Soil survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky

Citation
Soil survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky

Material Information

Title:
Soil survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky
Creator:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Natural Resources Conservation Service
U.S. National Park Service
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mammoth Cave (Kentucky, United States) ( 37.183333, -86.1 )
Resource Management ( local )
Geology ( local )
Genre:
Technical Report
serial ( sobekcm )
Coordinates:
37.183333 x -86.1

Notes

General Note:
"This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and the National Park Service, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 2009. Soil names and descriptions were approved in 2009. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 2009. This survey was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service; and the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to the National Park Service." -- Authors
Restriction:
Open Access
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-03719 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.3719 ( USFLDC Handle )
11493 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

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Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

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serial

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Full Text
Description
"This soil survey is a publication of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United States
Department of Agriculture and the National Park Service,
State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and local agencies. The Natural Resources
Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service)
has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in
2009. Soil names and descriptions were approved in 2009.
Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication
refer to conditions in the survey area in 2009. This survey
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation
Service; the United States Department of the Interior,
National Park Service; and the Kentucky Agricultural
Experiment Station. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the National Park Service." --
Authors



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United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service In cooperation with United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, and Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky

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General Soil Map The general soil map, which is a color map, shows the survey area divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and management of large areas. To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a general description of the soils in your area. Detailed Soil Maps The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the Index to Map Sheets Note the number of the map sheet and go to that sheet. Locate your area of interest on the map sheet. Note the map unit symbols that are in that area. Go to the Contents which lists the map units by symbol and name and shows the page where each map unit is described. The Contents shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. Also see the Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs. How To Use This Soil Survey iii

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Additional information about the NationÂ’s natural resources is available online from the Natural Resources Conservation Service at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov. This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and the National Park Service, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 2009. Soil names and descriptions were approved in 2009. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 2009. This survey was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service; and the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to the National Park Service. Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger scale. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDAÂ’s TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice or TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 202509410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.CitationThe correct citation for this survey is as follows: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Soil survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky.Cover CaptionMain entrance to Mammoth Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park. iv

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v Contents Cover .............................................................................................................................i How To Use This Soil Survey ....................................................................................iii Contents .......................................................................................................................v Foreword .....................................................................................................................xi Introduction ................................................................................................................1 General Nature of the Survey Area ..........................................................................1 How This Survey W as Made....................................................................................5 General Soil Map Units ..............................................................................................7 1.Wallen-Caneyville-Bledsoe ................................................................................7 2.Hagerstown-Fredonia ........................................................................................7 3.Wellston-Clarkrange ..........................................................................................8 4.Lily-Jefferson-Riney...........................................................................................8 5.Gilpin-Rosine-Shelocta ....................................................................................10 6.Nolin.................................................................................................................11 7.Water.. ..............................................................................................................11 Detailed Soils Map Units ..........................................................................................13 AlC2—Allegheny loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded .............................................14 AlD2—Allegheny loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ...........................................15 CaC2—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ......................................17 CaD—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky..................................18 CaD2—Caneyville silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky..........19 CaE—Caneyville silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, very rocky.................................21 CeD—Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopes ......................................22 CgE—Caneyville-Lenberg-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes..............24 ChC2—Christian gravelly loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ................................26 ChC3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded ....................................................................................................................28 ChD2—Christian gravelly loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ..............................29 ChD3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded ....................................................................................................................30 CkD—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes ..............................31 CkE—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes ............................33 Cn—Chagrin loam, frequently flooded.......................................................................34 CoB—Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ......................................................36 CoC—Clarkrange silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes ...................................................37 Cp—Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently flooded .........................................................38 CrB—Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ..............................................................39 CrC2—Crider silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded .............................................41 EkB—Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded...........................................42 EkC—Elk silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, rarely flooded.........................................43 FaB—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rocky ..........................44 FaC2—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky......................................................................................................................46 FaC3—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded, very rocky ...............................................................................................................48

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vi FdC—Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky................................................................................................................50 FdD2—Fredonia silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky.........53 GaB—Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ........................................................54 Gg—Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently flooded ..................................................55 GnB2—Gilpin loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded ................................................56 GnC2—Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ..............................................57 GnD2—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ............................................59 GnD3—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded .............................60 Gp—Grigsby fine sandy loam, ponded..................................................................61 JfD—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes ....................63 JfE—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes .....................65 Jo—Johnsburg silt loam .........................................................................................67 LaC2—Latham silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ......................................68 Ln—Lindside silt loam, occasionally flooded..........................................................69 LnC2—Lenberg silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded .....................................70 LyB—Lily loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ....................................................................72 LyC2—Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ...................................................73 LyD2—Lily loam, 12 to 20 percent slope s, eroded.................................................74 Me—Melvin silt loam, frequently flooded...............................................................75 Mp—Melvin silt loam, ponded................................................................................77 Ne—Newark silt loam, frequently flooded..............................................................78 NhD2—Nolichucky loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ....................................79 Nk—Newark silt loam, ponded ...............................................................................80 No—Nolin silt loam, frequently flooded..................................................................81 Np—Nolin silt loam, ponded...................................................................................83 OwB—Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally flooded....................84 PbB—Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ...................................................85 PbC2—Pembroke silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded .................................86 PeC3—Pembroke silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded..........88 ReB2—Riney silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded ...........................................89 ReC2—Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded .........................................90 ReD2—Riney silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded .......................................91 ReE—Riney silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes ......................................................93 RnB—Riney loam, karst, 2 to 6 percent slopes .....................................................94 Ro—Rock outcrop, 20 to 40 percent slopes ..........................................................95 RoB—Rosine silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ........................................................96 RoC2—Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ......................................97 RoD2—Rosine silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ....................................98RxE—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes ........................99 RxF—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 30 to 70 percent slopes ......................101 SaB—Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopes .........................................................103 SgD2—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded........104 SgE—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes.......................107 TsB—Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes..........................................................109

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vii VrC2—Vertrees silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ....................................110 W—Water... ..........................................................................................................112 WbE—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky...............................................................................................................112 WbF—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rocky...............................................................................................................115 WeB—Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ...................................................117 WeC2—Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ..................................119 WeD—Wellston silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes..............................................120 WsC3—Wellston silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, s everely eroded..........121 ZaB—Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes .................................................123 ZaC2—Zanesville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ................................124 Use and Management of the Soils ........................................................................127 Interpretive Ratings ..............................................................................................127 Rating Class T erms.........................................................................................127 Numerical Ratings...........................................................................................128 Land Capability Classification ..............................................................................128 Prime Farmland and Other Import ant Farmlands ................................................129 Major Land Resource Areas................................................................................130 Hydric Soils..........................................................................................................130 Forestland Productivity.........................................................................................131 Land Management ...............................................................................................131 Recreation............................................................................................................133 Engineering............. .............................................................................................134 Building Site Development ...............................................................................135 Sanitary Facilities.............................................................................................136 Construction Materials .....................................................................................138 Water Management .........................................................................................140 Soil Properties ........................................................................................................141 Engineering Index Properties ...............................................................................141 Physical Properties..............................................................................................142 Erosion Properties ...............................................................................................144 Chemical Properties .............................................................................................144 Water Features................................. ...................................................................145 Soil Features ........................................................................................................146 Soil Organic Carbon .............................................................................................147 Physical and Chemical Analyses of Selected Soils ..............................................147 Mineralogy of Selected Soils................................................................................148 Engineering Index Test Data................................................................................148 Classification of the Soils .....................................................................................149 Soil Series and Their Morphology ............................................................................149 Allegheny Series..................................................................................................150 Bledsoe Series .....................................................................................................151 Caneyville Series.................................................................................................153 Chagrin Series .....................................................................................................155

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viii Christian Series....................................................................................................157 Clarkrange Series ................................................................................................158 Clifty Series..........................................................................................................162 Crider Series ........................................................................................................163 Donahue Series...................................................................................................165 Elk Series.............................................................................................................167 Fredonia Series....................................................................................................168 Gatton Series.......................................................................................................170 Gilpin Series .........................................................................................................172 Grigsby Series .....................................................................................................174 Hagerstown Series ...............................................................................................175 Jefferson Series ...................................................................................................177 Johnsburg Series.......................................................... .......................................179 Latham Series ......................................................................................................181 Lenberg Series .....................................................................................................183 Lily Series............................................................................................................185 Lindside Series....................................................................................................186 Melvin Series.......................................................................................................188 Newark Series ......................................................................................................190 Nolichucky Series ................................................................................................191 Nolin Series..........................................................................................................193 Otwood Series .....................................................................................................195 Pembroke Series.................................................................................................197 Riney Series .........................................................................................................198 Rosine Series.......................................................................................................201 Sano Series .........................................................................................................203 Shelocta Series....................................................................................................205 Tilsit Series..........................................................................................................207 Vertrees Series......................................................... ...........................................209 Wallen Series.......................................................................................................212 Wellston Series....................................................................................................213 Zanesville Series ..................................................................................................215 Formation of the Soils ...........................................................................................219 References ..............................................................................................................223 Glossary ..................................................................................................................227 Tables ......................................................................................................................241 Table 1.—Temperature and Precipitation.........................................................242 Table 2.—Freeze Dates in S pring and Fall ......................................................243 Table 3.—Growing Season..............................................................................243 Table 4.—Acres, Hectares, and Proportionate Extent of the Map Units..........244 Table 5.—Land Cap ability Classification ..........................................................246 Table 6.—Prime and Other Important Farmlands ............................................251 Table 7.—Hydric Soils......................................................................................253 Table 8.—Forestland Productivity ....................................................................254 Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads....................................270

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ix Issued 2010 Table 10.—Land Management Planting .........................................................279 Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation ............................................288 Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration ............................................295 Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas.................................................................303 Table 14.—Trail Management ..........................................................................312 Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings...................................319 Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping.........329 Table 17.—Sewage Disposal...........................................................................342 Table 18.—Landfills .........................................................................................354 Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand...........................................................365 Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil..................374 Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments .............................................................388 Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties........................................................398 Table 23.—Physical Soil Properties.................................................................418 Table 24.—Erosion Properties of Soils............................................................428 Table 25.—Chemical Soil Properties...............................................................437 Table 26.—Water Features ..............................................................................447 Table 27.—Soil Features.................................................................................458 Table 28.—Soil Organic Carbon......................................................................465 Table 29.—Physical Analysis of Selected Soils...............................................472 Table 30.—Chemical Analysis of Selected Soils ..............................................473 Table 31.—Mineralogy of Selected Soils .........................................................474 Table 32.—Engineering Index T est Data ..........................................................475 Table 33.—Taxonomic Classification of the Soils ............................................476 Appendices .............................................................................................................477 Appendix A.—Index of Common Names, Plant Symbols, and Scientific Names ...........................................................................................................478 Appendix B.—Index of Plant Symbols, Common Names, and Scientific Names ...........................................................................................................480

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xi This soil survey was developed in conjunction with the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program and is intended to serve as the official source document for soils occurring within Mammoth Cave National Park. This soil survey contains information that affects current and future land use planning in the park. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey highlights soil limitations, actions needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected land uses on the environment. This soil survey is designed to meet the needs of the National Park Service and their partners for a better understanding of the various soil properties present in the park and their affect on various natural ecological properties in order to understand, protect, and enhance the environment. Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations on various land uses. The landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and regulations. Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground installations. These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each map unit is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described, and information on specific uses is given. Help in using this publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or the office of Mammoth Cave National Park. Thomas A. Perrin State Conservationist Natural Resources Conservation Service Foreword

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1 MAMMOTH CAVE NATIONAL PARK is located in parts of Barren, Edmonson, and Hart Counties, Kentucky (fig. 1). The park encompasses the longest known cave system in the world (over 340 miles) and has approximately 80 square miles of surface area (Bruckner and Watson, 1976). The surface is composed of rugged hills, deep sinkholes, and valleys and is intersected by the scenic Green River. Over 60 miles of trails make the park’s surface features accessible to hikers. Mammoth Cave became a national park in 1941 (Goode, 1986). Because of its important international significance as both a natural and a cultural site, it was designated by the United Nations as a “World Heritage Site” in 1981. Because of its internationally significant and diverse biology, it was designated as an “International Man in the Biosphere Reserve” in 1990. In 1991, the park celebrated its 50th anniversary as our nation’s 26th national park.General Nature of the Survey AreaThis section provides general information about the survey area. It discusses the history, geology, and climate in and around Mammoth Cave National Park.HistoryMammoth Cave, according to a local legend handed down for many years, was discovered in the late 1790’s by a Kentucky bear hunter chasing a wounded bear into the gaping mouth of a cave, a place now known as the Historic Entrance (fig. 2). The validity of the story, however, is sometimes brought into question by historians. John Flatt retained ownership of the cave for a few years and then sold the tract to the McClean (also spelled McLean) brothers of Virginia—George, John, and Leonard. It is generally believed by historians that the McClean brothers were the first to commercially mine saltpeter from the cave. (John Flatt may have mined saltpeter on a very small scale.) In January 1810, a tract containing Mammoth Cave and 156 acres of surrounding land was sold by the McCleans to Fleming Gatewood and Charles Wilkins. By this Soil Survey ofMammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky By William H. Craddock and Susan B. Southard, Natural Resources Conservation Service Soils surveyed by David Gehring, John Jenkins, and William Craddock, Natural Resources Conservation Service United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service in cooperation with United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, and Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 2 time, the growing talk of an embargo and the possibility of war with Great Britain was creating great interest in the production of saltpeter for the manufacture of gunpowder. During the War of 1812, the partnership of Charles Wilkins and Hyman Gratz (Gratz bought Gatewood’s half-interest in the partnership in 1912) mined significant quantities of high-quality saltpeter from Mammoth Cave and eventually from other caves in the area, including Dixon Cave. They sold the saltpeter to E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. As it was manufactured at the time, gunpowder (known commonly as black powder) consisted of about 80 percent saltpeter and 20 percent a mixture of sulphur and charcoal. It is not known exactly how much saltpeter was mined at Mammoth Cave during the War of 1812. The records do indicate that du Pont sold at least 750,000 pounds of saltpeter. Even considering that there was approximately 275,000 pounds on hand prior to the commencement of hostilities, a significant quantity of saltpeter was purchased by du Pont from Wilkins and others during the war. In 1838 (1837 according to some sources), Mammoth Cave and approximately 2,000 acres of surrounding land were sold by Gratz (Charles Wilkins died in 1828) to a Glasgow, Kentucky native, Franklin Gorin. Gorin made improvements in the log “hotel” and the road to the property for the increasing numbers of curious visitors. Gorin sold the cave in 1839 to Louisville physician Dr. John Croghan. Under Croghan’s ownership, Mammoth Cave saw its greatest growth as a visitor attraction. In addition to purchasing the cave and associated facilities, Dr. Croghan received the ownership of a remarkable slave named Stephen Bishop. Bishop became the most written and talked about Mammoth Cave guide during the 1840’s and 1850’s. Visitors having read published travel logs began requesting Stephen Bishop as their guide (Bruckner and Watson, 1976). Dr. Croghan eventually died of consumption and, having no children of his own, willed the Mammoth Cave Estate to his nieces and nephews. These absentee heirs managed the estate through legal trustees who leased the property and maintained supervision of the cave business by way of resident managers. This method of management for Mammoth Cave continued until the death of the last Croghan heir, Mrs. Serena Croghan Rogers, in 1925. Fearing the Mammoth Cave Estate might be put up for public sale, several Kentucky businessmen, with the support of the Louisville and Nashville railroad, formed the Mammoth Cave National Park Association in 1924 in order to promote the idea of Mammoth Cave as a national park.Figure 1.—Location of Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 3 In 1926, at the urging of the association and other interested people, Congress eventually passed legislation formally authorizing the creation of the park. Because of this legislation, the park was to be a natural recreation area and acquisition of the lands for the park was to be by private donation or through State or private funds. The State of Kentucky supported the national park movement by establishing the Kentucky National Park Commission in 1928. This commission provided for condemnation of land in State courts, expediting the land acquisition process. By 1941, approximately 48,000 acres had been acquired. In July of that year, Congress Figure 2.—The Historic Entrance to Mammoth Cave in an area of Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rocky.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 4 passed legislation formally establishing Mammoth Cave as the nationÂ’s 26th national park.Physical GeologyMammoth Cave National Park lies within the Western Coalfields Physiographic Region (Bailey and Winsor, 1964). The surface bedrock consists of Pennsylvanianage and Mississippian-age materials. The Pennsylvanian-age rocks underlie moderately wide ridges and hillsides at the highest elevations (McFarlan, 1943). Parent materials include conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. These bedrocks are part of the Caseyville and Pottsville Formation (USGS, 1964). At the lower elevations, the park lies in the upper Mississippian-age material. Formations within the park are Glen Dean Limestone, Hardinsburg Sandstone, the Haney Limestone member, the Big Clifty Sandstone member, Girkin, and Ste. Genevieve Limestone (USGS, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, and 1968). Smooth and broad ridges are commonly underlain by the Hardinsburg Sandstone member. The hillsides below the broad ridges generally have Mississippian-age rock of the Big Clifty Formation. The Girkin Formation lies directly below the Big Clifty Formation in most areas. It is characterized by deep dissected hillsides and karst valleys. Most caves occur in the lower part of the Girkin Formation and throughout the Ste. Genevieve Limestone. The Ste. Genevieve Limestone Formation occurs at or above the water level of the Green River. It is at the lowest elevations. Many mapped areas are in karst or depressional landscapes.HydrogeologyThe Mammoth Cave karst aquifer owes the majority of its recharge to areas outside the park boundary. This recharge, in the form of precipitation or the injection of liquid wastes, enters the aquifer through numerous sinking streams and countless sinkholes. Any practices that may have an adverse impact on water quality within the parkÂ’s recharge area can directly impact the parkÂ’s water quality. The Mammoth Cave karst aquifer exhibits convergent flow, much like the convergent flow patterns of a dendritic surface stream system. While other aquifers may possess diffuse flow, in which contaminants slowly disperse, the convergent flow of the Mammoth Cave karst aquifer channels recharge and pollutants toward a common trunk conduit or spring (White and White, 1989). Flow through the Mammoth Cave karst aquifer can be very rapid, on the order of thousands to ten thousands of feet per day. Contaminants entering the karst aquifer can thus be rapidly transported, unaltered, through the conduit system. The first aquifer is very dynamic, that is, it responds instantaneously to rainfall. Aquifer stage can rise tens of feet in a matter of hours (there are numerous records showing stage rises of nearly 100 feet over the course of one day). Also, chemical and bacteriological properties of the ground water can change dramatically following rainfall events. These stage rises can actuate high level overflow routes between ground-water basins and thus direct flow in different directions depending on aquifer conditions.ClimateTable 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation for the survey area as recorded at Mammoth Cave National Park in the period 1971 to 2000. Table 2 shows probable dates of the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring. Table 3 provides data on the length of the growing season.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 5 In winter, the average temperature is 37.3 degrees F and the average daily minimum temperature is 27.4 degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which occurred on February 2, 1951, is -21 degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 74.9 degrees and the average daily maximum temperature is 86.7 degrees. The highest temperature on record, which occurred on July 27, 1952, is 108 degrees. Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are equivalent to “heat units.” During the month, growing degree days accumulate by the amount that the average temperature each day exceeds a base temperature (40 degrees F). The normal monthly accumulation is used to schedule single or successive plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring and the first freeze in fall. The average annual total precipitation is 52.07 inches. Of this, 29.96 inches, or about 58 percent, usually falls in April through October. The growing season for most crops falls within this period. The heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record was 6.80 inches, recorded in May 1984. Thunderstorms occur on about 40 days each year, and most occur in July. The average seasonal snowfall is 11.8 inches. The greatest snow depth at any one time during the period of record was 14 inches, recorded on November 2, 1966. On an average, 11 days per year have at least 1 inch of snow on the ground. The heaviest 1day snowfall on record was 16 inches, recorded in March 1960. The average relative humidity in mid-afternoon is about 58 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the average at dawn is about 81 percent. The sun shines 67 percent of the time in summer and 42 percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the south. Average windspeed is highest, 9.2 miles per hour, in January.How This Survey Was MadeThis survey was made in conjunction with the National Park Service’s Soil Inventory and Monitoring Program to provide information about the soils and miscellaneous areas within Mammoth Cave National Park. The Mammoth Cave National Park soil survey area was established in 2009 and was a part of three existing soil surveys: the soil survey of Butler and Edmonson Counties, Kentucky (USDA-NRCS, 2005); the soil survey of Hart County, Kentucky (USDA-SCS, 1993); and the soil survey of Barren County, Kentucky (USDA-SCS, 1969). The Mammoth Cave National Park soil survey was initiated in 2009. Fieldwork for the project commenced and ended in 2009 and involved field verification of the existing data that was in the three existing soil surveys and an interim report (USDASCS, 1994). During the previous soil surveys, site index data and soil component relationships were observed and soil-site correlation concepts were established to help in designing the map units. Soil and plant specialists tested the concepts during mapping and collected field documentation at numerous points across the landscape. In 2009, field verification of these data was performed. The information includes a description of the soils and miscellaneous areas and their location and a discussion of their suitability, limitations, and management for specified uses. Soil scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of the slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other living organisms and has not been changed by other biological activity. The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil and miscellaneous area is associated with a particular kind of

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 6 landform or with a segment of the landform. By observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area and relating their position to specific segments of the landform, a soil scientist develops a concept, or model, of how they were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific location on the landscape. Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge into one another as their characteristics gradually change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil scientists must determine the boundaries between the soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented by an understanding of the soil-vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to determine the boundaries. Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and other features that enable them to identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey area and determining their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils systematically. Soil taxonomy, the system of taxonomic classification used in the United States, is based mainly on the kind and character of soil properties and the arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists classified and named the soils in the survey area, they compared the individual soils with similar soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could confirm data and assemble additional data based on experience and research. While the previous three soil surveys were in progress, samples of some of the soils in the area generally were collected for laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists interpret the data from these analyses and tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil properties to determine the expected behavior of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils are field tested through observation of the soils in different uses and under different levels of management. Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, and some new interpretations are developed to meet local needs. Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on soil properties but also on such variables as climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over long periods of time, but they are not predictable from year to year. For example, soil scientists can predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given soil will have a high water table within certain depths in most years, but they cannot predict that a high water table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific date. After soil scientists located and identified the significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they delineated the boundaries of these bodies on digital imagery and identified each as a specific map unit. The existing SSURGO maps (from the three previously mapped surveys) were adjusted to match the current boundary of the park that was provided by the National Park Service in 2009. A soil map legend was developed from the map units occurring within the Mammoth Cave boundary.

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7 The general soil map in this publication show broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils, relief, and drainage. The map units on the general soil map are unique natural landscapes. Typically, they consist of one or more major soils or miscellaneous areas and some minor soils or miscellaneous areas. They are named for the major soils or miscellaneous areas. The components of one map unit can occur in another but in a different pattern. The general soil map can be used to compare the suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of suitable soils can be identified on the maps. Likewise, areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Because of their small scale, the maps are not suitable for planning the management of a farm or a field or for selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that affect management.1.Wallen-Caneyville-BledsoeSloping to very steep, very deep to moderately deep, well drained and somewhat excessively drained soils that have a clayey or loamy subsoil; formed in colluvium over residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, or shale or residuum weathered from limestone or weathered from sandstone on narrow ridges, hillslopes, and footslopes throughout the survey area This map unit makes up about 44 percent of the survey area. It is about 27 percent Wallen and similar soils, 25 percent Caneyville and similar soils, 24 percent Bledsoe and similar soils, and 24 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 3). Of minor extent in this map unit are Clarkrange, Wellston, Donahue, Newark, Lily, and Nolin soils. Also included are areas of Rock outcrop. This map unit is mostly in mixed hardwoods, mainly oak with some eastern redcedar. It is used primarily for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information.2.Hagerstown-FredoniaGently sloping to strongly sloping, deep and moderately deep, well drained soils that have a clayey subsoil; formed in residuum from limestone on karst ridgetops and hillslopes mostly in the east and southeast portions of the survey area This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the survey area. It is about 48 percent Hagerstown and similar soils, 40 percent Fredonia and similar soils, and 12 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 4). Of minor extent in this map unit are Crider, Vertrees, and Nolin soils. Also included are areas of Rock outcrop. This map unit is mostly in mixed hardwoods and eastern redcedar. Some areas have second-growth trees. The unit is used primarily for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information. General Soil Map Units

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 83.Wellston-ClarkrangeGently sloping to strongly sloping, very deep, well drained and moderately well drained soils that have a silty subsoil; formed in loess over residuum from weathered sandstone and siltstone or loess over residuum from weathered sandstone and shale on ridgetops and hillsides This map unit makes up about 23 percent of the survey area. It is about 48 percent Wellston and similar soils, 42 percent Clarkrange and similar soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 5). Of minor extent in this map unit are Lily and Nolin soils. This map unit is mostly in mixed hardwoods, mainly oak. It is used primarily for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information.4.Lily-Jefferson-RineyGently sloping to steep, moderately deep to very deep, well drained soils that have a loamy subsoil; formed in loamy residuum from weathered sandstone, loamy residuum from weathered sandstone and shale, or loamy colluvium derived from sandstone, shale, or siltstone on hillslopes and footslopes mostly in the northern portion of the survey area This map unit makes up about 25 percent of the survey area. It is about 42 percent Lily and similar soils, 24 percent Jefferson and similar soils, 12 percent Riney and similar soils, and 22 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 6). Of minor extent in this map unit are Wellston and Wallen soils. Also included are areas of Rock outcrop. Figure 3.—Typical pattern of soils and underlying material in the Wallen-Caneyville-Bledsoe general soil map unit.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 9 Figure 4.—Typical pattern of soils and underlying material in the Hagerstown-Fredonia general soil map unit. Figure 5.—Typical pattern of soils and underlying material in the Wellston-Clarkrange general soil map unit.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 10 This map unit is mostly in mixed hardwoods, mainly oak. It is used primarily for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information.5.Gilpin-Rosine-SheloctaSloping to steep, moderately deep to very deep, well drained soils that have a loamy subsoil; formed in residuum weathered from sandstone, in loess over residuum weathered from shale, or in loamy colluvium over residuum weathered from sandstone or shale on narrow ridetops, hillslopes, and footslopes in areas south of the Green River This map unit makes up almost 2 percent of the survey area. It is about 30 percent Gilpin and similar soils, 29 percent Rosine and similar soils, 16 percent Shelocta and similar soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 7). Of minor extent in this map unit are Clarkrange, Lily, Latham, and Wellston soils. This map unit is mostly in mixed hardwoods, mainly oak. It is used for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information.Figure 6.—Typical pattern of soils and underlying material in the Lily-Jefferson-Riney general soil map unit.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 11 Figure 7.—Typical pattern of soils and underlying material in the Gilpin-Rosine-Shelocta general soil map unit.6.NolinNearly level, very deep, well drained soils that have a silty subsoil; formed in alluvium on karst upland depressions and flood plains mostly along the Green River and its major tributaries and upland depressions This map unit makes up almost 4 percent of the survey area. It is about 80 percent Nolin and similar soils and 20 percent soils of minor extent. Of minor extent in this map unit are Grigsby, Elk, Chagrin, and Clifty soils. This map unit is primarily in mixed hardwoods. Some areas have second-growth trees, and some areas have grass with scattered trees. The unit is used primarily for recreation and wildlife. Please refer to the detailed map unit descriptions, taxonomic descriptions, and tables for specific information.7.WaterThis map unit is comprised mostly of the Green River and includes some ponds. It makes up about 1 percent of the survey area. It is about 98 percent water and 2 percent soils of minor extent. Of minor extent in this map unit are Grigsby and Nolin soils primarily on small islands in the Green River. This unit is used primarily for recreation, wildlife, and navigation.

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13 The map units delineated on the detailed maps at the back of this survey represent the soils or miscellaneous areas in the survey area. The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the maps, can be used to determine the suitability and potential of a unit for specific uses. They also can be used to plan the management needed for those uses. More information about each map unit is given under the heading “Use and Management of the Soils.” A map unit delineation on a map represents an area dominated by one or more major kinds of soil or miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and named according to the taxonomic classification of the dominant soils or miscellaneous areas. Within a taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the soils and miscellaneous areas are natural phenomena, and they have the characteristic variability of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range of some observed properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including areas of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soils or miscellaneous areas for which it is named and some “included” areas that belong to other taxonomic classes. Most included soils have properties similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and management. These are called noncontrasting, or similar, inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the map unit description. Other included soils and miscellaneous areas, however, have properties and behavioral characteristics divergent enough to affect use or to require different management. These are called contrasting, or dissimilar, inclusions. They generally are in small areas and could not be mapped separately because of the scale used. Some small areas of strongly contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are identified by a special symbol on the maps. The included areas of contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A few included areas may not have been observed, and consequently they are not mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make enough observations to identify all the soils and miscellaneous areas on the landscape. The presence of included areas in a map unit in no way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the data. The objective of mapping is not to delineate pure taxonomic classes but rather to separate the landscape into landforms or landform segments that have similar use and management requirements. The delineation of such segments on the map provides sufficient information for the development of resource plans, but if intensive use of small areas is planned, onsite investigation is needed to define and locate the soils and miscellaneous areas. An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name in the map unit descriptions. Each description includes general facts about the unit and gives the principal hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for specific uses. Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a soil series All the soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in composition, thickness, and arrangement. The soils of a given series can differ in texture of the surface layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, degree of erosion, and other characteristics that affect their Detailed Soils Map Units

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 14 use. On the basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil phases Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or management. For example, Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, is a phase of the Wellston series. Some map units are made up of two or more major soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are complexes. A complex consists of two or more soils or miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be shown separately on the maps. The pattern and proportion of the soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar in all areas. Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky, is an example. This survey includes miscellaneous areas Such areas have little or no soil material and support little or no vegetation. The map unit Rock outcrop, 20 to 40 percent slopes, is an example. Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms used in describing the soils or miscellaneous areas.AlC2—Allegheny loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 170 to 240 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Allegheny and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Allegheny Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (three-dimensional): Riser Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.0 centimeters)

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 15 Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 10 centimeters; loam 10 to 51 centimeters; loam 51 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Frondorf soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoAlD2—Allegheny loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 200 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Allegheny and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Allegheny Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (three-dimensional): Riser Down-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 16 Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 10 centimeters; loam 10 to 51 centimeters; loam 51 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Shelocta soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 17CaC2—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 140 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 53 centimeters; silty clay 53 to 71 centimeters; clay 71 to 96 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 18 Lenberg soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoCaD—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rockyMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 140 to 210 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 80 percent Dissimilar minor components: 20 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 19 Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silty clay loam 36 to 61 centimeters; clay 61 to 86 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoCaD2—Caneyville silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rockyMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 190 to 240 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 80 percent Dissimilar minor components: 20 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 20 Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from cherty limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 14.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; silty clay loam 15 to 64 centimeters; silty clay 64 to 89 centimeters; clay 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Christian soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 21CaE—Caneyville silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, very rockyMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 140 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 80 percent Dissimilar minor components: 20 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silty clay loam 36 to 61 centimeters; clay 61 to 86 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 22 Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: NoCeD—Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 170 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 46 percent Lenberg and similar soils: 29 percent Dissimilar minor components: 25 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 8 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 23 Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 53 centimeters; silty clay 53 to 71 centimeters; clay 71 to 96 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Lenberg Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 8 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 38 centimeters; silty clay 38 to 58 centimeters; clay 58 to 76 centimeters; channery silty clay 76 to 101 centimeters; weathered bedrock Minor Components Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 7 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 24 Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoCgE—Caneyville-Lenberg-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 30 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 46 percent Lenberg and similar soils: 29 percent Rock outcrop: 12 percent Dissimilar minor components: 13 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 25 Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 53 centimeters; silty clay 53 to 71 centimeters; clay 71 to 96 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Lenberg Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 26 Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 38 centimeters; silty clay 38 to 58 centimeters; clay 58 to 76 centimeters; channery silty clay 76 to 101 centimeters; weathered bedrock Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Limestone Minor Components Shelocta soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: NoChC2—Christian gravelly loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 27 Map Unit Composition Christian and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Christian Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 122 to 213 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 21.9 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 10 centimeters; gravelly loam 10 to 33 centimeters; gravelly clay loam 33 to 114 centimeters; gravelly clay 114 to 160 centimeters; gravelly clay 160 to 185 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 28 Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoChC3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Christian, severely eroded and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Christian, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 122 to 213 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 19.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam 18 to 124 centimeters; gravelly clay loam 124 to 152 centimeters; gravelly clay 152 to 177 centimeters; unweathered bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 29 Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoChD2—Christian gravelly loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 210 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Christian and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Christian Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 122 to 213 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 21.9 centimeters)

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 30 Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 10 centimeters; gravelly loam 10 to 33 centimeters; gravelly clay loam 33 to 114 centimeters; gravelly clay 114 to 160 centimeters; gravelly clay 160 to 185 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 7 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoChD3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Christian, severely eroded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Christian, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 122 to 213 centimeters to lithic bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 31 Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 19.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam 18 to 124 centimeters; gravelly clay loam 124 to 152 centimeters; gravelly clay 152 to 177 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoCkD—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 6 to 20 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 65 percent Rock outcrop: 12 percent Dissimilar minor components: 23 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 32 Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 53 centimeters; silty clay 53 to 71 centimeters; clay 71 to 96 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Limestone Minor Components Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 33 Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoCkE—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Caneyville and similar soils: 65 percent Rock outcrop: 20 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 35 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 34 Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 53 centimeters; silty clay 53 to 71 centimeters; clay 71 to 96 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 35 percent Parent material: Limestone Minor Components Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: NoCn—Chagrin loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 250 meters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 35 Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Chagrin, frequently flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Chagrin, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: About 122 to 203 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 36.4 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 38 centimeters; loam 38 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Clifty soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 36CoB—Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Clarkrange and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Clarkrange Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan; 102 to 229 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 46 to 76 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 15.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 81 centimeters; silt loam 81 to 122 centimeters; silty clay loam 122 to 173 centimeters; clay loam 173 to 198 centimeters; weathered bedrock Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 37 Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoCoC—Clarkrange silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Clarkrange and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Clarkrange Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan; 102 to 229 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Low

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 38 Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 46 to 76 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 15.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 81 centimeters; silt loam 81 to 122 centimeters; silty clay loam 122 to 173 centimeters; clay loam 173 to 198 centimeters; weathered bedrock Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoCp—Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 150 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Clifty, frequently flooded and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 39 Characteristics of Clifty, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 21.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Fluventic Dystrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; gravelly silt loam 23 to 96 centimeters; gravelly silt loam 96 to 203 centimeters; gravelly loam Minor Components Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoCrB—Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 40 Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Crider and similar soils: 93 percent Dissimilar minor components: 7 percent Characteristics of Crider Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 36.4 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; silt loam 18 to 99 centimeters; silt loam 99 to 203 centimeters; silty clay loam Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 41 Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoCrC2—Crider silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 200 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Crider and similar soils: 93 percent Dissimilar minor components: 7 percent Characteristics of Crider Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 36.4 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; silt loam 18 to 99 centimeters; silt loam 99 to 203 centimeters; silty clay loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 42 Minor Components Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoEkB—Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 170 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Elk, rarely flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Elk, Rarely Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (three-dimensional): Tread Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: Rare (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 37.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 43 Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 96 centimeters; silty clay loam 96 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoEkC—Elk silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, rarely floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 140 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Elk, rarely flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Elk, Rarely Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (three-dimensional): Riser Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 44 Flooding frequency: Rare (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 37.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 96 centimeters; silty clay loam 96 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Allegheny soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoFaB—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rockyMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 140 to 160 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Fredonia and similar soils: 45 percent Hagerstown and similar soils: 34 percent Dissimilar minor components: 21 percent Characteristics of Fredonia Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 45 Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 66 centimeters; silty clay 66 to 91 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Hagerstown Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 203 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 27.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 46 Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 127 centimeters; silty clay 127 to 140 centimeters; clay 140 to 165 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Pembroke soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 1 percent Hydric soil status: NoFaC2—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rockyMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 140 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Fredonia and similar soils: 45 percent Hagerstown and similar soils: 34 percent Dissimilar minor components: 21 percent Characteristics of Fredonia Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 47 Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 66 centimeters; silty clay 66 to 91 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Hagerstown Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 203 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 27.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 48 Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 127 centimeters; silty clay 127 to 140 centimeters; clay 140 to 165 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Pembroke soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoFaC3—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded, very rockyMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 130 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Fredonia, severely eroded and similar soils: 45 percent Hagerstown, severely eroded and similar soils: 34 percent Dissimilar minor components: 21 percent Characteristics of Fredonia, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 49 Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 5 centimeters; silty clay loam 5 to 66 centimeters; silty clay 66 to 91 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Hagerstown, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 203 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 50 Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 5 centimeters; silt loam 5 to 127 centimeters; silty clay 127 to 140 centimeters; clay 140 to 165 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Pembroke soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoFdC—Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rockyMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 140 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Fredonia and similar soils: 37 percent Hagerstown and similar soils: 25 percent Vertrees and similar soils: 15 percent Dissimilar minor components: 23 percent Characteristics of Fredonia Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 51 Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 14.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; silt loam 20 to 84 centimeters; clay 84 to 109 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Hagerstown Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 152 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 23.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 52 Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; silt loam 20 to 38 centimeters; silty clay loam 38 to 142 centimeters; clay 142 to 167 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Vertrees Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; silt loam 15 to 51 centimeters; silty clay 51 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 0 to 3 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 53 Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 5 percent Hydric soil status: NoFdD2—Fredonia silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rockyMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 200 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Fredonia and similar soils: 80 percent Dissimilar minor components: 20 percent Characteristics of Fredonia Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silty clay loam 13 to 76 centimeters; clay 76 to 101 centimeters; unweathered bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 54 Minor Components Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Christian soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoGaB—Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 230 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Gatton and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Gatton Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-loamy loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 76 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 55 Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 46 to 71 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 14.9 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 71 centimeters; silt loam 71 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Riney soils Percent of map unit: 7 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolichucky soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoGg—Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 210 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Grigsby, frequently flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Grigsby, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed coarse-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 56 Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: About 107 to 203 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; fine sandy loam 20 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoGnB2—Gilpin loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 190 to 210 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Gilpin and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Gilpin Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP)

