The Texas Caver

The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
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Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Letters to the Editor -- Editorial -- The ankle hitch / James Jasek -- 1973 NSS convention / Gelln Darilek -- Cartoon / Ken Griffin -- News and history -- TSA Project '73 / Neal Morris -- First aid notes: diagnostic signs part II / Chuck Stuehm -- Portable lifesaver / Vince Orozco -- Knots / John Graves -- Cartoon / Ken Griffin -- TSA constitution and by-laws -- Cartoon / Ken Griffin -- Garbage -- Review / R. Glenn Fieseler -- Trips.
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Original Version:
Vol. 18, no. 08 (1973)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-04575 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4575 ( USFLDC Handle )
11309 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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TEXA.S AUGUST 1973 r. .


COVER: Wayne Burks in the "Root Cellar", Midnight Cave. Photo by Bob Lloyd using a Nikormat/45mm G-N Nikor with Plus X in Microdol 3-l. The TEXAS CAVER is a monthly publication of the Texas Speleological Association, an internal organization of the National Speleological Society and is published in San Antonio, Texas. Material should be typed double spaced and sent to the editor, Glenn Darilek, at 11929 Grapevine, San Antonio, Texas 78228, no later than the first. of the month of publication. Subscriptions are $4. 00 per year for 12 issues and all subscriptions should be sent to James Jasek at 1218 Melrose, Waco, Texas 76710. Persons subscribing after the first of the year will receive all back issues for that year. Single copies are available at each postpaid anywhere in the United States. STAFF Maggie Allison Karen Clement Glenn Darilek, Editor Ruth Darilek, Asst. Ed. Scott Harden Forrest Smith PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION: James Jasek ASSEMBLY: Huaco Cavers The TEXAS CAVER VOLUME XVIII, NUMBER 8 * * * * * EXCHANGERS: Address copies to 11929 Grapevine, San Antonio, Texas 78228 CONTENTS PAGE 22 7 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 229 EDITORIAL 230 THE ANKLE HITCH by James Jasek 231 1973 NSS CONVENTION by Glenn Darilek 232 CARTOON by Ken Griffin 233 NEWS AND HISTORY 234 TSA PROJECT 173 by Neal Morris 235 FIRST AID NOTES -Diagnostic Signs Part II by Chuck Stuehm 237 PORTABLE LIFESAVER by Vince Orozco 238 KNOTS by John Graves 239 CARTOON by Ken Griffin TSA CONSTITUTION and BY -LAWS 244 CARTOON by Ken Griffin 245 GARBAGE 246 REVIEW by R. Glenn Fieseler 247 TRIPS


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 227 Dear Editor: Whereas all caves are the same 1i. e. size & color) and that ice caves, mud caves, black caves, white caves, big caves, small caves do not exist-then Mr. Jasek's Total Photo Cornputor is the end-all to cave photography-until such time as this is the case I'll stick to the "by guess & by golly, seat of the pants" method until such time as I can no longer push the shutter release with my "rosy red". Anon. Dear Editor, My Total Photo Cornputor is just marvelous. It's lighter and much more compact than the old style Frisbees. F. Baggins Dear Editor Just wanted to let you know that after reading the article on the Total Photo Coaster in the June CAVER, I went right out and bought an 8-place setting, a n d have found them invaluable in preventing "beer can rings" on my new coftable. Editor-Sincerely G. Jon I just love my new Total-Photo Cornputor! It's so big and round and smooth! Lovie Cravesit Dear Glenn: Well Mike finally carne through and we are up to date with our Carers. I am glad that he finally made it, but can't find it in my conscience to blame him for the delay. After all, plenty of people being paid for their work fail to come up to expectations; for a person doing volunteer work to be derided for being a little behind is just about the rottenest thing that I could imagine. Torn Warden Dear Glenn, I just recieved my June 1973 CAVER and noticed a few things that it might help to clarify, discuss, or comment on. Maggie Allison's letter to the Editor caught my attention first. Let me explain that the reason for the "detailed account of what was wrong with each slide or print" was not meant, as I explained at the time, to embarrass or show disrespect toward the person entering the photograph. It is an old method used at -many photo salons to offer constructive criticism, not only to the entrant, but to others as well, of what is expected in a prize-winning


Page 228 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 picture. It is hoped that, through thi s action, we c a L point out to future entrants not the things "wrong" with a photo that prevent i t from being a salon winner, but also the "right" things that may just as well make it one, and make a better salon to boot. In your Editorial on pl71 you take exception to persons who criticise "over minor details." It seems that an editor would welcome this criticism as a useful attempt by those persons to help that editor turn out the very best publication on all fronts (text, cartoons, photo graphs, information, legibility, layout, printing quality, purposeful variation within the Editor's style of uniformity, etc.) that he possibly could, To do less than the very best possible is doing not only his r eaders, but also himself a g ross injustice. My curiosity was aroused by John Grayless' poem on pl78. I'm trying to decide if he did not mean netherworld inste a d of neitherworld. In Chuck Stuehm's article on First Aid h e makes a reference to frostbite. To prevent any misunderstanding it should be pointed out that it is virtually impossible t o cause frostbite to tiss u e with ice alone. Salt or some other chemical which speeds melting (thus lowering the temperature below oc) must be added before f rostbite will occur. I have a short, concise article on ice treatment that I intended to send along with this letter, but I seem to have mispl aced it in moving. I"ll send it as soon as I locate it. My last comment is related to Ronni e Fieseler' s rebuttal to Chuck Stuehm's article on the Jungle Boots (Aprill973 CAVER). Ronnie's words about the metal arch support being part of the spike protection are erroneous. It is an arch support only, and, being poorly attached, soon comes out of any well worn boot. Thr owing it away will not notic ably affect the wearing of the boot. The spike prote c t ion, which is worthless to cavers, is provided by a thin(. 05 mm) stainless steel plate. It will not s top a nail entering perpendicularly. Ronnie's comments on the nylon inner sole, snake bites, cold weather, toe modification, etc. are credible. Frequent applications of neatsfoot oil or a silicone based preservative will make the boots soft and more water resistant. Do not use a petroleum based-oil as it may contaminate water or mud within a cave. The boots should last for ten to twelve months of rigorous caving. One note on laces is in order. Nylon parachute cord is undoubtedly the best. One pair of laces I have has outlasted four pair of boots. I recommend making the laces about two meters long (75 or so centimeters longer than necessary) and simpl y wrapping the excess around your ankles before you tie it, then sticking the left-over part of the tied bow into the top of the boot. They will stay tied forever thi s way. For easy lacing seal the ends with a carbide flame and roll to a point while the nylon is still soft. But the reason for the excess lace is more subtle. More than once I've been in the Mexican Jungle o r a cave when a pack, belt, or some other equipment broke. A piece of string was badly needed. By unlacing my boot and shortening the lace to the minimum necessary, I was left with nearly a meter of strong, tough cord which, after cutting, was ready f o r rigging nearly anything except a pit.


