Citation
The Texas Caver

Material Information

Title:
The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Creator:
Texas Speleological Association
Publisher:
Texas Speleological Association
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: TSA mini-project report -- T.A.G. extension, Brinco -- Sorcerer's Cave / Archeology -- Remarks on the helectite problem -- Answers to puzzle -- Grotto news -- Cueva del Porvenir -- Cueva del Porvenir Map -- Chairman's column -- The cavers -- Letter from Guadalupe ranger district -- Cavers word hunt #1 -- Letters to the Editor -- Upcoming news events -- Trip reports -- Texas oldtimer's reunion -- Calvin the caver cartoon.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 25, no. 04 (1980)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-04630 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4630 ( USFLDC Handle )
11364 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
Serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 2

the Texas Caver Vol.25, No.4, 1980 CONTENTS TSA Mini-Project Report ................. 66 T.A.G. Extension, Brinco .............. 67 Sorcerer's CaveArcheology ............. 69 Remarks on the Helectite Problem ........ 71 Answers to Puzzle ....................... 73 Grotto News ........................... ; 74 Cueva del Porvenir .................... 74 Cueva del PorvenirMap ................. 76 Chairman's Column ...................... 79 The Cavers ............................... 80 Letter from Guadalupe Ranger District .... 82 Cavers Word Hunt #1 ...................... 84 Letters to the Editor .................... 85 Upcoming News & Events ................. 86 Trip Reports ........................ .87 Texas Oldtimer's Reunion ................ 87 Calvin the CaverCartoon ............... 88 Cover Photo: Passage of Oztotl by Dale Pate, Border Cave, Culberson County, Texas. SUBSCRIPTIONS are $5.00 per year. Persons subsaribing after the first o.f the year wiZ l reaeive all baak issues for that year. Single aopies are available at 90 eaah, postpaid. The TEXAS CAVER openly invites aontributors to submit: artiales, reports, news, aartoons, aave maps, aaving artiales, and photographs (any size print btaak & white or aolor print) for publiaation in the TEXAS CAVER. Address all SUBSCRIPTIONS and EDITORIAL material to the editor: James Jasek, l0l9 Melrose Dr., Waao, Texas 767l0. When sending in a ahange of addr.ess, please inalude your old address. Persons interested in EXCHANGES or FOREIGN subsariptions should direat to the editor. TSA Mini-Project Report Honeycreek Water Cave July 4-6 GARY POOLE Honeycreek Cave, located approximately 8 knu NE of Bergheim, has been one of the most neglected of .Texas caves. Surveyed and mapped in the early 60's to a breakdown floored dome room approximately 500 meters in from the entrance, this water cave has been explored beyond the breakdown only rarely and, to the best of the author's knowledge, no end has yet been found. Our purposes that patriotic weekend were to survey as much of the cave as we could, to explore beyond the survey in preparation for the next trip and to have a good time at one of Texas' most beautiful swimming holes. We succeeded on all counts. My thankt to those cavers who made this success possible: Peter Keys, Mark Minton, Mike McWhirter, Kim Thomas, Russell Hill, Steve Boehm, Paul Hadfield, Terri Kern, Dottie Kern, George Veni, Randy Waters, Kathy Ballard and Gary Poole. The weekend began Friday mid-afternoon when the majority of us headed cursorily into the cave. Because this was an official TSA function and because we wanted to survive, we wore suits, wet suits. Most of us also donned fins to facilitate swimming through the deep water. By the end of the day's caving one party composed of George, Kim, and Mike had gone an estimated 3-plus kms upstream. They reported that the cave got better the deeper they penetrated with attractive looking side passages and some walking passage. This news on the character of the cave excited the rest of us. During the next two days we surveyed'over 1.5 kms of cave. The amount of surveying that we could do was limited by our susceptibility to the cold. With wet suits we were comfortable while swimming but when we slowed down to survey our body heat became the memory of summer in the mind of a mayfly. Within a brief time the cold made surveying uncomfortable at best and inaccurate at worst. We, of course, stopped before our technique deteriorated too severely. continued on Page 86

PAGE 3

T.A.G. TENACIOUS ARDUOUS GRIM EXTENSION Hal Lloyd It had been twenty-two months since Chris Albers, Warren Anderson, Peter Sprouse and I had discovered the Gonzo Pit in the Fool's Paradise of downstream World Beyond, Brinco. We had originally surveyed as we explored nearly 200 meters of virgin passage, which consisted of wet flowstone climbs into emerald pools and canals. Near the deepest point of our exploration, Chris Albers pioneered a 20 meter swim below a short climb, which led to the brink of a dark wet chasm, The Gonzo Pit. We estimated the pit at 30 meters plus through rock fall. Since we had no ropes, our group exited, climbing out of Brinco after 14 hours underground. December 28, 1979, Jim Smith and I arrived at Brinco, then did a short two hour trip, including a visit to the Vampire Roost. Two days later we carried duffel bags containing wetsuits, ropes, bolts, vertigear, extra carbide and food to the Dressing Room, for deep penetration into the cave the following day. December 31, 1979, Jim and I entered Brinco at 5 pm and bombed on down to the Dressing Room where we gathered our gear, suited up and then proceeded to the chute. made our way past many sporting freeclimbs, wades and swims into the World Beyond. We then proceeded downstream to the junction where we separated our ropes (2-100 and2-50). At 300 meters plus deep, we arrived at the yawning mouth of the Gonzo Pit. Jim rigged his 100' PMI and I descended first and landed on a spray lashed ledge 30 meters down, 10 meters above the bottom. The splashing water (.7cusec) lent an air of excitement to the deep virgin experi-ence. Two sporting downclimbs (wet) dropped us into a fine stream passage, which led to a 4 meter downclimb. This led to a series of deep pools that required swimming. The passage was 1.5 meters wide here, and a flow stone boss spanned the width, yielding a 2 meter drop into a deep pool. Ahead, more pools and short flowstone covered drops of 1 meter, 2 meters, 1 meter to a 5 meter deep pit (rigged). This drop is dry because the stream is diverted through a hole in the floor, to resurge on top of a flowstone boss. Next a 2 meter downclimb leads to Rain Pot, a challenging wet pit. Jim pioneered 67 a traverse over the pit and down the wet chimney crack (12 meters) to the rain blasted bottom. The water splashes into a waist pool, then flows to a 5 meter free climb. Below here (we were taking turns pioneering ahead) a 4 meter climb down to a 1 meter drop into a lake chamber. Beyond, we found a 7 meter climb followed by a flow stone face climb, dropping 7 meters to a sloping ledge. A 16 meter pit was rigged next and dropped us into a wet chamber, with a waterfall gushing out of the dome in the ceiling. This is known as the Pisser. Ahead we freeclimbed drops of 5 meters, 7 meters, 3 meters, 2 meters, 3 meters, and 5 meters deep separated by wades and short swims. Everywhere, flowstone added intense beauty. Drops of 3 meters, 1.5 meters, 3 meters, 2 meters, 2 meters were explored to the next obstacle, the Flusher. Water flows into a .5 meter high by 1 meter wide crawl, which slopes down 2 meters into a large dome, with a waterfall coming in from above. Down the steep water-pounded flowstone walls 7 meters leads to free climbs of 5 meters, 3 meters, 4 meters, 1 meter, 1 meter, 4 meters, 4 5 meters, 4 meters, 4 meters, and 2 meters. Ahead, Walrus Pot, a wet 10 meter pit into a chamber was pioneered We found a dry overflow route which dropped us past Walrus Pot in a series of short popcorn climbs. At this point a 3 meter climb dropped us to a junction. One was led to a grand passage with a 5 meter high ceiling, yielding a 15 meter plus deep pit, the stream plunging over the edge. lole had run out of ropes by this time so we took the crawl route instead. This we named Thorn of Plenty, because of the abundance of stickerlike formations. It consists of climbs of 2 meters, 2 meters, 8 meters, and 3 meters. This dropped us into a lake covered borehold 3 meters wide by 5 meters high, going both ways. Downstream we swam, side by side, in this wet dream passage, The Canal of Ulysses. After nearly 100 meters of swimming we arrived at a point where a 5 meter wide tributary feeds in. This was dubbed Rio Halla. We crossed several gaur pools as we progressed downstream in this sculptured stream canyon. A 5 meter climbdown leads to a junction. The wet way (unclimbable) looked like a sump, the other a vertical shaft