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 57 Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Latham soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 4 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoGnC2—Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 170 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Gilpin and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 58 Characteristics of Gilpin Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 59 Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoGnD2—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Gilpin and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Gilpin Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 60 Minor Components Latham soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Shelocta soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoGnD3—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 240 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Gilpin, severely eroded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Gilpin, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 61 Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.4 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 5 centimeters; loam 5 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoGp—Grigsby fine sandy loam, pondedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 210 meters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 62 Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Grigsby, ponded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Grigsby, Ponded Soils Setting Landform: Basin in closed depressions Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed coarse-loamy alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: Occasional (see table 26) Depth to seasonal water table: About 107 to 203 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; fine sandy loam 20 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 63JfD—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 12 to 20 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Jefferson and similar soils: 44 percent Lily and similar soils: 24 percent Rock outcrop: 14 percent Dissimilar minor components: 18 percent Characteristics of Jefferson Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy colluvium derived from sandstone and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 33 centimeters; loam 33 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy loam Characteristics of Lily Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 64 Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; loam 30 to 84 centimeters; loam 84 to 109 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Sandstone Minor Components Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 15 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 65 Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 8 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoJfE—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Jefferson and similar soils: 44 percent Lily and similar soils: 24 percent Rock outcrop: 14 percent Dissimilar minor components: 18 percent Characteristics of Jefferson Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 35 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy colluvium derived from sandstone and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 66 Typical Profile 0 to 33 centimeters; loam 33 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy loam Characteristics of Lily Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 35 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; loam 30 to 84 centimeters; loam 84 to 109 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 35 percent Parent material: Sandstone Minor Components Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 67 Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Donahue soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 15 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoJo—Johnsburg silt loamMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 210 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Johnsburg and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Johnsburg Soils Setting Landform: Broad flat ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone and/or shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 46 to 91 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Very low Natural drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 68 Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: About 30 to 46 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 25.4 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Fragiudults Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; silt loam 18 to 53 centimeters; silt loam 53 to 137 centimeters; silt loam 137 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Sano soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Zanesville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoLaC2—Latham silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 220 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Latham and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Latham Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 69 Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: High (about 7.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 48 to 100 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silt loam 8 to 84 centimeters; silty clay 84 to 109 centimeters; weathered bedrock Minor Components Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoLn—Lindside silt loam, occasionally floodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 140 to 150 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Lindside, occasionally flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 70 Characteristics of Lindside, Occasionally Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: Occasional (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: About 46 to 76 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 41.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoLnC2—Lenberg silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 220 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 71 Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Lenberg and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Lenberg Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silt loam 13 to 38 centimeters; silty clay 38 to 58 centimeters; clay 58 to 76 centimeters; channery silty clay 76 to 101 centimeters; weathered bedrock Minor Components Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 72 Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoLyB—Lily loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Lily and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Lily Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 14.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 61 centimeters; clay loam 61 to 99 centimeters; clay loam 99 to 124 centimeters; unweathered bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 73 Minor Components Lenberg soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Tilsit soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoLyC2—Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Lily and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Lily Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 74 Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; loam 30 to 84 centimeters; loam 84 to 109 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoLyD2—Lily loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 140 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Lily and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Lily Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 75 Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; loam 30 to 84 centimeters; loam 84 to 109 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Jefferson soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoMe—Melvin silt loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 140 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 76 Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Melvin, frequently flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Melvin, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Poorly drained Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: At the soil surface to 25 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 41.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3w Hydric soil status: Yes Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; silt loam 20 to 96 centimeters; silt loam 96 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 77 Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoMp—Melvin silt loam, pondedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 260 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Melvin, ponded and similar soils: 95 percent Dissimilar minor components: 5 percent Characteristics of Melvin, Ponded Soils Setting Landform: Basin in closed depressions Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Poorly drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Depth to seasonal water table: At the soil surface (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 41.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 5w Hydric soil status: Yes Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 56 centimeters; silt loam 56 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Newark soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 78Ne—Newark silt loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Newark, frequently flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Newark, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: About 30 to 46 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 39.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluventic Endoaquepts Typical Profile 0 to 41 centimeters; silt loam 41 to 81 centimeters; silt loam 81 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Johnsburg soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Melvin, frequently flooded soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: Yes

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 79 Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Hydric soil status: NoNhD2—Nolichucky loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 140 to 150 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Nolichucky and similar soils: 80 percent Dissimilar minor components: 20 percent Characteristics of Nolichucky Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Riser Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy alluvium over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters)

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 80 Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Paleudults Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; loam 28 to 38 centimeters; loam 38 to 122 centimeters; clay loam 122 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoNk—Newark silt loam, pondedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 170 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Newark, ponded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Newark, Ponded Soils Setting Landform: Basin in closed depressions Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP)

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 81 Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Depth to seasonal water table: About 30 to 46 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 39.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluventic Endoaquepts Typical Profile 0 to 41 centimeters; silt loam 41 to 81 centimeters; silt loam 81 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Johnsburg soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Melvin, ponded soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: Yes Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Otwood soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoNo—Nolin silt loam, frequently floodedMajor land resource areas: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part; 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 82 Elevation: 130 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Nolin, frequently flooded and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Nolin, Frequently Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Flood plains Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: Frequent (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 37.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; silt loam 18 to 64 centimeters; silt loam 64 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Chagrin soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 83 Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoNp—Nolin silt loam, pondedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 160 to 240 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Nolin, ponded and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Nolin, Ponded Soils Setting Landform: Basin in closed depressions Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 2 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: Occasional (see table 26) Depth to seasonal water table: About 122 to 203 centimeters (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 42.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3w Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Grigsby soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Lindside soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 84 Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Newark soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoOwB—Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally floodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Otwood, occasionally flooded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Otwood, Occasionally Flooded Soils Setting Landform: Stream terraces Landform position (three-dimensional): Tread Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 91 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: Occasional (see table 26) Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 46 to 61 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 13.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 18 centimeters; silt loam 18 to 66 centimeters; silt loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 85 66 to 107 centimeters; silty clay loam 107 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Elk soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Johnsburg soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: No Sano soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Allegheny soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoPbB—Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Pembroke and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Pembroke Soils Setting Landform: Broad ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 86 Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 35.0 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Mollic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; silt loam 30 to 99 centimeters; silty clay loam 99 to 203 centimeters; silty clay Minor Components Crider soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Christian soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoPbC2—Pembroke silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 210 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 87 Map Unit Composition Pembroke and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Pembroke Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 34.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Mollic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 30 centimeters; silt loam 30 to 99 centimeters; silty clay loam 99 to 203 centimeters; silty clay Minor Components Christian soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 88 Riney soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoPeC3—Pembroke silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 190 to 210 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Pembroke, severely eroded and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Pembroke, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 34.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Mollic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 13 centimeters; silty clay loam 13 to 76 centimeters; silty clay loam 76 to 203 centimeters; silty clay

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 89 Minor Components Christian soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Crider soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoReB2—Riney silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 200 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Riney and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Riney Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 90 Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 102 centimeters; loam 102 to 142 centimeters; sandy loam 142 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoReC2—Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 150 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Riney and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Riney Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 91 Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 102 centimeters; loam 102 to 142 centimeters; sandy loam 142 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoReD2—Riney silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 150 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 92 Map Unit Composition Riney and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Riney Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 102 centimeters; loam 102 to 142 centimeters; sandy loam 142 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 93ReE—Riney silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Riney and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Riney Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; silt loam 25 to 102 centimeters; loam 102 to 142 centimeters; sandy loam 142 to 203 centimeters; gravelly sandy clay loam Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 94 Lily soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoRnB—Riney loam, karst, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 220 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Riney, karst and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Riney, Karst Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 25.8 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 10 centimeters; loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 95 10 to 109 centimeters; clay loam 109 to 203 centimeters; very gravelly sandy loam Minor Components Nolichucky soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Gatton soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoRo—Rock outcrop, 20 to 40 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 190 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Rock outcrop: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 40 percent Parent material: Limestone Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 96RoB—Rosine silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 210 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Rosine and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Rosine Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 31.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 56 centimeters; silty clay loam 56 to 132 centimeters; silty clay 132 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 97 Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoRoC2—Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 190 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Rosine and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Rosine Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 31.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 98 Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 56 centimeters; silty clay loam 56 to 132 centimeters; silty clay 132 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoRoD2—Rosine silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 140 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Rosine and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Rosine Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 99 Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 31.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 56 centimeters; silty clay loam 56 to 132 centimeters; silty clay 132 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Latham soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoRxE—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 12 to 30 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 150 to 220 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 100 Map Unit Composition Rock outcrop: 65 percent Caneyville and similar soils: 25 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 30 percent Parent material: Limestone Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 30 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silty clay loam 36 to 61 centimeters; clay 61 to 86 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 20 to 40 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 101 Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 40 percent Hydric soil status: NoRxF—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 30 to 70 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Rock outcrop: 65 percent Caneyville and similar soils: 25 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Rock Outcrop Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (three-dimensional): Free face Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 30 to 70 percent Parent material: Limestone Characteristics of Caneyville Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 102 Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 30 to 70 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 7e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; silt loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silty clay loam 36 to 61 centimeters; clay 61 to 86 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Bledsoe soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 20 to 40 percent Hydric soil status: No Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Vertrees soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 103 Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 20 to 40 percent Hydric soil status: NoSaB—Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 260 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Sano and similar soils: 95 percent Dissimilar minor components: 5 percent Characteristics of Sano Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 0 to 6 percent Parent material: Thick fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 86 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 48 to 84 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Moderate (about 18.9 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Coarse-silty, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Glossic Fragiudults Typical Profile 0 to 20 centimeters; silt loam 20 to 56 centimeters; silt loam 56 to 74 centimeters; silt loam 74 to 203 centimeters; silty clay loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 104 Minor Components Crider soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 0 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Zanesville soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 0 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 1 percent Slope: 0 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoSgD2—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Shelocta and similar soils: 29 percent Latham and similar soils: 25 percent Gilpin and similar soils: 18 percent Dissimilar minor components: 28 percent Characteristics of Shelocta Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from shale and siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 105 Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silt loam 8 to 69 centimeters; silty clay loam 69 to 203 centimeters; clay Characteristics of Latham Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: High (about 7.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 48 to 100 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silt loam 8 to 84 centimeters; silty clay 84 to 109 centimeters; weathered bedrock Characteristics of Gilpin Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 106 Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Lily soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 15 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Jefferson soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 107SgE—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 150 to 240 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Shelocta and similar soils: 29 percent Latham and similar soils: 25 percent Gilpin and similar soils: 18 percent Dissimilar minor components: 28 percent Characteristics of Shelocta Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from shale and siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silt loam 8 to 69 centimeters; silty clay loam 69 to 203 centimeters; clay Characteristics of Latham Soils Setting Landform: Hills

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 108 Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: High (about 7.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 48 to 100 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 11.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: D Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silt loam 8 to 84 centimeters; silty clay 84 to 109 centimeters; weathered bedrock Characteristics of Gilpin Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 20 to 30 percent Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 109 Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 10.6 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 36 centimeters; silt loam 36 to 89 centimeters; channery clay loam 89 to 114 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Lily soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Wallen soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 15 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 20 to 50 percent Hydric soil status: No Jefferson soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: NoTsB—Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 200 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Tilsit and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar minor components: 10 percent Characteristics of Tilsit Soils Setting Landform: Ridges

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 110 Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Acid fine-silty residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 46 to 71 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 46 to 61 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 30.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; silt loam 15 to 58 centimeters; silt loam 58 to 109 centimeters; loam 109 to 203 centimeters; loam Minor Components Lily soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Riney soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoVrC2—Vertrees silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 160 to 200 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 111 Map Unit Composition Vertrees and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Vertrees Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone and shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 28.5 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Paleudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; silt loam 15 to 51 centimeters; silty clay 51 to 203 centimeters; clay Minor Components Crider soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Hagerstown soils Percent of map unit: 6 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 112 Fredonia soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 0 to 3 percent Hydric soil status: NoW—WaterMajor land resource areas: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part; 122 Highland Rim and Pennyroyal Elevation: 130 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map unit composition: 100 percent waterWbE—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rockyMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Wallen and similar soils: 25 percent Bledsoe and similar soils: 23 percent Donahue and similar soils: 14 percent Dissimilar minor components: 38 percent Characteristics of Wallen Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 15 to 35 percent Parent material: Loamy-skeletal residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 113 Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very low (about 4.9 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Loamy-skeletal, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Dystrudepts Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; gravelly loam 15 to 64 centimeters; very cobbly loam 64 to 89 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Bledsoe Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 15 to 35 percent Parent material: Loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 33.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; loam 25 to 43 centimeters; clay 43 to 203 centimeters; clay

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 114 Characteristics of Donahue Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 15 to 35 percent Parent material: Loamy colluvium derived from sandstone over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 6e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 41 centimeters; clay loam 41 to 86 centimeters; channery clay 86 to 111 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Caneyville soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 7 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 115 Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoWbF—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rockyMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 130 to 250 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Wallen and similar soils: 25 percent Bledsoe and similar soils: 23 percent Donahue and similar soils: 14 percent Dissimilar minor components: 38 percent Characteristics of Wallen Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 35 to 50 percent Parent material: Loamy-skeletal residuum weathered from sandstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): High Natural drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very low (about 4.9 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 7e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Loamy-skeletal, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Dystrudepts

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 116 Typical Profile 0 to 15 centimeters; gravelly loam 15 to 64 centimeters; very cobbly loam 64 to 89 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Characteristics of Bledsoe Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 35 to 50 percent Parent material: Loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, and shale and/or siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Very high (about 33.2 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 7e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 25 centimeters; loam 25 to 43 centimeters; clay 43 to 203 centimeters; clay Characteristics of Donahue Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Base slope Down-slope shape: Concave Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 35 to 50 percent Parent material: Loamy colluvium derived from sandstone over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Shrink-swell potential: Moderate (about 4.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 117 Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): Low (about 12.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 7e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 23 centimeters; loam 23 to 41 centimeters; clay loam 41 to 86 centimeters; channery clay 86 to 111 centimeters; unweathered bedrock Minor Components Jefferson soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Rock outcrop Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 20 to 35 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 7 percent Slope: 20 to 30 percent Hydric soil status: No Nolin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 0 to 2 percent Hydric soil status: NoWeB—Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 170 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 118 Map Unit Composition Wellston and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Wellston Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 66 centimeters; silt loam 66 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Riney soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 119 Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoWeC2—Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 160 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Wellston and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Wellston Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 120 Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 66 centimeters; silt loam 66 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Riney soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoWeD—Wellston silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 150 to 270 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Wellston and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Wellston Soils Setting Landform: Hills Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Linear Across-slope shape: Convex Slope range: 12 to 20 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 121 Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.3 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 66 centimeters; silt loam 66 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 5 percent Slope: 12 to 20 percent Hydric soil status: NoWsC3—Wellston silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 190 to 230 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Wellston, severely eroded and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 122 Characteristics of Wellston, Severely Eroded Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: None within 1.5 meters Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately high Natural drainage class: Well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Depth to seasonal water table: Not present within 183 centimeters Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 29.1 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 4e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: B Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Profile 0 to 8 centimeters; silty clay loam 8 to 66 centimeters; silt loam 66 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; sandy loam Minor Components Riney soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 123 Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Lily soils Percent of map unit: 2 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: NoZaB—Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopesMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 250 to 280 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Zanesville and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Zanesville Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position (three-dimensional): Interfluve Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 2 to 6 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone and/or shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 51 to 64 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 2e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 61 centimeters; silty clay loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 124 61 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Sano soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Wellston soils Percent of map unit: 4 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 3 percent Slope: 2 to 6 percent Hydric soil status: NoZaC2—Zanesville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, erodedMajor land resource area: 120A Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part Elevation: 230 to 260 meters Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 centimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7 to 20 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Map Unit Composition Zanesville and similar soils: 85 percent Dissimilar minor components: 15 percent Characteristics of Zanesville Soils Setting Landform: Ridges Landform position (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position (three-dimensional): Side slope Down-slope shape: Convex Across-slope shape: Linear Slope range: 6 to 12 percent Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone and/or shale Properties and Qualities Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan Shrink-swell potential: Low (about 1.5 LEP) Salinity maximum: Not saline Sodicity maximum: Not sodic Calcium carbonate equivalent percent: No carbonates

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 125 Hydrologic Properties Slowest capacity to transmit water (Ksat ): Moderately low Natural drainage class: Moderately well drained Flooding frequency: None Ponding frequency: None Seasonal water table (depth, kind): About 51 to 64 centimeters; perched (see table 26) Available water capacity (entire profile): High (about 26.7 centimeters) Interpretive Groups Land capability subclass (nonirrigated): 3e Hydric soil status: No Hydrologic soil group: C Soils classification: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Profile 0 to 28 centimeters; silt loam 28 to 61 centimeters; silty clay loam 61 to 102 centimeters; silt loam 102 to 203 centimeters; silt loam Minor Components Clarkrange soils Percent of map unit: 9 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Gilpin soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No Rosine soils Percent of map unit: 8 percent Slope: 6 to 12 percent Hydric soil status: No

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127 This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the environment. Also, it can help to prevent soil-related failures in land uses. In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive field data about the nature and behavioral characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and management. Field experience and collected data on soil properties and performance are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior. Information in this section can be used to plan the use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and parks and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. Planners and others using soil survey information can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain or create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation. Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and others may also find this survey useful. The survey can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Appendices A and B list the common names, plant names, and scientific names for the overstory and understory plants that were recorded in the survey area.Interpretive RatingsThe interpretive tables in this survey rate the soils in the survey area for various uses. Many of the tables identify some of the limitations that affect specified uses and indicate the severity of those limitations. The ratings in these tables are both verbal and numerical. Rating Class Terms Rating classes are expressed in the tables in terms that indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect a specified use or in terms that indicate the suitability of the soils for the use. Thus, the tables may show limitation classes or suitability classes. Terms for the limitation classes are not limited, slightly limited, somewhat limited, and very limited The suitability ratings are expressed as well suited, moderately suited, poorly suited, and unsuited or as good, fair, and poor Use and Management of the Soils

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 128 Numerical Ratings Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the relative severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.00 to 1.00. They indicate gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the use and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation. The limitations appear in order from the most limiting to the least limiting. Thus, if more than one limitation is identified, the most severe limitation is listed first and the least severe one is listed last.Land Capability ClassificationLand capability classification shows, in a general way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops that require special management are excluded. The soils are grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way they respond to management. The criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major and generally expensive landforming that would change slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for interpretations designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of soils for woodland or for engineering purposes. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at three levels—capability class, subclass, and unit. Only class and subclass are used in this survey (USDASCS, 1961). Capability classes the broadest groups, are designated by numerals I through VIII. The numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices for practical use. The classes are defined as follows: Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the choice of plants or that require moderate conservation practices. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants or that require special conservation practices, or both. Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful management, or both. Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them generally unsuitable for cultivation. Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make them unsuitable for cultivation. Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production. Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, droughty, or stony; and c used in only some parts of the United States, shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 129 The capability classification of the map units in this survey area is given in the section “Detailed Soil Map Units” and in table 5.Prime Farmland and Other Important FarmlandsTable 6 lists the map units in the survey area that are considered prime farmland or farmland of statewide importance. This list does not constitute a recommendation for a particular land use. The extent of each listed map unit is shown in table 4. The location is shown on the detailed soil maps. In an effort to identify the extent and location of important farmlands, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, in cooperation with other interested Federal, State, and local government organizations, has inventoried land that can be used for the production of the Nation’s food supply. Prime farmland is of major importance in meeting the Nation’s shortand longrange needs for food and fiber. Because the supply of high-quality farmland is limited, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recognizes that responsible levels of government, as well as individuals, should encourage and facilitate the wise use of our Nation’s prime farmland. Prime farmland, as defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, is land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is available for these uses. It could be cultivated land, pastureland, forestland, or other land, but it is not urban or built-up land or water areas. The soil quality, growing season, and moisture supply are those needed for the soil to economically produce sustained high yields of crops when proper management, including water management, and acceptable farming methods are applied. In general, prime farmland has an adequate and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or irrigation, a favorable temperature and growing season, acceptable acidity or alkalinity, an acceptable salt and sodium content, and few or no rocks. The water supply is dependable and of adequate quality. Prime farmland is permeable to water and air. It is not excessively erodible or saturated with water for long periods, and it either is not frequently flooded during the growing season or is protected from flooding. Slope ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent. More detailed information about the criteria for prime farmland is available at the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Nearly 17 percent of the total acreage in the survey area, or 3,648 hectares (9,010 acres), meets the soil requirements for prime farmland. A recent trend in land use in some areas has been the loss of some prime farmland to industrial and urban uses. The loss of prime farmland to other uses puts pressure on marginal lands, which generally are more erodible, droughty, and less productive and cannot be easily cultivated. For some soils identified in the table as prime farmland, measures that overcome a hazard or limitation, such as flooding, wetness, and droughtiness, are needed. Onsite evaluation is needed to determine whether or not the hazard or limitation has been overcome by corrective measures. In some areas, land that does not meet the criteria for prime or unique farmland is considered to be farmland of statewide importance for the production of food, feed, fiber, forage, and oilseed crops. The criteria for defining and delineating farmland of statewide importance are determined by the appropriate State agencies. Generally, this land includes areas of soils that nearly meet the requirements for prime farmland and that economically produce high yields of crops when treated and managed according to acceptable farming methods. Some areas may produce as high a yield as prime farmland if conditions are favorable. Farmland of statewide importance may include tracts of land that have been designated for agriculture by State law.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 130Major Land Resource AreasA major land resource area (MLRA) is a broad geographic area that has a distinct combination of climate, topography, elevation, potential natural vegetation, soils, hydrology, land use, and general type of farming (USDA–NRCS, 2006). The two MLRAs in the survey area are 120AB (Kentucky and Indiana Sandstone and Shale Hills and Valleys, Southern Part) and 122 (Highland Rim and Pennyroyal). The major land resource area for each map unit is listed in the detailed soil map unit descriptions. About 99 percent of the survey area is in MLRA 120A. This resource area consists of nearly level to very steep uplands underlain by interbedded sandstone and shale. The area is dissected by large and small tributaries of the Ohio River. Elevation ranges from 130 meters to 290 meters. About 1 percent of the survey area is in MLRA 122. This resource area consists of nearly level to strongly rolling landscapes underlain by limestone and capped in areas by loess. The land surface is pitted by limestone sinks. Elevation ranges from 200 to 290 meters.Hydric SoilsIn this section, hydric soils are defined and described and the hydric soils in the survey area are listed. The three essential characteristics of wetlands are hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland hydrology (Cowardin and others, 1979; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1987; National Research Council, 1995; Tiner, 1985). Criteria for each of the characteristics must be met for areas to be identified as wetlands. Undrained hydric soils that have natural vegetation should support a dominant population of ecological wetland plant species. Hydric soils that have been converted to other uses should be capable of being restored to wetlands. Hydric soils are defined by the National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS) as soils that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part (Federal Register, 1994). These soils are either saturated or inundated long enough during the growing season to support the growth and reproduction of hydrophytic vegetation. The NTCHS definition identifies general soil properties that are associated with wetness. In order to determine whether a specific soil is a hydric soil or nonhydric soil, however, more specific information, such as information about the depth and duration of the water table, is needed. Thus, criteria that identify those estimated soil properties unique to hydric soils have been established (Federal Register, 1995). These criteria are used to identify a phase of a soil series that normally is associated with wetlands. The criteria used are selected estimated soil properties that are described in “Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) and “Keys to Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 2006) and in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993). If soils are wet enough for a long enough period to be considered hydric, they should exhibit certain properties that can be easily observed in the field. These visible properties are indicators of hydric soils. The indicators used to make onsite determinations of hydric soils in this survey area are specified in “Field Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States” (Hurt and others, 1996). Hydric soils are identified by examining and describing the soil to a depth of about 20 inches. This depth may be greater if determination of an appropriate indicator so requires. It is always recommended that soils be excavated and described to the depth necessary for an understanding of the redoximorphic processes. Then, using the completed soil descriptions, soil scientists can compare the soil features required by each indicator and specify which indicators have been matched with the conditions

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 131 observed in the soil. The soil can be identified as a hydric soil if at least one of the approved indicators is present. Table 7 shows the map units that have components that meet the definition of hydric soils and, in addition, have at least one of the hydric soil indicators. This list can help in planning land uses; however, onsite investigation is recommended to determine the hydric soils on a specific site (National Research Council, 1995; Hurt and others, 1996). Map units that are made up of hydric soils or include hydric soils may also include non-hydric soils in the higher positions on the landform. Other map units that are made up primarily of nonhydric soils may also have include hydric soil components in the lower-lying positions. Each major component that is hydric is indicated in the “Detailed Soil Map Units” section.Forestland ProductivityThe general information provided in this section is intended as a guide. It may help resource managers, landowners, and visitors to understand the characteristics and management of forest soils within the survey area. Onsite investigation by resource professionals is needed for the acquisition of site-specific data. Such investigation may result in better solutions to specific resource problems than the general information in this section and associated tables. In table 8, the potential productivity of common trees on a soil is expressed as an average site index and as a volume number. The site index is the average height in feet that dominant and codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified number of years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Site index was determined at age 30 years for eastern cottonwood, 35 years for American sycamore, and 50 years for all other species (Beck, 1962; Broadfoot and Krinard, 1959; Broadfoot, 1960; Broadfoot, 1963; Broadfoot, 1964; Coile and Schumacher, 1953; Nelson, Clutter, and Chaiken, 1961; Schnur, 1937). The volume of wood fiber a number, is the yield likely to be produced by the most important tree species. This number, expressed as cubic feet per acre per year and calculated at the age of culmination of the mean annual increment (CMAI), indicates the amount of fiber produced in a fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stand. Trees to manage are those that are preferred for planting, seeding, or natural regeneration and those that remain in the stand after thinning or partial harvest.Land ManagementIn tables 9 through 12, interpretive ratings are given for various aspects of land management. The ratings are both verbal and numerical. Some rating class terms indicate the degree to which the soils are suited to a specified land management practice. Well suited indicates that the soil has features that are favorable for the specified practice and has no limitations. Good performance can be expected, and little or no maintenance is needed. Moderately suited indicates that the soil has features that are moderately favorable for the specified practice. One or more soil properties are less than desirable, and fair performance can be expected. Some maintenance is needed. Poorly suited indicates that the soil has one or more properties that are unfavorable for the specified practice. Overcoming the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra maintenance, and costly alteration. Unsuited indicates that the expected performance of the soil is unacceptable for the specified practice or that extreme measures are needed to overcome the undesirable soil properties. Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They indicate

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 132 gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the specified land management practice (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00). Rating class terms for fire damage and seedling mortality are expressed as low, moderate, and high. Where these terms are used, the numerical ratings indicate gradations between the point at which the potential for fire damage or seedling mortality is highest (1.00) and the point at which the potential is lowest (0.00). Rating class terms for hazard for erosion are expressed as slight, moderate, severe, and very severe Where these terms are used, the numerical ratings indicate gradations between the point at which the potential for erosion is highest (1.00) and the point at which the potential is lowest (0.00). The paragraphs that follow indicate the soil properties considered in rating the soils for land management practices. In table 9, ratings in the column hazard of erosion are based on slope and on soil erodibility factor K. The soil loss is caused by sheet or rill erosion in areas where 50 to 75 percent of the surface has been exposed by different kinds of disturbance. The hazard is described as slight, moderate, severe, or very severe. A rating of slight indicates that erosion is unlikely under ordinary climatic conditions; moderate indicates that some erosion is likely and that erosion-control measures may be needed; severe indicates that erosion is very likely and that erosion-control measures, including revegetation of bare areas, are advised; and very severe indicates that significant erosion is expected, loss of soil productivity and off-site damage are likely, and erosion-control measures are costly and generally impractical. Ratings in the column hazard of erosion on roads and trails are based on the soil erodibility factor K, slope, and content of rock fragments. The ratings apply to unsurfaced roads and trails. The hazard is described as slight, moderate, or severe. A rating of slight indicates that little or no erosion is likely; moderate indicates that some erosion is likely, that the roads or trails may require occasional maintenance and that simple erosion-control measures are needed; and severe indicates that significant erosion is expected, that the roads or trails require frequent maintenance, and that costly erosion-control measures are needed. Ratings in the column suitability for roads (natural surface) are based on slope, rock fragments on the surface, plasticity index, content of sand, the Unified classification, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, and the hazard of soil slippage. The ratings indicate the suitability for using the natural surface of the soil for roads. The soils are described as well suited, moderately suited, or poorly suited to this use. In table 10, ratings in the columns suitability for hand planting and suitability for mechanical planting are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragments on or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. The soils are described as well suited, moderately suited, poorly suited, or unsuited to these methods of planting. It is assumed that necessary site preparation is completed before seedlings are planted. Ratings in the column hazard of soil rutting with equipment use are based on depth to a water table, rock fragments on or below the surface, the Unified classification, depth to a restrictive layer, and slope. Ruts form as a result of the operation of planting equipment. The hazard is described as slight, moderate, or severe. A rating of slight indicates that the soil is subject to little or no rutting, moderate indicates that rutting is likely, and severe indicates that ruts form readily. In table 11, ratings in the column suitability for mechanical site preparation (deep) are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, rock fragments on or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. The soils are described as well suited, poorly suited, or unsuited to this management activity. The part of the soil from the surface to a depth of about 3 feet is considered in the ratings.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 133 Ratings in the column suitability for mechanical site preparation (surface) are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, plasticity index, rock fragments on or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. The soils are described as well suited, poorly suited, or unsuited to this management activity. The part of the soil from the surface to a depth of about 1 foot is considered in the ratings. In table 12, ratings in the column potential for damage to soil by fire are based on texture of the surface layer, content of rock fragments and organic matter in the surface layer, thickness of the surface layer, and slope. The soils are described as having a low, moderate, or high potential for this kind of damage. The ratings indicate an evaluation of the potential impact of prescribed fires or wildfires that are intense enough to remove the duff layer and consume organic matter in the surface layer. Ratings in the column potential for seedling mortality are based on flooding, ponding, depth to a water table, content of lime, reaction, salinity, available water capacity, soil moisture regime, soil temperature regime, aspect, and slope. The soils are described as having a low, moderate, or high potential for seedling mortality.RecreationThe soils of the survey area are rated in tables 13 and 14 according to limitations that affect their suitability for recreation. The ratings are both verbal and numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect the recreational uses. Not limited indicates that the soil has features that are very favorable for the specified use. Good performance and very low maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil has features that are moderately favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or installation. Fair performance and moderate maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or more features that are unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome without major soil reclamation, special design, or expensive installation procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance can be expected. Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They indicate gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the use (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00). The ratings in the tables are based on restrictive soil features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines. The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to support vegetation also are important. Soils that are subject to flooding are limited for recreational uses by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. The information in tables 13 and 14 can be supplemented by other information in this survey, for example, interpretations for building site development, construction materials, and water management. Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The ratings in table 13 are based on the soil properties that affect the ease of developing camp areas and the performance of the areas after development. Slope, stoniness, and depth to bedrock or a cemented pan are the main concerns affecting the development of camp areas. The soil properties that affect the

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 134 performance of the areas after development are those that influence trafficability and promote the growth of vegetation, especially in heavily used areas. For good trafficability, the surface of camp areas should absorb rainfall readily, remain firm under heavy foot traffic, and not be dusty when dry. The soil properties that influence trafficability are texture of the surface layer, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, permeability, and large stones. The soil properties that affect the growth of plants are depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, permeability, and toxic substances in the soil. Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking areas. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect the ease of developing picnic areas and that influence trafficability and the growth of vegetation after development. Slope and stoniness are the main concerns affecting the development of picnic areas. For good trafficability, the surface of picnic areas should absorb rainfall readily, remain firm under heavy foot traffic, and not be dusty when dry. The soil properties that influence trafficability are texture of the surface layer, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, permeability, and large stones. The soil properties that affect the growth of plants are depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, permeability, and toxic substances in the soil. Foot traffic and equestrian trails for hiking and horseback riding should require little or no slope modification through cutting and filling. The ratings in table 14 are based on the soil properties that affect trafficability and erodibility. These properties are stoniness, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, slope, and texture of the surface layer. Mountain bike and off-road vehicle trails require little or no site preparation. They are not covered with surfacing material or vegetation. Considerable compaction of the soil material is likely. The ratings are based on the soil properties that influence erodibility, trafficability, dustiness, and the ease of revegetation. These properties are stoniness, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, flooding, and texture of the surface layer.EngineeringThis section provides information for planning land uses related to urban development and to water management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given for building site development, sanitary facilities, construction materials, and water management. The ratings are based on observed performance of the soils and on the estimated data and test data in the “Soil Properties” section. Information in this section is intended for land use planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for planning site investigations prior to design and construction. The information, however, has limitations. For example, estimates and other data generally apply only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils may be included within the mapped areas of a specific soil. The information is not site specific and does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the design and construction of engineering works. Government ordinances and regulations that restrict certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were not considered in preparing the information in this section. Local ordinances and regulations should be considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. Soil properties, site features, and observed performance were considered in determining the ratings in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, determinations were made about grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the surface,

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 135 soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses. This information can be used to evaluate the potential of areas for recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; plan drainage systems, ponds, and other structures for soil and water conservation; and predict performance of proposed small structures and pavements by comparing the performance of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils. The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this survey, can be used to make additional interpretations. Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a special meaning in soil science and are defined in the Glossary. Building Site Development Soil properties influence the development of building sites, including the selection of the site, the design of the structure, construction, performance after construction, and maintenance. Tables 15 and 16 show the degree and kind of soil limitations that affect dwellings with and without basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, shallow excavations, and lawns and landscaping. The ratings in the tables are both verbal and numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect building site development. Not limited indicates that the soil has features that are very favorable for the specified use. Good performance and very low maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil has features that are moderately favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or installation. Fair performance and moderate maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or more features that are unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome without major soil reclamation, special design, or expensive installation procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance can be expected. Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They indicate gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the use (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00). Dwellings are single-family houses of three stories or less. For dwellings without basements, the foundation is assumed to consist of spread footings of reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth of 2 feet or at the depth of maximum frost penetration, whichever is deeper. For dwellings with basements, the foundation is assumed to consist of spread footings of reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth of about 7 feet. In table 15, the ratings for dwellings are based on the soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to support a load without movement and on the properties that affect excavation and construction costs. The properties that affect the load-supporting capacity include depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, subsidence, linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential), and compressibility. Compressibility is inferred from the Unified classification. The properties that affect the ease and amount of excavation include depth to a water table, ponding, flooding,

