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Southern Caver

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Title:
Southern Caver
Series Title:
Southern Caver
Creator:
Gregory Middleton ozspeleo@iinet.net.au ( suggested by )
Southern Caving Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Applied Speleology ( local )
Regional Speleology ( local )
Resource Management ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Australia

Notes

General Note:
The Southern Caving Society was formed in April 1965 and in July 1967 commenced publication of "Southern Caver" as its quarterly newsletter. At the time of the 1996 amalgamation of SCS with the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, it was agreed that Southern Tasmanian Caverneers would continue to publish "Southern Caver" in the form of an occasional paper as and when suitable material was available. The publication has in fact appeared approximately annually in recent years and has generally carried reprints of otherwise difficult to obtain reports relating to caves in Tasmania.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
No. 66 part 1 (August 2012)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-03787 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.3787 ( USFLDC Handle )
21415 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0157-8464 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

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Karst Information Portal

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Description
The Southern Caving Society was formed in April 1965 and
in July 1967 commenced publication of "Southern Caver" as its
quarterly newsletter. At the time of the 1996 amalgamation of
SCS with the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, it was agreed that
Southern Tasmanian Caverneers would continue to publish
"Southern Caver" in the form of an occasional paper as and
when suitable material was available. The publication has in
fact appeared approximately annually in recent years and has
generally carried reprints of otherwise difficult to obtain
reports relating to caves in Tasmania.



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Occasional Journal of Southern Tasmanian Caverneers Inc. PO Box 416 Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7006, Australia ISSN 0157-8464 In this issue: Andrew Skinner on Ida Bay Caves from 1973 SOUTHERN CAVER No. 66 August 2012 Part 1

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 2 Editorial This issue features a Major Study (thesis) prepared in 1973 by the late Andrew Skinner as part of tertiary stud ies he was undertaking at the then Tasmanian College of Advanced Education, Mt Nelson, Hobart. This is a very personal paper on matters which were of major concern to Andrew the conservation of the Ida Bay Caves, particularly the Exit Cave system, and, if their conservation required that they be developed for tourist access, that such development only be undertak en in accordance with the highest standards. how bleak the situation was at that time. Despite the dis covery of major caves like Croesus and Kubla Khan at Exit system (it was then the longest known cave system in the country), NO reserves to protect caves had been created in Tasmania since 1939, the quarrying of lime stone continued at the Ida Bay quarries (later taken over by Benders), the Forestry Commission was implacably opposed to releasing any timbered land for the creation of a reserve over the Exit Cave Mystery Creek Cave complex, show caves were operated (managed does not seem the right word) by the Department of Tourism or lessees and the standard of facilities in the states nation al parks was abysmal. Against that background Andrew was trying to promote advanced concepts of ecological protection and management for major caves and their environs. This thesis was virtually his personal manifes to, based on around a decade of caving experience and Caves where his father, Roy, was then Superintendent. view (as a good public servant) that desirable man agement outcomes, including conservation, could be achieved by working within the system and employ ing well researched rational argument. He makes this clear when he states, under Motivation that he prefers well documented cases and well argued alternatives to the continuation of limestone quarrying (though it must be recognised that the real impacts of those operations were not understood at the time) and he felt that if Exit was to be protected in the long term, it would have to be at least partially developed as a show cave. It is clear tion and recreation, particularly in the cave context, but he believed that with proper planning, informed by best practice from elsewhere, worthwhile outcomes could be achieved. It is worth noting that, while the Exit system has in re cent decades been reserved at the highest available level (it is now within a national park and World Heritage Area), it has not had to be developed for tourism pur poses and there is no proposal (to the Editors knowl edge) for any such development. It seems, with enough right places at the right times that positive environ mental outcomes can be achieved, without the resources having to be compromised by development. None of this is to say that the situation is perfect or that those con cerned about protection of the environment do not need to remain forever vigilant. Andrews thesis was a masterful piece of work for its day and we are pleased to now to be able to make it available to a wider audience. For this study, and other work he completed, he was awarded a Diploma of Arts (Environmental Design) from the TCAE. Greg Middleton, Editor ozspeleo@iinet.net.au e views expressed herein are not necessarily the views of the Editor or of Southern Tasmanian Caverneers Inc. is work is copyright STC 2012. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be re produced by any process without written permission from the publishers and the inclusion of acknowledgement of the source. STC was formed by amalgamation of the Tas manian Caverneering Club, Southern Caving Society and Tasmanian Cave and Karst Re search Group in 1996. STC is the modern variant of the oldest caving club in Australia, founded 1946. Southern Caver Occasional journal of Southern Tasmanian Caverneers Inc. PO Box 416, Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7006 Australia www.lmrs.com.au/stc ISSN 0157-8464 [formerly the journal of Southern Caving Society] Issue No. 66, August 2012 In 2 parts: Part 1 Cover photo: Exit Cave. Ida Bay Large cavern near the entrance. The DEntrecasteaux River enters the cave on the left. Photo: Andrew Skinner (early 1970s)

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 3 Mass Recreation at Ida Bay, The Development of Exit Cave by A.D. Skinner T.C.A.E. 1973 CONTENTS Part 1 Motivation and Acknowledgements 4 Introduction 5 Caves Fantasy and Speleology 6 Problems of Tourist Caves 9 Economic Geography of Tourism; Tourism and the Esperance District 14 History of the Ida Bay Area 17 The Mystique of Exit Cave 19 1. Protection and Recreational Zoning 20 2. Surface Facilities and Access 21 3. Ida Bay South 24 4. Ida Bay North 25 5. Cave Illumination 26 6. Interpretation 27 7. Management and the Future 28 Appendices A. Speleological Investigations 29 B. Biology 33 C. Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology 34 D. Cave Descriptions 36 E. Geographical Description of Exit Cave [not written] 37 F. Other Development Plans 38 G. Glossary 39 H. Bibliography 40 I. Photographic Record of Exit Cave 42 Part 2 J. Photographic Record of Ida Bay Cave 58 L. Cave Folders 78 M. Press Cuttings Exit Cave 82 N. Press Cuttings Cave Tourism 97 O. Sketch Maps 106 P. Maps 113 Q. The Esperance Area (photographs) 125

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 4 MOTIVATION Why have I undertaken to attempt this Major Study? that rational decisions could only be made on environmental problems if conservation interests were to offer well documented cases and well argued alternatives. Thus at Ida Bay I am interested in preserving selected caves and cave systems but accept the economic necessity for limestone mining where only minor caves and less spectacular scenery exist. (a) Posterity man has a moral obligation in his relationship with nature to preserve that which is unique (b) Science caves are natural storehouses of ecological and geological data (c) Recreation, tourism and general attractiveness they cannot be appreciated. In its wild state a cave can only be visited by hardy enthusiasts. If it is to be declared a national park or resource of the people, the public at large must be able to see it. protecting it at the same time. National parks are set up to preserve for all time areas of particular scenic impor tance. It defeats the basic concept of national parks if the resource deteriorates due to visitor pressure. Designing the physical amenities and protective measures to cope with mass recreation in caves is the basis of this study. Ida interest has been expressed in modifying Exit Cave for tourism. provide a photographic record of Exit Cave and surrounding area map the section of the cave most likely to be developed present some proposals on the development of Exit Cave at Ida Bay. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ros. Skinner; who typed much of the study, assisted with photography and surveying. Albert Goede; who made available the records and archives of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club. Roy Skinner; who provided many references and sources of information. Laurie Moody; who assisted with photography at Mole Creek, with surveying in Exit Cave and photography in Ida Bay Cave. Noel Rawlinson, Richard Bennett, Noeline Sylvester, Greg Strickland, Bruce Chetwynd. and Ros. Skinner who all assisted with photography in Exit Cave. THANKS TO ALL Particular commendation must go to the members of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, who collectively explored Brian Collin (the ringleader), Jeanette Collin, Albert Goede, Allan Keller, Sib Corbett, John Marshall, Tim WalkdenBrown, Roy Skinner, Peter Shaw, Bill Lehmann, Simon Stephens, Rien de Vries, Frank R. Brown, Edith Smith, Dennis Seymor and Kevin Kiernan.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 5 INTRODUCTION The number of visitors admitted to Tasmanian tourist caves Caves in July, 1973, recognised that Tasmania and Western Australia have a very high potential for growth in the cave tourism sphere. The existing tourist caves in Tasmania are reaching their ca pacity during peak periods. In the summer Newdegate Cave at Hastings receives up to 400 visitors on some days. With the present and projected increase in the number of visitors, ex isting Tasmanian tourist caves could become seriously over loaded, with subsequent deterioration to the caves and decline in enjoyment to the individual visitor due to overcrowding. Clearly, now is the time to begin planning for the development of new tourist caves to siphon-off increases in demand. from nearby Newdegate Cave. Once established, its own at tractions would create a snowballing effect. It was explored in the late 1960s by the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, who discovered some ten miles of passages, making it by a large play, rare formations, active stream and large, lofty chambers could provide a unique recreational experience, quite unlike any other offered in an Australian tourist cave. The existing Tasmanian government tourist caves were opened in the 1930s and consequently their improvements are rather dated. Lighting, walk-ways and presentation in general is old-fashioned. In interpreting the caves, emphasis is still placed on imagination and fantasy; with a consequent lack of appreciation of cave genesis, cave biology and ecology. Sur face facilities on cave reserves have been designed to be sim ply functional, with no real continuity of design philosophy in either materials or architecture. With the development of a new cave, it is possible to apply modern reserve management principles, and to avoid the hap hazard development of the past. NEW SOUTH WALES 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 Jenolan 157,678 161,663 166,204 182,827 185,432 Wombeyan 20,968 22,777 23,330 27,448 29,005 Careys Caves, Wee Jasper (opened in October, 1968) 1 ,755 5,278 3,396 4,218 4,176 Abercrombie 7,453 7,776 8,176 10,996 9,896 Wellington Not available Yarrangobilly n.a. VICTORIA Buchan n.a. Murrindal n.a. Princess Margaret Rose n.a. QUEENSLAND Johannsens n.a. Camoo n.a. Chillagoe 4,228 6,129 5,960 6,642 8,400 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Naracoorte 32,000 33,000 37,000 38,000 41,000 Kelly Hill 5,296 5,672 6,451 8,389 9,305 Tantanoola WESTERN AUSTRALIA Augusta n.a. Yallingup n.a. Yanchep n.a. Margaret River n.a. TASMANIA Hastings (Newdegate Cave) 15,176 18,062 19,190 22,228 23,931 Mole Creek 13,854 15,608 18,690 20,919 22,487 Gunns Plains 3,080 5,289 3,345 4,455 5,332 NORTHERN TERRITORY Cutta Cutta (Katherine) open irregularly until 1972 4,500 TABLE I ADMISSIONS OF VISITORS TO AUSTRALIAN TOURIST CAVES

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 6 CAVES FANTASY AND SPELEOLOGY I know and love caverns, abysses and subterranean rivers. Studying them has been my passion for years. Where can one Norbert Casteret (1940) Caves are a wilderness, one of the last strongholds to with stand Man. The more we study them, the farther we penetrate into them, the clearer it becomes that we have, as yet, opened up but a small fraction of their number. Herbert Franke how the thirst for the unknown overcomes all other emotions discoveries, of the wonderment, of the total darkness, of the mystery and peace, and to forget the sun and even the sky in a word, all the manifestations of the outside world. And these impressions are so alive and so unusual that they can never be forgotten. E.A. Martel Not everybody can participate in underground exploration and indeed, in many souls, the desire to penetrate the unknown lies dormant. Yet, it is still an adventure for most to enter a tourist cave; to penetrate the underground world, especially for the Wherein lies the mystique of caves? To answer this question one must delve into the very beginnings of Mankind. He has a primitive longing for places of refuge, for shelter. Early Man used caves for just this purpose; for safety and for refuge from the elements of a savage environment. As civilizations devel oped the traditional view of caves evolved; they were regard ed as part of the unknown and hence became part of fantasy, imagination, ignorance and superstition. The underworld was regarded as the domain of Hades, the Through me you pass into the city of woe: I am the gateway to eternal pain: The gateway to the souls of the Lost. Justice was the spur to my mighty Creator: To rear me was the task of power divine, Supremest wisdom, and primeval love. Before me, of things created there were none, save things eternal, and eternal I endure. All hope abandon, ye who enter here. [The Divine Comedy] Caves were regarded as a fairy tale world with elves, pixies, fairies, treasures and lost cities. The traditional view of caves is still here, living in many minds. It is manifested in such forms as cave guides com mentaries and old wives tales about how caves form. Fanciful names are applied to often the most unrealistic-looking cave formations (Appendices L, N) The fantasy approach is thus a remnant of Mans ancestral view of caves, and is based on ignorance, superstition and imagination. Modern speleology began late last century in Austria, and has spread throughout the world. Speleology, the science of caves, seeks to explain the phenomenon realistically. Man seems to have a natural biological urge to strive to unravel mysteries and to seek knowledge. being and nature of caves (Bgli & Franke 1967). The object of research is the whole karst area, hence it is necessary to have a knowledge of the surface region. Speleology is a geo geomorphology, biology, physics, chemistry and meteorology. It aims at a synthesis of all phenomena connected with caves with the ultimate aim being knowledge of the whole cave re gion (Bogli & Franke 1967). Speleology is carried out by groups, clubs and societies. It is both a sport and a science. Cave exploration is a team effort and cave research requires the cooperation of amateur cavers as well as professional scientists. The essence and spirit of cave exploration is expressed in the three quotes at the start of this section. Caves are one of the last remaining frontiers, one of the few places where one can tread where no man has been before. It attracts many young people who in time gain quite a working knowledge of cave science. The hack work of exploration and surveying carried out by amateurs proves to be invaluable to researchers. In Australia there are many local caving and speleologi Speleological Federation, a nationally-inspired central entity. erneering Club, established in 1946, Northern Caverneers, established in 1961 and the Southern Caving Society, estab lished in 1964. What are caves? Study has unearthed a wealth of data and in cording to means of formation. Shelter caves and overhangs, formed usually by wind erosion, are often sites with archeo logical remains as they were commonly used by early man as refuges. Collapse caves and cavities may occur under rocks in landslides and talus slopes. Lava caves and tunnels form as volcanic rocks cool. Karst, or limestone caves, are by far the largest and most numerous. For karst caves to form there are several require ments. Firstly, there must be soluble rocks; those which can be dissolved such as limestone, dolomite and gypsum. The sess the mechanical strength to support caverns. Cave devel opment can only occur where there is water and proceeds fastest in moist temperate climates with abundant vegetation. Carbonate rock dissolves at a faster rate at lower atmospheric temperatures. Caves form when rainwater dissolves carbon dioxide, ena bling it to operate as a weak organic acid. Carbon dioxide is present in high concentrations in soil. Acid water enters cracks corrosion (solution action) cavern breakdown by mechanical collapse corrasion, or erosion by stream action After a cave is formed, secondary deposition of minerals usu ally occurs. Calcite (calcium carbonate) is the most common deposit and can occur in a wide variety of forms. Water per colating through the roof of a cave usually dissolves calcium carbonate from the limestone rock and carries the mineral in

