Southern Caver

Citation
Southern Caver

Material Information

Title:
Southern Caver
Series Title:
Southern Caver
Creator:
Gregory Middleton ozspeleo@iinet.net.au ( suggested by )
Southern Caving Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Applied Speleology ( local )
Regional Speleology ( local )
Resource Management ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Australia

Notes

General Note:
The Southern Caving Society was formed in April 1965 and in July 1967 commenced publication of "Southern Caver" as its quarterly newsletter. At the time of the 1996 amalgamation of SCS with the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, it was agreed that Southern Tasmanian Caverneers would continue to publish "Southern Caver" in the form of an occasional paper as and when suitable material was available. The publication has in fact appeared approximately annually in recent years and has generally carried reprints of otherwise difficult to obtain reports relating to caves in Tasmania.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
No. 63 (March 2007)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-03784 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.3784 ( USFLDC Handle )
21412 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0157-8464 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

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Full Text
Description
The Southern Caving Society was formed in April 1965 and
in July 1967 commenced publication of "Southern Caver" as its
quarterly newsletter. At the time of the 1996 amalgamation of
SCS with the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, it was agreed that
Southern Tasmanian Caverneers would continue to publish
"Southern Caver" in the form of an occasional paper as and
when suitable material was available. The publication has in
fact appeared approximately annually in recent years and has
generally carried reprints of otherwise difficult to obtain
reports relating to caves in Tasmania.



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S O U T H E R N C A V E R N o 6 3 M a r c h 2 0 0 7 O c c a s i o n a l J o u r n a l o f S o u t h e r n T a s m a n i a n C a v e r n e e r s I n c P O B o x 4 1 6 S a n d y B a y, T a sm a n i a 7 0 0 6 A u st r a l i a I S S N 0 1 5 7 8 4 6 4 I n t h i s i s s u e : P a r k s & W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e T a s m a n i a N e w d e g a t e C a v e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n 1 9 9 4

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Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 2 Editorial I n t h i s i s s u e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S o u t h e r n C a v e r s o b j e c t i v e o f p u b l i s h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t m a t e r i a l w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e r e m a i n u n p u b l i s h e d o r i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c w e p r e s e n t t h e f u l l t e x t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n f o r N e w d e g a t e C a v e a t H a s t i n g s i n S o u t h e r n T a s m a n i a p r e p a r e d i n 1 9 9 4 b y I a n H o u s h o l d t h e n P a r k s a n d W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e K a r s t O f f i c e r a n d P h i l B r a d l e y t h e n R a n g e r i n C h a r g e H a s t i n g s C a v e s S h o r t l y a f t e r i t s p r e p a r a t i o n a s u m m a r y o f t h e p l a n a p p e a r e d i n t h e A C K M A J o u r n a l ( N o 1 7 D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 4 ) T h e e d i t o r o f t h a t a u g u s t j o u r n a l K e n t H e n d e r s o n s a i d t h e p l a n m u s t r a t e a s o n e o f t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e y e t d e v e l o p e d f o r a s i n g l e A u s t r a l a s i a n c a v e a n d i t c a n c l e a r l y b e r e c o m m e n d e d a s a m o d e l f o r o t h e r s t o e m u l a t e T h i s r e p r i n t o f t h e p l a n c o n t a i n s a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e o r i g i n a l T h e r e h a v e b e e n s o m e m i n o r t e x t c o r r e c t i o n s a n d s o m e p a g e s h a v e b e e n c o m b i n e d t o s a v e s p a c e T h e o r i g i n a l p a g e n u m b e r s h a v e b e e n r e t a i n e d i n s o m e c a s e s t w o a p p e a r o n t h e s a m e n e w p a g e T h e f o r m a t o f s o m e t a b l e s h a s b e e n a l t e r e d a g a i n i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s p a c e s a v i n g T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d b y t h e T a s m a n i a n D e p a r t m e n t o f T o u r i s m A r t s a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t I n g r a n t i n g a p p r o v a l t h e A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y o f D T A E a d v i s e d ( 2 4 / 1 / 0 7 ) : t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e a l l b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d w h i c h h a s p r o v e d a n o u t s t a n d i n g b e n e f i t t o t h e N e w d e g a t e C a v e e n v i r o n m e n t S u g g e s t e d f o r m o f c i t a t i o n : H o u s h o l d I & B r a d l e y P 1 9 9 4 H a s t i n g s : N e w d e g a t e C a v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n P a r k s & W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e T a s m a n i a : H o b a r t 5 9 p p R e p r i n t e d i n S o u t h e r n C a v e r 6 3 ( 2 0 0 7 ) G r e g M i d d l e t o n E d i t o r o z s p e l e o @ b i g p o n d n e t a u T he v iew s ex pres s ed herein are not nec e s s aril y t he v iew s of t he Edi t or or of Sou t hern T as m anian C av erneers I n c T his w ork is c opy righ t ST C 2007 ex c ep t f or t he R ehabilit at ion Plan t o w hic h C row n c opy right appli es Apart f rom f air dealing f or t he purpos e s of pri v at e s t udy re s earc h, c ri t ic i s m or rev iew as perm it t ed under t he C opy righ t Ac t no par t m ay be reprodu c ed by any proc es s w it hout w rit t en perm is s ion f rom t he publis hers and t he inc lu s ion of ac k now ledgem ent of t he s our c e. So u t h e rn C a ve r O cca si o n a l j o u r n a l o f t h e S o u t h e r n T a sm a n i a n C a ve r n e e r s I n c. P O B o x 4 1 6 S a n d y B a y, T a sm a n i a 7 0 0 6 A u st r a l i a w w w l mrs. co m. a u / st c I S S N 0 1 5 7 8 4 6 4 I s s u e N o 6 3 Ma r c h 2 0 0 7 C o n te n ts H a st i n g s: N e w d e g a t e C a ve r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n I a n H o u sh o l d & P h i l B r a d l e y P a r t 1 : S i g n i f i ca n ce o f N e w d e g a t e C a ve a n d t h e e f f e ct s o f vi si t a t i o n 7 P a r t 2 : R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d o n g o i n g m a i n t e n a n c e o f N e w d e g a t e C a ve 2 2 P a r t 3 : T i m e l i n e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n 5 2 P a r t 4 : R e cu r r e n t m a i n t e n a n ce p r o g r a m 5 6 [ T h e se a r e S C p a g e n u m b e r s; t h e o r i g i n a l p a g i n a t i o n o f t h e p l a n h a s a l so b e e n r e t a i n e d ] C o ve r p h o t o : T i t a n i a s P a l a ce N e w d e g a t e C a ve H a st i n g s p h o t o : P a r ks & W i l d l i f e S e r vi ce C e l e b r a t i n g > 60 y e a r s o f o r g a n i s e d s p e l e o l o g y i n A u s t r a l i a s i n c e 1 9 4 6 ST C w as f orm ed f rom t he T as m anian C av erneering C lub, Sout hern C av ing Soc iet y and T as m anian C av e and Kars t R es ear c h Group ST C is t he m odern v ariant of t he oldes t c av ing c lub in Au s t ralia

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Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 3 H A ST I N G S N E WD E G A T E C A V E R E H A B I L I T A T I O N PL A N [ O r i gi na l ha d t he c ove r pho t o, T i t a ni a s P a l a c e he r e ] P a r ks a nd W i l dl i f e S e r vi c e J ul y 1994

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 4 Hastings: Newdegate Cav e Rehabilitation Plan Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, July 1994 W r i t t e n by I a n H ous hol d a nd P hi l B r a dl e y P hot os a nd m a ps by I a n H ous hol d C opyr i ght : T he C r ow n i n r i ght of T a s m a ni a 1994

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 5 NEWDEGATE CAVE REHABILITATION PROJECT PROPOSAL C O N T E N T S PA R T 1 SI G N I F I C A N C E O F N EW D EG A T E C A VE A N D T H E EF F EC T S O F VI SI T A T I O N 1:1 I n tr od u c ti on 1 1:2 Th e Lu n e R i ve r K ar s t A r e as 2 1:3 Th e H as ti n gs K ar s t 3 1:4 N e w d e gate C ave 6 1: 4: 1 D e s c ri pt i on of t h e c a v e s i gni f i c a n c e a nd vul ne ra bi l i t y 6 1: 4: 2 P re s e nt c ondi t i on of t he c a v e 9 1: 4: 3 L i ke l y d e t e r i ora t i on i f no a c t i on i s t a k e n 13 1: 5 Re fe re nc e s 15 PA R T 2 R EH A B I L I T A T I O N A N D O N G O I N G MA I N T EN A N C E O F N EW D EG A T E C A VE 2:1 I n tr od u c ti on 16 2:2 V i s i tor w al k w ay s u r fac e an d as s e mb l y ar e as u p gr ad e 18 2: 2: 1 Is s ue s 2: 2: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:3 Wal k w ay d e fi n i ti on 23 2: 3: 1 Is s ue s 2: 3: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:4 P ath w ay d r ai n age an d r e fu s e s ys te m 26 2: 4: 1 Is s ue s 2: 4: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:5 R e ti c u l ate d w ate r s ys te m 31 2: 5: 1 Is s ue s 2: 5: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:6 P ath w ay l i gh ti n g s ys te m 34 2: 6: 1 Is s ue s 2: 6: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:7 Lam p e n fl or a C on tr ol 36 2: 7: 1 Is s ue s 2: 7: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e N um be r s r e f e r t o t he or i gi na l pa gi na t i on w hi c h i s s how n on e a c h pa ge

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 6 2:8 Li n t C l e an i n g 38 2: 8: 1 Is s ue s 2: 8: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:9 Bu l k D e b r i s an d R u b b i s h R e moval 40 2: 9: 1 Is s ue s 2: 9: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:10 Wal k w ay an d F or mati on C l e an i n g 44 2: 10: 1 Is s ue s 2: 10: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e 2:11 C ave Li gh ti n g an d El e c tr i c a l S ys te ms 47 2: 11: 1 Is s ue s 2: 11: 2 M a na ge m e n t re s pons e PA R T 3 T I MEL I N E F O R I MP L EMEN T A T I O N 52 PA R T 4 R EC U R R EN T MA I N T EN A N C E PR O G R A M 54

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Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 7 NEWDEGATE CAVE REHAB ILITATION PLAN P A R T 1 S I G N I F I C A N C E O F N E W D E G A T E C A V E A N D E F F E C T S O F V I S I T A T I O N 1.1 I n tr od u c ti on N e w de ga t e C a ve w a s de v e l ope d for i nt e ns i ve t ouri s m t hrough a s e r i e s of upgra de s be t w e e n t h e l a t e 1930s a nd t he e a rl y 19 70s a nd a s a re s ul t t he r e w a s l i t t l e for m a l pl a nni ng for t h e l ong t e r m f ut ur e of t he c a ve N a t ur a l f e a t ur e s of t he s ys t e m ha ve s uffe re d a s a re s ul t of s t a ff ha vi ng t o w or k a round a s t yl e of de ve l op m e nt w hi c h doe s not i nt e g ra t e e nvi ron m e nt a l m a na g e m e n t w i t h t h e de ve l opm e n t of w a l kw a ys a nd e l e c t ri c l i ght i ng. M a ny fe a t ure s a re c on t i nui ng t o be de g ra de d dus t a nd l i nt c a rr i e d i n by vi s i t ors a c c um u l a t e on form a t i ons a nd uns i ght l y a nd de s t ruc t i v e pl a nt grow t h on bot h form a t i ons a nd s e di m e nt s i s c ont i nu i ng a s a re s ul t of i n a ppropri a t e l i ght i ng. M a ny pa rt s of t he c a ve w e re us e d a s d um ps for uns a fe s t a i rw a ys ol d c a bl e c ondui t a nd ot h e r re fus e T hi s i s a ffe c t i ng t h e ha bi t a t of c a v e fa una A c c u m ul a t i ons of m ud a nd s a w d us t on form a t i ons a re de gra d i ng t he re s ourc e e i t he r t hrough t h e c oa t i ng be i ng i nc orpor a t e d by s ubs e que nt c a l c i t e de pos i t i on or e t c hi ng of t he form a t i on by hum i c a c i ds l e a c he d from t he s a w dus t A l t hough s e l e c t e d a re a s ha ve be e n c l e a ne d i t w i l l be i m pos s i bl e t o c a rry ou t a t horough c l e a ni ng progra m un t i l a d e qu a t e pa t hw a y dra i na g e ha s be e n bui l t a nd hol di ng t a nks for c on t a m i na t e d w a t e r i ns t a l l e d. C l e a n i ng w i t hout t he s e w i l l o nl y s pre a d t he pol l ut i on fur t he r t hrough t h e s ys t e m ra t h e r t ha n d i s pe rs i ng i t i s l i ke l y t ha t a ny m ud or orga ni c de pos i t s w i l l bui l d up i n ponde d or s um pe d a re a s i n t he l o w e r pa rt s of t he s ys t e m c re a t i ng a m a l odorous m e s s In t he pa s t fe w ye a rs m uc h r e s e a rc h ha s b e e n a pp l i e d t o t h e de v e l opm e nt of m e a s ur e s for t he s us t a i n a bl e us e of t ouri s t c a ve s w i t h a l o t of ori gi n a l w ork c a rri e d ou t i n A us t ra l i a n c a ve s Int e gr a t i on of c a ve c l e a n i ng s ys t e m s w i t h w a l k w a ys t he de ve l opm e nt of l ow vol t a ge l i gh t i ng s y s t e m s a nd us e of a ppropr i a t e m a t e r i a l s for t ra c k form a t i on a nd s urfa c i ng a r e be i ng t e s t e d i n c a v e s a round t he c oun t ry, how e ve r t he i nd i vi dua l c h a ra c t e r of e a c h p a rt i c ul a r c a ve m e a ns t ha t c e rt a i n pr a c t i c e s w i l l o nl y be s ui t a b l e for s pe c i fi c s i t e s M uc h room e xi s t s for furt h e r d e ve l op m e nt s a s know l e dge of ka rs t m a na g e m e n t pra c t i c e s i nc re a s e s a nd m ore a ppropr i a t e l i ght i ng a nd c l e a ni ng t e c hnol ogy b e c om e s a va i l a b l e T he s e m e a s ure s a s w e l l a s o t he rs pa r t i c u l a rl y s ui t e d t o N e w de g a t e Ca ve a re ne c e s s a ry i f t he e nvi ronm e nt of t he c a ve i s t o b e re s t ore d a nd m a i nt a i ne d i n a n a c c e pt a bl e m a nne r. Cons i de ra b l e e ffort ha s be e n e xpe nde d i n t he de v e l opm e nt of a c l e a n w a l kw a y from t he c a rp a rk t o t he c a ve a n d on a n upgra de d v i s i t or i nform a t i on s he l t e r a t t he c a v e e n t ra nc e N ow t ha t c l e a n a c c e s s t o t he c a ve h a s 1