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 136 slope, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, and the amount and size of rock fragments. Small commercial buildings are structures that are less than three stories high and do not have basements. The foundation is assumed to consist of spread footings of reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth of 2 feet or at the depth of maximum frost penetration, whichever is deeper. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to support a load without movement and on the properties that affect excavation and construction costs. The properties that affect the load-supporting capacity include depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, subsidence, linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential), and compressibility (which is inferred from the Unified classification). The properties that affect the ease and amount of excavation include flooding, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, and the amount and size of rock fragments. Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base of gravel, crushed rock, or soil material stabilized by lime or cement; and a surface of flexible material (asphalt), rigid material (concrete), or gravel with a binder. In table 16, the ratings are based on the soil properties that affect the ease of excavation and grading and the traffic-supporting capacity. The properties that affect the ease of excavation and grading are depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, depth to a water table, ponding, flooding, the amount of large stones, and slope. The properties that affect the traffic-supporting capacity are soil strength (as inferred from the AASHTO group index number), subsidence, linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential), the potential for frost action, depth to a water table, and ponding. Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for graves, utility lines, open ditches, or other purposes. The ratings are based on the soil properties that influence the ease of digging and the resistance to sloughing. Depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, the amount of large stones, and dense layers influence the ease of digging, filling, and compacting. Depth to the seasonal high water table, flooding, and ponding may restrict the period when excavations can be made. Slope influences the ease of using machinery. Soil texture, depth to the water table, and linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential) influence the resistance to sloughing. Landscaping requires soils on which turf and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and maintained. Irrigation is not considered in the ratings. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect plant growth and trafficability after vegetation is established. The properties that affect plant growth are reaction; depth to a water table; ponding; depth to bedrock or a cemented pan; the available water capacity in the upper 40 inches; the content of salts, sodium, or calcium carbonate; and sulfidic materials. The properties that affect trafficability are flooding, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer. Sanitary Facilities Tables 17 and 18 show the degree and kind of soil limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, and daily cover for landfill. The ratings are both verbal and numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect these uses. Not limited indicates that the soil has features that are very favorable for the specified use. Good performance and very low maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil has features that are moderately favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or installation.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 137 Fair performance and moderate maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or more features that are unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome without major soil reclamation, special design, or expensive installation procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance can be expected. Numerical ratings in the tables indicate the severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They indicate gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the use (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00). Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. In table 17, only that part of the soil between depths of 24 and 60 inches is evaluated. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect absorption of the effluent, construction and maintenance of the system, and public health. Permeability, depth to a water table, ponding, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Stones and boulders, ice, and bedrock or a cemented pan interfere with installation. Subsidence interferes with installation and maintenance. Excessive slope may cause lateral seepage and surfacing of the effluent in downslope areas. Some soils are underlain by loose sand and gravel or fractured bedrock at a depth of less than 4 feet below the distribution lines. In these soils the absorption field may not adequately filter the effluent, particularly when the system is new. As a result, the ground water may become contaminated. Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of compacted soil. Nearly impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to minimize seepage and contamination of ground water. Considered in the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a water table, ponding, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter. Soil permeability is a critical property affecting the suitability for sewage lagoons. Most porous soils eventually become sealed when they are used as sites for sewage lagoons. Until sealing occurs, however, the hazard of pollution is severe. Soils that have a permeability rate of more than 2 inches per hour are too porous for the proper functioning of sewage lagoons. In these soils, seepage of the effluent can result in contamination of the ground water. Ground-water contamination is also a hazard if fractured bedrock is within a depth of 40 inches, if the water table is high enough to raise the level of sewage in the lagoon, or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor. If the lagoon is to be uniformly deep throughout, the slope must be gentle enough and the soil material must be thick enough over bedrock or a cemented pan to make land smoothing practical. A trench sanitary landfill is an area where solid waste is placed in successive layers in an excavated trench. The waste is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. When the trench is full, a final cover of soil material at least 2 feet thick is placed over the landfill. The ratings in table 18 are based on the soil properties that affect the risk of pollution, the ease of excavation, trafficability, and revegetation. These properties include permeability, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, flooding, texture, stones and boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, onsite investigation may be needed. Hard, nonrippable bedrock, creviced bedrock, or highly permeable strata in or

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 138 directly below the proposed trench bottom can affect the ease of excavation and the hazard of ground-water pollution. Slope affects construction of the trenches and the movement of surface water around the landfill. It also affects the construction and performance of roads in areas of the landfill. Soil texture and consistence affect the ease with which the trench is dug and the ease with which the soil can be used as daily or final cover. They determine the workability of the soil when dry and when wet. Soils that are plastic and sticky when wet are difficult to excavate, grade, or compact and are difficult to place as a uniformly thick cover over a layer of refuse. The soil material used as the final cover for a trench landfill should be suitable for plants. It should not have excess sodium or salts and should not be too acid. The surface layer generally has the best workability, the highest content of organic matter, and the best potential for plants. Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final cover. In an area sanitary landfill solid waste is placed in successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source away from the site. A final cover of soil material at least 2 feet thick is placed over the completed landfill. The ratings in the table are based on the soil properties that affect trafficability and the risk of pollution. These properties include flooding, permeability, depth to a water table, ponding, slope, and depth to bedrock or a cemented pan. Flooding is a serious problem because it can result in pollution in areas downstream from the landfill. If permeability is too rapid or if fractured bedrock, a fractured cemented pan, or the water table is close to the surface, the leachate can contaminate the water supply. Slope is a consideration because of the extra grading required to maintain roads in the steeper areas of the landfill. Also, leachate may flow along the surface of the soils in the steeper areas and cause difficult seepage problems. Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported to the landfill, and spread over the waste. The ratings in the table also apply to the final cover for a landfill. They are based on the soil properties that affect workability, the ease of digging, and the ease of moving and spreading the material over the refuse daily during wet and dry periods. These properties include soil texture, depth to a water table, ponding, rock fragments, slope, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, reaction, and content of salts, sodium, or lime. Loamy or silty soils that are free of large stones and excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill. Clayey soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to wind erosion. Slope affects the ease of excavation and of moving the cover material. Also, it can influence runoff, erosion, and reclamation of the borrow area. After soil material has been removed, the soil material remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as the final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants. It should not have excess sodium, salts, or lime and should not be too acid. Construction Materials Tables 19 and 20 give information about the soils as potential sources of gravel, sand, reclamation material, roadfill, and topsoil. Normal compaction, minor processing, and other standard construction practices are assumed. Gravel and sand are natural aggregates suitable for commercial use with a minimum of processing. They are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 19, only the likelihood of finding material in suitable quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific purposes is not

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 139 evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of the material. The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated by the Unified classification of the soil), the thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock fragments. If the bottom layer of the soil contains sand or gravel, the soil is considered a likely source regardless of thickness. The assumption is that the sand or gravel layer below the depth of observation exceeds the minimum thickness. The soils are rated good, fair, or poor as potential sources of sand and gravel. A rating of good or fair means that the source material is likely to be in or below the soil. The bottom layer and the thickest layer of the soils are assigned numerical ratings. These ratings indicate the likelihood that the layer is a source of sand or gravel. The number 0.00 indicates that the layer is a poor source. The number 1.00 indicates that the layer is a good source. A number between 0.00 and 1.00 indicates the degree to which the layer is a likely source. In table 20, the rating class terms are good, fair, and poor The features that limit the soils as sources of these materials are specified in the table. The numerical ratings given after the specified features indicate the degree to which the features limit the soils as sources of reclamation material, roadfill, and topsoil. The lower the number, the greater the limitation. Reclamation material is used in areas that have been drastically disturbed by surface mining or similar activities. When these areas are reclaimed, layers of soil material or unconsolidated geological material, or both, are replaced in a vertical sequence. The reconstructed soil favors plant growth. The ratings in the table do not apply to quarries and other mined areas that require an offsite source of reconstruction material. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect erosion and stability of the surface and the productive potential of the reconstructed soil. These properties include the content of sodium, salts, and calcium carbonate; reaction; available water capacity; erodibility; texture; content of rock fragments; and content of organic matter and other features that affect fertility. Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place and used in road embankments in another place. In table 20, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less exacting in design than higher embankments. The ratings are for the whole soil, from the surface to a depth of about 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be mixed when the soil material is excavated and spread. The ratings are based on the amount of suitable material and on soil properties that affect the ease of excavation and the performance of the material after it is in place. The thickness of the suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, depth to a water table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it has been compacted and drained is determined by its strength (as inferred from the AASHTO classification of the soil) and linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential). Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow area. The ratings are based on the soil properties that affect plant growth; the ease of excavating, loading, and spreading the material; and reclamation of the borrow area. Toxic substances, soil reaction, and the properties that are inferred from soil texture, such as available water capacity and fertility, affect plant growth. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading is affected by rock fragments, slope, depth to a water table, soil texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow area is affected by slope, depth to a water table, rock fragments, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, and toxic material. The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred for topsoil because of its

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 140 organic matter content. Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of moisture and nutrients for plant growth. Water Management Table 21 gives information on the soil properties and site features that affect water management. The degree and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed excavated ponds. The ratings are both verbal and numerical. Rating class terms indicate the extent to which the soils are limited by all of the soil features that affect these uses. Not limited indicates that the soil has features that are very favorable for the specified use. Good performance and very low maintenance can be expected. Somewhat limited indicates that the soil has features that are moderately favorable for the specified use. The limitations can be overcome or minimized by special planning, design, or installation. Fair performance and moderate maintenance can be expected. Very limited indicates that the soil has one or more features that are unfavorable for the specified use. The limitations generally cannot be overcome without major soil reclamation, special design, or expensive installation procedures. Poor performance and high maintenance can be expected. Numerical ratings in the table indicate the severity of individual limitations. The ratings are shown as decimal fractions ranging from 0.01 to 1.00. They indicate gradations between the point at which a soil feature has the greatest negative impact on the use (1.00) and the point at which the soil feature is not a limitation (0.00). Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage potential is determined by the permeability of the soil and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area. Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, constructed to impound water or to protect land against overflow. Embankments that have zoned construction (core and shell) are not considered. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and compacted during construction. The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a depth even greater than the height of the embankment can affect performance and safety of the embankment. Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to determine these properties. Soil material in embankments must be resistant to seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of usable material. It also affects trafficability. Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease of excavation.

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141 Data relating to soil properties are collected during the course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on the following pages. Soil properties are determined by field examination of the soils and by laboratory index testing of some benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and compaction characteristics. Estimates of soil properties are based on field examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field observation, and help to characterize key soils. The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg limits, the engineering classification, and the physical and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. Pertinent soil and water features also are given. Engineering index test data is listed in table 32.Engineering Index PropertiesTable 22 gives estimates of the engineering classification and of the range of index properties for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or 6 feet. Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer is indicated. The range in depth and information on other properties of each layer are given for each soil series under the heading “Soil Series and Their Morphology.” Texture is given in the standard terms used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. “Loam,” for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, “gravelly.” Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. Classification of the soils is determined according to the Unified soil classification system (ASTM, 1993) and the system adopted by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO, 1986). The Unified system classifies soils according to properties that affect their use as construction material. Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can have a dual classification, for example, CL-ML. Soil Properties

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 142 The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those properties that affect roadway construction and maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A7 groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material can be indicated by a group index number. Group index numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to 20 or higher for the poorest. Rock fragments larger than 250 millimeters in diameter and 75 to 250 millimeters in diameter are indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to weight percentage. Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 7.5 centimeters in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The estimates are based on test data from the survey area or from nearby areas and on field examination. The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index are generally rounded to the nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) across classification boundaries, the classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the table.Physical PropertiesTable 23 shows estimates of some characteristics and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. The estimates are based on field observations and on test data for these and similar soils. Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer is indicated. Particle size is the effective diameter of a soil particle as measured by sedimentation, sieving, or micrometric methods. Particle sizes are expressed as classes with specific effective diameter class limits. The broad classes are sand, silt, and clay, ranging from the larger to the smaller. Sand as a soil separate consists of mineral soil particles that are 0.05 millimeter to 2 millimeters in diameter. In the table, the estimated sand content of each soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Silt as a soil separate consists of mineral soil particles that are 0.002 to 0.05 millimeter in diameter. In the table, the estimated silt content of each soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. In the table, the estimated clay content of each soil layer is

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 143 given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. The content of sand, silt, and clay affects the physical behavior of a soil. Particle size is important for engineering and agronomic interpretations, for determination of soil hydrologic qualities, and for soil classification. The amount and kind of clay affect the fertility and physical condition of the soil and the ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain moisture. They influence shrinkswell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at1/3-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. Permeability (Ksat ) refers to the ability of a soil to transmit water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of water movement when the soil is saturated (Uhland and OÂ’Neal, 1951). They are based on soil characteristics observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields. Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect the retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The most important properties are the content of organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available water capacity is an important factor in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design and management of irrigation systems. Available water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water actually available to plants at any given time. Linear extensibility refers to the change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture content is decreased from a moist to a dry state. It is an expression of the volume change between the water content of the clod at 1/3or 1/10-bar (33 or 10 kPa) moisture tension and oven dryness. The volume change is reported in the table as percent change for the whole soil. Volume change is influenced by the amount and type of clay minerals in the soil. Linear extensibility is used to determine the shrink-swell potential of soils. The shrink-swell potential is low if the soil has a linear extensibility of less than 3 percent; moderate if 3 to 6 percent; high if 6 to 9 percent; and very high if more than 9 percent. If the linear extensibility is more than 3, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to buildings, roads, and other structures and to plant roots. Special design commonly is needed. Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the soil at various stages of decomposition. In the table, the estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. The content of organic matter in a soil can be maintained by returning crop residue to the soil. Organic matter has a positive effect on available water capacity, water infiltration, soil organism activity, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and other nutrients for crops and soil organisms.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 144Erosion PropertiesErosion factors are shown in table 24 as the K factor (Kw and Kf) and the T factor. Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of several factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet and rill erosion in tons per acre per year (USDA-SCS, 1978; USDA-ARS, 2003). The estimates are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter and on soil structure and permeability. Values of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. Other factors being equal, the higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by water. Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer is indicated. Erosion factor Kw indicates the erodibility of the whole soil. The estimates are modified by the presence of rock fragments. Erosion factor Kf indicates the erodibility of the fine-earth fraction, or the material less than 2 millimeters in size, by water that can occur without affecting plant productivity over a sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have similar properties affecting their susceptibility to wind erosion in cultivated areas. The soils assigned to group 1 are the most susceptible to wind erosion, and those assigned to group 8 are the least susceptible. Wind erodibility index is a numerical value indicating the susceptibility of soil to wind erosion, or the tons per acre per year that can be expected to be lost to wind erosion. There is a close correlation between wind erosion and the texture of the surface layer, the size and durability of surface clods, rock fragments, organic matter, and a calcareous reaction. Soil moisture and frozen soil layers also influence wind erosion. Wind erosion is not a significant factor in this survey area.Chemical PropertiesTable 25 shows estimates of some chemical characteristics and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are given for the layers of each soil in the survey area. The estimates are based on field observations and on test data for these and similar soils. Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer is indicated. Cation-exchange capacity is the total amount of extractable cations that can be held by the soil, expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated pH value. Soils having a low cation-exchange capacity hold fewer cations and may require more frequent applications of fertilizer than soils having a high cation-exchange capacity. The ability to retain cations reduces the hazard of ground-water pollution. Effective cation-exchange capacity refers to the sum of extractable cations plus aluminum expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. It is determined for soils that have pH of less than 5.5. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. The pH of each soil horizon is based on many field tests. For many soils, values have been verified by laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of corrosion.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 145Water FeaturesTable 26 gives estimates of various water features. The estimates are used in land use planning that involves engineering considerations. Hydrologic soil groups are based on estimates of runoff potential. Soils are assigned to one of four groups according to the rate of water infiltration when the soils are not protected by vegetation, are thoroughly wet, and receive precipitation from long-duration storms. The four hydrologic soil groups are: Group A.Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water transmission. Group B.Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission. Group C.Soils having a slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a layer that impedes the downward movement of water or soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These soils have a slow rate of water transmission. Group D.Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential, soils that have a high water table, soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission. The months in the table indicate the portion of the year in which the feature is most likely to be a concern. Water table refers to a saturated zone in the soil. The table indicates, by month, depth to the top ( upper limit ) and base ( lower limit ) of the saturated zone in most years. Estimates of the upper and lower limits are based mainly on observations of the water table at selected sites and on evidence of a saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles (redoximorphic features) in the soil. A saturated zone that lasts for less than a month is not considered a water table. Ponding is standing water in a closed depression. Unless a drainage system is installed, the water is removed only by percolation, transpiration, or evaporation. The table indicates surface water depth and the duration and frequency of ponding. Duration is expressed as very brief if less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long if 7 to 30 days, and very long if more than 30 days. Frequency is expressed as none, rare, occasional, and frequent. None means that ponding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance of ponding is nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year); occasional that it occurs, on the average, once or less in 2 years (the chance of ponding is 5 to 50 percent in any year); and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than once in 2 years (the chance of ponding is more than 50 percent in any year). Flooding is the temporary inundation of an area caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, and water standing in swamps and marshes is considered ponding rather than flooding. Duration and frequency are estimated. Duration is expressed as extremely brief if 0.1 hour to 4 hours, very brief if 4 hours to 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long if 7 to 30 days, and very long if more than 30 days. Frequency is expressed as none, very rare, rare, occasional, frequent, and very frequent. None means that flooding is not probable; very rare that it is very unlikely but possible under extremely unusual

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 146 weather conditions (the chance of flooding is less than 1 percent in any year); rare that it is unlikely but possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 1 to 5 percent in any year); occasional that it occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year); frequent that it is likely to occur often under normal weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than 50 percent in any year but is less than 50 percent in all months in any year); and very frequent that it is likely to occur very often under normal weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than 50 percent in all months of any year). The information is based on evidence in the soil profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic matter content with increasing depth; and little or no horizon development. Also considered are local information about the extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels.Soil FeaturesTable 27 gives estimates of various soil features. The estimates are used in land use planning that involves engineering considerations. A restrictive layer is a nearly continuous layer that has one or more physical, chemical, or thermal properties that significantly impede the movement of water and air through the soil or that restrict roots or otherwise provide an unfavorable root environment. Examples are bedrock, cemented layers, dense layers, and frozen layers. The table indicates the hardness of the restrictive layer, which significantly affects the ease of excavation. Depth to top is the vertical distance from the soil surface to the upper boundary of the restrictive layer. Potential for frost action is the likelihood of upward or lateral expansion of the soil caused by the formation of segregated ice lenses (frost heave) and the subsequent collapse of the soil and loss of strength on thawing. Frost action occurs when moisture moves into the freezing zone of the soil. Temperature, texture, density, permeability, content of organic matter, and depth to the water table are the most important factors considered in evaluating the potential for frost action. It is assumed that the soil is not insulated by vegetation or snow and is not artificially drained. Silty and highly structured, clayey soils that have a high water table in winter are the most susceptible to frost action. Well drained, very gravelly, or very sandy soils are the least susceptible. Frost heave and low soil strength during thawing cause damage to pavements and other rigid structures. Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced electrochemical or chemical action that corrodes or weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special site examination and design may be needed if the combination of factors results in a severe hazard of corrosion. The steel or concrete in installations that intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion than the steel or concrete in installations that are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil layer. For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract. For concrete, the risk of corrosion also is expressed as low, moderate, or high It is based on soil texture, acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 147Soil Organic CarbonSoil organic carbon (SOC) is carbon (C) in soil that originated from a biological source, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. SOC is found in both organic and mineral soil layers. The term “soil organic carbon” refers only to the carbon occurring in soil organic matter (SOM). Soil organic carbon makes up about one-half the weight of soil organic matter. The rest of SOM is mostly oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. SOC can be an indicator of the overall soil fertility and soil quality that affects ecosystem function. SOM is also the main reservoir for most plant nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Managing SOC by managing SOM increases these elements and increases soil resiliency. Soil organic matter, the source of SOC, binds soil particles together and thus increases soil porosity and infiltration. This allows better root penetration and water flow into the soil. Greater inflow of water decreases the hazard of soil erosion and the water runoff potential. Greater SOC levels improve not only soil quality but the quality of air and water. Soil acts as a filter and improves water quality. Fertile soils that support plant life remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and increase oxygen levels by photosynthesis. Maintaining soil organic carbon levels reduces C release into the atmosphere, which can lessen the effects of global warming. Table 28 gives estimates of soil organic carbon. The SOC content is reported in kilograms per meter squared to a depth of 2 meters or to a representative depth of either hard bedrock or a cemented horizon. The SOC value is on a whole soil basis, corrected for rock fragments.Physical and Chemical Analyses of Selected SoilsThe results of physical analysis of two typical pedons in the survey area are given in table 29, and the results of chemical analysis are given in table 30. The data are for soils sampled at carefully selected sites. Unless otherwise indicated, the pedons are typical of the series. They are described in the section “Soil Series and Their Morphology.” Soil samples were analyzed by the Soil Survey Laboratory, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Kentucky (University of Kentucky, 1988). Most determinations, except those for grain-size analysis and bulk density, were made on soil material smaller than 2 millimeters in diameter. Measurements reported as percent or quantity of unit weight were calculated on an ovendry basis. The methods used in obtaining the data are indicated in the list that follows. Unless otherwise indicated, the codes in parentheses refer to methods used by the Soil Survey Laboratory in Lincoln, Nebraska (USDA-NRCS, 1996). Coarse materials —(2-75 mm fraction) weight estimates of the percentages of all material less than 75 mm (3B1). Sand —(0.05-2.0 mm fraction) weight percentages of material less than 2 mm (3A1). Silt —(0.002-0.05 mm fraction) pipette extraction, weight percentages of all material less than 2 mm (3A1). Clay —(fraction less than 0.002 mm) pipette extraction, weight percentages of material less than 2 mm (3A1). Organic carbon —acid-dichromate digestion, ferric sulfate titration (6A1a). Extractable cations —ammonium acetate pH 7.0, atomic absorption; calcium (6N2e), magnesium (6O2d), sodium (6P2b), potassium (6Q2b). Extractable acidity —barium chloride-triethanolamine IV (6H5a). Cation-exchange capacity—ammonium acetate, pH 7.0, steam distillation (5A8b).

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 148 Cation-exchange capacity —sum of cations (5A3a). Base saturation —ammonium acetate, pH 7.0 (5C1). Base saturation —sum of cations, TEA, pH 8.2 (5C3). Reaction (pH) —1:1 water dilution (8C1a). Reaction (pH) —SMP buffer (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station method 8D7). Available phosphorus —Bray P-1 (6S3). Field sampling —site selection (1A1). Field sampling —soil sampling (1A2). Laboratory preparation —standard (air-dry) material (1B1). Data sheet symbols (2B). Particles —greater than 2 mm by field or laboratory weighing (3B1a). Particles —(specified size) 2 mm (2A2). Particles —less than 2 mm (2A1). Extractable bases (5B1a). Calcium carbonate equivalent —gravimetric (6E1c). Potassium —ammonium acetate extraction, atomic absorption II (6Q2c).Mineralogy of Selected SoilsThe results of mineralogy determinations for a typical pedon are given in table 31. The pedon is typical of the series and is described in the section “Soil Series and Their Morphology.” The soil was tested by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Kentucky.Engineering Index Test DataTable 32 shows laboratory test data for a pedon sampled at a carefully selected site in the survey area. The pedon is representative of the series described in the section “Soil Series and Their Morphology.” The soil sample was tested by the Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Fort Worth, Texas. The testing methods generally are those of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The tests and methods are AASHTO classification—M 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification—D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis—T 88 (AASHTO), D 422 (ASTM), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit—T 89 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); Plasticity index—T 90 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); Moisture density—T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM); and Specific gravity—T 100 (AASHTO), D 854 (ASTM).

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149 The system of soil classification used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (Soil Survey Staff, 1975 and 2006). Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. Classification is based on soil properties observed in the field or inferred from those observations or from laboratory measurements. Table 33 shows the classification of the soils in the survey area. The categories are defined in the following paragraphs. ORDER.Twelve soil orders are recognized. The differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order is identified by a word ending in sol An example is Alfisol. SUBORDER.Each order is divided into suborders primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil genesis and are important to plant growth or properties that reflect the most important variables within the orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the order. An example is Udalf ( Ud meaning humid, plus alf from Alfisol). GREAT GROUP.Each suborder is divided into great groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; type of saturation; and base status. Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the soil. An example is Hapludalfs ( Hapl meaning minimal horizonation, plus udalf the suborder of the Alfisols that has a udic moisture regime). SUBGROUP.Each great group has a typic subgroup. Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The typic subgroup is the central concept of the great group; it is not necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades have some properties that are not representative of the great group but do not indicate transitions to any other taxonomic class. Each subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great group. An example is Typic Hapludalfs. FAMILY.Families are established within a subgroup on the basis of physical and chemical properties and other characteristics that affect management. Generally, the properties are those of horizons below plow depth where there is much biological activity. Among the properties and characteristics considered are particle size, mineral content, soil temperature regime, soil depth, and reaction. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An example is fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs. SERIES.The series consists of soils within a family that have horizons similar in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile. The Caneyville series is an example of a fine, active, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs.Soil Series and Their MorphologyIn this section, each soil series recognized in the survey area is described. These soil descriptions represent the property ranges of the soils mapped in the park and the broader physiographic region. The actual series description may not be located in the Classification of the Soils

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 150 park boundary but is representative for the park. Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it formed are identified for each series. A pedon, a small threedimensional area of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is described. The detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993). Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined in “Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) and in “Keys to Soil Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 2006). Unless otherwise indicated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon description is the range of important characteristics of the soils in the series. The map units of each soil series are described in the section “Detailed Soil Map Units.”Allegheny SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: AlC2—Allegheny loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded AlD2—Allegheny loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Stream terrace on upland Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Riser Parent material: Mixed fine-loamy alluvium Elevation: 166 to 240 meters Slope: 6 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Allegheny loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded; about 1.5 miles south of Rochester, 0.5 mile west of Kentucky Highway 70 on a farm road to a farmstead, 200 feet east in a wooded area; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Rochester, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes 36.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 52 minutes 57.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 509911 meters easting, 4115851 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 10 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) loam; weak fine granular and moderate medium granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt smooth boundary. BE—10 to 23 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky and weak fine granular structure; friable; common fine roots; very strongly acid, pH 4.5; gradual smooth boundary. Bt1—23 to 51 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; 10 percent faint clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.5; clear smooth boundary. Bt2—51 to 91 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy loam; moderate medium granular structure parting to weak fine granular; very friable; 10 percent faint clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.5; clear smooth boundary.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 151 CB—91 to 117 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) sandy loam; granular structure parting to single grain; very strongly acid, pH 4.5; clear smooth boundary. C—117 to 203 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loam; brown (7.5YR 4/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; massive; friable; 12 percent sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.5. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Depth to seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent BE horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 1.2 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 1.2 percent CB and C horizons: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—6 to 8 moist Texture—clay loam, sandy clay loam, gravelly sandy loam, loam, sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 30 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentBledsoe SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: WbE—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky WbF—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rocky Soil depth class: Very deep

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 152 Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Base slope Parent material: Loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, shale, and siltstone Elevation: 129 to 271 meters Slope: 15 to 50 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Bledsoe loam in an area of Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky; approximately 1.9 miles east of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 1352 and Ugly Creek Road, then 50 feet south of Ugly Creek Road; in Mammoth Cave National Park; USGS Mammoth Cave, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 13 minutes 59.30 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 5 minutes 41.60 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 580287 meters easting, 4121119 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 8 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) loam; moderate very fine granular structure; friable; many fine and common medium roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; clear wavy boundary. E—8 to 25 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and common medium roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt wavy boundary. 2Bt1—25 to 43 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and common medium roots; 50 percent continuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt2—43 to 64 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; 5 percent medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles; strong fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common fine and medium roots; 50 percent continuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent fine black (N 2.5/0) manganese coatings; 5 percent 2to 76-millimeter sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt3—64 to 94 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; 1 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; strong fine and medium subangular blocky structure; common fine roots; 50 percent continuous prominent clay films on faces of peds; 25 percent fine black (N 2.5/0) manganese coatings on faces of peds; 10 percent sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt4—94 to 132 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; 25 percent medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles; strong medium angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 50 percent continuous prominent clay films on faces of peds; 25 percent fine black (N 2.5/0) manganese coatings on faces of peds; 2 percent 2to 76-millimeter sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt5—132 to 152 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; 1 percent fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 153 structure; firm; few fine roots; 50 percent continuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent fine manganese coatings; 5 percent sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt wavy boundary. 2Bt6—152 to 203 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) channery clay loam; moderate medium angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent discontinuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent fine black (N 2.5/0) manganese coatings; 34 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Depth to seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent E horizon (and BE horizon if it occurs): Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—loam, fine sandy loam, sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon (if it occurs): Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay, clay, silty clay loam, clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—5YR to 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay, clay, channery clay, silty clay loam, channery silty clay, channery clay loam, channery silty clay loam, clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentCaneyville SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 154 Map units: CaC2—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded CaD—Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky CaD2—Caneyville silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky CaE—Caneyville silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, very rocky CeD—Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopes CgE—Caneyville-Lenberg-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes CkD—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes CkE—Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes RxE—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes RxF—Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 30 to 70 percent slopes Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland, ridge on upland, hill on karst upland, and ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from cherty limestone and clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 129 to 262 meters Slope: 6 to 70 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Caneyville silt loam in an area of Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopes; about 1.92 miles southeast of Davis Crossroad at the intersection of Kentucky Highway 79 and Kentucky Highway 626, then 1.37 miles east on Kentucky Highway 626 and Githens Cemetery Road, 2,000 feet south on Githens Cemetery Road, and 1,000 feet southeast of Githens Cemetery Road, in a wooded area of pasture; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Sugar Grove, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 2 minutes 13.10 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 43 minutes 26.10 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 524553 meters easting, 4099008 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 13 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak and moderate medium granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. Bt1—13 to 53 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay; moderate fine and medium angular blocky structure; firm; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bt2—53 to 71 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; 5 percent medium faint reddish brown (5YR 4/4) and 5 percent medium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; moderate fine and medium angular blocky structure; very firm; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt smooth boundary. R—71 to 96 centimeters; indurated limestone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 155 Surface fragments: None Depth to seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent E and BE horizons (if they occur): Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—0 to 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Bt horizon(s): Hue—7.5YR to 2.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—clay, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered limestone bedrockChagrin SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map unit: Cn—Chagrin loam, frequently flooded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Deep and very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Flood plain in river valley Parent material: Fine-loamy alluvium Elevation: 130 to 250 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Pedon Chagrin loam, frequently flooded; about 1.5 miles southwest of the intersection of

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 156 Kentucky Highway 403 and Kentucky Highway 269, then 1,000 feet south of Kentucky Highway 269, in a soybean field; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Cromwell, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 15 minutes 26.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 46 minutes 22.40 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 520138 meters easting, 4123431 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. AB—18 to 38 centimeters; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bw1—38 to 56 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bw2—56 to 71 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bw3—71 to 89 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bw4—89 to 122 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. C—122 to 203 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; massive; friable; moderately acid, pH 5.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, and March Depth to top of water table: 122 to 203 centimeters Ap and AB horizons: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent Bw horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, loam, sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percent C horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 157 Texture—silt loam, loam, sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percentChristian SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: ChC2—Christian gravelly loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ChC3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded ChD2—Christian gravelly loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded ChD3—Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Deep and very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on karst upland and ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone, sandstone, shale, or siltstone Elevation: 190 to 218 meters Slope: 6 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Christian gravelly loam in an area of Christian cherty loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; about 1.3 miles south of Park City on Kentucky Highway 255, in a road cut; in Barren County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 4 minutes 40.16 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 3 minutes 30.50 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 583689 meters easting, 4103920 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; 20 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—15 to 33 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) gravelly clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent clay films; 20 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bt2—33 to 56 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) gravelly clay; strong medium subangular blocky structure; firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; 55 percent clay films; 15 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt3—56 to 114 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) gravelly clay loam; strong medium

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 158 angular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent clay films; 17 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual smooth boundary. Bt4—114 to 160 centimeters; dark red (10R 3/6) gravelly clay; 3 percent medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and 3 percent medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; strong fine and medium angular blocky structure; very firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; 55 percent clay films; 1 percent nonflat 2to 5-millimeter sandstone fragments and 18 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. R—160 to 185 centimeters; unweathered limestone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 122 to 213 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 moist Texture—gravelly loam, gravelly sandy clay loam Fragment content—15 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 5.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10R to 5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—gravelly silty clay loam, gravelly loam, silty clay loam, loam, clay, gravelly silt loam, gravelly clay loam, silt loam, gravelly clay, clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC or C horizon (if it occurs): Hue—10R to 5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—clay loam, clay, gravelly clay, gravelly clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered sandstone, siltstone, limestone, or shale bedrockClarkrange SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: CoB—Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes CoC—Clarkrange silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 159 Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Elevation: 162 to 283 meters Slope: 2 to 12 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults (fig. 8) Typical Pedon Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; approximately 11.4 miles southeast of Brownsville, 0.2 mile south of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 70 and Kentucky Highway 255, about 0.64 mile west on Cedar Springs Valley Road, then 125 feet north of the road, in a wooded area; in Mammoth Cave National Park; USGS Mammoth Cave, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 7 minutes 32.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 4 minutes 39.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 581946 meters easting, 4109198 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) crushed silt loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable; many coarse and common fine and medium roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt smooth boundary. BA—15 to 28 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) exterior silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine to coarse roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—28 to 53 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) interior silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. Bt2—53 to 64 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) interior silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; black (N 2.5/0) stains on surfaces along root channels; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. B/E—64 to 81 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; firm; many fine roots; 35 percent discontinuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron; 4 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. 2Btx—81 to 122 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; weak coarse and very coarse prismatic structure parting to strong very fine and fine angular blocky; very firm; brittle; few fine roots between peds; 35 percent distinct clay films; 1 percent fine distinct brown (10YR 5/3) and 5 percent fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) masses of oxidized iron; 5 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions on faces of peds; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. 3BC1—122 to 145 centimeters; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; few very fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and 5 percent medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) and strong brown

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 160 (7.5YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron; 5 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 3BC2—145 to 173 centimeters; variegated 25 percent light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), 25 percent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6), 25 percent strong brown (7.5YR 4/6), and 25 percent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine angular blocky structure; very firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear smooth boundary. 3Cr—173 to 198 centimeters; weakly cemented shale bedrock. Figure 8.—Profile of a Clarkrange soil. Clarkrange soils have a fragipan that restricts root penetration and perched water for several months. Measurements are in feet.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 161 Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 229 centimeters to paralithic bedrock; 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, paralithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 46 to 76 centimeters Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent B/E horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 2.5Y (B part); 10YR or 2.5Y (E part) Value—5 or 6 moist (B part); 4 to 6 moist (E part) Chroma—4 to 8 moist (B part); 3 to 6 moist (E part) Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Btx horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 3BC horizon: Hue—5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 6 moist

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 162 Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, clay, silty clay, clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 3Cr horizon: Texture—weathered shale bedrockClifty SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map unit: Cp—Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently flooded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Flood plain in valley Parent material: Mixed fine-loamy alluvium Elevation: 133 to 151 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Fluventic Dystrudepts Typical Pedon Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently flooded; 4.1 miles southeast of Jetson on Kentucky Highway 70, about 3.8 miles south of the junction of Kentucky Highway 1328 and Old Greenwich School Road, about 2,000 feet southwest of Old Greenwich School Road, in a pasture on the Robert Fields farm; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Riverside, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes 32.90 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 32 minutes 13.20 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 541091 meters easting, 4116324 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 23 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; many fine pores; 20 percent nonflat 2to 13-millimeter mixed rock fragments; neutral, pH 7.0; abrupt smooth boundary. Bw1—23 to 46 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) gravelly silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; common fine pores; 25 percent nonflat 2to 19-millimeter mixed rock fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bw2—46 to 97 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly silt loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; 25 percent nonflat 2to 51-millimeter mixed rock fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. C—97 to 203 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly loam; massive; very friable; 35 percent nonflat 2to 76-millimeter mixed rock fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 163 Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 or 4 moist Texture—gravelly silt loam Fragment content—15 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bw horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 o 6 moist Texture—gravelly silt loam, gravelly loam, gravelly sandy clay loam, Fragment content—15 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.2 to 1.0 percent C horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—gravelly silt loam, gravelly loam Fragment content—15 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentCrider SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: CrB—Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes CrC2—Crider silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 188 to 223 meters Slope: 2 to 12 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 164 Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Typic Paleudalfs Typical Pedon Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; approximately 3.6 miles southwest of Park City, 1.89 miles south of U.S. Highway 31-W, 1,000 feet north of Kentucky Highway 1339, and 300 feet east of a gravel lane in a hayfield; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 3 minutes 42.20 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 5 minutes 1.50 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 581460 meters easting, 4102111 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; 15 percent black stains throughout; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual smooth boundary. Bt1—18 to 30 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—30 to 46 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—46 to 79 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam; 30 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt4—79 to 99 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; 1 percent fine strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds and 15 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt coats on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. 2Bt5—99 to 203 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam; 5 percent distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 15 percent pale brown (10YR 6/3) and white (10YR 8/1) silt coats on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.3 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 165 Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—5YR to 10R Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—clay, silty clay loam, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentDonahue SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: WbE—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky WbF—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rocky Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Base slope Parent material: Loamy colluvium derived from sandstone over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 129 to 271 meters Slope: 15 to 50 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Donahue loam in an area of Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky; about 2.34 miles west of Park City, 0.79 mile north of the intersection of Bald Knob Road and U.S. Highway 31-W, 0.71 mile east of Clubhouse Road, 250 feet north on a wooded footslope; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 6 minutes 12.80 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 4 minutes 51.30 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 581666 meters easting, 4106756 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 10 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine to coarse roots; 4 percent sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. BA—10 to 23 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) loam; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; weak medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine to coarse roots; 10 percent sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 166 Bt1—23 to 41 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine to coarse roots; 15 percent faint clay films on surfaces along pores; 14 percent angular sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt2—41 to 61 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) gravelly silty clay; moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; 25 percent angular sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt3—61 to 79 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) channery clay; 1 percent medium faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent black stains and 35 percent distinct clay films; 15 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments and 15 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter limestone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt4—79 to 86 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) channery clay; 1 percent fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) and 5 percent medium faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; 20 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter limestone fragments; moderately alkaline, pH 8.1; abrupt smooth boundary. 2R—86 to 111 centimeters; indurated limestone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A horizon: Hue—2.5Y or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—5YR to 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—sandy clay loam, clay loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 167 Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—channery clay, silty clay, clay, channery silty clay Fragment content—0 to 24 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2R horizon: Texture—unweathered limestone bedrockElk SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: EkB—Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded EkC—Elk silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, rarely flooded Local phase(s): Rarely flooded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Stream terrace in river valley Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Riser and tread Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 131 to 171 meters Slope: 2 to 12 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded; about 1.5 miles east of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 259 and Kyrock-Bungalow Road, 0.6 mile north of the confluence of Pigeon Creek and the Nolin River, in a hayfield; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Bee Spring, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 15 minutes 56.20 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 15 minutes 5.30 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 566369 meters easting, 4124601 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 25 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—25 to 36 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; 1 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—36 to 46 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; 1 percent fine faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual smooth boundary. Bt3—46 to 71 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear smooth boundary.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 168 Bt4—71 to 96 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 15 percent faint clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. BC—96 to 132 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; 1 percent fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) and 5 percent medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual wavy boundary. C—132 to 203 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silt loam; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; massive; friable; moderately acid, pH 5.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 or 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent BC and C horizons: Hue—5YR to 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentFredonia SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: FaB—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rocky FaC2—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky FaC3—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded, very rocky

