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The Texas Caver

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Title:
The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Creator:
Texas Speleological Association
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Texas Speleological Association
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
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United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Zoogeography of troglobitic paelomonids / Ned Strenth -- Info on histo wanted / W. R. Elliott -- The Galveston Rig / Bill Farr -- Grosser's Sink revisited / D. J. McAdoo -- Grosser-Saur System map -- The Bermuda depths / Tom Iliffe -- South of the border / Martha McAdoo -- On crawling / Bill Farr -- Grosser's Sink #2 map -- Grosser's Sink #2 / D.J. McAdoo.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 23, no. 05 (1978)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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K26-04619 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4619 ( USFLDC Handle )
11353 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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the TexascaveR Volume23, No.5, 1978 CONTENTS ZOOGEOGRAPHY OF TROGLOBITIC PAELOMONIDS, Ned Strenth .... 67 INFO ON RISTO WANTED, W.R. Elliott . 69 THE GALVESTON RIG, Bill Farr ....... 70 GROSSER'S SINK REVISITED, D.J. McAdoo.71 GROSSER-SAUR SYSTEM MAP ............. 72 THE BERMUDA DEPTHS, Tom Iliffe ...... 74 SOUTH OF THE BORDER, McAdoo ... 7J ON CRAWLING, Bill Farr,,, ,,,78 GROSSER'S SINK# 2 MAP . ,,.,,,, . 79 GROSSER'S SINK# 2, D.J, McAdoo,,,,,.,80 COVER PHOTO Mike Hughes entering the formation room of Grosser-Saur system. Photo by Gary Hughes. CONTENTS PAGE PHOTO Dave McAdoo climbing out of Grosser's sink. Photo by Martha McAdoo BACK COVER PHOTO Sam Galbraith entering Grosser's sink. Photo by Dave McAdoo This issue edited by: Dave McAdoo Assisted by: Martha McAdoo, Chris Price, Robyn Mellon, Emily Preslar The TEXAS CAVER is a bimonthly publication of the Texas Speleological Association (TSAJ an internal organi2ation of the National Speleological Society (NSS) and is published by James Jasek in Waco, Texas. SUBSCRIPTIONS are $5.00 per year. Persons subscribing after the first o.f the yea1: UJiU receive all back issues for that year. copies are available at 90 each, postpa id The TEXAS CAVER openly -tnvites contributor> s to submit: articles, reports, news, car-toons cave maps, caving articles, and photographs' : (any si2e print bl-ack & white or color print} .for pub Zication in the TEXAS CAVER. Address all SUBSCRIPTIONS and EDITORIAL material to the editor: James Jasek, lOZ9 Melrose Dr., Waco, Texas ?6?l0. I When sending in a change of address, pls:-.ase include your old address. Persons interested in EXCHANGES or FOREIGN subscription.q should direct correspondenc ta the editor. Copyright The Texas Caver 1978

