National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2004-2005 Annual Report

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2004-2005 Annual Report

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Title:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2004-2005 Annual Report
Series Title:
NCKRI Annual Reports
Creator:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute
Place of Publication:
Carlsbad, New Mexico
Publisher:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Karst ( lc )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-05269 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5269 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

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serial

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORTScienceInformation ManagementEducation Resource Management

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Legislative PurposesThe National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998When Congress established the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (the Institute) in January 1998, it provided the cave and karst community with an unprecedented opportunity to further research, education, information transfer, and resource management revolving around these important, but fragile landscapes. The Institutes legislation offers the opportunity to develop a unique style of national effort with a broad base of both federal and non-federal support extending from collaborative projects to shared administrative responsibilitiesto matching funds. Congress passed the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998, linking the operation and management of the Institute to the recommendations of a 1994 Report to Congress. In the Act, Congress stated that the purposes of the Institute are:1.to further the science of speleology;2.to centralize and standardize speleological information;3.to foster interdisciplinary cooperation in cave and karst research programs;4.to promote public education;5.to promote national and international cooperation in protecting the environment for the benefit of cave and karst landforms; and6.to promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Inside cover Legislative Purposes Table of Contents Overview by the Institute Director Hose 1 Primary Partners National Park Service 3 City of Carlsbad 5 New Mexico Tech 6 NCKRI, Inc. 7 Institute Building Activities Moving towards NCKRI, Inc. 9 Preliminary meetings and activities 9 NCKRI, Inc. 10 Planning for the future 10 Facility Partners New Mexico State Univ./Carlsbad Environm ental Monitoring & Research Center 11 Carlsbad Department of Development/AMITC 11 NCKRI Building Project 12 Visiting Scholar Program 13 Volunteers Program 15 NCKRI projects NCKRI Lecture Series 16 Karst Information Portal 17 NCKRI library 18 NCKRI program review 18 Sponsored projects Mississippi State University Digita l map of karst in Mississippi 19 U.S. Geological Survey National KARST Map 19 U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group 20 Western Kentucky UniversityMicrobial film study 20 Western Kentucky UniversityLand managers graduate program 21 Mammoth International Center for Resear ch and Learning Monitoring chapter 21 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium 21 National Speleological Societ y Cave conservation book 22 Boston Museum Bat book 22 NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, i

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Institute Activities a. Refereed papers 23 b. Articles in edited guidebooks and proceedings 24 c. Contributions to edited books 24 d. Books 24 e. Publications edited 24 f. Reports and miscellaneous publications 24 g. Abstracts 25 h. Book reviews 26 i. Grants proposal, refereed j ournal, and other review panels 26 j. Professional journal editorial board 27 k. Grants and contracts 27 l. Conference and field trip leadership 27 m. Professional presentations 27 n. Community presentations/education 29 o. Major media projects and publicity 30 p. Cave research, assessments, and advisory efforts 31 q. Professional meetings attended 31 r. Project reports 31 s. Other contributions 32 New Mexico Tech Cave and Karst Studies Program 33 Appendices A Articles of Incorporation 34 B Bylaws 40 C Capitan Aquifer study 55 D Exit report by Scott Rice-Snow 57 E NCKRI External Program Review 61 F Annual progress report from Western Ke ntucky Universitys Center for Water Resources Studies 77 Back Cover Institute legislation NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, ii

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OVERVIEW BY THE INSTITUTE DIRECTOR The close of 2005 finds the Nati onal Cave and Karst Research Institute on the verge of major institutional changes and a paradigm shift in how we will do business. Three years ago, the Institute comprised one full-time NPS employee, a Working Group/Advisory Board co mposed of representatives from six federal agencies, and two non-federal Cooperators (project partner). By the end of January 2006, representatives from twenty-five non-federal organizations joined the six federal agencies in program development efforts. NCKRIs pilot programs have thrived through the efforts of a diverse group of scientists, organizati ons, and government agencies, including twelve non-federal orga nizations that joined NCKRI programs during 2004-2005. NCKRI formally expanded into the international karst world when we collaborated with the Northeastern Cave Conservancy to sponsor noted karst stewardship expert Elery HamiltonSmith from Charles Sturt University (Australia) on a crosscountry lecture tour of karst programs. In Spring 2006, the Institute will have the privilege of hosting our first international Visiting Disti nguished Scientist Alexander Klimchouk, Director of the Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology and Vice-President of the International Union of Speleology. Dr. Klimchouk will be based at the Institute in Carlsbad, work with students in New Mexico Techs Cave and Karst Studies Program, and visit karst programs across the country during his one-year appointment. We have initiated several pilo t programs over the past two years. The National Cave and Karst Research Institute Lecture Series began as irregular, free pub lic presentations in Carlsbad by leading cave and karst experts. The effort expanded to a national tour by Dr. Hamilton-Smith last fall and will continue with Dr. Klimchouks visit. We hope that NCKRI will continue to bring leading karst scholars to the United States and share their visits with programs across the country. The Karst Information Portal also promises to be a wonderful collaborative effort with international impact. The Institute has joined the University of New Mexico and the University of South Florida in initiating and seeking significant funding for the effort. We will bring together a diverse panel in January 2006, including foreign representa tives of the International Union of Speleology and the Karst Research Institute of Slovenia. ORGANIZATIONS FORMALLY REPRESENTED IN NCKRI PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS DURING 2004-2005 (INCLUDING KIP MEETING REGISTRANTS) American Cave Conservation Association Australian Speleological Federation Bureau of Land Management Cave Research Foundation CHRONOS City of Carlsbad, New Mexico Edwards Aquifer Authority (Texas) Environmental Protection Agency ESRI Geological Society of America GEON International Union of Speleology Karst Waters Institute Los Alamos National Laboratory Mammoth Cave Center for Learning & Research Missouri State Parks National Speleological Society National Park Service New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology Phil LaMoreaux and Associates Pomona College (California) Slovenian Karst Institute State University of New York Plattsburgh U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service U.S. Geological Survey University of Florida University of South Florida Virginia State Karst Education Program Western Illinois University Western Kentucky University Wittenburg University (Ohio) NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 1

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Our partners have also been busy moving forward their contributions to the Institute. New Mexico Tech now has a fullfledged, PhD-granting Cave and Karst Program with several candidates working towards gradua te degrees. Dr. Penny Boston continues to bring distinction to the program with her highly visible efforts focused on using earth-based cave microbiology and remote sensing to explore further the field of astrobiology. She and Dr. Lewis Land have worked hard to organize a landmark karst conference in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeast New Mexico for Fall 2007. The City of Carlsbad continues to lend strong support to NCKRI and, despite several unfortunate set-backs, remains committed to start building the Institutes headquarter in to wn in 2006. The karst community owes a great debt of gratitude to the citizens of Carlsbad for their vision and belief in the importance of a national cave and karst center. PRIMARY AFFILIATION OF INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE PARTICIPATED IN CURRENT NCKRI PROGRAMS Arizona State Parks Ball State University (Indiana) Carlsbad Department of Development Carlsbad Env. Monitoring & Research Center Carlsbad Tomorrow! Charles Sturt University (Australia) Los Alamos National Laboratory Carlsbad Mammoth Cave Center for Learning & Research Northeast Cave Management Association (NY) State University of New York Oneonta State University of New York Plattsburgh University of New Mexico University of South Florida The last two years have brought many challenges and we have experienced our share of setback s and delays. But, progress has been made, the Institute has a gr owing vitality, and the vision remains strong. The stage is set fo r the National Pa rk Service to transfer day-to-day authority to New Mexico Tech and a nonprofit, corporate board of direct ors. This important change will allow many planned advances and an expansion in the vision for NCKRIs future. We encour age you to carefully review this report and think about how you or your or ganization might join NCKRI in crafting the strongest and most effective coal ition possible to support cave a nd karst education and research worldwide. Louise D. Hose, PhD NCKRI Director National Park Service Photo by Larry Pardue Bats exiting Carlsbad Cavern. Photo by Rick Wiedenmann NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 2

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PRIMARY PARTNERS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SHARED STEWARDSHIP We share a commitment to resource stewardship with the global preservation community; EXCELLENCE We strive continually to lear n and improve so that we may achieve the highest ideals of public service; INTEGRITY We deal honestly and fairly w ith the public and one another; TRADITION We are proud of it; we learn from it; we are not bound by it; RESPECT We embrace each others differences so that we may enrich the wellb ein g of ever y one. Leading the effort to implement the National Ca ve and Karst Research Institute Act has given the National Park Service an opportunity to hark back to and display our Core Values. Acting on the Congressional charge to establish the Ins titute and to retain joint administrative responsibility, we began a novel endeavor that de manded a creative organizational structure with a broad coalition of partners. At the close of 20 05, as we shift day-to-day management over to New Mexico Tech, we sit on the brink of putting the Institute fully into action. Through research and education programs directed toward sustainable resource management, the Institute will expand the Park Services commitment to SHARED STEWARDSHIP. The recent formalization of a broad-based Board of Direct ors and the inclusion of representatives from European, Australian, and Middle Eastern karst programs in the In stitutes projects strengthens NCKRIs and the NPSs ties with the global res ource stewardship community. We look forward to the Institutes continuing growth at the national and international levels. NCKRI partners and planning panels have demonstrated a strong commitment to EXCELLENCE and identified the Institutes Core Purpose as Promoting science-based understanding and sustainable stewardship of cave and karst systems. We have seen a high bar set for the quality of lectures in the NCKRI Lect ure Series and the level of e xpertise invited to the Karst Information Portal Workshop. This level of ex cellence will undoubtedly be maintained by the caring attention and involvement of our Board of Directors and growing coalition of partners. The National Park Service and our NCKRI partners have strived hard to earn the trust and respect of the cave and karst community by demonstrating the highest levels of INTEGRITY. When diverse groups come together to forge a new partnership, various competing interests, misunderstandings, and perceived slights often complicate the path to success. By dealing honestly and fairly with each other and with pot ential future partners, NCKRI is moving forward and has gathered an impressively diverse group of participants. The National Park Service is proud of our TRADITION and our record of stewardship in caring for many of the nations most cherished natural, cult ural, and historic sites. But, NCKRI has been a novel and challenging endeavor. We have reeval uated and expanded our no tion of organizational models to ensure the Institutes success as an international leader in promoting science-based understanding and sustainable stewar dship of caves and karst lands. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 3

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 4 The National Park Service has a deep RESPECT for the diverse karst community and recognizes that each organization and person can bring value to our efforts. We look forward to continued involvement as NCKRI continues to build a broa d coalition of partners and add to its growing list of participants from organizations with a variety of interests, resources, and ideas. We encourage all participants to embrace the diversit y that comes with a coalition and hold to the principle that these differences may enrich the well-being of everyone and, perhaps most importantly, help in our mission of promoting environmentally sound cave and karst resource management practices. Dave Shaver, Chief of Geologic Resources Division National Park Service CURRENT NPS GEOLOGIC RESOURCES DIVISION STAFF WORKING DIRECTLY WITH THE INSTITUTE: TITLE NAME Director, National Cave and Karst Institute Louise Hose Administrative Support (through contract) Lynn Johnson Policy/Regulation Specialist, GRD Edward Kassman Photo by John Woods

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 5 THE CITY OF CARLSBAD, NEW MEXICO The City of Carlsbad helped lead the effort s to pass the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998 and to also establish fundi ng for the project. We have been involved with the Institute since its beginning and remain comm itted to help move NCKRI ahead as the leader in cave and karst research and education. We re cognize from our experiences with several other national research centers sited in Carlsbad (i.e., Los Alamos Na tional Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center) the positive benefits to our community that will come from engaging as full partners in NCKRI. Carlsbad has a long and proud tradition of worki ng with the National Park Service (NPS) in promoting and protecting our two nearby national parks (Carlsbad Caverns and Guadalupe Mountains). In 1990, I, as mayor, appointed Chuck Wiggins as the first Chairman of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Committee. Our partnership with the NPS towards establishing NCKRI began in 2000 when representatives of the Citys Department of Development met with Interim Director Zelda Ba iley and other NPS representatives. Carlsbads mayor at the time, Gary Perkowski, and New Me xico State Representative John Heaton carried that interest further with a request for state funding. Subsequent efforts by Senator Jeff Bingamans and the late Congressman Joe Skeens offices, representa tives of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexi co Tech) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) focused on office space, a proposed building site, funding and partnerships. Over the next several years the de dicated efforts of all the leader s of Carlsbad and the State of New Mexico paid off and the Institute became a reality. Temporarily housed on the campus of NMSUs Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring a nd Research Center, NCKRI began receiving funding from the State of New Mexico that included annual operational appropriations of $350,000 as well as $1M for the constr uction of a building. The City of Carlsbad also pledged $300,000 of in-kind services toward the building. The City of Carlsbad has been very much i nvolved with the funding, de sign, and construction of the NCKRI headquarters building and has focused on the Institute as another attraction to bring visitors and jobs to the area. The Institutes h eadquarters will anchor the Citys major riverfront redevelopment project, The Cascad es. The initial phase of The Cascades is under construction and the City is currently working to finalize design plans fo r the NCKRI building. As we start the new year of 2006, the City is working closel y with the Institute Di rector and New Mexico Tech staff to review designs and subseque nt revisions. The architects are focusing on Construction Documents, which should be completed by mid-2006. The City of Carlsbad takes pride in its important role in establishing the National Cave and Karst Research Ins titute and we look forward to helping it grow into an interna tionally recognized center attracting researchers, educators, and visitors from around the world. We have provided major support towards legislatively establ ishing and funding the Institute and deeply care about its future. Current City of Carlsb ad Staff Workin g Directly with the Institute: TITLE NAME Bob Forrest, Mayor City of Carlsbad Mayor Bob Forrest City Administrator Harry Burgess

