The Texas Caver

Citation
The Texas Caver

Material Information

Title:
The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Creator:
Texas Speleological Association
Publisher:
Texas Speleological Association
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Editorial -- Letters to the Editor -- New caving area in central Texas / Mike Warton -- Cartoon / Ruth Darilek -- Spray the cave / Ronnie Fieseler -- Wee animalicules: iodine water purification / Tsgt. Nix -- Cartoon / Ken Griffin -- 1973 NSS convention -- Memorable quotes -- Garbage -- Cavers' first aid notes, part 3 / David E. Faz -- TSA cave rescue project / James Jasek -- News and history -- Trips -- Notices.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 18, no. 03 (1973)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-04570 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4570 ( USFLDC Handle )
11304 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

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Added automatically
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TEXAS CAVER MARCH 1973

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Page 62 The TEXAS CAVER March I 973 COVER: I 973 TSA Cave Rescue Project montage. Photos by James Jasek. The TEXAS CAVER is a monthly publication of the Texas Speleological Association, an internal organization of the National Speleological Society, and is published in San Antonio, Texas. Material should be typed double spaced and sent to the editor, Glenn Darilek, at 11929 Grapevine San Antonio, Texas 78228, no later than the first of the month of publication. Subscriptions are $4.00 per year for 12 issues and all subscriptions should be sent to James Jasek at 1218 Melr ose Waco Texas 76710. Persons subscribing after the first of the year will receive all back issues for that year. Sing l e copies are availab l e at $.40 eac h postpaid anywhere in the U.S. STAFF: Maggie Allison Karen C lement Ruth Darilek, Asst. Editor John Graves Chuck Stuehm Phil Winkler G lenn Darilek, Editor Greg Passmore PRINTING and DISTRIBUTION: James J asek ASSEMBLY: Huaco Cavcrs The TEXAS CAVER Volume XVIII, Number 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * EXCHANGERS: Address copies to l I 929 Grapevine, San Antonio, Texas 78228 Page 63 64 65 66 67 69 70 7 1 72 73 74 76 79 81 93 * CONTENTS EDITORIAL LETTERS TO THE EDITOR NEW CAVING AREA IN CENTRAL TEXAS by Mike Warton CARTOON by Ruth Darilek SPRAY THE CAVE by Ronnie Fieseler WEE ANIMALICULES-IODINE WATER PURIFICATION by Tsgt. Nix CARTOON by Ken Griffin 1973 NSS CONVENTION MEMORABLE QUOTES GARBAGE CA VERS' FIRST AID NOTES, Part 3 by David E. Faz TSA CAVE RESCUE PROJECT by James Jasek NEWS AND HISTORY TRIPS NOTICES * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * OFFICERS OF THE TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL ASSOC IATION FOR 1973 ARE: Chairman. . Vic e Chairman . Secretary-Tre a surer Ronnie Fieseler Neal Morris Jerry Lindsey

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The TEXAS CAVER., March 1973 Paae EDITORIAL At the TSA BOG meeting, we were surpriaed to find that al.rno1t everyone there was firmly backing the TEXAS CAVER. This was confirmed by the many subscriptions sold and the warm reception we were given during the meeting. Then we had to go and spoil the whole mood by bringing up the motion to accept the TEXAS CAVER as an official publication. This was complicated by a list of stipulations and an undecided attitude as to the issue of a dues paying TSA member ship. Although there is something to be gained by having dues, we felt that there would be strong opposition to any move to require a member to pay dues. However since most of the active members in the TSA subscribe to the TEXAS CAVER, it was felt that a requirement that all TSA members subscribe to the TC would not be too objectionable. Of course this was partly for selfish reasons. As editor of the TC, it is my job to work for anything that would work for the betterment of the publication so this is what we were attempting to do. Probably the best thing for the TSA is to drop this issue and continue as we always have. I believe that as the TEXAS CAVER progresses, the TSA will unify and there will be no need for dues. At any rate, the TEXAS CAVER waa adopted as the official publication of the TSA with a list of stipulatioaa that will better insure the success of the TC. The whole is sue was ironed out until there was unanimous accord. Don 1t think you will get through this editorial without the monthly plea for articles and subscriptions. Keep the good news and the good articles coming in. There will be more information on the BOG meeting in next month 1 s is sue when all the pictures come in and we can get a write up. * * NOTICE To out of state grottos: 63 We are sending this issue to most of the NSS grottoes in the United States. We hope all of your members will read and enjoy it. We are able to exchange publications with a limited number of other organizations, so please consider this or perhaps subscribe to the TEXAS CAVER. We publish each month, this being the third is sue this year. If you would like to keep up to date on the cave discoveries and happenings in Texas and Mexico, send $4. 00 to James Jasek, 1218 Melrose, Waco, Texas 76710.

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Page 64 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Letters To The January 7, 1973 Dear Glenn, Thanks very much for the compliment in the January 1973 Texas Caver, in which it was stated that I was awarded the Ralph W. Stone Research Award by the NSS. I thought I would point out, however, that this is not for work already done, but for a proposed research project which may be the subject of my doctoral dissertation. Indeed, it will take "a lot of time and a lot of hard work", which is exactly why I am scared to think of it. Yours sincerely, Sir, There may be a few of your readers who would like to hear the preliminary results of our finl!lings on the number of drops of water per minute dropping from a certain soda straw, based on the article in the January 1972 Texas Caver by Elbert Bassham, with commentary by Doctor Baggins in the February issue. We wouldhave replied sooner but of course it took twelve months to collect the samples, one sample each month. Some difficulty was had in explaining the scientific nature of our many visits to the cave owner. However, we did prevail and found that twelve collections was indeed an insufficient number of samples to accurately predict the number of water drops dropping from the soda straw uncle r question. In order to speed up the operation, we have recruited the help of Senor Os o Negro, who will take weekly samples over the next year. Unfortunately, we will have to wait another year to determine the final results of our noble experiment. Sincerely yours, President Par Club * * * The TSA Photo Salon has been re-vitalized Enter your favorite slides or prints now. For complete information, consult the February TEXAS CAVER of Ronald G. Fieseler, 400 Lockhart Drive, Austin, Texas 78704. *

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 65 The Balconies Grotto FAULT LINE New Caving Area In Central Texas by Mike Warton NSS 126ll There is a new area of considerable speleological interest in Bandera County, Texas. This karst area of two by five miles has many caves and s inks. It is directly related with the drainage course of the Medina River. Caves recently discovered in this area about seven miles south of Bandera, are potentially extensive and abundant in cavern life. They have also been v i rtually untouched by Texas Cavers. Very little work has been done in Ban d era County and a great many caves are sure to be found there. BANDERA COUNTY Warrior Cave Mytery Tunnel G_ave Warrior Cave, discovered on our first trip is approximately 60 feet in depth and contains approximately 1, 000 feet of explored passage to this date. Many good leads were left unchecked and the size of the upper drainage tunnels indicates there is more passage to be found. Many nice and unusually shaped formations are found in the lower portions of the cave. Before the cave's discovery the entrance was covered with a thin limes tone layer no thicker than a piece of cardboard. If one were to have stepped : m what appeared to be solid rock, it would have given way under pressure. T h ere was only the slightest indication of a cave a curious hole about t h e size of a half dollar. Pebble dropping made the hole even more interesting. I had not expected to find a cave in this particular spot because it was o n a long gently sloping side of a large sink filled within a couple of feet from surface level with a thick covering of prairie grass. I began hammering away at the hole. It was suprising to see the thin covering shattering like g lass being broken out of a window. The sound was even similar. In a short while we had an accesSible entrance. The covering had hidden a pit about 3 0 feet deep and opening two to three feet in diameter. Once inside the cave we found that the larger sinkhole had once been the original entrance. Viewing natural fill and massive break-down at the bottom presented us with a better picture of what had happened. The entrance through which we had come was only a domepit in the ceiling. At the bottom w e found a low but very wide room. I was again suprised to find recent guano piles. Our entrance was the only way in and was the only hole large enoug h for bats to enter the cave. There must be another entrance some-

