The Texas Caver

The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Bad air caves / William R. Halliday -- Living Lines -- Outline of safety / Bob Littlefield -- A Tales of Sad Cavers / Patti Goodwin -- Photo Page -- News of the Grottos -- Slides still needed -- San Saba County Caves -- "There we wuz" -- Region project? -- N.S.S. Convention held in Chattanooga -- Impressions of the convention / Irene Estes -- Cartoon.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 6, no. 6 (1961)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-04441 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4441 ( USFLDC Handle )
10600 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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t exas region Volume VI, No.6 National Speleological Society ,. J


BAD Am CAVES by ',iilliOJJ R ilillliday 65 LrYlllG LIlES 66 OUTLIiL OF Sli1::TI by Bob 67 A OF SAD CAVERS by Patti Goodwin 69 Photo Pa&e 71 llE'oI"S of the GROPl'OS 72 SLIDf::S STILL 73 SAN SABA C O UtiTY CAVZS 73 "nr;:;RE ilE i'iUZ 10 74 filiGIOH PROJECT? 74 N S S COIIV'-..:rITION HELD IN CHA' LT!Jloa;A 75 Hfi '[t.:;SSIOlf.3 OF 'En:: by Irene 63tes 76 CAltTOON 77 78 A sincere word of praiae and congratulations is in line fir3t of all to Don Black, Barbara and Leonard l':umlOn, Roy of the Chatta nOO!;:l Grotto and all others who planned and m 9 ,naged a w o n derful N.S.S. Conventi on this year. The five of u s from Texae who made the' trip (}alls Tandy, Irene Estes, Lady Foster and Tommy Svnns) enjoyed the convention and appreciate the hard \-Iork and long hour!] !lpent in plannine. Good lucie to all of you in Tennessee who made the convention at Chattanooga a long to be remembercdone. Now--a word to Texas spelunkers, Grotto mem ber!!: and independents alike. ,/e have read and heard of and articles on cave preservntion and coneervation--yet and destruct i ve individuals still exist. Calcite is liorth very li comc-:rcially--yet (again) persons are seeking specimens to as souveniere to and rockhounds. (No offense intended to eith-:r. ) A conversation recently between two cavcrs u nd ::\ cor.unercial curio ehop operator in this state left cavers stunned and trembline as they left becn1 l : e of the very apparent lack of concern of the of our caves and their content. 'rhe question. aroee after: Should cave (even necessarily removed ones) be sold? .l11"t effect does thie have on non-Cllvere who seek collector'lI item.a? Another question : l'ihat are you d oin:; about the education of everyday people who vi and are evidently unaware of their slow Do th!ty know why they are not t o t ouch formatione? And 1Rst of all: Could legislation (and the stro ng enforcement of it) be pa3 sed in our etat e as far lUI vnndalir.m in natural caves is concerned? Thill l1!. defini te1y serious Ulll.tter! remnrks and information is wanIt will be forwarded to our Regio n comm'.. ttta tion, A u stin 12, Texas PRINTED BY R & R REPRODUCTION 1026 NORTH 4th ABILENE. TEXAS


rHE TEXAS CAVER 65 / ( .. -.... ':..: . Ii!: 'I. .' 'j ''',,' R. \ ' ;1... angerou. gao concentrations rare ly exist in limestone caverns of the United Stateso There has been an unconfirmed and doubtful report I I' of phosgene -or possibly carbon dioxide or an oxide of nitrogen -in a rexas cave (White, 1948)0 An inflamable gas (methane?) has been encountered in Big Cave, Tennessee (Black, pers. commo) as liell as in Russell Cave9 Alabama liber9.ted from rotting vegetation (Anon o 1957). Irritating rather than dangerous concentrations of ammonia are sometimes present in guano caves (Constantine, Hypoxiao The problem iency (hypoxia) may be imately as follows: of oxygen deficsummarized approx2(J}6 oxygen 16 % oxygen 15% oxygen 12% oxygen 8-10% oxygen 7-8% oxygen -normal air -candle will not burn -approximate beginning level of dan gerous hypoxia -severe hypoxia -carbide lamp will not burn -rapid deatho comm. ) At least one cave death -in Mc-It may be seen thS.twhen a candle Ferrin Cave, Tennessee has been due to will not burn, it i8 dangerous to remain accumilation of carbon monoxide as a re-in the caveo A carbide lamp lends a suIt of the extremely hazardous procedure false sense of security, since it continof using a fire in a cave, which also re-ues to burn despite a very dangerous lack duces the cavern oxygen contento Four of oxygeno If-there are local rumors of days after that fatali ty 9 the oxygen con"bad air" an inexpensive candle lantern tent i n HcFerrin Cave was normal (20" 1%) 9 is a very valuable investment, especially the c arbon dioxide 001 to 0 02,%, and the as candle flames are also said to be afcarbon monoxide 002 to 0 028.% -a lethal fected by the presence of excess carbon level (Barr, T o C o!) perso commo ) In Europe dioxide (l'larwick, 1955) 0 Failure of a other gases have been reported under ex-match to remain litis not a reliable cep t ional conditions 1954y test9 since modern matchee vary tremend 1953) but seem to be absent in this ously in their combustabili ty even when country? they have not been exposed to underground Nost problems of "bad air" in Amdampness o Nor b the presence of mummi-erican caves are those of excessive carbon fied animal remains real evidence of low insufficient oxygeng or both oxygen 9 for they are often encountered in Ilhich is usually the caseo From time to dry caves in which there is no possibilitime 9 t he NoSo S o NEWS has contained artic-ty of oxygen lacko on "bad air" caves Hudson Even when a deficiency of oxygen I'loneymaker, 1958; Ward, 1955 0 ) Nost is very severe, the explorer will probab:>u_ch reports have not been confirmedo ly be unaware of what is happening to him Because such are very A slow numbing of the senses results, and Lon i n the United States9 little systema-is a very grave danger" An AU8tralian t l C attention has been devoted to them by s peleologist concerned with these probAmerican speleologists, but there are relemsy relates such an episode as follows: of several such caves in Texaso Con-"I've been caving with one partis equently, it appears appropriate to re-cular mate for several and yety on v ie,: t h e basic. medical problems involved one such occasion. we completely forgot I n the ex ploration and study of such caves" the other' s name: although l'1e still had j:, Halliday is Director of the Speleological Survey" This article was sent to b e by Bud Frank and has been previously published in the CALIFORNIA CAVER"