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 169 FdC—Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky FdD2—Fredonia silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on karst upland and ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 134 to 250 meters Slope: 2 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Fredonia silt loam in an area of Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, rocky, eroded; about 0.6 mile east of Liberty-Chaumont Road and 0.35 mile north of U.S. Highway 31-W, in a hayfield; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 5 minutes 55.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 6 minutes 9.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 579753 meters easting, 4106188 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 13 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt1—13 to 28 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—28 to 48 centimeters; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silty clay; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—48 to 66 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. R—66 to 91 centimeters; indurated limestone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 170 Reaction—pH 5.1 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 5.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—5YR to 10R Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—clay, silty clay, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered limestone bedrockGatton SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map unit: GaB—Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve Parent material: Thin fine-loamy loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Elevation: 234 to 247 meters Slope: 2 to 6 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Pedon Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; about 1 mile north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 936 and U.S. Highway 31E in Jonesville, 1,000 feet west of U.S. Highway 31E, about 50 feet south of Tampa Branch Road, in a cultivated field; in Hart County, Kentucky; USGS Hammonville, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 24 minutes 16.19 seconds north and longitude 85 degrees 45 minutes 47.73 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 609457 meters easting, 4140464 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 23 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots; 1 percent wormcasts; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt1—23 to 58 centimeters; 90 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and 10 percent brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent wormcasts; neutral, pH 6.9; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—58 to 71 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; moderate medium

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 171 subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine subangular blocky; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt wavy boundary. 2Btx1—71 to 97 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate very thick platy; very firm; brittle; few fine roots between peds; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions and 5 percent medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) masses of oxidized iron; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Btx2—97 to 142 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of oxidized iron and 5 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 3Bt—142 to 203 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay loam; moderate thin platy structure; very firm; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) masses of oxidized iron and 5 percent medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions; strongly acid, pH 5.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 76 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 46 to 71 centimeters Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Btx horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—loam, sandy clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 3Bt horizon: Hue—2.5YR to 10YR

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 172 Value—3 or 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentGilpin SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: GnB2—Gilpin loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded GnC2—Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded GnD2—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded GnD3—Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded SgD2—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded SgE—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Elevation: 131 to 265 meters Slope: 2 to 30 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; about 13 miles northeast of Morgantown, 2.2 miles from the intersection of Kentucky Highway 70 and C. Lawrence Road, 0.78 mile south on Kentucky Highway 1328, and 0.5 mile southeast on Rock Ridge Road, on the right side of the road; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Riverside, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 13 minutes 30.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 36 minutes 45.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 534376 meters easting, 4119903 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 13 centimeters; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many very fine to medium roots; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter sandstone fragments; neutral, pH 7.0; clear wavy boundary. BE—13 to 23 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—23 to 36 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium and few

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 173 coarse roots; 15 percent faint clay films; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt2—36 to 53 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) channery silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium and few coarse roots; 35 percent faint clay films; 32 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bt3—53 to 71 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) channery clay loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent faint clay films; 20 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. C/B—71 to 89 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) channery clay loam; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; friable; few fine and medium roots; 15 percent faint clay films; 18 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. R—89 to 150 centimeters; strongly cemented sandstone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—5 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BE horizon: Hue—10YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 Texture—silt loam Fragment content—5 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, channery silt loam, channery loam Fragment content—5 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent C/B horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—channery clay loam, channery silt loam, channery loam Fragment content—15 to 34 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 174 Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered sandstone bedrockGrigsby SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: Gg—Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently flooded Gp—Grigsby fine sandy loam, ponded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded, ponded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Basin in closed depression in river valley, flood plain in river valley, basin in closed depression on karst upland, and flood plain on karst upland Parent material: Mixed coarse-loamy alluvium Elevation: 132 to 214 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Pedon Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently flooded; approximately 2.5 miles north of Logansport, 0.6 mile west on Taylor Lake Road, 500 feet northwest of Taylor Lake Road, in a cultivated field; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Cromwell, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 19 minutes 47.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 47 minutes 14.50 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 518838 meters easting, 4131363 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 20 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt smooth boundary. Bw1—20 to 48 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bw2—48 to 64 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bw3—64 to 81 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bw4—81 to 107 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) loam; 5 percent medium distinct brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bw5—107 to 142 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; 1 percent fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 175 5 percent medium distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) iron depletions; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. C—142 to 203 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) loam; massive; friable; 1 percent medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and light gray (10YR 7/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 107 to 203 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—fine sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bw horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percent C horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—fine sandy loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percentHagerstown SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: FaB—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rocky FaC2—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, very rocky FaC3—Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded, very rocky FdC—Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Deep and very deep Drainage class: Well drained

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 176 Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 134 to 229 meters Slope: 2 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Hagerstown silt loam in an area of Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, rocky, eroded; about 4.4 miles northeast of Rocky Hill, 0.85 mile north of the intersection of U.S. Highway 31-W and Liberty-Chaumont Road, 0.47 mile east of Liberty-Chaumont Road, in a field of clover on the Albert Parsely Farm; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 6 minutes 21.56 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 6 minutes 17.91 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 579526 meters easting, 4107005 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual wavy boundary. BA—15 to 23 centimeters; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt smooth boundary. Bt1—23 to 41 centimeters; reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) silty clay; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—41 to 66 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent prominent clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—66 to 76 centimeters; dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent prominent clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. BC—76 to 127 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. C—127 to 140 centimeters; dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) clay; massive; very firm; neutral, pH 7.0; abrupt smooth boundary. R—140 to 165 centimeters; indurated limestone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 102 to 203 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon (and BA horizon if it occurs): Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 177 Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—5YR or 2.5YR Value—3 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay loam, clay, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percent BC and C horizons: Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—3 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—clay, silty clay loam, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered limestone bedrockJefferson SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: JfD—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes JfE—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Hill on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Base slope Parent material: Loamy colluvium derived from sandstone and shale and/or siltstone Elevation: 130 to 271 meters Slope: 12 to 35 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Jefferson loam in an area of Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes; about 6 miles northeast of Brownsville, 2.25 miles southwest of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 728 and Ferry Road, 1 mile north of Ollie Road and 200 feet northeast, on a wooded hillside; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Nolin Lake, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 15 minutes 47.68 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 11 minutes 19.98 seconds west; UTM Zone

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 178 16, 571921 meters easting, 4124384 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A1—0 to 10 centimeters; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many very fine to medium roots; 5 percent nonflat rounded 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear smooth boundary. A2—10 to 33 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; common very fine and fine and few medium and coarse roots; 5 percent nonflat rounded 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt1—33 to 51 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common medium and coarse and few fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—51 to 81 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) gravelly loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common coarse and few fine and medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 7 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter sandstone fragments and 8 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bt3—81 to 94 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 34 percent 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt4—94 to 203 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) gravelly sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments and 10 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—1 to 3 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—5 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—gravelly clay loam, gravelly loam, gravelly sandy clay loam, gravelly sandy loam, loam Fragment content—5 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 179 The Jefferson soils in this survey area are considered taxadjuncts to the series because the mineralogy is mixed and the clay content is less than 18 percent in the control section.Johnsburg SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map unit: Jo—Johnsburg silt loam Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Shallow and moderately deep Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Broad flat ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone and/or shale Elevation: 212 to 219 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Fragiudults Typical Pedon Johnsburg silt loam; 1.9 miles south of Rhoda on Rhoda School Road, 770 feet northnortheast of a farm corner at a bend in the road; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Rhoda, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes 3.66 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 12 minutes 24.24 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 570458 meters easting, 4110071 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 5 centimeters; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; moderately alkaline, pH 8.1; clear smooth boundary. AB—5 to 18 centimeters; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and 35 percent medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) masses of oxidized iron; moderately acid, pH 5.8; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—18 to 36 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; moderately acid, pH 5.8; clear smooth boundary. Bt2—36 to 53 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; 35 percent distinct clay films; 1 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of oxidized iron and 10 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear smooth boundary. 2Btx1—53 to 86 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 180 firm; brittle; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of oxidized iron and 35 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; 1 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Btx2—86 to 137 centimeters; variegated 50 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and 50 percent light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; 35 percent clay films on faces of peds; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of oxidized iron and 30 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; 1 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 2C—137 to 203 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) loam; massive; 10 percent manganese coatings throughout; 1 percent sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 46 to 91 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 30 to 46 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—none Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 2.0 percent AB horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—None Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 2.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—None Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Btx horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 181 Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2C horizon: Hue—10YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentLatham SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: LaC2—Latham silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded SgD2—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded SgE—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Elevation: 131 to 244 meters Slope: 6 to 30 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Hapludults Typical Pedon Latham silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded; about 5 miles north of Straw and 3.7 miles north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 728 and Union Light-Dog Creek Road, 1.13 miles west of Union Light-Dog Creek Road, 0.58 mile north of Dog Creek Road along Fall Road, in a wooded area; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Nolin Lake, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 19 minutes 18.88 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 9 minutes 25.40 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 574686 meters easting, 4130917 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 8 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; 10 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—8 to 23 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty clay; 25 percent medium distinct brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; moderate medium angular blocky structure; firm; common coarse and few fine and medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 182 films on faces of peds; 1 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt2—23 to 33 centimeters; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) silty clay; 1 percent medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—33 to 56 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) silty clay; 1 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and 1 percent fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; strong medium angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt4—56 to 84 centimeters; variegated light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8 and 4/6) silty clay; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; 5 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. Cr—84 to 109 centimeters; strongly cemented acid shale bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, argillic horizon, and paralithic contact Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, and April Depth to top of water table: 48 to 100 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 moist Chroma—3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay, clay, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC horizon (if it occurs): Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 5.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Cr horizon: Texture—weathered shale bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 183Lenberg SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: CeD—Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopes CgE—Caneyville-Lenberg-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes LnC2—Lenberg silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from acid shale and thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from acid shale Elevation: 164 to 258 meters Slope: 6 to 30 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Lenberg silt loam in an area of Carpenter-Lenberg complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes; about 5 miles north of Straw and 3.7 miles north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 728 and Union Light and Dog Creek Road, 1.06 miles west of Union Light and Dog Creek Road, and 0.51 mile north of Dog Creek-Long Fall Road, in a wooded area; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Nolin Lake, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 19 minutes 48.17 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 10 minutes 18.84 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 573362 meters easting, 4131808 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 13 centimeters; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; common fine and few medium roots; 1 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter shale fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8; clear wavy boundary. BA—13 to 23 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam; 1 percent medium distinct brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and few medium roots; 5 percent flat 2to 150millimeter shale fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—23 to 38 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay loam; 1 percent fine faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and 1 percent fine faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and few medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter shale fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt2—38 to 58 centimeters; variegated light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) clay; moderate fine and medium angular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter shale fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. 2BC—58 to 76 centimeters; variegated light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) channery clay; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm;

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 184 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 25 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter shale fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. 2Cr—76 to 101 centimeters; strongly cemented acid shale bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to paralithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, paralithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay, silty clay loam, clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—2.5Y to 5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay, clay, channery clay Fragment content—0 to 26 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2BC horizon: Hue—2.5Y to 5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—channery clay, silty clay, clay, channery silty clay Fragment content—2 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Cr horizon: Texture—weathered shale bedrock

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 185Lily SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: JfD—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes JfE—Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes LyB—Lily loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes LyC2—Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded LyD2—Lily loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone Elevation: 130 to 281 meters Slope: 2 to 35 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; approximately 3 miles southeast of Brownsville, 0.18 mile west of Kentucky Highway 259 on a gravel lane, then 1,000 feet northwest of the gravel lane, in an idle field; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Rhoda, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 9 minutes 43.28 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 13 minutes 51.35 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 568284 meters easting, 4113123 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; 1 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter sandstone fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual wavy boundary. AB—18 to 30 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt1—30 to 53 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam; 5 percent medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—53 to 69 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) loam; 1 percent fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—69 to 84 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam; 1 percent fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 186 peds; 3 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. R—84 to 109 centimeters; indurated sandstone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent AB horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—1 to 8 moist Texture—fine sandy loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—gravelly sandy clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 3.6 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered sandstone bedrockLindside SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map unit: Ln—Lindside silt loam, occasionally flooded Local phase(s): Occasionally flooded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Flood plain in valley Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 139 to 148 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 187 Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts Typical Pedon Lindside silt loam, occasionally flooded; about 3.5 miles east of Linwood, 0.56 mile south of the junction of Kentucky Highway 566 and Bennett Road, 0.26 mile south of Kentucky Highway 566, in a corn field; in Hart County, Kentucky; USGS Hudgins, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 18 minutes 41.23 seconds north and longitude 85 degrees 42 minutes 50.86 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 613946 meters easting, 4130199 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 23 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; neutral, pH 6.8; abrupt smooth boundary. BA—23 to 36 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bw1—36 to 61 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 5 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual wavy boundary. Bw2—61 to 109 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 5 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. C—109 to 203 centimeters; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam; massive; firm; 15 percent brown (10YR 4/3) coats on faces of peds; 1 percent fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; moderately acid, pH 5.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 46 to 76 centimeters Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.8 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 188 Bw horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent C horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—1 to 4 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentMelvin SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: Me—Melvin silt loam, frequently flooded Mp—Melvin silt loam, ponded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded, ponded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Poorly drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Flood plain in river valley, basin in closed depression on karst upland, and flood plain in valley Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 130 to 278 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts Typical Pedon Melvin silt loam, frequently flooded; about 3.8 miles west of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 106 and Kentucky Highway 153, then west 1.4 miles on Watkins Road, then 0.3 mile north on Roundabout Swamp Road, 50 feet east of the road; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Dunmor, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 4 minutes 8.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 55 minutes 14.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 507062 meters easting, 4102517 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 20 centimeters; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; 5 percent fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. AB—20 to 46 centimeters; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt loam; weak fine granular and weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; 5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 189 medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4), and dark brown (10YR 3/3) masses of oxidized iron; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bg—46 to 96 centimeters; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 10 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron and 10 percent medium distinct very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) iron depletions; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual smooth boundary. Cg—96 to 203 centimeters; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt loam; strong medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 1 percent black (10YR 2/1) and brown (10YR 4/3) dark concretions and 10 percent medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) and brown (7.5YR 4/4) masses of oxidized iron; 1 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter mixed rock fragments; moderately acid, pH 5.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, May, and December Depth to top of water table: 0 centimeters Ap or A horizon: Hue—10YR to 5Y Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—1 to 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.5 to 3.0 percent AB horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—1 to 3 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.2 to 1.0 percent Bg horizon: Hue—10YR to 5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—1 or 2 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.2 to 1.0 percent Cg horizon: Hue—10YR to 5Y Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—1 or 2 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 190Newark SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: Ne—Newark silt loam, frequently flooded Nk—Newark silt loam, ponded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded, ponded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Basin in closed depression in river valley, flood plain in river valley, basin in closed depression on karst upland, and flood plain on karst upland Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 130 to 234 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluventic Endoaquepts Typical Pedon Newark silt loam, frequently flooded; about 4.7 miles southwest of Jetson on Kentucky Highway 70, about 4.6 miles south of the junction of Kentucky Highway 1328 and Old Greenwich School Road, 800 feet northwest of the junction of Old Greenwich School Road and Little Martin Lake Road, in a cornfield on the Robert Fields farm; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Riverside, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes 1.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 32 minutes 27.50 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 540745 meters easting, 4115341 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 20 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt smooth boundary. Bw—20 to 41 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; 25 percent fine light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; 1 percent fine mica flakes; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bg—41 to 81 centimeters; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; 25 percent fine and medium faint brown (10YR 5/3) masses of oxidized iron; 1 percent fine mica flakes; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Cg1—81 to 107 centimeters; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt loam; massive; friable; 10 percent coarse distinct brown (10YR 4/3) masses of oxidized iron; 1 percent fine mica flakes; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Cg2—107 to 203 centimeters; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt loam; massive; friable; irregular black (10YR 2/1) and brown (10YR 4/3) iron-manganese masses, 10 percent coarse distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3) masses of oxidized iron, and 10 percent medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) iron depletions; 1 percent fine mica flakes; slightly acid, pH 6.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 191 Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, May, and December Depth to top of water table: 30 to 46 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bw horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bg horizon: Hue—2.5Y to 7.5YR or neutral Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—0 to 2 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent Cg horizon: Hue—2.5Y to 7.5YR or neutral Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—0 to 2 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 7.8 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentNolichucky SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map unit: NhD2—Nolichucky loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Stream terrace in valley Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Riser Parent material: Fine-loamy alluvium over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 140 to 154 meters Slope: 12 to 20 percent Climatic data:

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 192 Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Paleudults Typical Pedon Nolichucky loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; about 4.3 miles northeast of Munfordville, 1,500 feet east of Wintsch Lane and 100 feet south of Kentucky Highway 2185, in a formerly cultivated field that has reverted to woodland; in Hart County, Kentucky; USGS Canmer, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 17 minutes 54.00 seconds north and longitude 85 degrees 49 minutes 6.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 604707 meters easting, 4128628 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 13 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine and few coarse roots; neutral, pH 6.8; abrupt smooth boundary. AB—13 to 28 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable; common fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—28 to 38 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; few fine and medium roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments and 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartz fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. Bt2—38 to 61 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; few fine and medium roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartz fragments and 5 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. Bt3—61 to 79 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and 5 percent medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) masses of oxidized iron; 2 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter quartz fragments and 3 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual smooth boundary. Bt4—79 to 122 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent prominent clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) masses of oxidized iron; 1 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartz fragments and 1 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear smooth boundary. 2Bt5—122 to 203 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; strong medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent prominent clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter chert fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters Ap horizon: Hue—10YR

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 193 Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 or 4 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 2.0 percent AB horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.5 to 2.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—5YR or 2.5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—6 or 8 moist Texture—clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—2.5YR or 5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—6 or 8 moist Texture—clay loam, clay, gravelly clay loam, gravelly clay Fragment content—0 to 30 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentNolin SeriesMajor land resource areas: 122 and 120A State physiographic areas: Western Pennyroyal and Western Coalfields Map units: No—Nolin silt loam, frequently flooded Np—Nolin silt loam, ponded Local phase(s): Frequently flooded, ponded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Basin in closed depression in river valley, flood plain in river valley, basin in closed depression on karst upland, and flood plain on karst upland Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 130 to 256 meters Slope: 0 to 2 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 194 Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Dystric Fluventic Eutrudepts Typical Pedon Nolin silt loam, frequently flooded; about 4.7 miles southwest of Jetson, 5.3 miles south of the junction of Kentucky Highway 1328 and Old Greenwich School Road, and 0.9 mile southwest of the junction of Old Grenwich School Road and Little Martin Lake Road, in a cultivated field on the Robert Fields farm; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Riverside, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes 0.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 33 minutes 34.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 539104 meters easting, 4115301 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; neutral, pH 7.0; abrupt smooth boundary. Bw1—18 to 64 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral, pH 7.0; clear smooth boundary. Bw2—64 to 203 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; 1 percent fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) and 5 percent fine faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly acid, pH 6.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, and December Depth to top of water table: 122 to 203 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 8.4 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent Bw horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 8.4 Organic matter content—0.0 to 1.0 percent C horizon (if it occurs): Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, loam, gravelly loam, gravelly silt loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 8.4 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 195Otwood SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map unit: OwB—Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally flooded Local phase(s): Occasionally flooded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Stream terrace in river valley Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Tread Parent material: Mixed fine-silty alluvium Elevation: 134 to 245 meters Slope: 2 to 6 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Pedon Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally flooded; about 4 miles northwest of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 79 and Kentucky Highway 403, about 1.3 miles northwest of Logansport, 0.39 mile east of Kentucky Highway 403, on a cultivated second bottom; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Cromwell, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 18 minutes 4.30 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 47 minutes 6.17 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 519050 meters easting, 4128307 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral, pH 7.0; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—18 to 36 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—36 to 48 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt3—48 to 66 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) masses of oxidized iron and 5 percent medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Btx1—66 to 84 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; few fine roots between peds; black (10YR 2/1) and brown (10YR 4/3) black stains and 35 percent distinct clay films; spherical black (10YR 2/1) dark concretions, 1 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions, and 10 percent medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) masses of oxidized iron; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Btx2—84 to 107 centimeters; variegated dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6 and 3/6) silty clay loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; black (10YR 2/1) and brown (10YR 4/3) stains

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 196 and 35 percent distinct clay films; 1 percent fine faint light gray (10YR 7/2) and 10 percent medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. BC—107 to 132 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 15 percent black stains; 1 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions and 10 percent medium distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) masses of oxidized iron; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. C—132 to 203 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent black stains on faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; strongly acid, pH 5.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 91 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 46 to 61 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—None Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—none Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent Btx horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 6 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC and C horizons: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 9 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 197Pembroke SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: PbB—Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes PbC2—Pembroke silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded PeC3—Pembroke silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Ridge on karst upland and broad ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 191 to 220 meters Slope: 2 to 12 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Mollic Paleudalfs Typical Pedon Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; about 600 feet north of U.S. Highway 31-W and 4,400 feet east of Liberty-Chaumont Road, on the Albert Parsely farm; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 5 minutes 38.74 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 5 minutes 54.60 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 580114 meters easting, 4105681 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. BA—15 to 30 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—30 to 43 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt2—43 to 66 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—66 to 99 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent prominent clay films; 5 percent chert fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt4—99 to 137 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) silty clay; 1 percent fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; few fine roots; 35 percent prominent clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt5—137 to 178 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) silty clay; moderate medium

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 198 subangular blocky structure; very firm; 35 percent prominent clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. BC—178 to 203 centimeters; dark red (10R 3/6) clay; weak medium angular blocky structure; very firm; moderately acid, pH 5.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—3 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—4 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.5 to 4.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—5YR to 10R Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 5 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC horizon: Hue—5YR to 10R Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—6 moist Texture—clay, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentRiney SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: ReB2—Riney silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded ReC2—Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded ReD2—Riney silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 199 ReE—Riney silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes RnB—Riney loam, karst, 2 to 6 percent slopes Local phase(s): Karst Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Fine-loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Elevation: 153 to 270 meters Slope: 2 to 30 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; approximately 0.49 mile east of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 1352 and Ugly Creek Road, then 0.2 mile to Wilkins Cemetery, 50 feet north of the cemetery, on a side slope; in Mammoth Cave National Park; USGS Mammoth Cave, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 14 minutes 29.20 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 6 minutes 45.35 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 578708 meters easting, 4122027 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; moderate very fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and common medium and coarse roots; moderately acid, pH 5.8; abrupt wavy boundary. BA—15 to 25 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt1—25 to 53 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; common fine and few medium roots; 55 percent discontinuous clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. 2Bt2—53 to 102 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) loam; moderate coarse angular blocky structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few fine roots; 55 percent continuous clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. 2BC1—102 to 109 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) gravelly sandy loam; moderate medium angular blocky structure parting to moderate fine and medium subangular blocky; friable; few fine roots; 2 percent black stains on faces of peds; 20 percent nonflat rounded 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. 2BC2—109 to 127 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt smooth boundary. 2CB—127 to 142 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam; massive; firm; few fine roots; 15 percent patchy yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay films; 5 percent nonflat 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments and 5 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter quartzite fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. 3Bt3—142 to 203 centimeters; red (2.5YR 5/6) gravelly sandy clay loam; 25 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 200 medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common medium and few fine roots; 55 percent continuous distinct clay films on faces of peds; 30 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter quartzite fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt and 2Bt horizons: Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—loam, fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2BC and 2CB horizons (if they occur): Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—gravelly sandy loam, gravelly loamy sand, very gravelly loamy sand, sandy loam, very gravelly sandy loam, sandy clay loam, gravelly sandy clay loam, loamy sand, fine sandy loam, very gravelly sandy clay loam Fragment content—0 to 40 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 3Bt horizon (if it occurs): Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—sandy clay loam, gravelly sandy clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 201Rosine SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: RoB—Rosine silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes RoC2—Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded RoD2—Rosine silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Deep and very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from shale Elevation: 139 to 257 meters Slope: 2 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; about 1.34 miles north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 728 and Union Light and Dog Creek Road, 0.75 mile west on Ralph Bush Road, then 600 feet south of Ralph Bush Road, in a hayfield; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Nolin Lake, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 17 minutes 24.63 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 8 minutes 41.81 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 575790 meters easting, 4127406 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear smooth boundary. BA—18 to 36 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—36 to 56 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few very fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 2Bt2—56 to 84 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silty clay loam; 1 percent fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent distinct clay films; 2 percent sandstone fragments and 3 percent shale fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear smooth boundary. 2Bt3—84 to 132 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; 5 percent medium distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and 5 percent fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; 35 percent prominent clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. 2BC—132 to 140 centimeters; variegated 34 percent light gray (10YR 7/2), 33 percent light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), and 33 percent red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 202 medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; 15 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 2C—140 to 203 centimeters; variegated light red (2.5YR 6/6), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay; massive; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 12 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 12 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.2 to 0.8 percent 2Bt horizon: Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—clay, silty clay loam, silty clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2BC and 2C horizons: Hue—10YR to 2.5YR Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silty clay, channery silty clay loam, clay, channery silty clay, channery clay Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 203Sano SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map unit: SaB—Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve Parent material: Thick fine-silty noncalcareous loess over clayey residuum weathered from limestone Elevation: 258 to 281 meters Slope: 0 to 6 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, siliceous, semiactive, mesic Glossic Fragiudults Typical Pedon Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopes; about 990 feet from the east entrance to the park on Kentucky Highway 255 (Old Mammoth Cave Road) and 207 feet south of the road in woods; in Mammoth Cave National Park; USGS Mammoth Cave, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 9 minutes 7.83 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 3 minutes 0.71 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 584342 meters easting, 4112176 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 20 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable; common fine roots throughout; extremely acid, pH 4.0; abrupt smooth boundary. Bw1—20 to 36 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; common fine tubular pores; 3 percent medium prominent spherical black (10YR 2/1) ironmanganese concretions; slightly acid, pH 6.1; clear wavy boundary. Bw2—36 to 56 centimeters; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots throughout; few fine tubular pores; 5 percent medium prominent spherical black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions; slightly acid, pH 6.1; clear wavy boundary. Bx/E—56 to 74 centimeters; variegated 60 percent olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) silt loam (B part); moderate medium subangular blocky structure in B part; firm; 40 percent gray (2.5Y 6/1) silt loam (E part); weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure in E part; very friable; few fine roots throughout; few fine tubular pores; 10 percent prominent light gray (2.5Y 7/1) silt coats on vertical faces of peds; 5 percent fine and medium irregular strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) iron-manganese nodules in matrix, 5 percent fine and medium spherical black (10YR 2/1) ironmanganese concretions in matrix, and 5 percent fine irregular (7.5YR 4/8) masses of oxidized iron in matrix; 1 percent flat strongly cemented 2to 75-millimeter siltstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.9; brittle in 40 percent of the mass; clear wavy boundary. Btx1—74 to 119 centimeters; variegated 40 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), 40

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 204 percent light gray (10YR 7/2), and 20 percent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; few very fine roots between peds; many fine pores; 10 percent distinct gray (10YR 6/1) clay films on vertical faces of peds and 26 percent prominent light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt coats on vertical faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct irregular red (2.5YR 5/8) iron-manganese nodules in matrix, 1 percent fine and medium distinct spherical black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions in matrix, and 10 percent medium distinct irregular red (7.5R 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in matrix; 1 percent flat very strongly cemented 2to 75-millimeter siltstone fragments and 1 percent flat very strongly cemented 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; brittle in 80 percent of the mass; vertical seams are light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt loam; gradual irregular boundary. Btx2—119 to 203 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) silt loam; weak very coarse prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; common fine pores; 26 percent distinct gray (10YR 6/1) clay films on vertical faces of peds and 26 percent prominent light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt coats on vertical faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct irregular red (2.5YR 5/8) iron-manganese masses in matrix and 5 percent fine and medium distinct spherical greenish black (10Y 2/1) iron-manganese concretions in matrix; 1 percent flat subangular indurated 2to 75-millimeter siltstone fragments and 1 percent flat subangular indurated 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; extremely acid, pH 4.4; brittle in 80 percent of mass; vertical seams are light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt loam. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 86 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, and April Depth to top of water table: 48 to 84 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—3 to 6 moist Chroma—1 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 5.6 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent E horizon (if it occurs) and E part of Bx/E horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 to 7 moist Chroma—1 to 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Bw horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 205 B part of Bx/E horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 3 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Btx horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 7 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2Bt or 2Btx horizon (if it occurs): Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—channery silty clay loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—5 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentShelocta SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: SgD2—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded SgE—Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Footslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Base slope Parent material: Fine-loamy colluvium over clayey residuum weathered from shale and siltstone Elevation: 131 to 244 meters Slope: 12 to 30 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults Typical Pedon Shelocta silt loam in an area of Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes; about 5 miles north of Straw and 3.7 miles north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 728 and Union Light-Dog Creek Road, 0.83 mile west on Dog

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 206 Creek-Long Fall Road, and 0.35 mile north in a wooded area above Nolin Lake; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Nolin Lake, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 19 minutes 42.90 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 9 minutes 57.85 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 573880 meters easting, 4131650 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 8 centimeters; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; 2 percent nonflat 2to 75millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. Bt1—8 to 20 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and few medium roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 2 percent flat 2to 150-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—20 to 36 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium and few coarse roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent nonflat 6to 51-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—36 to 51 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine to coarse roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent nonflat 6to 51-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; clear wavy boundary. 2BC1—51 to 69 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent nonflat 6to 51-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. 2BC2—69 to 102 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) clay; 1 percent fine distinct reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) and 5 percent medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; moderate fine and medium angular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. 2C—102 to 203 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and 25 percent coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; strongly acid, pH 5.3. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 2.5Y Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—2 or 3 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—2 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—channery loam, loam, channery silt loam, channery silty clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 207 Fragment content—2 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC, 2BC, and 2C horizons: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—clay, silty clay, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentTilsit SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map unit: TsB—Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Shallow and moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately low Landform(s): Ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve Parent material: Acid fine-silty residuum weathered from sandstone and shale Elevation: 200 to 254 meters Slope: 2 to 6 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Fragiudults Typical Pedon Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; about 3.3 miles south of Cub Run, 0.8 mile west of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 1827 and Dennison Ferry Road, 0.1 mile west of Cherry Springs Church, 0.6 mile east of the Edmonson County line, 25 feet north of Kentucky Highway 1827, in a cultivated field; in Hart County, Kentucky; USGS Cub Run, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 16 minutes 5.73 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 4 minutes 58.70 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 581307 meters easting, 4125026 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. BA—15 to 23 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—23 to 36 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt2—36 to 48 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; moderate medium

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 208 subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt3—48 to 58 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 15 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) masses of oxidized iron; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Btx1—58 to 91 centimeters; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron and 5 percent medium distinct light gray (2.5Y 7/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Btx2—91 to 109 centimeters; variegated 50 percent olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) and 50 percent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; very firm; brittle; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. BC—109 to 145 centimeters; variegated 34 percent olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6), 33 percent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6), and 33 percent dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. C—145 to 203 centimeters; variegated 50 percent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and 50 percent grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loam; massive; firm; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 46 to 71 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 46 to 61 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR Value—5 or 6 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Bt horizon: Hue—2.5Y or 10YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 to 8 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 10 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 209 Btx horizon: Hue—2.5Y or 10YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—loam, silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent BC and C horizons: Hue—2.5Y to 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 8 moist Texture—clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 5.5 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentVertrees SeriesMajor land resource area: 122 State physiographic area: Western Pennyroyal Map units: FdC—Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky VrC2—Vertrees silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Very deep Depth of root zone: Very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Ridge on karst upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Clayey residuum weathered from limestone and shale Elevation: 142 to 221 meters Slope: 6 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Paleudalfs (fig. 9) Typical Pedon Vertrees silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded; about 2.6 miles northwest of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 218 and U.S. Highway 31W, in Horse Cave, 0.7 mile north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 218 and Fisher Ridge Road, 0.2 mile west on a gravel lane, 100 feet west of the lane, in a cultivated field; in Hart County, Kentucky; USGS Horse Cave, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 12 minutes 45.52 seconds north and longitude 85 degrees 56 minutes 25.57 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 594014 meters easting, 4118989 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 15 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak fine and medium granular structure; friable; many very fine roots; neutral, pH 6.8; clear smooth boundary. BA—15 to 31 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 210 Figure 9.—Profile of a Vertrees soil. Vertrees soils are very deep and can contain fragments of chert. Measurements are in feet.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 211 blocky structure; friable; common very fine roots; neutral, pH 6.8; clear smooth boundary. Bt1—31 to 51 centimeters; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few very fine roots; 35 percent distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent black (10YR 2/1) manganese coatings on faces of peds; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt2—51 to 97 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 35 percent distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt3—97 to 137 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; moderate medium angular blocky structure; firm; 50 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid, pH 5.8; gradual smooth boundary. Bt4—137 to 185 centimeters; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky and moderate fine angular blocky structure; firm; 50 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent black (10YR 2/1) manganese coatings on faces of peds and 5 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) masses of oxidized iron; slightly acid, pH 6.3; clear smooth boundary. Bt5—185 to 203 centimeters; red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; moderate medium angular blocky structure; very firm; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) masses of oxidized iron and 1 percent black (10YR 2/1) manganese coatings on faces of peds; neutral, pH 6.8. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—2.0 to 4.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR to 5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 to 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Bt horizon: Hue—2.5YR to 7.5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—6 or 8 moist Texture—silty clay, clay, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 212 BC horizon (if it occurs): Hue—2.5YR to 7.5YR Value—3 to 5 moist Chroma—6 or 8 moist Texture—clay Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 7.3 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentWallen SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: WbE—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky WbF—Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very rocky Soil depth class: Moderately deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): High Landform(s): Hill on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Side slope Parent material: Loamy-skeletal residuum weathered from sandstone Elevation: 129 to 271 meters Slope: 15 to 50 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Dystrudepts Typical Pedon Wallen gravelly loam in an area of Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very rocky; 2.34 miles west of Park City, then 0.79 mile north of the intersection of Bald Knob Road and U.S. Highway 31-W, 0.47 mile east on Clubhouse Road, then 400 feet south of Clubhouse Road, on a wooded hillside; in Edmonson County, Kentucky; USGS Park City, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 6 minutes 6.70 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 4 minutes 52.10 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 581648 meters easting, 4106568 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A—0 to 15 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine to coarse roots; 15 percent nonflat angular sandstone fragments; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt smooth boundary. BE—15 to 28 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) very gravelly loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine granular; friable; many fine to coarse roots; 40 percent nonflat angular 2to 75-millimeter sandstone fragments; strongly acid, pH 5.3; clear wavy boundary. Bw1—28 to 43 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) very stony loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine to coarse roots; 50 percent nonflat angular 76to 381-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bw2—43 to 64 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) very stony loam; weak

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 213 medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine roots; 50 percent nonflat 76to 508-millimeter sandstone fragments; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. R—64 to 89 centimeters; indurated sandstone bedrock. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 102 centimeters to lithic bedrock Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon, lithic contact, and cambic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—3 or 4 moist Chroma—1 to 3 moist Texture—gravelly loam Fragment content—15 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 3.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—1.0 to 2.0 percent BE horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—2 to 4 moist Texture—very gravelly loam, very cobbly loam, cobbly loam Fragment content—23 to 59 percent Reaction—pH 3.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent Bw horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 to 6 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—very gravelly loam, very stony loam Fragment content—35 to 59 percent Reaction—pH 3.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent R horizon: Texture—unweathered sandstone bedrockWellston SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: WeB—Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes WeC2—Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded WeD—Wellston silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes WsC3—Wellston silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded Local phase(s): Severely eroded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Deep and very deep Drainage class: Well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Hill on upland and ridge on upland

