre ated by black pahoehoe lava intruding the pre-existing Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Puka. View is from the mauka cave en trance south. is composed of a very thick stack (in Waipouli Makai 18 m thick) of thinbedded pahoehoe, often showing surface ropes. These sheets are intercalated with a few, relatively thin aa layers. It appears that these sheets are overbank lavas, produced from root-less vents situated mauka. Multiple vertical linings appear in the ceiling of Waipouli Mauka, on the walls of Lua Nunu, and on the walls of Stonehenge Puka indicating that at those places the roof of the cave was open and lava emerged to form thin, ir regular overbank lava sheets. In both of one pahoehoe sheet which became the ceiling interface of the evolving tunnel below. It is marked by glazing on the lower side and, in case of the Waipouli ing was thickened downward by multiple accretionary linings, well visible in the roof of Waipouli Mauka. This lining also extends downward to cover the walls in thick sheets. In some of the places the lining has sagged or slid from the wall layers were noticed behind the lining, into pre-existing layers. These are also of picritic lava, probably belonging to volcanic activity. The evolving lava conduit there fore enlarged downward, until it was ceasing the overbank activity. It is con ceivable, that the Kamakalepo System formed by the often cited mechanism of a crusting over channel, but the internal structure of the roof is not entirely clear observations of the roof structure about 100 m into the Waipouli tunnel show a more regular picture. Here the primary roof consists of a stack of pahoehoe sheets covering the tunnel uninterrupted from one side to the other. This clearly formation. It is possible that this was the general mode of formation and that the primary roof collapsed in places, forming rootless vents and overbank

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 240 Table 1. Length of Kamakalepo Cave System (north to south). Figure 15. Panorama view (south) of the 60 m long and up to 20 m deep Stonehenge puka. Its rim is marked by large agglomerated lava boulders ejected from the puka when the puka was later intruded by the black pahoehoe lava, marking the youngest lava event in the area. Figure 16. Underwater photograph of the black pahoehoe lava at the end of the Waipouli (makai) Cave. (Picture by A. Figure 17. Petrographic thin section (polarized light) of Waipouli terminal black lava intrusion of olivine-plagioclase vesicular glassy basalt. Composition is about 40% glass, 40% vesicles, 15 % microlitic plagioclase and 5 % phenocrysts of euhedral olivine and plagioclase (no pyroxene phenocrysts). Glasses are slightly to medium palagonitized (yellow to light brown rims of vesicles). (Petrographic description pers. com. A. Al-Malabeh, Hashemite Univ. Zarka, Jordan). Figure 20. At the end of the lake in Waipouli (makai) Cave, a on the lava in the tunnel is welded into the ceiling.

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241 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Luna Nunu o Kamakalepo Puka at the mauka entrance. Table 2. Stratigraphy of the lavas forming and overlying the Kamakalepo-Waipouli

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 242 lavas locally. In any case, the resulting cavity was enormous, at one place 23 m wide and 13 m high. It is the widest and oldest lava cave reported from Mauna have been substantial since in Waipouli Makai a block 12 m wide, 6 m high and the lava, jammed into the ceiling and welded to it (Fig. 20; compare Fig. 8 for location). All of the caves and their surrounding contain ample traces of past occupation by Hawaiians (see Kempe et al., this volume). Cited Literature Bonk, W.J. 1967: Lua Nunu o Kama kalepo: A cave of refuge in Kau, Hawaii. Internal report, unpublished, pp 75-91. Hon, K., J. Kauahikaua, R. Denlinger & K. Mackay, 1994: Emplacement and observations and measurements of Hawaii. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 106: 351-370. Kempe, S., 1999: Waipouli and Ka makalepo, Two Sections of a Large and Old Mauna Loa Tube on Hawaii. Abstract, NSS Convention 1999, Vulcanospeleological session. Und: J. Cave Karst Stud. Nat. Speleolo. Soc. 62 (April 2000) (1): 43. ucts) auf Hawaii und ihre Genese. In: W. Rosendahl & A. Hoppe (Hg.): Angewandte Geowissenschaften in Darmstadt. Schriftenreihe der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Heft 15: 109-127. Kempe, S., H.-V. Henschel, H. Shick & B. Hansen, 2006: Archaeology of the Kamakalepo/Waipouli/Stonehenge area, underground fortresses, living quarters volume.

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243 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Archaeology of the Kamakalepo/Waipouli/Stonehenge Area, Underground Fortresses, Living Quarters and Petroglyph Fields Stephan Kempe 1 Horst-Volker Henschel 2 Harry Shick 3 and Basil Hansen 4 1 Inst. fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany; kempe@geo.tu-darmstadt.de. 2 Henschel & Ropertz, Am Markt 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany; dr.henschel@henschel-ropertz.de 3 General Delivery Keaau 96749 Hawaii, USA. 4 Basil W. Hansen, P.O. Box 759 Naalehu, 96772 Hawaii, USA. South of Naalehu, Hawaii, near the coast, a small outcrop of ash is found that is clearly visible on aerial photographs as a lemon-shaped light spot. It belongs to one of the agriculturally valuable Pahala Ash sites that sustained early Hawaiian populations (Kirch, 1985). The area called Kamakalepo is just East of South Point, where similar soils provided for some of the earliest settlements on Hawaii. The area under investigation (Fig. 1) contains unique archaeological features both above and below ground (Bonk, 1967; Kempe, 1999) and has been studied by the authors over the last several years. A large cave system consisting of four sections of a once much longer tunnel in Mauna Loa lavas (see Kempe et al., this volume) was used extensively by the native Hawaiians. The system is entered through two pukas: Lua Nunu o Kama kalepo (Pigeon Hole of the Common People) now overgrown by acacia shrubs (Fig. 2) and Waipouli (Dark Waters) (Fig. 3). Both of these pukas give accesses to uphill (mauka) and downhill (makai) caves, totalling together 1 km in length (see Table 1 and Figs. 5 to 8 in Kempe et al. this volume) Two further pukas belong to the system, Pork Pen Puka (mauka of Lua Nunu) and Stonehenge Puka (makai of Waipouli) for which no local names are known. Pork Pen Puka is a depression set into the roof of Lua Nunu Mauka Cave, the bottom of which is a secondary ceiling to the cave below. Stonehenge Puka is a large root-less vent with rafted blocks around its perimeter, 60*40 m wide and up to 20 m deep (see Fig. 9 in Kempe et al., this volume). Underground, the caves of the Lua Nunu are the ones used primarily (maps see Figs. 4 and 5). An old, now mostly obliterated path led down from the NE rim. The other sides of the puka are overhanging. Within the puka small outcrops of Pahala Ash exist, possibly ing walls are found at both entrances providing for level ground on which foundations of huts are still noticeable (Fig. 6). The main features are two large defence walls across the cave erected by stacking breakdown blocks. The wall in the Makai Cave, 40 m inside the en trance, collapsed mostly (compare Fig. 6 for location), but the one in the Mauka Cave, ca. 60 m into the cave, is well preserved (compare Fig. 5 for location). It has all the characteristics of a medieval defence wall: It is ca. 2 m high and up to 1 m thick and because it was erected on breakdown it reaches 3.7 and 5.5 m wall to wall and due to its convex-mauka curvature, is reaches a length of almost 25 m (the cave being 23 m wide and 14 m high in its centre). A doorway slightly off the middle (Fig. 8) of the wall admits access and platforms behind the wall (Fig. 9) permit the defenders to throw sling stones and spears at the attackers. Sling stones (wave-worn pebbles) are The defenders would stand in the dark, while the attackers would be outlined by daylight coming in from the entrance. Behind the wall, Bonk (1967) counted 102 sleeping platforms these extend well into the zone of complete darkness. Charcoal and seafood shells and some suggesting that the place has in fact served its purpose. Charcoal dating is in been in use. Artifacts have been collected in 1908 by Meineke and 1967 by Bonk. In the far back of the cave, we opened a Figure 2. Southward panorama view of the large Kamakalepo puka. Note person on left for scale and post at rim of puka. This post used to hold a sign marking the cave as a civil defence shelter in the 1950ies.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 244 Figure 1. Situation of Kamakalepo area with important landmarks Figure 3. Eastward panorama view of the Waipouli Puka. Note the person climbing down the only path into the puka and down to the lake in the makai section of the cave. crawl, giving access to more than 100 m of additional cave (see Fig. 4). Even here we found a few charcoal bits on the already explored this section, albeit by a now collapsed crawl. described from other caves on Hawaii. Cave of Refuge on the Hakuma Horst in Kalapana, Puna District. There the defense function was obtained by nar rowing the entrance to the cave to a crawlway that could be entered by at tackers only one at a time (Kempe et al., 1993). La Plante (1993) reported about crawlways) from the Puna District (most probably Pahoa Cave) without giving details about locations or constructional dimensions. Small defense walls, now crumbled seem to have protected the cave passages below Keala Pit as well (Kempe & Ketz-Kempe, 1997). More

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245 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 4. Map of Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Mauka Cave. Note archeological details.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 246 Figure 5. Map of Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Makai Cave. Note archeological details. Figure 6. View from the inside of the Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Mauka Cave towards the entrance with 2.4 m high retaining wall and sections of the old path leading into the cave. Figure 7. View mauka of the 25 m long defense wall in the Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Mauka Cave. Note persons for scale and gate at the center of the wall. Figure 8. View of the gate from the inside. Note the entrance of the cave 60 m away in the background.

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247 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 9. Fighting platform behind the southern side of the defense wall. Figure 10. Sling stones were used in the defense of the cave and Figure 11 (left). Weathered whale ver tebra from the deeper part of the lake in Waipouli Makai Cave. Figure 12 (right). Opening of an over 20 m deep well dug by farmers to pump up water for cattle from the Waipouli lake. Figure 13. The girders of the wind mill providing power to the pump were thrown into the lake of Waipouli. These are now settled by iron-oxidizing bacteria forming spectacular underwater rusticles (Scale.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 248 Figure 19. A dagger and an inscription of post-contact times. Figure 18. A petroglyph of an elaborated cross, most probably post-contact and Christian in meaning. Figure 17. A petroglyph of a pentagram, most probably postcontact. Figure 15. Old Hawaiian path leading across the aa from the Waipouli Puka southeastward. Figure 14 (above). Small heiau (platform for a hut or small temple) at the northern edge of the Kamakalepo ash plain used formerly for agriculture. Figure 16 (right). A beachrock (carbonate cemented lava and marine carbonate sands) placed at the southern end of the path from Waipouli Puka to mark the begin of the path in the dark.

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249 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 23. Examples of simple stickmen petroplyphs, right with a penis (male) left without (female). Figure 20. A southward panorama view across Petroglyph Valley, an evacuated lava channel. In an area of 50*50 m 92 petroglyphs were counted. simple stickmen, other have a triangular body. Figure 22. The picture of a male primate being with a long tail, possibly a monkey brought by sailors to the island in the early post-contact period. Figure 24. Petroglyphs of humans with double-lined bodies.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 250 data probably exist in internal reports of various agencies without ever having been published. The Lua Nunu o Kamakalepo Makai Cave has also been fully explored by the extend almost 100 m into the cave. At the makai end, the black pahoehoe lava that intruded the puka secondarily (com pare Kempe et al., this volume) forms a separate, less than a meter high tube. It was also entered by the Hawaiians as rocks, probably to hide the entrance of this chamber of last refuge (see Secrete Hall on map, Fig. 5). Both of the Waipouli Caves show little signs of Hawaiian presence. In the mauka sections, just a few places with charcoal are found and a few bits by a brackish water lake that is caped by freshwater at times of high ground stone on the steep entrance slope and a whale vertebra in the water ( 14 C dating in progress) (Fig. 11). The water was extensively used in the 20 th century when a motor was set up at the entrance on a concrete platform and water was pumped up for cattle. Also, an over 20 m deep well was dug through the cave roof (Fig. 12) and the water was pumped up by a wind mill for cattle. Part of its collapsed trestle was thrown into the well shaft and landed in the water of the cave, where it now forms interesting rusticles under water (Fig. 13). Stonehenge Puka was also used by Hawaiians: Its southern wall is overhang ing and provided some natural shelter. Here a few very small platforms were erected (see Fig. 9, Kempe et al., this volume). Above ground the area shows many signs of usage. First of all there is a beach stone paved path, giving access to the area from the west (mauka). The area south of Lua Nunu is covered by ash and could have been used for agri culture, explaining the presence of the underground settlement. At the western rim of the ash plain, just a few meters on the overlaying bare lava, we found two small heiaus, compact stone platforms used either for dwelling huts or religious purposes (Fig. 1 for location; Fig. 14). The Pork Pen Puka has stone walls along its perimeter and throughout its centre, suggesting that it was used to keep pigs in there. At the eastern side of the ash outcrop, there is a rectangular structure build from pahoehoe plates which prob ably also was a pen either for pigs, or for goats and cows if erected after contact. Nearby, a shallow cave was found, show ing also signs of occupation. Paths connected the Lua Nunu with Waipouli (mostly overgrown now) and led towards the coast from Waipouli eastward (Fig. 15). At the end of the path a large block of carbonate containing beachrock was placed (Fig. 16), obvi ously a well-visible signal to guide the traveller to the beginning of the path across the Waipoli aa. Within the studied area, three sites with petroglyphs occur. The one furthest The second one, north of Stonehenge, is composed of post-contact petroglyphs: It displays a pentagram (Fig. 17), a large it inscribed with a + and a X (Fig. 18), and a sabre with a two line inscription reading: KA IEIE PALA and IKA UA NOE (the Mellow IeIe, a plant, and Strong Misty Rain; possibly the names of two lovebirds) (Fig. 19). To the north an area the size of 50*50 centered at around 18N59,979 155E 35,823 (Old Hawaiianm) is covered by almost a hundred petroglyphs (Fig. 20). It is situated at the seaward end of a shallow valley. We divided the glyphs into ten areas with GPS centers as listed in Table 1. The petroglyphs are of a mixed com position, simple stickman occur next to more complicated full body pictures (Fig. 21), both in frontal as in lateral long tails, suggesting they might have depicted monkeys (one of them clearly a male specimen) (Fig. 22), thus plac ing the petroglyphs into the early postcontact time. Some of the glyphs have been almost obliterated by later poundmarks; others have apparently not been completed. The area abounds with pound marks and marks made by sharpening tools. A total of 92 glyphs were identi as shown in Table 2. It is interesting to note that a variety of styles is present. The group of simple stickmen with arms and legs bend at right angles dominates; male and female glyphs occur with a similar frequency male stickmen has two lines extending down its head, like indicating long hair. Five stickmen have one hand raised as if in greeting. A few stickmen have simple spread legs like in an inverted Y. The out a penis and could therefore possibly all be labeled as female, a conclusion open circle as head and a double line as a body have a variety of hands (Fig. 24), 8 (Fig. 26). The two ape-like glyphs are among the largest. One, with a penis, is shown in side view (A6) (Fig. 22), the other (A8) is shown in frontal view with a long thin tail between the legs. Otherwise, no clear animal pictures are seen. One glyph representing a sort of Table 1: Petroglyph groups in the Petroglyph Valley, Kamakalepo area.

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251 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 triangle and two curved lines issuing from it could be taken for the image of the head of a goat (Fig. 27). Overall, the site seems to be restricted (with the exception of the two monkeys and the goat) to glyphs of humans, both female and males. Circular depressions and rings are missing, so prominent in other Hawaiian petroglyph sites, and in spite of the proximity to the sea, no marine animals are depicted (Cox & Stasack, 1977). Area 9 features a vertical slab which is pounded upon forming a spot about 1 m in diameter (Fig. 28); the surfaces of the inclined slabs below are also heavily abraded. Both slabs contain traces of almost erased stickmen. We interpret this area as a sling-stone practice target. Behind the slabs, a ca. 5 m long cave extends, which contains four bamboo poles of unknown age. Apart from the petroglyps, the valley is heavily impacted by Hawaiian quar rying (Fig. 29): all along the rims of the valley the upper lava layers have been dug up, partly down to 2 to 3 m, and piles Figure 26. Large (possible male) human Figure 27. Possible glyph of a goat, again a sign of post-contact date of some of the petroglyphs. Figure 25. Sideview of a full-bodied hu

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 252 of broken rocks litter the perimeter of the quarries. Quarrying has been going on also in the area between the Petroglyph Valley and Lua Nunu. Many of the sites display longitudinal grooves caused by grinding. What exactly the rock was quarried for remains unknown since no intermediate products were noticed. cally the number of sleeping platforms behind the defense walls suggests that the Kamakalepo area sustained a sizeable population. At peak times it may have counted several hundred people. Clearly the area was still settled in early postcontact times as illustrated by petroglyps of monkeys, a dagger, a Christian (?) cross and an inscription. Writing was introduced to the islands after 1820. The only directly accessible water in the area is the lake in Waipouli. Paths leading towards it suggest that it was used by the Hawaiians intensively, in spite of the fact that not much archeo logical evidence is found inside. Any stairways or walls may have been oblit erated either by later rock fall or by the farmers in the early 20 th century. This water supply is, however, treacherous and in times of drought the water turns brackish, salty enough to make it even water in the caves ceases also, which is, in other areas of the island, a major source of water (compare Martin, 1993; Kempe & Ketz-Kempe, 1997). Therefore timing of the Kamakalepo settlement may have been feasible only under a different climate condition, such as the Little Iceage, when more groundwater may have been available. We collected some charcoal and animal bones to be dated in order to constrain the time of occupation much better. Cited Literature Bonk, W.J., 1967: Lua Nunu o Kama kalepo: A cave of refuge in Kau, Hawaii. Internal report, unpublished: 75-91. Cox, J.H. & Stasack, E., 1977: Hawai ian Petroglyphs. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publications 60, 100 pp. Kempe, S., 1999: Waipouli and Ka makalepo, two sections of a large and old Mauna Loa Tube on Hawaii. Abstract, NSS Convention 1999, Vulcanospeleological session. And: J. Cave Karst Stud. Nat. Speleol. Soc. 62 (April 2000) (1): 43. Kempe, S., C. Ketz-Kempe, W.R. Hal liday & M. S. Werner, 1993: The Cave of Refuge, Hakuma Horst, Kalapana, 16(2): 133-142. Kempe, S., & C. Ketz-Kempe, 1997: Archaeological observations in lava tubes on Hawaii. Proc. 12. Intern. Congr. Speleol. 10.-17. Aug. 1997, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, Vol. 3: 13-16. Kempe, S., H.-V. Henschel, H. Shick & F. Trusdell, 2006: Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System in Mauna Loa Picritic Lavas, Naalehu, Hawaii. This volume. Kirch, P.V., 1985: Feathered Gods and Fishhooks, an Introduction to Ha waiian Archaeology and Prehistory. University of Hawaii Press, Hono lulu, 349 pp. La Plante, M., 1993: Recently discovered Hawaiian religious and burial caves. Proc. 6th Intern. Symp. Volcanospe leol., Hilo, 1991: 7-9. Martin, J., 1993: Native Hawaiian wa ter collection systems in lava tubes (caves) and fault cracks. Proc. 6th Intern. Symp. Volcanospeleol., Hilo, 1991: 10-14. Figure 28. This near-vertical slab features multiple pound-marks, possibly a training target for shooting sling-stones. Figure 29. One of the many quarries of the area where Hawaiians dug up stones.

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253 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Abstract In this contribution the software AT LANTIS Tierra 2.0 is described as a promising tool to be used in the conser vation management of the animal and plant biodiversity of caves in Macaro nesia. In the Azores, the importance of cave entrances to bryophytes is twofold: i) since these are particularly humid, sheltered habitats, they support a diverse assemblage of bryophyte species and referred to this habitat and ii) species, either endemic or referred in the Euro pean red list due to their vulnerability (19 Cave adapted arthropods are also diverse in the Azores and 21 endemic obligate Use of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 in Mapping the Biodiversity (Invertebrates and Bryophytes) of Caves in the Azorean Archipelago Paulo A.V. Borges 1,2,3 Rosalina Gabriel 3 Fernando Pereira 1,2,3 Ensima P. Mendona 3 Eva Sousa 3 1 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. 2 GESPEA Grupo de Estudo do Patrimnio Espeleolgico dos Aores. 3 Universidade dos Aores, Dep. Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores; pborges@mail.angra.uac.pt. cave species were recorded. Generally these species have restricted distributions and some are known from only one cave. ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 allows the map ping of the distribution of all species in a 500 x 500 m grid in a GIS interface. This allows an easy detection of species rich caves (hotspots) and facilitates the interpretation of spatial patterns of spe cies distribution. For instance, predictive models of species distribution could be constructed using the distribution of lava Using this new tool we will be better equipped to answer the following ques tions: a) Where are the current hotspot caves of biodiversity in the Azores?; b) How many new caves need to be selected as specially protected areas in order to conserve the rarest endemic taxa?; c) Is there congruence between the patterns of richness and distribution of invertebrates and bryophytes?; d) Are environmental variables good surrogates of species distributions? Introduction The study of Azorean cave fauna and ditions of National Geographic under the supervision of Pedro Orom (Univ. de La Laguna) and Philippe Ashmole (Univ. de Edinburg) and with the support of the speleological Azorean group Os Montanheiros (see Orom et al. 1990, Gonzlez-Mancebo et al. 1991). After those two expeditions in 1988 and 1990, the University of the Azores and Os Montanheiros performed most of the biospeleological work in the Azores (see Borges & Orom 1994, 2006, Gabriel & Dias 1994). In the Azores, the impor tance of cave entrances to bryophytes is twofold: i) since these are particularly humid, sheltered habitats, they support a diverse assemblage of bryophyte species and circa 25% of the Azorean ii) species, either endemic or referred in the European red list (ECCB 1995) due to their vulnerability (19 species) adapted arthropods are also diverse in the Azores and 21 endemic obligate cave species were recorded (Borges & Orom 2006). Generally these species have restricted distributions and some are known from only one cave (Borges & Orom 2006). There is a general agreement among scientists that biodiversity is under as sault on a global basis and that species are being lost at greatly enhanced rates due to human processes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution and global climate change Figure 1. Entrance window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to ob serve eight possible entrance gateways, the most relevant being the taxonomic reports (Taxonoma), information about species (Consulta de espcies) and data analysis (Consulta de anlisis).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 254 (Lawton & May 1995; Chapin et al. 2000). Moreover, some recent studies indicate that there are some concerns related with invasive species and the conservation of native biodiversity in the Azores (Silva & Smith 2004, Borges et al. 2006). In this contribution, a new software, ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, is described as a promising tool to be used in the con servation management of the animal and plant biodiversity of caves from the Azores. ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 Since 1998 the Government of the Canary Islands as been conducing an important project on biodiversity, Proj ect BIOTA (see Izquierdo et al. 2001, 2004). A Visual Basic software, called ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, was developed for biodiversity data storage. With this database it will be possible to gather detailed information about all species on the surveyed geographical areas of interest. This software has several im portant tools, namely a taxonomic tool and a conservation management analysis tool (Fig. 1) that allows the calcula tion of species richness, their rarity or complementarity in all 500x500 m cells of a particular island or, in any special area in one island. With this software all the informa tion we could think of about a species (e.g. the cavernicolous ground-beetle Trechus montanheirorum ) is available in clicking the information about species ( Consulta de espcie s) window (see Fig. 2). In this window it is also possible to check the detailed distribution of the species in a 500 x 500 m scale (Fig. 3). With this tool we may also investigate the distribution of the species throughout time in asking for its distribution in dif ferent time intervals. To each signalized 500 x 500 m grid cell correspond a cave for which the species was signalized in the literature. However, it is in the data analysis facility that ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 is more interesting in terms of its appli cation in a conservation management study. As an example in Fig. 4 we see the species richness of the European Rare Bryophytes (ECCB 1995) in caves from Graciosa Island (Azores). The gridcell with the highest number of species corresponds to the location of Furna do Enxofre, currently a volcanic pit protected by law and under the special management of the Government. In Fig. 4 we can see also the list of species in grid cell with the highest number of species and that list could be exported to another software (e.g. Excel). Very important in conservation man agement studies is to ask: Ho many sites are needed to include all species of interest at least once?. To answer this question, we could use the complemen tarity procedure, in which we get the minimum set of caves that combined have the highest representation of spe cies (see Williams 2001). ATLANTIS Figure 2. Species management window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to observe the nomenclature of the species, a picture, the distribution of the species in the archipelago (green island) and other relevant information concerning the habitats, conser vation status, biogeographical origin, etc.

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255 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 3. Species managment window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to observe the detailed distri bution of Trechus montanheirorum in the island of Pico (lines are main roads in the island).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 256 Figure 4. Data analysis window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to observe the number of bryophyte species in the European Red List present in caves from Graciosa Island (Azores). The list of species in the window corresponds to the grid cell with 15 species (Furna do Enxofre).

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257 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Figure 5. Data analysis window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to observe the four grid-cells that are necessary to include all the endemic arthropods occurring in caves from Terceira island (see text for further explanations).

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 258 Figure 6. Data analysis window of ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0, in which it is possible to observe the list of endemic arthropods that occur in two distinct cave systems at Terceira island (see text for further explanations).