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Page 66 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 where, but none have been found yet. Bats were absent from the cave at that time. Equally as suprising was finding a large raccoon face-to-face in a crawlway. Our next discovery was Mystery Tunnel Cave only a few hundred feet from Warrior Cave. Mystery Tunnel Cave consists of two separate rooms connected by a long subway-like tunnel about 400 feet long and filled with formations. The cave is approximately 50 feet in depth at the lowest point and about 2, 000 feet in length. However, here again many leads were left unchecked because of the time factor. In the west entrance room is a fair sized colony of Mexican Free Tailed and Brown Bats. Much guano was found in the west entrance rooms and throughout the connecting tunnel, but absent in the east entrance and passages. Heavy rains have washed much guano from the west entrance and left a hardpacked flooring in the connecting tunnel. The tunnel maintains a height of four feet to the east entrance. Guano in the tunnel is several feet thick, but one could easily walk its length if it were not there. The immediate area of both new caves is riddled with approximately thirty sinkholes large and small. So far we have checked only about onethird of these and f ound many smaller caves with many leads. This is a prime area for future caving projects and much is left to be found. Our greatest concerns for this area are that the best efforts be made to protect salamanders and other cavern life by following proper conservation practices. Also follow the rancher's wishes and you will be welcome. Make trips with a limited crew and read Bill Russell's "Rancher Relations" (Texas Caver, January 197 3) the night before. * * * * * *

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The TEXAS C A VER, March 1973 Page 67 >f>kAY T by Ronnie Fieseler Did you ever take a spray in a cave? If not, maybe you should have. Your cave maps will improve tremendously by showing a more accurate passage outline. The old-time, experienced cave surveyors probably know what I am talking about by now, although they may call it something else. Admittedly, it is fairly common knowledge. However, I can't recall seeing an article on it in any of my back issues of the CAVER, so I decided to write one and throw the idea out for general information and hope that it will do some good. A spray is a series of survey sightings taken from a single station. Visualize yourself in the center of a circle with several lines of radius extending outwards for various lengths and at as sorted angles. The center is your chosen station and the radii are your lines of sights to various other stations. Suppose you are mapping down a nice cozy cave passage where the walls are fairly close to you, if not actually within reach. Suddenly you emerge into a large room. Some mappers will map right across in one line and let the sketchman draw in the room. I have seen both experienced and begining surveyors do this. Perhaps they are in a hurry, or are tired, or maybe it's because they don't know of anything else to do. Hopefully, this article will eliminate the last excuse. When a single line is shot through a cave room and the room merely sketched, then the finished map probably only portrays one thing accurately, and that is that the room is shown in its relationship to the rest of the cave. Chances are that the shape of the room may be inaccurate. It is a rare sketchrnan indeed that can consistently sketch a room in correct dimensions and proportions and accurately place survey stations, break-down blocks, notable formations, and other pertainent data (see map on last page of article). 1 Try this the next time. Map to the center of the room or to any spot of high ground. The spot should be chosen so that you can see as much of 'the room as possible. Once you are set up here, send the lead chainman to various stations in the room, such as walls, large rocks, leads, or formations. Take the distance, shoot the azimuth, and the verticle angle (if necessary). Let the room itself regulate the number of stations you shoot, remembering however, that it is hard to get too many. During the 1activities above, the sketchrnan is free to roam around and get a good idea of what the room looks like, and generally, his sketch will look a lot better than if he had hurriedly drawn it while trying to keep up with the survey crew following a single line. After enough sightings have been made, continue with the survey. Back at the drafting room you will see where all this effort is going to :help you more than you imagined. If you have shot enough stations, you

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Page 68 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 will have an accurate representation of the room outline (plan view), and, using the sketches, you can almost play "dot to dot" when drawing the pencil sketch on the line map. If you have shot verticle ang] '-s as well, you can draw some very accurate cross sections of the room. Of course, the position of rocks, formations, and side passages are als o located exactly. Isn't this much better than trying to rely on dirty, muddy sketches and hoping that what results resembles the room? That series o f lines which looks like a bur sting covey of quail has sure simplified matters hasn't it? In complicated rooms, the surveyors may have had to use two or more central stations. In Punkin Cave, I used five (see below). This spray system is often used even in large c a v e passages. Side leads and other important topography should b e located in this manner. Indeed, some passages may verge on being an elongated room. A modified spray which is used with much success is the measuring of the distance from normal survey stations to the passage walls. Only the chain is used, no sights are taken. This doesn't take long and certain! y beats guessing. In the opposite vein, when it is impractical to chain the distance (pit or crevice in the way for example) just shoot the azimuth and the vertical angle. These two points of reference will help locate the point in question in the sketch with little difficulty. I urge you to try this at your next opportunity if you have never done so before. If you have, please continue to do so. I'm sure you will find it to your advantage to use this system. It's a simple, and quick way to upgrade the quality of your cave maps. Spray Mapping Mapped 1971 Ronnie Fieeler Don Tebbet M PUNKIN CAVE Edward County, Texas Simplified Outline Map Mapped 1962 AbUene Grotto

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 69 "wee anirnalicules" IODINE WATER PURIFICATION Cavers should drink impure water only if it is their "last resort". Dependent on many factors, such as contaminating o rganism, physical condition of the individual, etc., there i s no set time lapse between drinking impure water and symptoms of dysentery. Diarrhea may begin within minutes. Diarrhea and accompanying intestinal cramps are extremely debilitating and result in further dehydration through increased water loss in stools. A man may, in a very f e w minutes, render himself helpless after drinking contaminated water. For this reason it is imperative that all surface water (streams, pools, lakes, etc.) be purified before consumption. Ground water in wells or caves should be considered suspect. Normally, ground water percolated through as little as 20' of sand and gravel is naturally filtered and purified. However, in some parts of the world (Texas included) ground water tables have been lowered by increased consumption of water, droughts, and stream channelization, sometimes resulting in ground water contamination. Soil runoff may also contaminate wells by seepage of nitrates into ground water. li no testing equipment is available to establish its potability, ground water should also be purified. Water in caves is especially suspect because caves are often only enlarged underground fissures in hard rock The cave water may travel for thousands of feet through hard rock c revices without benefit of sand and gravel percolation (purification). In rural areas waste s are often dumped in sink holes further adding to the danger of ground water contamination. While true troglobites (blind crayfish, fish, salamanders, crickets, etc.) would not be expected to contaminate cave water, bats, oppossum, turtles, and more transient animals may leave contaminating fecal Turtles, for example, are often heavily infected with salmonella bacteria (typhoid) which are passed into water with the feces. Cave water may also contain high quantities of dissolved minerals (sulfur, iron, alkaline salts, etc.) which sometimes render the water unpalatable. Boiling, filtering, and/ or chemical additives are several methods of water purification available to cavers. The most widely used of the chem ical additives are halazone and iodine. During and for several years after wwn, halazone was used expediently in preference to iodine because it was inexpensive, fairly effective, and immediately available. Improved iodine tablets in the form of tetraglycine hydroperriodide (globaline) -Federal Stock Number 68509857166-were developed and adapted for armed forces use around 1952. The iodine tablets are superior because: ( 1) they are a much more effective bacteriocide, virucide, and cysticide (halazone is apparently a poor cysticide against amoeba cysts). (2) they are more effective in cold water,