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ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN TROGLOBITIC PALAEMONIDS (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA) Ned E. Strenth Department of Biology Angelo State University San Angelo, Texas 76901 Tbe aim of this short report is to fa mili;;.rize the average caver with the bio logL:al importance and current status of a se1. e c t group of natant (swimming) decapod which have troglobitic repr-o:sentatives in both Texas and Hexico. It also provide a review of rather recut literature pertaining to this grou{: as "dl as give a feel for the pote.:1tial biological significance of a sinf;, i.e collected specimen. 1 .te common name "shrimp" is often ap plk.: to a variety of different crus tacr: m orders including the Isopoda, Amp] :.poda, Mysidacea, and Decapoda. Each of t above groups have members represen t in the subterranean fauna of North Ame: Lea. This report will specifically con: only three genera of a single fam ly, the Palaemonidae, within the Order Dec The three genera discussed in i his report represent only a small por: ion of the troglobi tic decapods which are a t present the subject of multiple bio ogical investigations. The serious stu ent should become familiar with the rec .nt publication "A Review of the Trc.lobitic Decapod Crustaceans of the Amc. icas" by Hobbs, Hobbs and Daniel (l S .,7) This review will serve as an im .luable reference to anyone interested in iospeleology and more specifically in .roglobitic invertebrates. It lists 55 >pecies and subspecies belonging to 18 .lifferent genera of decapods. The cm.:ent report will deal with only three of :hese genera: Palaemonetes, and Troglocubanus. It is :his group which I feel provides a grLt t potential for solution of a variety of zoogeographical and biospeleological quE:stions. f he above three genera of Palaemonids particularly inviting to bio lo;ical investigations for a variety of different reasons. Species of Palaemonetes and Macrobrachium are found in most of the warmer parts of the world. The genus Macrobrachium exhibits pri marily a tropical distribution while Spt!cies of Palaemonetes are found in 67 more temperate regions. Wide-spread distribution within a group of organisms is often a desired characteristic when undertaking investigations of a zoogeographical nature. Morphological characters which are found to be present in epigean or troglobitic species of Palaemonetes or Macrobrachium in Texas or Mexico may be compared to those of specimens from Australia, Africa, China, South America or the Mediterranean area. The current distributional patterns of both epigean and troglobitic species combined with a study of select morphological may well provide the answer to past evolutionary and dispersal patterns of this group. Both genera have epigean as well as troglobitic species in North America; more importantly Texas and Mexico are home for all the c urrently known North American troglobitic species except for Palaemonetes cumminigi of northern Florida. The genus Troglocubanus differs from Palaemonetes and Macrobrachium in that all described species are troglobitic, exhibit limited distributions, and are currently known o nly from the New World. Only six species are currently known, four from Cuba, one from Jamaica, and one from Mexico. In addition to the above mentioned characteristics, all three genera have received considerable additions in recent years. Since Holthuis' (1952) "A General Revision of the Palaemonidae of the Americas," ten additional species have been added to the faunal listings of the U.S., Mexico, and Jamaica. More than half of these have been troglobitic species. In addition to these, Hobbs (1973) has also added the new genus Neopalaemon from Oaxaca and Holthuis (1974) the new genus Bithynops from Chiapas to the Family Palaemonidae. Both Neopalaemon and Bithynops are troglobitic and each contain a single species. The imp9rtance to students of zoogeography of a single collected specimen is exemplified by the somewhat recent discovery of Troglocubanus perezfarfanteae in Sotano de la T inaja

