The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
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Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


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Contents: Letters to the Ediger: finally I get some relief-it's your turn now, Charlie -- More on USGS maps: a bit of praise for mroe accurate cave locations / Tom Mills -- Chairman's column: more admonitions to get on with the business of caving / Wayne Russell -- Cave of the Month: Flemming Bat Cave - from the files of TSS / Ronnie Fieseler -- Cavernicole corner: how to catch bugs - for fun and science / James Reddell -- Can you dig it? find the depths of time in the depths of a Texas cave / Tom Byrd -- Cave surveying: just give thanks to Oztotl that he forgot about radians / Charlie Yates -- A bit of nostalgia: an old caver brings his past into the present / James Estes -- Editorial: continuing the quest! Another piece in the puzzle -- Spelunkers find things: a reprint from the Texas Tech University Daily / Celia Westbrook -- TSA constitution: here it is folks-read and remember what it says / Ruth Darilek -- Trip report: the last (I hope) in a series of ancient history-on to more recent stuff.
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Original Version:
Vol. 21, no. 03 (1976)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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k26.4603 ( USFLDC Handle )
11337 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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March 1976 NOT ICE: This publication may contain matter which could be considered imlnoral b y overl y sensitive persons. If you are likely to be offended by life as it really is, please do not turn this page. Nothing in this magazine wi.ll b e foun d offensive to children who hav e not yet formed their prejudices.


TheTEXftS CftUER Volume 21, Number 3 March 1976 COVER PHOTO: Dale Pate uses a fantastic lighting effect to accent both cave formations and Wendy Montieth in Midnight Cave In this issue .... 37 37 38 39 40 42 44 46 47 48 48 54 LETTERS TO THE EDIGER Finally I get some relief--it' s your turn now, Charlie ......................... MORE O N USGS MAPS A bit of praise for more accurate cave locations ..................... TOM MILLS CHAIRMAN'S COLUMN More admonitions to get on with the business of caving .......... WAYNE RUSSELL CAVE OF THE MONTH Flemming Bat Cave--from files of the TSS ........... RONNIE FIESELER CAVERNICOLE CORNER How to catch bugs--for fun and science ....... ...... '" JANIES REDDELL CAN YOU DIG IT? Finding the depths of time in the depths o f a Texas cave ........ '" ...... TOM BYRD CAVE SURVEYING Just give thanks to Oztotl that he for-got about radians ........ CHARLIE YATES A BIT OF NOSTALGIA An old caver brings his past into the present ............... JAMES ESTES EDITORIAL Continuing the Quest! Another piece in the puzzle ...................... SPELUNKERS FIND THINGS A reprint from the Texas Tech University Daily ...... CELIA WESTBROOK TSA Here it is folks--read and remember what it say s .......... ..... RUTH DARILEK TRIP REPORT The last (I hope) in a series of ancient his -tory--on to more recent stuff. ................... staff EDITOR: SUBSCRIPTIONS: COLLATION: Gill Rt 2 Box 98 Falls City TX 78113 James Jasek 531 5 Lrturei Lake Waco, TX 76710 Alamo Area Ch.apter t s a officers CHAIRMAN: Wa yne Rus s e II PO Box 848 R()ckport, TX 78382 VICE-CHAIRMAN: Jimmy CI e m ents Box 7438 SECRETARY: Corpus Christi, TX 78415 Ruth Dd.rilek 11929 Grapevine San Antonio, TX 78288 TSA MEMBER ORGANI ZATI ONS ALAMO AREA CHAPTER--AAC Greg Pas smore 267 Wayside San Antonio, TX 78213 AGGIE SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Bob Bliss --ASS PO Box 1314 College S:ation, TX 77840 BALCONES GROTTO Susan Fiesele r PO Box 5672 Austin, T X 7 8 763 CARTA VALLEY S. U. C. K. S. C Edwin Knnath 3507 Lindenwood S a n Angel o TX 76901 CORPUS CHRI STl CAVING CLUB Noma Hoehne --CCCC 10515 Emmord Lp Corpus Christi, TX 78410 GALVESTON SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY --GSS Barbara Strenth Box 5296 G a lveston, TX 77550 GREA TER HOUSTON GROTTO Theresa Connolly --GHG 7143 Triola Houston TX 77036 LAREDO SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY--LSS PO Box 603 Laredo, TX 78040 SOUTHWEST TEXAS STUDENT GROTTO--SWT Student Union Bldg S a n M arcos, TX 78666 TEMPLE CAVING ASSOCIA TlON MiMi Jasek --TCA 5315 Laurel Lake W,,-co. TX 76710 TEX/\.S A&I GROTTO--A&I PO Box 2213 Texas A&I Kingsville, T X 78363 TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL SURVEY Ronnie Fieseler --TSS PO Box 5672 Austin, TX 78763 UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS GROTTO PO Box 7672 --UTG UT Station Austin, TX 78712


MARCH 1'976 Edi !.!l!r R g arding the thoughts expressed in the last paragraph of the artic l e entitled "Locating What?" in the February issue of TEXAS CAVER consider this: When we find and catalog all caves, what will be left to discov er? What adventure will be left for future generations who will have to only open a Survey to find all the vital statistics on any cave in the of discover y" will be history. In a conservation minded society should we not consider saving this joy, also, for our offspring? -W e could destroy all cave lists and stop printing new surveys. Our new finds CQuid then a lso be new finds for gener a tions h e nce. The same logic extends to mapping. Why couldn't we just stop mapping new caves? Then every trip would be an adventure in exploration. Sure, som e people would m emorize a particular cave after several trips, but they'll quit caving or die off before they can spoil everyone else's own "thrill of discover yll Unmapped large would be even m o r e exciting. Think of it! Sorry I can't really take credit for originating this idea. Picked it up from some nameless fellow at Old Timers' one year. I hope to be back in Texas for a while this summer. See you then . Ediger, O n ward through the D arkness Jack H. Baer BaltiInore, MD Hats off to the cover of the February TEXAS C AVER. I love itl In fact, if it's legal, I would like to make a poster out of it and put it on m y bedroom wall. Mayb e even a T-shirt. I really like d the February TC and a m anticip ating the March issue. Tom M ills San Antonio (No portion of the TEXAS CAVER i s cop yrighted. W ithout a cop y right imprint, it b ecomes public domain and available t o anyone for their own use It is customary to g ive c r edit to the author/artist and the publication reprinted from. Feel free to use Norlnanls artwork I'm sure h e would consider it an honor. The TEXAS CAVER is planning a n entire s eries of T-shirts to be availabl e at the Conventi on, including a larger rendition of the F ebruary cover, a TEXAS CAVER T-shirt, a TSA emblem in 4 colors, and per,haps others. Profits will go to the CAVER. --ed.) '/ MORE ON uses MApS by Tom Mills Four cheers for Charlie Yates (3 aren't enough!). In regard to his article in the February TEXAS CAVER, I think it is a fantastic idea to give cav e locations b y plotting them on USGS maps. I have two main r "easons for supporting this. The first one is the ease of relocating caves. I think that cave mappers ought to spend less time doing their surveys with micrometers and start giving accurate cave entrance locations. I don't mean to get down o n serious c a v e m appers, but, it doesn't do any good to know what the cav e is like if you can't find it, M y second reason for supporting Charlie's method is that the average kids out looking for cheap thrills are going to have a much harder time finding a cave using USGS coordinates than they would if they were given street direc tions. How many teen-agers do you know that carry USGS quadrang l e s in the trunks of their cars? (Excuse the 'teen-age' stereotype. Please don't write 'Letters to the Ediger' cussing me out for that one. ) Maybe, with a little bit of work and a lot of help, we can get accurate cave entrance locations so that cavers can spend more time caving than they spend looking for caves. That would be a welcome change. This may be a long way off, but let's start ndw 37 /