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Page 70 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 (3) they are not tied up by organic compounds and are therefore more effective in turbid water, (4) they lend no chlorine (or iodine) taste to the purified water, and (5) they have at least the same shelf life as halazone (halazone stability is less than optimal because of its chlorine-like characteristics). As with any disinfectant, it is very important to allow sufficient contact time. In most cases, a minimum of time of thirty minutes is needed to give the chemicals time to become effective. Unfortunately, the iodine or globaline tablets are not as available as halazone. One source is the Van Brodie Milling Company of Clinton, Massachusetts. As more sources become known, cavers will be able to obtain an ample supply for all water purification needs. This information was furnished by Tsgt. Nix, Environmental Medicine Brooks AFB, San Antonio, Texas. * * * * TELL 'EM \A:t'R IM?OVERl.S\-\E.\) rUG\\\\/ES LOO::\NC, FOR A.. CA\JE \0 *

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 71 The cavers of southern Indiana once again host the NSS Convention at t h e Indiana University campus in Bloomington on June 16-24, 1973. Two n e w features this year are: 1. The preconvention activities will be held in conjunction with Speleofe st in cave-rich Kentucky; 2 The Tuesday evening party will commence with a "Possum Roa'st11 put on by southern Indiana1s Sam Frushour &: Company. Part of the fun will be to identify what you are eating! Indiana1s 1200 caves will offer a selection to all. There are 19 miles i n the Blue Springs System, Gory Hole is a 130 foot drop, but you can theoretically drive your car around in at least one cave. Several commercial c a ves are also located in southern Indiana. If you are looking for a camping spot before or after the Convention, try 11The Barn11, five miles southwest of Bloomington at the end of Eller Road. Dick Blenz purchased the 11Hoosier Speleospot11 a few years ago, containing numerous caves and one barn. Dick states that an average of 100 cavers sign his register every weekend. For those of you who know Dick, he has not given up his plan to build a house in the Volcano Room of Buckner1 s Cave. However, he has started a house on the surface so he can move in a n d keep an eye on things, as well as continue down in the Volcano Room. Monroe County, Indiana may be the karst area with the most caver-hours per year in the country. Several factors contribute to this; the close proximity of the Indiana University campus in Bloomington; the acces sability via high speed turnpikes; the central midwest position of many horizontal caves; etc. A bulk of this is novice caving, and for many, southern Indiana is their first contact with the sport. Reeve 1 s Cave has been a popular 11Sunday Cave11 for many years. That is, you straddle the stream and enjoy the first few hundred feet of decorated passage. Beyond this it is more of a 11Saturday Cave11 -a mud and water craw l followed by a 11bore-hole11 passage with numerous break-down squeezes. After a half mile it appears that you have reached the end of the big passage, but a low passage takes off for 2200 feet through water (again!) to the edge of a 30 foot pit. It is believed that only two groups had been down the pit until October 1972. They found what is thought to be a separate stream system under the pit. Downstream is a tapering cobble stone siphon, but it has been dye traced to Goode 1 s Cave approximately 4000 feet to the s outheast. Upstream (NW) from the pit was virgin after a few hundred feet o f high canyon passage. Three members of the Windy City Grotto and Dave DesMarais of the Bloomington Indiana Grotto pushed 3000-4000 feet upstream in October 1972 to find four impressive waterfalls, several canyon ceilings with surface debris, and at least one side stream, before turning back because of lack of time. The cave continues upstream (NW) as a mud bottom

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Page 72 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 stream crawl. Efforts are underway to map the section off the pit in Reeve's Cave because the Bloomington Indiana Grotto had mapped 5500 feet up to the pit in late 1971. Although Indiana has some 1200 known c aves, if two miles are mapped in Reeve's, it will rank in the top fifteen of the state 1 s longest systems. . . '. '. Memorable Quotes . '., "Well, hide and watch, brother, because some of us are going to kick some life into the TSA". R. Glenn Fieseler "At least they won't have Richard Nixo n to kick around anymore". R. Milhous Nixon "How far bette r it is to carry three sources of light than to curse the darkness''. Sanchez "The annual meeting of the International Institute o f Speleology will be held in Czechoslovakia this y ear. That's a little out of the way for most of us''. A. Richard Smith "The only thing I can say about the late x method o f cave surveying is that it is more accurate than less accurate methods". Scott Harde n Bill Russell CZi? EX !JJ. 7?15[}{}/t!J AVAILABLE OHa .A&AIH 4-" ];.;,.({ j-COLoR .1A..JRlM. .P..AJr(Clf{ O.RIDJFJR 7'111 JlfiJf?l5llJ $ #'t!a o{u; 08 J. 4<>1 Bll'tl.OR., ll(IIS 1-81Q3

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 73 AMCS Newslette r has some fine artwork on the Trip Reports and Articles title pages. How many people realize that the art on the Trip Reports pag e ( a cav e r wit h a n innertube in a wate r passage ) is drawn from a photograph taken in Indian Creek C a ve, Texas? We have just received word of a revolutionary new method of cave mapping. It is the Latex method of cave surveying, liquid latex :is sprayed on the cave walls, allowed to dry, and peeled off. When taken outside, it can be blown up like a balloon and accurately measured. Lennie Dawson of crystal River, Florida has had his problems with his new home. It seems that his financial status and his home have "gone into the hole''. The day before his family planned to move into their new $25, 000 nome, they noticed a crack in their bedroom wall. Soon the dirt around their house began falling away and by the next morning most of the house lay at the bottom of a 100-foot deep crevice. Citris County Commissioner Stephenson said he watched as a 35 -foot telephone pole disappeared, dragging more than 100 feet of cable with it. "It just stood up on end and disapp eare d out of sight, 11 he said. Stephenson, a builder himself, said "This thing isn't over yet." He noticed cracks in the earth radiating from the sinkhole. It seems that French cave photographers use burning magnesium for illwnination to a great extent. If anyone knows anything about how this is done, write a short article for the TEXAS CAVER and send it to the editor. There must be easy ways to solve smoke, reflector. and exposure problems and many Texas cave photographers would like to know more about the subject If anyone knows the rules for the game of pocket billiards the Mexicans play, could they please inform the editor? This is the game where the balls are arranged on the perimeter of the table and are sunk in some definite sequence. This game has been witnessed in Galeana and Santa Catarina, N. L. and is vastly different from anything played in the U. S. A.