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259 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Tierra 2.0 uses the heuristic suboptimal simple-greedy reserve-selection algo species richness is selected. Then, these species are ignored and the grid-cell with the highest complement of species (that is, the most species not represented in the previous selected grid-cell), and so on, until all species are represented at least once. One good example of the applica tion of the complementarity procedure is showed in Fig. 5, in which only four out of the eleven grid-cells with caves are necessary to protect the 26 endemic arthropod species occurring in the caves of this island. Those four grid-cells are signalized with a green dark border (the dark border (the three other selected gridcells). Therefore, with only four caves well managed we may protect all the endemic arthropod species know to oc cur in caves at Terceira Island (Azores). However, we should call attention to the fact that the complementarity procedure could be made more complex asking for the minimum set of caves that combined have at least each species represented twice, therefore assuring that species are protected in more than one place. Another important facility available in ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 is related with the investigation of the species com position in different areas of a region. For instance, we could have the list of species that are common in two dif ferent cave systems (Fig. 6). We could also get the list of species for each cave system and by exclusion obtain the lists of species that are exclusive to each cave system. Conclusion There is some urgency in the conserva tion of the diverse community of mosses and liverworts (Bryophyta) as well as of the rich cave adapted arthropods oc curring in the Azorean lava tubes and volcanic pits. The general pattern that emerges is that ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 will be an important tool not only for the Azorean Government in managing the territory and designing natural protected areas, but also for research in de areas of applied ecology and conservation. Using the ATLANTIS Tierra 2.0 new tool we will be better equipped to answer the following important questions: a) Where are the current hotspot caves of biodiversity in the Azores?; b) How many new caves need to be selected as specially protected areas in order to conserve the rarest endemic taxa?; c) Is there congruence between the patterns of richness and distribution of invertebrates and bryophytes?; d) Are environmental variables good surrogates of species distributions? Acknowledgements We wish to thank to Azorean Govern ment for supporting our trip to Mexico to participate on the XII nd Interna tional Symposium on Vulcanospeleol ogy (Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mxico, July 2006). Digital information of the islands was obtained within Project ATLNTICO INTERREG IIIB, with permission of contract n 047/CCO/2003. References Borges, P.A.V., Lobo, J.M., Azevedo, E. B., Gaspar, C., Melo, C. & Nunes, L.V. (2006). Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species. Journal of Biogeography 33: 169-187. Borges, P.A.V. & Orom, P. (1994). The Azores. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeleolog ica. Tome I pp. 605-610. Socit de Biospleologie, Moulis. Borges, P.A.V. & Orom, P. (2006). The Azores. In C. Juberthie & V. Decu (Eds.) Encyclopaedia Biospeleolog ica. Tome Ia Amrique et Europe. pp. ???. Socit de Biospleologie, Moulis. Chapin III, F.S., Zavaleta, E.S., Eviner, V.T., Naylor, R.L., Vitousek, P.M., Reynolds, H.L., Hooper, D.U., Lavorel, S., Sala, O.E., Hobbie, S.E., Mack, M.V. & Daz, S. (2000) Con sequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405: 234-242. ECCB (1995) Red data book of Europe an bryophytes European Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes. Trondheim. Gabriel, R. & Dias, E. (1994). First approach to the study of the Algar in: Actas do 3 Congresso Nacional de Espeleologia e do 1 Encontro Internacional de Vulcanoespeleologia das Ilhas Atlnticas (30 de Setembro a 4 de Outubro de 1992), pp. 206-213. Angra do Herosmo. Gonzlez-Mancebo, J.M., LosadaLima, A. & Hrnandez-Garcia, C.D. (1991). A contribution to the Azores. Mmoires de Biospologie 18: 219-226. Lawton, J.H. & May, R.M. (1995) Ex tinction Rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Orom, P., Martin, J.L., Ashmole, N.P. & Ashmole, M.J. (1990). A preliminary report on the cavernicolous fauna of the Azores. Mmoires de Biospolo gie, 17: 97-105. Silva, L. & Smith, C.W. (2004) A charac of the Azores Archipelago. Biological Invasions 6: 193-204. Williams P. (2001). Complementarity. In: Levin S. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, Volume 5. Academic Press, pp. 813-829.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 260 Bryophytes of Lava Tubes and Volcanic Pits from Graciosa Island (Azores, Portugal) Rosalina Gabriel 1 Fernando Pereira 1,2 Sandra Cmara 1 Ndia Homem 1 Eva Sousa 1 and Maria Irene Henriques 1 1 Universidade dos Aores, Departamento de Cincias Agrrias, CITA-A, Centro de Investigao de Tecnologias Agrrias dos Aores. 9700-851 Angra do Herosmo, Aores, Portugal. 2 Os Montanheiros, Rua da Rocha, 9700 Angra do Herosmo, Terceira, Aores, Portugal. Abstract Mainly due to historical reasons, the poorest of the Azores (119 species), and it is especially scarce of rare and endemic species. However, Lava Tubes (Furna da Maria Encantada, Furna do Abel, Galeria Forninho) and Volcanic Pits (Furna do Enxofre) seem to offer refuge to some interesting plants. Previous studies have recorded, among others, the European endemic moss, Homalia web biana present only in four of the nine Azorean Islands and with a distribution of less than 10 localities known in the archipelago. The main purposes of this the bibliographic records of bryophytes that may be observed in the volcanic formations of Graciosa; ii) to identify, in those formations, endemic bryophyte species (from the Azores, Macaronesia and Europe) and species with a conserva tion risk associated, according to the Eu ropean Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes (ECCB). The results show that although no endemic plants from the Azores were found at this point, six Eu ropean and four Macaronesian endemic of these volcanic formations, including one Vulnerable species and three rare species, according to ECCB criteria. In conclusion, besides the rich geological interest of the caves in Graciosa, their entrances continue to harbour rare or en demic bryophytes, not commonly found on other parts of the island, possibly due to the greater stability of these habitats. This is an additional reason to preserve the caves and a further possible motive of interest to all that visit them. Introduction Bryophytes include mosses (Bryopsida), liverworts (Marchantiopsida) and horn worts (Anthocerotopsida), all of which are small primitive plants that occupy a wide variety of habitats and substrates. Bryophytes assume an important Figure 1. Sampled cave sites of Graciosa Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal). (1, Furna do Enxofre; 2, Furna da Maria Encantada; 3, Furna do Abel; 4, Galeria Forninho).

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261 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 functional role in the ecosystems where they occur, performing water intercep tion, accumulation of water and their mineral contents, decomposition of or ganic matter and physical protection of soils. Many bryophyte species are used as bioindicators, and their presence is associated with atmospheric and aquatic purity (Gabriel et. al. 2005). The Azores Archipelago offers a great variety of habitats for bryophytes, due to the diversity of microhabitats and available substrata, and to the hyperhumid conditions they provide (Gabriel & Bates, 2005). Mainly due to historical reasons, Graciosa Island is the poor est island of the Azores regarding the number of bryophytes (119), especially of rare and endemic species. However, Lava Tubes (Furna da Maria Encantada, Furna do Abel, Galeria Forninho) and Volcanic Pits (Furna do Enxofre) seem to offer refuge to some interesting plants. Previous studies have recorded, among others, the European endemic moss, Homalia webbiana present only in four of the nine Azorean Islands and with less than 10 localities recorded in the archipelago. The main purposes of the project bibliographic records of bryophytes that may be observed in the volcanic forma tions of Graciosa; ii) to identify in those formations, endemic bryophyte species (from the Azores, Macaronesia and Eu rope) and species with a conservation risk associated, according to the Euro pean Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes (ECCB). Material and methods Graciosa is the northernmost island of the central group of the Azorean archi pelago (39 N, 28 W), and the second smallest of the Azores (61.7 km 2 ). This is the most levelled surface island of the archipelago, with more than 90 % of its surface below 300 m; its highest point is Pico Timo, at 398 m altitude. The island has four villages: Luz, Gua dalupe, Praia and Santa Cruz, which is the largest and most important one. Four cave entrances from Graciosa were purposefully sampled by one of us (FP) during June and July of 2005 (Figure 1): Furna do Enxofre; Furna da Maria Encantada; Furna do Abel and Galeria Forninho. All bryophytes were collected to newspaper bags, with Table 1. List of bryophyte species found in the entrance of four caves in Graciosa Island

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 262 Table 2. Status and endemic area of the bryophyte species found on Graciosa cave entrances. Status according to the European Red List of Bryophytes (ECCB, 1995) (K, unknown status; R, rare species; V, vulnerable species; NT, not immediately threatened in Europe); endemism area (Macaronesia, Mac; Europe, Eur). reference of place and date of collection, substrate, and different observations concerning the ecology of the plant. Bryophyte samples were air dried. laboratory of the Departamento de Cin cias Agrrias, University of the Aores. Nomenclature follows Gabriel et al and Smith (1978) for mosses and Schu macker and Va (2000), Smith (1990) and Paton (1999) for liverworts and Dr. Ceclia Srgio (LISU, University of Lisboa, Portugal), Professor Ren Schu macker (University of Lige, Belgium) of Uppsala, Sweden). Results and discussion Thirty two species of bryophytes may be found at the entrances of the four caves surveyed in Graciosa Island (Table 1), which corresponds to more than a quarter of all the bryophytes known to that island (26.9 %). The large volcanic pit, Furna do Enxofre and the small cave Furna da Maria Encantada are the richest caves surveyed with 12 and 14 bryophyte species, respectively. The results show that although no endemic plants from the Azores were found at this point, six European and four Macaronesian endemic species were found at the entrances of these volcanic formations, including one Vulnerable species and three rare species, according to ECCB criteria. Hence, ten bryophytes are listed in the European Red List of Bryophytes (ECCB, 1995), either due to their rarity or to their biogeographi cally restricted area, endemic species (Table 2). Those ten species may be found in other islands and habitats, however it is important to note the presence of the vulnerable Macaronesian endemic liver wort, Radula wichurae and the European endemic moss Homalia webbiana that is very rare in the Azores. The moss may only be found at four of the nine islands of the Archipelago (Flores, Graciosa, S. Jorge and Santa Maria) and has been recorded for less than ten localities in them. Conclusions of Graciosa Island may be found at the cave entrances accessed in this study. Although this habitat harbours mostly species found on other habitats, it also serves as a refuge to ten species, cur rently listed in the European Red List of Bryophytes (ECCB, 1995). In particular, the presence of Homalia webbiana of Furna do Enxofre, a classical local ity, previously referred by GonzlezMancebo, Losada-Lima & HrnandezGarcia (1991). This European endemic moss is very rare on the Azores, where there are less than 10 localities known for the species. In conclusion, besides the rich geo logical interest of the caves in Graciosa, their entrances continue to harbour rare or endemic bryophytes, not commonly found on other parts of the island, pos sibly due to the greater stability of these habitats. This is an additional reason to preserve the caves and a further pos sible motive of interest to all that visit them. Acknowledgements We wish to thank to the following enti ties: The project SOSTENPEstratgias de desenvolvimento econmico, social e ecolgico sustentvel em espaos naturais protegidos da Macaronsia: ciosa. INTERREG IIIB. The Azorean Government, for sup porting the trip to Mexico of Rosalina Gabriel and Fernando Pereira, in or der to participate on the XII nd Interna tional Symposium on Vulcanospeleol ogy (Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mxico, July 2006); The Centro de Investigao e Tec nologia Agrria dos Aores (CITAa/ UAores) for supporting Ndia Homem and Sandra Cmara by the means of The kind staff of the Ecoteca da Graciosa, for all the facilities granted Graciosa Island. References ECCB. 1995. Red data book of European bryophytes European Committee for the Conservation of Bryophytes. Trondheim. Hedens, L. 1992. Flora of Madeiran pleurocarpous mosses (Isobryales, Hypnobryales, Hookeriales). Bryo phytorum Bibliotheca 44 : 1-165. Gabriel, R. & Bates, J. W. 2005. Bryo phyte community composition and ests of Terceira, Azores. Plant Ecol ogy, 177 : 125-144.

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263 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Srgio, C., Frahm, J. P. & Sousa, E. 2005. Bryophyta. In: Borges, P.A.V., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Martins, A.F., Silva, L., and Vieira, V. (eds.) A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. pp. 117-129, Direco Regional do Ambiente and Univer sidade dos Aores, Horta, Angra do Herosmo and Ponta Delgada. Gonzlez-Mancebo, J. M., Losada-Lima, A. & Hrnandez-Garcia, C. D. 1991. A of caves on the Azores. Mmoires de Biospologie 17 : 219-226. Paton, J. A. 1999. The Liverwort Flora of the British Isles Harley Books. Colchester. England. Schumacker, R. & Va, J. 2000 Iden hornworts of Europe and Macaronesia (Distribution & Status). Documents Fagnes 31 : 1160, Robertville. Smith, A. J. E. 1978. of Britain and Ireland Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Smith, A. J. E. 1990. The liverworts of Britain and Ireland Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 264 Cueva del Diablo: a Bat cave in Tepoztlan 1 Gabriela Lpez Segurajuregui, 2 Karla Toledo Gutirrez, and 3 Rodrigo A. Medelln 1 polichinilla@yahoo.com.mx 2 d_huevos@hotmail.com 3 Laboratorio de Ecologa y Conservacin de Vertebrados, Instituto de Ecologa, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n anexo al Jardn Botnico Exterior, C. P. 70 275 Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, 04510 Mxico, D. F.; medellin@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx Introduction With 1116 extant species recognized worldwide, bats are second only to ro dents in terms of total number of species (Simmons, 2005; Wilson and Reeder, 2005). Diversity of bats is noteworthy not only by quantity but also because their evolutionary radiation has led the group to an unparalleled ecologi Bats occupy several trophic guilds, from primary consumers to predators; they roost in many types of natural and human-made structures in numbers from a few animals to millions, creating the greatest concentrations of warm-blooded vertebrates (Medelln, 2003). There are 9 families of bats in Mexico that comprises 64 genera and 140 spe cies, 15 of which are endemic (Teje dor, 2005; Ceballos et. al. 2002). The Mexican bat fauna is rich because of the countrys complex topography, the fact that Mexico contains virtually every known vegetation type (Rzedowski, 1978), and because it has three distinct biogeographical elements: neotropical, neartic (the limits of which are entirely contained within Mexicos borders), and endemic (Medelln, 2003). Chiropterans play several major ecological roles in many ecosystems. Insectivorous bat species are the pri mary consumers of nocturnal insects, and given the relatively large volumes consumed (up to 100% of body weight per night) and the long distances trav eled (several km per night), these bats are thought to play a major role in regu lating nocturnal insect population and intransporting nutrients across the land scape (Kunz and Pierson, 1994). Bats insects, and an important biological control agents of insect pests (Russell, et. al. 2005; Medelln, 2003), includ ing cucumber beetles, June bugs, corn borers, Jerusalen crickets, leafhoppers and noctuid moths which are important agricultural pests on such crops as corn, spinach, pumpkins, cotton, potatoes or tomatoes (Whitaker, 1993). Bats are pollinators and seed dispers ers for a number of ecologically and economically important plants (Kunz and Pierson, 1994). They pollinate plants associated with tropical and subtropi cal dry areas, such as agaves, cactus and a variety of tropical trees (Arita and Wilson, 1987). They disperse seeds occurring in the plant families to which and Piperaceae, among others (Flem ing, 1987). Worldwide, there are more than 750 plant species that have been listed as visited by bats (von Helversen and Winter, 2003). Flower visiting bats in Mexico are represented by 12 species, most of which have restricted distribution; two of them are endemic to the country, two others to Middle America and ten use caves as a main or alternative roost (Arita and Santos del Prado, 1999). Despite the importance of bats for ecological processes and for humans, this group of animals is facing great population declines and extinction pres sures worldwide (Hutson et. al. 2001). About 24% of bats (248 species) are considered at risk by the IUCN (2006): 32 critical endangered, 44 endangered and 172 vulnerable. Mexico has a similar percentage of species at risk but at a national level: 12 under special protec tion, 15 threatened and 4 endangered, including 5 endemic species (SEMAR NAT, 2002). Over the past 400 years, at least 9 species of bats have become extinct (IUCN, 2006). Bat populations in many countries are thought to have declined over the past 50 100 years, and al though the evidence for such reduc tions is often circumstantial, there are cases where declines have been well documented (Mohr, 1972; Stebbings, 1988; Rabinowitz and Tuttle, 1980; R. A. Medelln, pers. obs.). Factors behind the decline of bat popu lations are often related to hu man destruction of habitat and roosts Abstract In Mexico, almost half of the 140 spe cies of bats use caves as alternative or primary roosts. One volcanic cave that houses important colonies of these ani mals is Cueva del Diablo in Tepoztlan, Morelos, central Mexico. At least three bat species have been reported in this cave. One of them, the Mexican longnosed bat ( Leptonycteris nivalis ), is of particular importance in economical and ecological terms. This species migrates from central to northern Mexico and southern United States in mid spring and come back in mid autumn. In Mexico, species, and in the U.S. as an endan gered one. Owing to the fact that Cueva del Dia blo is the only known roost in which this species mates, the cave was proposed by us as a sanctuary to the CONANP (National Commission of Natural Pro tected Areas) in 2004. In addition to this proposal, the PCMM (Program for Conservation of Mexican Bats) has con ducted environmental education efforts in the region as an attempt to modify the negative ideas about bats and to share the information concerning their importance and that of caves for them. Other PCMM studies conducted in this cave focus on the diet of the species and understanding its mating system, for this species. This document repre sents a compilation of those works in Cueva del Diablo with emphasis in their importance for the general conservation of bats and caves.

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265 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 (Medellin and Gaona, 2000). An increas ing human population brings with it extra demands for land, resources and food, which often results in the degradation, destruction or fragmentation of certain habitat types with a concomitant effect on bat populations (Hutson et. al ., 2001). Impacts of agriculture and its deriva tives (e. g. reduction of fallow periods, overgrazing, loss of important plant species for bat foraging, replacement of natural vegetation with cash crops and monoculture as a result of that, use of pesticides that affects insect fauna and are potentially sub-lethal for bats breeding performance, among others), forestation, introduced predator species or pollution, can affect negatively bat populations (Hutson et. al ., 2001). Linking bats to witchcraft and magic has given rise to many of the fears people have about them (McCracken, 1992). Within the same topic, the feeding habits of the vampire have been so exaggerated and confused with Old World legends that the animal is of particular interest. It has been considered a threat both to people and to their domestic animals in Latin America (Nowak, 1994), where, as an ironic fact, populations of vampire bats have increased sharply in areas to which European livestock have been in troduced (Hutson et. al. 2001). Common vampire bat is extensively persecuted as a vector of rabies, that is transmitted to cattle and other ungulates on which it feeds, although its incidence is low (<1%). The main method of control is the use of anticoagulants applied to individual bats captured by mist nets, which are dispersed to other individu als in the roost by allogrooming (Brass, 1994). However, roosts have also been burned, gassed and dynamited, with the loss of large populations of harmless fauna (Hutson, et. al. 2001). The importance of bat caves Indeed, roost site disturbance and de struction is another great threat for bats, and this can be represented by the loss or alteration of trees and buildings, guano mining, deliberate destruction, or not regulated tourism or caving (Hutson, et. al. 2001). Roosting ecology of bats can be viewed as a complex interaction of phys iological, behavioral, and morphological adaptations and demographic response. These animals spend over half their lives subjected to the selective pressures of their roost environment. For many bats the availability and physical capacity of roosts can set limits on the number and dispersion of roosting bats, and social organization and foraging strat egy employed (Kunz, 1982). Roosts are important sites for mating, hibernation, and rearing young. They often facilitate complex social interactions, offer protec tion from inclement weather, promote energy conservation, and minimize risks of predation (Villa-R, 1967; Kunz and Lumsden, 2003). Underground sites, both natural (e. mines), are crucial to the survival of many bat species worldwide (Hutson et. al. 2001). In relation to other roosts, caves stand out because of their extend ed use among these organisms (Avila, 2000). A great proportion of worlds bats can be considered cave dwellers and, probably, caves host more individuals than other roosts, even combined (Hill and Smith, 1984). Besides that, great dimensions and complex topography in one cave only can offer several perch sites for different individuals or colonies (Medelln and Lpez Forment, 1985; Hill and Smith, 1984; Kunz, 1982) as well as different microclimates (Me delln and Lpez Forment, 1985). In Mexico, there are over 10 000 caves (Lazcano, 2001), mostly karstic but also in sandstone, and a few caves inhabited by bats are volcanic in origin. Almost half of the countrys bat species use caves as primarily or alternative roosts (Arita, 1993). However, a survey made by Ruiz (2006) yielded a total of only 442 Mexican caves with informa tion on bats. Cueva del Diablo One of the relatively well known bat caves in Mexico is Cueva del Diablo, located in Tepoztln, Morelos. This mu nicipality belongs to the Transvolcanic belt physiographic province, in the Ana huac Lakes and Volcanoes subprovince, where Volcanic Sierra of Ajusco, the Chichinautzin volcano and Tepozteco Sierra stand out (Caballero, 2004). Flora in Tepozteco Sierra encircles the transition zone between the subtropical evergreen, the template (oak and pine) and the tropical deciduous formations (Hoffman et. al. 1986). The cave is located in the latter type of vegetation, characterized by a semi-warm wet cli mate with summer rain (A) C (w 2 ) (w) i g (Garca, 1986) and in an altitude of 1850 masl. In summer, it presents an average external temperature of 28C during day, which decreases while entering the cave down to 16C in the majority of internal chambers. A full description of the cave was made by Hoffman et.al (1986). This refuge has a volcanic origin, from a eventually forms a various chambers system with a 1 937m length (including depth of 110m respect the entrance (Hoffman et. al. 1986). Tepoztlan represents a transition point between neartic and neotropical faunas, species. In Cueva del Diablo there are three main bat species according their presence in the cave: Leptonycteris niva lis Pteronotus parnellii mexicanus and Desmodus rotundus (Hoffman, 1986) and isolated captures of Anoura geof froyi (Edmundo Huerta, pers. comm.), Artibeus jamaicensis (Rodrigo Me delln, pers. comm; Gabriela Lpez, pers. comm.) and Myotis velifer (Rodrigo Medelln, pers. comm; Gabriela Lpez, pers. comm.) The naked backed bat, moustached bat or leaf lipped bat (Nowak, 1994) Pteronotus parnelli (Gray, 1843) is ba sically an insectivorous one (Fleming, 1972; Novick and Valsnys, 1964) and there are reports where a single colony of 600 000 individuals can consume between 1900 and 3000 kg of insects per night (Ortega, 2005). It normally perches in caves, preferring internal chambers with high humidity and temperature (Al varez, 1963). In Cueva del Diablo, this bat locates in tunnel 20, sharing space with Leptonycteris nivalis (Caballero, 2004; Hoffman et. al. 1986). P. parnel lii distribution in Mexico goes through the neotropical zone from Sonora and Tamaulipas to Yucatn and Chiapas (Or tega, 2005), but it reaches north Argen tina and Paraguay (Jimnez Guzmn y Ziga, 1992; Ramrez Pulido et. al. 1983). Although its conservation status is unknown, this bat is one of the most abundant and it can survive even in disturbed zones, so its not considered

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 266 at risk (Ortega, 2005). The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffoy, 1810) character izes for its feeding habit, which consists basically in blood from different mam mals (primarily cattle). They can drink 20ml of blood per individual per day and take 40 minutes feeding (Green hall, 1972). Colonies are commonly comprised by 20 100 individuals, but there are reports of groups from 500 to 5000 bats (Crespo et. al. 1961). D. ro tundus can live in caves, crevices, dark constructions and trees (Suzn, 2005). These bats can transmit the paralytic rabies virus, which causes economical loss in Latin America (Hoare, 1972). Also from the neotropical region, this bats distribution goes from north Sonora and Tamaulipas in Mexico to Argentina (Villa R, 1967). Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure, 1860), the Mexican long nosed bat, is the largest Mexican glossophagine bat species. As other nectarivorous bats, it has short ears and leaf nose, and the face and tongue are elongated (Arita, 2005). It occupies a great variety of habitats, from template to tropical and desert zones, principally in transition areas between coniferous and tropical deciduous forests ones. Its distribution is restricted to North America, from south Texas and New Mexico, where it establishes from June to August, to central Mexico where it remains dur ing winter (Arita, 1991; U. S. Fish and tions in numbers of this bat respond to food availability (Fleming and Nassar, 2002; Schmidly, 1991; Easterla, 1972) and the migratory movements follows the nectar corridors formed by the (Fleming et. al., 1993). But despite some anecdotal information about this subject, no detailed study has been conducted ence bat abundance, reproduction and growth, especially as these factors are related to food availability and roost site conditions (Arita and Martnez del Ro, 1990). This basic information is essential for the conservation and management of L. nivalis (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994). At the same time, there is little infor mation about its diet and reproductive pattern. A few studies found that they fed Agave and some convolvulaceous, bombacaceous and cactacean, as well as other agavaceous plants (Snchez, 2004; Tllez, 2001; Butanda-Cervera et. al. 1978; Alvarez and Gonzlez, 1970; Villa-R, 1967). It appears that mating occurs in south ern Mexico during winter and females occupy northern caves (Texas and New Mexico, and northern states of Mexico) to form maternity colonies in late spring and summer (Tellez, 2001; Davis, 1974; Easterla, 1972). The migratory behavior of Leptonycteris nivalis its seasonal presence both in the Unit ed States and in northern and southern Mexico (Tellez, 2001; Cockrum and Petryszyn, 1991; Moreno Valdez, 1998; Easterla, 1972). Caves are the main roosts of four of the nectar feeding Mexican bats and another six species use caves as alternative roosts (Arita and Santos del Prado, 1999). The former is the case of L. nivalis a colony species that roosts in caves, mines, tunnels and occasionally in unused buildings, hollow trees and sewers (Pfrimmer and Wilkins, 1988). Some cave populations, like those in Cueva del Diablo, can be composed by thousands of individuals (Hoffman et. al., 1986; Easterla, 1972). Research Research works concerning bats in Cueva del Diablo had been made pri marily by the Laboratory of Vertebrate Ecology, Institute of Ecology, UNAM. These investigations are important con tributions to the knowledge about the priority species Leptonycteris nivalis and that of this cave for it. Manual de bioespeleologa (Biospel eology manual), Anita Hoffman, Jos Palacios Vargas and Juan B. MoralesMalacara (1986) Alter 6 years imparting 11 Field Biol ogy courses focused on biospeleology at the UNAM, Hoffman et. al. decided to publish this work in 1986. It was made as a guideline in Spanish for bio speleologists, to encourage for more studies and to share results of those years of research. The publication includes a recom pilation of historic data about general about biospeleological studies made in Mexico. Also, it presents a brief relation concerning cave animals and ecological features of that fauna and its environ ment. This manual describes materials and methods to carry out researches of this matter and exposes the results of the eleven expeditions made in several caves of Morelos and Guerrero states. They visited 8 caves in two states from September 1977 to March 1983. and fauna and elaborate the maps for Guerrero. Also, they took samples, ac cording the biotopos for: bat fauna and its symbionts, water fauna, guano fauna, and wall fauna. A total of 75 families, 135 genera and 206 species new reports for the country are presented in this work cave species for Mexico and for the science. Concerning Cueva del Diablo, two excursions allowed to compile informa tion about location, climate, vegetation, geology and a full internal description of the cave, including a complete map. reported: 8 species and genera and 6 families of eumycota (true fungi); 9 species and genera and 11 families of arachnids; 8 species, 10 genera and 10 families of mites; 1 genera and 2 families of centipedes; 1 family of millipedes; 10 species, 25 genera and 23 families of insects; and 3 species, 3 genera and 2 families of bats. In relation to cavities biocenosis bat populations constitute an important fac tor in the establishment and develop ment of many other populations of cave organisms, because their feeding habits contribute, through guano, with a great variety of nutrients. Also in its bodies, bats house lots of parasites and guests. Migracin de los murcilagos hocicu dos ( Leptonycteris ) en el trpico mexi cano (Migration of long nosed bats ( Leptonycteris ) in tropical Mexico), Juan Guillermo Tllez Zenteno (2001) This work proposes the existence of a segregation feeding mechanism that allows niche segregation between Lep tonycteris curasoae and L. nivalis and it try to prove the hypothesis of altitudinal movements of these bats. Reproductive feeding habits of the species were studied