The TEXAS CAVER. August 1973 Was good seeing you in Indiana. Yours in caving, Gill Ediger NSS Director Page 229 I wondered why most of the top cave photographers in the state did not ::;e:r the TSA photo salon. Maybe we sensed some of the judges' disgust at this situation in the way the entries were discussed. d We consulted John Grayless before we printed the poem and he exerclse poetic license with the choice of neitherworld, perhaps meaning neither above the ground nor below the seas. advantage of using long boot laces is if they are acc1dently cut or broken, there is usually one piece which is long enough to lace up the boot without having to tie knots. * EDITORIAL * * Maybe you have noticed that this issue is slightly thinner than the other 19 73 is sues. No excuses, the simple fact is that we have received very little material in the last month. Because of the printing time lag, there was not enough time to respond to the plea for articles given in the July issue. I feel certain that many articles are on their way, so there is really no reason to become alarmed, but many reasons to start contributing. I have contacted many people and a lot of people say they have an article, photo, o r trip report that they have been meaning to write or send in, but they have not gotten around to doing it. Well now is the time to respond. Since it is the duty of the editor to help the TSA officers and the TSA Publications chairman select succeeding editors of the Texas Caver, I would like to get some suggestions as to the people who would do a good job [or next year. Is there anyone who would like to volunteer for the job? I feel certain that I could not continue for another year without lapsing into some of the problems that the Texas Caver has experienced in the past. My decision not to be the editor for next year was not precipitated by any person o r group of people, and cannot in any way be construed to mean that the Alamo Area Chapter has failed me or the Texas Caver in any way. I feel that one year is long enough for any group of people to be in charge of a statewide publication that is supposed to benefit all caving groups in Texas. Actually it is not too early to consider the possibilities, since this situation is surely to be discussed (informally, I hope) at the TSA organizational meeting to be held this fall. Also the transition can be made much more smoothly i f things are arranged in advance. Why not give it a try? You might like it.


Page 230 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Figure 1. THE AIKLE H ITCH There have been many new caving techniques since the introduction of Jumars and Gibbs ascenders, but little has bt;en done to improve the method of tying an ascender sling to the foot. Knowing this, Bob Farris and I developed a knot we call the Ankle Hitch. This knot is one continuous loop that goes around the ankle as well as under the foot for support. The Ankle Hitch can be tied in the end of a Jumar sling, or in a loop made with a simple overhand knot or bowline knot. This loop as shown in figure 1 should be at least 15" long. The second step is ill ustrated in figure 2. In the top half of the sling form a simple overhand loop, then bring the bottom half of the sling up through this loop, and pull it through. You will have formed the Ankle Hitch as shown in figure 3. Shape the Ankle Hitch similar to figure 4, and step through the knot. The center loop goes up around the ankle with the outer loop under the boot as in figure 5 Pull up on the sling to tighten the entire knot, as in figure 6. Because this knot has a tendency to tighten up, we have found that one inch nylon webbing is more comfortable than Perlon slings, in figure 7. Figure 4. F igure 7. by James Jasek Figure S.