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Page 74 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Cavers' First Aid Notes PART 3 DEFAZ THE LONG BACKBOARD: Remembering that backboards are used to keep a victim snug and motionless, we will go on to the long backboard. The long backboard is much more effective than the short backboard because it is better suited to keep the complete body motionless. It is advisable when a long haul is envisioned for the injured person. A good backboard can be constructed from 3/4 inch marine plywood. The board should be cut 18 inches wide and 72 inches long. 7211 0 c::::> c::::. 0 0 0 hand holds/ 18 II :.....Jlead hold down 0 0 0 "\..crotch tie down 0 <:::::> .c:::> 0 Once the backboard is cut,the ends should be rounded and ten handholds (511xl-l/211) should be cut, three on each side and one each at the head and at the foot of the board. To provide a good hold they should be cut 1 1/4 inches from the edge of the board. These handholds can also serve as strap holds when tying the victim down. To better allow the rescuers to lift the board, it should be mounted on two half inch 11le gs 11 (bottom) to keep the board off the floor or ground. Bottom These 11legs11 should be tapered at the ends to minimize the snaging of bandages or straps when securing the victim to the backboard. The tapered 11legs11 make the board easier to slide under the victim or across the floor or ground. Having the boards, short or long, is no good unless the owner is trained and has had experience in using the boards. To handle the boards effectively certain guidelines must be kept in mind (l) the victim must be moved onto the bQards as one single unit, without twisting or turning; (2) the victim must be strappe d securely and comfortably; (3) the boards should never be carried but should be passed along from .man to man using at least six people ifpossible. Next month we will discuss Shock, the quiet killer.

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...... Last Chance ... t WE STILL HAVE OVER 50 COPIES OF lr 1!Itntnry by Carl Kunath a vailable to those com! This

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Page 76 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 77 PHOTOGRAPHS: Testing the Stokes litter Improvised splint using unbroken leg to support the broken one Passing the litter Bandaging Passing the litter Improvised splint using stiff ground cloth Care of the victim Knot tying Skull session Photos by: Glenn Darilek A CAVE RESCUE PROJECT James Jasek TSA R & S Chairman On January 13 and 14, the TSA held its first practice cave rescue for the purpose of exposing cavers to the difficulties of a cave rescue. The cave rescue was planned and put into operation by the members of the Alamo Area Chapter. AAC put many long hard hours into planning what first-aid instructions that were to be presented during the cave rescue. We are lucky to have so many qualified first-aid people available in the AAC that are so willing to devote the time and energy to the project that many people had thought was a waste of time. Another group that was of great help was the Central Catholic Speleological Club of San Antonio. Seven members, headed by President Pete O'Neill and Advisor, Brother Paul Galanctowitz, did a bang up job as instructor helpers. Their assistance to our instructors was one of the reasons everything went so smooth. We chose a cave that provided us with both a walk-in entrance and a pit entrance so that several different types of cave rescue could be carried on at the same time. We also needed a cave that could handle many people and be able to get cavers in and out of the cave easily. This cave was Brehmer cave number one in Comal County. The cave rescue was scheduled to start at 12 noon Saturday and suprisingly enough we were able to start with only a 90 minute delay due to poor weather and getting people to the cave through the muddy road. We divided into four groups and started instruction in a number of different categories such as; knot tying, bleeding, shock, patient care and lifting of an injured person, mouth to mouth breathing, bandaging, splinting, the art of moving a person on a stretcher, backboard, and Stokes litter, and the proper way to use a backboard. The response to these sessions was more than we had really expected, and everyone there dug in and really

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Page 78 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 got a lot of good information out of the instructions. The classes in first-aid and patient care continued all afternoon and ended about 7:30 that night. We returned again the nex t day for the last half to the session. Sunday was reserved for a full scale pit rescue. The pit at this cave is only twenty feet deep,. but the techniques lea rned here can apply to any cave. On the surface, the pit was rigged with a block and tackle to remove the injured person. Inside the cave, the Stokes litter was made ready to raise up to the surface. Doing this is no easy task as all that were there can testify to. Actually doing th: s sort of thin g is m any time s more difficult than you can imagine. After the practice rescue session was completed, we got everyone together for a discussion of what we had done and we asked everyone to express their feelings on a sheet of paper. There were many very positive comments, but one stands out and really expresses how successful the project was "I came expecting nothing -learned lots of good safety tips and how to make do with what I have got" Now that it is all over, where do w e go from here? At the present time, our plans are to educate as many cavers in the TSA in first-aid and cave rescue as we possibly can. This will go a long way in preventing accidents. There will be more practice cave rescues that will be more challenging than this first session, and i t is hoped that everyone will come with the same enthusiasm that was shown at the first TSA cave rescue. In this issue of the TEXAS CAVER is a cave rescue card that we hope you will carry in your pocket for use in the case of an emergency. This card will provide you with a phone number that is good 24 hours a day and will accept a collect call. Here is how you can use this number. First get to a phone and make a collect call to the rescue number. When the operator answers, she will state the number 772-0llO. Then request a CAVE RESCUE. She will accept the call and get your name and the number where you can be reached. She will then contact reliable people that have volunteered to be on a call down list. When one of these people is contacted, she will give him your name and number. This person will then contact you and the rescue will be under way. If additional rescue cards are needed, you may obtain them from James Jasek, 1218 Melrose, Waco, Texas 7 6710 by sending a stamped selfaddressed envelope and the cards will be sent to you immediately. (81 Waco, Texas

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 79 News & History Greater Houston The Greater Houston Grotto was brought into formal existence in September of 1972 v. ith the adoption of a constitution and bylaws. The organization is composed of many of the members of the Rice Speleological Society Student Grotto which has lost the sponsorship of Rice University due to lack of s tudent participation. Grotto members include several cavers of long stan d ing, and the grotto has been approved as an official grotto of the NSS as of December 2, 1972. Houston area cavers have been actively caving in Texas and other states of the United States and in Mexico. These activities are expected to continue un d e r the auspices of the new organization. The participation in the activities o f the TSA will also continue, and, hopefully, will be increased as new memb e r s a r e recruited. Meetings are on alternate Wednsdays at various locations. Address all inquiries to Mike Connally, Secretary, The Greater Houston Grotto, 1222 Lehman, Houston, Texas 77018. O r call 713-686-2612. L S S The Laredo Speleological Society meets on alternate Mondays at 7:30PM in t h e Laredo Junior College Bookstore. This group has caving interests in both Texas and Mexico. Their officers are: President, Jerry Lindsey; Vice President, Don Reece; Secretary-Treasurer, Ronald Westman; and Equipm e n t Chairman, Tom Addison. For more information, their mailing address is Box 603, Laredo, Texas 78040. U T Grotto The University of Texas grotto meets the first and third Wednesdays of each month in Room 313 of the old Physics building. The meetings start at 8:00 PM just after the God's Little Grotto meeting at seven. The o fficers of the UT grotto are: President, Leslie Clapp; Vice President, Frank Binney; Equipment Chairman, Roy Jameson, with the distinguished Dr. Frederick C. Carson as Editor in Chief of "Inside Earth". Balcones The Balcones Grotto meets at 7 :30 PM on the first Tuesday of each m onth at the Howson Library, 3500 Exposition, Austin, Texas. The officers for 1973 are: President, Mike Warton; Vice President, Tracy Bloshill; Secretary, Dave Wymer; Treasurer, Jim Griffin; Laison Officer, Bill Russell; Equipment Chairman, Ernie Wymer; Conservation and Safety, Dav e Wymer and Mike Warton. The mailing address is Balcones Grotto, c/o Mike Warton, 2807 #A Windsor Road, Austin, Texas 78703.