38 The CHftlRMftN'S by Wayne Russell --; I' 1 The BOG meeting is the decision making body o f the TSA. Its prin\ary functions are to keep mernbers informe d of current happenings r e lated to caving, and to corne to grips with our COlTIn-lOn problerns as we at telnpt t o p c oOlTIote safe and sane caving fellowship. Its format is designed to encourage the exchange of ideas, points of vicw, c OTI"lplaints, and, very occasionally it seen1S, cOlTIplin1ents. As we all know it a lso serves as an excuse for the socia l gatherings whic h prec('de and/or follow it. By far the largest and l TIOSt in1portant segn1ent of any BOG is tha t which is composed of delegates representing either recognized caving groups or unattached independent lTICn1bers. These are the peopl e who get thing s done. I don't believ e it is unreasonable to ask that those who wish to participate in the governing of this body take 5-10 minutes to falTIiliarize thernselves with its goal s and rules of procedure as outlined in its constitution. The TSA constitution is written in easil y understandable A1TIerican and a cop y is available free for the asking from the Secretary at each meeting and in this very issue of the TEXAS CAVER. According to some, a good constitution is one which is so worded that every rule can be circun.vented. Such a constitution would be novel indee d but hardl y useful. A few argue that the TSA should have no constitution a t all. Tha t might be true if the NSS agreed and if all cavers were of one mind on all things. It is unfortunate that caving societies lTIUSt fill their lTIembership roles with individuals selected prim arily from the human race. However no universal. l y acceptable substitute for horno sapiens has been found as of this writing, and as long as there a r e people in the TSA there will be politics, special interests, cliques, and factionalism. That, unfortunately is human n ature So long as that i s the case there mllst be established rules of procedure if a meeting is to maint ain any senlbl ance of order. In an organization s u c h a s the TSA, which does not even collect dues, these rules should be easy to understand and the proceedings should be as informa l as practical. I believe the TSA Constitution accomplishes this. Certainly it is easier to read and understand than Robert's Rules of Order, which the vast majority o f TSA Gen. Robert's rules do have a place in TSA functions but their role must b e secondary to that of the TSA Constitution. The TEXAS CAVER .II. Ill y f til;IL most Cilver s ilttend TSA fun -tjn n s to b e with other caver s and t o discuss caving IIU to politi('al infighting No i s going t o p lease everyone bllt a n unpopular rule can be challeng. e d and the systern provides a n orderly means to h a v e it: changed or rescinded. But artel' the BOG votes, melHbers s houl d c omply with its decisioll--gracefully This will a l low u s t o conduct our business m o r e effic i ently and quicl

MARCH 1976 I Flemming Bat Cave I The main entrance is 2 m wide 8. L 1/2 m high, barely large enough for a jeep. The entrance passage slopes down 150 to 200 for about 10 m, becoming at that point 5 m to 8m wide and 2m to 4m high. Two small leads along the left wall of this guano-floored passage end shortly. About 75m from the 'entranceis a junction. Straight ahead, the ceiling drops to 1m, and the crawl meanders 75m to a 3m wide, 1 to 1 112m high room ending in breakdown, probably very near the surface. A very low crawl to the left at the beginning of the room leads 5m into a subparallel passage. To the right it goes 10m before becoming too small; to the left, it is a 1 t o 2m high passage a meter or so wide which, after 97m, opens near the bottom of the cliff above Flemming Creek. Back at the first junction (73m from the main entrance) the lefthand passage opens up almost imzned iately to become a 10m high, 3 to 7m wide passage known as the Bat Room. This large passage goes 60m before narrowing to 1m or so wide and lowering to 4m high over guano-covered breakdown. From here the passage is a ver y irregular and difficult stoopcrawl, 1/2 to 2m high, finally ending in a 5m diameter dome room. HISTORY-Although Flemming Bat Cave has been mined for guano at various times, little is known about the exact time or extent of mining activity. The cave was reported b y White (1948) to be a "series of tunne Is and tubes extending some distance into the side of a limestone hiLL." The next recorded trip to the cave was that of Ryckman, Spencer, and Christianson in July 1954. Bob Hudson, George Gray, and other members of the Abilene Grotto explered the cave in January 1960. The cave was revisited by Abilene Grotto in February 1964 when Jim Estes, Dickey, and George Gray continued explorations in it. Orion K'1o X and several Bexar Grotto cavers visited it during the summer of 1965. The cave was mapped in February 1966 b y BiLL RusseLL, Terry Raines, Bud Stewart, and John Walker of the University of Texas Grotto. It was frequently visited during the TSA Regio Project on Labor Day Weekend of 1967. when Carl Kunath reported having been in the cave in 1947. For location and bibliography see Texas Speleological Survey, Volume III, Number 6, The of Kimble County. 39