PAGE 4

into virgin darkness. We named this pit Enchanted Well as it was the limit of exploration at 581 meters deep (estimate). We returned to Rio Halla and explored upstream to the Ayatullah Sump. Above the Sump is a dry borehole which we did not climb. We swam back up the Canal of Ulysses, past where Thorn of Plenty comes in, to a Cascade. We climbed on the wall to a natural bridge which spanned the width of the passage (3 meters) and crossed over it to the passage on the other side. The Arch of Triumph bypassed Thorn of Plenty and put us back at just below Walrus Pot. From here we proceeded exiting after 19 hours underground, and covering an underground distance of 10 krns round trip. We named our discovery the TAG Extension, due to the tenacious arduous grim nature of the route. January 5, 1980, Jim and I leave the mountains to return to the U.S.A. to pick up the third member of our team, Jill Dorman. January 13, eight days later, we finally arrive a Brinco via lumber truck. January 14, our team entered Brinco with 500' of rope to continue exploration down Enchanted Well. After picking up the rest of our gear at the junction at the end of World Beyond we proceeded to the Gonzo Pit. Equipped with 800' of rope we rigged our way down to Enchanted Well. Some jug-handles provided a good rigging point and back up rig. Jim rappalled in first, followed by Jill, then me. This 20 meter pit took us to the wet flowstone floor, where the stream gushed from the side. Immediately beyond this, a one meter drop, followed by a 1.5 meter climb led to a deep wet chasm. I descended first on PMI, 21 meters down the center of the waterfall. This we unanimously named Huautla Well. Next, a 4 meter downclirnb to the top of Aquarius Well, a wet 12 meter pit (rigged). The shafts are large, very beautiful and filled with the symphony of crashing water. Jill led us into a gallery with climbs of 4 meters, 4 meters, and 3 meters to a grand passage containing a 10 meter wide flowstone boss with rirnstone gours and sparkling water flowing across it. A 4 meter handline drop onto the top of the gours led across to climbs of 5 meters, 4 meters, and 3 meters. Here the passage split two ways; one dry into a jagged chamber followed by a 15 meter drop into a great borehole, the other way a low crawl with all the water flowing into it. The crawl led to where the water funneled into a one meter hole. This provided us with a nice sporting 15 meter drop as 68 the Drownder. This led to a climb of 3 mete1 over breakdown into the Gallery of The Huns where we encountered a meter by 3 meter tunnel. This led quickly to flowstone lined canals. Another stream entered at this point. The passage continued as a half meter wide crawl with a high ceiling (8 m) which provided us a deep swim, 50 meters long. Here a short crawl led to another swim. The ceiling dropped to 8 ern above the water, and for 3 meters it was lowair. Beyond the lowair, the ceiling rose to .S meter, then to 15 meters high. The here is 6 meters wide and leads to breakdown. This we named Bjornson Hall. l\'e continued downstream to a large sump chamber, the Dark Lagoon. We swam across the pool before Jim prepared to free dive the sump. I belayed from the shore as Jim took a deep breath and went for it. He carne back reporting that he had found an airbell. With that we returned to Bjornson Hall and explored an upper overf101 borehole. We found it connected to Gallery of The Huns. We could gaze up with our electrics 20 rnetersand see a route up the wall on resolutional flowstone. Jim led this route which brought us to the junction above the Drownder. We de rigged and made our way back to the Bonzo Pit, then World Beyond. We exited the cave after hours underground. We pioneered 2 kilometers of beautiful passage to a depth of 682 meters deep, down 55 freeclirnbs and 11 rope pitches, in the remote reaches of one of the world's finest deep cave systems.

PAGE 5

([abt Archeology Logan McNatt Modern-day explorers of Sorcerer's Cave cannot help but notice that they are not the first people to the cave, since the entrance area was obviously occupied by Indians. The floor is covered with burned rocks, which spill out of the entrance and form a talus slope dm m the side of EightMile Draw. Scattered among the burned rocks are flint flakes and chips -the "debitage" or waste products created during the manufature of stone tools. A thin triangular "biface" (chipped on both sides) was collected from this entrance area. This finished tool may have served either as a spear point or knife, or perhaps both. A wide ledg e along the right wall contains about ten shallow "mortar holes", created by the of seeds, berries and nuts for feed. Portions of ledges within the entrance were used as seats and walkways so much that they have been worn to a smooth polish. The ceiling is smoke-blackened, probably from Indian occupation although some of it may be from modern fires. Finally, two pictographs (pictogarphs are painted, petroglyphs are carved) are located on the left front corner of the entrance, just under the overhang (see TC Feb. 1980, p 3). It is extremely unlikely that the Indians ever ventured past the entrance area because immediately beyond is a 14 meter unclimbable drop, the "Witch's Well". A metate (grinding stone) fragment was found at the bottom of this pitch, and testing would probably yield other artifacts which have fallen or been washed down the drop. It is conceivable that human skeletal remains could be recovered, since "shaft burials" in caves were a fairly common method of disposing of the dead (for example, Hitzfelder's Bone Cave, Bexar County). Who were these people, how many of them used the cave, and when did they live there? Some of these questions are difficult to answer. Archeologists have been working in the lower Pecos and trans-Pecos areas since the early 1930's, and have found evidence of human habitation dating back at least 11,000 years. The general scenario appears to be one of small bands of people who led a semi-nomade life and depended on hunting and gathering for their survival. A typical band may have been 10-25 individuals, probably an extended family. We do not know 69 what they called themselves, what language(s) they spoke, why they painted pictographs, nor very little else about their abstract religious/political ideas. Such things are not preserved in the archeological record. We do know that they were excellent survivors well-adapted to an environment which seems harsh and uninviting at first glance. Archeological excavations have yielded a great deal of information about their material culture. Wood items included spears, atlatls (spear-throwers), digging sticks, "rabbit sticks" (curved sticks probably both thrown and used as clubs), needles, drills, scoops, and stakes. Bone and antler artifacts consist of awls, needles, scrapers, beads, pendants, and flakers for chipping stone. Vegetable fibers were used to make sandles, baskets, nets, mats, cords, and bags. A great number and variety of chipped stone tools were used, including projectile points, knives, scrapers, and choppers. The lifestyle and technology of these people underwent essentially no major changes for thousands of years. About the only discernible changes were in the styles of projectile points, and the introduction of the bow and arrow sometime around A.D. 800-1000. These prehistoric people depended heavily on three desert succulents: sotol, agave, and prickly pear. They exploited virtually every other possible food resource, such as acorns, mesquite beans, persimmons, wild onions, shellfish, snails, fish, reptiles and amphibians, birds, and a wide variety of mammals, particularly rodents, rabbits, and deer. They probably shifted residence from season to season to take advantage of the various resources and local environments. We can only speculate about the number of bands who may have used the cave, as well as the length of frequency of their visits. Such questions can only be answered by very detailed investigations of the stratigraphy within a deposit; unfortunately, the midden in Sorcerer's Cave has been significantly disturbed by livestock and people. Six burned rock middens are located on the surface within several hundred meters of the cave. These piles of fire-fractured angular limestone rocks are very common in central and west Texas, and are the remains

