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The Texas Caver

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Title:
The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Creator:
Texas Speleological Association
Publisher:
Texas Speleological Association
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Letters to the Ediger: perversity and west Africans preclude a failing memory -- Trip reports: it's obvious that no one is caving in Texas anymore -- Plastic garbage bags-for comfort and survival: a little help with exposure / Don Davison -- Speleo crossword: with any luck at all this one will work for you / Wayne Russell -- Diarrhea: a look into your GI tract, by one who has been there / CJ Rushin -- Cave: Cascade Caverns: the history and exploration of one of Texas better known caves / James Jasek -- Map: Cascade Caverns / James Jasek -- Safety tips-bad air: a first-hand account of the dangers of carbon dioxide / Bad Headache -- Cartoon: humor on the rocks-reprinted from the ASS newsletter / Doug Symank -- Garbage: spreading the word to underground Texas -- NSS BOG: the NSS Board of Governors brings its meeting to Texas / Ronnie Fieseler -- NSS convention '76: pictures from this year's NSS convention in Morgantown, WV / Joe Domnanovich -- Waterproofing matches: a cheap, easy way to be assured your matches will light / Dorothy Tucker.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 21, no. 08 (1976)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-04608 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4608 ( USFLDC Handle )
11342 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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TheTEXftS CftUER Volume 21, Number 8 August 1976 CO"VER: A pencil sketch by Alicia Wiscner of sOlne folks i n a West Tc"as ca\'c In this issue .... 1-i1 LETTERS TO THE EDIGER Pervel'sity and West r\fricans preclude a failing nlen.ory ............ 1 4 1 TRIP REPORTS It's obv ious that no one is ca\'ing in Te"as anYlTIOre .................................... 142 PLASTIC GARBAGE BAGS: FOR COMFORT AND SURVIVAL A little help with e"posure ........... DOl\: DAVISON 143 SPELEO CROSSWORD With any luck at all this one will work for you ................... WAYN E RUSSELL 144 DIARRHEA A look into your GI tract, by one \\ho has becn there ........................... CJ RUSHIN 146 CAVE: CASCADE CAVERN S The history and e"ploration of one of Texas better known caves ... J AMES JASEK 147 MAP: C ASCADE CAVERNS ............... JAMES JASEK 149 SAFETY TIPS: BAD AIR A first-hand account of the dan gers of C02' .................. BAD HEADACHF. 149 CARTOON Humor on the Rocks--Reprinted from the ASS newsletter ..................... DOUG SYMANK 150 GARBAGE Spreading the word to underground Texas ..... 151 NSS BOG The N SS Board of Go\'crnors brings its meeting to Texas .... ...... ......... RONNIE FIESELER 153 NS5 CONVENTIO N '76 Pictures from this year' s NSS Convention in Morgantown, WV.JOE DOMNANOVICH 154 WATERPROOFING MATCHES A cheap, easy way to be assured your matches will light. DOROTHY TUCKER EDITOR Gill Ediger Box 8424 A,ustin, TX 78712 tsa officers CHAIRMAN: Wayne Russell VICE-CHAIRMAN Jimmy Clements Box 7438 SUBSCRIPTIONS: James Jasek 5315 Laurel Lake Waco, TX 76710 SECRETARY: Ruth Darilek 11929 Grapevine PO Box 848 Rockport, TX 78382 Corpus Christi, TX 78415 San Antonio, TX 78288 TSA MEM3ER ORGAi'll ZATI AGGIE SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Occupant 415B College Main College Station, T X 77840 ALAMO AREA CHAPTER G r e g Passmore 267 Wayside San Antonio, TX78213 1',\1.(,0);E5 GROTTO SUS;1I1 lla rdcastle PO no" 5672 ,\ustin, TX 78763 CARTA VALLEY S. U. C. K. S. C. Edwin Kllnath 3507 Lindenwood San Angelo, TX 76901 CORPUS CHRISTI CAVING CLUB Jim Clements Box 7438 Corpus C hristi, TX 78415 DALLAS/FT WOR TH GROTTO Jacqueline Williams 1101 Heather Court Ft Worth, TX 76126 GALVESTON SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI.ETY Ba rbara Strenth Box 5296 Galveston, TX 7'7550 GREATER HOUSTON GROTTO Theresa Connolly 7143 Triola Houston, TX 77036 LAREDOSPELEOLomCAL SOCIETY PO Box 603 L aredo, TX 78040 SOUTHWEST TEXAS STUDENT GROTTO Student Union Bldg San Marcos, TX 78666 TEMPLE CAVlNG ASSOCIA TlON MiMi Jasek 5315 Laurel Lake WilCO, TX 76710 TEXAS A&I GROTTO PO Box 2213 Texas ARtI Kingsville, TX 78363 U NIVERSITY OF TEXAS GROTTO PO Box 7672 UT Station A l stin, TX 78712

