The Texas Caver

The Texas Caver

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The Texas Caver
Series Title:
The Texas Caver
Texas Speleological Association
Texas Speleological Association
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: In memory of Wayne Russell -- Sotano Savas -- TSA logo -- Competence and judgement -- BOG meeting -- TSA 84 convention site -- 1984 TSA photo salon -- From the Editor -- Odds ends -- Grotto news -- Cave trips -- 1984 TSA photosalon entry blank.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 29, no. 01 (1984)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-04651 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.4651 ( USFLDC Handle )
11385 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0040-4233 ( ISSN )

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the Texas Caver Vol. 29, No. 1,198, 4 CONTENTS IN MEMORY OF WAYNE RUSSELL .............. 3 SOTANO SAVAS ............................ 4 TSA LOGO ................................ 5 COMPETENCE AND JUDGEMENT ................ 6 BOG MEETING ............................. 7 TSA 84 CONVENTION SITE ............... .. 10 1984 TSA PHOTO SALON ................... 11 FROM THE EDITOR ........................ 12 ODDS & ENDS ............................ 12 GROTTO NEWS ............................ 13 CAVE TRIPS ............................. 17 1984 TSA PHOTOSALON ENTRY BLANK ........ 19 COVER PHOTO: Aspen Adams, age 10. Daughter of Terry and Susie Raines. BACK COVER PHOTO: Wayne Russell by Rodney Leist. Caving from crystals to dingy, grey rocks & hard hats by Aspen Adams, agelO My name is Aspen Adams Caving is sort of my hobby, but I don't reall y cave that much Most of the time I go to a caving convention in the summer. I've been to two of the conventions already. One was in Oregon and one was in Vi rginia. The 1984 convention is going to be in Wyoming . I like to cave because, sometImes It is very pretty, and sometimes it is very dingy and grey The things we wear are hard hats carbide lights Sometimes people (for safety) wear electric lights, and very warm clothes. My first cave Wllg called Ava Cave. It was a through trip. What I do at cave conventIons IS mostly go caving but sometimes I pla y with my friend who is also a caver She is 10 years old, like me Sometimes there are pretty crystals in the cave, but my father does not let me take any crystals out because he thinks it is very bad to take the crystals away. My Mom and Dad are happy, and so amI. Editor: James Jasek Typing and Proofreading: Mimi Jasek Layout: James Jasek Printing : The SpeJeo Press (Terry and Susie Raines) Distribution: James Jasek The TEXAS CAVER is a bi-monthly publication of the Texas Speleological Association (TSA), an internal organization of the National Speleological Society (NSS), and is published in February April, June, August, October and December. Deadline for submission of material is one month before publication date. SUBSCRIPTIONS are $ 6 year. Persons subscribing after the first of the year will receive all ba c k issues for that year. Single and back issues are available for one dollar each postpaid The TEXAS CAVER openly invites all cavers to submit articles, news events, cartoons, cave maps photographs (any size black & white or color print) caving techniques, and any other cave related material for publication in the TEXAS CAVER Address all SUBSCRIPTIONS and EDITORIAL material to the Editor : James Jasek, 1019 Melrose, Waco, Texas 76710. Evening phone is (817) 776-1727. When sending in a change of address, please irrclude you old address Persons interested in EXCHANGES and FOREIGN SUbscription should direct correspondt!nce to the editor.


IN MEMORY OF WAYNE RUSSELL Wayne Wood Russell Jr., NSS 9873, died Sunday, February 26, 1984, in Jacob's Well ne a r Wimberley, Texas. Wayne and two other divers entered J a cob's Well that Sunday evening at app roximately 7:50pm on a quick mapping dive t o get oV'erall dimensions. They had gone i n t o the fourth chamber, done some quick dimension measuring, and were on the way o u t having already passed the "squeeze" at ::h e entrance to the fourth chamber. Wayne 'ms collecting equipment,etc. and motioned ,11e other divers to start their ascent. ');le to requi red decompression stops during :be ascent, air was getting low at this i m e The two other divers started going '.') the surface, stopping at several decom 'tession stops. These divers, after wait a little extra time at each decompres ';o n stop for Wayne, got to the 10 foot v e l wi th Wayne still no t making an apt ?drance. At this time they did not have '2 air for another dive, decompression, They returned to the surface and t e d several more minutes before notify the sheriff's office at 9:16pm. Phot o of Wayne Russell taken by Rodney Leist. Not taken in Jacob's Well. Wayne's body was recoverd the next day from the tunnel to the fourth chamber. The tunnel was 8 to 10 feet wide, 4 feet high, and sloped down at an angle of 45. This was at the 90 foot level, about 175 feet into the cave. Several days later the scuba tank was recovered and was found to be empty. Graveside services were held for Wayne on Wednesday, February 29, 1984" at the cemetery in Utopia, Texas, in accordance wi th his parents wishes. All of us who knew Wayne and had gone caving and diving with him will sadly mourn his passing. JACOB'S WELL o 30' Water entrance


SOTANO SAVAS Steve & Lori Robertson Don Savas is in terrific shape for a man in his mid-70's. He owes his health perhaps to simple rural living in addition to regular strenuous exercise. On a daily basis he herds his goats (a couple of hundred) from his home at the base of Pico Carrizal to wherever grazing is available. His walks often take him several kilometers away and hundreds of meters up the flanks of the mountain. But what does all this have to do with caving? Sr. Savas obviously knows the area exceedingly well, better than any group of ridgewalking cavers could ever know it. Without his help, we would never have seen this Sotano. the entrance of which is extremely inconspicuous. t + ,i o i 5 Over a year ago, Don Savas guided th way to the pit, heading over a small sad die to the southeast of Ca rrizal Cave The entrance is about a meter in diameter located on the far side of the firs arroyo over the saddle, about fifteel meters above the normally dry streambed, The opening is surrounded by vegetation, and even Don Savas had little locating it. Brush at the entrance wai flagged, and rocks tossed down the drop. After a bounce, some of these could be faintly heard rattling somewhere below. It sounded pretty deep. Following sketchy directions, Wayne Rus sell and another caver eventually managea to find the entrance. The pit apparently ended but was not mapped. SOT ANO SA VAS LAMPASOS de NARANJO NUEVO LEON, MEXICO Suunto & Tape Survey 26 November1983 i 10 Lori Robertson Steve Robertson (draft) 5 m;;lterS I meters EXTENDED PROFILE ____


