Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов

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Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов

Material Information

Title:
Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов
Series Title:
ПЕЩЕРЫ
Alternate Title:
PESHCHERY (CAVES) INTERUNIVERSITY COLLECTION OF SCIENTIFIC TRANSACTIONS
Creator:
George Veni ( suggested by )
Publication Date:
Language:
Russian
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Russia

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General Note:
Сборник (выпуски 25-26) посвящен геологии, генезису и отложениям пещер Приуралья, Поволжья, Европейского севера России, Восточной Сибири, а также Крыма и Кубы. Рассматриваются вопросы спелеотерапии, терминологии и методики изучения пещер. Освещается история отечественной спелеологии, приводятся данные о крупнейших пещерах, новых спелеологических исследованиях, карстовых совещаниях и конгрессах; рецензируются новейшие публикации по спелеологии; представлена библиография по карсту и пещерам. Издание предназначено для преподавателей и студентов вузов, инженеров- геологов и гидрогеологов, ведущих изыскания в карстовых районах, а также спелеологов. СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Светлой памяти Клары Андреевны Горбуновой 5 Предисловие 7 1 Геология и генезис пещер Малков Ð’. Н., Гуркало Е. И. Спелеологическое районирование и распределение пещер Архангельской области Бортников Ðœ. П. Карстово-спелеологическое районирование и общие сведения о пещерах Самарской области Ляхницкий Ю. С., Чуйко Ðœ. А. Комплексные исследования Каповой пещеры 21 Вахрушев Б. А., Амеличев Г. Н., Семенова Е. Н. Мраморная пещера 37 Лавров И. А. Ординская пещера 47 Килин Ю. А., Минькевич И. И. Полости Красноясыльского карстового поля 52 Катаев Ð’. Н. Типичные малые пещеры Иренского карстового района 57 Отложения пещер Степанов Ð’. И. К минералогии пещер 63 Быков Ð’. Н. Редкие карстовые образования в пещерах Кубы 72 Филиппов А. Г. Уэдделлит и уэевллит в пещере Иркутской 75 Лобанов Ю. Е., Савельев Ð’. Н., Цурихин Е. А. Природное образование коллоидов карбоната кальция Шурубор А. Ð’., Минькевич И. И., Лихачев Ю. Н. Волшебные гроты Тюрингии Шаврина Е. Ð’. Ледяные отложения пещер Европейского Севера России 82 Спелеотерапия Файнбург Г. З. Основные процессы формирования лечебных факторов подземной среды, 89 используемой для спелеотерапии Абдрахманов Р. А., Абдрахманов А.Р., Абдрахманов А. Р. (мл.). О перспективах применения спелеотерапии в Соль-Илецке Охрана пещер Трофимова Е. Ð’. Охраняемые пещеры - памятники природы Иркутской области Терминология и методика изучения пещер Трофимова Е. Ð’. О терминологической унификации форм спелеорельефа 107 Юрин Ð’. И. К методике первичного археологического и палеонтологического 111 обследования подземных полостей История изучения пещер Горбунова К. А., Дублянский Ð’. Н. Из истории отечественной спелеологии (первая половина XX в.) Дублянский Ð’. Н. Из истории отечественной спелеологии (вторая половина XX в.) 127 Лавров И. А. История исследования пещер Пермской области (1971-1998 гг.) 156 Новости спелеологии Потери спелеологии Рецензии Проблемы изучения карстовых ландшафтов Вопросы физической спелеологии 1 Карстовые провалы 180 Структурные предпосылки спелеогенеза в гипсах Западной Украины 181 Доклады международного симпозиума «Ð§ÐµÐ»Ð¾Ð²ÐµÐº и карст» 181 Гипсовый карст Мира 182 Карстовая республика 183 Минералы пещер Мира 183 XXXV лет клубу спелеологов МГУ 185 Теоретические основы изучения парагенезиса карст-подтопление 185 Спелеология в России 186 Хроника Симпозиум «ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ€Ñ‹Ð²Ñ‹ в геомикробиологии и редокс-геохимии карста», США, 1994 187 XII международный спелеологический конгресс, Швейцария, 1997 187 Пещерный палеолит Урала, Уфа, 1997 189 50 лет со времени Молотовской карстовой конференции 189 Кунгурскому стационару 50 лет 190 30 лет Челябинскому клубу спелеологов 191 10 лет Ассоциации спелеологии Урала 192 О Российском Союза Спелеологов 193 Справочный раздел Крупнейшие карстовые полости бывшего СССР и России 194 Совещания и конференции по карсту, проведенные в бывшем СССР 196 Библиография по карсту и пещерам Peshchery (Caves): Interuniversity collection of scientific transactions / Perm, 1999. - 219 p. The collection (issues No 25-26) is dedicated to the geology, origin and deposits of caves of Urals, Volga region, European north of Russia, East Siberia, Crimea, and Cuba. The problems of speleotherapy, terminology and the methods of cave studies are discussed. Among other topics are history of domestic speleology, the data about largest caves, new results of speleological research, materials from recent karstological conferences and review of recent publications. The bibliography on karst and caves from 1993 to 1998 is compiled. This publication may be useful for professors and students, engineering geologists and hydrogeologists working in karst regions, as well as for cavers. CONTENTS In memory of К. A. Gorbunova 5 Foreword 7 Geology and genesis of caves Malkоv V. N., Gurkalо Е. I. Speleological subdivision into zones and distribution of caves of the Arkhangelsk area Bortnikov M. P. Karst-speleological subdivision into regions and caves of the Samara area 16 Lahnitski J. S., Сhuikо Ðœ. A. Complex research in Kapovaya cave 21 Vahrushev B. A., Amelichev G. N., Semenova E. N. Mramornaya cave 37 Lavrov I. A. Ordinskaya cave 47 Кilin J. A., Minkeviсh I. I. Caves of the Krasnoyasilsk Karst field 52 Кataev V. N. Characteristic small caves of the Irenski karst region 57 Cave deposits Stepanоv V. I. On cave mineralogy 63 Ð’ikоv V. N. Uncommon karst formations in caves of Cuba 72 Filippоv A. G. Uedellit and uevellit in Irkutskaya cave 75 Lobanov J. E.Saveliev V. N., Tsurihin E.A. Natural formation on the basis of calcium carbonate in colloidal state Shurubor A. V., Minkevich I. I., Likhatchov J. N. Magic grottos of Thuringer Wald 80 Shavrina E. V. Ice deposits in caves of the European North of Russia 82 Speleotherapy Fainburg G. Z. Basic Processes of formation of the healing factors of underground environment used for speleotherapy 89 Abdrahmanov R. A., Abdrahmanov A. R. Abdrahmanov A. R. (jun.) Perspectives of speleotherapy in Sol-Iletsk 97 Protection of caves Trofimova E Protected caves - natural monuments of the Irkutsk area Terminology and methods of cave studies Trofimova E. V. About terminological unification of the speleo-landforms 107 Yurin V. I. On the method of primary archeological and palaeontological inspection of the underground cavities 116 History of Cave Studies Gоrbunоva. K. A., Dubliansкi V. N. From history of domestic speleology (first half of the XX century) Dublianski V. N. From history of domestic speleology (second half of the XX century) 127 Lavrоv I. A. History of cave research in the Perm area (from 1971 to 1999) 156 Speleological News Losses of Speleology Reviews Problems of karst landscape studies Problems of physical speleology 180 Karst sinkholes 180 The structural premises of speleogenesis in gypsum of Western Ukraine 181 Proceedings of International symposium «Man on Karst». 1995 181 Gypsum karst of the World 182 The karst republic 183 Cave minerals of the World 183 XXXV anniversary of the Speleologcal Club of MSU 185 Paragenesis karst-underflooding 185 Speleology in Russia The Chronicle Breakthroughs in geomicrobiology and redox-geochemistry of karst, USA, 1994 187 XII Speleological Congress, Switzerland, 1997 187 Cave palaeolith of Ural, Ufa, 1997 189 50 years from the Molotov karst conference 189 50 years of the Kungur karst laboratory 190 30 years of the Chelyabinsk speleology 191 10 years of the Ural Association of speleologists 192 About the creation of Russian Union of speleologists 193 Reference Information The largest karst caves of the former USSR and Russia 194 Conferences and Symposia on karst, hold in the former USSR 196 The bibliography on karst and caves
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
No. 25-26 (1999)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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K26-05029 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5029 ( USFLDC Handle )
21031 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
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Description
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Peshchery (Caves): Interuniversity collection of
scientific transactions / Perm, 1999. 219 p.
The collection (issues No 25-26) is dedicated to
the geology, origin and deposits of caves of Urals,
Volga region, European north of Russia, East Siberia,
Crimea, and Cuba. The problems of speleotherapy,
terminology and the methods of cave studies are
discussed. Among other topics are history of domestic
speleology, the data about largest caves, new results
of speleological research, materials from recent
karstological conferences and review of recent
publications. The bibliography on karst and caves
from 1993 to 1998 is compiled.
This publication may be useful for professors and
students, engineering geologists and hydrogeologists
working in karst regions, as well as for cavers.
CONTENTS
In memory of . A. Gorbunova 5
Foreword 7
Geology and genesis of caves
Malkv V. N., Gurkal . I. Speleological
subdivision into zones and distribution of caves of
the Arkhangelsk area
Bortnikov M. P. Karst-speleological subdivision
into regions and caves of the Samara area 16
Lahnitski J. S., huik . A. Complex research
in Kapovaya cave 21
Vahrushev B. A., Amelichev G. N., Semenova E.
N. Mramornaya cave 37
Lavrov I. A. Ordinskaya cave 47
ilin J. A., Minkevih I. I. Caves of the
Krasnoyasilsk Karst field 52
ataev V. N. Characteristic small caves of the
Irenski karst region 57
Cave deposits
Stepanv V. I. On cave mineralogy 63
ikv V. N. Uncommon karst formations in caves
of Cuba 72
Filippv A. G. Uedellit and uevellit in
Irkutskaya cave 75
Lobanov J. E.Saveliev V. N., Tsurihin E.A.
Natural formation on the basis of calcium carbonate
in colloidal state
Shurubor A. V., Minkevich I. I., Likhatchov J.
N. Magic grottos of Thuringer Wald 80
Shavrina E. V. Ice deposits in caves of the
European North of Russia 82
Speleotherapy
Fainburg G. Z. Basic Processes of formation of
the healing factors of underground environment used
for speleotherapy 89
Abdrahmanov R. A., Abdrahmanov A. R.
Abdrahmanov A. R. (jun.) Perspectives of
speleotherapy in Sol-Iletsk 97
Protection of caves
Trofimova E Protected caves natural monuments
of the Irkutsk area
Terminology and methods of cave
studies
Trofimova E. V. About terminological
unification of the speleo-landforms 107
Yurin V. I. On the method of primary
archeological and palaeontological inspection of
the underground cavities 116
History of Cave Studies
Grbunva. K. A., Dubliansi V. N. From history
of domestic speleology (first half of the XX
century)
Dublianski V. N. From history of domestic
speleology (second half of the XX century) 127
Lavrv I. A. History of cave research in the
Perm area (from 1971 to 1999) 156
Speleological News
Losses of Speleology
Reviews
Problems of karst landscape studies Problems of
physical speleology 180
Karst sinkholes 180
The structural premises of speleogenesis in
gypsum of Western Ukraine 181
Proceedings of International symposium Man on
Karst. 1995 181
Gypsum karst of the World 182
The karst republic 183
Cave minerals of the World 183
XXXV anniversary of the Speleologcal Club of
MSU 185
Paragenesis karst-underflooding 185
Speleology in Russia
The Chronicle
Breakthroughs in geomicrobiology and
redox-geochemistry of karst, USA, 1994 187
XII Speleological Congress, Switzerland, 1997
187
Cave palaeolith of Ural, Ufa, 1997 189
50 years from the Molotov karst conference
189
50 years of the Kungur karst laboratory
190
30 years of the Chelyabinsk speleology 191
10 years of the Ural Association of
speleologists 192
About the creation of Russian Union of
speleologists 193
Reference Information
The largest karst caves of the former USSR and
Russia 194
Conferences and Symposia on karst, hold in the
former USSR 196
The bibliography on karst and
caves