40 The TEXAS CAVER Biological Collecting .ade las, you, 100, can helpl by James R. Reddell To nlake a I'eal c:ontribll tion to the sllldy of cavc biol.ogy a person docs not have to be a cave biologist; the average caver can perforJn a valuable service to cave science by doing no mure than sticking a bottle of alcohol into his pocket or pack h e goes caving. In fact, Inost of the active cave biologists in Texas began sinlply by occasionally picking u p a few bugs while mapping or exploring a cave. The time spent in resting, waiting for someone to climb out o f a drop, or. waiti ng o n the sketc her to ca tch up to the survey tealn can be used by g rabbing whatever bugs may wander across your path or you may find by turning over a few rocks. Not only does it help to allevi-ate the boredom of a long wait, but it makes a ver y real contribution. Furthel'lnore, many cavers complain about the need to 'do something useful' when they go caving. Collecting cave animals can serve this purpos:'! as Well as mapping a cave--and the results are a lot more likely to appear in print. Many people however, think that collecting must involve special knowledge and gear. Others think that, as c onse rvatio ni sts, they should spare all c .runla 1 life o r else they will destroy the ecology of the cave and extinc t the cave species found in it. Neither is true. First of all, collecting involves no 1110re tha n a jar of alcohol and the willingness to pick up a few bugs; and second, the type of collecting that cavers do will in no way endanger the cave forms they may find or interfer e significant! y with the cave ecology The following tips are designed to guide the novice collector in finding a new species or adding to our knowledge of the d istribution of all'eady known ones. T h e onl y essentia l equipment needed t o a colledor i s a small jar filled with 70-750/0 ethyl o r isopropyl a lcohol. Corrunon rubbing a lcohol bought in any drug sto re works pc rfectly Allhough almost any s ize srna ll jal' will work, hab): food j a 'rs are ideal : they are stunl>, and lal'ge enough to hold cave cricket s l;]l'ge M :!x i c;] l l m illipeds and centipe des ancl oth e r l arger cave aninvds, and yet slna U c n o u g h to fit easily into a pocket. For the l)ersOn who may wallt to go into collecting Inore seriously, h e 111ay wish to carry a smaU brush for picking up tiny insects or a pair of forceps for collecting scorpions and cen, tipedes. There are techniq ues, however, for collect ing both of these extremes with out using either forcep: or brush, as is discussed below. For collecting fish s alamanders, frogs, or earthwornls fOl'lnaldehyde i; preferred. This can alsn b e obtain e d in any drugstore C a r e should be ta\en in carrying it since a broken or leaking jar of iorr!laldehyde i s a m ess. I always use plastic baby bottles or else wrap tape around the lid of the jar until I am ready to uO'e it. The formalde hyde bought in drugstores is lab :lled as 40'Yo. This should be Inixed with water, wEh 1 p art formalde h y d e to 10 part s watcr. Techniques. Most slnall cav, a nin,als can be easily collected with the fingcls. F o r the \'e!:'y s m.11l insects it is best usually to wet yl. ur fingcr with a lco, hoi, touch the aninla l gently with t h e finger, and then stick your finger bac k into thc a lcoh o l so that the in sect washes off. M.lny small anilna l s can also b e tappe d gent l y off of a rock oj' stick into the a lcohol j ar. Crickets can somdil11p.s bcst be capture d b y holding the alcohol jar up t o t h c cave ceilin g and wJit ing for the m to jump into t h c alcoh ol. hang: ing in wcbs can a lso frequcntly be collccted b y h o l di" the jar bcncath them and w"iting for them t o r appel into t h e it. Scor p i o n s and l a l'ge centipcdes can be frequently caught by t a king two small sti cks and pi ck ing thc m up by the tail Cll' holding lhem down o n a rorl until they can b e knoc:ked inlu the jar. None of the scol'pions l (nowl1 fron1 Texas and M .,xican caves are unusuillly dangcl'ouS. The l a l'ge centipcdes (7-12 ill.1 al'c a lso nol ; 1 5 d angerolls as tltey a r c reputed t o ill!. E arthwo1'l11s shuuld be presel'\'ed i n fUI'nnldeh)'de if


MARCH 1976 at all possible. They are best killed in alcohol, immediately removed, dirt cleaned off, and then placed in'the formaldehyde. In caves this is seldom practical so they can be placed directly into the formalde hyde. Where to Look. Although cave anirrlals can be found in all parts of rrlost caves, some places are far profitabl e to collect in than others. Crickets and; harvestmen (daddy-long-legs) can be found on the ceiling or walls near the cave entrance. The dusty floor of many cave entrances rrlay also harbor interesting species of true bugs of the family Reduviidae (the' so-called kissing bugs), roaches, and beetles. In large sinkhole entrances, especially in Mexico, salamanders, frogs, and many undescribed species of spider, beetle, and other insect may be abundant. If you are leaving a cave at night, look on rrloist or moss covered walls and you will probably find many species of beetle, spide!", and cricket. Just because this is the twilight zone does not mean that the fauna of the entrance area is not of interest to the cave biologist. It is this fauna that will probably give rise to future troglobites (true cave animals). In the zone of total darkness the fauna is, of course usually less abundant and more interesting. Alrrlllst any habitat may yield animals, but there are a few places where it is most profitable to look. In large bat caves the guano deposits teerrl with life: fleas, ticks, rrlites, beetles, and flies; in Mexico it may, be inhabited by ricinuleids, schizorrlids, and other rare and unusua l species. Small deposits of guan'o, on the other hand, rrlay be the living place for rri 'a;'y troglobites, including millipeds, spiders, iso pods: and beetles. In Mexicovampire guano deposits should be examined for srrlall species of beetles. When a lig'ht is first shined on a vampire guano pool dozens of tiny beetles a r e frequently seen. After a few seconds these disappear into the guano. A slight indirect light left in place for a few minutes will not disturb them so m ;lch and they will usually reappear. Since these beetles include some of the most interesting species to be found in caves it is well worth the wait to collect a few. Flowstone deposits, especially if there is a slight fibn of guano or organic debris, frequently yield interesting species of troglobitic milli ped, beetle, and isopod (pillbugs). These same groups, as well as tiny spiders schizomids (ant-like arachnids related to whip-scorpions), silverfish, and collenbola may also be found in piles of organic debris. Any small pile of sticks and silt should be carefully gone through. This materia l provides a rich food supply for cave animals and almos t a lways (even in the driest or otherwise s l erile cave) yields at least two or three species. The droppings of raccoons, possums, and other mam m:lis i s al so :1 good place to look for cave animals. Raccoon droppings in Central Texas are almost always completely covered with tiny white insects called springtails (colleml)ola). These tiny animals will jump aW

42 Can You De It?9 by Tom Byrd I was sitting in my front yard one evening last summer when Dr. Ernest Lundelius came strolling by and we got to talking about caves and such. It so happened that he was going to Friesenhahn Cave the next day and h e invited me to join him and several graduate students. Dr. Lundelius is well known for his work in cave paleontology both in Texas and in Australia and I knew it would be an interesting trip, being p a leontologically oriented and therefore different from IllOst other cave trips I've been on. So we took off the next morning from UT in University vehicles using University gas (another aspect different from most caving rrips.) arriver:l. at Friesenhahn Cave and met Russ Graham, a graduate student in paleontology It was clear that work had been well underway for quite some time. There were shallow wooden boxes full of dirt scattered about in the cedar break surrounding the cave. A generator supplied electricity to light the cave and a steel boom p erched over the entrance to aid in the excavation. After visiting and discussing matters of the day with various people on the site, we started the gen e rator and descendeci the aluninum lad der into the cave. A grea t deal has been written on this cave, so I won't go into great d etail. The cave has a handsome looking 10 meter pit entrance with large masses of oscillating harvestman spiders clinging to the walls. One descends into the pit to find a low dirt-Iilled rOOITI. It is not exactly a 'caver' s cave' in the t ypical connotation of such a term. It is small (20 meters long b y 10 m eters wide) with a ceiling height r a nging from 1/2 to 2 meters. It contains few formations. The significant thing about this cave is its dirt. The cave fill has been continually deposited since the Pleis tocene and is responsibl e for burying and prese rving the bone s of pre his toric animal s While most caving trips I've been on have been primaril y interested in the cave itself, I was amazed, interested and indeed amused by the micro-sca l e these p a leontologists were dealing with. Lundelius. Graham, Vivian ( a caver from W yoming or some such place) and a n anthropolog i s t named John Buckley squatted around what looked like a pile of dirt to mosl; people and argu e d about the stratigraphy of this cave fill. An obvious stratigraphic sequence on one side of the passage was difficult to determine on the other The TEXAS CAVER Tom Byrd looks out a t himself looking into the entrance pit in Friesenhahn Cave. side. A layer of flowstone h elped i n one instance to separate strata and clarif y matters, but being hard, the flowstone was hell to excavate. Cavers often t alk about accuracy in cav e surveyin g In a cave such as this the nee d for accuracy i s phenomena l because it will affect present excavations as well as f uture exc a -vations. This point was made clear by the confused discussion that was going on between Graham and Lundelius about the m apping tha t had been done there in the 1950s. After variou s methodological discussions in the cave we returned to the surface. W e drank a cold beer in the hot sun (as is the apparent tradition of both cavers and paleontolog i sts) then dealt with the material that had been removed from the cave and pul out in the sun t o dry. Each pil e being carefully labe l ed. From there the fill wi' be sieved and analyzed at the Balcones Research in Austin. (While the digging was going on in the cave, one man s tood by, ju s t wat c hing. It was Earl Y armer's uncle. One coul d hardl y b lame him for m e r e l y watch ing, especially after hearing his story: Earl's uncle has probabl y spent more time underground than anyolli I've ever met (including Bill What's -his-na m e). Hi s underground career s tarted with a rather unfortunate incident duriRg Worl d W a r II. As a Nazi soldier o n the Eastern Front h e was captured by the Soviets i n