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 7 solution. Upon reaching the roof of the cave, calcite is depos ited. Slow crystallization on the roof forms straw stalactites or sinter tubes. Straw stalactites are about 5 mm in diameter and can be up to 5 metres in length. When further calcite crystals form on the outside of the straw it becomes thicker, eventually developing to a normal stalactite. Water dripping from a stalactite, straw stalactite or group of form stalagmites. If a stalagmite and stalactite grow and unite, a column is thus formed. Helictites are curiously-shaped formations that grow horizontally. It has not been explained adequately how they form. Flowstone is a cave formation which occurs when water runs down-slope, depositing sheets of calcite in layers. Other minerals deposited in caves include gypsum and arago nite. are characterised by subterranean drainage. Rain falling on exposed soluble rocks cuts grikes, grooves and clints to give a characteristic sharp and jagged appearance. Funnel-shaped depressions known as dolines form when the earth underneath collapses. Dolines collect water from the surrounding area and discharge it into underground streams. The largest depressions found in karst areas are poljes; which are enormous enclosed hollows with level bases and steep sloping sides. Other surface features in the karst landscape include springs to the surface, dry valleys and swallets into which surface streams disappear. Karst landscapes often have important economic effects. Soils are typically thin and stony, making agriculture marginal. Speleological investigations often have an economic basis to harness underground waters for irrigation and hydro electricity. TION VS. RECREATION 1. to provide special outdoor recreational facilities by vir tue of a beautiful and unusual landscape, often, but not always, with a wilderness character, 2. to provide opportunities to see native animals and plants in characteristic natural surroundings, 3. to conserve outstanding natural features, rare species and ecosystems, 4. man as part of the national heritage, 5. to encourage interest in conservation and rural activities, 6. to serve as storehouses of biological evolution both at the species and community level, and 7. The basic philosophy of national parks and reserves is to pre cause they include outstanding examples of scenery and natu ral features. They are set up to provide outdoor recreation and the framers of the various national park legislation throughout the world have made it quite clear that the purpose of parks ondly to provide outdoor recreation for the public. refreshing, entertaining or agreeably occupying oneself in pastimes, relaxations, holidays or employment. Recreation seeks differences in scene and activity. Mosely (1972) claims that man has a relentless urge to change his environment and one way to achieve this is by travelling. Outdoor recreation, tor in relieving urban stress. Recreation allows man in an impersonal industrial environment to express his individual ity. Psychologically man appears to be better adjusted with a range of conditions and experiences. His home is a padded cell from which he looks out on a world of deteriorating envi ronmental quality (Mosely 1972). National parks and wilder landscapes, conditions and new experiences. As the number of people increase and they become steadily concentrated in urban centres, their demand for outdoor recreation in national parks increases. Today, the motor tourist is ubiquitous. The Tasmanian National Parks and Wildlife Act (1970) states 1. its management and maintenance as a National Park or otherwise for the purposes of public recreation; 2. tained therein; 3. the preservation or protection of the natural beauty there of or of any features thereof of natural beauty or scenic interest. The New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Act (1967) is more explicit and succinct. It contains several broad princi 1. the areas to be reserved as national parks, are spacious areas containing unique or outstanding scenery or natu ral features; 2. the areas to be reserved as state parks are large areas containing unique or outstanding scenery or natural fea tures but substantially less spacious than areas reserved as national parks; 3. the areas to be reserved as historic sites are areas that The New South Wales Act, like its Tasmanian counterpart, re quires a plan of management to be prepared for each of the regard shall be had to the follow 1. the encouragement and regulation of the appropriate state park or historic site by the public; 2. the preservation of each national park in its natural con dition, the protection of the special features of the park and the conservation of the wildlife therein; 3. the preservation of each historic site and any historic 4. the preservation of each national park, state park or his 5. the setting apart of the whole or part of a national park or state park as a wilderness area.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 8 The various acts are the terms of reference within which the government national park controlling authorities must oper ate. The two-fold purpose of national parks conservation and are what Everhart (1972) describes as the preservationists, those who argue that practically all development within parks is inappropriate and the utilitarians, who claim that parks are for people and improvements must be made if the public is to enjoy and appreciate the park. Bitter disputes have occurred over what development is ap propriate within national parks. In the early 1900s the United States army decided to build a reservoir in the Hetch Hetchy valley in Yellowstone National Park. The site for the dam was excellent, and as the land belonged to the government already it would be cheaper to develop rather than to acquire privatelyowned property. The American public were divided on the proposal and the debate lasted several years, but even to short-sighted planning. While Hetch Hetchy valley is de serted, nearby Yellowstone is crowded with recreation en thusiasts. Similar controversies have occurred in Australia in recent years. The mining of the Cooloola sandmass in Queens land, the mining of the Colong Caves Reserve and Bungonia Tasmania have all provoked storms of public protest. includes such developments as access roads, powerhouses, dams, mining and transmission lines. He argues that such uses are simply incompatible with the aims of national parks. There is evidence that community attitudes in Australia are changing and starting to realise that some developments are inappropriate. The American experience is illuminating; when New Zealand 1969 Churchill Fellow, P.H.C. Lucas visited na Dont repeat our mistakes. Lucas concluded his study tour possible of uses inconsistent with the aims of preserving them as natural areas. In interpreting the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Act ments as opposed to the incompatible developments men the legislation but are simply tempered with the proviso that national parks must be protected and preserved in their natu ral condition. Within the realm of compatible use the national park managing authorities must provide facilities for the pub lic to appreciate outdoor recreation. Compatible uses can have a very destructive effect as wilder ness eliminators. Enjoyment and understanding by the people means the demands of a technologically dependant society. Parks are for people the legislation says, but decoded this means that parks are for people-in-automobiles (Abbey 1968). whilst they are supposed to offer peace and solitude they be come extensions of suburbia as they are congested with peo ple and crammed with cars. tion and the protection of the values of parks. Park authori ties must frame systems of recreational land-use zoning. Park amenities and facilities must be designed to offer a range of recreational experiences and zoned accordingly. Zoning sys tems include wilderness and primitive areas to which no ac cess is provided, areas with paths and marked routes for hik ing enthusiasts and road access to certain areas for intensive recreation. Other solutions include restriction of numbers and public transport. When the density of cars on a route in a park becomes too high, it becomes economic to introduce mass transit systems, such as railways, buses and cable-ways. When all car parks and campgrounds are full, some parks erect full-house signs and turn away extra visitors. Bookings, entry fees and reserva tion systems also operate. The ceiling number when the full-house sign is brought out must be related to the ecological carrying-capacity of the park. tors as the size of the park, amount and complexity of access roads and other improvements and the fragility of the natu ral systems of the park. If visitor pressure creates demands beyond which natural systems are irrevocably damaged, the number of visitors has to be reduced. tion uses is only avoidable by clarifying use, provided that the reservation is large enough to enable zoning to be effective. This requires, initially, an adequate survey of resources lead ing to master planning and zoning of useful resources (R.D. at all times design must be in harmony with local features and natural processes. Planning needs both a clear statement of objectives and an effective means of implementing the objectives. Master plan ning for parks is best carried out by an interdisciplinary team, including biologists, engineers, architects, landscape archi tects and the park superintendant. Knowledge of park resources and local ecosystems is vital for the planning process. Planning must aim at preventing dete rioration caused by over-use or at least to correct deteriora tion. The over-use problem is always related to peak visitation periods such as holidays and weekends; and protective meas ures and visitor facilities must be designed with this in mind. Ecological recovery can take place during quiet periods. How much intensive development is appropriate for a national park? United States planners have operated on 5% of the total park area for intensive development; Lucas (1970) argues that 1% would not be too small, depending of course on the size of the reservation. Intensive development always involves the provi sion of road access that complex question that has plagued national park planners. Management must resist demands by the public that road access must be provided to all areas of a islation attempts to ensure that wilderness areas are retained. It is open to debate how long some parks can remain roadless. There is considerable public pressure for road access through Tasmanias Cradle Mountain-Lake St. Clair National Park and to Port Davey. Why are roads potentially destructive? Roads operate as wil damage occurs during construction;

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 9 drainage is upset and the possibility of erosion is in creased, especially in high rainfall regions; rubbish is dumped from cars; vegetation is removed by picking, important plant/animal communities can be damaged; exhaust fumes and noise; roadsides become dusty; roads have a high mortality of wildlife; aesthetic considerations, road cuttings and tailings are un sightly from the air and from look-outs. Congestion can be lessened if the road is a one-way route. Sealing park roads reduces dust but is rather expensive. A United States National Park Service report on new stand every person who wants to drive his automobile through the park; if the parks are to retain their distinctive character, the numbers of people and their means of access will have to be controlled; in seeking solutions to park access, new roads should be considered the last resort. A park road is not one that merely conforms to standards of of the landscape, respecting ecological processes, insuring which dictate the means of visitor access and the development of design standards (Everhart 1972). Mass transportation may be the future answer to the tyranny of the automobile in the parks. Buses, railways and cableways could become all-important media. Some of the national parks in eastern Europe have escaped the problem of the mo tor tourist. The Tatras National Park, for example, has no road access and visitors travel to the park by train. Large numbers visit the Tatras by rail and then use the walking tracks to see the alpine scenery. It is indeed a tragedy that more Australians do not use their legs in the national parks. Although individual small day-to-day landscape problems reserve is concerned, they can be very destructive to the park atmosphere if they are inappropriate (Loder 1971). National park planning and management should concentrate on creat ing a distinctive park atmosphere when improvements are designed. The United States National Park Service has an architectural theme for each park. The various statements of design philosophy aim at uniform use of materials and a uni form architectural style with the object of harmonising devel opments with the local environment. Visitor centres, huts and other buildings should have an obvious common theme relat ed to the physical character of the respective park. Even toilets and service facilities should conform to the overall pattern. The hardware of parks should be designed to be secondary to nature and this demands not only care in architecture but also (Lucas 1970). Nature (McHarg 1972). PROBLEMS OF TOURIST CAVES The development and management of caves for visitor rec reation poses problems which do not emerge during ordinary reserve or park management. The cave is a special landscape phenomenon and requires special techniques and methods in its management. There are three tourist caves in Tasmania operated by the Tas manian Government Tourist Department and one cave which is leased by a private operator from the National Parks and Wildlife Service. The government operated caves were all de veloped before 1940 and hence most of the walk-ways and lighting systems are of an old-fashioned design. There has been no co-ordinated planning for Tasmanian tourist caves; and developments and improvements since the Second World War have been made haphazardly. The modern system of drawing up management plans for parks has not been applied to cave reserves. In the development of new tourist caves, i.e. Exit Cave, it is apparent that a radical re-appraisal of existing methods of interpretation, lighting, surface facilities and the physical design of walk-ways must be made. One must look to overseas and to the Australian mainland for new ideas and concepts of management. Some principles of national park management can be applied directly to cave reserves; espe cially with regard to surface facilities and in the methodology of drawing up management plans. Protection is one aspect of cave management in Tasmania which requires re-appraisal. I believe that, in Tasmania, we do not go far enough towards protection. We should follow the on handling of any cave formation (Skinner 1972). Tasmanian cave reserves are zoned under the National Parks and Wildlife Act (1970). The guidelines for protection of parks tained therein; (c) the preservation or protection of the natural beauty thereof or of any features thereof of natural beauty and scenic inter est. The controlling authorities in Tasmania have not adhered strictly to these provisions of the legislation. Stairs and walk ways have not been designed to prevent visitors handling for mations, and by-laws are not stressed enough (Photo 29). If handled too often formations become blackened and deterio rate. The placement of facilities on the surface needs close atten tion. At Carlsbad Caverns, U.S.A., a visitor centre and car park were built on the surface above the cave. This acted as a waterproof seal, preventing natural groundwaters from seep ing into the cave underneath, causing formations to dry out ey available to build an air conditioning plant for the visitor centre and cool air was drawn from the cave. This also assisted in the drying of formation (Everhart 1972). At King Solomon Cave, Mole Creek, Tasmania, a house has been built above the tourist cave. This is not advisable as waste disposal becomes a problem. These mistakes are simply the result of injudicious planning and lack of appreciation of the special protective measures required.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 10 The sensitivity of cave ecosystems has been little consid ered in the development of caves. Cave life is not abundant and species are seldom present in large numbers. It is easy to see that a population could easily be exterminated as the total number of living creatures may be small. Cave species have limited climatic or other environmental requirements. The balance between species in a cave population is a delicate one (Hamilton-Smith 1970). Ecological imbalance can occur if organic debris or other rubbish is left in a cave. One species may increase rapidly in numbers because of the food supply offered by the debris; and then predate on other species, per haps exterminating them. The introduction of exotic species may be deleterious as the new arrivals may compete for food with the established fauna. When developing and operating a cave, the controlling au thorities must be careful not to leave unnecessary foreign matter in the cave as valuable cave species could be endan gered. Wood, plastic, glass, paper and steel rubbish should be removed and smoking prohibited. Tourist Caves are often ad equately protected from damage to formations, but biological protection is little understood. At Newdegate Cave, Hastings, contractors have been insensitive to this requirement; not that moved. Wood from old stairways, plastic and other debris has been dumped; and it is probable that the pattern of cave life has been markedly altered. Explosives should only be used sparingly as the resultant noxious gases may be harmful to cave decoration and fauna. External alterations to the environment can have devastating results on cave fauna. Near Carlsbad Caverns the local farmers have used pesticides liberally and there may be a correlation between pesticide use and a decline in the number of caveinhabiting bats (Everhart 1972). Natural vegetation on cave reserves and in the headwaters of underground streams should not be interfered with. When vegetation is removed above a cave, runoff from rainfall increases and soil erosion may oc cur. The percolation of ground-water is interrupted; causing drying of cave decoration and indirect effects on cave fauna. Food for cave animals comes in by streams and is brought by other animals. These two food sources are easily disturbed by surface activities such as mining, logging or burning. In con servation of karst I think that one must take a totally ecologi cal approach to the landscape. Everything has to be included, not only the cave itself, because the total environment above maintenance of the cave in its natural state. We have been ab solutely right in insisting that the natural vegetation be main tained, because its vitally important (Professor Paul Williams, Professor of Geography, Auckland, New Zealand; speaking at a New Zealand Speleological Society Symposium). Cave Reserves in Tasmania were declared before 1940; before any organised speleological activity took place. Most reserves are too small to protect existing tourist caves and should be extended. The reserve at Maracoopa Cave, Mole Creek, does not protect the headwaters of the stream entering the cave and omits several important related cave systems Devils Pot, Devils Earhole, Maracoopa II. The reserve at Hastings omits part of the Binney System, which is connected to the Newd egate tourist cave; and the Wolf Hole, a medium-sized system east of the reserve. As no cave reserves have been declared since 1939, the impor tant discoveries made since then are not protected by reserves. Exit Cave has no protection. Kubla Khan Cave at Mole Creek has been described by visitors as the best decorated cave in Australia, but it too lies unprotected and is subject to deterio ration and vandalism. Croesus Cave, situated near the Mersey River, is a well-decorated stream cave and is suitable for tour ist development (Appendix F). Exit, Kubla Khan and Croesus Caves are listed by the Tasmanian Government Tourist De partment as being suitable for future development, but have not been afforded any legal protection (Sykes 1973). Cave lighting is one aspect of presentation in Tasmania that requires re-appraisal. Several principles could be applied to improve the quality of lighting. Lighting cannot be planned in detail in advance and the party involved must be able to im provise with placement of lights in the cave. Creative artistry is desirable; and the party involved must take care not to dam age formation or leave rubbish (Skinner 1972). Wiring should be concealed from the visitors eyes to create a more natural effect. Exposed leads are ugly and distracting (Photos 41, 50, 51 and 52). Mains leads should be placed in conduit and concealed under walkways. Inspection plates can be included for access to wiring should repairs be necessary. voltage can be used 110 volts is adequate (Photo 51). Wiring from the mains and switches to peripheral lights should be likewise hidden. Concealment of wiring takes in cost involved. Successful concealment has been made at Jeita, Lebanon (Skinner 1972) and at Careys Cave, Wee Jasper, N.S.W. (G. Middleton, pers. comm.). Plastic leads are prefer shades should be concealed wherever possible (Photos 40, 44, 45, 46 and 49). They should not be placed in positions where they glare in visitors eyes (Photo 40). Plastic switchboards (Photos 54, 55) are safer and more aesthetic than older types (Photo 53). Electricity generators are often noisy; and the motors should Underground electric cables are preferable to overhead wir ing as they are undetected by visitors and require less mainte nance once installed (Photo 27). If caves are to be interpreted and displayed as natural fea tures as the legislation requires; coloured lighting is not justi lighting, where green globes create a pleasant effect (Skinner 1972). In some caves such as Cango in South Africa and Cutta Cutta in the Northern Territory, coloured lighting is used ex tensively, often for purely visual impact for its own sake, and not to compliment the natural attractions of the cave involved. Although it is perhaps a personal aesthetic judgment to con demn the practice; it is not really appropriate to introduce into reserves unnatural features for their own sake. Referring to Ruby Falls and the Lost Sea commercial caves in the United National Park Caves cannot take liberties like commercial caves and must remain natural. The physical improvements of tourist caves walkways, stairs, gates and interpretative signs must have a clear statement of design philosophy; an overall architectural theme. Cave facilities must be designed and constructed to blend with

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 11 their surroundings and not to be obtrusive. Certainly they must provide a safe and easy passage for the visitor; but aesthetic conditions are very important. Shoddy, ugly structures are in appropriate in reserves. Many of the worlds tourist caves have been developed for many years and their facilities are antiquated and of oldfashioned designs. Tasmanian tourist caves provide examples of inappropriate structures and a general haphazard develop ment. A variety of designs and styles are apparent, even within the same cave (Photos 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40 and 51). The use of certain materials detracts from the natural beauty of caves. Chicken wire is used extensively in tourist caves; in cluding Jenolan (NSW) and Mole Creek (Tasmania). A more aesthetic and effective alternative is perspex, which is used successfully in the Cheddar Caves in Britain (Stanton 1962). Chicken wire is often used as a component of fences along the edge of walkways (Photo 32, 34, 35 and 39). Skinner (1972) advocates the use of local stone in cave reserves. Stone walls would be acceptable substitutes for wire fences. They would blend well into the cave environment, whilst being equally functional (Photos 42 and 43). The surface of stairs and walk 1962) or be covered with crushed aggregate to prevent visitors slipping. considered in the design of walkways. Re-tracing tours cre ate problems during periods of peak visitation. Bottle-necks force under such conditions. Where caves have two or more entrances it is possible to have through trips, and the need to re-trace through the cave is avoided. Until the provision for a second entrance to Howes Caverns, New York, was made, tunnels are used extensively overseas to provide through trips. draft must be stopped because greater air movement can cause formation to dry out. At Jenolan, N.S.W., air-tight doors have Crowding would be avoided and protection could be enforced more successfully. Proper planning and careful construction are keynotes to the ernment had done superlative work in the illumination and in the planning and construction of walkways. I was told that an architect had been engaged for two years prior to the com mencement of work in the caves and that further planning was continuing (Skinner 1972). The results of forward planning at Jeita have been excellent. Walkways are wide, with no steep cave. Small stone walls have been built in steeper areas. The walkways are so designed as to prevent visitors from reaching formations. The lighting is even and intense throughout; and spent on developing the cave, but the results are well worth the investment as a large operating surplus has been made. (See press cuttings, Appendix N, The Mercury, 10/10/59) (No photographs could be printed because of copyright). Interpretative and directive signs on cave reserves and with in tourist caves should be of a uniform design colouring, lettering and size should be standardised. The result is that a distinctive park atmosphere is created; and visitors iden tify a common identity between such areas. There have been some efforts to standardise signs in Tasmania. Tourist features are now denoted by brown and white road signs (Photos 18, 19). The National Parks and Wildlife Service has introduced a standard model sign in Tasmanian parks (Photo 13). However, signs on cave reserves display a wide discontinuity in style, colour and size (Photos 23, 24, 25, 29 and 17). A new sign at Hastings is attractive and appropriate, and could oper ate as an architectural standard for similar signs on other cave reserves (Photo 21). A suggested design philosophy for cave reserves would be to use the Photo 21 model for entry signs and to use Photo 13 for other directive signs. Signs within tourist caves should be avoided wherever possi ble; but if essential should conform to the overall architectural philosophy. Hand-painted signs are inappropriate (Photos 30, 31). All construction on reserves should be closely supervised. Building inside caves requires special sensitivity to prevent damage to the formations and fauna. Contractors should be thoroughly acquainted with special protective measures in volved during construction; ideally these should be included in the contractual agreement. Hand labour and attention to de tail are essential. Tenders for work in reserves should not be regarded as sim quickly, but strict attention should be had to its specialised nature. Caves are natural landscape phenomenon and should be inter preted as such. Mans ancestral view of caves as part of the un known is based on superstition and ignorance. Cave guides of ten attempt to identify cave formations as familiar objects and portray them as a dreamland. The fantasy approach can create many wrong impressions among visitors, many of whom will only visit a cave once in their life. This cave contains many striking features, including the Fair ies Hall, the Crystal Grotto, the Jewel Chamber, the Kings Chamber, Queen Victoria Chamber and the coloured shawls or blankets which closely resemble the products of the loom. In imagination visitors can see ruined cities, crystal gardens, appearance of being encrusted with driven snow. The Bridal Chamber makes the greatest appeal, with its alcove and al tar embowered in orange blossom, while silver stars glitter overhead. Glittering chandeliers are suspended from the roof. Even the wedding cake can be seen, composed of limestone (Buchan Caves folder, Appendix L). A beautifully folded shawl, striped with delicately tinted bands of colour, hangs across the entrance. The shape of the tent can shawl lift and a sheik step forth in all the opulence of the East (Yallingup Cave, Appendix L). Tourists, not a little awed by that Tasmania is part of a vanished continent, probably one of the oldest that can be traced by man a comparative new comer in geological time (Mole Creek Caves, Appendix N). This approach to cave interpretation is all but irrelevant. The