PAGE 2

1 Founded in 1947

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2 MINISTRY ON EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Perm State University Karstology and Speleology Institute PESHCHERY (CAVES) INTERU NIVERSITY COLLECTION OF SCIENTIFIC TRANSACTIONS Perm 1999

PAGE 4

3

PAGE 5

4 ISBN 5 7944 0123 0 Peshchery (Caves): Interuniversity collection of scientific transactions / Perm, 1999. 219 p. The collection (issues 26) is dedicated to the geology, origin and deposits of caves of Urals, Volga region, European n orth of Russia, East Siberia, Crimea, and Cuba. The problems of speleotherapy, terminology and the methods of cave studies are discussed. Among other topics are history of domestic speleology, the data about largest caves, new results of speleological rese arch, materials from recent karstological conferences and review of recent publications. The bibliography on karst and caves from 1993 to 1998 is compiled. This publication may be useful for professors and students, engineering geologists and hydrogeologis ts working in karst regions, as well as for cavers. ( ( ISBN 5 7944 0123 0

PAGE 6

5 In memory of A Gorbunova 18 6 1996 56

PAGE 7

6 1:500

PAGE 8

7 FOREVORD 1993 1998 1996 90 1987 90

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8 1993 1997 1 26 70 XX 90 90 ;

PAGE 10

9 1999

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10 GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF CA VES . . V. N. Malkov, N. Gurkalo SPELEOLOGICAL SUBDIVISION INTO ZONES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CAVES OF THE ARKHANGELSK AREA The caves of the Arkhangelsk area are developed in the sulphate rocks of Sakmarski layer of Lower Permian. By 1974, some 134 caves were found by cavers from Leningrad. Today the number of known caves has reached 367. Among largest caves are: Kulogorskaya Troya (14,3 km), Olympic Lomonosovskaya (5,5 km + 3,3 km, caves are jointed by a 280 m long siphon) and Constitutional (6 ,3 km). Some 25 karst massifs, having different density and nature of karst are known in the area. The caves have a variety of attractions: underground rivers, lakes, waterfalls, permanent glaciers, diverse ice formations; bats, cave fish, and insects. Kar st landscape protected territories have been created in order to protect caves of the area.

PAGE 12

11 1). ( 1).