66 vague memories of the names of the people in the surface party,," we were eventually by a 20 foot drop "rhich, w normal air, 'tIe have Exceeeive Carbon Dioxide Carbon ciioxide (C02)' ie the ,,,aste gas off in breathing, and is also released I'Then acidic ground water reaches a free surface of a cave 0 Exactly hm" much norm ally a ccumu lates in caves c annot yet be sald, swce the composition of the air in "normal" American caves has never been Only an infini teeiIllr:l1 amount is presenT, in ordinary airo In increased ccnc entra, tione its presence is unpleasant and even fatal, though this requires a much higher concentration than thought v Concentrations as high as 30% are necess ary to produce unconsciousness i f oxygen is present (Lund.y,--1943J: ; is about the l"hlCh peI'II1l. t strenuous exertion (Rosenov) ; though 5ib c a n be tolera ted despite consid, erable discomfort and danger.. 'fhe d anger of low to moderate concentrations of C02 is that of the severe exhaustlon eaused by the excessively deep labored ing which it causes" When the exp l c,rer atops to rest, he may be exposed t o a lo cally con centrati on The d anger of an increase in C02 is greatly :neight ened in most cave s by a proportional de crease in the oxyc;en "lhich it di.s p l aces,. The d anger siGll of C02 is the ci.e velopment of v ery deep stralnlng breath ing, often acco m panied by blurred VlS10n or head ache. S i lllll a r symptoms, however" c a n also result from severe exertion G!' from psycholog l ca l factors such as feaT or claustrophobia, Deepl te these vTannng signs, the numbwg of senses from oxygen. lack may C l use the caver t v be unaware that IS wron g o all persons are affected exactly the same ''lay however, s o som e member of the party THill usu ally recogniz e that something 1S amlSSo When any t h i ng of the k::..nd occurs, get out! I h a ve personally experlenced thLS sensation once at the lower end of Clay Cave, Napa Count y Callfornia. a blz,zare non-limestone c ave (Hailida y 1960) ane did not to lnveshgate t h e C8'.lSe. C02 i s he3vier than a u and ahould be suspected purt18ularly In low places where cavern a i r is THE TEXAS CAVER pooro High concentrations of this ga. may be associated with volcanic activityp but can be formed in other waY89 includ ing rotting of organic debris swept into a cave by flood waters 0 In limestone caves it is normally released in presum ably small quantities by dissociation of carbonic acid picked up from eoil by wat er percolating downward in American caveso However, it apparently only reaches dang erous concentrations under extraordinary circumstances 0 The underground experience of member.s of the NSS include. hundred. of thousands of man-hours 9 an. d if' our "bad air" caves were at all so dangerous a situation could hardly have es caped noticeo The great French caverg Norbert Caet,eret similarly notes (1954) that he has encountered the .ymptoma only on c e in his and that the gal!! ,',as not there on a return visi to (In the July issue of the CAVER 9 the continuation of this article will be iJlcluded under the title 9 "How to Appro ach a "Bad Air" Cave")o living lir"1es T L ( you would hare (0 lIr I;nes t qke Cif.)fe of then take Cqre of theln. / / !lyo/d 8hr. E)SI0I7 to OiII//lJes, t.Jo (s !!,/re.l wllft /J?/Iclew and rol; cou.ld cost CJ //j"'e.. III !1 f311? ;' Ila. II? e -5 Tin s / S 1J0 jJrop/efY) w;,lh nyloh or ai-he!-. f/J:JfJ,J.. /; hut dlAecf: to Stir;/;C;1t t ouef-/onr ,Pe)--iods tv/II t-()eal(.en Ihe.s e /i'6ers, "..,. > c.;