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AUGUST 1976, L ETTERS TO THE EDIGER' dV:1 r t:i 11, i fillal l Y gal nly pencil sharpener' o\'<:rh;nlicd (needed a new LI' allsn,i ssioll) so i c a n \\'ril e )OU a pen'erst: l etter. Il's 1'('1".l' r:-.c bcC.:ll1SC i fccl p c r \ 'crs<.:, not becLlllse the lellt')" is . all well, if i kccp goillg in \;till, i s h a l l s tart seein).! tilos(: 1";I\>id .. oIl1ll'i rt.: b;.t s Ill-! 111(' agai n I n J1,> [ .!I h illb. Wi t h the lights Ullt. Till' (.1;111111 :\':-'.J fl:ll).!llS pastel ).!n:l!I1. 1 wonder if 11 SOIlIC thi ng? "\u\\' : Serious Sluff. YOli ha\'e h a d Sll l1h' intcl"l'slill).! erfect s with the f a lse I-plur t '(J\ cl'S for the TEX l\S CAVER. but \llt Y do things wit h eyes. You JlIlls t be doing SOlllvtilillj.! OK. And as for J(r,lllll']"S ( ';.lrlaolls--is I n taking lessons !r, ,1ll thl' \'<.IlIghll School of Obscure Ctr\ounill).!? 1 likc the long l'nillg feel i n g just as if wc'd ell'!\ l!t1 ,111 nighl again, we p r occelkd t o pa{k 0111' gear and hCi\d back to Cand('l a 1 0 I ruck It I oum..! ;lnd scop c out the Gololldrina s I'ocks, ('te. We saw S0l11 C 1'C':\lIy I H'dl n;l\iq! pl!al'h, fi!.! a n d ;t\'ocado I ),,,('S ; HI bl'"1' ;,1-'-' I1dl' I' \-"a I'. 1\ s[H'ci il I ufj" I' o f 5 1 1'01' thl' l<1sl 3 is, lICS o f till' CltJ','L'nt \ "OhUlH' is lHadl..' h I studl'nt SOil ;In int b,,:-.1:--, SlIlJ!;Cripliolls and chan).!l''; 0 1 ad dt'ess should b(' SL'n l 10 J aI11l'''; Ja!;l'k in Waco ill' th addrL'5,; o n thl' facing pilg All othe r busilH'sS should be: ,;enl t o the Editot, at his n,'\\' addr l'!;';: Box8-l2-l, Austin, TX 7871 2 Articles, ca rtoons, photographs, announcen1ents. ("t c ete 1'a a I 't' hereby sol i ited and will b(' ap preci a ted. W c print nca d y ,tl1 \ thing. Deadlin('s for Grotto i\'l \\ ''';, T rip RC'ports. and the like a l 'L insignificant, but pl'ompt n 55 is a 1'C'cognized \ 'j,'tUl' ;Jl1ri \dll sur ,, 1 \ bC' r C'will 'c\"d by a I I m<1 nl)(' I' of good K arn1a. Bac k issuC's 0 1 1IH' T EXAS C,\ \'ER a r c avail a b l e f r o n ) thC' Editol' Jor 5 0 < p e r ('
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142 fOR COMFoRT ANd SURvivAL by Don Davison Have you ever been forced into inactivity within a cave and felt helpless as you chilled (e. g. at the bottom or top of a deep or wet drop, while belaying a techni cal aid climb, in a rescue situa tion)? Have you been in this con dition because a change of clothes or extra chest clothing was left behind as too bulky and inconveni ent? Or was it because you had worn too many layers of garments and, too late, noticed that they had become damp with the per-s pir ation of a cti ve caving 10 sing much of their insulating power? An inexpensive, compact, dis posable, multi-use solution to this problem may be found in the plastic garbage bag. Each "Glad" brand plastic garbage bagl weighs only 2 ounces, costs about 12 cents, and may be carried flat, or rolled into a cy linder, 4.0" long and 1. 25" in diameter, with a volume of only 5.0 cubic inches {220/0 of the volume occupied by an 8 ounce baby bottle}. The bags are strong and although some care is desir able if moving through tight pas sage, the tears from snagging usually re sult in relatively minor holes. Many a caver has waited for those before him to finish ascend ing from a deep pit, while the inactivity, waterfall spray, and breeze contributed to his overall chilling. Several of these factors may be reduced or negated through the use of the garbage bag, worn in one of several configurations. Th(' caver could: I. Cut a tight neck hol(' and wear the bag over hi s uppe r tor so. with no arm holes; 2. Place the bag over his head and upper body in a tent-like fashion (with a small hol(' in the top of the bag to allow slow air circulation through chimn<,ying); or, 3. If some activity is re-quired, cut arm and neck holes and wear the bag like a sweater or shirt. All holes in the garbage bag should be formed carefully and made as small as possible. If situations are anticipated, the modifications may be made be fore entering the cave and the edges of the holes reinforced with ducting or electricians' tape. When a garbage bag is employed in one of the aforemen tioned modes, mist and spray is kept off the caver's clothing, the chill factor associated with a breeze is all but eliminated from the covered areas, and the insu lating layer of, in essence, non moving air formed within the bag, reduces the rate at which body heat is lost through convective and evaporative processes. A carbide caver, when produc ing his own tent,' as in method 2, might: 2a. Place a second garbage bag on a rock, and sitting upon it, face his carbide lamp towards himself on the ground between his thighs, not too near the flammable plastic. Thus