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 12 same effect could be gained from reading Alice in Wonder quaint visitors with cave genesis, cave biology or history. The fundamental question is whether parks and reserves should of fer education or simply entertainment? My personal inclina tion is that entertainment can be just as readily obtained from television or books. This is not to say that interpretation should not be interesting, lively and entertaining; but present methods of cave interpretation are not passing on the cave message. Ideally, interpretation should take an environmental approach and stimulate the individuals interest in the relevance of en vironmental problems and mans relationship to nature. The United States National Parks Service administrative manual Through interpretation, understanding; through understand ing, appreciation; through appreciation, protection. pound or make out the meaning of phenomena by an artistic presentation or performance. Freeman Tilden, the noted Unit 1. Any interpretation which does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described to something within the person On-the-spot education is an ideal method of interpretation as features can be pointed out directly and the visitor can identify with what is being described. 2. Information, as such, is not interpretation. Interpretation is revelation based on information. But they are entirely different things. However, all interpretation includes information. One must provide meanings and implications of information. 3. Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether tural. Talks and lectures must be illustrated and life-like, and tell a story; not a monologue of unconnected facts. 4. The chief aim of interpretation is not instruction but provo cation. It should aim at stimulating the interest of the indi vidual by arousing his enquiring nature; so that he will attempt to learn more. 5. Interpretation should aim to present the whole rather than a part, and must address itself to the whole man rather than any phase. Interpretation should have a completeness and inter relate information in an environmental context. 6. Interpretation addressed to children should not be a dilu tion of the presentation to adults but it should follow a funda mentally different approach. To be at its best it will require a separate program. Children approach a new experience with great enthusiasm and it is possible to imprint a lasting im pression if the experience is a vivid one. Close cooperation between park and reserve authorities and educational insti tutions should be maintained to achieve mutual educational aims. Special visits to reserves should be arranged for school parties with a separate interpretation program. Physical educa tion programs should ideally include outdoor activities such as visits to parks and reserves. There is evidence that methods of cave interpretation are changing and controlling authorities are realising that caves have a tremendous educational potential, not simply an enter tainment value. Notable advances have been made at Jenolan and Yarrangobilly in New South Wales (Middleton 1970b). Carlsbad and Mammoth Caves in the United States emphasize Very little attempt was made to identify cave formations with policy of interpretation as a natural feature, rather than to marks. This attitude was well-received by the visitors and the (Skinner 1972). Although interpretation is still far from taking the ideal en vironmental approach, there are indications that attitudes are changing rapidly. Cave interpretation is carried out by a guide, who conducts visitors through the cave, giving an interpretative commentary for their job, and have to rely on practical experience. National park caves in the United States have rangers who are trained in national park policies in general. Austrian cave guides are required to pass a state examination to be employed. The Aus trian scheme requires the applicant to prove his knowledge in 1. tection. 2. Main features of caving technique, use and application of equipment and tackle, caving practice. 3. 4. Use and operation of cave installations; especially lighting installations. 5. Orientation in the terrain, cave survey, map and plan reading. 6. First aid in case of emergencies, organisation of cave rescue. (Anon. 1970a) Perhaps the following requirements could be added to the awareness of environmental problems, mans relation ship with nature, environmental interpretation knowledge of methods and media of interpretation national park management policy law enforcement Skinner (1972) has recommended that some form of guide training be implemented in Tasmania. If guided tours are to continue as a major method of cave interpretation; guide train ing is essential. Some of the caves throughout the world have abandoned the guided tour concept and introduced self-guided methods. At Carlsbad Caverns each visitor is given a set of ear phones and interpretative information is radioed; thus replacing the guides commentary. At Cango Caves in South Africa much of the commentary is broadcast. The Glory Hole Cave at Yarran gobilly in the Kosciusko National Park has been converted to a self-guided inspection. Tape recorders with continuous tape are set up at various sections in the cave (Appendix L). Rang ers are stationed in the cave to prevent visitors from removing or handling formation and to answer questions. Self-guided tours enable large numbers of visitors to move at of concentrating on delivering a commentary, the rangers can cave protection are still given by rangers at some caves, usu

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 13 ally before visitors enter. It is desirable to offer a variety of recreational experiences in order to cater for the differing tastes of visitors. Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky, U.S.A., offers extended tour ist trips of several hours duration, photographic tours, shorter tours for the physically handicapped, historical tours, boat excursions and nature walks on the surface. In addition illus centre for the elderly, sick and handicapped. Obviously, such a wide range of recreational experiences can be offered if there are large numbers of visitors and adequate staff with the nec essary expertise. Cumberland Caverns, U.S.A., have a spe lunking tour. Scouts and other groups are conducted on an overnight wild caving tour (Davis 1971). There is considerable scope for improvement in the quality and variety of interpretative printed matter such as booklets, maps, posters and signs. The quality of such material in Aus tralia is poor and there is very little available. Handouts such as the Yarrangobilly folder should be encouraged (Appendix L). This example gives brief, accurate information and a sketch map. Interpretative signs need to be brief and concise if visitors are to take notice (Middleton 1970b). Photo 17 is such an example. Signs should conform to an architectural theme as already outlined. Nature trails should be provided either with interpretative signs or a pamphlet. Signs can be valuable addi tions to the visitor experience (Photos 12, 14, 15, 17). The provision of surface facilities on cave reserves in Tasma nia needs close consideration. Skinner (1972) recommends that where practicable staff housing should not be built on reserves and placed in nearby towns (Photos 7, 8). Some per manent accommodation on reserves is essential for protection and law enforcement. Visitor centres are sadly lacking on Tasmanian cave reserves. Existing structures could be adapted for this purpose. Ideally a visitor centre should contain the following facilities and func visitors books display/museum area, preferably with one-way visitor circulation washrooms and toilets creche kennels publications, transparencies, books, maps Where towns are situated close to cave reserves (e.g. Mole Creek) eating facilities and accommodation is best located in the town itself and developed privately using tourism develop ment funds if necessary. In this way growth in the local pri vate sector could be stimulated. Legislation insists that parks and reserves must remain natural, hence intensive develop boundaries. It is important to the park atmosphere that buildings should conform to an architectural theme, a design philosophy re lated to the local environment. Wide variations in architec ture are apparent within Tasmanian cave reserves. At Hast ings there are weatherboard buildings, buildings with vertical oiled boards, Besser brick structures and buildings faced with roughly-hewn logs (Photos 22, 26, 58, 93 and 95). A suita ble material for that area would be vertical oiled boards and roughly-hewn timber; but the weatherboard and Besser brick structures are inappropriate. Similarly the buildings in Pho tos 9 and 11 are appropriate in the alpine landscape of Lake Dobson in Mt. Field National Park; but Photos 7, 8 and 10 are examples of inappropriate buildings at the entrance of the park. In contrast the buildings in Photos 2 and 3 are attractive structures and blend well into their surroundings. Tasmanian tourist caves charge admission fees of sixty cents and thirty cents for adults and children respectively. Observa parks and reserves. (At present the Tasmanian National Parks and Wildlife Service is considering introducing fees.) The government tourist caves might be operated more economi cally if so many staff were not employed permanently, and simply hired during peak periods on a temporary basis. Waste disposal is a reserve problem; and is perhaps best solved by removing pollutants from the reservation. Rubbish tins should have an overall uniformity in design and colour; perhaps conforming to one of the suggested colours for signs. Pollution of streams in parks and reserves should be avoided if possible and sewerage systems must be adequate to cope with demand. Cave reserves can be zoned in a similar fashion to national parks. Zoning could separate recreational activities; and pro tect the more important caves from over-use and vandalism. A CLASS A Tourist Caves. Protected by gate and ranger. Ac cess by guided tour. CLASS B Undeveloped caves with tourist potential. Pro tected by gating and a warning sign. Access only to responsible speleological groups (members of Australian Speleological Federation) for ap search. importance. CLASS D Known undeveloped caves suitable for intensive recreation by the general public, scouting, school parties. Certain caves could be popularised for this purpose; but it would be expected that van dalism and littering would occur, probably on a large scale. No protection would be possible. This system could be applied to such an area as Mole Creek. It is situated quite close to centres of population in the north and north-west of Tasmania, and its caves receive many visits from bushwalkers and other miscellaneous outdoor enthusi asts not associated with recognised caving groups. Untrained and unaccustomed to the underground environment, the cav ing novice can easily do accidental damage. This outdoor type of recreation must continue and should be encouraged, but the caves must be protected. The outlook for cave conservation in the Mole Creek area is bleak; known caves will become extensively damaged in the future from visitor pressure and general vandalism. Recreational zoning might prevent important caves from

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 14 becoming damaged. Caves on the Lands Department topo graphic maps and those that are already well-known or dam aged severely should be zoned for general caving. In the Mole Creek area Wet Cave and Honeycomb Cave are quite suitable for this purpose both are easily found from the road and Wet Cave is even sign-posted. Baldocks and Scotts Cave at South Mole Creek are also on the topographic maps and are also quite suitable. Both are former tourist caves which have been damaged by acetylene lighting, vandalism and rubbish dump ing (Photos 16, 56 and 57). At the entrances to caves thus designated for popular use a sign could be erected informing visitors of likely dangers and asking them to refrain from leaving litter and damaging for mations. For other caves in reserves a permit system might operate; whereby the visitor has to produce evidence of mem bership of a member society of the Australian Speleological Federation. In New South Wales a permit system operates with success in cave reserves. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM; TOURISM AND THE ESPERANCE DISTRICT Tourism is an important and rapidly-growing industry in Tas mania, and indeed is becoming recognised as such in many countries throughout the world. In 1971-72 the industry pro an estimated 4.5% of the total work force (Appendix N). An explosion is seen in the tourist industry; with an increase in the number of arrivals in Tasmania from 344,000 in 197172 to 396,000 in 1972-73 (Appendix N) (Table II). During July and August this year nearly 43% more people arrived than in the same two months last year. Most of the Mr. Miller said the increasing tourist pressure had blurred the distinction between on and off seasons. Mr. Miller said the success the number of tourists coming to the state (Hon. B.K. Miller, Minister for Tourism, The Mercury, 20/10/73) (Appendix N). The Tasmanian industry is buoyant and its rapid growth is evi denced in Table II. To cater for increasing demand, forward planning of new tourist facilities and attractions is urgently needed. Cotgrove (1973) has outlined ways in which Tasmania might New resource-based industries attracted by hydro power run counter to the dynamics of spatial organisation. linkages and other factors by locating in large centres. Par alleling these centralising forces, and given impetus by ris ing living standards and longer leisure hours, is an increased awareness of peripheral areas as places of recreation and tourism. It is against this background that policies for Tasma nias future prosperity must be set. The present governments apparent attempts to reverse these important spatial processes are likely to be not only unrealistic but potentially disastrous. Tasmanias abundant and unique scenic and wilderness areas properly planned, can ensure the preservation of their natu ral splendour as true national and eventually international reserves. Carefully planned, a tourist and recreation industry can act as a growth pole and stimulate the development of a number of related tertiary and secondary industries without incurring the cost of selling-off an increased portion of the states non-renewable assets. There has been considerable criticism of the state govern ments policies on Tasmanias development potential by con servationists and economists, who have argued that the states development has been lop-sided, with an over-emphasis on attracting heavy industries with the carrot of cheap hydroelectric power. They point to the enormous cost of hydro-electric schemes (approximately 50% of loan funds) and argue that Tasmania has considerable freight problems due to its insular position. ties of price-rises and strikes. The result is higher costs of transport for industries dependant on mainland markets. Cotgrove (1973) offers some solutions to the transport prob The truth of the matter is that Tasmania suffers from the effects of Bass Strait mainly because of its unbalanced eco nomic structure. The cost effects of the Strait act in both direc tions and it is convenient to regard it as a kind of tariff bar industries supplying the Tasmanian market, especially with low-den sity products; (b) Export industries with high value to weight ratios are relatively unaffected by freight costs and are suited by a Tasmanian location. These products are suitable for airfreight. (c) There is a potential scope in the state for highly special ised quality differentiated products, such as processed ag ricultural foods which can easily pass on freight costs to the consumer and whose market appeal can, by vigorous Overseas examples include Scotch whiskey, Swiss watches and French perfume. TABLE II NUMBER OF ARRIVALS IN TASMANIA 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 AIR 203,204 221,309 234,683 267,203 279,316 ? SEA 58,630 58,155 69,086 64,212 65,113 ? TOTALS 261,834 279,464 303,769 331,415 344,429 398,000* Report of the Tourism Development Authority 1971-72, Government Printer, Hobart. The Mercury, 20/10/73

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 15 Critics of the governments development policy contend ploughs little back into tourist development. Whilst the state In 1972-73 a mere $587,685 was spent by the government on $407,000 tourist development loans $158,000 publicity and promotion $12,000 grant to Tasmanian Tourist Council (private tourism promotion body) $10,000 contributions and grants for tourist develop ment liament) spent on advertising and promoting Tasmania. State Treasury operation of the Wrest Point Hotel-Casino This money should be ploughed into developments such as accommodation, na tional parks facilities, etc. Tasmanian government seems re luctant to spend on tourism, but it is realised as a very sound investment in countries such as Switzerland, New Zealand and Monaco, which spend large sums on promotion and de velopment. If government was not preoccupied with balanc ing budgets and achieving short-term stability, there would be more attention paid to long-term planning. Some investments could not be expected to payoff for many years, but risks must be taken. There is a common misconception that investment in tourism is simply involved in restoring old buildings and historic sites. In an increasingly-urbanised society wilderness and natural scenic assets become more sought-after. This facet of tourist and recreation has a very high growth potential. that Tasmania and Western Australia had the highest potential for growth in the cave tourism sphere among Australian states. Both are peripheral areas and this would support Cotgroves contention that such regions become increasingly important for recreation. The number of visitors admitted to Tasmanian tourist caves has grown steadily during the last few years; with a 60% increase since 1968 (Table I). A report prepared by Sykes (1973) on behalf of the Tasmanian Tourist Department, was presented to the Australian Confer proposals at hand to develop any additional caves for public inspection. However, there are approximately fourteen caves in Tasmania of outstanding interest, but of these only three Cave at Ida Bay in the south and Kubla Khan and Croesus Cave in the Mole Creek area. However, the lack of funds and the fact that the present caves are containing the public de mand in the state; precludes any immediate action. Yet, as outlined earlier, protection has been all but ignored by the cave controlling authority. During peak periods existing tourist caves are certainly overcrowded and facilities are inad equate to cope with demand. Under such conditions protection must decline for the individual visitor as the guides attention is distracted from his commentary as he concentrates on visi caves and indeed they might be rested for short periods to clear up such problems (Photo 48). Certainly crowding and protection problems can be alleviated by drilling tunnels and tion; ultimately the number of visitors per cave must be re stricted to protect the natural features of the cave. New tourist caves are more likely to be successful economic enterprises if they are located near large population centres. Jenolan in New South Wales is such an example in being close to the Sydney metropolitan area. The caves have steadily risen in popularity to be over 200,000 this year (Rawlinson, pers. comm.). But not all caves need to be close to major cities to be success ful. However, these are rare, unique and nationally-famous caves. Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, U.S.A., and Cango Caves at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, are good examples. Exit Cave, at Ida Bay, is such a rare and unique cave; and its po sition would not greatly affect its popularity once it became are attributes which would ensure its success. Its status as the longest cave in Australia would enhance its physical attrac tions. Stern warnings on the pitfalls of economic failure of cave de velopment must be made. It is appropriate to quote at length from Gurnee, in a 1967 edition of the Bulletin of the National Speleological Society If a regular business enterprise fails, a man can turn to some thing else and dissolve his assets. For the man who develops a cave, however, there rests a responsibility. He must assure the future of the physical condition of the cave which, once defaced, can in most cases never be restored. Opening a cave advisors to help him, and he will discover that he cannot do a limited development (undercapitalised) without risking all his time and investment. Unfortunately, it sometimes occurs that his business is not successful and the cave is closed. This is usually the end of the cave from a conservation viewpoint, as at this time the only thing which protects the cave from vandals is a barred gate a most fragile form of protection. There are many caves in the United States which are formerly commercial some of them ruined for further consideration commercially because of uncontrolled access. now government controlled. should not be tied to the ownership of an individual. The life nised, they will probably fall into the category of heritage of the people and be made parks or preserves. Tasmania has two unfortunate examples of caves ruined by former tourist development. Scotts and Baldocks caves at Mole Creek were open to the public in the early 1900s. They are now derelict and heavily vandalised, with accummulated rubbish, broken and stained formations and have a general aura of neglect (Photos 16, 56 and 57; see also Appendix F). ence on the surrounding district. The Esperance area would