THE TEXAS CAVER 67 --by Bob Littlefield 1 0 rIo (The Outline of Safety is based on reports of serious or fatal caving accidents that have occurred during therpast years in the United States and Europe o The accident categories are listed in order of importance9 based orr fre quency and seriousnessc This outline does include accidents occurring while using mechanical devices such as winches and hoists9 nor does it include cave-divingo This is not meant to be a complete study of caving safetY9 ae some novice cavers are constantly inventing neti ''lays of getting hurt and new kinds of accidents are being reportedo Not all cavers may agree with the contents of this outline9 but it is something to use as a beginning in your study of cave safety an.d as a help to formulate safety ruleso At the present time the Dallae-Fort 'forth Grotto is using this outline in an effort to better understand the cause and prevention of caving accidentso B o L o ) Falling 4 0 Equipmen t being lowered or raised A o Occurence 10 While climbing out 2 0 While descending 3e Negotiating an obstacle 4 0 While climbing chimney 5 0 Trying to jump B o Cause 10 Fatigue 2 0 Fau lty equipmen t 3 0 Lack of safety ropes 4 0 Poor light 5 0 Trying to go beyond one l s ability C o Prevention 1 0 Res t stops and chow help prevent fatigue 2 0 Proper use of safety ropes 3 0 Inspecting and testing of equipment 4 0 Use of proper knots and splices 5 0 Do not go beyond your proven ability 6 0 On wait until eyes are adjusted to the dark 7 0 Do not even for a zhort distance" Falling ..QQ..iects A o B o O c curenc:e 1 0 While descending 2 0 Wnile climbing out 3 0 While lowering equipment Cause 1 Loose rocks at top of ahaft 2 0 Loose rocD on walls of sp..afi:; 3 0 Loose equipment carried on person IIIo 5 0 Equipment being used or moved at top of 5lhaft C Prevention 10 Remo"Ve all loose rocks at top of shaft 2 Jhrst man down remove all loose rocks from walle 3 0 Keep people and equipment away from edge of shaft 4 0 Fasten all objects carri ed on person 5 0 Test gear used for lowering equipmen t 6 0 Use only proper knots and splices Wear hard hat 80 Do not stand inside the falll i ne at the bottom of shaft 9,. Do not try to clear breakdown or chimney from below Water and DrowniAs' A o Occurence L Flooding 2 Falling into .. Tater 3 Stepping intodeep hole while .. ,ading 4 v Boat or float capsizing or sinki ng 5 0 Trying to force a siphon B o Ca'J.Se 10 Not taking proper preo:autions 2 0 Not lmo .. Ting how to swim 3 0 Faulty equ i pment ( \ Pre,,-ention 1 0 Check drainage and run-off


68 2 0 Check weather 3 < Leave someone at the entrance 4. Watch water level 5 0 Lead man should have safety rope when wading 60 Check for leaks in boats or floats before using 7. Do not wear packs or heavy equipment in boat 80 Use extra caution in swift water 90 Watch out for waterfalls and swift siphons 100 Do not attempt a siphon without a team, proper and tested equipment, safety rope and a signal system 11 0 lfuen using diving gear 9 have at least one stand-by fully eequipped and ready to submerge IV" Lost A o Occurcnce 10 Becoming separated from rest of party 2 0 Caving Alone B o Causs 10 G01ng alene 2 Not observrng passageway 3 0 Not marking way (Scotchli te or observance only) 4 v Los8 of Ilght C o Prevenhon 1. Do not go alone 2 Use buddy system 3 Hark the i'lay with removea"ole lJ1.:"1.rks or especially at .:md rs 4 0 Look back frequently 5 'rake three sources of light and some food 6 0 Do not sacrifice necessary eeqUlprnent for the sake of going lighter. :ven on a short tripo V I n d Air ( See articlep this issue-Ed,,) lL, Occuren c e 1 0 At the bottom of Plts 2 In some caves w ith running stream s 3 0 In gu a no rooms 4., In crowded r o o m s that have been o ccupled by severa l people for some tlme Areas w ith dusty floorso Symptoms, in order L Shortness of breath 2 Fatigue THE TEXAS CAVER 3 0 Throat irritation 4 0 Dizziness 50 Fainting 6 0 Headache 70 Nausea 80 Sleepiness C o Prevention 1 0 Enter with caution and safety rope 2 v Watch for dimming of carbide lights 3 0 Watch for trouble lighting light or striking matches 4 0 Lower rooms with be worse than upper levels 5 0 Carry oxygen 6 0 Get out at Symptom Noo 4 VIo Poisonous snakes and snake bites Ao Occurence 10 On the surface 2 At the entrance 3 0 Inside the entrance room 40 In the twilight zone B o 10 On the surface 2 0 ao bo C o d o At ae b o C o du e f o Wear high top shoes foing to and from cave Do not stepover large rocks or logs Look where you step Do not climb rocks or walls during season the entrance room Shake a rock or rope in entrance pits be fore entering Keep away from wall!!! and large rocks Do not move around until your eyes are adjusted to the dark U!le flashlights in addl hen to the regular light Use :!lame precaution in all areas of twilight On finding a new entyance wi thin the cave, use same precaution! as fir!t entrance g u Carry anti-venin (Bob Littlefield wae formerly living in Dallas and is still a member of the Dall as Fort Worth Grottv and 3erved as Safety Chairman before to moving to Minneapolis Hinnesota. where he is no,", employed,,)