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12 3 6 1. 1, 2 2. ; 3. 4. 1. 9 10 7 8 1, 3, 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 2. : 6 5 2 4 4 5

PAGE 14

13 01.01.74 01.01.93 01.01.98 1. 35 36 7 2. 35* 33 32 4 3. 24 23 2 15 14 14 3 5 ? ? 6. ? ? 3 3 9 9 1 1 36 41 44 12 24 40 41 3 3. ? ? 1 2 13 13 6 6 10** 8 8 18 18 1 57 83 7 9 10 2 11. 2 10 1 ( 14 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 134 323 365 43

PAGE 15

14 2 3 1. 14300 18 55400 72550 1837 2. 6130 32 25900 32880 1970 3. 5500** 27 45570 88610 1976 4. 4520 24 24000 52320 1974 5. 4380 10 5620 14160 1985 6. 3330** 19 30310 65180 1977 7. 3240 10 6120 9660 1974 8. 3205 18 19260 27920 1979 9. 2947 27 22430 56480 1966 10. 2599 12 9340 12560 1968 11. 2598 8 6540 6960 1967 12. 2280 30 16400 1974 13. 2262 22 16730 23260 1979 14. 5 2035 10 5560 4210 1967 15. 1830 4500 6300 1970 16. 1622 17 52670 8260 1967 17. 53) 1480 10 10880 13190 1974 18. 1,2 1380 10 5300 2630 1972 19. 1233 11 4820 6480 1976 20. 1005 19 ? 29716 67 367350 503610 280

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15 1. // 2. 3. // 4. // 5. ,

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16 P. Bortnikov KARST SPELEOLOGICAL SUBDIVISION INTO REGIONS AND CAVES OF THE SAMARA AREA The paper present the data about geologic features of caves in the Samara area, and discusses its subd ivision into regions in terms of karst features. Some 48 caves developed in limestone or gypsum and totaling 2,07 km length are known in the area. The largest one is Cave of Brothers Greve (500 m). Morphology and deposits of caves, as well as their signifi cance as natural monuments are discussed. I II 12,7 ) 1999

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17 1 I II 1

PAGE 19

18 / 15).

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19 : 1 4 ( I V )

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20 1 (28/+5) 25 14 (500/ 5) 1 II 2 (472 / 6) 9. 3 2 (56 / 2,3) III 2 1 (52/0)

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21 1. // 2. 3. XIII 4. V // 5. 6. 1963. 7. 8. 9. J. S. Lakhni tski, M. A. Chuiko COMPLEX RESEARCH IN KAPOVAYA CAVE Kapovaya cave (Shulgan Tash) is a monument of the culture for East Europe, because it contains unique Palaeolithic painting. Research carried out during 1981 97 have shown that the sizes of the cave ar e: length 2,86 km, surface area 21,9000 m 2 volume 155,600 m 3 This paper describes the results of the radiological, microbiological, geological, geomorfological, hydrological, microclimatic, mineralog ical, glacialogical studies and survey carried out in t he cave and on the surface. The evaluation of the state of cave painting was made for the first time, and the experiments on its conservation were conducted. Different variants of the preservation strategy for cave painting are discussed in the context of the cave development as a show cave.

PAGE 23

22 1959 1981 ( 2000,0 2857,5 1880,0 2849,7 517,5 6,8 7 ,1 8,9 7,7 103/30 16000 21852 2 21917 3 86100 155611 0,083 0,084 1,06 1 84

PAGE 24

23 70 1 2, 3, 4). I II III IV )

PAGE 25

24 1 4

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25 1 2

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26

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27 6,7 18,2 6,7 (+19,0 279,5 6,7 278,1 5,7 312 315 316 317 43,9 313 319 46,2 331 0,2 360,5 335,5 62,4

PAGE 29

28 3 600 2,5 3 3 10 25%, 10% 3 ),

PAGE 30

29 240 250 7,7; 112 222 288 3 220 250 3 212 240 NO 2 NO 3 NH 4 ). u Cd Zn u Zn

PAGE 31

30 17 70 20

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31 3 3 3 (260 3 3 3 580 3 1000 3 3 3 3 ). 3,6

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32 1,5 /

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33 20 5 3

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34 I 15

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35

PAGE 37

36

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37 1. 2. 3. // 4. // 5. 6. 7. // 8. // 9 , A Vahrushev G N. Amelichev E N. Seme nova MRAMORNAYA CAVE The Mramornaya cave on Chatirdag karst massif in Crimea (length of 2,06 km, surface area 22,000 m 2 volume 130,000 m 3 ) was discovered in 1987. The paper discusses data on me morphology, deposits, microclimate, radiological features, hydrogeology, and history of formation of the cave. The changes in microclimate and microbiologic features related to the tourist activity (e. g., 230,000 visitors in 1991) are discussed. The paper suggests measures on cave preservation 1965 135 , 1999

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38 1986 1992 9 18 3,0 120 40 2 ),

PAGE 40

39 2 3 30 28 2 40 1 4

PAGE 41

40 20 2 3 (90 (160 ( C v =0,20 C v =0,02). 9

PAGE 42

41 8,5 8,2 1 (37 0,92 10 2 174 10 9 500 10 9 300 10 9 ). 6 8 13 13 15 40 1992 17500 3

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42 6 ,2

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43

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44 [6]. 0,001%), ,001 (65%).

PAGE 46

45 30 1,5

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46 2 10 9 ).

PAGE 48

47 1. 2. // 3. // 4. // 5. // 1956. A Lavrov ORDINSKAYA CAVE The formation of the large underwater passages of Ordinskaya c ave (total length 2.2 km) in gypsum and anhydrite of Ledianopescherskaia formation is related to the inflow of aggressive waters from Fillipovski limestone. The good safety to presence in the arch of limestone and dolomite of Nevolinskaia formation. 1994 1999

PAGE 49

48 50 1). 12 20

PAGE 50

49

PAGE 51

50

PAGE 52

51 (5 2 30 2 25 2 ).

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52 2500 41 43 34 855 1. // 2. // 3. // 4. // 5. // (8). 6. // J. A. Kilin, I I Minkevich CAVES OF THE KRASNOYASILSK KARST FIELD The thick ness of the Kungur series (gypsum and anhydrite) in area of the gas pipeline is 60 m. The density of sinkholes is very high there (9,500 km 2 ). Karst forms are represented by zones of rocks with reduced density, karst joints, and caves up to 310 m in length 210 [1]. 1999

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5 3 ( P 1 ) ( Q ), ( P 1 ). 2 1985 250 2 1997 2740 2 3,0 35 6,9 (23%

PAGE 55

54

PAGE 56

55 SO 4 Ca Cl HCO 3 3 3 390 2 0,5 7,0 15 20 167 180 3 184,7 184 3 192 192 3

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56 3 3 0,8 1090 870 2,8 1,1 590 650 3,5 1,6 260 420 3,9 0,9 110 100 1,9 1,5 20 20 3,0 1,6 30 5 3,8 20 5,5 3 12 16 3 1. , 1 992. 2.

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57 3. // 19 86. 4. V. N. Kataev CHARACTERISTIC SMALL CAVES OF THE IRENSKI KARST REGION The most representative types of the small caves of the Irenski karst region (Perm area) are described. The paper discusses their morphological charcteristics, as well as geologic and hydrogeologic features that controlled their development. ( P 1 ). 08.1997 40

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58 1). 7,0 10 1,0 3,0 3 SO 4 Ca Cl HCO 3 3 0,3 3

PAGE 60

59 10 3

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60 V

PAGE 62

61 1,3 5,0 20 1,5 10 3,5 30 60 3 5 1,5 2,0

PAGE 63

62 1. 1963. 1.

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63 SEDIMENTS IN THE CAVES V I. Stepanov ON CAVE MINERALOGY After death of V. I. Stepanov, a wealth of his unpublished data on cave m ineralogy were found in the archives of the Mineralogical museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Part of these data was prepared for publication by A. Maltzev (Russia) and P. Forti (Italy). Cave formation occur as individual forms, paragenetic ensemble s, and hybrid textures. V. I. Stepanov argued, that they reflect 16 situations, for which controlling factors are mass transport and kinetics of reactions. Features of crystallisation reflect the environment of formation (e. g., subaerial growth of Ca carb onates is mainly controlled by CO 2 degassing). Simple forms and their ensembles are subdivided into classes according to their controlling depositional process: gravity (stalactites, stalagmites, crusts); crystallisation from capillary films (cristallictit s, transient forms); helictites (classic and transient forms); volumetric capillary crystallisation (moonmilk).

