The Texas Caver

The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Letters to the Editor -- Total photo computer / James F. Jasek and Michael R. Feitz -- Editorial / Glenn Darilek -- Notices -- S W R meeting / Rich Briesch -- 1973 convention / Mike Walsh -- An introduction to the limestone formations of Texas / Jorja Lindgron -- Why I love the neitherworld / John Grayless -- Caver's first aid notes / Chuck Stuehm --TSA cave rescue project II -- TSA 1973 / Ken Griffin -- Napoleon had a 39 inch what?? / Gill Ediger -- Why gate it? / Pete O'Neill -- More on the jungle boot / Ronnie Fieseler -- Back issues available -- Garbage -- News and history -- Trips.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 18, no. 06 (1973)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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K26-04573 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4573 ( USFLDC Handle )
11307 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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c.&v-E:E=t JUNE 1973 I


COVER: Cartoon by Ken Griffin humorously depicts the presentation of talks at the 1973 TSA convention. The TEXAS CAVER is a monthly publication of the Texas Speleological Association, an internal organization of the National Speleological Society and is published in San Antonio, Texas. Material should be typed double spaced and sent to the editor, Glenn Darilek, at 11929 Grapevine, San Antonio, Texas 78228, no later than the first of the month of publication. Subscriptions are $4. 00 per year for 12 issues and all subscriptions should be sent to James Jasek at 1218 Melrose, Waco, Texas 76710. Persons sub scribing after the first of the year will receive all back issues for that year Single copies are available at 40 each postpaid anywhere in the United Stat e s. STAFF: Maggie Allis on Karen Clement Ruth Darilek, Asst. Ed. Steve Fleming Scott Harden Mike Walsh Glenn Darilek, Editor John Graves Paul Da.rilek, Copy b oy PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION: James Jasek ASSEMBLY: Huaco Cavers, assisted by Temple Grotto The TEXAS CAVER VOLUME XVIII, NUMBER 6 -'1' * * EXCHANGERS: Address copies to 11929 Grapevine, San Antonio, Texas PAGE 165 166 l7l 17 3 174 177 178 179 180 182 183 184 18 5 186 187 lRR CONTENTS LETTERS TO THE EDITOR TOTAL PHOTO COMPUTER by James F. Jasek and Michael R. F e : t z EDITORIAL by Glenn Darilek NOTICES S W R MEETING by Rich Briesch 1973 CONVENTION by Mike Walsh AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LIMESTONE FORMATIONS OF TEXA S by Jorja Lindgren WHY I LOVE THE NEITHERWORLD by John Gray1ess CAVER'S FIFST AID NOTES by Chuck Stuehm TSA CAVE RESCUE PROJECT II TSA 197 3 by Ken Griffin NAPOLEON HAD A 39 INCH WHAT?? by Gill Ediger WHY GATE IT? by Pete O'Neill MORE ON THE JUNGLE BOOT by Ronnie Fieseler BACK ISSUES A V AI LAB LE GARBAGE NEWS AND HISTORY 'T R TP.C::


The TEXAS June, 197 3 Page 165 Letters To The IDITO R Dear Edit or: As long as I can remember, there has been a great deal of concern shown by various persons of importance w ithi n the TSA over the seeming lack of in terest/results/progress/etc., produced by the annual Labor Day Project. A good bit of soul searching, solution seeking, and conjecture as to reasons has occupied more than a few hours of the discussions between those same persons of importance. No answers eeemed t o be forthcoming. But recently, while persuing some old issues of the TEXAS CAVER, I ran across an article on the 1960 TSA Project to La Gruta del Palmito (Bustamante) written by James Reddell, old time Texas Caver and Proj ect Chairman of that particular activity. His reflections, in the last paragraph of the article, quoted below seem to sum up a few of the ide a s I've had o n the subject, but was too afraid to voice. I feel sure you will welcome comment and discuesion. The trip itself emphasized one thing : Region Projects are for one purpose, and until this is realized they will alway be fail ures. They are for the p u rpos e of cavers from all over the Texas Region getting together sitting around campfires and talking caving. This is more than e n ough j u stification, and if a map is made of an extensive cav e system which could not be mapped otherwise in one b rief trip, thi s i s a s much a part of getting to know other cavers as sitting a round a campfire. Hopes to turn a Region Project into a major scientific expedition to any cave will probably always fail, if for no other reason than that there aren't that many qualified people in Texas with enough time or interest to do it. LookinJ;( at either the Felton Project or the Bustamante Project from this viewpoint they must be counted as dismal failures, but looking at them as projects at which people got to know and cave wit h one another and see a great cave and enjoy themselves, they can only be considered as tremendous successes. Certainly this applies to me, as Chairman of the project and, I think, to everyone I have spoken too. This, in my opinion, is more than enough. Gill Ediger NSS Board of Governors To the Editor: I strongly object to the way the judgin g was conducted at the recent TSA Photo Salon. I have no quarrel with their chosen winners, which is a matter of personal preference, but I do feel we should not have been subjected to a detailed account of what was wrong with each slide and print. Sincerely, Maggie Allison, AAC


Page 166 The T EXAS CAV ER, JUJMt. 1973 TITIL PI ITI IIIPIT!I by Michael R. Feltz and James F. Jasek Those of us who have tried it know that cave photography is difficult. To take our pictures, we have to put u p with water and sticky mud not to mention total darkness. Focusing and composition, relatively simple operations in daylight, are very difficult in a cave environment. But perhaps the worst problem is that the biggest aid in normal photography, the light meter, is utterly useless i n a cave. Instead of light meters, we need to use flashbulbs or strobes. For all of our cave pictu r es, the heart of our exposures is the guide number which is the easiest and fastest way to get the correct exposures. The guide number is not adequate to cover all possible cave pictures. Consider these two typical examples of the more complex exposure problems encountered by cave photographers: 1. You find yourself in a large room and would like to take in the entire room shot, but setting off the strobe or flash unit just once is not n early light for the picture. Would you know how to calculate the number of times your unit should be set off to light this room? Or would you forsake the room shot and settle for one or more pictures of the formations scattered throughout the room? 2. You see an exquisite gypsum flower and add enough extension tubes to get a good composition. Now how far away do you set off the flash? Would you feel confident enough to risk a single exposure? Or would you shoot several pictures, varying the aperture and flash-to-subject distance, hoping that at least one exposure turns out good? The average cave photographer is a little unsure of his pictures in these situations because he is not familiar with the theory behind these exposures. Even if he does know how to solve the various formulas, it takes a lot of time to calculate the correct camera settings. It is the mathematics, more than anything else, that keeps most cave photographers from attempting some of the better pictures. Of course, no one can do anything about the mud or the water or the total darkness, but we felt that if the typical cave photographer ha,d an easy way of determining the correct exposures in the more complex situations, he could begin to take pictures that would otherwise be beyond his capabilities. So nearly two years ago, we started to work on a device that would solve these problems and many others. We were determined that no matter what we came up with, this was to be a device cave photo-: graphers for cave photographers. The requirements of the cave photographer .would dictate the size, durability, and the types of problems it solved. Eventually, our investigations lead us into the entire field of