The TEXAS CAVER, August 197 3 Page 2 31 NSS Convention The 1973 :\'SS Convention was held on the Jnd1ana \ampu!" at Bloomington, Indiana, on June 17 through 23. With over 900 registered participants it qualifies as the largest NSS convention ever. After the pre-convention activities at the ::ipeiev; e::;t, re)li::.' r.t tion and camping began on Monday. Texas Cavers were very well represented and most of them camped in a designated area named Groad Hollow. Tuesday, the publication sales room opened. A very large variety of cave publications and other assorted equipment and momentos were on display for sale. All during the convention, technical sessions and speleo-workshops were in progress. The technical papers were presented on just about every facet of caving. Some of the papers that were presented by Texas cavers were ''Coffee Cave and Reservoir Leakage" and "Guano and Guano Mining in Southwestern U S. A." presented by Tom Meador, "Chemical Composition of Cave Calcites" by Russ Harmon, and "Cave Development in the Sierra de El A bra, S. L. P. and Tamps, Mexico" by John Fish. The speleoworkshops gave the cavers practical knowledge about various aspects of caving. Jan Lewis of God's Little Grotto presented a workshop entitled "Women in Caving. The vertical contests were held in the fieldhouse with competition for both men and women with knots and mechanical categories. Tuesday afternoon, the Congress of Grottos meeting was held. Many is sues were brought up, including a vote of 13 3 to 16 for much more effort to put out the NSS BULLETIN, and a vote of 119 to 42 to oppose awards programs which encourage visits to particular caves for awards (usually cloth patches\. A resolution to have the annual NSS Convention either in late July or in August failed 58 to 77, and an attempt to remove the term Dependent Member as a membership designation was tabled. Tuesday evening the Possum Roast was held at the fairgrounds. Despite a late afternoon rain the meal of ham(? )burgers! barbecue, etc. was served to the 751 paid participants. The rain cleared but the dust got thick in the pavillion when the foot-stompin 1 Bluegrass music began. During the band intermission, hard-driving auctioneer Bill Mixon auctioned off several speleo -mementos and netted an incredible $573 for the NSS office fund. Top item was a genuine 1954 C -3 expedition Gurnee can, for which "Bugs 11 Armstrong of Indianapolis bid $200. The Bluegrass festivities then continued on into the wee hours. The highlight of activities was the Mexico slide show in the fieldhouse presented by Texas cavers, Bill Russell and John Fish. The wine tasting party was held Wednesday night. It was considered by all who attended to be a monumental success. Wines were judged in two classes-White and Red. The winner of the white wine competition was Don Shofstall with a 1973 champagne. Winner of the red was Dick Bishop with "Bishop's Vile Bile" Sam Frushour"s "Old Toad" was judged to be in a class by itself, with an A ' rating. A capful burned for a full three The NSS Photo Salon was held Thursday with the best cave slides in the nation entered. Notable slides were entered by Russ Harmon and Tom Meador and one slide featured Gill Ediger emitting a monstrous belch of fire.


Page 232 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1 973 Friday the Cave Ballad competition was written about caves and performed by cavers. Justrite" by Barb McLeod and "Caving Roads" tured a slide show to go along with the lyrics. cinematography show was held. held, with many original songs Among the best were ''Plastic by Cricket Hagood which feaLater in the evening the SpeleoAll during the convention many other things were happening. Many Texas cavers had reservations about the Bloomington area as to the caving potential. In actuality, southern Indiana has two major karst areas, and caves were everywhere. Most of the caves had water pas sage, with very few long drops, although Indiana also has its share of pits. There were cave trips being organized at all times, and an excellent guidebook directed many cavers to caves. Other activities included a four wheel drive contest, wire spool stacking contest (with caver on top), a muddy obstacle course, a 1 meter tall carbide lamp that issues a 25cm flame, and a Texas speleo bumper with phallic attachment driven by Ediger violating various other vehicles. The convention was adjourned after the Banquet on Saturday, and everyone r egr etfull y started the long trip home. ,,, * * Glenn Darilek * z


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1173 Page 233 Ne'W's a. Ilistory TEMPLE CAV lNG Our club was organized on February 1, 1973. We hold our meetings on the first Thursday of each month. We were voted into the TSA at the convention a fter a friendly discussion of the procedure for accepting new clubs. Since the convention, we have been raising money for equipment and buying equipment with the money that we raised. We have been holding many rope training sessions for the new cavers in our club. We also participated in a practice session with James Jasek, Bob Farris, and Jimmy Schroeder. Our club is also active in the assembly of the TEXAS CAVER. ALL YOU NON-SUBSCRIBERS GET WITH IT. At the present time our club has SOo/o of its members subscribing, and it will be at least 90% by next month. The 15, 16, and 17 of June, some Huaco and Temple cavers went to Bustamante. There will be a report in the Caver soon. CENTRAL CATHOLIC Elections were held at the last meeting of the CCG for the summer caving club's officers. Results are: President-Pete O'Neill; Vice President -Allen Scherlon; Secretary -Susan J. Wright; Treasurer -Mick Hotard. The committee chairmen are: Training -Allen Scherlon, Chairman; Joe Ferro, Assistant Chairman; Publications -Mick Hotard, Chairman; Spunk Valdispino, Assistant Chairman; Equipment -Pete O'Neill, Chairman; Susan J. Wright, Assistant Chairman. We have just put out a 12 page newsletter, edited by Pete O'Neill, featuring club news, trip reports, and the adventures of Brother Goose. PAN AMERICAN SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY The Pan American Speleological Society is still alive. We've had numerous trips since we last contacted the Caver. Our trips have been concentrated around C. Victoria and Ocampo. On a fairly recent trip we met some Houston cavers who were checking out the Victoria area on Motorcycles. Along with them we found numerous pits and caves but left most of them unexplored. A few weeks later we found a pit called El Hondido. It's entrance is about 250m x 13 Sm with a drop at the rigging point, of about 11Om. We are all looking forward to the next cave rescue session.


Page 234 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 ALAMO AREA CHAPTER An increasing amount of interest in the NSS and TSA has been shown by members of AAC. We have 30 current members 20 of which are NSS members. Four members attended the NSS Indiana and over a dozen were at the TSA convention in San Marcos. Vince Orozco sold two photographs and an article on cave rescue to a medical magazine just recently, with a possibility of a feature article in the near future. Our executive committee meetings are expanding into funtime (after the business is finished). Ping-pong and penny pitching are the two main activities. A grotto party was held on July 8th at Glenn Da.rilek's home with most AAC members and some old timers attending. Meetings are held the fourth Tuesday of each month at ll5 Auditorium Circle, San Antonio, Texas. * * * * TSA. Project "73 This year no official TSA Labor Day Project has been planned. There were several suggestions for Project sites, including the Whitworth Ranch, Carta Valley, Powell's Cave, McKittrick Hill, and the River Styx Cave area, but all were discarded due to a general lack of interest by the cavers of the TSA. I am ashamed to say that this includes myself. I didn't expend nearly enough energy or thought towards the Project. Chairman Ronnie Fieseler was very concerned and spent a lot of time talking to people investigating possible Project sites, but he, also, was discouraged by the apathy which he encountered. Therefore, the traditional Labor Day Project has been cancelled this year. The TSA organizational BOG meeting will be moved to some later date during September or October and will be announced in the Texas Caver. Following the line of thought expressed by Gill Ediger's letter in last month's Caver, it is still possible that a regional project or get-together could be planned for this fall. The most important consideration is finding a good location that can attract and absorb such a large group of cavers. Any ideas? Get in touch with Ronnie Fieseler. He's in contact with cavers all across Texas Back to September 1, 2, & 3: YOU should plan a caving trip for the Labor Day weekend. It's a good opportunity to work on individual caving pro jects and interests. Don't let it slip by! Ronnie Fieseler is going to McKitt rick Hill for Labor Day. Anyone interested in helping on this survey trip should contact him soon. Above all else, Don't sit at home on Labor Day--Get out and Go Caving. -Morris