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 8 be e n gua ra n t e e d t h e t i m e i s ri ght t o be g i n a re de ve l op m e nt w hi c h w i l l a l l ow ongoi ng us e t o oc c ur w i t hout t he e nv i ronm e n t a l d e gra da t i on w hi c h i s i ne vi t a bl e gi ve n e x i s t i ng c ondi t i ons T he fi rs t p a rt of t hi s s ubm i s s i on de s c ri b e s t he na t ura l h i s t ory of t h e H a s t i ngs ka rs t a re a a nd N e w de ga t e Ca v e i n p a rt i c ul a r, a nd h ow t he y fi t i n w i t h propos e d m a na ge m e nt of t he s i gni fi c a nt ka rs t r e s ourc e s of t he L u ne a nd D E nt re c a s t e a ux va l l e ys i n s out he rn T a s m a ni a A d e t a i l e d de s c ri p t i on i s gi ve n of t he e xi s t i ng c ond i t i on of N e w de ga t e C a ve a nd of pre s e nt a nd ongoi ng vi s i t or i m p a c t s P re di c t i ons a re m a de of t h e c ons e que n c e s for t he c a v e s ys t e m i f t he propos e d d e ve l o pm e nt s a re no t c a rri e d ou t i n t h e ne a r fu t u re P a rt t w o c ons i s t s of a de t a i l e d r e ha b i l i t a t i on p l a n w hi c h a ddre s s e s i s s ue s i n t he re s t ora t i on of t he c a ve a ppropr i a t e m a n a ge m e n t re s pons e s obj e c t i ve s a nd a c t i o ns c os t i ngs a nd a t i m e s c a l e for i m p l e m e nt a t i on. 1.2 Th e Lu n e R i ve r K ar s t A r e as T he he a dw a t e rs of t h e L une a nd D E nt re c a s t e a ux Ri v e rs c ont a i n a l a rge vi rt ua l l y c ont i nuous a re a w he re t he dom i n a nt l a ndf orm i ng a ge nt i s s ol ut i on of t h e roc k a ka rs t a re a A s a re s ul t m uc h of t he dra i na ge i s u nde rground t hrough c a v e s ys t e m s Bl i nd a nd dry va l l e ys s t re a m s i nks a nd l a rge s pri ng s w he re w a t e r di s a ppe a rs a nd re a pp e a rs a nd e xt e ns i ve s i nkho l e a r e a s c ont a i ni ng bot h s ol ut i ona l a nd c ol l a ps e dol i n e s a re fou nd t hroughout t he a re a O rdovi c i a n l i m e s t on e a nd P re c a m br i a n dol om i t e form t h e m a i n ka rs t roc ks w i t h t h e i r un c onform a bl e bo unda ry l oc a t e d i n t he vi c i ni t y of H ot S pri ngs Cre e k. H i s t ori c a l l y, t he dol o m i t e ka rs t ha s be e n re fe rr e d t o a s t h e H a s t i ngs ka rs t w hi l s t t he l i m e s t on e ka rs t s i n t he he a dw a t e rs of t he L un e a nd i n t he M a rbl e H i l l D E nt re c a s t e a ux a re a ha v e be e n na m e d t he N ort h L une a nd Id a Ba y ka rs t a r e a s re s pe c t i v e l y. N um e rous re fe re n c e s de s c ri b e t h e Ida Ba y a re a m os t l y fo l l ow i ng i nv e s t i ga t i ons s urroundi ng t he c l os ure of t he L une Ri ve r L i m e s t on e qua rry (e g E be rha rd 19 90, H ous hol d & S pa t e 1990, K i e rna n 1991). H ow e ve r, c om pa r a t i v e l y l i t t l e w ork e xi s t s c onc e rni ng H a s t i ngs A broa d d e s c ri pt i on of t he H a s t i ngs k a rs t i s gi v e n i n H ous hol d & D a ve y (1987), w hi l s t de s c r i pt i ons of i nd i vi dua l c a ve s a r e found i n K i e rna n (197 1), S ki nne r & S ki nn e r (n.d.), S ki nn e r (1973) a nd M a t he w s (1985). Cl a rk e (1990), J a c k s on (1990) a nd S ha rpl e s (1994) de s c ri be t ha t pa rt of t he H a s t i ngs ka rs t i n S t a t e F ore s t s urroundi ng t he H a s t i ngs Ca v e s S t a t e Re s e rve w hi l s t H ous hol d (1993) de s c r i be s t he ka rs t hydrol ogy of t he a r e a A n a s s e s s m e nt of t he c a rryi ng c a pa c i t y of t h e S t a t e Re s e rve w a s m a de by Cut l e r (1991), a nd t he re s ul t i ng re port c on t a i ns a de s c ri pt i on of e xi s t i ng a nd pot e nt i a l t ouri s t us e of t he re s e rve i nc l udi ng bo t h t h e c a ve a nd t he t he rm a l pool T he H a s t i ng s k a rs t a r e a i s t he onl y k a rs t i n S out he rn T a s m a ni a w i t h a c a ve de ve l op e d for ge ne r a l t ouri s t a c c e s s N e w de ga t e Ca ve i s one of onl y t w o t ouri s t c a ve s i n A us t ra l i a form e d i n do l om i t e a s c om pa r e d w i t h l i m e s t one t he m ore c om m on c a ve be a ri ng roc k. A s t he o t h e r, T a nt a nool a C a ve i n S out h A us t ra l i a 2

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 9 i s e s s e nt i a l l y a n a ba ndon e d s e a c a ve N e w de ga t e Ca ve re pr e s e nt s t he onl y e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e dol om i t e c a v e i n t he c ount r y form e d t hrough s ol ut i on of t he roc k a s oppos e d t o m e c h a ni c a l a bra s i on. H e nc e i t form s a va l ua b l e e duc a t i ona l r e s ourc e f or bot h l oc a l a nd i n t e rs t a t e v i s i t ors W hi l s t p a rt l y a func t i on of t he l o c a t i o n of s ui t a bl e dol o m i t e out c rops a c ros s t he c ount ry, t h e l oc a t i on of N e w de ga t e Ca v e i s a l s o a re s ul t of t h e e x c e l l e nt e nvi ron m e nt for c a ve de v e l opm e nt found i n s out he rn T a s m a ni a Coo l t e m pe ra t e c l i m a t i c c ondi t i o ns w i t h hi gh ra i nfa l l a nd a n a bunda nc e of s oi l hum us from t a l l m i xe d fore s t ov e rl yi ng t he dol om i t e gi v e ri s e t o hi gh l e ve l s of c a rboni c a c i d i n t he a bunda n t groundw a t e r, ne c e s s a ry t o di s s ol ve s pa r i ngl y s ol ubl e do l om i t e By c oi nc i de n c e t h e P re c a m bri a n dol o m i t e a dj o i ns a l a rge de pos i t of O rdovi c i a n l i m e s t on e w hi c h s t r e t c h e s from t h e un c onform a bl e c on t a c t i n t he vi c i ni t y of H ot S pri ngs Cre e k s out hw a rds a round t he h e a dw a t e rs of t he L un e Ri v e r a nd i t s t ri but a r i e s t o t he Ida B a y ka rs t a re a w he r e E x i t Ca v e a nd i t s m a ny t ri but a ri e s i s found. T he ka rs t be a ri ng l i m e s t one c ont i nue s d i s c ont i nuou s l y from h e re i nt o t he S out hw e s t w i l de rn e s s a re a w i t h l i m e s t on e proba bl y c ropp i ng o ut i n t he Ca t a m a ra n a nd S out h Ca pe Ri v ul e t va l l e ys (S ha rp l e s 1994). N e i t h e r of t he s e ka rs t a re a s h a s ye t be e n e xp l ore d for c a ve s a nd m a ny a r e s t i l l t o be found i n t h e Ida B a y a nd N ort h L une a re a s T he H a s t i ngs Ida B a y a r e a t h e re for e re pre s e nt s a n e xc e l l e nt c ol l e c t i on of k a rs t fe a t ure s on a v a ri e t y of roc k t ype s w i t h a hi gh pot e nt i a l for a l l s t yl e s of c a ve t our i s m T he hi ghl y de ve l ope d N e w de g a t e C a ve i s t he m os t e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e c a ve w i t h t o urs ope ra t e d by P a rks & W i l d l i fe S e rv i c e gu i de s l e a vi ng hour l y t hroughout t he da y. T hi s c a ve c a t e rs for m os t re a s ona b l y fi t t o ur pa rt i e s a l t hough i t i s not s ui t a b l e for w he e l c ha i r a c c e s s M ys t e ry Cre e k Ca ve pa rt of t he E xi t s ys t e m ha s re c e n t l y be e n e s t a bl i s he d a s a c e nt re for a dve n t ure t ours run m a i n l y by l oc a l pri v a t e ope ra t ors (P a rks & W i l dl i f e S e rvi c e 1994). T he c a v e i s not de ve l ope d i n a ny w a y, ot h e r t h a n w i t h rudi m e nt a ry rout e m a rke rs A l l l i ght s a nd e qui pm e n t a re s uppl i e d by t he c l i e nt or t he ope ra t or. O t he r c a v e s bot h i n t h e H a s t i ngs a nd I da Ba y a re a s a re s ui t a bl e for t hi s form of a c t i v i t y. N um e rous unde ve l ope d c a ve s a r e found i n bot h a re a s w hi c h m a y be v i s i t e d by e xpe ri e nc e d s pe l e ol og i s t s T w o of t he s e c a ve s E x i t a nd K i ng G e orge V re qu i re a c c e s s p e rm i t s from t he S e rvi c e T he a re a s out hw e s t of E xi t Ca v e h a s a hi gh po t e nt i a l for t he di s c ove ry of furt h e r s i gni fi c a nt c a ve s ys t e m s Bot h a r e a s a l s o pos s e s s a n e xc e l l e nt po t e nt i a l for t h e de ve l opm e n t of s urfa c e ka rs t i nt e rpre t a t i v e w a l ks w he re s i nkhol e s di s a ppe a r i ng s t re a m s a nd l a rge s pri ngs a nd c a ve e n t ra n c e s m a y b e vi s i t e d. 3