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267 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 using stable carbon isotopes in 11 caves located in tropical Mexico. Genus Leptonycteris selects migra tory behavior in the tropics based on the seasonal availability of food also making markedly seasonal its presence in the region around autumn and winter. The lesser long nosed bat presents only one reproductive pulse in the tropic, when females form great maternity colo nies in the tropical deciduous forest. refuge for the Mexican long nosed bat in Cueva del Diablo its made in this research. The results indicate that theres only one reproductive pulse for this species, represented by the testicular activity of males and the copulations which occur mainly in November and December. It is probable that pregnant females of Leptonycteris nivalis are the ones that establish maternity refuges north during spring summer. It seems also that unlike L. curasoae it only ap pears to be one population through out the whole range of distribution for the Mexican long nosed bat. L. nivalis resulted much more special ized in CAM resources than L. curasoae because it presents a limited use on C 3 metabolic derivatives. Out of this, it could by say that there is an ecologi cal mechanism of feeding segregation between Leptonycteris species when both occupy tropical deciduous forest in Cuenca del Balsas. This in turn can be the reason for the overlapped distributions of these species in Mexican tropic. Some results of this investigation had been useful to propose Cueva del Diablo to become sanctuary and to better understand the migratory, feeding and reproductive behavior of two ecologi cal and economical important Mexican bat species. Observaciones sobre la conducta repro ductiva de Leptonycteris nivalis (Chi roptera: Phyllostomidae) en Tepoztln, Morelos, Mxico (Observations on re productive behavior of Leptonycteris nivalis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico), Luis Antonio Caballero Martnez (2004) Based on observations and recordings with infrared cameras, this study is an attempt to describe the social structure and mating behavior, period and system of Leptonycteris nivalis during its stay in Cueva del Diablo. This species oc cupy the cave from September to Febru ing to the results, preliminarily it can be proposed that the Mexican long nosed bat had established in Cueva del Diablo a promiscuous mating system conformed by multi-male and multi-female groups, with no evidence of harem or lek for mation, territory defense, courtship or marked sexual dimorphism and where apparently mating is not random. Mating period matches the resource availability peak in the zone and its restricted to the last two weeks of No approximately one month duration, when males testicular measures and weight are maximums. The latter together with a promiscuous mating can indicate pres ence of spermatic competition. It is probable births occur in May during migration, and that maternity colonies could establish in northern Mexico and southern U.S. This way, gestation period lasts 6 months, which is considered to long for bats, so probably a fertilization or embryonic development delay take place in L. nivalis Possibili ties of polyestrous reproductive pattern in this species are almost none, so it probably presents a monoestrous one. It is necessary to make more obser vations on the conduct of this bat all along its migratory trajectory, as well obtained during this study, but still it presents important information con cerning reproductive ecology about the Mexican long nosed bat that cor roborate the importance of Cueva del Diablo for the species and contributes to the knowledge about it. This in turn can be another argument to apply strict protective measures that can guarantee a reduction in the number of persons that enter the cave, at least during the mating season of the species. Dieta del murcilago magueyero mayor Leptonycteris nivalis (Chiroptera: Phyl losomidae) en la Cueva del Diablo, Tepoztln, Morelos (Diet of the Mexican longnosed bat Leptonycteris nivalis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Cueva del Diablo, Tepoztlan, Morelos), Leslie Ragde A. Snchez Talavera (2004) This study documents plant species that conformed the diet of the Mexican long nosed bat during its stay in Cueva del Diablo, although samples collection was made also in two mines north of the country in the same period. A great part of this bats diet in the cave comprises no CAM metabolism plants. Results Cactaceae, Bombacaceae, Convolvu laceae, Fabaceae and Agavaceae, being the most represented species Ipomoea arborescens Agave sp. as second. Two new species of agaves were determined as part of the Lep tonycteris nivalis diet and no differences between sexs and monthly diets were observed. One of the steps the Mexican long nosed bat Leptonycteris nivalis recovery plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994) proposed, and the former research covers in some extent, is the necessity of an inventory about plant species this bat consume as food, according to sex, age, period and locality. Based on the knowledge of the foraging habitat this species use, they can be settled more and better decisions about protection and conservation of Leptonycteris nivalis Conservation and environmental education According to Arita (1993), an effec tive plan for the conservation of Mexi can cave bats would require a double strategy: the protection of caves with unusually high diversity and multispe cies populations, and the management of cave bats of special concern (fragile, vulnerable and endemic species). Certain analysis suggest that the Mexican long nosed bat has declined in numbers over the past 30 years (Jones, 1976; Wilson et. al. 1985), probably due to some of the human activities mentioned before. Currently this spe cies is listed as Endangered by the IUCN (2006), and as Threatened by the NOM-059 in Mexico (SEMARNAT, 2002) since 1991. In 1994 was approved the Mexican long nosed bat Leptonycteris nivalis recovery plan between Mexico and the United States, where the steps to change risk status of the species to a lower category are outlined (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994). Additionally, the PCMM (Conserva tion Program for Mexican Bats) begins

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 268 its work to recover and to conserve the habitat and populations of bats that in habit the country. To protect these ani mals, the program has a strategy based on three main axes: research (surveys, population size estimates, migration, ecology, reproduction, diet, genetics, and economic value, among others), environ mental education (school programs, ra dio shows, traveling exhibits, community work, arts and crafts) and conservation actions (stewardship and protection by local communities, management plans, legal protection). The program carried out an initial prioritization process to identify the most important caves. Those priority caves contained large colonies of migratory bats and also faced immi nent or ongoing damage by neighboring human population (Medelln, 2003). However, the PCMM has evolved so that is no longer limited to migratory bats, but include endemic species and those facing conservation threats that have been added in the Mexican list of species at risk (SEMARNAT, 2002). bled as a binational, multiinstitutional partnership based at Institute of Ecol ogy, UNAM, with the participation of many other organizations. Currently, the program has presence in 18 states of Mxico, where 26 caves are being monitored and 2 4 caves are added annually. The program has also initi ated a vampire control operations in potentially problem areas, where it works with locals, researchers and public serv ers of environmental, cattle rising and health sectors. Priority caves where the program is working, have maintained the bat populations stable or they have increased (Medelln, 2003). in 1996, when PCMM estimated 5 000 Mexican long nosed bats; in winter 2001 2002 the numbers increased to 8000 10 000 (Medelln, 2003). Despite the importance of these bats, and of the cave for them, theres no legal protec tion actually for the cave and for the bat populations in it. However, the PCMM also has achieved conservation success in the legislative arena. As a result of the pro motion of the program in different ven ues, PCMM was called by the federal government to contribute to the recently passed Law of the Ecological Balance and Protection of the Environment. The PCMM suggested that all caves, natural crevices, and sinkholes be protected by law, because their importance for bats and for the recharge of aquifer. At the same time, the programs personnel contributed to the creation of a new category of federally protected areas, namely sanctuaries. A Sanctuary is a small area where it is necessary to protect an important population of particular species or an important segment of bio logical diversity, and where all resource extraction is banned. Caves are obvious, natural, and immediate candidates for this category (Medelln, 2003). Following this idea, a group of re searchers and students, coordinated by Dr. Rodrigo A. Medelln (chief research er in the Institute of Ecology, UNAM and director of the PCMM) elaborated a study that proposes 10 priority caves with ecological and economical im portance for become sanctuaries (in process), which was presented to the CONANP (National Commission for Natural Protected Areas) in 2004. Inside this proposal is Cueva del Diablo, be cause of its great colony of the threatened migratory nectarivorous bat Leptonyct eris nivalis its importance as a mating roost for this species (Tellez, 2001) and because vandalism and visiting are very common in the cave. Concerning Cueva del Diablo, the PCMM had agreed with the local, state and federal authorities to work in the cave and with communities surrounding it since 2000. Theyd developed a series of manual and educative activities for of bats and for the people to lose their fear about these animals. The program divided bats in six groups according to their feeding behavior (insectivorous, frugivorous, carnivores, ichthyophagous, hematophagous and nectarivorous) and created educational material that in cludes a natural story about each one and activity books for teachers and children. In the case of Cueva del Diablo, Flores para Luca la murcilaga (Flowers for Luca the bat) is the material which had been being used in four schools of four communities in Tepoztlan. At the same time, there have been made TV reports, manual workshops with the communitys women and the exposition Los murcilagos, un mito en nuestra cultura (Bats, a myth in our culture) with a great people attendance. The PCMM has future plans for this cave, as to work in another community and to run an evaluation of programs achievements. In other areas, the initial results of the evaluation of knowledge acquired and retained by the children through the pre and post exposure questionnaire surveys indicate 70% retention knowledge about bats three years after exposure. Furthermore, new children entering the program in previ ously targeted schools, show a greater level of knowledge in pre exposure questionnaires, indicating intra com munity knowledge transfer from older to younger siblings. This, in turn, indicates that the process of bat conservation is being learned and adopted by the com munities themselves as an activity of their own (Medelln, 2003). Conclusions Bats offer several ecosystem services, which are essential for natural environ ment and human welfare. Caves rep resent important sites where many bat species roost, mate, give birth and rear young. However, both bats and caves are facing threats often related with human activities and lack of information. Cueva del Diablo is a critically important cave for understanding, conservation, and recovery of an endangered, migratory pollinivorous bat species. This cave has already provided very important infor mation about this little-known species. At least 50% of what is known about it comes from this cave. Although a great effort has been maid to change these conditions, there is still a lot of work to do. Conservation of this and other caves and bats is urgently needed. This can only be conducted through collaboration across countries, disciplines, and sectors of society. Its necessary to change the general mistaken image people has about bats by sharing the information obtained in research, and environmental education programs such task. Literature cited Alvarez, T. 1963. The recent mammals of Tamulipas, Mexico. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History, 14: 111 120. Alvarez, T. and L. Gonzlez. 1970. Anlisis polnico del contenido gstri co de murcilagos glossophaginae de

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269 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Mxico. Anales de la Escuela Na cional de Ciencias Biolgicas, 18: 137 165. Arita, H. and D. E. Wilson. 1987. Long nosed bats and agaves: the tequila connection. Bats, 5(4): 3 5. Arita, H. and K. Santos del Prado. 1999. Conservation biology of nectar feed ing bats in Mexico. Journal of Mam malogy, 80 (1): 31 41. Arita, H. T. 1991. Spatial segregation in long nosed bats, Leptonycteris nivalis and Leptonycteris curasoae in Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 72 (4): 706 714. Arita, H. T. 1993. Conservation biology of the cave bats of Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 74 (3): 693 702 Arita, H. T. 2005. Leptonycteris nivalis 223 224 p.p. In: Los mamferos silvestres de Mxico (G. Ceballos and G. Oliva, coord.). CONABIO / Fondo de Cultura Econmica. Hong Kong. Arita, H. T. and C. Martinez del Rio. un enfoque zoocntrico. Publicaciones especiales del Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, 4: 1 35. Avila, R. 2000. Patrones de uso de cuevas en murcilagos del centro de Mxico. Tesis de Licenciatura. UNAM, Campus Iztacala. Brass, D. A. 1994. Rabies in bats, natural history, and public health implica tions. Livia Press. Connecticut. Butanda Cervera, A., C. Vzquez Yez and L. Trejol. 1978. La 29 35. Caballero, L. 2004. Observaciones sobre la conducta reproductiva de Leptonycteris nivalis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Tepoztln, Mo relos, Mxico. Tesis de Licenciatura. Facultad de Ciencias. UAEM. Ceballos, G., J. Arroyo-Cabrales and R. A. Medelln. 2002. Mamferos de Mxico. 37 413 p.p. In: Diver sidad y conservacin de los mamf eros neotropicales (G. Ceballos and J. A. Simonetti, eds.). CONABIO / UNAM. Mexico. Cockrum, E. L. and Y. Petryszyn. 1991. The long nosed bat, Leptonyct eris : an endangered species in the Southwest? Occasional Papers, The Museum Texas Tech University, 142: 1 32. Crespo, J. A., J. M. Vanella, B. J. Blood and J. M. de Carlo. 1961. Obser vaciones ecolgicas del vampiro Desmodus r. rotundus (Geoffroy) en el noreste de Crdoba. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. Bernardino Rivadavia, 6: 131 160. Davis, W. B. 1974. The mammals of Texas. Bulletin of Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 41: 1 294. Easterla, D. A. 1972. Status of Lep tonycteris nivalis (phyllostomidae) in Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist, 17: 287 292. Fleming, T. H. 1987. Fruit bats: prime movers of tropical seeds. Bats, 5(3): 3 8. Fleming, T. H. and J. Nassar. 2002. Popu lation biology of the lesser long nosed bat Leptonycteris curasoae in Mexico and northern South America. 283 305 p.p. In: Columnar cacti and their mutualists: evolution, ecol ogy and conservation (T. H. Fleming and A. Valiente Banuet, eds.). The University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. Fleming, T. H., E. T. Hooper y D. E. Wilson. 1972. Three central American bat communities: structure, reproduc tive cycles and movement patterns. Ecology, 53: 655 670. Fleming, T. H., R. A. Nez, L. da Sil veira and L. Sternberg. 1993. Seasonal changes in the diets of migrant nec tarivorous bats as revealed by carbon stable isotope analysis. Oecologia, 94: 72 75. Garca, E. 1986. Modificaciones al ciones de la Repblica Mexicana). 4 ed. Instituto de Ecologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico. Geoffroy. E. 1810. Sur le phyllosomes et les mgadermes. Annals of Museum of Natural History, 15: 157 198. Gray, J. E. 1843. (Letter addressed to the curator). Procedings of the Zoological Society of London. 50 p. Greenhall, A. M. 1972. The biting and feeding habits of the vampiro bat, Desmodus rotundus Journal of Zool ogy. London, 168: 451 461. Hill, J. Edwards and Smith, J. D. 1984. Bats: a natural history. British Mu seum (Natural History). London. Hoare, C. A. 1972. The trypanosomes in mammals: a zoological monograph. Oxford. Hoffman, A., J. G. Palacios-Vargas and J. B. Morales-Malacara. 1986. Manual de bioespeleologa. Univer sidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico. Mxico. Hutson, A. M., S. P. Mickleburgh and P. A. Racey (comp.). 2001. Microchi ropteran bats: global status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Chiroptera Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. IUCN. 2006. IUCN Red List of threat ened species. http://www.iucnredlist. org. Jimnez G. A. and M. A. Ziga R. 1992. Nuevos registros de mamf eros para Nuevo Len, Mxico. Publicaciones Biolgicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas, Universi dad Autnoma de Nuevo Len, 6: 189 191. Jones, C. 1976. Economics and Conser vation. 133 145 p.p. In: Biology of bats of the New World family Phyl lostomidae. Part I (R. J. Baker, J. K. Jones, Jr. and D. C. Carter, eds.). Special Publications 10, The Museum Texas Tech University. 10: 1 218. Kunz, T. H. 1982. Roosting ecology. 1 55 p.p.. In: Ecology of bats (T. H. Kunz, ed.). Plenum Press. New York. Kunz, T. H. and E. D. Pierson. 1994. Bats of the World: an introduction. 1 46 p. p. In: Nowak, R. M. Walkers bats of the world. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. Kunz, T. H. and L. F. Lumsden. 2003. Ecology of cavity and foliage roost ing bats. 3 89p.p. In: Bat Ecology (T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Lazcano, C. 2001. Un explorador de la belleza subterranea (Conference: Los grandes abismos de Mxico at Universidad Panamericana). El informador diario independiente. Jalisco, Mxico. McCracken, G. F. 1992. Bats in magic, potions and medicinal preparations. Bats, 10(3): 14 16. Medelln, R. A. 2003. Diversity and conservation of bats in Mexico: research priorities, strategies, and

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 270 actions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31(1): 87 97. Medelln, R. A. and O. Gaona. 2000.Qu tienen los murcilagos que unos los quieren destruir y otros los quieren salvar? Especies, revista sobre conser vacin y biodiversidad, 9: 4 8. Medelln, R. A. and W. Lpez For ment. 1985. Las cuevas: un recurso compartido. Anales del Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacional Au tnoma de Mxico, Serie Zoologa, 56: 1027 1034. Mohr, C. E. 1972. The status of threat ened species of cave-dwelling bats. National Speleologycal Society Bul letin, 34: 33 47. Moreno Valdez, A. 1998. Factores del hbitat que determinan la abun dancia del murcilago magueyero grande ( Leptonycteris nivalis ) en Nuevo Len, Mxico. Memorias del IV Congreso Nacional de Mastozo ologa. 53p. Novick, P. ad J. R. Valsnys. 1964. Echo Chilonecyeris parnellii Biological Bulletin, 127: 478 488. Nowak, R. M. 1994. Walkers bats of the world. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. Ortega, J. 2005. Pteronotus parnellii 181 183 p.p. In: Los mamferos silvestres de Mxico (G. Ceballos and G. Oliva, coord.). CONABIO / Fondo de Cultura Econmica. Hong Kong. Pfrimmer, H. and K. T. Wilkins. 1988. Leptonycteris nivalis Mammalian Species. 307: 1 4. Rabinowitz, A. and M. D. Tuttle, 1980. Status of summer colonies of the endangered gray bat in Kentucky. Journal of Wildlife Management, 44: 955 960. Ramrez Pulido, J., R. Lopez Vilchis, C. Mudespache and I. E. Lira. 1983. Lista y bibliografa reciente de los mamferos de Mxico. Universidad Autnoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa. Trillas. Mxico. Ruz, A. A. 2006. Priorizacin de cuevas para la conservacin de murcila gos caverncolas de Mxico. Tesis de Maestra. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. Russell, A. L., R. A. Medellin and G. F. McCracken. 2005. Genetic varia tion and migration in the Mexican free-tailed bat ( Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ). Molecular Ecology, 14: 2207 2222. Rzedowski, J. 1978. Vegetacin de Mx ico. Limusa. Mxico City. Mxico. Snchez, L. R. A. 2004. Dieta del murci lago magueyero mayor Leptonycteris nivalis (Chiroptera: Phyllosomidae) en la Cueva del Diablo, Tepoztln, Morelos. Tesis de Licenciatura. Fac ultad de Ciencias, UAEM. Saussure, M. H. 1860. Note sur quelques mammiferes du Mexique. Revue et magazine de zoologie, Paris, Ser. 2. 13: 3. Schmidly, D. J. 1991. The bats of Texas. Texas A&M University Press. 68 71 p.p. SEMARNAT (Secretara de Medio Am biente y Recursos Naturales). 2002. ECOL-2001. Proteccin ambiental y fauna silvestres Categoras de clusin, exclusin o cambio Lista 6 Marzo 2002. 1 56 p.p. Simmons, N. B. 2005. An Eocene big bang for bats. Science, 307: 527 528. Stebbings, R. E. 1988. Conservation of European Bats. Christopher Helm, London (RPa) Suzn A., G. 2005. Desmodus rotundus 193 194 p.p. In: Los mamferos silvestres de Mxico (G. Ceballos and G. Oliva, coord.). CONABIO / Fondo de Cultura Econmica. Hong Kong. Tejedor, A. 2005. A new species of fun nel eared bat (Natalidae: Natalus ) from Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 86(6): 1109 1120. Tellez, J. G. 2001. Migracin de los murcilagos-hocicudos ( Leptonyct eris ) en el trpico mexicano. Tesis de Licenciatura. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Plan de recuperacin del murcilago magueyero ( Leptonycteris nivalis ). U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albu querque, Nuevo Mxico. 100 p.p. Villa R, B. 1967. Los murcilagos de Mxico. Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico. Mxico. 491 p.p. Von Helversen, O. and Y. Winter. 2003. pollinators. 346 397 p.p. In: Bat ecology (T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fen ton, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1993. Bats, beetles, and bugs. Bats, 11(1):23. Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and geographic Ref erence. 3 nd ed. The John Hopkins University Press. Vol. II. U. S. A. Wilson, D. E., R. A. Medelln, D. V. Lan ning and H. T. Arita. 1985. Los mur cilagos del noreste de Mxico, con una lista de especies. Acta Zoolgica Mexicana, nueva serie, 8: 1 26.

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271 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Troglobites from the Lava Tubes in the Sierra de Chichinautzin, Mexico, Challenge the Competitive Exclusion Principle Luis Espinasa 1 and Ramon Espinasa Closas 2 1 School of Science, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY. USA.; espinasl@yahoo.com. 2 Acatlan, UNAM, Mexico. Introduction The Sierra de Chichinautzin is locat ed south of Mexico City and north of Cuernavaca, in Mexico. This volcanic mountain range had, in relatively recent times, (Holocene) at least seven lava (Espinasa-Perea, 1999). Multiple caves of great extension can be found in this mountain range, including the Cueva del Ferrocarril, the largest lava tube in the Americas, at about 6 km, and Cueva de la Iglesia, at about 5 km. A detailed description of most of the cave systems in the area can be found in EspinasaPerea (1999, 2006). Some of the Sierra de Chichinautzin lava tubes are inhabited by cave adapted letiidae: Insecta). Nicoletiids are one of the most important and common repre sentatives of cave adapted fauna in the Neotropics and southern North America. While studying the relationships within the subfamily Cubacubaninae, Espinasa et al. (in press) included three troglobitic individuals from three different lava tubes from the Sierra de Chichinautzin: Cueva de la Iglesia, Cueva del Aire, and Cueva del Naranjo Rojo. Contrary to what might be expected due to the geographical proximity of the caves, that the individuals belonged to two different species. The individual from Cueva de la Iglesia actually appeared to be more closely related to a species from a near surface locality, the town of Alpuyeca, than to its neighboring troglobite (Fig. 1). The purpose of this study is to better understand how many species of troglo bitic nicoletiid insects inhabit the lava tubes of the Sierra de Chichinautzin, their distribution, and their dispersal capabilities among caves. Material and methods Samples were collected by hand and deposited in 95% ethanol. Dissections were made with the aid of a stereo mi croscope. Total DNA was extracted from one leg of each individual using Qiagens DNEasy Tissue Kit. Molecular data have been obtained for 13 terminals, sometimes including more than one individual per locality (Table 1) Markers were amplified and se quenced as a single fragment using the 16Sar and 16Sb primer pair for 16S cation was carried out in a 50 l volume Figure 1. Figure taken from Espinasa et al. (In press). Two equally costly trees derived from the analysis of the combined analysis of adult males have articulated submedian appendages on urosternite IV. Numbers on branches indicate jackknife support values. Notice that the specimen labeled Anelpistina n. sp. Iglesia is more closely related to Anelpistina n. sp. Iglesia than it is to both Anelpistina n. sp. Aire and Anelpistina n. sp. Naranjo Rojo.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 272 reaction, with 1.25 units of AmpliTaq DNA Polymerase (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA, USA), 200 M of dNTPs, and 1 M of each primer. The PCR program consisted of an initial denaturing step at (94 C for 15 sec, 49 C for 15 sec, 72 C for 6 min in a GeneAmp PCR System 9700 (Perkin Elmer). with the AGTC Gel Filtration Car tridges (Edge BioSystems, Gaithersburg, MD, USA), and directly sequenced using an automated ABI Prism 3700 DNA analyzer. Cycle-sequencing with Am pliTaq DNA polymerase, FS (PerkinElmer) using dye-labeled terminators (ABI PRISM TM BigDye TM Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit, Foster City, CA, USA) was performed in a GeneAmp PCR System 9700 (Perkin Elmer). The sequencing reaction was carried out in a 10 l volume reac tion: 4 l of Terminator Ready Reaction Mix, 10-30 ng/ml of PCR product, 5 pmoles of primer and dH 2 0 to 10 l. The cycle-sequencing program consisted of an initial step at 94 C for 3 min, 25 sequencing cycles (94 C for 10 sec, 50 C for 5 sec, 60 C for 4 min), and a rapid thermal ramp to 4 C and hold. The BigDye-labeled PCR products were cleaned with AGTC Gel Filtration Cartridges (Edge BioSystems). Chro matograms obtained from the automated sequencer were read and contigs made using the sequence editing software Sequencher TM 3.0. Complete sequences were edited in MacGDE (Linton, 2005), where they were split according to con served secondary structure features. All external primers were excluded from the analyses. Individuals whose sequence was different from other members of the same locality received a second DNA extraction and sequencing to verify that no contamination or human error had occurred. Results and Discussion Individuals from all localities belong to genus Anelpistina and are similar to Anelpistina cuaxilotla (Espinasa, 1999). Those of the cave localities were very similar in morphology, sharing troglo bitic characters such as enlarged anten nae, caudal appendages and legs. On the contrary, the Alpuyeca samples were easily differentiated by their compara tively smaller appendage/body ratio, as Table 1. Samples studied, locality of collections, and references. Table 2. Partial sequence alignment of mitochondrial 16S rRNA spanning nucleotides 298-354. In bold, specimens with a distinctive sequence corresponding to a species different to the majority of individuals of that cave locality. Dots = same nucleotide; lines = insertions or deletions; letters = nucleotides.

