Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов

Citation
Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов

Material Information

Title:
Пещеры Межвузовский сборник научных трудов
Series Title:
ПЕЩЕРЫ
Alternate Title:
PESHCHERY (CAVES) INTERUNIVERSITY COLLECTION OF SCIENTIFIC TRANSACTIONS
Creator:
George Veni ( suggested by )
Publication Date:
Language:
Russian
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Russia

Notes

General Note:
П 78 Пещеры: сб. науч. Ñ‚Ñ€. / Перм. гос. ун-Ñ‚. - Пермь, 2008. - Вып. 31. - 337 с. ISBN 978-5-7944-1087-7 Ð’ сборнике приведены результаты новых спелеологических исследований; представлены публикации по спеологии, а также библиография по карсту и пещерам. Издание предназначено для преподавателей и студентов вузов, инженеров-геологов и гидрогеологов, ведущих изыскания в карстовых районах, и спелеологов. СОДЕРЖАНИЕ От главного редактора ...5 ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ... 7 ГЕОЛОГИЯ И ГЕНЕЗИС ПЕЩЕР ...8 Филиппова Н.Ð’., Тржцинский Ю.Б. Новые данные о Нижнеудинской пещере (Восточная Сибирь) ....8 Мавлюдов Б.Р. Климатические системы пещер и спелеологическая практика ...17 Мавлюдов Б.Р. Ледниковые пещеры, зачем их изучать? ....30 Браун Г.Ф. Ледяные пещеры Франции и Швейцарии. История теорий, представляющих причины подземного льда (перевод Б.Р. Мавлюдова) ..47 ИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ ПОДЗЕМНЫЕ ПРОСТРАНСТВА ...62 Волков Л.Д. Спелестология. Отчет комиссии за 2006 год ...62 Долотов Ю.А. О длиннейших искусственных пещерах России ... 69 Гунько А.А. Исследования медных рудников XVII-XIX вв. в Татарстане ... 74 ОТЛОЖЕНИЯ ПЕЩЕР ...90 Хилл К., Форти П. Минералы пещер мира (перевод Н.Ð’. Лавровой) ...90 Потапов С.С., Паршина Н.Ð’., Кадебская О.И., Сивинских П.Н., Максимович Н.Г. Эфемерные (сезонные) минералы в Кунгурской Ледяной пещере ...112 БИОСПЕЛЕОЛОГИЯ ...120 Семиколенных А.А., Иванова А.Е., Горленко Ðœ.Ð’., Добровольская Т.Г. Экология микробных сообществ карстовых пещер Беломорско-Кулойского плато (Архангельская область) ...120 Паньков Н.Н. Безпозвоночные животные - обитатели пещер Кунгурского края ....144 АРХЕОЛОГИЯ ...156 Дублянский Ð’.Н. Пещеры «ÐšÐ°Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¸Ì† могилы» ...156 Изосимов Д.А. Пещеры как археологический источник ...164 ОХРАНА ПЕЩЕР ...167 Потапов С.С., Паршина Н.Ð’., Потапов Д.С. Пещера Чудесница и другие карстовые объекты массива горы Кладовой (Пермский край) ...167 Потапов С.С., Аухадеева Е.Г. Карстово-пещерный комплекс «Ð£ÑÑ‚иновские известняки» в Челябинской области ...177 Шаврина Е.Ð’., Малков Ð’.Н. Прогноз антропогенных изменений в пещерах Чугского заказника .. 188 ИСТОРИЯ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ПЕЩЕР ...195 Наумкин Д.Ð’. Французская гравюра в фондах Музея карста и спелеологии ГИ УрО РАН ...195 Долгих Л.А. Страницы жизни А.Т. Хлебникова... 198 ОБУЧЕНИЕ ..... 206 Залесский А.Ð’. Отчет о работе комиссии по юным спелеологам ....206 Врадий А.С. Пещеры Горнозаводского района ...209 Евдокимова С.Я. Летний спелеолагерь «Ð“убаха - 2006» .....214 Магнитогорский клуб спелеологов «ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ‚ей». Перспективы спелеоисследований в Агаповском районе Челябинской области ... 215 НОВОСТИ СПЕЛЕОЛОГИИ ...218 Комаров Ð’.А. Об Организационных вопросах россиийской спелеологии ...218 Оренбургский Клуб Спелеологов .... 219 Логинов Ð’.А. Деятельность Самарских спелеологических клубов ... 221 Научный журнал «Ð¡Ð¿ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ и карстология» ...223 ПОТЕРИ СПЕЛЕОЛОГИИ ...224 Памяти Евгения Ивановича Гуркало ....224 Мариан Пулина ...226 РЕЦЕНЗИИ ....231 Ðœ.А. Андреева, Ð’.А. Бакунин, З.Ф. Кривопалова и др. Природа Челябинской области. ...231 Чернецов Ð’.П. Саткинские легенды, сказания, был ...232 К. Székely. Magyarszág fokozottan védett barlangjai ...233 John Gunn (Ed.). 2004. Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science ...234 Дублянский Ð’.Н., Дублинская Г.Н. Карстоведение (Ч. 1. Общее карстоведение) ...238 Кунгурская Ледяная пещера: опыт режимных наблюдений 240 Дублянский Ð’.Н. Пещеры и моя жизнь. ..243 Гуркало Е.И. От Светлой - к 1500! 45 лет Свердловской городской спелеосекции ...246 Спелеологический журнал АСУ (Ассоциация спелеологов Урала) ... 247 Klimchouk A. Hypogene Speleogenesys: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective / Климчук А. Гипогенный спелеогенезис. Гидрогеологические и морфогенетические перспективы. Карлсбад (США) ...247 МЕМОРИАЛЬНЫЕ ДАТЫ..252 ХРОНИКА ...257 XV съезд Ассоциации спелеологов Урала (АСУ) ...257 XVI съезд Ассоциации спелеологов Урала (АСУ) ...258 XVII съезд Ассоциации спелеологов Урала (АСУ) ...258 XVIII съезд Ассоциации спелеологов Урала (АСУ) ...260 XXV спелеологическая школа KARST AND CRYOKARST 25th Speleological School 8th Symposium GLACKIPR ...262 БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ ПО КАРСТУ И ПЕЩЕРАМ 2004-2006 гг ...266 БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ ПРЕДЫДУЩИХ СБОРНИКОВ « ПЕЩЕРЫ » ( No 1-30)...266 Рeshchery (Caves): Сollection of scientific transactions. Perm, 2008. - Issue 31. - 337 Ñ€. In the issue are cited data about new speleological researches; the publications on speleology are reviewed; the bibliography on karst and caves is submitted. The issuing is intended for the lectures and students of high schools, engineers-geologists and hydrogeologists carring on survey in the karst regions, and also speleologists. THE CONTENTS From main editor ...5 FOREWORD... 7 GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF CAVES ...8 Philippova N.V., Trjcinsky Y.B. The new data about Nizheudinskaya cave (East Siberia) ...8 Mavlyudov B.R. The climatical systems of caves and speleological practice ... 17 Mavlyudov B.R. Why we are studing caves in the glaciers? ... 30 Browne G.F. Ice-caves of France and Switzerlznd. The history of theories what represent motives of underground ice (translated by Mavlyudov B.R.).. 47 THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERGROUND SPACES...62 Volkov L.D. Speleostology. the report of the commission for 2006 ... 62 Dolotov Y.A. The longest artificial caves of Russia ... 69 Gunko А.А. The exploration of the old copper mines of XVII-XIX centuries in Tatarstan... 74 DEPOSITS OF CAVES ....90 Hill К., Forti P. Cave minerals of the world (translated by Lavrova N.V.)... 90 Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Kadebskaya O.I., Sivinskikh P.N., Maksimovich N.G. Season minerals in Kungur Ice cave.. 112 BIOSPELEOLOGY...120 Semikolennykh А.А., Ivanova А.Е., Gorlenko Ðœ.V., Dobrovol'skaya Т.G. Ecology of microbial communities of caves Belomorsko-Kuloyskoe plato (Arkhangelsk region)... 120 Pan'kov N.N. The invertebrate animals - the inchabitants of the Kungur region caves... 144 ARCHAEOLOGY ... 156 Dublyansky V.N. Caves of «Kamennaya Mogila» («Stone Grave») ... 156 Izosimov D.A. Archeological researching in the caves... 164 PROTECTION OF THE CAVES....167 Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Potapov D.S. Cave «Chudesnica» and other karst objects of mountain «Kladovaya» (Perm region)... 167 Potapov S.S., Aukhadeeva E.G. Karst-cave complex «Ustinovskie Izvestnyaki» in Chelyabinsk region .... 177 Shavrina E.V., Malkov V.N. The forecast antropogenic changes to cave Chugskogo reservation ... 188 HISTORY OF CAVE INVESTIGATION ...195 Naumkin D.V. French gravure in funds of Museum of karst and speleology Mining institute of UB RAS... 195 Dolgih L.A. A.T. Khlebnikov's life ...198 EDUCATION..206 Zalessky A.V. The report of the commission of young speleologists ... 206 Vrady A.S. Caves of Gornozavodsk district.. 209 Evdokimova S.Y. Summer speleocamping «Gubakha - 2006». 214 Magnitogorsk speleoclub «Protey». Future trends in speleological explorations in Agapovsky district of Chelabinsk region... 215 NEWS OF SPELEOLOGY ...218 Komarov V.A. About organization questions of Russian speleology ... 218 Orenburg speleoclub... 219 Loginov V.А. Activity of speleological clubs in Samara... 221 Science magazin «Speleology and Karstology»... 223 LOSSES OF SPELEOLOGY ... 224 E.I. Gurkalo ... 224 M. Pulina ... 226 REVIEWS... 231 Andreeva M.A, Bakunin V.A, Krivopalova Z.F. and others. Nature of Chelyabinsk region... 231 Chernetsov V.P. Satkinsk's legends, stories, facts... 232 К. Székely. Magyarszág fokozottan védett barlangjai... 233 John Gunn (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science... 234 Dublyansky V.N., Dublyanskaya G.N. Karstology (Part 1. Common Karstology) ... 238 Kungur Ice Cave: monitoring experience... 240 Dublyansky V.N. Caves and my life... 243 From Svetlaya - to 1500! 45 years of Sverdlovsk city speleosection... 246 Speleological magazin ASU (Association of speleologists of Ural) ... 247 Gurkalo E.I. Klimchouk A. Hypogene Speleogenesys: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective ... 247 MEMORIALS.... 252 THE CHRONICLE...257 XV congress of ASU... 257 XVI congress of ASU... 258 XVII congress of ASU ... 258 XVIII congress of ASU... 260 XXV speleological school KARST AND CRYOKARST, 25th Speleological School, 8th Symposium GLACKIPR ... 262 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KARST AND CAVES FROM 2004-2006....266 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LAST ISSUES ( No 1-30) ....266
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
No. 31 (2008)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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K26-05032 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5032 ( USFLDC Handle )
21034 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
978-5-7944-1087-7 ( ISBN )

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Description
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XXV KARST AND CRYOKARST
25th Speleological School 8th Symposium GLACKIPR
...262

2004-2006

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(
No
1-30)...266
eshchery (Caves): ollection of scientific transactions.
Perm, 2008. Issue 31. 337 .
In the issue are cited data about new speleological
researches; the publications on speleology are reviewed;
the bibliography on karst and caves is submitted. The
issuing is intended for the lectures and students of high
schools, engineers-geologists and hydrogeologists carring
on survey in the karst regions, and also speleologists.
THE CONTENTS
From main editor ...5
FOREWORD... 7
GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF CAVES ...8
Philippova N.V., Trjcinsky Y.B. The new data
about Nizheudinskaya cave (East Siberia) ...8
Mavlyudov B.R. The climatical systems of caves
and speleological practice ...
17
Mavlyudov B.R. Why we are studing caves in the
glaciers? ...
30
Browne G.F. Ice-caves of France and
Switzerlznd. The history of theories what represent
motives of underground ice (translated by Mavlyudov
B.R.)..
47
THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERGROUND
SPACES...62
Volkov L.D. Speleostology. the report of the
commission
for 2006 ...
62
Dolotov Y.A. The longest artificial caves of
Russia ...
69
Gunko .. The exploration of the old copper
mines
of XVII-XIX centuries in Tatarstan...
74
DEPOSITS OF CAVES ....90
Hill ., Forti P. Cave minerals of the world
(translated by
Lavrova N.V.)...
90
Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Kadebskaya O.I.,
Sivinskikh P.N., Maksimovich N.G. Season minerals
in Kungur Ice cave..
112
BIOSPELEOLOGY...120
Semikolennykh .., Ivanova .., Gorlenko
.V., Dobrovol'skaya .G. Ecology of microbial
communities of
caves Belomorsko-Kuloyskoe plato (Arkhangelsk
region)...
120
Pan'kov N.N. The invertebrate animals the
inchabitants
of the Kungur region caves...
144
ARCHAEOLOGY ... 156
Dublyansky V.N. Caves of Kamennaya Mogila
(Stone Grave) ...
156
Izosimov D.A. Archeological researching in the
caves...
164
PROTECTION OF THE CAVES....167
Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Potapov D.S. Cave
Chudesnica and other karst objects of mountain
Kladovaya (Perm region)...
167
Potapov S.S., Aukhadeeva E.G. Karst-cave
complex Ustinovskie Izvestnyaki in Chelyabinsk
region ....
177
Shavrina E.V., Malkov V.N. The forecast
antropogenic changes to cave Chugskogo reservation
...
188
HISTORY OF CAVE INVESTIGATION
...195
Naumkin D.V. French gravure in funds of Museum
of karst and speleology Mining institute of UB
RAS...
195
Dolgih L.A. A.T. Khlebnikov's life
...198
EDUCATION..206
Zalessky A.V. The report of the commission of
young speleologists ...
206
Vrady A.S. Caves of Gornozavodsk district..
209
Evdokimova S.Y. Summer speleocamping Gubakha -
2006.
214
Magnitogorsk speleoclub Protey. Future trends
in speleological explorations in Agapovsky district
of Chelabinsk region...
215
NEWS OF SPELEOLOGY ...218
Komarov V.A. About organization questions of
Russian speleology ...
218
Orenburg speleoclub...
219
Loginov V.. Activity of speleological clubs in
Samara...
221
Science magazin Speleology and Karstology...
223
LOSSES OF SPELEOLOGY ... 224
E.I. Gurkalo ...
224
M. Pulina ...
226
REVIEWS... 231
Andreeva M.A, Bakunin V.A, Krivopalova Z.F. and
others. Nature of Chelyabinsk region...
231
Chernetsov V.P. Satkinsk's legends, stories,
facts...
232
. Szekely. Magyarszag fokozottan vedett
barlangjai...
233
John Gunn (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Caves and
Karst Science...
234
Dublyansky V.N., Dublyanskaya G.N. Karstology
(Part 1. Common Karstology) ...
238
Kungur Ice Cave: monitoring experience...
240
Dublyansky V.N. Caves and my life...
243
From Svetlaya to 1500! 45 years of Sverdlovsk
city speleosection...
246
Speleological magazin ASU (Association of
speleologists
of Ural) ...
247
Gurkalo E.I. Klimchouk A. Hypogene
Speleogenesys: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic
Perspective ...
247
MEMORIALS.... 252
THE CHRONICLE...257
XV congress of ASU...
257
XVI congress of ASU...
258
XVII congress of ASU ...
258
XVIII congress of ASU...
260
XXV speleological school KARST AND CRYOKARST,
25th Speleological School, 8th Symposium GLACKIPR
...
262
THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KARST AND CAVES FROM
2004-2006....266
THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LAST ISSUES (
No
1-30) ....266



PAGE 2

2008

PAGE 3

FEDERAL AGENCY OF EDUCATION Perm State University Perm University natural sciences institute Mining Institute of Ural Branch of RAS Karstology and Speleology Institute PESHCHERY (CAVES) COLLECTION O F SCIENTIFIC TRANSACTIONS Perm 2008

PAGE 4

Founded in 1947 as Speleological Bulletin 1

PAGE 5

4 551.44 26.823 78 78 : . / . 2008. 31. 337 ISBN 978-5-7944-1087-7 ; , , eshchery (Caves): ollection of scientific transactions. Perm, 2008. Issue 31. 337 In the issue are cited data about new speleologi cal researches; the pub lications on speleology are reviewed; the bibliography on karst and caves is submitted. The issuing is intended for the lectures and students of high schools, engineers-geologist s and hydrogeologists carring on survey in the karst regions, and also speleologists. : . ( . ); . ( . ) . ( . nmax@psu.ru), . ( . kataev@psu.ru), . ( icecave@bk.ru), . ( dolotov_y@mail.ru), ( Andrej.Kranjc@zrc-sazu.si), ( djlo@bgs.ac.uk), . ( bulatrm@bk.ru), . (meg@permonline.ru), . ( ), . ( spot@ilmeny.ac.ru). 551.44 26.823 ISBN 978-5-7944-1087-7 2008 : ( -3, , 2007 .)