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 197 3 Page 167 exposure. When the universality of our device became apparent, we decided to call it the TOTAL PHOTO COMPUTER. II. .... FOR BLUE FLASHBULBS Moltiply Sff.. T R SPEEI IXSYNC M SYNCHRONIZATION .. ,,, llliodw FlosiWo 1/30 1/30 1/60 1 /125 1125C E QDl 2010 11110 1000 100 400 AG1B 2MI, 1000 1000 100 500 s.26B Nl 4000 2010 1000 500

Page 168 The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 shutter speeds up to 1/30 seconds, x-synchronization, the light output is 4, 000 BCPS (1). Suppose you have High Speed Ektachrome (ASA 160) in your camera. With LIGHT 0 UTPUT arrow pointing to 4, 000 BCPS (2), you see that ASA 160 lines up with guide numbe' r 180 (3 ). This is the guide number to use for all subsequent e xposures. In fact, not only is High Speed Ektachrome aligned with its guide number, but virtually every film speed from ASA 3 to ASA 12, 500 is matched with its correct guide number. Many photographers use more than one flash for their cave pictures, a main flash and a weaker fill-in flash. 2 -Cil AG18 M 2 8 M:E.S! 1 2 8 .228 38.5CE l feu/PieM . FOR BLUE FL TER I ; T;:-M S YNCHRONIZATION 1130 1130 1/60 1/125 1125( 1 .. 1 .. ... ... 1 .. ... 110 510 1100 I '-if u u u 4110 lSOO 3110 :1100 lSOII Nl 4110 Nl II ... 14,110 11,010 .... u 33, .. u Nl u Nlliotloc-. 1 3 Such a combination might be an M3B as the primary source with an AGlB as a filler. If both units are approximately the same distance from the subject, even though they may be several feet apart from each other, you can determine the effective guide number combining both sources by adding together the light outputs of each unit. Similarly, this method gives you the guide number if you set off your strobe or flash unit several times from the same position. All you do is add up the total BCPS output. While it may seem natural to add guide numbers of separate units, the only correct way to arrive at these higher guide numbers is to add light output values. One of the most useful things about the COMPUTER is that you never have to remember the guide number; you will always be able to obtain it on the spot in just a second or two. Just as easily, you can determine the guide number combining units of the same or diverse output. The only things you need to remember to do all this are your film speed and the type of flashbulbs you have. After you get the correct guide number, you are in an excellent position to start taking those cave pictures. To give you an idea of just how the other side of the COMPUTER is used and how it applies to cave photography, we will run through a few examples from start to finish. Suppose you have a guide number of 80 and a flash distance of 20 feet. Even though you can solve for the aperture setting for this example mentally (80 /20=f-4), it is interesting to see how problems of this type can be solved on the COMPUTER. All you have to do is point the GN (Guide Number) arrow to 80 (1) and notice that 20 feet lines up with an of f-4 (2)


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 Page 169 If the next picture you take has a distance of 10 feet, you would use an f-8 setting on the camera since these two numbers are also aligned. This example shows how you alter the aperture settings on the camera as yo u vary the flash distance. For the next example, suppose you have this same guide number of 80 and that you are in a large room. To get a broad even illumination of the room, you esti-mate that the flash distance needs to be about 100 feet. 3 1 there will not be enough light for the exposure since 80 /100= f0. 8 and there is no lens on the market that is this fast. The solution is to put your camera on a tripod, trip the shutter open, and set off the flash unit several times for the exposure. How many times should you set off the flash unit? This can be solved easily on the COMPUTER as follows: l. Point the GN arrow to 80 on the outer scale. 2. Point the GF arrow (Qeneralized I_ormula, which is explained in the manual) on the inner dial to the estimated flash distance of 100 feet on the same outer dial. 3. Notice on the inner two scales that FLASH FACTOR 3 lines up with f-14. This means that three flashes are necessary with the f-l. 4 setting. Other combinations are 6 flashes at f-2 and 12 flashes at f-2. 8.


Page 170 The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 All you need to know is the guide number and the estimated flash distance to get the number of flashes necessary for a given f-stop. Close-up shots are among the most fascinating cave pictures, but they present a rather formidable challenge to the cave photographer. The problem of determining the correct flash distance troubles most photographers to the extent that they leave the close-up shots alone. Nevertheless, if you know the magnification being used for the close-up, you can use the COMPUTER to get the correct exposure with no difficulty. The magnification is determined when you divide the added extension by the focal length of the lens. If you have 25mm of extension with a 50mm lens, then the magnification is 25/50 or 0. 5. A subject 211 long in life-size comes out 1 inch long on the negative. Another way to express this image I subject relationship is to say that the reproduction ratio is 1:2 (one-to-two). Many times, the photographer can simply look through the viewfinder and estimate the magnification or reproduction ratio without solving any formulas. With 35mm cameras, a very simple procedure gives the reproduction ratio. If the length included on the short dimension of the picture is 2 inches, then the reproduction ratio is 1:2; if the short dimension is 3 inches, the reproduction ratio is 1:3, and so on. The length of the short dimension in inches can be used to obtain the reproduction ratio. To get correct close-up exposures in caves, you need to know the guide number, aperture, and magnification or reproduction ratio. If you have a guide number of 80, an aperture setting of f-16, and a magnification of 1. 0, what is the correct flash distance? Three easy steps can solve this problem on the COMPUTER: 1. Set the GN arrow to 80. 2. Point the arrow on the MAGNIFICATION scale to f-16 on the APERTURE scale. 3. Notice the magnification 1. 0 lines up with 2. 5 feet, which is the correct flash distance. As you change the magnification from one picture to the next by usjng different extension lengths, this alignment indicates how you should change the flash distance to keep that perfect exposure. 3