he has produced a space heater for his tent. (Electric cavers must settle for the heating power of a butane lighter, candle, etc.) The amount of heat may be controlled by adjusting the size of the flame and chimney hole. The chimney ing of the hot air, up the front of the caver's body. will dry clothing on the chest, thighs, and arn1s--with the heat of evapora tion suppliNI by the carbide lamp, not the caver's body. By opening the shirt and trousers [I'ont, th(' drying of undcl'g;n111('nts 111<1y be enhanced and son1<' of their in sulating powel' also regilinecl. On stec'p slope. s the carbide lamp is hooked into tilt' top of the. boot. Garbage bilgS 111'1Y also be used in a 1110re preventative lTIode. Several cavers might be al.ive The. TEXAS CAVER todaY', if tl)ey'had wor: n gCl-rbige ; bags while'in wet drops--'instead they are hypothermia statistic/ When moving through or near waterfalls or in areas of heavy drip: 4. The bag is placed over the head and upper torso and the helmet is then positioned. The chin strap is adjusted snugly and a breathing hole is immediately pinched open. A mouth hole and two eye holes may be formed, or a single full face opening may be styled. Arm holes are then added. In this manner, the neck and back are protected from water running off the rear of the helmet and from heavy spray or splatter which would chill the sensitive rear neck area and run into the chest gar ments. This arrangement has worked very satisfacto.rily, with "Glad" brand garbage bags, in Ellis:m's Cave, Ga., while entering through waterfalls and descend. ing in and near them, when the cave was in full flood. Although the aspects of comfort are emphasized in the preceding information, it should be clear that the wise use of plastic gar bage bags can enhance the pro bability of survival in exposure cases by stabilizing a victim's condition while Also, t!ie early.:.-sig,11s of exposure can be treated' and pos sibly reversed white the victim conserves his ene rgy and waits for assist ance. This as opposed to a panicky headlong effort to reach the entrance and leave the cave-often compounding the problem. But of greatest importance is the prevention of even the initial phases of hypothermia--a task made easier by the plastic garbage bag. l"Glad" brand "Disposer Trash Bags" (2 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. I in.). "Glad" brand bags are the most sturdy pla stic ga rbage bags which we hav<, used. Inferior bags will show clear streaks when a single thicknC'ss of plastic is held lip to a light. Tilese arc zones o[ weaknC'ss. 2 Keidel', Marlin B. "Physical and Physiological Factors in Fatal Exposures to Cold." Nal. Speleol. Soc. Bull.. Vol. pp'!-10,l967.

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AUGUST 1976 speleo crossword by Wayne Russell Did you ever meet one of those peopl c w h o never has a cross word for anyone? Well, we've one for you right here. Do it i f you can. The answer will be i n a future issue ACROSS 2 Book b y Tony Waltham 5 Needed for cave div ing 7 Ric e Speleologica l Society abbr. 12 Aztec word for cave 1 4 Cueva la Florida, abbr. 1 6 Caving club in Waco, TX. abbr. 17 Frigid mineral found in some caves 18 European rappel 19 Karst is derived from this word 20 Site of first TSA P r o ject 2 1 Underwater cav ing group, abbr. 2 2 Kingsville caving group, abbr. 143 DOW!': I Tcxas Bat Ca\' e 2 5 Cueva de Eduardo Trevino, abbr. 28 Yugoslavian show caV e 3 Spelcologica l Sun e," of Ylt'xi c o (new naIne abbr. ) 4 Deposited i n Cil\eS through e rosion 2 9 Krizna Jama abbr. 3 1 Bad air cave hazard 33 Texas Region, abbr. 35 Congress of Grottoes, abbr, 36 International Speleological Congress, abbr. 37 Lava caves are formcd in i t 38 University of Texas, abbr. 39 Bird in S. de l a s Golundrinas 40 7 .one between w a ter table and surface 43 Where the earth is split open 44 Adjusted Depth, abbr. 45 First NSS Grotto i n Texas, abbr, 47 48 SWs';l,L cave i n San Antonio, abbr, dbKtinet cave club i n San Anto nio, 50 Official TSA Publication, abbr. abbr. 5 1 Cavi n g publication from Texas, abbr, 52 Common cave mamIna l 53 Spoutin g sea cave 54 Surv e y instrement 55 TSA is a Region of it, abbr. 56 Organic deposit frequentl y found i n ca\'es 5 7 Cav e mineral 6 !\at u r a l ___ Ca\'ern 8 Deepest Pit "El ___ 9 Deprcssion caused by solution or rt\" P coll a pse I 0 Water filled sinkhol e in Ylicatan 11 Geological feat ure contr o lling ca\' (' 1 3 Painted C;:l\' C in F rance 1 5 Largest ca\" e i n Te"a s 1 b Eccentric 23 Ycnezuclan ca\'e bird 24 l