PAGE 6

5 2006 ., . 1999 ( . ), , 60 , , 2007 . , 80. ( .). 31, 32 . David J. Lowe Cave and K rst science ( ), A Kranjc ( ). ( ).

PAGE 7

6 .

PAGE 8

7 FOREWORD 1947 . . 1961 . 1961-1993 24 5, 16 17 1947 1979 . 1979 1996 . 1999 2006 . 2007 . . . : , , : , , , 31.

PAGE 9

8 GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF CAVES . . ( ) N.V. Philippova, Y.B. Trjcinsky Institute of Earth crust SB RAS THE NEW DATA ABOUT NIZHEUDINSKAYA CAVE (EAST SIBERIA) Summary In this paper described history of exploration of Nizneudiskaya cave. Also autor described the morphology of the cave, archeological findings, biodiversity, mineralogical deposits and results of the new researches. , 50 XIX : , ( ). . 1875 . 5 1-4,5

PAGE 10

9 20 1879 . 1875 . . , , , , [6]. , (1-3 ) , 15-20 [7]. , 4,5 . [4] , , 1930 . ( ) [3]. . : , ( . ). . [2] . [1] . [5]. 1984 . 1980. .

PAGE 11

10 ( ) . , , , , , . . -. (), 270 ( .). 600 20 3. . , 250, ( 80-90 ) , . 1984 . , 4,5 , 1 , , .

PAGE 12

11 . , . 2 5,0 0 . . 2 , , . ( ) : , ( ), , ( ) 14 . . 4,5 . 6 , . (4,5 ) , ( 2,5-3,0 ) 5-15 1,5 4 . , . [4], ,

PAGE 13

12 : 1 : ; 2 ; ; 4 ; 5 : I II ; 6 : ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 : ; 11 ; 12 ; 13 ; 14 ; 15 ; 16 ; 17 . : (0-2,0 ) , . (2,0-6,0 ) . ( 1 )

PAGE 14

13 ( .). . (47,5-56,3%). , , 100 7 , 1,5-3,0 4-6 0,5-0,7 2 6 1,5-2,0 , , ( 30) ( ). , 7, .

PAGE 15

14 2,1 . ( .%) ( . . ) % 1 2 3 4 5 6 SiO2 50,33 50,25 52,20 55,44 60,99 2,10 TiO2 1,06 1,08 1,08 1,04 1,02 0,14 Al2O3 19,50 20,18 22,61 17,80 17,10 0,01 Fe2O3 7,93 8,34 9,60 8,95 8,12 0,87 CaO 3,71 4,40 0,40 2,34 0,38 54,29 MgO 2,04 1,95 2,18 2,90 3,19 0,43 K2O 3,00 2,77 3,15 2,85 2,86 0,08 Na2O 0,28 0,16 0,16 0,60 1.23 0,03 MnO 0,15 0,16 0,28 0,12 0,08 0,08 . 11,01 9,58 7,41 7,40 4,81 42,46 H2O 1,25 1,17 1,35 1,19 0,64 0,20 100,26 100,04 100,42 100,63 100,42 100,69 : 1 ; 7, 1.0-2.0 ; 2 ; 4, 0.4-1.8 ; 3 ; 4, 2.5-5.1 ; 4-6 : 4 , 2.5 ; 5 ; 6 7, . : 0-1,2 . 1,2-2,1 . 0-1,2 , . 0,3-0,4

PAGE 16

15 0,5-1,0 ( , ). 1,2-2,1 , . , , , 0,5-1,0 0,5-0,6 , , 1,5 ( ), , . , , (1,1-1,2 ) , 0,1 0,51,0 .

PAGE 17

16 , . , . . , , , , (1-4 ) , , . 1. . .: 1975. 122 2. . // .. . 1965. 63. 177-189. 3. . // . 1936 5. 235-241. 4. . 1875 // . . . 1875. 6, 56.

PAGE 18

17 5. . // . . . 1876. 7, 2-3. 6. . // .. . . 1879. 10, 1-2. 7. . // .. ., 1888. 19. . . B.R. Mavlyudov Institute of geography RAS THE CLIMATICAL SYSTEMS OF CAVES AND SPELEOLOGICAL PRACTIC Summary Here are describing the principal di fferences between termins klimatical system of the cave and mic riclimat of the cave. Also are describing climatical systems and environmental protection measures in Kinderlinskaya (Bashkiria), Kungur Ice cave (Perm region), Mechki nskaya (Perm region), Pinezhskie (Arkhangelsk) and Snezhna ya (Kaukaz) caves. ( .). , , , 2

PAGE 19

18 , , , . , , ( ) [7]. , : , ( ) , : : ( ) , ,

PAGE 20

19 [7]. , , . , ( ): 1) ; 2) ; 3) ( ). , . , . ( ) 2-6 [9],

PAGE 21

20 , , . [3]. : . , . 6-7 1985 ( 13.09.1985 .). 67 6 1985 46 . 1994 , 1974 1985 , . 7 1985 .

PAGE 22

21 1974-1985 , . : , , , 20 , ( ) , , , , , , . , , : 1) ; 2) , ; 3)

PAGE 23

22 , ( ) , . , , ( ). , , , , : , . 500-1270 3,6 6,5 9,8 , 70 ( ) 10 350 1986 [2]. 3

PAGE 24

23 350 , , . . , , , , 1970 1980. , 2005-2006 . , 200 2006 40 , .

PAGE 25

24 [8]. , , 36-40 . 1986-1988 ( ) [5]. , , ? . . 12.20 ( 156 ), , , , 5 ( . , ). . 4

PAGE 26

25 . , , , , , [5], . , , , , , . . , , [11]. , ,

PAGE 27

26 , ( , , .), ( , .). , ( ). ( ). 1976 . . , [8]. 1992 . 1994 , . 20 , , 200 000 3 [1].

PAGE 28

27 1975 ( ). , , , , . , , [6]. ( ). ( ), : ( ) ? , , . . :

PAGE 29

28 , ( ). , 1970. [10]. , , , , , . , , , , ( , , , ).

PAGE 30

29 [4], , . , , . , ( , ) ( ), , , : , . 1. // 1964. 4(5). 85-94. 2. ., ., ., . 1987. 3. . // 1965. 5(6). 164-172.

PAGE 31

30 4. ., . : // 2005. 1(27). C. 20-24. 5. : / . . : 2005. 376 6. . .: 1985. 54. 193-200. 7. . // : .: 1994. 6-24. 8. . . ., 2001. 90. 138-142. 9. . .: 1976. 280 10. . . 1978 130-131. 11. . // 1999. 25/26. 82-88. . ? B.R. Mavlyudov Institute of geography RAS WHY WE ARE STUDING CAVES IN THE GLACIERS? Summary Here is described the main laws of forming caves in the glaciers and given analyse semiliarity and difference of such ca ves against ones in soluble rocks. Also in this article autor tried to show wh y we are studing caves in the glaciers.

PAGE 32

31 [18, 19, 22, 24 .], , [12]. , 1989 [33-37]. [16, 29]. , , ( 1). , , ( ) , , : 1) ; 2) ; 3) , ; 4) ( ) ; 5) , ; 6)

PAGE 33

32 , ; 7) , , : ( ), ( ) ( ). 1. , ( 2004 ., ) , ,

PAGE 34

33 , , , [29], . 1) 2) 3) 4) [12]. : , , , , [26, 30]. , [30]. : DC/dt = DCgradC, (1)

PAGE 35

34 C ; t ; D ; : DT/dt = DT gradT, (2) ; D (1) (2) . , 917, 2500 / 3, 2,22 /( ), 0,9 /( ), 2,12 /( ), 2,5 /( ) [4; 26]. 2,5 , 2,5 , 2,5 , . 20 / 10-5-10-4 / [28], . 5-6 [30], 1-2 [15].

PAGE 36

35 , [1]. (1-10 ), , ( ). , [20], , [31], , [20]. , (3,3 /100 ) [25] ( ) [1]. :

PAGE 37

36 [10; 20]. , [5]. , , [23]. ( , .), ( ) [1]. , , . , . [38]. , .

PAGE 38

37 , , . . ( ) [26]. , 100 0,2 [8], 1 25 [14]. ( ). , : , . ,

PAGE 39

38 , , ? ( ) , ( ), , : ( ) , ( ) , , , 1000 [32]. , , , , ,

PAGE 40

39 ? , : / , ( 0 ). , ( ), , , , ( ) [16]. , , . , ( ) : , , ,

PAGE 41

40 1. . [6, 7, 11]. , ( ) , , , 2. , [5]. , , , [17]. , , ( ). 2 / 8 / ( ). 1-2 / ,

PAGE 42

41 . , [5], 3. , , . ( 20 ). : ) ; ) , , (NaCl) (KCl) NaCl , NaCl, KCl, , [3, 9]. , , 2 / 7 /

PAGE 43

42 2 2 . , , , . , , , 14 / [21]. , 2 / [2], 4. , [13]. , , . , .

PAGE 44

43 , , , [27], , , , . . [23], , . , . , , 2,5 . , . . ,

PAGE 45

44 , . , , , , . 1. . .: 1972 392 2. ., ., ., . // ( ). : 1980. 144-146. 3. . / -. 1985. 88 4. ., ., . . : 1966. 228 5. . .: 1977. 182 6. . 2000. 525

PAGE 46

45 7. ., . // 1978. 17. 70-78. 8. . .: 1982. 288 9. ., . // 1978. 231-233. 10. . .: 1963. 551 11. . // ( ). : 1980. 146-149. 12. . ., 1915. 319 13. ., ., . // 1978. 148-150. 14. . // . ., 2002. 92. 172-179. 15. ., . ( ) // : IV . 2003. 80-83. 16. . .: 2006. 396 17. . .: 1997. 240 18. . : 1989. 148 19. . // 1990. 22. 57-63. 20. . . .: 1984. 472 21. / . . .: 1975. 95

PAGE 47

46 22. . // 1966. 6(7), 107-110. 23. . .: 1962. 322 24. . // . . 1963. 7. 112-124. 25. . .: 1986. 280 26. . .: 1955. 492 27. Badino G. Underground drai nage systems and geothermal flux//Acta Carsologica, 2005. Vol. 34(2). P. 277-316. 28. Dreybrodt, W. Processes in karst systems. Springer Series in Physical Environment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988. 4. 286 p. 29. Eraso A., Pulina M. Cuevas en hi elo y ros bajo los glaciares. Madrid: McGraw-Hill, 1992. 242 p. 30. Gabrovek F. Evolution of early karst aquifers: from simple principles to complex modeles. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU, 2000. 150 p. 31. Nye J.F. The mechanics of glacier flow // Journal of Glaciology. 1952. Ol. 2, 12. P. 82-93. 32. Palmer, A.N. Speleogenesis in carbonate rocks // Evolution of karst: from prekarst to cessation / Ed. Gabrovsek, F. Postojna-Ljubljana: Zalozba ZRC, 2002. P. 43-60. 33. Proceedings of 1st International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, October 1-5, 1990, Madrid, Spain. Madrid: ITGE, 1991. 237 p. 34. Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar regions, February 10-16, 1992, Midzygorze, Poland. Sosnowies: Silesia University, 1992. 127 p. 35. Proceedings of 4th International Symposium Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar and High Mountain regi ons. Sept. 1-7, 1996, Rudolfshtte, Salzburg, Austria. Salzburg Geographi sche Materialen. Salzburg, 1998. Ol. 28. 155 p. 36. Proceedings of V International symposium on Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions, 15-16 April 2000, Courmayeur, Italy. Nimbus. 2002. 23-24. P. 81-157.

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47 37. Proceedings of 6th International Symposium Glacial Caves and Karst in Polar Regions (3-8 Septembe r 2003, Ny-Alesund; Svalbard, Lat. 79 N). Madrid: Monografico SEDECK, 2003. 193 p. 38. Rthlisberger H., Ware pressure in intraand subglacial channels//Journal of Glaciology. 1972. Ol. 11, 62. P. 177-203. . . G.F. Browne ICE-CAVES OF FRANCE AND SWITZERLZND The history of theories what represent motives of underground ice Translated by B.R. Mavlyudov Summary Here given the translation of 17th chapter from the book published in 1865. 1980. . 2004 XIX . Browne G.F. Ice-caves of France and Switzerland. London, 1865, 282-299 p.

PAGE 49

48 , , , , . , , , , . , [1, 2], 300 , 400 . glacire, : 1) ( ); 2) ( ); 3) ; 4) ; 5) [3],

PAGE 50

49 1970 , ice cave. (glacire), (Besanon, ); , , (Franche Comt) Dle 1592 Gollut, glacire Leugn, Grce-Dieu; glacire , Gollut , , glacires , glacire ( ) 1686 (Hist. de l' Acad., t. ii., p. 2), , , , glacire Saone;

PAGE 51

50 , , glacire ( Histoire de l'Acadmie ), , 1712 . (Billerez), (Hist. de l'Acad., 1712, p. 20) 1711 1,2 4,5 6 1,5 1,8 . , : glacire 15,6 -12,2 ; , , , M. , , , 1726 M. des Boz (Hist, de l'Acad ., 1726, p. 16), , . 1725 ., 1726

PAGE 52

51 ; M. des Boz , , , , M. des Boz , , , M. des Boz , , 1727 Duc de Lvi Saone, 1743 (M. de Cossigny), (Mm. prsents l'Acadmie par divers Savans, 1995). , , M. , , 8 7.30 0,4 11.30 0,8 17 7 0,4 ; 4 M. 45 Grce-Dieu,

PAGE 53

52 2800 ( ), , , . 1,8 2,4 . (1711 .) 4,5 6 , ; Duc de Lvi , , 1743 1745 5 0,8 1769 . Prvost 1789 Journal de Genve ( ), (Recherches sur la Chaleur. Geneva; Paris, 1792). 180-360 glacire, . Prvost , (ice-house), , :

PAGE 54

53 , , , , ; ( ) Prvost 1,8 2,4 1783 ( 6 ) Girod-Chantrans Glacire Chaux ( glacire, Grce-Dieu). Journal des Mines (p. 65) Prairial, iv. , ; ( ), 0,9 1,2 , : , , 2,2 0,6 25, 6 . , , (ice-houses). , glacire (Oudot), 1778 ., 1,65 0,38 , . ,

PAGE 55

54 : -5,6 -6,1 0,33 ; , 4 2,5 11,1 15 3,75 23,75 0,9 , , , 3,1 17,5 8 1779 , , 1,5 3 -6,1 -8,8 1727 (Prvost 27 18 ), , , 1,2; 1,5 3 (22 ) , 0,3 , , , , -1,4 15 , , , ,

PAGE 56

55 , , , , , , , . (Cadet) Annales de Chimie (Nivse, XI, t. 45, p. 160). 1791 ( ). glacire , , , , ; , . ; , , , , , , de Vanolles, 6 ,

PAGE 57

56 , . Grce-Dieu. , 1822 M.A. Pictet glacires (Bibliothque Universelle de Genve, Premire Srie, v. XX), Brezon Reposoir. , Pictet , ; , ( ), ( Hergiswyl) , ; , (De Saussure. Voyage dans les Alpes, L. FaucheBorel, Neuchatel, 1794, sections 1404-1415). Pictet, , , , De , . Pictet , , , ,

PAGE 58

57 , . , ; , ; . , , , ; , , , ; , , , ; , . ; , , , , .