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 235 0 I AGNOSTIC SIGNS Part II by Chuck Stuehm This is the second part of the "Important Diagnostic Signs 11 article started in July. One more coming next month. Keep them together. SKIN COLOR. Skin color is determined mainly by the blood circulating in subcutaneous blood vessels. Thus changes in color reflect an increase or decrease in the blood flow. Carefully examine the patient's face and hand for areas of abnormal skin color. Note whether the skin appears RED WHITE, or BLUE. DIAGNOSTIC SIGN OBSERVATION Red skin Skin color White skin Blue skin INDICATION Sunstroke, stroke, drunkeness, skull fracture, heart attack Bleeding, shock, heat exhaustion, fainting, fright, heart attack Asphyxia, heart attack, airway obstruction PUPILS OF THE EYES. The pupils of the eyes are good indicators of the condition of the heart and the central nervous system. In the normal person the pupils of the eyes respond to light and are equal in size. Changes and variations in the size of one or both pupils are the important diagnostic signs, especially in determining whether or not the patient is in cardiac arrest. Examine the pupils by gently sliding back the upper lids. Note whether the pupils are dilated (wide) or constricted (narrow). If pupils are dilated, check for their response to stimuli by flashing a light scross them. ln death, the pupils will not respond to light. DIAGNOSTIC SIGN Pupils of the eyes OBSERVATION Dilated Constricted Unequal INDICATION Unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, death Drug use or disease Head injury, stroke


Page 236 The TEXAS CAVER. August 1973 STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS. The normal, healthy perso n is alert, oriented and able to respond to stimuli, both vocal and physical. If the patient is alert at first then slips into unconsciousness, there is a strong indication of damage to the brain. Carefully note the patient's state of consciousness and relate them to the hospital physician. DIAGNOSTIC SIGN State of consciousness OBSERVATION Brief unconsciousness Confusion Stupor Deep coma INDICATION Simple fainting Alcohol use, mental condition, slight blow to the head Severe blow to the head Severe brain damage ABILITY TO MOVE. When a conscious patient is unable to move his arms and legs, they are said to be paralyzed. Paralysis may be caused by certain medical disorders such as stroke, or by injury to the spinal cord. When a person suffers paralysis, there is neither sens?-tion nor response to painful stimuli in the affected parts. In some injury situations paralysis is not complete and the patient may have limited use of his extremities. In these cases, the limbs have a characteristic numbness or tingling sensation. Loss of sensation or loss of the use of limbs usually indicates a spine injury, and the injured person should not be moved until the spine has been immobilized. It is also interesting to note that per sons suffering from hysteria, violent shock, or excessive drugs or alcohol may feel no pain for several hours. This must be taken into account during the examination or this may give you a false indication of what is wrong with the patient. DIAGNOSTIC SIGN Paralysis or loss of sensation OBSERVATION Lower extremities Upper extremities Limited use of extremities Paralysis limited to "one side INDICATION Injury to spinal cord in the lower back Injury to spinal cord in the neck Pres sure on spinal cord Stroke, head injury with brain damage


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 237 PORTABLE LIFE SAVER by Vince Orozco "Texas Caver on weekend trip dies from U.S. #1 killer--the mosquito." Now how can anyone ever believe a story like that? I can because it could very well happen to me. After being a caver for four years no one ever knew I had a hidden medical problem--an allergy against bee stings and insect stings. Sounds like a minor problem to you but a lethal one to me i n more ways than one The solution to my problem is "Medic Alert". Medic Alert is an emblem worn b y thousands of people who have a hidden medical problem. Whenever a person cannot speak for himself-because of unconsciousness, shock, hysteria, etc. -the Medic Alert speaks for him. Why Medic Alert? Tragic or even fatal mistakes can be made in emergency medical treatment unless the special problem of the person is identified. For example, a shot of penicillin could end the life of one who is allergic to it. A diabetic could be neglected and die because he was thought to be intoxicated. There are about one in five persons with some medical problem. A Medic Alert emblem is worn around the neck or on the wrist. On the back of the emblem is engraved the medical problem and the telephone number of Medic Alert's central file. Rescue workers, doctors, police, or anyone giving aid can immediately get all the vital information stored at Medic Alert's central file. The cost of Medic Alert is a reasonable $7 for a lifetime membership. So if you're a caver with a special medical problem it's time you filled out an application as soon as possible. There are many categories you might qualify for. Exposure to rabies, tetanus, histoplasmosis, or bad air in caves is very hard to diagnose unless the doctor knows you are a caver. If you're unconscious will you be able to tell someone about it? You might as well pack your clothes and dig a grave cause they'll never figure out your problem unless they had a hint! .,, , If you care about your life carry a portable life saver. Write: -' .,, Portable Life Saver 502 Astor St. San Antonio, TX 78210 .,, .,, .,, .,, An old saying: Stress safety, and you will l ive long and safely. Gary Par sons An old Chinese proverb states: The cave of a thousand miles begins but with one small crawlway. .,, Central Catholic Newsletter