MARCH 1976 Estonia. (I think his capture had been due to running out of gas.) Anyway h e and his fellow prisoners were marched from Estonia to the Ukraine--a journey that laste d from May til September. In the Ukraine, he spen' t the nex.t 15 years mining coal in the Gulag sys" te'm., There's a lot more to that story about mining. At any rate, he was eventually released and somehow, years l ater, was standing here, watching us dig dirt from a cave beneath the cedar breaks of Bexar County. It was a far c r y from the mines of the Ukraine.) After Getting things ready to send to Balcones, we drove a round the ranch to check out two more caves. One h a d a small entrance (1/3 by 1/2 m) which dropped immedia t e I y about 10 mete r s to a ledge and then a nother 7 m eters to the bottom of the pit. This pit wide n e d from the entrance to become maybe 5 b y 7 mete r S a t the bottom. A-lOthe r cave was located nearby. It was easily entered as it was horizontal. This cave was smallmay b e 1 5 to 20 meters with 1 to 2 meter ceiling heights. But it was significantly filled with black cave fill w hich we collected. This hole w a s named Oliver Cave (for the owner) and has yielded valuable information on the paleontology of the area. .. What Graham and Lundelius are trying to do is reconstruct the faunal distributions in Texas during the Pieistocene. A great deal is known about specific sites, but there are great gaps in the picture over a geographic area and gaps in time They know that the MAMMALIAN FAUNA CAVE SITES OF CENTRAL TEXAS 1. Friesenhahn 12. Felton 2. Natural Bridge 13. Fern 3. Wunderlich 14. Centipede 4. Don Williams 15. Bonfire 5. Barton Road 16. Schulze 6. Levi Shelter 17. Rattle -Snake 7. Laubach 18. Mantell Shelter 8. Longhorn 19. Kincaid Shelter 9. Millers 20. Klein 10. Clamp 21. Cave Without A Name 11. Zesch 43 Earl Yarmer and John Buckley hold a sack whil e Dr. Ernest Lundelius shovels samples from a drying box. climate was wetter here i n Texas during the Pleistocene by the remains of certain rodents which are adapted to wetter ecosystems. For example, remains of shrews which are n o longer distributed as far south as Texas ha-Je been collected from Central Texas caves. There is a wealth of information on past en vironments lying buried in the sediments of Texas' caves. Lundelius and Graham are now preparing a proposal for a grant from the National Science Foundation to do further work in Centra l Texas. Here is where ------cavers can hell? sugnificantly.! They need the names of possible p a leontologica l sites to include in their proposal. These sites don't have to be big caves. The thing to look for is the black cave fill in or beneath a n entrance or entrance pit. Red cave fill, which is generally older, may be good too. They are primarily interested in caves located in Bexar, Kendall, Kerr, Comal, Hays, Blanco, Travis, and Williamson Countie s Accompanying this article is a map o f site distributions where m ammalian fauna h a s been collected. I know that there are a lot o f cavers who g o caving in these areas and could provide useful information. Simply think of dirt filled caves that you know about and send the name and location to: Russ Graham 551 5 Highland Pass Austin TX 78731 fone: (51 2 ) 452-4197. Cave is NO OCCIDENT


44 by Charles M. Yates I made the comment in this year's first issue of the TEXAS CAVER that something should be done to a cquaint the new caver with mapping techniques. The general category of mapping or surveying is far too broad, and at times too complex, to cover in one paper or training session. Therefore, I will limit this article to the simple basics of surveying terminology and not touch on the more academic arguments a S to which system or systems are best. The first thing one must have to apply the techniques of mapping is something to survey, obviously, but one must also have the instruments with which to add accuracy to the survey. There are three things necessary in order to compile an accurate cave map: a n angle measuring device (both vertical and horizon tal), a chain, tape, or some other linear measuring device, and a note book in which to record the data. There are two basic angle measuring devices used in cave surveying. The first is called a Brunton compass. The Brunton was designed for military use primarily, but its small size and accuracy make it wdl adapted to cave use. There are also three types of Bruntons, each able to take both vertical and horizontal angular measurements. The difference lies in the units of measurement. In the case of the older nlilitary Bruntons, the increments used are 'mils'. There are 6400 mils (see diagram 1) in a complete Diagram #1. N o 6 00 r.lils E 3200 s ci rcle. A mil is a unit of angular measure which is con structed by a line one thousand units long and one Iinit laterally, thence bac k to the point of beginning. Wilen reducing survey data, it is easiest to work in cJegrees, therefore you will want convert from mils t o cJegrees. To do so simply divide the number of m i l s by 17.77777 and the answe r will be in degrees. A h ; l n d y conversion chart whic h will preclude the :I rithn1l'tic i s available from the AMCS. The other two t ypes of Bruntons are divided into dq':l -'-'-_Inti 111inute inc r e lnents o n their scales, but The TEXAS CAVER there is a subtle difference between the two. In one case the Brunton contains a circle divided by degrees running concurrently from 0 to 360 degrees, or azimuthally (see diagram 2). In the Diagram #2 3 0 Azimuth E 180 second, the Brunton also has division by degrees, but the circle is divided into four 'quadrants' of 90 degrees each and is read as 'bearings' (diagram 3). The Di agram #3 6 Bearings E o numerical order increases from 00 a t North to 90 at East, then decreases again to 00 at South. This pat tern continues, increasing t o 900 at W est then back t o 00 a t North. In the first system one might have a n azimuth of 300 while the equivalent reading in bearings is N300E. But, continuing to the nex t quadrant, an azimuth of 1500 will translate into a bearing of S300E, the first r eading always being Nor S am\ the second being E or W A 2700 azimuth can be read in quadrants a s either S900W o r N900W. The major danger is confusing one system with the other. T his can really destroy a set of fie l d notes, if the instru m ent men is reading a Brunton graduated in bearings Make a friend: Map a Cave!