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 10 1.3 Th e H as ti n gs K ar s t T he H a s t i ngs ka rs t a re a i s l o c a t e d i n t he va l l e ys of H ot S pri ngs Cre e k, a t ri but a ry of t he L une Ri v e r, a nd Cre e k t on Ri vul e t pa r t of t he E s pe ra n c e Ri ve r s ys t e m (F i g. 1). T he dol om i t e i s ove rl a i n by fl a t be dd e d P e rm o T ri a s s i c s e d i m e n t s w hi c h form a n i m pe rm e a bl e c a p roc k on t he ka rs t ro c k s a l ong t he s urfa c e di vi d e be t w e e n t h e t w o dra i na ge s ys t e m s Ra i n f a l l i ng on t he c a proc k c ol l e c t s i nt o s urfa c e s t re a m s w h i c h ge ne ra l l y di s a ppe a r unde rground t hrough s t re a m s i nks a nd i nt o c a v e s ys t e m s w he n t he y re a c h t he c ont a c t w i t h t h e unde r l yi ng dol om i t e S t e e pl y di ppi ng c a v e pa s s a ge s ha ve re s ul t e d, w i t h W a t e r l oo S w a l l e t a nd T ra fa l ga r P ot bot h c ont r i but i ng w a t e r t o t he N e w de ga t e Ca v e s ys t e m N e w de ga t e C a ve i t s e l f i s a c om p l e x s ys t e m w i t h a l m os t 2 k m of d oc u m e nt e d pa s s a ge s T he c a v e ha s de ve l ope d pa r a l l e l t o t he s urfa c e c ours e of H ot S pri ngs Cre e k, a l ong t h e pr e dom i n a nt l i ne of s t r i ke of t he dol om i t e M ys t e ry Cr e e k, a n i nt e r m i t t e nt s t re a m w hi c h fl ow s t hrough t he l ow e r l e v e l s of t he c a ve w he n H ot S pri ngs Cr e e k i s i n fl ood, i s t hought t o be a fl ood ove rfl ow c ha nne l of t he s urfa c e c re e k. T h i s ha s not a s ye t be e n prov e n t hrough t ra c e r t e s t s A m ore de t a i l e d d e s c ri pt i on of t he c a ve i s fou nd i n t he ne x t s e c t i on. A l t hough a pprox i m a t e l y 20 c a ve s a re kno w n i n t h e a re a t hre e o t he r no t a b l e c a ve s a re found i n t h e S t a t e R e s e rve : Be a t t i e C a ve K i ng G e orge V Ca v e a nd W o l f H ol e Be a t t i e Ca ve c ons i s t s of a s i ngl e c ha m b e r, e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e a nd re a s ona bl y w e l l de c or a t e d, a l t hough s how i ng s i gns of va nd a l i s m K i ng G e orge V Ca ve i s a c om p l e x, m e di um s i z e d s ys t e m w hi c h ha s i n t he pa s t b e e n s how n t o t ouri s t s T he c a ve l oc a t e d a pproxi m a t e l y 800 m e a s t of N e w de ga t e c ont a i ns s om e v e ry w e l l d e c ora t e d a r e a s w i t h l ong s t ra w s t a l a c t i t e s a bund a nt T hi s c a v e m a y be s ui t a bl e for gui d e d a dve n t ure t ou rs w he re vi s i t ors a re s uppl i e d w i t h c a vi ng e qui pm e nt a nd l i ght s W ol f H ol e 300 m e a s t of K i ng G e orge V Ca ve i s not a bl e for i t s l a rge c ol l a ps e d e n t ra nc e A c i rc ul a r hol e a pproxi m a t e l y 40 m d e e p a nd 15 m i n d i a m e t e r, l e a ds dow nw a rds t hrough P e r m i a n s e di m e nt s t o i nt e rs e c t t h e c a v e w hi c h ha s de ve l ope d i n t he unde r l yi ng dol om i t e T he c a ve c ont a i ns one of T a s m a ni a s l a rg e s t unde rground l a ke s L a ke P l u t o, a nd m a ny ve ry fi ne s t ra w s t a l a c t i t e s T hi s c a v e i s s ui t a bl e onl y for e xpe r i e nc e d c a v e rs T he hydrol ogy of W ol f H ol e i s i nt e re s t i ng i n t ha t t he m os t l i k e l y s ourc e for t he w a t e r i n t he c a ve i s s t re a m s ori g i na t i ng t o t h e nor t h of t he s urfa c e d i vi d e i n t he Cre e kt on c a t c h m e nt w i t h t ri but a ry s t re a m s pa s s i ng t o t he s out h unde rn e a t h t he s urfa c e dr a i na ge di vi de T he H a s t i ngs t he r m a l s pri ngs a r e l oc a t e d a pproxi m a t e l y 4 km e a s t of N e w de ga t e Ca ve T he s e s pri ngs a re t hought t o be t he r e s ul t of groundw a t e r i n t he do l om i t e b e i ng forc e d dow nw a rds t o a de pt h of a pproxi m a t e l y 600 m t hrough a s ync l i na l s t ruc t ur e t o re a ppe a r i n a m a j or f a ul t z one und e r hydro s t a t i c pre s s ure T he w a rm t h of t he s pri ng s i s due e nt i re l y t o t he na t ura l ge ot h e rm a l gr a di e nt T he y oc c ur ove r a n a re a of a bout 0 .25 ha w i t h a n a ve ra ge t e m p e ra t ur e of 28C a nd a fl ow of a pproxi m a t e l y 30 l / s e c T h e w a rm w a t e r form s pa r t of t h e ka rs t s ys t e m a s i t c on t a i ns h i gh l e ve l s of d i s s ol ve d c a l c i um c a rbon a t e how e ve r no w a rm s pri ngs ha ve a s ye t be e n di s c ove re d i n t he c a ve s of t he a re a F urt he r l a rge w a rm s pri ngs a re l oc a t e d s out hw a rds on t h e L une p l a i ns how e ve r t he s e s pri ngs 4

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 12 e m a na t e from a l i m e s t on e b e droc k. T hi s s ugge s t s t ha t t h e H a s t i ngs do l om i t e k a rs t a nd t he l i m e s t one k a rs t s furt he r s out h a re hydr ol ogi c a l l y l i nke d. A publ i c pool ha s be e n c ons t ruc t e d on one of t he s pri ngs T hi s popul a r a re a l e nds i t s e l f t o a n i nt e gr a t e d i nt e rpre t a t i v e pro gra m w i t h a foc us on t he w a r m a nd c ool hydrol ogy of t he ka rs t a re a T he H a s t i ngs ka rs t c ont a i ns a di v e rs e c a ve a d a pt e d f a una i n c l udi ng c a ve b e e t l e s (Idac ar abus s p.), ha rve s t m e n (Monox y om m a, L om ane l l a s p.), ps e udos c orpi ons (P s e udot y r annoc ht hon i us s p.) a nd a qua t i c fa una s uc h a s t he d e pi gm e nt e d T a s m a n i a n M ount a i n S hri m p (A nas pi de s s p.) S om e of t he s e s pe c i e s a re t hought t o be e nd e m i c t o t he H a s t i ngs a r e a a nd m a i nt e na nc e of t h e i r ha b i t a t s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e i n N e w de ga t e Ca ve i s ve ry i m po rt a n t It i s hi ghl y l i ke l y t ha t pre s e n t a c c um ul a t i ons of m ud, s a w d us t a nd ot he r orga ni c a c c um u l a t i ons i n t he c a ve a nd a l s o l a m pe nf l ora i nfe s t a t i ons (a l g a e m os s e s a nd fe rns a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a rt i fi c i a l l i ght i ng) a re a dv e rs e l y a ff e c t i ng t he h a bi t a t for t he s e c re a t ur e s 1.4 N e w d e gate C ave 1.4.1 D e s c ri pt i on of t h e c a v e s i gni f i c a n c e a nd vul ne r a bi l i t y N e w de ga t e C a ve (F i g. 2) a nd i t s s urroundi ngs ha ve a hi gh s c i e nt i fi c s i gni fi c a nc e t o bot h e a rt h s c i e nt i s t s a nd bi o l ogi s t s T he c a ve c ons i s t s of a m a z e of pa s s a ge s a t va ri ous l e ve l s a l t hough t w o m a j or l e v e l s m a y be re c ogni s e d fi rs t l y t ha t of t he fl oors of t he m a i n Ca t h e dra l Cha m be r a nd t he Bi nn e y Cha m be r, a nd s e c ondl y t ha t of t he pre s e nt c ours e of M ys t e ry Cre e k, fl ow i ng a t t he b a s e l e v e l of t h e s ys t e m T he uppe r l e v e l s of t he c a ve s how e vi de n c e of h a vi ng ori g i n a l l y de v e l op e d i n t h e phre a t i c groundw a t e r z one t he a r e a p e rm a n e nt l y be l ow t he w a t e r t a bl e L a rge c ha m be rs c om pos e d of s m oot h rounde d form s d i s s ol ve d a l ong t he m a j or j oi n t p a t t e rns i n t he roc k, m a z e s e c t i ons a nd ve ry l i t t l e e vi de n c e of t he a c t i on of fa s t fl ow i ng w a t e r s uc h a s s c a l l op i ng a nd fl ut i ng of t he ro c k s urfa c e a re e v i de nc e for form a t i on und e r c ondi t i ons of ve ry s l ow l y c i rc u l a t i ng groundw a t e r. T he s e ori gi na l s ha p e s ha ve no t be e n m odi f i e d t o a ny gre a t e xt e nt by fa s t fl ow i ng w a t e r, but ha ve be e n c oa t e d i n m os t a re a s by m a gni fi c e nt s pe l e ot he m di s pl a ys In c ont ra s t t he l ow e r l e ve l s of t h e s ys t e m c ons i s t of a c l a s s i c a l va dos e c a nyon, i nc i s e d a s t he w a t e r t a bl e droppe d i n re s pons e t o i nc i s i on of t h e s urfa c e va l l e y of H ot S pri n gs Cre e k. T hi s c a nyon s t i l l fl oods from t i m e t o t i m e a nd de pos i t s of fi ne c l a ys on t he s urfa c e of s pe l e o t he m s i n t he m a i n uppe r c ha m be rs a t t e s t t o l a rg e s c a l e fl oodi ng of e ve n t h e uppe r l e v e l s i n t he r e l a t i ve l y re c e nt pa s t (s of ye a rs ). T hi s s t re a m i s s t i l l a c t i v e l y e xc a va t i ng t h e l ow e r l e v e l s A l t hough i t s f l ow i s onl y i nt e rm i t t e nt unde rground fl ow s be ne a t h t h e pre s e n t c a ve fl oor a re s t i l l c ont i nui ng s ol ut i on of t he roc k. T hi s c om b i ne d w i t h de s t a bi l i s a t i on of l a rge s e di m e nt ba nks w i t h i n a nd a bo ve t he v a dos e c a nyon i s c a us i ng a s l ow na t ura l s ubs i de nc e i n s om e a re a s l e a di ng t o c ra c ki ng of s pe l e ot h e m s T hi s i s a c o m pl e t e l y n a t ura l proc e s s unl i k e l y t o c a us e a ny m a j or m ov e m e n t i n t h e ne a r fut ure a nd n ot a c a us e for c onc e rn. 6

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 14 N e w de ga t e C a ve i s l i ke l y t o be t he m os t ri c hl y de c ora t e d dol o m i t e c a ve i n A us t ra l i a A l t hough m a ny unde ve l ope d dol om i t e c a ve s a re found i n va ri ous pa rt s of T a s m a n i a a nd fa r m ore r a re l y on t h e m a i nl a nd, no ne s o fa r di s c ove re d c ont a i ns t he m a s s e s of s pe l e ot he m s found i n N e w de ga t e S pe l e ot he m s found i n N e w de ga t e Ca ve i nc l u de m a s s e d di s pl a ys of w ha t a re m os t l i k e l y t o be c a l c i t e s pe l e ot he m s : s t a l a c t i t e s s t a l a gm i t e s s ha w l s s t r a w s c ol um ns s hi e l ds he l i c t i t e s c a ve c ora l e t c N o on e ha s s t udi e d t he e ffe c t of t he dol om i t e b e dr oc k on t he c h a ra c t e r of t he s e s pe l e ot he m s how e ve r t he i nc orpor a t i on of dol om i t e i n t he c rys t a l s t ru c t ure i s l i ke l y t o produ c e s om e i nt e r e s t i ng for m s a nd m i n e ra l ogy. L ong, s pi ky c rys t a l fl ow e rs a re l i ke l y t o b e c om pos e d of a ra goni t e how e v e r onl y s a m pl i ng a nd a n a l ys i s w i l l c onfi r m t hi s W hi t e pow de ry c oa t i ngs on t he c a v e w a l l re s e m bl i ng m oon m i l k but fa r dri e r, a re found i n m a ny a re a s T he s e c oa t i ngs ha ve not y e t b e e n a na l ys e d. M a ny of t he s e form a t i ons a re e x t r e m e l y de l i c a t e a nd m a ny a s pe c t s of t he e x i s t i ng i nfra s t ruc t ur e of t h e c a ve a re a l l ow i ng ongoi ng de t e ri ora t i on t o oc c ur. T he s e a re di s c us s e d furt he r i n t h e ne xt s e c t i on. T he c a v e i s t he t ype l o c a l i t y for t h e fi rs t t rul y t rog l obi t i c s pe c i e s de s c ri b e d i n A us t ra l i a l da c ar abus c or di c ol l i s a s m a l l t o t a l l y bl i nd c a v e be e t l e A ve ry c l os e l y re l a t e d s pe c i e s l da c ar abus t r ogl ody t e s a l s o t ot a l l y c a ve a d a pt e d, i s e nd e m i c t o t he ne a rby Ida Ba y k a rs t a re a M orphol ogi c a l c om pa ri s on of t h e s e t w o s pe c i e s w i l l be a n i nt e re s t i ng e xe rc i s e i n e xp l a i n i ng e vol ut i ona ry d i ve rge n c e w i t hi n a ve ry r e s t ri c t e d ra nge V a ri ous ot he r c a ve a da p t e d i nve rt e bra t e s a re found i n N e w de ga t e Ca ve i nc l udi ng t he T a s m a ni a n Ca ve S pi de r (H i c k m ani a t r ogl ody t e s ) a ve ry l a rge s pi de r w i t h a l e g s pa n of up t o 12 c m a nd a l a rge t e a rdrop s ha p e d e gg s a c w hi c h i t s us pe nds from t he c a ve roof. L a rg e hunt s m a n l i ke s pi de rs a r e fo und i n t he c a ve a l s o, how e ve r t he y ha ve not ye t be e n de s c r i be d. Ca ve Cri c ke t s Mi c r opat hus t as m ani e ns i s a re c om m on ne a r t h e c a ve e nt ra n c e m a ki ng ni ght l y t ri ps i nt o t he out s i d e bus h t o for a ge S pri ng t a i l s Col l e m bol a a re found on da m p s urfa c e s a nd pool s t hroughout t he c a ve w h i l s t ha rve s t m e n of t he s pe c i e s Monox y om m a c av at i c um a nd t he re l a t i ve l y ra re L om ane l l a s p i nha bi t d ri e r a re a s P s e udot y r annoc ht h oni us t as m ani c us i s a n i nt e re s t i ng, s c orpi o n l i ke c re a t ure w hi c h i nh a bi t s p l a nt de bri s w a s he d i nt o t he s t r e a m duri ng fl oods or fa l l e n i n t hrough s urfa c e f i s s ure s T he T a s m a ni a n G l ow W orm A r ac hnoc am pa t as m ani e ns i s i s foun d i n re s t ri c t e d s e c t i ons of t he c a ve It w a s proba bl y ne ve r v e ry c om m on i n t he s ys t e m a s t h e y ge ne r a l l y re qui re a p e rm a n e nt l y f l ow i ng s t re a m t o provi de t he h a bi t a t for t h e y m a i n pre y fl y i ng i ns e c t s s uc h a s c a ddi s fl i e s a nd s t one fl i e s N o s pe c i fi c s t ud i e s of t h e c a v e fa una of N e w de ga t e h a ve be e n unde r t a ke n t he s e l i s t s a re fro m t he s t udi e s of re c re a t i ona l s pe l e o l ogi s t s a nd de pa r t m e n t a l off i c e rs A c om pl e t e fa una l i nv e nt ory for t h e c a v e w oul d m os t l i ke l y re ve a l a g re a t de a l m or e T a s m a ni a n c a v e s pa rt i c u l a r l y t hos e i n r a i nfore s t a r e a s s uc h a s N e w de ga t e ha v e t he hi ghe s t s pe c i e s di ve rs i t y i n t e m pe ra t e A us t ra l i a ( E be rha rd 1991). M a ny of t h e s e c re a t ur e s m a y b e s e e n a s pa rt of a c a ve t o ur a nd, a s w e l l a s t he i r i n t ri ns i c i nt e r e s t h e l p t he gui de s t o dr a w re l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n t he s urfa c e a nd 8