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 Page 171 These few examples are just a glimpse of the many problems the COMPUTER solves. In fact, each COMPUTER comes with a very thorou8h 70 page instruction manual t h a t shows you how to solve 39 different exposure and composition problems in all branches of photography. The manual co ncentrates on the 11how to11 aspect of the COMPUTER without delving into theory, but for those of you mathematically inclined, there is a complete di scus sian of the theory and formulas behind the COMPUTER in the appendi ces. It is available for $6. 95 ppd. from TOTAL PHOTO COMPUTER, P 0. BOX 7770, WACO, TEXAS, 76710. (Texas residents, please add * * : By Glenn Darilek After finishing anothe r is sue of the TEXAS CAVER, I look back at the hard hours of work that the staff puts into each is sue. I think what each member o f the team must do to put out one issue, and the lack of recognition or credit they receive. The people whose names you see listed on the inside cover of this perio dical are some of the hardest working and dedicated cavers in this state. Th e y are real accomplishers and are not in the least way content to just talk about the worthwile things they are going to do. They are willing to back up th eir commitment to the TEXAS CAVER and the members of the TSA with d edicated work. This is w h a t the CAVER demands and deserves. Each month, six t o ten people put a minimum of eight hours of work into just the typing and composing of one is sue. You must see why the editor is sometimes irritated at the criticism over minor details from people who w ould not even attempt to take on the job themselves. Although everyone who has helped with the CAVER deserves special m ention, I can not help commending Maggie Allison, Karen Clement, Ruth Darilek, Steve Fleming, and John Graves, who are always helping and work until I insist that we stop. For these special people, no amount of praise is sufficient, and no amount d thanks is undeserved. * * * * NOTICE Keith Heuss is in the process of compiling a checklist of Texas caves w h ich is to include information on location, length, current status, and ot h e r information such as whether or not it has been mapped. The files will be maintained on computer cards and updated as necessary. Anyone w ho has information on caves which are not in the TSS files or documented anywhere else, send whatever you can to Keith at 1107 N. Barbara St. San Marcos, Tx 78666. The TSA has a new Conservation Chairperson. Louise Powers has resigned her position and the empty chair was appointed to/ volunteered for b y Sandi Luker of SWTG. The Caver and the TSA want to thank Louise for t h e many hours of work she engaged in to make the Conservation Committee a going thing. We also wish Sandi success in her new position. Sandi has r equested that anyone who has questions, information, reports of local a ctivities, notices, or anything else of a conservation nature contact her eithe r thru the SWTG in San Marcos or at 5059 Merlin, San Antonio, Tx.


Page 172 The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 wtiderness Equipment Inc. '' Specialists in Backpacks Kelty Gerry, Universal Camp Trails, A/penlite packs, frames, rucksacks. Mountain Tents NorthFace Ge rry Sierra Designs, Eureka, Pacific tubes to family. Hiking Boots Vasque, Fabiano, Lowalthe best boots for camp, trail & mountain. Sleeping Bags 8 G:\8 North Face, REI Sie rra Designs, Gerry, Camp 7 fluffy goosedown & fiberfill//. Down Clothing Parkas Canoes/ Kayaks .:c t 0. Go Only the best: Old Town & High Performance plus accessories. X-C Ski Gear Skiis poles, bindings, boots, ski clothing & ski packs. & etc Climbing gea r stoves & cook kits Stlva c ompasses, kntves books, f reeze-dried food, everything for the outdoorsman EquipDlent Inc. 638 Westbury Squar e I Houston, Texas 77035 I (713) 721-1530 591 Town & Country Village (Mall of Fountains) Houston 77024


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 Page 173 SWR MEETIIG by Rich Briesch In October 1972 Congress passed an act authorizing the construction of t h e Brantley Dam on the Pecos River about 15 miles north of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Since then several caves have been discovered in the area which will be flooded. Coffee Cave has over 7400 feet of passage mapped and is thus the fifth longest gypsum cave known in the U.S. The purpose of the meeting is to acquaint cave rs with the caves near the present McMillan Rese r voir and continue work on maps of caves and surface features, also to discuss the geology and history of the area and how it will affect and be affected by the Brantley Project. The meeting will be held Memorial Day Weekend--26 to 28 May 1973, at the East side of McMillan Lake. Use the map to get to the spillway and then follow the signs. Bring your caving gear, mapping equipment and drinking water. We will map caves!! l Many promising leads and entrances are still to be c hecked. Saturday evening starting at 7 :30pm, at Valley Savings and Loan on the SW corner of Canal and Mermod Streets in Carlsbad, we will have talks a n d a slide show on geology, history of caves and dams, and the Bureau of R eclamation's proposed Brantley Proj ect. The low cost of 50 will be for r egistration and snacks. No Banquet. For more details contact: Tom Meador Box 3216, San Angelo, TX. Phone: 915-655-9876 or Mike Clark, 6732 Palacio SW, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87105. Phone: 877-7147. N


Page 174 The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 CONVENTION by Mike Walsh The 1973 Texas Speleological Association Convention was held, once again, in San Marcos, Texas, on April 28. The convention was considered a great success by all who attended, thanks largely to the efforts of the Southwest Texas University Grotto, the host grotto. Camping during the convention was provided along the Blanco River. Despite the jungle atmosphere, insect problems were minimal. Friday night's late night excitement was provided by Ronnie Fieseler when his Mustang slid off the road into the car of a sleeping caver. The only damage was a broken headlight to the victim and a bent fender to Fieseler. It's a good thing that he was not in his power-wagon. The great miracle occurred when the program actually started more or less on time Saturday morning. Adding to the spirit of things were the unusual food, drink, and identification cards. Detracting from the convention was the absence of several old faces. For the first time in years, virtually all of the publications in Texas were brought together for sale. In addition, dozens of hardbacks were available for sale. The program more or less followed the printed schedule. Once again the lack of participation hurt the quality of the Photo Salon. Following the showing of the movie, "Cave of the Winding Stair", Carta Valley provided an interesting surprise break in the program. Mr. R. Glenn Fieseler and Ms. Susan Hardcastle were married by the Rev. Gill Ediger in the presence of the TSA membership. More information and photos will be provided in next month's Texas Caver. Following the program a most unusual Board of Governors meeting was held. It was only one hour long! One of the highlights was the discussion of the acceptance of the Temple Caving Group and the God's Little Grotto into the TSA. Both were officially accepted. Action was set aside on the payment to the editor of the 1972 Texas Caver for expenses incurred. Sandi Luker was appointed the new Conservation Chairperson replacing Louise Powers who resigned her oice. The BOG meeting was adjourned before anyone remembered the question o the Labor Day Project. After such typical BOG actions, the drinkers, eaters, and festers moved to the jungle campground for beer, food, and festivities. The highlight o f the e venings activities was the rantings of the bearded one concerning the scarcity o hamburgers. Ken Griin' s e xcellent cartoons in this is sue provide a further look at the activities of the 1973 TSA Convention. CONVENTION PARTY Photo by David Foster