THE TEXAS CAVER 69 A TALE OF SAD CAVERS by Patti Good'dn (Author's note: Although no accomplishments were made during this caving trip and no great finding s were made to give credit to the art of speleology, we sincerely hope you will read our story; enjoy it and benefit from it. This is our Believe it or noto ) On Thursday, l-lay 25 1961 Dewayne DickeY 9 Chairman of the Permian Basin Grotto, decided to celebrate school being out by declaring we take a caving tripo Dewayne called me as the idea struck himo I answered the telephone and i 'li th utter amazement cried, "Yea!" Actually it was hard to believe 9 it had been almost ten months since i'le M.d been underground and the shock was almost too great" Later Deiiayne picked me up and we immedi ately drove over to Pete Kramer 1 s house (another PEG member o ) He was also rearing to goo That night we sat at PeteO s houee ,d th dozens of maps deciding where to go" S i nce we live in West Tex a s it is more sensible to go into the New area around Carlsbad to do our caving" After hours of checking locationsy r aods, ranches, and amount of caves in each area, we decided to try McKittrick Cave 0 vie also wanted to look into and locate S a nd Cave y Boyd Rattlesnake Cs.v e a nd Endless Caverns" depending on how go o d time w a s to usu Vandalism is very b ad around so ''1e picked l'kKi ttrick C ave to be our best beto \ve also de cided som e other minor necessities such as time 9 "lhose car, etc" We decided to leave a bout 2:00 a m Saturday morning and get back about 12:00 p olliu Saturday nightn When it caI:le to 1-Those car we would take. Pete iwaediatcly stated he had been werking on his car and that it was in tip-top shape a nd could make the trip with nG difficulty, Having settled all we : all retired to our homel3 to start getting the rest 1'I'e would need for the trip None of you c a n ima gine the anxiety we .. Tere filled ui t h o It is pretty rough to stay above ground for ten monthso (Try it sometime:) Friday was filled with the hust li.'1C a nd bustling of getting rope, rope ladders. mapping equi pment 9 food" camera equipmenty lighting the works Finally Friday night came and we got car loaded and made out usual double-triple checks to see i f e;rery, thing we needed was there" We were all ready to the only thing left to do w a s go home and wait for 2 :00 a m to roll aroundo I went but being.unableto sleepy I got finished getting my personal equipment readY9 and then went and read a magazine article, At 1 945 I decided tha t I had get everything by the d oor and ready to go o The PBG h a s som e very accura.te and memberso We are a lway s on t:une-almos t But apparently the boys deCided about 1:00 a v m that sleep was very important. a o m u boys" a "illc came-no boys" 2:35 a oID" c ame-no bo y s That was 1",hen I got a li ttle less and made a t elephone calL It ,]u. s t so happene d Dewayne had fallen asleep b y the apologized and s ald he \'la8 waiting on Pete to come by . Since Pete did not have a phone y Dewayne picked ms up and we drove over to We finally got Pete up and by the time coffee w a s made and everyone had had a we managed to leave town at a v m Now the kind of day we had could have been blamed on our late start or even on the fact that at breakfa s t : Pete got a dirty who knows? But we all believe something should be blamed o When we left Honahans Pete put a quart of o i l in the car and by the time we got to Hobbs he had to put m two more Vie finally hit Car:La bad a bou t 6 a m and the car wal'S completely out of oil; so we stopped at a statio n,. Pete had the attendant flll up a hve


70 ga1lon gasoline can wi th oil" just in case w. needed it after we got up in the mountains. First, we headed for Rattlesnake Cave. Driving up to the cave we passed what w. thought was a road -constru.ction gang, we did not bother to etopo We found the location and started up the side of the hill in search of the cavev Halfway up the hill, we noticed a red pickup had driven up behind the car I' a man was taking the car licenee number a.'rld was motioning ue back down the hillo When Dewayne explained who we were and what we wan ted the man changed his a tti tude and told us the cave had been covered up c He then offered us information ooncerning the ranches we were about to entero He was very nice and very helpfulo We decided since time w a s fast we h.'id better get on out Ijc:Kittrick" By the time we ranch house we were stopping every "i.O t o 15 miles to put oil into The firet couple of dozen times i t 'rery funny 0 We llTere asked mto the houae by a very nice but slightly embar rassed foreman It eeems he had gone into town the night before for the first time in two monthsy had gotten drunk and fallen out of his car skinnmg Ms very badly u He made o :ooffee and offered to take us out to the cave v We gave the car another drink of oil and t ook offo The road happened to be almost IlS bad aa the road to Cottonwood Cave 0 rr.,'iO miles from the ca,Ye we burst the radiator hoee wide oper. "Ye had no way of repairing i t u Here it llTaS noon--we hadn't seen a cave--now a burst radiator hose., E ee' I What else ('ould happen? Pete finally remembered a plastic baby bed eheet was in the car" We cut eome wide wrapped them arou.nd the hoee and then coiled l/S" nylon ( ord around the sheet" We refilled the rad:i.a tor and decided under the circumstances it was too much of a risk to go ono We were slowly running out of oil and we if the prayers we said over the radiator llTould reach heaven We back to the ranch house We thanked the rancher and told him he would be seeing us again. A dim flicker of hope wae still THE TEXAS CAVER with the man we had met at Rattle snake Cave had given ue the location of another cave. we decided to try ito We searched and but no sign 6f' a cave We slowly trudged back to the car and as we climbed in Dewayne' s l3-yearold brother 9 Elvin 9 (also : his first trip) looked at me very downheartedsaid, Pat are all caving trips jU5t like this one? He was so disappointed and likewise so were the rest of USa But our trip was not over. There was more to comeooo By the time we reached Carlsbad, we were completely out of oilo We barely made it to the stationo There we got 5 more gallons of oilo This lasted 25 mi leso We reached a truck stop and bought a two-gallon can of 40 weight motor oil for and a quart of STPo It va. declared that car, that had been in such "excellent" condi tionp bad ba.d its rear main seal go out (whatever that iso ) We left the station and the STP and two quarts of oil drained in a rna tter of mileso We would go five miles and get out and put in some.oil, and gQ.fiv,uoore miles and get out and . shut the turtle that would not stay closed, and then go five more miles and put in more oilo Oil then turtle then oilooo(Conto on Page 74) PHOTOS OPPOOlTE PAGE Featuring personalities this month9 the CAVER wishes to present a few for your better acquaintanceo Top Left Bart Crisman and Paxton both of the Abilene Grotto in a lead off the main entrance room of Gav. ItY" n.ear Eldoradoo Bart is Chairman of the Abilene gr01.l.:P and "Hutch" iI! one of the newest cavers thereo fI'T.iddle Left: Tom Meador, independent caver from Eldorado and honorary member of the Abilene Grotto in the same caveo Right: Caver-of-the-Month ie Bart. 1 M')rgan of University of Texas Grotto in Westfall Cave" Bartel is a student and 'Very active in grotto affairs-one of Uo T I s most hard worldng spelunkerso Bottom Left: One of Bill HelmerQ typical Texas caverso See him in action 11l "There We WuzIlS on eale for 75t, write Dudley Rcberts, 3207 Austin 30