Taking advantage of a long weekend, we returned to wrap it up. After stumbling lechugilla for a couple of hours we c aught a glimpse of a tattered and sunbl e a ched flag marking the entrance. After re-flagging the entrance, we rigged the pit to two tiny columns conveniently situated above the drop. The pit turned out to be a mere 30 meters deep, with a l edg e (and yet another convenient column a tie-off) halfway down. A steep slope leads down a short ways, down which t o s s e d rocks would rattle, leading us to it was deeper. At the base, a g o u d size room soon closed down. End of Disheartened that this would indeed c o nee t wi th the wet passages of Carrizal )02I:'m d what the divers have reached, we mapping. ',' e entire floor is made up of dirt and s c .. te red wi th a few small stones and t l o goat skeletons. Numerous dead for IDCJ : ons adorn the back of the room, with a co. l e of large columns. Of particular i n r est was a round, excavated hole about t \ ; m eters deep in the floor. Sediment, a p r ently from the hole, was piled around it a n d some graffiti on the closest wall i n "S. Rivera" had been there on 13 a g r 'co 1970. We were somewhat surprised, s j .. "" we thought Wayne's group had been t h o ,"i rst here. We guessed Sr. Rivera had d o : a bone dig in this natural pitfall t r.' We wondered what vertical tech nit; he had used (perhaps hand over h a l I ) what he had found and what insti t U i n (if any) he was associated with. [ '>l 1 g h the significance of this cave is v el' slight, it shows that 'new' caves can b e . u nd even in frequented areas such as C a r. ', al. The local she phe rd s know of o t h,! caves a little farther off. All it t a k : to exploit their familiarity with t h e rea are a few words of Spanish and, m o s,' importantly, extreme courtesy at all tin,-" (512)-686-0234 KREIDLER ANSWERING SERV, McALLEN, TEXAS CALL COLLECT REQUEST CAVE RESCUE !11 t h e event of a cave emergency where spel unking techniques and equipment are n e e ded for search and'or rescue, CALL 512' 686-0234. You will be requested to leave your n a m e and phone number and stand by. Cave Rescue in your area will return your call. 5 TSALOGO Jay Jorden Bids are being solie! ted from a wide variety of embroidery companies and other businesses that could manufacture patches for production of the new TSA Logo. So far, bids that have been received are quotes for production of more than 200 patches in a three-inch threecolor format. Low bid amounts range from $.95 to $1.90 per patch in quantities of 200 or more. As chai r of the commi t tee, I have been taking preorders for the patches. Each grotto is asked to designate one person, possibly the club treasurer, for money collection and patch distribution. The grotto representative should collect $4 for each patch, with names, and send checks payable to TSA Fund to: T.S.A. Logo Committee, c/o Jay Jorden, 1518 Devon Circle, Dallas, Texas 75217. My phone number is (214)398-9272. The last of the preorders are being taken and production of patches will soon begin. So get your money in now! The fund now has a little over $100, and we could use more preorders. Wi th the success of this project, decal s could be made available later this year. We're counting on your support as TSA members.


COMPETENCE AND JUDGEMENT Jim Pisarowicz* What right do we have as cavers to go into caves and risk our slimy, muddy asses, and by implication, those of anyone who might be called to assist us? How much blame do we share when novices enamored of our exploits take risks beyond their abilities? Where does the responsibility lay? For the past few years Ilve been invol ved with the caving communi ty and have participated in my share of associated triumphs, fiascoes, and tragedies. Ilve been called out to rescue noncavers injured in a cave in West Virginia. Ilve sat in the hospital all night not knowing whether or not a long time caving friend would live or die when he took a 15m fall when he accidently cut his own rope (luckily he lived). And Ilve pulled another long time friend I s body out of a cave where he died of a fall and drowning. Yet, some of the finest moments of my life have come from caves--the incomparable beauty and wildness, the friendships and shared adventures. Though my fellow cavers and I are certainly not above romanticizing our experiences, mostly we go into caves because we love it there, and because what we find there is worth cul ti va ting and sha ring. So how does one re sol ve thi s with the real i tie s of rockfalls, hypothermia, floods, and even death? I would never deny anyone the privilege of going caving. Instead, I would educate those who venture into caves on the nature of the difficul ties and hazards one is likely to encounter while caving. Through the development of compe tence and judgement, the risks can be minimized. Terms such as competence and judgement seem to get bantered around a lot, but they may mean different things to different people. John Michaud, a member of the Rocky Mountain Rescue Group, defined competence to mean "the technical skills and physical ability to meet a particular challenge". It might be an afternoon ting into Goat Cave in Austin, or a major expedition to a place like Huautla. "Judgement", Michaud says, "means t h e accurate assessment of difficul ties and dangers one is likely to encounte r ti ve to his compe tence" Experience suggests that competence a n d good judgement can reduce the 1 evel of risk in caving to almost (but not quite) no risk at all. For e xample, Mark Minton just returned from Huautla with a story of an Australian caver who soloed down to t h e bottom of the system and out carrying al l his own equipment by using a pull d own method that left the drops rigged for ascent. Now this particular caver was probably in significantly less actual danger than the inexperienced and u n informed pe rson who decided to take a g r oup of Boy Scouts into Crooked Swamp Cav e i n New Jersey (see American Caving Accidents 1982). Now this is a radical e xample b u t the fact remains that many inexperienced people die every year in relatively t rivi al caves but this Aussie caver did not. Now I do not mean to imply that one has to be an expert to safely set foot i n a cave, nor do I wish to imply that beco m i n g an expert will guarantee one I s safety and survival. Our best margin of safety c o mes not from the essential items we carr y i n our caving packs. Our best margin of safety comes from a logical thought p r o c i ess with which we correctly evaluate o u r own talents and limitations. Until we learn how to do this we would be wis e to spend a great deal of our time underg r ound wi th tho se who know how to do this or t ake up another form of recreation in which the consequences of a mistake do not inclu d e the loss of life. *These thoughts were motivated by John Michaud from whom I have freely quoted.