TSA CONVENTION 19 73 TENTATIVE PROGRAM SATURDAY MORNING 8:00 Registration begins at the BAM Building, SWT Campus 9:00 Opening Remarks .............. Ronnie Fieseler--TSA Chpn. Airman 1 s Cave, ............... William H. Russell Electric Caving .............. Glenn Darilek Cave Lightning .............. R. Glenn Fieseler Mid-Morning Break Ten Years of Mexican Caving. .. Terry W. Raines Recent Activity in Mexico ... .... Laredo Cavers in Northern Mexico Jerry Lindsey New Cave in Bustamante Canyon .. Wayne Russell, Jr. Dos Bocas .................... Craig B ittinger Inside View from Ocampo, Tamp ... Amador Cantu, Jr. Lunch Break SATURDAY AFTERNOON 1:00 History and Evolution of Vertical Techniques (to be held outdoors) . Craig Bittinger Peter Strickland Photo Salon ................... Movie-"Cave of the Winding Stair 11 Stanley R. Ulfeldt Afternoon Break 3:00 BOG Meeting ........ (Rm 113) SATURDAY EVENING Kayak Races & Tubing ......... at the Campground Hamburgers, Beer, & Festivities Eaters, Drinkers, Festers


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 AN INTRODUCTION T() THE L'IMESTONE. FORMATIONS OF TEXAS By Jorja Lindgron Page 177 In 1938 Robert T. Hill divided the Cretace:>us Limestone formations in Texas int o two separate groups. One group consists of the Navarro, Taylor, Austin, Eagle Ford and Woodbine group. The group we will consider is the Washita, Fredrickabu.rg and Trinity group. This limestone is found in Central Texas. Some of the counties that are included are; the upper half of Bexar county, Bandera, Kendall, Kerr, Real, Edwards, Val Verde, most of Blanco, Haye, Comal and a few other miscellaneous counties. ERA PERIOD FORMATION U) WASHITA BUDA u :::> H 0 DEL RIO 0 N u FREDERICS-EDWARDS 0 U) <1:; BURG COMANCHE PEAK GLEN ROSE u TRINITY TRAVIS PEAK Depending on the limestone, you can tell its age and stratigraphy of the formation you have encountered. The Washita group consists of the following rock formations; Buda limestone, Del Rio clay, Georgetown formation, and the Kramichi formation. The Washita group is the youngest of the three groups being discussed. The Fredricksburg group consists of the Edwards formation, the Comanche Peak formation, and the Walnut Clay formation. It is intermediate in age of the three. The oldest and last is the Trinity group. It consists of the PaluxySand and the Glen Rose formation. By taking the five major limestone formations and diagramming them according to age we would have something like this: youngest Austin limestone Buda limestone Washita :Qel Rio 1 imes tone Fredricks burg limestone Trinity Glen_ limestone oldest


Page 178 The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 Each rock formation has a unique lithic description by which it can be recognized. A formation is a mappable unit of sedimentary rock which reflects a unique stratigraphy. For example; take the lithic description of the Glen Rose formation; marl, argillaceous limestone and dolomite, yellowish-gray to grayish-brown alternating beds of nodular to homogenous calcerous clay, argillaceous micrite, and burrowed, fine crystalline dolomite; some silty streaks and scattered oysters. Environment= intertidal to restricted shallow marine. As you may gather from this description there are varying depositional (ways in which they were formed} environments as well as different grades of limestone. Here is a diagram of the classification of the different depositional environments. supratidal I intertidal shallow marine open shelf tidal flat restr1cted I open tidal range The environments would determine which t yp e of marine animal would 'make up' the limestone. On the open shelf one might expect to find Toraminifera and molluscs. And in shallower environments pelecypods and gastropods are expected to be found in the limestone. There are also three different grades of limestone, based on their amount of impurities or physical characteristics. Siliceous or cherty limestone naturally contains nodules of silica. Argellaceous limestone is generally a softer rock high in aluminum silicate or clay. Pulverulent limestone is soft and easily fractured. It consists of very finegrained and rounded grains of calcite. This introduction should clarify some of the relationships between the various limestone formations in Texas. * * * * WHY I LOVE THE NE ITHERWORLD By John Grayless Softly the neitherworld calls to me; Beckoning to me, with great adventure, for me to enter. The velvety darkness doth inscribe, an ultimate beauty in my mind. Again the neitherworld calls to me with great unknown wonders to see. My lights illuminate the halls where ribbons of rock adorn the walls; and crystal straws from the roof are hung, and popcorn rock on the walls are strung. This is not a dead and wasteful land, But is full of life for all to see, and all This is the reason why I love, my neitherworld Below, not above. I


The TEXAS CAVER, June, 1973 Page 179 CAVER FIRST AI D NOTES By Chuck Stuehm Ice can be a valuable part of your first aid know-how. We know you w on't have ice inside a cave or while climbing to and from a cave . But if you have ice, use it; if not, wish you did. So what do we need ice for? The three "B"s, that's what! Bites-BurnsB ones! Almost any occasion where you will get a swelling, you can use an ice pack to reduce the a..-elllng and prevent much pain. If swelling has already occurred then you need to apply heat packs to bring swelling down and ease pain s omewhat. Almost all insect bites can be controlled somewhat by applying ice right away, and it sure will feel a lot better. Animal bites are the same. But you must remember that this i s only the start. By applying a soda pack or boric a cid or epsom salts to help drain the poison from the skin, and using warm or n ea r-hot water, you can ease pain and reduce swelling. Snake bites are about the same. If you think you can get the victim to a doctor or hospital within an hour, don't use the cut and suck method. Pack th e affected area in ice and walk--do not run--to the closest medical aid. The ice will chill the area and reduce the spread of the poison and will help keep the swelling down and reduce pain. Also it will help to prevent shock or lessen its effect. The ill effects of burns, first degree (red skin) and second degree (blisters) can be lessened by applying ice or cold water. Sunburn, scaldings, and fire burns are to wrapped with ice packs. The quicker the better! Get the cold to it right away to draw the heat out of the body as soon as possible and you have the problem licked. Many times if you get cold water or ice to a bad burn real quick, there won't even be blisters raised. Do not put ice directly over thi r d degree burns (charred tissue). put the ice in a towel or cloth and lay it over the wound. Broken bones can sometime swell quite fast. Pack the area in ice to pr event swelling and to reduce some of the pain. A hard blow to the head, arms, or legs, even though no bones are broken, will swell quickly. Again, apply ice. You must remember though, as good as ice is, you can overdo it by packing with ice so well that you cause frost bite, so be careful. So remember fellow cavers, have plenty of ice to keep that milk nice and cold, and a little more, just in case. * * * * * TSA CAVE RECiCUE PROJECT RESCUE PROJECT II Plans for this years second cave rescue training session are now being made. The scheduled date Is the weekend of September 28, 29, 30, 1973. The training location will be Midnight Cave. The sessions will be geared for both newcomers and those who attended the first session. Each Texas Grotto Is asked to have two trip leaders In attendance. A II other Interested persons are we I come.