PAGE 6

of cooking pits or earth ovens. The often have a central depression surrounded by a ring or horseshoe-shaped pile of rocks, and subsurface pits are common. Foods such as sotol, agave, and lecheguilla were roasted for hours in these ovaps. Projectile point styles and radiocarbon dates from excavated middens indicate that they range in age from 4-5,000 B.C. through historic times. Of the six burned rock middens near Sorcerer's Cave, only one (B) is a ringmidden with a central depression. The midden measures 9 X 7.5 meters, with the depression about 3.5 X 2.5 meters. Maximum height of the pile is 0.5 meter. Midden "D" is a large mound in front of some low shelters. Beside the usual burned rocks, chipping debris, and broken tools were fragments of mussel shells and a mane fragment. (A mane is the grinding stone held in the hand and moved across the surface of a metate or bedrock mortar.) Midden "D" has been partially disturbed by the road. The other burned rock middens (C,E,F, and G) are all badly scattered and disturbed by sheetwash erosion and livestock. Numerous thick, unfinished bifaces were noted at each midden, and a total of 12 projectile points/fragments were collected. A reconnaissance for over one kilometer upstream and downstream from the cave yielded no other burned rock middens. It therefore appears likely that the cluster of middens near Sorcerer's is associated with the occupation of the cave. Sorcerer's Cave and the burned rock middens are now on record at the Texas Archeological Survey, Balcones Research Center, in Austin, which is the central repository for archeological data in Texas. The site has been assigned a number:41TE282. Under this standardized trinomial system, the "41" stands for Texas, "TE" for Terrell County, and "282" indicates the site was the 282nd site recorded in the county. All collected materials are currently being stored at George Veni's house, along with photographs and a copy of the site survey form. All Texas cavers are encouraged to keep an eye out for archeological, sites near caves, particularly in central and west Texas. Please !!_o not di__g_ or otherwise disturb the sites, as a tremendous amount of information can be destroyed if the original deposit is disturbed. Take pictures, make a quick sketch map noting location and topographic features, draw or describe any artifacts, and report the information to the Texas Archeological Survey Balcones 70 Research Center, 10000 Burnet Road, Texas 78757, phone, 512-836-0440. Or conta: one of the caver/archeologists: Logan McNatt, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 7784 Ron Ralph, Haster Planning Branch, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas 78744. Archeological sites, like caves, are a delicate resource which need to be properl: recorded and protected. Greer, 1965 SUGGESTED READING John W. A Typology of Midden Circles and Mescal Pits. Southwestern Lore ----31 (3): 41-55. Holden, w.c. 1937 Excavation of Murrah Cave. Bulleti of the Archeological and I Paleontological _Society 9: 48-73. Kelley, J. Charles and T.N. Campbell 1941/42 What are the Burnt Rock Mounds of of Texas? American Antiquity_ VII (3): 319-322. Kirkland, Forrest and W.W. Newcomb, Jr. 1967 Rock Art of Texas Indians. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. Mallouf Robert J. and Curtis Tunnell 1977 An Archeological Reconnaissance in the Lower Canyons of the Rio Grande Texas Historical Commission Archeological Survey Report 22. Austin 1 Newcomb, W.W., Jr. 1961 The Indians of Texas. Univ. of Press, Austin. Dibble, David S.,and Robert K. Alexander 1971 The Archeology of Texas Caves. In Natural._ History Ei_ Texas Caves, edited by Lundelius and Slaughter, pp. 133-148. Gulf Natural History Press Dallas. Fieseler, Ronald G. 1978 Archeology. In An Introduction to the Caves of edited by Fieseler, J.Jasek, and M. Jasek, pp. 65-67. NSS Convention Guidebook Number 19. Texas Speleological Survey, Austin. There's a spirit above And a spirit below: A spirit of love, and a spirit Divine, But the spirit below is the spirit of wine. Pierpont 1838.

PAGE 7

Remarks on the Helectite Problem Fritz Reiboth & Friedrich Gobel Die Hohle, December 1975 (Translator's note: European speleologists have been involved in a lively controversy about helectite formation for many years. This article, the most recent I could find, claims that a new version of the once-deni grate.d capillary theory fully explains helectite growth. I suspect, though, that the controversy continues. The translation is a slightly abridged version of the original text, omitting some digressions from the main theme. Roberta Swicegood) TEXAS CAVER: EDITOR'S COMMENT This article was taken, in full, from THE POTOl'1AC CAVER, Vol. 23, no. 6, June 1980. Most cavers are keenly interested in ''how" formations grow, and I felt most Texas cavers would be interested in this article. James Jasek INTRODUCTION The or1g1n of helectites has long been one of the most productive conversation themes among speleologists. Now, studies by Kramm and Linder of the helectites of Sohnstettener Cave, and the author's studies of helectites in Winterberg (Harz), have proven the validity of all essential points of Andrieux' "Expanded Capillary Theory. 11 According to Andrieux, calcite solution is conveyed to the helectite's growth areas primarily through the capillary that is present in every helectite, and secondarily through transport of the calcite solution along the surface of the formation.l The solution conveyed through the capillary is responsible for the helectite' s length, and surface transport of solution is responsible for its thickness. It follows that a capillary is absolutely necessary for the growth of a helectite, while the influence of surface transport on helectite growth can vary greatly. It is surface transport that 1. "Surface transport" is here umterstood as the spreading of a fluid on a fixed surface so that it builds a monomolecular layer with a vanishing contact angle of zero degrees. 71 determines the helectite type: filiform (straight) or vermiform (convoluted). The drifting droplet, or tip discharge, theory of Cser and Maucha is put forward again and again in competition with the capillary theory. According to this theory electrically charged droplets of calcite solution attach themselves to the tips of helectites through electrical attraction, discharging calcite and adding to the helectites' length. It seems appropriate at this time to report on the investigations of the authors and to discuss the drifting theory in the light of new information produced by these studies. THE CAPILLARIES The presence of the capillary is overlooked constantly or limited to specific helectite types by the defenders of the drifting droplet theory. It is self-evident that there are helectites, for example, opaque ones, in which the presence of a capillary is not immediately apparent. Therefore, the question whether the capillary is an integral part of helectite structure can be resolved only by statistical methods. The authors have performed a survey, testing a large number of helectites of different sizes, characteristics, and origins for the presence of a capillary. One hundred percent of the transparent exmaples, and 97.2 percent of the translucent examples had capillaries. The following table shows the results of our examination of helectites obtained from caves opened during quarrying operations in the Winterberg Quarry near Bad Grud (Harz). 762 0 PRESENCE OF CAPILLARIES IN HELECTITES 138 4 Opaque 0 134 After both sides of one of the opaque helectites from Winterberg were sanded down, a capillary was discovered in it as well.

