An article describing methods of measuring the sulfur
concentrations in speleothems as a means to examine volcanic
25 PAGES News Science Highlights: Speleothem Research The use of stalagmite geochemistry to detect past de-DE de-DE volcanic eruptions and their environmental impacts SSILVIA FRISIA de-DE1 *, SS. BAd D ERTSc C HER de-DE2 AA. BORSATO de-DE1,3 J. SSUSINI de-DE4 OO .MM. GKTRK de-DE3 HH. CHENg G de-DE5 RR.LL. EEdwDW ARd D S de-DE5 J. KKRAMERS de-DE2 OO T TYSZ de-DE6 ANd D D. FLEITMANN de-DE2de-DE1de-DESchool of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Australia; Silvia.Frisia@newcastle.edu.aude-DE2de-DEInstitute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; de-DE3de-DEMuseum of Natural Sciences, Trento, Italy; de-DE4de-DEEuropean Synchrotron Radiation Fade-DE-de-DE cility, Grenoble, France; de-DE5de-DEDepartment of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA; de-DE6 de-DEEurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, de-DE Istanbul Technical University, Turkey S concentration in speleothems: Analytical methods Tambora and Krakatau recorded in a stalagmite from N. Italy Figure 1: Results of the SR-XRF analyses of S-sulfate in the 18102000 AD portion of a stalagmite from Grotta di Ernesto (N. Italy). Arrows indicate that sulfate concentration peaked in the years 18151816, 18841888, and 1947. These peaks can be ascribed to atmospheric S load increases following the Tambora, Krakatau and (possibly) Hekla eruptions, respectively. The pronounced increasing trend in S-sulfate concentration (counts per second; cps) after the year 1960 is due to anthropogenic sulfate emissions (Frisia et al., 2005) and masks any more recent volcanic-related S-sulfate peaks.
Science Highlights: Speleothem Research The Santorini eruption recorded in a N. Turkey stalagmite Future work ReferencesBadertscher, S., Fleitmann, D., Frisia, S., Borsato, A., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Gktrk, O.M., Tysz, O. and Kramers, J., in prep.: Santorini eruption recorded in a stalagmite from Sofular Cave, Northern Turkey. Borsato A., Frisia, S., Fairchild I.J., Somogyi A. and Susini J., 2007: Trace element distribution in annual stalagmite laminae mapped by micrometer-resolution X-ray uorescence: implications for in corporation of environmentally signicant species, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 1494-1512. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeier, T. and Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to 1627-1600 B.C., Science, 312: 548. Frisia, S., Borsato, A., Fairchild, I.J. and Susini, J., 2005: Variations in atmospheric sulphate recorded in stalagmites by synchrotron micro-XRF and XANES analyses, Earth and Planetary Science Let ters, 235: 729-740. Zielinski, G.A., 2000: Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system, Quaternary Science Re views, 19: 417-438.For full references please consult: www.pages-igbp.org/products/newsletters/ref2008_3.html Figure 2: The eects of the Santorini eruption recorded by SR-XRF analyses of S-sulfate in the ca. 33503800 BP portion of the Sofular stalagmite from Anatolia (Turkey). Note that the peak in S concentration follows a rapid shift of the inverted 13C curve to more positive values, which can be related to vegetation stress. The gray shaded area marks the timing of the Santorini eruption as given by Friedrich et al., 2006.