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near Valles, San Luis Potosi, Hexico by a member of the Association for Cave Studies. Prior to the formal description of this species by Villalobos (1974), the exclusively troglobitic genus Troglocubanus was thought to date from no earlier than the Hiocene (approximately 25 million years ago) time period (Chace and Hobbs, 1969). The presence of four species in Cuba and one in Jamaica was also seen as supporting a zoogeographical relationship between the two (Holthuis, 1963). The full impact of the discovery of perezfarfanteae on the continental mainland of North America remains difficult to assess at this early date. Villalobos (1974), however, feels that the origin of the genus may date from as early as the Upper Creataceous (approximately 65 million years ago), more than twice as old as previously thought. Should the genus prove to be as old as proposed by Villalobos, students of zoogeography must critically review current theories as to the origin and dispersal capabilities of the ancestral Troglocubanus stock. It certainly appears possible that dispersal of the ancestral group may have taken place under conditions when the land nasses currently comprising Cuba. Jamaica, and Mexico were contiguous. Schuchert (1935, plates 7 and 8) proposed such a connection from the Upper Cretaceous through part of the Eocene -the same time period that Villalobos (1974) tentatively dates the genus Troglocubanus. The timing of the subsequent colonization of subterranean habitats still remains unsolved. The statement of Chace and Hobbs (1969;22) that "the supposed epigean derivatives from the original stock were unsuccessful and became extinct, leaving albinistic relicts as the only evidence of their existence" still appears today as the best estimation of the past history of this rather unique group o f subterranean shrimp. Future finds, similar to that of perezfarfanteae, are needed to supply the information required to answer this unsolved question. Texas has also been the site of several interesting discoveries in the last couple of years. A second and somewhat unusual species of Palaemonetes, P. holthuisi, was described from Ezell's Cave (Strenth, 1976) in San Harcos. 68 The subgenus Alaocaris which had been erected by Holthuis (1949) to receive the then only known subterranean and most aberrant species of the genus, Palaemonetes antrorum, was also synonymized. Discoveries of additional epigean and subterranean species of Palaemonetes since 1949 provide the primary data upon which the synonomy was based. Palaemonetes antrorum, which was described from the artesian well at San Marcos in 1896, was long thought to have a distribution restricted to the subterranean waters of San Harcos in Hays County. Recently Hobbs, Hobbs and Daniel (1977) reported this species from Carson Cave near Mantell in Uvalde County. This was followed by a paper presented at the 1978 meeting of the Texas Academy of Science in \-lhich Karnei and Longley (1978) reported antrorum to be present in collections from artesian wells near San Antonio. The exact nature of the presence of this species in these three widespread locations is difficult to determine at this time. They may represent genetically isolated populations or may be indicative of a single widespread population. Only additional collecting and comparison of specimens from the different known localities will answe r this question. One quickly realizes that while our knowledge of troglobitic species of Palaemonetes, and Troglocubanus_ is substantial and ing, it is impossible for biologists to locate and collect the unlimited numbers of suitable subterranean aquaL. e habitats present in the countless cave : in both Texas and Hexico. It is in this area of science that the average caver can make significant and worthwhile contributions. There are, however, several considerations which sho c d be kept in mind should one decide to undertake the collection of subterrane. 1 specimens. The unnecessary taking of specimens as well as overcolecting is pointless. Specimens which are collecc and preserved but never placed in the hands of competent biologists would better have remained uncollected. Spe l mens without proper location data and dates are essentially worthless.

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LITERATURE CITED chace, F. A., Jr., andR. H. Hobbs, Jr. 1969. The freshwater and terrestr1al decapod crustacea of the \\Test Indies with special reference to Dominica. u.s. MU:s. Bull., 292: 258 pages. Hobbs, H. H., Jr. 1973. Three new troilobitic decapod crustaceans from Mexico. Pages 25-38 in R. W. Mit.:hell and J. R. Reddell, editors, Str.dies on the cavernicole fauna of Me,J.co and adjacent regions. Austin: The Speleo Press, 201 pages. Hohs H. H. Jr., H. H. Hobbs, III, an' N. A. Daniel. 1977. A review of tht troglobitic decapod crustaceans of ::he Americas. Smithsonian Contributions to 244: 183 pages. Ho thuis, L. B. 1949. Note on the sp cies of Palaemonetes (Crustacea, De apoda) found in the United States of t\merica. Proceedings, Koninklijke Ne. :erlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Se ies C, 52: 87-95. 1-lc .thuis, L. B. 1952. The Subfamily Pc: aemonidae. A general revision of tl:. Palaemonidae (Crustacea Decapoda Ne:antia) of the Americas, II. Allan He tcock Foundation Occasional Papers, 1: : 396 pages. He Lthuis, L. B. 1963. Two new species oJ. fresh-water shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda) fi ,,m the West Indies. Proceedings, !{( tinklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wt .:enschappen, Series C, 66: 61-69. H dthuis, L. B. 1974. Bithynops luscus, a genus and species of cavernicolous s\: ::-imp from Mexico (Crustacea Decapoda, Pdaemonidae). Quaderni Accademia N,_ z:ionale dei Lincei, 171: 135-142. K:::-nei, H., Jr., and G. Longley. 1978. of the subterranean fauna of Be-xar County, Texas. Presented at the 81.st Annual Heeting of the Texas Academy ot Science at Lubbock, Texas. Schuchert, c. 1935. Historical Geology o r the Antillean-Caribbean Region of the Lands Bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 69 INFORMATION WANTED ON HISTOPLASMOSIS CASES A mild, diagnosed case of histoplasmosis has occurred in an NSS member who attended the 1978 convention in New Braunfels, Texas. This out-of-state caver visited several Texas bat caves during the convention. Although it is not uncommon for "snowbirds" (Yankees) and European cavers to come down with this respiratory affliction after a caving trip to Mexico, this is the first case I know of after a Texas trip. Out of curiosity, I solicit information from 1978 conventiongoers who had confirmed or suspected (by a physician) cases of histoplasmosis after the convention. Please send your name, address, medical details, caves visited (including Mexico, etc.), and other pertinent information. I hope this was a unique case, but if others contracted "histo" I may devise a questionnaire and do a little study. There is no cause for alarm, but if you have had symptoms such as fatigue, fever and cough it would be wise to consult a physician. Histoplasmosis can be serious but it is treatable. I am not a physician so I cannot diagnose it for you. Your name will be kept confidential unless you wish otherwise. Write to: Dr. William R. Elliott Texas Tech Univ. School of Medicine Epidemiologic Studies Program (Pes t _icides) 152 E. Stenger San Benito, Texas 78586 th N E 1976. A review of the Stren systematics and zoogeography of the freshwater species of Palaemonetes Heller of North America (Crustacea: Decapoda). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 228, 27 pages. Villalobos, A. 1974. Una nueva especie de Troglocubanus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae), de San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Ciencias del y Limnologia, 42: 1-6.