PAGE 8

The investigation of 10 broken pieces of transparent helectites, picked up under draperies in Divaca Cave (Yugoslavia) yielded corresponding results: capillaries were present without exception. In a view of these findings, Aubrecht's attempt to save the drifting droplet theory, at least with respect to the formations he calls "pseudofiliforms", appears problematic. According to Aubrecht, "pseudofiliforms" are formed by the condensation of water, and possess no capillaries and cannot possess capillaries. Unhappily, Aubrecht's proof for the existence of such capillary-free, condensation-formed (!) (sic) helectites is nonexistent, although he contends that a great number of helectites in Erlacher Cave were formed in this fashion. At any rate, it appears misguided to assume completely different causes of growth, such as capillary transport and tip discharge, for immediately neighboring subtypes of the same formation. The formation of capillary-free helectites is, in the opinion of the authors, not supported by physical theory. Explaining the electrical charge supposedly possessed by the drifting droplets of calcite solution causes substantial difficulties when one considers the realities of the cave environment in which helectites are formed. (The Lenard Effect is not a factor in any cases known to us, because no waterfalls occur in the vicinty of the helectite formations.) Jenatschke holds that radioactivity is the most probable causitive factor, without presenting any proof of this. Such concepts as "magnetism" or "microelectrical processes," brought into the discussion by some authors, bear witness only to complete confusion. When the creators of the drifting droplet theory themselves state positively that a helectite cave is an electric field-free space (in which electrostatic charges can not exist), the verdict on this theory is clear. THE APPEARANCE OF HELECTITES ON DRAPERIES Helectites seldom occur directly on a substratum of limestone; rather, as a general rule, the grown on already-deposited calcite. Because limestone is "dense" in comparison to and because the calcite solution can only reach. capillary through the substratum, this observation makes the importance of capillaries in helectite formation clear. In the caves of Plania and Divaca. 72 (Yugoslavia), helectites are especially plentiful on large draperies. Abundant clusters of large helectites grow in the inward folds of the draperies, while drape1 surfaces which are turned outward show, at most, the beginning stages of helectite formation. This observation clearly contra dicts the drifting droplet theory because the inward folds form, in an electrical sense, an almost completely enclosed Faraday Cage. Therefore, no electrical field is present, and discharge at the tip is impossible in such a situation. APPEARANCE OF "REFLECTIVE" HELECTITES An observation made in the helectite dome of Stalagmiten Cave in Winterberg is also impossible to bring into harmony with the drifting droplet theory. The helectite dome was the highest-lying room of the cave which was, sadly, a victim of limestone disintegration. Along a ridge in this room, which contained a luxurient growth of helectites, were countless filiforms with lengths of up to 200mm. These completely straight helectites were mostly transparent and colorless; they grew by preference in calcite-covered side fissures and short chimneys. Older stalagmites and stalactites formed the substratum. A phenomenon often observed in connection with these filiforms was the appearance of "reflection when they encountered obstacle preventing further straight-line growth. Bending away from obstacles, which Aubrecht describes as typical of "pseudofiliforms" was never observed in these helectite clusters. Rather, the filiforms grew fast to the obstacle and then built a continuation in the opposite direction. The con -. tinuation possessed a new crystal orientatl and appeared to be a new helectite. However the "new'' helectite was supplied with calcite solution by the capillary of the helectite which impinged on the obstacle. This phenomenon may be observed in Divaca Cave as well. Aubrecht has described it in Erlacher Cave, and considers that a rightangled further growth is typical, and that crystal formation processes are its cause. This does not hold true for the examples observed by the authors in Winterberg and Divaca. Rather, the continuations seem to follow a law of growth which dictates that acutely angled corners produce acutely angled and obtusely angled corners, accordingly, obtusely angled ones. The authors have named this phenomenon "reflection", and the formations "reflectio

PAGE 9

helectites". The phenomenon appears only in connection with filiforms, and we have determined no more about it than the law of growth stated above. SURFACE SPREADING OF CALCITE SOLUTION Surface transport of the calcite solution has a greater significance for the formatior, of helectites than was previously assumed (although Bender considers it solely responsibl e for helectite formation) Without surf ace tansport, the calcite solution could not move out of the capillary opening. A growth in thickness, clearly apparent in vermiform examples, and evident in filiforms in the hood at the tip, would not be possible rithout a spreading of the calcite solution over the helectite surface. Andrieux has exhaustively observed this in situ, and has described it in detail. Calcite solution spreads over the hele ctite from both the substratum and the capillary opening. Bender claims--without qualification and, unfortunately, without citing a source--that the contact angle of water and calcite is zero, and that water moistens a calcite surface so that a mono molecular, spreading film is formed. Gmelin cites various values developed for the w ater/calcite contact angle of 87 degrees, or, on a polished surface, 71 degrees, while Somochwalow and Held (1936) claim a contact angle of 24 degrees. Bender's claim is thus problematic. However, Gmelin neglects the implications of the fact that the contact angle is a function of the border and surface tensions of three substances: calcite, calcite solution, and air. Hence, does not discuss the influence of such fact ors as degree of saturation or humidity on solution spreading. The authors have conducted experiments with surface spreading. These produced a negative result: under normal climatic conditions (including relatively high humidity) moistening of smooth calcite surfaces does not occur. In our experiment, some (admittedly not fresh from the cave) monocrystalline stalactites were used. These were placed, according to Bender's procedure in uncovered containers and in a large climate-controlled cabinet with a maximun of 90 percent relative humidity. Water at 2 0 degrees C was then added. The rise of water up the surface of the calcite could only be observed on a normal, concentrically layered stalactite. This was an expected result, because contact angles less than 90 degrees are always smaller on rough 13 surfaces than they are on smooth ones. The relationship of surface energies required for the transport of a solution over smooth calcite surfaces was not achieved in the author's experiments. Nevertheless, this demonstrates "ex silentio" the meaning of the three-cornered relationship of calcium, air, and calcite solution in the formation of helectites. The difficulty of producing a successful reproduction of this relationship in the laboratory mirrors the relative rarity of helectites. CLOSING REMARKS It can now be concluded that the "expanded capillary'' theory of helectite formation has been proved completely by the authors' observations of helectites in situ and under the microscope, and that the drifting droplet theory has been disproved. Cases in which the drifting droplet theory would explain helectite formation have not been found, and the notable large number of subscribers to the drifting droplet theory have up to now offered no valid proof of the occurrence of capillary-free helectites. One is forced to suspect that many of their offerings are based on uncritical acceptance of unclear notions concerning physical structures and processes. At this point, the conditions which produce surface transport of calcite over the helectite have not been quantitatively described; however, the processes producing helectites growth have now been fully explained.