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144 EVERYTHING YOU BUT WERE Reading Alicia Wisener's "Hypo-c hondriac' s Guide to Ca ve Re lated Diseases" (Texas Caver, June, 1976) prompted meto carry hypo chondriacism one step further. More and more cavers are becoming afflllt:nt and caving south of the border, thu s expo si ng themselves to diseases beyond their wildest imaginations. Mex ico and Central America are a real hypochondriac's paradises. Not onl y can you fantasize weird and exotic diseases that will amaze and astound your AMOEBAS -Entamoeba Ristoly tica is the though there are other varieties from which to choose. Alicia gave, a good description of these tiny beasties in her Guide. Amoebas attach themselves to the intestinal lining, destroying cells and invading the intestional wall. They cause small u lcers in the large intestine and secondary bacterial infections that usually follow. Gangrene may rarely' set i n and kill within hours. Even i f the unhappy victim does not pick up the gangrene ':te wishesthathehad. A full blown (Sorry folks! ed.) amoebic dysentery attack is something to tell your g randchildren about. As the one-celled amoebas multiply by splitting in t wo, they generally leave you and your bowels in a multi-celled shambles. BACILLA R Y DYSENT ER Y This is caused by a bacillus bacteria and can be as tough as amoebic dysentery In fact, the week-long attacks are often mistaken for amoebic. The T EXAS CAVEI ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUl TOO EMBARRASSED TO ASK by CaroLJo (CJl Rushin friends, but you can actualJ y get then1. While Alicia presented a run down on w hat yOU can get the c ave, l e t us look here a t ,\'hic h diseases you can pick up on your way there. Just skip o\'er t h e 1110r e routine afflictions such a s t yphoid, hepatitis, m a l aria scabies, hook\\'orm, ascaris, leeches, lice, fleas, ticks, and tapeworn1s, a nd get right to the pro b lem tha t GIARDIA I NTESTINALIS --A lso known as L a lTIblia, it is a very comrnon protozoa that infects 5-l6% of the world's popUlation. These grotesque little monsters attach themselves to t h e surface of the mucus cells in the uppe r part of the sn1all intestine w h e r e they absorb the nourishment you should be getting for yourself. Besides interfering w i t h absorption, they a r e o bnoxiously persi s tent. Some infections last for years, or longer. They a r e some what susceptibl e to anti-mal aria l drugs such as Chloroquin. Ask Kirkwood caver Pete Strickland for some first hand details. TRICHOMONAS INTESTINALIS flagellated protozoan infection is associated with persistent diarrhea. It is estimated to infect over 20% of the childre n in the tropic s and is favored by a carbohydrate ric h diet suc h as tortillas and beans. You do n t have to b e a kid t o get Trichomonas, however. Big cavers get it too. strikl's a healthy p e 'centage of cavc, s who venture o\'er the border -----DIARRHEA. There are many causes of this 1110st embarrassing of problems, and all a r e a cquired through on e or a combination of t h e Four F's: Food, Fluids, Fingers, Flies. Take your choice. Here is a short guide to the n10re C0 1TImOn causes of what the Mexicans refer to as los asicnlos -----(the shits): SHYGELOSIS -This is the l oc;1I b r anci-of food poiso ning, a nd f a i rl), C OmlTIOn Watc h what y o u ITIun ch on in the outdoor markets and dingy restaurants. Shygella can n1ake you violentl y ill, COlTlple t e with d i arrhea, vOITIiting chills fever and severe abdol'!: inal pains. ENTEROPATIA TROPICAL common name; Tropica l Sprue If you get this one, you get it crack at donating yourself a nd bits of your intestine to t ropical disease research in Bethesda Mary l and, where investigations on thi s parti cular infection is currently unde rway. Little i s known about Sprue No one is quite sure how you get it, whether it is a bacteria 01' viru s nor hO"1 to get rid of it. It is known, however, w h a t it does to you. The disease causes atroph\ und deformation of the villi of t h e intestines, which in turn interferes with absorption, creating what is called the Malabsorption Synclr0l11e T1',e infection is m,ost probably pic k e c! up in contaminated food or water, and is definite l y related to the,'