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64 1985 ) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

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65 10 10 6. 112 1 1

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66 14 1 2 3 4 5 [11, 12]. 1 4 2 3 [14]. 4 5

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67 1. (51) 1 (53) (13) ( (13)

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68 1 2. 3. (81), (82). 1. ( 111 ) 1 1

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69 1 (10). 2 (14) 5]. 1 2

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70 16]. 1. // 2. //

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71 3 1961. 4. // 5. // 6. // 7. // 8. // 9. // 10. // 11 // 12. // 1971. // 14. // 1 5 // 16. // 17 , 3. 18. 19. // 20. Hill F r ti P. Cave minerals of the world. Huntswill: NSS. 1986 21. Hi ll C F r ti P. Cave minerals of the world, 2 edition. Huntswill: NSS. 1997. 22. Ma l tsev V. A. The influence of season changes of the cave microclimate to the gypsum genesis // Proc. 10 th Int. Cong. Spel. 1989. Vol. III. 23. Ma lt sev V. A. New levels in minor mineral bodies hierarchy // NSS Convention '1996 program. Salida, Colorado. 1996. 24. Ma lt sev V. A. Sulfate filamentary crystals and their aggregates // Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeol. Soc, 1996, Vol. 20 (3). 25. Ma lt sev V. A Se l f ., A. Cupp Coutunn cave system, Turkmenistan, USSR // Pr oceedings of Bristol University speleological society, 1992. Vol.19. 26. Prinz W. Les cristallisations des grottes de Belgique // Nouv. Mem. Soc. Beige, geol. ser. 1908. 27. Stepan v V. I. Exploration de la sucsession de cristallisation de agregates mi nerales comme l'une de facon d'etude de l 'h istoire de la formation de grottes a concretion calcaire // Resumes des communications IV Cong. Intern de Speleol Lubljana 1965.

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72 V. N. Bikov UNCOMMON KARST FORMATIONS IN CAVES OF CUBA Cuban karst experts define a specific group of cave deposits, which are known as zinolitej zinolite domes, zinolite mushroom shaped formations, and zinolite mushrooms. Along the south coast of the is land, there occur caves with perpendicular sidewalls. These caves arej of karst tectonic origin. The casimbas communicate with sea; some of them have transformed into lagoons. There are some caves in travertin deposits. In some caves guano pea rls composed of potassium phosphate were found. These pearls were formed subaerially

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73 25

PAGE 75

74 15 2 5

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75 3 1. 1. 2. 3. : 1991. 4. i ll F r ti P Cave minerals of the world Huntsville: N at. Spel. Soc, 1986. 5. Hi ll C, F rti P. Cave minerals of the world. 2 Ed. Huntsville: Nat. Spel. Soc, 1997. 6. N unez Jimenez A. 40 anos explorandos a Cuba. La Habana 1980. A. G. Filippov UEDELLIT AND UEVELLIT IN CAVE IRKUTSKAIA Two rare minerals uedellit Ca ( 2 4 ) 2H 2 O and uevellit CaC 2 O 4 H 2 O were determined during the analysis of stains, analogous to the material of cave painting on the walls of Irkutskaia cave (Severo Muis ki range, Stanovoie upland). It is suggested that these minerals are due to the activity of lichens. This is the first finding of these minerals in Russian caves. 1

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76 2 3, 4 1 1 2 4 2 2 4 2

PAGE 78

77 1. // 2. / 3. // 4. .: 1987 5. Hill Forti P. Cave minerals of the world. 2 Ed. Huntsville: Nat. Spel. Soc, 1997. 6. Mandarino J. A. Uedellite from Lutttrworth township, Halit // The Can. Mineralogist. 1983. V. 21. . . . J. E. Lobanov, V. N. Saveliev, E. A. Tsurihin NATURAL FORMATION ON THE BASIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE IN COLLOIDAL STATE Gelatinous deposit containing 98% of water and 2% of a dry material was f ound in a lake in Kizelovskaia cave. Mg, Si, Fe (0,1 1,0 %), Al and Cu (< 0,1 %) and organic impurities were detected by means of the flame spectroscopy and IR spectrometry. According to XRD, studied material has properties analogous to those of calcite. S EM has revealed, that the gel contains crystalls of calcite and filamenous particles (clay minerals or aragonite). Thus, depposition of carbonates in caves may occur from colloidal solutions. 2 3 23 SiO 2 4,6 2 2% (0,1 1%), 1 1 1 ).

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78 3 3 / 0,2

PAGE 80

79 1.

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80 V A Shurubor I I Minkevich J N Lichachev MAGIC GROTTOS OF THURINGER WALD The paper des cribes underground mines of Turingia (Germany), which, due to thier unique beaty, have become natural attractions for tourists. +1 +3 [ SO 4 ] 2 12 H 2 O ) A +1 Na Cs NH 4 +3 Fe Cr Mn

PAGE 82

81 H 2 SO 4 ) Fe 3 [( PO 4 ), ( SO 4 ) 3 ] 2 ( m Al 2 O 3 n SiO 2 2 ( Fe .[ AsO 4 ].2 H 2 O )

PAGE 83

82 CEB EP V. Shavrina ICE DEPOSITS IN CAVES OF THE EUROPEAN NORTH OF RUSSIA Various ice formations: stalactites, stalagmites, stalagnates, crusts, ice veins, lake ic. glaciers, layered bodies, and crystalls are present in caves of Pinega area. Morph ology of ice deposits, their distribution within different hydrodynamic zones of caves, chemical compositia of ice, and volumetric variability during the year are discussed. Maximum age of ice from a ca ve C 26 is 200 years. The general pattern of the under ground glaciation is determined. 10 15

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83 200 1). 2,5 0 20

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84 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 1,00 1,66

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85 0,35

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86 2 n n 10 10 n 10

PAGE 88

87 0,10 1996

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88 1996 1. 2. , // 3. // 4. 5. 6. 7. // 4 8. //

PAGE 90

89 SPELEOTHERAPY G. Z. Fainburg BASIC PROCES SES OF FORMATION OF THE HEALING FACTORS OF UNDERGROUND ENVIRONMENT USED FOR SPELEOTHERAPY Primary factors related to man's health in caves are: absence of normal conditions for byota (no light), difference in temperature between the underground space and surface; elevated natural radiation level; low mobility of air; the presence of highly mineralized water; presence of hygroscopic mineral aerosols. Secondary medical factors are: high relative humidity; elevated ionization of the air; high purity of the ai r (it is essentially free from bioaerosols, dust, and polluting gases); stable microclimate; the presence of submycron aerosols of the vital elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, etc.). The treatement in an underground hospital involves change of air environment and mi croclimate (particularly, pressure); change of the radioactive background; isolation from man produced electromagnetic fields; and singularity of the situation. XIX

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90

PAGE 92

91 2 ).

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92 1 ; 1 2

PAGE 94

93 4

PAGE 95

94

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95 1). 2). 3). 4). 5). 6).

PAGE 97

96

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97 R. A Abdrahmanov, A. R. Abdrabmanov, A. R. Abdrahmanov (jun.) PERSPECTIVES OF SPELEOTHERAPY IN SOL ILET SK The ways, means, and needs for complex and systematic use of speleotherapy in Sol Iletsk are discussed. This would allow people of the Orenburg area suffering from lung diseases to be treated in a domestic hospital. 35

PAGE 99

98 60 2 9/18. 2 2].