Page 238 The TEXAS CAVER, Augu s t 1973 KNOTS Nate: Arrows show direction that force can be 1 applied to. 1. BOWLINE: The bowline will not slip, does not pinch or kink the rope as much as some other knots, and does not jam and become difficult to untie. This knot is probably the most widely used knot in caving. It is used to secure a rope to a rock or tree for repelling, and to connect two ropes together when a longer single rope is not available. This is done by passing the loop of one knot through the loop of the other. A bow-line will reduce the strength of a rope to 60% of normal. 2. SHEET BEND: The sheet bend or weaver's knot is used for tying two ropes together. It will not slip even if there is great difference in the sizes of the ropes. However, the loose ends should always be secured to the main line by use of a half hitch. This knot provides 55% normal rope strength. 3. SLING KNOT: untie. 4. FISHERMAN'S KNOT: The fisherman's knot is used to tie two ends of a rope or piece of webbing together to form a loop. However, it is more suitable for use with rope. To begin, an overhand knot is ti"ed on one end of the rope. The other free end is passed through this knot, and a second ave rhand is tied around the first end using the second. If the knot is tied as indicated it will pull taut into a compact, safe, knot. 5 PRUSSIC OR PR USSIK KNOT: Like the bowline, the prussic knot is widely known by cavers. In recent years it has almost entirely been replaced by various type s of mechanical ascenders. on extremely muddy


* The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 239 ropes it is unsurpassed in performance. Every verticle cave r should carry several prussic loops in his or her pack. The loops can be formed by use of a fisherman 1 s knot. Then this loop is coiled around the main rope as shown. There are many other knots which can be applied to caving, but the five listed above are essential and should be known by ALL cavers. JOHN GRAVES 13327 * * * * * * * * * TSA CONSTITUTION and BY-LAWS At the last Board of Governors meeting, there was much confusion as to what the TSA constitution and by-laws actually said. To familiarize everyone with these documents, they are reproduced on the next few pages.


Page 240 Article I Article 11 Article III Article IV Article V Article VI The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 CONSTITUTION OF THE TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION The name of this organization is TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, hereinafter called TSA. The purposes of TSA are to promote interest in and to advance in any and all ways the study and science of speleology, the protection of caves and their natural contents; to promote fellowsh:.i:p amon-g those interested therein; and to promote and coordinate speleological activities in the State of Texas. TSA supports the aims and goals of the National Speleological Society. Membership in TSA is open to all grottoes and members of the National Speleological Society in the State of Texas, and to any person o r group"of persons whose purposes and aims are consistent with those of TSA and who meet the membership conditions set forth in the By-laws. The governing body of TSA is the Board of Governors, hereinafter called BOG. The BOG consists of those officers of TSA, group delegates, delegates-at-large, and chairmen of standing c ommittees present at a BOG meeting. Each BOG member may exercise only one vote. No person may have a regular vote and also vote in behalf of another person by proxy. At least two BOG meetings shall be held each calendar year. The time and place of a meeting shall be announced at the previous meeting, through a regular publication of the TSA, or by mail to all members of record. BOG meetings may be called by written petition of 5o/o of all TSA members. The life of TSA shall be perpetual or until terminated by a simple majority vote of the membership upon recommendation o f the BOG. Distribution of assets shall be made by a majority vote o f the BOG. Article VII .. Amendments to this Constitution shall be proposed by a simple majority o f the BOG and within ninety days of it's proposal must be publishe d in a regular publication of TSA or mailed to all members of record. A proposed shall become effective upon it's ratification by a three-fourths majority of all TSA members present at the BOG meeting next following it's proposal and publication.


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 241 TSA BY-LAWS ARTICLE I. MEMBERSHIP A. A recognized caving group is any NSS Grotto or organized caving group in Texas which has submitted an official list of members to the officers of TSA within the preceding or current calendar year. Membership lists must be approved by a majority of the TSA officers. Every recognized caving group must have at least five members. A person cannot be a member of more than one group for the purpose of meeting the minimum membership requirement. B. Membership in TSA consists of: (1) group members, (2) independent members, and (3) honorary members. l. A group member is any member of a recognized caving group as described in by-law I, A 2. An independent member is any pers1:m who is not a group member and who meets one or more of the following conditions: a. A Texas resident belonging to the National Speleological Society; b. A Texas resident l:mbJI'Cribing to the TEXAS CAVER; c. A Texas resident registering at an offical TSA convention or project during the current or preceding calendar year; d. Any person registering as an independent member with the TSA Secretary-Treasurer during the current or preceding calendar year. 3. Any person may be elected to honorary membership by a simple majority of the Board of Governors. C A member of the TSA may be expelled from membership by a three-fourths majority of the Board of Governors at a ,BOG meeting. Reinstatement shall be in a like manner. ARTICLE II. .iOFFIOER.S A . The officers of the TSA constitute the Executive Council and are: Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Secretary-Treasurer.