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 6 NEW MEXICO INSTITUTE OF MINING AND TECHNOLOGY On behalf of New Mexico Tech, I would like to p ublicly thank our Institute partners for allowing this research university to become actively in volved with this truly unique research venture based in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Through our association with the National Cave & Karst Research Institute, we here at New Mexico Tech greatly appreciate the unpreceden ted opportunity to expand on our own mission and research goals by furthering the science of speleology, encouraging and providing public education in cave and karst topics, and promoting environmentally sound management of our public lands and natural resources. I am also proudas well as pleasedthat New Mexico Tech, along with the National Park Service and the City of Carlsbad, will be able to continue to participate in the development, operation, and continued management of a world-class research institute dedicated to promoting a better understanding and responsible stewards hip of our nationsand, indeed, our worlds cave and karst resources. We owe a large measure of our success over the past few years to our Institute partners, and others like youour staunchest supporters and advocates. In an effort to keep you abreast of our recent tr iumphs and accomplishments, please take time to look over the pages of this institutional report. I hope it will allow you to share with us our collective sense of success, in looking back at what we have accomplished, and as we look forward to what the future has to offer. Sincerely, Daniel H. Lpez, President New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology CURRENT NEW MEXICO TECH STAFF WORKING DIRECTLY WITH THE INSTITUTE: TITLE NAME Director Cave & Karst Progr am Penelope Boston/Socorro Karst Hydrologist Lewis Land/Carlsbad Associate V.P. Research & Econ. Dev. Richard Cervantes/Socorro NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. The past year (2004-2005) was a time of transition for the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI). For the first few years of its existence, the Institute functioned as part of the National Park Serv ice, within the U.S. Department of the Interior. Because NCKRI was a government entity, it was not able to solicit funding from private sources, a fact that severely rest ricted its ability to grow and function. A

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 7 meeting was held in May 2005 where an Ad Hoc Committee consisting of key individuals from various federal, academic and private organizati ons were invited to discuss the feasibility of priv atizing NCKRI as a non-profit (401-C-3) corporation. This corporation would be manage d by New Mexico Tech in Socorro, New Mexico, and the National Park Service would retain supervis ory control. The decision of the Committee was to move forward with privatization. The Committee elected its members to an interim Board of Directors for the new Cor poration, and a framework was established for drafting Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws. At a meeting of the Interim Board of Di rectors (October 2005) the Articles of Incorporation for NCKRI were accepted and representatives of New Mexico Tech were directed to file incorporation papers with the State of New Mexico. Bylaws were distributed to the members of the Board for approval in March, 2006. The Bylaws were accepted, placing the documentation needed fo r NCRKI to move fo rward into effect. May 2005 meeting of the new National Cave and Karst Research Institute Board of Directors in Socorro, New Mexico. Left to right around table, board members Richard Cervantes, Dave Shaver, Geary Schinde l, Hazel Medville, Len Vacher, Donald Macfarlane, Harvey DuChene, Carol Wicks, and Jack Hess. Background, left to right, Eddie Kassman (standing), Lewis Land, Gerry ONan, Louise Hose, and Penny Boston. Photo by Ron Kerbo While a great deal of progress has been made in the last year, signif icant projects are still in progress. A significant consequence of the privatization of NCKRI is that the Executive Director, who is now an employee of the National Park Service, will become an employee of New Mexico Tech. This required that the position be filled in compliance with the hiring practices of New Mexico Tech. The position has been advertised and the qualifications of the appl icants are currently being examined by a review board comprised of National Park Se rvice, New Mexico Tech and NCKRI Board members.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 8 Due to rising costs, the construction of th e Headquarters Building in Carlsbad has been delayed. The City of Carlsbad received bids on the construction of the original design early this year, but the costs far exceeded th e available funds and the bids were declined. The City is re-negotiating their design contract with the re-organized architectural firm of Durham, Kilmer, and Associates. A new building design is expected to be ready for bids by early summer 2006. Although a great amount of time and effort is being expended on administrative details and projects, there has also been progress in other areas. For example, the Institute hosted a two-and-a-half-day Karst Inform ation Portal (KIP) Planning Workshop in Carlsbad in January, 2006 that brought togeth er 30 researchers, educators, information technology specialists, and land managers. The group enthusiastically endorsed the concept of a web-based portal that will create an open access system to karst, cave, and aquifer information. Establishing the digita l Karst Portal will increase communication among karst scientists and policy makers ar ound the globe. The KIP Steering Committee (NCKRI/New Mexico Tech, University of S outh Florida-USF, and University of New Mexico-UNM) prepared a grant proposal to the National Sc ience Foundation for the first substantial financial support of the Portal. I believe that the future for NCKRI under its ne w, non-profit, private co rporation status is bright. The corporation is now able to seek outside funding to support exhibits, education and research. The Institute will continue to seek its niche in the karst community and within the broader scientific community. I envision an organization that complements existing karst programs and organizations and becomes a resource for them. The Karst Portal, where karst information in digital form at is readily available, is a prime example of a resource that will be of world-wide va lue. With time, money, and creative thinking, the NCKRI facility in Carlsbad can become a magnet for the general public and scientists alike. For this to occur, NCKRI must reach out and embrace karst scientists across the country, providing support for existing program s as well as assisting younger scientists in the establishment of new programs. Many of the most prominent karst scientists in the United States have reached retirement age, and the future of kars t education programs now rests in the hands of younger scientists and educators. This group is the future of karst education and researc h, and NCKRI should do everythi ng it can to nurture and support these programs. Sincerely, Harvey R. DuChene Board Chairman National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. NCKRI executive committ ee meeting in May 2006. Photo by Ron Kerbo

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INSTITUTE BUILDING ACTIVITIES MOVING TOWARDS NCKRI, INC. Two meetings set up framework for establis hing the Institute as a 501.c.3 corporation The National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) made major strides during May 2005 towards moving from a government entity to a partnership coalition, as mandated by Congress through the National Cave and Karst Research Act of 1998. The Act charged the National Park Service (NPS) with establishing NCKRI and the effort has been carrie d out by NPSs Geologic Resources Division under Chief Dave Shavers leadership. In deve loping NCKRI, Interim NCKRI Director Zelda Chapman Bailey and current Director Louise Hose worked to meet the mandate. Two formal partners, the City of Carl sbad and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech), joined the effort during the last two year through a Memorandum of Understanding and two C ooperative Agreements. The October 2003 NCKRI Vision Workshop scoping session in Shepherdstown, WV, br ought together representatives of diverse cave and karst programs nationwide. Following their recommendations, the partners commenced the current process moving towa rds the formation of a 501.c.3, non-profit, educational corporation. NATIONAL PARK REPRESENTATIVES MEET Representatives (Superintendents, Resource Mana gement Chiefs, and Cave Specialists) from eight National Parks with cave and karst prog rams met in Denver for two-days during May 2005 to review the Institutes progress and plans. The meeting also provided an opportunity for the Parks to express their needs and how NCKRI might help address them. Park representatives left the meeting with a fresh and better understandi ng of the Institutes mission and plans while NCKRI staff discovered new ideas on how to best serve Park interests. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Park representatives listen to Mark Depoy describe ca ve and karst initiatives at Mammoth Cave National Park. Photo by Ron Kerbo ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 9

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INTERIM BOARD OF DIRECTORS FORMED Two weeks later, New Mexico Tech brought together representati ves from thirteen governmental, academic, and private cave and ka rst programs on their Socorro, New Mexico, campus for a two-day Steering Committee meeting. New Mexico Tech and the NPS also had all pertinent staff members, including their respecti ve legal counsel, present. The group discussed a proposal to establish NCKRI as a 501.c.3 with a governing board. By the end of the meeting, they had established an Interim Executive Comm ittee, Interim Board of Directors, and Board committees charged with formally establishing NCKRI, Inc. THE NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. ESTABLISHED The Interim Board of Directors approved Article s of Incorporation (Appendix A) in fall 2005, which were then submitted to the State of Ne w Mexico by New Mexico Tech. The National Cave and Karst Research Institute was incorp orated as a 501.c.3, nonprofit corporation in December 2005. Corporation by-laws (Appendix B) were also drafted in 2005. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Harvey DuChene, Chair Dr. Nicholas Crawford, Vice-Chair Richard Cervantes, Treasurer Dave Shaver, NPS representative Harry Burgess, City of Carlsbad representative Dr. Louise Hose, NC KRI Director (nonvoting) Dr. John W. Hess, Member-at-Large Dr. Penelope J. Boston, Recording Sec. (non-voting) DIRECTORS Jim Goodbar Dr. Donald McFarlane Hazel Medville Geary Schindel Jerry Trout Dr. Len Vacher Dr. Carol Wicks COMMITTEES By-Law Committee Chair Hazel Medville Education and Research Chair Vacant Karst Stewardship Chair Geary Schindel Library Collections and Data Access Chair Dr. Len Vacher PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE While the partners have worked on developing the administrative structure for the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, staff members and contractors have been developing plans for NCKRIs future. In 2004, Frank Binney and A ssociates wrote a planning document for the public use area of the planned NCKRI building, National Cave and Karst Museum Preliminary Exhibit Plan. The plans call for over 4576 square feet of public exhibit space in the NCKRI buildings two-story, central atrium space. In la te 2005, they began a project to further develop elements of the proposed exhibits in prepar ation for fundraising efforts by NCKRI, Inc. In recognition of the Institutes need to dive rsify its funding base and aggressively pursue fundraising efforts once l eadership is transf erred from the National Park Service, the Institute commissioned a study by fundraise r Erin Noojibail to identify opportunity and propose strategies that might be pursued by NCKRI, Inc. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 10

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FACILITY PARTNER NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY CARLSBAD CARLSBAD ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND RESEARCH CENTER A formal agreement signed with New Mexico State University (NMSU) in Oc tober 2000 made temporary office space and administrative support at its Carlsbad campus available to the Institute. NCKRIs office was located in the universitys Carlsbad Enviro nmental Monitoring and Research Center (CEMRC), through an arrangement designed to facilitate collaboration between the two groups. The agreement, the first to be signed on behalf of the Institute provided important support towards establishing the Institute in Carlsbad. CEMRC provided up to four offices and support to NCKRI staff until July 2005, when the space was needed for research projects related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. We remain appreciative to CEMRC and NMSU for their help in establishing the physical presence of NCKRI in the Carlsbad community. CARLSBAD DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT ADVANCED MANUFACTURING AND INNOVATION TRAINING CENTER NCKRI moved to the Advanced Manufacturi ng and Innovation Technology (AMITC) building in the Airport Industrial Park in July 2005. The Carlsbad Depa rtment of Development (CDOD) offered excellent office facilities in their busin ess incubator building, the AMITC, just north of the Cavern City Airport. The move included a cha nge in our Internet domain name to nckri.org as well as a new snail mail address and phone numbers. A Cooperative Agreement between the CDOD and the National Park Service ensured a minimum of 1,200 square feet of secure office space, conference rooms, local and long-distance telecommunications service, high-speed Internet access and e-mail accounts, and related computer support. An additional benefit included re-uniting hydrologist Lewis Land, who had been displaced from the crowded CEMRC facility, with the rest of the NCKRI operations in Carlsbad. The current agreement is renewable for three years. The CDOD and NCKRI also share an Administrative Assistant, Lynn Johnson. Ms. Johnson works onequarter time for NCKRI and has proven a very valuab le asset to the Institute. A native Carlsbadian, Johnson has an Associate degree in computer science from New Mexico State University Carlsbad. Advanced Manufacturing and Innovation Training Center in Carlsbad. Lynn Johnson NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 11

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NCKRI BUILDING PROJECT Representatives from the National Park Service (NPS) and New Mexico In stitute of Mining and Technology met in early February 2006 with th e City of Carlsbad and their contracted architectural firm of Durham, Kilmer, and Associat es to discuss the future of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute headquarters build ing in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The City, which will build and own the building, re ceived bids on the construction of the original design early this year but the costs far exceeded the available funds and the bid was declined. The group came to agreement on the essential aspect in the original desi gn and identified areas and features that could be eliminated without impacting the Institutes mission. The meeting also provided an opportunity for all key players to m eet each other after recen t changes in the lead people at both the architectural firm (Randall Kilmer replace the late Beryl Durham as the licensed architect on the project) and the City (Harry Burgess replaced the recently retired Jon Tully as City Administrator). The NPS has also offered to provide a full-week of design service by their award-winning architect, James Crockett, to help jump-s tart the re-design process. At the end of February 2006, the City was re-ne gotiating their design contract with the reorganized architectural firm of Durham, Kilmer, and Associates Once completed, Crockett will travel to Carlsbad with Nancy Cocroft of the NPS Construction Program to work with Kilmer and his group of architects in Carlsbad. The gr oup hopes to have a new design ready to go out for bids by early summer 2006. Meanwhile, the City and their contractors have b een preparing the building site and constructing The Cascades, a brownfield renovation project near Lake Carlsbad. The NCKRI headquarters is anticipated to be the first building at The Cascades and the anchor for the project. Architects Dean Cruse (Durham/Kilmer), James Crockett (NPS), and Nancy Cocroft (NPS) inspect the NCKRI building site. Aerial photo of the NCKRI building site taken on February 17, 2006. Arrow points to the specific building site. The adjacent excavation is preparation for the water canal that will highlight the urban renovation site. Carlsbad Lake, at the top of the photo, was drained at the time for property maintenance and ha s since been refilled. Photo by George West. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 12

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VISITING SCHOLAR PROGRAM The National Cave and Karst Research Institute began a Visiting Scholar Program in spring 2004 with the hiring of Thomas R. Strong through a contract with New Mexico Tech. Strong worked with NCKRI for 14 months and focused much of his research attention on a study of verteb rate species usage of local Chihuahuan Desert caves. He also surveyed current monitoring efforts in National Park Service caves as part of the Institutes effort to promote sound monito ring practice among cave stewards. In May 2005, he returned to his home in Tucson, Arizona, where he resumed his career at an environmental consulting firm. Tom Strong in the field assisting Scott Rice-Snow with his investigation. Photo by Scott Rice-Snow Dr. Scott Rice-Snow joined the NCKRI staff in Carlsb ad as a Visiting Scholar through the National Park Services Sabbatical -in-the-Park program. Scott, a physical geographer from Ball State University (Indiana), spent spring seme ster of 2005 studying the geomorphology of the Guadalupe Escarpment area between the City of Carl sbad and White City as part of a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) effort to protect the Ca pitan Aquifer, the principle water supply for the City of Carlsbad. Scott pr esented his results to BLM and NCKRI staff. The study (Appendix C) provides important insight into the areas most likely to provide recharge to the aquifer, a particularly critical issue as petroleum e xploration is rapidly ex tending into the area. Rice-Snow also provided an exit report (Appendix D) on his experiences, which may prove useful for other scholars considering spending time in residence at the Institute in Carlsbad Scott Rice-Snow makes presentation to BLM and NCKRI staff. Photo by Pat Seiser. In a cooperative venture with the Northeastern Cave Conservancy, Inc., NCKRI sent Visiting Scholar Elery Hamilton-Smith on a three-week, nationwide lecture tour. Hamilton-Smith is a professor in cave and karst management at Charles Sturt University, Albury, New South Wales and has the parallel responsibility of serving as the chair of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN, also known as the World Conservation Union) World Commission on Protected Areas Task Force on Caves and Karst. Penny Boston (lt) and Elery Hamilton-Smith (rt) discuss cave and karst issue during his visit to New Mexico Tech. The tour stopped in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Virginia before finally ending up at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in Albany, New York. Presentations and NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 13