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99 10 1993 53%, 767 1 3 3 3 ).

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100 1. 2. 3. // 4. // 12 13. 5. //

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101 PROTECTION OF CAVES E . V. Trofimova PROTECTED CAVES NATURAL MONUMENTS OF THE IRKUTSK AREA More than 100 caves are known in Irkutsk area (Russia), out of which only 6 have status of the state monuments of nature. 24 more caves are included in the waiting list for institutional protection. Three categories of caves are introduced: subjects of strict protection (can be visited only by scientists with special permits); subjects of restricted protection (scientific excursions are allowable); subjects of partial protection (can be used for organized tourism, organization of ecological trails, realization of sport speleologi cal activities). The lists and characteristics of caves of different categories are compiled.

PAGE 103

102 1. 500 2 0 2. 120 12 3. 17 4 PR, 4. 184 32 AR 5. 17 15 PR, 6. 47 9 AR, 7. 45 11 AR, 8. 55 8 AR, 9. 22 9 PR, 10. 41 9 PR, 11. 20 10 PR 1875

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103 1 1,5 12 2 10

PAGE 105

104 1. 5000 57 2. 1000 12, 5 3. 830 52 AR, 4. 226 60 AR, 5. 150 10 AR, 6. 80 15 AR, 7. 76 66 8. 600 22 PR, 9. 540 40 PR, 10. 780 28 PR, 11. 550 63 PR, 200 2 2 n 3 ) 2

PAGE 106

105 1. 21000 8 2. 820 144 578 32 AR, 4. 80 20 AR, 5. 46 17 AR, 6. 450 57 AR, 7. 45 16 AR, 8. 8 19 11 PR, 9. 10 4 PR

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106 1. 2. 3. // 4. 5. // 6. // 7. // 8. // 9. 1955. 10. // 1975. T IV 6.

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107 TERMINOLOGY AND METHODS OF CAVE INVESTIGATION 1 V Trofimova ABOUT TERMINOLOGICAL UNIFICATION OF SPELEO LANDFORMS Formalization of speleorelief is on e of the least developed problems of modern geomorphology. The paper employs basic concept of defining the relief elements through elementary surfaces, lines and points of their juncture. This allows to define the most common elements of speleorelief gal leries, wells, pits, grottoes, etc. New difmitions are compared with those suggested by other scientists. 5, 10, 1

PAGE 109

108 ( Spelaologisches Fachwerter buch 1965); ( Gorge 1984); 1978); ( Spelaologisches Fachwerterbuch 1965); 2 [10].

PAGE 110

109 9]: [12]; [4]; 2 [10]; 9]: [10]). 9]: [4]);

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110 6 2 1. 2. // 3. // 4. 5. // 6. 7. 8. 9. 91. 10. 1293 11. 12. 1973. 13. S 1 ab Cave Rocky Relief. Ljubljana: Znanstveno razisko valni Center SAZU, 1995.

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11 1 V I Yurin ON THE METHOD OF PRIMARY ARCHEOLOGICAL AND PALAEONTOLOGICAL INSPECTION OF THE UNDERGROUND CAVITIES Caves with large entrance chamber commonly contain archeological materials in loose sediments. Archaeological excavations in su ch caves may be carried out only by experts authorized by the Archaeology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Speleologists may help the specialists in obtaining preliminary information. The paper describes guidelines for preliminary examination of a cave, its primary documentation, and collection of samples.

PAGE 113

112 [2 4 9, 13, 14, 15].

PAGE 114

113 :

PAGE 115

114 ; (3512) 33 07 50, 36 59 (3512) 79 40 68. 1. 1938. 2. 1950. 3. // 4. // 1962. 5. // . 7. 8. . // 1992. 9. 10. 1983.

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115 11. 12. 13. 14. // 15. 16. //

PAGE 117

116 HISTORY OF CAVE STUDY XX A Gorbunova V N D ublianski FROM HISTORY OF DOMESTIC SPELEOLOGY (first half of the XX century) The history of cave studies in the USSR between 1917 1957 is presented. The review of the general achievements speleology (main publications, conferences, organizations and peopl e conducting research) is given along wit the regional data for Russia, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan and Central Asia. By the end of 1957, some J 000 caves were known in the USSR, the longest one being Kungur Ice Cave in Urals (4.7 km), the deepest c aves of Crimea and Caucasus (depth exceeding 100 m). Among the reasons that provided Sovied speleology with a boost by end of this period were: publication of books by N. Kastere that showed new areas where the energy of youth could be applied; develop ment of tourism where speleology has become a part; realization of the significance of cave studies by scientist of different fields; creation within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR of Interdepartmental Commission on the Geology and Geography of Ka rst, with one of the aims to co ordinate research efforts in thhe country; increasing cooperation between scientists and sport cavers in studies of caves; and development in some regions of the country (Perm, Crimea, Caucasus) of scientific teams, whic h were capable of leadership in this new public scientific activity. XVIII XIX XX XX 1 5, 22, 26, 7, 17, 26, 34, 35]. XX , 1999

PAGE 118

117 1949 , ,

PAGE 119

118 200 1940), [9,26, 36]. 20 (193 1934;

PAGE 120

119 (377 A. B. 1939 1948 1958 [33

PAGE 121

120 1953 [34 (1954) ( (1948 1950,1955). [13 ( 1927)

PAGE 122

121 A. 1]. (1920 B. . XX (1918 1920; 1941 1928

PAGE 123

122 (1930 XII (1936 1941, 1945 31]. )

PAGE 124

123 1928 50 12 4700

PAGE 125

124 3000 2000 8000 1122 :

PAGE 126

125 1. 2. 1953. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. // 8. 1955) // 9. // 10. ( XIX XX // 11. // 12. 1965. 13. 1977. 14. 15. 1980.

PAGE 127

126 16. // 17. 18. 3 // 19. // XI 2. 20. 21. 1964 ) // 22. 23. 24. 25. // 10 11. 26. // 27. // 28. 1963. 29. i 30. 31. 32. 33. 1974. 34. 35. // 36. 37. g l i A. Le Holloch et son karst. Neushatel: Baconnieze, 1970. 38. Courbon P. Atlas des grands gouffres du Monde. Marseille: Laf fitte, 1979. 39. Ne h W. Przewodnik po jaskiniach w Krzywczu. Tarnopol 1933.

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127 XX V N Dublianski FROM HISTORY OF DOMESTIC SPELEOLOGY (second half of the XX century) The results of the speleological studies in the USSR between 1958 and 1992 are described. The roles of the Commission on Karst and Speleology of the USSR Aacademy of Sciences and the Central Department of Speleotourism (under the auspices of the All Union Central Trade Union Council) in organization of scientific and sporting speleology is discussed. Main results of speleological research is compiled for East European, Carpathian, Crimean, Caucasian, Ural, Turanian, Turgaisko Kazakhstan, Pamir o Tianshan, Altaie Saian, middle Siberian, and Far East speleological countries. By the time of disintegration of the USSR (1992) more than 6,700 caves were discovered. The longest cave in gypsum Optimistic (183.0 km); in limestone Kupp Koutunn Promezh utochnaya (54.0 km): in conglomerate Bolshaya Oreshnaya (42.5 km); in salt Dnepropetrovskaya (2.5 km); in ice Oktiabrskaya (1.3 km). The deepest: in limestone V. Pantyhina (1508 m), in gypsum 1500 anniversary of Kiev (120 m), in conglomerate Bo lshaya Oreshnaya (155 m), in ice Oktiabrskaya (118 m). The total length of all caves of the country has exceeded 1300 km, and total depth 120 km. Caves are located at the absolute altitudes from +4600 (Siikurduu) up to 26 m (Melovoi Mis); the longest fre drop 410 m (Abats); the longest sumph 340 m (Mchish), maximum number of siphons in one cave 15 (Tchaltubskaya). Thus, the Soviet speleology has reached international level both in scientific aspect (priority fields speleogenesis, hydrotermal ka rst, hydrogeology, karst terminology, etc.), and in sport caving (World's longest caves in gypsum and conglomerate, limestone caves ranking within the World's deepest ten). XVIII XIX XX XX XX 3, 4, 24, 40, 46, 54 1999

PAGE 129

128 XX 1962 , 6 1 48, 49, 52, 53]. 1

PAGE 130

129 ), 1982 1992 1982); (1982 (1985 (1988 1992). 11 13].