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 214 Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone Elevation: 149 to 274 meters Slope: 2 to 20 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs Typical Pedon Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded; 9.2 miles east of Brownsville, 4.4 miles north of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 70 and Mammoth Cave Entrance Road, then 3.5 miles north on Maple Springs Ranger Station Road, then 1,200 feet west of Maple Springs Ranger Station Road, then 700 feet north of a paved park road, on a wooded hillside; in Mammoth Cave National Park; USGS Rhoda, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 12 minutes 29.00 seconds north and longitude 86 degrees 7 minutes 42.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 577346 meters easting, 4118308 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) A1—0 to 10 centimeters; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few medium roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual smooth boundary. A2—10 to 28 centimeters; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; common fine and medium and few coarse roots; strongly acid, pH 5.3; abrupt wavy boundary. Bt1—28 to 41 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; 15 percent faint clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—41 to 66 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; 35 percent distinct clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Bt3—66 to 102 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. 2BC—102 to 124 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; 1 percent fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt smooth boundary. 2C—124 to 203 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam; 1 percent fine faint pink (7.5YR 7/4), 5 percent medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3), and 5 percent medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; massive; firm; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: More than 203 centimeters Diagnostic feature(s): Ochric epipedon and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: More than 183 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 or 4 moist

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 215 Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 9 percent Reaction—pH 5.1 to 6.5 Organic matter content—1.0 to 3.0 percent Bt horizon: Hue—7.5YR or 10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam, silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2BC and 2C horizons: Hue—7.5YR to 2.5Y Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—channery sandy loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, channery sandy clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percentZanesville SeriesMajor land resource area: 120A State physiographic area: Western Coalfields Map units: ZaB—Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes ZaC2—Zanesville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded Soil depth class: Deep and very deep Depth of root zone: Moderately deep Drainage class: Moderately well drained Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat ): Moderately high Landform(s): Ridge on upland Landform position(s) (two-dimensional): Summit and backslope Landform position(s) (three-dimensional): Interfluve and side slope Parent material: Thin fine-silty noncalcareous loess over loamy residuum weathered from sandstone and siltstone and/or shale Elevation: 234 to 284 meters Slope: 2 to 12 percent Climatic data: Mean annual precipitation: 1,031 to 1,495 millimeters Mean annual air temperature: 7.4 to 20.2 degrees C Frost-free period: 154 to 190 days Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs Typical Pedon Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes; about 4 miles south of Sugar Grove, then 2.75 miles west of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 626 and Kentucky Highway 1083, about 550 feet south of the intersection of Kentucky Highway 626 and Sunnylane-Richelieu Road, 100 feet west of Sunnylane-Richelieu Road, in a field of grass; in Butler County, Kentucky; USGS Sugar Grove, Kentucky topographic quadrangle; latitude 37 degrees 2 minutes 18.00 seconds north and longitude 86

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 216 degrees 43 minutes 1.00 seconds west; UTM Zone 16, 525173 meters easting, 4099162 meters northing; NAD83. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.) Ap—0 to 18 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; slightly acid, pH 6.3; abrupt smooth boundary. BA—18 to 28 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; very friable; common fine roots; common fine vesicular pores; 1 percent black (10YR 2/1) dark concretions; slightly acid, pH 6.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt1—28 to 46 centimeters; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine subangular blocky; firm; common fine roots; 35 percent distinct clay films; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. Bt2—46 to 61 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; 35 percent faint clay films; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. Btx1—61 to 79 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure; very firm; brittle; 35 percent distinct clay films; 5 percent medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of oxidized iron and 5 percent fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; gradual wavy boundary. Btx2—79 to 102 centimeters; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure; very firm; brittle; 15 percent faint clay films; 5 percent medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7; abrupt wavy boundary. 2BC—102 to 130 centimeters; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt loam; massive; firm; 1 percent fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron; strongly acid, pH 5.3; gradual wavy boundary. 2C—130 to 203 centimeters; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silt loam; massive; firm; 5 percent medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; very strongly acid, pH 4.7. Range in Characteristics Depth to restrictive feature: 51 to 81 centimeters to fragipan Diagnostic feature(s): Fragipan, ochric epipedon, and argillic horizon Surface fragments: None Seasonal high water table: January, February, March, April, and December Depth to top of water table: 51 to 64 centimeters A or Ap horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 or 4 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 6 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—1.0 to 2.0 percent BA horizon: Hue—10YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silt loam Fragment content—0 to 6 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—1.0 to 2.0 percent

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 217 Bt horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—4 or 6 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 6 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.8 percent Btx horizon: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 5 moist Chroma—3 to 8 moist Texture—silty clay loam, silt loam Fragment content—0 to 14 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent 2BC and 2C horizons: Hue—10YR or 7.5YR Value—4 or 6 moist Chroma—3 to 6 moist Texture—channery silt loam, channery loam, silty clay loam, channery clay loam, clay loam, silt loam, loam, channery silty clay loam Fragment content—0 to 34 percent Reaction—pH 4.5 to 6.0 Organic matter content—0.0 to 0.5 percent

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219 This section provides information concerning the formation of the soils in Mammoth Cave National Park. It describes the five factors of soil formation and explains their effects on the soils in the survey area. The discipline of soil science began in the late 19th century when the concept of soil as an organized natural body was initially developed. According to this concept, a soil is a unique individual whose properties are not the result of any single factor, such as geology, but rather the result of the interaction of several factors working together (Buol, Hole, and McCracken, 1980).Factors of Soil FormationSoils are individual material bodies formed through the interaction of the five major factors of soil formation. The five recognized factors are climate, parent material, plant and animal life, relief, and time (Brady, 1974). Climate and plant and animal life act on the parent material. Their effects on soil formation are controlled by relief and the amount of time that they have been active. Each factor is capable of working independently to influence the properties of soil (Fanning and Fanning, 1989). In many instances, however, the climate and relief of the area influence organisms in a soil. It is of interest in soil science to separate the influences that each of the factors has on a particular group of soils in order to understand the relationship between soils and how their characteristics vary because of these factors. The following paragraphs describe the soils of Mammoth Cave National Park and how they were influenced by the factors of soil formation.ClimateThe climate of Mammoth Cave National Park is humid and temperate. Summers are warm, winters are cool, and precipitation occurs throughout the year. The average annual precipitation is about 52.1 inches. The average annual air temperature is 56.9 degrees F. Because the soils in the survey area are not dry or frozen for long periods, the processes of soil formation are active throughout the year. Climate generally is the most important factor of soil formation. Because the climate is uniform throughout the survey area, however, the differences among the soils in the park are the result of other factors. Climate affects soil formation primarily through the effects of temperature and rainfall on the chemical and physical weathering of geologic material, on erosion, and on the kind and number of plants and animals on and in the soils. As water percolates downward through the soils, it leaches soluble bases from the soils and moves particles of clay to the lower layers. Because of the translocation of these materials over a period of time, many of the soils in the survey area are acid, have a loamy surface layer, and have accumulated clay in the subsoil. Rosine, Wellston, and Gilpin soils are examples of these soils. Formation of the Soils

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 220Parent MaterialParent material, which is the unconsolidated mass in which a soil forms, varies, especially in degree of consolidation, texture, and mineralogy. It exerts the greatest influence on soil characteristics in young soils. Most of the soils in Mammoth Cave Park formed in residuum from sedimentary rocks. The other kinds of parent material in the survey area are loess, alluvium, and colluvium. Some soils in the survey area formed in a combination of loess and residuum. Loess, which is wind-deposited material comprised mostly of silt-sized particles, is on most of the uplands. It is thickest on gentle slopes. Clarkrange and Rosine soils are examples of soils that formed partly in loess and partly in residuum from sandstone, siltstone, or shale bedrock. Some soils in the park formed entirely in residuum. These soils are generally on the steeper slopes where loess was not deposited or where erosion removed the loess cap before the present soil formed. Wallen and Lily soils formed in sandstone residuum. Lenberg soils formed in clayey residuum from shale. Soils on flood plains and stream terraces formed in alluvium washed from the higher landscape positions. Elk and Otwood soils formed in old alluvium on stream terraces. The stream terraces, which are on old alluvial plains, no longer receive new depositions of soil material. Newark, Nolin, Melvin, and Grigsby soils formed in recent alluvium on flood plains. The flood plains continue to receive new depositions of soil material. Newark, Nolin, and Melvin soils are silty in texture, and Grigsby soils are loamy. Colluvium is material removed from soils on the side slopes of steep hills and deposited on footslopes by gravity. Bledsoe and Jefferson soils formed in clayey or loamy colluvium.Plant and Animal LifePlants and animals in and on the soil are active forces in the soil-forming process. Plants add organic matter to the surface layer of the soil, and their roots transfer or cycle nutrients from the subsoil. Many forms of animal life, including earthworms, grubs, moles, and mice, are in the soil. These organisms influence the addition and decomposition of organic matter, nitrogen content, nutrient cycling, mineral weathering, and mixing of soil material. The native vegetation in the survey area is predominantly hardwood forest. Soils that formed under this type of vegetation typically are acid and have a thin, dark surface layer. The layer occurs when small amounts of organic matter are returned to the soils. Human activities also influence soil formation. These activities include clearing forests, tilling cleared areas, and, in some areas, burning vegetation. In some cultivated areas, accelerated erosion has removed most of the original surface layer and exposed the subsoil.ReliefRelief, or lay of the land, has a dramatic effect on the properties of soils as they develop on a particular landscape. Soils that formed on nearly level topography and have poor drainage are not so well developed as soils that have good drainage. As the slope of the landscape increases, poor drainage becomes less of a factor and the effects of erosion increase. Soils in steep areas are generally not so deep and are less developed than soils in gently sloping areas. The hazard of water erosion is increased because of the steeper slopes, and often soil material is removed from the

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 221 surface as fast as the residuum is formed. Lily and Wallen soils on the steeper landscapes are not so deep over bedrock as soils on the more gently sloping landscapes.TimeTime refers to a measured period in which soil-forming processes have been at work. Generally, the longer the processes have continued, the older the soil and the more well developed the soil profile. Ultimately, the amount of profile development determines the maturity of a soil rather than the number of years that a soil has been in the process of developing. The soils in Mammoth Cave National Park range in age from young to old. The youngest soils, Chagrin, Melvin, Newark, and Nolin soils, formed in alluvial deposits. They have profiles with indistinct soil horizons and show little evidence of profile development. Some soils that formed on stream terraces, such as Elk and Otwood soils, are older and exhibit more mature horizon development. Bledsoe, Pembroke, Rosine, and Wellston soils represent the oldest, most mature soils in the survey area. These soils are in stable landscape positions and formed in colluvium and residuum; loess, residuum, and old alluvium; or loess and residuum.

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223 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1986. Standard specifications for highway materials and methods of sampling and testing. 14th ed. 2 vols. American Society for Testing and Materials. 1993. Standard classification of soils for engineering purposes. ASTM Stand. D 2487. Bailey, Harry Hudson, and Joseph H. Winsor. 1964. Kentucky soils. University of Kentucky, Agric. Exp. Stn., Misc. Pub. 308. Beck, Donald E. 1962. Yellow-poplar site index curves. U.S. Dep. Agric. Forest Serv. Southeast. Forest Exp. Stn. Res. Note 180. Brady, Nyle C. 1974. The nature and properties of soils. 8th ed. Broadfoot, W.M., and R.M. Krinard. 1959. Guide for evaluating sweetgum sites. U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serv., South. Forest Exp. Stn. Occas. Pap. 176. Broadfoot, W.M. 1960. Field guide for evaluating cottonwood sites. U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serv., South. Forest Exp. Stn. Occas. Pap. 178. Broadfoot, W.M. 1963. Guide for evaluating water oak sites. U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serv., South. Forest Exp. Stn. Res. Pap. SO-1. Broadfoot, Walter M. 1964. Soil suitability for hardwoods in the midsouth. U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serv., South. Forest Exp. Stn. Res. Note SO-10. Brucker, Roger W., and Richard A. Watson. 1976. The longest cave. Buol, S.W., F.D. Hole, and R.J. McCracken. 1980. Soil genesis and classification. 3rd ed. Coile, T.S., and F.X. Schumacher. 1953. Site index of young stands of loblolly and shortleaf pines in the Piedmont Plateau Region. J. For. 51: 432-435. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deep-water habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-79/31. Fanning, Devin S., and Mary C.B. Fanning. 1989. Soil: Morphology, genesis, and classification. Federal Register. July 13, 1994. Changes in hydric soils of the United States. Federal Register. February 24, 1995. Hydric soils of the United States. References

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 224 Goode, Cecil E. 1986. World wonder saved. Hurt, G.W., P.M. Whited, and R.F. Pringle, eds. 1996. Field indicators of hydric soils in the United States. McFarlan, Arthur C. 1943. Geology of Kentucky. National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and boundaries. Nelson, T.C., J.L. Clutter, and L.E. Chaiken. 1961. Yield of Virginia pine. U.S. Dep. Agric., Southeast Forest Exp. Stn. Pap. 124. Schnur, G. Luther. 1937. Yield, stand, and volume tables for even-aged upland oak forest. U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. (Reprinted in 1961) Soil Survey Division Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18. Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 436. (Revised in 1999) Soil Survey Staff. 2006. Keys to soil taxonomy. 10th ed. Natural Resources Soil Conser. Serv., Soil Management Support Serv. Tech. Mono. 19. Tiner, R.W., Jr. 1985. Wetlands of Delaware. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Delaware Dep. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Wetlands Sec. Uhland, R.E., and A.M. OÂ’Neal. 1951. Soil permeability determinations for use in soil and water conservation. U.S. Dep. Agric., Soil Conservation Serv. Tech. Pap. 101. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory. 1987. Corps of engineers wetlands delineation manual. Waterways Exp. Stn. Tech. Rep. Y-87-1. United States Department of Agriculture. 1993. Soil survey manual. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2003. UserÂ’s guide, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1996. Soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Surv. Invest. Rep. 42. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2005. Soil survey of Butler and Edmonson Counties, Kentucky. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. Land resource regions and major land resource areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 296.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 225 United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1961. Land capability classification. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 210. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1969. Soil survey of Barren County, Kentucky. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 537. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1993. Soil survey of Hart County, Kentucky. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Interim report: Soil survey of Mammoth Cave National Park within Edmonson County, Kentucky. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (USGS). 1962. Geologic map of the Park City quadrangle, Kentucky. Map GQ-183. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (USGS). 1963. Geologic map of the Rhoda quadrangle, Kentucky. Map GQ-219. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (USGS). 1964. Geologic map of the Mammoth Cave quadrangle, Edmonson and Hart Counties, Kentucky. Map GQ-351. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (USGS). 1965. Geologic map of the Brownsville quadrangle, Kentucky. Map GQ-411. United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (USGS). 1968. Geologic map of the Bee Springs quadrangle, Edmonson and Grayson Counties, Kentucky. Map GQ-757. University of Kentucky. 1988. Descriptions and laboratory data for some soils in Kentucky, Western Coalfields Region. Special Rep. 88-2. White, William B., and Elizabeth L. White, eds. 1989. Karst hydrology: Concepts from the Mammoth Cave Area.

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227 Many of the terms relating to landforms, geology, and geomorphology are defined in more detail in the “National Soil Survey Handbook” (available in local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or on the Internet). ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon. AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon. Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or on steep, rocky slopes. Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a poorly aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon dioxide and lower in oxygen. Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods are aggregates produced by tillage or logging. Alluvial fan. A low, outspread mass of loose materials and/or rock material, commonly with gentle slopes. It is shaped like an open fan or a segment of a cone. The material was deposited by a stream at the place where it issues from a narrow mountain valley or upland valley or where a tributary stream is near or at its junction with the main stream. The fan is steepest near its apex, which points upstream, and slopes gently and convexly outward (downstream) with a gradual decrease in gradient. Alluvium. Unconsolidated material, such as gravel, sand, silt, clay, and various mixtures of these, deposited on land by running water. Alpha,alpha-dipyridyl. A compound that when dissolved in ammonium acetate is used to detect the presence of reduced iron (Fe II) in the soil. A positive reaction implies reducing conditions and the likely presence of redoximorphic features. Animal unit month (AUM). The amount of forage required by one mature cow of approximately 1,000 pounds weight, with or without a calf, for 1 month. Aquic conditions. Current soil wetness characterized by saturation, reduction, and redoximorphic features. Argillic horizon. A subsoil horizon characterized by an accumulation of illuvial clay. Aspect. The direction toward which a slope faces. Also called slope aspect. Association, soil. A group of soils or miscellaneous areas geographically associated in a characteristic repeating pattern and defined and delineated as a single map unit. Available water capacity (available moisture capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by most plants. It is commonly defined as the difference between the amount of soil water at field moisture capacity and the amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is expressed as:Very low ..............................................................0 to 3 Low......................................................................3 to 6 Moderate .............................................................6 to 9 High ...................................................................9 to 12 Very high ................................................ more than 12 Glossary

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 228 Backslope. The position that forms the steepest and generally linear, middle portion of a hillslope. In profile, backslopes are commonly bounded by a convex shoulder above and a concave footslope below. Basal area. The area of a cross section of a tree, generally referring to the section at breast height and measured outside the bark. It is a measure of stand density, commonly expressed in square feet. Base saturation. The degree to which material having cation-exchange properties is saturated with exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, and K), expressed as a percentage of the total cation-exchange capacity. Base slope (geomorphology). A geomorphic component of hills consisting of the concave to linear (perpendicular to the contour) slope that, regardless of the lateral shape, forms an apron or wedge at the bottom of a hillside dominated by colluvium and slope-wash sediments (for example, slope alluvium). Bedding plane. A planar or nearly planar bedding surface that visibly separates each successive layer of stratified sediment or rock (of the same or different lithology) from the preceding or following layer; a plane of deposition. It commonly marks a change in the circumstances of deposition and may show a parting, a color difference, a change in particle size, or various combinations of these. The term is commonly applied to any bedding surface, even one that is conspicuously bent or deformed by folding. Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at the surface. Bedrock-controlled topography. A landscape where the configuration and relief of the landforms are determined or strongly influenced by the underlying bedrock. Bottom land. An informal term loosely applied to various portions of a flood plain. Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60 centimeters) in diameter. Breaks. A landscape or tract of steep, rough or broken land dissected by ravines and gullies and marking a sudden change in topography. Breast height. An average height of 4.5 feet above the ground surface; the point on a tree where diameter measurements are ordinarily taken. California bearing ratio (CBR). The load-supporting capacity of a soil as compared to that of standard crushed limestone, expressed as a ratio. First standardized in California. A soil having a CBR of 16 supports 16 percent of the load that would be supported by standard crushed limestone, per unit area, with the same degree of distortion. Canopy. The leafy crown of trees or shrubs. (See Crown.) Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil particles and in tiny spaces between particles. Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds capillary water in the soil. Catena. A sequence, or “chain,” of soils on a landscape that formed in similar kinds of parent material and under similar climatic conditions but that have different characteristics as a result of differences in relief and drainage. Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity. The common soil cations are calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen. Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil, expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity but is more precise in meaning. Channery soil material. Soil material that has, by volume, 15 to 35 percent thin, flat fragments of sandstone, shale, slate, limestone, or schist as much as 6 inches (15 centimeters) along the longest axis. A single piece is called a channer. Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent silt.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 229 Clay depletions. See Redoximorphic features. Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin. Climax plant community. The stabilized plant community on a particular site. The plant cover reproduces itself and does not change so long as the environment remains the same. Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand. Cobble (or cobblestone). A rounded or partly rounded fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25 centimeters) in diameter. Cobbly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35 percent, by volume, rounded or partially rounded rock fragments 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25 centimeters) in diameter. Very cobbly soil material has 35 to 60 percent of these rock fragments, and extremely cobbly soil material has more than 60 percent. COLE (coefficient of linear extensibility). See Linear extensibility. Colluvium. Unconsolidated, unsorted earth material being transported or deposited on side slopes and/or at the base of slopes by mass movement (e.g., direct gravitational action) and by local, unconcentrated runoff. Complex slope. Irregular or variable slope. Planning or establishing terraces, diversions, and other water-control structures on a complex slope is difficult. Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil or miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or so small in area that it is not practical to map them separately at the selected scale of mapping. The pattern and proportion of the soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar in all areas. Concretions. See Redoximorphic features. Conglomerate. A coarse-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded or subangular rock fragments more than 2 millimeters in diameter. It commonly has a matrix of sand and finer textured material. Conglomerate is the consolidated equivalent of gravel. Consistence, soil. Refers to the degree of cohesion and adhesion of soil material and its resistance to deformation when ruptured. Consistence includes resistance of soil material to rupture and to penetration; plasticity, toughness, and stickiness of puddled soil material; and the manner in which the soil material behaves when subject to compression. Terms describing consistence are defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.” Control section. The part of the soil on which classification is based. The thickness varies among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches and 40 or 80 inches. Corrosion (soil survey interpretations). Soil-induced electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or weakens concrete or uncoated steel. Crown. The upper part of a tree or shrub, including the living branches and their foliage. Culmination of the mean annual increment (CMAI). The average annual increase per acre in the volume of a stand. Computed by dividing the total volume of the stand by its age. As the stand increases in age, the mean annual increment continues to increase until mortality begins to reduce the rate of increase. The point where the stand reaches its maximum annual rate of growth is called the culmination of the mean annual increment. Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations tend to cave in or slough. Dense layer (in tables). A very firm, massive layer that has a bulk density of more than 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter. Such a layer affects the ease of digging and can affect filling and compacting. Depth, soil. Generally, the thickness of the soil over bedrock. Very deep soils are more than 60 inches deep over bedrock; deep soils, 40 to 60 inches; moderately

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 230 deep, 20 to 40 inches; shallow, 10 to 20 inches; and very shallow, less than 10 inches. Diversion (or diversion terrace). A ridge of earth, generally a terrace, built to protect downslope areas by diverting runoff from its natural course. Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods under conditions similar to those under which the soil formed. Alterations of the water regime by human activities, either through drainage or irrigation, are not a consideration unless they have significantly changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized— excessively drained, somewhat excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained These classes are defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.” Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water, from an area. Drainageway. A general term for a course or channel along which water moves in draining an area. A term restricted to relatively small, linear depressions that at some time move concentrated water and either do not have a defined channel or have only a small defined channel. Earthy fill. See Mine spoil. Ecological site. An area where climate, soil, and relief are sufficiently uniform to produce a distinct natural plant community. An ecological site is the product of all the environmental factors responsible for its development. It is typified by an association of species that differ from those on other ecological sites in kind and/or proportion of species or in total production. Eluviation. The movement of material in true solution or colloidal suspension from one place to another within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material through eluviation are eluvial; those that have received material are illuvial. Endosaturation. A type of saturation of the soil in which all horizons between the upper boundary of saturation and a depth of 2 meters are saturated. Episaturation. A type of saturation indicating a perched water table in a soil in which saturated layers are underlain by one or more unsaturated layers within 2 meters of the surface. Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by water, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by such processes as gravitational creep. Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of human or animal activities or of a catastrophe in nature, such as a fire, that exposes the surface. Erosion surface. A land surface shaped by the action of erosion, especially by running water. Escarpment. A relatively continuous and steep slope or cliff breaking the general continuity of more gently sloping land surfaces and resulting from erosion or faulting. Most commonly applied to cliffs produced by differential erosion. Synonym: scarp. Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper balance, for the growth of specified plants when light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth factors are favorable. Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a soil, expressed as a percentage of the ovendry weight, after the gravitational, or free, water has drained away; the field moisture content 2 or 3 days after a soaking rain; also called normal field capacity, normal moisture capacity, or capillary capacity Fine textured soil. Sandy clay, silty clay, or clay. Firebreak. An area cleared of flammable material to stop or help control creeping or running fires. It also serves as a line from which to work and to facilitate the movement of firefighters and equipment. Designated roads also serve as firebreaks.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 231 Flaggy soil material. Material that has, by volume, 15 to 35 percent flagstones. Very flaggy soil material has 35 to 60 percent flagstones, and extremely flaggy soil material has more than 60 percent flagstones. Flagstone. A thin fragment of sandstone, limestone, slate, shale, or (rarely) schist 6 to 15 inches (15 to 38 centimeters) long. Flood plain. The nearly level plain that borders a stream and is subject to flooding unless protected artificially. Fluvial. Of or pertaining to rivers or streams; produced by stream or river action. Footslope. The concave surface at the base of a hillslope. A footslope is a transition zone between upslope sites of erosion and transport (shoulders and backslopes) and downslope sites of deposition (toeslopes). Forb. Any herbaceous plant not a grass or a sedge. Forest cover. All trees and other woody plants (underbrush) covering the ground in a forest. Forest type. A stand of trees similar in composition and development because of given physical and biological factors by which it may be differentiated from other stands. Fragipan. A loamy, brittle subsurface horizon low in porosity and content of organic matter and low or moderate in clay but high in silt or very fine sand. A fragipan appears cemented and restricts roots. When dry, it is hard or very hard and has a higher bulk density than the horizon or horizons above. When moist, it tends to rupture suddenly under pressure rather than to deform slowly. Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers especially to the processes or soil-forming factors responsible for the formation of the solum, or true soil, from the unconsolidated parent material. Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage, resulting in the reduction of iron and other elements in the profile and in gray colors. Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock as much as 3 inches (2 millimeters to 7.6 centimeters) in diameter. An individual piece is a pebble. Gravelly soil material. Material that has 15 to 35 percent, by volume, rounded or angular rock fragments, not prominently flattened, as much as 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter. Ground water. Water filling all the unblocked pores of the material below the water table. Gully. A small channel with steep sides caused by erosion and cut in unconsolidated materials by concentrated but intermittent flow of water. The distinction between a gully and a rill is one of depth. A gully generally is an obstacle to farm machinery and is too deep to be obliterated by ordinary tillage; a rill is of lesser depth and can be smoothed over by ordinary tillage. Hard bedrock. Bedrock that cannot be excavated except by blasting or by the use of special equipment that is not commonly used in construction. Hard to reclaim (in tables). Reclamation is difficult after the removal of soil for construction and other uses. Revegetation and erosion control are extremely difficult. Hardpan. A hardened or cemented soil horizon, or layer. The soil material is sandy, loamy, or clayey and is cemented by iron oxide, silica, calcium carbonate, or other substance. Head slope (geomorphology). A geomorphic component of hills consisting of a laterally concave area of a hillside, especially at the head of a drainageway. The overland waterflow is converging. Hill. A generic term for an elevated area of the land surface, rising as much as 1,000 feet above surrounding lowlands, commonly of limited summit area and having a well defined outline. Slopes are generally more than 15 percent. The distinction between a hill and a mountain is arbitrary and may depend on local usage.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 232 Hillslope. A generic term for the steeper part of a hill between its summit and the drainage line, valley flat, or depression floor at the base of a hill. Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, having distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming processes. In the identification of soil horizons, an uppercase letter represents the major horizons. Numbers or lowercase letters that follow represent subdivisions of the major horizons. An explanation of the subdivisions is given in the “Soil Survey Manual.” The major horizons of mineral soil are as follows: O horizon. —An organic layer of fresh and decaying plant residue. A horizon. —The mineral horizon at or near the surface in which an accumulation of humified organic matter is mixed with the mineral material. Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was originally part of a B horizon. E horizon. —The mineral horizon in which the main feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or some combination of these. B horizon. —The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B horizon is in part a layer of transition from the overlying A to the underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has distinctive characteristics, such as (1) accumulation of clay, sesquioxides, humus, or a combination of these; (2) prismatic or blocky structure; (3) redder or browner colors than those in the A horizon; or (4) a combination of these. C horizon. —The mineral horizon or layer, excluding indurated bedrock, that is little affected by soil-forming processes and does not have the properties typical of the overlying soil material. The material of a C horizon may be either like or unlike that in which the solum formed. If the material is known to differ from that in the solum, an Arabic numeral, commonly a 2, precedes the letter C. Cr horizon. —Soft, consolidated bedrock beneath the soil. R layer. —Consolidated bedrock beneath the soil. The bedrock commonly underlies a C horizon, but it can be directly below an A or a B horizon. Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable part of the organic matter in mineral soils. Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped according to their runoff potential. The soil properties that influence this potential are those that affect the minimum rate of water infiltration on a bare soil during periods after prolonged wetting when the soil is not frozen. These properties are depth to a seasonal high water table, the infiltration rate and permeability after prolonged wetting, and depth to a very slowly permeable layer. The slope and the kind of plant cover are not considered but are separate factors in predicting runoff. Illuviation. The movement of soil material from one horizon to another in the soil profile. Generally, material is removed from an upper horizon and deposited in a lower horizon. Impervious soil. A soil through which water, air, or roots penetrate slowly or not at all. No soil is absolutely impervious to air and water all the time. Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the immediate surface of soil or other material, as contrasted with percolation, which is movement of water through soil layers or material. Infiltration capacity. The maximum rate at which water can infiltrate into a soil under a given set of conditions. Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates the surface of the soil at any given instant, usually expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the rate at which water is applied at the surface. Interfluve. A landform composed of the relatively undissected upland or ridge between two adjacent valleys containing streams flowing in the same general direction. An elevated area between two drainageways that sheds water to those drainageways.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 233 Interfluve (geomorphology). A geomorphic component of hills consisting of the uppermost, comparatively level or gently sloping area of a hill; shoulders of backwearing hillslopes can narrow the upland or can merge, resulting in a strongly convex shape. Intermittent stream. A stream, or reach of a stream, that does not flow year-round but that is commonly dry for 3 or more months out of 12 and whose channel is generally below the local water table. It flows only during wet periods or when it receives ground-water discharge or long, continued contributions from melting snow or other surface and shallow subsurface sources. Iron depletions. See Redoximorphic features. Karst (topography). A kind of topography that formed in limestone, gypsum, or other soluble rocks by dissolution and that is characterized by closed depressions, sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage. Ksat. Saturated hydraulic conductivity. (See Permeability.) Landslide. A general, encompassing term for most types of mass movement landforms and processes involving the downslope transport and outward deposition of soil and rock materials caused by gravitational forces; the movement may or may not involve saturated materials. The speed and distance of movement, as well as the amount of soil and rock material, vary greatly. Large stones (in tables). Rock fragments 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) or more across. Large stones adversely affect the specified use of the soil. Leaching. The removal of soluble material from soil or other material by percolating water. LEP (linear extensibility percent) See Linear extensibility. Linear extensibility. Refers to the change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture content is decreased from a moist to a dry state. Linear extensibility is used to determine the shrink-swell potential of soils. It is an expression of the volume change between the water content of the clod at 1/3or 1/10-bar tension (33kPa or 10kPa tension) and oven dryness. Volume change is influenced by the amount and type of clay minerals in the soil. The volume change is the percent change for the whole soil. If it is expressed as a fraction, the resulting value is COLE, coefficient of linear extensibility. Liquid limit. The moisture content at which the soil passes from a plastic to a liquid state. Loam. Soil material that is 7 to 27 percent clay particles, 28 to 50 percent silt particles, and less than 52 percent sand particles. Loess. Material transported and deposited by wind and consisting dominantly of siltsized particles. Low strength. The soil is not strong enough to support loads. Masses. See Redoximorphic features. Medium textured soil. Very fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam, or silt. Mine spoil. An accumulation of displaced earthy material, rock, or other waste material removed during mining or excavation. Also called earthy fill. Mineral soil. Soil that is mainly mineral material and low in organic material. Its bulk density is more than that of organic soil. Miscellaneous area. A kind of map unit that has little or no natural soil and supports little or no vegetation. Moderately coarse textured soil. Coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. Moderately fine textured soil. Clay loam, sandy clay loam, or silty clay loam. Mollic epipedon. A thick, dark, humus-rich surface horizon (or horizons) that has high base saturation and pedogenic soil structure. It may include the upper part of the subsoil. Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil, including the texture, structure,

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 234 porosity, consistence, color, and other physical, mineral, and biological properties of the various horizons, and the thickness and arrangement of those horizons in the soil profile. Mottling, soil. Irregular spots of different colors that vary in number and size. Descriptive terms are as follows: abundance— few, common, and many; size— fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast— faint, distinct, and prominent The size measurements are of the diameter along the greatest dimension. Fine indicates less than 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch); medium, from 5 to 15 millimeters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch); and coarse, more than 15 millimeters (about 0.6 inch). Munsell notation. A designation of color by degrees of three simple variables—hue, value, and chroma. For example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4. Neutral soil. A soil having a pH value of 6.6 to 7.3. (See Reaction, soil.) Nodules. See Redoximorphic features. Nose slope (geomorphology). A geomorphic component of hills consisting of the projecting end (laterally convex area) of a hillside. The overland waterflow is predominantly divergent. Nose slopes consist dominantly of colluvium and slopewash sediments (for example, slope alluvium). Nutrient, plant. Any element taken in by a plant essential to its growth. Plant nutrients are mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, boron, and zinc obtained from the soil and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from the air and water. Organic matter. Plant and animal residue in the soil in various stages of decomposition. The content of organic matter in the surface layer is described as follows:Very low .................................... less than 0.5 percent Low.................................................. 0.5 to 1.0 percent Moderately low ............................... 1.0 to 2.0 percent Moderate ......................................... 2.0 to 4.0 percent High ................................................. 4.0 to 8.0 percent Very high ................................. more than 8.0 percentPan. A compact, dense layer in a soil that impedes the movement of water and the growth of roots. For example, hardpan, fragipan, claypan, plowpan, and traffic pan Parent material. The unconsolidated organic and mineral material in which soil forms. Ped. An individual natural soil aggregate, such as a granule, a prism, or a block. Pedon. The smallest volume that can be called “a soil.” A pedon is three dimensional and large enough to permit study of all horizons. Its area ranges from about 10 to 100 square feet (1 square meter to 10 square meters), depending on the variability of the soil. Percolation. The movement of water through the soil. Permafrost. Ground, soil, or rock that remains at or below 0 degrees C for at least 2 years. It is defined on the basis of temperature and is not necessarily frozen. Permeability. The quality of the soil that enables water or air to move downward through the profile. The rate at which a saturated soil transmits water is accepted as a measure of this quality. In soil physics, the rate is referred to as “saturated hydraulic conductivity,” which is defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.” In line with conventional usage in the engineering profession and with traditional usage in published soil surveys, this rate of flow continues to be expressed as “permeability.” Terms describing permeability, measured in inches per hour, are as follows:Impermeable ............................. less than 0.0015 inch Very slow ...................................... 0.0015 to 0.06 inch

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 235Slow ................................................... 0.06 to 0.2 inch Moderately slow ................................... 0.2 to 0.6 inch Moderate .................................. 0.6 inch to 2.0 inches Moderately rapid .............................. 2.0 to 6.0 inches Rapid ................................................. 6.0 to 20 inches Very rapid ................................... more than 20 inchespH value. A numerical designation of acidity and alkalinity in soil. (See Reaction, soil.) Phase, soil. A subdivision of a soil series based on features that affect its use and management, such as slope, stoniness, and flooding. Piping (in tables). Formation of subsurface tunnels or pipelike cavities by water moving through the soil. Plastic limit. The moisture content at which a soil changes from semisolid to plastic. Plasticity index. The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of moisture content within which the soil remains plastic. Plinthite. The sesquioxide-rich, humus-poor, highly weathered mixture of clay with quartz and other diluents. It commonly appears as red mottles, usually in platy, polygonal, or reticulate patterns. Plinthite changes irreversibly to an ironstone hardpan or to irregular aggregates on repeated wetting and drying, especially if it is exposed also to heat from the sun. In a moist soil, plinthite can be cut with a spade. It is a form of laterite. Ponding. Standing water on soils in closed depressions. Unless the soils are artificially drained, the water can be removed only by percolation or evapotranspiration. Poorly graded. Refers to a coarse-grained soil or soil material consisting mainly of particles of nearly the same size. Because there is little difference in size of the particles, density can be increased only slightly by compaction. Pore linings. See Redoximorphic features. Potential native plant community. See Climax plant community. Potential rooting depth (effective rooting depth). Depth to which roots could penetrate if the content of moisture in the soil were adequate. The soil has no properties restricting the penetration of roots to this depth. Prescribed burning. Deliberately burning an area for specific management purposes, under the appropriate conditions of weather and soil moisture and at the proper time of day. Productivity, soil. The capability of a soil for producing a specified plant or sequence of plants under specific management. Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil extending through all its horizons and into the parent material. Reaction, soil. A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, expressed as pH values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is described as precisely neutral in reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline. The degrees of acidity or alkalinity, expressed as pH values, are:Ultra acid ................................................. less than 3.5 Extremely acid ............................................. 3.5 to 4.4 Very strongly acid........................................ 4.5 to 5.0 Strongly acid ................................................ 5.1 to 5.5 Moderately acid........................................... 5.6 to 6.0 Slightly acid ................................................. 6.1 to 6.5 Neutral ......................................................... 6.6 to 7.3 Slightly alkaline ............................................ 7.4 to 7.8 Moderately alkaline.....................................7.9 to 8.4 Strongly alkaline .......................................... 8.5 to 9.0 Very strongly alkaline .......................... 9.1 and higher