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 16 nance and publicity or by government, could not fail due to its attractions. ner (1972) cites several success stories of successful cave Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, U.S.A., 50% of the towns 22,000 inhabitants are engaged in the tourist trade and there are further plans for more auxillary services and facilities. Results after four years operations had shown that an investment of ,000,000 sterling had yielded a revenue surplus of ,000,000 (Skinner 1972) (See press cuttings, Ap pendix N). At Cango Caves, South Africa, provision of mod ern tourist facilities including an adequate parking area and a restaurant building complex was not embarked upon until the early 1960s, but since then nearly one million rand has been spent in improving facilities for tourists. Coupled with inten sive publicity, the results have been spectacular. The number of visitors more than trebled in less than ten years. To quote The Cango Caves are a trust account in con sequence of which all revenue surpluses are required to be ploughed back into the caves for the provision of additional tourist facilities (Skinner 1972). The surrounding Oudtshoorn Cango; and many local people were employed in the provi sion of accommodation and other tertiary services for visitors. At a symposium on Precipitous Bluff held in the Hobart Town Hall on 31st July 1973, Mrs. P. Wessing, a Hobart geographer, described the Esperance district as a depressed area and that land-use zoning and carefully-planned economic development were needed to solve the problem of regional economic in equality. ployment is high in the area and that many have left due to lack of opportunity. The local council has consistently sup ported a policy of ecomomic development in the area; regard less of environmental cost and economic viability in some I believe that in the future tourism will play a vital part in the economy of the Esperance district. We can keep our best natural features for our own services for the increasing number of people who are attract to offer (Geeves 1973). Esperance has a considerable number of natural scenic at tractions and it is likely that the opening of Exit Cave could stimulate development in this sector. Tourism and recreation are labour-intensive and development in this sphere is like ly to alleviate local unemployment and lack of opportunity. Once investment in this type of activity has reached a certain threshold point, there seems to be a snow-balling effect. This process has occurred on the east coast of Tasmania with the provision of accommodation facilities and boating trips. Once there were approximately four specialist tourist resort ac commodation facilities on the East Coast; but quick growth soon occurred when this threshold was reached. Vigorous pro motion has assisted the snow-balling process. Esperance has a considerable variety of natural attractions, and there is no reason why the successful example of the East Coast could not re-occur. There is an urgent need for high standard accommodation in the Esperence area as at present there is not one motel south of Hobart. A motel planned for Dover may not be permitted by the licensing court. There is scope for youth hostel type of accommodation, and an existing building might be adapted for this purpose somewhere in the district. Accommodation and restaurant facilities are perhaps best located near, but not within, reserve and park boundaries. Intensive development within the Hartz Mountains National Park, the proposed en larged South-West National Park or the proposed Exit Cave reservation would be inappropriate, and could probably not National Parks and Wildlife Act (1970) There is an existing restaurant in a reserve at Hastings (Photo 95), but this is inadequate to cope with de mand during peak periods. Entrepreneurs might consider the development of facilities be being built for this purpose, and will operate from Es perance Bay), DEntrecasteaux Channel, Recherche Bay (Photo 98), Esperance Bay and estuaries such as that of the Lune River (Photo 96) offer excellent coastal scenery. There may be demand in the future for longer boat trips to the southern coast; and these might operate from Dover. (b) Bushwalking and camping tours are becoming more popu lar. Groups such as Tasventure offer adventure tours to such areas as the Cradle Mountain Lake St Clair National Park. This type of activity could be offered for the SouthWest National Park, for both the south coast and highland areas such as Mt. La Perouse (Photo 92). The summit of Hartz Peak (Photos 90, 91) is only an hours walk from the end of the access road into the Hartz Mountains National Park. The walk to the top of the peak is not at all strenu ous for family parties or even quite elderly visitors; and park and the walk to the top of the peak could be more vig orously promoted. The traditional Australian social habit of driving to the end of a road and looking through a car window unfortunately precludes the possibility of prop erly enjoying natural scenery. The track to Adamsons Falls could be more widely advertised and sign-posted. (c) Some tourist-oriented regions exhibit local industries for visitors. Fishing, apple growing and forestry are local pursuits that could be presented imaginatively to visitors. Samples and souvenirs associated with local industries (d) Possible means of improving the existing tourist cave at Hastings have been already outlined. This feature is reach ing its capacity during peak periods and the excess demand could be siphoned-off (Photo 94). (e) There is scope for the production of authentic souvenirs (f) The road to Cockle Creek (Photo 112) is to be superseded by a higher standard Forestry Commission road. The area is already quite popular as many visitors travel the sub standard road; and improved access will add to its attrac tion. This area is relatively unspoilt, but close attention to building regulations and foreshore retention must be paid. If holiday buildings are permitted on the foreshore as they

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 17 have been at nearby Southport, the aesthetic value of the area will diminish. Contrary to reports in the local media (Anon. 1973), the south coast walking track is used heav ily each summer, mainly by mainland enthusiasts. Mem bers of the speleological expedition to Precipitous Bluff in January, 1973, noticed 20-50 walkers each day mak ing the trek from Port Davey to Cockle Creek. When the South-West National Park boundaries are revised and the National Parks and Wildlife Service plan for the park is presented there may be provision for ranger headquarters at Cockle Creek. coastal scenery; but only a fraction of the population would visit the region on foot, such is the tyranny of the motor car. Yet the area can be visited by aeroplane for quite rea sonable fees as little as $15 per seat for an unforgettable experience (Photo 97). This is well within the range of most interstate and overseas visitors, who pay compara ble amounts for bus and car hire fees. Although the most spectacular airstrip in the south-west is now submerged (Lake Pedder beach), light aircraft can still land at Coxs Bight and Melaleuca Inlet; and a new airstrip is planned for Bond Bay (Port Davey). If the Esperance area becomes a major recreation and tourist focus, an airstrip might be provided, possibly at Dover or Southport. Obviously, recreation and tourism are not the only answers for the economic problems of Esperance. Integrated, comprehen sive regional planning would be best carried out by one of the statutory bodies such as the State Planning Authority of the Department of Urban and Regional Development, Canberra. HISTORY OF THE IDA BAY AREA Exit Cave Was probably discovered late in the 19th century by timber workers. A tramway, presumably constructed at that time, crosses Exit Creek a short distance downstream from the cave entrance. The Cave was probably not explored at that time beyond the entrance chamber because of deep water. There is an article in 1895, entitled The Glow-worm Caves of Tasmania. It reports that the Ida Bay caves were a recent discovery and reports a visit to one of them. From the description it seems likely that the visit was to Ida Bay Cave [Mystery Creek Cave] and not to Exit Cave (Anon. 1895). The areas north and south of Marble Hill have been logged, with the timber being processed in sawmills at Leprena and Lune River. Logging activities probably ended before the 1920s. The eucalypt forest has now regrown and little trace remains of the timber works. Limestone quarrying has been carried out on the northern side of Marble Hill for many years. The old quarry (see map 1) was worked before World War II and abandoned presumably due to a deteriorating quality of limestone. The present limestone quarry is situated in the saddle between Lune Sugarloaf and Marble Hill. A two foot gauge railway line has been construct ed from the Deep Hole at Southport to the quarry. The opera tors, the Australian Commonwealth Carbide Company, trans barges for transportation to the carbide factory at Electrona. In 1947 a local resident, Mr. A. Smith of Lune River, con ducted a party from the Tasmanian Caverneering Club to the entrances of Ida Bay and Exit Caves. The route taken was over By the early 1950s Ida Bay Cave had been explored by the T.C.C. and was fairly well known. It was not until 1954 that another visit was made to Exit Cave. A passage (the Wind Tunnel) was found to by-pass the deep water of the entrance chamber. Almost a kilometre of passage of large dimensions after the Second Australian Speleological Federation Confer ence, cutting of an access track commenced. The route fol of steep climbing and rough surface. Known as the Kokoda Trail, this route was completed late in 1958 (de Vries 1960). only a few more side passages were discovered by 1966. In 1966 T.C.C. began cutting a low-level track from the Catama south of Marble Hill (see Map 2). Late in 1966 a way through the talus section was discovered and subsequent exploration with Ida Bay Cave was considered to be imminent. A base camp was established inside the cave (see Map No. 1 [p. 114]) and a survey was commenced. In March 1967, the T.C.C. approached the Scenery Preserva tion Board regarding a possible Scenic Reserve and a protec of the Tourist Department and the Public Works Department were conducted to the cave. An approach was made by the Superintendant of Caves at Hastings (Mr. R. Skinner) to the Tourist Department regarding the opening of Exit Cave as a tourist attraction. No comment was received. survey was published ( Speleo Spiel, August Mini-Martin was descended to make the system the deepest in Australia at -220 metres (-720 feet). The entrance drop of 110 metres was also an Australian record (see press clippings [p. 90]). In December 1967 Loons Cave was discovered under Lune Sugarloaf. In March 1968 water was traced from Ida Bay picions that a major breach of the surface divide had occurred in the area (Goede 1969). In June, 1968, the Tasmanian Caverneering Club announced that Exit Cave was both the longest and the deepest cave in Australia (see press cuttings [p. 82]). A map was published in Speleo Spiel, traverse had passed the seven-mile mark. During July and August, 1968, Midnight Hole was descended and linked to Ida Bay Cave to give the system a depth of -203 metres, then the second-deepest cave in Australia. Other pot Ida Bay Cave and Exit Cave and make the legendary throughtrip. By 1969, interest in exploration at Ida Bay by the Tasma nian Caverneering Club faded, with more attention being paid to the Mount Anne and Junee-Florentine areas. During the period 1968-70 several parties of local residents and others were conducted to Exit Cave, including Mr. G. Pearsall, M.H.A. and Mr. M. Hodgman, M.L.C. Mr. Les Ker

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 18 mode, a visitor from the New Zealand Speleological Society, compared the glow-worm display very favourably with that of the world-famous Waitomo Caves, New Zealand. ological Federation Convention in Hobart, a major extension was discovered in Exit Cave. An estimated mile of passage, now known as Conference Concourse, was located and 910 metres were mapped (Matthews 1971 [Map No. 3, p.120]). In March, 1971, the ASF Newsletter announced that Exit Cave joined those of world class as it was now over ten miles in length (Goede 1971; also see press clippings [p. 83]). In February, 1971, the Warden of Esperance, Mr. A.H. Thodey, and other Esperance Councillors were conducted to Exit Cave and expressed a keen interest in its development for tourism. During 1971 the Tasmanian Caverneering Club decided to ap proach the newly-formed National Parks and Wildlife Service in a further attempt to have a Scenic Reserve declared and on November 22 a letter was sent to the Director, Mr. Murrell, contain known caves and include a minimum buffer as from 4736E 6480N east to 4757E 6480N north to 4757E 6500N north-west to 4753E 6508N west-north-west to 4749E 6509N east to 4736E 6509N south to 4736E 6480N (starting point) It was pointed out that the entrance to Exit Cave is in State Forest but no Forestry Reserve had been proclaimed and that a small Scenic Reserve was endorsed around Ida Bay Cave Clearly the fact poses a problem. The size and shape of the affected part of the lease makes it virtually useless to the company (Aust. Com monwealth Carbide). In addition the limestone in that part of (see press cut tings). In February, 1972, the Esperance Council strongly supported the declaration of a Scenic Reserve and agreed to write to Mr. Murrell (see press cuttings [p. 90]). Lobbying has continued on the Scenic Reserve proposal, but the State Government de partments and politicians concerned cannot reach agreement. In 1971 a road was constructed by the Carbide Company from the nearby Forestry Commission road to the limestone quarry (see Map No. 1). Some limestone is now transported by road to the Electrolytic Zinc Companys works at Risdon. There has been speculation that the Electrona carbide works would be shut down due to the removal of a protective tariff by the Fed eral Government. At the time of writing the Electrona works have been granted a reprieve by the State Government in anticipation of conversion to a ferro-magnesium process. In April, 1972, State Elections were held in Tasmania. The UTG will press hard for a comprehensive system of national parks as part of a three-year program of dedication. It be lieves the system should include a national park to pro Hastings (Anon. 1972) The South-East Cape Committee, a now defunct conservation group consisting mainly of cavers, received information in July, 1972, that the Carbide Company was planning to divert Mystery Creek. The Company was unaware of the damage the diversion would cause to Exit and Ida Bay Caves. A letter from the S.E.C.C. drew the attention of the Company to an al ternative water supply, a small stream in Bradley Chesterman Cave. It seems that the potential threat has been resolved as the Company has dropped its diversion plans. In October, 1972, a meeting was called at 36 Parliament Street, Sandy Bay, to discuss the formation of a society to de velop Exit Cave along similar lines to society-operated (com pany-operated) caves in Austria. Present were members of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, Southern Caving Society, Mr. M. Hodgman, MLC, and interested local residents. The result was that an approach should be made to the State Government for permission to operate the cave and for eventual assistance It was realised later that the project would have little chance of success due to a lack of real enthusiasm and a great diversity of views on the proposal; and the approach to the appropriate Ministers was cancelled. In November, 1972, Messrs. S. Gamble, J. Casey and R. Skin ner decided that it would be better to attempt the development of Exit Cave from a local level and to enlist support from the Esperance Council and Mr. Hodgman. The possibility of pri vate development was referred to the Director of the Depart ment of Tourism, Mr. Hulton, and the Director-General of the Tourism Development Authority, Mr. Butler. A submission drawn up by Mr. Hodgman was presented to State Cabinet in December, 1972. Mr. Thompson, [for] the Director of Lands, arranged an interview for the developers with the Minister for Lands, the Hon. M. Barnard, M.H.A. In January, 1973, the Sunhill Corporation applied for an ex ploration licence on the southern side of the saddle between Marble Hill and Lune Sugarloaf (see Map No. 1A [p. 118]). This is an area with no known caves. It is clear that limestone quarrying will continue in the area for even if the Electrona works is converted to ferro-magnesium the stone from Ida Bay will still be needed. Fortunately there are abundant supplies of limestone at Ida Bay, without any In March, 1973, a one page article on Exit Cave appeared in The Mercury, the local Tasmanian newspaper (see press cut Cave and its tourist potential. Also in March it was disclosed that the reserve proposal had been blocked by the Forestry Department, which was reluctant to release the area concerned from State Forest status for purposes of a reserve. Mr. W. Nielson, M.H.A., advised of a contradiction of the sci manian Caverneering Club. He disclosed that Mr. A. Terauds of the Southern Caving Society had challenged Mr. Goedes information on the possible effects logging Marble Hill would have on animal life in Exit Cave. However, this challenge was simply verbal and Mr. Goede has since provided written docu mentation for his case. The developers have also provided the State Government with a more detailed submission on likely means to be employed in showing Exit Cave to the public. During June, 1973, two letters to the Editor of The Mercury

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 19 were written and a further page of photographs appeared (see press cuttings). Also in June the South-West Committee, one of Australias most respected conservation groups, presented its Master Plan for the South-West of Tasmania to the State Government. Within the South-West area, numerous caves occur including est cave in one of the other reserves Early access (i.e. by road) should not be provided until this cave is adequately protected from vandalism. It has consider able tourist potential (South-West Committee 1973). The Hobart Walking Club has also supported the proposal for a reserve to protect Exit Cave. In October, 1973, the Tasmanian Caverneering Club (1973) presented a submission to the Federal Governments National Estate Enquiry in a further attempt to have a Scenic Reserve declared. THE MYSTIQUE OF EXIT CAVE If developed for the public Exit Cave would provide a unique recreational experience; quite unlike any other offered by an Australian tourist cave. One of the major features of Exit Cave is its size. The caverns are vast, with huge blocks of limestone and an active stream (Photos 59, 60, 61, 62,77 and 75). Talus and rockfall depos its are found in profusion (Photos 59, 61). It is on entering this chamber (Photo 77) that you realise that the cave is up to the standard of those European caves youve always drooled over. of overwhelming dimensions (Photo 60). The three of us stood, far from speechless, at the top of a vast hall over a hundred one of those rare moments (Peter Matthews, of the Victorian Speleological Association, describing the post-ASF confer about a thousand metres in length and averaging thirty metres in height and forty to sixty metres in width. It was mapped in detail during the semester (Map No. 4 [pp. 121-124]). The and stream gravels. An active river runs through this section. In upper levels (Colonnades, Hammer Passage, Ballroom see Map No. 4), there are strange and unique formations. The milk] (Photos 69, 71, 73, 78, 79 and 89). The ceilings and walls of stream caverns are encrusted with white streaks of mondmilch (Photo 60, 62). Nowhere else in Australia is there such a quantity or diversity in form of mondmilch. Attractive stalactites, stalagmites and other formations are present in the upper levels (Photos 69, 71, 78, 79, 89). (downstream from where the DEntrecasteaux River enters; Map No. 4 [p. 121]) could be displayed as a major tour ist feature. Mr. Les Kermode, of the New Zealand Geologi cal Survey, visited the cave in August, 1970, and described the glow-worm display as rivalling that of the world-famous glow-worm grotto in Waitomo Cave, New Zealand (Photos 74, 113 and 114). ing and sides of the cave seemed studded with diamonds an effect due to millions of glow-worms hanging on the sides of the walls and ceiling (Anon. 1895). is almost devoid of formation. This is at Ida Bay, in Ida Bay Cave, which if it does not rival New Zealands celebrated glow-worm caves, at least has a great chamber with a breathtaking display. Myself and a few others have mistaken a patch the entrance (Lyons 1950). An impressive morphological feature of Exit Cave is the shaft, or aven. Many lead up from the horizontal cave system to Marble Hill above (Photos 70 and 83). I went with Brians party to look at the Western Passage lead ing off from the campsite. It was about 3,500 feet long, typical cross-section 50-100 feet wide and 50 feet high, and contained an unbelievable number of streams and some of those amazing ameter, vertical walled and the top not to be seen even with all carbide lamps stoked and trained upwards (Matthews 1971). Gypsum deposits are abundant in certain sections of Exit; no tably the Lost Squeeze, Mud Passage, Edies Treasure and the Eastern Grand Fissure. Gypsum occurs in the form of needle crystals up to 60 centimetres long (Photo 63) and in the form The fact that Exit is the longest and largest cave in Austral ia would be a great drawcard. With sixteen kilometres (ten miles) of known passages, the cave is easily the longest, as Mullamullang (Western Australia) is only eleven kilometres in length (Ellis 1971).