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meetings occurred with representatives from the United States Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Virginia Department of Natural Heritage, University of Arizona, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, the Carlsbad Caverns National Park, the City of Carlsbad, NCKRI, the Edwards Aquifer, the University of Texas-Austin, Western Kentucky University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. List of Presentations Australia Down Under: A Spelean Travelogue Caves and Karst of Australia Reviewing Changes in Nature Conservation Protected Areas Changes in Philosophy and Management Thinking about Karst and World Heritage Karst Regions as World Heritage Sites Hamilton-Smith met with students at Western Kentucky University. Photo by Pat Seiser. Hamilton-Smith concluded his tour with a banquet address closing out the 30 th Anniversary National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in Albany, NY. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 14

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VOLUNTEERS PROGRAM The National Cave and Karst Research Institute has partially met the challenge of addressing the Institutes mission during this developmental stage through the National Park Services Vo lunteers-in-the-Parks and Geoscientists-in-the-Parks programs. We have been very fortunate to have se veral outstandi ng volunteers represent NCKRI on a variety of projects and at many events. Their credentials are outstanding and they have provided hundreds of hours of service towards fulfilling the Institutes mission. Partic ular recognition is due to Dr. Patricia Seiser, a Carl sbad, NM, resident who has volunteered hundreds of hours on behalf of NCKRI projects. Among her many cont ributions during the past two years have been helping to organize the NCKRIs workshop on developing cave management plans at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in October 2005, hosting Dr. Elery Hamilton-Smiths national tour, and providing karst and cave related programs to many organizations in Carlsbad. NCKRI VOLUNTEERS Harvey DuChene Public presentations in Colorado Dr. Lynn Kleina Public presentations in Pennsylvania Dr. Patricia Seiser Public presentation, liaison with Venture Scout Program, and much more Doug Soroka Public presentations in Pennsylvania Dr. Thomas Strong Representing NCKRI at federal and state agency meetings in Arizona Dr. H. Len Vacher Planning the incorporation of mathematics in karst education programs Dr. Dachang Zhang Developing plans for further investigations of Capitan Aquifer Pat Seiser (rt) works with a young student during NCKRIs presentation on cave and karst sciences during the National Environmental Education Week program. The program, organized by the Guadalupe District of the U.S. Forest Service and hosted at the Living Desert State Park in Carlsbad, NM, taught attentive audiences of 5 th and 6 th graders about the natural environment in southeastern New Mexico. Pat Seiser leads a group discussion during the NCKRI workshop at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in October 2005. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 15

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RE SEARCH INSTITUTE PROJECTS NCKRI LECTURE SERIES The National Cave and Karst Research Institute L ecture Series in Carlsbad, NM, began when an enthusiastic, overflowing crowd of over 95 local residents listened to NCKRI scientist Dr. Penelope J. Boston speak on March 2004 about the potential for subterran ean life on Mars. Since that first lecture, the Institute has presented free, public lectures by highly distinguished karst scientists about every three months. The Institute arranged for some of the speakers to also give presentations at Carlsbad Caverns National Park to accommodate Park staff members who were unable to attend the evening lectur es in town. The lecture audiences have averag ed about 40-50 people. 3/15/04 Dr. Penelope J. Bo ston (New Mexico Tech), The Planet Within: Caves from New Mexico to Mars 6/28/04 Dr. Arthur N. Palmer (State University of New York Oneonta), Americas Greatest Caves: Exploration, Geology, and Origin of Ca ves in the Guadalupe Mountains (NM), the Black Hills (SD), and Mammoth Cave Region (KY) 8/9/04 Dr. Kathleen Lavoie (State Un iversity of New Yo rk Plattsburgh), Cave Crickets; Little Cave Cows 9/27/04 Dr. Nickolay Hris tov (Boston University), The Bat-Moth Arms Race 2/3/05 Dr. Lewis Land (New Mexico Tech), Karst Hydrology of Southeastern New Mexico: The Capitan Reef and Roswell Artesian Aquifer 4/18/05 Dr. Scott Rice-Snow (Ba ll State University, Indiana) Geometries of cave room development and other investigations on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico 5/23/05 Dr. Rickard Toomey (Arizona State Parks), Conservation and Tourism at Kartchner Caverns: How are we doing? 10/17/05 Dr. Elery Hamilton-Smith (Charles Sturt University, Albury, New South Wales, Australia), Thinking about Karst and World Heritage Sites Dr. Penny Boston spoke to an audience of over 95 Carlsbad residents about the potential link between Earthbound cave life and potential life on Mars. Photos by Ken Ingham (lt.) and NASA (rt.) Dr. Rick Toomey during his visit to Carlsbad, NM. Photo by Pat Seiser NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 16

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Karst Information Portal The National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) teamed up with the University of South Florida and the University of New Mexico to develop a web-based Karst Information Portal (KIP). The goal of the project is to transform global understanding of karst terrains through an innovative, global online linkage among karst researchers, educators, and land managers who desire a wide variety of electronic info rmation on karst topics by: 1) facilitating access to and preservation of karst information both published and unpublished; 2) developing linkages and communication amongs t the international karst community; 3) promoting knowledge-discovery to help deve lop solutions to problems in karst; 4) developing interactive databases for ongoing ka rst research in different disciplines; 5) enriching fundamental multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary science; and 6) facilitating collection and dissemina tion of new data about karst. Achieving the purposes enumerated above will increase communication among karst scientists, land managers, and policy makers around the globe. In addition to traditional print publications (monograph and journal references), sources will in clude difficult to locate materials, such as technical reports, conference proc eedings, newsletters, and other items referred to as grey literature. Maps, databases, images, video, sate llite imagery, geospatial data, and other formats are likewise sought, as ar e collections that docum ent the development of karst research (e.g., researcher correspondence, journa ls, field notes etc.). The propos ed site would both contain its own digital resources and provi de convenient links into karst materials located on websites throughout the world. NCKRI hosted a two-and-a-half-day Karst Information Portal Planning Workshop in Carlsbad in January that brought together 30 karst researchers, educators, information technology specialists, and land managers. The group enthusiastically endorsed the concept of a web-based, ka rst portal that will create an open access system to karst, cave, and aquifer information. Several partic ipants offered to work closely with the project to make their organizations websites and resources compatible with the portal. The KIP team would like to hear from more karst research managers and scientists about how they and their programs might contribute and use the Portal. KIP Workshop at the AMITC (1/20/06) Photo b y Pat Seise r More information on the KIP project may be found at: http://www.lib.usf.edu/KIP/ NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 17

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NCKRI LIBRARY Generous contributions have helped to build a substantial book and journal collection for the National Cave and Karst Research Institute. The appraised value of the co llection is currently over $21,000. Substantial donations have come from Warren Lewis, Jerry Vineyard, Tim George, and Diane Wilson (widow of Bill Wilson). Their valued contributions are gr eatly appreciated. Doc Warren Lewis generously donated most of his extensive cave library to NCKRI shortly before his death in 2005. Photo by John Ga nter. NCKRI PROGRAM REVIEW The National Cave and Karst Research Ins titute commissioned Dr Kathleen Lavoie, Dean of Arts and Science at the State Univer sity of New York in Plattsburgh to perform an external review of th e Institutes progr ess through summer 2004 and to develop recommendations for both further program de velopment and future program reviews. Her report is attached as Appendix E. Dr. Kathleen Lavoie (foreground) works on her NCKRI Program Review report after spending a month actively reviewing the Institute-related programs in both Carlsbad and Socorro. She also interviewed partners and other members of the karst community nationwide regarding the Institutes progress to date. Guadou karst ( China ) Photo b y Thomas R. Stron g NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 18

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SPONSORED PROJECTS MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY DIGITAL MAP OF KARST IN MISSISSIPPI Christopher Moore, a gra duate student in the Department of Geosciences at Mississippi State University, and hi s advisor Dr. John E. Mylroie have produced a digital map of the State of Mississippi with karst features and karst drainage basins following the guidelines and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey KARST Map Project. The digital data is annotated with descriptions of the karst features and interpretations and land use implications of those features. Field and literature search data have been inventoried and placed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to establish the relations hip of cave and karst features with topography, geology, and cultural features. Their report was submitted to NCKRI, a financial sponsor of the project, and U.S. Geological Survey for inclusion in their national KARST map. KARST ma p of Mississi pp i. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY KARST MAP PROJECT In the years 2004 and 2005, the U. S. Geological Survey KARST Pr oject made progress towards producing a new national karst map. Efforts incl uded completion of a draft map of carbonate karst areas in the southern Appalachian region along with further accretion of data from states to the west and north. Karst coverage for the st ates of Indiana, Arkansas, Rhode Island, and Connecticut were added to the database. A GIS ve rsion of the previous national atlas karst map was published online so that there would be a map available for use until the new product is complete (Tobin and Weary, 2004). Work is conti nuing on developing criter ia for classification of the various karst area types found in the diverse geologic and hydrol ogic settings around the nation. In August 2005, the U.S.G.S. cosponsored a 2-day workshop and field trip at the Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS, on karst mapping, state karst maps, and the National Karst Map. Participants included representatives from 7 midwestern state geological surveys including: Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Mi ssouri, and Wisconsin. Progress on the national karst map was presented to the U.S. Geological Survey, Karst In terest Group meeting in Rapid City South Dakota in September 2005 (Weary, 2005). NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 19

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References cited Tobin, B.D., and Weary, D.J., 2004, Digital engineer ing aspects of karst map: A GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of karst: U.S. Geologica l Survey, National Atlas of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Re port 2004-1352. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1352/ Weary, D.J., 2005, An Appalachian regional kars t map and progress to wards a new national karst map: Proceedings, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group, Rapid City, South Dakota, September 12-15, 2005, Scientific I nvestigations Report 2005-5160, p. 93-102. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2 005/5160/PDF/sir2005-5160part3A.pdf U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS KARST INTEREST GROUP U.S. Geological Survey scientists involved in karst research (Karst Interest Group) meet every two to four years at various karst sites and the 2005 event was in the Black Hills of South Dakota on September 12-15, 2005. NCKRI provided financial support for the event, which also included several National Park Service employees and others as participants. The event, organized by Eve L. Kuniansky, resulted in a proceedings volume that is available as a hard copy and online ( http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ ). Field Trip Stop at Mammoth Site (Larry Agenbroad and Kristine Thompson provided lectures on karst sinkholes as animal traps). Photo submitted by Eve Kuniansky, USGS WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR WATER RESOURCES STUDIES QUANTITATIVE MONITORING OF METABOLIC ACTIVITIES INFERRED FROM THE ACTIVITIES OF SPECIFIC SUBSET COMPONENTS OF MICROBIAL BIOFILMS FORMING ON CAVE-LIKE SUBSTRATA Western Kentucky Universitys Center for Water Resources Studies is coll aborating with Mammoth Cave National Park and other scientists to investigate the microbial ecology of biofilms on cave substrata in the worlds longest known cave, the Flint-Mammoth System. They are leaving dozens of BioSep beads in the cave for months then analyzing and measuring lipid, DNA biomarkers, 13 C enrichment, and other parameters. The team provided a detailed report on the projects status through December 2005 (Appendix E). Researchers collect sediments at Charon Cascade. Photo submitted by Rick Fowler. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 20

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WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITYLAND MANAGERS PROGRAM Western Kentucky University ha s developed a graduate program tailored to the needs and schedules of National Park Service cave and karst resource management specialists who wish to further their educational background. Under the cooperative agreement with WKU, the Institute supports this program to allow more students acce ss to the benefits of advanced education. No report was received from the program in 2005. WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY MAMMOTH CAVE CENTER FOR SCIENCE AND LEARNING AND NPSS GEOLOGIC RESOURCES DIVISION The National Park Services Geologic Resource Division, in cooperation with the Geological Society of America, initiated producing a manual on geologic resource m onitoring for National Park Service resource managers. NCKRI joined the effort by offering financial support for the cave and karst chapter. Dr. Rickard Toomey, Di rector of the newly formed Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning at Western Kentucky Univer sity, was selected for the task and began work on the chapter in fall 20 05. Toomey is considered a leading authority on commercial cave monitoring techniques. He had r ecently left a position with the Arizona State Parks where he developed and oversaw several innovative monitoring techniques at Kartchner Caverns State Park. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST MANAGEMENT SYMPOSIUM The National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) played a prominent role in the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in Albany, New York in November 2005. The Northeastern Cave Conservancy (NCC) did a magnificent job of organizing the biennial event with a full program of papers, posters, workshops, and a field trip. The NCKRI, a co-sponsor of the event, gave a workshop on developing and evaluating cave management plans. NCKRI volunteer Pat Seiser, Wind Cave National Park Cave Specialist Rod Horrick, and Mammoth Cave Science and Learning Center Director Rick Toomey led the break-out sessions dur ing the workshop. The Institute also partnered with the NCC in bringing Elery Hamilton-Smith to the symposium as the banquet speaker. Group discussion led by Rick Toomey during the NCKRI workshop at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in Albany, NY. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 21

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NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY The National Cave and Karst Research Institute provided partial funding to publish a book compiled by the National Speleological Society (NSS) titled On Caves Conservation and Restoration, which features conservation and restoration topics by resear chers from a variety of disciplines and chapters dedicated to specific conservation measures and restoration techniques. NSS Executive Vice President Gordon Birkhimer reports that the book is in th e last stages of editing and will be available in July 2006. BOSTON MUSEUM BAT BOOK The Institute provided partial funding to the Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology at Boston University for artw ork and figures to be included in A Guide to Bats of North America The book features information on th e life-history, ecology, and behavior of 45 species of bats known from North Amer ica, half of which depend on or utilize caves. The book will be published by Oxford University Press, probably in 2007. Townsends big-eared bats ( Corynorhinus townsendii ). Photo by R. Scott Altenbach, submitted by Thomas Kunz, Boston College. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 22