PAGE 10

Grotto News The months of May and June 1980 have been fairly active for the San Antonio Grotto (SAG), with members doing and seeing quite a few different caves and areas. MEXICO: in early may, Teeni Kern, Gary Poole and George Veni found a new cave area in the State of Hidalgo. Locals showed them a couple dozen holes within a 2-3 mile radius. The major finds were a 120 foot pit with a colony of Vampires at the bottom and a lOOm pit with going leads at the bottom. KENDALL sump in Pfeiffer's Cave was free dove and the enlarging passage was followed for 130 m without a sign of terminating. A few weeks later, a return trip was made to push that lead and try connecting with Lost Digit Cave. The connection was made, but only via surface survey as some vital caving gear was left at home (See reports in April & June 1980 issues of TC). A couple of SAG members tagged along on a pleasant Galveston Grotto trip to Alzafar Water Cave. COUNTY:in efforts to catch up with the growing number of caves in the Bexar County Survey, an evening of each week is taken to survey one of the smaller caves or a part of a large cave. New discoveries in Betch-Can't-Find-It Cave reeking of bad air have forced numerous short trips into it to complete the survey. The County's newest cave, Lone Star Cave, is an impressive looking pit 15-20 meters deep. The recent drought has dropped the water level in the headwaters of the San Antonio river 11 meters from its average level. Randy Waters reports that the cave is essentially vertical for the first 9 meters then a walking size passage extends 10 m to the sump. A training session was held in late June at Bear Cave with about a dozen cavers attending. YUCATAN: Teeni Kern and Michel Siffre spent about a month photographing and field checking many caves and archeological sites. Heavy rains prevented them from continuing into Guatamala. CAVING: A good time was had helping Jim Jasek survey in Inner Space. Jacob's Well was visited to make owner contact about access. Finally, five SAG cavers attended the TSA Mini-Project at Honeycreek Water Cave, spearheaded by SAG member Gary Poole. 74 CUEVA DEL PORVENIR Peter Sprouse Cueva del Porvenir is a large guano cave southwest of Monclova, Coahuila, that Has formerly mined for phosphates. It is reacl ed by traveling 70 kilometers of dirt across the desert. After passing through the small village of Reforma, an obscure road leads west towards the Sierra San Marcos y Rinas. This road enters the Canon el Rosillo (Canyon of the Dew), and in the middle of the canyon a side canyon. Canon el Guano, enters from the south. Up this the road continues, although in disrepair, to an old mining camp below the cave. The steep canyon walls contain many unchecked entrances, and a large entrance to a 100 meter long cave lies situated directly across the canyon from Cueva del Porvenir. The old mining road continues right up to the entrance. A miner's trail leads most of the way through the cave almost giving the impression of a commercial cave. The passage is spacious, with an average cross section of ten by fifteen meters. Many high domes open in the ceiling. Mining pits with crude wooden bridges and ladden open in the floor, and abandoned digging tools and wheelbarrows lie by the trail. There are even some examples of "Mexican mining art": several stalagmites are carve to represent people or serpents. About halfway through the cave a large bat resides in the ceiling, replenishing the guano taken by the miners. The single passageway gradually climbs to its end in a series of high domes, 1000 meters from the entrance. The cave's existance was first learned of in the 1960's by Bill Russell and James Reddell, but they failed to reach it due to only a sketch location and an inadequate vehicle for the desert roads. With the help of the new topo maps (sheet Gl4A61), a group of Austin cavers located the cave and mapped it in August 1975. It was visited again in September. and then visited subsequently only once, by a from San Antonio.

PAGE 11

\ r !... _Q/ 1 ENTRANCE '( . . 'A '.o. J., loCUEVA DEL PORVENIR CUATROCIENEGAS, COAHUILA, MEXICO Suuntos and tape survey August 1975 Craig Bittinger Denis Breining Logan McNatt John Omnaas William Russell Nancy Sayther Terry Sayther Anna Verba Sketched by William Russell Drafted by Peter Sprouse Association for Mexican Cave Studies 23 30 r .. 1, 7""' L[)_ 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 me tors !1

PAGE 12

CHAIRMAN'S COLUMN Duri ng the next OTR in September, the TSA BOG will take place. In recent years, participation at the BOG has been limited. cavers often feel alienated, that they don't have anything to contribute. Many seem to think of the BOG as a gathering of th e elite cavers in TSA. Unfortunately many o f these so-called elite cavers have t aken the attitude that nothing productive w ill come out of the BOG, so why participate? All of these attitudes are self defeating. Nothing will happen with TSA, at the BOG or anywhere else for that matter unless you try to make it happen. At the past couple BOG's I've looked into many faces who seem to be expecting great words of wisdom to come down from the officers. It's often forgotten that the BOG involves t w o 1vay c ommunication. The officers of TSA must try to lead and fulfill the wishes of the members, but unless the members e xpress their needs and indicate the direction they 1vant the TSA to move in,. the jobs of the officers can become incredibly difficult and futile. Everyone always seems to be e xpressing their opinions about the TSA, s o I'm asking everyone to join in at the BOG a nd hopefully something good will come of it. Over the past year I have tried to stimulate growth of interest in the TSA. The BOG is your opportunity to e xpress your satisfation or dissatisfaction with my pe rformance. Election of officers will be he l d at this BOG. I am willing to serve anothe r term, but if it's felt that someone else can and will do the job better, then p u t that person in office. The welfare of th e TSA is at stake and I strongly encourage t hose of you who care about it to join the BOG and be heard. To maintain my efforts at being open to suggestions or any constructive criticism I 'll pass along my new address: George Veni, 243 Saratoga, San Antonio, TX 78213, (51 2) 341-1872. According to the caver survey I did at the re cent convention, cavers would like to see more projects, mini-projects and TSA caving trips. To accomplish this, cavers are needed to lead and organize said projects and trips. I'm asking that the grottos set up a couple of trips each year, 2-3 months in a dvanc e (an easy thing to do -honest) and announce them in the Texas Caver as open to TSA members. Usually there is someone in the 79 grotto whose job it is to set up club trips, so this shouldn't be too much of an additional burden. Once a number of grottos are leading these TSA trips, then caves you may never get to see will be easily accessible for a visit. Likewise your grotto would set up trips for the other grottos in return. The benefit you receive for your efforts are much greater than the input. Why? Simple arithmetic; maybe 5-10 trips in exchange for your one. It really doesn't take much to do it, after all, caving trips is what we do all the time anywa y The caver survey also indicated that the main problem with the Te xas Caver is in the lack of material sent in. I'm asking that each grotto write something for each issue of the TC, in addition to a note on grotto news. Onl y two articles every two months. I f divided amon g say 12 grotto members, then each person would only need spend about one hour each year to support their favorite caving publication (and if it isn't their favorite, it's their chance to make improvements). The TC would then have plenty of good material to work with, rather than using poor fillers to cover otherwise blank pages. Good material would also encourage subscriptions. Perhaps some one could be volunteered to be the "club reporter" to write the grotto news and/or collect articles from the grotto members. Assuming the officers are not already doing it, someone should keep track o f grotto subscribers to the TC and encourag e and make it easy for the non-enlightened to subscribe. I'm promoting trips and good publications so TSA will be an interesting and \vorthwhile organization to participate in. This is in-centive to reach that goal, which once achieved, will bring man y other benefits to the cavers of Texas. Please bring up the things I've mentioned at a grotto meeting. TEXAS CAVE (512)-686-0234 KREIDLER ANSWERING SERV McALLEN, TEXAS RESCUE CALL COLLECT REQUEST CAVE RESCUE In the event of a cave emergency where spelunking techniques and equipment are needed for search and'or rescue, CALL 5121 686-0234 You will be requested to leave your name and phone number and stand by. Cave Rescue in your area will return your call.