MARCH 1976 and writing down the data as an azimuth or vice-versa. second type of angular measuring device is the Suunto. Ar::tually, a pair of Suuntos is needed--one, the Suunto 'compas s' for horizontal readings, and the other, the Suunto 'clinometer' for vertical readings. First let us consider the Suunto compass. This is a very simple instrument usually graduated in the azimuthal system, altho I have seen afew graduated in quadrants. The Suunto works on a pseudo-parallax system wherby the instrument man looks at the station he is sighting on with one eye, and into the compass with the same eye, shifting his focus until a sighting line and a degree mark are lined up. This is a bit tricky at first, but with practice it becomes simple. The main advantage of the Suunto is its small size, fast readings, and ease of handling. The Suunto clinometer is the second member of the pair. This instrument is used to take vertical angles. It is graduated in 'degrees' and 'percent of slope. It is imperative that these two are not confused when taking shots as they are vastly different. In cave surveying w e use only the degree, or left-hand scale, and they are the same as described before. Percent o f slope, which you will probably never use, is the right-hand scale, and is the ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance. Forty-five degrees equal 100"/0 o f slope, s o a quick way to check which scale is which is to tilt the clinometer either up or down to 450 Linear measurment o r 'chaining' is also a relatively easy thing to do, but here again there are certain pitfalls (What a terrible word, Charlie! --ed.). There are (again) three main types or units of m 3asurement used in cave surveying: feet divitied into tenths of a foot; feet divided into inches; and meters. Let us consider feet and tenths of feet first. This t ype of c hain is recognized b y the fact that there are no graduations of tenths between the foot marks after the first foot of chain. This means that one person is a lways reading whole feet (the stupid end) while the other person, at the smart end, will be reading tenths of a foot. There are also, to further confus e the matter, two different ways in which a chain of this type may be constructed. The first type i s the 'cut c hain' (daigram 4). The Diagram #4 Cut Chain 2' 1'.8. .20 Add Chain I' cut chain is 50 constructed that the reading in tenths of a foot must be subtracted from the whole number foot called out by the stupid end. For instance, if the stupid end calls out 48 feet and the person nearest the Brunton reads. 9 feet, then the distance recorded should be 47.1 feet. The second t y p e of chain, the 'add chain' is just the opposite If the whole foot reading is 48 feet and the tenths are read. 9 then the distance should be 45 recorded as 4B. 9 feet. Hence the name: 'add chain' The second type of unit division is feet and inches. This unit was not used greatly by surveyors until a few years ago, and should not be confused with tenths. A tenth is equal to 1. 2 inches. The third unit of lineal measurment commonly used is the meter. Here again, the meter is a perfectly good unit, but if confused with' feet, it can shorten your cave considerably A meter is 3.28 feet, so you can see what happens when they are confused. Also, whatever units of measurement are used, be sure to enter themin the field notes and on the finished map. If simply numbers are used, and I read the map, I don't know if you are using feet or meters or varas or match sticks. A very simple way to clarify things is to put a note on the finished map to state "All dimensions in ", depending on what measurement has been used. There are two basic ways to chain, although they are most often combined for maximum accuracy. The first is to keep the chain level at all times between stations and then m.easuret'he distance from the station to the point where the chain was held at level for the vertical distance. Obviously, in a caving situation this system does not always work, therefore, the s ystem of slope chaining comes in very handy. Using this system, the distance is chained on a slope and the vertical angle of this slope taken. Later, when the data is being reduced to its final form, the true horizontal distance is found b y multiplying the cosine of the vertical angle taken by the slope distance chained. At the same time, the vertical distance can be found by multiplyin. g the sine of the vertical angle by the distance chained. Also, the vertical distance between where each end of the chain is held and its respective station must be taken into account where vertical distances are concerned, when the data is finally being reduced. The only thing left to 'consider now is so=ething to record the data on whil e one is surveying the cave. I have seen many people use spiral notebooks and clipboards as well as regular surveyor's field books. It really makes no difference what the data is written on, so long as it is organized, easil y read, and the units of measurement are consistant throughout. Most surveyors set their books up so that there are columns for the station number, azimuth, distance, vertical angl e slope distance, distance left, distance right, height above station, ceiling height, station height, and comments. Remember, pertinent data such as cave name, county date surveyed, and the names of the -people on the surveying cr ew should be recorded in the field book. There should also be space alloted to sketch the cave while surveying. Proficiency in sketching a cave is gained by know ing the various cave mapping symbols and b y eJo.."Per ience. So find someone who is a good sketcher and talk to them about it. And remember, every cave mapper I'v e known has had a different system of mapping. Therefore, I hope I have g iven you enough information to at least know the terminology well enough to not be totally lost when you find yourself on a cave m apping trip. Good caving and good mapping