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 20 PROPOSALS 1. PROTECTION AND RECREATIONAL ZONING A recreational zoning system is outlined on Map No. 1 [pp. 114-117]. The portion of Exit Cave outlined in purple is that considered most suitable for intensive development to ac commodate mass recreational demand. The proposals present ed in this study deal mainly with this zone. Access to the area outlined in yellow on the map should be worthwhile purpose. Parties from member societies of the Australian Speleological research, surveying and similar serious projects. Once the area outlined in purple is developed and access is provided to the cave entrance there will be no necessity for speleologists to stay overnight at the Inner Base Camp (see Map 1). Matthews (1972) describes how a welldecorated chamber was discovered at Scrubby Creek (Vic.) and outlines the subsequent methods employed by the Victorian Speleo logical Association to protect the new discovery. A set of rules 1. That entry into the cave be restricted to parties with a 2. That every party in the cave be accompanied by an ap proved guide at all times. 3. That two regular tourist trips be made to the end of the cave each year. 4. That where considered necessary, portions of the cave be thoroughly, surveyed, photographed and any protection methods installed, they not be visited again by anyone with no risk to what is being preserved. The following rules might be applied to the restricted area in 1. Only experienced cavers led by an approved party leader should be permitted. 2. That entry be restricted to parties from member societies worthwhile purpose. 3. No rubbish should be left in the cave, especially spent carbide and faeces. 4. There are to be restrictions on collecting biological by 5. That a trip report be sent to the controlling authority. The area outlined in pink on Map No. 1 [pp. 114-117] is zoned tentatively for future tourist development from the northern side of Marble Hill. Until (and if) this development occurs it should be included as a restricted zone, with the same provi sions as outlined above. Ida Bay Cave is suggested zoned as a wild cave, suitable for general caving activities by scouts, school groups, bushwalk ers and other miscellaneous outdoor enthusiasts. Visitors could do little damage to this cave as there is a paucity of decoration. The only improvement needed is a sign warning prospective visitors to have lights and not to leave rubbish or damage formation. This cave already receives many casual visitors. Further proposals are outlined in the Ida Bay North section. Activities on Proposed Cave Reserve at Marble Hill, Ida Bay The slopes on the Permian sediments are particularly steep and mechanised forestry activities would undoubtedly cause mulation in the caves and changes in the physical environment and food supply on which the true cave fauna is dependant. The danger of accelerated erosion is particularly acute as soil cover is already thin and discontinuous and complete strip ping of the limestone is certain to occur in the long term. Wholesale removal of vegetation and selective regeneration of species of economic importance will change the surface fauna and the food supply available to the cave system. It is impossible to accurately predict the long term effect of forestry activities on Marble Hill. On bal ance such effects are likely to be detrimental although they may take some time to make themselves felt. In the long term they will distract seriously from the tourist value and the sci to formations and at least partial destruction of cave fauna Casey (pers. comm.) has stated that local forestry contractors would not be interested in the forest on Marble Hill as the slopes are too steep. Williams, in a reference cited in an earlier section, warns that cave protection must take a totally ecological approach and vegetation must be retained. The catchments and headwaters of streams running into caves must likewise be protected as No clearing, mining or burning should occur in the headwa ters of the DEntrecasteaux River or Mystery Creek (Kiernan 1972). Fortunately it appears that mining companies are little-in terested in the limestone of Marble Hill. There are copious quantities of limestone reserves further east. As the Tasmanian Caverneering Clubs submission to the Federal Governments Part of the area proposed (as a reserve) lies in a current mining lease (see Map No. 1A [p. 118]) but the size and shape of the affected part of the lease makes it of limited value to the holder, the Australian Com monwealth Carbide Co. In addition the limestone in that part ous. For these reasons it would seem likely that the Company operations. The Sunhill Corporation, a company rumoured to be planning to take over the Australian Commonwealth Carbide Company, have been granted an exploration licence over an area south of the existing limestone quarry. This area slightly impinges on the eastern side of the proposed reserve but does not include Special protective measures for cave fauna have been de scribed in the Problems of Tourist Caves section and the

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 21 relation of development to the glow-worms in Exit Cave will be covered in the Cave Illumination section. access, special protective measures are necessary to prevent midity differentials. Gartrell (1969) cites the example of the Binoomea Cut in the Orient Cave, Jenolan, New South Wales. In that case hermetically sealed refrigerator doors were used to seal the new entrance. The sensitivity required for construction work in decorated caves has already been outlined but the fragility of the decora tion in high level areas Hammer Passage, Colonnades and Pendulum must be re-emphasised and protective measures adhered to. 2. SURFACE FACILITIES AND ACCESS There are three alternatives for access to the cave. Skinner, R. and aesthetic point of view, the logical route to follow is from a River by the South Cape forestry road, then follow the course the creek to the cave entrance. However, from a road-makers point of view this could be unsuitable owing to the low-lying terrain and consequent areas of water saturation creating dif He also suggests that a road could follow the break of slope between the southern spur of Lune Sugarloaf and the alluvial plain. Both routes are outlined in blue on Map No. 2 [p. 119]. The higher route appeared suitable for road making over the area traversed despite dense, tangled vegetation due to repeat ed burning. Loose metal along the route indicated that exten sive cartage of road material would not be necessary. Aestheti Perouse, the Hippo, Table Top and Moonlight Ridge obtained on the inward journey and Southport Lagoon and South Bruny Island were clearly visible on the return journey. Disadvan and (b) the absence of a suitable area for car parking and a mus tering point at the commencement of the new road. Pos sible look-out points are shown in blue on Map No. 2 [ p. 119]. A third alternative is to build a road over the saddle from the Australian Commonwealth Carbide Companys quarry, but the route would be of a steep grade and it would impinge on mining leases. On balance the route along the DEntrecasteaux may be pref erable, providing that it is suitable for construction. It is very scenic with a pristine rainforest and scenic river. Building may few short tributaries, but these would be easily bridged. An old timber tramway runs from Leprena along the left bank of the DEntrecasteaux and it may be possible to follow this route as the base may be sound and no large trees would have to be felled en route. If cars were left at a parking lot at the bridge on the South Cape forestry road, visitors could be ferried to the cave by bus, thus saving the construction of a large car park near the cave. The disadvantages of individual mass transit in parks have already been outlined. If cars were left at the proposed spot, picnic facilities could be provided in the forest on the banks of the DEntrecasteaux. Two alternatives are outlined. Picnic amenities such as those at the entrance of the Mt. Field National Park could be provided (Photos 1, 2, 3 and 11). With the two alternatives outlined privacy between the individual spaces is ensured and there is access to a central toilet and shelter shed. By removing the tyranny of the automobile from the cave area, protective measures could be enforced more easily. Dog kennels should be provided where visitors leave their cars. The road to the cave can be gated and securely locked at night. Visitors would be transported by bus along a narrow road to the cave. Passing bays may be required. If the old tramway was followed very little clearing of large trees would be need ed and the road would have a distinctive park atmosphere, such as the road to Lake Dobson (Photos 4, 5 and 6). Ultimately when there are large numbers of visitors to trans port it may be economic to build a narrow-gauge railway. This method of conveyance would create quite an attraction by itself, especially if a steam locomotive is obtained. There is speculation that the 2 ft guage railway used by the Carbide Company at Ida Bay may be scrapped in preference to road transport. Rolling stock and rails could thus be obtained rela tively cheaply. If the proposed road follows the route of the old timber tramway the option of conversion to rail at a later date is kept open as a ready-surveyed and tested route would be available. It is strongly recommended that no buildings or improvements be sited on the western side of Exit Creek and that visitors walk along a nature trail to the cave entrance. On Map No. 1 [p. 114] a proposed visitor centre is shown as a blue square and the trail to the cave is shown in brown. A nature trail is shown from the cave entrance to where the DEntrecasteaux River runs underground. No development should occur on Marble Hill above Exit Cave. Electricity wires should be buried initially for aesthetic rea sons (Photo 27). The electricity generator should be placed shown as a blue dot on Map No. 1. A graded track from behind the visitor centre to the generator could be used to transport fuel. The proposed visitor centre could be faced with local lime stone as this would be a suitable natural material for the local ity. Staff should be located in a nearby town such as Dover or Southport, but one self-contained unit would be desirable as a base for a ranger stationed in the reserve for protective purposes. Limited snacks should be available, but again full-scale res taurant facilities are more appropriately located in a nearby town. Catering could be done on a contract basis from outside, as is the present case at Hastings. A creche with a trained nurse would be an advantage.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 24 3. IDA BAY SOUTH The area proposed for development is outlined in purple on Map No. 1 [p. 114]. Initially it will be a re-tracing tour but it is possible to have a through trip using an elevator to leave the cave via an aven near the Pendulum. Visitors would be lifted one hundred metres to the surface and travel by a cable car operated by an electric motor and acting as a funicular down a valley to the visitors centre. This route is shown in red on Map No. 1 The valley is eight to nine hundred metres long and is There are no technical problems with elevators in caves as many overseas caves use them successfully. Carlsbad Caverns have high speed elevators descending 750 feet. This develop sure for quite some time after the cave is opened. With heavy leviating crowding by avoiding a return journey. It would also halve the distance to be walked from less than two kilometres to under one kilometre. Protective measures to prevent un natural drafts have already been outlined. The need for sensitivity on the part of construction workers in developing the cave cannot be overstressed. The superin tendent of the works must guard against damage to special or foreign matter should be left after construction is completed because of the likely harmful effects on animal life. Hand la bour must enhance the cave and not detract from its attractions by poor workmanship. (a) Wide, cement-based structures a low kerb, mainly used in sections near the stream where there are no slopes. See Fig. VI. formation. These are to be used in high level areas. See Figs. I, II, III in the Cave Illumination section and Figs. VIII. and X. (c) Stairs or suspended walkways with steep grades con structed from concrete and steel handrails. See Fig. VII (Photo 33). The walkways should be placed so that visitors cannot reach formations without leaving the path. In parts of the high-level areas (Hammer Passage, Colonnades and Ball Room) some additional method for protection of the formations is needed. In many tourist caves chicken wire is used but this is ugly and inappropriate (Photo 34). A suggested alternative is perspex sheeting (Fig. VIII). Screens Walkways should be ideally about 3-4 metres wide to allow passing. This will only be possible in the large caverns. Walk ways should be curved to blend with the contours of the cave. A possible route for the walkway is outlined on Map No. 4. Bridges, stairways and suspended walkways are outlined in green whilst normal paths are shown in orange. Yellow bor ders on the pathways indicate that some form of protection for formation is needed perspex screens. A bridge is needed through the entrance chamber and should shown on Map No. 4. From there a suspended walkway along the larger area shown on the map in orange is suggested as a platform to view the glow-worm display. Two short stairways would be needed to descend the slope into the next chamber (Photo 60). The larger area in orange could also be used to observe the glow-worm display.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 25 A bridge is required across the DEntrecasteaux River. The vantage point from where Photos 59 and 62 were taken is a ta lus pile and could be levelled to make an observation platform to see the large cavern. The route would then proceed to the Hammer Passage. Several stalactites may have to be removed in the Hammer Passage to make headroom. A looped walkway could be built at the end of the Hammer Passage to aid the movement of visitors (see Map No. 4). A suspension bridge is suggested from the Hammer Passage to the Colonnades, but the foundations may not be strong enough on either side. It would be about 25 metres above the stream. The walkway in the Colonnades area could be divided in the A suspended walkway could be built around the wall at a high level to take visitors to the Ballroom. A similar divided walk way is suggested for viewing the Pendulum (Photo 89). 4. IDA BAY NORTH overload the facilities planned for the southern side of Mar ble Hill for many years yet, it is possible to speculate what development might occur on the northern side of the proposed reserve. Ida Bay Cave is a large but undecorated and generally un inspiring system. (Cave description, Appendix D; Photos 99110). It would be eminently suitable to be zoned as a wild cave for caving adventure tours. Visitors could do little dam age as there is a paucity of decoration. Spelunker tours are wild caving trips run by Cumberland Caverns Inc., U.S.A. Scouts and other parties are taken on an overnight excursion to an undeveloped portion of Cumberland Caverns. Headlights, helmets and meals are provided. A similar scheme operates in Mammoth Cave National Park, U.S.A. and would feature climbing along streamways, rockfalls, ne gotiating squeezes and fording creeks (Photos 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 and 107). Waste disposal would be a problem as with large numbers of cavers the stream could become an open sewer, with consequent damage to animal life. Some method for removal of wastes from the cave would need to be provided. Carbide lamps should not be used as an indi vidual light source as walls could become discoloured from acetylene gas. Helmets and battery lamps would be necessary and the group should have an experienced guide. Participants entrance at the base of a limestone cliff where Mystery Creek metres could be displayed during a self-guided inspection. A walkway and several bridges would need to be constructed; possibly on the same design as those recommended for Exit Cave. The area proposed for the self-guided tour is outlined in orange on Map No. 1 [p. 114]. Probably only a few lowlights would be required if the whole cave experience is cen tred on the glow-worm display. Interpretation media such as the tape recorders used in the Glory Hole Cave, Yarrangobilly, N.S.W. (Middleton 1970b), could be used in Ida Bay Cave. A biology of the glow-worm; other glow-worm caves biospeleology of Ida Bay Cave; mentioning geographical aspects explanation of underground stream capture and that Mys tery Creek is the source of part of the stream in Exit Cave exploration and history of northern Ida Bay area, descent of Midnight Hole, unsuccessful attempts to link Exit and Ida Bay Caves by the Tasmanian Caverneering Club. One problem is protective gating as the entrance is large (Pho to 100) and a grill structure would be unattractive. There are no suitable sites for quite some distance downstream. A road would be required from the present Australian Com monwealth Carbide Company quarry along the route of the abandoned railway to the old limestone quarry (Photo 99). The route is outlined in blue on Map No. 1. A proposed visitor centre is shown as the blue square on Map No. 1. An area for car parking is shown in stippled blue on the map. This pro posed site is at the old limestone quarry (Photo 109). A projected area for development in the northern section of Exit Cave is outlined in pink on Map No. 1. The visitors will be ferried by bus from the car park and visitor centre at the old limestone quarry to a point on Marble Hill above Confer ence Concourse. The route is shown in blue on the map. Exit Cave has no known horizontal entrances on the northern side of Marble Hill but there are several vertical shafts leading up from the horizontal cave below. As yet, the positions of the shafts on the surface have not been accurately ascertained, equipment. Visitor access via vertical entrances has no tech nical objection as elevators have been used for this purpose in many overseas caves. If excavations are needed and an the entrance. This method has been used successfully for the Binoomea Cut, Orient Cave, Jenolan, N.S.W. The doors are sequent temperature and humidity differentials. Visitors would descend using the elevator and arrive at the base of the aven pictured in Photo 83. They would then move south, following the route outlined in orange on Map No. 3 [p. 120] and pink on Map No. 1 [p. 114]. Conference Con course is quite an impressive area, featuring large shafts, a block chamber and some interesting decoration (Photos 83, 84 and 86). Two excavations are necessary at the points shown on Map No. 3, but no major alteration is required. The route would then pass through the Mud Passage and the Eastern Grand Fissure, two well-decorated chambers (Photos 81, 82, 85 and 87). Upon entering the Grand Fissure (Photo 61) visitors would From this point the route would be through the North-Western part of the cave. Unfortunately an excursion planned to this section of the cave during the semester was thwarted by high ment possibilities can be presented in this study. Visitors would leave the cave via elevator, possibly through an aven such as the Acoustic Chamber. Upon reaching the sur face they would be ferried by bus back to the visitor centre and car park. (Possible route is outlined in blue on Map No. 1 [p. 114]). Tentative sites for electricity generators are shown as blue circles on Map No. 1.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 26 In developments on the northern side of Mar ble Hill, care must be taken not to disturb the headwaters of Mystery Creek in any way (Photo 108). Profound changes in its catch ment could lead to deleterious indirect effects on cave fauna in Ida Bay Cave. It is recom mended that only a graded walking trail be constructed from the limestone quarry to Ida Bay Cave as road access would detract from the attractiveness of the approaches. This route is outlined in brown on Map No. 1. Already Ida Bay Cave is quite popular among local residents and the general outdoor frater nity in Tasmania. Many parties visit the cave now and this type of activity could be encour aged. The only immediate protective measure needed is a sign with the following points for This cave is part of a scenic reserve/under ground national park Please do not leave rubbish, spent carbide etc. in the cave or damage or remove cave formation. Leave nothing but footprints, take nothing but photographs. A visitors book could be provided, and entries made could be used to assess the popularity of the cave. 5. CAVE ILLUMINATION Illuminating a cave such as Exit would provide a great chal lenge. The lighting of the caves large chambers would require skill and ingenuity. It is not possible to layout an exact lighting plan on paper as on-the-spot experimentation is the keynote. walls of the cave would have to be tested on the site by the electricians involved in the project. the edge of walkways (see Fig. I). Inspection boxes at inter The plastic switchboards used at Hastings (Photos 54 and 55) are quite aesthetic and could be recessed into the stone walls at the side of the walkway (Fig. I). Maintenance would be pos sible as the front of the switchboard is removable. Fluorescent tube lights could be used for illuminating the walkway (Fig. I). The light should be shielded by a stable shade to prevent glare and directed downward to illuminate the surface of the path. Wiring for track lights could be in cluded in the mains conduit. Peripheral and feature lighting could be provided by two main (a) Spotlights recessed into the outside of the stone walls at the edge of the walkway (see Fig. II and III). 500 watt spotlights (Photo 47) would be useful in illuminating the large caverns. Wiring could be passed directly through the stone walls from the mains conduit (Fig. II). Adequate shades should be pro vided to prevent glare in visitors eyes on the return trip (Fig. (b) Lights placed away from pathways (see Fig. II). Great thought and skill on the part of the electrician involved is needed in concealing wiring to peripheral lights. On sand, cealment is not easily solved. Fortunately much of this type of wiring could be buried in Exit. In certain areas it may be still necessary to drill holes and excavate cracks, covering the wire with coloured mortar to conceal it. eral system likewise should be completely concealed from visitor view. Talus, rocks and stalagmites are suitable hiding places. Spent bulbs and broken glass should be removed from the cave. This system has advantages over that of (a) as the side and back indirect lighting give depth and perspective to formations and features. It is recommended that no lights be placed off the path in the high level Colonnades, Hammer Pas sage or Ballroom sections. The only illumi nation required would be those recessed in the stone walls as the ceiling and sides of these areas are white, allow ing considerable

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 27 walked on, especially if light bulbs for the peripheral system had to be periodically replaced. A 110 volt grid is to be preferred to 240 volt as it is a safer system under the moist conditions found in caves. Leakages 110 volt in similar conditions is quite safe. Two-way and over lapping switching is advantageous as uninterrupted switching can be maintained and lights that glare from certain positions can be extinguished (see Fig V). Wiring and lights should be as they can be corroded under moist conditions. Green underwater lighting could be used effectively in deep pools in the stream. Possible areas for this type of illumina tion are marked with green crosses on Map No. 4. It would be important to shield the bulbs themselves so as to only see the indirect effect of the light in the water. Glow-worms are accustomed to total darkness and great care will be needed in lighting the section downstream from where the DEntrecasteaux River enters the cave (see Map No. 4, 1). It has been the experience in Maracoopa Cave at Mole Creek that the numbers of glow-worms are not affected by light if illumination is only of a short duration. In the river chamber inside the entrance (Photo 77) there are many glow-worms and it is recommended that only track lighting be used in this section, together with some green underwater illumination. Lights in this section could be extinguished using a rheostat control to observe the glow-worms in darkness. The chamber near the DEntrecasteaux River also has many glow-worms (Photo 60). Low-intensity peripheral lighting and underwater green light could be used, probably without effect on the glow-worms. Low-intensity lighting, controlled by a rheostat switch, would give the impression of size in this large hall. Peripheral lights should only be left on for short periods in this chamber. The chambers upstream from the DEntrecasteaux River could The large cavern in Photo 59 and 62 could be displayed by full illumination. 6. INTERPRETATION Interpretation has already been dealt with in a previous sec tion and ideally it should take the suggested environmental approach. It should aim at integrating the cave as part of the total landscape by explaining the relationship of surface fac tors to the cave. Surface interpretative facilities could include signs and nature trails. A sign such as that in Photo 12 could be erected at a look-out spot on the South Cape forestry road. The spot is shown in blue on Map No. 2 [p. 116]. From this point there are excellent views of Mt. La Perouse, The Hippo, Marble Hill, Lune Sugarloaf and Moonlight Flats. A sign-map such as that in Photo 15 could be erected at the proposed car park near the DEntrecasteaux River. Forest nature trails, planned in association with pic nic facilities, could be made at this point and provided with signs such as that in Photo 14. A nature trail could be made from the en trance of Exit Cave to the point where the DEntrecasteaux River runs underground. This proposed trail is shown in brown on Map No. 1 [p. 114]. Interpretation in the cave should be planned in accordance to the criteria already described in a previous section. There is a considerable amount of information avail able on Exit Cave and is summarised in Appendices A, B, C, E, N and in the section on the history of Ida Bay Cave. torium of the proposed visitors centre for those who are sick, handicapped or elderly. Continuous automatic showing would be an advantage during peak periods. Slides, cards, maps and booklets should be available in the visitors centre. A display/ museum area would be a useful interpretative aid. The display area should have a one-way visitor circulation. Photographic exhibits are preferable to actual specimens. Initially rangers could give interpretative commentaries whilst showing visitors through the cave. The term ranger is pre ferred to guide as his function is not only to show visitors through the cave but to interpret it and explain it to visitors. shaft used to take visitors out of the cave, a self-guided system might come into operation. Possible means of providing com mentaries have already been described and include broadcast information to headphones and pre-recorded commentaries on endless tapes in cassette recorders. In the self-guided tour con cept, the rangers are left free to concentrate on the movement of visitors through the cave, lighting and cave protection. Back-lighted transparent interpretative signs have been used effectively overseas and might be introduced to Exit Cave. This would be an important aid for a self-guided inspection. Each visitor would receive a brief pamphlet with essential in formation, such as the Glory Hole Cave handout [Yarrangob illy, N.S.W.] (Anon. 1971a)(Appendix L).