PAGE 59

58 , Pictet , , ; glacires. , glacires ; , , , ; , , , 2,5 , 18C 15C. 14C. , 4 , , , , , , , M.J. Deluc Annales de Chimie et de Physique (1822, v. 21, p. 113). glacire, , , , Glacire S. Georges, ,

PAGE 60

59 , , , glacire Glacire Monthzy Chappet-surVillaz. , . , , glacires, ; , , 60 , , , ; , , glacires, S. Georges; , glacire , , glacires Grand Anu, Monthzy, Glacire Pr de S. Livres,

PAGE 61

60 , , Kircher, Herrengrund, , ; , Schemnitz , , glacires, , ; , , , , ; Monthzy, Schafloch, ; , , , , , , , , , , , Both, Eiffel, 0,9

PAGE 62

61 , , , , , , . , 18 0,5 9 1. // ., 1885. 12. 105-280. 2. . // 1965. 5(6). 164-172. 3. Balch E.S. Glacieres or freezi ng caverns. Philadelphia: Allen, Lane and Scott, 1900. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corp. N. Y. 1970. 337 p.

PAGE 63

62 THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERGROUND SPACES . 2006 L.D. Volkov Chelybinsk speleoclub SPELEOSTOLOGY. THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION FOR 2006 Summary In this article is given report about expeditions of Chelabinsk speleological club in 2006. For example: expedition in the mines in Barsuchy log, Slyudyanogorsk deposite of mica and Vishnevogorsk town, underground sites in Kyshtym town. 2006 . ( ) ( 1). 25 , 25 30

PAGE 64

63 1. , ( ) 35 ( 2), 10 120 10 35 ( 3, 4) 5 , ( ). 1 100 . 2. ( )

PAGE 65

64 3. 35 4. ( ) 2006 ( 5). , 3 ( 6). ( 7). 20 5 (100 ), ( 8). (300 ), XVIII

PAGE 66

65 ( 9), 4 8 . 5. 6.

PAGE 67

66 7. 8.

PAGE 68

67 9. XVIII ( 10) 630 . 10 , 2000 3 . , 20, ( 11). ,

PAGE 69

68 10. 11.

PAGE 70

69 . Y.A. Dolotov Russian Society of Speleostological Researches THE LONGEST ARTIFICIAL CAVES OF RUSSIA Summary Here is listed the longest artificial caves of Russia and given their characteristics. [1]. . , ( 01.02.2007) c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 ~150000 (239825) 2000 2 1 ( -1) 60000 60000 2007 3 4 -1 ~45000 19000 + 2007

PAGE 71

70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 2 -1-3 23890 23890 + 2003 5 5 ( ) 18850 18850 2006 6 16630 (16630) 1995 7 6 -1 ( ) 14315 14315 1982 8 13115 (13115) 1995 9 ~12000 6000 2006 10 7 ( -1) 12000 12000 2000 11 8 -1 ( ) 11570 11570 1999 12 >10000 2006 13 >10000 (?) 1976 14 -2 ~10000 1195 2006 15 9 ( ) 9500 9500 + 1981 16 ( ) 9000 (9000) + 1976 17 ~9000 1970 18 10 8983 8983 1999 19 >7500 7500 1999 20 ~6000 2133 2006 21 -6 ( -1, ) 5526 5526 1999 22 ( -2) 5500 5500 1970 23 5500 5500 1983 24 -1 ~5500 5220 1996 25 5330 5330 2006 26 -1 ( ) 5200 5200 2006

PAGE 72

71 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 27 >5000 1901 28 -1 ( ) 5000 5000 1981 29 ( -3) 5000 5000 2005 : 5 . : ; . [4] 1. 1 240 , ; ; , , 150-200 2. 2007 . 1993 ( ) 150 ; 1990. . , . ( http://www.chat.ru/~d21/svodka.htm ).

PAGE 73

72 3. -1 . 60 ; 45 4. -1, 42 2001 . -1, 22 2003 -1 -3. 24 5. (1989-1993 ., 2002-2006 .). 27 ( 24) 7. ( 1980.) ( 2000.) 9. , 1970 1980. , ( 5 ), . ( 6 ) . ( 5 ). , 12-15 10. 1988 ., 2000 12. ( ). 13. , [2] ; 10 , 1976

PAGE 74

73 14. -2 2005 . 1195 . ; -2 10 15. ( ) . 1978-81 . 16. 1976 . 17. ; 19. ( ). 20. , 6 7,5 24. ( ~ 300 ). 27. [3]. 28. : (1978-8 0 .) (1991 .). 1. ., . // : 2001. 27-28. 2. 1976. 5 3. XIX XX // 400 1594-1994 1994. 4. http://www.chat.ru/~d21/svodka.htm

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74 . XVII-XIX A.A. Gunko Naberezhnye Chelny THE EXPLORATION OF THE OLD COPPER MINES OF XVII-XIX CENTURIES IN TATARSTAN Summary Copper mining is the least studied kind of the old man-made cavity. After finishing of their exploitation the mines passed into the natural stage of development and were considerably transformed by different processes. Caved phenomena in the mines are reflected on th e surface in the kind of craters, gaps, etc. It is rather dangerous for building, transport and people. Speleologists study configurations of galleries in mines and predict caved phenomena. III-II . (XVI-IX . .) , , (VIII-V . .) ( II-I . .) [7]. (XIII-XVI .), , . XVII ,

PAGE 76

75 , ( ) 1653 ., [5]. 1689 . XVIII . 1711 , . , [4]. 1720 . . 1721 17 ( 1). XIX 1400 XIX , XIX-XX . XX , [1].

PAGE 77

76 1. XVII-XIX . , (P2kz1), (P2kz2). (P2t1-2). ( ) (, , ) , ( ) [6]. 200 (

PAGE 78

77 ), ( ) XVII-XIX . , , . , , . , [2]. , , XVIII-XIX ., XIX , ,

PAGE 79

78 , , , : , , ; , ; ; ; , . 2. ( )

PAGE 80

79 [3] , : ( ), ( ). 30 50 ( 2), 10 40 . 4 1000 . . . , 12-15 5-6 ( 3). . ( ) 20 100 ( ). XVIII-XIX

PAGE 81

80 ( ) ( ). , , , . [8]. 4-5 : 1 2 1-2 ( ). 10-15 , , . 3. ( ) ( 3 50 ), ( 50 500 ), ( 500 ). . ( 4), 3,5

PAGE 82

81 ( ). , . -1 5 1,6,8 4,8 1,6 1,6-1,8 , 3 0,8 1,6,0 1 , -2 200 -1, 2 3,0,2 1,2 10 : 1,0 1,8 1,5 . XVII XX ., 2 ( ). -1 ( 5) 50 20 , . 1,5-1,8 2,8 11 2,5 1,6-1,8 .

PAGE 83

82 4. ( ) 5. -1 ( ) -3 ( 6) 20 1,5 2,3

PAGE 84

83 : (0,4 ) 45 6 6 12 1,5 3 1,5 12 . 15 4,5 . 11 , 85 -1 ( ). ( 7) 135 , , 30 . 1,6-1,8 2,0 . ( ) -1 ( ), . -1 2,0 ( 8).

PAGE 85

84 6. -3 ( ) 7. ( ) 2003 (0,4,7 ), 1,2 1,6 , 0,9,0 10

PAGE 86

85 0,2 / 2 ( 0,1 3/ 3). 0,5 , 1,7-3 3 0,8-1,5 ( 9). , , , ( ) . . 0,15 0,25 . , , . . , 22 1,7,5 , , 10 .

PAGE 87

86 1,5 . 8. ( -1) , 55 . 0,15 . 120 2, 25 3 , 200 0,9-1,2 1,5-1,8 . . 0,06 / 2. 18 180

PAGE 88

87 . 1,5 1,7 . . 7 , 1,0,5 2 . 9. : 2001 (0,7-1,3 ) ( 3 ) 80 , . .

PAGE 89

88 . , 350 . , 1,5-1,9 1,2-1,8 . . -1 10-20. 1,2 1,6 , 60 5 , 4-5 ( 10), : ( ), . 10.

PAGE 90

89 , , 1. / 1927-1930 / . : 1932. 2. . // . : 2003. 3. . : LTD, 2000. 4. . XVII-XIX 1930. 5. . XVII, XVIII XIX ., 1937. 6. . 1940. 7. ., . : : . 1988. 8. . 1769-1770 ., 1770.

PAGE 91

90 DEPOSITS OF CAVES . K. Hill, P. Forti CAVE MINERALS OF THE WORLD (Selected chapters) Translated by N.V. Lavrova Summary Here given the translation of selected chapters from first edition of the book published in 1986. 1986 , 1997 . , (CO3)2. , , , , 95% Carol A. Hill, Paolol Forti. Cave minerals of the world. National Speleological Society. Huntsville, 1986. 238 p.

PAGE 92

91 (. , ). (CaFe(CO3)2) (MgCO3 2H2O), ( ) (MgCO3 4H2O) Harmon and Atkinson (1981). 1. , , , , : , 1 1 2 3 4 CaCO3 . : . 2.95. 2.85. 2.75. ; CaCO3 , . 3. .

PAGE 93

92 1 1 2 3 4 CaMg(CO3)2 , . . CaMg3(CO3)4 , . Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 4H2O ( ) . . MgCO3 . . CaCO3H2O ; MgCO3H2O . FeCO3 . CaCO3 .

PAGE 94

93 Holland (1964) : 1. CO2 , : H2O + CO2 = H2CO3. CO2, 2. , : CaCO3 + H2CO3 = Ca2+ + 2HCO3-. ( CO2) 100 200 3. , : ( ) . CO2 10 , 25-250 , CO2 , : Ca2+ + 2HCO3= CO2 + CaCO3 + H2O. CO2 , .

PAGE 95

94 ( ) . ( 100%). Trailkill (1965) 40% , Castleguard, Alberta, , , Kendall and Broughton (1978), , Kendall and Broughton (1977) , , Folk and Asserto (1977) , Craid et al. (1964) : (CaCO3), . ( 35C). , .

PAGE 96

95 : , , (Cabrol, 1978). (CaCO3 H2O), ( ), CO2. (MgCO3 H2O) ( . ). Wolkberg Cave ( ), 20C (Martini and Kavalieris, 1978). , , , CO2. , Mg Ca. (Mg), , Mg. Fischbeck and Muller (1971) Mg/Ca 2.9 4.4 Fischbeck (1976) Eibengrotte ( ) Mg, , Diaconu (1977) , Pestera Fagului ( ). (1986) , ( ).

PAGE 97

96 Grotto di Castellana , Korean caves (Suh and Kashima, 1978). Thrailkill (1965, 1968) (1986) Mg Skinner (1958) Kinsman (1967) Mg/Ca Mg. ( 10-15) Mg/Ca, CO2 Fischbeck and Muller (1971) Mg/Ca 16 . : , , , . (rafts) [ ]. . ( ).

PAGE 98

97 . (rims) / . , : Cabrol Coundray (1978), (frostwork) (1972) ( ): ( ; dripstone) Tansill, Capitan. (1978) , , , , . ( ) , , ( 1) ; Skrivanek (1958) : 1) , 2) ( ). Rogers (1975)

PAGE 99

98 Death Valley ( ), 60-65 63'. . 1 ( ) 55 . , . . 1. Jewel Cave, , , , , , , , , , . , Moore and Halliday (1953)

PAGE 100

99 ( 2), , . Webb and Brush (1978) New South Wales 15 , Skyline Caverns ( ), ( ) ( ) Todd (1894) Wind Cave Tullis and Gries (1938), , Cabrou and Coudray (1978) and Palmer (1981) , . Wind Cave Black Hill , ( -) , CO2 , Mg/Ca

PAGE 101

100 2 ( re and Halliday, 1953) , ; ( ) ; ( ) , , , Jewel Cave ( Deal, 1965, 2); ( -, 1973, 1984), K ( Mowat, 1960) Dachstein-Mammuthohle ( Seeman, 1979). . 2. 2,5 Jewel Cave,

PAGE 102

101 Jewel Cave. (Conn and Conn, 1977), -, 0,02 5 , . . 0,1 15 . Mowat (1960) , , Mowat . Dachstein-Mammuthhohle (R.Seeman, .). , Seeman (1984) , , , (Bernasconi, 1961). 35%, 37-40% 65%.

PAGE 103

102 , (1973; 1981) , , , (Blisters) , (bubble) , , , , ( 3). ( 4). , , . 3. Admirals Cave, ( 3 )

PAGE 104

103 4. (Lauzinas Cave, ) , Cabrol (1975) Moore (1952) 8 , , , Large (1951) 35 , ( ), , (J. Hedges, ). 1-2 , (White and Dunn, 1962). M. Queen ( ) ( ). , Canalete Cave ( ) 5-10 (P. Cabrol, ).

