The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
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Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Bad air caves (Part II) / Dr. William R. Halliday -- Living Lines -- Texas Caver enters seventh month -- Oh oh! Not again. -- News of the Grottos -- Cave paleontology, with special reference to the caves of Texas -- Cartoon by Murph -- Fawcett's Cave -- Map of Fawcett's Cave.
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Original Version:
Vol. 6, no. 7 (1961)
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University of South Florida
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J lY 1961 texas region National Speleological Society


BAD AIH CAV'.::S (?art II) by Dr. '.tillia.::.: R. lhlliday LIVI:IG LI/fr.;S TE.XAS CAVE!R Ell'IER.S SEVENTH 81 83 Cll OB! NOT AGAIN 83 83 84 MEWS OF THE GRCfl'TOO CAVE PAIEONTOLOOY, WITH S.ffiCIAL REi'E.!lEHCE TO THE CAVES OF TEXAS CARTOOi by Hurph FAWCETT Is CAVE MAP or l'avcett I a Cave ADVERTISEl1E.NTS 85 86 f57 89 .9() _c 0 V E H. : Two splendid vie)/S of lo'awcett 's Cave by i-:ills Tandy. Note delicate totem poles. The 'l'exas Region h".d its beeinning in the mid-1950's when Arthur Cnrroll, our present and sc:v:rnl others had the idea and soucht a charter for the !l.J ..). It fairly well flourished nfter that until the N.s.s. did away with Re r;i onn in 1959---.a.s !ar as fi::ancinl and organizatio::"l::1 noo ista,.ce was concerned. Durinc t!'!is period of ti.we (rour:hly 4t to 5 years) the Texas Region has tnrl ns m:Lny as seven active chi.rtered grottoes with o everal other semi-active participating. In 1<)5 6 a !(ecion Conventio11. was held in Rocksprint;a and 1n th clo:-w to 100 in uttendlmce. The Chai.ber o t Co.:_':\crce lf!.mt all-out and everyone them oelvc:-; to v-eat decrees. 'l'he next year Boerne host ed anothor convention and still another in 1 was held at Ozona Hi[;h School with !.'lore than 50 in attendance. In 1959, Reeion spirit was still hir.h, but a attendance (around 35) at the Convention put a damper on thinas. Then in 1960 nll-out e!!ort was put forth by untir ing nnd sririted Texas Grottoes for the best attend ed and one of the best planned N.s.s. Conventions ever. No He,;ion Convention 'lf3S held that year, al 1nny cnvern rllide a trip to BuntAIDatl te for a 1960 He{;ion l'roject. Nov-1961! ',te've still .;ot the spirit (New Dftllan-Fort Grotto or01nized-BOG Meeting at up activities), but -where is tru of that spirit-Effort? Perhaps it may b< we 11 to recall what Jim lledde ll said in an art_. i clc on the Bustanante Project, that best and :to:: t t:1 t any cnver receives fror.. e. project is the f

TiiE TEXAS CAVER 81 -----------____________________ __::;..::;__ 'r--:-. . '111 \ I;' _j: J /t'aot IT :t; . I; \ 1 ,, 1 J : . \ --by 'Wi 1 1 am R.. Hr. tT( cl y Hmr .!Q. Approach .!. "Bad Air" Cr.\Y_(?_ : \ t mde:c 15;-;) is r;resen t, the exj.stance of In recent years compact electronic dr..n::;-c ; r is confirmed. Unless there j s a instruments have been developed ;r'1'; h r .ll re reason for entering the cave, re:ld atmospheric oxygen and CC2 coJtcrmtra-: ;J;ltry should be forbidden during ti.ons directly and continuo-..t::;J.y. 1'11<):::-, e similtr or favorable instruments are expensive end te: . If the cave lilUst be enter tal, hol'rever. e i c'cor,ite the lmmm hazard, it is neeIf an experienced party esr: r y to carry along an independent cautiously enters a reputed "b< d air" cave su; 1ly of air, as gas masks nre not efwith a candle which remains lit, and meets f octive ag::1inst C02. no difficulty in breathing, it is all:;ost I kno-::r of fe\ v analyses of air of certain that there is nothing to fe::tr at A.r::eric.:m c:wes. On July 10, 1939 the that particular time. On the other hr'lnd, of Bines analyzed the air in bro if the candle will not stay lit, or t ell.'3r<.!. l S of Devil 1 s Kitchen, a travertine tale str:ined breathing develop3, 1rhat cave in un active hot spring terrace in then? National Park, vlyoming (TierFirst, abandon the explorati. on im-C3r, L. B., Pers. Colllli1.) The results mediately. Second, make o..r.:m,:e. ,.;}nto to 1w r c as follo1vs: have the air of the analyzed. Cer02 C02 1.23 7.00 tain recently developed instru!llents mtch //1 20.52 as t :1e Pauling oxygen mder have c-rc // 2 19.35 simplified the analyses. If through proper channels, rnn.n;y university, civic or hospital laboratories will be willing to lend a bellO\i'S and. air-tirrht collecting bags or bottles, and to perform the analysis if direct readine indrw:len ts are not available. Particular care should be t :ken at the t ime of collection of the ail' s.: .r..}l cs. The danger zone will not necessari l:r at the sllme place, and may have shifted tovard the en trance as readily a s m-triy from it. The basic principles of tmdcr ground meteorology may, hoti'ever, p