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 15 unde rground e nvi ron m e nt s U nfort una t e l y t he ha b i t a t for t h e s e c r e a t ur e s ha s b e e n s e ve re l y de gra d e d i n t he pa s t pa rt i c ul a rl y ne a r t h e s urfa c e t ra i l s a nd m os t of t he popul a t i on of c a ve l i fe now l i v e s a w a y fr om t he di s t urbe d a re a s It i s hope d t ha t i f t hi s re s t ora t i on p l a n c a n b e i m pl e m e nt e d t h e n m a ny of t he c re a t ure s di s pl a c e d by pol l u t i on m a y re t urn t o a r e a s ne a r t he t our i s t rout e s Be i ng A us t ra l i a s onl y t our i s t c a v e de ve l ope d t hrough s ol ut i on of do l om i t e a s oppos e d t o l i m e s t on e i t s m a j or s i gn i fi c a n c e l i e s i n opport un i t i e s for i n t e rpre t a t i on a nd e duc a t i on of vi s i t ors a s t o t he na t ure of ka rs t proc e s s e s a nd bi ot a i n t hi s roc k t y pe w hi c h a re no t a v a i l a bl e a nyw he re e l s e i n t he c oun t ry. T h e s pe c i f i c e nvi ronm e n t a l c ondi t i ons s urroundi ng t he c a ve e xpl a i n i t s de ve l opm e nt a nd c ha ra c t e r a nd m a ke e xc e l l e nt i n t e rpre t a t i ve r e s ourc e s T he c oo l m i x e d for e s t a nd ra i nfor e s t a bove t he c a ve i n c onj un c t i on w i t h a bund a nt ra i nfa l l provi d e s i gni fi c a nt opport uni t i e s for i nt e rpre t a t i on o f T a s m a ni a n fore s t e c os ys t e m s T he a ddi t i on of a n unde rground t ri p, i n w hi c h t he s urfa c e e nvi ron m e nt m a y be l i nke d t o t he s ol ut i on a nd de pos i t i on of dol om i t e a nd i nt e ra c t i ons b e t w e e n s urfa c e a nd c a ve a da p t e d s pe c i e s i nt e gr a t e bi ol ogi c a l a nd g e om orphi c pro c e s s e s i n a uni que a nd s pe c t a c ul a r w a y. 1.4.2 P re s e nt c ondi t i on of t he c a v e N e w de ga t e c a v e form s t h e foc us for t he gre a t m a j ori t y of t ouri s t s t o s out he rn T a s m a ni a n c a ve a re a s a nd h a s done for m a ny de c a d e s Ca t e ri ng for a pproxi m a t e l y 40 000 vi s i t ors pe r ye a r i t i s one of t he m os t popul a r t ouri s t a t t ra c t i ons i n t he s out h of t he s t a t e It i s c e nt re d on one of t he m os t d i ve rs e re gi ons of k a rs t i n t h e c ount ry, a nd borde rs t he e xt e ns i ve W e s t e rn T a s m a n i a n W i l de rne s s W or l d H e r i t a g e a re a T he c a ve i s t he m os t h i ghl y v i s i t e d a t t ra c t i on i n t he s t a t e re s e rv e s ys t e m s out h of H oba rt Inform a t i on re l a t e d t o t he W or l d H e ri t a ge a re a a nd s urroundi ng s t a t e re s e rv e s i s di s s e m i na t e d by i nform a t i on off i c e rs s t a t i one d a t t h e c a ve T he c a ve i s e l e c t ri c a l l y l i t a nd c onc re t e o r e a rt h p a t hw a ys ha v e be e n c ons t ruc t e d w i t h m a ny s t e ps gi vi ng e a s y a c c e s s t hrough t he fi rs t 300 m of t he s ys t e m U nfort una t e l y t he e xi s t i ng de v e l opm e nt s w i t hi n t he c a ve a re ha vi ng a n a dve rs e e ffe c t on t he c a ve e nvi ronm e n t In c om m on w i t h m a ny c a ve de ve l op m e n t s of t h e 1930s 1960s t he i nfra s t ruc t ur e w a s ve ry l i t t l e c on c e rne d w i t h t he ongoi ng m a i n t e na n c e of na t u ra l e nvi ronm e n t a l c ondi t i ons D e ve l opm e n t of c a ve s for t ouri s m i s now s e e n a s a n e xt re m e l y c om pl i c a t e d proc e s s Ca ve s pos s e s s no i nhe re nt c a rryi ng c a p a c i t y for hum a ns P roc e s s e s of ge om orphi c a nd bi ol ogi c a l e vo l ut i on w i t hi n c a ve s ys t e m s oc c ur ge n e ra l l y ove r a fa r gr e a t e r t i m e s pa n t ha n s urfa c e e nv i ronm e n t s e nvi ronm e nt a l ra nge s a re fa r m or e c ons t ra i ne d a nd he nc e e nvi ronm e n t a l t ol e r a nc e of bot h l a ndfor m s a nd s pe c i e s i s fa r t i ght e r t ha n for a l m os t a ny s urfa c e e nvi ron m e n t (K i e rna n 198 8). T hi s i s a re l a t i ve l y r e c e n t vi e w po i nt how e ve r, s t e m m i ng from a n ups urge i n s c i e nt i fi c i nve s t i ga t i on i nt o k a rs t proc e s s e s i n t he 1970s 9

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 16 T hroughout A us t ra l i a c a ve m a na g e rs ha ve re a l i s e d t ha t i n m os t c a s e s e xi s t i ng l i gh t i ng a nd w a l kw a ys a nd provi s i ons t o ke e p t he c a ve s c l e a n a re uns ui t a bl e w i t h m a ny de ve l opm e nt s re m a i n i ng r e l a t i ve l y unc h a nge d from t he e a rl y p a rt of t he c e n t ury. N e w de ga t e C a ve i s c e rt a i nl y i n t h i s c a t e go ry a t t h e m o m e nt a s t he l a s t m a j or de ve l opm e nt s i n t he c a ve oc c urr e d i n t h e l a t e 1960s w he n w oode n w a l kw a ys w e re re pl a c e d w i t h c onc r e t e s t ru c t ur e s s i gni fi c a nt a re a s w e r e re w i r e d, a nd n e w s w i t c hi ng s t a t i ons w e re i ns t a l l e d. M os t of t he d e ve l opm e nt s di d no t how e ve r c ons i d e r t he s us t a i na bi l i t y of c a ve form a t i ons s e di m e nt s or b i ot a a nd t he i m pa c t s w hi c h h a ve oc c urre d s i n c e t he c a ve w a s fi rs t ope ne d for i nt e ns i v e t ouri s m i n 1939 h a ve c on t i n ue d t o i nc re a s e w i t h vi s i t or num be rs T he s e i m p a c t s fa l l i n t o t he fo l l ow i ng c a t e gori e s : 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n o f f o r e i g n m a t e r i a l s M a t e r i a l s i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t O ve r t he l a s t s i xt y ye a rs a gre a t de a l of fore i gn m a t e ri a l ha s be e n i nt roduc e d t o t he c a ve bo t h i n t he proc e s s of d e ve l op m e nt a nd a s a re s ul t of t our i s t t r a ffi c A l t hough t he i ni t i a l a c c e s s t o t h e c a v e ha s a l w a ys be e n c ons t ruc t e d fro m c onc re t e for t he f i rs t t hi rt y ye a rs of ope ra t i on a l l i nt e rna l s t e ps a nd r a i l i ngs w e re bu i l t of w ood. E v e nt ua l l y t h e s e be c a m e uns a fe a nd w e r e re pl a c e d w i t h c onc re t e how e ve r a l a rge a m ount of t he ori gi na l w ood w a s m e r e l y du m pe d i nt o hol e s re m ot e from t he s i gh t of v i s i t ors A l t hough m uc h of t h i s w ood ha s r e c e n t l y be e n r e m ov e d t hrough vol unt e e r w orki ng be e s s upe rvi s e d by P a rks s t a ff a gre a t de a l s t i l l re m a i ns T hi s m a t e r i a l i s ro t t i ng i nt o t he s ubs t ra t e form i ng a n unna t ur a l s ourc e of nut ri e n t s i n t he s ys t e m a nd a g e rm i n a t i on a re a for s pore s i nt roduc e d t o t he c a ve on v i s i t ors c l ot h e s a nd s hoe s Re fus e from pre vi ous l i ght i ng s ys t e m s i n c l udi ng di s c a rde d pl a s t i c c ondui t a nd c op pe r w i ri ng a l s o re m a i ns i n t he c a ve W hi l s t t h e pl a s t i c i s proba b l y i n e rt i t de t r a c t s fro m t he a e s t he t i c e xpe ri e nc e i n t he c a ve Copp e r w i ri ng on t he ot he r ha nd i s ox i di s e d i n t he da m p e nv i ronm e n t a nd pe rm a ne nt l y s t a i ns t he roc k a nd a ny form a t i ons i t c on t a c t s S i m i l a r i m pa c t s a re fe l t from s t e e l w i ri ng bra c ke t s A ga i n, w orki ng be e s ha ve he l pe d re m ove m u c h of t hi s m a t e ri a l how e ve r a l ot m us t re m a i n unt i l t h e c a v e i s re w i r e d. In t he pa s t i t w a s c om m on pra c t i s e t o di s pos e of us e d l i gh t bul bs a nd fi t t i ngs by t hrow i ng t he m i nt o hol e s A s a re s ul t m uc h broke n gl a s s i s found t hroughout t h e c a v e A s pa rt of t he d e ve l op m e nt a gre a t d e a l o f c rus he d s i l i c a w a s i n t roduc e d t o t h e c a v e m a i nl y i n t he e nt ra n c e a re a A l t hough r e a s ona bl y i ne rt a nd not l i ke l y t o c a us e a ny m a j o r e nv i ronm e n t a l probl e m s t hi s m a t e ri a l h a s now c ove re d a s i gni fi c a nt a re a of fl oor form a t i on w hi c h w oul d be b e t t e r re s t ore d t o i t s ori g i na l c ondi t i on. T hi s m a t e ri a l c a n a l l e ve nt u a l l y be r e m o ve d, l e a di ng t o a m ore n a t ura l s ys t e m T hi s w i l l be re a s ona bl y e a s y t o a ddr e s s how e ve r w ha t i s a m or e di ffi c ul t 10