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INSTITUTE ACTIVITIES Bold letters indicate NCKRI-affiliated scholars a. REFEREED PAPERS Ball, L., Lucius, J., Land, L., Kress, W., & Teeple, A., in press, Characterization of nearsurface geology using multiple surface geophysi cal techniques at the Gran Quivira Ruins of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report no. 2005-xxxx. Boston, P.J., Frederick, R.D., Welch, S.M., Werk er, J., Meyer, T.R., Sprungman, B., Hildreth-Werker, V., and Thompson, S.L., 2004, Extraterrestrial caves as science targets for future missions: Space Technology and Applications Forum 2003 Proceedings, AIP #654, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD. Boston, P.J. Frederick, R.D., Welch, S.M., Werk er, J., Meyer, T.R., Sprungman, B., Hildreth-Werker, V., Thompson, S.L., and Murphy, D.L., 2004, Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments: Gr avitational and Space Biology Bulletin, v. 16, n. 2, p. 121-131. Boston, P.J., Hose, L.D., Northup, D.E., and Spilde, M.N., in press, The microbial communities of sulfur caves: A newly appreci ated geologically driven system on Earth and potential model for Mars, in Harmon, R.S ., and Wicks, C. [eds.], Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemist ryA tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White: Geological Society of America Special Paper 404. Boston, P.J. Todd, P., and McMillen, K., 2004, R obotic lunar ecopoiesis test bed: Bringing the experimental method to terraforming: Space Technology and Application Forum 2003 Bulletin, AIP #654, American Institu te of Physics, College Park, MD. Hunter, A.J., Northup, D.E., Dahm, C.N., and Boston, P.J. 2005, Human impact on water quality in Lechuguilla Cave pools: Journal of Ca ve and Karst Studies, v. 66, n. 3, p. 102110. Jenson, J.W., Keel, T.M., Mylroie, J.R., Mylroie, J.E., Stafford, K.W. Taborosi, D., and Wexel, C., in press, Karst of the Mariana Islands: the interaction of tectonics, glacioeustasy, and freshwater/seawat er mixing in island carbonates, in Harmon, R.S., and Wicks, C. (eds), Perspectives on karst geom orphology, hydrology, and geochemistry A tribute volume to Dereck C. Ford and William B. White, Geological Society of America Special Paper 404, p. 129-138. Land, L., Lautier, J., Wilson, N., Chianese, G., a nd Webb, S., 2004, Geophysical Monitoring and Evaluation of Coastal Plain Aquifers: Ground Water, v. 42, p. 59-67. Rosales-Lagarde, L., Centeno-Garca, E., Dostal, J. Sour-Tovar, F., Ochoa-Camarillo, H., and Quiroz-Barroso, S., 2005, The Tuzancoa Formation: Evidence of an Early Permian Submarine Continental Arc in East-Central Me xico: International Geology Review, v. 47, n. 9, p. 901-919. Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Boston, P.J. Schelble, R.T., Dano, K.E., Crossey, L.J., and Dahm, C.N., 2005, Geomicrobiology of cave ferromanganese deposits: Geomicrobiology Journal, v. 22, p. 99-116. Stafford, K.W. Mylroie, J.E., Taborosi, D., Jenson, J.W., and Mylroie, J.R., 2005, Karst development on Tinian, CNMI: Controls on dissolution in relation to the Carbonate Island Karst Model: Journal of Cave and Ka rst Studies, v. 67, n. 1, p. 14-27. Stafford, K.W. Mylroie, J.E., Taborosi, D., and Jenson, J.W., 2005, Eogenetic karst development on a small, tectonically active, carbonate island: Aguijan, CNMI: Cave and Karst Science, v. 31, n.3, p. 101-108. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 23

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Stafford, K.W., Mylroie, J., Taborosi, D., Jenson, J. and Mylroie, J., 2005, Karst development on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Controls on dissolution in relation to the carbonate island karst model: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, n. 1, p. 14-27. b. ARTICLES IN EDITED GUIDEBOOKS AND PROCEEDINGS Hose, L.D., and Boston, P.J. 2005, National Cave and Karst Re search Institute, in Rea, G.T. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2003 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: NCKMS Steering Committee, Gainesville, FL, p. 76-81. Keel, T.M., Jenson, J.W., Mylroie, J.E., Mylroie, J.R., Stafford, K.W. and Camacho, R., 2006, The caves of Rota, Commonwealth of th e Northern Mariana Islands, in Daves, R.L., and Gamble, D.W. (eds), Proceedings of the 12th Symposium of the Geology of the Bahamas and Other Carbonate Regions, Ge race Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas, p. 76-87. Land, L., 2005, Evaluation of groundwater reside nce time in a karstic aquifer using environmental tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico, in Proceedings of the Tenth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, San Antonio, Texas, 2005: ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication no. 144, p. 432-440. Stafford, K.W. Mylroie, J.E., Mylroie, J.R., and Taborosi, D., 2006, Dissolution controls related to the Carbonate Is land Karst Model on techtonically active, carbonate islands: Tinian and Aguijan, CNMI, in Daves, R.L. and Gamble, D.W. (eds), Proceedings of the 12th Symposium of the Geology of the Baha mas and Other Carbonate Regions, Gerace Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas, p. 205-219. c. CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDITED BOOKS Boston, P.J., 2004, Biofilms, in G unn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing, London, p. 145-147. Boston, P.J. 2004, Extraterrestrial Caves, in Gunn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing, London, p. 355-358. Boston, P.J. Northup, D.E., and Lavoie, K.H., in press, Preserving the unseen, in HildrethWerker, V., and Werker, J. (eds.) Cave Conservation and Restoration: National Speleological Society. Hose, L.D ., 2004, Cueva de Villa Luz, Mexico, in G unn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing, London, pl 758-759. Hose, L.D ., 2004, Golondrinas and the giant shafts, Mexico, in Gunn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dear born Publishing, London, p. 392-393. Hose, L.D ., 2004, Huautla cave system, Mexico, in Gunn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn P ublishing, London, p. 427-428. Hose, L.D ., 2004, Selma Plateau caves, Oman, in Gunn, J., Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing, London, p. 639-641. d. BOOKS Hose, L., and Atkinson, G., 2004, Geologic studi es in the Purificacin karst: AMCS Bulletin #13, 87 p. e. PUBLICATIONS EDITED Miller, J.E., S.H. Schneider, Crist, E., and Boston, P.J. (eds.), 2004, Scientis ts debate Gaia: The next century: MIT Pres s, Cambridge, MA. 377 p. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 24

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f. REPORTS AND MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS Boston, P.J. Frederick, R.D., Welch, S., Werker, J ., Meyer, T.R., Sprungman, B., HildrethWerker, V., Murphy, D., and Thompson, S.L., 2004, Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments: Final report for NIAC CP 01-01, Phase I I. http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/boston Boston, P.J. 2005, Cave New World: WIRED Magazine. Boston, P.J. 2004, 1) Life in a Lava Tube, Oct. 25, 2) Studying Slime, Nov. 1, and 3) Living Large in a Lava Tube: Astrobiology Magazine. Dubowsky, S., Iagnemma, K., and Boston, P.J., 2004, Microbots for large-scale planetary surface and subsurface exploration: Ph ase I Final report for NIAC CP. 02-02. http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/dubowsky Dubowsky, S, et al. 2004. Microsphere explor ers for intelligence gathering in debris, caves, and subterranean environments. DARPA White Paper BAA03-01. Hose, L. D. 2004, Highlights: Solid earth Caves and Karst: Geotimes, July, p. 22-23. Hose, L.D. 2005, ICS Pre-congress Field Trip: H2S Caves in Central Italy: NSS News, v. 63, n. 12. p. 10-11. Land, L., and Johnson, P., 2004, New Mexico Brac kish Groundwater Assessment Program Workshop, January 15, 2004, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Report of Findings and Recommendations. Sponsored by New Mexico Office of the State Engineer; New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute; and U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, 27 p. ( http://wrri.nmsu.edu/conf/brack ishworkshop/brackishworkshop.html ) Pisarowicz, J.A., Rykwalder, P., Hose, L.D. and Amidon, C., 2005, Return to Tabasco: Association for Mexican Cave Studies Activities Newsletter, n. 28, p. 27-57. Stafford, K.W. Mylroie, J.E., and Jenson, J.W., 2004, Karst geology and hydrology of Tinian and Aguijuan, CNMI: Cave inventory and structural analysis: Technical Report 106, Water and Environmental Institute of the Western Pacific, University of Guam, Mangilao, 228 p. Taborosi, D., Hirakawa, K., and Stafford, K.W. 2004, Interactions of plant root and speleothems: Journal of Subterranean Biology, v. 2, p. 43-51. Taborosi, D., Hirakawa, K., and Stafford, K.W. 2004, Subaerial tufa in the Marinana Islands and its depositional settings: Studies in Speleology, v. 13, p. 27-41. Todd, P., Boston, P.J. Platt, H., Metz, W.J., and Deuser L., 2004, Robotic lunar ecopoiesis test bed: Final report for NIAC CP 0202 Research Subcontract 07605-003-020, Prime Contract NAS5-03110. http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/todd g. ABSTRACTS Boston, P.J. Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Mullen, K.E., 2004, Manganese and iron interactions in cave and desert varnish co mmunities [abst.]: AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco. Boston, P.J., 2004. Extraterrestrial cave-forming mechanisms [abst.]: 32nd Intl Geol. Cong. Florence, IT. Boston, P.J., Northup, D.E., Spilde, M.N., and Crossey, L., 2004, Fe/Mn deposits in cave and desert varnish materials [abst.]: National Speleological Society National Convention, Marquette, MI. Boston, P.J. Spilde, M.N., and Northup, D.E., 2004, Detectable biosignatures for Mars: Biogenic Fe/Mn oxides in caves and surface desert varnish [abst.]: NASA Third Astrobiology Conference, NASA-Ames Res. Ctr., Moffett Field, CA. Boston, P.J. Frederick, R.D., and Welch, S.M., 2004, Subsurface cave habitats for lunar and Martian applications [abst. ]: STAIF, Albuquerque, NM. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 25

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Boston, P.J. Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., and Rosales-Lagarde, L., 2005, Subsurface sulfur systems for astrobiological applications: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, n. 7, p. 267. Boston, P.J., Todd. P., and McMillen, K., 2004, Lunar ecopoiesis test bed facility [abst.]: STAIF, Albuquerque, NM. Boston, P.J. et al. 2005. Manganese and iron inte ractions: Cave and rock varnish communities and processes compared: National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL. Boston, P.J. et al. 2005. Micrometeorological mode ling of idealized caves: Predictions andapplications to Carlsbad Cavern, NM, USA: National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL. Boston, P.J., 2005, Subsurface sulfur systems for astrobiological applications: Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City, UT. Boston, P.J. and Dubowsky, S., 2005, Hopping micr obot access to subsurface (cave) and rugged terrain on Mars and hazardous extr eme Earth astrobiology sites: AGU, San Francisco, CA. Carsey, F., Boston, P.J. Rothschild, L.J., Coleman, M., Jones, J., Behar, A.E., Antol, J., Hajos, G.A., Rudisill, M., Parker, J.R ., Kelliher, W.C., and Carlberg, I.A., 2004, Tumbleweed: Wind-driven sampling on the surface of Mars [abst.]: NASA Third Astrobiology Conference, NASA-Ames Res. Ctr., Moffett Field, CA. Centeno-Garcia, E., Rosales-Lagarde, L ., and Soreghan, G.S., 2005, Evidence for late Paleozoic magmatism in western Pangea (Mexico): Geological Society of America, Rocky Mountain Section, 57th annual meeting, Abstracts with Programs Geological Society of America v. 37, n. 6, p. 43. Curry, M.C., and Boston, P.J., 2006, A geomicrobiological i nvestigation of moonmilk using scanning electron microscopy: Thursday Morning Cave, CO, and Dos Ojos Cave, NM [abst.]: Rio Grande Branch, American Society for Microbiologist (ASM) Abstracts with Programs, p. 3. Hose, L.D. 2004, Assessing cave and karst tourism in th e Sultanate of Oman [abst.]: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 66, n. 3, p. 115. Hose, L.D., and Boston, P.J ., 2004, Implementing the Nati onal Cave and Karst Research Institute vision [abst.]: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 66, n. 3, p. 115. Hose, L.D., Boston, P.J ., Curry, M., and Rosales-Lagarde, L ., 2005. El nuevo Instituto Nacional de Investigacin de Cuevas y Karst: Su papel en la comunidad internacional de Cuevas y karst: VII Congreso Nacional de Espeleologa, Resmen y Programa, Monterrey, Mexico. Hose, L.D., and Northup, D.E., 2004, Biovermiculati ons: Living, vermiculation-like deposits in Cueva de Villa Luz [abst.]: Journal of Ca ve and Karst Studies, v. 66, n. 3, p. 112. Land, L., 2004, Seasonal vs. long-term variations in hydraulic head in a regional karst aquifer: Roswell Artesian Basin, NM: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v.36, no. 5, p. 131. Northup, D.E., Connolly, C.A., Boston, P.J. Trent, A., Peck, V., Spilde, M.N., and Natvig, D.O., 2004, On the nature of bacterial co mmunities: Four Windows Cave, El Malpais National Monument [abst.]: National Speleological Society National Convention, Marquette, MI. Northup, D.E., Turner, A.L., Spilde, M.N., Boston, P.J., Alvarado, A., and Hose, L.D. 2005, Sulfur-based microbial communities from Cueva de Villa Luz, an extreme sulfide-rich cave [abst.]: Abstracts of the General Meeti ng of the American Society for Microbiology, v. 105, N-065. Pfaffenhuemer, M., Spilde, M.N., Boston, P.J. and Stan-Lotter, H., 2004, Haloarchaeal occurrence in ancient Austrian rock salt Electron microscopic characterization studies: Abstr. P12, Halophiles 2004, Sept. 4-9, Ljubljana, Slovenia. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 26