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 236 Redoximorphic concentrations. See Redoximorphic features. Redoximorphic depletions. See Redoximorphic features. Redoximorphic features. Redoximorphic features are associated with wetness and result from alternating periods of reduction and oxidation of iron and manganese compounds in the soil. Reduction occurs during saturation with water, and oxidation occurs when the soil is not saturated. Characteristic color patterns are created by these processes. The reduced iron and manganese ions may be removed from a soil if vertical or lateral fluxes of water occur, in which case there is no iron or manganese precipitation in that soil. Wherever the iron and manganese are oxidized and precipitated, they form either soft masses or hard concretions or nodules. Movement of iron and manganese as a result of redoximorphic processes in a soil may result in redoximorphic features that are defined as follows: 1. Redoximorphic concentrations.—These are zones of apparent accumulation of iron-manganese oxides, including: A. Nodules and concretions, which are cemented bodies that can be removed from the soil intact. Concretions are distinguished from nodules on the basis of internal organization. A concretion typically has concentric layers that are visible to the naked eye. Nodules do not have visible organized internal structure; and B. Masses, which are noncemented concentrations of substances within the soil matrix; and C. Pore linings, i.e., zones of accumulation along pores that may be either coatings on pore surfaces or impregnations from the matrix adjacent to the pores. 2. Redoximorphic depletions.—These are zones of low chroma (chromas less than those in the matrix) where either iron-manganese oxides alone or both iron-manganese oxides and clay have been stripped out, including: A. Iron depletions, i.e., zones that contain low amounts of iron and manganese oxides but have a clay content similar to that of the adjacent matrix; and B. Clay depletions, i.e., zones that contain low amounts of iron, manganese, and clay (often referred to as silt coatings or skeletans). 3. Reduced matrix.—This is a soil matrix that has low chroma in situ but undergoes a change in hue or chroma within 30 minutes after the soil material has been exposed to air. Reduced matrix. See Redoximorphic features. Regolith. All unconsolidated earth materials above the solid bedrock. It includes material weathered in place from all kinds of bedrock and alluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine, and pyroclastic deposits. Relief. The relative difference in elevation between the upland summits and the lowlands or valleys of a given region. Residuum (residual soil material). Unconsolidated, weathered or partly weathered mineral material that accumulated as bedrock disintegrated in place. Rock fragments. Rock or mineral fragments having a diameter of 2 millimeters or more; for example, pebbles, cobbles, stones, and boulders. Root zone. The part of the soil that can be penetrated by plant roots. Runoff. The precipitation discharged into stream channels from an area. The water that flows off the surface of the land without sinking into the soil is called surface runoff. Water that enters the soil before reaching surface streams is called ground-water runoff or seepage flow from ground water. Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral fragments from 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in diameter. Most sand grains consist of quartz. As a soil textural class, a soil that is 85 percent or more sand and not more than 10 percent clay. Sandstone. Sedimentary rock containing dominantly sand-sized particles.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 237 Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). See Permeability. Saturation. Wetness characterized by zero or positive pressure of the soil water. Under conditions of saturation, the water will flow from the soil matrix into an unlined auger hole. Sedimentary rock. A consolidated deposit of clastic particles, chemical precipitates, or organic remains accumulated at or near the surface of the earth under normal low temperature and pressure conditions. Sedimentary rocks include consolidated equivalents of alluvium, colluvium, drift, and eolian, lacustrine, and marine deposits. Examples are sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, claystone, shale, conglomerate, limestone, dolomite, and coal. Sequum. A sequence consisting of an illuvial horizon and the overlying eluvial horizon. (See Eluviation.) Series, soil. A group of soils that have profiles that are almost alike. All the soils of a series have horizons that are similar in composition, thickness, and arrangement. Shale. Sedimentary rock that formed by the hardening of a deposit of clay, silty clay, or silty clay loam and that has a tendency to split into thin layers. Shoulder. The convex, erosional surface near the top of a hillslope. A shoulder is a transition from summit to backslope. Shrink-swell (in tables). The shrinking of soil when dry and the swelling when wet. Shrinking and swelling can damage roads, dams, building foundations, and other structures. It can also damage plant roots. Side slope (geomorphology). A geomorphic component of hills consisting of a laterally planar area of a hillside. The overland waterflow is predominantly parallel. Side slopes are dominantly colluvium and slope-wash sediments. Silica. A combination of silicon and oxygen. The mineral form is called quartz. Silica-sesquioxide ratio. The ratio of the number of molecules of silica to the number of molecules of alumina and iron oxide. The more highly weathered soils or their clay fractions in warm-temperate, humid regions, and especially those in the tropics, generally have a low ratio. Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that range in diameter from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). As a soil textural class, soil that is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12 percent clay. Siltstone. An indurated silt having the texture and composition of shale but lacking its fine lamination or fissility; a massive mudstone in which silt predominates over clay. Similar soils. Soils that share limits of diagnostic criteria, behave and perform in a similar manner, and have similar conservation needs or management requirements for the major land uses in the survey area. Sinkhole. A closed, circular or elliptical depression, commonly funnel shaped, characterized by subsurface drainage and formed either by dissolution of the surface of underlying bedrock (e.g., limestone, gypsum, or salt) or by collapse of underlying caves within bedrock. Complexes of sinkholes in carbonate-rock terrain are the main components of karst topography. Site index. A designation of the quality of a forest site based on the height of the dominant stand at an arbitrarily chosen age. For example, if the average height attained by dominant and codominant trees in a fully stocked stand at the age of 50 years is 75 feet, the site index is 75. Slickensides (pedogenic). Grooved, striated, and/or glossy (shiny) slip faces on structural peds, such as wedges; produced by shrink-swell processes, most commonly in soils that have a high content of expansive clays. Slope. The inclination of the land surface from the horizontal. Percentage of slope is the vertical distance divided by horizontal distance, then multiplied by 100. Thus, a

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 238 slope of 20 percent is a drop of 20 feet in 100 feet of horizontal distance. In this survey, classes for simple slopes are as follows:Nearly level ...........................................0 to 2 percent Gently sloping .......................................2 to 6 percent Moderately sloping .............................6 to 12 percent Strongly sloping ................................12 to 20 percent Moderately steep ..............................20 to 30 percent Steep .................................................30 to 50 percent Very steep ................................50 percent and higherSoft bedrock. Bedrock that can be excavated with trenching machines, backhoes, small rippers, and other equipment commonly used in construction. Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body at the earth’s surface. It is capable of supporting plants and has properties resulting from the integrated effect of climate and living matter acting on earthy parent material, as conditioned by relief and by the passage of time. Soil separates. Mineral particles less than 2 millimeters in equivalent diameter and ranging between specified size limits. The names and sizes, in millimeters, of separates recognized in the United States are as follows:Very coarse sand ......................................... 2.0 to 1.0 Coarse sand ................................................ 1.0 to 0.5 Medium sand ............................................. 0.5 to 0.25 Fine sand ................................................. 0.25 to 0.10 Very fine sand .......................................... 0.10 to 0.05 Silt .......................................................... 0.05 to 0.002 Clay .....................................................less than 0.002Solum. The upper part of a soil profile, above the C horizon, in which the processes of soil formation are active. The solum in soil consists of the A, E, and B horizons. Generally, the characteristics of the material in these horizons are unlike those of the material below the solum. The living roots and plant and animal activities are largely confined to the solum. Stone line. In a vertical cross section, a line formed by scattered fragments or a discrete layer of angular and subangular rock fragments (commonly a gravelor cobble-sized lag concentration) that formerly was draped across a topographic surface and was later buried by additional sediments. A stone line generally caps material that was subject to weathering, soil formation, and erosion before burial. Many stone lines seem to be buried erosion pavements, originally formed by sheet and rill erosion across the land surface. Stones. Rock fragments 10 to 24 inches (25 to 60 centimeters) in diameter if rounded or 15 to 24 inches (38 to 60 centimeters) in length if flat. Stony. Refers to a soil containing stones in numbers that interfere with or prevent tillage. Stream terrace. One of a series of platforms in a stream valley, flanking and more or less parallel to the stream channel, originally formed near the level of the stream; represents the remnants of an abandoned flood plain, stream bed, or valley floor produced during a former state of fluvial erosion or deposition. Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into compound particles or aggregates. The principal forms of soil structure are— platy (laminated), prismatic (vertical axis of aggregates longer than horizontal), columnar (prisms with rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular), and granular Structureless soils are either single grained (each grain by itself, as in dune sand) or massive (the particles adhering without any regular cleavage, as in many hardpans). Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the solum below plow depth.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 239 Substratum. The part of the soil below the solum. Subsurface layer. Any surface soil horizon (A, E, AB, or EB) below the surface layer. Summit. The topographically highest position of a hillslope. It has a nearly level (planar or only slightly convex) surface. Surface layer. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth from 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters). Frequently designated as the “plow layer,” or the “Ap horizon.” Surface soil. The A, E, AB, and EB horizons, considered collectively. It includes all subdivisions of these horizons. Taxadjuncts. Soils that cannot be classified in a series recognized in the classification system. Such soils are named for a series they strongly resemble and are designated as taxadjuncts to that series because they differ in ways too small to be of consequence in interpreting their use and behavior. Soils are recognized as taxadjuncts only when one or more of their characteristics are slightly outside the range defined for the family of the series for which the soils are named. Terrace (geomorphology). A steplike surface, bordering a valley floor or shoreline, that represents the former position of a flood plain, lake, or seashore. The term is usually applied both to the relatively flat summit surface (tread) that was cut or built by stream or wave action and to the steeper descending slope (scarp or riser) that has graded to a lower base level of erosion. Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural classes, in order of increasing proportion of fine particles, are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay The sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be further divided by specifying “coarse,” “fine,” or “very fine.” Thin layer (in tables). Otherwise suitable soil material that is too thin for the specified use. Toeslope. The gently inclined surface at the base of a hillslope. Toeslopes in profile are commonly gentle and linear and are constructional surfaces forming the lower part of a hillslope continuum that grades to valley or closed-depression floors. Topsoil. The upper part of the soil, which is the most favorable material for plant growth. It is ordinarily rich in organic matter and is used to topdress roadbanks, lawns, and land affected by mining. Trace elements. Chemical elements, for example, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and iron, in soils in extremely small amounts. They are essential to plant growth. Upland. An informal, general term for the higher ground of a region, in contrast with a low-lying adjacent area, such as a valley or plain, or for land at a higher elevation than the flood plain or low stream terrace; land above the footslope zone of the hillslope continuum. Variegation. Refers to patterns of contrasting colors assumed to be inherited from the parent material rather than to be the result of poor drainage. Water bars. Smooth, shallow ditches or depressional areas that are excavated at an angle across a sloping road. They are used to reduce the downward velocity of water and divert it off and away from the road surface. Water bars can easily be driven over if constructed properly. Weathering. All physical disintegration, chemical decomposition, and biologically induced changes in rocks or other deposits at or near the earth’s surface by atmospheric or biologic agents or by circulating surface waters but involving essentially no transport of the altered material. Well graded. Refers to soil material consisting of coarse-grained particles that are well distributed over a wide range in size or diameter. Such soil normally can be easily increased in density and bearing properties by compaction. Contrasts with poorly graded soil.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 240 Wilting point (or permanent wilting point). The moisture content of soil, on an ovendry basis, at which a plant (specifically a sunflower) wilts so much that it does not recover when placed in a humid, dark chamber. Windthrow. The uprooting and tipping over of trees by the wind.

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241 Tables

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 242Table 1.—Temperature and Precipitation (Recorded in the period 1971-2000 at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky) __________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Temperature | Precipitation | | ________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | 2 years in | | |2 years in 10| | | | | | 10 will have--| Average | | will have-|Average| _______________ _____________ Month |Average|Average|Average| | |number of|Average| | |number |Average | daily | daily | daily |Maximum|Minimum| growing | | Less | More |of days| snow|maximum|minimum| | temp. | temp. | degree | |than--|than--| with | fall | | | | higher| lower | days* | | | | 0.10 | | | | | than--| than--| | | | |inch or| | | | | | | | | | | more | __________________________________________________________________________________________________ | o F | o F | o F | o F | o F | Units | In | In | In | | In __ __ __ __ __ _____ __ __ | __ | | __ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | January--| 43.4 | 24.6 | 34.0 | 69 | -10 | 70 | 3.80 | 2.01 | 5.46| 7 | 4.3 | | | | | | | | | | | February-| 50.3 | 28.4 | 39.3 | 75 | -2 | 128 | 3.87 | 2.12 | 5.38| 6 | 4.0 | | | | | | | | | | | March----| 60.2 | 36.3 | 48.2 | 83 | 11 | 297 | 5.03 | 2.75 | 6.69| 8 | 1.4 | | | | | | | | | | | April----| 70.2 | 43.8 | 57.0 | 88 | 23 | 511 | 4.33 | 2.13 | 6.35| 8 | 0.1 | | | | | | | | | | | May------| 77.9 | 52.5 | 65.2 | 90 | 32 | 778 | 5.20 | 3.08 | 6.64| 7 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | June-----| 84.7 | 60.6 | 72.7 | 96 | 43 | 975 | 4.63 | 2.57 | 6.46| 7 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | July-----| 88.3 | 65.0 | 76.6 | 98 | 51 | 1,127 | 4.55 | 2.90 | 6.28| 6 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | August---| 87.2 | 63.5 | 75.4 | 98 | 48 | 1,095 | 3.62 | 1.76 | 5.41| 5 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | September| 81.5 | 56.6 | 69.0 | 95 | 36 | 864 | 4.17 | 2.12 | 6.10| 5 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | October--| 71.0 | 45.4 | 58.2 | 87 | 24 | 561 | 3.46 | 1.64 | 5.20| 5 | 0.0 | | | | | | | | | | | November-| 58.5 | 37.4 | 47.9 | 80 | 14 | 275 | 4.48 | 2.72 | 6.18| 6 | 0.3 | | | | | | | | | | | December-| 48.2 | 29.1 | 38.7 | 70 | 0 | 116 | 4.92 | 2.90 | 6.70| 7 | 1.7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Yearly: | | | | | | | | | | | Average| 68.4 | 45.3 | 56.9 | --| --| --| --| --| ---| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | Extreme| 104 | -20 | --| 100 | -12 | --| --| --| ---| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | Total--| --| --| --| --| --| 6,798 | 52.07 |40.61 | 58.87| 77 | 11.8 | | | | | | | | | | | __________________________________________________________________________________________________ A growing degree day is a unit of heat available for plant growth. It can be calculated by adding the maximum and minimum daily temperatures, dividing the sum by 2, and subtracting the temperature below which growth is minimal for the principal crops in the area (40 degrees F).

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 243Table 2.—Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall (Recorded in the period 1961-90 at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky) ____________________________________________________________ | | Temperature Probability | _________________________________________ | | | | 24 o F | 28 o F | 32 o F | or lower | or lower | or lower ____________________________________________________________ | | | Last freezing | | | temperature | | | in spring: | | | | | | 1 year in 10 | | | later than-| Apr. 13 | Apr. 25 | May 13 | | | 2 years in 10 | | | later than-| Apr. 7 | Apr. 19 | May 7 | | | 5 years in 10 | | | later than-| Mar. 28 | Apr. 8 | Apr. 26 | | | First freezing | | | temperature | | | in fall: | | | | | | 1 year in 10 | | | earlier than-| Oct. 25 | Oct. 9 | Sept. 29 | | | 2 years in 10 | | | earlier than-| Oct. 31 | Oct. 15 | Oct. 4 | | | 5 years in 10 | | | earlier than| Nov. 11 | Oct. 26 | Oct. 13 | | | ____________________________________________________________ Table 3.—Growing Season (Recorded in the period 1971-2000 at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky) ____________________________________________________________ | Daily minimum temperature | during growing season __________________________________________ Probability | | | | Higher | Higher | Higher | than | than | than | 24 o F | 28 o F | 32 o F ____________________________________________________________ | Days | Days | Days ____ ____ ____ | | | 9 years in 10 | 201 | 176 | 154 | | | 8 years in 10 | 211 | 184 | 160 | | | 5 years in 10 | 229 | 200 | 172 | | | 2 years in 10 | 248 | 216 | 183 | | | 1 year in 10 | 257 | 224 | 190 | | | ____________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 244Table 4.—Acres, Hectares, and Proportionate Extent of the Map Units ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map | Map unit name | Acres | Hectares |Percent symbol | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | AlC2 |Allegheny loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded---------------| 32 | 13 | AlD2 |Allegheny loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded--------------| 8 | 3 | CaC2 |Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded---------| 1,362 | 552 | 2.6 CaD |Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, very rocky-----| 190 | 77 | 0.4 CaD2 |Caneyville silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, | | | | very rocky--------------------------------------------------| 100 | 40 | 0.2 CaE |Caneyville silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, very rocky----| 315 | 128 | 0.6 CeD |Caneyville-Lenberg complex, 8 to 20 percent slopes-----------| 456 | 185 | 0.9 CgE |Caneyville-Lenberg-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 30 percent | | | | slopes------------------------------------------------------| 126 | 51 | 0.2 ChC2 |Christian gravelly loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded------| 23 | 9 | ChC3 |Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, | | | | severely eroded---------------------------------------------| 9 | 4 | ChD2 |Christian gravelly loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded-----| 34 | 14 | ChD3 |Christian gravelly sandy clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, | | | | severely eroded---------------------------------------------| 42 | 17 | CkD |Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes------| 3,394 | 1,375 | 6.5 CkE |Caneyville-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes-----| 1,871 | 758 | 3.6 Cn |Chagrin loam, frequently flooded-----------------------------| 125 | 51 | 0.2 CoB |Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes------------------| 4,308 | 1,745 | 8.2 CoC |Clarkrange silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes-----------------| 937 | 379 | 1.8 Cp |Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently flooded----------------| 16 | 6 | CrB |Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes----------------------| 6 | 2 | CrC2 |Crider silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-------------| 3 | 1 | EkB |Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded---------| 47 | 19 | EkC |Elk silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, rarely flooded--------| 2 | 1 | FaB |Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rocky----| 20 | 8 | FaC2 |Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, | | | | very rocky--------------------------------------------------| 62 | 25 | 0.1 FaC3 |Fredonia-Hagerstown complex, 6 to 20 percent slopes, severely| | | | eroded, very rocky------------------------------------------| 90 | 36 | 0.2 FdC |Fredonia-Hagerstown-Vertrees silt loams, 6 to 20 percent | | | | slopes, very rocky------------------------------------------| 190 | 77 | 0.4 FdD2 |Fredonia silty clay loam, 6 to 20 percent slopes, eroded, | | | | very rocky--------------------------------------------------| 39 | 16 | GaB |Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes----------------------| 5 | 2 | Gg |Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently flooded------------------| 174 | 70 | 0.3 GnB2 |Gilpin loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded-------------------| 6 | 2 | GnC2 |Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded------------------| 149 | 60 | 0.3 GnD2 |Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded-----------------| 72 | 29 | 0.1 GnD3 |Gilpin loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded--------| 9 | 4 | Gp |Grigsby fine sandy loam, ponded------------------------------| 15 | 6 | JfD |Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes-| 1,956 | 792 | 3.7 JfE |Jefferson-Lily-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 35 percent slopes-| 3,400 | 1,377 | 6.5 Jo |Johnsburg silt loam------------------------------------------| 18 | 7 | LaC2 |Latham silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-------------| 3 | 1 | Ln |Lindside silt loam, occasionally flooded---------------------| 7 | 3 | LnC2 |Lenberg silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded------------| 9 | 4 | LyB |Lily loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes-----------------------------| 83 | 34 | 0.2 LyC2 |Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded--------------------| 2,197 | 890 | 4.2 LyD2 |Lily loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded-------------------| 2,659 | 1,077 | 5.1 Me |Melvin silt loam, frequently flooded-------------------------| 16 | 6 | Mp |Melvin silt loam, ponded-------------------------------------| 1 | 0 | Ne |Newark silt loam, frequently flooded-------------------------| 103 | 42 | 0.2 NhD2 |Nolichucky loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded-------------| 3 | 1 | Nk |Newark silt loam, ponded-------------------------------------| 37 | 15 | No |Nolin silt loam, frequently flooded--------------------------| 1,704 | 690 | 3.2 Np |Nolin silt loam, ponded--------------------------------------| 23 | 9 | OwB |Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally flooded| 19 | 8 | PbB |Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes--------------------| 1 | 0 | | | | | See footnote at end of table.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 245Table 4.—Acres, Hectares, and Proportionate Extent of the Map Units ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map | Map unit name | Acres | Hectares |Percent symbol | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | PbC2 |Pembroke silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-----------| 3 | 1 | PeC3 |Pembroke silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely | | | | eroded------------------------------------------------------| 8 | 3 | ReB2 |Riney silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded---------------| 27 | 11 | ReC2 |Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded--------------| 633 | 256 | 1.2 ReD2 |Riney silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded-------------| 944 | 382 | 1.8 ReE |Riney silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes---------------------| 86 | 35 | 0.2 RnB |Riney loam, karst, 2 to 6 percent slopes---------------------| 36 | 15 | Ro |Rock outcrop, 20 to 40 percent slopes------------------------| 36 | 15 | RoB |Rosine silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes----------------------| 105 | 43 | 0.2 RoC2 |Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-------------| 328 | 133 | 0.6 RoD2 |Rosine silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded------------| 73 | 30 | 0.1 RxE |Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes-----| 79 | 32 | 0.2 RxF |Rock outcrop-Caneyville complex, 30 to 70 percent slopes-----| 341 | 138 | 0.7 SaB |Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopes------------------------| 60 | 24 | 0.1 SgD2 |Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, | | | | eroded------------------------------------------------------| 113 | 46 | 0.2 SgE |Shelocta-Latham-Gilpin complex, 20 to 30 percent slopes------| 355 | 144 | 0.7 TsB |Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes----------------------| 161 | 65 | 0.3 VrC2 |Vertrees silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-----------| 28 | 11 | W |Water--------------------------------------------------------| 620 | 251 | 1.2 WbE |Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 15 to 35 percent slopes, very| | | | rocky-------------------------------------------------------| 6,457 | 2,615 | 12.3 WbF |Wallen-Bledsoe-Donahue complex, 35 to 50 percent slopes, very| | | | rocky-------------------------------------------------------| 7,920 | 3,208 | 15.1 WeB |Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes--------------------| 1,837 | 744 | 3.5 WeC2 |Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded-----------| 4,343 | 1,759 | 8.3 WeD |Wellston silt loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes------------------| 1,045 | 423 | 2.0 WsC3 |Wellston silty clay loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, severely | | | | eroded------------------------------------------------------| 115 | 47 | 0.2 ZaB |Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes------------------| 164 | 66 | 0.3 ZaC2 |Zanesville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded---------| 60 | 24 | 0.1 | |____________|____________|________ | Total---------------------------------------------------| 52,453 | 21,243 | 100.0 | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Less than 0.1 percent.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 246Table 5.—Land Capability Classification (Land capability is a system of grouping soils primarily on the basis of their capability to produce common cultivated crops and pasture plants without deteriorating over a long period of time. The classifications are for nonirrigated areas) ________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol and soil name | Land | | capability | | ________________________________________________________________ | | |AlC2: | | Allegheny----------------------------------------| 3e | | |AlD2: | | Allegheny----------------------------------------| 4e | | |CaC2: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 3e | | |CaD: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | |CaD2: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | |CaE: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | |CeD: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | | Lenberg------------------------------------------| 6e | | |CgE: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | | Lenberg------------------------------------------| 6e | | | Rock outcrop. | | | |ChC2: | | Christian----------------------------------------| 3e | | |ChC3: | | Christian, severely eroded-----------------------| 4e | | |ChD2: | | Christian----------------------------------------| 4e | | |ChD3: | | Christian, severely eroded-----------------------| 6e | | |CkD: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | |CkE: | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | | Rock outcrop. | | | |Cn: | | Chagrin, frequently flooded----------------------| 2w | | |CoB: | | Clarkrange---------------------------------------| 2e | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 247Table 5.—Land Capability Classification—Continued ________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol and soil name | Land | | capability | | ________________________________________________________________ | | |CoC: | | Clarkrange---------------------------------------| 3e | | |Cp: | | Clifty, frequently flooded-----------------------| 2w | | |CrB: | | Crider-------------------------------------------| 2e | | |CrC2: | | Crider-------------------------------------------| 3e | | |EkB: | | Elk, rarely flooded------------------------------| 2e | | |EkC: | | Elk, rarely flooded------------------------------| 3e | | |FaB: | | Fredonia-----------------------------------------| 3e | | | Hagerstown---------------------------------------| 2e | | |FaC2: | | Fredonia-----------------------------------------| 4e | | | Hagerstown---------------------------------------| 3e | | |FaC3: | | Fredonia, severely eroded------------------------| 6e | | | Hagerstown, severely eroded----------------------| 4e | | |FdC: | | Fredonia-----------------------------------------| 4e | | | Hagerstown---------------------------------------| 3e | | | Vertrees-----------------------------------------| 3e | | |FdD2: | | Fredonia-----------------------------------------| 6e | | |GaB: | | Gatton-------------------------------------------| 2e | | |Gg: | | Grigsby, frequently flooded----------------------| 2w | | |GnB2: | | Gilpin-------------------------------------------| 3e | | |GnC2: | | Gilpin-------------------------------------------| 3e | | |GnD2: | | Gilpin-------------------------------------------| 4e | | |GnD3: | | Gilpin, severely eroded--------------------------| 6e | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 248Table 5.—Land Capability Classification—Continued ________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol and soil name | Land | | capability | | ________________________________________________________________ | | |Gp: | | Grigsby, ponded----------------------------------| 3w | | |JfD: | | Jefferson----------------------------------------| 4e | | | Lily---------------------------------------------| 4e | | | Rock outcrop. | | | |JfE: | | Jefferson----------------------------------------| 6e | | | Lily---------------------------------------------| 6e | | | Rock outcrop. | | | |Jo: | | Johnsburg----------------------------------------| 2w | | |LaC2: | | Latham-------------------------------------------| 3e | | |Ln: | | Lindside, occasionally flooded-------------------| 2w | | |LnC2: | | Lenberg------------------------------------------| 3e | | |LyB: | | Lily---------------------------------------------| 2e | | |LyC2: | | Lily---------------------------------------------| 3e | | |LyD2: | | Lily---------------------------------------------| 4e | | |Me: | | Melvin, frequently flooded-----------------------| 3w | | |Mp: | | Melvin, ponded-----------------------------------| 5w | | |Ne: | | Newark, frequently flooded-----------------------| 3w | | |NhD2: | | Nolichucky---------------------------------------| 4e | | |Nk: | | Newark, ponded-----------------------------------| 3w | | |No: | | Nolin, frequently flooded------------------------| 2w | | |Np: | | Nolin, ponded------------------------------------| 3w | | |OwB: | | Otwood, occasionally flooded---------------------| 2e | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 249Table 5.—Land Capability Classification—Continued ________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol and soil name | Land | | capability | | ________________________________________________________________ | | |PbB: | | Pembroke-----------------------------------------| 2e | | |PbC2: | | Pembroke-----------------------------------------| 3e | | |PeC3: | | Pembroke, severely eroded------------------------| 4e | | |ReB2: | | Riney--------------------------------------------| 2e | | |ReC2: | | Riney--------------------------------------------| 3e | | |ReD2: | | Riney--------------------------------------------| 4e | | |ReE: | | Riney--------------------------------------------| 6e | | |RnB: | | Riney, karst-------------------------------------| 2e | | |Ro. | | Rock outcrop | | | |RoB: | | Rosine-------------------------------------------| 2e | | |RoC2: | | Rosine-------------------------------------------| 3e | | |RoD2: | | Rosine-------------------------------------------| 4e | | |RxE: | | Rock outcrop. | | | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 6e | | |RxF: | | Rock outcrop. | | | | Caneyville---------------------------------------| 7e | | |SaB: | | Sano---------------------------------------------| 2e | | |SgD2: | | Shelocta-----------------------------------------| 4e | | | Latham-------------------------------------------| 4e | | | Gilpin-------------------------------------------| 4e | | |SgE: | | Shelocta-----------------------------------------| 6e | | | Latham-------------------------------------------| 6e | | | Gilpin-------------------------------------------| 6e | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 250Table 5.—Land Capability Classification—Continued ________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol and soil name | Land | | capability | | ________________________________________________________________ | | |TsB: | | Tilsit-------------------------------------------| 2e | | |VrC2: | | Vertrees-----------------------------------------| 3e | | |W. | | Water | | | |WbE: | | Wallen-------------------------------------------| 6e | | | Bledsoe------------------------------------------| 6e | | | Donahue------------------------------------------| 6e | | |WbF: | | Wallen-------------------------------------------| 7e | | | Bledsoe------------------------------------------| 7e | | | Donahue------------------------------------------| 6e | | |WeB: | | Wellston-----------------------------------------| 2e | | |WeC2: | | Wellston-----------------------------------------| 3e | | |WeD: | | Wellston-----------------------------------------| 4e | | |WsC3: | | Wellston, severely eroded------------------------| 4e | | |ZaB: | | Zanesville---------------------------------------| 2e | | |ZaC2: | | Zanesville---------------------------------------| 3e | | ________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 251Table 6.—Prime and Other Important Farmlands (Only the soils considered prime or important farmland are listed. Urban or built-up areas of the soils listed are not considered prime or important farmland. If a soil is prime or important farmland only under certain conditions, the conditions are specified in the “Farmland classification” column) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | Map | Map unit name | Farmland classification symbol | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | CoB |Clarkrange silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland CrB |Crider silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland EkB |Elk silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded |All areas are prime farmland GaB |Gatton silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland GnB2 |Gilpin loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded |All areas are prime farmland Ln |Lindside silt loam, occasionally flooded |All areas are prime farmland LyB |Lily loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland OwB |Otwood silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, occasionally |All areas are prime farmland | flooded | PbB |Pembroke silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland ReB2 |Riney silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes, eroded |All areas are prime farmland RnB |Riney loam, karst, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland RoB |Rosine silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland SaB |Sano silt loam, 0 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland TsB |Tilsit silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland WeB |Wellston silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland ZaB |Zanesville silt loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes |All areas are prime farmland AlC2 |Allegheny loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance CaC2 |Caneyville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance ChC2 |Christian gravelly loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance CoC |Clarkrange silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes |Farmland of statewide importance CrC2 |Crider silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance EkC |Elk silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, rarely flooded |Farmland of statewide importance GnC2 |Gilpin loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance LaC2 |Latham silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance LnC2 |Lenberg silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance LyC2 |Lily loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance PbC2 |Pembroke silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance ReC2 |Riney silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance RoC2 |Rosine silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance VrC2 |Vertrees silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance WeC2 |Wellston silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance ZaC2 |Zanesville silt loam, 6 to 12 percent slopes, eroded |Farmland of statewide importance Jo |Johnsburg silt loam |Prime farmland if drained Me |Melvin silt loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if drained and either | | protected from flooding or not frequently | | flooded during the growing season Ne |Newark silt loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if drained and either | | protected from flooding or not frequently | | flooded during the growing season Cn |Chagrin loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if protected from flooding | | or not frequently flooded during the | | growing season

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 252Table 6.—Prime and Other Important Farmlands—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | Map | Map unit name | Farmland classification symbol | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | Cp |Clifty gravelly silt loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if protected from flooding | | or not frequently flooded during the | | growing season Gg |Grigsby fine sandy loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if protected from flooding | | or not frequently flooded during the | | growing season No |Nolin silt loam, frequently flooded |Prime farmland if protected from flooding | | or not frequently flooded during the | | growing season | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 253Table 7.—Hydric Soils (This report includes only hydric components. Map units with no hydric components are not listed. Definitions of hydric criteria codes are included at the end of the report) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | Map symbol and | |Percent| | | Hydric soils criteria | __________________________________________ | map unit name | Component |of map | Hydric | Landform | Hydric | Meets | Meets | Meets | | | | unit | | | criteria |saturation|flooding|ponding | | | | | | | code | criteria |criteria|criteria| _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Me: | | | | | | | | | | Melvin silt loam, |Melvin, | 85 | Yes |flood plains | 2B3 | Yes | No | No | | frequently flooded | frequently | | | | | | | | | | flooded | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Mp: | | | | | | | | | | Melvin silt loam, |Melvin, | 95 | Yes |flood plains, | 2B3, 3 | Yes | No | Yes | | ponded | ponded | | | basin in | | | | | | | | | | closed | | | | | | | | | | depressions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Ne: | | | | | | | | | | Newark silt loam, |Melvin, | 3 | Yes |flood plains | 2B3 | Yes | No | No | | frequently flooded | frequently | | | | | | | | | | flooded | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Nk: | | | | | | | | | | Newark silt loam, |Melvin, | 3 | Yes |basin in | 2B3, 3 | Yes | No | Yes | | ponded | ponded | | | closed | | | | | | | | | | depressions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Explanation of hydric criteria codes: 1. All Histels except for Folistels, and Histosols except for Folists. 2. Soils in Aquic suborders, great groups, or subgroups, Albolls suborder, Historthels great group, Histoturbels great group, Pachic subgroups, or Cumulic subgroups that: A. are somewhat poorly drained and have a water table at the surface (0.0 feet) during the growing season, or B. are poorly drained or very poorly drained and have either: 1.) a water table at the surface (0.0 feet) during the growing season if textures are coarse sand, sand, or fine sand in all layers within a depth of 20 inches, or 2.) a water table at a depth of 0.5 foot or less during the growing season if permeability is equal to or greater than 6.0 in/hr in all layers within a depth of 20 inches, or 3.) a water table at a depth of 1.0 foot or less during the growing season if permeability is less than 6.0 in/hr in any layer within a depth of 20 inches. 3. Soils that are frequently ponded for long or very long duration during the growing season. 4. Soils that are frequently flooded for long or very long duration during the growing season.