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Page 80 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 AAC The Alamo Area Chapter recently held their first Annual Photo Salon. The judging was held in an open session at the Civil Defense Building, on January 16, 1973. The winners by division and category are as follows: PICTORAL 1ST John Graves 2ND Glenn Darilek 3RD John Graves BEST OF SHOW John Graves COLOR SLIDES SCIENTIFIC 1ST John Graves 2ND John Graves 3RD Wayne Russell HUMOROUS 1ST Karen Clement 2ND Glenn Darilek 3RD Wayne Russell BLACK &: WHITE PRINTS COLOR PRINTS 1ST Glenn Darilek 2ND Glenn Darilek SCIENTIFIC 1ST Phil Winkler 2ND Wayne Russell 3RD Wayne Russell PICTORAL 1ST Wayne Russell 2ND Wayne Russell 3RD Wayne Russell There were prizes and ribbons for all the winners and a special plaque for Best of Show for John Graves' winning slide of Wolfe Cave (Alabama). These awards were presented at our meeting of January 2 3, 1973. Our judges: Mr. Alex Hoag, Mr. Les Bland, and Mr. Willard Heath deserve a special thanks for their conscientious and fair judging of all entries. Now let's all enter the TSA Photo Salon. Ezell's cave fund There is a change of address for the Ezell's Cave Fund. Being a simple minded caver (as most cave:ts are), and to simplify things, Ezell's will now have only two addresses. Mail all correspondances to: Ezell's Cave Fund c/o John F. Teates 413 Drift Wind San Antonio, Texas 78239 Ezell's Cave Fund c/o SWTG Student Union Building San Marcos, Texas 78666 If you use the first address (78239) it is assured I will receive the mail. Keep sending contributions!

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 DATE: August 8, 1972 DESTINATION: Pasaguarda Cave, Travis County PERSONNEL: Barbara Vinson, Susan Hardcastle REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger Page 81 Acting on a lead from William Russell, Susan and Barbara explored and mapped Pasaguarda Cave. The next day the entrance was sealed and a foundation for a house was poured over it. DAT E : September 1, 1972 DESTINATION: TSA Project P E RSONNEL: Ronnie Fieseler, William and Carol Russell, Barbara Vinson, Craig Bittinger, Roy Jameson, Terry Raines, Jan Lewis RE PORTED BY: Craig Bittinger Group activities include d a free tour of Cascade Caverns, a trip to Klar's Salamander Cave, and mapping in Inner Space Caverns. Carl Kunath's fine slide show was enjoyed by all. D ATE: September 5 1972 DESTINATION: Midnight Cave PERSONNEL: Jill and Gill Ediger, Craig Bittinger, Neal Morris, Barbara Vinson REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger Our group arrived at the cave the day before Michel Siffre came out of t he cave. We helped operate the trolley and watched the Frenchmen monitor Michel. The next day we helped breakup Michel's camp and haul the pieces out of the cave. Michel's exit was truly spectacular and greatly impressed the newsmen. After taking Michel to the airplane we returned home Special mention is given to Craig Bittinger this month because last semester Craig went caving every weekend except two, one of which was t h e A&:I Body Roast.

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Page 82 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 DATE: September 9, 1972 DESTINATION: Austin Caverns PERSONNEL: Ronnie Fieseler, William and Carol Russell, Craig Bittinger, John Steele REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger After a short drive through a residential district we located the entrance to the cave. We rigged a cable ladder and entered the cave via a man hole. Two hours later we f inished mapping the cave and headed for home. DATE: September 16, 1972 DESTINATION: Gorman Falls PERSONNEL: 40 UT cavers plus several A & I cavers REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger The purpose of the trip was to give beginning cavers a chance to get in a cave and practice vertical work. Following a long afternoon of caving everyone took a dip in the river and headed home. DATE: September 23, 1972 DESTINATION: Padre Island Ear Bust and Body Roast PERSONNEL: Scott Lillie, Craig Bittinger, Barbara Vinson, Frank Binney, Peter Strickland, Logan McNatt, Ron Ralph, Jacques Chabert, Jean Pierre Gairon, N. H Dunson and 40 more REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger Most Texas cavers took off a weekend from their caving to congregate on the beach for a relaxing weekend. Highlights of the weekend included rafting through the waves, a big push in Sand Cave, a king of the sand dune contest and an acetelyne explosion that sent Scott Lillie, Gill Ediger and Paul Duncan to the hospital with broken ear drums. A fine weekend of fellowship was enjoyed by all. DATE: October 13-14, 1972 DESTINATION: Koch Cave, Medina County, Texas PERSONNEL: Roy Jameson, Barbara Vinson, Craig Bittinger, and 30 A &I cavers. REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger The group had been invited to come and explore the cave by the ranch owner. Friday night was spent in the original exploration of the cave. Saturday was spent digging out the mud plug at the end of the cave. More digging is required but it looks very promising. Be sure to attend the TSA convention at San Marcos this year.

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 83 DATE: October 20, 1972 DESTINATION: Bustamante, Nuevo Leon Mexico PERSONNEL: Jon Everage, Neal Morris, Barbara Vinson, Scott Lillie, Andy Grubbs, Allan Wilson and several San Marcos Cavers REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger The group crossed the border with no problems and proceeded to the waterfalls near Ojo de Agua. They waited there until noon the next day for Pete 1 s group to show up and when they didn't the group finally entered Bustamante. After a fine trip through the cave they returned home without ever seeing Pete's group. DATE: Octobet 20, 1972 DESTINATION: Carrizal, Nuevo Leon Mexico PERSONNEL: Suzi Lozo, Craig Bittinger, Pete Strickland, Frank Binney, Marsha Meredith, Jay J arden, John Steele, Pam Lynn REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger When the group arri ved at the border Friday night Pete was wearing his short-haired wig to facilitate the crossing. Unfortunately, the border guards spotted it and refused to let him into Mexico. We then drove to Roma where everything went smoothly until they spotted a Laredo stamp on one of the girl's pas sports. We then drove to Reynosa where we finally got across as the sun was coming up. We continued on to Monterrey and finally made it to Carrizal in the afternoon. After a nap we entered the cave and had a fine time exploring and swimming. The group returned home Sunday. DATE: October 27-29, 1972 DESTINATION: Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico PERSONNEL: Ronnie Fieseler, Susan Hardcastle, Suzie Lozo, Craig Bittinger, John Steele, Barbara Vinson, Pam Lynn, Ron Ralph REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger We awoke Saturday morning to find ourselves in the Guadalupes. We headed out for Pink Dragon Cave, then visited Damn Cave, Pink Palette, Pink Panther and Pink Prickly Pear Cave before returning to the truck long after dark. The next morning we visted Hidden Cave and Cottonwood Cave before returning horne, tired but satisfied. We have received a report of a cave accident in Mayers Twin Wells, West Virginia. Bruce Smith was using the Texas system to climb the pit when a carabiner in his Swiss seat broke loose, causing him to fall backward, pulling his foot loose. He fell at least fifty feet to the rock floor He was unconscious for thirty minutes and sustained a broken ankle and bruises. In light of the results of recent caving accidents, Bruce must consider himself lucky because of the limited extent of his injuries.