BOG MEETING Jay Jorden Tex a s Speleological Association meeting Cascade Caverns, Boerne, Texas February 4-5, 1984 Officers Present: A n dy Grubbs, President G eorge Love, Vice-President 1. Due to the ab sence of Jocie Hooper, Secretary-Treasurer, minutes from the previous TSA meeting were not read. Jay Jorden sub sti tuted for Jocie in taking minutes. A. However, Jocie submitted a Treas-urer's Report through Peter Strickland. n\ANCIAL REPORT: ";:y 1984 October 12, 1983-FebruBMANCE C r ,'d its to date: Dues 1.0 Interest D e!--i t s to da te : NSF Check charge A d r s tments A djusted Balance to Date: $ 1,154.45 13.00 14.00 $ 1,181.45 8.00 $ 1,173.45 1.09 $ 1,172.36 P elo::(' reminded the board and TSA members t hat dues are $10 for regular membership a n d $ 13 for family membership, both of whil::h include the Texas Caver. II. COMMITTEE REPORTS A Publ ica tions John Spence, Chairman. We have nine Introduction To Texas Caves left. There ---are many Texas Cave Humor issues remaining. John says he has ordered additional copies of books on consignment from the NSS Bookstore. B. TSA Logo Committee --Jay Jorden, Chairman. Bids have been solicited from a variety of embroidery 7 companies and other businesses which could manufacture patches to our specifications. Bids re ceived thus far indicate a range of $.95 per order of 200 or more for a three-color patch, threeinch diameter, to $1.90 per patch for the same quantity. Other bids are still being "received, and John is slightly modifying his patch design for simplicity's sake in manufacturing patches, but the original design approved by the membership should be reproducible on decal s. Jay says work is beginning on investigating costs for decal s. Jay says an interest-bearing account has been opened in the name of Texas Speleological Association Logo Fund at Dallas Federal Savings and Loan. Thus far, only one check had been received as a preorder for patches from A. Richard Smith of Houston. Other orders must be taken to upgrade the quantity in order to get a better price from a manufacturer. III. OLD BUSINESS A. TSA Patches --It was moved that TSA divert $100 of its funds to bring the patch order to the minimum amount for a price break. Ivy McLane made the motion. The motion was amended later to read that TSA supplement the Logo Fund so that the order can be made for 200 patches, after all other preorders are Motion passed. B. TSA as a Non-Profit Organization-Andy Grubb s reminds membership that during the last meeting, James Jasek was authorized to look into the possibility of converting TSA to not-for-profit status. Jasek is ab sent. Grubb s says that he has talked to James by phone and that James' lawyer advises that the TSA first incor-


porate before seeking non-profit status. Andy asks for further information. Jay Jorden outlines basic requirements for incorporation in Texas, including a corporate name search, with required fee, from Secretary of State's office; naming of incorporator(s); filing of Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws; and other steps. Bill Mixon, NSS director, mentions that some grottos have received not-for-profit status without incorporating. Another member points out that incorporation would be useful to acquire property, such as caves and to aid in business aspects. Spence moves that Bill Russell, as an employee of the Inte rnal Revenue Se rvice, be approached to ask more questions about non-profit status. Jorden volunteers to begin assembling information on obtaining corporate status for TSA. It is mentioned that another NSS director, Evelyn Bradshaw, could provide insight into the process. All generally agree that Bill should be contacted. C. Safety & Techniques--Andy Grubb s mentions that a discussion of the TSA rescue call-down list was begun at the last meeting. Jay Jorden, Safety and Techniques cochairman, says that the DallasFort Worth Grotto talked with Mr. Kreidler at Kreidler's Answering Service in McAllen, Texas, who expressed anxiety about the status of the list. Kreidler had said that he would be extremely apprehensive about having to use the list he has now, which he says contains much outdated information on names, addresses and phone numbers. He says that perhaps only 25 to 50 percent of the informa tion contained therein is still pertinent. He needs current grotto phone lists. Jorden suggests taking accurate information at TSA functions, updating addresses and numbers, and even distributing rescue questionnai re containing lists of proficiencies and equipment owned, etc. Minton IV. 8 suggests using grotto phonE lists. Strickland says names oj independent cavers are alse needed for geographical distribu tion. Andy says state reSCUE chairman and committee should de velop a statewide rescue phone list and maintain it. Ivy saYE that stickers or cards with the TSA Cave Rescue phone number on them should be rei ssued. Jorden mentions that some organizations put phone numbers on Roladex cards and then distribute them to newspaper offices, police patchers, sheriff's offices and other law enforcement agencies. Ivy moves that the rescue sticker be reissued. Motion passes. Bob Cowell, safe ty and rescue chairman, says previous efforts to upgrade the list have b een less than effective. He s ays that out of 76 cards mailed to grottos for updated address information, only two responses were received. He asks how the TSA can assure level s of profi ciency. He mentions the pos,;i bilityof rescue drills to ensure proficiency. D. Photo Salon--Bill Elliott has quested $75 to $100 for prizes be awarded for the TSA Photo S a lon. Andy says that $50 awar.ied last year for the purpose .. las barely enough to cover expens s. It is moved that $75 be allocated for salon prizes. Motion pass s. NEW BUSINESS A. TSA Convention--It is propc sed B. that the TSA spring conventior. be held on the thi rd weekend in \',1y, around Kingsland on the V ano River, not far from Longhorn i W erns. Andy Grubbs suggests 'hat a call for papers and talkr be made in the Texas Caver. ,ro posed dates for the convendon are May 19-20. Motion is; ade and passed. Old says the Day. Timers' Reunion--Mike Vi lsh that the reunion is normcolly thi rd weekend af te r L bor Details are yet to be an-