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 254Table 8.—Forestland Productivity _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | AlC2: | | | | Allegheny---------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black oak-----------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |northern red oak----| --| 0 | pine, northern red |pignut hickory------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |shortleaf pine------| 80 | 129 | white oak, yellow|sugar maple---------| --| 0 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | | | | | AlD2: | | | | Allegheny---------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black oak-----------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |northern red oak----| --| 0 | pine, northern red |pignut hickory------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |shortleaf pine------| 80 | 129 | white oak, yellow|sugar maple---------| --| 0 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | | | | | CaC2: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 65 | 43 |eastern redcedar, |chinkapin oak-------| 44 | 29 | eastern white |eastern redcedar----| 36 | 43 | pine, loblolly |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, Virginia |scarlet oak---------| 50 | 29 | pine |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 60 | 43 | | | | | CaD: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern redcedar, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |white ash-----------| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | CaD2: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chinkapin oak-------| 54 | 43 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | white ash, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |scarlet oak---------| 57 | 43 | |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white ash-----------| 75 | 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 255Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | CaE: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern redcedar, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |white ash-----------| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | CeD: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern redcedar, |chinkapin oak-------| 54 | 43 | eastern white |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | pine, loblolly |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |scarlet oak---------| 57 | 43 | white oak, yellow|sugar maple---------| --| 0 | poplar |white ash-----------| 75 | 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | Lenberg-----------------|black oak-----------| 60 | 43 |loblolly pine, |chestnut oak--------| 56 | 43 | shortleaf pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white oak |post oak------------| 46 | 29 | |scarlet oak---------| 66 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 61 | 86 | |white oak-----------| 62 | 43 | | | | | CgE: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chinkapin oak-------| 54 | 43 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | scarlet oak, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | ash, white oak, |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| 75 | 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | Lenberg-----------------|black oak-----------| 60 | 43 |loblolly pine, |chestnut oak--------| 56 | 43 | shortleaf pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white oak |post oak------------| 46 | 29 | |scarlet oak---------| 66 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 61 | 86 | |white oak-----------| 62 | 43 | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | Christian---------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 41 | 43 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 74 | 114 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 87 | 86 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 256Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | ChC3: | | | | Christian, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 41 | 43 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 74 | 114 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 87 | 86 | | | | | ChD2: | | | | Christian---------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 41 | 43 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 74 | 114 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 87 | 86 | | | | | ChD3: | | | | Christian, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 41 | 43 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 74 | 114 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 87 | 86 | | | | | CkD: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chinkapin oak-------| 54 | 29 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | white ash, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |scarlet oak---------| 57 | 43 | |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white ash-----------| 75 | 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chinkapin oak-------| 54 | 43 | loblolly pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | scarlet oak, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | ash, white oak, |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| 75 | 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 257Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | Cn: | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|northern red oak----| 75 | 57 |black walnut, |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |white oak-----------| --| 0 | white ash, white |yellow-poplar-------| 85 | 86 | oak, yellow-poplar | | | | CoB: | | | | Clarkrange--------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |eastern white pine--| 80 | 143 | loblolly pine, |loblolly pine-------| 76 | 100 | shortleaf pine |northern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 70 | 114 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | CoC: | | | | Clarkrange--------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |eastern white pine--| 80 | 143 | loblolly pine, |loblolly pine-------| 76 | 100 | shortleaf pine |northern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 70 | 114 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | Cp: | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |northern red oak----| --| 0 | northern red oak, |red maple-----------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |shortleaf pine------| 76 | 114 | sweetgum, white |Virginia pine-------| --| 0 | ash, white oak |white oak-----------| 65 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 72 | 57 | | | | | CrB: | | | | Crider------------------|black oak-----------| 84 | 72 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| 80 | 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |northern red oak----| 84 | 72 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |white ash-----------| 87 | 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 72 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 97 | 100 | | | | | CrC2: | | | | Crider------------------|black oak-----------| 84 | 72 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| 80 | 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |northern red oak----| 84 | 72 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |white ash-----------| 87 | 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 72 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 97 | 100 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 258Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | EkB: | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-----|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | cherrybark oak, |cherrybark oak------| 95 | 129 | eastern white |common hackberry----| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |pin oak-------------| 96 | 86 | pine, white ash, |red maple-----------| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 91 | 86 | poplar | | | | EkC: | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-----|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | cherrybark oak, |cherrybark oak------| 95 | 129 | eastern white |common hackberry----| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |pin oak-------------| 96 | 86 | pine, white ash, |red maple-----------| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 91 | 86 | poplar | | | | FaB: | | | | Fredonia----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 70 | 57 | white ash, white |black walnut--------| --| 0 | oak |eastern redcedar----| --| 0 | |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |white oak-----------| 65 | 43 | | | | | Hagerstown--------------|northern red oak----| 85 | 72 |eastern white pine, |yellow-poplar-------| 95 | 100 | northern red oak, | | | | yellow-poplar | | | | FaC2: | | | | Fredonia----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 70 | 57 | white ash, white |black walnut--------| --| 0 | oak |eastern redcedar----| --| 0 | |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |white oak-----------| 65 | 43 | | | | | Hagerstown--------------|hickory-------------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | northern red oak, |yellow-poplar-------| 95 | 100 | white oak, yellow| | | | poplar | | | | FaC3: | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 70 | 57 | white ash, white |black walnut--------| --| 0 | oak |eastern redcedar----| --| 0 | |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |white oak-----------| 65 | 43 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 259Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | FaC3: | | | | Hagerstown, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|hickory-------------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | northern red oak, |yellow-poplar-------| 95 | 100 | white oak, yellow| | | | poplar | | | | FdC: | | | | Fredonia----------------|black oak-----------| 72 | 57 |eastern redcedar, |eastern redcedar----| --| 0 | Virginia pine |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | | | | | Hagerstown--------------|loblolly pine-------| 80 | 114 |eastern white pine, |Virginia pine-------| 70 | 114 | loblolly pine, |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | Virginia pine | | | | Vertrees----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 80 | 57 | northern red oak, |chinkapin oak-------| --| 0 | white ash, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | FdD2: | | | | Fredonia----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 70 | 57 | white ash, white |black walnut--------| --| 0 | oak |eastern redcedar----| --| 0 | |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | |white oak-----------| 65 | 43 | | | | | GaB: | | | | Gatton------------------|black oak-----------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |chinkapin oak-------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |red maple-----------| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 85 | 86 | | | | | Gg: | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white oak, |sweetgum------------| --| 0 | yellow-poplar |white oak-----------| 85 | 72 | |yellow-poplar-------| 110 | 129 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 260Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | GnB2: | | | | Gilpin------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 80 | 72 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 96 | 186 | northern red oak, |northern red oak----| 87 | 72 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 76 | 57 | white oak, yellow|shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 71 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 75 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | GnC2: | | | | Gilpin------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 80 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 96 | 186 | northern red oak, |northern red oak----| 87 | 72 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 76 | 57 | white oak, yellow|shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 71 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 75 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | GnD2: | | | | Gilpin------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 80 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 96 | 186 | northern red oak, |northern red oak----| 80 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |northern red oak----| 87 | 72 | white oak, yellow|scarlet oak---------| 76 | 57 | poplar |shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 71 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 75 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | GnD3: | | | | Gilpin, severely eroded-|black oak-----------| 74 | 57 |loblolly pine, |chestnut oak--------| 68 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |eastern white pine--| 82 | 143 | white oak |northern red oak----| 69 | 57 | |scarlet oak---------| 72 | 57 | |shortleaf pine------| 60 | 86 | |Virginia pine-------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 61 | 43 | | | | | Gp: | | | | Grigsby, ponded---------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white oak, |sweetgum------------| --| 0 | yellow-poplar |white oak-----------| 85 | 72 | |yellow-poplar-------| 110 | 129 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 261Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | JfD: | | | | Jefferson---------------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |blackgum------------| --| 0 | eastern white |chestnut oak--------| 82 | 57 | pine, northern red |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white oak, |shortleaf pine------| 80 | 129 | yellow-poplar |white oak-----------| 84 | 72 | |yellow-poplar-------| 102 | 114 | | | | | Lily--------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 73 | 57 | white oak |shortleaf pine------| 63 | 100 | |southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | Jefferson---------------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |blackgum------------| --| 0 | eastern white |chestnut oak--------| 82 | 57 | pine, northern red |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, white oak, |shortleaf pine------| 80 | 129 | yellow-poplar |white oak-----------| 84 | 72 | |yellow-poplar-------| 102 | 114 | | | | | Lily--------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 73 | 57 | white oak |shortleaf pine------| 63 | 100 | |southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | Johnsburg---------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |loblolly pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | sweetgum, white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |sweetgum------------| --| 0 | |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 73 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 94 | 100 | | | | | LaC2: | | | | Latham------------------|black oak-----------| 69 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 60 | 43 | shortleaf pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white oak |scarlet oak---------| 74 | 57 | |shortleaf pine------| 75 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 262Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | Ln: | | | | Lindside, occasionally | | | | flooded----------------|black walnut--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |northern red oak----| 86 | 72 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |white ash-----------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |white oak-----------| 85 | 72 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 95 | 100 | white oak, yellow| | | | poplar | | | | LnC2: | | | | Lenberg-----------------|black oak-----------| 60 | 43 |loblolly pine, |chestnut oak--------| 56 | 43 | shortleaf pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white oak |post oak------------| 46 | 29 | |scarlet oak---------| 66 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 61 | 86 | |white oak-----------| 62 | 43 | | | | | LyB: | | | | Lily--------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | northern red oak, |scarlet oak---------| 73 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |shortleaf pine------| 63 | 100 | white oak, yellow|southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | | | | | LyC2: | | | | Lily--------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 73 | 57 | white oak |shortleaf pine------| 63 | 100 | |southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | | | | | LyD2: | | | | Lily--------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 73 | 57 | white oak |shortleaf pine------| 63 | 100 | |southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | | | | | Me: | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |American sycamore, |black willow--------| --| 0 | baldcypress, green |cherrybark oak------| 91 | 114 | ash, pin oak, |common hackberry----| --| 0 | sweetgum, willow |eastern cottonwood--| 101 | 129 | oak |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |pin oak-------------| 100 | 100 | |red maple-----------| --| 0 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 263Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | Mp: | | | | Melvin, ponded----------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |American sycamore, |black willow--------| --| 0 | baldcypress, green |cherrybark oak------| 91 | 114 | ash, pin oak, |common hackberry----| --| 0 | sweetgum, willow |eastern cottonwood--| 101 | 129 | oak |hickory-------------| --| 0 | |pin oak-------------| 100 | 100 | |red maple-----------| --| 0 | | | | | Ne: | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|cherrybark oak------| --| 0 |American sycamore, |eastern cottonwood--| 94 | 114 | eastern |green ash-----------| --| 0 | cottonwood, green |overcup oak---------| --| 0 | ash, sweetgum |pin oak-------------| 100 | 100 | |sweetgum------------| 85 | 86 | | | | | NhD2: | | | | Nolichucky--------------|shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 |black walnut, |southern red oak----| 70 | 57 | eastern white |Virginia pine-------| 70 | 114 | pine, loblolly |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | pine, shortleaf | | | | pine, white ash, | | | | yellow-poplar | | | | Nk: | | | | Newark, ponded----------|cherrybark oak------| --| 0 |American sycamore, |eastern cottonwood--| 94 | 114 | eastern |green ash-----------| --| 0 | cottonwood, green |overcup oak---------| --| 0 | ash, sweetgum |pin oak-------------| 100 | 100 | |sweetgum------------| 85 | 86 | | | | | No: | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | flooded----------------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |cherrybark oak------| 97 | 143 | eastern |eastern cottonwood--| --| 0 | cottonwood, |sweetgum------------| 92 | 114 | eastern white |yellow-poplar-------| 107 | 114 | pine, sweetgum, | | | | yellow-poplar | | | | Np: | | | | Nolin, ponded-----------|American sycamore---| --| 0 |black walnut, |black willow--------| --| 0 | cherrybark oak, |cherrybark oak------| 97 | 143 | eastern |eastern cottonwood--| --| 0 | cottonwood, green |river birch---------| --| 0 | ash, sweetgum |sweetgum------------| 92 | 114 | | | | | OwB: | | | | Otwood, occasionally | | | | flooded----------------|black oak-----------| 72 | 57 |eastern white pine, |blackgum------------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |southern red oak----| --| 0 | white oak, yellow|white oak-----------| 69 | 57 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 95 | 100 |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 264Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | PbB: | | | | Pembroke----------------|black cherry--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |Virginia pine-------| 82 | 129 | white oak, yellow|white ash-----------| --| 0 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 94 | 100 | | | | | PbC2: | | | | Pembroke----------------|black cherry--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |Virginia pine-------| 82 | 129 | white oak, yellow|white ash-----------| --| 0 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 94 | 100 | | | | | PeC3: | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|black cherry--------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |northern red oak----| 85 | 72 | pine, northern red |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, white ash, |Virginia pine-------| 82 | 129 | white oak, yellow|white ash-----------| --| 0 | poplar |yellow-poplar-------| 94 | 100 | | | | | ReB2: | | | | Riney-------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |black walnut, |chinkapin oak-------| 74 | 57 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |white oak-----------| 78 | 57 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | yellow-poplar | | | | ReC2: | | | | Riney-------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |black walnut, |chinkapin oak-------| 74 | 57 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |white oak-----------| 78 | 57 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | yellow-poplar | | | | ReD2: | | | | Riney-------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |black walnut, |chinkapin oak-------| 74 | 57 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |white oak-----------| 78 | 57 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | yellow-poplar | | | | ReE: | | | | Riney-------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |black walnut, |chinkapin oak-------| 74 | 57 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |white oak-----------| 78 | 57 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | yellow-poplar | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 265Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | RnB: | | | | Riney, karst------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |black walnut, |chinkapin oak-------| 74 | 57 | eastern white |red maple-----------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |white oak-----------| 78 | 57 | pine, white ash, |yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | yellow-poplar | | | | Ro. | | | | Rock outcrop | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | Rosine------------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black cherry--------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |black oak-----------| 80 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | white ash, white |pignut hickory------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | RoC2: | | | | Rosine------------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black cherry--------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |black oak-----------| 80 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | white ash, white |pignut hickory------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | RoD2: | | | | Rosine------------------|American beech------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black cherry--------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |black oak-----------| 80 | 57 | shortleaf pine, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | white ash, white |pignut hickory------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | RxE: | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | loblolly pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |scarlet oak---------| 57 | 43 | white ash, white |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 266Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | RxF: | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | Caneyville--------------|black oak-----------| 71 | 57 |eastern white pine, |eastern redcedar----| 46 | 57 | loblolly pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | northern red oak, |scarlet oak---------| 57 | 43 | white ash, white |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | SaB: | | | | Sano--------------------|shortleaf pine------| 65 | 100 |eastern white pine, |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | loblolly pine, |yellow-poplar-------| 85 | 86 | shortleaf pine, | | | | white oak, yellow| | | | poplar | | | | SgD2: | | | | Shelocta----------------|American beech------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black oak-----------| 79 | 57 | eastern white |blackgum------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |northern red oak----| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |shortleaf pine------| 77 | 129 | white oak, yellow|Virginia pine-------| 79 | 114 | poplar |white oak-----------| 79 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 102 | 114 | | | | | Latham------------------|black oak-----------| 69 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 60 | 43 | scarlet oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 74 | 57 | white oak |shortleaf pine------| 75 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | | | | | Gilpin------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 80 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 96 | 186 | northern red oak, |northern red oak----| 87 | 72 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 76 | 57 | white oak, yellow|shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 71 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 75 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | SgE: | | | | Shelocta----------------|American beech------| --| 0 |black walnut, |black oak-----------| 79 | 57 | eastern white |blackgum------------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, shortleaf |northern red oak----| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |shortleaf pine------| 77 | 129 | white oak, yellow|Virginia pine-------| 79 | 114 | poplar |white oak-----------| 79 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 102 | 114 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 267Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | SgE: | | | | Latham------------------|black oak-----------| 69 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 60 | 43 | shortleaf pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white oak |scarlet oak---------| 74 | 57 | |shortleaf pine------| 75 | 114 | |Virginia pine-------| 72 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 64 | 43 | | | | | Gilpin------------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 80 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 96 | 186 | northern red oak, |northern red oak----| 87 | 72 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 76 | 57 | white oak, yellow|shortleaf pine------| 70 | 114 | poplar |Virginia pine-------| 71 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 75 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | TsB: | | | | Tilsit------------------|black oak-----------| 74 | 57 |eastern white pine, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | loblolly pine, |red maple-----------| --| 0 | shortleaf pine, |scarlet oak---------| 74 | 57 | white oak, yellow|shortleaf pine------| 72 | 114 | poplar |southern red oak----| 65 | 43 | |Virginia pine-------| 73 | 114 | |white oak-----------| 68 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | VrC2: | | | | Vertrees----------------|American elm--------| --| 0 |eastern white pine, |black oak-----------| 80 | 57 | northern red oak, |chinkapin oak-------| --| 0 | white ash, white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | | | | | W. | | | | Water | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | Wallen------------------|northern red oak----| 60 | 43 |loblolly pine, |shortleaf pine------| 60 | 86 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 65 | 100 | Virginia pine | | | | Bledsoe-----------------|black cherry--------| --| 0 |northern red oak, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | white ash, white |slippery elm--------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |yellow-poplar-------| 104 | 114 | | | | | Donahue-----------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |northern red oak----| --| 0 | northern red oak, |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | poplar | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 268Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | WbF: | | | | Wallen------------------|northern red oak----| 60 | 43 |loblolly pine, |shortleaf pine------| 60 | 86 | shortleaf pine, |Virginia pine-------| 65 | 100 | Virginia pine | | | | Bledsoe-----------------|black cherry--------| --| 0 |northern red oak, |black walnut--------| --| 0 | white ash, white |slippery elm--------| --| 0 | oak, yellow-poplar |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | |white ash-----------| --| 0 | |yellow-poplar-------| 104 | 114 | | | | | Donahue-----------------|black oak-----------| 80 | 57 |eastern white pine, |northern red oak----| --| 0 | northern red oak, |white oak-----------| 80 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 90 | 86 | poplar | | | | WeB: | | | | Wellston----------------|black oak-----------| 82 | 57 |black walnut, |chestnut oak--------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |Virginia pine-------| 68 | 100 | oak, shortleaf |white ash-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |white oak-----------| 74 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | poplar | | | | WeC2: | | | | Wellston----------------|black oak-----------| 82 | 57 |black walnut, |chestnut oak--------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |Virginia pine-------| 68 | 100 | oak, shortleaf |white ash-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |white oak-----------| 74 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | poplar | | | | WeD: | | | | Wellston----------------|black oak-----------| 82 | 57 |black walnut, |chestnut oak--------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |Virginia pine-------| 68 | 100 | oak, shortleaf |white ash-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |white oak-----------| 74 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | poplar | | | | WsC3: | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | eroded-----------------|black oak-----------| 82 | 57 |black walnut, |chestnut oak--------| 78 | 57 | eastern white |hickory-------------| --| 0 | pine, loblolly |sugar maple---------| --| 0 | pine, northern red |Virginia pine-------| 68 | 100 | oak, shortleaf |white ash-----------| --| 0 | pine, white ash, |white oak-----------| 74 | 57 | white oak, yellow|yellow-poplar-------| 93 | 100 | poplar | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 269Table 8.—Forestland Productivity—Continued _________________________________________________________________________________ | Potential productivity | ___________________________________ Map symbol and | | | | soil name | Common trees |Site | Volume | Trees to manage | |index|of wood | | | | fiber | _________________________________________________________________________________ | | |cu ft/ac| ________ | | | | ZaB: | | | | Zanesville--------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 81 | 143 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white ash, yellow|northern red oak----| --| 0 | poplar |sweetgum------------| --| 0 | |Virginia pine-------| 67 | 100 | |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 88 | 86 | | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | Zanesville--------------|black oak-----------| 77 | 57 |eastern white pine, |chestnut oak--------| 76 | 57 | loblolly pine, |eastern white pine--| 81 | 143 | northern red oak, |hickory-------------| --| 0 | white ash, yellow|northern red oak----| --| 0 | poplar |sweetgum------------| --| 0 | |Virginia pine-------| 67 | 100 | |white oak-----------| 70 | 57 | |yellow-poplar-------| 88 | 86 | | | | | _________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 270Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 271Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Severe | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.75 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 272Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Slight | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 273Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Moderately suited | | | | | | | Ponding |0.50 | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Moderately suited | | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 274Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Moderately suited | | | | | | | Flooding |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Wetness |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | Wetness |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 275Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Slight | |Slight | |Poorly suited | | | | | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Slight | |Slight | |Moderately suited | | | | | | | Ponding |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Poorly suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 276Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Landslides |0.33 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Severe | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.75 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | Landslides |0.33 | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 277Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Severe | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.75 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Severe | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.75 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Severe | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.75 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Landslides |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Moderate | |Severe | |Poorly suited | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 278Table 9.—Hazard of Erosion and Suitability for Roads—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Hazard of erosion | Hazard of erosion on | Suitability for roads and soil name | of | | roads and trails | (natural surface) _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Slight | |Moderate | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Slight | |Severe | |Moderately suited | | | | | Slope/erodibility|0.95 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | Wetness |0.50 | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 279Table 10.—Land Management Planting (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 280Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Moderate | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Moderate | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Low strength |0.50 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Moderate | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |0.50 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Moderate | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |0.50 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poorly suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Rock fragments |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 281Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 282Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Moderate | | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Moderate | | | | | | | Low strength |0.50 | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 283Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Well suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Well suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 284Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 285Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Moderately suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | Slope |0.50 | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 286Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Moderate | | | Rock fragments |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |0.50 | | | | Rock fragments |0.75 | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Moderately suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Moderately suited | |Unsuited | |Moderate | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |0.50 | | Rock fragments |0.50 | Rock fragments |0.75 | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poorly suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.75 | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.75 | | | | Slope |0.50 | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Moderately suited | |Unsuited | |Severe | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | Low strength |1.00 | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | |Severe | | | | | | | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Well suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | |Severe | | | | | Slope |0.75 | Low strength |1.00 | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 287Table 10.—Land Management – Planting—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Suitability for | Suitability for | Hazard of soil rutting and soil name | of | hand planting | mechanical planting | with equipment use _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Moderately suited | |Moderately suited | |Severe | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | Low strength |1.00 | | plasticity index| | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 288Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Well suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 289Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 290Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Unsuited | |Well suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Unsuited | |Well suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Unsuited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | Slope |0.50 | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 291Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Unsuited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | Slope |0.50 | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | occasionally | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Well suited | | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 292Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 293Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Unsuited | |Unsuited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Unsuited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | Slope |0.50 | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Unsuited | |Poorly suited | | | Restrictive layer|1.00 | Slope |0.50 | | Slope |0.50 | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Well suited | |Poorly suited | | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 294Table 11.—Land Management Site Preparation—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | Suitability for | Suitability for Map symbol |Pct.| mechanical site | mechanical site and soil name | of | preparation (deep) | preparation (surface) ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | W: | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Rock fragments |0.50 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Unsuited | |Unsuited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | Rock fragments |0.50 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Unsuited | |Unsuited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | Stickiness; high |0.50 | | | | plasticity index| | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Unsuited | |Unsuited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Restrictive layer|0.50 | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Poorly suited | |Poorly suited | | | Slope |0.50 | Slope |0.50 | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Well suited | |Well suited | | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 295Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 296Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 297Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Low | |Low | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 298Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Moderate | |High | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | Wetness |1.00 | | fragments | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Low | |Moderate | | | | | Soil reaction |0.50 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 299Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | occasionally | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |High | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | Wetness |1.00 | | fragments | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Moderate | |High | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | Wetness |1.00 | | fragments | | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |High | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | Wetness |1.00 | | fragments | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Low | |High | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | Wetness |1.00 | | fragments | | | | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 300Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 301Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Low | |Moderate | | | | | Soil reaction |0.50 | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Low | |Moderate | | | | | Soil reaction |0.50 | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 302Table 12.—Land Management Site Restoration—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.|Potential for damage to | Potential seedling and soil name | of | soil by fire | mortality ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | W: | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Low | |Low | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.10 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Low | |Low | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Moderate | |Low | | | Texture/rock |0.50 | | | | fragments | | | | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 303Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.96 | Slope |0.96 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.96 | Slope |0.96 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 304Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Gravel |0.54 | Gravel |0.54 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Gravel |0.88 | Gravel |0.88 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Gravel |0.54 | Gravel |0.54 | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Gravel |0.61 | Gravel |0.61 | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.39 | Depth to |0.19 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.39 | Depth to |0.19 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 305Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | Gravel |0.38 | Gravel |0.38 | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 306Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.16 | Depth to |0.08 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 307Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.96 | Slow water |0.96 | | movement | | movement | | | Depth to |0.67 | Depth to |0.35 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | occasionally | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.88 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 308Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.88 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Slow water |0.21 | | Slow water |0.21 | movement | | | movement | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 309Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.67 | Depth to |0.35 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.96 | Slow water |0.96 | | movement | | movement | | | Depth to |0.67 | Depth to |0.35 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 310Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.96 | Slow water |0.96 | | movement | | movement | | | Depth to |0.67 | Depth to |0.35 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.98 | Depth to |0.75 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | W: | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.43 | Slow water |0.43 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Slow water |0.21 | Slow water |0.21 | | movement | | movement | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 311Table 13.—Camp and Picnic Areas—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Camp | Picnic and soil name | of | areas | areas ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |0.56 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |0.56 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 312Table 14.—Trail Management (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny---------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 80 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 80 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 80 |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | Lenberg-----------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Lenberg-----------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian---------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 313Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |0.08 | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange--------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider------------------| 93 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider------------------| 93 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-----| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia----------------| 45 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Hagerstown--------------| 34 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia----------------| 45 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Hagerstown--------------| 34 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 45 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 34 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 314Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia----------------| 37 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Hagerstown--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | Vertrees----------------| 15 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia----------------| 80 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton------------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin------------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely eroded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded---------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson---------------| 44 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Lily--------------------| 24 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson---------------| 44 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |0.08 | | | | | Lily--------------------| 24 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |0.08 | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 315Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham------------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, occasionally | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily--------------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily--------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily--------------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded----------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky--------------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded----------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-----------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 316Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally | | | | | flooded----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke----------------| 90 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke----------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney-------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney-------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney-------------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney-------------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine------------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine------------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine------------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 25 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.68 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop------------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 317Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano--------------------| 95 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta----------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Latham------------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | Gilpin------------------| 18 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta----------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Latham------------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | | Depth to saturated zone |0.04 | | | | | | | Gilpin------------------| 18 |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit------------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |0.44 | Depth to saturated zone |0.44 | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | W: | | | | | Water-------------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen------------------| 25 |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Bledsoe-----------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Donahue-----------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen------------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-----------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Water erosion |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 318Table 14.—Trail Management—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Foot traffic and equestrian |Mountain bike and off-road vehicle and soil name | of | trails | trails _______________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Donahue-----------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Water erosion |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston----------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Slope |0.02 | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville--------------| 75 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Water erosion |1.00 | Water erosion |1.00 | | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | Depth to saturated zone |0.18 | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 319Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.64 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.90 | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.90 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.96 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.64 | | bedrock | | Slope |0.96 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.96 | Slope |0.96 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to soft |0.46 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 320Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.64 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to soft |0.46 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.64 | | bedrock | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.64 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.15 | | | | | | saturated zone | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 321Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.39 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.39 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |0.39 | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.39 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Not limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.79 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.79 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.79 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.79 | | bedrock | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 322Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.79 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.79 | | bedrock | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |0.20 | | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | Depth to hard |0.05 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | Depth to hard |0.46 | Slope |0.84 | Depth to hard |0.46 | | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.16 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.16 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.24 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.10 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | bedrock |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 323Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.24 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.20 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.20 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Shrink-swell |1.00 | | Depth to |0.67 | saturated zone | | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | Depth to |0.67 | | Slope |0.04 | Depth to soft |0.20 | saturated zone | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 324Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.88 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Depth to soft |0.46 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.01 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.01 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.20 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | bedrock | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.20 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 325Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.35 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.88 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Not limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 326Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.90 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.90 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.67 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.67 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | saturated zone | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | | Depth to |0.67 | Shrink-swell |1.00 | Depth to |0.67 | | saturated zone | | Too steep |1.00 | saturated zone | | | | | Depth to soft |0.20 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 327Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Shrink-swell |1.00 | | Depth to |0.67 | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.67 | | saturated zone | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | saturated zone | | | | | Depth to soft |0.20 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.10 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.98 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.98 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.84 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | Depth to hard |0.15 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.15 | | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.84 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to hard |0.84 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Shrink-swell |0.50 | | Depth to hard |0.15 | bedrock | | Depth to hard |0.15 | | bedrock | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | bedrock | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 328Table 15.—Dwellings and Small Commercial Buildings—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Dwellings without | Dwellings with | Small commercial and soil name | of | basements | basements | buildings _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.88 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.88 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | saturated zone | | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 329Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.65 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | bedrock | | Slope |0.04 | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | bedrock | | Slope |0.84 | | bedrock | | Slope |0.84 | Droughty |0.01 | | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |0.84 | | | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Too steep |1.00 | Droughty |0.01 | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 330Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.96 | | Slope |0.96 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.65 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Slope |0.96 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Slope |0.96 | Slope |0.96 | | Slope |0.96 | Too clayey |0.50 | Depth to bedrock |0.46 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Depth to soft |0.46 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.65 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | Depth to bedrock |0.46 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Depth to soft |0.46 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Gravel |0.54 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Gravel |0.88 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | excavation walls| | Gravel |0.54 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 331Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | excavation walls| | Gravel |0.61 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.65 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Slope |0.84 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.65 | | Depth to hard |0.64 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.80 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.15 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.19 | | Depth to |0.19 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.19 | | Depth to |0.19 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | excavation walls| | Gravel |0.38 | | | | Flooding |0.80 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 332Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Flooding |0.40 | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Flooding |0.40 | excavation walls| | | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.80 | | Depth to hard |0.79 | bedrock | | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.32 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.80 | | Depth to hard |0.79 | Slope |0.84 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |0.32 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 333Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.80 | | Depth to hard |0.79 | Slope |0.84 | | | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |0.32 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |0.84 | | | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Depth to hard |0.05 | | | | | | bedrock | | | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | | Slope |0.84 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.46 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Slope |0.84 | | | | Depth to hard |0.46 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.08 | | Depth to |0.08 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 334Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.80 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.24 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.10 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |0.24 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 335Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |0.78 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | Unstable |1.00 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |0.78 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.35 | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |0.35 | Depth to soft |0.20 | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | saturated zone | | bedrock | | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Flooding |0.60 | | Low strength |1.00 | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.56 | Flooding |0.60 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | Depth to bedrock |0.46 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Depth to soft |0.46 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | bedrock | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 336Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to hard |0.01 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.01 | | bedrock | | bedrock | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |0.78 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | bedrock | | Slope |0.04 | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.20 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Depth to |1.00 | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.80 | saturated zone | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Low strength |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Depth to |1.00 | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.80 | saturated zone | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too clayey |0.01 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 337Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Low strength |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |0.80 | Flooding |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Depth to |0.35 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Flooding |0.60 | | Low strength |1.00 | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.56 | Flooding |0.60 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |0.78 | Unstable |1.00 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 338Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |0.78 | Unstable |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |0.78 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |0.78 | Unstable |1.00 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |1.00 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too clayey |0.01 | | | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.01 | | | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too clayey |0.01 | | | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Too steep |1.00 | Droughty |0.01 | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 339Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Depth to hard |0.90 | Too steep |1.00 | Droughty |0.01 | | bedrock | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.35 | | Depth to |0.35 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too clayey |0.02 | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | saturated zone | | Depth to |90.35 | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | saturated zone | | | Depth to |0.35 | Depth to soft |0.20 | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | saturated zone | | bedrock | | | | | | | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | Too clayey |0.02 | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.35 | | Shrink-swell |1.00 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |0.35 | Depth to soft |0.20 | Depth to bedrock |0.20 | | saturated zone | | bedrock | | | | | | | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 340Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.10 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.75 | | Depth to |0.75 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.50 | Slope |0.04 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.84 | bedrock | | Droughty |1.00 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | Depth to hard |0.15 | Too clayey |0.32 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to hard |0.84 | bedrock | | Droughty |1.00 | | bedrock | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Too clayey |0.12 | | | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 341Table 16.—Roads and Streets, Shallow Excavations, and Landscaping—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Local roads and | Shallow excavations | Landscaping and soil name | of | streets | | _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | bedrock | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | Shrink-swell |0.50 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | Depth to hard |0.15 | Too clayey |0.32 | | | | bedrock | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.56 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | | | | | | excavation walls| | | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Low strength |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.56 | | Depth to |0.56 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Unstable |0.10 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | excavation walls| | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 342Table 17.—Sewage Disposal (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 343Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Depth to bedrock |0.14 | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Depth to bedrock |0.27 | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.14 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.27 | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 344Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | Depth to |0.40 | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |0.75 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | Slope |0.32 | | Depth to bedrock |0.02 | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Depth to |0.75 | | Depth to |1.00 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.02 | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | Flooding |0.40 | | Flooding |0.40 | Slope |0.32 | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 345Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |0.32 | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to bedrock |0.52 | Seepage |0.53 | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |0.32 | | movement | | Depth to hard |0.08 | | | | bedrock | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.52 | Seepage |0.53 | | Slow water |0.46 | Depth to hard |0.08 | | movement | | bedrock | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.52 | Seepage |0.53 | | Slow water |0.46 | Depth to hard |0.08 | | movement | | bedrock | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.84 | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.47 | Seepage |0.53 | | Slow water |0.46 | Depth to hard |0.05 | | movement | | bedrock | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 346Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |0.56 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | Depth to |0.02 | | Depth to |0.65 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | bedrock | | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | Ponding |1.00 | | Ponding |1.00 | Depth to |0.02 | | Depth to |0.65 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 347Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | layer | | Seepage |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | layer | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | bedrock | | | layer | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | occasionally | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 348Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | layer | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | layer | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |1.00 | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | layer | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 349Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | | | | Slow water |0.46 | | | | movement | | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | Depth to |0.84 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.17 | | Slow water |0.46 | saturated zone | | | movement | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |0.32 | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | Slope |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | layer | | Seepage |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 350Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | layer | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |0.88 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | Slope |0.08 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 351Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.72 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | Depth to |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | saturated zone | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | bedrock | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.72 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to soft |1.00 | | movement | | bedrock | | | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | Depth to |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | saturated zone | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | bedrock | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Depth to |0.99 | | movement | | saturated zone | | | Depth to |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | saturated zone | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | W: | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 352Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | bedrock | | | layer | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | | | | movement | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | bedrock | | | layer | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | | | | movement | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Depth to hard |1.00 | | Slow water |1.00 | bedrock | | | movement | | Slope |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | Slow water |0.46 | Seepage |0.53 | | movement | | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slow water |0.46 | Slope |1.00 | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 353Table 17.—Sewage Disposal—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Septic tank | Sewage lagoons and soil name | of | absorption fields | ___________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slow water |1.00 | Seepage |0.53 | | movment | | Slope |0.32 | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Slope |1.00 | | saturated zone | | Depth to |0.96 | | Slow water |1.00 | saturated zone | | | movement | | Seepage |0.53 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 354Table 18.—Landfills (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.96 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.96 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.96 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.96 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 355Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Gravel content |0.58 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Gravel content |0.57 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | Gravel content |0.58 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | Gravel content |0.52 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Not limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 356Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to |0.75 | Depth to |0.86 | | Depth to |0.99 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to |0.75 | Depth to |0.86 | | Depth to |0.99 | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Gravel content |0.72 | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Not limited | |Not limited | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Too clayey |0.50 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |0.40 | Flooding |0.40 | Too clayey |0.50 | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.08 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.08 | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.08 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.08