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Rosales-Lagarde, L., and Boston, P.J ., 2005, Fuente e importancia del cido sulfhdrico en la Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mxi co: Resumen VII Congreso Nacional de Espeleologa. Resmenes y Programa. Strong, T. and Boston, P.J. 2004, The National Cave and Ka rst Research Institute: Early history, evolution, and current progress [abs t.]: National Speleological Society National Convention, Marquette, MI. h. BOOK REVIEW Strong, T.R. 2004, Book review: Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: Problems and prospects: Journal of Cave and Karst Studi es, v. 66, n. 3, p. 119-120. i. GRANT PROPOSAL, REFEREED JOURNAL, AND OTHER REVIEW PANELS AIAA Science and Technical Committee for Human Exploration of Moon and Mars 2003-Present (Boston-panel) Biohazard/Planetary Protection Focus Team Johnson Space Center (Boston-panel) NASA Astrobiology Institute Review of Genomics and NAI Genomics of the Subsurface Extremophile Popul ation (Boston-panel) National Academy of Science NASA Mars Mission Architecture 2007-2016 (Bostonpanel) National Geographic Society Expedition Council (Hose-1) National Research Council/DOE Panel (Boston-panel) National Science Foundation Biogeosciences Grant Program (Hose-1) Journal of Environmental Management (Hose-1) Geomorphology (Hose-1) Hydrogeology Journal (Land 1) Journal of Geoscience Education (Rice-Snow-1) Mathematical Geology (Rice-Snow-1) Journal of Cave and Karst Studies(Hose-1) GSA Special Publication (Land 2) University of New Mexico Press (Hose-1) j. PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBER Senior Editor, Astrobiology Journal (Boston) Editorial Board New Mexico Geology the journal of the Bureau (NMBGMR) (Boston) k. GRANT AND CONTRACTS Allen, L.D., & Hose, L.D. Clean Energy Grant (New Mexico Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resources Department. Amount awarded: $144,000 to City of Carlsbad for NCKRI building. Boston, P.J. 18 other proposals submitted, 4 aw arded, 1 awarded but no funds, 9 rejected, 5 pending Land, L. Water level variations in the Artesian and Surficial aquifers, Roswell Artesian Basin. Contract with Pecos Valley Artesian Conservancy District (PVACD). Amount awarded: $57,000 Land, L. Investigation of groundwater residence ti me in the San Andres Artesian Aquifer near Bitter Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. Cont ract with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amount awarded: $25,000 NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 27

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Land, L. Water level variations in the Artesian and surficial aquifers, Roswell Artesian Basin. Contract with Pecos Valley Artesian Conservancy District (PVACD). Extension of previous years contract. Amount awarded: $25,000 l. CONFERENCE AND FIELD TRIP LEADERSHIP National Cave and Karst Research Institute Inc., Board organizational meeting to formulate the plan for future direction of the institute (Boston) National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Biological Aspects of Cave Management Session (Boston) National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Assessing Karst Management Workshop, (Hose, Seiser). Vice-President and Science Committee Chair for the 15th International Congress of Speleology to be held in Kerrville, TX, in July 2009 (Hose) Led a group of petroleum geologists from Occidental Petroleum on a tour of Carlsbad Caverns. (Land) Chaired session on cave and karst resources for George Wright Society Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Strong) m. PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS Angeles-Serrano, G., Rosales-Lagarde, L ., Ramos-Leal, J. A., 2004. Caractersticas de flujos regionales, y su manifestacin, tres casos en Mxico. Topic 1: Environmental issues of groundwater-flow scaling/ Aspectos ambiental es asociados con la escala del flujo de agua subterrnea. XXXIII IAH Congress, VII ALHSUD Congress. Boston, P.J., 2004, Tiny stars on the planet Mars: Where geomicrobiology is leading the search for extraterrestrial life: Oral presentation at the cave geomicrobiology session at Geological Society of America Meeting, Denver, CO. Boston, P.J., 2004, A hot and sour soup: Sulfur caves from toasty to downright chilly: Oral presentation at the hydrothermal spring communities session at Geological Society of America Meeting, Denver, CO. Boston, P.J., 2004, NASA Directors Panel on Exploration Science Cave Exploration As A Model for Extraterrestrial Missions, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Boston, P.J., 2004, Microorganism Effects On Cave Formation, Enlargement, & Mineral Precipitation: Oral presentation at the 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy. Boston, P.J., 2004, Extraterrestrial cave science exploration strategies: STAIF 2004. Boston, P.J., 2004, Gaia: Still dancing in the dark: Whole Earth Systems Symposium Stanford University, CA. Boston, P.J., 2004, Ecological community development in a lunar ecopoiesis testbed facility: A Phase I and II NIAC Study: STAIF (Space Tech. Applic. Internat. Forum) Albuquerque, NM. Boston, P.J., 2004, Subsurface sccess via drilling into natural conduit: AME (Association of Mars Explorers) & CSA (Canadian Space Agency) Meridiani Base Symposium, Vancouver, BC. Boston, P.J., 2004, Toward a concept of habitabilit y: Applications to Experimental Ecopoiesis: ASGSB (Amer. Soc. Gravity Space Biol.), Reno, NV. Boston, P.J., 2004, Cave geomicrobes: Mineral micr ochemists of earths subsurface: Amer. Chem. Soc., Ft. Lauderdale, FL. Boston, P.J., 2004, Caves as mesocosms of planetar y systems: Ecosynthesis II Conference, Synergia Ranch, Santa Fe, NM. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 28

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Boston, P.J., 2004, Microbial realms In the subsurface: The biological richness of caves: Washington Univ. Seattle, WA. NASA Astr obiology Institute Webcast Seminars. Boston, P.J., 2004, The REAL Mars underground: Learning to use extraterrestrial caves for science, habitat, and resources: Mars Society keynote address, Boulder, CO. Boston, P.J., 2004, Bayesian statistics in the interpretation of multi-dimensional niche space: Svante Arrhenius Symposium, Karo linska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.. Boston, P.J., 2004, The Planet Within: Astrobiology Beneath Your Feet: Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. Boston, P.J. Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Mullen K.E., Barger, J., Carey, R., Van de Kamp, J.L ., Snider, J.R., and Pham, D., 2004, AGU, San Francisco, CA. Dec. 2004. Hose, L.D., 2004, Assessing cave and karst tourism a ssets in the Sultanate of Oman: Oral presentation at National Speleological Soci ety National Convention, Marquette, MI. Hose, L.D., and Boston, P.J. 2005, National Cave and Kars t Research Institute update: Poster presentation at the 2005 National Ca ve and Karst Management Symposium, Albany, NY. Hose, L.D., Boston, P.J., Strong, T.R. (Presenter) and Seiser, P.E. 2005. The World Above, the World Below: The 3-Dimensional, In terdisciplinary Nature of Cave and Karst Stewardship. Paper presented at the George Wright Society Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 14-18, 2005. Hose, L.D., Brinkmann, R., and Northup, D.E., 2005, The global karst digital portal: An emerging collaboratorium will enhance information exchange among cave and karst managers: Oral presentation at the 2005 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Albany, NY. Hose, L.D., and Northup, D.E., 2004, Biovermiculati ons: Living, vermiculation-like deposits in Cueva de Villa Luz, Mxico: Oral presentation at National Speleological Society National Convention, Marquette, MI. Hose, L.D., and Boston, P.J., 2004, Implementing the Nati onal Cave and Karst Research Institute Vision: Oral presentation at National Speleological Society National Convention, Marquette, MI. Hose, L.D., Boston, P.J., Frederick, G., and Zokaites, C., 2004, Using caves to inspire the next generation of Earth e xplorers: Poster presentation at the NASA Earth Science Education Community Meeting, Asilomar, CA. Johnston, J.G., Boston, P.J. and Stafford, K.W ., 2006, Assessment of karst landform potential on Mars: Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. Land, L., Guest speaker, Albuquerque Geological Society: Karst Hydrology and Geomorphology of the Lower Pecos Valley, Southeastern New Mexico Land, L., Guest speaker, New Mexico Brackish Groundwater Assessment Program Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Geophysical Mapping of Freshwater-Saltwater Interfaces: Examples from the Coastal Pl ain Aquifer System of North Carolina Land, L., Guest speaker, West Texas Geological Society: Regional Hydrologic Framework of Karstic Aquifers in Southeastern New Mexico Shindo, S., Boston, P.J. Wilson, J.L., and Burger, P., 2005, Micrometerological modeling of an idealized cave and application to Carlsb ad Cavern: NM. European Geophysical Union Conference. Stafford, K.W., and Boston, P.J. 2005, Theoretical evaporite karst development on Mars: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. Strong, T. R., and Boston, P.J., 2004, The National Cave a nd Karst Research Institute: Early History, Evolution, and Current Progress. Paper presented at the National Speleological Society Convention, Marquette Michigan, July 12-16, 2004. Abstract published in Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 66(3):111. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 29

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Strong, T.R. and Boston, P.J., 2004. The National Cave a nd Karst Research Institute: The New Mexico Connection. Paper presente d at the National Speleological Society Convention, Marquette, Michigan, July 12-16, 2004. Strong, T.R., and Goodbar, J., 2005. Vertebrate Species Use of Cave Resources in the Chihuahuan Desert. Paper presented (by J. Goodbar) at the International Congress of Speleology, Athens, Greece, August 21-28, 2005. Strong, T.R., 2005, Vertebrate Species Use of Cav es in the Chihuahuan Desert. Paper presented at the George Wright Society Conf erence, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 14-18, 2005. n. COMMUNITY PRESEN TATIONS/EDUCATION Carlsbad Leadership Council (Hose) Carlsbad Lions Club (Hose) National Environmental Education Week presentations at Living Desert State Park (Hose, Seiser) Caves and karst of China for Pecos Valley Grotto of NSS (Strong) Biology efforts of NCKRI for Carlsbad Caverns interpreter training program (Strong) NCKRI Lecture Series, Geometries of Cave Room Development and Other Investigations on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico (Rice-Snow) Carlsbad Rotary Club: Karst Hydrology of Southeastern New Mexico: The Capitan Reef and San Andres Artesian Aquifers (Land) Pecos Valley Grotto (National Speleological Society): Geology and Hydrology of Fort Stanton Cave, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico (Land) G eophysical methods in cave and karst investigations for Frontiers of Cave and Karst Science, NMT Earth Science Dept, spring semester, 2004 (Land) Pomona College Environmental Analys Program field trip: Karst Hydrology f Southeastern New Mexico: The Capitan Reef and Roswell Artesian aquifers (Land) is o Carlsbad Leadership Council (Land) Bottomless Lakes State Park Enchanted Evenings presentation: A Tale of Two Aquifers: The Capitan Reef and San Andres Limestone Formations of Southeastern New Mexico (Land) National Cave and Karst Research Institute: Karst Hydrology of Southeastern New Mexico: The Capitan Reef and San Andres Artesian Aquifers (Land) Rockin Round New Mexico, 2005, a field trip organized by the New Mexico Bureau of Geology for secondary school science teachers working on their MST (Master of Science Teaching). (Land) Presentation on NCKRI for Carlsbad Interfaith Ministers Council (Strong) Presentation on NCKRI for Eddy County Commisioners (Strong) China Karst for Carlsbad Rotary (Strong) Seiser giving a talk to the Pecos Valley Grotto, Carlsbad. Pecos Valley Grotto of NSS (Seiser, Strong) Vertebrates in Chihuahuan Desert caves for Carlsbad Caverns interpreter training program (Strong) Vertebrates in Chihuahuan Desert caves for Arizona Regional Association of NSS Meeting (Strong) NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 30

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Vertebrates in Chihuahuan Desert caves for W estern National Parks Association, Tucson, AZ (Strong) Exploration Science Advisory Panel Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, IL. (Boston) Lecturers in a Cave and Karst Science Work shop for K-12 teachers held at the NMSUCarlsbad campus (Boston, Hose) Tapijulapa High School, Tabasco, MX (Boston, Hose, Rosales-Lagarde) Space Foundation, Inc., Colorado Springs. Graduate Astrobiology for Teachers (Boston) TAAS (The Albuquerque Astronomical Society) (Boston) OASIS Adult Education Program, Albuquerque, NM (Boston) AAUW Socorro Chapter (Boston) Science Day at Roundhouse, NM State Capitol, Santa Fe (Boston) Socorro Public Library (Boston) OASIS Adult Education Program, Albuquerque, NM (Boston) REU Program 2005 2007 (Boston) Summer Science Program (Cal Tech sponsored program at NMT and Ojai, CA) (Boston) o. MAJOR MEDIA PROJECTS AND PUBLICITY Boston investigating microbial participation in speleothem development. Photo by Ken Ingham. MIT Forbes Forum PBS live broadcast (Boston) NOVA. Origins (Boston) NHK (Japan) TV Documentary on cave exploration and our research in Spider Cave, NM. (Boston) Paladin Productions The Case for Mars (Boston) Discover Channel Science in the National Parks special (Boston) BBC Pioneer Earth (Boston and Hose) Cueva de Villa Luz: The Acid Cave, Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) (Boston, Hose) Numerous interviews concerning Fort Stanton Cave (FSC) and Sena tor Pete Domenici introduction of special legislation designed to protect the Snowy River pool deposits (Boston and Land) p. CAVE RESEARCH, ASSESS MENT, AND ADVISORY EFFORTS Began research on vertebrate species using caves of Chihuahuan Desert (Strong) Cueva de Luna Azufre preliminary scientific assessment, Tabasco, Mexico (Hose, Lagarde, volunteers) Fort Stanton Cave, surface geophysical surv eys and continuing investigations of Snowy River Passage. (Land) Concluded research on vertebrate species using caves of Chihuahuan Desert (Strong) Advising Coronado National Memorial, Arizona, on cave management issues (Strong) Reconnaissance investigation of active, sulfidic caves in Italy (Hose) NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 31