82 shown no increase in C02 nor decrease in oXgen content. D. A., Persv Como.) Compressed Air .Y:. Qxygen The lack of oxygen (or excess of carbon dioxide) in a cave at a lo,,r or moderate elevation is an entirely different problem from that faced by aviators. In "bad air" caves compressed air is better th .. m oxyr;en. Pure oxygen is actually an irritant, and at nonaal elevat1ons its use supplies no more oxygen .iQ. the body than compressed air since our lungs and blood are designed for exceedinely efficient use of ordinary airo In fact, "it is not possible to runke the blood supr-'lying healthy and well aerated alveoii (the tiny parts of the lung that do the work) absorb any important amount of extra oxygen" (Best & Taylor, 1945) by the use of pure oxygen, since the blood is over 95% saturated with oxygen when ordinary air is used. Transportation problems of supplemental t:l.nks of this compressed air raises additional problems. A light w eight closed-system oxygen tank unit, such as that used in the conquest of Ht. Everest, weighs 35 pounds. A standard Air Force compressed oxygen cylinder holding 152 cu bic feet weichs over 62 pounds 1952v) The person requ1res about 20 cubic feet of air \Or an almost equal amount of lOOi& oxygen) per hour for normal breathing when rest.i.llz. In ;.rallnng rapidly, he requires about 130 cubic feet perhour (Armsburg, 1952, anc.l in more strenuous exertion, his need rises even higheru These figures must be kept in mind when considering the size tank The conclusion is that prolonged exploration under these conditions is gen rather impracticaL One additional danecr from the use of pure oxygen in these circwastances must be utentioned. A small but definite concentration of C02 dissolved \H thin the blood is nec essary for life. In the presence of pure oxygen, the deep breathing caused by cave ,.,.i th a heRvy tank or other excef';si ve exert: on c : n dancerous depletion of this body The phenomenon can be simulo. ted by brea t11ing as hard and fast as poss1ble for about one minute . This,. rn ther than b.:J.d :nr, may h:J.Ve the true cause of the Iuser Cave incident (Hudson, and exploration THE TEXAS CAVER involving use of Air Force oxygen tanks, In this case the difficulties developed long before any lack of their supplemental oxygen could have ocurred. If any analyses of the air of Kiser Cave, or other reputed high C02 caves have been performed, I would like very much to learn of theo. Analysis of the air of many "bad air" caves .is urgently needed so that the degree of actual danger may be determined. Even more urgently needed are analyses of the air of a great variety of "normal" caves, so that the nature of the "normal" atmosphere of a cave can be determined. Besides the medical implications, the results will be important to an understanding of speleothem development and resolution, and many other biological and speleological problems. Summary Caves or portions of caves containing excessive carbon dioxide or lack of oxygen are rare in the United States, but do occur. Local rumors of their existence should be considered skeptically and cautiously until laboratory analysis of the cave air can be made. Brief entry into such caves can be made with supplemental tanks of compressed air, but under conditions of great difficult,y and danger. References Anon., 1957. Russell Cave Project Un Southeastern Caver, Sep, page 11. Armstrong, 1952, Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine., 3rd Ed., Williams & Wilkins, Bal tim,ore. Barr, T.C., 1955 New Mammoth's De ad Air and Dried Rats. N.s.s. News 13(2) :4 Feb. Best, C. H. and Taylor, H.G., The Psysio logical Basis of Medical Prac tice, 4th Ed., 1945, page 375. Casteret, N., 1954. The Darkness Under The Earth. J .H. Dent & Sons, Lon don, page 142. Condon, David deL., 1954. Treasure From HcGartney Cave, Yellowstone Na Notes, 28(2):20, Mar-April. IIalliday, vl. R. 1960. Pseudokarst In The United states. N.s.s. Bulletin, :112 Lundy, J.S.} 1943, \LB. Saunders, Phila., page 446.