PAGE 105

104 Pobeguin (1957), , , , , , (Boxwork) , , ( 5). , , . 5. (Wind Cave, )

PAGE 106

105 Black Hills ( ) , Wind Cave, 60 Black Hills ( ) 0.5-3 . Palmer (1981) Black Hills. , : 1) , ; 2) ; 3) , CO2 ( ) Paradise Cave ( ), , , . , Dubuque ( J. Hedges, ), Cueva del Aqua, 0,5

PAGE 107

106 1 . . . , , Pestera Topolnitza ( ) 15-30 (Povara and Diaconi, 1974). (Bubbles) Warwick (1949, 1950): , (Eckel, 1939) Warwick , Derbyshire ( ), 1951 (Railton, 1951). ( 1951 .; Virginia cave, Meenehan, 1951). ( 1951) Railton French (Isere) cave. 1952 (DeSaussure et al., 1953). 50. , ; 1 0,2 ; ( 6). ,

PAGE 108

107 : , , , . ( ) 0,2 1 ( ). . 6. Goshute Cave, 4,5 , . , . , , , ,

PAGE 109

108 , , Silent Splendor Passage, Cave of the Winds ( ). (Seanor and Hill, 1986). Fishbeck and Muller (1971) Tietz (1981) Kirchner and Simonsberger (1982). Halliday (1961) Utah cave. Vineyard and Williams (1968) Missouri cave. Pobequin (1960), Moore (1961), Thrail kill (1968); ( ) , ; ; 0,2 Bethlehen Cave ( ), 1-2 Jewel Cave (Deal, 1962). Poorfarm Cave ( ; Foster, 1952). (Holden, 1938). 1894 Merrill : , . , Hubb (1940) , , ,

PAGE 110

109 . , : , , Koneprushe (Hablichowa and Jancarik, 1983). , , ( ). (1-2 ) . , , ( ) Giusti ( ). ( ) ( 7). Thayer (1967):

PAGE 111

110 Peck (1976) (1984) Kunsky and Kaspar (1958) , ( ), , . ( ) (Hawes, 1960; Peck, 1976). 1-5 15 1 1 (1986) ( ) 12,5 5 7,5 1 . 7. Gua Ajais Cave ( Gunong Mulu, ) . ,

PAGE 112

111 . Cueva del Aqua ( ) 10 0,5 Fernandez-Rubio (1974, 1975), ( ). , aliendo Cave ( ). 2 10-20 , 2 . Gua Ajais (Wonder Cave) Tiger Foot Cave, Gunong Mulu ( , ; Brook and Waltham, 1978). (Rose, 1980) (Hart, 1981). 30 10-20 , , . ,

PAGE 113

112 . . . . . ( ) S.S. Potapov, N.V. Parshina, O.I. Kadebskaya, P.N. Sivinskikh, N.G. Ma imovich Institute of mineralogy of UB RAS Kungur lab of Mining Institute of UB RAS Natural science Institute of Perm State University SEASON MINERALS IN KUNGUR ICE CAVE Summary In this article is described season minerals which exists in februare-april inside Kungur Ice cave. The cave is underground stock of native and secondary minerals mostly unexplored. [9]. 2004 , , [1, 3-5], [8]. 2006 [2], ,

PAGE 114

113 ( 1), ( ) . 1. : , [1], , , 1995 . [1] , 70-85 1.5-2 3.5-4.0 , 0.01

PAGE 115

114 1998 . . . [4]. . , (Na2SO4), , , : [6], [7]. . . [10] ( ) , : ; Na2SO4 , ( ) , [4] , ,

PAGE 116

115 ( ), 4 2006 ( . 1. ). 15 20-25 ( 2). ( ), ( ). 2. -22-06 (1), Na2SO4 10H2O (2) CaSO4 2H2O (3). 1 2 (ASTM*, 11-647) 3 (ASTM, 6-0046) d, I d, I hkl d, I hkl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7,583 100 7,56 100 020 5,47 65 5,49 100 002 4,658 26 4,77 45 120, 201 4,277 57 4,32 20 211 4,27 50 1 21 3,804 24 3,83 40 12 2 3,79 20 031, 040 3,339 21 3,31 5 311 3,248 10 3,26 60 13 1

PAGE 117

116 -2.0, CuK. . 7.583 *ASTM . , , , 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3,183 22 3,21 75 320, 40 1 3,063 79 3,11 60 40 2, 313 3,059 55 14 1 2,878 46 2,896 5 321 2,867 25 002 2,78 43 2,801 30 40 3, 231 2,786 6 21 1 2,739 7 2,743 15 132, 004 2,677 15 2,687 10 33 1 2,679 28 022, 051 2,212 7 2,208 5 13 4, 214 2,216 6 15 2 2,189 6 2,196 5 511, 23 4 2,073 5 2,071 15 224, 41 5 2,073 8 112, 251 2,011 7 1,990 4 170 1,895 7 1,898 16 080, 062 1,864 15 1,864 4 31 2 1,807 7 1,812 10 26 2 1,782 6 1,778 10 260 1,661 5 1,664 4 34 1 1,619 4 1,621 6 20 4, 181, 053

PAGE 118

117 0,5 1,8 , , , , . . ( , ) . 2005 . ( 3). , , 4 . . 5 2006 ( ) : 3,028 (3,036); 2,488 (2,497); 2,277 (2,287); 2,089 (2,095); 1,924 (1,913); 1,874 (1.877) ( ).

PAGE 119

118 . , , , . ( ) . ( ) . 3. 1. ., ., ., . // : 1995. 1. 26-58.

PAGE 120

119 2. ., . // 2006. : 2006. 22-31. 3. : / . . : 2005. 376 4. ., ., ., . // . : . : 1999. 1. 47-48. 5. ., ., . // : 1995. 1. 59-63. 6. ., . // : 1993. 1. 120-123. 7. . // 2001. : 2002. 22-27. 8. ., . // 2005 : 2005. 48-52. 9. ., ., ., ., . ( ) // , : IV . 17-20 2006 : 2006. 71-74. 10. ., . // 2001. : 2002. 36-37. 07-05-00618

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120 BIOSPELEOLOGY . . . . . ( ) A.A. Semikolennykh, A.E. Ivanova, M.V. Gorlenko, T.G. Dobrovolskaya Institute of geography RAS Moscow State University ECOLOGY OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES OF CAVES BELOMORSKO-KULOYSKOE PLATO (ARKHANGELSK REGION) Summary The structure and functional specifics of microbial communities and fungi from cave deposits and near by surface so ils have been studied in caves of the Archangelsk Region of Northern European Russia. The caves are all undergoing the active process of modern karst development. Cave microbial communities were overall quite similar to those from surf ace soil horizons located over the caves, with some substantial stru ctural differences, includin g: replacement of dominant species and the appearance of new, ra re species; the prevailing growth of oligotrophic and psychrotolerant forms; and altered kinetic growth parameters with changes in microbial populations. [1] [9].

PAGE 122

121 , . , , [15, 26, 25]. [17], . (64 32 ., 43 15 .) [9]. 4 50 [9] 1-4 ; 0,1-10 ; ; 0,4 / 2,5 / ; ( [10]). 1998 .

PAGE 123

122 : 1) ( 2O3 ); 2) ( ); 3) : 4) f ; 5) , , ; 6) Bmhcs ( ). 2 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [18], 1 ( ). 50 (KH2PO4 6,35 g/l & Na2HPO4 7,16 g/l. pH 6,47) 10 1 0,001%. (20 -25 ) 2 10 480 10. 10 100%,

PAGE 124

123 ( 3 50 ). ( ). [7]. , (2-8 ) , . 1:100 1:10000 [6]. 2 1 (22 0,6 2 ). 10 glucosepeptone-yeast agar 28 3-5 3. [8] ( ) ( ). [6]. 1:100. 3-5 (180 ./ 15 ). 25, 15 5 3.

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124 10 [5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27]. ( , ) ( ) [6], [19, 20], [19]. MS Excel 2000, Statistica 6. / , ( ) 2 : Myxococcales spp. Aquaspirillum sp. +28 +5 +28 . ( ) [2]

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125 Ecolog [2], 47 3(TTB) formazan 2 100 ( =6,5). (1:50) 30 0,4 22 6 3000 ./ : 1) TTB 3 / 10:1; 2) ( ). 1:10000. 0,2 +28 1, 23. TTB, 510 ( ) 480 ( ). SPSS 10.0. ( ) [19], ( 510 480 ). ( .

PAGE 127

126 ) 100%. 47 ( ), 47 ( ). . 1. , , . 2 , , ( ). 1 1-10 % ( ) 8 12 9 23 10 30 3 f 4 Bg 6 1 3 O3T 8 12 -1 Bmhcs 4 3

PAGE 128

127 1 1-10 % ( ) 8 3 10 18 -1 6 12 8 28 -1 3 8 . 10 7 . 8 100 9 , 2 , 3 200 . 3 , 2 1.

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128 : 1 23 2 3 Bf 4 . 1 8, , (Aquaspirillum), . Myxococcales ( ) Cellulomonas, Arthrobacter ( 2). Actinomycetales: 17% 31% ( ) Myxococcales Bacillus. , Myxococcales ( 2). Cellulomonas u Aquaspirillum: 10:1 1:10 Aquaspirillum, , c

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129 Cellulomanas [4]. Cellulomonas , , 2 ( 2,5 / ) ( ) ( -140) 2 3 Bf 3 Bmhcs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28 C 3,92 (3,80) 109 6,10 (4,20) 107 1,30 108 2,00 106 1,14 (1,08) 109 1,58 (3,53) 105 / 1 . 5 C 1,35 107 0,31 105 0,68 107 0,37 105 % 0,34 0,05 0,60 23,42 , % Actynomycetales ( ) 8 (12) 6 (8) 14 31 4 (6) 2 (2) Aquaspirillum 3 (3) 36 (38) 3 20 (21) 40 (32) Azotobacter 3 Arthrobacter 40 (38) 3 22 8 (16) 38 (49) Bacillus 7 (5) 20 6 7 (5) 1 (1) Cellulomonas 27 (34) 5 (10) 3 9 2 (5) 4 (8) CytophagaFlavobacterium 2 (0) 2 (1)

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130 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Micrococcus 2 (3) Myxococcales 33 (30) 13 (6) 54 29 33 (28) 15 (8) Paracoccus 2 (0) 2 (0) Rhodococcus 2 (0) Sporocytophaga 2 (0) G, 16 (16) 18 (15) 28 9 5 7 5 11 6 5 3 4 3 4 3 4 28 1,741 1,318 1,171 1,578 1,957 1,272 5 0,927 1,033 0,995 1,245 0,997 1,142 Arthrobacter Aquaspirillum. , ( 3). ( 2). [19]. 10% ( : [20], 3).

PAGE 132

131 2. : , ( 3). ( 2). ( ). 10%, 50% 100%. [20] ( 3). 3 (*) : : Bmhcs ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Penicillium minioluteum Dierckx

PAGE 133

132 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chrysosporium merdarium (Link ex Grev.) Carm. Penicillium rugulosum Thom Penicillium expansum Link ex Gray Penicillium canescens Sopp Penicillium spinulosum Thom Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski Penicillium janthinellum Biourge Penicillium thomii Maire Penicillium decumbens Thom Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Gray Mucor hiemalis Wehmer Artrobotrys artrobotryoides (Berl.) Lindau Chrysosporium pannorum (Link) Hughes Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenw.) van Beyma Chaetomium globosum Kunze ex Steud. Acremonium sp. Penicillium crustosum Thom Penicillium funiculosum Thom Acremonium charticola (Lundau) W. Gams Oidiodendron tennuissimum (Peck) Hughes Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas Acremonium kiliense Grutz Mycelia sterilia (Demateaceae) Penicillium aurantiogriseum Dierckx Penicillium chrysogenum Thom Aspergillus niger van Tieghem Aspergillus wentii Wehmer Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom Penicillium roquefortii Thom Rhizopus oryzae Went & Prinsen Geerligs 1,99 2,45 2,27 1,93 2,06 0,75 0,86 0,84 0,95 0,94 : 14 17 15 8 10 (*) (%): (< 30%); (30-60%); (> 60%).

PAGE 134

133 3. , . , ( 3). Mucor hiemalis, Geomyces pannorum, Cladosporium cladosporioides Arthrobotrys arthrobotryoides. [12]

PAGE 135

134 Trichoderma viride, Penicillium ( 3). Monoverticillata P. decumbens, P. spinulosum; P. thomii; Divaricata P.janthinellum Penicillium , M. hiemalis, ( 3), [12] Chaetomium globosum. Acremonium, ( 3). , . 2-4 , 107 109 / ( 2). [4, 3]. ( 2). 20%.

PAGE 136

135 5 28 : 0,05%, 5 , 28 ( 2). 5 , 28 5 , Arthrobacter Aquaspirillum, ( 2). , , ( 2). , 5 : ( ) (5 15 ) (25 ) . ( ) , 15-20%.

PAGE 137

136 , , ( ) 5 15 25 , 25 15 5 , ( , .). , 30-50% 75-90%. . 4 TTB . , TTB . 4 ,

PAGE 138

137 : , . r( ), , , TTB . 4. ( : , ) 4 Bf . Bmcs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 25 3,18 7 2,92 9 2,92 0 3,098 2,991 3,121 3,140

PAGE 139

138 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0,92 8 0,88 9 0,97 5 0,951 0,918 0,982 0,975 31 27 35 26 26 24 25 % ( ) 66 66 74 57 55 68 60 % ( ) 27 27 32 25 16 28 28 . 2548 2 2523 7 2618 7 23889 15427 27087 22153 25 3,60 8 3,555 3,017 0,97 8 0,977 0,976 40 38 22 % ( ) 88 76 45 % ( ) 62 54 31 5 3,33 4 2,464 2,516 0,98 0 0,961 0,953 30 13 14 % ( ) 63 26 22 % ( ) 45 18 16 , , Myxococcales Aquaspirillum ( ). +5

PAGE 140

139 : +1.5 +3.5 C. +28 +5 , +36 +5 +28 . 5. , . 5. 5 +5 +28 +5 +28 +5 +28 1 2 3 4 5 Inosit + + Arabinosa + + + Rhamnose Dulcite Sorbite + + +

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140 5 1 2 3 4 5 Lactose Mannitol + + Maltose Aspartate + + + + Glucose Sucrose + + + + Xilose + + Pullulan Acetate Citrate + + + + Succinate + + + + Maleate + Propionate Norleucine + Octanoate Valeriate + + + + Malate Acetamine Aminobutyrate Cistein Treonine Histidine Norvaline Alanine + + + Asparagine + + + + Arginine + + + + Valine + + + Serine + + + + Phenylalanine + Lactate + + + + Glutamine + + Lisine Tymidin Dextrane TWIN 80 Urea Starch Fructose + + + + Rafinose Glycerin + + + + Kreatine + + : 20 19 12 21 ( )

PAGE 142

141 . 5. 5 +28 +28 +5 +5 . +5 +28 ( ), , , , : , 1. . .: 1981.

PAGE 143

142 2. ., . // ., 1994. 63 (2). 289-293. 3. ., . // 1999. 1. 55-58. 4. ., ., . // 1987. 2. 54-59. 5. . : 1978. 264 6. / . . .: 1991. 303 7. ., . // 1963. .32, 3. 8. .: 1997. 799 9. ( ). / . . 2000. 268 10. ., . // 1999. 46-47. 11. Barnett H.L., Hunter B.B. Illustra ted genera of imperfect fungi. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company. Third ed., 1972. 241 p. 12. Domsh K.H., Gams W., Anderson T.H. Compendium of soil fungi. Reprint der Ausg. von 1980. Eching: IHW-Verlag, 1993. Vol. 1. P. 860. 13. Ellis M.B. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute. Kew, Surrey, England, 1971. 608 p. 14. Gams W. Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). Jena: Fisher Verlag, 1971. 262 p. 15. unningham K.I., Northup D.E., Pollastro W.G., Wright W.G., LaRock E.J. Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechugilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Environmental Geology. 1995. 25. P. 2-8. 16. Klich M.A., Pitt J.I. A laboratory guide to the common Aspergillus species and their teleomorphs. Commonwealth Scientific and

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143 Industrial Research Organisation, Di vision of Food Processing, 1988. Reprinted 1992. 116 p. 17. Koilraj A.J., Marimuthu G., Nata rajan K., Saravan S., Maran P., Hsu M.J. Fungal diversity inside caves of Southern India // Current Science. 1999. Vol. 77, 8. P. 1081-1083. 18. Ingham E.R. & Klein D.A. Relationship between flourescein diacetate-stained hyphae and oxygen utilization, glucose utilization, and biomass of submerged fungal batch cultures // Appl. Envirin. Microbiology. Vol. 44 (2). P. 363-370. 19. Magurran A.E. Ecological diversity and its measurement. London; Sydney, 1983. 20. May R.M. Patterns of species abundance and diversity / Ecology and Evolution of Communities (eds. M.L.Cody & J.M.Diamond) // Harvard Univ. Press. Cambridge, MA, 1975. 21. Pitt J.I. A laboratory guide to common Penicillium species. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Division of Food Processing, 1988. Second ed. Reprinted 1991. 187 p. 22. Raper K.B., Fennell D.I. The genus Aspergillus. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1965. 686 p. 23. Raper K.B., Thom C. A manual of the Penicillia. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1949. 875 p. 24. Rifai M.A. A revision of the genus Trichoderma // Mycological Papers. 1969. 116. P. 3-56. 25. Sarbu S.M., Kane T.C., Kinkle B.K. A chemolithotrophically based groundwater ecosystem // Science, 1996. Vol. 272. P. 1953-1955. 26. Stevens T.O., McKinley J.P. Lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystems in deep basalt aquifers // Science, 1995. Vol.270. P. 450454. 27. Zycha H., Siepmann R., Linnemann G. Mucorales. Ienre, 1969. 355 p.