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AUGUST 1976 tropics. This includes Puerto Rico. S)'lTIptoms include intense abdominal pains, diarrhea, a nd loss of weight. Several medicines a re being experimented with a t the moment. I h appened into this disease while caving in Belize in 1 974, and have been through a pil e of m edical experiments ever sinc e trying to get rid of it. W ell why stop with diarrhea? Let's l ook at a couple of other diseases cavers may be exposed to while bushwhacking through Mexi c o and Centra l A m erica: LEISHMANIASIS Heres an a ll time f2,-:;Q]ite of tropical h ypochondriacs and it can be so easy to get. All one has to do to b e exposed is run around in a hot,humid forest or jungl e looking for caves. [:c.ti,'es most like l y to re local sores. The illfvction goes by se,'cra l names: "Chicle r o ulcel in Guatem a l a ;111<1 sout h e astern Mexico, "nlon soon o r bay sOl'e" in Belize and "papaI 0111uyO" in Cost a Rica One ;Jltal'k u suall y gi,'es i111111unit y The skin lesion begins as a snl<11 1 red papul e l i k e an insect bite and gradually enlarges to a dia lTIeter o f a n inch or nlore n1aking a nast y looking, gooey sore. jf located o n the ea 1', p ern1anent sub c ut 'aneous disfigurnlent occurs. Secondary infection b y bactel'ia, fungi, and nlaggots is C onl1110n. MAGGOTS????? It's not a s unusual a s one thinks, whic h brings us to the next subject: BEEFWORMS Alia s Botfly maggots. Cavers who spend any legnth of time in the jungles should be familiar with these creatures, A fem ale fly captures a mosquito, tick, blood-sucking fly etc" and glues h e r eggs to the abdomen of the capture d insec t or tick, These b lood-suckers then feed o n a warn 1 b looded host (including cavers). T h e l a rvae ernerge and drop off while the insect i s snacking, and penetrate t h e skin of the wal'1TIblooded animal. They de"elop below the skin over a period of seve r a l weeks, forming seve r a l rows of spines i n the process. They mp. y a lso b e picked up o n damp laundry hung out to dry The whol e affair appears as a small volcano on the afflicted part, and if one closel y one can sec the little bugger pokc his head up thru the hol e to breathe occasionally Since the maggots are well entrenched with thur spines, they a r c a l nl0st inl possible to d i S lodge \\'ithout killing first. This may be accomplished by s1110t hering the rascal using a time tested Peace Corps Volunteer recipe: Plug the breathing hole with fat. peanu t buttel', g lue. or w hathaveyou, for half a hour. Co\'er the n1ess with adhesi"e tape to prevent the maggot from poking his head up thru the g lop, ( We've seen thenl push u p thr u rubber c e nlent). Ren10,' e the t 2pe, etc. and gentl > s queeze the dead maggot out, being ca reful th;ll it dosen't break off o r explode opcn, This is best accomplished be ha"in g one person squeeze and anothel' pcrson steadily pulling with tweezers, A well k nown ,\ustin ca'"cr holds the record [or the g rossest beefwornl infection of the ''l'' unclean. or careless c 'ou I' caving t:ime. So. beforE' all yOU south-bound cavers start tn'kking, I'd l i k e to p ass o n a fe\\' hints: If y o u or son1eo nE' in YOIl r gl'OUp has di.11-rhea for J110l'l' than 3 running, contact a doctor and get a s tool exanl, ,'('\'cr diagnose "ourself or oihers, You 111<1y treat 'oul'self 101' ilnloebas \\'hen it is ilctuall,' s0111l'ting else \\'ith simila r s';"mptoms, Be to c1rinkplent>" of liquids {non a l('ol:o[;.,:: i f you ha\' e los asientos" Wha t goes oul h.ts to be put back ill r;1l iVIl can be serious. r\ Canadl"ll in Quez;t1tcnl'llgo, Gll ,Il,'1l1 al;l, died lilst year 11'0111 lion brought 011 b y ten, LOl11::>iil SC'L'111S to Iw th, 'ou arc not SUl' C of. I veli tablets 111ay ;lIso be used, ;\",1.11"" n1 0 r e effectiyc thall h ;ll;u,ol1l'. An10ebas alld tlwir L "ohort,; ILllk in l e ttuce. ,"illlliflo\\"'I", radishes, stl' ;J\\'bel'l'i,'s. ;lllcJ o l h '1" vegetables alld I ruit s Pvcl ;tli contilluecl on I 'i I

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146 Man's search for leisure-tilTIe activities takes many forms The escape from the noise, clutter, and hectic pace of today's city life leads ulany into the pursuit of the quiet and beauty of nature. One way in which lTIany succeed in their search is through the visiting of caves. Caves and man have bee n closely associated from the beginning of n1an 's history and have told us much about man and the earth's history Texas has over 2, 000 known caves, n10st of which are located in Central and West Texas. Of all tlwse caves there are seven, located n10stly in a narrow band from Boerne north to Georgetown, which are open to the public. Each is different from the others; each has its own story to tell. This is the story of our cave, Cascade Caverns. HISTORY AND LEGEN D Cascade Caverns is located in the area around the presentday town of Boerne, Texas. Ever since man first inhabited tllis area, the cave has been