I \ t, I r : )f.'r)' ( .: I ,f .' ct . J}:i' f j I I It /1 t r I /\ i


72 A B I LEN E: The SUlllIIler months have seen most of the members of the Abilene Grotto gone on trips. vacations and the like 0 Not much activity has been going on,. but will pick up a s the summer 'lTears on o George Grayy Editor of t he Texas Reg i on has spent most of lat er Hay and early June in Philmont Scout New !-lexico y as a leiider in a \oJood badg e training session there Befor' e h i s Beturn he warried an attractive a.nd charm ing Abilene Huaic teacher, Jackie Lopez o 1'1us 'in.S a surprise to few, Jackie i5 al so a good cavero Bart and vTlfe Jaylene, h ave departed on a vacation trip to the northern mountains of Ne'lT Hexicou Before they were busy moving into a new hOOleo Paxton H utchison also has been. or.. vacatlon _. to C m cinnatl Yla Ne' d Orleans" Atlanta, Cumberland and I \1a.mmouth Cave" Jim and Irene > hEci' e enjoyed a wonderful tnp to Cr..attanooga, the NSS convention \,Ti th Tandy of Sonora Caverns and Lady Foster o f Fort Worth,. As ha ppen s nearly every year at: convenho n h m e J. l :ramed most a ::'l the trip, (r.lountam Texas A L A t-1 0: yet. n o news has ceived f rom the Alamo Grott00 felloH3 a:::e shll keepl.n.g the burnlng d01ffi there i n the Alamo r,een :re Hope YOl:' carbide City\ D ALL A S FOR T W 0 R T H : Mem-bere of the Dallas-Fort Worth Grotto afT,er severa l ''leeks of inactivl t y h,a'le gotten back into caVln. T h e most recent activi ty been a trip to Caverns of Sonora,. Almost total of the grotto epent the weekend o f June 3 and 4 m the cave r n:;;.. The prlmary purpose of the trip was to aSSlS t Hille 'randy in the mapp ing THE TEXAS CAVER o f the cave0 However we a130 :have to ad that we all had an ulterior motive Just to see the C8''leu During the weekend members of the grotto mapped about five hundred feet of passageway off of the main touxu The section mapped started at the Precarious Precipice and ended en the main tour near the first "you and also near the Tliitch' $ Fingero The scale used by Hills is to the inch and the same -flas used by our grottoo When the map is lulls is going to have to find an awful big building to keep it inc Now that summer is upon us many of our members are taking off for the wild unknmffio Larry Wyatt is :LD. Jim Eagan and Craig Rabb are in Colorado,. Denny HaEri e is in Bob Lit tlefield. is in Fred Tart is working at Can-Without-A-Name9 and the rest of us are still waiting for the brief tv.'O 'lleeb that we will be able to spend somewhere Even with the Grotto $eparateCi. we still to remain active this summero ClJuck Larsen is planning on going back to Sfx!nd a week in during lihich tim$ he will probably spend most of hie time undergroundo Several of the oth er members will probably $pend. part of thelr t.:une in. wandering' around Texaso all Wi. n be spending part of thdr tirile i n t tle darimes!!! un.derneath the surfaceo A t the past meeting o Grotto; we w ... re f0:l.'tunate to have a s visitors, Claud Head and Dan Sheffield whom of you w-i::a remember as being part of the first gI' oup to cr033 the pit in r-layfiel d back tn 1955 0 They both discussed the first trip an.d of course came equipped wi tb. many slidn taken back before tbe ( ;alTe was v-ery well mOlmo \oJe :bad. a very enjoyable time seeing pictures of the ca'ill then." and those taken. recently during our trip thlS month" We wer e all;lo informed tha t Jack Prince and Jack All$n were in town recently" 'rhey were also amling the group to cross into the blakk parts of ,Mayf i e Id 0 A new film was also shown a t t h e last meet:ln.g0 Tp-is 16mm sound film is n =