PAGE 145

144 . N.N. Pan'kov Perm State University THE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS THE INCHABITANTS OF THE KUNGUR REGION CAVES Summary The investigations of the invertebrate animals fauna of the Kungur region caves revealed the presence of 28 species, belonging to 3 types, 5 classes, 13 ordo, 22 families and 27 genera. At present, 25 species are known in the fauna of Kungur Ice cave. The lists of invertebrates of other caves consist of 4-5 species. The ecological classification of cave invertebrates is discussed. , , , , ,

PAGE 146

145 , , ( ), , ( ), (3,2 ). ( ), ( ), [6]. , [4] , , I . 500 60-80 5,7 ; 60, 65,0 2; 206,0 3. , 3 [4]. ( ) -, ; 2/3

PAGE 147

146 (1300 1250 ), , 200 [4]. , , , , , ., 18-20 [1]. , . ( 130 ) ; , 200-300 ; ( 200-300 ) +5.3 [4]. 70 7,47 2, 1000 2 ( 1580 2, 1460 2). 100 2 12 90% 3 6 0,1-0,4 ; I

PAGE 148

147 , . ; , [1]. , ( ), [1]. +1,1...+5, 2 +5,5 1,8-2,7 / ( 2,1 / ) [4]. . 14 10 [6]. . ; 5 350 90 7 . [6]. ; 3500 -. 20 3,2 . .

PAGE 149

148 ( ), ( 4%) ( 50 5 ). , [7]. 46 43 290 (869 ), 712 . ( ), . . . . . ( ), . . . . . . . ( ), . ( ), . . ( ), . ( ), . . ( ), . ( ), . . ( ), . . ( ). . , . [1, 2, 3, 5 .].

PAGE 150

149 ( ) Crangonyx chlebnikovi Borutzky (1928). 2002 ., . [9, 10]. 2003 2006 Crangonyx chlebnikovi; . . , ( 2003 .), ( 2002, 2004 .), ( 2003 .) ( 2004 .). [8, 12, 13, 14]. ( ). I. Nemathelminthes ( . ). Nematoda Araeolaimida. Plectidae. 1. Plectus rhizophilus De Man, 1880. II. Annelida ( . ). Oligochaeta : Enchytraeidae 2. Enchytraeidae indet ( ). III. Arthropoda Crustacea Ostracoda ( . ).

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150 Ostracoda Cyprididae. 3. Candona sp 4. Cypridopsis vidua (O.F. Mueller, 1776). Cytheridae. 5. Limnocythere inopinata (Baird, 1850). Malacostraca ( . ). Amphipoda Gammaridae 6. Crangonyx chlebnikovi Borutzky, 1928. Isopoda Porcellionidae 7. Trachelipus rathkei (Brandt, 1833). Arachnida Acariformes ( . ). Trombidiidae 8. Trombidiidae indet ( ). Hydracarina. 9. Hydracarina indet ( ). Arane i ( . ). Theridiidae. 10. Steatoda bipunctata Linnaeus, 1758. Linyphiidae. 11. Megalepthyphantes pseudocollinus Saaristo, 1997. 12. Neriene montana Clerck, 1758. Lycosidae. 13. Pardosa lugubris Walckenaer, 1802. Insecta Entognatha Collembola ( ). Entomobryidae. 14. Orchesella flavescens (Bourlet, 1839). Onychiuridae. 15. Oligaphorura schoetti (Lie Petersen, 1896). Ectognatha Plecoptera ( . ). Taeniopterygidae 16. Taeniopteryx nebulosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Coleoptera

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151 Elmidae ( . ). 17. Riolus cupreus (Muller, 1806). Cryptophagidae ( ). 18. Macrophagus sp. Lepidoptera (. ). Noctuidae 19. Apamea lateritia Hufnagel, 1766. 20. Scoliopteryx libatrix Linnaeus, 1758. 21. Spaelotis clandestina Harris, 1841. Diptera Nematocera Trichoceridae ( . ). 22. Trichocera maculipennis Mg. Limoniidae ( . ). 23. Limonia quadrinotata Mg. 24. Dicranomyia didyma Mg. Chironomidae ( . ). 25. Chiron omidae indet ( ). Brachycera Bombyliidae ( . ). 26. Dischistus unicolor Lw. Helomyzidae ( . . ). 27. Helomyza pleuralis L. 28. Helomyza serrata L. 28 (15 ), (6) (5), 25 ( .), 18 , ; Hydracarina, O. schoetti, T. nebulosa, R. cupreus, A. lateritia S. clandestina, Chironomidae, L. quadrinotata D. didyma, D. unicolor, ,

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152 , , , , R. cupreus O. flavescens, S. libatrix Macrophagus sp., C ( .) P. rhizophilus + + 4 Enchytraeidae indet. + + 2 Candona sp. + 1 C. vidua + 1 L. inopinata + 1 C. chlebnikovi + + + 415 T. rathkei + 1 Trombidiidae indet. + + + 27 Hydracarina indet. + 1 Steatoda bipunctata + 1 M. pseudocollinus + 2 N. montana + 1 P. lugubris + 1 O. flavescens + 1 O. schoetti + 24 T. nebulosa + 1 R. cupreus + 1 Macrophagus sp. + 1 A. lateritia + 1 S. libatrix + 1 S. clandestina + 1 T. maculipennis + + + + 104 L. quadrinotata + 19 D. didyma + 18 D. unicolor + 1 Chironomidae indet. + 1 H. pleuralis + + + 36 H. serrata + + + 44

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153 ; P. rhizophilus, Enchytraeidae, , C. chlebnikovi, , H. serrata H. pleuralis, , T. maculipennis, , , ( .), , C. chlebnikovi, [11]; P. rhizophilus, Enchytraeidae O. schoetti; ( ), , [13]. Helomyzidae, Limoniidae T. maculipennis; ( , ) [13]. , T. nebulosa, R. cupreus, Chironomidae, D. unicolor. Helomyzidae.

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154 O. flavescens, Macrophagus sp., ; , Hydracarina, ; 1. ., . / : 1995. 1. 85-99. 2. ., . 1990. 303 3. ., . 300 // 300 : . .. 2003. 12-40. 4. ., . 2004. 136 5. . // : : 1. .. 2002. 12-18. 6. : / . . : 2002. 464 7. ., ., . (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) : // 2005. 6 ( ). 77-82. 8. ., . // : / . . : 2005. 376 ( 238-257). 9. ., . // : 300 : . .. 2003. 183-186.

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155 10. ., . // : . . : 2004. 133-140. 11. ., . Crangonyx chlebnikovi Borutzky, 1928 (Gammaridae) // : . . : 2004. 141-150. 12. ., ., . // : . .. (1620 2006 ., ). 2006. 285-289. 13. ., ., ., ., . // 2006. : . V .. ( 20-21 2006 .). 2006. 250-253. 14. ., ., . // : . 19-23 2004 / : 2004. 298. ( 07-04-96001).

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156 ARCHAEOLOGY . V.N. Dublyansky Perm State University CAVES OF KAMENNAYA MOGILA (STONE GRAVE) Summary Here is described Ukrainian archeologocal monument Kamennaya Mogila situated next to Melitopol town. This is the round hill (210x210 m), 12 m height with numerous suffusion grottes and caves. The main feature of this object is presence of numerous ancient pictures (14-12 thousand years B.C. X-XII c.c.). Of course, the caves of Kamennaya Mogila had been used for religion needs in the past. Using of the object had stopped after earthquake which destroyed this monument. 1952 75 3-5 . . . ( ). , . . [5]. 13 1965 IV

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157 , 1960 . [10]. 12 , . . . 200 -407 . XII [6]. ., [3]. 18 1,5 . 210 210 12 , 20-30 . XVIII ., 1774 , XIX . . , , , .

PAGE 159

158 . 1. [11]: 1932 (. ), 1936 ( . ) [1]. . . [1 1]. 3 50 . 14-12. . X-XII ( , , ). , ( , ), . , ( 2 ).

PAGE 160

159 , . . . , , ( 2 ). . 10 [1]. 2. , 6-4 . . ( 2 ). ,

PAGE 161

160 , , , , 40 , . 14 ( ), ( 4 3. .). . ( ). , . , [13] , pa , , XIX . [11]. III-IV . ., VIII . .

PAGE 162

161 , , . IX-XI XII , , , . , , . , [7]. 4[9]. (1:1 000) 3 . 81 : ( .); ( .); ( 2);

PAGE 163

162 ( 2); ( ). : ( 3), [13]. 3. ( 2): [2]. 140 , [4]. 6 [8, 12].

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163 1. . // ., 1941. 2. 21-27. 2. . // . 1989. 3-7. 3. . ( ): ... . 2006. 19 4. ., . . : 1992. 188 5. . : 2006. 268 6. ., . : 1980. 176 7. ., ., . : 2001. 194 8. 1:5000000. .: 1984. 31 9. ., ., . : 1988. 162 10. . : 2002. 200 11. . : i 1979. 63 12. 1975 .: 1977. 536 13. . : 1961. 48

PAGE 165

164 . ( ) D.A. Izosimov Perm State University ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCHING IN THE CAVES Summary In this article is described using of the caves by ancient people and archeological findings in the Ural caves. , . : [2, 4]. [6 ] [1]. , [7].

PAGE 166

165 , [4]. ( ), ( , ) ( ); ( ) ( ). : , ( ). ( ) ( ) ( ). , ( , ), ( ). ( , ), 1. . // ( ): . 1997. .II. 2. // 1971

PAGE 167

166 3. . ., 2000. 4. . . 1991. 5. . // : ., 1987. .1. 6. . // 1934. 11-12. 7. . : // 2004

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167 PROTECTION OF THE CAVES . . . ( ) S.S. Potapov, N.V. Parshina, D.S. Potapov Institute of mineralogy of UB RAS CAVE CHUDESNICA AND OTHER KARST OBJECTS OF MOUNTAIN KLADOVAYA (PERM REGION) Summary In this article described Chudesnica cave and history of it revelation. Here is given the detal description of the cave and other objects situated next to it. Also is characterized degree of antropogenic influence on the caves. 2006 . 7 , : . (12 ) -2 (18 ).

PAGE 169

168 -2 12 . ( ) ( 1). 512 ( ) 70. 1974 . . , . , . , . 1. : 1 2 3 . 1976 :

PAGE 170

169 . . . . , , , , ( ), ( 2) . , . 2. ( )

PAGE 171

170 1984 [3]. 70 23 12, ( ), , 50 (~0,2-0,3 ) ( 2 ) ( (1) 2; 3 ), 4 30 6 3 , , . 3. ( ~ 20) (2), , , (3), : ( , 20 ) (4),

PAGE 172

171 , (5) ( : 20 10, 8 ). : (6) (7) ( ). ( ) (8) ( ) ( ). ( ) (9) (10). (~ 2 ), (11) ( , (12), (13) 40 ). : ( 4), ( 5), , , , . ; ( ). , 1.5-2 0.5 . : ,

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172 4. 5. 80. XX : , , .

PAGE 174

173 . 100 , . : http://clubdoroga.euro.ru/arhiv/chyd.html. , . , 166. . , [1], [2]. 100 ( 2 1, 6 ), ( 6 ). 6. ( ) ( )

PAGE 175

174 , . . 100 . , , ; , , , , , 4-5 ( 7), , , , . 7.

PAGE 176

175 . , ( ) ( 3 1, 8). . , , . , . , , , , , , , ,

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176 8. : ( ), ( ) , , , , , , , , . : http://clubdoroga.euro.ru/arhiv/chyd.html; http://clubdoroga.euro.ru/arhiv/plan.gif; http://ellips.ru/ural/main.php? doc=photo/chud1/index.htm; http://www.perm.ru/region/tourizm/tur/?document=800. 1. ., ., ., . // : 1995. 5 66-81.

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177 2. ., ., ., ., . -, // : : 1999. 266-288. 3. : 23. 1992. ( ) 07-05-00618. . . S.S. Potapov, E.G. Aukhadeeva Institute of mineralogy of UB RAS KARST-CAVE COMPLEX USTINOVSKIE IZVESTNYAKI IN CHELYABINSK REGION Summary Here is given geographical and geological description of karst-cave complex Ustinovskie izvestnyaki and di fferent speleoobjects which it contains. In addition, you can find in this article citates from published materials about this object. : ,

PAGE 179

178 , , , , [6]. ( 1), 1,5 , ( 2). , . , : , , . 1. [1]

PAGE 180

179 1985 . 3,5 2 [8]. , 37 4 ( ): 1. , 1300 2. , 300 . 2. ( . , 2006 .) ,

PAGE 181

180 : 2,63-2,74 / 3; 0,05-1,39%; 806-2049 / 2; 0,76-0,97, 25, 2510,0-18,44, 1,0 / 2. , 947984 10 : , . . 1988 . , [1]. . , , ,

PAGE 182

181 , . 2001 ( . ) 70 , . , : ( [6]). [9] , : ; , ; ( , .); .

PAGE 183

182 , , . [1] . [2] ( 3). 20 , , [3]. , [7 ]: ( ), , ( . ), : . . , , , , 1882 . , [3].

PAGE 184

183 , , , , : , , , , , , , , , , . . , **. . [4] : ( ) 10 5 2,5 2,1 ( 60. . ) ** ( ) ( . ).

PAGE 185

184 ( 4), 5 1 2 345. 2 10 , ( 5). . [10]. . [5], , . 3. ( 6), ( 7). : 1 ,

PAGE 186

185 . , , , , , . 4. 5.

PAGE 187

186 6. 7. , , ()

PAGE 188

187 [8]. (40%) (30%). 0,4 13,8 14,5%. 30 1. . : : 2004. 2. ., ., ., ., . // . 12. . 2005. 1. 166-167. 3. ., . : 1991. 202 4. . // 1966. 6 (7). 125-127. 5. . // 1970. 8 (9). 134-138. 6. // 2006. 23. 1, 3. 7. // 2006. 53. 8. // 351-354. 9. / . . . . . : . 2001. 29

PAGE 189

188 10. . // : II .. : 2004. 337-341. . . ( ), . ( ), . ( ) 07-05-00618. . . . E.I. Gurkalo, E.V. Shavrina, V.N. Malkov THE FORECAST ANTROPOGENIC CHANGES TO CAVE CHUGSKOGO RESERVATION Summary The Modern stage of the developmen t of capitalism in Russia has shown that does not exist the reliable measures on guard of the caves. The Developments gypsum entrails on border landscape rese rvation Chugskiy threaten to destroy the cave systems, falling into gypsum most largest caves of the world and unique territory open karst. : , ( 1). :

PAGE 190

189 , , , 2008 . , , , , , . . 2 10 1 . 70-90 . ( ), , ( 2). ,

PAGE 191

190 . , , . 1. , . 100 25% . 15 10 500

PAGE 192

191 (1910 ), (1233 ), (1069 ), (902) (5-13 ), 8-11 1,5 . . () 10 . 2. ( . ) : , , , . ( 4). 1996 .,

PAGE 193

192 2005 ., , . 3. ( . ) 3 10.10.02 , , ( ) , 25 , ,

PAGE 194

193 . . 4. ( ) 2007 600 . , , .