use d for various purpo ses. In the beginning the only entrance was the present day Peep in the Deep", a vertica l shaft which involved a harrowing sixty foot descent by rope or rope l adder from the surface to the floor of the cave. The present day entrance for tours was not then large enough for man to pass through. It was not until 190 6 that a group of seven boys were able to find a way through the boulders and debris in the gully and be the first to enter the cave without the aid of a rope. The earliest inhabitants of the area, the American Indians, were only able to use the first 500 feet of the cave, for beyond this point it was completely filled with water. The Indians probably use d the cave as a source of water, but because of their superstitions did not venture into the cave past a point from which they could see the light from the outside . Soot found on the sides of the natura l chimney within the eLl,'e indicates that fires h a d been lIse-d, probably [or cooking, heat, and lig h t One oI the n10st popular legends about the cave Iirst appeared in a book written in Gen11a n and publis hed in 1876 entitled "A Wasted Life." It tells the stor y o[ a Gern1a n in1 ,migrant boy who be-c arne a hern1it and lived in the top shelter cave in the entrance around 1832 after he had been jilted by his girlfriend. Human bones and a vintage pistol found in the cave are thought to have belonged to the hermit. In 1932, Naylor Publishing Company of b y Jan1es Jasek San Antonio, Texas, published "Hern1it of the C a ve rns", a n English transl ation of the original Germa n book. A copy o[ this book can be found in the Boerne Public Libra r y It is also run10re d that during the Civil W ar, a Union syn1pa thizer used the cave, then known as Hester's Cave", for a hiding place [l'on1 Confederate soldiers. Since the town of Boerne was settled, people of all ages have used the cave and the surrounding area for a playground and pic nic a rea. In 1927, Dr. I lest e r solei the property to Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Gray whose heirs are the current owners o[ the land. Not long after this Dr. Frank Nicholson, the first. real ex plorer o[ the cave, obtained pel'lTIission [ron, the owners to explore Hester's Cave. He placed a flashlight in a [l'llit jill' a nd swan1 through the lIndenvate I.' portion o [ thc c itve. sudarin g whcI'c h e found ai r pockets, After seeing the other portions The TEXAS CAVER of the cave, Dr. Nicholson rea lized its commercial potential and undertook plans [or deveLop ment. N i cholson and a finclncial back e r nan1ed Drake [orn,ed the Cascade Caverns Corporation a nd Leased the area II'on, Mr. and Mrs Gray, with the stipul a Lion t h a t the Corporation ouLd sell the lease and in1proven1ents A group worked for 25 months cleanin g out debris from the cave a nd laying walkways. In 1932 the cave was offic i ally opened to the pubLic and dedicat ed by Governor James V. Allred. Problems Later arose between Drake and N i cholson which resulted in the sal e of the Lease to a Mr. Peterson of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mr. Petel'son k e pt the cave for five year s and Lhl'n soLd it to a Mr. Lindberg, who kept it for twel\'e year s Neithl'!' Peterson nor Lindberg did extensive devclopment on t h e property A Mr. Ballou bought the Lease from Lindberg and operated the cave for the ne"t Len years. Flooding in 1964 forced t h e closing of tile can:. A clause in the Lease contl'act stated that if the cave wa s not in continuous C01111TIel'ciai ope r a tion the lease would revert to Mr. and Mrs. Gray. This stipulation caused Mr. John Bridges, the present operator of Cascade C averns to negotiate a new agree111ent between Mrs. Gray, Mrs. Lindberg, Mr. BaLLou and ,hin, self, waiving certain condi tions and granting extensions o f tin1e allowing [01' the pl'oper wOl' k to be done Lo reopen the caverns Slnce that ti111e lTIu c h work h a s been done to protec t the cavernS [I'OITI c1an,age in the event o f floods. Since reopening in Decen,be r 1965, floods have returned in 1969, 1971, and four time s in 1 9 7 3 Damage has been progl'essivel y less as each re pail' has been lTIade. Dllring l'ecent )'eal's n,any sllrface in, pro\'ement s have been made ",iLit can,ping .fa cil.ities, picnic areas, play g l'ouncl equipn,ent, I dance iliJll and pavilion, a l a rge kiLchell. a pool, a nd s h o p l:lcilities

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___ENTRANCEi'IilA-,98!-CHIMNIESLIFGIANT\KENDALL COUNTY, TEXASTOBACCOROOM-MASTADONBONE",l020..,6080K>OFEETi@=,PEEPINTHEDEEP\SlR'ACEENTRANCE/<:>/,"/I/, ,,/-, ,,/IWISHINGWELL-D-MUDROOMNEPTUNE'S THRONELUPPERPASSAGElERPASSAGE