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 17 probl e m i s t he s pore s s e e ds dus t m ud, l i nt s ki n a nd ha i r t ha t a re c on t i nua l l y t ra ns port e d i n t o t he c a ve by v i s i t ors a nd gui de s V i s i t ors a l s o bri ng w i t h t h e m t h e i r ow n pe rs ona l a c i d s uppl y i n t h e form of t he c a rbon di oxi de t he y e xh a l e Ca r bon di oxi de di s s ol ve d i n w a t e r dropl e t s c onde ns e d ont o c a v e form a t i ons form s a c a rbo ni c a c i d s ol u t i on w hi c h, i f c on c e nt r a t e d e nou gh, c a n d i s s ol ve t h e s urfa c e of t he form a t i on. T e s t s i n t h e c a ve s how t h a t CO 2 c on c e n t ra t i ons i n t he c a v e a i r ove r t he s um m e r a nd E a s t e r bus y pe ri ods m a y ha v e t he po t e nt i a l t o do t hi s 2 M a t e r i a l s b r o u g h t i n b y v i s i t o r s D u s t a n d o r g a n i c s Be fore t he de ve l opm e n t of t he pre s e nt ra i s e d w a l kw a y t o t he c a ve e nt ra n c e t he a c c e s s t ra c k t o t h e c a ve w a s fi rs t c ons t ruc t e d from c rus he d s i l i c a t he dus t from w hi c h w a s m os t l i ke l y t ra ns port e d i nt o t h e c a v e by e a rl y vi s i t ors In t he e a r l y 1960s t hi s w a s re pl a c e d by t re e fe rn t runks a nd t he n a s a w dus t l a ye r. P e opl e w a l ki ng t h e t ra c k c a rr i e d l a rge a m o unt s of t hi s m a t e r i a l i nt o t he c a ve on t h e i r fe e t A gr e a t de a l w a s s w e pt fr om t he pa t hs ont o n e a rby for m a t i ons di s c o l ouri ng t h e m a nd bui l di ng up a s ourc e of hum i c a c i d w hi c h s ubs e que nt l y be g a n di s s ol vi ng t he s urfa c e l a y e rs of t he form a t i o ns S om e of t hi s m a t e r i a l ha s be e n re m ov e d by ha nd but a gre a t de a l re m a i ns i n i na c c e s s i bl e l o c a t i ons T o a l l e vi a t e t hi s probl e m a n e w ra i s e d w a l kw a y a nd e n t ra nc e s he l t e r w e re c ons t ruc t e d from t re a t e d pi ne T hi s gre a t l y re du c e d t h e a m ount of orga ni c m a t e r i a l t ra ns port e d i nt o t he c a v e on vi s i t ors fe e t T he re i s how e ve r a n ongoi ng prob l e m w i t h m ud a nd s i l t c a rri e d i n t he c l e a t s of s hoe s a nd re l e a s e d w he n t he s ol e i s w e t t e d i n t he c a v e T hi s m a t e r i a l pr e s e nt l y runs off t he unc urb e d p a t hw a ys a nd ont o form a t i ons O nl y pa rt o f t he t ouri s t rout e t hrough t he c a ve ha s be e n s urfa c e d. A l a rge a re a of na t ura l fl oor re m a i ns i n t he c e n t ra l p a rt of t he c a ve M a t e ri a l p i c ke d up on vi s i t ors s hoe s i s t he n t ra ns port e d t hroughou t t h e c a ve w hi c h a g a i n r e s ul t s i n di s c ol our a t i on of form a t i on s by t ra c k runoff. In t i m e t h i s m a t e ri a l w i l l be i nc orpor a t e d i nt o t he s pe l e ot he m s a s c a l c i t e bui l ds up a fi l m ove r t he t op. I t w i l l t h e n be i m pos s i bl e t o re m ove M a ny ki l ogr a m s of fi ne m a t e ri a l s s uc h a s dus t l i n t ha i r a nd s ki n fl a k e s ha v e be e n t ra ns por t e d i nt o t he c a ve by vi s i t ors M os t of t hi s m a t e ri a l i s l i ght e nough t o fl oa t i n t he a i r, a nd i s oft e n c a rri e d hi gh i nt o t he c a ve on up dra ught s c re a t e d by t h e he a t gi v e n off by pow e rful s pot l i gh t s L a rge a m oun t s of t hi s m a t e ri a l ha v e a c c um ul a t e d on fi ne f orm a t i ons s uc h a s he l i c t i t e s a nd s t ra w s pa rt i c u l a rl y t hos e ne a r w a l kw a ys a nd n e a r pow e rful l i ght s S i gni f i c a n t a m oun t s ha ve be e n de pos i t e d on c a ve s pi de rs w e bs W ha t m a t e r i a l do e s nt a dhe r e t o form a t i ons e ve n t ua l l y fa l l s out ont o hori z o nt a l s urfa c e s w he r e i t re m a i ns t o d i s c ol our form a t i ons a nd i nt rodu c e nut r i e nt s t o t he s ys t e m A s w i t h t he m ud a nd s a w dus t de p os i t s m e nt i on e d 11

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 18 a bove m uc h of t h i s m a t e ri a l w i l l e v e n t ua l l y b e i nc orpor a t e d i n t o t he s urfa c e of s pe l e ot he m s a s c a l c i t e bui l ds up a nd be c o m e i m pos s i bl e t o re m ove S e e d s a n d s p o r e s M a ny s e e ds a nd s pore s a re i nt rodu c e d t o t he c a ve by vi s i t ors A l t hough i t i s not unknow n for na t i ve a ni m a l s s uc h a s Brus h P os s um s W om ba t s a nd T a s m a ni a n D e vi l s t o e nt e r c a v e s t he y ge n e ra l l y do not m ov e fa r from t h e e n t ra nc e a nd w oul d not b e a m a j or s ourc e of s pore s for t he i nt e ri or of t he c a ve S i m i l a r l y m i gra t ory c a ve c ri c k e t s m a y bri ng i n s pore s but t he y a l s o ge ne r a l l y do not m ove fa r from t h e c a ve e nt ra n c e A s oppos e d t o m a i nl a nd c a v e s ba t s onl y e nt e r t he c a v e a c c i de n t a l l y a nd ve ry r a re l y. T he re i s how e v e r a gre a t de a l of fun gus grow i ng t hroughout t he c a ve on m os t s ubs t ra t e s pa rt i c u l a rl y on ol d w ood a nd i n hi gh nut ri e nt a re a s s uc h a s fa l l out z one s w he re ha i r, s ki n a nd fi b re s a c c um ul a t e A l t hough s m a l l a m ount s of funga l grow t h i n t he c a v e i s na t ur a l t h e gre a t e r i npu t of s pore s a nd l oc a l l y i n c re a s e d nu t ri e n t l e v e l s m e a ns t h a t a fa r gre a t e r t ha n na t ur a l m a s s of fungus i s found i n t he c a ve t ha n w o ul d ha ve na t ur a l l y o c c urr e d. S e e ds a re oft e n s e e n t o g e rm i n a t e i n t h e c a ve but g e ne r a l l y do no t s urvi ve T h e o nl y i ns t a nc e s w he r e t h e s pore s of fe rns a nd m os s e s s urvi ve i s i n t he vi c i ni t y of a rt i f i c i a l l i ght s a nd t h e s e pl a n t s c a n b e c om e a m a j o r probl e m (s e e b e l ow ). T o u c h i n g f o r m a t i o n s A not he r c ons e que nc e of a poorl y de s i gne d rout e i s t ha t c e rt a i n l a rg e s t a l a gm i t e s a nd c ol um ns a re s om e t i m e s us e d a s l e a ni ng pos t s a ga i n e s pe c i a l l y i f pa rt i e s a re l a rg e T ra ns fe r of oi l s from t he s ki n on t o form a t i ons e s s e nt i a l l y pre v e nt s t he fur t he r bui l d up of c a l c i t e A l s o, c on t i nu e d t ouc h i ng w i l l s m oot h a nd di s c o l our t he for m a t i on. E r o s i o n Be c a us e t he rou t e i s poorl y de s i gn e d a n d t ra c k e dge s poor l y de fi n e d m a ny pe o pl e w a l k off t he t ra c k ont o s urroundi ng a r e a s T hi s i s e s pe c i a l l y s o i n pe a k pe ri ods w he n l a rge pa rt i e s a re c om m on a nd gui de s c a n not s e e e ve ryone s m ove m e nt s T he s e a r e a s a re oft e n c o m pos e d of s oft c a v e s e di m e nt s s t a l a gm i t e s or fl ow s t one s w hi c h a r e e a s i l y da m a ge d by t ra m pl i ng f e e t T he r e s ul t i s a n ongoi ng gra du a l e ros i on of f e a t ur e s i n t he vi c i ni t y of t he w a l kw a ys w hi c h c a nn ot be re ha bi l i t a t e d. 3 P r o b l e m s c a u s e d t h r o u g h i n a p p r o p r i a t e l i g h t i n g A s w e l l a s di s t urbi ng t he na t ura l a i rfl ow pa t t e rns of t he c a v e a i di ng t h e bui l d up of l i nt i n t h e vi c i ni t y of l i ght s t he a rt i f i c i a l l i gh t i t s e l f c a n c a us e m a j or di s rupt i ons i n w ha t w oul d na t ura l l y be a t ot a l l y da rk e nvi ronm e n t A s m e nt i one d a bove t h e onl y pl a nt l i fe na t ura l l y found i n c a ve s i s ge n e r a l l y fungus 12

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 19 G re e n pl a n t s s uc h a s fe rns a nd m os s e s a s w e l l a s c e r t a i n t ype s of a l ga e a r e qui t e c om m on i n N e w de ga t e Ca v e how e ve r, a n d t he s e a re e n t i re l y due t o t r a ns port of s e e d a nd s pore s by v i s i t ors a r t i fi c i a l l i ght i n q ua nt i t i e s s uffi c i e nt t o a l l ow grow t h, a nd i n s om e i ns t a nc e s s uffi c i e n t a dd e d nut ri e nt s t o prom ot e grow t h. A l ga e i n p a rt i c ul a r a pp e a rs t o pr e fe r t he s m oot h s urfa c e s of s pe l e o t he m s a nd i n s o m e c a s e s de pos i t s ha ve be c o m e qui t e t hi c k, form i ng a n i nky bl ue c ol our. M os s e s a nd fe rns a ppe a r t o pre fe r m or e fri a bl e s ubs t ra t e s s uc h a s de c om pos i ng roc k a nd c a v e s e di m e nt s T he s e pl a nt s a s w e l l a s b e i ng uns i gh t l y, c a n ha v e qui t e a de s t ru c t i v e e ff e c t on c a ve form a t i ons a s t h e i r roo t s c a n e t c h or e ve n bre a k dow n t he s ubs t ra t e on w hi c h t h e y grow (A l e y & A l e y 1985). A l l of t h e s e e ff e c t s i n c o m bi na t i on h a ve l e d t o t he gr a dua l de gra d a t i on of N e w de ga t e Ca ve s i nc e i t w a s fi rs t de ve l ope d s i xt y y e a rs a go. M a ny of t he e ffe c t s c a n be ha l t e d a nd i n s om e c a s e s r e ha bi l i t a t e d. T hi s i s a bs ol ut e l y ne c e s s a ry i f t he qu a l i t y of t he e xpe ri e n c e for vi s i t ors i s t o be m a i nt a i ne d a nd m a na g e m e n t of t he c a v e i s t o b e ra i s e d t o t he l e ve l of be s t pra c t i c e i n A us t ra l i a T he T a s m a n i a n P a rks a nd W i l dl i fe S e rvi c e ha s de ve l ope d a c om pr e he ns i ve re h a bi l i t a t i on a nd ongoi ng m a i n t e na n c e pl a n for t h e c a ve w hi c h i s out l i n e d i n t h e s e c ond p a rt o f t hi s doc um e n t M a j or c ha nge s i n bo t h m a n a ge m e nt a nd i nfra s t ruc t ure a re n e c e s s a ry i n ord e r for t h e c a ve t o re m a i n a n a t t r a c t i on. W e now ha v e t he know l e dge a nd t e c hno l ogy t o c orre c t m a ny of t he m i s t a ke s of t he pa s t how e v e r a s ubs t a nt i a l f i na nc i a l c om m i t m e nt i n t h e form of a di ve rs i on of p a rt of t h e re ve nue ga i ne d fro m t i c ke t s a l e s a n i n t e rn a l a l l oc a t i on, or a n out s i de g ra nt i s ne c e s s a r y i n orde r for w orks t o c om m e nc e 1.4.3 L i ke l y d e t e r i ora t i on i f no a c t i on i s t a ke n In ge ne ra l t e rm s t he s oone r t ha t t h e s e i s s ue s a re a ddr e s s e d t he e a s i e r t he j ob of re c t i fy i ng t he da m a ge w i l l be a nd t he s c a l e of i m pa c t s w i l l b e proport i on a l l y l e s s e ne d. T he fo l l ow i ng e x a m p l e s i l l us t ra t e t he ne c e s s i t y for s w i ft a c t i on. A s de pos i t i on of c a l c i t e i s a n ongoi ng pro c e s s t he m ore t i m e t ha t i s a l l ow e d t o e l a p s e be t w e e n t he i nt rodu c t i on of s e di m e nt s a nd/ orga ni c s e t c ont o a c t i ve fl ow s t o ne s urfa c e s a nd i t s c l e a n i ng, t h e ha rd e r t h e s urfa c e w i l l b e t o c l e a n a nd i n m a ny c a s e s i t w i l l be i m pos s i bl e t o c l e a n. In s om e c a ve a re a s w e a k a c i d ha s be e n us e d t o d i s s ol ve t he s urfa c e fi l m from for m a t i ons i n orde r t o re m ov e i nc orpora t e d s e di m e nt s T hi s pra c t i c e i s not a c c e pt a bl e i n c a ve s i n T a s m a ni a s N a t i ona l P a rks a s t he r i s k i t pos e s t o t he c a v e e c os ys t e m doe s not j us t i fy t h e ga i ns w hi c h m a y be a c hi e ve d. 13