nounced. C. TSA Logo--John Spence, artist who designed the new logo, states that it should be the sole property of the TSA. He reads the following resolution submitted for a vote: 1. The TSA Logo is the sole property of the Texas Speleological Association, and a copyright shall be maintained for its use. 2. The use of the logo should be decided upon by a majority of the TSA or its elected offi-cers. 3. A majority of members or officers shall be empowered to sponsor sales by retailers of any and all products using the logo. 4. Production of products using the logo shall be contracted to the lowest bidder capable of producing a quality product to specifications on TSA approval. Spence said that profits of the products' sales would go to the TSA. He envisioned that those wishing to print T-shirts using the logo, for example, would ask to submit a bid to TSA. He said that no one should unfairly profit off the logo, if TSA cannot profit. Minton asked how much money would be involved as profits. An estimate is made of several hundred dollars, perhaps. Spence moves that the resolution be adopted; Mike Walsh seconds. Minton asks who could possibly abuse discretion in using the logo. Objection is raised to the requirement of entrepreneurs submitting low bids for projects. Mark Minton states that unnecessary bureaucracy would resul t. Much discussion follows; membership generally agrees that the resol ution should be reworded to state that membership should have broader discretion in deciding how to supervise production of 9 the logo. Members seek to strike No. 4 of the resolution, leaving out the requirements of submission of low bids. The amendment is apparently accepted. Motion passes, with two voting against. Mike Walsh then seeks TSA approval to produce bandanas with TSA logos. He says he contemplates production of about 120 bandanas in three-color motif. He is approved for the manufacture, after Ivy moves and Peter Strickland seconds. It is al so IOOved that Gill Ediger, whether or not he seeks permission, should be given the opportunity to produce Tshirts with the new logo. Motion passes. And John Spence asks permission to produce T-shirts, caps and buttons using the logo, and that Ediger be allowed to produce T-shirts, caps and beer canisters with the logo. Motion passes, each for a one-year period. D. TSA Logo and Publications Chairman-Mike Wal sh moves that John Spence be awarded $25 for winning the contest to design a new TSA Logo. Jorden seconds. Motion passes. E. COG Representative--Mike Wal sh states that Jay Jorden has been approved as a Congress of Grottos representative, as a member of the 1984 COG Issues Committee. The purpose of the committee is to identify issues of importance to be made into motions for presentation at the Congress of Grottos at the NSS Convention in June. Jay is a southwest region representative. Issues must be sponsored by an internal organiza tion of the socie ty such as a grotto, or a group of eight or more NSS cavers, and submitted in a form that can be voted on, such as a motion or resolution. Issues must be submitted by the first part of March, in order to be ready for publication by Harch 20. Jay's address is 1518 Devon Circle, Dallas, Texas 75217. His phone number is (214)398-9272. F. Adjournment


TSA 84 CONVENTION SITE MAY 18, 19 & 20, 1984 (3rd Weekend in May) --at Longs Ranch on the Llano River, 3mi west of Kingsland on 1431. Hiking, climbing, swimming, sunbathing, tubing (byot) etc. Kayaking at the falls! NOTES: No drinking and cooking wa te r at campsite. No fast food places in Kingsland. Food and stores at Junction of 1431 and 29 (go right at Junction). More information forthcoming. FRIDAY REGISTRATION 4:00 to 11:00 (or so) p.m. FREE BEER AT CAMPSITE 10 ( @ SATURDAY MEETINGS: PRESENTATIONS & SEMINARS 10:00 12:00 1:00 5:00 SUPPER 5:30 to ---*MEETINGS AND CATERED SUPPER AT MEE.''ING HALL (BUCHANAN BASS BUSTER CLUB -ap prox. 2 mi. from camp) 7: 30 HOT-TUB, SAUNA, SLIDESHOW, BEER!! SUNDAY BOG MEETING 10:00 a.m. LONGHORN CAVERN TOUR (REDUCED Ri,fES) 1:30 p.m.


1984 TSA PHOTO SALON 1. CLOSING DATE: Entries must be received by Saturday, May 5. Judging will be held one week before the TSA Convention, which is May 19. 2. ELIGIBILITY: Open to all. Must be related to caves, karst, or caving. Previous NSS or TSA Salon winning slides are not eligible. 3. COLOR TRANSPARENCIES ONLY: Slides shall be standard 2 X 2 inch mounts. Each slide must bear on the margin the entry number, title, contestant's name and a spo-t. When the slide is inverted in the carousel the spot should be in the upper right corner and the data should be legible. Also send in an entry blank with the same data. 4 CATEGORIES: A. OPEN-Any slide intended to be primarily artistic or aesthetic; can be in natural or artificial light. B. EDUCATIONAL-Enter something that illustrates well some natural or human henomenon. This may be one to three slides, counting as one entry. You must also submit, in addition to the title, a brief explanation of the phenomenon in good Snglish, 50 words or less, keyed to the slide(s). This will be read aloud at the Salon. Judging will be based primarily on how educational the entry is, and lecondarily on its artistic merits. Examples: surface karst features, floor leposits, scientific subjects, conservation, caving techniques, etc. Entries need _lOt be sophisticated or unusual, just good. C. HUMOR-Any caving subject that is funny ;>li11 not be shown--there will be children (mportant--make it fit. [Please, let's have some or bizarre. Highly offensive slides in the audience. The title is better ones than last year!] ENTRIES: Limited to a total of ten entries per person. Note that this could be up 0 30 slides, if all were in the educational category. No entry fee is required. JUDGING: Will be done by cavers with cave photography experience. Judges will not nter. Judges reserve the right to limit the showing at the Convention to a : easonable number, in which case acceptance for showing shall constitute an award. J udges reserve the right to reclassify slides and to make minor wording changes if 0 ecessary. All decisions by judges are final. :i, PRIZES: $75 has been voted by the TSA for prizes!! Donations of money or goods l o r more prizes will be gratefully acknowledged j REPRODUCTION: Contestants, by entering, agree to have their slides in T h e Texas Caver without remuneration. Copying will be completed before Convention if possible. SHIPMENT: Pack all entries in re-usable material, a ddress label if they are to be returned by mail. ';onvention following the Salon. No responsibility & B sumed, but great care will be taken while we have 1 0 ADDRESS ALL ENTRIES AND PRIZE DONATIONS William R. Elliott (ph. 512-835-2213) 12102 Grimsley Drive Austin, Texas 78759 11 TO: enclosing return postage and Entries may be picked up at the for loss or damage will be your slides.