THE TEXAS CAVER Noneyma.ker, BoCo 1955 (Untitled), N.S,S. Newsy 13(5):6, May. Rosenau; H.J., Preventive I>1edicine and Hygiene, 6th ed., Appleton Century, N. Yo, page 853 Ward, D.Bu, 1955 (Untitled). N.S.S o News, 13(8) :3, Aug. ilanrick, G. T. 1953 in British Caving (Cullingford, CoHoD., edo) Routledge and Kegan Paul, Londonppol44 \fui te, P" vi. 1948o Phosgene in The Dark? N.,d.s. Bulletin lO:ll8. Davies, N.A. Bibliography of Speleology. I iving lines knots tted ih hylon lihes at-e. -ap+ fo .sl/p fehSt-ons Tt e. a II such Knt>+ s w,"+h /or,cr ehd-' and -fheh .secur-e. by h-oi f h'1 tches to :; fo. nd lh'1 of fJhQ S '6 TEXAS CAVER ENTERS SEVENTH I>lONTH vli th a full half year already gone by9 the TEXAS with this printing, enters its seventh month of publication. It is agreed at the same time9 that it has not all been easy as it seemed to be. The multitude of paper costs9 plus picture re production, has made the CAVER cost more for this Volume VI than any other" vle certainly hope you have gotten your money's 1-1orth so far this year o Thanks from all the staff to all of you who sent in arti cles, pictures, etc. --with our special thinks to R & R Reproduction in Hho have done a very fine printing job. YOU l:AY ILW'i: TO \/AIT A I110NTII.". Yep, you may have to wait a month for news of a region project. It w as hoped that something would be forthcoming in this issue, but we must go to press on Please have material in by the 5th! .:.lernember-, the CAVER depends on Y 0 U !! 83 OH OH! NOT AGAIN1o o o I'm afraid so--one of those silly characters from Bill Helmer's Cartoon series "There i'/e 'vlr->.s!" You' 11 never regret purchasing one of these cool mags, ole man! So come on now, and drop a line to Dudley Roberts, 3207 Beverly Lao, Austin Texas for your copy. We 1 re not kidding, its Nay out! All Ca vers in the U.S. should have oneo Write your copy. 75! ON, CA VERS Ol!, TEXAS, WAKE UP! ! Since the last mailing of the CA VER, a few postcards been received by George Gray, editor of Texas Region Directory, with rec;uested information. It is for you that all the trouble of compiling a directory is done. Get that last CAVER, clip out that card and attach a 3 stamp on it and easily drop it in a mailbox. Less time and energy than you think. o If you have sent in one during the last year, send in another, because the Directory needs to be kept up-to-date to be worth anything. Mail today!