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AUGUST 1976 BAD AIR In the last issue of the TEXAS CAVER a section of safety tips brought to mind an experience I would likc t o tcll. It was in the spring of 1975. There was an enonTIOUS group of ncw ca\ 'ers togethcr, inc l uding ll1)' self at Gorman F alls On m y first trip throug h I was cxploring cvery nook and c r a n y Trying to find an opcning of SOll1e kind, off thc beaten path. I fc I t fo olish in a way Hundreds, or 111aybe e ven thousands of people havc been through this cave and hcre I was trying to find an unexplored area. (Ha!) Anyway, I kept trying. It made the trip a little more exciting. Ahhaah! I found.it! So I thought. But I did find an area which was off the beaten path. It was near the back of the cave through 1 2 3 2 or 3 intcrlocking crawlways. I went and got a buddy and we both wcnt togcther. Thcre were c h annc l s o f water knee to waist dccp. Wc surveyed the situatio n and dccided to c hcck it oul. W c chccked our 3 sourccs of li ght, m aking sure thcy were in working ordcr. As we 1110ved o n the canals b eC al11 e smaller in size as so did the water lc\'cl. It finally funnelcd of[ into a flowing strealTI of wat-cr running o\'cr a roc k bed. We took a short brcak and procccd-e d on. I began breathing hard and so did m y buddy It Seel11S we found a pocket of bad air -our carbide was still good and so were our lal11ps. Thc funnel was getting smalle r evcry 10 ft. or so. We were soon on our bellies doing thf> Airrnen's Cav e 8 waltz with an inch or two of water running in the dirction we were crawling. The air was getting worse all the time. We soonrealizedthat the air had o vcr come us i n a m atter of minutes. We began to have bad headaches. It's a helplcss feeling when your body is i n a position at which you cannot have control over il. Thc ai r finally got to our lamps. So out came the ftashlights. Feeling extremely weak w e began our departure which was in no way easy, especially from a tight hole. The departure made me realize just how easily one could become isolated and helpless in a cave. Be careful cavers. --Bad Headake

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1 5 0 The TEXA S CAVER CAVE MANAGEMENT SYMPOSI UM The Second National Ca ve M a nagcllwn l Syn1posium will be h e l d rtt Mounl:rtin View, AR from noon, 26 Octobg r Lil noon 29 O ctober 1 9 76, Meeting ar r a ngem ents are undel' t h e dire,l'io n of MI' Jrtck Griswold, Di strict Rang" I', US Forest Service, Mountain Vicw, AR 72560, Technical p a p ers and the wOI'k shop sessions are b eing coordin'Hcd b y Mr, Tom Aley, Director o[ the OZ'lrk Underground Laboratol'Y, 1"1'01('11" M O 65733, The S YI1'posium wil l focu s on J11anagel11ent approaches and techniques need e d to protec t and conserve caves on both public and private lands. It w ill be concerne d wilh th!' protection and conservation of both wild caves and caves de\'eloped [01' sonle particular use. A n yone w ith a n interest in the managen,(nt or cav e s is weicorne. E N DANGERED SPECIES Bill Mixon has r eminded us that the smallpox virus is expected to become extinc t thi s year throug h the efforts o[ the Worl d Health Con'111ission folks, It seelllS to nle Ih a t the virus is as l!1Uch a p art of the ecolog ical s ystem as pup[ish Myolis Sodal i s or t il(' Bald Eagl e Where a r e all the Endaneered Species loudmouths in I hIS final hour of this once nobl e v irus, Recent Conservation A l e rls from NSS interna l organizations have dealt w ith those "'orthless Pupl i s h \ 'ario,,' s bats, areas of proposed danls, and other things; bul now h ere h;lvt' T he"rd a tear drop for smallpox. Is the ecology message PUI'C'? If so, tlll'n why no l110urning [or this natural survival of tlw fittest insl'runl,'nl') TIll' i\tLlr Apr 7 6 issue o[ the VALLEYCAVER;-P,;-I;!icatio-;-'--o[ lhc' Moth(' r Lo(k Grotto s uggests, "Lert\"e it as it is, you c"nnot impro\' (' on ii, ;lIfd m;ln can only mar it. What you can do is to keep it [or youl' c h i ldl'l'n, children's children, and for all those \\'ho come afte r you. 1')0 p "rt, spread sll1allpox REUNION A group o f present and old-til11e c a \ 'crs [ r0111 Texas A&! recentl y got logelhel' at tht' I