PAGE 13

THE CAVERS A REVISION OF J. DUNCAN SPAETH'S EARLIER TRANSLATION BY FRANK BINNEY THE OLD CAVER THIS IS THE TALE THAT I TELL OF MY TRAVELS, SING OF MY SUNLESS SORROWS AND WOES; HUNGER AND HARDSHIPS HEAVIEST BURDENS, FLOODING AND TERRIBLE TOIL OF THE DEEP, DAILY IN WATER I'VE LAIN IN TIGHT STREAMS, FEARFUL THE COLDNESS OF WAVES THAT ENCOMPASSED ME, PARTING THE NIGHT WITH MY YELLOW BEAM, AS A THUNDEROUS FLOOD HURDLED DOWN FROM ABOVE AND DRENCHED ME WITH SPRAY, STUCK FAST IN SOME TUBE MY SOUL WAS FROZEN, GRIPPED BY THE COLD, WHILE CARE'S HOT SURGES MY HEART 01 ERWHELMED, AND HUNGER 1 S PANGS SAPPED THE STRENGTH OF MY CAVE-WEARY SPIRIT LITTLE HE KNOWS WHOSE LOT IS HAPPY, WHO LIVES AT EASE IN WARM VIEW OF THE SUN, HOW, SICK AT HEART, THROUGH ICY CRAWLS, WRETCHED I RANGED MY YOUTH AWAY BARE OF JOYS, AND WITH LONERS AS FRIENDS HUNG WITH BAT GUANO, COVERED WITH MUD, NOUGHT I HEARD BUT THE HOLLOW BOOM OF SPELEAN FALLS, OR DRIPPING WATER. FOR SINGING I HAD THE SPLASHING STREAM FOR PEALS OF LAUGHTER, THE DISTANT FALLS; THE CAVE BATS CRY FOR THE MIRTH OF THE BEER HALL. SHRILL THROUGH THE SILENCE OF THE LONELY CHAMBER LASHING ALONG THE CHASMS EDGE PIERCES MY CRY OF FUTILE DEFIANCE, AND COMES THE LONELY ECHO'S ANSWERING CALL, LITTLE HE DREAMS THAT DRINKS LIFE'S PLEASURES, INSOLENT AND WINE PROUD, HOW UTTERLY WEARY OFTEN I CAMPED ON CLAMMY GROUND, ALL WAS BLACK, FROM THE DEPTHS THERE BLEW A CHILLING WIND,

PAGE 14

THE NEW KID OH, WILDLY MY HEART BEATS IN MY BOSOM AND BIDS ME TO TRY THE CHAMBERS AND SPILLWAYS OF CAVERNS TREMENDOUS, CLIMBS, AND CRAWLS AND BAT WINGS SOAR, DAILY, HOURLY, DRIVES MY SPIRIT DOWNWARD TO NIGHT, DARK WONDERS TO SEE, LIVITH NO MAN SO LARGE IN HIS SOUL, SO GRACIOUS IN GIVING SO DEAR TO HIS LORD, BUT FRETS HIS SOUL FOR HIS CAVE ADVENTURE, FAIN TO TRY WHAT FORTUNE SHALL SEND. HARPING HE NEEDS NOT, NOR HORDING OF TREASURE; NOR WOMEN CAN WIN HIM, NOR JOYS OF THE WORLD, NOTHING DOES PLEASE BUT THE ENDLESS PASSAGE: EVER HE LONGS, WHO IS LURED BY THE DEPTHS, WOODS ARE ABLOOM, THE WIDE WORLD AWAKENS, GAY ARE THE MANSIONS, THE MEADOWS MOST FAIR: THESE ARE BUT WARNINGS, THAT HASTE HIS JOURNEY HIM WHOSE HEART IS HUNGRY TO TASTE THE PER I LS AND PLEASURES OF THE UNKNOWN DEEP, THE OLD CAVER DOST MIND THE ENTRANCE MOURNFULLY SIGHING? THE CAVERN'S WATCHMAN SORROW FOREBODES, WHAT DOES THE CITIZEN THAT WANTONS IN LUXURY, WHAT DOES HE RECK THE DEEP CAVE'S FOE, THE CARES OF THE EXILE, WHOSE LAMP HAS EXPLORED THE INNERMOST PATHS OF THE STRYGIAN WAYS. THE NEW KID SUDDEN MY SOUL STARTS FROM HER PRISON HOUSE, SOARETH AFAR BENEATH THE SILENT ROCK: HOVERS ON HIGH, BREATHING THE FRESH COLD AIR; BACK TO ME DARTS THE BAT SPRITE AND BECKONS, WINGING HER WAY THROUGH PASSAGE AND FISSURE HUNGRY TO ROAM, AND LEAD ME WHERE GLISTEN BEAUTIFUL FORMS OF GLIMMERING STONE. THIS LIFE ABOVE LAND IS LINGERING DEATH TO ME, GIVE ME THE MYSTERY OF GOD'S GREAT CAVES.

PAGE 15

many instances of burned out carbide, 35mm film canisters, paper etc., being left in the caves. Carbide dumps are responsible for reducing the population of Cave Crickets and Cave Centipedes. If the carbide dumps continue, the Forest Service will be forced, in the interest of preserving the natural cave ecosystem, to restrict carbide lights from being used. The caving community as a whole has been extremely influential in helping reduce cave vandalism and damage to formations. Now; the Forest Service is requesting the caving community's assistance in educating cavers, and ensuring that all foreign debris carried into, or found in the caves, be removed by the cavers. After the trip, the signed caving permit, the key (if required), and additional information received with the permit be deposited in one of the cave drop boxes. One such box is located at the base of 3 mile hill (junction of Forest Road 69 and Forest Road 69A) and the other is located at the drinking fount ain at the Guadalupe Administrative Site, just east of Queen. In an attempt to make the caves on the Guadalupe Ranger District more accessible to the general public, the Forest Service will be providing specially designed cave packets this summer. The packets contain permits to visit the cave, general of the cave, and some contain maps and other interesting information about the cave. Most of these packets are caves that are easily traversed with a low hazard rating. These packets must be applied for in person, and returned in person, in their entirety, immediately following their use. These packets will be issued primarily to novice cavers wanting to tour a wild cave, but not knowing the location of, or the name of a cave to tour. The Guadalupe District Ranger andJstaff welcome any constructive suggestions from the public on improving the permit system, maintaining the gates, or keeping the caves-clean. Comments should be sent to: Sincerely, District Ranger Guadalupe Ranger District Federal Building, Room 103 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 TOM W. DAVIS District Ranger