46 The TEXAS CAVER Aby NOSTALGI1 It is not only the truth that hurts. Sometimes a bit of nostalgia will do the same thing. Until a person is surrounded by young eager cavcrs afte r havin g been out of the caving business for two years, he doesn't know what I'm talking about. You begin to find names, places, and past experiences nudging your mind--and suddenly, without warning, it all pops! Suc h was the case for an old caver--me--when on the evening of 3 February in the auditorium of the Abilene Public Library, I gave a short slide program o n the wilds of Mayfield Cave and the trails of Caverns of Sonora to the local Sierra Club chapter. I W'lS asked to give a program a month in advance. r was also asked to show slides on Caverns of Sonora because the club was planning to make a weekend trip the r e W1lat would r do? M y slides were spread out in all directions, mixed here, unmatched there, some slightl y bent, and most of the m missing. What to do? r borrowed and begged from former caving buddies, found a few old standbys, and a t length came up with a program of 52 slides. During the program, I recognized a friend, David CAVERNICOLE CORNER --continued from page 41 one new species or adds to our knowledge of the distribution of described ones. W'lat To Do With The Collection. A collection 'rom only one cave should be placed in a single jar. E \ cn if the caves are very near they may be inhabite d IJY different species and a mixed collection is essentially useless. A paper label should be placed inside each jar. It can be written in pencil or India in-k--(never use ballpoint as it will dissolve). The label should include the name and location of the cave, the cl:\ t e of the collection, and the collector. The jars cont aining collections can b e given to Bill Russell, Andy G rubbs, or David McKenzie in Austin or mailed di"ectly to m e at the following address: James Reddell Dept of Biological Sciences Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409. Wnether they are mailed or given to the above people 1 will get thcm, sort the different species, mail them s pccialists who will identify them and describe them if ncw. Anyone sending m e material will be written "lid the more interesting species found will be report c'd 011. If they wish to receive copies of the letters 1",'0111 the different scientists studying the material, t.hcy wi II be sent a l so. The main point of this article is to emphasize that c\ cry caver can h clp us learn more about cave animals dnll ;lIlQut the evolution of these animals with the very lcast possiblc amount of work. The effort expended i s s light whcl1 compared to the contribution that can be l Roberts, who was seated with four other independent cavers from Abilene. At the close of the program not many questions were asked concerning the Caverns, but many questions were asked concerning caving. It was then that the whole thing popped. Without warning, nostalgia had me in its grip, firmly and securely. It hurt! Terribly. Where were the days when caving meant so much? "Are they not so far behind you, Jim?" I asked myself. Seek. Search. There--that's it. The first wild caving trip--Mayfield Cave in February of 1958! Fine. Now look back again. Yes, there it is. Felton Cave Project in 1958! The beginning of the TSA in Uvalde! The NSS Convention in Carlsbad, the NSS Convention in Mountain Lake, Virginia! Those wonderful Powell's Cave projects when Orion Knox's crew mapped o'/er a mile! The frosting--the joy of editing the TEXAS CAVER! Wow! The nostalgia hurt. But not anymore. Perhaps you are wondering why I am writing this. I'm not at all certain. Perhaps it's because I wanted to end the hurt--all those pleasant memories which stuck so dramatically in m y mind since the days of active caving had come to a halt about two y e ars ago. The old active caver got busy with other things and didn't go caving a nymore. Take my adv ice: i f you're a regular, don't stop caving. You'll regret the hurt of nostalgia when drops of fLuid begin to sting your eyes and nose. Thanks, young cavers. Let's go caving .. editor's note_ When I started caving in 1967, Jim Estes was sort of the 'Father Figure in the TSA. Not oniy had he picked up the fledgling TEXAS CAVER from its founders in Austin and transposed it from a memeographed newsletter into an offset timely and useful publication, he did it better tha n anybody before or since. His efforts the CAVER were the basis of TSA activities during the '60s. He served as Chairman of several TSA Projects and honcho of the NSS Convention h eld in New Braunfels in 1964. During th e late 60s he served as publisher of the Te. He was <::. lways an acti v e and energetic caver, mapper, writer, and politician for safety and conservation. Most of you who have started caving since 1970 or so have probably never heard of Jim. Tha t is unfortunate. His efforts in the early days of the TSA and l ater have helped m ake that organization the important body it is today. Without his enthusiasm, energy, and leadership the TSA would be much less enjoyable and effective. With his above contribution to the TEXAS CAVER the chances for a better future are enhanced. W e lcome back, Jim! --Editor


MARCH 1976 EDITORIAL by Edilter This is a somewhat slimmer issue than I like to pur out. The reasons are not very complicated, but I feel that lowe you a n explanation. I'm going caving. Since I took over the editorship of the TC I've not bee n a cave. I have d ri ven all the wa y to Detroit to attend the NSS BOG, then driven all the way back. But that's hardly caving. So when a chance came up to spend 2 weeks in Mexico attempting a new Western Hemisphere depth record, I jumped at it. You will be receiving this issue about a week early. One of the hardships you'll have to put up with along with m y sometimes narrow-minded liberalism, a dose of which may be had below, if you choose to rea d on. For those of you who sent material and don't see it in print, it's coming; for those of you who didn't, it's not. With the publishing of the TSA Constitution and the upcoming TSA Convention ( which should have been announced in this issue) some space needs to be devoted to discussion of the BOG. In the Chairman's Column, Wayne provides us, f a i r l y accurately, with the purposes and workings of the BOG. Please read his epistle

48 The University Daily, February 4, 1976 Page 5 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas The TEXAS CAVER Spelunkers find pottery, scorpions By CELIA WESTBROOK found were a new species of UD Staff blind scorpion. Only three Pottery believed thousands species of blind scorpion have of years old and species of ever been found before, transparent spiders, eyeless Reddell said On this ex shrimp and blind fish were ploration two new spec ies discovered by a team of were discovered some of researchers from Tech ex-which will be mimed by ploring caverns on Mexico's Mitchell and Reddell. Yucatan Peninsula. One of the highli g hts of the Dr. Robert W. Mitchell, exploration was a n unexprofessor of biology, and pected find in an unexplored James Reddell, research cave, Reddell said. A series of assistant for The Tech large rooms were found in the Museum, organized and cave which held large pottery directed the researchers in the thousands of years old. exploration For the past three Supposedly, the pottery was years, the team studied and used by a more primitive man collected cave animals who to catch drippings of water. evolved to special adaptations The pottery had been left for cave life. untou ched for thousands of INCLUDED IN the species years a unique find for the T team, Reddell said THE YUCATAN Peninsula had never been studied ex tensively, Reddell said. Cave research in tropical areas in North America is seldom done Before the Yucatan explo ration began, there was a question as to whether cave lif e c ould even exist in these tropical areas, he said. For these reasons the Yucatan was an excellent spot for their research, he said. Mitchell and Reddell worked with three other assistants : Suzanne Wiley, a graduate student under Mitchell and the only woman on the research team, and David McKenzie and Andy Grubbs, students at the University of Texas. WILEY, the only woman, not only handled herself at the same pace of the men, but in many instances went into unexplored areas the othen were hesitant of, Mitch ell said During their stay at Yucatan, the research team used Merida, the capital of the state of Yucatan, as thei r central headquarters. From Merida, the team would camp for several days in the surrounding states of Yucatan, Campeche and Quintana Roo. "We came back to Meridcl to take a bath," Mitchell said. Th.e TSA Constitution and revised By-Laws are printed on the following pages. Please read theITl and becoITle faITliliar with their contents. 1 you know your Con stitution and By-Laws, it will prevent future eITlDarraSSITlent to yourself, create fewer hassles, and prevent tiITle wastage. Unfortunately dur to the iITlproper presentation of the latest to the By-Laws, there are now SOITle inconsistencies. Article II, Section B now contains contradictions and is also in disagreeITlent with Section C of the saITle Article. H)pe fully, this will be corrected at the next BOG ::neeting. It is iITlportant to reITlITlher that when changes to the By-Laws are brought up for consideration, the following steps are necessary to avoid further cOITlplications : 1. Bring theITl u p under New Business. 2. Refer to the Article and Section that is being aITlended, or state what new Section nUITlber is to be added. 3. State exactly which words are to be deleted or changed, and exactly what the new changes or additions would be. 4. Present this ITlotion in writing. 5. ReITleITlber that a second to your ITlotion 1S necessary before discussion can begin. 6 Be sure your change is consistent with the other provisions in the Constitution and By-Law s. TiITl e and eITlbarrassITlent will be saved if you will ITlake an effort to acquaint yourself with at least the basic precepts of ParliaITlentary Procedure.