PAGE 131

130 80 [38, 39], [4 90 ; 60 7 8, 10, 11 12].

PAGE 132

131 1958 1962 1982 [43]). 31

PAGE 133

132 1982 ; 90 90 60 80

PAGE 134

133 37]. 5,5 4,8, 4 0, 1,7 17 45 1974 (4380

PAGE 135

134 (1430 1 (130 (240 (120 [ 9, 37]. (1410 (621/31 9 15 13 60 80 111 50 20 ( 5 135

PAGE 136

135 50 166 200 [24].

PAGE 137

136 60 1967 1990 [44, [ 10, 24 ] 1958 50 6

PAGE 138

137 14 . 90 A. B. 90 13]. 39 3

PAGE 139

138 1 (1510 10/+55; 28 125 20 21 20 50

PAGE 140

139 (660/65); 80 48), 4 34, 230/ 30,130/ 20,130/ 90 1968 (315/+100).

PAGE 141

140 10), 980 15), 1220 110 108). 410 3 45 (1300/13) (750 3

PAGE 142

141 1 (210/13). ), 15 (2200/10). . . . 127 15].

PAGE 143

142 (227 (27 114 42 200 1 ?) 40 50 2 30 (250

PAGE 144

143 [ 9 37 ] 48 38 (476/110). (26 (210 (536 ,

PAGE 145

144 20 [57 ] (100 30 3660 160 1 (35

PAGE 146

145 220 (390 0 2450 4 90

PAGE 147

146 8]. 1500 ( . 23 24, 54, [ 44 23 1 (1000/83),

PAGE 148

147 21 (1700 23 24]. 23 (123 211 9 (95 [1] 21 23 24 ] (870 4 23 (302/60).

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148 23 [ 1] 122 [ 1]. 20 30

PAGE 150

149 7,7 500 ( : (54000 1508 1500 120 240 3 (410 2 1500 ~ 600 3 1508 75 340

PAGE 151

150 4 ~ 600 ~ 380 ~ 1000 ~ 100 ~ 200 ~ 100000 ~ 600 ~ 20 ~ 1000 ~ 100 ~ 25 ~ 2500 ~ 100 243* 22878 1000 15 ~ 2000 ~ 100 ~ 150 ~ 470000 ~ 500 1037 599978 2500 ~ 100 ~ 3500 ~ 300 56) 100 3500 300 857 70700 22960 ~ 340 ~ 18000 ~ 2500 +315) ~ 60 ~ 25000 ~ 5000 ~ 1200 ~ 198000 ~ 50000 ~ 1508) 2457 311700 80460

PAGE 152

151 ~ 180 ~ 10000 ~ 600 ~ 15 ~ 600 ~ 100 (250/69) 195 10600 700 1007* 106000 8650 265* 30900 3250 70* 30 10 110 153* 3350 2190 40* 13150 120 1* 10 1536 156420 14320 ~ 85 ~ 1500 ~ 300 0) 85 1500 300 ~ 2000 ~ 18 ( 120 (490/70) ~ 460 ~ 6700 ~ 340 ~ 821 ~ 50300 ~ 6690 ~ 20 ~ 10000 ~ 1100

PAGE 153

152 ~ 210 ~ 20000 ~ 2500 340 ~ 120 ~ 21000 ~ 2100 ~ 220 ~ 90000 ~ 4000 ~ 10 ~ 500 ~ 25 560 131500 8625 11 270 25 10 2100 ~ 200 ~ 40 ~ 24000 ~ 400 ~ 130 ~ 5100 ~ 1200 40 ~ 5000 ~ 150 125) 231 36470 1975 7 555 ~ 30 20 1300 ~ 300 118 14320 ~ 2200 29 1175 ~ 320 ~ 10 ~ 1000 ~ 100 184 18350 2950 7705 1339138 120510

PAGE 154

153 *1957 1960 5,45 1961 7,95 1962 12,23 1963 14,95 1964 26,36 1969 51,60 1970 75,32 1972 81,20 1973 91,50 1974 104,60 1975 109,00 1978 140,00 1992 183,00 ** 183,00 *** 563,50 *1957 1958 170 1960 246 1965 310 1967 400 1969 500 1971 500 1972 700 1976 950 1979 1230 1980 1320 1981 1335 1983 1370 1988 1508 ** 1508 *** 1602

PAGE 155

154 1998 XXI 1. 2. B C 1994. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. // 1988. 8. ( XIX XX // 9. , 1992. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 87. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 1986, 11 12 87. 23. 24. 1980. 25. 26.

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155 27. 1992. 28. 29. 30. II 31. 1968. 32. 33. 34. 35. // 2. 36. 37. // 38. 39. 40. 1979. 41. 42. 43. 44. 24. 45. 46. 47. 1992. 48. 49. 50. 13; 51. 52. III 53. 54. P 55. 1974. 56. 57. 58. urb n P Atlas des grands gouffres du Monde Marseilles: J. Laffitte, 1979. 59. Gypsum karst of the World / A. Klimchouk, D. Lowe,A. Cooper, U. Sauro. L Aquilla 1996.

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156 (1971 1998 ) I. A. Lavrov HISTORY OF CAVE RESEARCH IN THE PERM AREA ( from 1971 to 1998) Some 300 new caves were discovered in the Perm area in 1970 90 by about thirty speleo logical groups fro the Perm area and other regions of Russia. The total length of known caves has increased by up to 629 times. Length of Divia cave has reached 10.1 km; the longest underwater cave (Ordinskaya) was discovered and explored. 972 XX

PAGE 158

157 ( , 3). 1971 1975 1971 72 20].