It has been a number of years since the TEXAS CAVER has been this late coming out, and I am sure all of you are wondering what is going on with the TC. For the most part I have been very busy with work and several other projects that have taken up most of my time. I have too many "irons in the fire" right now, and the TC is being pushed to the very bottom of the pile. Mimi is busy with our little girl in the second grade, and her free time just is not there anymore. We can not see our free time situation changing in the distant future; so, after more than 13 years for me and almost 11 years for Mimi, we feel it is time to pass the TEXAS CAVER on to another caver, or group of cavers, who is willing to do the editing. We will continue to edit the TC for the rest of the year if necessary, but we are hoping that someone will speak up and take the TC right now! After all the years we've put into the TC to make it one of the finest caving publications in the count ry, we woul d no t 1 ike to see it hu rt due to our inability to give it the time and effort it deserves. All anyone has to do is speak right up and the TC is yours. No questions asked! We must a1 so mention that there is much more work in vol ved with the TC than just the editing. There is the mailing list to keep current, the printing and assem1y, the addressing and mailing, the TSA memberships which include the TC to keep straight, and all the back issues to keep track of. We intend to give all of this work over to the new editor also. We do not want to be involved in any part of the production or care of the magazine other than contributing material for publication from time to time. So please, understand 12 that we are giving up the TC in its entirety and that this decision is finall The TEXAS CAVER is in pretty good shape this year There are more subscribers now than there ever have been in the history of the TC. We have a good printer who is willing to do more than their share in putting out the issues. We have plenty of material, and as a whole the entire TSA is behind the TEXAS CAVER. Now that the Te is the official voice of the TSA, the membership stands behind the TC with both support and money if it is needed. This means that any edi tor can not fail unless hel she fail s to put in the work that is required to publish the TC, To put it in simple, straightforward language Odds 8Ends FOR SALE: 1975 Ford E150 window van, A /C, PS, PB, 6 cy1., 4 speed, 2 gas tanks, up for off-road & camping. $2400. Phone 915-655-7696. Jon Vinson. The National Cave Rescue Association is trying to up-date the call down list of qualified Texas cavers. If you are ested in having your name on this list write to Terry Jones, 16240 San Pedro, 257, San Antonio, TX 78232. Be sure to include your abilities as a caver such as vertical experience, diving abilith : s, first-aid, etc I have the following AMCS publications for sale: Vol ume 1 through Vol ume 4 AMCS Newsl.::t te r -comple te. Vol ume 5, No.1. Make me an offer: John Baz-Dresch E. 4950 16th St., it2 8:354


Grotto News TG:Wiliiam Elliott Fall 1983 'th e University Speleological Society, aLI) known as the UT Grotto, got off to a b i start in mid-September with a member drive to attract new blood. About 20 p e op l e showed up at the first meeting of semester, along with a dozen or so TI A program was shown, featuring best slides from the membership, and trips were planned. All of a Lisa Wilk and Paul Fambro rapp e"'ed out of the ceiling and proceeded t o map the lecture hall as if it were a b i g Mexican sotano. The response was g o ue We now have a bunch of enthusiastic new c avers. The club, although large, was its age, so the new folks are welco me. The following Saturday, September 17, a t ri,' was made to Bracken Bat Cave to see th e b a t flight. Thanks go to Randy Waters for the arrangements. About 50 from Aus t i n and a few from San Antonio came and found the flight to be most impressive. Bill Elliott did some gas sampling abo u t halfway into the cave and found the follo wing: temperature 93 F, oxygen 20. 8 % (almost normal), carbon dioxide = 0.3/, 00 times higher than normal), ammonia 55 parts per million. The ammonia exceeded allowable levels in Work places even for short periods and migh t injure the respiratory system after sev e ral hours exposure. This may be why 13 rabies was contracted by animals that were caged in Frio Bat Cave in an experiment years ago--their lung tissue may have been damaged. Elliott gave a natural history lecture on the bats. In mid-September Andy Grubbs and others returned to Tarbutton's Showerbath in Hays County. The water was down so they mapped 200 ft of crawlway, which was never more that 3 ft tall and 2 ft wide. The last part was tighter. They heard pounding water in the back, 400 ft from the entrance. They dug in gravel for 5 ft and they could see another 40 ft of the same stuff. Goat Cave became a local TV event in Austin when Bill Russell, a city council member, and assorted neighborhood conservationists and kids took a tour of the one-room cave. The cave is being preserved by a land developer and will become part of the Austin Nature Center. They will use it for educational purposes. Hideout Cave will also be donated. It is hoped this will lead to more awareness of cave conservation in the rapidly growing Austin area. Thanks also to Sam Pole and his friends for their efforts in preserving these South Austin caves. A trip for new members was taken to Whirlpool Cave in Austin in September. Eleven made it in and out, despite a rock falling on one newcomer's face and arm. No serious injury resulted from the crawlway incident. The Texas Oldtimers' Reunion was held at Krause Springs on September 23-25 and a record 325 people registered. Brian Burton won the Chuck Stuehm Award as the best new caver from UT. John Spence won the TSA logo design contest (but you were the only entry John). Austin area cavers dominated the sporting events, especially Lisa Wilk, Maureen Handler, Lynne Thompson and Patty Mothes. Oh yes, one of our men came in fifth in something. AMCS Activities Newsletter #13 came out ($6.50) and so did Charlie Loving's latest cartoon book, "My Mommy Was a Caver" (available from Mike Walsh.) The weather was perfect for the TOTR and the food was excellent again because of the high density of accomplished barbecueists from Austin. On October 2 Lisa Wilk, Mark Minton, Mike McWhirter and Brian Burton went to Honey Creek Nature Preserve to push the new Preserve Cave. Lisa had been there previously to help Bill Russell catch a blind salamander, which was dubbed "The $4 million Salamander" because it may