MARCH 1976 Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Article VII CONSTITUTION OF THE TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION The name of this organization is TEXAS SPELEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, hereinafter called TSA. The purposes of TSA are to promote interest in and to advanc e in any and all ways the study and science of speleology, the protection of caves and their natural contents; to promote fellow ship among those interested therein; and to promote and coordinate speleological activities in the State of Texas. T SA supports the .aim s and goals of the National Speleological Society. Membership in TSA is open to all grottos and members of the National Speleological Society in the State of Texas, and to any person or group of persons whose purposes and aims are consistent with those of TSA and who meet the membership conditions set forth in the By-law s. The governing body of the TSA is the Board of Governors, hereinafter called BOG. The BOG consists of those officers of TSA, group delegates, delegates-at-large, and chairmen of standing committees present at a BOG meeting. Each BOG member may exercise only one vote. No person may have a regular vote and also vote in behalf of another person by proxy. At least two BOG meetings shall be held each calendar year. The time and place of a meeting shall be announced at the previous meeting, through a regular publication of the TSA, or by mail to all members of record. BOG meetings may be called by written petition of 5% of all TSA members. The life of TSA shall be perpetual or until terminated by a simple majority vote of the membership upon recommendation of the BOG. Distribution of -assets shall be made by a majority vote of the BOG. Amendments to this constitution shall be proposed by a simple majority of the BOG and within ninety days of it's proposal must be published in a regular publication of TSA or mailed to all members of record. A proposed amendment shall become effective upon it's ratification by a three-fourths majority of all TSA members present at the BOG meeting next following it's proposal and publication. 49


50 The TEXAS CAVER TSA BYLAWS ARTICLE I. MEMBERSHIP A. A recognized caving group is any NSS Grotto or organized caving group in Texas which has submitted an official list of members to the officers of TSA within the preceding or current calendar year. Membership lists must be approved by a majority of the TSA officers. Every recognized caving group must have at least five (5) members. A person cannot be a member of more than one group for the purpose of meeting the minimum membership requirement. B. Membership in TSA consists of: (1) group members, (2) independent members, and (3) honorary mem.bers. 1. A group member is any member of a recognized ca ving group as described in by-law I, A, 2. An independent member is any person who is not a group member and who meets one or more of the following conditions: a. A Texas resident belonging to the National Speleological Society; b. A Texas resident subscribing to the TEXAS CAVER; c. A Texas resident registering at an official TSA convention or project during the current or preceding calendar year; d. Any person registering as an independent member with the TSA Secretary-Treasurer during the current or preceding calendar year. 3. Any person may be elected to honorary membership by a simple majority of the Board of Governors. C. A member of the TSA may be expelled from membership by a three-fourths majority of the Board of Governors at a BOG meeting. Reinstatement shall be in a like manner. ARTICLE II. OFFICERS A. The officers of the TSA constitute the Executive Council and are: Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Secretary-Treasurer. 1. The Chairman presides over BOG meetings of TSA. 2. The Vice Chairman is responsible for meeting and program arrangements, and presides at BOG meetings in the absence of the Chairman.


MARCH 1976 Page 2 of 4 TSA By-law s 3. The Secretary-Treasurer records the minutes of BOG meetings, maintains a current list of members, and acts as treasurer of TSA assets, maintaining adequate financial records. B. Candidates for office are nom inated from the floor or by mail to the Secretary-Treasurer at the Convention BOG meeting or the Project BOG meeting, whichever comes earlier in the calendar year. Any person may be nominated through the 'f.exas Caver by submitting a nominees name to the Texas Caver 30 days before the election. Any person wishing to nominate a person through the Texas Caver should have the approval signature of the nominee and the signature of a second to the nomination. Nominations for TSA office may be made at any time prior to the election, including the meeting at which the elections .are held. C. Officers are elected by a simple majority of the delegates voting at the Project BOG meeting or the Convention BOG meeting, whichever comes later in the calendar year. In the event that no candidate for an office receives a simple majority of the votes cast, a runoff election shall be held immediately between the two candidates for any office receiving the greater number of votes. Elections shall be held more than 30 days after nominations. D. Officers shall serve from the end of the BOG election meeting through the next BOG election meeting. E. Officers may be removed from their position by a favorable vote of three-fourths of the Board of Governors at a BOG meeting. Vacancies for whatever cause, shall be filled for the remainder of the calendar year by the nomination from the floor and election as soon as possible. F. All voting for officer of the T SA is to be done by signed written ballot. ARTICLE III. COMMITTEES A. Committees of TSA are two kinds; standing and temporary. B . -Standing committees are the following: Publications, Conservation, and Safety. Chairmen of standing committees are appointed by the TSA chairman and terms shall be concurrent with those of TSA officers. Committee chairmen may be removed at any BOG meeting by a fa vorable vote of three-fourth of the Board of Govej:nors. 1. The Publications Committee shall include at least the editors of ')fSA sponsored caving publications. This committee shall study the needs of TSA members for TSA-sponsored publications and shall recommend publication policies to TSA BOG. 51


52 The TEXAS CAVER Page 3 of 4 TSA By-laws 2. The Conservation Com mittee shall promote conservation of the caves of Texas and other areas, recommend public relations policies to TSA BOG, assist members in local cave conservation activities, and act as liasion between TSA and other groups interested in conservation .. 3. The Safety Committee shall encourage safe cave exploration and coordinate cave rescue activities. C. Temporary committees.are appointed and dissolved by the TSA chairman for study and recommendations on particular subjects and issues. ARTICLE IV. BOARD OF GOVERNORS MEETINGS A. BOG meetings shall be held at the annual T SA Convention and at the annual TSA Project; these meetings are, respectively, the Convention BOG meeting and the Project BOG meeting. In the event that a Convention or Project is not held, the Executive Council shall designate an alternative meeting as a s ubstit ute. B. There shall be two kinds of voting delegates to BOG meetings: 1. A group delegate is an authorized representative of a recognized caving group. Each recognized caving group shall select and authorize its own No recognized caving group may have more than two voting delegates at a BOG meeting. 2. A delegate-at-large is an authorized representative of at least three independent members. Independent members shall select and authorize the delegates-at-large. Independent members may have no more than four voting delegates at-large at a BOG meeting. A person may not be considered an independent for voting purposes if he has been a member of a recognized TSA organization within the previous year. 3. The right of a person to serve as a group delegate or as a delegate-at-large may be challenged by a member of his group or by an independent member, respectively. from the floor at the beginning of that BOG meeting. The right of the challenged delegate to vote must be decided immediately by a majority vote of the Executive Council. Official delegates shall be all delegates at a meeting whose right to vote is not revoked. 4. Any group delegates may release his aut hority to vote at a specific BOG meeting and redesignate that authority to another TSA member by a written proxy approved in writing by an officer (or equivalent) other than himself or his recognized caving group or by a simple majority of the recognized caving group. Standing Committee Chairmen and TSA officers have the authority to give written proxy for voting purposes at BOG meetings. Any restrictions on voting must be contained in the written proxy. A proxy