PAGE 195

194 , . : . , , , , ,

PAGE 196

195 HISTORY OF CAVE INVESTIGATION . ( . ) D.V. Naumkin Kungur lab of Mining Institute UB RAS FRENCH GRAVURE IN FUNDS OF MUSEUM OF KARST AND SPELEOLOGY MINING INSTITUTE OF UB RAS Summary Here is described the French gravure of second half of XVIII century which is the copy of first map of Kungur Ice cave by S.U. Remezov. 2005 XVIII Plan de la Grotte de Kungur ( 1). . ( ) [1, 2, 4], . 1703 XVII-XVIII XI ., [3]. ( ); ( . ).

PAGE 197

196 ( 79). . 25,337,2 19,2,9 ( ) 17,36 ( -), B. de Bakker. Tom XXIV. , , 1757 [2], ( ) . (1772). . , , , , , (?), XVIII , , , . [3]. . , ( . ), , [3].

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197 1. XVIII Plan de la Grotte de Kungur De la Grotte de Kungur 2005 . 1. . XVII ., 1939. 27-34. 2. . . 1: XVII .; .: 1960. 279. 3. . ( . ) // 300 : . .. 2003. 55-58. 4. . XVIII // . . 1958. ( ), 2. 167-195.

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198 . . L.A. Dolgikh Kungur historical art and architectural museum A.T. KHLEBNIKOVS LIFE Summary In this paper described biography of first guide of Kungur Ice cave. A.T. Khlebnikov was born in Kungur town. He lived in USA for a long time. After returning he was equipped the cave for excursions. Kungur Ice cave became the first excursion speleological object in Russia. The paper was compiled from archive documents and publications from end of XIX first half of XX century. . [9] . . (1877-1951) [21]. 17 1877 [16]. 3[16], [6], [7], [8]. . , [4].

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199 1903 1909 . [18]. : [2]. 5 1907 , . , . 50 .. , [26]. [31, 35]. 1914-1917 ., : [3, 15]. : [3, 15]. 1920., . [2]. [15] [4]. 10 1914 [9]. . [3].

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200 1. . (1898 .) [3]. , , , [3, 15]. I . [15]. , [3]. [3]. . , [15].

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201 [3]. : . [3, 15]. 2. . (1940.) . 13 1914 [1]. . , .

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202 , [10, 11, 12, 13]. , , . , . . [13]. 1933 I [24]. VII 1937 [22, 30]. . 1924 [25, 28]. , , , [23, 29]. . 1927 . , [14]. 1920. [32, 33, 34]. [20]. 7 1948 . [19].

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203 3. (1950 .) . , 1920. 1951 ., 23403.04.1980 [27]. 683 20.05.1993 . [27]. 1990 ( . ).

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204 1. ( ). 65, 2, 514, 32. 2. ( ). 61, 1, 21, 137. 3. . 450, 1, 180, 1, 2, 2 3. 4. ( ). . 5. . 1928. 6. . . 1891. 7. . . 1892. 8. . . 1903. 9. . . 1914. 10. . 1928; 11. . 1928. 12. . . 1928. 13. . . 14. . . 1928. 15. . 1917. 16. . 1896. 17. . 1928. 18. . . 1909. 19. . . 1949. 20. . . 1951. 21. . // 1951. 28 4. 22. // 1952. 27 2. 23. // 1924. 10 4. 24. ., . 1990. 80 25. // 1924. 8 4. 26. // 1907. 1-14 330. 27. 1993. 2. 96, 98.

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205 28. // 1924. 20 2. 29. ( . ) // 1923, 20 9. 30. // 1937. 12 31. . // 1907. 15-28 1. 32. . // 1927. 15 4. 33. . // 1924. 12 3. 34. . // 1923. 21 4. 35. . // 1907. 1-14 116.

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206 EDUCATION . A.V. Zalessky Ekaterinburg speleoclub THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION OF YOUNG SPELEOLOGISTS Summary In this article autor raises the problems of organization work in clubs of young speleologists. Also is discussed question about classification of the caves. . , : , . B , .

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207 ? , 100%, , , , 18 : : ( ) . , , : . ( 23). . : 3, 2, 5-6 : 30 ,

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208 , : , ? , : , ( ) ( ) , ( ), ( ), 2. ( ). : . : VI : , 13-14 11-12 , 15 . ,

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209 . A.S. Vrady Gornozavodsk children house CAVES OF GORNOZAVODSK DISTRICT Summary Here are given descriptions of the caves made by children from orphanage of Gornozavodsk town. : ; ; . , ( ) 1,5 . 6 36 9 15 5 70. 25

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210 101 7 400 . 2 1 8 1,5 , 4 5 , 18 1997 . 85 . ( ) 3 2,5,5 32 520 30

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211 , 12 7 15 : 4 . . . 15 . , . , , . , 80 , 6 , 1 5 8 30 , , 15-20

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212 2,5 , 1974 . 512 10 10 , , 6-7 , 8 , . 1,5 . 9 . 7 , 5 14 . . 34 , . 3 .

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213 10 , I . I . 200 5 , 14 . . 500 . 3 12 . 2004 14 . , ,

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214 , , 15 . 2006 S.Y. Evdokimova Perm speleoclub SUMMER SPELEOCAMPING GUBAKHA 2006 Summary This paper is about summer children speleocamping where pupils asquired knowledge about speleology. 2006 2006 ( ) 2006 . , , 40 5 .

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215 , , . . www.speleoperm.ru . FUTURE TRENDS IN SPELEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN AGAPOVSKY DISTRICT OF CHELABINSK REGION Magnitogorsk speleoclub Protey Summary Here are estimated future trends in sp eleological explorations in Agapovsky district of Chelabinsk region and are described expedition in Yuzhnaya and Avdotevskaya caves. . 200 , .

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216 1984 . . 3 . 26 . . 90. 2 . , . 536 1,7 50 . 1978 . . 2 ( 80 ). 1 1986 86,5 9 . ( 2-3 ), 1990. 40 .

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217 15 , . ( ). ( ). , 150 . 2004 700 , ( . . 3 ), , , ( 30 ). 2005 , 1985 . . (2000-2001 .). ,

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218 NEWS OF SPELEOLOGY V. Komarov ABOUT ORGANIZATION QUESTIONS OF RUSSIAN SPELEOLOGY Summary In this article autor raises the question about creation of united association of Russian speleologists. 2006 , , , . , , ,

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219 , , , : , ( ). , , . , , , ( ), , ORENBURG SPELEOCLUB Summary In this article described three expeditions in caves of Orenburg region and to Caucasus to Kvanshy mountain, Nulyovka cave and speleological works made inside these caves.

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220 2006 . , 90 20 . 10 . . , 180 2 . 20 , 343 , , , , 15-20 30 , . ,

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221 . V.A. Loginov Samara State Aviation University ACTIVITY OF SPELEOLOGICAL CLUBS IN SAMARA Summary In this article are described the main results of activity of 4 speleological organizations in Samara. 2006 . , , . 01.01.2007. 3369 (92 ), 49 66415

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222 1 2006 . . 2007 . , I II , ( ), . ( ), . , . . , . , . .

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223 online , : 95007, 4, E-mail: institute@speleoukraine.net Web: www.institute.speleoukraine.net

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224 LOSSES OF SPELEOLOGY (1956-2006) 2006 . , 1978 ., , , 20 80. . , . . , ,

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225 , , , ( ) , I , . , ? 70. , 20 . , 20 , , ... .

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226 (1936-2005) 22 2005 ., Bydgosicz 3 1936 . 1954 1955 . 50. 1959 Wojcieszow ( Kaczawa), . 1957 Wojciesiow ( ). Wojcieszow, 1962 . 1964 . 1961 , 1963 . ( ) Vercors.

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227 1968 ., C.N.R.S. . ( ). 1964 1965 . . ( ) ( ). ( , ). 1965 A. 1975 . 1976 . : ( ) 150 150 ( ), ( 199 9). c Speleologia (1959) Kras i speleologia (1977). Karstologia, 1966 Niedzwiedzia ( ) . ,

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228 1975 ( ). . . ( ). 132005 . , 1972 1973 . . (1979-1980 .). , Cuevas en hielo y rios bajo los glaciares ( 1994 2001 .).

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229 (2005), , Les karst des regions climatiques extremes (Karstologia Memoires 14, 2005), , (UIS). , 1965 ( ) . , , , . ( ), ( ) ( ). , , , ( ). International Journal of Speleology, 2006. Vol. 35(1).

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230 . , 1992 ., II GLACKIPR. , : , , . , , . VII GLACKIPR 2005 ., , 10 ,

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231 REVIEWS ., ., . . : . 2000. 269 : , , , ( ), , , , . 73 ( 28). , . 8 : , ,

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232 -1 , , . . . , : 2001. 271 , , , , , !.. , , , , , , , , 30 . , :

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233 , , . , . . , . Szkely Magyarszg fokozottan vdett barlangjai. Budapest, 2003. ( 28,2,8 ) 46 ( ). 132 , , ,

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234 127 ( , ) 141 ( , ). ( , , , .). 99 200 ( 25 ) 9 50 ( 253 ). ( ), ( .), ( ), ( .). , 550 ( . ). . Gunn John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. 2004, New York; London: Fitzroy Dearborn/Taylor and Francis. 902 p. Fitzroy Dearborn ( ) Taylor and Francis ( ); 3 90 2 ($150) ,

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235 , 350 , : ( ) ( ( ) , .), , , , , ( ) ( , .). , , 43 , terra incognita , .

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236 ( ) 14 . , , , , . ; : 29 ( ). 78 ( , , , ). 23 ( , ). 75 28 19 ( , .).

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237 78 ( , , , ). 27 ( , ). 22 , ( ) : . . ( ), . ( ; ), . ( ; ; ; ; ; ; ; : ; ; ; ). 9 XIX XX . . 1000 4000 ( ), . , . New Scientist, .

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238 ., . ( 1. ): . : 2004. 306 . 1947 , , XX 70% (40 17...). . ( 680 ) . ( 250 ), ( 30 ) 3 : , . 14 (232 .), 100 , 1 2 . . 3 4 -, , , , , , ,

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239 5 : , . 6 : , . 7 . , , , . 8 : ( , ); 9 10 , , 11 , 50%. . 12

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240 . : , , 13 : , , 14 ( ) , , , , : , , . .. . : / .. . : 2005. 376 2005 . :

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241 , 376 (ISBN 5-7691-1567-X). . 16 , . . . . 76 189 , ( 18 ), 461 16, 1730 ( , ). 6115 : -6,3 -40. 500 (300-600) 358 13 ( , , , , , ). 500 400

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242 100 2001 106 1578/1579 . 1703 ., 45 , XVIII 1948 1949 30 50, -9,7 +5,1 0. 1974 1994 , , , : , , , , , 1840 ., 30. . 1957 . 2001

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243 , , , , . , , ( ), , . , 300 . . / . ; . . ; . 2006. 268 2006 (156 .). . . ., .. ., ( ): . . . .. ., ( ): . ,

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244 , . ., . ., ( ): , , . ., .. ( ): , , ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( , ) ( ). . ., . ( ): , . . ., .. ., .. ( ): . , , . ., . ( ): : : , : , , ( ), . ., . ( ): ,

PAGE 246

245 (1971). . , ( ): : : , , , , , , ( : ), : . , .. ( ): . ( ). , , . .. ( ): , , . .. ( ): , . ( ): , , ( ). , ! . ( ): . . .. ( ):

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246 , , , XX . ( ), . ( ), .. . . . . , , , , 1500! 45 : 2006. 134 . ( ) . , , ,

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247 , , , , , ! . ( ), 2006. 2006 ( . ). , : , , . , . : 614016. . 8, 108. Mailto: sergeeich@yandex.ru; ICQ-279-077-273; .: 8-91288-75-104. . Klimchouk A. Hypogene Speleogenesys: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspe ctive / . ( ): 2007. 106 2007 .

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248 . , ( , .) : XX (5,7 ). 17, ( 6,1; -, 6,2; 9,1; 16,2 ), ( 6,3; 11,8), ( 8,3), ( 10,4). (!) ( 216,0; 111,0; 92,0; 24,0; 22,0 , 2003). , : . . , : (. 1930), ( . 1962), (B.C. 1956). . ( . ) . (1947) 90. . (1999). (2004). ,

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249 . , , . , 392 ( 60, ). ( 10) ( 33). . , , : . . , . , : 222 27 (12%) ; ( 1940; 1963, 1969; 1962; ., 1984; 1985; ., 1989; ., 1991); ( ):

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250 , ( 1955); ( ); ( ) ( ); , ( ); ( ) ( ,1971); ( ) (), ( 1991). ( ,. 1991): ( , 1985): ( 1947); ( 1975); , ( 1979); , ( 1979). ( ) , , ,

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251 , . . .

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252 MEMORIALS Memorials is a new section in issue Caves. In this section we are listing important events in World speleology which had place for a long time ago and during of preparing of this issue (2005-2007 years). 2001 (20052008 .) 870 490 470 . 460 450 ( ), . 330 ( ) 64 310 1784 290 1774 260 1774 240 1826 200 28.0 8.1805 ( ). 190 1817 .

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253 130 (1877). 1951 120 1887 ( ). (1887). 110 (1895, ). 100 (1906) ( ) (1907) (I . .) (1905, 1980) (1905, 1976). 90 . (1915) (1915), (1916) (1915, 2003). 80 1925 ( ) 450 (1927), (1927), (1925, 2000 .), (1925, 2001), (1925, 2001). 70 : (1937), (1937), (1937), (1935), (1937), (1937), (1936), (1937), (1935), (1936), (1937),

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254 (1937), (1935), (1936), (1935), (1936), (1937), (1937), (1937, 1985). 60 ( ) 604 (1946); . , 46 (1946). ( ) ; (1947), . . (1946). (1945), (1945), (1945), (1947), (1947), (1947), (1946), (1945, 1981), (1945, 2001). 50 ( ) 984 (1955) 122 (1956); 74 ; 4700 (1 957); 3(1956); (1956). (1955),

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255 (1955). 40 (93,4 ) (90,1 , 1967). ( ) 310 (1965, . . ), 410 (1967, . ). ( ) 4(1965), ; (1966). (1956), (1956), (1956), (1956), (1956), (1957), (1956), (1956), (1967). 30 ( ) 306,9 (1977). 980 ( 1976, ). 1(1975). (1976). 1977 ( ) 7. 20 ( ) 500,5 (1985) -350 315 (1985). 1987 ( )

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256 200 ( ) 9(1985), ( 1997) 12. 1986 4. 1987 . .

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257 THE CHRONICLE XV ( ) XV 12-13 2003 . 46 8 : (18), (8), (4), (9), (1), (4) (1), (1). . () 2003 ., 20 : 1. . ( ). 2. . ( ). ( ). 3. . ( ). 4. . ( ). 5. . ( ). 6. . ( ). (. ). 7. . ( ). . 8. . ( ). 9. . ( ). 10. . ( ). 11. . ( ).

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258 12. . ( ). 300. 13. . ( ). ( ) . 14. ( ). ( ) 14 . . ( ) XVI ( ) XVI 11-12 2004 . , 52 a 11 . () ( ) XVII ( ) XVII ( ), 1011 2005 . 53 12 : (19 .), (2), (3), (1), (2), (4), (8), (4), (2), (8), (2), .(1). 2005 ., 20 16 :

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259 1. . ( ). 2005 2. . ( ). . 3. . ( ). 4. . ( ). 5. . ( ). 6. . ( ). 7. . . ( ). 8. . ( ). 9. . ( ). 10. . ( ). 11. . ( ). ( ) 2005 12. . ( ). , 13. . ( ). ( ). 14. . ( ). 2005 . . 15. . ( ) 2001-2005 16. . ( ) 17. ( ). 18. ( ). 19. ( ). ( 2005 .) 20. ( ). 5

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260 ( ). . 2005 . : ( ); ( ); ( ). ( ). ( ). . . , , . XVIII ( ) XVIII 9-10 2006 . ( . . ). 68 18 : (2 .), (1), (1), (8), (14), (1), (6), (3), (4), (4), (1), (1), (1), (1), (3), .(1), (1), (4).