have influenced the Texas Nature Conser vancy not to sell the property for such an amount. The water was lowered but it almost sumped out the entrance route. The cave is the only significant one in the Cow Creek Limestone. In October Mike Walsh and Maureen Handler took a tour of Grutas de Cacahuamilpa as a sidelight to their Mexican import business. The two are planning an English/Spanish book on Mexican commercial caves. Jim Pisarowicz went to Florida, where he got to watch some cave divers go into Vortex Spring. A vertical training session for new cavers was held. The Sprouses checked the Cueva de la Boca-Monterey-Potrero Redondo area. Lisa Wilk and Mark Minton joined John Cradit, George Love, Joe Sumbera, Jim McIntire, Mike Warton, Bill Bentley and Joe Collins for a trip to Wizard's Well in West Texas. The cave is about 300 ft deep and they spent 12 to 18 hours touring the cave and checking leads. Walsh and Handler joined several cavers from Wichita Falls and Dallas for a trip to Wild Woman Cave and Bitter Ender in South Central Oklahoma. The Sprouses, Ernie Garza (visiting from Californy), Jim Feely and JimPisarowicz took photos in Cueva de la Boca. They also climbed 600-700 m up the hill there to see a cave, but their guide couldn't find ithe had last been there when he was 7, about 23 years ago. Well, OK. October 15-16 saw the third trip to Langtry this year to continue the surveys of Langtry Lead and Langtry Quarry Caves. Brian Burton, John Spence, Mary Standi fer, Mike McWhirter, Wes Byrne, Dale Pate, John Gilliland, Bill Mixon, Mark Minton, Lisa Wilk, Jack Ackerman and Kimberly Faulkenberry represented UT and there were four Aggie cavers too. A push was made off the Hall of the Unicorns in Lead. Minton lassoed a rock and they ascended and dug. Two pits were found, one needed a bolt. Burton wandered down the passage and they saw him from the second pit. Gypsum helictites were seen. They checked the pit and took photos. Some went to The Crystal Barnyard, where they dug enough to get into 50 m of passage, still going. Lisa had only pliers to dig with. A return trip is planned. Pate, Spence, Standifer, and Gilliland surveyed 120 m in Emerald Sink. A fissure was followed toward the surface, but John G. met a they retreated. Later crawled up someone's popped a giant rat. rattlesnake, so something hairy pants. Then out No doubt he was 14 trying to escape the rattlesnake. Mixon and some of the Aggies toured Emerald Sink. On Sunday most everyone went to see a new cave mentioned by the owner. This turned out to be an unenterable fissure in the side of the Pecos River canyon. Meanwhile Spence and the Aggies finished the last of the Quarry survey. Whenever the Langtry work is finished there may be a special Texas Caver on it with maps. In late October Spring Creek Cave was pushed again. Wayne Russell and others surveyed 40 m in a side passage, which came up in air again, but didn't go. Minton, Duwain Whitis and Scott Hardin added 250 m of survey in a side passage/water crawl. The cave is now 2807 m long. On October 28-30 the annual club trip to Bustamante was made by two dozen cavers. The gate at Gruta del Palmito was open and lights were present all the way to the end of the main passage, thus making a tour of the main cave possible without a headlamp. The New Room and the Birthday Passage were visited and it was very late before everyone was out of the cave. On October 22 Bill Mixon threw a birthday party for the world, but it was attended only by Austin and San Marc o s cavers. This commemorated Bishop Usher1s calculation that the world started on this date about 4000 years ago. Several gatherings have been held at t h e Stricklands', who have an Oztotl emblazoned dam with a viewing port, cn d at the Sprouses (usually to look a t slides). David Honea showed slides of h i s soujourns in Antarctica where h e monitored satellites. He also phot ographed some ice caves on the coast n e a r the Ross Ice Shelf. At the end of October Mark Minton a n d others mapped the second half of Creek Preserve Cave, bringing it to abo ut 300 m long. The cave ends in a collap? e d room. Mark is working up the map. Ab' ut the same time Jim McEntee, Brian Burto n Mark Minton and others checked some sinks near Burnet. Jim got stuck in one h o le for about 10 minutes when his light "l

Bill Rupley, Allan Cobb and Alan Finch went to Jamaica, where they saw Jackson Bay Cave, which was a 2 mi trip. Two b lind fish were found there this year. T h e species had been collected about twenty years ago but the specimens were l o st. They and two kids with no lights wer e also guided through the huge Green G r otto Cave by a Rastafarian bearing a t o r ch but no shirt and shoes. O n November 5-6 Wayne Russell et al. s u rveyed to the end of the warm springs i n Cueva de Carrizal, Nuevo Leon. They S rt W the Helictite Room and took photos. M i k e and Maureen visited Frio Bat Cave at about the same time. O n November 18-20 Mark Minton, Dale Jim Feely, Bill Steele, Robert H'::mperly, and two others went in Mark's Ls to Gruta del Precipicio, Nuevo Leon. T!ey camped at Bustamante in good wea c:er. The climb to the cave was exci found a rattler. They reached entrance at 1: 00 pm. Mike, Bill and wanted to check a climb beyond the H,rm Tubes, so they broke into two The other group went to the Big and the White Room. Mark and Bill into an alcove at their lead. returned to camp at the entrance at 3 am. The trip down the next day took 2 hours for some, but 6 hours for others w ' n they tried to do a "pull-down". This r ' ulted in several problems, such as C"'-a b iners left behind and a boulder that s.; .. d downslope when a rope was tied off U i t . t Thanksgiving Jim Pisarowicz traveled Colorado cavers Donald Davis, Louise Tom Strong and Alan somebody to the to see Cave of the Madonna and the caves. They also visited New Cave at Ca'lsbad Caverns National Park. Mike W 2 s h Maureen Handler, Bill Rupley, Bl,.\e Harrison and some SWTSU cavers saw C de La Puente, south of Valle de los and San Francisco, S.L.P. They d i sc overed that local miners are piping w at2r out of the back of the cave and up 2 0 0 m of relief through a previously u n k n own entrance, thence over the moun t ain to the west, probably to Las Cuevas M i na s A series of steel ladders have b e e n placed in three pits along the way. The leaky pipes spray water allover vis i tors. Mike's truck then made it to Ahu a catlan, where it caught on fire on a baC k road near El Sotanito. They fought th e fire for fifteen minutes, then pulled th e i r gear out of the back. Then the truck rolled backwards off the side of th e mountain to its fiery end. They came 15 back two days later to find the hulk stripped of tires, steering wheel and other salvageable items. They rode the bus back to the states after spending days filling out police and insurance reports. There was a major expedition to Sotano I de Tlamaya, S.L.P., at Thanksgiving. Four trucks with 15 people spent a remapping the cave, which was one of the major deep caves explored by the AMCS twenty years ago. Peter and Terri Sprouse, Terry and Susan Raines, Duwain and Barbara Whitis (accompanied by baby Sara), Steve Boehm, Bill Mixon, Peter Keys, Margaret Hart, John Cradit, Ed Sheila Balsdon and Jay and Ruby somepody made the trip. There were four trips into the cave. The survey didn't quite reach the bottom due to lack of rope (there was one more drop than they realized) and water preventing a downclimb. Upstream of the Big Room remains to be mapped too. During the de-rig, a chunk of wall in the Chert Pit, near the upper entrance, fell out and crashed to the floor while Terri Sprouse was on the rope. This cut most of the way through the rope piled on the bottom of the 20 m pit, and pulled the rope taut. No one was hurt. The expedition was part of an ongoing effort by the Sprouses to produce an AMCS Bulletin on the Xilitla Plateau. One of the locals told the group that he had helped rescue four Florida cavers from the sotano in 1977. Their rope had gotten cut in Chert Pit. No one had heard of the incident before. James Reddell and friend Marcelino traveled to Mexico City by train and spent a week or so buying maps and visiting the laboratory of biologist, Anita Hoffman-Sandoval. We have had numerous interesting slide shows at our grotto meetings recently. The Sprouses showed slides of Cueva de la Boca and Potrero Redondo; Bill Elliott gave a slide talk on biospeleology; the Sprouses reported on the Xi1itla area; Lisa Wilk covered Hualahuises Canyon; Jim Pisarowicz talked on the Cuetzalan, Puebla, area, with emphasis on the Cueva de Santa Elena/Grutas de Ateno system; and Terry Raines showed pictures of the 1963-65 expeditions to Tlamaya, as well as the recent trip there. Steve Zeman and Dino Lowry headed for China in December. This must be the thing to do lately, as A. Richard Smith of Houston recently went there and reportedly met the head speleologist in the country.