PAGE 16

Dear Caver: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE Lincoln National Forest Guadalupe Ranger District Federal Building, Room 103 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 2360 June 18, 1980 On the Guadalupe Ranger District, the demand for caving permits has quadrupled over the past two years. Due to this increased demand, the Forest Service is encountering difficulty in issuing cave permits as per request. The most common problem is individuals or groups requesting cave permits on extremely short notice. One example of this problem is requesting the permit, obtaining the permit, and touring the cave in the same day. As a result of this situation, the Forest Service asks that a request for a cave permit be made least five (5) working days in advance of the cave trip. This request may be made by telephone, by mail, in person at the District Ranger's Office, or by contacting Jerry Trout. Because some cave permits are scheduled as much as six months in advance, cavers should make their requests as much in advance as possible. An individual may request and may receive, a permit for a group of cavers, but the Forest Service requires that all cavers sign the permit prior to entering the cave. The Forest Service also requests that cavers sign the cave logs, when visiting a cave where a log is found. Cave permits are issued for one cave, for one specific day. However, the Forest Service recommends that cavers give alternate dates when placing a request. An example would be a group wanting to visit Black, Hidden, and Virgin caves during May 3, 4, 5, & 6. Black is already reserved for May 3, Hidden for May 4, and Virgin for May 5. However, we could arrange for the group to visit Black on the 4, Hidden on the 5, and Virgin on the 6. This often results in a group being able to visit all of their choices. An increasing amount of time is being spent by Forest Service personnel carrying out debris left in the caves. There have been

PAGE 17

Ttt E w D L I s T F 0 R TH Is w 0 R. p H u 'NT c 0 s I s T 0 F '2 2 wo 'R 1) 3 KNOWN lo THE. S Tti E. S A FOUND WITH IN Tl1 C. PI A{ilV\M9 UP, t>OWN, SIDE..'W'AYS", WOR.tJ IS FR.OI1 TI-{E. OT:tiE.RS A)ll> APPE-Af{ AS THEY' TJO ON T(-flk: \lv'ORD NONE IN A S T l H T ll N E: N () R U o T 11 E Y C 0 S S E. At l-1 0 T H E. R T H Y T w 1 .S T T i. y TU'R.N1 THiiY CtR<::.LE.. How HAt-JV CAN You A T "& L c. "D A 'E. .s A M A B t{ T E $ T u 13 T c M A E. I r= E. s Cl I w ]) u T E. \I( T R. y N s \AI L I c A IJ c. H L L L f3 u t< D A E. I M N \1 '2... A. T '/ F A 5 "'B F-c. G.. E TJ v T c A u T R s s \}...( I B N F B s y I L X y A E L (1 H M E. J l M I( ;'l.... 0 13 s c.. l ]) .s L. 0 s L T T-' u a v E A E B c l) A 'FAut..T ZONE. .BATCOLONIE..S CALCITE. CAVE B.E.TLE. CAVE ur A NAME. CRAWLSPAC t:. C. R Y T A L L I t-.1 E. "B E. A U T Y Gz'ROUN"'D c F A w Q s H A I J K E l 7 Q 1\l t L s p Q c. E. T p H R 0 v 0 R I= E. E s X II/ s X y l 0 D c "2.. E.R R c A E. c. A 5 .s H t=: L IN J E A v KV T E s p Q p u 0 k: M C A e L T E. L\.{ '/... M y 2. A B p E. v R. L s J 0 H AN c, T B E. F 0 ( 2.. p T L s Q 0 u E. 'R. s L s X. T I w E..C:, 1-( \( l \A/ E T u E E. c A ry T 0 T c; f-( E. I J Q N 0 p L A 0 5 L N v 1'1 L K T ]) E. c. F s c-, y 0 c A L A. H N 0 B M l-. I( J T E L. t E T E. l g A N TO lJ 5 T I T s p E. w F B I ll A 0 E N R_ I y Q s X A 0 w Cl 0 E B y A 2.. c R. D T 1\ E L r-R. T <..1 c H L I c WoRD L1s 1 ..,...-(1 U A l
PAGE 18

)ear Jim; GLETTERS to the EDITOR This whole dilemma of regional publica:ions concerns me, as I watch what is 1appening. h 1'f 1"t has My general observat1.on l.S t at :o c ompete with some good grotto newsletters, me eventually has to go. 1 think a very good case could be made 'or each grotto in the TSA to cough up some mderwriting for the TEXAS CAVER. That's most of the support should come from md not individual subscriptions. There are ;everal formulas that could be used but one night be a basic underwriting share to which :ould be added X dollars for each grotto nember wishing to subscribe. Subscribers not Ln supporting grottos would pay a little nore. The budget would have to a little ' padding" to cover the mandated complimentar y and exchange mailings. Another approach would be an assessment m each grotto by size classifications to :over the whole CAVER budget, and all their nembers getting the CAVER with no personal payment. I agree with others that you are doing a grand job with the TEXAS CAVER. It's one of the best newsletters in the country right UOiv. Dear> Evelyn; Evelyn W. Bradshaw NSS Internal Organization Committee Thank you very much for the kind words. I will never turn them down, that is for sure. Actually, I do not see anything wrong with the way in which the TEXAS CAVER gets its fundi ng. If the members of the TSA will just to the TC, there is no real pl"oblem. Most cavers in Texas actuaUy do subscribe to the TC. A lot of them forget that their subscription expires with the December issue and .forget to send in their 'lloney. Once they do remember and send in the r:ash, the TC makes i.f fine. ; Doing some of the things you described in letter would never work here in Texas. rt Would mean rewriting the entire TSA C onstitution. This would mean official tembership in the TSA, dues paying, etc., nd this has been voted down for the past wenty years! James Jasek 85 Dear Subscribers; Good news! I .finally got the l9?? TEXAS CAVER from Gil Ediger, and put it together as one fat issue that will complete the l9?? year. The issue was sent to Terry Raines via William Russell to make sure that it would not get lost in the mails. (Heaven forbid!) Once the issue is printed, I will mail it out. I have a very old subscription list from l9?? that Gil Ediger never used, so each o.f you that paid for the l9?? TC and never get the complete year, will get an issue. will be a very limited edition issue. Actually this entire year is very limited. Those of you that have the back issues are lucky as there are almost no extra copies to be had at this time. I think tha t Gil has extra issue, but so far he can not find them, and he is no longer in Texas. Uha! A real bad year for back issues. ,James Jaesk Dear Editor; I certainly enjoyed the June issue of the Caver. The one thing that bothers me is my letter criticizing the January issue. In retrospect, the letter seems rather snotty. The minor errors in the January issue certainly do not detract noticeably from the overall excellence of the material. And the section of page 19 was amusing, period. The exploration of Sorcerer's Cave, spearheaded by George Veni, has undoubtedly sparked interest in Texas caves and caving. Also, when I look at the drawing on page 53 and realize what followed in that situation, I have to admire George even more! James: Good caving, Scott Harden Here is a bit of fiction for the TEXAS CAVER. Tell Mimi she has my admiration. She has a way with written English that should be put to more creative use than just proofreading. Bless her for spending the hours. William Payne Dear Caver; Okay, here's a chance to pick up some Texas topo maps at a considerable discount. Most of the 15' and all of the 30' are no longer being printed or sold because they 71 I have been replaced by more recent There's a lot of interesting information on these old maps, and of course the contours have not changed no matter how old the maps are.