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158 1 1971 205 113 4 322 26326 1971 1975 26 1 5 3 27 4000/35), 1350/9) 8520 1976 1980 86 5 86 10696 1981 1985 28 10 3 2 38 9720/28), 9067 1986 1990 47 9 4 5 1 60 1300/120) 4490 1991 1995 63 27 2 6 92 5), 38/29) 5171 1996 1998 4 2 8 1 6 3525 1971 1998 255 49 6 310 41489 459 162 10 631 67815

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159 1971 1975 1976 1980 1981 1985 1986 1990 1991 1995 1996 1998 1971 1998 1/ /1 6/1 1/1 8/4 (50/10) 3/3 3/1 / 2 6/6 (10100/28) /1 /1 1/ 1/ 4/2 4/2 3 (1700/55) 5/ 2/ 1/ 8/ 5/ 11 /2 9/ 2/ 27/2 1/ 24/1 73/3 2/6 100/10 3 (1700/55) /1 /1 1/1 7/1 /1 /1 2/ 2 / 49/1 6/1 4/4 1/5 60/11 3 (1700/55) 9/ 2 / 11 / 3/ 2 / 5/

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160 / 1971 1975 1976 1980 1981 1985 1986 1990 1991 1995 1996 1998 1971 1998 2/ 10/ 4/ 16/ 1/ 1/ (115/17) /1 /1 1/ 1/1 5/1 /1 /1 /1 7/5 (1450/80), (1750/132) 17/3 22/3 /1 3/1 22/ 64/8 (3400/120 ) 1/ 1/ 3/1 2/1 5/2 (3400/120), (285/5) 2/4 2/4

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161 1 10100 28 7600 46 3 5700 30 3400 120 2500 43 1750 132 1700 55 1450 80 1410 30 10 1400 9 11 1000 50 12 1000 15 13 1000 10 14 1000 6 15 710 35 16 630 44 584 20 18 522 30 19 512 12 500 65 500 49 500 32 1975 450

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162 [22,23]. 28]. 1976 1980 (100 1980 40 1980

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163 1981 1985 ]. 1984 (1450 (15 0 1984 2 (191

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164 (52 115 1986 1990 1300 (65 10 1987 13, 125 1987 36

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165 pp (80 10 1990 1991 1995 1992 [18].

PAGE 167

166 1994 400 250 630

PAGE 168

167 1993 92 1996 1998 1997 250 1997 1998 1000 1998 1998 1 19, 34]. 1998

PAGE 169

168 1999 ( 68,1 // // // // // // // . // // 1988. // 15. // 1955 ) // , 1992. //

PAGE 170

169 1964) // // 1989. // 2 // // // 1979. // / // 75 // 1976. // / 1970 ) // 11. // // 11. // // // I . // // 9720 // //

PAGE 171

170 SPELEOLOGICAL NEWS 19.08.1998 PL 2 ( Lamprechtsofen ), 1632 1532 1998 PL 2 ( 1632 PL 2 60 CL 3, PL 2. Gradzicski

PAGE 172

171 350 (1959), 565 (19 60). 620 100 775 Bolek 1996 v ).

PAGE 173

172 3 01 .04.1999 1,5 1 ). 5,0 .

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173 LOSSES OF SPELEOLOGY (1936 1996) 1963 131 (1913 1594) (392

PAGE 175

174 (1914 1994) VII VI VIII XIV 19 83 ). (1934 1998)

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175 X (1907 1994) X

PAGE 177

176 (1954 1995) 8 90 (1919 1996)

PAGE 178

177 (1914 1997) 300 , (1954 1991)

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178 (1928 1991) 1979 (1920 1994) (1981). (1938 1996) pp 1988

PAGE 180

179 (1930 1993) 1992 )

PAGE 181

180 REVIEWS 10 B C , ( B C

PAGE 182

181 IV ( 23 25.09.93. , 1995). Proceedings of International symposium ( Postojna 23 25.09.93 Acta Carsologica 1993). 1945

PAGE 183

182 VII 19 96. 307 Gypsum karst of the World / A. Klimchouk, D. Lowe, A. Cooper, U. Sauro. L ? Aquila : Soc Spel Ital 1996. 307 p International J the Speleology 2 2

PAGE 184

183 . 1997.463 Cave minerals of the World Hill C, Forti P. 2 Ed. Huntsville Alabama, USA: Nat. Spel. Soc 1997.463 p I II

PAGE 185

184 III I V V VI VII . .

PAGE 186

185 XXXV 19 9 6). 1996 XXI

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186 + 3

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187 THE CHRONICLE 16 19.02.94. , 1994. 111 Symposium 16 19.02.94. Colorado Springs USA 1994. HI p II 10 17.08.1997 XII 2

PAGE 189

188 UIS UIS UIS UIS 1324 941 1 12 th 1. Physical Speleology, Karst Geomorhpology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997,503 p.) : 3 12 th 3. Archeology and Paleontlogy in Caves, Speleology and Mines, Biospeleology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997,378 p.) : 4 th International Congress of Speleo 4 Exploration and Speleology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997, 137 p.) 5 th

PAGE 190

189 v. 5. Applied Speleology, Mapping and Techniques, UIS / SSS Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997,132 p.) (2). 1 15.09.97 50 31.01.1947. 1 (

PAGE 191

190 . ( ( (

PAGE 192

191 1972 ; 1973 1981 1988 1988 1989 1990 1991 1 992 1993 1994 30

PAGE 193

192 10 88 198 9 1998 52
PAGE 194

193 XIX 1 13.1 0.1996 14 15.12.1996 II 1 2000 1998 1998 .01.1999 2 1 2

PAGE 195

194 REFERENCE INFORMATION ( 1 10 1. 207000 18 2. 111000 18 3. 90200 30 4. 58000* 240 5. 57000 310 6. 32050 6 7. 25650 12 8 22000 12 9. 19000 1370 10. Macc 17700 180 10 1. 58000* 240 2. 32050 6 3. 14500 11 14000 633 5. 10640 240 6. 10100 > 180* 7. 10100 28 8. 9860 130 9. 9000 27 10. (30 8600 233 1 80

PAGE 196

195 10 1. 1508 5530 2. 1415 14270 3. 1370 19000 4. 1240 5890 5 1110 3250 6. 1085 >1700* 7. 990 2340 8. 972 1800 9. 956 3170 10. 870 > 1000* 10 1. 870 >1000 2. 633 14000 3. 565 4500 4. 520 >3500* 5. 518 2500 6 500 6500 7. 500 3110 8. 500 1000* 9. 480 >480* 10. 465 4410

PAGE 197

196 1 1933,12 2 1947, 26 31.01 + 3 1956, 30.01 3.02 + 4 1958, 16.04 + 5 1958, 17 18.12 + 6 1959, 4 5.02 1 + 7 1960, 18 21.04 + 8 1960, 27 29.04 2 + 9 1961, 24 27.04 3 + 10 1964, 8 15.06 + 11 1965, 12 13.0 1 12 1965, 13 19.10 + 13 1966, 25 26.05 (4 + 14 1966, 15 18.06 + 15 1967, 22 26.09 8 16 1967, 21 24.11 50 + 17 1967 18 1968, 21 24.11 + 1 9 1969, 27 29.05 (6 +

PAGE 198

197 20 1969, 20 23.11 + 21 1970, 26 28.11 + 22 1971, 18 19.10 + 23 197 2, 3 4.05 + 24 1972, 14 16.06 + 25 1972, 28 30.11 + 26 1973, 21 23.11 (7 + 27 1973, 26 28 11 + 28 1974, 20 22.11 + 29 1975, 12 14.02 (1 + 30 1975, 12 14.11 + 31 1977,19 21.10 + 32 1978, 17 19.05 33 1978, 11 12.10 + 34 1978, 17 23.11 (2 35 1979, 27 28.09 + 36 1979, 9 11.10 +

PAGE 199

198 37 1979, 29 30.11 + 38 1980, 28.31.10 + 39 1980, 11 13.11 + 40 1980, 10.12 + 4 1 1981, 11 13.11 + 42 1981, 24 27.09 + 43 1982, 25 26.02 + 44 1982, 24 26.03 + 45 1982, 1 3.10 (3 + 46 1983, 22 23.11 + 47 1984, 28 29.02 + 48 1984, 27 28. 11 + 49 1985, 4 6. 06 + 50 1985, 31.1 1.02 51 1986, 15 18. 04 + 52 1987, 16 17.03

PAGE 200

199 53 1987, 5 12.10 + 54 1987, 27 29.10 (5 + 55 1988, 6 8.05 + 56 1988, 24 25.11 + 57 1988, 6 8.12 + 58 1989, 23 25.05 + 59 19 89, 27 28.09 + 60 1989, 16 17.12 + 61 1990, 4 7.09 + 62 1990, 15 16.11 + 63 1990, 12 (2 + 64 1991, 21 22.03 + 65 1991 3 8.05 + 66 1991, 12 (3 + 67 1992, 6 8.07 ( + 68 1992, 15 16.12 +

PAGE 201

200 69 1993, 12 ( 80 + 70 1994, 23 23.05 ) + 71 1994, 28 29.09 80 + 72 1995, 16 17.05 + 73 1996, 24 25.09 74 1996, 16 18.10 + 75 1997, 13 14.05 + 76 1997, 25 27.11 +

PAGE 202

201 1993 1997 THE BIBLIOGRAPHYON KARST AND CAVES from 1993 to 1997 1993 1993.204 2 (7 8). 52 Proceedings of International symposi um 23 25.09.93. Acta Carsologica, 1993). 591 p. ., // 18. 1993 8 // 143. // 38. // 6 64.