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q. PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS ATTENDED 2004 Geological Society of America, Denver, Colorado (Boston, Hose, Land, Seiser) 2005 Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah (Boston, Hose) 14th International Congress of Speleology, Kalamos, Greece (Hose) Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences Institute (CUAHSI), Logan, Utah (Strong) National Speleological Society Convention, Marquette, Michigan (Strong) National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Albany, NY (Boston, Hose) New Mexico Geological Society, Fall Field Conference, Taos region, New Mexico (Land) New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Fall Meeting, Ruidoso, NM (Land) Southwest Section, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), El Paso, TX (Land) State Map Advisory Committee (SMAC) Meeting (Land) American Society of Civil Engineers, Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, San Antonio, TX (Land) Hose visiting Frasassi Cave, Italy, during a pre-14th International Congress of Speleology field trip. Photo by Art & Peggy Palmer. New Mexico Geological Society, Fall Field Conference, Chama Basin, New Mexico (Land) NSS-Southwest Region Spring Meeting, Mc Kittrick Hill, Eddy Co., NM (Land) NSS-Southwest Region Winter Technical Meeting, Carlsbad, NM (Land, Hose, Seiser) George Wright Society Convention, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Strong) r. PROJECT REPORTS Two final reports on geoarchaeology projects, to Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center, Puerto Rico (Rice-Snow) Final report, Landscape and Aquifer Interactions on the Guadalupe Escarpment, Whites City to McKittrick Draw, Eddy County, New Mexico, to BLM Carlsbad Office (Rice-Snow) s. OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS Contributed to a web-based Science Journey on caves aimed at middle school age kids in New Mexico and beyond in collaboration with UNM an d the Natural History and Science Museum, Albuquerque. 2004 (Boston) NM Science Fair judging NMT, Socorro, NM (Boston) Mentoring 5 science fair student projects by email (Boston) Testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment on behalf of legislation to create a new protected class for s ubsurface resources (i.e. caves) within the Bureau of Land Management (Boston) NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 32

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NEW MEXICO TECH CAVE AND KARST STUDIES PROGRAM DIRECTOR/ADVISOR: Penelope J. Boston PhD students and their dissertation topics: Kevin Stafford Variable Controls on Calcium Sulfate Speleogenesis in the Castile Formation of the Gypsum Plain: Eddy County, New Mexico, and Culberson County, Texas. Laura Rosales-Lagarde Investigation of the geological controls of the spring water chemistry in the Sierra de Chiapas Foothills, Southern Tabasco and Northern Chiapas, Mexico. Katrina Koski To be decided. MS students and their theses topics: Setsuko Shindo Graduated August 2005. Thesis : Micrometeorological Modeling of an Idealized Cave and Applications to Carlsbad Cavern, NM. Megan Curry A Geomicrobiological an d Hydrogeochemical Approach to the Biogenicity of Moonmilk Formation [Tongass National Forest, Alaska; White River National Forest, Colorado; Carlsb ad Caverns and El Mal Pais National Parks, New Mexico] Erin Kay Impact generated speleogenesis on Mars. Senior thesis student s and their topics: JoAnna Johnson Periglacial karst landforms. Penny Bencomo Graduated, Dec. 2005. Surf ace Interactions Between Microbes and Mineral Surfaces: A Look at Moonmilk Stefani Bennett Graduated, May, 2005. Cave and Karst Science in the High School and Junior College Classroom. Kristin Mullen Graduated, May 2004. Fe/Mn Deposits in Caves. Visiting summer/semester students and their home institutes: Carrie Haglock Ashland University, OH. Summer 2005. Sarah Stachura Trinity University, TX. Summer, 2005. Amy Turner College of Willia m and Mary, VA. Summer, 2004. Marian Pfaffenhuemer Inst. Genetics Gen. Biol., Salzburg, Austria. Fall, 2004. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, p. 33

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APPENDIX B BYLAWS of NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. A New Mexico Nonprofit Corporation NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 40

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ BYLAWS OF NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. A New Mexico Nonprofit Corporation ARTICLE I Name and Location Section 1.1 Name The name of this Corporation is NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. Section 1.2 Principal Office The principal office of the Corporation shall be located in Carlsbad, Eddy County, New Mexico. Section 1.3 Other Offices Other offices and other facilities for carrying out the purposes of the Corporation shall be located at such places as the directors may determine from time to time. ARTICLE II Purpose Section 2.1 Purpose The primary purposes for which the Corporation is organized are to receive and maintain a fund or funds of real or personal property, or both, and, subject to the restrictions and limitations contained in the Artic les of Incorporation of the Corporation or in these Bylaws, to use and apply the whole or any part of the income therefrom and the principal thereof: (a) to further cave a nd karst science; (b) to centralize and standardize information about cave and karst science; (c) to foster interdisciplinary cooperation in cave and karst research programs; (d) to promote public education; (e) to promote national and internati onal cooperation in protecting the environment for the benefit of cave and karst landforms; Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 1 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ (f) to promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices; and (g) to comply with and advance the purp oses of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998, 16 U.S.C. note, either directly or by contributi ons to organizations that advan ce one or more of these purposes and that qualify as exempt organizations under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the regulations promulgate d thereunder, as they now exis t or as they may be amended hereafter. Section 2.2 Restrictions on Activities Notwithstanding any other provisions of these Bylaws, the Corporation shall not conduct or ca rry on any activity not permitted to be conducted or carried on (a) by an organization under Section 501(c )(3) of the Intern al Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Regulations promulga ted thereunder as they now exist or as they may hereafter be amended, including, but not limited to, carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, pa rticipating in, or inte rvening in (including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office or (b) under the National Cave and Karst Re search Institute Act of 1998, 16 U.S.C. note. Section 2.3 No Private Inurement No part of the net earnings of the Corporation shall inure to the benefit of any Dir ector or officer of the Corpora tion, or any private individual (except that reasonable compensatio n may be paid for services rendered to or for the Corporation effecting one or more of its purposes), and no Di rector or officer of the Corporation or any private individual shall be entitle d to share in the distribution of any of the corporate assets on dissolution of the Corporation. Section 2.4 Distributions upon Dissolution Upon the dissolution and winding up of the Corporation, the Board of Directors shall, af ter paying or adequately providing for the debts and obligations of the Corporati on, distribute all of the remaining assets of the Corporation to Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 2 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ one or more nonprofit fund, foundation, or corp oration. The fund, foundation, or corporation shall have a purpose or purposes consistent w ith those specified in Article V and shall be organized and operated exclusivel y for the purposes of Section 501( c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and shall have establ ished its tax-exempt status under that section. Also, the Board shall comply with all applicable state and federal regulati ons with regard to the disposition of assets acquired by the use of state or federal funds. ARTICLE III Members Section 3.1 Admission Persons, including individuals, corporations, and institutions, may be admitted to membership at any time. To be admitted as a member, a person must: (a) Meet the qualifications for a specific class of member, as set forth in this Article III; (b) Agree to be bound by the Articles of Incorporation, Bylaws, and policies of the Corporation, as amended and adopted fr om time to time, and execute a copy of the Bylaws; and (c) Be approved by a majority of the Board of Directors. Section 3.2 Only members in good standing of the Corporation shall be eligible to participate in any regular or special meeting of the Members and to recommend candidates for Director. Section 3.3 Classes The Corporation shall have thr ee (3) classes of Members, to be known as Institutional Members, Corporat e Members and Individual Members. Section 3.4 Membership Qualifications The qualifications for each membership class shall be determined by the Board of Directors. Section 3.5 Membership Dues Membership dues shall be determined by the Board of Directors, and may vary from class to class. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 3 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 3.6 Membership meetings Meetings of the Members or of any class of Members may be held at such times as may be fi xed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Corporation shall give notice of the time and place of these meetings not less than fourteen (14) before the meeting, either personally or by mailing such notice to each Member, or each Member of the releva nt class, as the case may be, at the address that appears in the reco rds of the Corporation. Unless otherw ise required by these Bylaws or by statute, the notice need not set forth the business to be addressed at the meeting. ARTICLE IV Directors Section 4.1 Initial Board of Directors The directors named in the Articles of Incorporation shall constitute the Board until the first annual meeting of the Board, and until their successors are elected and qualify. Section 4.2 First Regular Board of Directors; Number and Categories of Directors At the first annual meeting of the Board, the initial board of directors sh all be replaced by the election of the first regular Board, which shall co nsist of three (3) Appointed Directors and not less than five (5) nor more than twelve (12) Elec ted Directors, as fixed by the initial Board prior to the first annual meeting, who shall be selected as follows: (a) Appointed Directors. The National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior ( National Park Service ), the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology ( NM Tech ), and the City of Carlsbad ( Carlsbad ) shall each appoint one director. Such Appointed Directors and his or her successors shall serve at the disc retion of the appointin g entity, and may be removed and replaced only at th e appointing enti tys discretion. (b) Elected Directors. The Members may nominate one or more individuals to serve in each position of Elected Director. The initial Board shall elect the Elected Directors of the first regular Board from these nominated individuals at the first a nnual meeting of the Board. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 4 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 4.3 Staggered Terms The Elected Directors of the first regular Board shall be organized into three groups of approximately equal number. The members of the first group shall serve terms of one year; the members of th e second group shall serve terms of two years; the members of the third group shall serve terms of three years. Section 4.4 Subsequent Boards of Directors The number of Elected Directors to serve on the Board of Directors may be incr eased or decreased from time to time by an amendment to Section 4.2 adopted by two-thirds (2/3) of the whol e Board of Directors. In all other instances, Directors and thei r successors shall each serve a te rm of three years. Directors shall hold office until their successors are elect ed and qualified. Directors may be elected to succeed themselves. Section 4.5 Vacancy in Elected Director Position (a) Expiration of Term When a vacancy on the Board of Directors is occasioned by the expiration of an Elect ed Director's term, the Members may nominate one or more individuals to f ill the anticipated vacancy. At the Annual Meeting of the Directors, a majority of the Directors attending the meeting and voting shall elect the successor Dire ctor from those so nominated. (b) Other Vacancies Any vacancy in an Elected Director position, except for a vacancy occasioned by the expi ration of an Elected Directors term, shall be filled by the Directors at the next regular meeting or at a special meeting called for that purpose, with the successor director elected by a majority of the Directors attending the meeting and voting. A Director thus elected to fill any vacancy shall hold office for the unexpire d term of his or her predecessor, and until his or her successor is elected and qualifies. Section 4.6 Resignation Each Director shall have th e right to resign at any time upon written notice thereof to the chairman of the Corporation. Unless othe rwise specified in the notice, the resignation shall take effect upon re ceipt thereof, and the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessa ry to make it effective. Section 4.7 Removal The Board may remove at any time any Elected Director from the Board when such removal is determined by the Board to be in the best interest of the Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 5 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Corporation. Such determination shall be made at any meeting of the Board by an affirmative vote of two-thirds (2/3) of the whole Board, excluding the Director being voted upon. Section 4.8 Compensation of Directors No Director shall be entitled to receive any salary or other compensation for fulfilling his or her or her duties as Director of the Corporation, provided, however, that this provision shall not a pply to the reimbursement of expenses incurred by Directors in the performance of their duties, and nothing herein shall be construed to preclude any Director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Section 4.9 Annual Meeting There shall be an annual meeting of the Board of Directors held at a time and date in the month of May each year as shall be established by the Board of Directors or a committee so authorized. The Chairman shal l give to each director of the Corporation not less than fourteen days prior written notice of th e time, place, and agenda for the annual meeting. Section 4.10 Regular Meetings Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such times as may be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. Section 4.11 Special Meetings Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman or by any two directors. Section 4.12 Notices of Special Meetings The Chairman of the Corporation shall give the directors notice of the time, place, and agenda for the special meetings before the meeting either personally or by mailing such notice to each director at his or he r address as the same appears on the records of the Corporation. Such notice may be waived by any director, in writing, either before or after such meeting, a nd will be deemed waived by any director who attends the meeting in person. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 6 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 4.13 Quorum A quorum for the transactio n of business by the Board of Directors shall be the presence of a majority of the whole Board. The act of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as otherwise specifically provi ded by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws. The directors present at any meeting, whether or not sufficient to form a quorum, by a majority vote may adjourn the mee ting from time to time and a meeting may be held as adjourned without furthe r notice, at which, if a quorum shall be present, any business may be transacted which might have been tran sacted at the meeting as originally noticed. Section 4.14 Budget Committee The Appointed Directors and the Secretary/Treasurer shall constitute the Budget Committee. The di rector appointed by the National Park Service shall be designated as Chairman and shall preside at all meetings of such Committee. The Budget Committee shall keep regular minutes of its proc eedings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required. Section 4.15 Executive Committee Officers of the Corporation and one Director elected by the Board of Directors constitute th e Executive Committee. The Appointed Directors may participate in Executive Committee meetings The Executive Committee sets the date, time, place, and agenda for meetings of the Boar d of Directors. The Executive Committee also appoints members of other committees whose memb ership is not defined by the By-Laws. Other functions of the Corporation may be assigne d to the Executive Committee by the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee shall keep re gular minutes of their proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required. Section 4.16 Other Committees The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board, designate committ ees, each committee to consist of two or more Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 7 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ persons. Each such committee shall have such power and authority and shall perform such functions as may be provided in such resolution, including the pow er to have and exercise the authority of the Board of Directors if so provided in such resolution. Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as ma y be designated by the Board of Directors and shall keep regular minutes of their proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required. Section 4.17 Action by Written Consent Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting if a written consent, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by all the members of the Board of Directors, and such consent shall have the same fo rce and effect as a unanimous vote at a meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeti ng of any committee designated by the Board of Directors may be taken without a m eeting if a written consent, set ting forth the actio n so taken, is signed by all the members of such committee, and such consent shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote at a meeting. Section 4.18 Meetings by Electronic Conference Members of the Board of Directors or members of any committee desi gnated by the Board of Director s may participate in and hold a meeting of such Board or committee by m eans of electronic conference or similar communications equipment by means of which a ll persons participating in the meeting can interactively communicate with each other, and pa rticipation in such a meeting shall constitute presence in person at such meeting, except wher e a person participates in the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to th e transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 8 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 4.19 Honorary Members The Board of Directors from time to time may designate, by title and duty, honorary members of the Board of Directors, each of whom shall serve in an advisory and consul tative capacity. Honorar y directors shall serve for one year. The honorary directors may attend meetings of the Board of directors and may participate in committee assignments, but shall have no vote. ARTICLE V Management of the Corporation; Administrator Section 5.1 Board of Directors The affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by the Board of Directors and such other persons as they shall appoint to assist them. Section 5.2 Administrator NM Tech shall be the Administrator of the Corporation. The Administrator shall have and may exercise all of the authority of the Board of Directors to plan, coordinate, and administer the Corporation and its programs, except where action of the Board of Directors is required by statute, the Bylaws, or the Arti cles of Incorporation, and shall have the authority to sign all ch ecks, drafts, or orders for the payment of money, note, or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Corporation and the power to authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all pa pers which may require i t; provided, however, that the Administrator shall not have the authority to commit the Corporation to any indebtedness, other than in the normal course of the Corporations business, without the prior express approval of the Board of Directors. Such delegation sh all not relieve the Boar d of its responsibilities under the New Mexico Nonprofit Corporations Act for the management of the Corporation. The Administrator shall assist the officers in the pe rformance of their duties under these Bylaws, but such assistance will not relieve the officers from th e responsibility for the proper exercise of their duties. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 9 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 5.3 Annual Statement The Administrator shal l present at each annual meeting of the Board of Directors a full and clea r statement of the business and condition of the Corporation. Section 5.4 Budget The Administrator shall prepare a preliminary budget each year. Seventy-five (75) days before each annual meeting of the Board of Directors, the Administrator shall provide a copy of the preliminary budget to each director. No later than forty-five (45) days before the annual meeting, each director sh all submit any comments he or she may have to the Budget Committee. Thirty (30) days pr ior to each annual meeting, the Budget Committee shall meet with the Administrator to review the preliminary budget and the directors comments, and to make such changes to the preliminary budge t as the committee, by the affirmative vote of a majority of committee members present and voti ng, deems appropriate. Fourteen days before the annual meeting of the Board of Directors, the proposed budget, as revised by the Budget Committee, shall be distributed to the directors. At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Directors, the chairman of the Budget Committee shall lead a discussion of the budget. At the conclusion of the discussion, the chairman of th e Budget Committee and the Administrator shall, at their sole discretion, make such additional ch anges to their respective (federal and state) portion of the proposed budget as they d eem appropriate and approve the budget. ARTICLE VI Officers Section 6.1 In General At each annual meeting of the Board of Directors, the directors shall elect a Chairman, a Vice Chairma n, and a Secretary/Treasurer. Any two of such offices may be held by the same person; excep t that the same person shall not hold the two offices of Chairman and Secretary/Treasurer. The directors may elect such additional Vice Chairmen as they deem appropriate. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 10 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 6.2 Chairman The Chairman shall be elected from the Board of Directors. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Di rectors and appoint a recording secretary for each meeting. The Chairman may ex ecute, in the name of the Corporation, deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, or other instruments authorized by the Board of Directors, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Bylaws; in general, the Chairman shall perform all such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to the Chairman by the Board of Directors; and the Chairman may from time to tim e delegate such of the Chairman's powers to the Vice Chairman as the Chairman may deem appropriate. Section 6.3 Vice Chairman The Vice Chairman shall be elected from the Board of Directors. The Vice Chairman shall perform the duties of the Chairman in the absence or incapacity of the Chairman and assume such othe r duties and responsibilities as may be assigned to the Vice Chairman by the Chairman. Section 6.4 Secretary/Treasurer The Secretary/Treasurer shall be elected from the Board of Directors. The Secretary/Treasurer shall have the duty to record the proceedings of the meetings of the members and directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and to safeguard the books and records of the Corporation. Section 6.5 Term of Office All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors or until their respective successors have been elected and have qualified. Section 6.6 Compensation of Officers Stipends for officers are determined by the Board of Directors. In addition, the officers shall rece ive reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their duties. Nothing herein sh all be construed to prec lude any officer from serving the Corporation in any other capaci ty and receiving compensation therefor. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 11 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ ARTICLE VII Executive Director Section 7.1 Duties The Executive Director shall comply with and advance the purposes of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998, 16 U.S.C. note, the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporati on, and these Bylaws, and have such duties as may be delegated by the Administrator. Section 7.2 Qualifications The qualifications for the Executive Director shall be determined by the Administrator upon consul tation with the Board of Directors. Section 7.3 Selection. The Executive Director shall be selected by the President of NM Tech or the Presidents designee from a gr oup of candidates selected by a committee (the Search Committee) composed of the Appointed Di rectors and at least tw o Elected members of the Board of Directors. The Dire ctor appointed by the NPS shall be a member of the selection committee. Section 7.4 Employee of NM Tech. The Executive Director shall be an employee of NM Tech, whose services shall be devoted enti rely to the Corporation. The Corporation will reimburse NM Tech for all costs incurred by NM Tech in the employment of the Executive Director, including wages and benefits. Section 7.5 Term. The Executive Director shall se rve for a term of one year, which term may be renewed by the Ad ministrator without limit. Section 7.6 Review. The Executive Directors performa nce shall be reviewed annually by a committee (the Evaluation Committee) co mposed by a representative of NM Tech, a Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 12 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ representative of the NPS, a re presentative of the City of Ca rlsbad, and two members of the Board of Directors. Section 7.7 Ex Officio Member of Board. The Executive Director shall be a nonvoting, ex officio member of the Board of Directors. ARTICLE VIII General Provisions Section 8.1 Fiscal Year The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be from July 1 through June 30. Section 8.2 Seal In the discretion of the Board of Directors, th e Corporation may have a seal and said seal may be used by causing it or a facsim ile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any manner reproduced. Any officer of the Corporation shall ha ve authority to affix the seal to any document requiring it. Section 8.3 Special Authorization The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents of the Corporati on, including the Administrator, in addition to the officers so authorized by these Bylaws, to ente r into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation. Such authority may be general or may be confined to specific instances. Section 8.4 Depositories All funds of the Corporation shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the Corporation in such bank s, trust companies, or other depositories as the Administrator may select. Section 8.5 Acceptance of Donations The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the Corporation any grant, contribution, gift, be quest, or devise that may be used to advance the purposes of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may also decline any grant, Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 13 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ contribution, gift, bequest, or de vise if, in the determination of the Board, such action would be in the best interest of the Corporation. Section 8.6 Resignations Any director or officer ma y resign at any time by giving written notice to the Chairman or a member of the Executive Committee. Such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein or, if no date be specified, on the date of its receipt. Section 8.7 Directors and Officers Liability. The Officers and Directors of the Corporation shall be entitled to th e full extent of protection from liability afforded under Sections 53-8-25.2 and -25.3 of the New Mexico Nonprofit Corporations Act The Corporation shall not directly indemnify Officers and Directors, but shall maintain e rrors and omissions coverage for those persons, in an amount to be determined by the Board of Directors. ARTICLE IX Bylaws Section 9.1 Amendments These Bylaws may be altered, amended, or repealed and new Bylaws may be adopted by the Board of Direct ors at any regular mee ting or at any special meeting called for that purpose by a vote of at leas t two-thirds of the whole Board of Directors. Section 9.2 When Bylaws Silent It is expressly recognized that when the Bylaws are silent as to the manner of performing any corporate function, the provisions of the New Mexico Nonprofit Corporation Act shall control. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 14 of 15