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 28 7. MANAGEMENT AND THE FUTURE It is imperative that Exit Cave and the surrounding area re ceive some form of reserve status in the immediate future. It would be appropriate if Australias longest cave be protected poor political decision-making in this state. The case for the declaration of a reserve was well documented in the Tasma nian Caverneering Clubs submission in 1971 (White 1971), but as yet the politicians and government departments have been unable to reach agreement on the merits or otherwise of the proposal. The objection by the State Forestry Department to the release of State Forest for reserve purposes seems to have been dispelled by the paper written by Mr. Albert Goede in 1973. The Tasmanian Caverneering Club Submission was strongly supported by the Esperance Council. Yet, despite the merits of the proposal and local support, it is still under consideration after almost two years. A group of local residents are interested in developing the cave and have approached the State Government for a lease over the area. It is not within the scope of this study to recom mend who shall develop Exit Cave but at all costs it should be protected. Whether developed by private interests or by government agencies, similar management criteria should be used. If it is declared an underground national park or a cave re serve the provisions of the National Parks and Wildlife Act (1970) apply. The controlling authority is required by law to draw up a management plan. If leased to private interests the onus would probably be on the private developers to draw up a management plan for the National Parks & Wildlife Service. However, if it is not declared a park or reserve it would have Department, the developing interests would probably need to carry out an environment impact study. A copy of the Tasma nian Governments policy on environment impact studies is included. are discovered and recognised, they probably may fall into the category of heritage of the people and be made parks or preserves. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDIES 1. It is the declared policy of the Government of Tasmania to ensure the control or prevention of pollution and the restoration or improvement of the environment of the State. 2. It is accordingly required that an environmental impact study be carried out before a decision is made to proceed with any future development which is likely to have a 3. The responsibility for ensuring that the necessary study to determine environmental impact is undertaken, lies with the decision-making authority. 4. Co-ordination and evaluation of environmental impact studies will be carried out by the Director of Environ mental Control. 5. Every project, when approved, must include adequate safeguards to prevent pollution and to protect the envi ronment. 6. Every environmental impact study for a major project (a) A statement of the major objective sought by the proposed project. (b) An analysis of the technological possibilities of achieving the objective. (c) A statement of the alternative plans considered to be practical ways of reaching the objective. (d) A statement of the characteristics and conditions of the existing environment prior to implementing the project. (e) A separate report on each alternative engineering plan considered to be a practical way of reaching the objective. (These plans ordinarily will have (f) For each plan, an assessment of its probable im pacts on the existing environment. (g) A summary or recommendation, which would in clude the rationale supporting the selected plan. 7. The services of other authorities with special expertise or jurisdiction will be utilised in considering environmental impact. (a) by the decision-making authority i) in conjunction with economic or other studies in deciding upon the project; ii) in determining environmental safeguards to be included in the project; (b) by the Director of Environmental Control in any necessary review of environmental safeguards and recommendations for protective measures, and views. 9. A common approach by all public authorities to envi ronmental studies would be desirable in view of their multiple use. In drawing up the detailed assessment of the environmental impacts a standardised procedure is essential. Guidelines relating to procedures and assess ments of environmental impact studies will be issued by the Director of Environmental Control.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 29 APPENDIX A SPELEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS These notes have been compiled from trip reports contained in the Archives of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, from Speleo Spiel No. 1-84 and Southern Caver, Vol. 4 No. 4. Other miscellaneous references are mentioned. PART I. IDA BAY SOUTH 1947 1-2/3/47 T.C.C. party shown entrance to Exit Cave by Mr. A. Smith of Lune River. Progress for about thirty metres to deep wa Luckman. Report by P. Allnut. 1954 29/1/54 -1/2/54 Discovery of Wind Tunnel, widened out to interesting gal lery with beautiful old formations, mainly dead. Oolites and glow-worms noticed. Explored to beginning of talus. Five and Report. by A. Goede. 1958 30/11/58 -4/1/59 A.S.F. Conference Field Trip. No new discoveries, except ASF Pot (see cave descriptions). Party forced to camp without water. Track cutting of Kokoda Trail commenced on return Sketch Map No. 9 [p. 112]) 1959 14/3/59 11/7/59 Track cutting on southern side of Marble Hill. 28-29/11/59 Big Tree Pot and Machete Pot located (see cave descriptions). One hour was spent in Exit Cave. Skeleton collected. Track cut from Exit Cave to top of ridge. 1960 30/1/60 2/2/60 Party camped inside Exit Cave due to wet conditions. Creek rose, forcing a quick retreat. Recommended that the cave is not visited in uncertain conditions. 1961 26-30/11/61 Party of university students explored talus section to Sibs Ex tension (see press cuttings) 1963 Trip arranged but abandoned. 1964 Trip arranged for Canberra party but no report (see press cut tings. ) 1966 28/5/66 Aerial reconnaissance for siting of new low-level track from the south. Bearing taken from the air. 5/6/66 Track cutting commenced (see Map No. 2). Five hundred me tres added. 12/6/66 Track cut almost to swampy plain. 3/7/66 230 metres added. Exit Cave ridge sighted. 17/7/66 750 metres added. Cave nearly reached. 24/7/66 6-7/8/66 Nine hours spent underground. DEntrecasteaux tributary fol 20-21/8/66 Rockfall explored and found Sib Corbetts initials (1961 trip). DEntrecasteaux explored to a siphon. 3-4/9/66 Surveyed from entrance to DEntrecasteaux. 15-16/10/66 Trip with West Coast Outdoors Club. General touristing in 5-6/11/66 tion and exploring for another kilometre. Many side passages noticed. Passage near Pendulum explored to an aven. 26-27/11/66 1967 28-29/1/67 Inner Base Camp established 910 metres from the entrance. Traverse completed along main passage. 1,200 metres of side passage explored. Logs found at base of Mini-Martin. 27-30/1/67 11-12/3/67 plored for several hundred feet. Mystery Creek Passage fol lowed to siphon. Edies Treasure and Western Passage discov 18/3/67 24-28/3/67 Creek high. Bridge constructed of two saplings. Western area 8-9/4/67

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 30 8-9/4/67 Surface exploration of Marble Hill. several holes found south of new quarry (see map 1) sandstone was found to overlie limestone on Marble Hill at a height of 240-270 metres the drainage east of Exit Cave was discovered to be surface. 13-14/5/67 Rope was replaced at the entrance. Kellers Squeeze discov ered and 1,220 metres of new cave entered. 27-28/5/67 Acoustic Chamber discovered. 970 metres added to survey. 24-25/6/67 Survey from entrance of Exit Cave to Machete Pot and almost 24-25/6/67 tail possum. Idacarabus 8-9/7/67 Top of Mini-Martin discovered within thirty metres of the spot indicated by the survey. Reconnaissance of creek on the west ern side of Marble Hill. A swallet was discovered, but it was blocked with rocks. Surface creek is possibly source of creek 16/7/67 22/7/67 pitch descended to give a new Australian record. 7/8/67 Western Creek (surface) and DEntrecasteaux River (surface) surveyed. Survey indicated that water in the north-west part of Exit Cave may not come from the waterfall on the Western 19/8/67 Mini-Martin bottomed at -219 metres (-720 feet), a new Aus tralian depth record (see press cuttings) (Sketch Map No. 7 16-17/9/67 Trail cut and survey to Western Creek swallet. 16-17/9/67 Surveying in Camp Pie Circuit, Loop Chamber, Lost Squeeze and passages west of Grandpas Sewer. 7-9/10/67 Exploration in Entrance Creek Passage revealed more cham bers past the siphon. Surveying in Entrance Creek Passage, passages west of Grandpas Sewer, passage opposite Collins Corner, Sibs Extension and Pendulum area. 14-15/10/67 General caving in Acoustic Chamber area. 21-22/10/67 pH of water measured of creeks running into Recherche Bay. 28-29/10/67 Fluorescein injected into the waterfall on the Western Creek. Dyed water fell from an aven in the Labyrinth area and ap 11/11/67 200 metres of well-decorated chamber found in the Hammer 1968 27-29/1/68 Stream entering Grand Fissure explored for a further 30 me tres. Plaque erected in Edies Treasure. 12-13/2/68 Area west of Western Creek visited but little trace of limestone was found, it being mainly overlain with dolerite boulders. 24-25/2/68 siphon in Ida Bay Cave but no trace of dye seen in Exit Cave. 27/2/68 es in Exit Cave, proving connection with Ida Bay Cave by a 20-21/4/68 Western area of limestone again visited. Track markers placed in Colonnades, Pendulum and Hammer Passage. 3-4/5/68 Hammer Passage surveyed. Another entrance found near the 17-19/5/73 New bridge constructed. General caving, mainly in Mud Pas 1-2/6/68 3/11/68 Track cleared and entrance measured for installation of a gate. Two squeezes in Wind Tunnel explored to daylight holes. 1969 2-5/1/69 Passage investigated near log bridge, but was found to be ered in Hammer Passage. Passage found near Devils Stove pipe. Chamber of Damocles explored but talus dangerous. 2/3/69 New number placed at entrance (IB 14). Bat skeleton located in side-passage in Eastern Grand Fissure. Goedetrechus dis 13/4/69 Gate installed at entrance to Exit Cave. 3/5/69 23-24/8/69 Passage with small creek explored opposite Entrance Creek 1970 25-26/1/70 New passage discovered opposite Outer Base Camp. 7-8/2/70

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 31 Passage opposite Outer Base Camp explored for about 300 22/8/70 Trip arranged for New Zealand Speleological Society visitor 1971 31/12/70 5/1/71 covered (Conference Concourse) of which 910 metres were surveyed (see Map No. 3 [p. 120]) (Matthews 1971) Party attempted to visit Conference Concourse, but failed due 24/5/71 Trip for physical education students. Rubbish removed from 5-6/6/71 Upstream section of Conference Concourse (The Last Straw) was explored to a low stream passage with air space. 27/6/71 Photographic trip to section of the cave before the talus block 9-11/7/71 Photography in Conference Concourse and Edies Treasure. 6-8/8/71 Side passages explored in Conference Concourse. September 1971 Tourist trip for members of Central Queensland Speleologi cal Society and Tasmanian Caverneering Club (Northern 1972 10-14/1/72 University of Queensland Speleological Society trip to most 15/1/72 Trip to search for missing Queenslanders. Rubbish re 12-13/2/72 Photographic trip to Conference Concourse. 23/4/72 Eastern Grand Fissure visited, side passages explored. 15-16/7/72 Camp Pie Circuit and Conference Concourse visited. 22-23/7/72 Exploration of North-West Creek to a short drop. 5/11/72 Geological investigation trip. Rubbish removed. 1973 21-24/1/73 Extended photographic and insect-collecting trip. 22/1/73 Day trip for photography in Conference Concourse. 29/1/73-2/2/73 Photographic trip to most areas of the cave. Track markers placed in Pendulum, Colonnades, East Grand Fissure and Conference Concourse (Skinner, A. 1973). Rubbish removed. 17/2/73 Protective tapes placed in Edies Treasure. Rubbish removed. May 1973 Seven-day photographic trip. Excavations in a passage oppo site the Entrance Creek Passage (see Sketch Map No. 8 [p. 23-24/6/73 By-pass to excavation discovered. Two-way radios used in photography. Chamber of Damocles explored. 14-15/4/73 Markers replaced in Conference Concourse, Eastern Grand Fis sure, Colonnades and Pendulum. Rubbish removed. 14-17/8/73 Extended photographic trip to most sections of the cave. 29-30/9/73 Attempt made to reach Labyrinth area but high water prevent The exploration of Exit Cave and associated systems is far after the Australian Speleological Federation Conference in 1971 demonstrates that more major extensions may yet be found (Goede 1971). There are many avens leading up from the horizontal cave to Marble Hill above. At present (September 1973) surface sur veying is planned to ascertain the positions of the entrances relative to the avens. It is likely that the presence of these undescended shafts could make Ida Bay a major sporting cave area in the near future. Single rope techniques (abseiling and prusiking methods) have facilitated the descent of such deep shafts. The earlier methods of using wire ladders and safety ropes were timeconsuming, laborious and required a relatively large party of cavers. SRT expeditions have advantages of being quicker, less arduous and require only a minimal support party as the gear is much lighter. PART II IDA BAY NORTH 1947 1-2/3/47 Ida Bay Cave penetrated for about 450 metres. Bradley Ches terman Cave visited. Salvation Cave discovered (see cave de scriptions). Party Leader. L. Luckman 1948 27-29/11/48 Ida Bay Cave visited and surveyed for 300 metres. 1949 8/10/49 Casual visit to Ida Bay Cave to observe glowworms.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 32 8-9/10/49 ploration in Ida Bay Cave along a dry crawl. 1951 21/10/51 New portion of creek found in Ida Bay Cave. 1955 3/3/55 Small passage visited on other side of Labyrinth in Ida Bay 23/7/55 Hammer Hole descended. Bradley Chesterman Cave further explored (see cave descriptions). 1956 3-5/3/56 Party visited Ida Bay Cave. Level of creek lower and further explored to deep water. 21/4/56 Side passage in Ida Bay Cave investigated no details. 1957 May A small cave discovered near the old limestone quarry no details. 1/9/57 Cephalopod Creek waterfall in Ida Bay Cave climbed to a fur ther waterfall. A new section was discovered with two names 1958 30/11/58 1966 Final siphon in Ida Bay Cave visited. Suggests climbing up 10-11/12/66 Three hours were spent in Ida Bay Cave; no new discoveries. 1967 2/12/67 Loons Cave discovered and most of it explored (see cave de 1968 13-14/1/68 Loons Cave traversed. Millipedes collected. Several very small holes on Lune Sugarloaf explored. 4/5/68 Area near old limestone quarry explored. Small swallet dis covered (Sketch Map No. 1 [p. 106]) (see cave descriptions). 2/6/68 Two main holes discovered above Ida Bay Cave (Sketch map 27/7/68 First hole blocked. Three pitches in Midnight Hole descended; 11/8/68 Midnight Hole descended -176 metres to a squeeze (see Sketch 5/10/68 Survey from Midnight Hole to Ida Bay Cave showing that for mer is close to survey station 38 in latter. Some numbering 13/10/68 Ida Bay Cave and Midnight Hole linked by discovery of Matchbox Squeeze. Canyon investigated. 26-27/10/68 stone Pot explored to an obstruction. (see cave descriptions). 24/11/68 Chockstone Pot excavated but muddy and dangerous. 7/12/68 Chockstone Pot further excavated. Cave numbered (Sketch 1969 18-19/1/69 Loons Cave visited and side passage explored to helictite sec tion. Mystery Creek Canyon explored to talus. 9/2/69 Survey from Ida Bay Cave to Chockstone Pot. 19/4/69 Hobbit Hole discovered north-west of Chockstone Pot (see Collin 4/5/69 Hobbit Hole explored to top of two pitches, one wet, one dry 25/5/69 Hobbit Hole numbered. Pitches measured. Dry pitch too dan 7-8/6/69 Waterfall pitch in Hobbit Hole descended but blocked at bot tom. Revelation Cave explored to dig (see cave descriptions). 14/6/69 Revelation Cave excavated and numbered. 24/8/69 Loons Cave and Bradley Chesterman Cave numbered. 1970 10/1/70 Further excavation in Revelation Cave but project aban 16/5/70 Bolts placed in Midnight Hole in preparation for abseiling 1971 12/1/71 Abseiling through-trip from Midnight Hole to Ida Bay Cave 13/2/71 Small swallet (IB 8) near old quarry explored to impenetrable crack (see cave descriptions and Sketch Map No. 1 [p. 106])

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 33 25/7/71 All east-trending high level passages in Ida Bay Cave investi gated using a scaling pole. None extend more than 15 metres. 24/10/71 Scaling pole used to gain access to upper entrance of Ida Bay Cave. About a hundred metres of small passage was discov 1972 11/11/72 Midnight Hole descended for SRT practice. 1973 Several small caves numbered, including ASF Pot (see cave 22/4/73 Mystery Creek area investigated. Private party noticed operat 6/5/73 Loons Cave visited; new extension discovered with excellent 12/9/73 Photography in Ida Bay Cave. Exploration of passages near 30/9/73 Photography trip to Ida Bay Cave. Scout group taken to the cave. Small swallet (IB 8) numbered and (re)explored. Several 13/10/73 IB 7, IB 9 and IB 16 were explored and numbered. APPENDIX B BIOLOGY INTRODUCTION Mr. Albert Goede, Lecturer in Geomorphology at the Univer sity of Tasmania. He has done considerable collecting of cave Richards, Dr. Barry Moore and others. Other collecting has been done by Mrs. Mary Mendum and members of the Tasma nian Caverneering Club. VERTEBRATES The cave fauna at Ida Bay consists entirely of invertebrates. No live bats have been recorded and skeletal remains col lected indicate that vertebrates are only occasional visitors to the caves. Skeletons of the brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the Skeleton Passage in Exit Cave and from IB 201 (see cave descriptions). A wombat skeleton (Phascolomys [sic Vombatus] ursinus) was collected from near the entrance of Exit Cave in 1954. A bat skeleton of the species Nyctophilus geoffroyi has been collected from the Eastern Grand Fissure in Exit Cave. It is a common surfacedwelling species in Tasmania and parts of mainland Australia, but is not usually found in caves. A bat skeleton was also found by Mr. F.R. Brown near the entrance of Exit Cave in 1960. The introduced trout (Salmo fario) has been observed in streams near the entrance, in the talus sec abundant in the DEntrecasteaux River and Exit Creek. INVERTEBRATES White (1971) states that biological interest in these caves centres around the fact that Mystery Creek Cave and Exit a unique cave fauna including true cave species (troglobites) and secondly that although the Ida Bay Caves are close to the Hastings Caves the two have always been isolated from each other and have developed in different rock types. Hastings have consequently developed quite distinct troglobitic faunas. Lea (1910) described the beetle Idacarabus troglodytes from Mystery Creek Cave. For many years this was Australias only troglobitic beetle. It is small, brown and has vestigial wings, degenerate eyes, elongated appendages and is commonly found near glow-worms. Idacarabus has been collected from Ida Bay Cave, Revelation Cave and Exit Cave. The most important discovery in recent years has been a completely eyeless troglobitic beetle, the only one yet found in Australia. Named Goedetrechus mendu mae, Squeeze) in Exit Cave (Goede 1970b). The Tasmanian Cave Spider, Hickmania troglodytes, has been recorded from the twilight zones of most caves in the Ida Bay area. It is a troglophile and a member of a small group of rel ict spiders represented in four widely separated regions of the spider has a leg span of up to 12 cm and is also found in mines Creek by Higgins and Petterd in 1884. The harvestman, is found in com plete darkness in both Exit and Ida Bay caves. The same spe cies is also present at neighbouring Hastings Caves but ap pears to be rare in that locality. is often found in association with glow-worms, which may be its main food supply (Goede 1967b). Large populations of Micropathus tasmaniensis, cave crick ets, are present at Ida Bay. They are found in large clusters and singly inside cave entrances and probably venture outside in the evening to feed. Cave crickets have been reported from most of the caves at Ida Bay and have been observed consider able distance from entrances. Anaspides