>lOW t-IE.RE' S A"l R.IG I tlE.VE'LOP E D .... W >\ILE. IN"''te.iIE 'S 1'\01 Wl\t-\ CUR GROTTO. HE.':) WlTH._ 1\o..l$\ON CA\IE.R<;. HE. WASN'T AT i>\E. . 1 9 7 3 ,, I nv,\ WE HA.VE: ouR. 11\tE\iii.\G "'::> tAR!...'{ A.Mt:> WRITE WT wHAI SAID ANC r\AV IT TYPE I) UC> SPAc.ED, 1"-1 TRII>LIC.ArE.J ANI) PR;:.Sti\IT 1 1 To M.E. so's I woN' T 1-'1"'-VE TO TAKE NOTE":. DuRII'.) G REGULAR OR\ ';) ThERE. A.t-.l'(\)\\ li.) C IN ThE =II.J'ST\TI .. YnO"-.J 'RESTRIC\I)...)G by Ken Griffin


T h e TEXAS CAVER June, 1 t .> Paae 181 ::::l ...., f>OU>e\'" i""-w.t.. '"T'S-' 1 \ 11\CW yov \ M4.V\. ... Vou 'MAY \ociss youth-..)o.._ I I I W\-\ERt:. 5 . K\JNA-T4? V INSOt-J LloYD? e D'f us Go\0\t. to fl Mo\le.d. -.s. so...y D o "'' DtCXE.'( 7 & \'\b. ... lt-1 "Wt\T IJJJ Ml\'( 1"'\S SW)Q..\ 6\.A\-\ SLA"" ETc.. ... ''


Page 182 The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 NAPOLEON HAD A 39 INCH WHAT ? ? By Gill Ediger It was with great elation that I read the March TEXAS CAVER and noted that it had ''gone metric''. I found it very enjoyable to see all references in meters, and the further I read, and the more I saw them used, the more I was convinced that the Metric System should be eel nationwide immediately. However, being forced to live in a social structure dominated by the archaic English System, I still find myself and my train of thought far from being able to readily manipulate the Metric stuff. Several tricks which I have devised are helping me to make the change with a minimum of effort and a maximum of retention. Perhaps some of these tricks will enable you to make more use of the Metric System without the customary mathematical contortions experienced during such a change. Consider this! First off, avoid, if at all possible, letting your mind regress to the System when you see some reference to 27.6 meters, or 150 meters, or 5 kilometers. Do not try to convert to feet. At first this will be difficult, for you have no frame of reference, and you may have to regress long enough to get your bearings. But once wou have some frames of reference straight in your mind, metric relationships will come easily. Though you may not realize it, any time you hear a distance given, say a 150 foot pit, you start a mental search for some pit you know to be a 150 foot deep. This is then the frame of reference you use to picture the second pit. The Devil' s Sinkhole is a perfect example of this. I have spent much time at that sinkhole and have its depth (150 feet plus or minus a few inches) deeply etched in my mind --from both the top and bottom. Since the sinkhole is such a totally visable-pit, it has become my frame of reference for all pits, even those with longer or shorter drops. A 600 foot pit, being fairly hard to comprehend otherwise, becomes simpl:y 114 Sinkloles''. Other people undoubtedly use other frames of reference. Think a minute, and I'm sure that you can come up with several that you can use ---a city block is usually 500 to 600 feet long, a car is 20 feet, a three story building about 30 feet, from a 11STOP A HEAD11 warning sign on the highway to the 11STOP11 sigh is 1000 feet, most mobile homes are 60 or so feet long, a person is 5 or 6 feet tall. These and many, many more serve us as frames of reference when thinking and talking of lengths and measures. So, keeping this in mind, we can easily make the change to the Metric System without ever having to convert a foot to a meter or vise-versa. Simply, as a one-time operation, convert all your frames of reference to meters (near equivalents will usually suffice, no need to be ex act.) The Devil' s Sinkhole now be-co-mes 45 met-ers, that 600 foot pit is now 180 meters, but still 114 sinkholes11 A city block becomes 180 meters, a car 6. 5 meters long, a person 1. 5 to 1. 8 meters tall, a trailer house 18 meters. Who cares about feet? Think in meters, put your frames of reference in meters and then when you read that Bill Wheldell discovered a 75 meter pit in Mexico,