84 THE TEXAS CAVER :! l!e G ROTTOS ABILENE: Grotto activity has ber_,.i l confined to one vi ty and one meeting the p.:l8 t m o n tr1. The film, <u Caves, via s s:1own to the erotto Tuesday niGht, July 11 at the home of G e orge and Jackie Gray v Cave 3lides were slso sho,m of r ecent caving trips bkc n the previous montho 'rhere w ere eleven present who enjoyed the delicious coffee ice cream and home made cookies--plu3 the usual thick Abilene Grotto coffee. 1'lnllll, sure good! A caving trip was made to Sutton County Saturday, July 15 to check out and explore two caves The caves, un-named nnd located not too far from the city of Sonora, were shallow and but a good time was had by alL Those ,.,ho made the trip were Bart and Jaylene Crism a .. James Estes and Irene Estes, George and Jackie Gray and Ricky Lopezo The day was made a perfect one by the visit to the back ends of iiayfield Cave, the Hall of The \fui te Giants and The Angel Wing" Severl trips are planned for the future: One to explore more of Cave "Y" and another to make movies o A L A M 0 : Something must have happened down in San Antonioo No word in nearly three months" Do you reckon they ve all gotte n themselves trap ped in soue kind of hole? Say you are the only o n e \ie have heard from--anyone doing any cav t ng down that way? D A L L A S -F 0 R T W 0 R T H (R E S E R V E D F 0 R N E ','/ S) There's no caves near or Fort Worth Those guys couldn : t be lost or c.:tn they? Seems SOooo UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS: With most of the members of the grotto gone for the summer and others busy in school or at work, activity has slowed to a minimum. Except for a few small trips to caves nearby, the only activity of the grotto has been a map ping trip to the Caverns of Sonora by James Reddell, Dick Smith, and Philip Russell, where virtually everything before-the Pit was completed, a trip by Bob and Pat Rodgers to Bustamante, and a mapping trip to Langtry. Bob and Pat found a group of cavers from I-lonterrey ahead of them carrying 200 meters of rope with them r.orhj_ch to explore the cave. It seems a small crack at the end of the cave led to drop after drop and still goes. Although they didn't run through their rope they came to a drop which could not be climbed without a !.ladder because of muddy rope. The Langtry trip saw Dick Smith, Bud Frank, 'Philip Russell and James Reddell map Langtry Lead Cave, Enerald Sink, Langtry Gypsum Cave, and Fisher's Fissure. The four caves, together with Langtry QUarry Cave, make up some of Texas' deepest caves. In Lead Cave, at 371 feet, is the second deepest surveyed cave in the state. A brief mapping trip to Indian Creek Cave saw the cave go over the three mile as better than 600 additional feet were mapped. Bill Russell is now in Germany and \fill probably be there for quite a while, Tommy Evans is in Daisy, Tennessee, helping at a commercial cave, and other members are at home. (It has been learned an article in the Dallas Morning News that Bob Benfer and Alice Hirsch are engaged to be married. ) A special summer meeting is planned ror each month. The first meeting was held July 8th, and a second is planned for August. The second issue of the Texas Speleological Survey should be out soon, covering the CAVES OF LANGTRY, a special report concerned with the deep caves of this area and their geology.


THE TEXAS CAVER 85 L () ll10J lE() illll. ..... ID Y \J1+h Specro;l Referettce To lhe Cdves Ot Texas by Rubeh M, Fr-k 11Bud" Frnnk is a student at the University of Texas and member of the Uo To Grottoo In presenting this copy to the CAVER, he mentioned the fact its length might be a hindranceo This article, then, by need rather than preference, will be divided into two partso The first rrill include the Advantages and Problems of Caves Paleontologic Sites, the second part to be printed in the August CAVER, will present the Paleontologic Cayes of Texas and a Discussion with map and referenceso The paper, from which this article was taken, was written for a geology class and received a high ratingo --Ed.) PART I: CAVES AS PALEONTOLOOIC SITES In Europe9 in the 16th century, soon after the fear of caves as dens of demons came to an end, cave paleontology had its beginningo The caves over the entire continenet were searched diligently for unicorn hornso better place to look for the remains of an animal which had never been seen, than in a place where man had never been" Despite the levity of this cave paleontology '\'las seriously being studied in Burope by the 18th century, 1rhen the caves of Franconia, Ger received attentiono In paleontology there is a special problemv In order to study the remains of living organisms, we must first find those remainsv then9 should ,.,e not look in a place 'l'rhere ue are assured of finding a reasonably large concentration of specimens if there are any at all? ili th this large number of indi viduals and species to 1'l'Ork ,.,i th, the paleontologist C:]n begin his interpretation of conditions that existed l'hen the animals livedv And (especially in the case of vertebrate paleontology) he can be more assured t:r.EL t his interpretation is correct than if he '\'l'orking Hi th one or only a fe1'1' individuals, as is often the caseo This factor alone9 quantity9 is probably the most important advantage to studying paleontology in caveso There are other advantages, ho'l'rever; 1rhich we shall now considero Caves, in comp:uison to the surface, are low energy areaso As such, they are not subject to erosional agents to the same extent as the surfaceo This pro vides the basis for three more paleontological advantageso In some instances where there has been prolonged erosion nnd no deposition on the surface, caves provide the only sheltered places where deposition could have occuredo A typical example is the caves of the Balcones Up lifto and consequently little or no is occurring on the Ed ward's Plateau now and obviously has been for quite some timeo The only place that animal remains younger than Cretaceous are likely to be found in this area, is in caveso The second advantage that caves provide because of their low energy level is in the preservation of sffiall and delicate formso In most instances of surface fossilization, vertebrate remains are broken up soon after death or simply never found because they are so small. In caves these reu;ains are less likely to be broken beyond recognition and more likely to be found by rashing of the sediments. The third advantage is a minor one? but still worth mentioning. Surface water tends to leach and replace fossils on its way through the soil layerso Con sequently the fossil may be lost or its fo1:m distorted" By the time ground water reaches a cave, however, it is already over-saturated with minerals and therefore does not attack the cave fossil. This is evidenced by the accumulation of secondary deposits in caves and even on cave fossilso Problemsg With all these advantages over fossil-preservation on the sur-