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 34 tasmanae, the Tasmanian mountain shrimp, a primitive crus tacean belonging to the order Syncarida. These have been col lected from Conference Concourse and the Western Passage in Exit Cave and also from Revelation Cave (see cave descrip tions). A troglobitic millipede has been collected from Loons Cave and Exit Cave and is a new cave genus belonging to the family Dalodesmidae (White 1971) populations of glow-worms, Arachnocampa tasmaniensis, found in both Ida Bay and Exit Caves. Glow-worms are lu siderable numbers on walls and ceilings, mainly near cave en trances. Each larvae has a nest and attaches a number of sticky hanging threads to the roof and walls. These threads trap food, Glow-worms are not only found in caves but are widely dis dark places such as hollow logs. The larva is about 3 cm in length and eventually metamor rarely seen and the larvae are the only readily observable stage in the life cycle. The larvae have segmented, almost transpar ent bodies in which the internals and blue-green luminescent tail can easily be seen. can be destructive to the glow-worms, but streams are often sources of food. At Waitomo the mud was removed from the Glow-Worm Grotto and the number of glow worms decreased because the mud-inhabiting midges (glow-worm food) were occur at any time in Exit Cave, with the creek rising up to four population of glow-worms in this locality. The glow-worms in Exit Cave are mainly distributed down stream from where the DEntrecasteaux River enters the cave. The DEntrecasteaux River may provide a large amount of the glow-worms food. They are also found near the talus block display is present, near the entrance of Ida Bay Cave, and ri vals that of Exit Cave (see Photos 102, 101, 74, 113, 114). SURFACE NOTES FLORA No systematic biological collecting or survey has been under taken on the surface. The area has an average annual rainfall APPENDIX C GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY RELIEF The Ida Bay area is one of strong relief and consists basical ly of a major spur running out from an inland plateau. The spur is the common surface divide between the Lune and DEntrecasteaux Rivers, which occupy broad alluvial plains to the north and south respectively. The spur is of uneven height, with the highest points being 458 metres at the summit of Marble Hill and 504 metres at the top of Lune Sugarloaf. The saddle between Lune Sugarloaf and Marble Hill is 263 Local variations in vegetation are controlled by such factors as To the western and higher parts of Marble Hill rainforest pre dominates, dominated by Nothofagus with Atherosperma and Eucryphia as other components. Rainforest also occurs along the banks of the DEntrecasteaux River and Exit Creek. Dick sonia Anopterus and Blechnum are common along the river banks. To the south there is a pronounced variation in forest type between the low-lying alluvial plains and the limestone of strong relief. Where well-drained, the plains support wet schlerophyll for ests with little undergrowth. The main trees are Eucalyptus obliqua and Pomaderris Where the lowlands are badlydrained, sedgeland occurs, with Leptospermum, Banksia and Bauera Soils developed on the steeply-outcropping limestone bedrock of Marble Hill are thin, but still support a wet schlerophyll forest. The eucalypts are smaller and the undergrowth is much thicker. In the north similar variations in vegetation occur be tween limestone and alluvial rock types. The limestone to the west of the old quarry (see Map No. 1 [p. 114]) supports a precipitation toward the west. Between Marble Hill and Lune Sugarloaf the limestone out crops less steeply and consequently has a thicker soil cover. The eucalypts are larger and the undergrowth less dense. The saddle between Marble Hill and Lune Sugarloaf and Lune ally there is schlerophyll forest with regenerating eucalypts and very thick undergrowth. FAUNA The surface fauna at Ida Bay is little-known. Animals ob Black Currawong Strepera fuliginosa Green Rosella Parrot Platycercus caledonicus Tasmanian Devil Sarcophilus harrisii Wombat Phascolomys [sic Vombatus ] ursinus Ring-tailed Possum Pseudochirus convolutor Introduced Trout Salmo fario Native Trout sp. Wallaby Thylogale billardierii Bat (perhaps) Nyctophilus sp. Brush-tailed Possum Trichosurus vulpecula metres high and the saddle between the latter and the inland plateau is 336 metres high (see Photo 110). GEOLOGY Earlier geological investigations are summarised in Hughes (1957). He draws upon work by Twelvetrees (1915), Nye (1926) and Everard (1951). The youngest deposits in the area are Recent alluvials depos ited by rivers and are underlain by Jurassic dolerites and older

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 35 sediments; mainly quartzites, which outcrop north of Marble Hill. Ordovician limestones outcrop at the base of Lune Sug arloaf and Marble Hill. On Lune Sugarloaf the limestone is overlain by dolerite at a height of about 150 metres. On Mar ble Hill the limestone is overlain unconformably by tillites, sandstones and mudstones of Permian age at a height of about 330 metres. The limestone is tough, crystalline and is blue-greyish in col our. It is well bedded and strongly jointed. Chemical analy ses indicate that the rock is of uniformly high grade with the calcium carbonate content always above 90% (Hughes 1957). The limestones are gently dipping and form a gentle anticline trending NW-SE. GEOMORPHOLOGY & HYDROLOGY The principal study on this aspect of Ida Bay has been under taken by Mr. Albert Goede, who in 1969 published a paper and the Relevance of Cold Climatic Conditions. The rock is very suitable for the development of large cav erns as the bedding is sub-horizontal, the joints are strong and widely spaced and it is of uniform high purity. In contrast to caves developed in Precambrian dolomite (e.g. at Hastings) during cave formation Ordovician limestone releases little re sidual material. As Ida Bay is in a high rainfall belt and sup ports forest vegetation, the groundwater is acid, aiding rapid solution action on the limestone. Creek, shown on a recent topographic map as a tributary of (Goede 1969). Mystery Creek enters Ida Bay Cave, siphons and ap pears again in the Entrance Creek Passage of Exit Cave. Surface drainage from Marble Hill feeds small swallets at the contact between the limestone and the overlying Permian sed iments, and drops vertically into the horizontal stream systems of Ida Bay and Exit Caves. The shafts (such as Mini-Martin and Midnight Hole) by which water enters may be up to 200 metres deep and 10 metres in diameter. Shafts or avens are commonly found at the end of underground horizontal passag es (Shannon 1971). Water tracing has also proved a connec tion between the surface Western Creek and an underground stream in the north-west of Exit Cave (Goede 1969) (See Map No. 1 [p. 114]). A subterranean anabranch of the DEntrecasteaux River enters Exit Cave close to the entrance. Goede (1969) remarks that the underground course occupied by the anabranch is a very re and twice reappears in narrow canyon-like channels before utary was carrying 160 cusecs of water and that upstream from where the anabranch enters the cave Mystery Creek was run ning at only 20 cusecs (see Photo 60). The Hammer Passage, situated north of the present anabranch, non-limestone gravels has been deposited (Goede 1969). In his paper Goede suggests that the horizontal Exit Cave system existed before Mystery Creek was captured. The hori zontal system was presumably formed by water entering via shafts. He notes that Mystery Creek did not play a positive part in its own dismemberment as the DEntrecasteaux River was able to cut down to a lower level. Obviously Exit Cave has had a long and complex history of development. It probably dates back to the Tertiary Period when waters of the DEntrecasteaux River carried glacial out wash from Mount La Perouse into the cave. Some have noted that it may be Tasmanias oldest cave, considering the time taken for a cavern of that size to form. CAVE DEPOSITS Deposits of mondmilch are present in high-level sections of Exit Cave before the talus blockage (Hammer Passage and Colonnades), in Sibs Extension and in the Western Passage. Mondmilch is a white, spongy calcium material presumably formed by bacterial action, breaking down calcite. Fastergrowing cave formations are of normal calcite and the mond milch appears to infest the older, slower-growing formations (see Photos 71, 73, 79 and 89). Gypsum, a hydrous calcium sulphate, is present in various sections on Exit Cave. The largest deposits are found in Edies Treasure, the Lost Squeeze, the Mud Passage and in the East ern Grand Fissure. In Edies Treasure and the Lost Squeeze, gypsum occurs in the form of long needle crystals up to 60 centimetres in length and may be unique in Australia. Collec tal is quite separate (Photo 63). Gypsum in the more familiar Mr. N. White, of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club, suggests that the source of gypsum is a band of shale outcropping in certain sections of Exit Cave. The shale may once have been pyritic but is now deeply-weathered with the gypsum having been formed by oxidation of pyrite. There is evidence that the growth of gypsum crystals has locally caused considerable Shannon (1971) reports interesting cave deposits from Con ference Concourse. In one area mud has dried and cracked, (Photo 84). Gypsum snow in the form of tiny white crystals interspersed with dry mud, is present in a section of Confer ence Concourse known as the Pressure Tunnel. At the base of calcite rock (Shannon 1971) (Photo 83). Water-borne gravels are present in many sections of Exit Cave and may occur up to 15 metres above present water levels. The gravels consist of rounded pebbles and cobbles probably of glacial origin and deposited by the DEntrecasteaux River hundred metres in Ida Bay Cave (Photo 105). Perhaps the most familiar cave deposits present in Exit Cave are rocks and boulders (see Photos 59, 60, 61, 62). Generally they appear to have been derived from overhead as they are tabular and blocky, suggesting that they have not been trans ported and are primarily the result of mass movement. Masses Exit Cave is separated from the remainder by a large rockfall, known simply as The Talus. Deposits also occur in Ida Bay Cave (Photo 102).

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 36 APPENDIX D CAVE DESCRIPTIONS The Cave descriptions have been derived primarily from Caves of Tasmania by Mr. Albert Goede, a paper due to be published in the Australian Speleological Federation Handbook late in 1973 [never published Ed.]. Supplementary notes have been added from Tasmanian Caverneering Club trip reports and from personal observation. averaging about 30 cusecs but varying according to rainfall in its catchment. The stream disappears into a wide, dark siphon; re-appearing in the Entrance Creek Passage of Exit Cave. has occurred (Goede 1969). The cave extends for 400 metres into Marble Hill and has many short side-passages. There is a valling that of Exit Cave. Ida Bay Cave has two entrances in an impressive cliff; the upper entrance being connected to the lower part of the cave by a narrow chimney (glow-worms Photo 102, entrance Photo 100). The system is large, but rather uninspiring as there is little dec oration. Numerous talus piles and stream deposits are present. The cave is on two main levels, with the stream occupying the lower parts in a complicated hydrological layout, including passed via talus to a point where water could again be heard running. The chambers are large in places, and may be up to 25 metres in height and 40 metres in width. Many mollusc fossils can be seen in the limestone walls. Ida Bay Cave is connected by the Matchbox Squeeze to Mid night Hole, giving the combined system a total depth of 203 mapped to C.R.G. Grade 4. The discovery probably occurred (Anon.1895). A forty-acre Scenic Reserve has been endorsed around the cave but has not been proclaimed. Visited frequent ly by non-speleos. (See Maps No. 1, 2) (Photos 100 107) IB 11 Midnight Hole A deep pothole linked with Ida Bay Cave via the Matchbox Squeeze. Six pitches are 21 metres, 12 metres, 37 metres, 9 metres, 33.5 metres and 55 metres. A vertical system which has been used for sporting abseiling trips. Discovered in June, 1968 (see Sketch Maps No. 2, 3, 4 [pp. 107, 108, 109] and Map No. 1 [p. 114]). IB 12 2 An unexplored shaft near Midnight Hole with which it prob ably connects. Discovered in June, 1968 (see Sketch Map No. 2 [p. 107]). IB 13 Chockstone Pot A pothole with an impressive entrance, but blocked with de bris at a depth of 24 metres. It has been excavated at the bot tom but is muddy and dangerous. Discovered in October, 1968 (see Sketch Map No. 5 [p. 110]). IB 14 Exit Cave (description in Appendix E) [never written] IB 15 Hobbit Hole A small swallet, 120 metres west from Revelation Cave. It 2 Named Crip Hole in 1998 Speleo Spiel IB 1 Revelation Cave Situated west-south-west of Ida Bay Cave and south-east of Hobbit Hole, it is usually dry but becomes a swallet after heavy rain. A steeply descending cave with two short drops and one 18 metre pitch. Depth (by estimation only) is between 120 and 140 metres. The bottom of the cave has been exca vated, but there is no draft. Idacarabus and Anaspides have been collected. Discovered in June, 1969. IB 2, 3 Loons Cave under Lune Sugarloaf. It consists of about 1.4 kilometres of muddy passages of fairly small dimensions. Three avens may connect with small holes on the surface. Overlain by Juras sic dolerite, which has weathered to leave a muddy residue in the cave. Some decoration is present in the main stream passage. Loons Cave consists primarily of a central stream passage with two major side passages, one of which contains small siphon upstream. Local drainage is carried by the cave after heavy rain and it has never been a major drainage system. There are two entrances, the upper (IB 3) a 27 metre shaft and Grade 4. Discovered in December, 1969 (see Map No. 2 [p. 116]). IB 4, 5, 6 Bradley Chesterman Cave (Avenue Junction Cave) Commonwealth Carbide Companys present limestone quar ry. It has three entrances numbered in an upstream direction. Close to the surface, many tree roots penetrate the roof. Some decoration is present and there is also a large population of Micropathus Polluted in 1973 by oil from quarrying opera tions (Kiernan 1973b) There is a rockfall at the upstream end of the cave, but can be negotiated to a further rockfall. Discov ered in March, 1947. IB 8 1 A small swallet situated west of the old limestone quarry. A small surface stream sinks into a large doline. The cave itself has been estimated to be about 46 metres deep. The stream is probably the source of the water entering the Last Straw Chamber in Conference Concourse, Exit Cave. The cave is tight, with wet, muddy climbing and a short drop. Water dis appears into impenetrable cracks at the bottom. 0.3 3 cusecs of water sink. Discovered in May, 1968 but not explored until February, 1971 (see Sketch Map No. 1 [p. 106]). IB 10 Ida Bay Caves (Mystery Creek Cave, Entrance Cave) 1 This number was subsequently allocated to Mini-Martin. The cave referred to may now be Con Cave IB22 Ed.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 37 has been explored to a depth of 61 metres. Two short drops are followed by twin 43 metre shafts, one dry and the other a waterfall. The dry pitch was too dangerous to explore, and the waterfall was descended to impenetrable talus. Discovered in April, 1969 (see Sketch Map No. 6 [p. 110]). IB 201 3 A small dry pot with some mondmilch deposits. It is situated south-west of the old quarry in a small doline and is about 12 metres deep. A brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) skull collected. Discovered in February, 1973. IB 202 ASF Pot A 40 metre deep pothole with a ledge 21 metres down, but no side passages. Situated close to the backwall of the new quarry, it has become somewhat unstable due to blasting. Dis covered in March, 1958 during the second Australian Speleo logical Federation Conference (de Vries 1960). IB 203 A short cave 12 metres long, situated west of the new quarry. Discovered in February, 1973. IB 204 A rift 8 metres deep with talus and a short side-passage. Dis covered in February, 1973. IB 205 4 A short cave 12 metres long, situated in a dry valley west of the new limestone quarry. Talus and logs overlie an intermit tent short stream cave. Discovered in February, 1973. IB 7 Small, dry sloping hole situated to the east of the track to Mt. La Perouse, not far from the southern end of the old limestone quarry. An unexplored squeeze leads off to the right. Discov ered in September, 1973. 5 IB 9 6 track, downhill from IB 7. It is three metres deep and contains two small tunnels, both dead-ends. Discovered in September, 1973. IB 16 A small hole SE of IB 9. Consists of a seven metre entrance pitch and a small room. 3 Subsequently named Ventolin Ed. 4 Subsequently named Moonlight Cavern Ed. 5 This does not seem to be the cave known as IB7 Log Rift in 2012; Log Rift may be the unnumbered (7) cave Alan Jackson. 6 Subsequently named Big Tree Pot Ed. Part II UNNUMBERED CAVES (1) Big Tree Pot 7 An unexplored pothole, situated a short distance east of Ma deep. Discovered in July, 1967. (2) Bottleneck Cave 8 This is situated a short distance south-east of the Hobbit Hole track. The cave consists of a 6 metre entrance pitch into a stream passage, another drop to a small chamber, followed by a tight passage ending in two holes too tight to enter. The cave appears to widen out beyond and a draught is present. Discov ered in April, 1969. (3) Hammer Hole A 31 metre deep pothole, leading to an old stream passage blocked at the southern end by decoration. Situated below the present limestone quarry. Discovered in July, 1955. (4) Machete Pot 9 An unexplored pothole situated a short distance downhill from metres. Discovered in June, 1967. (5) Mini-Martin 10 A very deep pothole linked with Exit Cave to give a com bined depth of 220 metres (720 feet). The 110 metre (360 feet) entrance pitch is the second longest in Australia. Two other shafts are 31 and 24 metres in length. It was descended on 19th August, 1967, to create a new Australian depth record (see press cuttings). Now fourth deepest in Australia (see Sketch Map No. 7 [p. 111]). Discovered in June, 1967. (6) Salvation Cave 11 A small cave situated at the base of Marble Hill west of Exit Cave. It contains a pool of water and some talus, but there is no draught. Discovered in March, 1947. (7) There is a large, unexplored rift with logs, situated a short distance east of Big Tree Pot. Discovered in July, 1967. Numerous other small holes and caves are known but cannot be located accurately from available records and are unnum bered. 7 A cave of this name has been tagged IB9 Ed. 8 Subsequently numbered/tagged IB48 Ed. 9 Discovered c. 1958 when a machete was dropped down it; relocated 1986 Southern Caver, 10 Subsequently numbered/tagged IB 8 Ed. 11 In February 2012 tagged IB191 Speleo Spiel, APPENDIX E GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF EXIT CAVE Sorry, but this didnt get written. Subject matter seems to be covered elsewhere.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 38 APPENDIX F CAVE DEVELOPMENT PLANS Through Commercialisation appears in the Bulletin of the National Speleological Society Vol. 29, No. 2, 1967. Some speleological groups in Australia and overseas have made suggestions regarding development of certain caves to the relevant local authorities, but nothing on the scale of the Rio Camuy report has been attempted. Some reports prepared by the Tasmanian Caverneering Club are summarised. (4) SCOTTS CAVE When it was rumoured in 1958 that Scotts, a former tourist cave at Mole Creek, may be re-opened by the State Govern ment, a short report was prepared by M.H. de Vries on behalf of the T.C.C. A description of the cave and exploration possibilities were presented. It was suggested that a new access road and car park would be needed if the cave were to be re-opened. Light ing and trails were discussed. and Croesus Caves are already famous . The development of Scotts Cave was considered to be uneconomic as receipts might never pay off the capital cost involved. (5) RIO CAMUY PROJECT During the 1960s the National Speleological Society (U.S.A.) explored Rio Camuy Cave in Bayaney, Puerto Rico, and dis closed an extensive and majestic system. It was pointed out provide protection of millions of people in this and coming generations a truly natural heritage for the people of Puerto Rico. The history of If a regular business enterprise fails, a man can turn to some thing else and dissolve his assets. For the man who develops a cave, however, there rests a responsibility. He must assure the future of the physical condition of the cave which, once defaced, can in most cases never be restored. Opening a cave visors to help him, and he will discover that he cannot do a limited development (undercapitalised) without risking all his time and investment. Unfortunately, it sometimes occurs that his business is not successful and the cave is closed. This is usually the end of the cave from a conservation viewpoint, as at this time the only thing which protects the cave from vandals is a barred gate a most fragile form of protection. There are many caves in the United States which are formerly commercial some of them ruined for further consideration commercially because of un controlled access. natural phenomenon that they should not be tied to the owner caves are discovered and recognised, they will probably fall into the category of heritage of the people and be made parks or preserves. (1) CROESUS CAVE A brief report prepared by the T.C.C. in 1960, deals with loca tion, access, description of the cave, geological history, pres ervation and suggested development for tourism. Mersey River, upstream from Liena. It is more than a kilome tre in length and has excellent decoration, probably only sur passed in quality by the formation in Kubla Khan Cave near Mole Creek. T.C.C. suggested that three transport media should be adopted for visitors to the cave; a small electric railway for most of the trip, a boat and walking for the last few hundred metres. Two excavations should be made and a small dam erected to allow and back lighting be employed to give the formations depth and perspective. Croesus Cave remains undeveloped. (2) GUNNS PLAINS CAVE A brief report prepared by Professor S.W. Carey on behalf of T.C.C. in 1947, deals with some observations made during a T.C.C. visit and possible ways in which the cave could be fur ther developed (Carey 1947a). The relation of talus and the stream to visitor safety is evaluat opment and that a master plan should be drawn up. Platforms are suggested for viewing formations and features; instead of the existing narrow through-track. With reference to lighting, it is suggested that wiring be concealed. (3) HASTINGS CAVES This report (Carey 1947b) was prepared by Professor S.W. Carey for the Tasmanian Tourist Department in 1947 and con tains details of recent discoveries made by the T.C.C. and pos sibilities for future development. New discoveries and surveying in the Pop Hole, Christmas Cave and Binney Cave are described and future exploration plans are outlined. Existing facilities in Newdegate were re garded as inadequate with the lighting badly arranged, wiring unconcealed, platforms too small and wooden stairways ugly and potentially dangerous. Likely means of modifying the cave to allow visitors to view the new discoveries were outlined. Upgrading of surface fa cilities was recommended and suggested improvements in a hotel at Hastings enlargement of the existing thermal pool construction of a stable and bridle tracks to Adamsons Peak, Pindars Peak and Precipitous Bluff golf course and tennis court at Hastings