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273 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Sequence data from thirteen indi viduals were obtained. Length of frag ment analyzed was of 499 nucleotides. Sequence analysis (Table 2) showed that individuals could be arranged into composed of the individuals from Cueva del Aire, Cueva de la Herradura, three individuals from Cueva del Naranjo Rojo and one individual from Cueva de la Ig lesia. Nucleotide differences among this group averaged 1.2 nucleotides, ranging from a minimum of zero to a maximum of four. The second group was composed of one individual from Naranjo Rojo Iglesia. Nucleotide differences among this second group averaged 2.1 nucle otides, ranging from a minimum of zero was composed of the single individual from Alpuyeca. Members of group one against members of group two differed on 71 nucleotides on average, ranging from a minimum of 55 and a maximum of 78. Members of group one differed from the Alpuyeca individual by an average of also 71 nucleotides, span ning from 62-73 nucleotide differences. Members of group two differed from the Alpuyeca individual by an average of 54 nucleotides, spanning from 49-56 nucleotide differences. Differences between individuals within a group are within the bound aries of members of a species for the Cubacubanininae, on the contrary, the differences among groups are those typically found across different spe cies (Espinasa et al. in press). It appears that members of group one belong to an as of yet undescribed species, different from the also undescribed species of group two. This group two also appears to be more closely related to the surface species from Alpuyeca than they are to the troglobitic specimens of group one, which is in agreement with what was found by Espinasa et al. (In press) and An interesting aspect of the two tro globitic species is that they can be found in several cave localities, regardless of the lava tube being formed from different cies can be found along the entire Sierra de Chichinautzin in both the northern and southern lava tubes. This implies that these troglobites have the capability to absence of cave connections. Another interesting aspect is that the two species appear to be sympatric in their geography. Both Naranjo Rojo and Iglesia cave were inhabited by mem bers of both species. The competitive exclusion principle establishes that this is an ecological unstable situation, as two similar species can not occupy the same niche. The two species may have recently and independently colonized and adapted to the cave environment. Since the formation of these lava tubes is fairly recent (Holocene), with even Cueva de Naranjo Rojo and Cueva de la Herradura being formed less than 5,000 years B.P. (Siebe et al. 2004), it is likely that their dispersal has only recently put them in contact and we are in the remarkable position of witnessing a unique point in time and evolution where two sympatric species are in the process of a still unresolved competition for the same niche. Conclusions Cave Nicoletiids can disperse among The Sierra de Chichinautzin lava tube systems have independently been colonized by at least two different spe cies of Nicoletiids. The morphology of both species has converged as a result of troglobitic evo lution. Both species are sympatric (over lapping habitats), which represents an unstable ecological condition. References Espinasa, L., 1999. Two new species of the genus Anelpistina (Insecta: Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae) from Mexi can caves, with redescription of the genus. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112, 59-69. Espinasa, L., Flick, C., and Giribet, G. In press. Phylogeny of the American Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae): a com bined approach using morphology and Espinasa-Perea, R., 1999. Origen y evolucin de tubos de lava en la Sierra Chichinautzin: El caso del volcn Suchiooc. UNAM, Masters Thesis: 53-56. Espinasa-Perea, R. 2006. Lava tubes of the Suchiooc volcano, Mexico. AMCS bulletin 17, SMES bulletin 6. USA, 80 p. Edgecombe, G.D., Giribet, G., Wheeler, W.C., 2002. Phylogeny of Henicopi dae (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha): A combined analysis of morphology and 27, 31-64. Siebe, C., Rodriguez-Laura, V., Schaaf, P., and Abrahms, M. 2004. Radiocar bon ages of holocene Pelado, Guespal apa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico-City: Implications for archaeology and future hazards. Bull. Vulcanol. 66, 203-225. Tapie, M. 1987. SMES bulletin. USA

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275 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 2006 Field Trip Guidebook Ramn Espinasa-Perea Introduction The XII International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology is sponsored by the Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas (SMES), the Commis sion on Volcanic Caves of the Inter national Union of Speleology (UIS), Grupo Espeleolgico ZOTZ, Club de Exploraciones de Mxico A.C., Veracruz Section (CEMAC), and the State of Morelos Section of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). It will be held in Tepoztln, Morelos, trips will be carried out in the Sierra Chichinautzin, a Quaternary monoge trip will visit lava tubes near the cities of Perote and Xalapa, in the eastern portion of the Transmexican volcanic belt, while obtaining views of some of the largest stratovolcanoes in Mxico This guidebook will give the participants background information on the areas and caves to be visited. The Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field (SCVF), it will be described in detail. It is a volcanic highland elongated in an E-W direction, extending from the Popocatepetl stratovolcano (presently nantecatl (Nevado Toluca) stratovolcano in the west, in the central portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (Martin del Pozzo, 1982). over 220 scoria cones and associated block, Aa or pahoehoe lava flows. SCVF forms the continental drainage divide that separates the closed basin of north, from the valleys of Cuernavaca and Cuautla which drain south, and from According to Fries (1966), the Basin of Mxico drained to the south before the Pleistocene. Since then, formation of the SCVF sealed the basin to the south (Mooser, 1963). siderably in their morphology. Most are compound andesite or basaltic andesite belong to the calc-alkaline suit, and are genetically linked to the subduction of the Cocos plate (Martin del Pozzo, 1982). The tephra cones, lava shields, and intercalated alluvial sediments that make up the Sierra Chichinautzin cover an area of approximately 2,500 km 2 1982; Lugo-Hubp, 1984). Paleomag netic measurements indicate that most exposed rocks were produced during the normal Brunhes Chron and are therefore younger than 0.73-0.79 Ma (Urrutia and Martin del Pozzo, 1993), which is not surprising in view of the very young morphological features of most tephra Recent studies by Siebe (2000) and Siebe et al. (2004, 2005) have published dates for some of the youngest volcanoes in the SCVF, several of which were emplaced at least partially by lava tubes: Teuhtli (>14,000 years B.P.), Pelado (9,620 to 10,900 years B.P.), Guespalapa (2,83575 to 4,69090 years B.P.), Chichinautzin (1,83555 years B.P.), and Xitle (1,670 years B.P.). Other undated volcanoes whose lava are morphologically very young include Yololica and Suchiooc. These and other Sunset at the Sierra Chichinautzin. Tectonic setting of the Field Trip Sites in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 276 previously published dates imply a recur rence interval during the Holocene for monogenetic eruptions in the SCVF of <1,250 years (Siebe et al., 2005). During the XII International Sympo of Pelado, Guespalapa, Chichinautzin and especially Suchiooc volcanoes will be visited. Pelado volcano (3,620 m.a.s.l.), is one of the most symmetrical cones of kilometers long, form a wide shield at the base of the cone. They are thick Aa tion, so one would not expect lava tubes to develop. Despite this, a lava tube was explored and mapped recently at the beginning of the southeastern lava Guespalapa volcano (3,270 m.a.s.l.) is a series of small cinder cones aligned almost East-West, located just south of the drainage divide. They produced the navaca plain. It reached 24 km from its source, creating the Texcal basalt lava Siebe et al. (2004) conclude that this to be Aa, must have necessarily been emplaced by a high-effusion rate erup tion because they do not consider that far in low to moderate-effusion rates (Peterson et al., 1994). Nevertheless, large lava tube caves, suggesting that the Near the vent area hornitos or rootless also developed small tubes. Chichinautzin volcano (3,470 m.a.s.l.) (Fries, 1966). The summit area is quite complex and several craters and aligned vents in an ENE-WSW direction can be photographs. It produced extensive ba structures have been located, despite intensive search no true lava tubes have been found in this volcano. in lava tube caves of the Suchiooc volcano, a more extensive description will be made. Suchiooc volcano (3,300 m.a.s.l.) is the youngest of a cluster of tephra cones collectively known as Los Otates (Martin del Pozzo, 1982), roughly aligned in an ESE-WNW direction, and located south of the crest of the SCVF. along very steep slopes (up to 12) until reaching the Sierra de Tepoztln (ST). The ST is an older range of mountains made of Miocene vulcanosedimentary deposits, which have been heavily erod ed creating large pinnacles with very steep to vertical sides, often separated by very narrow, vertical sided ravines The Sierra Chichinautzin forms a highland between the basins to its north and south. The dark horizontal shadow is an artifact due to

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277 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 and gorges (Ordoez, 1937). The ST rock unit has been named Tepoztln Formation (Fries, 1966) and is a series of sediments and volcanic breccias in layers that have a variable dip of 0 to 6 to the north (Haro et al., 1986). Numerous E-W and N-S fractures and small faults cut these rocks. The ST is considered the erosional remnant of a volcaniclastic fan (Ochoterena, 1977), and its age has been constrained by Garca-Palomo et ing it below and above at 21.6.0 and 7.5.4 Ma respectively. into several branches among the ST pin nacles before continuing south towards the Oaxtepec plains. With over 18 km in length, it is one of the longest lava 26 kilometers of lava tube caves have scribed in detail by Espinasa-Perea (1999, 2006). At the northern base of the Suchiooc cone, between it and older lavas to the north, a series of levees mark the edges of a former lava lake about 600 meters long and 130 meters at its widest. This creating a series of levee bounded chan nels that roofed up to form the caves of Sistema del Distribuidor. The channeltube system fed at least three long, uni oped tubes from levee bounded channels. From east to west they are the Amatln, Tepemecac and Chimalacatepec lava lava-tube caves en each of them. trated on the western tube, developing by thermal erosion and internal levee growth a master tube, which can be seen in the caves of rbol and Sistema Chi skylights above these tubes fed multiple the unitary lavas mentioned above and the towns of San Juan Tlacotenco and Santo Domingo. Anastomosing lava seen in Sistema Tlacotenco. Cueva del Diablo is a master tube with anastomos ing side passages, in the lower portions Symposium Field Trip One, 3 July 2006. Overview of the Sierra Chichinautzin, Cuescomates and Cueva del Diablo This day we will travel from the sym posium site, Tepoztln, along Highways 115 and 95 towards Mxico City, until reaching the turnabout at kilometer post 41, near the town of Parres, where stop 1 will be made while the bus makes the U-turn. images.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 278 Stop 1: Overview of the Sierra Chi chinautzin Volcanic Field. Here we will get a view of the upper central portion of the Sierra Chichinautzin volcanic cone on top of a lava shield is Pelado volcano (3,620 m.a.s.l.), one of the high est summits of the SCVF. Its name is due to the lack of trees at its summit cone, which is caused by the altitude, close to about 7 to 8 kilometers, and are mostly Aa or blocky lavas with thick (5 to 25 structures like channels and levees. Al though completely unexpected due to the lava morphology and composition, a lava tube cave was explored and mapped near the eastern base of the cone. Cueva del Pelado, despite being only 69 meters long and containing almost no primary features of interest, with an altitude of 3,470 m.a.s.l. is the highest mapped cave of any kind in Mxico and North America. On the opposite side of the road an older cone, Acopiaxco volcano (3,310 m.a.s.l.), has a less perfect tephra cone by thick airfall tephra deposits from more recent eruptions. Among these 14,000 year old marker layer, called the tutti-frutti pumice, which origi nated from Popocatepetl stratovolcano to the east. Beyond Acopiaxco, a low shield with an asymmetric tephra cone at its summit is Chichinautzin volcano (3,470 m.a.s.l.), one of the youngest in the SCVF at only 1,835 years B.P. Its name means burning lord in the prehispanic Nahuatl language, which indicates that local inhabitants must have witnessed the eruption. Although in length, it is mostly Aa, with easily structures. Although incipient tubes and intensive search produced no true lava To the south the small cones (El Palo mito and El Caballito) that make up Guespalapa volcano (3,270 m.a.s.l.) are Chichinautzin. Guespalapa produced the mostly tube-fed pahoehoe, and many Hornitos and at least 5 extensive lava (5) Sistema Tlacotenco (Field Trip 3). (6) Cueva de Diablo (Field Trip 1). Aerial view of Volcn Pelado and its lava shield.

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279 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 tubes are known in Guespalapas lava best preserved hornitos of this volcano, known as Los Cuescomates. Board the bus to head back towards Cuernavaca on Highway 95. At kilo meter post 48, right after the border between the Distrito Federal and the state of Morelos, and before a white bridge across the road, is a parking area for visitors to the Monument to Jos Mara Morelos, the XIX century Independence War hero whose name was given to the state where he fought. This is stop 2. Stop 2: Los Cuescomates After cross ing the highway on the bridge, take the unpaved road heading north towards Guespalapa volcano on a slight upwards slope for about 15-20 minutes. After road that splits to the right (south) and follow it downwards for another 10-15 minutes. When you again reach the elec tric lines, get off the road along a path to small hornitos or rootless vents which form Group 1 of Los Cuescomates. In Nahuatl, Cuescomate means conical gourd or container. These rootless vents developed when just north of the Tres Cumbres volcanic edifice. Thick ash and soil deposits, ponded area and probably were in part responsible for the formation of the hornitos. Group 1 consists of 8 different vents aligned along a single ENE-WSW frac ture. Four of them created small scoria cones, while the other four built spatter cones in which individual spatter blobs have vertical-walled craters which can be entered with caving equipment and Accreted lava lining covers the inner reaches of these rootless vents. of hornitos, formed several small lava tubes located to the NW and SE of the central vents. The area must have been covered by pine trees similar to the ones growing there today, as evidenced by several lava tree molds, up to 5 me ters long, preserved to the east of the cones. After visiting Los Cuescomates (Group 1), take a small path from their Map of the area of Stop 2. Plan of Cuescomates (Group 1). northern end, heading west, which sur them, and follow it towards the SW until reaching a small road heading south, which must be followed for less than 100 meters until reaching the northernmost of the group 2 Cuescomates. They are a group of 5 vents, three of which are tephra cones and the other two spatter cones. Only one of the vents, the eastern most, has a vertical-walled crater, which a small hole on the northern base of the cone. A lava lining covers most of the inner walls of this vent, which is also lined with a large inner levee marking a former lava level inside the crater. Since this small cone is used as a quarry, its structure made of scoria fragments is easily seen. Lavas issued from this cone to the south generated well formed levee-bounded channels, and growth of the levees formed small caves. A col lapsed cave to the north is used as an animal enclosure (Potrero). Walking west, less than 100 meters away is Group 3, which includes the largest of these small hornitos. El

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 280 Cuescomate Mayor is 20 meters high and almost entirely made up of spat ter. Avoid climbing its exterior walls except along the established trails on its eastern and western sides to prevent its destruction, as some of the spatter is not well consolidated. The crater is easily enterable, and still preserves part of a lava lining. At its southern base, a very interesting vent-channel structure is found, from which several different oping small lava tubes. One of them contains Cueva de la Laguna, with 62 meters of small passage and a little lake which gave it its name. Further west, three other small vents or spatter, and are only recognizable by the presence of small caves or lava tubes. One of the vents has a crater about 15 centimeters wide but at least 3 meters deep, as sounded with a stick that didnt reach the bottom. After visiting the Cuescomates, walk plain of Llano de los Conejos and cross it west, climbing slowly (remember you are at nearly 3,000 m.a.s.l.), until reaching the main Highway 95 at the Morelos monument. Lunch will be had at Restaurante Los Venados. Quesadil variety of typical local ingredients like are especially recommended. Continue south along highway 95 towards Cuernavaca until kilometer post 64 where a parking lot is located. Stop 3: Cuernavaca Valley Lookout. of Chichinautzin volcano. Notice the difference in vegetation between this consisting of small xerophyte plants, lichens and grasses, as compared with the vegetation of the surrounding, much that it was emplaced along lava channels ogy is typical Aa. Many olivine crystals can be observed in samples of these basaltic lavas, and feldspar xenoliths are common. To the south, a panoramic view of almost the entire state of Morelos can be seen. The lookout is almost precisely located along the surface trace of the La Pera normal fault system (Siebe et al., 2004) which essentially marks the Plan of Cuescomates (Groups 2 & 3). Los Cuescomates rootless vents are dwarfed by the surrounding 20 meters tall pine trees.

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281 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 southern limit of the SCVF. The fault scarp is not visible, as it has been en seismic evidence shows that the fault system could still be active. The rounded hills across the valley are made up of Cretaceous limestone and shale. To the Guespalapa volcano, can be seen as it cone and then crosses the entire Cuer navaca valley before ponding against the between 2,83575 to 4,69090 years B.P. in age and 25 kilometers long, is the SCVF. Both its morphology and vegeta tion cover indicate its extreme youth, comparable to Chichinautzin, so its age is most probably closer to the younger date. The Cuescomates hornitos seen in the morning are developed on this of a huge master tube, in places over 20 meters in diameter, have recently been mapped and are proof of its origin as a To the east a series of rock pinnacles can be seen. They are the Sierra Tepoz tln, which is considered the remnants of a huge Miocene volcaniclastic fan. The city of Tepoztln, the symposium site, is located in a depression developed among these pinnacles. The town above the pinnacles is San Juan Tlacotenco. Suchiooc volcano is just over the crest to the northwest, and its tube-fed pahoehoe pinnacles. Underneath the town of San Juan are the twelve caves that together form Sistema Tlacotenco, which include the longest (and probably most com plex) lava tubes known in Continental America. Continue on highway 95 until reach ing kilometer post 70. Take the branch to the right towards highway 115 which takes you towards Tepoztln. After pass ing the toll booth, get out of the highway on the right and follow the signs towards the Cuernavaca-Tepoztln federal road. Turn left and follow the road to the center of Tepoztln. Turn right on main street and follow it down and out of town. Follow the road to a Y fork and take the small road to the left towards Santo Domingo Ocotitln. After about 10 kilometers the bus will stop at a small parking area on the left. This is Stop 4. that limits it to the NW to visit an excel lent outcrop of the Tepoztln Formation, consisting of alternating layers of lahars, tuffs and volcanic breccias. Tube-fed basaltic lava from Suchiooc volcano surrounds the eroded pinnacles. Stop 4: Cueva del Diablo. Walk across the road and cross a gate. Follow the path on the other side until reaching a bifurcation after about 200 meters. Take the right path, which leads straight into the main entrance. The cave is used as a maternity by Leptonycteris bats, so should be avoided in the winter months to prevent disturbing the colony. Being close to the road, it is the most frequently visited cave in the area, so the entrance area has many spray paints, and cord has been left in many passages in the cave by out. Extensive use of the map is recom symposium excursion, a through trip will be made to the smaller entrances. A total of 2,020 m of passages were surveyed in this tube. This cave is still used by local visible, made up of numerous small lava toes or tongues. Many tubular lava stalactites and stalagmites, made up of extruded segregates during early cool ing of the lava tube, decorate the walls and many alcoves. Most of the smaller anastomosing tubes at a higher level still preserve their linings. From the main entrance follow the left hand passage at every junction. Whenever you reach a bifurcation, fol low the joining passage upwards for a while, but then return to the main or left hand branch. Eventually you will reach Sala Saxofn. Visiting the bats, is not recommended. On the return left and follow it to the Labyrinth. The right hand passage eventually goes to a crawlway after which the light from the two smaller entrances can be seen at both ends of a large tube. Exit from the furthest entrance and follow a path north back across the fence and road to the bus. The bus will return to the main square at Tepoztln. Symposium Field Trip Two, 5 July 2006. Sistema Chimalacatepec Sistema Chimalacatepec. This cave is the main portion of the Suchiooc Mas ter Tube. It is a large canyon shaped passage intersected by several skylight entrances, which were already open dur ing activity as evidenced by the primary structures (levees, lava linings, etc.) in direction, Cueva de Tatamasquo, Cueva de Chimalacatepec and Cueva de Iztaxi atla. With 201 meters in vertical extent and a total of 1,388 meters of surveyed passages, Sistema Chimalacatepec is the deepest lava tube explored in Continental America. Including Cueva del rbol, another cave upflow from Chimala catepec, the master tube can be traced over a total vertical extent of nearly 300 meters. At the bottom of this cave, over half a kilometer from the nearest entrance, included over 90 different ceramic and carved rock pieces, in excellent state of preservation, belonging to the Tlahuica culture (Vega Nova and Pelz Marn, 1994; Broda and Maldonado, 1994). representing a horse, and also of chicken Large master tube in Cueva del Diablo. villagers for religious rituals to of chicken. Cueva del Diablo consists of a large main passage, Galera de los Caones, which is inter preted to be part of the master tube because of its size, canyon shape and the levees that split it into superposed passages. A complex series of upper level tributary passages join the main tube. In places the lining of the master tube collapsed during volcanic activity, so the mul containing the cave is clearly

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 282 and pig bone fragments (animals in troduced during the Conquest) seems to indicate a Colonial age for these of ferings (Vieitez L., pers.com.). All the pieces were recovered by workers of the Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia (INAH), Morelos department, and are presently in a specially adapted Site Museum in the town of San Juan Tlacotenco. The bus will leave the main square at Tepoztln and take the small road west towards the town of San Juan Tlaco tenco. We will visit the site museum and then walk along the Camino Real path, climbing towards the northeast past several small houses until reaching a rock fence on the right. When the steep rock fence. A hundred meters below the fence, in the middle of a small ridge is the 15 meter entrance pitch known as Cueva de Iztaxiatla. This was an open skylight during activity, as shown by levees surrounding the whole pitch. A caving ladder (with safety rope) and/or an abseiling and climbing rope will be climbs further into the cave also require map included is only of the portions of the cave accessible through Cueva de Iztaxiatla. After visiting the cave, the bus will return us to the main square at Tepoztln. The uppermost portion of the cave, which we will not visit, is accessible through the other two entrances. It is formed by at least three superposed lev the lowermost passages in Cueva del rbol. Levees all around the entrance pitches, and a continuous lava lining all the way to the surface prove that these entrances were open skylights during activity. Progress is made along large terraces made up of wall levees, while breakdown blocks, mostly made up of collapsed levees and/or linings. This where the wall linings on both sides of the passage join together, leaving only lava, through which a howling wind is felt. This little hole is the connection with the upper passages of Cueva de Iztaxiatla. Plan view of Cueva del Diablo.

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283 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 After descending the 15 meter en trance pitch of Cueva de Iztaxiatla, a reaching a balcony over a lower level. Either a 5 meter pitch or a short climb with the aid of a log takes us to another del Tango. This climb deposits us on the main or lower level of Sistema Chi malacatepec. All the above mentioned passages are superposed levels of a single canyon-shaped tube, separated by the growth of levees due to the cool ing caused by the Iztaxiatla skylight. superposed levels is blocked and inac cessible. Once on the lowermost level, a pas partially collapsed in places, reaches El Can Inferior, almost 20 meters high, but which soon ends against a high wall. the connection with the upper portion of Sistema Chimalacatepec. the lowermost level, after a tight spot between collapse blocks, an elliptic tun nel is reached, with prominent red Aa by breakdown. Walls and ceiling are plastered by several lava linings, and pahoehoe wall levees and benches are also visible. After 130 meters, the pas sage goes underneath El Gran Domo, a possible skylight during activity, not open to the surface due to the develop ment of a solid crust before the drainage of the tube. Beyond El Gran Domo, the passage diminishes in height and widens, acquir and ceiling are covered by a lining of easily broken scoriaceous red Aa lava. by collapsed blocks of this lining. When the breakdown ends, the passage is el liptic on cross section, with pahoehoe be red Aa lava. The slope diminishes, as well as the passage size. Eventually, a crawl is reached. logical remains were found. Under the prominent wall levees were 3 incense burning pots with hollow handles and 16 earthenware bowls, while on top of mostly of jadeite were found. One last segment of canyon passage of large dimensions with prominent balconies, called Las Repisas, follows. fragments of lava lining or collapsed wall levees. The scars of these collapses show several superposed linings, representing many episodes of successive emptying The collapses end abruptly at the beginning of the terminal Gran Galera Final, which is 15 meters in diameter, this lava, which also has large contrac tion cracks. A bifurcation is reached, where three incense burning pots with hollow handles and 4 earthenware pots were found placed on the remains of a fireplace. The passage to the right El Gran Can, upper passage of Sistema Chimalacatepec. Cross section of El Gran Can, Sistema Chimalacatepec.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 284 the main passage to the left continues for 50 meters in large dimensions to a large lava sump, where the ceiling and with especially embroidered handles, and 10 earthenware pots, again placed Symposium Field Trip Three, 7 July 2006. Cueva de la Iglesia-Mina Superior Sistema Tlacotenco Group. Formed by 12 different caves developed inside a by skylights above the Chimalacate southwest along the eastern edge of San Juan Tlacotenco. The compound in the railway cuts below town. As the lavas reached the prominent peaks of the into different tongues and entered nar row canyons eroded into the volcanic agglomerates. The tube system is a com plex network of anastomosing passages, although in the upper portions a main tube, larger than the rest, is discernible and in places it is canyon shaped or has superposed levels (Cueva de Marcelo), as the tube subdivides into many smaller reaches Cerro Tepozteco it divides into two branches. The eastern branch is the steepest, and all the tubes heading towards it concentrated into a single, unbranched tube (Cueva de la Tubera), while the western branch remains with a moderate slope and continues to have many parallel and anastomosing tubes (as seen in Cueva del Ferrocarril and Cueva del Capuln). All the caves are genetically linked, but collapses, ash/ have separated the tube system into the today known caves. A total of 16,032 m of passages have been surveyed in this system along a 301 m difference in height, mostly under constructions and streets of the town of San Juan Tla cotenco. Many primary structures have been found inside this lava tube system. Most important in discerning the tubes history have been levee patterns both in walls and floor; rafted lava balls and lava ball dams; tubular lava stalactites, drip stalagmites and other segregated materi an already empty tube. Additionally, secondary mineral deposits in the form stone are abundant in certain sections, particularly in the Segunda Axial passage of Cueva de la Iglesia. Many junctions of tubes show evi dence of formation of larger tubes by the accretion of smaller tubes, and there are many evidences of pirating of lava from an upper tube into a lower lying tube. It is important to stress that these underlying tubes are basically contemporaneous with the upper ones, and not the product those tubes which branch from the main one at a higher level show evidence of sions to have been reoccupied by later Although no evidence was found for erosion into the country rocks, many inner shapes of the tube made by the growth of levees, rafted blocks turned into lava balls, undercutting of the tube walls by lava that has been detoured by a wedged lava ball, undercutting of the base of lava falls behind lava ball dams, lava balls wedged at complex tube junctions and then transformed into tube walls, singenetic breakdown, etc. No attempt will be made to describe every passage in this complex system, and details will only be given of the passages that will be visited. Intensive use of the map is recommended when visiting any of these caves, which should be checked at every junction. Directions are given with respect to an explorer entering the cave. The bus will leave the main square at Tepoztln and take the small road west towards San Juan Tlacotenco. Af ter reaching the town, we will take the continuation of the main street and walk towards the only accessible entrance of Cueva de la Iglesia-Mina Superior, located at the extreme SE portion of town. It is a small crawlway slightly above the major collapse depression known locally as La Mina, behind a conspicuous white greenhouse. Cueva de la Iglesia-Mina Superior. With a surveyed length of 5,278 m, along a vertical extent of 60 meters, this cave is the second longest surveyed lava tube in continental America. It comes within 20 meters of surveyed passages in Cueva de Doa Macaria (420 m), and within 10 meters from passages in Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior (6,538 m), from which it is segmented by a 20 m long surface trench. Cueva del Castillo (455 m) actually passes above and then below passages in Iglesia, but is still unconnected. Its entire development is under the eastern edge of the town of San Incense burners, second offering, Sistema Chimalacatepec.