The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 Page 183 yoti know that it was not quite "2 Sinkholes", or that it was "half a city block'' deep. Its what you do anyway, but now you're thinking in meters. Now that you have the system down, the next thing to do is increase your store of frames of reference. Buy a meter stick. Start measuring things. You'll be surprised to find that your bed is 2 meters long. Measure the length of your living room. Remember it. Measure your truck. Remember it. Measure the length and width of your house outside. Stand and look at the house for a long time. Think, 11length = x meters, width= y meters". Say it over and over. Make those figures a part of your working knowledge. Do the same with a telephone pole, a city block, a multi-s tori ed bulding, a transmitter tower, or any number of things. Comrni t everything to memory. Not just to memory, but to knowledge. Forget about feet. Forget about miles. The distance from town A to town B is in N kilometers. Remember it that way;. tell anybody that asks the distance that it is N kilometers. If they want to know how many miles it is, tell them you don't know and don't care. Buy a meter tape and do all your cave mapping in meters. Not in feet converted to meters, but in meters from the start. Forget feet ever existed. When you see a cave or a pit map labeled in meters, figure it out in meters using the above guidelines, don't convert to feet. Get all of your friends to speak and think in meters and kilometers. Then, when you converse with them, you can put your frames of reference to a practical advantage and thereby strengthen them in your mind. Do these things conscientiously for awhile and within a few weeks, or months at the most, you'll find yourself reading right over mentions of 62 meter pits, comprehending completely, withcut; even being curious as to how many feet the thing adds up to. Someday, when the United States gets around to it, you will also find it necessary to learn to use liters and kilograms and their various subdivisions and multiples. When the time comes, put the above methods to work and make life a little easier for yourself. HAPPINESS IS A NICE METER. * * * * by Pete O'Neill If a stranger came to your door and asked you if he could go into your backyard to look at a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker that he had seen through his telescope, you would probably have a "You better back off, Jack11 reaction. This is I am sure, how many a cave owner feels when you ask for perrnission to go into his cave. The main problem is that he does not know the reliability of the person asking him for his permission. In gating a cave you gain several definite advantages. First of all, the cave owner will be dealing with a small group of people whom he will soon realize are responsible and reliable. Secondly, better control over the cave will be able to be administered. When the cave owner is asked to grant permission to someone to enter his cave, he just refers the person to the people who gated his cave. After they have talked to the prospective caver, they call the owner back and 11advise 11 the owner on the situation. A system like this will allow you to keep out of a vertical cave the people who think a 11cam1 is part of an engine. Last, but not least, this system will allow the owner to know, thru the security of knowing you, that only qualified cavers will be going on his property, and he will be more than happy to leave the cave open.


Page 184 The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 MORE ON THE JUNGLE BOOT by Ronnie Fieseler After reading Chuck Stuelun 's article on the Jungle Boot in the April CAVER, I felt the need to make some additional remarks which may be of interest to users and prospective users. I feel that some of Chuck's statements are somewhat in error and perhaps misleading, and would like to offer some rebuttal. I also have some extra facts and hints to pass along. To begin with, Chuck praises the plastic mesh inner-sole (it is actually a nylon mesh). In my opinion (and this is shared with hundreds of other Marines, soldiers, and cavers) the inner-sole is not worth a damn. Here's why. Everytime a person wades through water or even walks in very dusty terrain, tiny particle of dirt, grit, and similar abrasives find their way into the boot. In short order, the nylon of the inner-aole will be worn into an abraded and worthless piece of nothl Broken nylon strands have been known to stick into the soles of peoples feet. Thus, the inner-aole {which is actually only about 1/81 thick and not 1/ 4") provides no worthwhile advantages in either actual combat or caving conditions. I immediately remove and throw them away upon receipt of a new pair of boots. The inner-aole may be useful if all you do is wear your boots to the grotto meeting, and then only if you drive instead of walk. I also feel the statement concerning their being resistant to bamboo spikes and snake fangs, and being not easily cut is misleading. The spike protection consists of a piece of steel about 3/4'1 wide, 31 long, and less than 1/1611 thick. This is what forms the arch in the booto In addition, a piece of thin steel (about the thickness of beer can aluminum) and shaped similar to the inner-sole, is sewn into the leather-rubber interface. These do provide some, but not much, protection from punji stakes. Snakes, however, are not in the habit of biting people on the soles of their :feet. That's like saying we wear hardhats to keep from getting snake-bit! The nylon and leather tops and sides provide no more protection than ordinary hunting boots. They are easily punctured and cut by knives, machetes, bart wire, cactus, lechiguilla, fangs, etc., etc. Watch Where You Step! II That's about all I took exception t o in ChnckM a ? tide. Now I would like to pass along some more facts, idea;, and hinta. The laces of the boots are of good stout nylo n and w ill last a long time. H for some reason they do wear out or get cut beyond replace them with nylon parachute cord. It works pretty good although knots have a tendency to sometimes slip. When lacing the boots, skip the set of eyelets where the ankle bends. Thia will allow your foot t:o move more naturally without pinching it and will eliminate blisters at thia point. If your boot comes with a lace-in type of zipperr thr w i .. awayo It will onl y clog with mud o


The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 Page 185 The first thing that wears out on Jungle Boots are the t01111, especially those of cavers. To previ!lat or remedy this, put on a coat of epoxy or fiberglass res i n. You can even mix in some fiberglass. Do not try coating the entire leather front; only the foremost toe part. Leave crmes and wrinkles alone. The tongue of the boot extends all the way to the top of the boot. When lacing, it is a good idea to pull the tongue away from your foot, carefully smooth it and fold it to conform to 110ur foot and ankle. After a few days of the same treatment the tongue will take on a permanent fold and will be no problem in t he future. Do not lace the boot and let the tongue wrinkle and bunch up. This will be uncomfortable and could cause blisters. Do not buy Jungle Boots if you are looking for a boot to keep your feet warm i n cold weather. They were designed to keep feet cool in hot weather. Conseq uently, they tend to keep feet frozen in cold weather. You can't have everyt hing. A few remarks in closing. These boots are very tough. After using them fo r over five years, I am convinced that no better boot exists for caving in the T exas-Mexico type of climate. The soles almost never wear out. The leather will go first. They are strongly resistant to water and mildew. I had a pair that became too rotten to wear, but that was after about four months or so in the monsoon season when they stayed constantly wet and muddy. Not many boots colid stand that punishrrutntl They make for surefootedness on otherwise tricky surfaces. Unfortunately, they are hard to find in small sizes ( 7 and below) for people with small feet. Size 8 and larger are readily accesaible. Get yourself a * * * * * 6ACK ISSUES AVAILABLE Back issues of the Texas Caver are now available through the present editor for 40f each or 12 for $4. 00 postpaid. The proceeds will be used to include more photo's etc. in the remaining 1973 issues. Below is a tabulation of what issues we have, although we have only a few of some of these, so order early. Make checks payable to the Texas Caver. ..:: u ....... 1-t ..... >-C1) >-., > u ,.0 1-t 00 p. ., rd rd ....... ::l u 0 C1) rd C1) p. ::l ::l < C1) 0 z 0 ...., < ...., ...., U) 1963 X X X X 1964 X X X X 1965 X X X X X 1966 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1967 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1.968 X X X X X. X X X X X X X 1969 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1970 X X X X X X X X X X X X 1971 X X X X X X X X X X X 1972 X X X X X X X 1973 X X X X X X