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 39 The location of the Rio Camuy Cave is described, and the re lationship of location to likely success of tourist development is discussed. Two short papers on the resources of the area appear, one on ecology and the other on geology. The historical development of cave facilities in the United States is outlined and recommendations made on the Rio Ca muy area. An administration building is planned and a sugarcane train is suggested for mass surface transit. Detailed pro posals for lighting trails and guides are also dealt with. APPENDIX G GLOSSARY ABSEIL method of descent by rope using friction of rope around body or through a mechanical device ARAGONITE a form of calcium carbonate CARBIDE LAMP source of illumination carried by caver CAVE a natural enclosed hollow space CAVE FORMATION calcite decoration CAVER speleologist CAVERN see chamber CAVERNOUS containing caves CHAMBER large cavity in a cave or cave system COLUMN a calcite decoration formed by the union of a stalagmite and a stalactite DOLERITE an intrusive igneous rock DOLOMITE a magnesium calcium carbonate rock or mineral EFFLUX resurgence GLOW-WORM cave animal with bioluminescence GYPSUM hydrated calcium sulphate HELICTITE contorted twig-like form of stalactite INVERTEBRATE animal without a backbone JOINT a line of weakness in the rock; fracture without displacement on either side KARST typical surface terrain of a limestone area, characterised by sink holes and rocky outcrops LIMESTONE sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcite MONDMILCH colloidal form of calcium carbonate, formed by bacteriological action OOLITES cave pearls pH acidity or alkalinity of a solution PITCH vertical descent or ascent POTHOLE, POT a natural vertical shaft cave SCALING POLE lightweight metal pole used to reach high levels in a cave, collapsible SHAFT vertical passage in a cave, an aven SINTER TUBE straw stalactite SPELEOLOGY sum of knowledge on the being and nature of caves SPELEOLOGIST person who studies caves SRT single rope technique of ascent or descent of a pitch STALACTITE icicle-shaped deposit of calcite, hanging from roof of a cave a cave SWALLET cave where water runs underground TALUS rock deposits TRAVERSE (1) movement along a ledge above a cave passage (2) cave survey TROGLOBITE animal that is wholly cave-inhabiting VERTEBRATE animal with backbone

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 40 APPENDIX H BIBLIOGRAPHY BURMAN, J. 1958 (Ed.) The Story of The Cango Caves of South Africa. Maskew Miller CAREY, S.W. 1947a Report on the inspection of the Gunns Plains Cave (unpublished, TCC Archives) CAREY, S.W. 1947b Interim report on the development of Hastings Caves (unpublished, TCC Archives) CASTERET, N. 1940 Ten years under the earth. Dent & COTGROVE, R.D.M. 1973 Isolation and Centralisation University of Tasmania press release DAVIES, J .L. (Ed.) 1965 Atlas of Tasmania. Government Printer, Hobart DAVIS, R. 1970 National Caves News. National Caves As sociation, U.S.A. DAVIS, R. 1971 Down Under. National Caves Association, U.S.A. DAVIS, R. Spelunking for Scouts. Cumberland Caverns Inc. (pamphlet). DUNKLEY, J. 1971 (introduction to article by Matthews) ASF Newsletter, de CAVAUR, G. 1962 Padirac. Alpina. de VRIES, M.H. 1957 Scotts Cave Interim Report. TCC Bulletin, de VRIES, M.H. 1960 Exit Cave or, Lost in the South West. TCC Bulletin, ELLIS, R. 1971 ASF Commission on longest and deepest caves. ASF Newsletter, EVERHART, W.C. 1972 The National Park Service. Praeger FRAUCA, H. 1958 Speleos delight. Australian Outdoors, FRAUCA, H. 1959 Cult of the Cave. Australian Outdoors, FRAUCA, H. 1960 The Potholers. People, GARTRELL, G. 1969 Conservation and South Australia underground. Trans. of Proc. 7th Biennial Conf. ASF. pp. 12-26. GEEVES, K. 1973 Letter to the Editor. Huon News, 1/7/73 GOEDE, A. 1967a Letter to the Scenery Preservation Board (unpublished, TCC correspondence) distribution. Helictite, GOEDE, A. 1969 Underground stream capture at Ida Bay, Tasmania, and the relevance of cold climatic con ditions. Australian Geographical Studies, GOEDE, A. 1970a Tasmanian karst areas. Proc. 8th Biennial Conf. ASF. pp. 5-9. GOEDE, A. 1970b Distribution of Tasmanian cave fauna. Proc. 8th Biennial Conf. ASF. pp. 88-92. ASF Newsletter, GOEDE, A. 1973 Possible effects of forestry activities on proposed cave reserve at Marble Hill, Ida Bay (unpublished). ANON. 1895 The glow worm caves of Tasmania. American, ANON. 1941 Buchan Caves National Park Pamphlet pub lished by the Victorian Railways. ANON. 1969 Down under all over Tasmania. ASF News letter, U.I.S. Bulletin, ANON. 1970b Endless Caverns pamphlet. ANON. 1971a Glory Hole Cave. Pamphlet prepared by N.S.W. National Parks & Wildlife Service ANON. 1971b Mammoth Cave National Park. U.S. National Parks Service ANON. 1971c Waitomo Caves. Pamphlet prepared by Ham ilton Tome Group, N.Z. ANON. 1972 A three-year National Parks Program for Tasmania. 1 (tabloid prepared by the United Tasmania Group). ANON. 1972 Visitor Activities Mammoth Cave National Park. Pamphlet published by U.S. National Park Service. ANON. 1973 Editorial Huon News, 5/7/73. ANON. nd Akioshi Plateau. Pamphlet prepared by Yamagu chi Prefecture, Japan. ANON. nd Arthurs Pass National Park. Pamphlet published by N.Z. National Parks Authority ANON. nd Buchan Caves. Pamphlet published by Victorian Ministry of Tourism. ANON. nd Caves of Western Australia. Pamphlet published by Western Australian Tourism Development Au thority. ANON. nd North Alabamas Caves and Caverns. Plasti chrome. ANON. nd Show caves in Austria. Austrian Federal Govern ment. ANON. nd The World-famous Waitomo Caves. N.Z. Hotel Corporation ANON. nd Wind Cave National Park. U.S. National Parks Service ANON. nd Wombeyan Caves. Pamphlet published by N.S.W. Government Tourist Bureau. ANON. nd Yarrangobilly Caves. Pamphlet published by N.S.W. Government Tourist Bureau. ABBEY, E. 1968 Desert Solitaire: a Season in the Wilder ness. Simon and Schuster. BAGLIN, D. & MULLINS, B. 1967 Kosciusko National Park. BGLI, A., FRANKE, H.W. 1967 Radiant Darkness. G.G. BOOTH, K. 1967a (Ed.) Down Under All Over. ASF News letter, BOOTH, K. 1967b (Ed.) Down Under All Over. ASF News letter,

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 41 GURLEY, J. 1968 The story of Cathedral Caverns. Tabloid published by Cathedral Caverns, Inc. Rio Camuy development proposal Bull. Nat. Spe leol. Soc., Vol. 29, No. 2. HAMILTON-SMITH, E. 1961 Underground adventure. Walkabout, HAMILTON-SMITH, E. 1970 Biological aspects of cave conservation. ASF Newsletter, HAMILTON-SMITH, E. (Ed.) 1976 Cave Management in Australia. Proc. 1st Australian Conference on Cave Tourism, Jenolan Caves, NSW, July, 1973. pp. 103-105. HUGHES, T.D. 1957 Limestones in Tasmania. Geol. Surv. Min. Res., 10. Tas. Dept. Mines. KAADEN, R. 1971 Exit Expedition. Nargun, KAHRAU, W. 1972 Australian Caves and Caving. Periwin KERSEY, R. 1971 Exit Cave (Tasmania). Bay. Southern Caver, KIERNAN, K. 1972 Mystery Creek diversion threat. South ern Caver, KIERNAN, K. 1973a Attitudes to tourist caves. Southern Caver, KIERNAN, K. 1973b Yet another Tasmanian conservation problem. ASF Newsletter, JASINSKI, M. 1967 Caves and Caving. don, etc. LEA, A.M. 1910 On some Tasmanian cave-inhabiting bee tles. The Tasmanian Naturalist, LODER, B. 1971 Landscape Architecture in Conservation. A.I.L.A. and ACF LUCAS, P.H.C. 1970 Conserving New Zealands Heritage. Govt. Printer, Wellington. N.Z. LYONS, G.D. 1950 Tasmanian caverns claim world records. Wild Life, ASF News letter, Nargun, 17. MATTHEWS, P. 1972 Scrubby Creek To save? Or to de stroy? A policy for its preservation. Nargun 3-8. McHARG, I. 1972 Design With Nature. Doubleday & Co., MIDDLETON, G.J. 1970a Practical Cave Conservation. Stop Press, ASF Newsletter, MIDDLETON, G.J. 1970b Current Developments in Inter pretation at Yarrangobilly Caves. Journal of the Sydney Speleological Society, MILLER, B.K. 1973 Unique appeal to tourists. The Mer cury, 16/10/73 MILLER, B.K. 1973 Explosion in tourism scene. The Mer cury, 20/10/73 MORRIS, S. 1968 History of Abercrombie Caves, NSW. ASF Newsletter, MOSELY, J.G. 1972 Conservation and recreation. Archetype R.M.I.T. NICHOLAS, Bro. G. 1971 Cave ecosystems and their pres ervation. Journal of the Sydney Speleological So ciety, OVINGTON, J.D. Management problems of national parks [in] Webb, L.J., Whitelock, D. and Le Gay Brere ton, J. (Eds) The Last of Lands. Milton, Qld. pp. 36-42. PIESSE, R.D. 1967 Recreational demands and conservation [in] Webb, L.J., Whitelock, D. and Le Gay Brere ton, J. (Eds) The Last of Lands. Milton, Qld. pp. 26-35. RICHARDS, A. 1960 Observations on the New Zealand glow worm. Trans. Roy. Soc. NZ, RICHARDS, J.H. 1953 Waitomo Caves Reed. ROBERTSON, N.A. 1972 A Guide to a Planning Process for National Parks. New Zealand National Parks Authority SHANNON, C.H.C. 1971 Exit Cave Diary. Down Under, SKINNER, A.D. 1973 A problem of deterioration. Speleo Spiel, SKINNER, R.K. 1972 Tasmanias Caves: Observations on conservation and the importance of caves as rec reational areas. Report of Churchill Scholarship study tour. 72 pp. SKINNER, R.K. 1973a Exit Cave Road. Speleo Spiel, SKINNER, R.K. 1973b Hastings Caves. Speleo Spiel, SMITH, A. 1960 They Just Gotta Glow. People SOUTH-WEST COMMITTEE 1973 The Proposed SouthWest National Park. Report prepared by the STANTON, W.I. 1962 Cheddar Caves. Huntington Press SYKES, P.G. 1973 Tasmanian tourist caves. Paper present ed to 1st. Australian Conference on Cave Tourism [Not included in proceedings.] TASMANIAN CAVERNEERING CLUB 1973 Tasmanian Caverneering Club submission to Australian Gov ernments National Estate Enquiry (unpublished, TCC correspondence) TILDEN, F. 1967 Interpreting Our Heritage. University of North Carolina TWELVETREES, W.H. 1915 The Catamaran and Strath blane Coal Fields and coal and limestone at Ida Bay. Geological Survey Bulletin, 20. WALLIS, G. 1968 Cave conservation The broader view. ASF Newsletter, WHITE, N.C. 1971 Tasmanian Caverneering Club submis sion to Tasmanian National Parks Service on reserve status for caves at Ida Bay (unpublished, TCC correspondence) WILLIAMS, P. New Zealand Speleological Bulletin, 84 WOOD, I. 1966a (Ed.) Down Under All Over TCC. ASF Newsletter, WOOD, I. 1966b (Ed.) Down Under All Over TCC. ASF Newsletter,

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 42 APPENDIX I PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD EXIT CAVE Photos 60-68, 72, 75-87, 89 and 111 were taken with an Asahi Pentax SP 500 camera. Photos 59, 69-71 and 73-74 Photo 59. Large chamber, looking towards the talus section. The Hammer Passage is reached by climbing the slope on the

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 43 Photo 60. Large cavern near the entrance see cover. Photo 61. The Grand Fissure, looking west. This spectacular chamber is about 40 metres high. The rockfall on the left is

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 44 Photo 62. Large chamber, looking towards talus section. The top part of the scene in Photo 59, in colour. Photo 63. Gypsum needles, Edies Treasure. Crystals of up to 60 cm have been found, and may be unique in Australia.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 45 Photo 64. Photo 65 Long, thin gypsum crystals, in Edies Treasure.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 46 Photo 66. Stalactite in Edies Treasure. Photo 67. Stalactites and helictites in Edies Treasure.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 47 Photo 68. Aragonite crystals in Edies Treasure. Photo 69. Stalactites in the Hammer Passage.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 48 Photo 70. A shaft in the Hammer Passage. Photo 71. Stalactites and mondmilch [moonmilk], Hammer Passage.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 49 Photo 72. Flowstone wall, near Outer Base Camp. Photo 73. Mondmilch [moonmilk], Hammer Passage.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 50 Photo 74. Photo 75. Magnesium ribbon photograph of a chamber near the entrance.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 51 Photo 76. Looking out of the cave entrance [IB14]. Photo 77. Stream passage, near the cave entrance. Photo 78. Photo 79. Stalactites, columns and mondmilch, Hammer Passage.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 52 Photo 80. Gypsum crystals in Photo 82. Large stalagmite, Photo 83. At the base of a large shaft, Edies Treasure. Eastern Grand Fissure. Conference Concourse. Photo 81. in the Mud Passage. Photo 84. cracks, Conference Concourse.

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Southern Caver, No. 66, August 2012 page 53 Photo 85. [uncaptioned] Photo 86. A column in Conference Concourse. Photo 87. In the Mud Passage. Photo 89. The Pendulum, a ball of mondmilch suspended by a straw stalactite. Photo 111. Photo 113. River. Photo 114. Glow-worms, near the END OF PART 1 [The photos are numbered according to Andrews original system. They are not necessarily in order and some numbers are not used.]