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03/06/2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ CERTIFICATE OF CHAIRMAN AND SECRETARY/TREASURER We certify that we are the duly elected and acting Chairman and Secretary/Treasurer of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc ., and that the foregoing Bylaws constitute the Bylaws of the Corporation. These Bylaws were duly adopted at a meeting of the Board of Directors held on __________________. ________________________________________ Chairman of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. ________________________________________ Secretary/Treasurer of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute. Inc. Bylaws of National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Inc. 15 of 15

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APPENDIX C Landscape and Aquifer Interactions on t he Guadalupe Escarpment, Whites City to McKittrick Draw, Eddy County, New Mexico ABSTRACT Scott Rice-Snow, Department of Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana The Guadalupe Escarpment is a high -relief zone extending one to four miles westward from t he Guadalupe Front in the ar ea between Whites City and southwest Carlsbad. This area is under accelerating oil and gas development, and also comprises the most direct recharge area for th e Capitan Aquifer. Local relief across any portion of the escarpm ent zone is 400-600 f eet. The landscape within the zone divides well into the cl assic land surface elements of uplands (22% of surface area), slopes (61%), and canyon floors (17%). Fine-scale drainage development is generally dendritic but there are escarpment front areas of rectangular drainage at souther n and northern ends of the study area controlled by front-paralle l fractures (and/or possibly minor synclines), and a distinctive area of para llel drainage development on the north side of Wood Canyon with significant headward ex tension into Guadalupe Ridge. Infiltration on uplands and slopes must generally pass through soil-filled fracture openings and downdip on open bedding planes. Slope areas include many firstand second-order mapped st ream channels in V-shaped valleys, with open fractures relatively rare on stream beds. Sandstone and siltstone exposures are commonly marked by seepage erosion alco ves. The floor of Dark Canyon, the most major drainage traversing the area, includes bedrock as well as boulder/cobble/gravel streambed sections. Infiltration in bedrock pavement sections may be aided by bedrock abrasion-formed basins along fracture lines, and byeastward-dipping strata with unusual levels of karst conduit development. Depth of boulder fill along some reaches exceeds ten meters, providing a largevolume medium for streamfl ow transfer to the subsurface during torrential rains. It is likely that water moving slo wly downdip through backreef units will only feed the reef aquifer if it does not agai n contact the surface. Water seeping out on slopes at is lost by evapotranspi ration. Two simplified models can be postulated for escarpment area recharge to the Capitan Aquifer. In Model 1, infiltrating water descends vertically trough carbonate units and then runs downdip on the major sandstone beds. Mo pdel 2 treats the entire mass of the backreef as a material with strongly anisotropic permeability, much enhanced NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 55

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along the dip direction, with infiltrating water proceeding in a downdip direction immediately on reaching bedrock. The likely real condition resides between these end members, but the two models agree in identifying the following portions of the escarpment landscape as recharge areas that should be given special attention in terms of water qua lity protection: (1) The floors and updipfacing side slopes of Dark Canyon and other major canyons, and (2) The escarpment front (outer Reef ridge and adjacent mile or so of area to the west). In the latter area, strong focus should be placed on the floors and updip-facing walls of shallow canyons, and zones of rectangular, fracture-associated drainage. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 56

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APPENDIX D Report on Sabbatical Experience National Cave and Karst Research Institute Scott Rice-Snow Professor, Dept. of Geology, Ball State University January-May 2005 I am very satisfied with the sabbatical experi ence Ive had at NCKRI. Ive been able to accomplish significant work on a project with Jim Goodbar of BLM, germinated and did literature-based research for another study in cave morphometry, become acquainted with a number of issues being addressed by the Inst itute, expanded my prof essional network, and visited a number of significant geological sites for the first time. The support provided by NCKRI (office, housing stipend, loca l travel support) and BLM (fie ld transport, GIS) has been crucial in getting the work accomplished. NCKRI st aff have been welcoming and very ready to involve me in various Institute activities. The Sabbatical in the Parks Program played the clearinghouse role to connect me with the Institute: without it, I would not have been here. Although NCKRI is somewhat atypical of the Parks Service sites hosting sabbatical volunteers, it is a good example of the breadth of work environments that can be accessed through the prog ram. The main difficulty in working through sabbatical in the Parks was the initial phase of uncertainty extending th rough several months before getting a proposed assignmen t. I likely caused so me of the drawing-out of the process by offering a vita and asking for a search of sites (friendly to winter fiel d work) that might be interested in a visiting worker with my special ties and skills, rather than: 1) Following the prescribed procedure and coming up with a fairly specific type of project from my own research priorities, but which could be done at any of a num ber of different locations (bit of a trick for my discipline), or 2) previously developing a relationship with res earch personnel at a NPS park or other site, establishing with th em that housing support could be provided, and then sending a geographically specific proposal to the national office. Although NCKRI has a large network within th e cave/karst community from which to draw visiting scientists in the future, I would recommend that the Institute stay in touch with the NPS Sabbatical in the Parks coordina tor with expression of continuing interest, explicit list of the breadth of volunteer scholar disciplines/skills th at would be welcome, an d, if appropriate, titles of specific long-term priority projects. Wh ile NCKRI moves more under New Mexico Tech management, the NPS sabbatical program could conti nue serving to draw in the contributions of scholars, such as myself, with main specia lty areas outside cave and karst science. An active visiting scientist program will greatly benefit the Institute and greater research/education community. Integrating a pay level above housing/office/local travel reimbursement will of course be welcome. While we were in Carlsbad we were mainly trying not to deplete financial resources keeping about the same balances as we would in Muncie. The NCKRI housing allowance was therefore crucial, while we continued to make mortgage payments in Indiana. I should note that in our search for a sabbatical home, replacement of housing costs or provision of family hous ing was the key necessary factor. The delay in arrival of housing, etc., reimburseme nt checks during our first two months here did NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 57

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cause some concern for us. Once the matter wa s addressed, we appreciated the subsequent promptness in processing of reimbursement claims and more reliable cash flow. As I have mentioned before, I think that a Carlsbad semester-in-residence program with seminars and field experiences for cave/karst gr aduate students would be a worthy contribution of the Institute. This could become a standard expectation of the NMT program, especially as some NMT theses would presumably be directed by NKCRI staff based in Carlsbad. It would be a great student-exchange component of the nations premier cave/karst programs, and a valuable transfer-credit opportunity for students working in departments with advisors more or less alone in cave/karst involvement. On the premise, then, that professional and st udent visitors (weeks to months duration) will be a significant part of the Institute population into the foreseeable future, I will suggest some areas for long-term development of visi tor support. These issues could be left to visitors individual action and the market, etc., to decide, but I th ink they would benefit from some considered, systematic development by one of the Institute permanent staff members. This ought to be someone with responsibilities (and pay grade?) that allow some formal recognition of the contribution of dealing with nut s-and-bolts visitor issues. I am suggesting such an explicit approach with the idea that there will be a num ber of persons visiting simultaneously at times, and a limited number of permanent staff. Je nn, Wesley, and I have benefited from town orientation and many other kindnesses offered informally by colleagues while here. It may be a bit easier for a visitor or two to fall through th e cracks when there are several here, and other duties piling up at times for In stitute staff. The following ar e areas for consideration: 1) Housing The greatest benefit of our tem porary apartment at Vista del Rio was proximity to work, allowing me to walk many days and leave the car for Jenn to use. I suspect this will be a consid eration for other visitors bringing along family, as few are likely to bring multiple vehicles. It will certainly not hurt for single visitors as well to have easy access to the office and live near some other visitors. With NCKRI offices moving into the new building it will be helpfu l to survey apartment complexes and other rental properties close to the Cascades, visiting units to get some on-site feel before placing them on a list of housing suggestions. It might be po ssible to go a step further and develop a specific Institute relationship or two with specific rental providers. 2) Furniture It will be a lot easier on a long string of visitors over the years (and on local people called on to help them move in/o ut) if they can occupy at least minimally furnished spaces. Furnished units provided by landlords are rare in the area by our prearrival search, but perhaps a NCKRI relati onship with a provider could result in a strategic modification of some units. Or perhaps NCKRI could develop and dispense a stock of basic furniture, stored by a local vol unteer supporter with a truck? We would have been ready to contribute a couple coff ee tables purchased here, to such a stock. 3) Medical Care. Doctors and nurse practitioners ar e scarce in Carlsbad, and generally offered waits for first appointments are too l ong to be practical for visitors. Without a ready-med clinic, the remaining option is an expensive trip to the emergency room ($400 for a three-patient, fairly routine visit in our experience). Again, this seems an area where an Institute special relationship with a medical provider (preferably one serving some of the permanent staff) would be a gr eat help. It should not be a great add-on patient load for a physician to agree to a fe w appointments per year with NCKRI visitors, on the same playing field with established local patients. 4) Town Orientation. As a supplement to Chamber of Commerce Web offerings, it would be a service for the Inst itute to compile a li st (or conversation thread?) and map of NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 58