THE TEXAS CAVER commended to all of the other grottos if they have not yet seen ito It is a twen ty minute color movie on "Mouth-to-Mouth Respiration", and should be available through local librarieso It is a must for those who are not familiar with the new methodo Be sure to get a copy for grotto showingo U N I V E R SIT Y 0 F T E X A S: Well, the first issue of the Tex as Speleological Survey is out and a very fine job it iso The Caves of Travis County includes 60 some odd caves and shelter caves 0 If you are qualified to receive a copy writ. James Reddells Po 00 Box 7672, U oTo Station, Austin 12 Texas 0 Sub scription rate is $20 00 per year for ten copies o Next issue will be OIl Uvalde .. County 0 Mills Tandy won several firsts and many other prizes in the photo salon at the NoS.So Convention in Chattanooga I lills also whowed the film available thru Clara Ba tu Caves and a slide show on Bustamante which will be copied by the for their audio-vieual ser vice and will be available to grottoeso (There should be more newsy items from but no one has sent in a complete rundown for this month'! e issueo If you would please send in news of trips and other activities to the CAVER Editor .!!Q. later than the 5th of each monthv and then, if you happen to miss the 5th9 send i t in anyway 0 WELL, NOW HEAR THIS: Mills Tandy h a s informed the CAVER that only one or tvlO persons have sent any elides at all to his committee for editing for t he three slide series planned for the N o S o S u will run an urgent request in t his issue for you guys and other cavers to send them in soon as possibleo Slides on general caves of Texas g and on l"!ayfield Cave will be greatly appreciated. They will be edited9 a commentary tape madep and then sent to Dorothy Reville for cOPYo Your elidee will be returned to you and 1nll coet you nothing but the original cost of mailing. COME ON NOW! At iema On, June 21st through Sunday, June 25th, Tem Meador and Jim Elites met i.Ji Richland Springsg Texae to dC!> some proep8cting for cave. in the San Saba County area. Many good results were realized almost immediately after 80me in quiries and a little hiking was done Western San Saba County contains much thick limestone of the Upper Ellenberger formationp a Cambrian limestoneu Not far south of this area lies the cen tral mineral region of the state, lQcated in Llano and Maeon counties and extending out into several other nearby areas 0 It was noted that en a surface geology map of the state, many fault zones extend in a northeasterly direction from this reg ion into the San Saba limeshnes. A much thicker dolomite of Mississippian age is als0 present in wid. areas of the and it ia apt to contain caves alsoo Previously reported in the an article briefly a short vi sit to Whiteface cave on Deep Creek Ranch was partly explored by cavers Bart man 9 John Lanier and Jim Esteso This cave will bear more explerationo Other large caves exist in this area 9 such as the formerly commercially operated land Springs Cavern or Treasure Cave and a variety of medium sized caves in Karst areas 0 Meador and Estes reported at least 23 newly located caves in the small area included in the watersheds o f Deep Creek and Honey Creeko Many other small sinks and solution fissures too numerous to mention were not counted o The caves contain a mult i tude of fauna 0 Harvestmen by the millions 9 a type of cave beetle black and many varieties of cricket, large black spiders, water skimmers bats, gnats and cav e rats also observed o Such names as W ildcat Moss Caves Iron Cave. Chicken Cave, Roun. d iree Cave 9 Grasshopper and Red Handke rchief Cave are attached to these speleological cavitiesu More trips are planned in the future to more completely explore9 map and find caves in the areao Also a stud y o f spring lecations in this area may be made"


74 (Continued from P age 10) After about 15 miles we realized that the car was about to throw a rodo We didn't !mow whether to drive fast and try to save oil and possibly throw a rodp or to drive slow and try to keep from throw the rod and possibly ruB out of oi100 Decision odecisions!! Hours and hours later we somehow managed to get to Lovington and Pete's father drove us home in a nice new 1961 Ford. We made it about 10:300 We all .. rent over to Dewayne's to eato Believe it or not his tailpipe fell completely off when he started the car. This just seemed too much! All in all we came out with one radiator hose better than beforeg no rear main seal, used 52 quarts of oil, one rod going out and a turtle that wouldnot stay shut. \ole did not see one cave much less go in one. Not even one location was made. Pete got a dirt,y fork at breakfasto (It seems that sometimes days just have a way of starting that wayo ) This was a true story. Not even the na mes \"ere changed I am sure you all understand why PBG is no longer an organization, but has disbanned (bacause of shock!) due to beyond their control. (Ed. note: This story has not only created many a side-splitting laugh with me9 but other, shall we sayw proble ms. Firs t of all, I started t yping it upsid e do\ m S econd, I got interested in the a tory and typed clear across the p a ge, no mnrgi n a t all. Third, 1 seemed to !u. w e 1II[ (1f; IdOl' C lIlh : t a kcc in i t than any oth" r i n c:.uite a while I am sure that Patti's story will cause even more l a ughs Incidently, the last paragraph about being disbanded is untrue 0 PBG needs our best wishes and a lot of moral support. How about vrriting them a letter in care of Patti Goodwin, 900 S o Franklin Street, Texas OK?) D O N'T FORGET!!! SEND IN NEWS ART I CLES AND ITElI1S, TRIP REPORTS, PICTURES AND HAPS NO LATER THAN 5TH OF EACH THE smll-ER MONTHS SHOULD BE EVEN MORE ACTIEE THAN EVER LET I S HEAR FRON YOU ALLo THE TEXAS CAVER "THERE WE WUZ" CARTOON FEATURE TO BENEFIT REGION FINANCES. A second printing of Bill Helmer's "There lYe vluz" cartoon a sidesplitter, is now on saleo These very typ ically Texas caving tales are on sale now from Dudley Roberts, 3207 Beverly Lane v Austin 5, Tltxas o Don't fool around now and miss a copy for you will never regret purchasing the yellow bound hilarioul!! "best sellero Proceeds (after the printing bill is paid) will go to the Region treasury and will help finance projects, conventions and many other activitieso They sold for 75 at the NoSo S o Convention in Chattanooga 9 but write Dud for the price and your cepyo You will never regret itJ A REGION PROJECT? IN THE PLANNING STAGE? It has been harned through .the grapevine that there will be a Texae Re gion Project possibly during the Laborday 'IoTeekendo Justin case this is all the way you had better be planning on reserving those dates for a good plenty of fun and worko Possible site for the project has been discussed and it seems an exploratory project in Sutton County (home of Mayfield Cave) may be the target. Finding Caves, exploring caves, reporting caves--all in a certain area has been discussed for a number of years as a possibilityo You will most likely hear of the final plans in the next mont h's CAVER 9 so be on the watch for them o And--plan t o attend! Labor Day! REGION DIRECTORY STILL IN NEED OF NAMES Every month now, we have printed an article asking for your name and certain information about you for the Texas Region Directory which is to have a new issue out soon o Some of us forgetful ca vel'S forgot to include the card we spoke of in the last issue 9 so get the one enclosed in this one filled out prontop and mail to George Gray, P o O o Box 17879 Abi lene9 Texas 0 Do it right awaYi don't be left out of the Region Directory!