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THE GALVESTON RIG Bill Farr Herein is described the rig used by the majority of the Galveston cavers and generally enjoyed by all who have opportunity to use it --the Galveston Rig. Developed in its original form in Galveston, iL is a hybrid rig consisting of a Gibbs on one foot, a Gibbs on a seat sling, and a jumar on a sling running through an ascender box for the other foot. Many say they dislike or distrust hybrid rigs. Let us look closely at this rig, however, to exanine its merits. First of all as to the devices used, the jumar is a good all-around ascent device. It is self-catching, convenient as a handhold in some climbing situations, and it has other uses as well such as a safety clamp to place on the rope when doing a long or unknown rappel. It also has its disadvancages. It can jam with mud and not operate, it will slip on a very muddy or icy rope, and it is not as strong as a Gibbs, being prone to breakage along the handle, especially if improperly cared for. The Gibbs nicely compliments these points. Though it is not self-catching, its grip is immense, and it is a simple unit that will continue to \\fork even if so coated with mud that its individual parts are barely discernable. The ascender box adds greatly to the overall efficiency of the rig, keeping the climber vertical, especially important on long free climbs, though some mobility is lost over ledges and through tight cracks. The actual arrangement of this hardware to form the Galveston Rig has its advantages too. The foot Gibbs eliminates having to reach down to pull up a knee level jumar and by mounting it at a 45 angle it can be made virtually selfcatching, or in the worst case it can be made to catch by a backwards kicking motion, much more natural than the more usual sideways motion required. The seat Gibbs provides both an important third point of contact to the rope and also allows resting in a sitting position with the strain off of the legs. The self-catching ability of the jumar allows it to make a nice handhold, something to grab onto in tight spots. The disadvantage of the ascender box experienced 70 by most beginners in going over a lip is largely overcome when one applies the technique of pulling the Gibbs foot up as high as possible and standing, thus forcing ones body away from the rock. This works on even the most severe ledges. Of course, the advantage gained in climbing long free sections is still maintained. Some Galvestonians have arranged the foot loop attached to the j umar so that it makes one loop under the instep and a second loop around the ankle to provide a bulletin "chicken loop" (see figure). Additionally, the components of this rig can be re-arranged to form a simpler rig if desired. For instance, simply using only the seat Gibbs and the foot jumar results in a modified Texas rig. Thus, the Galveston Rig is an intelli gent all-around method of ascent. Try it sometime if you have the opportunity. Editor's note: The Galveston rig is rather expensive in terms of hardware, and can be cumbersome to transport thro v .gh low, muddy crawls.