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202 85. 17 44; 8 8. // 16. // 29. // 103. // 79. // 157. B. 125 127; C. 47. // 127. // 88. // 23. // 82. // 184. // 152.

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203 35. // 10. 75 76. Dublyanskaya G. N., Dublyansky V. N, Gorbunova K. A. Kasrstm ap of former USSR // Geol., dim., hydrol. and karst formation. Newslett Guilin 1993. P 30 31. ... // 1994 B C IV 90

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204 3 (11 Breakthroughs in Karst Geomicrobiol ogy and Redox Geochemistry (Abstracts the Symposium l 6 19.02.94. Colorado Springs USA 1994. 111 p // 23 25. // V 13. // 25. // 79. // 55. // 46. // 24. // // 43. // 85. // 3 144. // // 91. // I V 68. // 1994. 253. 74.

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205 55. // 16. 1993] // 168. // 44. // 82 85. // 812. 1995 , // 60 62. // 79.

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206 // 111. MOB // 1995 33. // 45. // 46. // 25. // // 123. // 39. // 134. // 60. // 14. // 127. // 60. // 382. // // 127. // 82. 107; 127. // 44. 1995

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207 139 140; 1995 // 90 // 125. 153. // 1 8 21. /

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208 1 996 // 145. // 325. // 32 // 1996. 6. // 50. 94 96; B C 108;

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209 116; 1 16 1 19 ; 123; 125; , 127; 129; 131; 134; X 136 153; 155; 229. // 105 106. // 58. 239 254; 257;

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210 259; 261; 263; , 265; 267; 273 277; 278 282; 289; 294. // 54. // 74. 145; // 118. // 39.

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211 135; 195. 4 // // 118. // 51 54. // 102. // 18 2. // 60. 1997 15.09.97 Hill F r ti P. Cave minerals of the World (2 ed). Huntswille: Nat. Spel. Soc. 1997.463 p. Gypsum karst of the World / Ed. A. Klimchouk, D. Lowe, F. Cooper, U. Sauro. Bolona 1997. 306 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, v. 1. Physical Speleology, Karst Geomorhpology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997. 503 p.

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212 Proceedings of the 12* International Congress of Speleology, v. 3. Archeology and Paleontlogy in Caves, Speleology and Mines, Biospeleology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997. 378 p. Proceedings of the 12* International Congress of Speleology, v. 4 Exploration and Speleology, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997. 137 p. Procee dings of the 12* International Congress of Speleology, v. 5. Applied Speleology, Mapping and Techniques, UIS / SSS, Speleo Projects, Basel, 1997,138 p. // 228. // 204. // 103. 178 214 217 219; 222; 227; 231;

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213 243. // 162. // 291. // 117. // 34. // 70 77. // 73. // 147. // 38. // 105. // 31. // 54. // // 60. // 46. // 54 58. // 142.

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214 // 100. // 1997. 2. 103. // 97.

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215 5 7 10 10 16 21 37 47 52 57 63 63 72 75 77 80 82 89 89 97 101 101 107 107 111

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216 116 XX 116 ( XX 127 1998 156 170 173 180 180 180 180 181 181 1 82 183 183 XXXV 185 185 186 187 187 XII 187 189 50 189 190 30 191 10 192 193 194 194 196 201

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217 CONTENTS In memory of A. Gorbunova 5 Foreword 7 Geology and genesis of caves 10 Malk v V. N., Gurkal I. Speleological subdivision into zones and distribution of caves of the Arkhangelsk area 10 Bortnikov M. P. Karst speleological s ubdivision into regions and caves of the Samara area 16 Lahnitski J. S., huik A. Complex research in Kapovaya cave 21 Vahrushev B. A., Amelichev G. N., Semenova E. N. Mramornaya cave 37 Lavrov I. A. Ordinskaya cave 47 ilin J. A., Minkevi h I. I. Caves of the Krasnoyasilsk Karst field 52 ataev V. N. Characteristic small caves of the Irenski karst region 57 Cave deposits 63 Stepan v V. I. On cave mineralogy 63 ik v V. N. Uncommon karst formations in caves of Cuba 72 Filipp v A. G. Uedellit an d uevellit in Irkutskaya cave 75 Lobanov J. E.Saveliev V. N., Tsurihin E.A. Natural formation on the basis of calcium carbonate in colloidal state 77 Shurubor A. V., Minkevich I. I., Likhatchov J. N. Magic grottos of Thuringer Wald 80 Shavrina E. V. Ice deposits in caves of the European North of Russia 82 Speleotherapy 89 FainburgG. Z. Basic Processes of formation of the healing factors of underground environment used for speleotherapy 89 Abdrahmanov R. A., Abdrahmanov A. R. Abdrahmanov A. R. (jun.) P erspectives of speleotherapy in Sol Iletsk 97 Protection of caves TrofimovaE Protected caves natural monuments of the Irkutsk area 101 Terminology and methods of cave studies 107 Trofimova E. V. About terminological unification of the speleo landfor ms 107 Yurin V. I. On the method of primary archeological and palaeontological inspection of the underground cavities 111

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218 History of Cave Studies 116 G rbun va. K. A., Dublians i V. N. From history of domestic speleology (first half of the XX century) 116 Dublianski V. N. From history of domestic speleology (second half of the XX century) 127 Lavr v I. A. History of cave research in the Perm area (from 1971 to 1999) 156 Speleological News 170 Losses of Speleology 173 Reviews 180 Problems of karst landscape studies 180 Problems of physical speleology 180 Karst sinkholes 180 The structural premises of speleogenesis in gypsum of Western Ukraine 181 Proceedings of International symposium 181 Gypsum karst of the World 182 The karst republic 183 Cave minerals of the World 183 XXXV anniversary of the Speleologcal Club of MSU 185 Paragenesis karst underflooding 185 Speleology in Russia 186 The Chronicle 187 Breakthroughs in geomicrobiology and redox geochemistry of karst, U SA, 1994 187 XII Speleological Congress, Switzerland, 1997 187 Cave palaeolith of Ural, Ufa, 1997 189 50 years from the Molotov karst conference 189 50 years of the Kungur karst laboratory 190 30 years of the Chelyabinsk speleology 191 10 years of th e Ural Association of speleologists 192 About the creation of Russian Union of speleologists 193 Reference Information 194 The largest karst caves of the former USSR and Russia 194 Conferences and Symposia on karst, hold in the former USSR 196 The bib liography on karst and caves 201

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219

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220 ( 50 $, 10 $ 1. 2. 3. 4. E mail 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1 3.


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