THE TEXAS CAVER 75 CO/JIf/NTIO/V CHATTANOOGA (Lr5 SHOOT FOR, TXA,S IN 19.s-/--DE'KI'o? ) In order to get as much said in as little a space as possible, the more interesting highlights and sidelights of the convention will be listed below Some of the more lasting impressions of the trip and convention will be given also by Irene Estes. Tandy, Jim Estes, Irene Estes and Mrs. Lady Foster left Fort Worth on Saturday, June 10, and journeyed to Vicksburg, Mississippi that evening. By Monday they were in Atlanta, Georgia, enjoying the bus tours, side trips and seeing the beautiful homes on Atlanta's north side. A trip to Stone Mountain was also made. Tuesday found them traveling through part of North Caroline and the Great Smokey Nount ains National Park (enjoying the huge trees rhododendrons, black bears and all.) Wednesday Tandy and Estes made a spelunking trip to Cumberland Cavern's Monument Pillar i 'lhich is a huge sparkling beauty off the commercial trail. The trip to Crystal Palace that afternoon was missed because of hunger and lack of time. 'r'ha t evening, a banquet in the Volcano Room featured fried chicken, baked beans, potato salad, peach cobbler and coffee. And--the rain came down--in sheets! Entertainment was supplied by the Chattanooga Boy's Choir of 40, the Undertones, harmonizing quartet of Birming ham cavers and some feature recordings. After the banquet, the rain still came down. B rought back great memories of Carlsbad. The next morning early, Tandy made the business meeting at Hotel Patton in Chattanooga, proxying for Dru Hallidayo The convention is to be held in the Black Hills next year. The associate membership dues were raised to five dollarsu At 10:50 the biology session got underway and a 16mm color film, The Cave C ommuni ty was shmoffi and commented on by Brother Nicholas. Mills Tandy showed the film on the wildlife of Caves. Session was then adjourned for lunch. At 1:00 the Organization meeting was held for members only, and the high -light was Russell Gurnee's election to the office of president of the society. At 2:30 p.m. the Congress of Grottoes was held and presided over by Joe Lawrence. A special trip to Ruby Falls Cave lower level was made by many and led by Don B lack of the Chattanooga Grotto. A commer-cial cave operator's dinner was held at 7:00 p.m. and a Buzz Session at 8:00 pm, featuring the famous Neville films, the first films taken in American caves: A repeat showing of the Batu Caves was made, an interesting film made av 'ail able by Clara McClure of U.T. Grotto. the General Session was begun at 9:00 am under the direction of Burton Faust. "Caving, A Therapeutic Tool For Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents" by H. Dwight Weaver, "An Examin ation of Brown-Black Ceiling Deposits from Mammouth and Salts Caves" by Fred Bennington, "From Confusion to a System by Don Black, "Salt Peter Caves in Virginia History" by Burton Faust! and itA Visi t to La Gruta de Bustamante" slide series by Mills Tandy rounded out a most enjoyable session. Eight papers were presented in the geology session, all very good and informative. Space is not available to list them all. Abstracts of these papers 'are to be featured in the next is sue of the N.S.S. NEWS. At 7:30 p u m o the photo Salon, presided over by How ard Sloane was one of the highlights of the convention, as ah,ayso Nations 1 Geographic judged the color slides and made helpful comments about" eacho Nany prizes were won by Tandy and Bob Mitchell of Beaumontp Texes Saturday morning the Practical Session, presided over by Marlin S Werner, featured "Civil Defense Rescue Service and Cave Operations" by Fred Morrison, "Caving Equipment -A Sample Slide Program for Novices" by Don "Caving With Pen and Pencil" by ltS Werner, and the last slide "Rope Work" by Bill Cuddington was cut b e cause of lack of the slides and filmo Saturday afternoon demonstrat10n was held on the "Eagles Nest" on Lookout Mountain with M.S. Wernerp presiding" Then of course, the banquet was held that evening in the Patton Hot-