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GROSSER'S REVISITED David J. HcAdoo A map and short description of Grosser's sink was previously published in the July, 197 6 issue of the Texas Caver. However, that map did not include most of the known cave, and though there were rumors of other maps, none could be located. Therefore, ths Galveston Grotto undertook to make a coJlplete map of the cave. The accompanying ma;-', which includes all the accessible po:tions of the cave, resulted. In the pr"cess, Grosser's sink was connected to an, ther sink, Saur's sink, about 100 yards to the northwest. The trip between Grosser's and Saur's si ks is most readily made starting from Sa.cr's sink. The entrance to Saur's sink is about 10 by 20 feet in and ab1ut 55 feet deep. The main passage leads fr:1m the bottom of the entrance shaft to tL northwest. There is a debris filled p2 :sage to the southwest. There is consi l e rable trash in the bottom of the sink L ch has been strewn by flood waters a.: lost to a large room near the Grosser's er :ranee. About 20 meters from the e1 a short, tight squeeze leads into a leading northeast. A squeeze in f: is passage leads into a formation area C JVer photo). The passage from the f ;:mation room turns east. About 50 m ,ters from the formation room a short s:. -retch of wet, muddy crawl is encountered. T:e passage follows a fissure to the right (::outh) from the end of the wet stretch. A.ter about 40 meters the fissure narrows t less than 10 inches in width and its f .oor drops steeply down. The fissure Len opens into one arm of a large room by the intersection of two p1ssages. Across the room and over some ltrge mud-covered breakdown blocks, a 10 f:1ot squeeze leads to a short passage and a 12 foot climb from the top of which a 1 ) foot passage enters the entrance shaft o f Grosser's sink. Before attempting the t;:ip from Saur' s sink to Grosser's sink, one should familiarize themselves with the J ocation of the exit from the large room near the Grosser's entrance, and make sure t hat they can get through it. The passage leading southeast from the Grosser's entrance branches left and right after 10 meters. The left hand passage 71 formerly ended after about a 7 meter crawl. However, while exploring the crawl, some of the floor started disappearing under me, and a crack leading down to a very muddy, water-filled passage opened up. The water passage leads to a 20 meter high dome which appears to have leads from its top. The right hand passage quickly changes from a stoopway to a narrow crawl. The crawl enters a room about 10 meters wide and 6 meters across. Directly across the room a passage leads about 3 meters from the top of the room to a narrow crack which rises almost to the surface. A large walking passage leads to the left from the bottom of the room down a series of short drops. This passage was entirely filled with water in March, 1976. After about 35 meters, the walking passage narrows to a wet, muddy crawl into a high dome. Low, wet, muddy passage leads to the right (southeast). After about 60 meters, a low passage branches to the right. Walking passage continues straight ahead past a fissure and through a short, narrow, low crawl to a room with a steeply rising mud floor. A fissure leads left and right from the top of the mud slope. The passage to the right undergoes several turns and enlarges steadily. After about 50 meters, a 10 meter drop with a small waterfall into a solutionwidened fissure is encountered. Promising leads in the wall to the right of the waterfall and in the ceiling upstream from the waterfall have not been explored. A low water passage which siphons after a few feet goes right from the bottom of the waterfall. To the left a mud slope rises steeply to an unexplored lead. Grosser's sink is of biological significance as it contains the aquatic cave salamander Eurycea tridentifera (Sweet, The Texas Caver, April, 1976). Crickets and other troglobitic arthropods have also been observed. One bat has been encountered in eight trips, and Martha McAdoo once found an eighteen inch rattlesnake curled up on top of her vertical pack at the bottom of the entrance shaft to Grosser's sink.

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SAUR'S SINK tMJI Ct. Tun Ill 0 z dtbiiS clltkd 72 I /

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GROSSER'S SINK / '-G:J lllr.IIU c::J... CIUI ., Drafted by Biil Farr, July-August 1978 Survey by the Galveston Grotto 1978 73 tn:au =JZ_ "2.. '""" ...... ... ....