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285 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Plan of the central portion of Sistema Chimalacatepec.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 286 Plan of the southern portion of Sistema Chimalacatepec.

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287 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Plan view of Sistema Tlacotenco.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 288 Juan Tlacotenco. There are six known entrances, three of which have been blocked by the owners of the property. build a sewer drainage while blocking the topmost entrance. Of the remaining three entrances, very close together, the only accessible one actually enter what is known as Cueva Mina Superior, at the from Cueva Mina Inferior, the eastern most entrance of Cueva del FerrocarrilMina Inferior. From the entrance crawlway a small climb, easily missed on the way back, takes us to a relatively large passage perior entrance (too tight to be of use) fragments in this area and a treasure-hunt dig show that this portion of the cave was frequently visited. The main passage reaching Saln de las Races, a spacious, balcony overlook decorated by many passage upflow, again on hands and knees, one passes several side passages and slowly the main tube gains height at the base of a lava falls. A conspicu ous lava ball hanging from the ceiling decorates this spot. Another crawlway ahead soon ends at a climb-down into a major junction of superposed levels, the connection chamber between Cueva Iglesia and Cueva Mina Superior. Taking the passage on the opposite side of the main tube one soon reaches the Diaper Chamber, which is another complex junction. The main tube is fol chamber. Careful to note this spot as on the way back it is easy to take the wrong tunnel out of this collapse. Following the right wall, crossing the collapse is relatively easy. The breakdown soon ends at another complex junction of several tubes, the Labyrinth. Take the tube further west (left as you go in) and This is the Segunda Axial, the second major tube of the cave, and will be fol Principal or main passage. Along its length, many junctions will be noted, some of which give access to other portions of the cave, while others are simple loop passages or superposed lev els. Many interesting primary structures are developed along this tube, including levees, shark tooth stalactites, syngenetic breakdown covered partially by lava the tubes, etc. After a few hundred meters, a crawl way is reached, after which the tube is decorated with abundant dripstone stalactites of opal, up to 20 centimeters long, with incipient stalagmites grow abundant microgours is developed on Finally, the Segunda Axial passage encounters a huge rafted lava ball which almost blocks the passage, but by crawl ing underneath one pops out in the upper reaches of the main Galera Principal. Notice that the conspicuous (from the entrance to the Segunda Axial is com having been eroded and/or covered by the lava from the main passage. Do not follow the Galera Principal this tube is developed as a canyon with pahoehoe decorate the walls, marking a high stand of the lava, and facilitate notably the traversing of this tube. In the last couple hundred meters, with less gradient, the passage becomes lower and begins to anastomose, with some of the bifurcations obviously formed by huge lava balls. The lower entrance, caused by the fall of a tractor in the middle of a street, is now blocked by a concrete slab. Shortly afterwards the full of ash/soil. The terminus is only 30 meters from the huge rafted lava ball blockage that marks the topmost end of Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior. Several anastomosing side passages depart from the main passage. From ters from the top entrance-sewer, gives access to the Segunda Axial, described above. The second one, also on the east level. It gives access to a hundred meter are made of clinkery pahoehoe, covered by a glazed lining only on the lower 1 meter of the passage walls. The next side passage, this time to the west, is the entrance to Ramal de Admiring Opal dripstone stalactites, Segunda Axial passage, Cueva de la Iglesia, Sistema Tlacotenco. Galera Principal, Cueva de la Iglesia, Sistema Tlacotenco.

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289 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 las Bolas. This branch of the cave con sists of three parallel tubes which start side by a large amount of rafted blocks covered by a thin lining of pahoehoe. This blockage prevents direct access to the two westernmost tunnels, while the entrance to the eastern one is al most completely blocked by a large lava ball, which allows access by crawling underneath. The three passages pres ent anastomosing development, with accessory branches and oxbows which complicate the plan even further. Many primary structures are present on all these tunnels. The three passages join at a complex intersection with abundant singenetic collapse blocks, from which two passages continue until they are blocked, by ash/soil the western one, and by a lava sump the eastern one. Post-Symposium Field Trip One, 8 July 2006. Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior. This cave is the longest and most complex longest cave in the state of Morelos. It is the longest surveyed lava tube in con tinental America, with 6,538 meters of surveyed passages along a vertical extent of 90 meters. It has a total of 14 known entrances, located on the terrains to the south and east of the town of San Juan Tlacotenco. The most frequently used are end. The remaining entrances are mostly post-activity collapses although at least one, La Nopalera, may have been an open skylight during activity, as evi denced by the lack of breakdown at its base. Two of the known entrances have been blocked by the owners, and in one of them, unfortunately, a sewer drainage was built while blocking the entrance, while three of the remaining entrances have been used as garbage dumps. It comes within 20 meters of Cueva de la Iglesia-Mina Superior (5,278 m long), from which it is separated by the col lapse trench known as La Mina. It is also only 15 meters from Cueva de la Tubera (428 m long) and is separated m long) by the railroad cut. This cave is much more complex than Cueva Iglesia-Mina Superior. Except for the uppermost section (La Tubera), no master tube is present, and most pas sages are a very complex anastomosing labyrinth. It would be useless and very complicated to attempt to describe this entire cave, so only the major features will be described. Its complex character is further enhanced by the fact that the branches as it reached the pinnacles and hills of the Tepoztln Formation. The upflow end of the cave is La Tubera, the continuation of the master tube in Cueva Iglesia-Mina Superior. It immediately starts to branch into sev eral parallel tunnels of smaller dimen sions, with abundant junctions between them. The easternmost branch collects the tubes which are a prolongation of the Segunda Axial and its tributaries in Iglesia-Mina Superior, and eventually begin to steepen as they reach the edge of the steep slope ending in Tepoztln. All tubes in this branch coalesce into a single tube, named El Deglutidor, which after a steep descent ends in an ash/soil Cueva del Ferrocarril becomes es pecially complicated west of the con nection with Mina Inferior. Essentially, Admiring rafted blocks in Ramal de las Bolas, Cueva de la Iglesia, Sistema Tlacotenco. Lava stalagmite in Ramal de Lus, Cueva Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior. Lava cascade at junction of two levels, Cueva Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 290 Plan maps of Cuevas de la Iglesia-Mina Superior and Castillo, Sistema Tlacotenco.

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291 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Plan of Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 292 originating from the western tubes in La Tubera, was covered by the anasto mosing lavas coming from Ramal de las Bolas in Cueva Iglesia-Mina Superior. In many places evidence can be found the upper tubes by the lower ones due to lava can also be discerned. At several complex junctions dams of rafted balls complicated the relationship of the overlying tubes even further by the formation of new tubes among the lava balls through undercutting. This is especially notable near La Taza and the Saln de los Murcilagos, but many smaller or less clear examples can be found throughout the cave. Levees, benches, shark-tooth stalactites and many other primary structures can be found on most tunnels. where it has been cut by the railroad. In spite of the many parallel tubes just upflow from the road cut, only two small tubes were intersected, one of them forming the main entrance to the cave, while the other is too small to be of use. The bus will leave the main square at Tepoztln and take the small road west of town towards the town of San Juan Tlacotenco. After reaching the town, we will take the continuation of the main street and walk towards the main entrance of Cueva del Ferrocarril-Mina Inferior, located at the railroad cut to the south of town. It is a small crawlway road, partly masked by the vegetation, and located opposite the conspicuous upper entrances of Cueva del Capuln on the SW side of the railroad, which are presently being used as a quarry site. A through trip will be done, depending on the cave at their own leisure. Extensive use of the map is recommended, and you should locate yourself at every junc tion to avoid getting lost in this most extraordinarily complex cave. Post-Symposium Field Trip Two, 9 July 2006. Cueva del rbol In Cueva del rbol and Sistema Chi malacatepec the master tube for the almost 2 km along the steepest sections is up to 15 or 20 meters high in the can yon passages, but where the lowermost passage in Cueva del rbol underlies the Gran Can passage in Sistema Chi 35 meters below the ceiling of the latter. Most entrances functioned as hornitos or skylights during activity, as evidenced by the presence of levees surrounding the walls of the entrance pitches, wall linings up to the surface, and lack of breakdown blocks below the entrance. A total of 3,172 m of cave passages were surveyed in the Chimalacatepec lava Cross sections of the tubes, and their general shape, suggest that an important element in the shaping of the tubes was downcutting, although only criterion 6 Cueva del rbol. The entrance to this cave is probably the most impres m wide collapse, 8 meters deep at the lowest point, gives access to a huge chamber-like passage 20 meters wide and over 50 meters long, covered in breakdown. Although it is possible that Three-dimensional view of Cueva del rbol, Sistema Chimalacatepec and Cueva del Potrero.

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293 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Map of Cueva del rbol.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 294 this entrance also functioned as an open skylight during activity, the collapse is too extensive for primary structures to remain. Nevertheless, this allows for observation of the enclosing rock, mostly 1 m thick. within sight of it, the size of the passage diminishes to about ten meters wide, and two prominent wall levees appear under the breakdown only to disappear under passage is huge, over 20 meters wide and ten to 15 meters high. Prominent wall levees form ledges along both sides, with a thermal erosion canyon between them. Large side tunnels lead away on both sides, soon blocked by the red Aa passage. After 70 meters, the red lava 10 meter deep pitch, El Embudo, lined with a large levee all around it. The pitch itself only gives access to a short in breakdown under the entrance break down mountain and which is plugged The way on after El Embudo is found by climbing around the edge of the pitch behind the levee is a small upper level tube of small dimensions, 2 to 4 meters in diameter, which soon plunges into the main passage below forming La Cascada. A pitch just below it only gives access to a plugged section of a lower level, but the main passage continues on. Shortly after, a huge dome almost 15 me ters high, with large levees of the red Aa collapse blocks, most of which are actu ally pieces of lava linings which have spalled off the walls, and the collapse never involves the encasing rock. lava develops large levees that slowly grow outwards as one advances, until joining to form a separation between individual levels. This happens twice before the main or upper passage ends in a lava blockage, less than 20 meters from the continuation of this level in Sistema Chimalacatepec. The middle and lower levels, completely encased in before the closing up of the levees. The middle level is short and is blocked by rafted lava balls, but the lower level is much more extensive, underlying the main passage of Sistema Chimalacatepec for over 100 meters. Displacement of this various superposed levels is evi dence of meander migration during the excavation, through thermal erosion, of the deep canyon, while the separation into different levels was caused by the growth of internal wall levees. Cueva del rbol was surveyed to a total length of 1,480 meters, and covers a vertical extent of 118 meters. Since it allows access to a master tube with clearly formed canyon shaped passages, separating into superposed levels, and also gives access to smaller anastomos that it is one of the most instructive lava tubes of the area, at least from the geomorphologic and genetic point of view. The bus will leave the main square at Tepoztln and take the small road west of town towards the town of San Juan Tlacotenco. After reaching the town, take the Camino Real path northeast of the town of San Juan Tlacotenco, and follow it upwards past the turn off towards Cueva Iztaxiatla. Take a series of small paths climbing steeply upwards, past the upper entrances of Sistema Chimalacatepec, past a fenced enclosure where the entrance to Cueva del Potrero is located, until reaching the large collapse entrance of Cueva del rbol, marked by a conspicuous large tree which gives the cave its name. The entrance pitch will be rigged with a cable ladder (with safety line) and/or an abseiling and climbing rope for the La Cascada, Cueva del rbol. 1995 eruption of Popocatepetl volcano. Upper level of main passage, Cueva del rbol.

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295 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 also be placed at la Cascada. Visit the cave at your leisure. Afterwards, return to the town of San Juan Tlacotenco, where the bus will take us back to the main square at Tepoztln. Post-Symposium Field Trip Three, 10 to 13 July 2006: Lava tubes in the vicinity of Perote and Xalapa, states of Puebla and Veracruz 10 July 2006 : This day we will travel from the symposium site, Tepoztln, along highway 190 towards the city of Cuautla, and then take a new unnumbered highway towards Puebla, passing at the base of Popocatepetl volcano, where we will make Stop 1. From Puebla we will travel along highway 150 towards Orizaba; after the town of Acatzingo we will take highway 140 towards Perote, crossing the Libres-Oriental basin, where Stops 2 and 3 will be made. Finally we will visit the archaeological site of Cantona. We will spend the night in the town of Libres. Popocatepetl volcano: Popocatepetl (5,450 m.a.s.l.) is Mexicos most famous stratovolcano. After many years of mild fumarolic activity, a series of phrea tomagmatic explosions in December 1994 signaled its reactivation. Since then, activity has been restricted to the emplacement of successive domes inside the summit crater and their destruction during strombolian, vulcanian and/or subplinian explosions. These have pro duced numerous ash falls in the nearby cities of Puebla and Mxico (EspinasaPerea and Martn-Del Pozzo, 2006). This renewed activity has reawakened interest in this volcano, as numerous recent papers have shown. The present day cone of Popocatepetl is built atop the remains of at least two previous volcanoes, which were de stroyed in large sector collapses of the the resulting deposits in the valleys of Cuautla and Izucar de Matamoros and named them Tlayecac Formation. Robin products of Bezymianny or St Helens type eruptions. Siebe et al. (1995b) dated the youngest avalanche at 23,655 to 22,000 years B.P. Since then growth of the volcano has been characterized by the emission of numerous andesitic to and from two sectors of lateral vents aligned in a NE-SW direction, inter spersed with at least 10 plinian erup tions which deposited numerous airfall deposits in the valleys surrounding the volcano (Espinasa-Perea and MartnThe Libres-Oriental Basin forms the eastern end of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 296 Del Pozzo, 2006). Stop 1: Popocatepetl volcano. At this stop we will visit an outcrop in which the two most recent avalanche deposits are visible. We will also see more recent Atlixco, the largest city in the vicinity of the volcano. The Eastern Portion of the Transmexi closed basin, known in the literature as the Llanos de San Juan, Libres-Oriental Basin and Serdn-Oriental basin. It is limited on the west by the Malinche stratovolcano, and on the east by the Las Cumbres Volcanic Complex (Rodrguez, 2005), which includes Mxicos highest volcano, historically active Citlaltepetl (5,690 m.a.s.l.), and the older Cofre de Perote (4,200 m.a.s.l.). To the northeast the basin is limited by the Los Humeros Caldera and to the northwest and south by older volcanic ranges. Although the basin is surrounded by long lived stratovolcanoes, its interior is dominated by a variety of monoge netic volcanic structures such as rhyolite domes, tuff cones and rings, scoria cones Cerro Pinto and Cerro Pizarro rhyolite domes are the most prominent volcanic structures in the interior of the basin, and the phreatomagmatic maar craters of Alchichica, Atexcac and La Preciosa rank among the most beautiful in the world (Reyes Corts, 1979; Gasca Du rn, 1981; Siebe et al., 1995a; Riggs and Carrasco-Nunez, 2004). The Los Humeros Caldera was formed by the collapse of a pre-existing strato volcano due to the eruption of very large tipan Ignimbrite 0.56.21 Ma (Yaez Garca and Garca Durn, 1982; Ferriz and Mahood, 1984), distributed mostly to the north of the Caldera. Much later activity generated extensive basaltic lava on the southern side of the Caldera. east to west as the El Limn, Tepeya archaeological site of Cantona is built through a large segmented master tube, Cueva de Chinacamoztoc, recognizable through at least 2 kilometers. It is pos extruded from the caldera rim fractures were also emplaced through lava tubes, which would explain their lengths of up to 16 kilometers. After Atlixco, continue along the road to Puebla, cross the city and take highway 150 towards Orizaba. Just past

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297 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 the town of Acatzingo take road 140 north towards Perote. After the town of Zacatepec continue right towards Perote. After the road turns into a highway, stop at any of the quarry entrances on the right of the road. This is Stop 2. Stop 2, Las Derrumbadas Rhyolitic domes. Las Derrumbadas twin rhyolitic domes, with fumarolic activity and ex tensive rock alteration, are located in the middle of the Libres-Oriental basin and are the most prominent peaks of the area, both by their size and the many erosional gullies and collapse scars which give them their name. They were extensively studied by Siebe and Verma (1988) and Siebe et al. (1995a), who recognized at least two stages of dome collapse. The resulting debris-avalanche deposits consist of a chaotic mixture of blocks of faulted surge and pyroclastic flow deposits, as well as decameter-sized blocks of nonvolcanic origin such as Cretaceous limestone. Continue northeast on road 140 until kilometer 24, where Alchichica lake is visible on the left of the road. Use any of several unpaved roads to descend into the crater lake. This is Stop 3. Stop 3, Alchichica Maar. Alchichica is the largest maar crater in the Libres-Ori ental basin. It was formed when a small amount of magma reacted explosively with phreatic waters in the lake deposits at the bottom of the basin. This generated a series of phreatomagmatic explosions which built a tuff cone around the vent. These explosions dissected a previous tephra cone, visible on the western crater rim. The juvenile components of the deposits consist of scoriaceous basalt or basaltic andesite. On your way into the crater, notice the numerous structures visible on the road cuts, including cross bedding, bomb structures, etc. The Alchichica lake, although reputed to be bottomless, is only 60 meters deep in its almost 2 kilometers in diameter. The water is salty due to both evapo ration and dissolved minerals. Notice that almost all the edges of the lake are rimmed by white caliche-like deposits. These are formed as stromatolites and are therefore representatives of some of the oldest known forms of life on Earth. 11 July 2006 : From Perote drive back to El Limn at kilometer 35, where an unpaved road goes left towards Te peyahualco for ten kilometers, passing Debris-avalanche deposit forming hummocks at the base of Las Derrumbadas. Google Earth image of the Las Derrumbadas twin domes. Notice the hummocky terrain made.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 298 by the base of Cerro Pizarro, another complex rhyolitic dome similar to Las Derrumbadas, recently studied by Riggs and Carrasco-Nunez (2004). When you reach Tepeyahualco, drive to the right on a paved road until reaching the parking lot of the Cantona Archaeological site. This is Stop 4. Visit the ruins at your leisure. We will meet at the bus for the drive to Chinacamoztoc cave, where we will spend the rest of the day. Stop 4, Cantona Archaeological Site. Discovered in the middle of the 19 th century by Henri de Saussure (1855), this spectacular site was not excavated until recently. It is believed to be one of the largest urban centers yet discov ered in Mesoamerica, and covers 12 square kilometers divided into three urban areas. They include a network of over 500 cobblestone roads, 3000 individual patios or residences, 24 ball courts and an elaborate acropolis with many ceremonial buildings and temples. These remarkable buildings were as sembled by placing carved stones one atop the other, without any stucco cov ering or cement mortar being used in their construction. The buildings are adjusted to the topography of the thick advantage of its steep slopes. They are evidently adapted for defense. Over time, Cantona turned into a fortress, since it developed in a period of social unrest. It was a contemporary civilization to the more famous Teotihuacan (A.D. 600 to 1000), which eventually dominated it. It was abandoned three hundred years before the conquest. Take the small road east of Libres to wards the town of Tepeyahualco. After 5 kilometers, take the small, unpaved road towards the town of Francisco I. Madero. Park the bus in the main square of town. This is Stop 6, the days only stop. Stop 6, Cueva de Chinacamoztoc. The name of this cave means Cave of dedicated to the cave, Haarmann (1910) calculated its length at about 500 meters. he proposed that the cave had formed and the gas pressure pushed the lava flow upwards leaving a void under neath. The portion of the cave visited by Haarmann is no longer accessible. Wittich (1921) in a study of the geol ogy of the entire Llanos de San Juan area, describes the cave as being almost two kilometers long, and suggests that the stream deposits seen by Haarmann concludes that the cave formed by the liquid lava remaining inside. After the onwards, leaving a void behind. No other references have been found about this cave. In may 2006, in prepa ration of the symposium, members of Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas (SMES) and Club Explo raciones de Mxico A.C. (CEMAC), Ve racruz section, visited and surveyed the Chinacamoztoc lava tube. This survey is Chinacamoztoc cave is a large mas ter tube 10 to 30 meters wide and >10 meters high in most places. The original entrance, as described by Haarmann, is Haarmann describes the passage, now inaccessible, as being up to 10 meters wide and 15 meters high. He also men tions that the upper portion of the cave soil loss. The lower side of the wall was accessible through another, lower en trance (the Upper Entrance on the map), which is a small hole at the bottom of a 20 meter wide surface depression whose western wall is vertical. We believe this was an open skylight during activity. It gives access to a small shelf above the main canyon shaped passage. and covered in sooth from torches. The mud deposits. Eventually the lower side of the wall is found. Sometime in the last ten years, somebody dug a hole through it hid a treasure, and the completely sible through the dug tunnel for about 15 meters. the cave rapidly grows in dimensions, but traversing the passage is made more blocks on most of the tunnel. The intact sections are also not easily traversed, Alchichica maar with Pico de Orizaba on the background. Notice the stromatolites on the shoreline. Some of the buildings in Cantona.

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299 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Aa lavas. A total of eight skylights break up the lava tube, of which three actually segment the 1,577 meters long tube into 4 caves 413, 248, 597 and 164 meters long (in a downflow direction). The skylight areas are used by large white owls as nesting sites, so please try to avoid disturbing them. On some of the skylights, the entrances to small anasto mosing tubelets are visible high up the wall, near the ceiling level, and probably represent the original braided tubes from which the master tube evolved through thermal erosion. Separation of the canyon passage into superposed levels is only visible in two sections close to skylights that might have been open during activity, but other skylights are probably postactivity collapses. The ceiling and walls of one of the lower levels is decorated with many small tubular stalactites. In contrast with tubular stalactites in the caves visited in the Sierra Chichinaut zin, which always develop from behind lining breaks, here the segregates were extruded straight from the wall, which does not show lining breaks. In two other places, evidence of thermal ero sion is seen where collapse of a lava lining exposes tephras and the Xaltipan ignimbrite. This is on a ledge still >10 After leaving the bus at the main square of Francisco I. Madero, we will walk for 2 kilometers along an unpaved road which leads to the Colapso Doble Entrance, from which we will walk along the surface to the Upper Entrance, where we will enter the cave. Follow the main exit at any of the accessible skylights. The lower entrance requires a risky climb to get out, but will be equipped with a wire ladder and belay rope. Once out of the cave, walk in a general direction and follow any of the many paths and unpaved roads back to the main square of town. At the end of the day, the bus will drive back to Perote where we will spend the night. Las Lajas Cinder Cones and lava Plan view of Cueva de Chinacamoztoc, Puebla. scarce pine trees. In the background is Cerro Pizarro and Citlaltepetl behind it. The large Chinacamoztoc master tube at one of the skylights.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 300 of eruptive vents form what has been called the Las Lajas volcano, where over a dozen volcanic vents have been recog nized and some of them have been dated (Siebert and Carrasco-Nez, 2002). La Joya cinder cone complex is one of the oldest, and produced about 20 km 3 of meters SE to underlie the city of Xalapa, capital of the state of Veracruz, about 42,000 years B.P. Cueva de la Orqudea Many younger volcanic vents and lava Siebert and Carrasco-Nez (2002) originated from El Volcancillo (2,700 m.a.s.l.), a twin crater located 4 kilo meters southeast of the town of Las Vigas which erupted 87030 y.B.P. The cone complex straddles a sharp crested ridge between two valleys carved into the slope of Las Lajas volcano, a sub sidiary cone of Cofre de Perote. It fed ferent drainages. The Toxtlacoaya Aa crater, has a length of approximately 12 kilometers, while the Ro Naolinco northwestern crater, traveled over 50 kilometers. The eastern crater occupies the sum mit of a steep sided scoria cone that is breached in two places on its southern side. Large lava benches surround the inner crater and mark the highest stand which shortly stopped at the end of the pair of vents at the northeastern base of a large lava tube with a big skylight, 25 frequently forming a small shield. Quar rying of a lower entrance and the build ing of an Oleoduct collapsed most of the cave, leaving a semi-natural rock arch giving the cave its name, Cueva del Arco. Siebert and Carrasco-Nez (2002) claim that the 35 meter thick lava pile visible on the walls of Cueva del Arco represent the minimum thickness of the tube could have been originally much Tephra layers behind lining, evidence of thermal erosion. Cueva del Arco. Notice the two cavers, one on rope and the other at the bottom.