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Page 84 T h e TEXAS CAVER, DATE: November 10-13, 1972 DESTINATION: La Sierra De El A b r a March 1973 PERSONNEL: Neal M orris, Barbara Vinson, Craig Bittinger, Paul Duncan, J i m Clements, Dennis Breining, John Steele REP OR TED BY: Crai g Bittinger Bill Russell and John Fish had given us compass bearings on some deep black holes i n t h e middle o f the jungle. The purpose of the trip was to chop a trail to the s e pits. Highlights of the trip included being attacked by army ants, bumble bees, mosquitos, and watching Jim Clements step over a Fer De Lanc e which Paul Duncan then stepped on. We camped in Cueva de Tanchipa and eventually found Sotano de Coatamundi, a 220 meter pit. DATE: November 222 6 1972 DESTINATION: Ocamp o Tmps., Mexico PERSONNEL: Billy Suzie and Scott Campbell, Jon Everage, Robert Shalek, and Don Tebbet REPORTED BY: D o n Tebbet We left Houston Wednesday afternoon and met Amador Cantu and others from A&I outside o f O campo Thursday. Two natives who supposedly knew where the pit w a s were hir e d and we waited a couple of hours while they searched for it. Suddenly, with a roar and a new set of macho tires, Ronnie Fieseler descended upon u s after having driven from Austin with Susan Hardcastle, a rrived in Ocampo and picked up a pre-arranged guide. Ronnie's guide Carlos, ran u s about a kilometer and a half through the jungle straight to what was obivously a very promising pit. A 50 meter length of goldline was lowered to a ledge about 12 meters below the take-off point. Jon descended t o the ledge for a better view of the situation and a length of bluewater was added t o the goldline. Again, Jon descended, this time to the bottom and was followed by Ronnie and Amador. These three spent a couple o f h ours in the pit. Jon was the first to return, reaching the top with a fiendis h and secretive grin which persisted throughout our questioning and remained his only expression or communication concerning the nature o f the pit. When Ronnie r e a ched the top, he, too, refused to relenquish any information on el Sotano. F i nally, afte r a period of grinning hesitation the three burst out the detail s o f their find. The pit was estimated to be 100 meters deep from our take-of point w i t h a circular room at the bottom. Two passages at opposite ends of the room ran off parallel to the upper joining face which was roughly n orth t o south. No estimate of passage length wae given at this time, onl y the information that both came to pits, for which the three had take n no equipment to descend. The entire group returned t o Ocampo to try the local food. We learned not to eat at the bus station at Ocampo. Jon Everage, Robert Shalek, and

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Pag e 85 myself found the service downright hostile, the beer hot and the food barely edible. After a restful but f r agrant night spen t i n a lor . cow paddy c rop, the group awoke to find Paul Duncan, Tom Wright and others from A&I arrived to aid in group operations. At the pit again, a bustle of activity almo s t re in a tragedy (See TCTTNSHB, February 1973 Texas Cave r -Ed.) Eventually though, organization was regained fully and all proceeded sr.:1oothly. Even our native guide, Carlos, who had previous experience in vertical work, de scended to help exploration. The majority of the group took the upstream passage and followed it to the point where it is inte r rupted b y another pit for which no equipment had been brought, unfortunately. No doubt those who chose that route will provide a written account of the passage's details. Billy and I chose the downstream pas sage and took rope to the pit at the end qf abQut 50 meters o! passage from the room at the bottom of pit. This was mostly dry with only a few small pools of water from flow. Up to the pit the passage was an average o f 5 wide an
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Page 86 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 the night. In the morning we drove to Nuevo Laredo and spent time there shopping, eating lunch and procuring two cases of XXX for exportation, and finished the trip home after picking up Jon at the Bittinger's home in Kingsville, and arrived in Houston at about 1:00AM Monday morning. Much was accomplished by the three groups in coordination at the new pit, which has been named Sotano y Cueva de Vasquez, after an elder member of the Ocampo community who first gave information to A&I people as to the existence of the pit. Sr. Vasquez has since passed away and the group, at the suggestion of Amador, named the pit in his memory. Further exploration, mapping, and possible biological studies are needed to be done at this recent find which was acclaimed by members of the group to be a major development in Mexican cave studies. DATE: November 23-27, 1972 DESTINATION: A "Big" cave in Kentucky Mary Jane Lloyd, Bob Lloyd, Pete Lindsley, Karen Lind11ley RE:PORTE:O BY: Bob Lloyd Vi1it to e. "Big" cave in Kentucky included mapping and lead checking &I well a. a a ridse walk that produced no leads at all except a caved -in 1pring. On the trip home Mary Jane and I drove 630 miles at 40 miles per hour while the Toyota emitted noises reminiscent of a clapped out thrashing machine. Oh well, at least it made it. It's final caving trip! Sad isn't it. DATE: November 24 -December 2, 1972 DESTINATION: San Gaspar and Los Pinos, Quertaro Mexico PERSONNEL: Pete Strickland, Frank Binney, Roy Jameson, Steven & Craig Bittinger, Suzie Lozo REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger From Pinal de Amoles we took a four wheel drive road to the town of Los Pinos. We hiked in the area for three days finding numerous pits in the 50 meter range. We also found Cueva de Los Otates which turned out to be 75 meters deep. We then headed to San Gaspar (elevation 2700 meters) where we visited several more pits and finally found Sotano de la Escuela which is located in the huge enclosed valley of Llano de San Francisco. The cave is about 1000 meters long and reaches a depth of around 1200 meters. The trip found 22 virgin pits and caves and everyone had a fine time. Combine all of the excitement of caving, rock climbing, war games, survival practice, hide-and-go seek, a sizeable cash reward, and a party and what do you have? You have many of Texas' cavers participating in the first annual, Enchanted Rock, (gross out the tourist) fun thing. Held under the full moon of February, the idea was to evade being captured during a twelve hour, noon-tonoon time period which had arm-banded cavers scouring the 640-acre rock for uncaptured survivors. Look for the results of this event in next month's CAVER.

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 87 DATE: December 2-3, 1972 DEST IN'ATION: Area near Candela, Coah., Mexico -The Illusive Pit PERSONNEL: Bonnie Kirchgraber, Jerry Kirchgrabe r Jay Marsden, Steve Wheeler, Tom Addison, Harold Tanner Jim Young, Jerry Lindsey REPORTED BY: Jerry Lindsey The Illusive Pit*received its name because it has illuded several cavers and various cave groups for years. It was finally located by members of the Laredo Speleological Society on August 2 7, 1972. On this trip, Tom Addison was the only person to enter the cave. After rappeling about 100 feet Tom crossed a small ledge and found that his 300 foot rope didn't even come close to the bottom of the pit. He dropped a rock from the 100 foot level and found it took 6 seconds to hit. We decided to return later with a larger rope. This Pit is very difficult to locate. It is about one -third of the way up a rather large mountain. The mountain is between Candela and Monclova. A person could be thirty feet away and still miss it. The Illusive Pit was "bounced" by four members of the LSS on this trip. The four, in order of entry, were Tom Addison, Harold Tanner, Jim Young, and Jerry Lindsey. There was evidence that a few, maybe four or five, other pe ople had been in the cave in years past. Word has it that a man was killed in it about fifty years ago. It is assumed thatthe LSS had the first non-Mexicans to enter the cave. We remained on the rope for over 400 feet after going over the lip of the cave. After unroping on top of a large breakdown slope there is about one thousand feet horizontally with a vertical drop of about two hundred feet. As far as we have determined the Illusive Pit has the longest vertical shaft in this part of Mexico. DATE: December 9, 1972 DESTINATION: Fischers Pit, Fern Pit, Dave's Pit PERSONNEL: Jim Griffin, Dave Wymer, Ernie Wymer, T. Blashill, Dave Reed REPORTED BY: Mike Warton Went to Fischers Pit first, and afterwards got leads to other pits on Mrs. Mabry's ranch. About noon we went to Fern Pit (27 meters) and Dave's Pit (15 meters). Next page for more of Craig's informative trip reports. note: Strictly speaking, it should have been Elusive Pit because it eluded several cavers .. but who cares?