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THE BERMUDA DEPTHS: A LOOK AT MID-OCEAN CAVES AND CAVING Thomas N. Iliffe Bermuda Biological Station St. George's West Bermuda A discussion of Bermuda's caves must logically begin with a short introduction to the unique geology of this mid-ocean island. The island of Bermuda originated in a volcanic eruption along the Mid Atlagtic Ridge about 105 million years ago. As the volcano gradually cooled, the sea began to erode away this new island. A re-eruption of the volcano 35 million years ago produced enough new material to keep the island above sea level and prevent it from becoming just another submerged sea mount. The development of coral reefs around the margins of the volcanic platform pro-vided a source of carbonate sand. During the Pleistocene, changes in sea level of up to 100 m, associated with continental glaciation, alternately submerged1 4 and exposed much of Bermuda's land area. During periods of high sea level, coastal sand dunes, reaching heights of 260 feet or more, formed along the shore lines. Rain and circulating ground water dissolved calcium carbonate, and subseuqently recrystalized it around sand grains, producing a soft eolianite limestone. Just as these cemented sand dunes record interglacial high sea levels, red "fossil" soils formed during low stands of sea level record continental glaciation. Throughout this time, Bermuda's attachment to the North Atlantic plate has resulted in a continual westward movement. Disagreement exists over >V"hether the solutional caves of Bermuda formed during the Pleistocene are of vadose 7 or phreatic origin. A. C. Swinnerton believed that caves were formed above the water table "by downward migrating rain water along steeply dipping intersecting joints." J. H. Bretz interpreted the horizontal elongation of the caves as evidence for sub->vater table origin. Irrespective of vadose or phreatic origins, the caves could only have formed during periods of low sea level as evidenced by their considerable extensions below present sea level. 74 According to Bretz1 a large fresh ground water body, maintained by rainfall, occurred on the island during low stands of sea level. Cave formation took place beneath this elevated fresh table. As post glacial sea levels rose, much of the former extent of the caves drowned in salt >Tater as it displaced the fresh. Collapse of roof rock and deposition of secondary dripstone further contributed to the isolation of surviving chambers from what was once an1extensive, integrated cave system. Bretz believed that since the fresh ground water body has now virtually disappeared from the island, cave formation has consequently ceased. Closely adjacent caves, with no traversable underground connections above sea level, are thus probably remnants of one original cavern. Considering their origin, it is thus not surprising to find that many of Bermuda's caves have salt water pools which rise and fall >vith the tides. Some of these underwater caves are reported to as deep as 80 feet below sea level. Large stalagmites, stalactites and other speleothems have been found, little altered by their long submersion, at least as deep as 75 feet below sea level. In the commercially operated Crystal Cave, cave divers have descend5d a steeply sloping passage to 75 feet. At this depth, the passage began to climb just as stee: ly upwards, opening out into a large previously unentered chamber >vith .no surface connections. Other underwater traverses may ultimately link many of the closely spaced caves on the island into large systems. Other underwater caves are located at the base of the outer "boiler" reefs, running parallel to the south shore of Bermuda. Most of these caves are found in water depths from 30 to 50 feet and are relatively short. It is likely, however, that one or more large caves will be found in this area. Duri.r:.g