76 el Tennessee Room with Roger Brucker as Master of Ceremonies o Special prizes,in troduction of 1962 Convention Chairman, remarks by retiring President NicholaS9 introduction of President-elect and new officers, the introduction of the new Board of Directors and the Presentation of Honorary Membership and C ertificates of Merit were madeo The guest speaker(?) for evening was a comedian who kept the conventioneers in stitcheso A Tery successful convent ion! IMPRES SIONS OF THE CONVENTIO N AND TRIP: That wonderful vacation en hanced by a vacation check o Ideal companyoo" The marvelous sight seeing trip through the Smokeys ooo The hab its of all cavers the s a me-ODD' Should be called "The Dirty Dozen!" That wonderful catering ser vice at t h e banquet in the Cumberland Ca verns and where did all the spelunkers c ome from? 000 The program--superbo u o Cavers going into a c a ve w ithout lights, slipping and sliding in the d a rkne s s afte r the banquet"oo Good luck Roy Davis on a more exte ns i ve ventureooo Chattanoogag that wonderful c i ty ()[ history" 0" A nice w e lcome a t the Patton Hot e l by none othe r than our own Barbara l 1unso n 0 0 C aving-A Therapeutic Treat m e n t Tool for Emotionally Disturbed Ado lesc ents ExcellenV Seems Dwight Weaver ha s a good p oint there 0 0 D o n Bl a ck "From Confus ion T o A System" of our c a ve slideso A good f i ling t echmiqueooo Mills Tandy s "A V i s i t to La Gruta de Bustamante" a s well as Batu Cave f ilm a w hopping succ ess' Showed t h e m two times Nills--Texas U s Miles Standish" 0 All papers g ood to e xcellent w i th fine d i ag rams and slideso 0,' Sorry, didn' t hear some of t he papers -n e eded a coffee break,uo Photo Salon a highligh t u 623 poi n t s for Nills Tand y-rathe r goo d u c.' Grandma s h owing h e r eq u ipmento THE TEXAS CAVER Those free periods going sightseeing to Ruby Falls, Rock CitY 9 the Eleva ted RailwaY9 etcooo The wonderful speaking voice of Brother Nicholaso o o Russ Gurnee9 our very new President, and his Jeanne o o o Excerpt from "I'll llever live down the Gurnee CMo (Hal !lOt long enough for Russ) o o o Roger Brucker 9 a good M o Cooo Good food 9 good companioRs and good program at the Banquet Cavers clean up o 0 0 Adieu until next yearoo (Irene Estes) IN NEXT MONTH'S The CAVER will feature the seco n d installment of Dro William R o Halliday' s articleg "Bad Air Caves" and will endeavor to publish an article on Fawcett Cave and a first installment of "Paleontology-With Special Reference to Texas Caves" by Bud Frank OUR NEW SUBSCRIBERS: Jim Clark 1714 Bell Air Abilene 9 Texas Charles Schneider Richland Springs, Texas Russell H u Gurnee 231 Irving Aveo Closter" New Jersey CARBIDE IN THE EYES by Porter B o Echolsg Jro M o D (Taken from article in Met Grotto News) Base chemicals represent OAe of the greatest chemical dangers to the eye9 es pecially to the corneauoo Since carbide 9 when mixed with water breaks down in to a base 9 it has three dangerous propertieso Of greatest danger i s the dust whi ch is often found in the bottom of carbide cans o Great cautio. i s to be taken when handling carbide to keep it a\'tay from the eyeso 0


THE TEXAS CAVER 77 --\ "-/


THE TEXAS CAVER 2818 South 39th Street Abilene, Texas Official Publication of the Texas Region The Natiol'lAl Speleological Society T 0 : RES U L T S Advertise in THE TEXAS CAVER 50 per A RIOTOUS S TOR Y V F A T E X A S CAVE T RIP I N FOR M 0 F A S E R I E S 0 F CAR T a a N S B Y B ILL H ELM E R----GET YOUR COpy! \'iri te : Dudley Roberts 3207 Beverly Lane Austin 5, Texa s CAVERNS OF SONORA $ 1050 for Adults 50 Children Box 78 1 Sonora, Texas You are a spelunker? You do caving, exploring and photographing in caves? Oh.B.Q.! Don fl t tell me you are not a member of the National Speleological So ciety? Wouldn't you like to enjoy the prestige of a National society? Enjoy the unexcelled fellowship 1'1i th its mem bers? Have access to NSS Library 9 Cave files, film and photograph enjoy receiving and reading the NEWS, a monthly publi c ation and the BULLETIN, a bi-annual journal about caves? Then you should join? That is, if you really lik e and enjoy cavingoQo Believe me its 1'1'Orth every bit of the $7000 regtllar member dues annuallyo Contact a member of the National Speleological Soc iety today and see if you cannot be a member of largest and best society of its kind in the worlau Or write: 2318 North Kenmore Stu Arlington 1 9 Virginia IF YOU ARE A l'1EMBER AND HAVEN' T AS YET PAID YOUR DUES-DO IT NOWo R:pol-fec! N. 5.S. Fclia..//tles lit Tile TEXAS IfEG!ON 0 Refol-+e.d N S, s Ate/dents in THE TU,A,S RE &i oN 0 ft)I-IUN R F LA 1-11 I Lets Keep /t tho-fw-a.'1-

Contents: Bad air
caves / William R. Halliday --
Living Lines --
Outline of safety / Bob Littlefield --
A Tales of Sad Cavers / Patti Goodwin --
Photo Page --
News of the Grottos --
Slides still needed --
San Saba County Caves --
"There we wuz" --
Region project? --
N.S.S. Convention held in Chattanooga --
Impressions of the convention / Irene Estes --


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