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 20 S i m i l a r l y, w he re s a w dus t ha s b e e n i nt rod uc e d a nd i s a dhe ri ng t o s p e l e o t he m s hu m i c a c i d w i l l c on t i nue t o l e a c h from t h e de pos i t s a nd w i l l c ont i nu e t o e t c h t he s urfa c e unt i l re m ove d. W he re l a m p e nfl ora e xi s t s s pe l e o t he m s ur fa c e s w i l l c ont i nu e t o b e e t c he d a nd i n s om e c a s e s a l ga e w i l l b e furt he r i nc orpora t e d i nt o t h e c rys t a l s t ruc t ur e s t a i n i ng t he s pe l e ot he m gre e n or bl ue Bul k de bri s s uc h a s di s us e d w oode n s t a i rw a ys e t c w i l l c ont i nue t o de c o m po s e provi di ng a n unna t ur a l s ourc e of nut r i e nt s for t he s ys t e m w hi l s t oxi da t i on of di ffe r e nt m e t a l s pre s e n t i n di s us e d e l e c t ri c a l s ys t e m s l i ght fi t t i ngs a nd ha ndr a i l s w i l l c ont i nue t o s t a i n t h e s urfa c e s on w hi c h t he y r e s t In t he a bs e nc e of e ff e c t i ve t r a c k de fi n i t i on na t ura l c a ve s e di m e nt s a nd s pe l e ot he m s w i l l c ont i nue t o be e rod e d by vi s i t o rs In orde r t o c l e a n t h e c a v e w i t hout t h e r i s k of furt he r da m a g e i t i s i m pe r a t i v e t ha t c l e a n i ng t a k e s pl a c e a s s oon a ft e r i n t rod uc t i on of fore i gn m a t e r i a l s a s pos s i bl e A s out l i ne d b e l ow t h e s oone r a progra m of t ra c k d e fi ni t i on, dra i na ge m odi fi c a t i o ns c l e a n i ng a nd r e l i gh t i ng i s c o m m e n c e d t he e a s i e r i t w i l l be t o m a i n t a i n ori g i na l fe a t ure s i n a s na t ur a l a s t a t e a s pos s i bl e It w oul d be una c c e p t a bl e t o be gi n c l e a n i ng m uc h of t he c a ve be for e dra i n a ge w a t e r s uppl y a nd s t ora ge a nd s l udg e pum pi ng fa c i l i t i e s a re c ons t ru c t e d. T he w a s t e w a t e r w oul d m e re l y be fl us he d de e p e r i n t o t he s ys t e m a ff e c t i ng pre vi ous l y un a ffe c t e d a re a s a nd c onc e n t ra t i ng ha rm fu l m a t e ri a l s i n s um ps a nd pool s be l ow t he pre s e n t l y de ve l ope d t ouri s t s e c t i on. Re m ova l of bul k m a t e ri a l s ha s a l re a dy be gun, a nd s houl d be c o nt i nue d. Ide nt i fi c a t i on of l a m p e nfl or a i s i n progre s s a s a re t ri a l s of m e t hods us e d t o ki l l e x i s t i ng i nfe s t a t i o ns L i m i t e d c l e a ni ng of s a w dus t l i nt a nd s i l t de pos i t s ha s be e n c a rri e d out i n t he re c e nt pa s t H ow e ve r, onl y a s m a l l proport i on of t he t ot a l p robl e m m a y b e a ddre s s e d pri or t o t he e s t a b l i s hm e n t of a ppropri a t e i nfra s t ru c t ure t o c op e w i t h r e l a t i ve l y l a rg e a m oun t s of w a t e r ne c e s s a ry t o e ffe c t i ve l y c l e a n t he m a j ori t y of t he c a ve t h e runoff a nd de a d pl a nt m a t e r i a l from t re a t e d l a m pe nf l ora a re a s a nd t he de v e l opm e nt of a m ore a ppropri a t e l i ght i ng s ys t e m 14

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 21 1.5 R e fe r e n c e s A l e y, T a nd A l e y, C. 1985 Cont r ol of e x ot i c pl an t s i n O r e gon Cav e s Re port t o O re gon Ca ve s N a t i ona l M onum e n t Cl a rke A rt hur 1990 L une R i v e r v al l e y k ar s t i nv e nt or y (T as m ani an k ar s t at l as pr oj e c t ) Re por t t o F ore s t ry Com m i s s i on o f T a s m a ni a Cut l e r & A s s oc 1991 H as t i ngs Cav e s St at e R e s e r v e c ar r y i ng c apac i t y as s e s s m e nt Re port t o T a s D e pt of P a rks W i l d l i fe & H e ri t a ge E be rha rd, S M 1990 T he Ida B ay k ar s t s t udy : Cav e f aun a a t Ida B ay i n T as m ani a and t he e f f e c t of quar r y ope r at i ons U npub. re port T a s D e pt P a rks W i l dl i fe & H e r i t a g e E be rha rd, S .M ., Ri c h a rds on, A .M .M a nd S w a i n, R 1991 T he i nv e r t e br at e c a v e f au na of T as m ani a Z ool ogy D e pt U ni v. of T a s H ous hol d, Ia n & D a ve y, A dri a n 1987 Kar s t l andf or m s of t he L e m ont hy m e an d Sout he r n f or e s t s T as m ani a Re port t o t he Com m onw e a l t h Com m i s s i on of Inqui ry i nt o t h e L e m ont hym e a nd S out he rn F ore s t s H ous hol d, I. 1993 G e om o r phol ogy wat e r qual i t y and c a v e s e di m e n t s i n t he E as t e r n P a s s age of E x i t Cav e and i t s t r i but ar i e s D e pt of P a rks W i l dl i f e & H e ri t a ge T a s m a ni a H ous hol d, Ia n & S pa t e A ndre w P 1990 T he Ida B ay k ar s t s t udy : G e om or phol o gy and hy dr ol ogy of t he Ida B ay k ar s t ar e a. U npub. re port T a s D e pt P a rks W i l dl i fe & H e r i t a g e H ughe s T D 1960 T he r m al Spr i ngs H a s t i ngs T e c h. Re pt s D e pt M i n e s T a s m a n i a N o 5: 44 46. J a c ks on, P 1990 T he H as t i ngs k ar s t i nv e nt or y (T as m ani an k ar s t at l as pr oj e c t ) Re port t o F ore s t ry Com m i s s i on of T a s m a ni a K i e rna n, K e vi n 1971 H a s t i ngs r e na i s s a nc e Sout he r n Cav e r 3(2): 10 12. K i e rna n, K 1988 T he m anage m e n t of s ol ubl e r oc k l ands c ape s : an A us t r al i an pe r s pe c t i v e S pe l e ol ogi c a l R e s e a rc h Coun c i l L t d., S ydne y. K i e rna n, K 1991 T he E x i t Cav e quar r y Ida B ay k ar s t s y s t e m T as m ani an Wor l d H e r i t age A r e a; a hy dr ol ogi c al pe r s pe c t i v e D e pt of P a rks W i l dl i f e & H e ri t a ge T a s m a ni a M a t t he w s P G 1985 A us t r al i an Kar s t Inde x 1985 A us t ra l i a n S pe l e o l ogi c a l F e de ra t i on In c P a rks a nd W i l dl i f e S e rvi c e T a s m a n i a 1994 My s t e r y Cr e e k Cav e Int e r i m Manage m e nt P l an. S ki nne r RK 1973 H a s t i ngs Ca ve s Spe l e o Spi e l 83: 5 10 a nd 84: 4 5 S ki nne r, RK a nd S ki nne r, A .D n.d. H a s t i ngs Cav e s St at e R e s e r v e T as m ani a A v i s i t or s gui de S ha rpl e s C. 1994 L andf or m s and ge ol og i c al s i t e s o f ge o c ons e r v at i on s i gni f i c an c e i n t he H uon f or e s t d i s t r i c t (T w o vol um e s ) F ore s t ry Com m i s s i on, T a s m a ni a 15

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 22 P A R T 2 R E H A B I L I T A T I O N A N D O N G O I N G M A I N T E N A N C E O F N E W D E G A T E C A V E 2.1 I n tr od u c ti on T hi s re ha b i l i t a t i on p l a n h a s be e n de v i s e d i n orde r t o re t urn N e w de g a t e Ca ve i t s c ont e nt s a nd a s s oc i a t e d e c os ys t e m s t o a s na t ura l a c ond i t i on a s pos s i bl e a nd t o m a i nt a i n t he c a ve a nd i t s c ont e nt s i n t hi s c ondi t i on g i ve n t he us e of t h e s ys t e m by a pproxi m a t e l y 40 000 vi s i t ors pe r ye a r. It i s di ffi c ul t t o pre d i c t t o w ha t e x t e nt t he na t ura l s ys t e m s of t he c a ve m a y b e re s t or e d, a s ve ry l i t t l e ba s e l i ne i nform a t i on e xi s t s a nd vi s i t or i m pa c t s ha ve b e e n a ddr e s s e d i n onl y a p i e c e m e a l fa s hi on for t he f i ve de c a de s t h a t t h e c a ve ha s be e n ope n t o t ou ri s t s A s not e d i n P a rt 1, t he na t ura l c a rryi ng c a pa c i t y of m os t c a ve s ys t e m s i s e ffe c t i ve l y z e ro hu m a ns In c om p a ri s on w i t h m os t s urfa c e e c os ys t e m s t he c a ve e nvi ron m e nt ha s a l m os t no c a pa c i t y t o r e s t ore i t s e l f a ft e r a n i m pa c t ha s o c c urre d. Ca ve m a n a ge rs m us t be a w a re of t he ra t e of na t ura l c ha nge w i t hi n a c a ve s ys t e m t he e ffe c t s of a c c e l e ra t e d c ha nge due t o vi s i t a t i on, a nd t he m os t up t o da t e m e t hods of a ddre s s i ng i m pa c t s on t he s ys t e m w i t hout unknow i ng l y e xa c e rb a t i n g t he probl e m l o c a l l y or s pre a di ng probl e m s a ny furt he r from t he i m pa c t s i t e T he c ol l e c t i on of a de qua t e ba s e l i n e da t a f or t he N e w de ga t e Ca ve s ys t e m w i l l onl y be pos s i bl e a ft e r m a ny ye a rs m oni t ori ng of na t ura l s ys t e m s i n orde r t o a c c ount for t he hi gh na t ura l va ri a bi l i t y of t h e l oc a l e c os ys t e m T he pr e s e nt l a c k of ba s e l i ne d a t a d oe s not how e ve r pre c l ude t a k i ng s t e ps t o re ha bi l i t a t e t he s ys t e m i n t he s hort t e rm T he s c a l e of vi s i t or i m pa c t s t o da t e de vi a t e s uffi c i e nt l y from ba s e l i n e c ondi t i ons t ha t a re a s ona bl e e s t i m a t e m a y be m a d e of m e a s ure s ne c e s s a ry t o re t urn t h e s ys t e m t o a n a pproxi m a t i on of i t s na t ura l s t a t e T he s ys t e m m a y t h e n b e m or e f i ne l y t une d a s us e a bl e a m ount s of ba s e l i ne d a t a b e c om e a va i l a bl e S e t t i ng up s uc h a m oni t ori ng s ys t e m i s be yond t he s c ope of t hi s re port a nd s houl d be a ddre s s e d a s pa rt of a n ongoi ng m a na ge m e nt pl a n for t he c a ve a nd re s e rve T hi s pl a n dr a w s on pe rs ona l e xpe r i e nc e ga i n e d from c a ve re ha b i l i t a t i on proj e c t s t hroughout A us t ra l i a a nd on doc um e n t a t i o n of proj e c t s w orl dw i de It re fl e c t s a s fa r a s i s know n, t he s t a t e of t he a rt i n a l l a re a s of w a l kw a y a nd i l l um i n a t i on d e s i gn, c l e a n i ng t e c hni qu e s a nd m a i n t e na n c e proc e dur e s S om e of t he s e a re a s ha ve a t t ra c t e d fa r m ore i nt e re s t a nd r e s e a rc h t ha n o t he rs E l e c t ri c a l s ys t e m s a nd l i gh t i ng d e s i gn for e x a m pl e a re pre s e nt l y progre s s i ng ra pi d l y w i t h t he i nt roduc t i on of l ow vol t a g e l i gh t i ng s ys t e m s t he us e of opt i c a l fi br e s a nd m i ni a t ur e a n d a ut om a t e d s w i t c hi ng s ys t e m s O n t he ot he r ha nd m uc h re s e a rc h s t i l l ne e ds t o be unde rt a ke n i n t h e a re a s of l a m p e nfl ora c on t rol a nd ongoi ng c l e a ni ng proc e dur e s T ri a l s of di ffe r e nt m a t e ri a l s a nd proc e dur e s a re propos e d fo r t he s e a r e a s 16