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stands of low sea level, two of Bermuda's l arge enclosed inshore basins, Harrington Sound and Castle Harbour, v10uld have r eceived considerable amounts of fresh wcter runoff. Devil's Hole, the deepest part of Harrington Sound, is separated from the ocean by a quarter mile >lide strip of land. Since no evidence has bE:en found for overland runoff draining Harrington Sound during periods of low sea level, the existence of a cave which a:l.lowed seaward escape of ground water from Devil's Hole to the outer edge o f the platform seems likely. A similar s i tuation may exist for Castle Harbour. The highest concentration of caves i n Bermuda is found along the isthmus Stp a rating Harrington Sound from Castle !-!: rbour. This area contains outcropings o : the oldest eolianite limestone in B rmuda, a formation known as the H lsingham. Nine caves in a 2 mile s : ction of the isthmus (Island, Cathedral, A 'miral's, Castle Grotto, Wonderland, C ystal, Walsingham, Leamington and S ark Hole Caves) were at one time or o her commercially shown. All of these c :.ves have attractive displays of speleot .ems, both above and below salt water p 1ols. Entrances to several of the ctves (Leamington, Admiral's, Wonderland atd Crystal) are as much as 100 feet a Jove sea level. Crystal Cave contains E tidewater pool 200 feet long spanned t.r a pontoon bridge. A large stalagmite, J c feet in length and weighing nearly tons was removed from Admiral's C ,_ve in 1819 by Admiral Sir David Hilne El d shipped to Scotland for display 3 j 1 the University of Edinburgh Huseum. J )rty-four years later, one of his sons, ir Alexander Milne, obtained measurements < t the amounts of stalagmitic material co;!posited on the stump. Another son, : ,wid Milne Home, calculated from these that the original stalagmite 'auld have taken 600,000 years to form, <: 3Suming a constant rate of deposition. Other major caves on the island include f ive which open on the sea cliffs at : ; t Davids. None of these caves have water pools and many are blocked i:ith dripstone. One cave is notable l n that it contains the only known pool o f standing fresh water on the island. A series of rimstone dams step down into the cave and disappear below the water's surface. 75 A number of Bermuda caves have been destroyed in recent years by human activities.2 Bassett's Cave near Somerset was said to be the largest cave in Bermuda, extending for more than a mile. The U.S. Navy has recently used the cave as a dump for fuel oil, leaving only a manhole to mark the entrance. Tucker's Is land Cave, >vhich >vas once lighted by acetylene Bas and commercially shown by boat,8 was probably destroyed during construction of the u.s. Naval Annex. Cave Island, located in Castle Harbour, was buried during construction of the airport. A cave, 65 feet long and 45 feet wide, was uncovered by workers digging a cesspit for the Bermuda Telephone Company. The cave was incorporated as part of the sewage facility since it v1as said to "increase the volume of the cesspit 20 times." Although the caves of Bermuda have been known for over 350 years, few speleological studies have been done in them. Only a few of the caves have been mapped and this has been done within the last 10 years. Many of the caves are unnamed or are known by several different names. Cave divers are just beginning to explore for possible submarine connections or new caves. The marine and terrestrial biology of the caves have yet to be investigated to any degree. Controversy still exists over the means of formation of the caves. Hopefully, studies of the caves will produce a better understanding of them and appreciation for their worth. This paper is Contribution No. 762 of the Bermuda Biological Station. GAVB BBSGUB, -CALL COLLECT(817) 772-0110

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2. 3. REFERENCES Bretz, J. H 1960. Bermuda: A partially drowned, late mature, Pleistocene karst. Bull. Geol. Soc. An. 71: 1729-1764. Forney, G. G. 1973. Bermuda's caves and their history. J. Spelean Iiist. 6: 88-103. Home, D. H. 1866. Notice of a large calcareous stalagmite brought from the island of Bermuda in the year 1819, and now in the College of Edinburgh. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 5: 423-428. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 76 Land, L. s., F. T. MacKenzie and J. J. Gould. 1967. The Pleistocene history of Bermuda. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 78: 993-1006. Latham, A. 1977. Crystal Cave, Bermuda. Canadian Caver. 9: 34-35. Morris, B., J. Barnes, F. Brown and J. Harkham. 1977. The Bermuda marine environment. Bermuda Biological Station Sp. Publ. No. 15, p. 120. Swinnerton, A. c. 1929. of Bermuda. Geol. Hag. Caves 66: 79-84. Verrill, A. E. 1907. of Bermuda. Tropical America. 1: 107-111. The caverns and Sub Tropical II I I WILKINSON QUARRY 2 ISLAND CAVE CATHRAL CAVE 3 BLUE HOLE 4 WONDERLAND CAVE 5 CRYSTAL CAVE 8 WALSINGHAW CAVE 1 LEAMINGTON CAVE I GOVERNMENT QUARRY II SHARK HOLE BERMUDA From ref. 2. 0 SCALE IN MILES I 2