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261 2006 ., 25 20 : 1. . : ? 2. . 3. . . 4. . . 5. . : 6. . . 7. . . 8. . 9. . . 10. . . 11. . 12. . ( ) 2000-2005 13. . XVII-XIX . 14. . 2006. , , : 1. ( , ). 2. ( , ). 3. ( , ). 4. ( , ). ,

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262 LG (1,08 ) DVD( ). ( ). . XXV KARST AND CRYOKARST 25th Speleological School 8th Symposium GLACKIPR 19 26 2007 (1936-2005) (1942-2006). 70 15 : , , , , , , : ( ), , GLACKIPR : 19 21 3 . (22-23 ) (24 ). :

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263 3 : ( ). ( ) ( ); ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) : ( ) ( , ) , ( ) ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( )

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264 ( ) : ( )? ( ) ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 20 . : ( )

PAGE 266

265 ( ) ( ) . 24 26 3 ( ), 25. .

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266 2004-2006 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KARST AND CAVES FROM 2004-2006 2004 . / . . : 2004. 136 : [ ] / . . . . : 2004. 512 ( ). . : [ .] : . / ; . .: 2004. 184 ( 3). : . . / -. 2004. 29/30 268 . : / -. 2004. 109 . : , : 2004. 120 . / . // : . . ., 2004. 6: . 115-116. . / . . //

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267 : . / . -. 2004. 21-26. . / . // . . 2004. 28. . 70-72. . / . // . . 2004. 3. 237-243. . / . . // : : XII .. 2004. 43-44. . / . . // : . : . 2004. 6. 24-27. . XXI / . . . // XXI : : (25-30 2004, ) / -. 2004. 3-10. . ( ) / . // : : I . , 20-22 ., 2004): . ., 2004. 30-31. . / . // 34-35. . / . // 2004. 2(16). 43-45. . / . . // : . .. 2004. 279-287.

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268 . / . // XXI : : (25-30 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 63-69. . / . . // XXI : : . (25-30 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 11-12. . // ., 2004. . / . . // 2004. 231-233. . // . 6. ., 2004. 139-141. . / . // XXI : : . (2530 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 40. . : / . // XXI : : . (25-30 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 40-41. . : / . // XXI : : . (25-30 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 201-204. . // : 2004. 235239.

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269 . // 2004. 41-43. . // 2004. 44-45. . / . . // 2004. 8. 84-86. . : / . . . // : 25. ., 2004. 68-72. . // 2004. 15. 56-58. . // . 15. 2004. 239-242. : , : 2004. 120 .: ( ). 43-56; 64-66; 66-68; 68-70; 70-72. . (Ochotona, Lagom orpha, Mammalia) alpina-hyperborea ( ) ( 3) / . . // . 2004. 6. 89-95. ( ) . . : [ ] / . ( ) // . . 2004. 136, 1. 80-85. . / .

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270 // : 2. .: . 2004. 135-141. . / . // XXI : : . (25-30 2004 ., ). 2004. 307-312. / . . // : . .. 2004. .277-280. . ( ) / . . // . 3. 2004. 3. 61-68. / . . . . . . . // XXI : : (25-30 2004 ., ) / -. 2004. 29-36. : .: 2004. 144 .: ( ). .: . . .: [ ]. 111-112; [ . ]. 141. . / . . . // 2004. 2. 224-232. . / . // : : I . -

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271 ( 44. , 20-22 ., 2004 .): . ., 2004. 63-64. . ( -) / . . // : : .. ., 150. . . (1854-1929) . . (1854-1938) ( 1-3 ., 2004 .). ., 2004. 59-61. : . 2003 (19-23 2004 ., ). 2004. 284 .: . / . 56-58; . / . 65-68. . / . // : : . . 2004 145-151. Maximovich N.G. Impacts of Kizel coal mining on environment (Abstract) // Newsletter. Guilin, China, 2004. P. 93. Maximovich N.G., Maximovich E.G. In memory of K.A. Gorbunova (1925-1996), distinguished Russian Karst Researcher // Newsletter. Guilin, China, 2004. P. 114. . : . . 2003. 20 . : . . 2003. 28

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272 2005 : / . -; . . ; ; . . ; 2005. 118 : 50 . [ .: ., 2005?] 34 .: : / . . : 2005. 376 / [ ]. [ .]: 2005. 15 .: ( ; 5). : 75// . . 2005. 5. 476-477. : . / 200 5. 3(21). 64 .: . / . . 1013; . (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) / . . . 18-24; . : [ . ] / . . . 39-44; . / . . 51-53; . [ : : 2005] / . 58-60. . ( ) / . . . // . 2005. 1. 56-64. . / . . //

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273 : : I . 44. ( 20-22 ., 2004 .). ., 2005. 125-132. . // : .. / . -. 200 5. 250-253. . / . // ., 2005. 11. 49-50. . / . . // 2005. 266-269. . // 2005. 42-43. . / . . // 2005. 13-15. . // 2005. 36-40. ., . / . . // 20 05. 45-48. . // . 2005. 5-9. . // i VI Mi ii i

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274 i i i 2005. 206-208. . // 3 . 4. 8. . 9. . 10. .: 2005. 167-170. 2005: 6. (, 28-30 2005 .) / . ( .). : 2005. 347 .: . ( ) / . . . 40-47; . / . . 48-52. . / . // : . . 2004 ( 18-22 ., 2005 .). 2005 76-78. . / . // : . 2005. 149-151. . / . . // 2004 .: ; : 2005. 242-245. . / . . . // : . .. / . -. 2005. 290-295. . Grangonyx chlebnikovi Borutzky, 1928 (Gammaridae) / . . . //

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275 : , : . 2005. 204-204. . (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) : / . . . // . . 2005. 6: 77-82. . ( ) / . // 155-160. . ( ) // : : I . 44. , 20-22 ., 2004. ., 2005. 155-160. . : / . // . . 2005. 137, 6. 53-58. . -2 [ ] / . // 2005: 4. . 2005. 428-430. Hmurchik V.T. Development for methods of protection of the Kama reservoir against oil pollution / V.T. Hmurchik, S.V. Kazakevich N.G., Maximovich, V.V. Nikiforov / 3rd Simposium Quality and Management of Water Resources. Italian-Russian Institute of Education and Ecological Research and St. Petersburg State University. St. Petersburg, 2005. P. 7778. Lavrov I. Ordinskaya cave the longest underwater cave in Russia / I. Lavrov, E. Maximovich, N. Maximovich // Water Resources and Environmental Problems in Karst: Proceedings of the International conference and free seminars, Serbia and Montenegro, 13-19 September 2005. Belgrade, 2005. P. 771-776. Maximovich N.G. Dams on gypsiferous rock a possible source of disaster / N.G. Maximovich // International Symposium on Latest Natural Disasters New Challenges for Engineering Geology, Geotechnics and

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276 Civil Protection: Abstract Book, September 5-8, 2005. Sofia, Bulgaria, 2005. P. 65. Maximovich N.G. Development of methods protection of the Kama reservoir from oil pollution / N.G. Maximovich, S.V. Kazakevich, V.T. Hmurchik // Quality and management of water resources: 3rd Symposium : book of proceedings. St. Pete rsburg, 2005. P. 362-369. Maximovich N.G. Oil pollution of the hydrosphere of karst areas / N.G. Maximovich, S.V. Kazakevitch, V.T. Khmurchik, V.V. Nikiforov // : V . (8-11 2005 .). 2005. 374-375. . ( ): . .. 2005. 25 . ( ): . .. 2003. 28 2006 . / . 2006. 268 ( ). . 11-301-2004. ( ) / . http://www.admin.permkrai.ru 2006. 120 . 22-304-06. / . http://www.admin.permkrai.ru 2006. 42 . . / . 2006. 15

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277 . ( ). / . : 2006. 212 . : / . . . / 2006. 63 ., . / . . 2006. . 124139. / . . . // 2006. : . .: V .. 2006. 250-253. : . . / -; . . ; 2006. 16 362 .: . / . 263-268; . / . 268-273; . / . . 274-276; . / . 299-301; . [ .] / . 326-328. .: . : 2002. 200 .; . [ .] / . 328-331. .: . 2005. 376 . Grangonyx chlebnikovi Borutzky,1928 (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) / . . // : : XIV .. (21-22 2006 ., ). 2006. 1. 91-93. . // . . 2006. 1. 12-21.

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278 . / . . // . . 2006. .I. 9098. . // : .. (16-2 0 2006 ., ). 2006. .1 174-178. . / . // : . . ( 2-3 ., 2006 .). ., 2006. 92-98. . : : / . . // . 2006. 1. 108-115. . // ., 2006. 52-53. . / . . . // . . ., 2006. .1. 83-90. . / . . . . . . // XXI 2006. 130-133. . / . . // ., 2006. 8. 225-228. . / . . . // 2006. 4.

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279 . // 2006. 147-148. . / . . // 2006. 1. 134-136. . // . 2006. 2. 204-208. . // 2006. 5. . // 2006. 16. 281285. . // : (15 ). 2006. 137-139. . // . . 5. ., 2006. 14 06.12.06, 1513 2006. . / . // 2006. 11. 32-42. . ( ) // . 2006. 5. 274279. . ( Eulipotyphla) / . // 141-146. . / . // 2006. 1. 39-42.

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280 . / . . . // 2005 .: / ; 2006. 249-251. . . / . // 2006. : . V .. 2006. 253-255. . : / . // : . . 2005 ( 613 ., 2006 .). 2006. 66-67. . // 7. (, 2006 .). 2006. 113-116. . / . . // : . ( 29-31 2006 .). 2006. .2. 130-135. ( ) / . . . . // 2006. 7. 52-65. . ( ) / . // . . 2006. 111. 1. 63-69. . / . . . // : . .. (16-20 2006 ., ). 2006. .1. .285-289.

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281 . / . // : . : . 2006. 9. 199-202. . / . . . . . // 2006: ., ., . . : 2006. . ( ) / . . // 7. ( 2006 .). 2006. 84-93. . ( ) / . . . // 7. ( 2006 .). 2006. 94-104. . / . // : 2 .. 2006. 141-144. . / . . : 2006. 188 .: . ( ) / . . 84-93; . ( ) / . . . 94-104; . . 113116. . // : . ( 14-17 ., 2006 .). 2006. 152-154.

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282 ( ) / . . . // , : 4. ( 17-20 2006 .). 2006. 7174. . / . // 2006. 10, 1. 14-21. . / . // . . 2006. 410, 1. 113-116. . / . // . . 2006. 138, 2. 75-84. . / . // 2006. 1. 25-33. . / . . // : . .. 2006. 2. 375-379. . ( ): . . 2006. 26 . . : . .. 2006. 22 . ( ): . .. 2006. 23 2007 . Crandonyx Chlebnibovi Borutzhy, 1921 (Yammapidae)

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283 // : . . 2006-2007 2007. 129-131. . / . . // : . .. / . -. 2007. 199-202. . / . . // : . .. / -. 2007. 202-205. . / . . . . . . // . 9. ., 2007. 49-53. . / . . // 2007. 13-15. . / . . // : .: 2007. 94-95. . / . . // 2004-2006 : . : 2007. 265267. . / . . . // : . . (28 1 2007 ., ) / -. 2007. II. 128-131. / . . .

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284 // : . : . 2007. 10. 69-75. . : . . 2007. 20 . ( ): . . 2007 22 . ( ): . . 2007. 18 . . . .

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285 ( 1-30) BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LAST ISSUES ( 1-30) (1947, 1) . 5 . 43 . 55 (1961, 1) 3 B.C., .3., . 5 . 11 35 . 39 . 53 . IV V 63 . 64 . 64 . 65 . 67

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286 (1962, 2) 3 . 5 . 25 . 35 . 41 . 47 . 49 . 61 . 63 . 67 ., . 71 . (1917-1955 .) 79 112 105 107 1955-1960 110 ( . ) 115 ( . ) 117

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287 . 119 (1963, 3(4)) 3 . 5 ., ., . 15 . 24 . 25 . 35 . 43 . 47 . 50 . 53 . 57 ., . 73 . 75 . 79 . 91 . 93

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288 . 96 . 97 (1960-1962 .) . 101 . 103 . 105 .3. 106 109 110 ., ., . 111 . 114 (1964, 4(5)) 3 ., . 5 . 20 . 27 . 33 . 35 39 ., ., . 49 3. 57

PAGE 290

289 ., ., 65 . 69 . 71 85 ., . 95 . 101 . 107 . ( ) 109 ., . . 113 ., ., . 1963 118 . 119 (1965, 5(6)) 50. ( ) 3 . 23 . 27 . 28 ., . 29 . 32

PAGE 291

290 . 41 ., ., 43 . 44 . 53 ., . 56 . 61 . 74 . 82 ., ., . 86 ., . 95 ., . 102 . 110 ., ., ., ., . 114 A. 119 ., ., ., . 120 B. 123 ., ., . 128 . 134 . 138 ., ., ., ., ., . 152 ., ., ., . 155 155 . 156 156

PAGE 292

291 . 158 ., . 161 . 164 . 174 . 183 . 189 . . 191 . 136 . 196 ., . 195 ., . 1965 100 . 172 . IV 198 1964 109 61 . 31

PAGE 293

292 (1966, 6-7) ., . 3 ., . 19 ., ., . 25 ., . 33 . 39 ., . 47 . 54 . 35 56 ., . 62 . 64 . 68 B. 70 . 82 C.. 92 . 96 . 99 . 104 . 107 . 111 . 113

PAGE 294

293 . 118 . 119 . 120 . 125 ., ., . 127 . 130 . 138 ., . 144 . (1956-196 4 .) 147 . 166 ., . 167 ., .3. 32 . 175 . 177 . 53 . 38 179 180 . 180

PAGE 295

294 (1970, 8(9)) . ( ) 5 3. 14 ., . 18 ., . 21 ., ., . 23 . 27 ., ., . 28 . 35 ., . 37 . 39 B. ., . 41 ., . 52 ., ., ., ., . 55 . 63 ., . 66 . 71 . 82 3. 83 . 89 . 92

PAGE 296

295 ., . 103 ., ., . 108 . ( ) 110 ., ., . 129 , . 134 . 138 ., . 140 ., . 140 . 145 ., . 145 . 149 ., . 162 . 165 . 168 . 174 . 177 . 181 183 187 189 190

PAGE 297

296 191 150 192 193 194 195 197 198 200 1970 201 203 1970 204 205 208 211 212 214 (1971, 10-11) . 5 . ( ) 57 ., . 65 ., . 68

PAGE 298

297 ., ., . 2. ( ) 70 ., ., . 74 ., . 80 . 26 81 ., . 84 ., ., ., . 89 . ( ) 96 ., . 99 . 112 ., . 119 122 ., ., ., A. ., ., . 128 ., B., ., . 135 ., ( ). 138 . 140 . 145 ., ., . 150

PAGE 299

298 . 155 ., . -1 158 . ( ) 161 . (1965-1970 .) 164 1971 181 184 20 185 10 192 195 197 ( ) 198 199 201 202 203 ( ) 1971 207 1971 208 209 11111 210 213