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Page 88 The T EXAS CAVER, March 1973 DATE: December 16-January 1 0 1973 DESTINATION: San Luis P ot o s i and Queretaro, Mexico PERSONNEL: 17 people from UTG plus people from almost every major caving group in the U S REPORTED BY: Craig B itti n ger Christmas caving opened with Neal, Barbara, and Kenny Branson heading for the top of the El A bra where they spent five days chopping through the jungle and descended 180 meters into Sotano de Coatamundi. Then they joined up wit h the sixteen cavers who spent a week living in the church at the tiny village of La Florida, just north of El Sotano. Sotano de Conrado turned out to be 160 met e r s deep and many more virgin pits and caves were explored. Everyo n e enjoyed the fantastic experience of spending Christmas in a small Mexican t o wn. After leaving La Florida w e headed toward Ocampo where Sotano de Vasquez was mapped dow n t o minus 180 meters. Paul Duncan and crew also discovered and mapped seve ral lava tubes in the area. Upon returning to Valles there was a trip into Sotano Del Arroyo to continue mapping the bottom section of the cave. Sixtee n people then headed up the El A bra to chop to the deep black holes seen o n the aerial photos. Among the pits found were: Sotano de Coatamundii minus 220 meters, Sotano de la Estralla minus 60 meters with 600 meters of huge walking passage, Sotano de la Cuesta minus 170 meters into a room 450 by 9 0 meters with a 162 meter tall ceiling. Pete Strickland and c r e w then headed to Carizillos and Tancoyol for several days of hiking and checking out pits before returning home. DATE: December 17 19 7 2 DESTINATION: Wimberley Bat Cave, Ernie's Pit, Pucker Cave, Bad Air Cave PERSONNEL: Mike Warton, T B lashill, Bill Russell, Tom Jones, Dave Wymer, Ernie Wymer, Clint Nobles, David Reed REPORTED BY: Mike Warton We went to Wimberley e arly Sunday morning and checked many new leads. We dug first in Ernie's pit and found a small room. Since the newly discovered Bad Air Cave needs a whole day to be checked and pushed we went to the Bat Cave f rom Ernie's Pit .Half the crew went to near by Pucker Cave. A fine map was made of the bat cave and we also succeeded in pushing the cave down to the water t a ble through a slim and grim fissure. Bad Air Cave was left for the next wint e r trip but is an interesting and worth while cave. A big "THANKS" goes to Craig and the other cavers who reported cave trips this month Ed.

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 DATE: December 21 -January l, 1973 DESTINATION: Six or seven caves in Pulaski County, Mo. PERSONNEL: Phil Winkler, Karina and Donna Powe r s REPORTED BY: Phil Winkler Page 89 I had planned this trip for months and got on the phone to contact all the cavers up at the Missouri School of Mines. All home for the Christmas holidays. I decided to share caving with neophytes who didn't realize the joys they were missing right under their feet. While my mother-in-law had her back turned I grabbed her two youngest daughters (no sons around, damn-it) g agged them, put helmets and carbide lights on their heads and went caving. Joyously trucking up the road with a half-frozen Gasconade River .on my left w e headed for Tunnel Cave which completely cuts through Bear Ridge for 3 2 5 meters. The entrance is at the end of a deep gully and it was obvious that large quantities of water flowed thru the cave frequently due to the huge long logs wedged high up in some of the chambers. The cave is completely phreatic in origin and is not decorated at all. We counted 25 bats, 2 beer cans, and an old baby stroller. Karina rode the stroller for almost 50 meters until Donna got tired of pushing her and dumped her in a large deep pool. Karina searched for blind fish until the ice started forming on her eyelids which soon ended that. Gamely thawing them with the flame of her lamp she pushed on to see what lay around the next bend in the stream. The cave soon ended at a hughmongous opening in the bluff overlooking the Gasconade. The next cave was some 1200 meters downstream in the next bluff. To g i v e you some idea of the strenuous trek this was it was necessary for the two girls to consume some three rolls of lifesavers, wet their diapers twice, and try to break the rope I had on them every time I turned my back to get another Old Milwaukee. Throttling them just to the point of unconsciousness they agreed that caving was fun after all. Next up was Bat Cave which also had a very large rectangular entrance. It was easy walking up a slope towards a forty foot high ceiling which gradually got closer the further we went up the slope. I've observed this strange phenomena several times in my caving and have not yet come up with a satisfactory explanation. I will continue to study it though. We drove the three miles to Skagg's Cave (February 1972 NSS News) and rushed quickly up to the entrance. Donna yelled something about barbed wire in her hair and it was choking her, but novice cavers always complain about trivialities the first few times so I wrote it off as good training for her. We entered through the small entrance, crossed the large pool of water, and looked at the many formations and rimstone pools for which this cave is known. We visited three more caves nearby, fell asleep frequently (damn beer) and decided to call it a day. I swore the girls to silence about any of the cave locations leading them to believe it was a very deep dark secret that few knew and this solved the kidnapping charge on me in three states already!

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Page 90 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 DATE: December 26-January 4, 1973 DESTINATION: NSS Cave Biology Session, AAAS meetings, Washington, D. C. PERSONNEL: Bill Elliott, Jan Lewis, Terry Raines, Mescalita the dog REPORTED BY: Bill Elliott We attended the NSS Cave Biology Session at the Sheraton Park Hotel, which is where Speleo (oops!) SPIRO Agnew lives. The papers were all given by eastern biospeleologists since the subject of the session was "Biogeography of Appalachian Cavernicoles". The session was chaired by John Holsinger, who is on a year's leave from Old Dominion University to the U.S. National Museum o f Natural History as an associate curator of Crustacea. Most of the eight talks were on the distributions of various eastern U.S. troglobites. The cave fauna of this area is now so well known that a synthesis of ideas on the origins and dispersal routes of these species can be made. Two interesting studies on the genetics of cave beetles and amphipods using electrophoresis were reported. Also of unusual interest was a survey of microorganisms in a Virginia cave. Microorganisms are still a great unknown in the study of cave ecosystems. This study showed a relatively great abundance of bacteria which could degrade organic substances into a form usable by larger creatures. In a sense, bacteria would be the "primary producers" in the cave ecosystem. The speaker also found a high percentage of certain fungi which are rare in the epigeum. These fungi have aerial structures which would project above the laminated air layer of cave floors and walls into the turbulent air layer, thus insuring dispersal of spores. After the talks the NSS Biology Section held a meeting and elected a new chairman, Horton H. Hobbs, III, and pas sed the hat to finance the North American Biospeleological Newsletter, which has been produced by Richard Graham, the former chairman. We discussed the possibility of altering the concept of the NSS Bulletin. Publication costs are rising and it is becoming difficult to publish as many pages as before; publication of lengthy papers is especially difficult. The possibility of starting a new journal was discussed but no real consensus was reached. However, the biology editor, David Culver, just wanted some ideas. As of now, the NSS Bulletin is a very obscure and not very prestigious journal outside the membership of the society. We also resolved to start acting as an organization to preserve vulnerable caves and their ecosystems. We were surprised to learn that one of the men present was from the Office of Endangered Species. He is in charge of putting endangered mollusk and crustacean species on their list. All that is required to put a species on the list is the written statements of three experts and a few other particulars. John Cooper is drawing up an endangered cave species list, so everyone was encouraged to help on this project. One goal will be to define endangered cave ecosystems as well (Ezell's Cave for instance). Terry, Jan and I enjoyed supper at the house of an old friend and caver Rick Banning, in Takoma Park, Md. Later, we went to a party at John Holsinger's in Alexandria, Va. A good time was had drinking, carrying on and finding out what research everyone was doing.