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 357Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.08 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.08 | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.05 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.05 | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.84 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.84 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.84 | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |0.98 | Depth to |0.56 | Depth to |0.76 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Seepage |0.22 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 358Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |0.50 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Seepage |0.22 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | layer | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | layer | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Gravel content |0.11 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | layer | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | Gravel content |0.11 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 359Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Depth to |0.93 | | Slope |0.04 | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |0.98 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | layer | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 360Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Seepage |0.22 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | | | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | Ponding |1.00 | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Flooding |1.00 | Flooding |1.00 | Depth to |0.98 | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | saturated zone | | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 361Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | layer | | Too steep |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | | | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Gravel content |0.14 | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 362Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.88 | Depth to |0.93 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | | | Depth to |0.93 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | saturated zone |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too steep |1.00 | saturated zone | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Depth to |0.93 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | Too clayey |0.50 | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.99 | Depth to |0.99 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Too clayey |1.00 | Slope |0.04 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Slope |0.04 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 363Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | Gravel content |0.10 | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | Seepage, bottom |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Seepage |0.52 | | layer | | | | Gravel content |0.10 | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | Too clayey |1.00 | | Too clayey |1.00 | | | Hard to compact |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |1.00 | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Not limited | |Not limited | |Not limited | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | Too steep |1.00 | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | Depth to |0.98 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 364Table 18.—Landfills—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Trench sanitary | Area sanitary | Daily cover for and soil name | of | landfill | landfill | landfill _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | Depth to |0.98 | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | saturated zone | | | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | Slope |0.04 | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 365Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The ratings given for the thickest layer are for the thickest layer above and excluding the bottom layer. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.00 to 0.99. The greater the value, the greater the likelihood that the bottom layer or thickest layer of the soil is a source of sand or gravel. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.03 | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.03 | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CaD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CaE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CeD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CgE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 366Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CkD: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CoB: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CoC: | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Cp: | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 367Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | CrB: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | EkB: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | EkC: | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | FaB: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | FdC: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 368Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | GaB: | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Gg: | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.01 | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Gp: | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.01 | | | | | JfD: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.04 | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.04 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 369Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | JfE: | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Ln: | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | occasionally | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | LyB: | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.03 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.03 | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Me: | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Mp: | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Ne: | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 370Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Nk: | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | No: | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Np: | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | OwB: | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | PbB: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 371Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ReE: | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | RnB: | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | | | | Ro: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | RxE: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | RxF: | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | SaB: | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 372Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | SgE: | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | TsB: | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | W: | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | WbF: | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | WeB: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.02 | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 373Table 19.—Source of Gravel and Sand—Continued ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | gravel | sand |map | | ___________________________________________________ |unit| Rating class |Value| Rating class |Value ______________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.02 | | | | | WeD: | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.02 | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Poor | |Fair | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.02 | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Poor | |Poor | | | Bottom layer |0.00 | Bottom layer |0.00 | | Thickest layer |0.00 | Thickest layer |0.00 | | | | | ______________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 374Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.00 to 0.99. The smaller the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Rock fragments |0.24 | | content low | | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Fair | |Fair | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.98 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | | | Rock fragments |0.24 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Too acid |0.59 | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.02 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.96 | | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.48 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.23 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Too acid |0.88 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | Droughty |0.97 | | | | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.23 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 375Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.02 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.04 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.48 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.04 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | | | | | Droughty |0.59 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.02 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.48 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | Too acid |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | | | | | Droughty |0.59 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Hard to reclaim |0.46 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.02 | Low strength |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Too clayey |0.01 | | content low | | | | Hard to reclaim |0.46 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Slope |0.96 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 376Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.46 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.02 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Too clayey |0.01 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.46 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.02 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.48 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.02 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | | Depth to bedrock |0.35 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.48 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.50 | | | Rock fragments |0.59 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Too acid |0.32 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.53 | | Organic matter |0.50 | Wetness depth |0.53 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 377Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Too acid |0.32 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.53 | | Organic matter |0.50 | Wetness depth |0.53 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.96 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Fair | |Good | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Hard to reclaim |0.20 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.98 | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Fair | |Poor | |Good | | | Organic matter |0.50 | Low strength |0.00 | | | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.50 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.96 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Good | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | | | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.96 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | | | | | Droughty |0.46 | | | | | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.95 | | content low | | Depth to bedrock |0.92 | | | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 378Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | | | | | Droughty |0.46 | | | | | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Depth to bedrock |0.92 | Rock fragments |0.95 | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | Depth to bedrock |0.21 | | | | | | Droughty |0.38 | | | | | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Depth to bedrock |0.92 | Rock fragments |0.95 | | Too acid |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | Droughty |0.98 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Depth to bedrock |0.95 | Rock fragments |0.76 | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | | | | | | Too acid |0.54 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 379Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.16 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | | | | | Droughty |0.81 | | | | | | Too acid |0.84 | | | | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.68 | | content low | | Wetness depth |0.68 | Too acid |0.98 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.50 | | | Rock fragments |0.99 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Droughty |0.33 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Droughty |0.33 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Slope |0.96 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Slope |0.00 | | Droughty |0.33 | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Slope |0.00 | | Droughty |0.30 | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 380Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.50 | | | Rock fragments |0.99 | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Fair | |Fair | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.98 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.00 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.68 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.22 | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | Slope |0.98 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Droughty |0.68 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | | | Rock fragments |0.00 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.68 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | Low strength |0.22 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Droughty |0.68 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too acid |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too acid |0.59 | | content low | | | | Hard to reclaim |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.37 | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too acid |0.32 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.38 | | Too acid |0.50 | Wetness depth |0.38 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Droughty |0.52 | | | Slope |0.96 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 381Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.24 | | content low | | Wetness depth |0.24 | Rock fragments |0.95 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Slope |0.96 | | Depth to bedrock |0.54 | | | | | | Droughty |0.59 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too acid |0.76 | | content low | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.99 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | Droughty |0.98 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too acid |0.59 | | content low | | Low strength |0.22 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Slope |0.96 | | Droughty |0.68 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Droughty |0.68 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.50 | Wetness depth |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.82 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 382Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Good | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | | | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Good | | | Organic matter |0.18 | Low strength |0.00 | | | | content low | | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.24 | | content low | | Wetness depth |0.24 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.32 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | | | | Water erosion |0.37 | | | | | | Droughty |0.94 | | | | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.57 | | content low | | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.98 | | | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.57 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.99 | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.98 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 383Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.57 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.99 | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Too clayey |0.98 | | | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Fair | |Fair | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.22 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | Hard to reclaim |0.99 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Fair | |Fair | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.22 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.99 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Fair | |Fair | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.22 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.99 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.22 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.99 | | | | | | (rock fragments)| | | | | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Hard to reclaim |0.00 | | content low | | | | (rock fragments)| | | Too acid |0.32 | | | Rock fragments |0.88 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.97 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | | | | Too acid |0.32 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.97 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 384Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.97 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Too acid |0.88 | | Too acid |0.32 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.32 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.23 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.10 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.98 | | Droughty |0.23 | | | | | | Too acid |0.88 | | | | | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Water erosion |0.06 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.38 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.38 | Too acid |0.88 | | content low | | | | | | | Too acid |0.32 | | | | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Rock fragments |0.68 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Too acid |0.88 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.12 | Too acid |0.32 | | Too acid |0.50 | Wetness depth |0.38 | Wetness depth |0.38 | | Droughty |0.52 | Slope |0.98 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.98 | Slope |0.00 | | Droughty |0.33 | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 385Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Low strength |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.68 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Too acid |0.88 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Too acid |0.32 | | Too acid |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.38 | | Droughty |0.52 | Wetness depth |0.38 | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | Depth to bedrock |0.79 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Fair | |Poor | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | Droughty |0.33 | | | Too acid |0.59 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Too acid |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.14 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Wetness depth |0.14 | Too acid |0.59 | | content low | | | | Rock fragments |0.99 | | Water erosion |0.37 | | | | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Slope |0.96 | | content low | | | | | | | Too acid |0.54 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Droughty |0.00 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | | Too acid |0.76 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.88 | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 386Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Low strength |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Slope |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.04 | | Too acid |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.97 | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | Droughty |0.70 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Droughty |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.00 | | content low | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | Depth to bedrock |0.16 | | | Too acid |0.76 | | Too acid |0.50 | | | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Shrink-swell |0.87 | Rock fragments |0.88 | | Water erosion |0.99 | | | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Poor | |Poor | |Poor | | | Too clayey |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | Slope |0.00 | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Too clayey |0.00 | | content low | | Depth to bedrock |0.00 | Rock fragments |0.04 | | Too acid |0.50 | Shrink-swell |0.97 | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | Droughty |0.70 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.84 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.90 | | | | | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Rock fragments |0.59 | | content low | | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Rock fragments |0.59 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Fair | |Fair | |Poor | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Slope |0.98 | Slope |0.00 | | content low | | | | Rock fragments |0.59 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Fair | |Good | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | | | Rock fragments |0.59 | | content low | | | | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 387Table 20.—Source of Reclamation Material, Roadfill, and Topsoil—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Potential source of | Potential source of | Potential source of and soil name | of | reclamation material | roadfill | topsoil _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.24 | | content low | | Wetness depth |0.24 | Too acid |0.98 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | | | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Fair | |Poor | |Fair | | | Organic matter |0.12 | Low strength |0.00 | Wetness depth |0.24 | | content low | | Wetness depth |0.24 | Slope |0.96 | | Too acid |0.54 | | | Too acid |0.98 | | Water erosion |0.68 | | | | | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 388Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments (The information in this table indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation. The numbers in the value columns range from 0.01 to 1.00. The larger the value, the greater the limitation. See text for further explanation of ratings in this table) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | Allegheny-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.91 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.91 | Hard to pack |0.60 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.98 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.98 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Hard to pack |0.73 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | Thin layer |0.70 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 80 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.98 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.98 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.91 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.91 | Hard to pack |0.60 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.86 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.11 | Hard to pack |0.66 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 46 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.91 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.91 | Hard to pack |0.60 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 389Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 29 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.86 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.11 | Hard to pack |0.66 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 90 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | Christian-----------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | Christian, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.91 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.91 | Hard to pack |0.60 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 12 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 65 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.91 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.91 | Hard to pack |0.60 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 20 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | Chagrin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.92 | Depth to water |1.00 | | | | | | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |0.99 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.01 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 390Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | Clarkrange----------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to |0.99 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.01 | | Cp: | | | | | | | Clifty, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.38 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | Crider--------------| 93 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.38 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.53 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | Elk, rarely flooded-| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.53 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Depth to bedrock |0.95 | Thin layer |0.95 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | Hard to pack |0.70 | | | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Thin layer |0.02 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 45 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.95 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.95 | Hard to pack |0.70 | | | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.02 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Fredonia, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 45 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.95 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.95 | Hard to pack |0.86 | | | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 391Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | Hagerstown, severely| | | | | | | eroded-------------| 34 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Hard to pack |0.49 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Thin layer |0.02 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 37 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.77 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.77 | Hard to pack |0.33 | | | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown----------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Hard to pack |0.67 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Thin layer |0.01 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.01 | | | | | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 15 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.12 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | Fredonia------------| 80 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.86 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.86 | Hard to pack |0.81 | | | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | Gatton--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |0.98 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.51 | | | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | Grigsby, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Piping |1.00 | Depth to |0.99 | | | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | Piping |0.07 | | | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.07 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | | | | | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.07 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 392Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.02 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | | | | | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-----| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Piping |1.00 | Depth to |0.99 | | | | Ponding |1.00 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.77 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.76 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.77 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | Jefferson-----------| 44 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 24 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.77 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.76 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.77 | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 14 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | Johnsburg-----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Piping |0.58 | | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.06 | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Thin layer |0.77 | | | | | | Hard to pack |0.62 | | | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Piping |0.68 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 393Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | Lenberg-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.86 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.11 | Hard to pack |0.65 | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.52 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.52 | | | | | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.77 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.76 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.77 | | | | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | Lily----------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.77 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.76 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.77 | | | | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | Melvin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Piping |0.97 | | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded------| 95 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | Piping |0.99 | | | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | Newark, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Piping |0.80 | | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | Nolichucky----------| 80 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.47 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | Newark, ponded------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Ponding |1.00 | | | | | | Piping |0.80 | | No: | | | | | | | Nolin, frequently | | | | | | | flooded------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Piping |0.66 | Depth to water |1.00 | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 394Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded-------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Ponding |1.00 | Depth to |0.96 | | | | Piping |0.92 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Slow refill |0.28 | | | | | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | Otwood, occasionally| | | | | | | flooded------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |0.08 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.04 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.19 | | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.29 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | Pembroke------------| 90 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.29 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | Pembroke, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 90 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | Riney---------------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | RnB: | | | | | | | Riney, karst--------| 85 |Very limited | |Not limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | | | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | Ro: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 90 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | RoB: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.01 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 395Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | RoC2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.01 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | RoD2: | | | | | | | Rosine--------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.01 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | RxE: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.98 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.98 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | RxF: | | | | | | | Rock outcrop--------| 65 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | Caneyville----------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.98 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.98 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | SaB: | | | | | | | Sano----------------| 95 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | | | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.99 | | | | | | | | | SgD2: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.55 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.06 | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Thin layer |0.77 | | | | | | Hard to pack |0.62 | | | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.07 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | | | | | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Shelocta------------| 29 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.55 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | Latham--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Slow refill |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.06 | saturated zone | | Cutbanks cave |0.10 | | | | Thin layer |0.77 | | | | | | Hard to pack |0.62 | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 396Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | SgE: | | | | | | | Gilpin--------------| 18 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.70 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.07 | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.69 | | | | | | | | | | | TsB: | | | | | | | Tilsit--------------| 90 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.63 | | | | | | | | | VrC2: | | | | | | | Vertrees------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.12 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | W: | | | | | | | Water---------------|100 |Not rated | |Not rated | |Not rated | | | | | | | | WbE: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.96 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.96 | | | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.74 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.74 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | WbF: | | | | | | | Wallen--------------| 25 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |1.00 | Thin layer |0.96 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |1.00 | | | | | | Depth to bedrock |0.96 | | | | | | | | | | | Bledsoe-------------| 23 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.02 | | | | | | | | | | | Donahue-------------| 14 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Thin layer |0.74 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Depth to bedrock |0.74 | | | | | | Seepage |0.04 | | | | | | | | | | | WeB: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Piping |0.63 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | | | | | | | | | | | WeC2: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.63 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 397Table 21.—Ponds and Embankments—Continued ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | Map symbol |Pct.| Pond reservoir areas | Embankments, dikes, and | Aquifer-fed and soil name | of | | levees | excavated ponds _____________________________________________________________________________ |map | Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value| Rating class and |Value |unit| limiting features | | limiting features | | limiting features | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | WeD: | | | | | | | Wellston------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.63 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | WsC3: | | | | | | | Wellston, severely | | | | | | | eroded-------------| 85 |Very limited | |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Piping |0.02 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | | | | | | | | | | | ZaB: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 85 |Somewhat limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Seepage |0.72 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Slope |0.08 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.46 | | | | | | | | | ZaC2: | | | | | | | Zanesville----------| 75 |Very limited | |Very limited | |Very limited | | | Slope |1.00 | Depth to |1.00 | Depth to water |1.00 | | Seepage |0.72 | saturated zone | | | | | | | Piping |0.46 | | | | | | | | | ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 398Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties (Absence of an entry indicates that data were not estimated) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | AlC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Allegheny-------| 0-10 |Loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|71-100|59-97 |42-74 |27-45 | 9-18 | 10-51 |Clay loam, loam, sandy |CL, SC |A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|72-100|60-98 |44-77 |28-46 |12-25 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 51-203|Clay loam, sandy loam, |CL, GC, SC |A-1, A-2, A| 0 | 0-4 |75-100|43-100|29-90 |13-55 |20-44 | 6-25 | | gravelly sandy loam, | | 4, A-6, A-2-| | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy clay loam | | 6 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | AlD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Allegheny-------| 0-10 |Loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|71-100|59-97 |42-74 |27-45 | 9-18 | 10-51 |Clay loam, loam, sandy |CL, SC |A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|72-100|60-98 |44-77 |28-46 |12-25 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 51-203|Clay loam, sandy loam, |CL, GC, SC |A-1, A-2, A| 0 | 0-4 |75-100|43-100|29-90 |13-55 |20-44 | 6-25 | | gravelly sandy loam, | | 4, A-6, A-2-| | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy clay loam | | 6 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CaC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|64-100|53-91 |26-43 | 7-17 | 13-53 |Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | | 53-71 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-13 |90-100|77-100|64-100|54-95 |48-67 |28-44 | 71-96 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CaD: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |25-45 | 6-18 | 23-36 |Silty clay, clay, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|68-100|58-99 |44-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-61 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|64-100|53-93 |48-67 |28-44 | 61-86 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CaD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-15 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|68-100|59-99 |39-56 |18-28 | 15-64 |Silty clay, clay, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 64-89 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|64-100|53-96 |48-67 |28-44 | 89-114|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CaE: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |25-45 | 6-18 | 23-36 |Silty clay, clay, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|68-100|58-99 |44-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-61 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|64-100|53-93 |48-67 |28-44 | 61-86 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 399Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | CeD: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |26-43 | 7-17 | 13-53 |Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | | 53-71 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-13 |90-100|77-100|64-100|54-95 |48-67 |28-44 | 71-96 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg---------| 0-13 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6, A-7| 0 | 0-4 |81-100|62-100|56-100|47-96 |24-49 | 7-24 | | loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 13-38 |Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |82-100|64-100|61-100|57-100|43-67 |25-44 | | clay | | | | | | | | | | | 38-58 |Silty clay, clay, |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |83-100|52-100|45-100|38-93 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay | | | | | | | | | | | 58-76 |Channery silty clay, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-31 |74-97 |41-97 |38-97 |35-97 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay, clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | 76-101|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CgE: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |26-43 | 7-17 | 13-53 |Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | | 53-71 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-13 |90-100|77-100|64-100|54-95 |48-67 |28-44 | 71-96 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg---------| 0-13 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6, A-7| 0 | 0-4 |81-100|62-100|56-100|47-96 |24-49 | 7-24 | | loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 13-38 |Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |82-100|64-100|61-100|57-100|43-67 |25-44 | | clay | | | | | | | | | | | 38-58 |Silty clay, clay, |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |83-100|52-100|45-100|38-93 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay | | | | | | | | | | | 58-76 |Channery silty clay, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-31 |74-97 |41-97 |38-97 |35-97 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay, clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | 76-101|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 400Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | ChC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Christian-------| 0-10 |Gravelly loam |CL, GC, GM, |A-2, A-4, A-6| 0 | 0-1 |69-81 |38-73 |31-71 |21-54 |22-43 | 6-18 | | | ML, GC-GM, | | | | | | | | | | | | SC | | | | | | | | | | 10-33 |Gravelly clay loam, |CL, GC, SC |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-9 |78-100|42-100|35-100|24-80 |35-50 |17-29 | | silty clay loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, gravelly loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 33-114|Clay, gravelly clay |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|37-100|29-94 |43-67 |25-44 | | loam, gravelly clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |114-160|Clay, clay loam, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|38-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | gravelly clay, gravelly| SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |160-185|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | ChC3: | | | | | | | | | | | | Christian, | | | | | | | | | | | | severely eroded| 0-18 |Gravelly sandy clay loam|GC, SC |A-6, A-2-7 | 0 | 0-4 |69-86 |43-73 |35-68 |19-44 |33-47 |17-24 | 18-124|Clay, gravelly clay |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|37-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | loam, gravelly clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |124-152|Clay, clay loam, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|36-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | gravelly clay, gravelly| SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |152-177|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 401Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | ChD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Christian-------| 0-10 |Gravelly loam |CL, GC, GM, |A-6, A-2, A-4| 0 | 0-1 |69-81 |38-73 |31-71 |21-54 |22-43 | 6-18 | | | ML, GC-GM, | | | | | | | | | | | | SC | | | | | | | | | | 10-33 |Gravelly clay loam, |CL, GC, SC |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-9 |78-100|42-100|35-100|24-80 |35-50 |17-29 | | silty clay loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, loam, gravelly | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 33-114|Clay, gravelly clay |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|37-100|29-94 |43-67 |25-44 | | loam, gravelly clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |114-160|Clay, clay loam, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|38-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | gravelly clay, gravelly| SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |160-185|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | ChD3: | | | | | | | | | | | | Christian, | | | | | | | | | | | | severely eroded| 0-18 |Gravelly sandy clay loam|GC, SC |A-6, A-2-7 | 0 | 0-4 |69-86 |43-73 |35-68 |19-44 |33-47 |17-24 | 18-124|Clay, gravelly clay |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|37-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | loam, gravelly clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |124-152|Clay, clay loam, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-8 |79-100|44-100|36-100|29-92 |43-67 |25-44 | | gravelly clay, gravelly| SC | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |152-177|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CkD: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |26-43 | 7-17 | 13-53 |Silty clay, clay, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 53-71 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-13 |90-100|77-100|64-100|54-95 |48-67 |28-44 | 71-96 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CkE: | | | | | | | | | | | | Caneyville------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|74-100|65-100|53-91 |26-43 | 7-17 | 13-53 |Silty clay, clay, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|77-100|70-100|63-100|44-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 53-71 |Clay, silty clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-13 |90-100|77-100|64-100|54-95 |48-67 |28-44 | 71-96 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 402Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | Cn: | | | | | | | | | | | | Chagrin, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-38 |Loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |94-100|79-100|65-97 |45-75 |25-45 | 6-18 | 38-203|Silt loam, loam, sandy |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|68-100|57-100|42-81 |27-38 |12-19 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CoB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Clarkrange------| 0-28 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|70-100|62-100|24-43 | 7-18 | 28-81 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|76-100|71-100|65-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 81-122|Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|78-100|72-100|64-100|27-49 |12-28 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | |122-173|Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-4, A-6, A| 0 | 0 |83-100|66-100|60-100|48-96 |35-53 | 9-32 | | clay, clay loam, clay | | 7-6 | | | | | | | | |173-198|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | CoC: | | | | | | | | | | | | Clarkrange------| 0-28 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|70-100|62-100|24-43 | 7-18 | 28-81 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|76-100|71-100|65-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 81-122|Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |90-100|78-100|72-100|64-100|27-49 |12-28 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | |122-173|Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-4, A-6, A| 0 | 0 |83-100|66-100|60-100|48-96 |35-53 | 9-32 | | clay, clay loam, clay | | 7-6 | | | | | | | | |173-198|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Cp: | | | | | | | | | | | | Clifty, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-23 |Gravelly silt loam |GM, ML, CL|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |69-84 |48-73 |42-73 |35-66 |24-45 | 7-18 | | | ML, GC-GM, | | | | | | | | | | | | CL | | | | | | | | | | 23-96 |Gravelly silt loam, |GC-GM, GC |A-6 | 0 | 0-12 |64-79 |44-73 |39-73 |31-69 |28-45 |12-25 | | gravelly loam, gravelly| | | | | | | | | | | | sandy clay loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, gravelly clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 96-203|Gravelly silt loam, |GC-GM, SC |A-6, A-2, A-4| 0 | 0-21 |70-80 |41-73 |34-71 |24-58 |22-38 | 7-19 | | gravelly loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 403Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | CrB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Crider----------| 0-18 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|88-100|78-100|29-45 | 9-18 | 18-99 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|88-100|81-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 99-203|Silty clay, clay, silty |CH, CL |A-6, A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |88-100|66-100|61-100|56-100|39-67 |21-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CrC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Crider----------| 0-18 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |90-100|84-100|75-100|29-45 | 9-18 | 18-99 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 | 100 |90-100|85-100|78-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 99-203|Silty clay, clay, silty |CH, CL |A-6, A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |88-100|66-100|61-100|56-100|39-67 |21-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | EkB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Elk, rarely | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |94-100|89-100|82-100|72-100|24-43 | 7-18 | 25-96 |Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|78-100|72-100|28-44 |12-24 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 96-203|Silty clay loam, silt |CL, CL-ML, |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |85-100|70-100|64-100|57-100|24-49 | 9-28 | | loam | SC-SM | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | EkC: | | | | | | | | | | | | Elk, rarely | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |94-100|89-100|82-100|72-100|24-43 | 7-18 | 25-96 |Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|78-100|72-100|28-44 |12-24 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 96-203|Silty clay loam, silt |CL, CL-ML, |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |85-100|70-100|64-100|57-100|24-49 | 9-28 | | loam | SC-SM | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FaB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Fredonia--------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |95-100|84-100|75-100|64-98 |28-47 | 7-18 | 13-66 |Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |95-100|84-100|78-100|71-100|48-67 |28-44 | 66-91 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|75-100|67-100|57-97 |24-43 | 7-18 | 23-127|Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|76-100|70-100|64-100|44-59 |25-36 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | |127-140|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |88-100|71-100|59-100|49-95 |48-67 |28-44 |140-165|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Fredonia--------| 0-13 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |94-100|83-100|75-100|64-98 |28-47 | 7-18 | 13-66 |Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |95-100|84-100|77-100|71-100|48-67 |28-44 | 66-91 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 404Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | FaC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|75-100|67-100|57-97 |24-43 | 7-18 | 23-127|Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|76-100|70-100|64-100|44-59 |25-36 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | |127-140|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |88-100|71-100|59-100|49-95 |48-67 |28-44 |140-165|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | FaC3: | | | | | | | | | | | | Fredonia, | | | | | | | | | | | | severely eroded| 0-5 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-5 |94-100|83-100|75-100|64-98 |24-43 | 7-18 | 5-66 |Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |95-100|84-100|77-100|71-100|48-67 |28-44 | 66-91 |Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown, | | | | | | | | | | | | severely eroded| 0-5 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|75-100|67-100|57-97 |24-43 | 7-18 | 5-127|Silty clay loam, silty |CL, CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|76-100|70-100|64-100|44-59 |25-36 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | |127-140|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |88-100|71-100|59-100|49-95 |48-67 |28-44 |140-165|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | FdC: | | | | | | | | | | | | Fredonia--------| 0-20 |Silt loam |CL |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-5 |94-100|83-100|75-100|64-94 |25-40 | 8-20 | 20-84 |Silty clay, clay |CH, CL, MH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |95-100|84-100|71-100|59-95 |45-75 |20-45 | 84-109|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Hagerstown------| 0-20 |Silt loam |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |89-100|75-100|69-100|59-93 |35-45 |14-18 | 20-38 |Silty clay loam, clay |CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-3 |90-100|76-100|69-100|59-93 |43-50 |25-29 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 38-142|Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |88-100|71-100|59-100|49-96 |43-67 |25-44 | | clay, clay | | | | | | | | | | |142-167|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Vertrees--------| 0-15 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |87-100|68-100|61-100|51-90 |29-45 | 9-18 | 15-51 |Clay, silty clay, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|68-100|62-100|56-100|43-67 |25-44 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 51-203|Clay |CH |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-9 |82-100|63-100|54-100|45-91 |48-67 |28-44 | | | | | | | | | | | | FdD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Fredonia--------| 0-13 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |94-100|83-100|78-100|66-99 |39-56 |18-28 | 13-76 |Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-5 |95-100|84-100|73-100|64-100|48-67 |28-44 | 76-101|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 405Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | GaB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Gatton----------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|90-100|79-100|65-92 |26-45 | 7-18 | 23-71 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 |95-100|90-100|79-100|64-94 |27-44 |12-25 | | loam, loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 71-203|Clay loam, loam, sandy |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |96-100|89-100|74-99 |53-79 |29-49 |13-28 | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Gg: | | | | | | | | | | | | Grigsby, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-20 |Fine sandy loam |SC-SM, SM |A-2, A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |83-100|67-100|58-98 |24-48 |18-31 | 2-6 | 20-203|Loam, fine sandy loam, |SM, CL, ML, |A-2, A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |83-100|67-100|54-95 |35-71 |16-30 | 2-12 | | silt loam | SC, CL-ML | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | GnB2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin----------| 0-23 |Loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |84-95 |69-95 |58-90 |40-69 |27-43 | 9-18 | 23-36 |Loam, silt loam, silty |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-9 |85-97 |70-97 |62-97 |51-91 |27-44 |12-25 | | clay loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-89 |Channery loam, channery |GC, GC-GM, SC|A-2, A-4, A-6| 0 | 0-27 |63-77 |42-77 |35-77 |25-65 |24-44 | 9-25 | | silt loam, channery | | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 89-114|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | GnC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin----------| 0-23 |Loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |84-95 |69-95 |57-89 |40-68 |27-43 | 9-18 | 23-36 |Channery loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-9 |85-97 |70-97 |62-97 |51-91 |27-44 |12-25 | | loam, silty clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-89 |Channery loam, very |GC, GC-GM, SC|A-2, A-4, A-6| 0 | 0-27 |63-77 |42-77 |35-77 |25-65 |24-44 | 9-25 | | channery silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | channery clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 89-114|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | GnD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin----------| 0-23 |Loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |84-95 |69-95 |58-90 |40-69 |27-43 | 9-18 | 23-36 |Channery loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-9 |85-97 |70-97 |62-97 |51-91 |27-44 |12-25 | | loam, silty clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-89 |Channery loam, very |GC, GC-GM, SC|A-2, A-4, A-6| 0 | 0-27 |63-77 |42-77 |35-77 |25-65 |24-44 | 9-25 | | channery silt loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | channery clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 89-114|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 406Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | GnD3: | | | | | | | | | | | | Gilpin, severely| | | | | | | | | | | | eroded---------| 0-5 |Loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |84-95 |69-95 |58-90 |40-69 |27-41 | 9-19 | 5-36 |Loam, silty clay loam, |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-9 |85-97 |70-97 |62-97 |51-91 |27-44 |12-25 | | silt loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 36-89 |Channery loam, channery |GC, GC-GM, SC|A-2, A-4, A-6| 0 | 0-27 |63-77 |42-77 |35-77 |25-65 |24-44 | 9-25 | | silt loam, channery | | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 89-114|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Gp: | | | | | | | | | | | | Grigsby, ponded-| 0-20 |Fine sandy loam |SC-SM, SM |A-2, A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |83-100|67-100|58-98 |24-48 |18-31 | 2-6 | 20-203|Loam, fine sandy loam, |SM, CL, ML, |A-2, A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |83-100|67-100|54-95 |35-71 |16-30 | 2-12 | | silt loam | SC, CL-ML | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | JfD: | | | | | | | | | | | | Jefferson-------| 0-33 |Loam |CL, ML, SC, |A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |87-94 |74-94 |61-87 |42-64 |22-39 | 6-13 | | | SM, SC-SM | | | | | | | | | | 33-203|Gravelly loam, gravelly |SC |A-2-6, A-4, | 0 | 1-4 |81-88 |49-77 |34-67 |15-42 |20-43 | 6-24 | | clay loam, gravelly | | A-6 | | | | | | | | | | sandy clay loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Lily------------| 0-30 |Loam |SM, CL-ML, |A-4 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-91 |42-67 |20-37 | 3-13 | | | ML, CL | | | | | | | | | | 30-84 |Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-96 |43-77 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, loam | | | | | | | | | | | 84-109|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | JfE: | | | | | | | | | | | | Jefferson-------| 0-33 |Loam |CL, ML, SC, |A-4 | 0 | 0-5 |87-94 |74-94 |61-87 |42-64 |22-39 | 6-13 | | | SM, SC-SM | | | | | | | | | | 33-203|Gravelly loam, gravelly |SC |A-2-6, A-4, | 0 | 1-4 |81-88 |49-77 |34-67 |16-42 |22-43 | 7-24 | | clay loam, gravelly | | A-6 | | | | | | | | | | sandy clay loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | gravelly sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Lily------------| 0-30 |Loam |SM, ML, CL, |A-4 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-91 |42-67 |20-37 | 3-13 | | | CL-ML | | | | | | | | | | 30-84 |Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-96 |43-77 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, loam | | | | | | | | | | | 84-109|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Rock outcrop. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 407Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | Jo: | | | | | | | | | | | | Johnsburg-------| 0-18 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 | 100 |92-100|80-98 |24-35 | 7-13 | 18-53 |Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 | 100 | 100 |94-100|86-100|26-44 |10-23 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 53-137|Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |96-100|88-100|82-100|76-100|24-42 | 9-22 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | |137-203|Loam, fine sandy loam, |CL, SC-SM |A-4, A-6 | 0-1 | 4-8 |92-97 |85-97 |78-97 |57-83 |24-32 | 9-13 | | silt loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | LaC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Latham----------| 0-8 |Silt loam |CL, ML |A-6 | 0 | 0-5 |88-100|67-100|62-100|54-89 |31-43 |13-18 | 8-84 |Silty clay, silty clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-9 |89-100|70-100|64-100|58-100|45-65 |25-40 | | loam, clay | | | | | | | | | | | 84-109|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Ln: | | | | | | | | | | | | Lindside, | | | | | | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-23 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|87-100|78-100|29-45 | 9-18 | 23-203|Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |75-100|70-100|65-100|27-44 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | LnC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Lenberg---------| 0-13 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6, A-7| 0 | 0-4 |81-100|62-100|55-100|45-93 |24-49 | 7-24 | | loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | | 13-38 |Silty clay loam, silty |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |82-100|64-100|61-100|57-100|43-67 |25-44 | | clay | | | | | | | | | | | 38-58 |Silty clay, clay, |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-4 |83-100|52-100|45-100|38-93 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay | | | | | | | | | | | 58-76 |Channery silty clay, |CH, CL, GC, |A-7-6 | 0 | 0-31 |75-97 |42-97 |38-97 |36-97 |48-67 |28-44 | | channery clay, clay, | SC | | | | | | | | | | | silty clay | | | | | | | | | | | 76-101|Weathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | LyB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Lily------------| 0-23 |Loam |CL-ML, ML, CL|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-93 |43-71 |19-41 | 3-19 | 23-61 |Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|62-96 |31-63 |27-44 |12-25 | | loam, loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | | 61-99 |Sandy clay loam, clay |CL, SC |A-2, A-6 | 0 | 0-8 |77-100|44-100|31-86 |14-51 |27-44 |12-25 | | loam, gravelly sandy | | | | | | | | | | | | clay loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | | 99-124|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 408Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | LyC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Lily------------| 0-30 |Loam |SM, CL-ML, |A-4 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-91 |42-67 |20-39 | 4-13 | | | ML, CL | | | | | | | | | | 30-84 |Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-97 |43-77 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, loam | | | | | | | | | | | 84-109|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | LyD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Lily------------| 0-30 |Loam |SM, CL-ML, |A-4 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-91 |42-67 |20-39 | 4-13 | | | CL, ML | | | | | | | | | | 30-84 |Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-4 |90-100|78-100|63-97 |43-77 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, loam | | | | | | | | | | | 84-109|Unweathered bedrock | | | --| --| --| --| --| --| --| --| | | | | | | | | | | | Me: | | | | | | | | | | | | Melvin, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-20 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|70-97 |24-37 | 7-13 | 20-96 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|85-100|78-100|71-100|23-45 | 7-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 96-203|Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |88-100|73-100|65-100|58-100|21-49 | 6-28 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Mp: | | | | | | | | | | | | Melvin, ponded--| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL-ML, ML, CL|A-4 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|81-100|72-96 |23-34 | 7-11 | 25-56 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|85-100|78-100|70-100|22-45 | 7-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 56-203|Silt loam, silty clay |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |88-100|73-100|67-100|60-100|22-49 | 7-28 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Ne: | | | | | | | | | | | | Newark, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-41 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |94-100|83-100|78-100|69-100|24-45 | 7-18 | 41-81 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|78-100|72-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 81-203|Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |88-100|71-100|66-100|61-100|27-44 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | NhD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Nolichucky------| 0-28 |Loam |CL, CL-ML, |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-5 |84-100|63-100|52-93 |36-71 |21-41 | 6-19 | | | SC, SC-SM | | | | | | | | | | 28-38 |Clay loam, loam |CL, GC, SC |A-6 | 0 | 0-5 |84-100|63-100|54-95 |39-75 |27-40 |12-21 | 38-122|Clay loam, loam |CL, GC, SC |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0-4 |85-100|65-100|56-97 |42-79 |27-44 |12-25 |122-203|Clay loam, clay, |CH, CL, GC, |A-2, A-6, A| 0 | 0-15 |73-100|42-100|36-100|27-85 |39-59 |21-36 | | gravelly clay loam, | SC | 7-6 | | | | | | | | | | gravelly clay | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 409Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | Nk: | | | | | | | | | | | | Newark, ponded--| 0-41 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML, ML|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |94-100|83-100|78-100|69-100|24-45 | 7-18 | 41-81 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|78-100|72-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 81-203|Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0-3 |88-100|71-100|66-100|61-100|27-44 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | No: | | | | | | | | | | | | Nolin, | | | | | | | | | | | | frequently | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-18 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|88-100|79-100|26-45 | 7-18 | 18-64 |Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|88-100|81-100|28-45 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 64-203|Loam, silt loam, |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0-8 |69-100|39-100|35-100|31-100|20-38 | 6-19 | | gravelly loam, gravelly| | | | | | | | | | | | silt loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Np: | | | | | | | | | | | | Nolin, ponded---| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, CL-ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|89-100|79-99 |26-45 | 7-18 | 25-203|Silt loam, silty clay |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 | 100 |94-100|88-100|81-100|27-44 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | OwB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Otwood, | | | | | | | | | | | | occasionally | | | | | | | | | | | | flooded--------| 0-18 |Silt loam |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 | 100 |96-100|89-100|29-45 |12-18 | 18-66 |Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6 | 0 | 0 | 100 | 100 |95-100|87-100|29-42 |12-21 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | 66-107|Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6, A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|91-100|84-100|78-100|29-46 |12-25 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | |107-203|Silty clay loam, silt |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 |95-100|86-100|81-100|75-100|29-42 |12-21 | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | PbB: | | | | | | | | | | | | Pembroke--------| 0-30 |Silt loam |CL, ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|71-100|29-45 | 9-18 | 30-99 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|74-100|35-44 |18-25 | 99-203|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|68-100|63-100|58-100|48-67 |28-44 | | | | | | | | | | | | PbC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Pembroke--------| 0-30 |Silt loam |CL, ML |A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|71-100|29-45 | 9-18 | 30-99 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|74-100|35-44 |18-25 | 99-203|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|68-100|63-100|58-100|48-67 |28-44 | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 410Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | PeC3: | | | | | | | | | | | | Pembroke, | | | | | | | | | | | | severely eroded| 0-13 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-7-6, A-6 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|74-100|36-47 |18-24 | 13-76 |Silty clay loam |CL |A-6, A-7 | 0 | 0 |95-100|84-100|79-100|74-100|35-44 |18-25 | 76-203|Silty clay, clay |CH, CL |A-7-6 | 0 | 0 |89-100|68-100|63-100|58-100|48-67 |28-44 | | | | | | | | | | | | ReB2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Riney-----------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6, A-4 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|66-100|53-85 |22-41 | 6-17 | 25-102|Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC, SC-SM|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|51-95 |36-75 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, loam, fine sandy | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | |102-142|Sandy loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-1, A-2-6, | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|44-86 |20-50 |20-44 | 6-25 | | loam, loamy sand, fine | | A-4, A-6 | | | | | | | | | | sandy loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |142-203|Sandy clay loam, |CL, SC |A-2, A-6 | 0 | 0 |83-100|56-100|46-93 |24-58 |29-44 |13-25 | | gravelly sandy clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ReC2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Riney-----------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6, A-4 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|66-100|53-85 |22-41 | 6-17 | 25-102|Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC, SC-SM|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|51-95 |36-75 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, fine sandy loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | |102-142|Sandy loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-1, A-2-6, | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|44-86 |20-50 |20-44 | 6-25 | | loam, loamy sand, fine | | A-4, A-6 | | | | | | | | | | sandy loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |142-203|Sandy clay loam, |CL, SC |A-2, A-6 | 0 | 0 |83-100|56-100|46-93 |24-58 |29-44 |13-25 | | gravelly sandy clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ReD2: | | | | | | | | | | | | Riney-----------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6, A-4 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|66-100|53-85 |22-41 | 6-17 | 25-102|Clay loam, sandy clay |SC-SM, CL, SC|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|51-95 |36-75 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, fine sandy loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | |102-142|Sandy loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-1, A-2-6, | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|44-86 |20-50 |20-44 | 6-25 | | loam, loamy sand, fine | | A-4, A-6 | | | | | | | | | | sandy loam, clay loam | | | | | | | | | | |142-203|Sandy clay loam, |CL, SC |A-2, A-6 | 0 | 0 |83-100|56-100|46-93 |24-58 |29-44 |13-25 | | gravelly sandy clay | | | | | | | | | | | | loam | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Soil Survey of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky 411Table 22.—Engineering Index Properties—Continued _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | | | Classification | Fragments | Percentage passing | | Map symbol | Depth | USDA texture | | | sieve number-|Liquid | Plas_________________________________________ ___________________________ and soil name | | | | | >250 | 75| | | | |limit |ticity | | | Unified | AASHTO | mm |250 | 4 | 10 | 40 | 200 | |index | | | | | | mm | | | | | | _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______ | Cm | | | | Pct | Pct | | | | | Pct | __ ___ ___ ___ | | | | | | | | | | | | ReE: | | | | | | | | | | | | Riney-----------| 0-25 |Silt loam |CL, ML, CL-ML|A-6, A-4 | 0 | 0 |89-100|75-100|66-100|53-85 |22-41 | 6-17 | 25-102|Clay loam, sandy clay |CL, SC, SC-SM|A-4, A-6 | 0 | 0 |84-100|63-100|51-95 |36-75 |22-44 | 7-25 | | loam, fine sandy loam, | | | | | | | | | | | | loam, sandy loam | | | | | | | | | | |102-142|Sandy loam, sandy clay |CL, SC |A-1, A-2-6, | 0 | 0