PAGE 19

Orders will be processed on a first come, first served basis. Please include an extra 50 for postage for the first 1-4 maps you order, 75 for 5-8, $1 for 9-12, and so on. I will send the maps folded unless you request otherwise, in which case postage will be more. Order from Logan McNatt; 708 S Bryan #4, Bryan, TX 77801. Phone (713) 779-9261. Logan McNatt Editors co mment; Logan sent me a very long list of topos that he h a s for sale. The list was much too long t o publish in t h e TC. He has most of Texas They really are cheap. They cost and 75 each. Some of the topo maps are from survey data that is ZOO years old. I got a sheet showing Waco in l890 The map was revised in l949 and does not show Lake Waco. A real bit of history. Write tell him what you are looking for and he will let yo u know what he has Many are one of a kind. James Jasek Dear James; The cover of the June, 1980, issue was drawn by Chuck Pautz and was from a picture I took in Casablanca Canyon, Mexico, of Greg Passmore's old roommate at SWTSU. Gary Poole TSA MIN I -PROJECT: Continued from p. 66 Time on the surface was spent on mellow pursuits. People swam in the c ypress lined creek fed by the cave spring watched birds, walked the land, played the guitar and conversed. All told the Honeycreek Mini-project was a success if only because it established that Texas caving is still going. Of course, we also got some goo d work d one. Most of the participants were impressed by the cave. Let's hope so s ince the nex t survey trip is planned for the first weekend in August. Tour underground in Bergheim! UPCOMIN News & Events 23-31 August 1980: Sorcerer's Cave. and surveying leads. Efforts to con nect with nearby Apprentice Cave. Contac t George Veni; 243 Saratoga, San Ant o n io, TX 78213, (512) 341-1872. (This is a new address and phone no. for George) 20-21 September 1980: Third annual Texas Old Timers Reunion. The new locatio n will be o n the Perdanales River, bu t oot sure about the location. The Devil's Sinkhole is CLOSED to caving Ill l1ealth and other problems have the owners to close the cave. They regret doing this, but their situation force s it. Mr. and Mrs Whitworth have for many years e xtended their hospitality to all cavers PLEASE respect their wishes and do not cailseeking entry to their cave. The y 1vell deserve all the ease we can provide. are currently underway to protect the future of the sinkhole. More in later Texas Cavers. Sinc e the last accident at Jacob's many rumors have circulated about the acces to it. A check with the owners shows it t o be closed to ALL diving. There are chan ges taking place with the ownership and t h e question of access will not be finally settled until the ownership situation stabilizes. Soon as the final cave diving question is answered, the results will be printed in the Texas Caver. The Preston McMichael Award will be given to the Caver who for the past year has an outstanding asset to Texas Speleology. This is an annual TSA award which has laid for the past few years, but i s being revived. Nominations for the award can be sent to the Texas Caver, or be given at the OTR where this year's award will be presented.

PAGE 20

0 9 WELL Crockett County, Texas July 19-20, 1980 C avers : Steve Damon, Jonathan Justice, Linda Palit, Jack Ralph, Tom Shook, George Veni, Mike Warton, Dan Westlund. Robert Zacher Reported by: George Veni 0-9 Well is one of the finer caves in Texas A 127 foot entrance rappell drops into a stream passage. Upstream the cave has be en followed miles without reaching the end. Downstream the cave continues down a 55 foot drop, a 40 foot drop, and a couple of minor pitches to the lake room U -314 feet. Mike Warton has taken an a c tive interest in the cave and to further its exploration he recruited Steve Damon and George Veni to dive the sump in the la ke. With lots of help to tank sherpa the gear down the cave, those who had never been before, had the ease to enjoy its beauty E very one was impressed by the awesome nature o f t he 55 foot drop and by the massive formation throughout the downstream part of t he cave. After a wet lunch in the Lake Room, preparations were made to dive. Debris washed in from the surface floated o n top of the water, but often when the Water is clear, the headwall can be seen going 8 feet deep before undercutting and the floor drops much deeper in the middle 87 of the Lake Room, a huge mound of mud stands about 20 feet high and extends into the lake so regardless of the extraordinary efforts taken to keep the water from silting, visibility for the dive was reduced to zero soon as the water was entered. Once a minor technical problem was corrected the dive pushed into the sump. With no visibility, the lights were useless. Carefully the wall was checked by touch for leads. The undercut at 8 feet just went back a short way. At 15 feet the passage was found. Unfortunately, thanks to the mud slope, it soon pinched off in mud fill. The trip out was slow, tiring and uneventfull. The laborous task of hauling dive gear and derigging the cave was completed 13 hours after the cave was first entered. Yet the trip was eventfull in other ways; this was the deepest cave dive in Texas, it extended the cave's depth 5.4 meters making it at 101.1 meters the 4th deepest cave in Texas (it was the seventh deepest), and this all served as a fine birthday present that Jonathan gave to himself. 0 L D T I ME R S The third annual Te xas Oldtimer Reunion will be held September 19,20, 21 at the Milton Reimer Fishing Camp. The camp is located thirty miles west of Austin near Hamilton Pool. This private campground is on the Pedernales River and has a large number of trees and good swimming. In addition to the high bluffs to explore, there is a beautiful canyon complete with springs, running water, tall Cypress trees and even a small cave. The owner will charge $1.50 per person for the weekend. In light of the fact that most campgrounds are up to three dol_lars a day (Gorman Falls), we feel this is a good deal. The Oldtimers registration fee of $3.50 will include the Saturday night meal, beer and soft drinks for the meal and party. Send the currect addresses of any Texas cavers in your area so we can invite them through our mailing in August. Make a Grotto nomination for the Chuck Stuehm Award. This award will be presented to each caver nominated. The candidate has to have been caving for less than two years and show an unusual enthusiasm and interest in caving. For more inforamtion contact: Mike Walsh, 801 Country Place #20, Houston, TX 77079 (713) 870-0138. Send any preregistration to Alicia Gale, 2103 S 7th Temple, 76501. Do not include campground fee.

PAGE 21

The Texas Caver 1019 Melrose Or Waco, Texas 76710 I ALL You fu'l CJ P 11/AT He!WliAI &1-SE-Pit> feu .., y.JArJT'? A c;.vANO (Y'IItJE:. '. -BULK RATE US. Postage PAID Permit No.1423 Waco, Tx. 76710 I I>O"' '1" tto'WI 1 G-lif IN'f"o 'TI:U:se rRf:l>l t.AIIIt:f'ITS. ... I I I


Description
Contents: TSA
mini-project report --
T.A.G. extension, Brinco --
Sorcerer's Cave / Archeology --
Remarks on the helectite problem --
Answers to puzzle --
Grotto news --
Cueva del Porvenir --
Cueva del Porvenir Map --
Chairman's column --
The cavers --
Letter from Guadalupe ranger district --
Cavers word hunt #1 --
Letters to the Editor --
Upcoming news & events --
Trip reports --
Texas oldtimer's reunion --
Calvin the caver cartoon.