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301 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 smaller, and the present height be caused by thermal erosion, as suggested by the passage cross section. The western or main crater, 200 me ters wide and 90 meters deep, partially truncates the eastern scoria cone and was produced by collapse of a small same sequence of events: building of a scoria cone by lava fountaining, followed by the emission of lava which formed a lava lake. In the western crater, the scoria cone was overtopped over an arc of 180 truncated by the crater collapse. The uppermost entrance to Cueva del Vol cancillo is exposed in the upper northern The whole of the Ro Naolinco la vas were fed through lava tubes, as tion structures such as tumuli, pressure throughout. To date, the only surveyed cave is Cueva del Volcancillo, located near the crater. Only two other caves has been explored or surveyed. After 15 kilometers, a steep fall near the town of Tlacolulan, the lavas entered the deep valley of the Naolinco river (which today lowed it for nearly 35 kilometers. The of the town of Chicuasen at an altitude of 360 meters, immediately beyond the popular Descabezadero Cascades, the birthplace of the Actopan river, which with underlying conglomerates. 12 July 2006 : The bus will drive towards Xalapa, the capital of the state of Veracruz, along highway 140, four kilometers past the town of Las Vigas de Ramirez, to the town of Toxtlacuaya, where we will make Stop 7, which will last all day. Stop 7, El Volcancillo and its lava tubes. After leaving the vehicle at Tox tlacuaya, we will walk uphill to the entrance to Cueva del Arco (Outcrop 1). Walk into the collapsed and quar ried lower channel, underneath the arch that gives the cave its name. Notice the canyon-shaped cross section of the tube, which suggests that the present shape was achieved through thermal erosion. Return to the Oleoduct and climb above the channel to reach the rim of the skylight. Careful when approaching the edge, as it is a 35 meter pitch to the which are evidence that this skylight

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 302 tivity, building a small shield. Above Cueva del Arco, follow a small path upwards past the front of the small side of the Eastern Crater (Outcrop 2), structures and the lava benches inside the crater. Continue climbing uphill along the southern base of the tephra cone. Notice along the way the alluvial sediments de posited at the point where El Volcancillo blocked the drainage of one of the sev eral ravines that come down the upper slopes of Las Lajas volcano (Outcrop 3). tephra cone, take the southern ridge and follow it to the summit of El Volcancillo, from where a panoramic view of the crater can be obtained (Outcrop 4). Continue surrounding the crater to wards the north until reaching the edge of the former lava lake, where the edges studied. Descending slightly to the north we will reach the main entrance collapse of Cueva del Volcancillo (Outcrop 5) Cueva del Volcancillo, 540 meters long, consists of two segments: the upper one goes for less than 50 meters between the crater wall and a surface collapse, after which the entrance to the main cave is encountered. It is a beautiful master tube with up to three superposed levels separated by the growth of wall levees. In those sections where the levees do not join, their surface texture is especially beautiful. After nearly 350 meters, a small skylight entrance is encountered, below which is a seven meter pitch which can be rigged with a wire ladder and a safety rope. Shortly afterwards the cave ends in breakdown. After visiting the cave, continue walking around the crater to the east, (Outcrop 6). As we start going down, (Outcrop 7) includes individual andesite blocks up to several meters in diameter from Volcancillo. As we continue the descent along the eastern edge of El Volcancillos lava the lavas cover tephra layers from the same eruption, which in turn cover pa leosoils developed on the Las Lajas volcano slopes (Outcrop 8). Charcoal from one of these was used to determine the age of the eruption. When we reach the Oleoduct, we will follow it back to the east to return to the bus, which will then continue on highway 140 to Xalapa, where we will spend the night. Free evening, we recommend visiting the historical center of the Colonial city of Xalapa. 13 July 2006 : El Descabezadero, Xalapa, Veracruz: The city of Xalapa, capital of the state of Veracruz, is famous for its Colonial buildings, its cultural life and its many parks. It is built atop lava near El Volcancillo, which were dated by Siebert and Carrasco-Nez (2002) at over 24,000 y.B.P. through strati graphic criteria. Although no volcanic risk assessment has been carried out, it is clear that a new eruption in the area could represent a serious risk for the city and its environs. Stop 8, El Descabezadero. Beautiful spring and cascades which give birth to the Actopan river. These springs bring back to the surface the waters of the entire Ro Naolinco basin, which have Crater of El Volcancillo as seen from the summit. The beautiful wall levees in Cueva del Volcancillo.

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303 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Plan of El Volcancillo with marked outcrops.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 304 spring is at the contact between the lavas and underlying conglomerates. This is also the put-in for the descent of the upper Ro Actopan, one of the most popular commercial river-rafting trips in Mxico. Return to the bus and continue for 1.5 kilometers to the beginning of an unpaved road on the right. Follow it for a hundred meters, past a bridge over the Actopan river and reach El Tranchete, a popular restaurant, where a refresh enjoyed the trip. References tral Mexico: GeolRundsch., 64, p. 476-497. Broda, J. y Maldonado, D., 1994, La Cueva de Chimalacatepec, More los: una interpretacin etnohistrica; Memorias del III Congreso Interno del Centro I.N.A.H. Morelos, Aca pantzingo, Cuernavaca, Morelos, p. 101-122. Espinasa-Perea, R., 1999, Origen y evolucin de tubos de lava en la Sierra Chichinautzin: El caso del volcn Suchiooc: Masters degree Thesis, Instituto de Geofsica, UNAM. Espinasa-Perea, R., 2006, Lava tubes of the Suchiooc volcano, Mexico: Association for Mexican Cave Studies Bulletin 17, Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterrneas Boletn 6, austin, Texas, USA. Espinasa-Perea and Martn Del Pozzo, A.L., 2006, Morphostratigraphic evolution of Popocatpetl volcano, Mxico, in Siebe, C., Macas, J.L., and Aguirre-Daz, G.J., eds., Neo gene-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: A perspective from Mex ico: Geological Society of America Special Paper 402, p. 101-123. Ferriz, H. and Mahood, G.A., 1984, Eruption rates and compositional trends at Los Humeros Volcanic Center, Puebla, Mexico: Journal of Geophysical Research, V. 89, p. 8511-8524. Fries, C.Jr., 1966, Hoja Cuernavaca 14Q-h(8), con Resumen de la ge ologa de la Hoja Cuernavaca, Es tado de Morelos: Carta Geolgica de Mxico, Serie de 1:100,000, Inst. de Geol., U.N.A.M., Mxico, mapa con texto. Gasca Durn, A., 1981, Gnesis de los Lagos-Crater de la cuenca de Orien Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico, 58 p. Garca-Palomo, A., Macas, J.L., and Garduo, V.H., 2000, Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico; Tectonophysics 318, pags. 281-302. Greeley, R., Fagents, S.A., Harris, R.S., Kadel, S.D., and Williams, D.A., evidence; Jour. of Geophys. Res., V. 103, No. B11, p. 27,325-27,345. Haarmann, E., 1910, Sobre una cueva en una corriente de lava en el estado de Puebla: Boletn Soc. Geol. Mexicana, Tomo VII, p. 141-143. Haro, E.J., Moreno, P., and BarcelDuarte, J., 1986, Estudio sedimen tolgico de la porcin oriental de la Formacin Tepoztln, Morelos: VIII Convencin Geolgica Nacional, Mxico D.F., p. 162-163 (abstract). Lugo Hubp, J.I., 1984, Geomorfologa del sur de la Cuenca de Mxico. Serie Varia 1, 8, Inst. Geog. U.N.A.M., Mxico, 95 pags. Martin del Pozzo, A.L., 1982, Monoge netic vulcanism in Sierra Chichinau tzin, Mxico: Bull. Volc., 45, 1, p. 9-24 Mooser, F., 1963, Historia tectnica de la Cuenca de Mxico; Bol. Asoc. Mex. de Gel. Petrol., V. 15, p. 239-245. Ochoterena, F.H., 1977, Origen y edad del Tepozteco; Bol. Inst. de Geog., U.N.A.M., 8, Mxico, p.41-54. Ordoez, E., 1937, Tepoztln, Estado de Morelos: Gua para la excursin de la Sociedad Geolgica Mexicana: Boletn de la Soc. Gel. Mex., Tomo X (3-4), pags. 91-112. Peterson, D.W., Holcomb, R.T., Tilling, R.I., and Christiansen, R.L., 1994, Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii; Bull. Vol canol. 56, p. 343-360. Reyes Corts, 1979, Geologa de la cuen 71, Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico, 62 p. Riggs, N. and Carrasco-Nunez, G., 2004, Evolution of a complex isolated dome system, Cerro Pizarro, central Mxico: Bulletin of Volcanology, V. 66, p. 322-335. Robin, C. and Boudal, C., 1987, A gigantic Bezymianny-type event at the beginning of modern Volcan Popocatpetl. Jour. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 31, p.115-130. Rodriguez, S.R., 2005, Geology of Las

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305 AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 2006 Cumbres Volcanic Complex, Puebla and Veracruz states, Mexico: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geolgicas, V.22, nm. 2, p. 181-199. Saussure, H. de, 1855, Dcouverte des ruines dune ancienne ville situe sur le plateau de Anahuac: Paris, France Siebe, C., 2000, Age and archaeologi cal implications of Xitle volcano, southwestern basin of Mexico City; J. Volcanol and Geother. Res. 104, pags. 45-64. Siebe, C., Macas, J.L., Abrams, M., Rodrguez, S., Castro, R., and Delga do, H., 1995a, Quaternary explosive volcanism and pyroclastic deposits in east central Mexico: implications for future hazards. Field Trip Guidebook #1, Geol. Soc. of Am. Annual Meet ing, p. 1-47. Siebe, C., Abrams, M. and Macas, J.L., 1995b, Derrumbes gigantes, depsitos de avalancha de escombros y edad del actual cono del volcn Popocatpetl. Volcn Popocatpetl, estudios realiza dos durante la crisis de 1994-1995, CENAPRED, Mxico, p.195-220. Siebe, C., Rodrguez-Lara, V., Schaaf, P., and Abrams, M., 2004, Radiocarbon ages of Holocene Pelado, Guespalapa, and Chichinautzin scoria cones, south of Mexico-City: implications for ar chaeology and future hazards; Bull. Volcanol. 66, pags. 203-225. Siebe, C., Arana-Salinas, L., and Abrams, M., 2005, Geology and radiocarbon ages of Tlloc, Tlaco tenco, Cuauhtzin, Hijo del Cuauhtzin, Teuhtli, and Ocusacayo monogenetic volcanoes in the central part of the Sierra Chichinautzin, Mxico; Jour. Volcanol. and Geotherm. Res. 141, pags. 225-243. Siebe, C., and Verma, S., 1988, Major element geochemistry and tectonic setting of Las Derrumbadas rhyolitic domes, Puebla, Mexico: Chemie dev Evde 48, p. 177-189. Siebert, L. and Carrasco-Nez, G., 2002, Late-Pleistocen to precolum in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt; implications for future hazards: Jour nal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, V. 115, p. 179-205. Urrutia Fucugauchi, J., and Martin del Pozzo, A.L., 1993, Implicaciones de los datos paleomagnticos sobre la edad de la sierra de Chichinautzin, Cuenca de Mxico: Geof. Int., 33, p. 523-533 Vega Nova, H. de y Pelz Marn, A.M., 1994, Informe parcial de los hallazgos arqueolgicos de la Cueva de Chi malacatepec, San Juan Tlacotenco, Municipio de Tepoztln, Morelos; Memorias del III Congreso Interno del Centro I.N.A.H. Morelos, Aca pantzingo, Cuernavaca, Morelos, p. 95-100. Virlet dAoust, 1865, Coup doeil g nral sur la topographie et la gologie du Mexique, et de lAmerique cen trale: Bull. Soc. Gol. de France, 2 serie, V. XXIII, p. 14. Wittich, E., 1921, Observaciones ge olgicas en la altiplanicie de San Juan de los Llanos, Puebla: Memorias Soc. p. 597-613. Acknowledgements Laura Rosales revised the text and made numerous improvements. Vicente Loreto and Chris Lloyd provided many of the photographs.



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SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL ON THE CD INCLUDED IN THE BOOK PROCEEDINGS OF THE X, XI, AND XII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIA ON VULCANOSPELEOLOGYThe CD contains, in addition to the PDF le for this proceedings volume, some material to supplement some of the articles. In some cases there are additional photographs or maps. In others, I have judged that a higher-resolution graphic of a map would be signi cantly more legible than the printed version. Australian Ken Grimes has provided PDF les of some of the papers referred to in an article and also a couple of nice color educational posters. Page numbers in red are the page numbers in this PDF le; other page references are to the book. Note that the page size is highly variable in this PDF.Bill Mixon, AMCS Editor Supplements to X symposium paper Subcrustal Drainage Lava Caves . , by Ken Grimes. Additional map of cave H-51. 2 Data forms and maps for caves H-106 3 and H-108 6 Referenced papers Grimes 1995 9 Grimes 2002a 17 and Grimes 2002b 22 Supplement to X symposium paper A Small Cave in a Basalt Dike . , by Ken Grimes. The version of this paper published in Helictite in 2006 26 Supplement to XI symposium paper Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cave . , by John Pint. Figure 3 (page 92), map of Ghar Al Hibashi 30 Supplement to XII symposium paper Al-Fahde Cave, Jordan . , by Ahmed Al-Malabeh, et al. Tthe four sheets of the map of Al-Fahde Cave, gures 25, pages 202204 31 Supplement to XII symposium paper Cueva Tecolotln . , by Ramn Espinasa-Perea and Luis Espinasa. Map of Cueva Tecolotln, gure 2, page 154 35 Supplement to XII symposium paper Geology and Genesis of the Kamakalepo Cave System . , by Stephan Kempe, et al. Map of Waipouli (Makai) Cave, gure 8, page 236 36 Supplement to XII symposium paper Surveyed Lava Tubes of Jalisco . , by John Pint, et al. Four additional color photograph with captions 37 Supplements to XII symposium paper Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration . , by Ed Waters. Maps of Lofthellir (page 193) 39 and Fjrhlahellir (page 194) 40 Additional maps of Bur 41 Hellinger 42 and Holgma 43 Four additional color photographs with captions 44 Color educational posters prepared in 2005 by Ken Grimes, Lava Tube Formation 46 and Sub-Crustal Lava Caves 50

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3H-106 C A VE REPORT Page 1 of 3. form i s (C) A SF 1974, 1985 T i ck when transferred to Cave Summary [ ] Re f: Report D a te 21-3-2002 C lu b: FEN Ho u r s: 2 N am e o f C a v e / Fe a t u re: V isi t D a te: 3-3-2002 C a v e No: 3H-106 N am e s in P a rty ( Au t h or Le a der ): Ken Gri m es Reto Zollinger. I f n o nu m ber, t i ck re a s on Ne w C a ve [ X ] U ni de n t i f i ed O l d C a ve [ ] C a n t te ll w hi c h: [ ] P u rpo s e a n d re sul t o f visi t: Inspection & survey of a cave discovered by Mark So m ers on a CCV/CEGSA trip on 10-6-2000. The cave w as co m pletely surveyed and tied to the cliff above H-74. So m e photos w ere taken. A ne w cave (H-108) w as found nearby and surveyed and tied to H-106 (see m ap). A re a N am e: Volcanics (Byaduk) T ype o f f e a t u re ( i f n ot C a v e): Co mm e n t s /reco mm e n d a t i o ns ( i f a n y): Together w ith H-74 and H-108, this for m s a useful reference site for a set of three shallo w sub-crustal lava caves that are stacked in three separate flo w s. See also report on H-108. W e also looked q uickly at H-74 and sketched the eastern part w hich w as m issing fro m its existing m ap. H-74 runs under H-106, but it needs a proper survey as w e had trouble relating our sketch to the existing one. De s cr i pt i o n: A shallo w "sub-crustal" syste m of several lo w interconnected cha m bers. There are t w o entrances but only the eastern one is co m fortable. It consists of several interconnected, broad, but lo w -roofed cha m bers that run just beneath the surface. So me sections are very tight and dusty. The floor is m ainly earth and so m e rubble, but w ith one area of flat pahoehoe lava at section X2. In the second cha m ber (southern end of section X-1) there is an invasive m ound of pahoehoe lava lobes that has s q uee z ed in fro m a rupture in the w all (photo C0204.10+11). This is the m ain feature of interest in the cave. The t w o cha m bers sho w n in section X1 are separated by a line of blocks that have fallen out of a roof slot. This fracture is in a sagged section of roof that actually touches the floor in one place (see section X1). In the northw est cha m ber w e found a lo w er ja w bone of a w o m bat in reasonable condition ( w e left it there). This m ust be fairly old as no w o m bats have been recorded in the area for at least fifty years. The cave overlaps w ith the eastern part of H-74, but that cave is about three m etres lo w er and in a separate lava flo w H-108 to the northeast also co m es close, but is 2 m lo w er and in a flo w lying bet w een those that host H-74 and H-106 (see m ap).. T opo S h eet: Byaduk, 7222-2-2: Sc a l e: 1:25,000 Be s t Gr i d co-ord s: 0586061 m E, 5803263 m N (GPS, projection not kno w n) P a r ish /H un dred: All ot m e n t: Ho w to get t h ere: About 11 m SSE of the cliff above Chocolate Surprise (H-74), a s m all hole at the edge of a surface m ound. Eq ui p m e n t: Standard hori z ontal. Ti c k t h e bo x es for se l ected h ead in gs, t h e n w r i te abo u t eac h in seq u e n ce, u s in g t h e correct nu m bers a n d h ead in gs. 4 C a v e type [ X ] 5 Rock type [ X ] 6 Ot h er e n tr nu m bers [ ] 7 T ot a l e n trs [ X ] 8 E n tr type [ X ] 9 De v e l op m e nt [ X ] 10 Decor a t i on [ X ] 11,12 Le n gt h & m et h od [ X ] 13-14 Vert R a n ge/ m et h od [ X ] 15 L a rge s t c h am ber [ X ] 16 P i tc h es [ ] 17 Hor i zo n t a l Exte nt [ ] 18,19 L a t i t u de & Lo n g i t u de [ ] 23 E n tr e l e v a t i on [ ] 24 H a z a rds [ ] 25 D i ff i c ul t i es [ X ] 26 Degree exp l ored [ X ] 27 Pro s pects [ X ] 28 O w n er c a tegory [ X ] 29 Pre s e n t C a v e U se [ X ] 30 Pre s e n t su r fa ce use [ X ] 31 D ama ge [ X ] 32 M a n a ge m e n t c l a ss [ ] 33 Protect i on [ ] 34 Per m issi o n f rom [ ] 35 % ma pped [ X ] 36 W i de s t M ap [ X ] 37 E n tr a n ce M a rker [ ] 38 Ai r te m per a t u re [ ] 39 H u m i d i ty [ ] 40 M o is t u re l e v el [ X ] 41 D is co v erer & d a te [ X ] 42 Exte nsi o n d is co v. [ ] 44 Co n te n ts [ X ] 45 Spec i es [ X ] 46 I m port a n t f or [ X ] 47 Re f ere n ces [ ] E n tr Do lin e si ze [ ] Wa ter sh eds [ ] No. O f l e v e ls [ ] A cc i de n ts [ ] Re s c u e co mm e n ts [ ] Geo l Str a t a n am es [ ] D i p & Str i ke [ ] M a in s tre am f l ow [ ] In f l o w & O u t f l o w po in ts [ ] Wa ter co m po si t i on [ ] G a s es [ ] L i ke l y a rc h eo l S i te? [ ] A ge o f a rc h eo l ma ter i al [ ] A ge o f p a l eo n to l M a ter i al [ ] Pe a k to u r is t co un t / d ay [ ] Y e a r l y to u r is t co unt [ ] Co ns er v a t i o n r a t ing [ ] Be s t a re a map [ ] 2 be a r in g s & d is t a n ces [ ] 4: T y pe: = Lava cave (shallo w sub-crustal type) 5: Rock = Basalt 7: TotEntr = 2 8: Entr = Cave type, dry 9: Dev = A shallo w "subcrustal" syste m of several low interconnected cha m bers. 10: Decs = So m e Unusual decs 11: Length = 40 m surveyed 13: Depth = 1 m surveyed 15: Chamber = 6 m L, 4 mW 0.7 m H. 25: Diff = Extensive cra w ling 26: Deg Exp = Fully explored, so m e difficult leads 27: Pro sp = nearby features 28: Ownr = Govt (State Park) 29: CU se = nill 30: SU se = State Park 31: Dmg = no da m age 35: % map = 100% m apped 36: M ap = here w ith, VSA 390 40: M oi st = dry (dusty) env. 41: Di sc = Mark So m ers, CCV, 10-6-2000. 44: Cont = bone 45: Spec = Vo m batus sp. 46: Sig = geo m orphology PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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3H-106 C A VE REPORT Page 2 of 3. Locat i on of cave, on surface beh i nd the do li ne c li ff. (C0204.24) Invas i ve l ava l obe (fro m l eft) i n second cha m ber, l ook i ng N W (C0204.10+11)) Look i ng south-east past sect i on X-2. Note r i se of f l oor to pahoehoe f l o w on l eft. (C0204.12) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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3H-106 C A VE REPORT Page 3 of 3. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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3H-108 C A VE REPORT Page 1 of 3. form i s (C) A SF 1974, 1985 T i ck when transferred to Cave Summary [ ] Re f: Report D a te 21-3-2002 C lu b: FEN Ho u r s: 2 N am e o f C a v e / Fe a t u re: V isi t D a te: 3-3-2002 C a v e No: 3H-108 N am e s in P a rty ( Au t h or Le a der ): Ken Gri m es Reto Zollinger. I f n o nu m ber, t i ck re a s on Ne w C a ve [ X ] U ni de n t i f i ed O l d C a ve [ ] C a n t te ll w hi c h: [ ] P u rpo s e a n d re sul t o f visi t: Exploration & survey of a ne w cave near Chocolate Surprise (H-74). A s m all entrance w as noticed in the cliff east of H-74 and explored. The cave w as co m pletely surveyed and tied to the cliff above H-74, and to H-106 (see m ap). A re a N am e: Volcanics (Byaduk) T ype o f f e a t u re ( i f n ot C a v e): Co mm e n t s /reco mm e n d a t i o ns ( i f a n y): Together w ith H-74 and H-106, this for m s a useful reference site for a set of three shallo w sub-crustal lava caves, that are stacked in three separate flo w s. See also report on H-106. De s cr i pt i o n: A shallo w hori z ontal "sub-crustal" syste m of passages and broad, lo w -roofed cha m bers. Drops to a lo w er level in one place. A s m all entrance, partly blocked by a 'tube-in-tube' effect(section X-4) leads to a s m all cha m ber. A very lo w (10-20c m high) hori z ontal slot leads back to daylight fro m this cha m ber (section X-4). Cli m b over a lava m ound to a junction. Left (east) is a set of s m all lava-floored passages that rise and fall. The m ain one ends at a rockpile area. Right fro m the junction a s q uee z e lead into a broad (20 x 8 m ), but lo w -roofed cha m ber w ith flat (plus s m all knobs) pahoehoe floor (called the "D w arven Dancehall", 'cause only a d w arf could dance in it). There are a couple of interesting roof 'avens' in the hall (section X-6). At the east side of the hall it drops to a short lo w er level passage that ends at rockpile. At far end of m ain hall a rockpile passage leads east, and one can shine a light through a s m all hole to the lo w er level. The cave has extensive pahoehoe floors that are s m ooth to knobbly. There is a lava m ound at one roo m junction possibly a 'partition' or 'septa'? The s m all w indo w connecting the entrance cha m ber to the dancehall m ight also be through a 'septa'?, There is an invasive set of pahoehoe lobes in the entrance cha m ber. The "lava sink" sho w n on the m ap in the eastern section is a s m all pit w here lava has been pouring do w n into a lo w er level, but is no w blocked. There are so m e interesting roof avens in the m ain hall. I a m not yet sure ho w to interpret these. The cave co m es close to H-106 to the south w est, but is 2 m belo w H-106 and in a separate lava flo w The lo w er level co m es close to that of H-74, and m ay indicate invasion fro m the H-108 flo w do w n into a prior cave in the flo w belo w. T opo S h eet: B y aduk, 7222-2-2: Sc a l e: 1:25,000 Be s t Gr i d co-ord s: 586080 m E, 5803270 m N ( m ap) P a r ish /H un dred: All ot m e n t: Ho w to get t h ere: A s m all triangular entrance in the doline w all about 6 m NE of H-74. Drop a ladder fro m above, getting off ladder and into tight entrance is a bit a w k w ard! Eq ui p m e n t: Ladder (a w k w ard to rig, need extra ropes) and belay for entrance, Standard hori z ontal inside. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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3H-108 C A VE REPORT Page 2 of 3. Ti c k t h e bo x es for se l ected h ead in gs, t h e n w r i te abo u t eac h in seq u e n ce, u s in g t h e correct nu m bers a n d h ead in gs. 4 C a v e type [ X ] 5 Rock type [ X ] 6 Ot h er e n tr nu m bers [ ] 7 T ot a l e n trs [ X ] 8 E n tr type [ X ] 9 De v e l op m e nt [ X ] 10 Decor a t i on [ X ] 11,12 Le n gt h & m et h od [ X ] 13-14 Vert R a n ge/ m et h od [ X ] 15 L a rge s t c h am ber [ X ] 16 P i tc h es [ ] 17 Hor i zo n t a l Exte nt [ ] 18,19 L a t i t u de & Lo n g i t u de [ ] 23 E n tr e l e v a t i on [ ] 24 H a z a rds [ ] 25 D i ff i c ul t i es [ X ] 26 Degree exp l ored [ X ] 27 Pro s pects [ X ] 28 O w n er c a tegory [ X ] 29 Pre s e n t C a v e U se [ X ] 30 Pre s e n t su r fa ce use [ X ] 31 D ama ge [ X ] 32 M a n a ge m e n t c l a ss [ ] 33 Protect i on [ ] 34 Per m issi o n f rom [ ] 35 % ma pped [ X ] 36 W i de s t M ap [ X ] 37 E n tr a n ce M a rker [ ] 38 Ai r te m per a t u re [ ] 39 H u m i d i ty [ ] 40 M o is t u re l e v el [ ] 41 D is co v erer & d a te [ X ] 42 Exte nsi o n d is co v. [ ] 44 Co n te n ts [ ] 45 Spec i es [ ] 46 I m port a n t f or [ X ] 47 Re f ere n ces [ ] E n tr Do lin e si ze [ ] Wa ter sh eds [ ] No. O f l e v e ls [ ] A cc i de n ts [ ] Re s c u e co mm e n ts [ ] Geo l Str a t a n am es [ ] D i p & Str i ke [ ] M a in s tre am f l ow [ ] In f l o w & O u t f l o w po in ts [ ] Wa ter co m po si t i on [ ] G a s es [ ] L i ke l y a rc h eo l S i te? [ ] A ge o f a rc h eo l ma ter i al [ ] A ge o f p a l eo n to l M a ter i al [ ] Pe a k to u r is t co un t / d ay [ ] Y e a r l y to u r is t co unt [ ] Co ns er v a t i o n r a t ing [ ] Be s t a re a map [ ] 2 be a r in g s & d is t a n ces [ ] 4: T y pe: = Lava cave (shallo w sub-crustal type) 5: Rock = Basalt 7: TotEntr = 1 8: Entr = Cave type, dry 9: Dev = A shallo w "subcrustal" syste m of several low interconnected cha m bers and passages, and one lo w er level. 10: Decs = So m e Unusual decs 11: Length = 83 m surveyed 13: Depth = 2.5 m surveyed 15: Chamber = 20 m L, 8 mW 1.5 m H. 25: Diff = Extensive cra w ling 26: Deg Exp = Fully explored, so m e difficult leads 27: Pro sp = nearby features 28: Ownr = Govt (State Park) 29: CU se = nill 30: SU se = State Park 31: Dmg = no da m age 35: % map = 100% m apped 36: M ap = here w ith, VSA 390 41: Di sc = Reto Zollinger & KG.Gri m es, 3-3-2002 46: Sig = geo m orphology. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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3H-108 C A VE REPORT Page 3 of 3. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactor y trial v ersion http://www.fineprint.com