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 23 T he pl a n i s di vi de d i nt o t e n s e c t i ons e a c h c onc e nt ra t i ng on a s pe c i fi c i nt e rr e l a t e d s e t of i s s ue s E a c h s e c t i on bri e f l y de s c ri b e s t he s e i s s ue s (a nd s houl d t he r e fore be i nt e rpre t e d i n t he l i ght of P a rt 1 w he r e a m ore hol i s t i c a pproa c h i s t a ke n) t he n de s c ri be s t he propos e d m a n a ge m e nt re s p ons e Indi vi dua l obj e c t i v e s re l a t e d a c t i o ns c os t s a nd t i m e s c a l e s a re t a bul a t e d, t he n s p e c i fi c t e c hni c a l de t a i l s a re prov i de d for e a c h a s pe c t of t he progra m In t he fi n a l s e c t i o n a t i m e l i ne for c om p l e t i on of t he proj e c t i s pre s e nt e d, a l ong w i t h a propos e d m a i nt e na nc e s c he du l e t o b e fol l ow e d a ft e r t he ori gi na l r e de v e l opm e nt i s c o m pl e t e d. It m us t b e s t re s s e d t ha t t hi s i s no t a m a n a ge m e n t pl a n for t he c a ve or t h e re s e rv e a s a w hol e N um e rous i s s ue s s u c h a s t he l i m i t s of a c c e pt a bl e c h a nge w i t hi n t h e s ys t e m vi s i t or num be rs bot h pe r t our, pe r da y a nd pe r ye a r, i nt e rpr e t a t i on of t he ka rs t m oni t ori ng of bot h ba s e l i ne a nd vi s i t or i n duc e d va ri a t i ons t o na t ura l proc e s s e s a nd t he prot e c t i on a nd de v e l opm e nt o f t he r e s e rv e s urroundi ng t he c a v e a re b e yond t he s c ope of t hi s pl a n a nd m us t b e a ddre s s e d i n a n ove r a l l m a na ge m e nt doc um e nt T hi s re ha bi l i t a t i on pl a n m e r e l y form s a p a rt of a n a l l e n c om p a s s i ng m a na g e m e n t pl a n w hi c h i s s ore l y ne e d e d for s uc h a s i gn i fi c a n t a nd popul a r r e s e rve 17

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 24 2.2 V i s i tor Wal k w ay S u r fac e & A s s e mb l y A r e as U p gr ad e 2: 2: 1 Is s ue s S e ve ra l w a l kw a y a nd a s s e m b l y a re a s a re une ve n, provi di ng a de gr e e of di s c om for t a nd ha z a rd for v i s i t ors T he s e s i t e s a r e c ons t ru c t e d fro m i nt rodu c e d gr a ve l s a nd c l a ys w hi c h a re m obi l e t h e re by c o m poundi ng t h e probl e m of s oi l di s t r i but i on t hroughout t h e c a ve s ys t e m 2: 2: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e P robl e m w a l kw a y a nd a s s e m bl y a re a s w i l l be c l e a rl y de fi n e d, l e ve l l e d a nd re c ons t ruc t e d a s i d e nt i f i e d. Ins t a l l a t i on of a s hoe w a s hi ng fa c i l i t y a nd a l l w e a t he r m a t t i ng a t s t ra t e gi c l oc a t i ons w i l l m i ni m i s e t ra c ki ng of i n t roduc e d m a t e ri a l a nd c a ve s e d i m e nt s 18 T a b l e 2 :2 :2 MA N A G EMEN T R ESPO N SE O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S E l i m i n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o r e i g n m a t t e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a v e s y s t e m S e a l v i s i t o r c a r p a r k 2 0 0 0 0 C 2 D a y s I n s t a l l e l e v a t e d b o a r d w a l k a c c e s s t r a c k t o c a v e e n t r a n c e 3 8 0 0 0 A 3 0 D a y s C o m p l e t e d I n s t a l l v i s i t o r s h o e w a s h f a c i l i t y a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m a t e r i a l 5 0 0 A 4 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 C l e a r l y d e f i n e a p p r o p r i a t e v i s i t o r p a t h w a y a n d a s s e m b l y a r e a s b y i n s t a l l i n g c o n c r e t e c u r b i n g d e s i g n e d t o m e e t o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n 4 0 0 0 0 A 3 0 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 8 I n s t a l l a l l w e a t h e r m a t t i n g i n s t r a t e g i c a r e a s a s i d e n t i f i e d 6 0 0 0 A 4 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 P r o v i d e s a f e u n i f o r m s u r f a c e s o n w a l k w a y a n d a s s e m b l y a r e a s i n c l u d i n g s t a b i l i s i n g m o b i l e s u r f a c e s t o p r e v e n t t r a n s f e r o f c a v e s e d i m e n t s L e v e l a n d r e c o n s t r u c t c o n c r e t e s u r f a c e s a s i d e n t i f i e d 4 0 0 0 A 6 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 4 L e v e l s t a b i l i s e a n d i n s t a l l a l l w e a t h e r m a t t i n g o n i d e n t i f i e d s u r f a c e s 3 0 0 0 A 4 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 3 19

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 28 2.3 Wal k w ay D e fi n i ti on 2: 3: 1 Is s ue s Cl e a r de f i ni t i on of publ i c w a l kw a y a nd a s s e m bl y s i t e s w i t hi n t he c a ve i s e s s e nt i a l t o t he m a na ge m e nt a nd c on t rol of vi s i t or i m p a c t s A bs e nc e of c l e a rl y de f i ne d a c c e s s a re a s ha s l e a d t o ongoi ng e ros i on, de fa c e m e n t a nd pe rm a ne n t de s t ru c t i on of n a t ura l c a ve f e a t ure s D i r t de pos i t i on t hroughout t he c a ve s ys t e m i s a l s o c om pounde d by vi s i t ors s t e ppi ng ou t s i de e s t a b l i s he d a c c e s s s i t e s ont o na t ura l l y oc c urri ng s i l t a nd c l a y. S ubs e que nt l y t h i s e xt r e m e l y m ob i l e m a t e ri a l i s a d de d t o t he fore i gn s oi l di s t r i but i on prob l e m r e f e rre d t o i n S e c t i on 1. 2: 3: 2 M a na ge m e nt R e s pons e Ins t a l l a t i on of c onc r e t e c urbi ng t o s ur round pu bl i c a c c e s s rout e s w oul d c l e a rl y de t e rm i ne t h e s e s i t e s a nd provi de t he re qu i re d l e v e l of vi s i t or c ont ro l A m ul t i func t i ona l c urb i ng de s i gn w i l l pr ovi de pa t hw a y s urfa c e dra i na g e hous i ng for pl um bi ng a nd e l e c t ri c a l s e rvi c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h re fus e a nd w a s h i ng s ys t e m s a nd hous i ng for e l e c t ri c a l s e rv i c e s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pa t hw a y l i ght i ng. T a b l e 2 :3 :2 MA N A G EMEN T R ESPO N SE O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E D e fi ne w a l kw a y a nd a s s e m bl y a re a s i n orde r t o pre ve n t t r a c ki ng of c a ve s e di m e nt s e ros i on a nd i rr e pa ra b l e da m a ge t o s pe l e o t he m s c a us e d by vi s i t ors s t e ppi ng out s i d e a c c e pt a bl e a c c e s s rout e s U t i l i s e c on c re t e c urbi ng t o s urround vi s i t or a c c e s s a r e a s a s i de nt i f i e d A 23

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 31 2.4 P ath w ay D r ai n age & R e fu s e 2: 4: 1 Is s ue s N a t ura l l y w e t w a l kw a ys a nd a s s e m bl y a re a s w i t hi n t he c a ve m obi l i s e m a t e ri a l i nt roduc e d on v i s i t ors s hoe s c a us i ng pa t hw a y s l us h t o de ve l op a c c um u l a t e a nd f l ow ove r na t ura l a r e a s 2: 4: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e T he pa t hw a y dra i n a ge a nd re fus e s ys t e m i nc orpora t e s w a l kw a ys be i ng c onfi ne d w i t hi n c onc re t e c urbi ng a s de s c ri be d i n s e c t i on 2. E ffe c t i ve l y s urfa c e dra i na g e i s t ra p pe d w i t hi n t he c urb i ng a nd c h a nne l l e d i nt o dr a i na ge s um ps s t ra t e gi c a l l y l oc a t e d t hroug hout t he c a v e s ys t e m E a c h dra i na ge s um p w i l l i nc l ud e a pu m p uni t of s uffi c i e n t c a p a c i t y t o c om p l e t e l y re m ove t he c o l l e c t e d re fus e from t he c a ve s ys t e m P um p uni t s w i l l be c onne c t e d t o fl oa t s w i t c h i ng de vi c e s t o provi d e a u t om a t i c ope ra t i on 24 hours pe r d a y. P l um bi ng a nd e l e c t r i c a l s e rvi c e s w i l l be c onc e a l e d w i t hi n t he c onc r e t e c urbi ng a nd s um p uni t s w i l l be l oc a t e d out of s i gh t T he s ys t e m w i l l a l s o fa c i l i t a t e fut ure w a s hi ng a nd c l e a ni ng progra m s a s t he m a j or i t y of re gul a r m a i nt e na n c e ope r a t i on w i l l oc c ur i n t he c onfi n e d publ i c a r e a s 26 T a b l e 2 : 4 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B JE C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S C o n f i n e i n t r o d u c e d f o r e i g n m a t e r i a l s t o v i s i t o r w a l k w a y s U t i l i s e c o n c r e t e c u r b i n g t o s u r r o u n d v i s i t o r a c c e s s a r e a s a s i d e n t i f i e d A C h a n n e l P a t h w a y s l u s h a n d c l e a n i n g r e s i d u e i n t o d r a i n a g e s u m p s U t i l i s e c o n c r e t e c u r b i n g t o d r a i n a l l v i s i t o r a c c e s s s u r f a c e a r e a s t o s u m p s l o c a t i o n s a s i d e n t i f i e d A R e m o v e p a t h w a y s l u s h a n d r e s i d u e f r o m c a v e s y s t e m I n s t a l l s u m p a n d p u m p i n g u n i t s c o n n e c t e d t o a r e t i c u l a t e d d r a i n i n g s y s t e m a s i d e n t i f i e d A 8 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 4 C o n c e a l p l u m b i n g a n d e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t h w a y d r a i n a g e a n d r e f u s e s y s t e m I n s t a l l p l u m b i n g a n d e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s i n p a t h w a y c u r b i n g A 27

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 35 2.5 R e ti c u l ate d Wate r S ys te m 2: 5: 1 Is s ue s O n c om pl e t i on of t h e i n i t i a l m a j or re s t ora t i on w orks a rout i ne c l e a ni ng re gi m e i s pl a nne d t o b e i m p l e m e nt e d a s de t a i l e d i n S e c t i on 2: 9 : 3. T he progra m w i l l r e qui re a s ubs t a nt i a l w a t e r s uppl y t o a de qua t e l y c l e a n a nd fl us h form a t i ons a nd w a l kw a ys 2: 5: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e Re t i c u l a t e d w a t e r s uppl y p e rm a ne nt l y i ns t a l l e d i n t he c a ve i s e s s e nt i a l t o i m pl e m e n t t he pl a nne d m a i nt e na n c e progra m P l um bi ng l i ne s w i l l be c onc e a l e d w i t hi n t he c onc re t e c urbi ng w i t h num e rous out l e t s l oc a t e d a t s t r a t e gi c l oc a t i ons t hroughout 31 T a b l e 2 : 5 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S P r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l q u a l i t y w a t e r s u p p l y t o a d e q u a t e l y c l e a n a n d f l u s h f o r m a t i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d m a i n t e n a n c e p r o g r a m s I n s t a l l p l u m b i n g l i n e s a n d w a t e r o u t l e t s a t s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e c a v e v i s i t o r s e c t i o n 3 0 0 0 A 5 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 4 I n s t a l l a n a d e q u a t e p u m p i n g s y s t e m a t H o t S p r i n g s C r e e k o r r a i n w a t e r t a n k a n d c o n n e c t t o r e t i c u l a t e d s y s t e m 5 0 0 0 B 3 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 C o n c e a l p l u m b i n g e q u i p m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t i c u l a t e d w a t e r s y s t e m I n s t a l l p l u m b i n g e q u i p m e n t i n p a t h w a y c u r b i n g a n d b e n e a t h f l o o r s u r f a c e a r e a A P r o v i d e a w a t e r s u p p l y w i t h a c c e p t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y P r e p a r e a n d i m p l e m e n t a w a t e r q u a l i t y a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m A I n s t a l l n e u t r a l i s i n g u n i t s o n d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s a s r e q u i r e d 1 0 0 0 A 2 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 32