Page 242 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 l. The Chairman presides over all BOG meetings of TSA. 2. The Vice-Chairman is responsible for meeting and program arrangements, and presides at BOG meetings in the absence of the Chairman. 3. The Secretary-Treasurer records the minutes of BOG meetings, maintains a current list of members, and acts as treasurer of TSA as sets, maintaining adequate financial records. B. Candidates for office are nominated from the floor or by mail to the Secretary-Treasurer at the Convention BOG meeting or the Project BOG meeting, whichever comes earlier in the calendar year. C. Officers are elected by a simple majority of the delegates voting at the Project BOG meeting or the Convention BOG meeting, whichever comes later in the calendar year. In the event that no candidate for an office receives a simple majority of the votes cast, a runoff election shall be held immediately between the two candidates for any office receiving the greater number of votes. Elections shall be held more than 3 0 days after nominations D. Officers shall serve for the calendar year following their election. E. Officers may be removed from their positions by a favorable vote of three-fourths of the Board of Governors at a BOG meeting. Vacancies, for whatever cause, shall be filled for the remainder of the calendar year by the nomination from the floor and election as soon as possible. ARTICLE III. COMMITTEES A. Committees of TSA are of two kinds: standing and temporary. B. Standing committees are the following: Publications, Conservation, and Safety. Chairmen of standing committees are appointed by the TSA chairman and terms shall be concurrent with those of TSA officers. Committee chairmen may be removed at any BOG meeting by a favorable vote of three -fourths of the Board of Governors. l. The Publications Committee shall include at least the editors of TSAsponsored caving publications. This committee shall study the needs of TSA members for TSA-sponsored publications and shall recommend publication policies to TSA BOG. 2. The Conservation Committee shall promote conservation of the caves of Texas and other areas, recommend public relations policies to TSA BOG, assist members in local cave conservation activities,


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 243 and act as liasion between TSA and other groups interested in conservation. 3. The Safety Committee shall encourage safe cave exploration and coordinate cave rescue activities. C. Temporary committees are appointed and dissolved by t h e TSA chairman for study and recommendations on particular subjects and issues. ARTICLE IV. BOARD OF GOVERNORS MEETINGS A. BOG meetings shall be held at the annual TSA Convention and at the annual TSA Project; these meetings are, respectively, the Convention BOG meeting and the Project BOG meeting. In the event that a Convention or Project is not held, the Executive Council shall designate an alternative meeting as a substitute. B. There shall be two kinds of voting d e l egates to BOG meetings: l. A group delegate is an authorized representative o f a recognized caving group. Each recognized caving group shall select and authorize its own delegates. No recognized caving group may have more than two voting delegates at a BOG meeting. 2. A dele gate-at-large is an authorized representative o f the independent members. Independent members shall select and authorize the delegates-at-large. Independent members may have no more than four voting delegates -at-large at a BOG meeting. 4. The right of a person to serve as a group delegate or as a delegate-at-large may be challenged by a member of his group or by an independent member, respectively, from the floor at the beginning of that BOG meeting. The right of the challenged delegate to vote must be decided immediately by a majority vote of the Executive Council. Official delegates shall be all delegates at a meeting whose right to vote is not revoked. 5. Any group delegates may release his authority to vote a t a specfic BOG meeting and redesignate that authority to another TSA member by a written proxy approved in writing by an officer (or equivalent) other than himself or his recognized caving group or by a simple majority o f the recognized caving group. Any restrictions on voting must be contained t n the written proxy. A proxy for a meeting may be challenged from the floor by a member of the recognized caving group represented by the beginning of that BOG meeting. The right of proxy vote must be decided immediately by a majority vote of the Executive Council. Official proxies shall be all those for a meeting whose rights are not revoked.


Page 244 The TEXAS CAVER, August 197 3 C. A quorum consisting of one-half the possible Board of Governors (that .is, the voting delegates, officers, and chairmen of standing committees) shall be required to conduct business at a BOG meeting. D. In the absence of specific rules of order in the Constitution and By-laws of TSA, the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order shall prevail. ARTICLE V. AMENDMENTS The By-laws may be amended by a favorable vote of twothirds of the Board of Governors at a BOG meeting. * * * * * -J ''NoW Dot-.l'T y'ALL R::.R.G.\\ .. A."-1'< GOLO 'R_ 'TREA.'S>UR..E'S '(A.LL F\N() I I'LL Gl V'E. YALL F"LAT OU'T ,,


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 245 Visitors to Gorman Falls might be startled to see a Chevrolet Impala resting at the bottom of the cliff! Yep, someone had the misfortune of being the first person to drive off the cliff sometime near the middle of June, probably due to brake failure. The car came down the camp road, over the cattle guard, through the camp, and narrowly missed several people and many huge trees, then traveled straight through the picket fence and over the fifteen meter cliff. The car did a half somersault and landed on its rear end just left of the waterfall (looking down). The boys escaped serious injury, and were halfway up the trail to the camp before the bystanders got to them. They could not be stopped until they reached the camp. The boys suffered no injuries other than cuts and bruises, and were released from the hospital the same day as the accident. Natural Bridge Caverns now has a "real" cave man on Sunday tours to entertain the tourists. When will wonders cease? Hewlett-Packard has come out with its HP-35 and HP-45, battery operated, handheld calculators, which have all of the features you need to accurately reduce cave survey data including the trigonometric functions. In addition to the features of the HP-35 model, the HP-45 can operate w.ith trigonometric functions that can be performed in any of three :selectable angular modes--degrees, radians or grads (European system)--with instant conversion to or from degrees, minutes and seconds. Polar coordinates in any of the four quadrants can be converted with the HP -45 to rectangular coordinates or vice versa. Also, vector components may be directly added of subtracted. The cost of these calculators is in the $300 to $400 range, but this is remarkably cheap for state -of-the -art electronics. I was recently told by a med student that there is another meaning for NURD. It is half-way between a nothing and a turd. Gary Parsons. Quote on a recent caving trip: "If the good Lord had meant for women to cover up, he would have given them three hands. 11 Gary Parsons.