PAGE 186 c (._ The TEXAS CAVER, June 197 3 who was ecently elected Don Shofstall. Ediger, a well known TSA caver, NSS Board of Governors. The other governors are James Dawson, Rob Stitt and The 1974 NSS Convention will be held August 12-17, m Decorah, Iowa. Is it true that the editor of this noble magazine was heard cursing his electric light upon emerging from a cave recently? Only to discover later he had been wearing his polaroids. Who knows something about mining terminology and could write up a page or two on the subject for the Texas Caver? Some knowledge in this area could help decipher published mine maps to find true cave passage or to study rock formations. Write it up and send it to the editor. Recent word from Mlrida, Yucatc(n is that James Reddell n o w holds the Yucatan depth record -71 feet! He reports that the low point of his career occured while rappelling into a waterfilled cenote. His inner-tube got hung in his brake bars and while trying to extricate himself he was stung by a swarm o f wasps. James has since perfected the technique of rappellin g into a floating inner-tube. Ten pounds of guano goes to the caver that can identify this famous caver and the even more famous cave. r--"""""'"'""'--=-""""""'''' .... .... _ .. a :.:I:.Ws WOO l down on sex-crazed spelunkers. The whole story was disclosed in the New York Times : H.I\.RRISBURG, Pa. April 4 {UPil-The House by a vote of 118 to 69, approved yesterday t: an amendment to outlaw premari tal and extramarital sex in Pennsylvania. A final House vote i is expected next week on the bill which makes malicious mischief in caves a misdemeanor.


The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 Page 187 News & History A lamo Area Alamo meets the last Tuesday of each month at 7:30pm in the Civil Defense Bldg., 115 Auditorium Circle in San Antonio. We lost Mike Walsh as chairman when he took a job in Abilene (up north somewhere), where he !!lays the grass is greener. Mike did a lot to pull this grotto together and improve the meetings. A special election was held and John Allison became our new chairman. John has improved the meetings also, and the party at the Pizza Hut afterwards is something else. Several members have been doing more mapping in Precipicio but more trips are needed. For some strange reason, people just don't want to go. Gating projects have been successful with the completion of Dead Deer Cave gate and the one on Fischer Pit Fischer Pit will be open to cavers thru either SWTG or AAC. They'll have the combination to the lock. Wayne Russe:U had several prize-winning pictures in the TSA Photo Salon. FOR SALE: 2 each, opener, c a n thumb and forefinger operated, P 38. They were won at the TSA Convention as a doorprize by Phil and Candy who can't fi9:ure out how to operate them. Southwest Texas The Southwest Texas Grotto has finished their activities for the semester, culminating in the hosting of the TSA convention in San Marcos. Other recent activities in which the grotto participated; were the gating of Fischer's Pit, near San Marcos and a continuation of our efforts to obtain funding for the Ezell's Cave project. The next grotto meeting will be held at the beginning of the fall semester; the specific date to be announced in a later issue. B ale ones CAIJ A VALLEY ecce ccsc DallasFt. Wert_ll GOD'S. Lttft.E GROTTO HOUSTON HUACO t.AtiDO SPEI.EOLOG I CAL Paisa no PMI American lED IIVEI TIM,LE Texas A & I U.T.


Page 188 The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 DATE: March 24-27, 1973 DESTINATION: Atka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska PERSONNEL: George Sevra REPORTED BY: George Sevra I made the twelve hour trip from Adak, Alaska in a tugboat on a sea with swells up to five meters. The discomfort of this trip was offset by the scenery of many small islands, a herd of over 40 caribou, cloud capped Korovin Volcano, and a large glacial valley. At Atka village, I spent my time enjoying the solitude and peace of the island by hiking, rock collecting, photographing, fishing, hunting and studying the geology. I saw the shelter caves mentioned by Ales Hrdlicka in "The Aleutian and Comman der Islands and their Inhabitants". There are many small shallow shelters everywhere, but nothing that can be called a cave. There are reports of some lava tubes on Korovin. DATE: March 31, 1973 DESTINATION:. Bexar Cave, Cow Dung Cave PERSONNEL: John Grayless, Phil Winkler, Al Brandt, John Graves, Pat Robert s Pat Roberts, Greg Passmore, Warnie Meisetschleager and Forrest Smith REPORTED BY: Forrest Smith John Grayles s and I went to Bexar Cave to photograph the magnificint one meter phallus found in the smaller south portion of the cave. Later we joined the rest of the group and broke open a small opening in the rocks in a pasture. We found it to be just slightly over two meters deep with a small uncrawlable space leading off at the bottom. We unceremoneously named this hole Cow Dung Cave. We spent the rest of the day looking and spending a lot of time at ice houses. DATE: Aprill3-15, 1973 DESTINATION: Fern Cave, Val Verde County PERSONNEL: William Elliott and 14 others REPORTED BY: William Elliott Friday, three carloads of people left Lubbock at 3:00PM. Most were students in Dr. Mitchell's freshman zoology and graduate arachnology courses. By 1:00AM we had reached the cave entrance in a light rain. We camped in the dry north end of the cave.


The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 Page 189 After breakfast Saturday, Dr. Mitchell gave us a little background on the cave. He and some of his students did an extensive study of it and its fauna several years ago which was published in the Annales de Speleologie (1970, 25(1): 73-90). It is one of the largest caves in Texas, volumewise, and contains a large colony of Mexican freetail bats. We toured the cave and observed the high density of fleas, ptinid beetles, pseudoscropions, bedbugs, and dermestid beetles in the guano. Three other species of bat were observed: Big-eared bat, Brown bat, and Eastern pipistrelle. We also saw four species of frogs: Gulf-coast toad, Canyon toad, Cliff frog, Leopard frog, and heard Barking frogs in the entrance at night. Rhadine beetles were abundant in the south end of the cave. We collected some Speodesmus millipedes in the moist, nothernmost room of the cave for my own work. We rigged a rope in the skylight near the main entrance and taught everyone how to rappell. The bat flight at sunset was impressive, even though the bat population is not yet up to its summer maximum. That night we hunted surface scorpions with blacklight (they luminesce brilliantly under ultraviolet). We slept in the cave again because of the weather. Sunday, we left the cave by 9:00AM and ate in Comstock, then drove to Langtry, looked at Judge Roy Bean's place, then spent the afternoon driving the Pandale road and collecting insects and arachnids. We returned to Lubbock by 9:30PM. DATE: Aprill9-23, 1973 DESTINATION: Southwest Regional Meeting, Terlingua PERSONNEL: John Graves, Glenn, Ruth, and Paul Darilek REPORTED BY: Glenn Darilek Thursday night we drove to Big Bend and were stopped only once for routine inspection and harassment. Friday we hiked the Window Trail and part of the Lost Mine Trail in the Basin. We then went to Terlingua where we met several well known cavers who were there for a weekend of cycling. Saturday the meeting program was abandoned and everyone went their way canoeing, swimming, cycling, and three of us actually went caving. John and I joined Tom Meador to drop and photograph Terlingua Sinkhole, a most impressive pit even though the shortest drop is 23 meters. After doing the pit and having much of the day remaining, Torn talked Doug Rhodes and us into seeing the 1v1ariposa Mines, which he had located on some old mining maps. Right: John Graves ascending in Terlingua Sinkhole. Photo by Darilek. ...


