Camera Shots

Citation
Camera Shots

Material Information

Title:
Camera Shots
Creator:
Schneider, Jenifer Jasinksi ( Author )
Place of Publication:
Tampa
FL.
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2016
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (8 pages)

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education -- Research ( lcsh )

Notes

Abstract:
In filmmaking, camera shots are one of the vehicles through which filmmakers communicate messages. In this document, Jenifer provides an overview of the process of isolating shots, isolating sequences of shots, and isolating scenes in order to closely examine the ways in which students composed meaning.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
I17-00040 ( USFLDC DOI )
i17.40 ( USFLDC Handle )
info2 ( OriginalID )

USFLDC Membership

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Added automatically
Analyzing Student-Made Films

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Format:
Book

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PAGE 1

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ Analyzing Student Made Film s : Shots, Sequences, and Scenes Jenifer Jasinski Schneider, Ph.D. University of South Florida 2016 Introduction In film, the images, sounds, music, and graphics are combined into streaming, multimodal messages. As Sontag (1966) described, "Because the film is an object, it is totally manipulable, totally calculable. A film is like a book, another portable art object: making a f ilm like writing a book, means constructing an inanimate thing, every element of which is determinate!" (p. 31). In this document, I describe my process of analyzing the elements of student made film s The student films originated in the context of my wr iting methods course in which teacher candidates worked with small groups of students to compose written and filmic texts. Across 20 iterations of the course I have worked with four schools, one community center, 26 classroom teachers, approximately 550 USF teacher candidates, and more than 1500 elementary students. To date, the students and candidates created over 250 videos and I developed a series of collections to share their work with wider audiences The existence of these digital literacy products is evidence for my students, the children, their parents (and others) of the power and promise of digital literacies in the lives of children and teachers. To illustrate the methodological process of film analysis, I selected a film created by a group of 5th grade students and two teacher candidates Aimee Frier, a doctoral student and research assistant, videotaped every work session and documented the students' decision making process and text production. Their process serves as the context for decision making and further details are presented in other parts of this collection. B elow I describe my methods for analyzing student made films. In the first phase, I focus on the elements that demonstrate how the students and their teacher candidates made mean ing through different modes : isolating shots, isolating sequences of shots, and isolating scenes

PAGE 2

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ # Isolating Shots In film, the students' ability to create meaning within the visual frame is my first step in sorting out their communicative purposes and in determining the effects of their corresponding choices. I begin by viewing the film and identifying the number and type of camera shots (Figure 1). F or my purposes, I define a camera shot as each time the students /teachers purposefully change the orientation of the camera to create a different perspective, to alter the setting, or to focus on different characters etc Figure 1. Types of camera shots.

PAGE 3

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ $ Most films open with a title slide (Figure 2). In fact, movie making programs, such as iMovie, include templates that allow students to structure their opening credits. The opening title, much like the title of a book or story, may or may not provide information to the viewer. If the students use text throughout the film, I mark the instances and record the rhetorical purposes of the text. However, I do not view the title slide as a camera shot because the students do not have choice s in how the audience is positioned in relation to the content. Figure 2 Title slide. Although I note the inclusion of titles and text, I focus on the ways in which students position the audience, how they stage each scene, and how they use the came ra as a tool for communication. To do so, I move through the film and take a screen shot each time the camera angle changes (Figure 3 ). Figure 3 Camera shot 1

PAGE 4

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ % Because the students and teacher s are novices they will often leave the camera running and film larger segments without changing the camera angle. In these instances, I mark changes in perspective or camera distance as sub shots. For example, Figure 4 marks the ninth camera shot in the film Figure 4 Camera shot 9. In the same take, the character walks around, bends down, picks up a book, reads the book, and walks away. The filmer (in this case, the teacher) moves the camera in and out to capture the char acter's movement in space, but she does not purposefully shoot the scene from different perspectives. Therefore, I do not count camera movement as a choice to change perspectives I do not count camera movement as a choice to alter the portrayal of the scene I note the movements and label the changes as sub shot s (Figure 5 ) Figure 5 Camera shot 9.5.

PAGE 5

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ & Storing and Arranging Shots If the film is short, I typically store the screen shots in a folder on my computer where I can easily scroll through them and view thumbnails. If the film is longer or if the film includes many shots (i.e., more than 50), I store them in Photos or in Google Docs where I can view many thumbnails at the same time. Isolating Sequences of Shots My next step is to group sequences of shots into a rough outline of scenes. I look for changes in location, content, and time, to define or outline a scene. In other words, the camera shots are the moments, but the sequences of shots are the organizing structure. For example, Figure 6 includes the first eight camera shots of the f ilm. Camera shots 1 5 take place in a classroom. Camera shots 6 8 take place outside. Therefore, the parameters for scene 1 appear to be camera shots 1 5. Figure 6. Isolating sequences of shots.

PAGE 6

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ Isolating Scenes Throughout this process of determining sequences of shots I toggle between the camera shots and the actual film. The setting is one indicator of a change in the scene, but I must also listen to the dialogue to determine shifts in content and/or time. In addition, when students create films, th ey are very limited with regard to setting, props, and costumes. Therefore, some locations must serve dual functions in a student film. In other words, I do not rely on visual changes in the camera shots to determine clusters or sequences of shots, I must also watch the film, listen to the dialogue and music, and read textual markers to determine the parameters of each scene. For example, in Figure 7, camera shots 9 19 take place in the same location. However, camera shot 9 takes place in the present and c amera shot 10 takes place during the French and Indian War. I had to listen to the dialogue to understand the change in setting. Figure 7. Isolating scenes.

PAGE 7

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ ( What Do Camera Shots Tell Us By isolating and examining camera shots in student made films researchers can explore th e ways in which the creators positioned the camera, what they included or did not include in the frame, what level of detail they chose to portray, and how they transitioned from event to event and scene to scene. The final film does not provide detailed information about the intricacies of the process. The final film does not reveal which person or what group of people made the filmic choices. However, the final film captures the trail of executive decisions that combined to for m a film. By viewing and analyzing the final film, we can interpret the semiotic systems at play and how they were manipulated and ordered to communicate a message. We can analyze and interpret the message.

PAGE 8

! Schneider, J.J. (2016). Analyzing Student Made Films: Shots, Sequences, and Scenes (pp. 1 8 ). Retrieved from Multimodal Data Analysis: A Curated, Open Access Collection of Methodologies USF Libraries Digital Collections http://digital.lib.usf.edu/ ) References Sontag, S. (1966). Film and theatre. The Tulane Drama Review 11 (1), 24 37. Sample Analyses Using This Process and Featuring The Focus Film Frier, A.D., Schneider, J.J., & Smith, P. (2013, December). Pre serv ice teachers' approximations of literacy instruction during a multilingual, multimodal field experience Paper presented at the meeting of the Literacy Research Association. Dallas, TX. Smith, P., Frier, A.D., & Schneider, J.J. (2014). Negotiating American history: Bilingual learners collaboratively compose information texts. In J.J. Schneider (Ed.) Casework in K 6 writing instruction: Connecting composing strategies, digita l literacies, and disciplinary content to the Common Core (pp. 193 203). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Smith, P., Schneider, J.J., & Frier, A.D. (2013, April/May). Leveraging lingu istic "privation" into semiotic sufficiency: Examining multilingual learners' process of collaborative media compositi on. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.


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