PAGE 300

299 (1972, 12-13) , ., . 5 . 10 . 21 . 27 ., . 3. 31 ., ., . 41 . 49 . 57 ., ., ., ., . 60 ., . 67 ., ., 3 ., . 82 ., . 86 3. 88 ., 95 ., . 100 ., . 106 . 108

PAGE 301

300 . 118 ., X . 129 ., . 146 ., . 157 170 172 172 172 172 174 20 178 VII 180 183 184 200 185 185 186 190 191 72 . 197 ., . 197

PAGE 302

301 ., ., ., . 198 . 199 199 . 200 . 201 . 202 ., ., . 202 ., ., ., ., . 203 B. 205 C. 205 . ( ) 206 . 206 B. ., . 207 . 208 C. 208 209 3. 210 ., . 210 ., . 211 A. 211 . 212 B. 212

PAGE 303

302 . . 213 . 213 . 214 , ., . 215 ., . 215 ., . 216 . 216 . 217 ., . 217 . 218 . 221 ., . 221 . 222 . 223 . 227 . 224 . -225

PAGE 304

303 A. 226 ., . ( ) 226 B. 227 (1974, 14-15) , . 5 3. 20 ., ., . 4. 28 ., . 32 . 38 . 40 3. ., ., . 51 ., . 53 . 59 ., 3 ., ., ., ., . 63 . 67 . 76 . 88 94

PAGE 305

304 ., . 97 ., . 99 105 . 108 ., . 112 . 118 . 121 . 156 ., . 160 . 165 167 ., . 168 170 ., ., . 172 . 181 . 183 ., ., . 187 ., . 198 1972 201 203 204

PAGE 306

305 205 VI 209 1973 219 221 222 224 224 225 227 ? 228 228 229 1972 230 ( ). 233 237 239 245 249 250 251 252 ( ) 253 1972 253 254 255 257 257 257 258 258

PAGE 307

306 258 259 (1976, 16) . 5 , . 21 . 24 ., . 35 . 41 ., . 45 ., . 64 ., ., ., ., . 72 ., ., . 76 ., ., ., ., . 79 ., ., ., . 88 ., . 96 . 99 . 107 . 122

PAGE 308

307 10 (1964-1974 .) 126 1974 132 133 135 135 136 137 139 140 145 1972 146 148 149 151 153 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 159

PAGE 309

308 (1978, 17) , . 6 . 11 ., . 14 . 18 ., ., 25 . 34 B. ., . 38 A.., . 44 C. 50 B. 53 . 61 . 64 ., . 70 ., ., . 78 . 86 ., . 97

PAGE 310

309 ., ., . 103 109 110 116 118 119 120 121 VII 123 124 126 1975 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 132 133 50 133 21 135 XIV, 1976 136 I-II, 1975, 136 22 137 138 139 1974 140

PAGE 311

310 (1981, 18) ., . 6 . 16 . 25 ., ., . 27 3 . 34 ., . 39 ., ., ., . 42 ., ., ., . ( ) 45 ., . 49 ., ., ., . 55 ., . 59 ., . ( ) 70 ., . -11 77 . 81 ., ., . 85 ., . 95

PAGE 312

311 ., . 100 . 104 109 15110 112 113 1980 114 116 117 VIII 118 10118 119 120 121 ( ) 123 124 125 127 128 129 130 134 135 135 136 136 137

PAGE 313

312 138 (1984, 19) . ( ) 6 ., . 15 ., . 25 ., ., . . 30 ., . 37 ., ., . 42 . 46 . ( ) 56 ., ., ., . 60 ., ., ., . 66 . 70 ., . 89 ., . 93

PAGE 314

313 ., ., ., ., ., . 97 ., . 20 104 ( 70) 108 108 110 110 115 117 9720 117 119 121 122 ( ) 123 . 123 124 124 126 . 127 128 129 130 131 131 132 133 133

PAGE 315

314 1982 133 135 (1986, 20) ., . 6 ., ., . 12 . 17 ., ., . 24 . 31 . ( ) 37 ., ., ., . 39 . 48 . 57 ., . 60 ., . 68 . 77

PAGE 316

315 . ( ) 84 . 85 ., ., . 86 ., ., ., ., . 94 ., . 135 97 98 99 1985 100 101 102 103 ( 1984) 107 109 109 -2 110 ( -2) 113 113 114 115 116 . (1937-1985) 117

PAGE 317

316 118 118 119 119 1983 120 120 1983 121 121 121 123 (1988, 21) 5 ., . . 6 ., . 12 ., . 25 ., ., . 31 . 36 ., . 41 ., ., . 46 ., . 50

PAGE 318

317 ., . 52 . 65 . 71 ., . 75 . 86 ., ., . 89 . (XVIII ) 96 . . 105 ., . 110 ., . 112 . 115 ., . 1986-1987 118 ., ., . 123 ., . 127 ., ., ., . 128 ., . 128 . -85 -86 130 . 132 ., . 133

PAGE 319

318 IV 135 1985-1987 136 138 140 142 143 143 144 144 144 145 145 146 146 147 147 1985 148 148 149 150 151 (1990, 22) 5 . 6 ., ., . 16 ., ., . 23

PAGE 320

319 . 34 . 44 ., . 51 . 57 . 63 . 68 . 72 3 ., . 79 . 82 . 86 ., . 91 . (XIX XX .) 96 ., ., . 105 25108 110 ( 60) 111 113 10119 121 -88 122 123 124

PAGE 321

320 -89 124 124 1989 125 126 127 128 129 130 130 132 ( ) 135 136 138 . 139 140 . (1911-1989 .) 141 142 142 1986. II 143 ( 1987. I-II) 143 1989 144 1987. 29 144 1988. 30 144 145 151 (1993, 23-24) 5

PAGE 322

321 ., . 6 ., ., . 30 . 59 . 71 . 83 ., . 93 ., ., . ( ) 103 ., ., . 113 . 121 ., . 131 ., ., . 140 ., ., . 149 . 166 ., ., . 165 .3., ., . 170 . ( ) 174 177 178 178 179 180

PAGE 323

322 180 180 181 181 182 182 , : : 183 185 185 XI 186 186 188 199 (1999 25-26) 5 7 10 ., . 10 . 16 . 21 ., ., . 37 . 47 ., . 52 . 57 63 . 63

PAGE 324

323 . 72 . 75 ., ., . 77 ., ., . 80 . 82 89 .3. 89 ., ., . ( .). 97 101 . 101 107 . 107 . 111 116 ., . ( XX .) 116 . ( XX .) 127 . (1971-1998 .) 156 170 173 180 180 180 180 181 181 182 183

PAGE 325

324 183 XXXV 185 185 186 187 , 1994 187 XII , 1997 187 , 1997 189 50 189 50 190 30 191 10 192 193 194 194 196 201 (2001, 27-28) 5 6 . 6 . 10 . 22 . : ( 1) 28 ., . 51 ., . 73

PAGE 326

325 . 76 . 80 83 ., . j 83 97 . 97 ., 108 . ., . 116 129 . 129 135 . 135 138 . 138 . 150 . 154 157 . 157 162 ., ., ., ., ., . 162 . 174 181 . ( ) 181 ., . 186 192

PAGE 327

326 . 70! 192 197 202 202 204 11 . 208 100 . 210 75 . 211 213 Speleogenesis. Evolution of karst Aquifers 213 216 Kras i speleologia 216 217 218 219 219 219 220 221 Landsform Analisis 220 Wielka Enciklopedia Geografii Swiata 221 Discovering the wonders of our World 222 223 Hohlenmalerai. Ein Handbuch 225 Hohlenmalerai in Ura 226 Landsform Analisis 220 Wielka Enciklopedia Geografii Swiata 221 Discovering the wonders of our World 222 223 Hohlenmalerai. Ein Handbuch 225 Hohlenmalerai in Ural 226 (2004, 29-30) 5 7

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327 15 . : ( 2) 15 ., ., . 30 ., ., . 36 . 42 3. ., . 48 ., ., . 53 ., . 60 ., . ( ) 63 ., ., ., . 74 ., . 94 ., . 110 116 ., . 116 124 . 124 133 ., . 133 ., . crangonyx chlebnikovi borutzky, 1928 141 . 150 156 . 156

PAGE 329

328 159 159 161 . 40 161 ., . 30 165 172 176 . 176 182 190 190 . 191 . 192 . 194 . 195 196 198 199 200 200 100. 204 90. 205 70207 209 213 213 214 214 2000 215 215 216 216 217

PAGE 330

329 217 218 218 40 219 219 220 220 1000 220 221 222 . 222 -2002. . 224 -300. . 226 14. . 227 228 222 231 232 238

PAGE 331

330 ..................................................................5 ............................................................................. 7 ............................................. 8 ., . ( ) ........................... 8 . ....................................................... 17 . ? ....... 30 . ( . ) ......................................................................... 47 ..... 62 . 2006 ..... 62 . .......................................................................................... 69 . XVII-XIX ................................................................................... 74 .............................................................. 90 ., ( . ) ............................................................................ 90 ., ., ., ., . ( ) .............................. 112 ............................................................... 120 ., ., ., . ( ) .......................................................... 120 . ...................................................................... 144 ........................................................................... 156 . .................... 156 . ...... 164 ...................................................................... 167 ., ., . ( ) ...................................................... 167

PAGE 332

331 ., . ............. 177 ., ., . .. 188 ............................................ 195 . .................................................... 195 . . .................... 198 ................................................................................. 206 . ............................................................................... 206 . ..................... 209 . 2006 ..... 214 ....................................................................................... 215 .................................................. 218 . ............................................................................... 218 ........................................... 219 . ........................................................................................ 221 ................... 223 ...................................................... 224 ...................................... 224 ......................................................................... 226 .................................................................................. 231 . . . . .............................................. 231 . , ........... 232 Szkely. Magyarszg fokozottan vdett barlangjai. ............... 233 John Gunn (Ed.). 2004. Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. ....................................................................................... 234 ., . (. 1. ) .................................................... 238 : 240 . ................................. 243

PAGE 333

332 1500! 45 ............................................................................. 246 ( ) ........................................................................................ 247 Klimchouk A. Hypogene Speleoge nesy s: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective / . ( ) ............................................... 247 ...................................................... 252 .................................................................................... 257 XV ( ) ................. 257 XVI ( ) ................ 258 XVII ( ) .............. 258 XVIII ( ) ............. 260 XXV KARST AND CRYOKARST 25th Speleological School 8th Symposium GLACKIPR .................... 262 2004-2006 ................................................................................. 266 ( 1-30)............................................................. 26685

PAGE 334

333 THE CONTENTS From main editor..............................................................................5 FOREWORD....................................................................................7 GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF CAVES...................................... 8 Philippova N.V., Trjcinsky Y.B. The new data about Nizheudinskaya cave (East Siberia)............................................... 8 Mavlyudov B.R. The climatical systems of caves and speleological practic ..................................................................... 17 Mavlyudov B.R. Why we are studing caves in the glaciers?....... 30 Browne G.F. Ice-caves of France and Switzerlznd. The history of theories what represent motives of underground ice (translated by Mavlyudov B.R.).......................................................................... 47 THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERGROUND SPACES....................... 62 Volkov L.D. Speleostology. the report of the commission for 2006 ........................................................................................ 62 Dolotov Y.A. The longest artificial caves of Russia.................... 69 Gunko . The exploration of the old copper mines of XVII-XIX centuri es in Tatarstan.............................................. 74 DEPOSITS OF CAVES ................................................................. 90 Hill ., Forti P. Cave minerals of the world (translated by Lavrova N.V.)............................................................................... 90 Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Kade bskay a O.I., Sivinskikh P.N., Maksimovich N.G. Season minerals in Kungur Ice cave........... 112 BIOSPELEOLOGY..................................................................... 120 Semikolennykh ., Ivanova ., Gorlenko .V., Dobrovolskaya .G. Ecology of microbial communities of caves Belomorsko-Kuloyskoe pl ato (Arkhangelsk region)........ 120 Pankov N.N. The invertebrate ani mals the inchabitants of the Kungur region caves......................................................... 144 ARCHAEOLOGY........................................................................ 156 Dublyansky V.N. Caves of Kamennaya Mogila (Stone Grave)....................................................................................... 156 Izosimov D.A. Archeological researching in the caves.............. 164 PROTECTION OF THE CAVES............................................... 167 Potapov S.S., Parshina N.V., Potapov D.S. Cave Chudesnica and other karst objects of mountain Kladovaya (Perm region).............................................................................. 167

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334 Potapov S.S., Aukhadeeva E.G. Karst-cave complex Ustinovskie Izvestnyaki in Chelyabinsk region..................... 177 Gurkalo E.I., Shavrina E.V., Malkov V.N. The forecast antropogenic changes to cave Chugskogo reservation............... 188 HISTORY OF CAVE INVESTIGATION ................................. 195 Naumkin D.V. French gravure in funds of Museum of karst and speleology Mining institute of UB RAS..................................... 195 Dolgih L.A. A.T. Khlebnikov's life ............................................198 EDUCATION................................................................................ 206 Zalessky A.V. The report of the commission of young speleologists............................................................................... 206 Vrady A.S. Caves of Gornozavodsk district............................... 209 Evdokimova S.Y. Summer speleocamping Gubakha 2006. 214 Magnitogorsk speleoclub Protey. Future trends in speleological explorations i n Agapovsky district of Chelabinsk region........... 215 NEWS OF S PELEOLOGY......................................................... 218 Komarov V.A. About organization questions of Russian speleology................................................................................... 218 Orenburg speleoclub................................................................... 219 Loginov V. Activit y of speleological clubs in Samara........... 221 Science magazin Speleology and Karstology......................... 223 LOSSES OF SPELEOLOGY...................................................... 224 E.I. Gurkalo................................................................................ 224 M. Pulina.................................................................................... 226 REVIEWS..................................................................................... 231 Andreeva M.A, Bakunin V.A, Krivopalova Z.F. and others. Nature of Chelyabinsk region..................................................... 231 Chernetsov V.P. Satkinsks legends, stories, facts..................... 232 Szkely. Magyarszg fokozottan vdett barlangjai................ 233 John Gunn (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science.. ... 234 Dublyansky V.N., Dublyanskaya G.N. Karstology (Part 1. Co mmon Karstology)................................................................. 238 Kungur Ice Cave: monitoring experience................................... 240 Dublyansky V.N. Caves and my life.......................................... 243 From Svetlaya to 1500! 45 years of Sverdlovsk city speleosection ............................................................................... 246 Speleological magazin ASU (Association of speleologists of Ural) ....................................................................................... 247

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335 Klimchouk A. Hypogene Speleoge nesys: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective........................................................ 247 MEMORIALS............................................................................... 252 THE CHRONICLE...................................................................... 257 XV congress of ASU.................................................................. 257 XVI congress of ASU................................................................. 258 XVII congress of ASU............................................................... 258 XVIII congress of ASU.............................................................. 260 XXV speleological school KARST AND CRYOKARST, 25th Speleological School, 8th Symposium GLACKIPR............ 262 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KARST AND CAVES FROM 2004-2006.......................................................................... 266 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LAST ISSUES ( 1-30)........... 26685

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336 . . . 20.04.2008. 60 84 1/16. . 20, 68. . 24 500 614990. 15 614990. 15

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337 : ; ; ; ; ; ; 10 5 ( ), 2 10 7.8-2000 7.12-93 . , ( ), . (summary). 1 / ( ). *.jpg, MS Word, 5, Times New Roman, 11, 2 1 2 ( 32) , ( *.jpg, 300 dpi, 10x15 ). . (icecave@bk.ru). : 614600, , 15, ,


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