86 face, why not abandon surface paleontology entirely and concern ourselves "ri th caves alone? The question is as ridJ.culous as the answer is obvious. Perhaps maJor. problem is that of translating the stratigraphy in the cave. In surface paleontology the Law of Superposition helps to determine the relative age of the fossiJo On the surface this law is, in a sense, one dimensional, i.e., ideally the elder sediments lie directly beneath the vounger" This is because the only restnction for the deposited material is the be th it. In a cave, this law acts hi-dimensionally. The walls as ,.,ell as the floor serve as restrictions.. lt,or example; if a periodically a.ctive stream flows through a cave, which is often the case, then the older sediments in th:. path of the stream are removed and redeposlted against the back wall. The sediments brought in by the stream are deposited in their place. The old sediments a long the side walls may not be distur\1ed at alL This is an ideal situation of course" 1.fua t generally happens is that the ceve ntreams rework the sediments to such an Jxtent that only the top one or tl'lO layers co.n be interpreted as distinct time intervals" Other stratigraphic may arise from a variety of causes" Deposltion in caves in some instances is not continuous. The opening may close and then reopen many times.. Thi.s 1s especial ly true of horizontal :aves" -The; stages of the Pleistocene hnve creat0d THE TEXAS CAVER problems in cave stratigraphy also. Those caves which lay in the periglacial area were sometimes partially flushed by the glacial melt waters and those which lay beneath the glaciers were either eradicated or filled. All of these prob lems point to the fact that cave sediments older than late Pleistocene are rare and difficult to determine stratigraphically. The only answer to these problems is to observe the cave stratigraphy carefUlly and be constantly aware of its relation to the fossil assemblage. As a side thought, a good place to look for older and stratigraphically interpretable sediments is in positive caves, i.e., caves that have been filled by sediments younger than the rocks containing them. This is especially applicable to karst areas. Because most vertebrate remains in caves are the result of prey of occupants of the dave, the fossill is predominately predetermined by the ator. This peculiar -has been termed taphocoenosiso Thus, we do not get a complete cross section of life in the cave area. This can be overcome some>ihat simply by knowing the associated animals which are likely to occur 1>ri th those that have been preserve do 1The term was derived by Mo .Kretzoi,l956 from the Greek Taphe, meaning burial or grave and Koi.nas v common, plus osis' o


THE TEXAS CAVER ocated in the rough hill co .mtry of northern Val Verde County and almost twenty miles from a road of any size or importance, it is remarkable that the three-foot in diameter entrance to Fawcett's Cave was ever found at allo Steep canyons and sharp ridges make travel difficult anQ the scarcity of people make obtaining E.ccess difficult. Yet, this is one of most promising of all places in Texas to J : :ok for ne>v caves. Quigg Sinkhole is only eight r Ues from Fawcett' s and the Devil' s River J .Lme stone is probably better than 500 thick in places. Cave itself is one of the larger and certainly one of the most beautiful caves in Texasa A short drop at the entrance leaas to a fissure-like upper level thirty feet above the floor of the main cave. By chimneying across the top of this fissure from the entrance, a narrow place can b e found to climb down to the cave floor. Here you are greeted by the "ghost" of the cave, a 15 foot high pure white curtain mass of flowstone set in sharp contrast to the cave floor and walls. This formation stands at the beginning of a 25 foot wide, 8'] bz J.m cos :Rdd e \I 15 foot high, 300 foot long passage l'l'hich ends in fill. The ceiling near the end is covered with fossils, probably rudistids. Back from the entrance a mass of breakdown rises to the ceiling but can be by-passed on either aide. Halfway around on the right a low, very wide crawl takes off over flat smooth breakdown. After about 50 feet, the ceili ng rises to about seven feet and many tine formations are to be found. The passage ends after a couple of hundred feet. Once around the main mass of breakdown you find yourself in a 30 foot high room floored with guano-covere d breakdown and inhabited by many bats. From this room two large passages extend. One of these, Grand Central, ende 'after about 300 feet. The floor of this passage is huge, perfectly flat breakdown blocks with clay filling the crevices be tween blocks. The passage contains vir tually no formations and ends abruptly in a filled depression. The other passage from the Bat Room leads for 150 feet to a junction with two other passages at a breakdown on the left. The right takes off from this breakdown mound and extends