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AUGUST 1976 DATE: Saturday, October 2 3 1 9 76 9:00 AM SITE: Community Hall, Highland Mall Shopping Center, Austin, Texas. Located about one mile northwest of the intersection of Interstate 35 and US 290 in north Austin. The Mall is visible from the intersection look for a large Joske's sign behind the Hilton Inn. Plenty of free parking and lots of interesting stores for non-political folks. HOST: Texas Speleological Survey with help from University of Texas Grotto, Balcones Grotto, CV SUCKS, et al. PARTIES: Friday night: Kirkwood Kaver Kommunity, in and around the l300 block of Kirkwood, about 1/2 mile northeast of thp. intersection of Interstate 35 and 38 1/2 Street. See map or call for instructions. (Important: avoid the upper level of I-35 .. no exits!) BYOB Saturday night: Location is presently undecided. Weather p ermitting the Sal11C location as the Friday party will b e used. In case of bad WX however, the party is sch<;!duled to be in beautiful downtown Bucia 15 111iles S of Austin, in the humble abode of Frank Binney--the only thre e story building on M.::J.in Street, Buda. AffiPOR T: Convienient to KKK. Let us know your flight schedule and we will arrange pickup and delivery. ACCOMODATIONS: Unfortunately, there is a UT home football game scheduled for the 23rd. This means that hotel-motel rooms are probably all reserved. You are welcome to try for a room (or we will try for you if you rf;quest it) but we urge everyone to bring a sleeping bag and tryout some of our Austin floors. We have lots of floor space available and a good bit of-parking for truck campers. Most of this is at the KKK, so it will be convienent to the Friday party TSA BOG: There is rumor that the Texas Speleological Association will hold their fall BOG on Sunday. Time and place are unknown right now and will probably be announced on Saturday. Everyone is urged to attend. 1 I) 1

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152 The TEXAS CAVER All Texas cavers are urged to attend .the NSS Board Meeting on the Z3rd of October. The workings of your Society often have an influence on your caving activities, and your opinions may have an effect on the decisions of the Board. The Board wants to hear from you if you feel strongly on an issue--that's why they move their meetings around the country--for maximum exposure to the membership. Please try to attend. The TsA BOG is scheduled for Sunday the Z4th of October in Austin so you can kill two birds with one bird-stone. Cralh space is available at various caver houses around Austin, but due to the large number out of Itaterl'who,m;lY not have their own transportation/sleeping facilities, we ask that you give them 1st priority on indoor accomodations. A barbeque is planned for Saturday night. Come meet the decision makers. z 0 0 "' ... 0 II ; .-II. 0 0 i EJ to PeN..,'{'s ) I 115 10",," .. "''''oa. -35 FLOOR. J To :>"SKE" D INT'L..l-loUU: OF P"''''CAKf: tNS!!.' -35 0. o /" S 4{S2-3 ... "n-lj"l, 11. ,. It .....

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AUGUST 1976 1976 NSS Convention ... ...... . . _ .'" II!' -, . ...s J I _ p) ,,/;,.-j I -...-.... f I . _,:. _ 153 Photos by Joe Domnanovich, Bill Stone, and others . C .. \MI-'GnOUl\D: UPPl'" l':ll11pgI'Olilld (!) for [;ll11i l '"l11pill!.!, : ,. 01 I h S "11l J (l'l, "t,;!), sitc of Groad Hollo,\ :lll d libel':l1 l'''lllpers. 1) \'.;:.,111 1)1 ,,"," (J') Du.C!":ood C ity Grotto passes l h l' ') n)il( poillt 0 hi,; 1'<"'ul'd b l : kill!.! 111. 1 mile criJwl. 1I0WD)' PAnTY: Willd, Cil, GI'OltU "I' V 'I<: t'Cst r\l'd f u r 'L'L''';\ S ; 1 11<1 l\l'vlCS Ilu\\ t11 ; IIl\ \ :11 : I III i r11' III i f '? ];O.\I
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154 continued from page 145 uncoo ked vegeta ble sand fruits cr S.ID

Description
Contents: Letters to the Ediger: perversity and west
Africans preclude a failing memory --
Trip reports: it's obvious that no one is caving in
Texas anymore --
Plastic garbage bags-for comfort and survival: a little
help with exposure / Don Davison --
Speleo crossword: with any luck at all this one will
work for you / Wayne Russell --
Diarrhea: a look into your GI tract, by one who has
been there / CJ Rushin --
Cave: Cascade Caverns: the history and exploration of
one of Texas better known caves / James Jasek --
Map: Cascade Caverns / James Jasek --
Safety tips-bad air: a first-hand account of the
dangers of carbon dioxide / Bad Headache --
Cartoon: humor on the rocks-reprinted from the ASS
newsletter / Doug Symank --
Garbage: spreading the word to underground Texas --
NSS BOG: the NSS Board of Governors brings its meeting
to Texas / Ronnie Fieseler --
NSS convention '76: pictures from this year's NSS
convention in Morgantown, WV / Joe Domnanovich --
Waterproofing matches: a cheap, easy way to be assured
your matches will light / Dorothy Tucker.