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SOUTH OF THE BORDER Featuring Ed, Babs 8:00 ac \ I 7:00 pe /: ,. _f Oka y Butc h moon at your' bJus t keep the light of ack and head the on out. 77 Oh boy! "'h T ere roglocubanus goes another mysteriorW!I. ; \ Why oh wh with b Y do I eve iologists? r go caving . ".,I. 10:00 pt!l I .L . .. : ..... .-: f :: . .... :-. t'' /. '!' : ' ( .. ,, 5i' : :-,' r. l )' : . : .. t,. i 7:. { -:>J.. Are y ou kiddin ? hard work it g After all \Je 11 b took t o the e back to ca get up here? mp i n a n hout:

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1:00 an I'n bleeding to death! Damn pineapple plants. Are you sure that wasn't Valles instead of the light of the noon? ON CRAWLING Bill Farr It seems most cavers hate to crawl, especially for any distance. I for one can't really understand this. After all, caving is primarily sensual, and what better way to tingle the senses than a prolonged belly-crawl through a one foot high passage six inches deep with water? I dream of someday slithering through a thousand yards of hands and knees crawl with generous portions of belly-crawl thrown in through slimy mud, water and sharp gravel to reach a huge system of trunk passages all beautifully decorated. Most cavers would leave out the first part of this dream. Can 1 t see anything now, anyway. Anybody have a compass? Perhaps the reason for this general disdain for crawling is all in the way it is approached. View the narrow hole ahead not as a thing of contortion and pain, but as a challenge, an opportunity to join oneself intimately with the cave. And when into the thick (or narrow) of it, think not of how tight the place is, but rather how relaxing it is to be so embraced by Mother Earth. Have no fear of getting stuck. Instead be certain oi it, for if you push hard enough, sooner . . ./ ,. or later you will. Stay calm and take /' . -: care to not get permanently stuck. And ;,.. )for the caver who has the fortune to be .,,<-';/, smalle: after pushing beyond _(: .'ff'f .:! .:r the squeeze and ... i '.'/ .: looking ahead to the fourth even more r -::-"impossible" squeeze, don't think about .. . fact that no one can possibly reach i you to aide you if you get stuck, push ;;;. .. onward! Again, stay calm and take care "PP-:._ to not get permanently stuck. ,_.;. ... ... f<{ Crawl along these lines and you will .. '.i(,.\ / J r 'ki:E:f.
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GROSSER,S SINK 0 5 15 85 COMAL COUNTY TEXAS SUNTO & TAPE SURVEY J"UL Y IG} 1<=178 D. McADOO) L.GRlFFIN M.MeADOO q 1 ,. 3 't ----79 I I I f I I

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The Texas Caver 1019 Melrose Dr Waco, Texas 7671 0 Forwarding Postage Guaranteed SAFE CAVING IS NO ACIDENT GROSSER'S SINK# 2 David J. McAdoo BULK RATE US. Postage PAID Permit No.l423 Waco, Tx. 76710 The entrance to Grosser's sink# 2 is several hundred yards south of Grosser's sink in a small clump of bushes. The entrance is a 25 meter vertical shaft. The first 4 to 5 meters can easily be climbed; the remaining 20 meters require a rope. The first 15 meters of the rappe. are down a narrow crack which is covered with sharp projections. About 15 meters down, the first crack intersects a second one which forms a 4 by 10 meter room comprising the bottom of the cave. A small stream flows under the wall at the southeast end of the room and exits after several feet under the northeast wall.


Description
Contents: Zoogeography
of troglobitic paelomonids / Ned Strenth --
Info on histo wanted / W. R. Elliott --
The Galveston Rig / Bill Farr --
Grosser's Sink revisited / D. J. McAdoo --
Grosser-Saur System map --
The Bermuda depths / Tom Iliffe --
South of the border / Martha McAdoo --
On crawling / Bill Farr --
Grosser's Sink #2 map --
Grosser's Sink #2 / D.J. McAdoo.