!MARCH 1976 Page 4 of 4 TSA By-Laws for a meeting may be challenged from the floor by C!. rYilember of the recognized caving group represented by the beginning of that BOG meeting. The right of proxy vote must be decided hnmediately by a majority vote of the Executive Council. Official proxies shall be all those for a meeting whose rights are not revoked. C. A quorum consisting of one-half the possible Board of Governors (that is, the voting delegates, officers and chairmen of standing committees) shall be required to conduct business at a BOG meeting. D. In the absence of specific rules of order in the Constitution and By-law s of T SA, the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order shall pre vaH. E. The TSA shall charge a $.50 registration fee at BOG meetings and at TSA Projects if they are held separate from a BOG meeting. These receipts will f=,o to he lp finance the Texas Caver. ARTICLE V. AMENDMENTS A. The By-laws may be amended by a favorable vote of two-thirds of the Board of Governors at a BOG meeting. CHAIRMAN'S COLUMN--cont from page 3 8 53 suspicion, and p aranoia ; of good guys and bad guys. I have tried to be objective and respect honest differences o f opinion assuming, until evidence builds up conclusivel y to the contrary that a person is acting in good faith. May I suggest that the editor adopt a similar philosophy. Your admitted policy of t rying'to stir up a controversy where there should be none, as an effort to increase the numb e r of TC, subscribers is ill advised and sel f defeating. This nobl e goal can and should be achieved in more evenh anded and constructive wavs. The TEXAS CAVER is the official publication of the Texas Speleo logical Association (the Texas Region) of the National Speleological Society It is published monthly by Gill Ediger and the Oztotl Sup ply Company. Deadlines a r e insignificant, but promptness is a virtue. The editor is serious in intent and unimpressed by eager, but shallow support. Contributions do no one any good until they are upon the editor's desk. If you have ideas for articles, et cetera, please cause them to materialize. All contributions should be sent to the editor at the address listed inside the front cover. If there is a legitimat e gripe it should b e brought before the BOG, which is the only body cap able of resolving it. Let us cease the nanle calling and accusations and get on with the business a t hand. Get rid of the verba l smoke screen and show us SOIne fire. Then we can use the TEXAS CAVER and our respective columns for their intended purposes, not for airing personal differences. --A Stagnated, Narrow-Minded, Arch-Conservative? CAVE RESCUE -CALL COLLECT(817) 772-0110 EXCHANGES are welcome and should be sent to the editor, whence they will be routed eventually to the TSA Library aft e r careful perusai for information useful to the cavers of Texas. SUBSCRIPTIONS. which are $4.50 per calendar year can be had b y sending that amount along with your name and address to J ames Jasek in W aco whose address is also with i n the front cover. Change -

54 The TEXAS CAVER MARCH 197( 1 TRIP REPORT WHERE: McKittrick Hill (Sand Cave, Endless Cave) NM WHEN: 24-26 May 1975 WHO: Tom Byrd, Bill and Vernelle Elliott, Jon Everage, Ronnie and Susan Fieseler, Ed Fomby, Carl Kunath, John M cDowell, Mike Moore, George Sevra, A. C. Stone. The group converged on McKittrick Hill from Houston, Austin, San Angelo, and Lubbock with only minor delays for Van repairs and visiting with Jerry Trout in Carlsbad. As it was already late in the day, we b lew off caving Saturday night except for Moore and McDowell who roamed about in Endless. Instesd, we were treated to a spectacular view of the lunar eclipse from our ideal vantage point atop McKittrick Hill. Cavers and eclipse reaching totality at the same time, we crashed. The following morning, we entered Sand Cave early and having split into two mapping teams, commenced the attack. Stone, having practiced once at the entrance, completed the drama b y falling head-first down a 7 m slope/ crevice. Stone's caving career ended with broken spectacles, two black eyes, and a square foot of missing skin. The mapping 6 8 hours for both teams and was extremel y grim. The lower levels of Sand offer some of the most horrendous maze passage under the Hilt and it now appears that Sand Cave is larger than McKittrick Cdve; not smaller as we had thought. Very much discouraged with this realization, we left the cave sonlewhat sooner than planned. On the way back to camp, Susan gashed her hand on the barbed wire fence and joined the ranks of the walking wounded. Later in the afternoon, Sevra took p ictures of the entrances to McKittrick Cave and Sand Cave. Just before sundown, Byrd, Kunath, Fieseler, Elliott, Moore, and McDowell made a photo trip into Endless for some much needed bl w photos. Emerging at 1 am into a superb desert evening, they found that everyone else had crashed. B y dawn, the perfect weather had been replaced by cold 40 mph winds. Sevra and Kunath photographed the entrances of Dry, Endless, and Little Sand Caves and the group departed. Incidentally, the road to the Hill is in the best condition in at least 10 years. I n Carlsbad, we visited with Andy Kominsky briefly belore heading for Andrews where we threw rubber off a tire and were thus abl e to entertain ourselves the rest of the way home by watching pieces fly off occasionally with the attendant change in road hurn. UCATAN A trip is planned to Yucatan to explore and map Cueva de Huachuab. This relatively large cave is located about 50 miles south o f Merida, just acros s the state line in Campeche, a few mile!? south of the ruins of Uxznal. 'The cave was visited briefly last summer and partly explored. It has a l arge entrance sink requiring 20 In of rope. From this sink a walking passage extends for about 300 meters to large breakdown room. A l side p a s sage wa s only partially explored, and this trip is therefore to map and explore this attractive cave. The p lan is to fly from Houston to Merida, rent a car, and drive to the cave then spend 3 or 4 days m apping and 3 or 4 days touristing around the peninsula. Four people would be desirable to split the car rental, but any number can go as a bus passes about four miles from the cave and the car could be used to pick up those on the bus. The round trip flight to Yucatan costs about $120 from Houston. Houston caver s should not e that timewise, this is the nearest caving area to Houston. The trip is planned for the middle of April, but the exact dates are very flexible. Anyone interested should con tact : Bill Russell 1300 Kirkwood Austin TX 78722 DEDICATED TO THE EXPLORATION, STUDY AND CONSERVATION OF CAVES vl18 L XJ. 1 2 .I N l !UI..i;)d Gild 39VLSOd Sfl 31.Vll )!'lfl'tl 03.T.S3fl031l NOLL::J3

Contents: Letters to
the Ediger: finally I get some relief-it's your turn now,
Charlie --
More on USGS maps: a bit of praise for mroe accurate cave
locations / Tom Mills --
Chairman's column: more admonitions to get on with the
business of caving / Wayne Russell --
Cave of the Month: Flemming Bat Cave from the files of
TSS / Ronnie Fieseler --
Cavernicole corner: how to catch bugs for fun and
science / James Reddell --
Can you dig it? find the depths of time in the depths of
a Texas cave / Tom Byrd --
Cave surveying: just give thanks to Oztotl that he forgot
about radians / Charlie Yates --
A bit of nostalgia: an old caver brings his past into the
present / James Estes --
Editorial: continuing the quest! Another piece in the
puzzle --
Spelunkers find things: a reprint from the Texas Tech
University Daily / Celia Westbrook --
TSA constitution: here it is folks-read and remember what
it says / Ruth Darilek --
Trip report: the last (I hope) in a series of ancient
history-on to more recent stuff.