Logan McNatt is in the Peace Corps, stationed at the Department of Archaeology, Belmopan, Belize (mailing address). He wrote recently about his training period in which he attended "culture nights" (parties) to learn the ways of the different ethnic groups in the country, such as the Garifunas, Mestizos, and Mayas. He has spent much time caving and working on archeo digs in Belize before, but now he's working to help protect antiquities and organize the government's collections. The caving has consisted of guiding some British soldiers through a river cave and one other trip. He goes up to Yucatan occasionally. Logan would like to have letters from his friends and yearns for music cassettes, a wok, a vegetable steamer, and his '54 Chevy. The UTG sent Logan a copy of "Mythos", a recently published cartoon book that contains Barb MacLeod's 20 page adventure, "Numen of the Night Sun". This is a story about magical/heroic doings in Belizean caves. DFW: Jay Jorden DALLAS-FORT WORTH GROTTO NEWS The Dallas-Fort Worth Grotto has, since the first of the new year, been involved in exploration, mapping and geological work in a number of fronts covering four states and Mexico. The efforts continue work that was begun last year. First, four grotto members made a trip to the Guadal upe Mountains of New Mexico on 5-8 January. John Brooks, Charlie Collier, Paul Vittelaro, and Jay Jorden did some ridgewalking in several areas in search of a cave that had been spotted on an earlier reconnaissance. Madonna Cave was entered and the 220-foot pit was descended. This trip followed two earlier excursions last year in the fall, in which more ridgewalking and some mapping was accomplished. Several trips have been made to Fitton Cave in Arkansas, the latest coming around the first of the year, with eight or so grotto members taking a spin through the cave. Earl ier trips were made last year, with grotto old-timer Pete Lindsley leading one of the journeys. More than 20 grotto members and visitors have participated in trips to the Spade Cattle Co. lease in Southern Oklahoma, where the grotto is embarked on a mapping project and further exploration in Wild Woman Cave. More than 2,700 feet of pas-sage has been mapped in two trips, and mapping will continue past the kilometer mark next trip. Lead pushing in the general vicinity of Wild Woman has continued, with some diving and wetsuit caving re quired. In Texas, the Dallas-Fort Worth grotto has not neglected its caving duties, Several trips were made last year to the Mineral Well s area, where mapping is contemplated in two caves and one solid lead has been found and is being checked out. A grotto project there has been contemplated. The grotto's contingent from Arlington has been busy in Mexico recently, taking several trips to Nuevo Leon and the Bustamante area. A week-long trip is being planned to the interior. In conclusion, the Dallas-Fort Worth grotto is alive and kicking. Come caving wi th us some time! See you unde rground. Aloha. PERMIAN: Bill Bentley PERMIAN BASIN SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY It has been suggested that P.B.S,S. change our affiliation from the TSA to the Southwest Region of the NSS. This wou ld be a big move (bureaucratically, at leas t) that must not be undertaken without the general concensus of all the P.B.S.S. m embership. I won't get into the advantage s/ disadvantages of such a move now, but I will ask that you think about it before the next meeting. I would also like to invite someone from the TSA to write the SPYLUNK and detail reasons why we sho:.i1d stay in the TSA. BAT CAVE BLOWOUT: The 1 st Annual Bat Cave Blowout is scheduled for the weekend of June 1, 1. : j4, at (of all places) Bat Cave. Plenty of eating, drinking, caving and whatever is anticipated, so mark your calendar Maps and directions will be provUed later. AlE AU. of 16 AIIO A fRIIf 1I0Ni5f 10 (,o,)D/JESS CA'Iffl.l YISlrep lfieM ALL


Cave Trips s:; ',:t<.RA LOS PICACHOS, NUEVO LEON D c e : April 22-24, 1983 c:.: v e rs: Jim Feely, Peter Sprouse, Terri S prouse R r j 1 0rted by: Peter Sprouse :, eaving Austin on a Friday night, we c ssed the bo rde r and camped of f to the e;" t of Highway 85 near Mamulique. The n e t morning we took off on a seemingly iless series of roads through the des e', : heading toward the mountains with the t e,; o map as our guide. Just as our road W i -'; fading into sageb rush, we hi t a main g r vel road heading up into the Picacho r " ge. As we climbed higher we found our ves in reasonable looking limestone, Wlc'1 occasional shale outcrops. As we c1 higher on the mountain, we became s U i : picious as the road began to get bett e Then we came to a massive steel gate w ith a threatening sign on it. Mter a bit of hesitation we climbed the gate and walked down the road to w a rd the ranch house. The road was pave d with limestone whe re it crossed an imp r essive knife-edged ridge, reminiscent of a n Inca Highway. The expensive looking ran c h house was guarded by a German shepherd. After talking to persons of varying authority it was determined that we would 17 not be allowed to look for caves on the ranch without first getting permission from the owner in Monterrey. Since there was no chance of getting permission that weekend, we decided to go on to Monterrey and Huasteca canyon. We did a little shopping in the city then drove on to the canyon. Instead of going down the main canyon, we took the second canyon to the right. This was nearly as impressive as Huasteca, and less crowded. We went as far as it was possible to drive, and then camped for the night. Sunday morning we hiked up the steep walled canyon and soon encountered a stream which sank in gravel s. We saw various sorts of holes in the canyon walls, but in a groady sort 0f breccia which didn't look too good. RATTLESNAKE CAVE, MONAHANS, WARD CO., TEXAS Date: August 25, 1983 Cavers: William (Bill) Bentley, Anthony Ivy Reported by: Bill Bentley We were on our way to Ft. Stockton for a trip through Comanche Springs Cave and we had left Thursday night and the crazy idea of visiting this little known mud hole cave came up, so what the heck! The two of us entered the cave as I have many times in the past after midnight. There wasn't much changed since I had been there before nearly two years ago. The whole trip in and out took about an hour and primed us for the caving of the coming weekend. COMANCHE SPRINGS CAVE, FT. STOCKTON, PECOS COUNTY, TEXAS Date: Sept. 1, 1983 Cavers: Bill Bentley, Pat Dearen, Richard Galle, and photographers Ron Jaap and Cody Bell Reported by: Bill Bentley We departed Midland at around 5:30 from the Midland Reporter Telegram newspaper office. Five of us left in 2 vehicles on our way to Ft. Stockton. Myself, Richard and Pat were in Patrick's Ford truck and the 2 photographers were in a small economy car. All of this trip had come about because of all of the publicity generated by the TV crew we had taken into the cave and the slide show that was presented at