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 15 T e x t a nd di ag r a ms o f a p a per in B a ddele y G (Ed) V ulcon P recedings (20th Australian Speleological F ederation Conference, 1995) Victori a n Speleolo g ic a l A ssoci a tion I nc., Melbourne., pp 15-22. (1995) Lava caves and channels at Mount Eccles, Victoria. Ken Gri m es PO B ox 362, H amilton, Victoria, 3300. Introduction Mount Eccles and nearb y Mount Napier are two of the y oun g est v olcanoes in the Newer Volcanic pro v ince of Victoria. Summaries of both the surface landforms and the v olcanic ca v es of the pro v ince appear in the Vulcon Guidebook ( G rimes, in press; and G rimes & W atson, in press). The earlier la v a ca v e literature b y Ollier, J o y ce and others is re v iewed in the Vulcon Guidebook and in W ebb & others, 1982, and G rimes, 1994. The Newer Volcanics ran g e in a g e from Pliocene (about 4.5 Million y ears) up to v er y recent times. Recent isotopic dates from Condah Swamp ( H ead & others, 1991) support the pre v iousl y su gg ested 20,000 B P dates for the onset of the v olcanism at Mount Eccles, but there is no definite date for its end, thou g h this would seem to ha v e been prior to 7000 B P. A t Mount Eccles the main v olcano is a deep steep walled elon g ated crater which contains L ake Surprise. The south eastern end is a hi g h cinder cone, but at the north western end the crater wall has been breached b y a la v a channel that flows west and then branches into two main channels (referred to locall y as la v a canals ) runnin g to the north northwest and to the south southwest (see F i g ure 1). Extendin g to the southeast from the main crater there is a line of smaller spatter and scoria cones and craters and a second smaller scoria cone ( L ittle Mount now lar g el y remo v ed b y quarr y in g ). One of the spatter cones contains The Shaft' ( H8), a still open throat and v olcanic chamber. F urther south east, another possible v olcanic throat was The Pit ( H28), reportedl y destro y ed b y recent quarr y in g. B e y ond this central area of explosi v e acti v it y basalt flows form a la v a field about 16 km long and 8 km across (see district map in the Vulcon Guidebook ). F rom the western end of this la v a field a lon g flow, the T y rendarra F low, runs 30 km southwards to the present coast and continues offshore for a further 15 km. This must ha v e had a major feeder tube, but no drained sections ha v e been disco v ered to date.

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria 16 Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 Lava Channels The la v a channel that lea v es the western end of the main crater branches almost immediatel y The Main W est Canal extends about 3 km to a wrinkled area of stron g ly de v eloped trans v erse pressure rid g es and from there it fed most of the northwestern part of the la v a field ( F i g ure 1). The other branch (the Main South Canal) runs about 3 km to the south and south southwest. I t is not as wide but is deeper and has better de v eloped le v ee banks alon g its sides. This channel ends abruptl y and probabl y ori g inall y flowed into a tube, but no entrances ha v e been found to date. The flow continues south then west, and ma y ha ve been the one that fed the lon g T y rendarra F low. I n addition to the two main la v a channels there are se v eral smaller, and less well defined channels ( F i g ure 1). A set of narrow and discontinuous linear depressions can be seen on the air photos runnin g westward between the Main W est Canal and the Main South Canal; this could be a partl y roofed channel and would ha v e potential for drained la v a tubes between the surface depressions. A broad but shallow la v a channel startin g at the Dr y Crater, immediatel y to the southeast of L ake Surprise, runs east and feeds a major flow that then runs south and southeastward. A nother narrow but well defined channel runs west southwest from a small spatter cone near the L ittle Mount quarr y and ends at the Natural B rid g e / G othic Ca v e ( H10). The western part of this channel ma y ha v e ori g inall y been a tunnel which has been exposed followin g collapse of most of its roof : Natural B rid g e is the remainin g part of this tunnel. A small la v a channel also runs throu g h the campin g area north of L ake Surprise. The channel g radients are g enerall y steepest near the source v ent, but v ar y between channels (Table 1). The depths of the channels v aries and la v a mounds and rid g es are found alon g the floors. J o y ce (1976) measured the west channel as bein g from 140 to 220 m wide and 4.5 to 5 m deep. The southern channel is deeper (6 to 12 m) but not as wide (60 to 120m). Channel walls can be steep to e v en o v erhan g in g The y ha v e been considerabl y modified by collapse and camberin g. Ta b le 1: gra d ients o f lava channels (fr o m m a p c o nt o urs) Channel I n channel F low be y ond channel end A t top A t bottom Main W est Canal 1 : 175 1 : 175 1 : 175 western canal & tubes 1 : 100 1 : 125 1 : 75? Main South Canal 1 : 60 1 : 163 1 : 300 eastern channel 1 : 55 1 : 75 1 : 125 Natural B rid g e channel 1 : 25 1 : 30 1 : 48? Lava Caves L a v a tubes can form b y two main processes : b y the roofin g o v er of surface la v a channels ( F i g ure 3a c); and b y the drainin g of still molten material from beneath the solidified crust of a flow ( F i g ure 3d). B oth t y pes occur at Mount Eccles. F or a more detailed description of the processes see the text and fi g ures in the Vulcon Guidebook ( G rimes & W atson, in press)which are based on the work of A tkinson (1988), G reele y (1987), J o y ce (1980) and W ood (1977).

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 17 F i gu re 1 : La v a Chann els and F l o w s n e a r Moun t E ccles Most of the lon g er ca v es known at Mount Eccles are in or adjacent to the la v a channels, but there are a number of small ca v es scattered throu g hout the area, and the known distribution ma y simpl y reflect the more intensi v e exploration alon g the main canals. There are se v eral t y pes of la v a ca v e in the area. Roofed channels include H10, and also possibl y H9. Draina g e ca v es include two t y pes : complex, lateral, le v ee breach s y stems on the sides of the major la v a channels, e. g H51; and small, isolated, drained chambers within the ston y rises (e. g H78) see maps in G rimes & W atson (in press). The Shaft ( H8) is an explosi v e ca v ity and throat within a spatter cone that remained open after the v olcanism ceased. The g enesis of Natural B rid g e / G othic Ca v e ( H10) b y roofin g can be seen from its ob v ious location at the end of a narrow surface channel, thou g h the present ca v e is just a remnant of what was ori g inall y a lon g er roofed section. The exposure of numerous thin and contorted linin g s in the walls and roof, to g ether with its pointed g othic roof outline, su gg est that it formed b y the inward g rowth of o v erhan g in g le v ees, which slumped inwards and downwards while hot to produce the contortions (see also J o y ce, 1976, 1980). The g enesis of Tunnel Ca v e ( H9) is less ob v ious, but its lar g e, hi g h arched passa g e and the floor le v el, which is close to that of the adjoinin g canal, su gg ests that it was a major feeder tube which ma y ha ve ori g inated as an open channel at much the same time as the main canal, but was later roofed o v er.

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria 18 Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 F i gu re 2 : La ter a l leveeb re a c h c a ves a t M t. E ccles and B y aduk The lateral ca v es associated with the canals are g enerall y shallow s y stems formed in the le v ee banks on each side and would ha v e fed small lateral la v a lobes or sheets when the canal o v erflowed or breached throu g h the le v ee ( F i g ure 3d and 4). F i g ure 2 shows the lateral ca v es associated with the Main South Canal. The canal is shown dia g rammaticall y and the ca v e maps ha v e been rotated to show their orientation relati v e to the canal wall. H9 has been included in F i g ure 2, e v en thou g h I feel that it is a major feeder tube and has a different ori g in to the others.

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 19 Some ca v es start as simple linear tubes (e. g H53), but mostl y the y are branchin g s y stems with complexes of low passa g es that bifurcate and rejoin, or open out into broad low chambers. The form su gg ests drainin g from beneath the solidified roof of a series of flow lobes. Some of the passa g es are lar g e enou g h to stand in, t y picall y (but not alwa y s) those nearest the canal entrance (e. g H48, H53, H70), but most of them are crawlwa y s about a metre hi g h with low arched roofs and flat la v a floors. Some of the smallest passa g es ha v e an elliptical cross section. The roof is g enerall y onl y a metre or so below the present surface, and in places breakdown has exposed the bases of o v erl y in g pahoehoe flows, indicatin g that the ori g inal roof was less than a metre thick. I n some chambers the roof has sa gg ed down in a smooth cur v e to reach the floor. The floors are g enerall y pahoehoe, with smooth, plat y or rop y surfaces; but sharp aa la v a floors occur in se v eral places (e. g H51 and H70). Some transitional forms (which I call knobb y pahoehoe ) also occur. Small tumuli and la v a boils or puddin g s occur on the floor in places. W here not disrupted b y breakdown the walls and roof t y picall y ha v e thin (2 20 cm) linin gs with la v a drips and runs, and occasional pealed back flaps. Some linin g s ha v e a hackly surface, possibl y due to burstin g of g as bubbles. la v a hands ha v e been squee z ed out throu gh cracks in the linin g s in a few places and small a gg lutinated stala g mites ma y occur beneath some of these. Most ca v es are at a sin g le le v el, but some show e v idence of se v eral le v els (onl y a metre or so apart v erticall y ) that either ha v e coalesced into a sin g le passa g e or chamber (e. g H51) or are joined b y short la v a falls (e. g H70). I n the ston y rises small ca v es form b y the irre g ular drainin g of ca v ities beneath the crust of a broad la v a flow (See F i g ure 5 4 in the Vulcon Guidebook G rimes, in press). The process is similar to that which forms tubes ( F i g ure 3d), but less or g anised so that onl y isolated low chambers appear to result. Commonl y the chamber roof sa g s (while hot) or later collapses so that onl y a crescentic peripheral remnant sur v i v es, as at H78. This t y pe of sin g le chamber ca v e has pre v iousl y been referred to as a blister ca v e but that term is best restricted to chambers formed b y g as pressure. The Byadu k Caves The B y aduk Ca v es are near the start of a lon g tunnel fed la v a flow that runs down the H arman Valle y to the west of Mount Napier, 20 km to the north of Mount Eccles. Collapse of parts of the main feeder tunnel has exposed the lar g e tunnels, arches and collapse dolines (see map in the Vulcon Guidebook ). The lar g est tunnels are up to 18 m wide, 10 m hi g h and extend to depths of 20m below the surface. There are also some smaller but more complicated ca v es, includin g two ( H22 and H74, F i g ure 2) that seem comparable to the lateral le v ee breach s y stems described abo v e. H74 (Chocolate Surprise) is the most con v incin g this is a hi g h le v el s y stem entered half wa y up the side wall of a lar g e collapse doline formed o v er the main feeder tube (Mansfield, 1990). I t is a set of low branching passa g es and chambers v er y similar to those found beside the channel at Mount Eccles. I therefore su gg est that the main feeder tube at B y aduk was initiall y an open channel which built up hi g h banks b y repeated o v erflow before roofin g o v er to form the lar g e tubes. The la y ered la v a reported b y Ollier & B rown (1965) in the walls of the bi g tube ma y be thin lateral flow units of the le v ees, and H74 would be a ca v e s y stem de v eloped in one such o v erflow.

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria 20 Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 F i gu re 3 : F o r ma ti on of l a v a t ub es, b y r oof i ng o ver of a l a v a c hann el ( A C ), o r b y d r a i nag e f r om b e n e a t h cr u ste d l a v a l ob es ( D n e x t pag e)

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 21

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L ava c av es a nd ch a nnels a t Mount Eccles, Victoria 22 Vulcon Precedin g s 1995 F i gu re 4 : Examp le of a d istri bu t a ry syste m of s ma ll l a v a t ub es f ee d i ng paho e ho e l ob es. F r om n e a r B e nd O re gon ( af ter Greeley, 1987) Bibliography A T KI NSON, F A ., 1988 : Vulcanospeleolo g y extraterrestrial applications and the contro v ers y: mode of formation of la v a tubes. Proc. 17th Conf. Aust. Speleo. Fedn, 57 63. G REE L EY, R. 1987 : The role of la v a tubes in H awaiian v olcanoes. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1350: 1589 1602. G R I MES, K G ., 1994 : The v olcanic ca v es of western Victoria. Australian Caver 136 : 9 14. G R I MES, K G ., in press : Volcanoes and la v a fields of western Victoria. in BA DDE L EY, G ., (Ed) Vulcon Guidebook 1995 A ust Speleo F edn. pp 25 38. G R I MES, K G ., & W A TSON, A ., in press : Volcanic ca v es of western Victoria. in BA DDE L EY, G ., (Ed) Vulcon Guidebook 1995 A ust Speleo F edn. pp 39 68. J OYCE, E. B ., 1976 : L a v a channels and associated ca v es in Victoria, A ustralia. Proc. Int. Symposium on Vulcanospeleology and its extraterrestrial Applications. Seattle, U.S. A pp 51 57. J OYCE, E. B ., 1980 : L a y ered L a v a, la v a channels and the ori g in of la v a ca v es. Proc. 13th Aust. Speleo. Fedn Conf., Melbourne, 1980, 40 48. M A NS F I E L D, A ., 1990 : Ca v in g at Mt Eccles and B y aduk la v a ca v es. Nargun 23 (10) : p 86 O LL I ER, C.D., & B RO W N, M.C., 1965 : L a v a ca v es of Victoria. Bull. Vulcanology 28 : 215 229. W E BB J A ., J OYCE, E. B ., & STEVENS, N.C., 1982 : L a v a ca v es of A ustralia. Proc. Third Int. Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Ore g on, US A pp 74 85. W OOD, C., 1977 : The ori g in and morpholo g ical di v ersit y of la v a tube ca v es. Proc. 7th Int. Speleol. Congress, Sheffield, En g land. 440 444.

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Carmichael Cave (3H–70): A complex, shallow “sub–crustal” lava cave at Mount Eccles, V ictoria. Ken Grimes C armichael Cave (3H–70) is a shallow lava tube system that starts at the edge of the main southern lava canal at Mt. Eccles and runs north as a series of branching, interconnected low–roofed tunnels and chambers. Of the known lava caves at Mt. Eccles, this is currently the most interesting. It is a complex system showing a variety of development styles and having a wide range of well–preserved lava features within it. This cave is a critical reference site in the region for the understanding of the development of the shallow “sub– crustal” or “drained lobe” lava tubes. It has had little damage— so far Its current protection relies on the lack of signposting and location information. This report compiles observations from many trips by a variety of clubs and individuals (1991 – 1999) and presents the (finally) completed map. Carmichael’ s Cave is named after Andy Carmichael, ranger at Mt. Eccles, who died suddenly in early 1993. Several people appear to have discovered and rediscovered its various parts over the last 20 years or so. Peter Matthews tells me that its first VSA record was by a VSA team led by T om Whitehouse on 12 th May 1979, but it wasn’ t numbered and tagged until 1990. I was first shown the H–71 entrance by Rob Y oung, a local farmer and field naturalist with a keen interest in the caves, in 1991. He had known of it for some time. On the VSA trip of 25 th – 26 th June 1994, when mapping commenced in e arnest, the H–70 area was connected through to the previously unexplored H–79 entrance, which in turn was found to connect through an impassable squeeze to part of the H–71 section (previously called Maze Cave ). Most of the cave was surveyed in two weekends in 1994, with teams led by Ken Grimes (H–70, and eastern part of H–79), T ony W atson Figure 1: Stages in the f or mation of sub–cr ustal la v a tubes by draining of thin la v a lobes (from Grimes, 1999). A: Thinly crusted lobes of la v a e xpand b y break outs through r uptures and b udding of fur ther lobes B: Stagnant areas of the older lobes solidify b ut hot flow from the source k eeps the f eeder conduits liquid. C: When the source flo w ceases some of the conduits ma y dr ain to f or m air–filled ca vities. 13 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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(H–71, Maze and part of the Big Chamber area), Peter Ackroyd (surface survey and west from H– 79) and Roger T aylor (H–71, part of the Big Chamber and the southern passage from the Maze area). Ferret (Brett W akeman) provided a sketch map of the northernmost area beyond the “sharp” aa squeeze—to the best of my knowledge he is the only person to have entered that area! It took a while to get everyone’ s field notes together and a few gaps remained, mainly the two passages running south from the H–79 entrance, and for that reason the map in the V ulcon field guidebook has only a preliminary silhouette. The final tidy–up survey was not done until 1999. Description The H–70, 71 and 79 segments are all part of the same system formed in a thin sheet of lava that breached or overflowed the levee banks on the side of the South Canal. The tunnels would have fed a lateral lava flow that ran down the levee slopes to the west and their low but complexly– branching form suggests formation by progressive growth and draining of a series of lava lobes (Figure 1). The Big Chamber below the H–71 entrance is a somewhat deeper system, possibly in an older lava sheet, and the H–79 segment has breached into its roof via the Maze section H–70 Segment The H–70 entrance is at the southern end of the cave, between the track and the edge of the canal. There is a shallow hollow linking it to the canal that would be due to collapse of that part of the tunnel. Inside the entrance th ere is a rubble cone and two branches. The northern tunnel leads to the main system (see below). The western branch is a 46m long tunnel, typically 3–4m wide and 1m high initially but becomes wider and lower towards the end, where the roof finally drops to the level of the lava floor In one place (see cross section X3) the roof lining has sagged enough to leave a gap above it. There are a few poorly developed lava “benches” and some tree roots, but little else of interest was seen in this passage. Bones of a small dog (or fox?) and a probable brushtail possum were found in this passage. The northern tunnel starts of f as a typical “tunnel” shape about 3m wide and up to 3m high in places. Near the entrance on the right hand (east) side some lava dribbles on the wall slope away from the entrance, suggesting an inward flow of hot gases when they formed. On the left wall and a bit further in look for a small ledge at eye height. This has formed where a thin lining has sag ged. Here, lava with a pasty consistency has oozed out through several holes in the remaining lining to form lava “hands” and built up small agglutinated lava–mites on the shelf below There are also some interesting “dog turd” shaped lava deposits here (see Figure 2). Lower down the lining has fallen of f to expose some layered lava. All along this section there are good lava drips and ribs on the ceiling. The tunnel widens to form a chamber (cross–section X7) then heads of f to the NE. On the floor on the left hand side of the chamber one can see the edge of a thin final flow along with some vertical slabs that would be tilted fragments of lava crust. The lar gest slab may be a fallen piece of thick roof lining. The rubble pile is collapsed roof material, but you can crawl and squeeze along the southern side to where I could look north into a low chamber but I was too thick to get into it. Following the main tunnel the pahoehoe lava floor becomes rougher for a while and approaches an aa style before ending abruptly The passage then turns to the NW and widens. The floor in this area (X9) is pahoehoe again, with a mosaic pattern that suggests that crustal fragments were cracking and jostling each other on the surface of a stationary flow The roof has a more hackly surface with secondary cave–coral deposits, in contrast to the smooth linings with drips seen to the south, but there are still some sections with drips in this area. A side branch to the south–west is blocked at the end by a massive roof sag, but has two very tight ‘impossible’ continuations on each side: one of which might connect back to the unreachable void I saw from the south. Figure 2: Lav a “turds” e xtr uded through small holes in w all lining. Scale is mar ked in centimetres 14 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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P anorama of the broad chamber of cross–section X31 would be a dr ained la v a lobe Bo x is 30cm wide—the roof is nowhere more than 1m high. 15 Incorrect Caption! the photo this refers to is missing Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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The main passage continues to what was originally thought to be the ‘final’ chamber (section X1 1). This is a moderately sized chamber up to 1.7m high, with thin tree roots. It has a mound of ropy lava rising up the eastern side. Possibly this was an inward flow from above or from a blocked passage? A couple of very small holes at the base of the west wall give a view into the H–79 section. The way through is by a squeeze up into a rockpile chamber to the west and then back down on the other side. H–79 Segment This central segment is the lar gest part of Carmichael Cave and can be divided into a more extensive, but simpler eastern part, and a more complex western part— with the change in character at section X14 (see map). As well as the numbered entrance there are several others which carry unof ficial PJA tags placed during the survey The eastern part is essentially a set of low broad rooms and low passages. Roof height is less than a metre throughout and the ceilings are flat to broadly arched, with local sags (photo). The floors are flat pahoehoe lava with mud coatings in places. Breakdown is rare, being confined to a few isolated blocks that have fallen out of slots in the roof. T ree roots are locally common. In the northeastern chamber the floor is slightly higher There is an ants nest here. A tight (0.3m high) squeeze at section X13 has stopped some thicker–than–normal people. A small chamber at the western end of section X31 is at a slightly higher level. A pahoehoe flow appears to have entered into this chamber from the northwest and exits via shallow ramps down the southern and northeast connections to the rest of the cave. The western part has some lar ger passages, up to 2m high, and more breakdown. The floor is mostly pahoehoe plus rubble and some local patches of aa lava. The numbered H–79 entrance is in the centre of this portion and leads to a relatively lar ge, 2m high, domed chamber The two low wide, passages south of it both end in rubble blockages. Pahoehoe patterns in these indicate a flow to the north, so these passages may once have been connected to the H– 70 area via passages that are now lava–filled or choked by rubble. The arched roofs show striations in several places—possibly formed by gas blasts? Going west from the entrance chamber of H–79 one climbs over a lava mound into another roomy chamber (1.5m high—see photo). This mound might be a partly remelted partition between two lava lobes; of the type postulated by Hon & others, (1994). A similar smaller mound occurs south of section X15. From the bigger mound one can continue west to a low–roofed area where an aa flow drops into a floor–hole with a short cavity continuing beneath the thin floor crust. There is a slight breeze at the far end of this area. The map shows that the northern part of the H–79 segment overlies the southern passages of H–71 which are 5m lower but there is no direct connection. Instead an impenetrable squeeze (light connection) leads to a sloping tube that runs NW into the H–72 maze area. H–71 Segment (Big Chamber) The H–71 entrance leads to a lar ge rubble pile that partly blocks and segments what would originally have been a single lar ge chamber with a pahoehoe floor (cross–section X28). This is at a lower level than the rest of the system and may have formed in an earlier lava flow At the northern end of this chamber there is a good range of lava formations. The floor there is a domed pahoehoe flow and in one place there is a squeeze–up where lava has oozed up and spread out from a crack in the floor On the north wall there is a lining with lava drips and small “turds” emer ging from holes. On the facing wall (to the SW) there are good examples of burst bubbles in the lining. However one needs a strong light to spot some of these features. At the northwest end of this chamber the floor rises to the junction with the Maze Section. W ester n par t of the H–79 segment, looking south from cross–section X22. High area to left is a la v a mound separating two sub–tubes Could this be a remnant of a par tition separating two la va lobes? 16 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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H–72 Segment (Maze Cave section) This complex area is the connection between the higher levels of the H–70 and H–79 sections and the Big Chamber of H–71. A small (un–numbered) entrance just beyond the light connection with H–79 leads down a sloping passage with a floor of rugged aa and tilted slabs to the maze area. The mazes are a set of small sloping passages, which seem to have connected the two levels. They all feed out into a single passage to the north with an aa flow on the floor that just reaches the connection with the H– 7 1 chamber (photo). The cave then continues north as a low passage that narrows to a painful aa squeeze then drops to a final chamber with a domed pahoehoe floor Refer ences Grimes, K.G ., 1995: Lava caves and channels at Mount Eccles, V ictoria, in Baddeley G [ed] V ulcon Pr ecedings (20th ASF confer ence), V ictorian Speleological Association, Melbourne. p 15-22. Grimes, K.G ., 1999: V olcanic caves and related features in western V ictoria. In HENDERSON, K., [ed] Pr oceedings of the Thirteenth Australasian Confer ence on Cave and Karst Management, Mt. Gambier South Australia. Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association, Carlton South. 148-151. Hon, K., Kauahikaua, J., Denlinger R., & Mackay K., 1994: Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 106: 351-370. Looking SW into the H–72 maz e section. P ahoehoe flo w in foreg round with a tongue of aa flow in vading from higher le v el. Arrows indicate entr y points from maze section. 17 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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Natural Bridge (3H–10), Mount Eccles: a special type of lava tube. Ken Grimes N atural Bridge is a small but interesting cave found at the far end of a small lava channel (or canal) south of Mount Eccles. The lava channel originated as an overflow from a small crater—one in the line of craters that runs southeast from Mount Eccles. These craters may have erupted from a fissure, or may be “hornitos” fed through skylights in a lava tube that was running southeast from the main crater of Mount Eccles. The geologists are still undecided as to which story they believe. In its final section the channel becomes more narrow and deeper Figure 1: Mt. Eccles and its cr aters, la v a channels and those ca v es which are commonly visited by the gener al pub lic. and eventually is roofed over with lava to form the cave. Beyond the cave the channel widens out and disappears. A walking track follows the channel from its source vent down to the cave, and this is the most interesting approach. Alternatively you can drive along a dirt road and park 100m from the cave, just before the track drops down and crosses the lava channel. From the far side of the cave the walking track continues across stony rises to the South Canal and one can return to Mount Eccles by that route, possibly visiting other caves on the way (Figure 1). Featur es of the cave As you approach the main, south, entrance note the contorted lava layering on the wall of the clif f to the left. This is the result of slumping of the layers while they were still hot and soft. Look up at the roof of t he entrance (Figure 2). The walls come together at a sharp angle and in places inside the cave they leave a narrow slot. It is this angular arched roof that gives the cave its other name, Gothic Cave and which gives it its special interest—as we shall see later The cave is a simple short tunnel, with a roof hole in one place (see cave map, Figure 3). T otal passage length is only 36m, and the depth is 15m. A lot of material has fallen from the roof and walls and the floor is mostly rubble–covered apart from one flat soil–covered section—a lava surface probably underlies this. The roof has a distinctive angular “gothi c” shape (Front Cover Photo). The main passage has a narrow roof slot, where the walls almost meet. A small high–level chamber and daylight hole occur above the roof slot at section X5. At one point (between sections X3 and X4) there is another small high–level chamber visible above the slot. Lower down the cave is wider and partly modified by collapse. Collapsed sections reveal the contorted layering in the walls (Figure 4). The floor within the cave is much lower than the open sections of the channel outside, those have been partly filled by rubble from collapse of a former roof and walls. Upstream 18 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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Figure 2: Southwest entr ance to Natural Bridge. Note the “Gothic” roof outline Figure 4: “Edge enhanced” detail of contor ted w all linings near section X3. Staff is about 2m long. (northeast) the open channel is quite narrow and a roofed tube may have once extended some distance this way Downstream, the channel widens and loses its character quickly The cave has a few lava drips and dribbles, but nothing special in the way of lava decorations. However near cross section X4 the south wall has a smooth surface with scattered sub– horizontal grooves. These formed where slabs of crust, floating on a past lava stream, have scraped against the soft lava lining on the wall (Figure 5). The cave envir onment Cave environments are characterised by darkness, dampness and a stable temperature with little air movement. This cave generally has a pool of cool air most noticeable in summer; however in a small cave such as this the light from both entrances prevents complete darkness. As your eyes adapt to the twilight you will notice a greenish tinge to the rocks. A range of small plants are managing to survive on the limited light that comes through the entrance. These include small ferns, mosses, liverworts and algae. Y ou will see that there is a marked change in colour from green on the sides facing the entrance to black on the shaded side. The cave is quite colourful if you have a bright light (floodlight)—a mix of greens and rich browns. The origin of the cave There are two main ways in which lava caves form: by the roofing of a surface lava stream running in an open lava channel or by draining out from beneath a crusted lava lobe within a lava flow The processes have been observed in active lava flows in Hawaii and elsewhere (Peterson & others, 1994) and I have illustrated examples of these processes in Grimes (1995 & 1999) At Mt. Eccles, Natura l Bridge and T unnel Cave both formed by roofing of open lava channels. There are three ways this can happen (see above references). At T unnel Cave (Grimes, 1998) there is no definite evidence of which of these operated. However at Natural Bridge good evidence for the mode of formation is provided by the “gothic” shape of the walls and in the thin contorted layers exposed in the walls (Joyce, 1976). At Natural Bridge the channel is steeper than other c hannels at Mt. Eccles, and the lava flow appears to have been more turbulent and variable in height. So we had a lot of splashing and periodic brief overflows of the channel. These built up levee banks composed of successive thin sheets of lava. As the sheets accumulated they not only built upward but also grew inwards from the edges until they eventually met to form a roof over the lava stream (see diagram, Figure 6). The sharply angled roof is a consequence of this linking of the two banks. While the layers were still hot and soft they sagged downward into the cave and we can see these wrinkled layers exposed where parts of the cave walls have fallen away Molten lava continued to flow in a tunnel left beneath the crust; and solid bits of floating crust scraped against the lining in places. At the end of the eruption, that liquid partly drained away from the end of the channel to leave the cave we now see. Thin linings were left stuck to the walls and partly conceal the evidence, but fortunately enough has fallen aw ay to expose this. Management This seems to be a fairly robust cave capable of standing up to the visitor traf fic it gets, which is 19 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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Figure 3 20 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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Figure 5: Scrape marks made b y bits of floating lav a crust that bumped against the soft w all lining. Figure 6 mostly non–cavers. However there are hazards for careless visitors: the rough rubble floor can be slippery and without a light it is hard to see where to step. If visitation by the public continues (as it will), Parks V ictoria will probably have to install steps and some sort of smooth path over the rubble section. T ake special care if you decide to visit the high–level chamber and roof hole. This is dangerous in that there is a hole with a 10m drop down into the main cave. The floor of this chamber frequently has branches and leaves that conceal the extent of this hole—tread in the wrong place and you might descend faster than you intended! The daylight hole has been railed of f for this reason and it would be best to not enter here if any members of the general public are watching (especially kids—it may give them wicked ideas!). Refer ences GRIMES, K.G ., 1995: Lava caves and channels at Mount Eccles, V ictoria. in BADDELEY G ., [Ed] V ulcon Pr eceedings 1995. Aust. Speleol. Fedn., Melbourne. pp 15-22. GRIMES, K.G ., 1998: T unnel Cave, Mount Eccles. Nar gun, 30(10): 172-173. GRIMES, K.G ., 1999: V olcanic caves and related features in western V ictoria. in HENDERSON, K., [ed] Cave Management in Australasia 13. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Australasian Conference on Cave and Karst Management, Mt. Gambier South Australia. Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. Carlton South. pp 148?151. JOYCE, E.B., 1976: Lava channels and associated caves in V ictoria, Australia. Pr oceedings of the International Symposium on V ulcanospeleology and its Extraterr estrial Applications. Seattle, USA. pp. 51-57. PETERSON, D.W ., HOLCOMB, R.T ., TILLING R.I., & CHRISTIANSEN, R.L., 1994: Developement of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Bulletin of V olcanology 56: 343-360. 21 Nargun V ol. 35, No. 2 A u g u s t 2 0 0 2