Page 190 The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 After some driving around looking in vain for the mines, we gave up and decided to do another mine which we happened to find. After seeing much of this mine and going into an adjacent mine, we realized that these were actually the Mariposa Mines and we. into the exact entrance that we were looking for. w e did some' natural passage that had. some very nice dogtooth spar calcite. The mine had several walk-in entrances or adits and several other shaft entrances. Most of the passage was straight, level and had ample ceiling heights so a good portion of the mine was seen in a very short time. I lost my preconceived notions about mines and decided that they are a passable alternative when actual c aves can not be found. We then drove to Villa de la Mina for the banquet and business meeting of the convention. Sunday morning we decided to go to New Mexico to help Rich Briesch and Tom Meador map in some long and complicated gypsum caves at Lake McMillan, near the city of Carlsbad. These caves (Coffee Cave and Homogenized White Cave) evidently were formed after the dam was constructed t o form the lake. Enough said, since II'om is preparing something for the NSS to fully document the birth, history and impending death of these very unusual caves. These caves will also be the location of the next Southwest Regional meeting. The long trip home Monday was uneventful. DATE: Aprill9-27, 1973 DESTINATION! Mexico PERSONNEL: Larry Laine, Scott Harden REPORTED BY: Scott Harden Thursday, Larry arrived from Panama City, Florida and we left that evening and camped near Sa'binas Hidalgo. Friday we drove through sweltering heat to swim in Rio Mante. Took a quick trip into Cueva de El A bra and camped near Jacala. Saturday, since my crampons hadn't yet arrived from REl. we tried to rent some in Mexico City without success. Drove on to Popocatepetl and rented them there. They were homemade, welded objects, one was a six point and the other a seven. Camped at about4000meters near Tlamacas. Sunday we climbed to 450()n.eters for a warmup and shakedown. There is a huge entrance (70 by 50 meters) to an ice cave at about m:l meters on Popo. The club there offers speleology courses as well as climbing. We both felt fine and prepared for the next day's ascent. I got sick that night. Monday we woke up late with me still sick but tried the climb anyway. I got to 4[a) meters where altitude and illness forced a halt. Larry tried to solo but only got to where altitude and weather intervened and he came down in a hailstorm. We drove off the mountain and headed toward Cacahuamilpa where we camped. Tuesday we took the commercial tour and walked down to Dos Bocas where we went about 1000 meters into one cave, just barely into total darkness. Drove to Toluca and camped.


The TEXAS CAVER, June 1973 Page 191 Wednesday we awoke to find that Nevada de Toluca (4550 meters) had no snowcap and the road was bad so we didn't go up. Went shopping in Queretaro. Drove to San Luis Potosi and San Francisco where we dropped rocks into the sotano (ll6 meters). Thursday, we went rock climbing in Huasteca Canyon in 70 KPH winds. Arrived in San Antonio early Friday morning. DATE: April 29, 1973 DESTINATON: Boyett's Cave PERSONNEL: About eight from AAC, two from SWT, four from Temple, and four from A & I REPORTED BY: Glenn Darilek After the TSA Convention, there were some of us who went caving. Most of us were able to see a good portion of this nice cave and its crawlways, chimneys, and lake room. The register was rusted shut, and needs some repair. DATE: May 5, 1973 DESTINATION: Fischer Pit, Boyett's Cave PERSONNEL: John Graves, John Grayless, Jorja Lingron, Bob Oakley, Forrest Smith, Phil Winkler REPORTED BY: John Graves Several weeks before Phil and others had put the main part of the gate on Fischers Pit. Saturday we locked the lock after entering the pit for the last time this year. The owners are closing the cav e for a year until all the publicity about the accident is over. Due to the recent heavy rains the pit was practically a water fall. Since we wouldn't be back for another year I decided to do some digging in the small swallow hole in the bottom. After digging about five feet through mud, bones, glass, and TV antennaes I found a small stream emerging from under one wall. The stream flowed under the clay floor of the second pit towards the first pit following the fault. By this time I was covered with mud and cuts so I deci-ded to call it quits. After locking the gate we went to Boyett's to see the lake. The heavy rains had filled the lake to a nice level for photographs and the formations were flowing with water. We all decided that being soaked twice in one day was enough for anyone so we headed home to San Antonio. * * Left: John Graves--Better to see you with? Photo by Darilek.


THE TEX A S CAVER 1218 MELROSE WACO, TEXAS 76710 FORWARDING POSTAGE GUARANTEED Address Correcti o n Requestd T O .u._ BUL K R A T E U S. P os t age PAID Permit N o IU W ac o T exas 7 6710 PHOTO SLIDE RULE TOTRL Pl-IOTO SOLVES OVER 3 5 PROBLEMS Made of a tough plastic Here Is a shirt pocket photographic slIde rule that "ill end your exposure problems in caves and add a new dimension to your cave photography. A few simple movements of the dials will give you the correct exposure using extension tubes or reverse adapters with your usual flash equipment. Large room shots with multiple flash are solved easily on the COMPUTER. COMPLETE WITH DETAILED INSTRUCTION MANUAL WITH EASY TO FOLLOW STEP BY STEP EXAMPLES ACTUAL SIZE $6.95ppd* order from: TOTAL PHOTO COMPUTER P. 0. Box 7770 Waco, Texas 76710 Texas Residents Add 5% tax. *Special Introductory Offer. $7 95 afte r June 30. I

Contents: Letters to
the Editor --
Total photo computer / James F. Jasek and Michael R.
Feitz --
Editorial / Glenn Darilek --
Notices --
S W R meeting / Rich Briesch --
1973 convention / Mike Walsh --
An introduction to the limestone formations of Texas /
Jorja Lindgron --
Why I love the neitherworld / John Grayless --
Caver's first aid notes / Chuck Stuehm --TSA cave rescue
project II --
TSA 1973 / Ken Griffin --
Napoleon had a 39 inch what?? / Gill Ediger --
Why gate it? / Pete O'Neill --
More on the jungle boot / Ronnie Fieseler --
Back issues available --
Garbage --
News and history --


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