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The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 91 On Saturday we visited the Museum of Nat u r a l History. Holsinger showed us the vast Crustacea collections. James Reddell's name was on many labels. We made it to West Virginia on New Yea-r's Eve for a party a t the caver fieldhouse. We tried to convince a few p eople that we drove up from Texas just for the party. Some actually fell for it, especially since Fieseler's trek to Pennsylvania last year for a party. I enjoyed listening to Bob Thren pick the banjo and his and Bob'ui Nagy's stories about the local mountain folk. We left for Texas stopping at Jim and Julie Rademaker's at Murphysboro Illinois and in Texarkana for vehicle repairs and finally reached Austin a bout 2:00PM Thursday. DATE: December 30, 1972 DESTINATION: Tunnel Cave P ERSONNEL: Steve Gutting, Keven Scat, John Grayless R EPORTED BY: John Grayless This is a newly found cave in the San Antonio area that needs to be m apped and explored thoroughly. The first room is very unstable after a heavy rain. A mud-filled crawlway needs to be explored further. A passage between some breakdown rocks leads to the second room. The breakdown in the second room may block further passage. DATE: January 1-9, 1973 D ESTINATION: El Abra P ERSONNEL: Robert Shalek, Don Tebbet R EPORTED BY: Don Tebbet We managed to get out of Houston at about 11:00 AM after New Year's Eve and drove straight on through the border at Reynosa (where, amazingly, w e were given no trouble about our hair) and crashed just north of Mante a t about 2:00AM. Later that morning, a short drive brought us to Los Sab inos, the camping spot for the AMCS operations. That day, we visited Sotano del Soyate where we only did the first llO meters drop to try out new ascending rigs. The next day found us at Yerbaniz exploring its multi-leveled passages after the 60 meter entrance drop. That evening, we went for a shower in V alles at los Banos Guadalupes, a meal, and then returned to the campsite at Los Sabinos where cave-talk and guitar music was circulating around a cheery campfire. The 4th we spent swimming in el Rio Choy and working I on our vertical gear from the railroad trestle and sky-light above the river. January 5th, we visited Cueva de Jalpanez and did the first three drops and passage up to the last drop where we met.Don Broussard and others exiting the watery passage below. The next morning, we drove to Quintero and hiked up the sierra to Cueva de las Colmenas whose lower levels reportedly needed checking. After a preliminary inspection of the cave we returned to town for rope, camping gear, and a few games at the local pool

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Page 92 The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 hall. The next morning, we back-packed our gear up to the cave with the intent of spending a few days checking its lower levels and locating1 s orne pits reported in the area above Quintero. Our explor a-.ion of Colrnenas was cut short when after two vertical drops we realized our 100 meter rope was insufficient to continue. The next day, wakened by noisy parrots, our hopes of checking pits in the area were diminished by bad weather. That afternoon we returned to the van below in the town. There we were told by a native that we had been feared lost (which somehow was related to the townspeople 1 s belief that el diablo lived in the cueva atop the montana) and that before long, a search party would have been organized. I attempted to reassure the kindly fellow that there was no devil in the cave and that we had planned to spend the night there. Anyway, we left Quintero and drove on towards the States and harsher weather. That night, we camped somewhere south of Kingsville and woke upon the grey dawn to find the van covered with ice. After repairs to the van 1 s throttle system, we finished the drive back to Houston, already missing the warm tropical weather. DATE: January 6 1973 DESTINATION: Cascade Caverns PERSONNEL: Keven Soat, Mike Grimes, John Grayless REPORTED BY : John Grayless Went in for a short forty-five minute look-see. Saw operations for restoring the waterfall and pool in Cathedera.l Room; continued on down over-flow pipe to the end of the horizontal-passage and then returned to the surface. We then talked to Mr. Bridges about other trips and went horne. DATE: January 9, 1973 DESTINATION: Bed Cave PERSONNEL: Dave Wymer, Mike Warton, Ernie Wymer REPORTED BY: Mike Warton Bed Cave is a small 30 foot pit near Cobb Caverns which has supersuper air flow. The air currents are strong enough to not only extinguish a lamp flame but blow over a carbide lamp I On our last trip, Eugene Haydon, Bill Russell, T. Blashill and myself blasted away at a crack in the bottom. We got halfway through a rock layer 1. 2 meters thick. One more blasting trip scheduled this month will get us the rest of the way into the cave There is much reason to believe it will be a major new cave and extensive. The nearest sinkholes are over 1 kilometer away in any direction. DATE: January 13-14, 1973 DESTINATION: New Braunfels PERSONNEL: Neal Morris, Craig Bittinger, Barbara Vinson REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger

PAGE 33

The TEXAS CAVER, March 1973 Page 93 Everyone present at the Cave Rescue and Training Session learned a great deal about first aid and practical rescue DATE: January 16-17, 1973 DESTINATION: Devils Sinkhole PERSONNEL: Craig Bittinger, Peter Sprouse, Charly Howel REPORTED BY: Craig Bittinger Devil' s Sinkhole is now open to cavers with the proper release forms. Mr. Whitworth is to be commended for his continued hospitality to cavers. Most of these trips are reported by Craig Bittinger because he has been doing the most caving. * * * * NOTICES The Southwest Regional Convention will be held in the Big Bend and Terlingua Area on Easter weekend, April 20-22, 1973. The event will be hosted by the Paisano Grotto. Everyone is welcome, but due to the logistics involved with the primitive, waterless campground, contact Larry Williams, P. 0. Box 578, Alpine, Texas 79830, in advance for more information. Plan to come and bring your slides, attend the banquet, and go caving and river running. ;The NSS Library has been moved to Huntsville. With the help of the :Huntsville Grotto, 6, 000 pounds of books and periodicals were moved ,the 1200 miles from Closter, New Jersey to Alabama. The library is j now at the Society office being unpacked, shelved and catalogued. (Chuck Stuehm is writing a series of articles on first-aid, safety and )rescue techniques for the "Texas Caver". We need someone who can i''draw" in order to include some illustrations in our articles. We have 1a committee of three working on this and need more. If you can help l jus let Chuck know. If you can help in other ways such as typing, !writing articles, researching or writing letters, please feel free to :volunteer as we need help. This. series is going to be of great benefit ;to cavers all over the state, so we think it is a very worthwhile project and well worth our time and your time. iRemember the old proverb that can draw is a real Scribbler".

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Description
Contents: Editorial --
Letters to the Editor --
New caving area in central Texas / Mike Warton --
Cartoon / Ruth Darilek --
Spray the cave / Ronnie Fieseler --
Wee animalicules: iodine water purification / Tsgt. Nix
--
Cartoon / Ken Griffin --
1973 NSS convention --
Memorable quotes --
Garbage --
Cavers' first aid notes, part 3 / David E. Faz --
TSA cave rescue project / James Jasek --
News and history --
Trips --
Notices.


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