88 about 200 feeto This is the Helictite Room and consists of a virtual forest of totem poles, stalagmites, and other fo:ma tions while the ciling is covered Wlth of large Hayfield-type helictites. The other passage from the junction extends for about 200 feet before it ends in a large "room11 about 10 feet below the average leve 1 of the passage. Continuing along the main passage it extends as a 50 to 60 foot wide, 20 foot high passage for about 300 feet where it suddenly makes a better than 90 degree turn to the left and continues a few hun dred feet and stopso This passage is by far the most beautiful in the cave. A line of joint-controlled totem poles and stalagmites of remarkable beauty both in their color and their form extends most of the length of the passage. At one point a veritable wall of orange and white glistening columns and totem poles have formed, dividing the wide passage into two parts. On the left of these formations, crystalclear pools may be found in a niunber of travertine dams. The plan of Fawcett's Cave is a strange one. The large very obviously joint-controlled passages ending abruptly in depressed wider areas are quite un usual for most Texas caves. The only reason for the sudden cessation of all but one of the cave's main passages is apparently that each passage ends in a nowfilled pitu The one exception to the rule is a passage which extends along the gully in which the cave entrance is formed and finally fills with clay fill. The other passages are floored with large flat breakdown and hnve regular ceilings. The passages end in depressions containing n o breakdown and with the ceiling height consistent with that of the main passage o The appearance of each is that of a rounded pit now completely filled" A similar in stance is thn t of Blackstone Cave in Terrell County, where a long 'wide passage ends suddenly in a round room with fill on the flooro The size and beauty of Fawcett s Cave, as \iell the ease of entry make it one of the most promising caves in Texas, from a photographic point of view o The live, beautifully colored formations and the total lack of vandalism make it a pho tographer's For this same reason the owner has allowed few people into THIJ: TEXAS CAVER the cave and will probably continue to let few ino Should his hospitality be infringed upon by any vandalism or unwanted entry, a gate will probably be placed over the entranceo R [b I oNX:;R'oJ rc T Just received--word of the upcoming Region Project of 1961! The project will be held in Sut-ton County over the Labor Day Weekend on September b ., .2_9 and A.o Mark those dates on your calenders! Instead of concentrating on one cave as we have done in the past, this year we are going to do the survey of an entire countyo Of course it will be impossible to do a complete survey of each cave in the county in the short time that we will have, but it should be possible to locate a majority of the caves in that county and to make a rough determination of their extento The survey of any major find will have to w!i.i t until a later dateo It should be possible to explore and map most of the minor caves foundo The primary purpose of the project, however, will be to locate caves and to roughly determine their extent for future explorationo Very little is lmo1m of the caves of Sutton County and the survey of this county will fill a big gap in the speleology of Texas. Tentative plans have been made for locating our headquarters on Sonora city propertyo From there the survey of the county will be directedo Teams of three or four people will be snet out, each with a given area to covero It is hoped that we will be able to equip each team with mapping gear so that they will be able to make maps of each cave that they find, providing that the cave is small enough to map in a short length of timeo At the end of the day, the will return to survey headquarters and report their findingso In this manner I hope to see a fair portion of the caves in Sutton County locatedo Each grotto will furnish mapping equipment and some climbinG gear to make all of this possible. Brunton compasses will be impera on page 90)




THE TEXAS CAVER 2818 South 39th Street Abilene, Texas The official publication of The Texas begion The National Speleological Society TContinued page 88) PROJECT tivc for decent maps to be made. Groups will gather together at nieht for merriment or sack time, and the groups or grottoes will have to arrange for their food and eats themselves. Since people will be scurrying all over the countryside and 1-1ill be in and out at all times, it would be impractical to feed them all at one time as in annual projects as before. u. T. Grotto, however, will m

Contents: Bad air
caves (Part II) / Dr. William R. Halliday --
Living Lines --
Texas Caver enters seventh month --
Oh oh! Not again. --
News of the Grottos --
Cave paleontology, with special reference to the caves of
Texas --
Cartoon by Murph --
Fawcett's Cave --
Map of Fawcett's Cave.