Page 246 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 REVIEW Inside Earth. Edited by Jay Arnold, Frank Binney, et. al. No. 2 Spring 1973. Perhaps you are wondering why there is a review on this publication. You may remember that there was one published just short months ago. If a copy has found its way into your hands, you would know why! Ins ide Earth has moulted, reached puberty, shed its cocoon, or something. At any rate, it has changed so drastically that a new review is needed. From my own opinion (and comments that have filtered back from the NSS convention) Inside Earth has become the publication to judge others by. All who have seen it have been amazed at its quality, both printing and content. It has been many years since a publication has been produced with such a nationally oriented appeal to interest and entertainment. There is indeed something for everyone. It is no longer centered around the UT and Austin caving groups with articles of local interest. It seems that a new national caving magazine has leapt to the forefront which the NSS NEWS will be hard pres sed to rival. It is difficult to describe the magazine in just a short review, as there is so much involved. More Loving cartoons, fiction, Kunath photos in a new Gallery section, true articles, a dramatization, a Michel Siffre interview, advertisements, and more, and MORE! Often controversial, yet always interesting and in line with the editorial policy to" .. entertain cavers, to communicate the excitement, the wonder, and the awe that moves us ... 11 Having been involved personally with it's publication on a couple of minor details, and being friends with several of those deeply involved, I know that it cost a veritable fortune to publish this issue. My only fear is that it may perish due to financial problems. Hopefully, the cavers of the US will rally to its cause and see in it a true need of caves, cavers, and caving, and support it by subscribing. I personally feel that this sort of publication has been needed for quite a while and hope that it will become an institution in North American caving. At the risk of sounding commercial, I urge you to rush your subscriptior to the nearest mailbox addressed to: Inside Earth Publications, P. 0. Box 8500, Austin, Texas 7 8712. Only $2. 50 a year. Ronnie Fieseler Editor's note: I believe Frank Binney will agree that it is unfair to judge regional periodicals or the NSS NEWS using IE as the standard, at least as far as contents are concerned. We should recognize the new format of IE as a welcome addition to regional and society publications, rather than an alternative.


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 Page 247 DATE: April 18-20, 1973 DESTINATION: Bustamante, N. L., and Carta Valley PERSONNEL: Nick Ibarra, Robert Coe, Marty Mimchaca, Brother Paul Golantowitz and Pete O'Neill CAVES VISITED: Gruta del Palmito, Deep Cave DATE: May 18-20, 1973 DESTINATION: Gorman Falls and surrounding area PERSONNEL: Six Temple cavers joined by three Huaco cavers on Sunday REPORTED BY: Gary Parsons Two of the Temple cavers went to Gorman on Friday night. Saturday morning, the rest of the flock arrived. We got the flock out of the camp and did Gorman Cave Upon entering the cave I quickly attached the strobe to my camera hoping to get some good pictures of the bats further back in the cave. I soon discovered that the batteries were weak in my strobe. I did manage to get a bat in flight and some shots on cave conservation before my strobe failed me completely After our trek into the cave we quickly headed for the river to wash off the mud and guano. From there, we headed for the falls. It was as beautiful as ever except for some litter left there by one of the many bugs. On our next trip to Gorman we will clean it up thoroughly That night we talked played frisbee, football, volleyball, started a stalled car, roasted we iners, and crashed. The next morning, while we were waiting for the Huaco cavers to arrive Frank Sadek and I went down to the falls to do some color and b/w photography. As soon as the Huaco cavers arrived (James Jasek, Bob Fariss, Jimmy Schroeder) they ate lunch. The two groups then combined, and we all went to Lone Bat Cave. This cave is a very nice little cave. Its most beautiful parts are two tiny rooms at the end of the cave. We spotted a scorpion at the end of the cave and it appeared to be dormant We exited the cave shortly thereafter and started the long hike back to the camp. Upon arriving at the camp, we quickly drank much cold fluid and then prepared to practice some vertical work! After the practice session we split and went our separate ways.


Page 248 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 DATE: June 3, 1973 DESTINATION: Brady Creek Cave PERSONNEL: William Russell, Ronnie Fieseler REPORTED BY: Ronnie Fieseler We went to this cave to dig and blast in a lead at the bottom of the cave, It blows large quantities of iioir and is almost in line with the direction that Airman1s Cave is heading After futile digging we resorted to a charge of Kinepak. This moved a large rock and caused us to change our digging to a more promising area to the right of it. William dug a short distance before running out of time. There is still hope for this cave and more work needs to be done. DATE: June 16, 1973 DESTINATION: Bexar Cave PERSONNEL: Bob Oakly, Phil Winkler, Ron B icklien, Don Burdick REPORTED BY: Phil Winkler The three others hadn1t seen this cave and I owed Ron an easy one after exposing him to South Fault in NBC three months ago. I was curious if the cave had been inundated by the water due to back up behind the newly built dam just downstream from the cave, and sure enough, when we got to the ranch Mrs. Steubing said a whirlpool was above the cave just last week. We drove to the cave and found the water had receded to about fifteen meters from the entrance; water could be in the cave itself. Climbing into the small pit it was obvious that a great transformation had taken place: there was now a large hole in the entrance sink, further back, the large guano piles had been washed away further into the cave making a great muddy mess, and now there was a ten to fifteen meter waterfall from the ceiling of the big room. The waterfall is about l. 5 meters in diameter and the water flows through breakdown to a lower level where it then flows into a two meter sink and disappears down a very deep newly opened hole! I assume it1s deep since a rock thrown in went ker-r-r-plunk!! and sounded deep! The S3.n Antonio River Authority built the dam to create a recharge for the Edwards Aquifer, and it is obviously draining whatever water accumulates behind the new million dollar dam, much to the dismay of the owners who would like a bigger lake. If the weather stays dry for two weeks or so, Ronnie Steubing wants to check out this newly opened water drain and so do I, since new passage has obviously been opened up or reopened if thirty year old stories of the cave are to be believed. We took a few pictures of the waterfall, checked the other, higher and drier portion of the cave (all the bats are there now} and retreated to the Iron Skillet.