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 Supplement

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 Supplement

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 Supplement Additional photographs for 2006 paper Recent Contributions to Icelandic Cave Exploration by the Shepton Mallet Caving Club (UK) by Ed Waters Dave Owen descends in Hellingur. Photo by Keith Batten. Ed Waters in the natural arch, Brrafell. Photo by Keith Batten.

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AMCS Bulletin 19 / SMES Boletn 7 Supplement Main passage in Bri. Photo by Ed Waters. Stacey Adlard admires formations in Hellingur. Photo by Keith Batten.

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1 0 m ? ? ? T h e S h a f t 3 H 8 i s a n o p e n v o l c a n i c v e n t Scoria Cone W elded Spatter V olcanic Chamber Lava Flows and their Caves Author: Ken G Grimes, Consultant Geologist, Regolith Mapping, PO Box 362, Hamilton, V ic 3300, Australia.regmap1@ozemail.com.au W ith acknowledgements to my pr edecessors who conceived most of the ideas expr essed her e: In particular Don Peterson, Ken Hon, Bill Halliday Lava Flows and Caves > Long lava flows are invariably fed by tubes which insulate the lava travelling within them. > The leading edge of a flow is an advancing wall of p ahoehoe lobes or aa rubble. > Behind the edge, flow is concentrated into surface channels, or hidden tubes beneath the crust. S t agnant areas solidify > When the lava drains out an open cave is lef t. Lava Flows Liquid lava spreads out from a vent but quickly crust s over The crust can be smooth and wrinkly (Pahoehoe or Ropy lava) or if the lava is stif fer it may break into jagged fragment s (Aa lava). Liquid lava continues to flow beneath the crusted surface, inflating it and pushing out in front as lobes of p ahoehoe or walls of rubbley aa. Behind the advancing front the liquid flow becomes concentrated into linear streams: either surface channels or in tubes and chambers beneath the crust. The surface channels may later crust over to form tubes. Draining of the liquid lava from these tubes will leave open caves. Most tubes never drain and become blocked with solid basalt. Overview of lava cave formation Observations of active lava flows has shown that there are two distinct ways in which lava tubes or caves form: Roofing of surface lava channels. This can happen in three ways (e.g. Peterson et al, 1994), see p anel 2. Sub-crust al drainage within thin lava lobes or sheet s. (e.g. Hon et al, 1994), see p anel 3 Open V olcanic V ent s are a rare type of cave formed by the draining of the lava back into the source vent (figure above). Caves can also form in tectonic fissures. W eathering of ash and lava can also form secondary caves. References Hon, K., Kauahikaua, J., Denlinger R., & Mackay K., 1994: Emplacement and inflation of p ahoehoe sheet flows: Observations and measurement s of active lava flows on Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Geological Society of America, Bulletin. 106: 351-370. Peterson, D.W ., Holcomb, R.T ., T illing, R.I., & Christiansen, R.L., 1994: Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna U lu, Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Bulletin of V olcanology 56: 343-360. p. 1 / 4 A typical small, cylindrical, lava tube. A typical small, cylindrical, lava tube. R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Lava T ube Formation Lava T ube Formation Ken Grimes v1.1 9-2005

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median ridge crust Additional coating beneath crust adds strength floating crust al slabs Thin layers of levee walls Small lava tube in overflow Crust Liquid Older lava A: simple crust growth C: Levee overgrowth B: log jam of crust al slabs Roofing of Lava Channels A: Simple crust growth Surface crust grows progressively across the channel. It may then be thickened from below This is most common with slow steady flow rates. B: Log jam of floating slabs A prior crust breaks up into raf t s that drif t downstream. The slabs may form "log jams" at constrictions and are then welded into a solid roof. Mainly found at moderate flow rates.C: Levee overgrowthOverflow or sp atter builds levees that arch over the channel and eventually join as a roof. Mainly found with fluctuating or rapid and turbulent flows. Subsequent evolution.In all three cases, later overflows through sky-light s may thicken the roof from above. On many cases linings plastered on the walls, or collap se modifications, make it hard to distinguish the three modes. Roofing a Channel Surface lava channels can be roofed over to form tubes. This has been seen to happen in three ways. The angular "gothic", roof of this tube is typical of ones formed by levee overgrowth.(c.f. Figure C ) 5 m st aff. p. 2 / 4 R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Lava T ube Formation Lava T ube Formation Ken Grimes v1.1 9-2005

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D ra in e d s u b -c ru s t a l c a v e s In fl a te d t u m u lu s T h in l a v a f lo w w it h c ru s t M a in l a v a t u b e (o r s u rf a c e c h a n n e l) A B 3 b 4 D r a i n e d o p e n t u b e S o l i d i f i e d l a v a L i q u i d l a v a F l o w d i r e c t i o n S o u r c e o f l a v a i s e x h a u s t e d L a v a s o u r c e i n m a j o r c h a n n e l 1 2 3 a Sub-crustal Lava Caves A newly-formed lava flow quickly develop s a crust, which may be inflated upwards. Later drainage of liquid lava from beneath the crust can form small shallow caves. As the flow advances and exp ands, complex sub-crust al drainage systems can form. Ongoing flow becomes concentrated into a few "master" tubes. Development of sub-crustal caves > Lava spreads from a skylight above a tube(A ), or by overflow from a crater or a lava channel (1, ) > The spreading lobes grow by a process of 'budding' in which a small lobe develop s a skin, and is inflated by the lava pressure until the skin ruptures in one or more places. > Lava escaping through the rupture develop s new lobes and so on (B and 1 & 2 ). > If the supply of fresh lava is cut of f, the liquid p art s of the lobes may be drained to form a set of broad but low-roofed chambers and p assages (3a ). > However if fresh hot lava continues to be delivered from the volcano (3b ) the sub-crust al flow may become concentrated into linear tubes that feed the advancing lobes, while the surrounding st agnant areas slowly solidify (4 ). > The evolving "master" tube can enlarge by erosion of it s walls destroying evidence of it s initial mode of formation. Sub-crust al Drainage p. 3 / 4 A low chamber in a drained sub-crust al lava cave A low chamber in a drained sub-crust al lava cave R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Lava T ube Formation Lava T ube Formation Ken Grimes v1.1 9-2005

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A burst lining, sagged away from the wall A burst lining, sagged away from the wall Extruded lava hands and fingers with a st alagmite below Extruded lava hands and fingers with a st alagmite below Lava drip s & ribs on a wall Lava drip s & ribs on a wall Benches lef t by an old lava stream through a tube Benches lef t by an old lava stream through a tube 10 cm L i n i n g O r i g i n a l w a l l o f l a v a t u b e L a v a d r i p s L a v a d r i p s a n d r i b s E x t r u d e d L a v a h a n d L i n i n g r u p t u r e ( p e e l o f f s c r o l l ) L a v a S t a l a g m i t e s F a l l e n b l o c k w e l d e d t o f l o o r L a v a b e n c h L a v a s h e l f T u m u l u s T u m u l u s F i n a l l a v a f l o w f i l l s b o t t o m o f t u b e Formations within Lava T ubes Contents of T ubes > Lava caves have a distinctive suite of lava structures. > As lava drains from the tube it leaves linings on the walls which can drip, run or peal to form other formations. > The fluctuating lava flows through the tube may leave "tide-marks" on the walls. > V arious flow structures can form on the lava floor Some Lava Formations > Most tubes have linings on the walls. These may drip or run down the walls. Or burst to leave pocket s, or peal of f to form scrolls. > Burst bubbles may form a sharp hackly surface. > Benches & shelves may form at old lava "tide marks" on the base of the walls. Some may reach across the tube to form a false floor or "tube-in-tube". > Liquid lava trapped behind the linings may ooze out through holes to form lava "hands", "turds" or "straws". > If the floor is already solid (unusual) then drip s from above may form st alagmites. p. 4 / 4 R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Lava T ube Formation Lava T ube Formation Ken Grimes v1.1 9-2005

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Author: Ken G Grimes, Consultant Geologist, Regolith Mapping, PO Box 362, Hamilton, V ic 3300, Australia. regmap1@ozemail.com.au W ith acknowledgements to my pr edecessors who conceived most of the ideas expr essed her e: In particular Don Peterson, Ken Hon, Bill Halliday and many other speleo-geologists. D r a i n e d o p e n t u b e S o l i d i f i e d l a v a L i q u i d l a v a F l o w d i r e c t i o n S o u r c e o f l a v a i s e x h a u s t e d L a v a s o u r c e i n m a j o r c h a n n e l A B C Drained Sub-crust al Caves Inflated tumulus Thin lava flow with crust Main Lava T ube 1 2 Sub-crustal Lava Caves A newly-formed lava flow quickly develop s a crust, which may be inflated upwards. Later drainage of liquid lava from beneath the crust can form small shallow caves. As the flow exp ands, complex sub-crust al drainage systems can form. References Hon, K., Kauahikaua, J., Denlinger R., & Mackay K., 1994: Emplacement and inflation of p ahoehoe sheet flows: Observations and measurement s of active lava flows on Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 106: 351-370. Peterson, D.W ., Holcomb, R.T ., T illing, R.I., & Christiansen, R.L., 1994: Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna U lu, Kilauea V olcano, Hawaii. Bull. V olcanol. 56: 343-360. Development of sub-crustal caves > Lava spreads from a skylight above a tube, or by overflow from a crater or a lava channel. > The spreading lobes grow by a process of 'budding' in which a small lobe develop s a skin, and is inflated by the lava pressure until the skin ruptures in one or more places. > Lava escaping through the rupture develop s new lobes and so on. > If the supply of fresh lava is cut of f, the liquid p art s of a lobe may be drained to form a broad but low-roofed chamber > However if fresh hot lava continues to be delivered from the volcano it may become concentrated into linear tubes that feed the advancing lobes, while the surrounding st agnant areas slowly solidify The Process of sub-c rust al Drainage R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Sub-crustal Lava Caves Sub-crustal Lava Caves Ken Grimes 9-2005, v 1.2 Overview of lava cave formation Observations of active lava flows has shown that there are two distinct ways in which lava tubes or caves form: Roofing of surface lava channels (e.g. Peterson et al, 1994) not discussed here. Sub-crust al drainage within thin lava lobes. (e.g. Hon et al, 1994) the subject of this poster

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Broad low chamber in H-106. A mound of invasive lava lobes enters from the lef t. F lo w 3 F lo w 3 F lo w 2 F lo w 2 F lo w 1 F lo w 1 O ld e r fl o w s O ld e r fl o w s > The simplest caves are small chambers (typically only 1m high with a roof about 1m or less thick) which occur scattered through the lava fields. These have been called "blister caves" in V ictoria. They generally are found beneath low rises, though some have no surface relief at all. > They can be circular elongate or irregular in plan; up to 20m or more across but grading down to small cavities only suit able for rabbit s. > In cross-section, the outer edges of the chamber may be smoothly rounded or form a sharp angle with a flat lava floor > The ceiling may be arched or nearly flat, and can have a central "sof t" sag that would have formed while the crust was still plastic. Alternatively the thin central p art of the roof has collap sed and we find only a peripheral remnant around the edge of a shallow collap se doline (e.g. H-78). > The more elongate versions grade into small "tubes" (e.g. H-31). 5 m H-108 H-74 H 1 0 6 Deep collap se doline over main feeder tube 5 0 m 3 levels of complex sub-crust al caves at Byaduk 3 levels of complex sub-crust al caves at Byaduk Levels top bottom c li f fto p c li f fto p H 9 4 E c o l l a p s e d a r e a c o l l a p s e d a r e a H 1 0 7 H 9 0 9 1 H 7 8 H 8 2 H 8 4 EE H 3 1 E S m a l l s u b c r u s ta l c a v e s a t M t E c c l e s & B y a d u k H 1 0 6 H 1 1 D E 5 0 m Small sub-crust al lava caves A st acked system at Byaduk, V ictoria. Three distinct sub-crust al caves have developed; each in a sep arate lava flow 1-3 m thick. The flows and cave entrances are exposed in the clif f of a collap se doline developed over a large feeder tube at greater depth. The thin lava flows may have been fed by overflow from this major tube either t hrough a skylight, or when it was an open channel R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Sub-crustal Lava Caves Sub-crustal Lava Caves Ken Grimes 9-2005, v 1.2 Small isolated caves Small isolated chambers occur scattered through the undulating lava fields.

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Continuous concentrated flow through this section of H-53 has produced a linear cylindrical form typical of major feeder tubes. H 5 1 H 8 9 H 4 9 H 4 8 H 5 0 H 9 8 C o l l a p s e d p a s s a g e m a i n p a s s a g e l e v e l P o s s i b l e c o n t i n u a t i o n ? ? ? L o w e r l e v e l p a s s a g e ? H 5 2 H 5 3 H 7 0 H 7 2 H 7 6 H 9 H 8 3 ? ? L a t e r a l l e v e e o v e r f l o w c a v e s a t M t E c c l e s 5 0 m L a v a C h a n n e l i n l s e i n L e a r c o l a p d o l e H 2 3 H 2 3 M a j o r f e e d e r t u b e a t d e p t h C o m p l e x s h a l l o w s u b c r u s t a l c a v e s i n t h i n f l o w s a b o v e a f e e d e r t u b e a t B y a d u k 5 0 m H 3 3 P r o f i l e H 3 3 P l a n S u r f a c e m o u n d w i t h d r a i n a g e t u b e s b e l o w 5 0 m M a j o r f e e d e r t u b e a t d e p t h c o l l a p s e d a r e a Overflow to the surface from a major feeder tube formed a domed mound with a branching tube p attern. Draining back to the lower level lef t several low-roofed chambers and tubes. see photo Complex sub-crust al lava caves Developed Systems These linear tubes may extend radially from a central source (e.g. the upper level of H-33, see map to right) or laterally from the breached levee of a lava channel (map s above). At the downflow end the feeder tubes may split into a maze of smaller tubes and chambers. More complex systems evolve where lava continues to flow beneath the crust for an extended time and over a greater dist ance. Complex networks can evolve, with cylindrical "Feeder" tubes being maint ained in areas of rapid flow while slow moving areas solidify R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Sub-crustal Lava Caves Sub-crustal Lava Caves Ken Grimes 9-2005, v 1.2 Complex Caves In larger flow systems the original simple "drained-lobe" forms evolve into branching systems of low p assages that bifurcate and rejoin, or open out into broad, low chambers.

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X 2 8 H 7 1 E X 2 3 X 3 1 X 2 4 X 2 5 X 2 8 X 1 9 X 2 0 X 1 8 X 1 7 X 2 2 X 1 2 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 1 0 X 9 X 1 1 X 1 3 X 1 6 X 1 5 X 1 6 X 1 5 X 2 1 X 2 2 X 2 1 X 2 7 X 2 6 X 3 0 X 1 4 m g 1 0 5 0 m 1 0 0 m 1 0 P h P h P h P h P h P h P h P h A a E E E E H 7 0 H 7 2 E B i g H 7 1 E H 7 1 E C h a m e b r H 7 0 L a v a C h a n n e l L a n l v a C h a n e P h m o u n d P h P h 0 5 0 6 0 5 0 4 H o l e i n F l o o r 1 0 2 0 1 5 P h P h A a s q u e e z e P h P h P h P h L o w D o m e d L a v a F l o o r S q u e e z e u p P h S q u e e z e S q u e e z e P h m o u n d A a P h P h P h A a s l a b s h o l e P h R o o f s a g s A a P h D a y l i g h t A a P h ? P o s s i b l e l a v a f i l l e d c o n n e c t i o n ? ? v e r y t i g h t l a r g e r o o f s l a b m o u n d i m p a s s a b l e C o l l a p s e d t u b e M a z e s e c t i o n H 7 1 E H 7 9 E B i g C h a m b e r P r o j e c t e d N S P r o f i l e P h o t o a r e a E 0 6 P h A a R o p y l a v a t r e n d s R u b b l e P a h o e h o e l a v a R o o t s S l o p e o f f l o o r R o o f s t e p d o t s o n l o w e r s i d e F l o o r s t e p E n t r a n c e A a L a v a L a v a f l o w d i r e c t i o n R o o f h e i g h t ( m ) H 7 9 E H 7 9 E A a f lo w A a s q u e e z e S u r f a c e ( s o m e w h a t s i m p l i f i e d ) P o s s i b l e l a v a f i l l e d c o n n e c t i o n L a v a r a m p t h i n r o o t s r o c k p i l e b y p a s s M a z e C v e a e c t i o n s l a v a m o u n d 3 H 7 0 7 1 7 9 : C a r m i c h a e l C a v e S u r v e y e d b y V S A 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 & 1 9 9 9 m 0 2 0 X 3 1 r o o f s a g Example: Carmichael Cave, 3H-70, Mt. Eccles A complex sub-crustal cave H-70 comprises alternating linear tubes, mazes and broad low-roofed chambers. It was formed by over-flow from a lava channel. The lower level may be an earlier system invaded by the later one. A A A A B B C C Photo A: Broad chamber of section 31. Photo A: Broad chamber of section 31. R E G O L I T H M A P P I N G Sub-crustal Lava Caves Sub-crustal Lava Caves Ken Grimes 9-2005, v 1.2 Photo B: Maze section: Aa flow invading from higher levels (arrows) Photo C: Mound at lef t sep arates two chambers is this a "p artition" between two lobes? Photo C: Mound at lef t sep arates two chambers is this a "p artition" between two lobes?