our 1st Cave Club meeting. Caverns, Caves, Pits, the dark, and ghosts in the night dominated the discussion on the way down to Ft. Stock ton. We a rri ved a round 7:30pm and the photographers had to take pictures of the World's Largest Road Runner .and this put us entering the cave around 7: 45. Once inside and all the bellyaching from the tight barrel entrance had subsided we then took the straight 200 ft. passage of crawling and domes and pits to the awe inspiring Stephan's Well. On the way to the well I stopped to drink water from a jug left in the cave for I presume months. (This later made me sick for all of Thursday & Friday.) I rappelled down to the water level and the water was crystal clear. My wheat lamp's powerful beam penetrated the depths to around an estimated 70 to 80 feet, at which point I could see what appeared to be a ledge or shelf all the way around this hour glass shaped pool. Below that was blackness, darker than anytime you just turn out your lamp. Only a professional diver (cave diver) will be able to unlock the secrets that lie below Stephan's Well. Many pictures were taken and we pushed onward to Cristina's Well. More pictures and we returned to the dome passage leading to the original entrance sump, The Wishing Well. On the way back I had gotten far enough ahead of everyone el se to have enough time to make artificial doggie poop out of the clay and mud. It fooled everyone. I told them to watch out for wild animal s. Cave humor had struck again! We exited the cave and took more pictures. One thing about photographers is that they love to take pictures. I hope Mr. Jasek reprints the story as was written by Pat Dearen, as Mr. Dearen did an excellent job. RR 620 CAVE Da te: Septembe r 13, 1983 Cavers: Wayne Russell, Rodney Leist, Ricky Alexander, and Richard Harbordt Reported by: Richard Harbordt On Tuesday evening, September went on a picture/explore trip to Cave, located in far northwest (actually, it is closer to Round 13, we RR 620 Austin Rock) 18 The cave is fairly small, and has a small colony of bats. There are not many formations in the cave, wi th only two main rooms. The rooms are big enough to poke around in (walking), and are connected by a 10 foot hands and knees crawlway. We did see the bats, and probably made them leave the cave a little early, as who can sleep with all those lights? (Anyway, who would want to stay in the same cave with a bunch of dirty, smelly, old cavers?) The main purpose of the trip was to test Rodney's new flash, and generally get some practice in on cave photography. We got some good pictures of beer cans, crickets, rocks, a few small cave formations, and dirty, smelly, old cavers. We did learn a lot about cave photography -what lenses to use; different lighting effects; and how to balance yourself on a pile of guano with one foot, a rock with the other, focus the camera on a cricket (this is the hard part -those little buggers don't like to pose for pictures), watch for water drips, and finally snap the picture, only to find the little bugger jumped t o another part of the ceiling just befor e you snapped the camera. It was a go o d little trip to have after work. McKENZIE CAVE, BAT CAVE, "RAVEN CAVE" PECOS COUNTY, TEXAS Date: October 22-23, 1983 Cavers: Dennis Doherty, Bruce Errat t Tammi Erratt, Bill Greenlee, Pat Hill, Terry Hill, Tony Grieco Reported by: Tony Grieco This was the fi rst official grotto tJip of the Permian Basin Speleological Soc:! -ty. The group entered McKenzie Cave ead y Saturday morning, eventually breaking u p into two groups, both of which got "sed ously misplaced" for about an hour in i'_h e complex mazes of, this cave. After ab o ut four hours of crawling, we all left to check out some leads near Sheffield b ut couldn't get into anything until the day. That evening we took a quick tour of Bat Cave and ended up having our and-a-half" grotto meeting outside the i n nermost chamber.


Sunday the group checked out a lead on a ranch and ended up with a small vertical cav e approximately 100 feet deep. This was given the name "Raven Cave" because the rancher told us that as far as return visits were concerned, it was "nevermore". A second lead was checked out on a differen t ranch, and al though there was every indication of a cave, a return visit will be necessary to upen it up. ;lRACKEN BAT CAVE, BRACKEN, TEXAS 1\2te: September 17, 1983 r.>vers: about 50 people UT sponsored cave trip p,"ported by: Richard Harbordt T he trip to Bracken Bat Cave to see the I ) t flight was on Saturday evening, Sept. th. Eve ryb ody me tat the rail road .'leks in Bracken, and from there went to : cave, caravan style. When we arrived, \.':':0 first thing that clued you to the fact t i-. t this was a bat cave was the very strong smell around the area. Up to 100 feet from the cave, the smell was very noticeable. The closer you got, the worse the smell was. Everyone got out their chairs, blankets, and cameras, and picked a spot to watch the flight. The cave was at the bottom of a sink. The sink is rather large, and people were sitting around it, amphitheater style. The cave entrance is about 50 feet wide, 10-20 feet high. About 7: 15, the bats started flying out, small numbers at first, then almost darkening the sky. They would fly out of the cave, then spiral up, out of the sink, and then take off in groups in one direction. This was another one of those "most impressive sights I have ever seen". We did not go into the cave. We got some really great pictures. I used the new 1000 ASA color print film, as the light levels were very low. The pictures are a little 'grainy', but really good. We left being duly impressed, and having a great time. 1984 TSA PHOTO SALON ENTRY BLANK ' f ME: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------) D RESS: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------TITLE CATEGORY 8 9 -------------------------------------------------------1 0 Photocopy, fill out, then send in. (This will keep you from cutting the Caver!)


BULK RATE US. Postoge PAID Waco, Tx. 76710 Permit No.1423

Contents: In memory of
Wayne Russell --
Sotano Savas --
TSA logo --
Competence and judgement --
BOG meeting --
TSA 84 convention site --
1984 TSA photo salon --
From the Editor --
Odds & ends --
Grotto news --
Cave trips --
1984 TSA photosalon entry blank.


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Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.