The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 DATE: June 16, 1973 DESTINATION: Choupique Cave, Arkansas PERSONNEL: Billy McMillian, Tom Warden REPORTED BY: Tom Warden Page 249 We have finally found a cave in the Texas Arkansas hills, just seven miles east of Texarkana. It is small, being one room, all in the twilight zone. It is formed in the crevices under and between large iron ore boulders. The one r oom is 8. 2 meters long, 5 meters wide and 2 meters high. It has three entrances; a skylight at the south rear; a crawlway to the east; and an opening between boulders to the north. We collected a cave cricket, a pillbug and 3. spider. sending them to Doug Barnett of the University of Kentucky for identification. After mapping, taking geological notes and pictures, Billy and I stood outs ide and wondered about the legend that Confederate soldiers had used the cave as an outpost against the Union. With a firepath cut through the trees, they could have easily controlled the trail up from the Red River. Billy found a road, now grown up in trees, that wound up the hill to the cave, but his mineral locator could find no trace of the cannon supposedly buried nearby. DATE: June 17, 1973 DESTINATION: Kennamer Cave, Orgy Cave, Huntsville Alabama PERSONNEL: Paul Benedict, Dan Murphy, Mike and Tom Stettler, John Graves, Glenn Dar ilek REPORTED BY: Glenn Darilek On the way to the NSS convention, we went through Huntsville to see some of the caves 3.nd visit Dan and Frances Murphy. Paul Benedict agreed to take us caving. We went into Kennamer cave and came out ofOrgy cave. Kennamer cave is mostly walking pas sage with huge halls and s orne impressive breakdown boulders and a certain amount of difficult chimneying. Since the re-turn trip would be very difficult, we exited via about 100 meters of flat and wide crawlway in Orgy cave, with an average height of about 50 centimeters. The overall length of the cave system that we traveled was about 3 kilometers. The next day we stopped by the NSS Headquarters for a while and then off to Bloomington. DATE: June 19-21, 1973 DESTINATION: Gorman Cave, Wonder Cave, Dead Dog Cave #2, Broken Straw Cave PERSONNEL: Prof. Claude Delamare, Dr. Cristian Juberthie, Madame Juberthie, Ronnie and Susan Fieseler REPORTED BY: Ronnie Fieseler Susan and I were acting as guides for the three visiting French biospeleologists from the Laboratoire Souterrain de Moulis, C. N. R. S. At Gorman Cave we helped collect samples from the spring above the fishing


Page 250 The TEXAS CAVER, August 1973 camp and also in the cave. They were very impressed with the animals collected and left the cave very satisfied. Perhaps they will send us a list of the animals after they are identified. They seemed to think that some may be new to the North American continent although not new to biology. On the 20th, we collected samples from the Blanco River before going to Aquarena Springs and Wonder Cave. Unfortunately, neither were suitable as collecting sights. Neither was the San Marcos River which was suffering from high water due to recent rains. Wednesday we tried to get into several caves with no luck. We got one sample from Bull Creek. Finally, in desperation, we went to Dead Dog #2 and Broken Straw Cave. Several terrestial animals were collected but no important or new finds were made. The French scientists were mostly interested in fauna that lives between the grains of sand and gravel below water level. These are microscopic and are very difficult to sample, especially in the U.S. DATE: June21, 1973 DESTINATION: NSS Convention, Bloomington Indiana PERSONNEL: Glenn, Ruth and Paul Darilek CAVES VISITED: Eller's Cave, Salamander Cave, Shaft Cave DATE: July4, 1973 DESTINATION: San Saba County, Gorman Falls Cave PERSONNEL: John, Maggie, and Bruce Allison, Karen Clemet, Vince Orozco, Mark Roel, Stan, Ruby and Mark Shaw, Glenn, Ruth, and Paul Darilek REPORTED BY: Maggie Allison We met at the Bandera Road Drive-In about 8:30AM. Vince was somewhat delayed by a friendly visit with a local traffic officer. It seems Vince had neglected to renew his inspection sticker. We all gave him advice on whic h gas station to go to, and the rest of us went on, arranging to meet Vince and Mark at a rest area outs ide Burnet. The whole group finally arrived at Gorman Falls, parked the vehicles in a shady spot and proceeded to the cave. Two cavers from Waco, who had just come out. informed us there was bad air in the cave. At the first water passage, which is ankle deep, we tip-toed carefully, trying to keep shoes dry, but at the second water passage, we gave up and just waded through. We ran into bad air at the end of the walking passage. before the siphon. There was not enough oxygen to keep a match or lighter burning. We left the cave and Paul, Ruth, Karen, Bruce and I walked over to the falls while the others returned to the cave to take pictures. At the falls Paul had a shower and Karen and Bruce found a car that had gone over the cliff two weeks ago. On the way home, we stopped at the PARK MOTEL in Lampassas for soda from the machine. The friendly proprietor would not let us empty our litter bag in her trash can, not even the throw-away bottles that came from her machine.


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Contents: Letters to
the Editor --
Editorial --
The ankle hitch / James Jasek --
1973 NSS convention / Gelln Darilek --
Cartoon / Ken Griffin --
News and history --
TSA Project '73 / Neal Morris --
First aid notes: diagnostic signs part II / Chuck Stuehm
Portable lifesaver / Vince Orozco --
Knots / John Graves --
Cartoon / Ken Griffin --
TSA constitution and by-laws --
Cartoon / Ken Griffin --
Garbage --
Review / R. Glenn Fieseler --


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