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 37 2.6 P ath w ay Li gh ti n g S ys te m 2: 6: 1 Is s ue s P a t hw a y l i gh t i ng a t pre s e nt i s l a rge l y de p e nda nt on i ndi r e c t i l l um i na t i on from t he c a ve fe a t ure l i ght i ng s ys t e m re s ul t i ng i n l i nt a c c u m ul a t i on l a m pe nf l ora grow t h a nd obt rus i ve gl a re due t o t he pl a c e m e nt of l i ght s E xi s t i ng pa t hw a y l i gh t i ng fi xt ure s a re a l s o vi s ua l l y ob t rus i ve 2: 6: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e Ins t a l l i ng a s p e c i f i c c i rc u i t for pa t hw a y l i ght i ng a nd c on c e a l i n g f i t t i ngs w i t hi n t he c onc re t e c urb i ng w i l l a l l e vi a t e t he e x i s t i ng probl e m s a nd prov i de s c ope fo r a e m e rge n c y l i ght i ng s ys t e m D ua l purpos e a nd obt rus i ve l i ght f i t t i ngs c a n t h e n be e i t he r re m ove d or re l oc a t e d Ca re ful de s i gn of t he propos e d s ys t e m c a n e n s ure a s ubt l e a nd e nv i ronm e nt a l l y a c c e p t a b l e re s ul t w i l l b e a c h i e ve d. T a b l e 2 : 6 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S P r o v i d e u n o b t r u s i v e l o w i n t e n s i t y l i g h t i n g s p e c i f i c t o w a l k w a y a n d a s s e m b l y a r e a s i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e l a m p e n f l o r a g r o w t h a n d o b t r u s i v e g l a r e R e s e a r c h e q u i p m e n t / d e s i g n a n d i n s t a l l p a t h w a y l i g h t i n g s y s t e m t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e 4 0 0 0 A 8 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 P r o v i d e e m e r g e n c y p a t h w a y l i g h t i n g i n t h e e v e n t o f p o w e r f a i l u r e R e s e a r c h e q u i p m e n t a n d i n c l u d e e m e r g e n c y l i g h t i n g s y s t e m i n p a t h w a y l i g h t i n g c i r c u i t r y 1 5 0 0 C 3 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 34

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 39 2.7 Lamp e n fl or a C on tr ol 2: 7: 1 Is s ue s L a m pe nf l ora i s e v i de nt a t num e rous l o c a t i ons t hroughou t t he c a ve s ys t e m du e t o i na ppropri a t e pl a c e m e n t of l i gh t s 2: 7: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e Ini t i a l a c t i on w i l l re qui r e t h e de v e l op m e n t of a n e ra d i c a t i on r e gi m e s oundl y b a s e d on e nvi ronm e n t a l pro t e c t i on m e a s ure s E s s e nt i a l l y t he c a ve l i ght i ng s ys t e m r e q ui re s e xt e ns i v e m odi fi c a t i on w i t h a vi e w t o e ra di c a t e l a m pe nfl or a i nfe s t a t i on. T a b l e 2 : 7 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B JE C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S E l i m i na t e un na t u r a l pl a nt gr ow t hs f r om w i t hi n t he c a ve s ys t e m I de nt i f y a f f e c t e d a r e a s a nd m odi f y l i ght i ng s ys t e m w he r e pos s i bl e 1500 A 2 D a ys W or kf or c e 2 R e s e a r c h a nd t r i a l a l t e r na t e c he m i c a l dos i ng a ppl i c a t i ons a nd e s t a bl i s h a n e nvi r onm e nt a l l y a c c e pt a bl e a nd e f f e c t i ve pr oc e dur e 500 A 5 D a ys W or kf or c e 1 E s t a bl i s h a n ongo i ng t r e a t m e nt r e gi m e i n or de r t o e ns ur e pe r m a ne nt e r a di c a t i on of unna t ur a l p l a nt gr ow t hs w i t hi n t he c a ve I m pl e m e nt e s t a bl i s he d e r a di c a t i on r e gi m e A 36

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 41 2.8 Li n t C l e an i n g 2: 8: 1 Is s ue s L i nt d e pos i t i on i s d i s t ri but e d a t v a ri ous l oc a t i ons a nd w i t h a bund a nc e a t c onf i ne d vi s i t or a s s e m bl y a re a s T he probl e m i s c om pounde d by s om e l i ght pl a c e m e nt s w hi c h i nt roduc e s he a t c onve c t i on t o t he a re a c a us i ng l i nt m a t e ri a l t o be dra w n upw a rds a nd c ol l e c t on s pe l e ot he m s 2: 8: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e O n c om pl e t i on of a c a re ful l y pl a nne d i ni t i a l c l e a ni ng progr a m e xt e ns i ve l i gh t i n g m odi fi c a t i ons w i l l be und e rt a k e n, fol l ow e d by t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of a ro ut i ne m a i nt e na nc e / c l e a ni ng s c he du l e T a b l e 2 : 8 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N S P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S R e m o v e a l l a c c u m u l a t e d l i n t m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e c a v e s y s t e m a n d t h o r o u g h l y c l e a n a f f e c t e d a r e a s P r e p a r e a n d i m p l e m e n t a n i n i t i a l r e m o v a l a n d c l e a n i n g p r o g r a m I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s 1 0 0 B 1 D a y W o r k f o r c e 1 R e g u l a r l y c l e a n l i n t a f f e c t e d a r e a s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a n e s t a b l i s h e d m a i n t e n a n c e r e g i m e P r e p a r e a n d i m p l e m e n t a r o u t i n e m a i n t e n a n c e / c l e a n i n g p r o g r a m 1 5 0 0 A P r o v i d e m e a s u r e s t o m i n i m i s e l i n t m o b i l i s a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c a v e M o d i f y l i g h t i n g s y s t e m s i n a f f e c t e d a r e a s w h e r e p o s s i b l e 1 5 0 0 B 2 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 38

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 43 2 .9 Bu l k D e b r i s & R u b b i s h R e moval 2: 9: 1 Is s ue s A l t hough t he m a j ori t y of bul k de bri s a nd rubbi s h de pos i t s ha ve be e n re m ove d l a rge qua nt i t i e s e s t i m a t e d a t 3 t onn e s s t i l l re m a i n a t va ri ous l oc a t i ons T h e s e s i t e s a r e vi s ua l l y obt rus i ve a nd pos e s e ri ous t hr e a t s t o t he c a ve e nvi ron m e nt 2: 9: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e A m a j or ope r a t i on w i l l b e unde rt a ke n t o re m ove t he m a t e r i a l a nd r e ha bi l i t a t e a ffe c t e d s i t e s G i ve n t he s e ns i t i v e na t ur e of t he e xe r c i s e i t i s re c om m e nde d e xp e ri e n c e d pe rs onne l be i nvol ve d a nd w i l l be dra w n from c a vi ng c l ubs a nd l oc a l fri e nds groups a s on pr e v i ous oc c a s i ons T a b l e 2 : 9 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S R e m o v e a l l u n u s e d f o r e i g n m a t e r i a l s d e p o s i t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a v e s y s t e m I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s 1 0 0 B 1 D a y W o r k f o r c e 1 P l a n a n d o r g a n i s e l o g i s t i c s a n d o p e r a t i o n s A 2 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 2 I m p l e m e n t p l a n t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e 3 5 0 0 A 4 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 8 R e h a b i l i t a t e a r e a s a f f e c t e d b y f o r e i g n m a t t e r d e p o s i t i o n P l a n a n d o r g a n i s e l o g i s t i c s a n d o p e r a t i o n s A 1 D a y W o r k f o r c e 2 I m p l e m e n t p l a n t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e 2 0 0 0 A 2 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 8 40

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 47 2.10 Wal k w ay & F or mati on C l e an i n g 2: 10: 1 Is s ue s L a rge qua n t i t i e s of a c c um u l a t e d i nt rodu c e d s l us h i s de pos i t e d e x t e ns i ve l y t hrough out t he c a v e s ys t e m T he m a t e ri a l h a s i nva de d a l l p a t hw a ys a nd a dj a c e n t na t ur a l c a ve f e a t ur e s c re a t i ng vi s ua l a nd e nv i ronm e n t a l i m p a c t s 2: 10: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e F ol l ow i ng t he c om pl e t i on of a c a re ful l y pl a nne d e xt e ns i ve c l e a ni ng e x e rc i s e a re g ul a r m a i nt e n a nc e / c l e a ni ng progr a m w i l l be pre pa re d a nd i m pl e m e n t e d. T a b l e 2 : 1 0 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S Re m ove a c c um u l a t e d fore i gn m a t e ri a l s from a l l na t ura l s urfa c e s a nd w a l kw a ys Ide nt i fy a nd re c ord a ffe c t e d a re a s 100 B 1 D a y W orkforc e 1 P l a n a nd orga n i s e l og i s t i c s a nd ope ra t i ons A 2 D a ys W orkforc e 2 Im pl e m e nt pl a n t o m e e t obj e c t i ve 18000 A 30 D a ys W orkforc e 6 Re gul a rl y r e m ove a c c um u l a t e d fore i gn m a t e r i a l s from a l l na t ura l s urfa c e s a nd w a l kw a ys i n a c c o rda n c e t o a n e s t a bl i s he d c l e a ni ng re gi m e P re pa re a n a nnua l m a i nt e na nc e / c l e a n i ng progra m A 2 D a ys W orkforc e 2 Im pl e m e nt e s t a bl i s he d progra m t o m e e t ob j e c t i ve A O ngoi ng 44

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 50 2 11 C ave Li gh ti n g & El e c tr i c al S ys te ms 2: 11: 1 Is s ue s N e w de ga t e C a v e s e l e c t ri c a l s e rvi c e s re qui re va s t i m prov e m e nt s from m a ny pe rs pe c t i v e s In m a ny i ns t a nc e s pos i t i on of l i ght fi t t i n gs prom ot e l a m pe nf l ora a nd l i n t de pos i t i on, num e rous m a gni f i c e n t fe a t ure s a re obs c ur e d by i na de qu a t e l i ght i ng ; m a ny l i ght fi t t i ngs a nd s w i t c h s t a t i ons a re vi s ua l l y ob t rus i ve a nd de t r i m e n t a l t o c a v e a e s t he t i c s ; t he e xi s t i ng 110 vol t pow e r s uppl y i nh i bi t s e ffe c t i v e m a i nt e n a nc e a nd de ve l opm e n t w orks a nd l a c k of e m e rg e nc y l i gh t i ng pos e s probl e m s w i t h vi s i t or c ont rol dur i ng pow e r fa i l ure 2: 11: 2 M a na ge m e n t Re s pons e S e ve ra l c a ve s t hroughout A us t ra l a s i a i n re c e nt y e a rs ha ve und e rgone e x t e ns i ve e l e c t ri c a l r e fi t s T e c hni qu e s a nd s ys t e m s e m pl oye d a t Y a r ra ngobi l l y a nd N a ra c oort e Ca ve s a ppe a r t o be t he m os t i nf l ue nt i a l a nd a c c e p t e d opt i ons P rovi s i on of a 240 vol t m a i n t hroughout a s how c a ve i s c ons i de re d e s s e nt i a l t o e n a bl e t he us e of s t a nda rd e l e c t r i c a l e qui p m e nt W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s hm e nt of a 240 vo l t m a i n, c a ve l i ght i ng t re nds a r e t ow a rd c onne c t i ng l ow vol t a ge d i c hroi c s ys t e m s t o t h e pri m a r y pow e r s ourc e S ubs e que nt l y e xt e ns i ve re s e a rc h a nd t ri a l s a re ne c e s s a ry t o de t e rm i ne a ppropr i a t e di re c t i on for t he e l e c t r i c a l s ys t e m s upgra d e t o e ns ure a t op qua l i t y r e s ul t i s a c hi e v e d. 47

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N e w d e g a t e C a ve R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l a n Sout he r n Cav e r N o. 63, M a rc h 2007 p a ge 51 T a b l e 2 : 1 1 : 2 M A N A G E M E N T R E S P O N S E O B J E C T I V E S A C T I O N $ P R I O R I T I E S E S T I M A T E D T I M E C O M M E N T S U p g r a d e e x i s t i n g l i g h t i n g a n d e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m s t o a c h i e v e t h e f o l l o w i n g M i n i m i s e l a m p e n f l o r a g r o w t h a n d l i n t m o b i l i s a t i o n I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s R e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t e l i g h t i n g s y s t e m s R e v a m p a n d u p g r a d e e x i s t i n g l i g h t i n g s y s t e m t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e I m p r o v e i l l u m i n a t i o n o f s p e c t a c u l a r c a v e f e a t u r e s p r e s e n t l y n o t h i g h l i g h t e d I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s R e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t e l i g h t i n g s y s t e m s R e v a m p a n d u p g r a d e e x i s t i n g l i g h t i n g s y s t e m t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e E l i m i n a t e g l a r e / c o n c e a l a e s t h e t i c a l l y o b t r u s i v e c a b l e a n d l i g h t f i t t i n g s a n d r e m o v e f i t t i n g s f r o m n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s w h e r e p o s s i b l e I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s R e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t e l i g h t i n g s y s t e m s R e v a m p a n d u p g r a d e e x i s t i n g l i g h t i n g s y s t e m t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e P r o v i d e a d e q u a t e p o w e r s u p p l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a v e s y s t e m t o a c c o m m o d a t e c o m m o n e l e c t r i c a l f i t t i n g s a n d a p p l i a n c e s R e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d s a n d s e l e c t o p t i o n 48 U p g r a d e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m t o m e e t o b j e c t i v e C o n c e a l e x i s t i n g v i s u a l l y o b t r u s i v e s w i t c h s t a t i o n s I d e n t i f y a n d r e c o r d a f f e c t e d a r e a s R e s e a r c h a l t e r n a t e s w i t c h i n g s y s t e m s a n d s e l e c t o p t i o n U p g r a d e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m t o m e t o b j e c t i v e T O T A L $ 5 0 0 0 0 6 0 D a y s W o r k f o r c e 3 49

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