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useful/good stuff in the town, based on staff and visitor recommendations. This should probably be e-mailed to those inquiring about visiting, rather than placed on the Web site, to avoid offending non-listed business owners. Weve made a start on a couple categories (attached, but could include more specific info.). The list should explicitly address the diverse individual/family situations and interests of dive rse group of visitors youll be having. For example, when suggesti ng a sabbatical visit to NCKRI to another geology colleague, I needed to consider wh at an urban-oriented spouse with grown children would find most inte resting about Carlsbad. Because I was a Parks and BLM volunteer during my stay, it was important for me to keep a record of hours spent on various activities. I spl it my activities into th ree categories: 1) BLM Work the Capitan Escarpment geomor phology/hydrology study that was my negotiated primary research activity for the stay, 2) NCKR I Activities Other karst-related research work, participation in NKCRI staff outreach activitie s, and NCKRI/CEMRC office tasks, and 3) Personal Professional Development visits to non -research-related sites of geological interest, continuation of Ball State research project s, and continuation of Ball State faculty responsibilities. If doing it a ll again, I would split the third ca tegory between 3) Real local professional development field experiences, lect ures, authoring, reviewing, and so on, and 4) Continuation of home university teaching and administrative ta sks. Separating out category 4 allows a direct check on a category of work that while unavoidable to some degree, should be kept at a minimum during a sabba tical period. It may be usef ul for assessment of sabbatical programs on both the univer sity and NCKRI sides. Some of the NPS and BLM documents I have completed as a sabbati cal volunteer have included estimates of anticipated total hours to be worked. In retrospe ct, depending on whether erring toward maxima or minima is best for a specific document, I would suggest using a formula based on a 30or 35hour work week, rather than 4 0, or otherwise reducing total anticipated hours. This accounts for time spent se ttling in on arrival and preparing to depart, sick days, getting business done less efficiently in an unfamiliar location, and days off on a similar level to the home institution vacation schedule. As noted at the outset, I have found this sa bbatical experience very rewarding in both professional and personal terms. My family has also benefited from a great, lengthy adventure in the area. I am proud to be the National cave and Karst Research Inst itutes first sabbatical visitor, and hope that there wi ll be many more scholars able to take advantage of this opportunity in coming years. Carlsbad Recommendations Best for Kids: Playground on the Pecos Living Desert State Park Carlsbad Library/Museum complex High School Natatorium You Have to See: Sitting Bull Falls Carlsbad Caverns (of course) Riverwalk on Pecos River The view from the top of Church Street or Living Desert State Park Ruidoso and San Patricio NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 59

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Enrichment: Cooking classes with Kevin Zink (c ontact through Blue House) Events: Full Moon Walks at Living Desert Mescal Roast at Living Desert Loving Bluegrass Festival Taste of Carlsbad Things in Roswell Target Several thrift stores with furn iture (some only open weekdays) Two art museums U.F.O. museum (hey, its free) NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 60

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 61 APPENDIX E Final Report: External Review of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Preliminary Report: 8/13/04 Final Report: 11/25/04 Kathleen H. Lavoie, Ph.D. Dean, Faculty of Arts and Science 101 Hudson Hall Plattsburgh State University of New York Plattsburgh, NY 12901 lavoiekh@plattsburgh.edu Table of Contents Introduction 3 Observations and Recommendations 4 1. Construction of the NCKRI Building in Carlsbad, NM 5 2. Consistency in Message 5 3. Communications Among Prim ary Partners 6 4. Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning 6 5. Educational Programs 7 6. Relationships and Identity 7 7. Research Issues 8 8. New Mexico Tech 9 a. Cave and Karst Program i. Curriculum Development 9 ii. Web Visibility 9 iii. Administrative Support 9

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 62 b. Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources 10 c. Dr. Lewis Land 10 9. Fundraising Issues 11 10. Speaker Series 11 11. Travel 11 12. Minor Recommendations 11 a. Small Grants Program b. National Cave Association c. Broaden Focus at National Meetings d. Develop Associates/Affiliates Program Conclusions 13 Appendices 1. Speaker Series: Sigma Xi 14 2. Small Grants Program: Sigma Xi 17 3. Program Affiliates Model: Lake Champlain Research Institute 18 Introduction This review of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) was conducted on-site from18 July-13 August, 2004, by consultant Dr. Kath leen Lavoie, State University of New York at Plattsburgh where she is th e Dean of Arts and Sciences a Professor of Biology, and a biospeleologist. Additional individuals were contacted by telep hone for interviews in October 2004. Evaluation Process : The review used a simplified modificat ion of the external review process developed for NCKRI by reviewer Dr. Kathleen Lavoie. The review involved only one person instead of the two or three recommended in the formal process. Background materials, interviews in person and by telephone, and on-site visits were used by the Reviewer to gather information and opinions for this report. Material reviewed for the Program Review 2003 Annual Report NCKRI Website (www2.nature.nps.gov/nckri) NCRKI Monthly Updates from July 2000 to June 2004. NCKRI business plan outline (7/20/04) NCKRI Self-Review 7/22/04 Informal Science Education Planning Grant Proposal Interviews and Meetings: NCKRI o Dr. Louise Hose, Director o Dr. Thomas Strong, Visiting Chief Scientist o Dr. Lewis Land, Karst Hydrologist

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 63 NPS o Dave Shaver, GRD Division Chief o Ron Kerbo, GRD, Cave Specialist o Mike Adams, Mammoth Cave National Park, Interpretation o Dale Pate, Carlsbad Cavern Na tional Park, Cave Specialist City of Carlsbad o John Heaton, State Representative o Jon Tully, City Administrator New Mexico Tech o Dr. Penny Boston o Dr. Richard Cervantes o Dr. Peter Scholle Others o Jerry Trout, USDA-USFS, Cave Specialist o Malcolm Field, EPA o Kevin Amos, Deputy Director Program Analysis, NOAA History (from NCKRI Website www 2.nature.nps.gov/nckri) The National Cave and Karst Research Instit ute Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-325) enabled the National Park Service to establish the Institute. The Act stipulated that the Institute would be located in the vicinity of Carlsbad Caverns Natio nal Park in New Mexico and that the Institute could not spend Federal funds without a match of non-Federal funds. The main purpose of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute is to further the science of speleology, to encourage and provide public education in the field, and to promote environmentally sound cave and karst management. The Institute is aut horized to carry out its objectives internationally as well as nationally. In July 2000, an interim director was named to help the National Cave and Karst Research Institute move forward with National Park Serv ice to define the scope of operation, design an organizational structure, form partnerships, find funding sources and a physical facility, and define research needs. The Institute will evol ve through several organizational phases before it fully reaches the capacity to sponsor a wide range of activities. The position of interim director phased out in early May 2003. Dr. Louise Hose was named permanent director in December 2002 and is continuing to develop the Institute. She is leading the Institute through a Gearing Up phase, that is likely to last another year (2005), and will consist of staff recruitmen t, design of the headquarters building and initial operational setup. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to facil itate the development and management of the Institute was signed in January 2003, by the National Park Service, the City of Carlsbad and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, who constitute the th ree primary partners

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 64 involved in establishing the Institute. Funding has been secured for the building that will serve as visitor center, laboratory, library and offices for the Institute. Design work for the $4.6 million facility is underway and groundbr eaking, on land donated by the City of Carlsbad, is planned for early 2005. The Basic Institute phase will take another one to two years (2004-05) while the experience of the staff and the capacity of the Institute grad ually increase, and financial resources for full operation are accumulated. The building should be completed during this phase. The Fully Operational phase should be attained by 2006, when the Institute becomes a significant and recognized resource in cav e and karst research, education, and support of cave and karst management. Observations and Recommendations : The observations, opinions, and recommendations below are those garnered from interviews, readings, and the ideas and experi ences of the reviewer. For the most part, comments have not been attributed to specific individuals. Many of the suggestions and recommendations cant be fully implemented at this time because of sequenc ing and timing, or because of limited staffing at the Institute. NCKRI is still fairly early in its development, has ambitious plans, and seems to be heading in the right directions. 1. Construction of the NCKRI Building in Carlsbad, NM : Construction on the Institute building shoul d commence no later th an January 2005 with expected completion in about 18 months. Many individuals review ed stress the need for NCKRI to have this physical presence as a necessary step to achieving nati onal and international recognition. We need a real Institute, not a vi rtual one. Need to improve awareness of NCKRI and possible benefits to partic ipants. NCKRI needs to have a good reason(s) to exist, and has been working on defining what makes it unique a nd useful. Several suggestions were made that the Institute should take a less on from the USGS, which was at one time was threatened with elimination. The USGS was very assertive in ta king action and are very good at maintaining a high profile and enhancing their real and perceived value. 2. Consistency in message : A listing of various plans, goals, programs from documents I reviewed are listed below. While all are laudatory, and I expect them all to be achie ved, there are simply too many of them. Many of these are actually specific projects designed to meet a particular goa l, and they should be presented as such, rather than as stand alone goals. NCKRI needs to pres ent a consistent mission to create a clear identity in the mi nd of both consumers and the public. Recommend addition to list of services; Authoritative national and inte rnational advocate and resour ce for cave and karst. Mission: "The National Cave and Karst Research Institut e facilitates speleologi cal research, enhances

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 65 public education, and promotes environmen tally sound cave and karst management." Goals of the National Cave a nd Karst Research Institute: Further the science of speleology through c oordination and facilitation of research. Serve as a repository and provide analysis a nd synthesis of speleological information. Foster partnerships and cooperation in cave and karst research, education, and management programs. Promote and conduct cave and karst educational programs. Promote national and interna tional cooperation in protectin g the environment for the benefit of caves and karst landforms and systems. Develop and promote environmentally sound and sustainable cave and karst management practices, and provide inform ation for applying these practices. Core Values Objective, science-based research and education Science-based stewardship Shared decision-making and workload responsibilities lead to better science and implementation Improved understanding of caves and karst lead for better decision-making and benefits all segments of Society The Institute will provide world-wide leadership in the field When NCKRI is fully-functional, it will provide services to the cave and karst community in ways that are underserved or co mpletely lacking, including: Professional coordination of Big Sc ience and other large initiatives Providing a collaborative approach to purchas ing and maintaining high-cost equipment, facilities, libraries, databases or other items. Providing a variety of support for qualified scholars needing a professional affiliation and/or setting while pursuing sabbatical, graduate, post-gradua te, or independent research. Help expand currently successful local or regional programs to national programs. Help stabilize and strengthen currently suc cessful volunteer or under-supported projects, Improve communication among varied disciplines and programs. 3. Communication Among Primary Partners I found a significant need for enhanced, more di rect communication among the primary partners. Several problems identified could be addressed quic kly if all parties were involved at the table at the same time, rather than going through intermediate steps. The monthly updates are good, but more face to face, or shorter, focused emails, w ould be good. This work can be shared with other NCKRI associates. Perhaps Institute Associates can make a point of sending updates or informal messages to targeted individuals among the primar y partners and associates to keep visibility high and increase inform ation opportunities?

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 66 4. Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning The proposed new Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning is a problem for NCKRI on many levels. It seems to duplicate the mission of NCKRI, it will siphon off scarce funds, and I feel that the role of the NPS in spons oring two centers is very strange. If this center does get established it should be as a branch facility reporting to NCKRI. I am really concerned about this end run by WKU and Mammoth Cave and its impact on the future of the Institute. The new project at Mammoth Cave is very para llel to NCKRI, but without the advantage of federal funding. Local congressional support is of limited duration. On the other hand, they are not handicapped with the 1:1 federal:non-federa l matching requirement that NCKRI has. The actions taken by MACA are seen by several individuals as a direct response to actions and attitudes of the Director. Severa l individuals expressed disappoint ment that there is currently no partnership between the two, with hopes that bridges can be built for the future. 5. Education Programs: While in residence at the Institute and while visiting NMT, the reviewer had many opportunities to discuss plans for informal educational pr ograms currently planned and many seeking grant support. I found the ideas to be excellent, innovati ve, and likely to have strong, positive impacts regionally and nationally in the area of cave and karst educa tion. The involvement of other agencies and individuals was also excellent. 6. Relationships and Identity: Dave Shaver suggested that I ask some of the Federal people what it would take to get their agencies more involved with the Institute. The re lationship with other federal agencies, and even to some extent the NPS, remains a key challenge for NCKRI. The NPS role is not featured in the NCKRI website, nor on some posters and gr ant applications submitted by NCKRI. In talking to the federal employees, it is clear that many of the current problems with some individuals goes all the way back to the early working groups. A ll of the individuals on the original working group were fr om different federal agencies, and while the Nov. 2000 monthly update states Each member also will represent the interests of a variety of non-federal and private organizations and groups And reiterated in the December 2000 monthly update that each person in the group has responsibilities to represent and communicate with other nonfederal constituent groups. It is not clear to th is reviewer how often, if ever, the working group ventured very far outside the realm of federal interests and federal models for organization. The working group and Interim Direct or Bailey were all obviously wo rking towards a shared vision of NCKRI, and several of the constituents were very upset when Director Hose came on board with some new and different ideas. But she had to take control at the Feb 03 transition meeting. NCKRI is now growing into something of its ow n. Interviewees recommended that the Institute needs to be a consensus builder and be more user-friendly. It needs to focus right now on building relationships with the primary partners, and move forward with additional partners. All partners, including the NPS, need to be includ ed in the growth and evolution of NCKRI. Although an evaluation of the Dir ector was not a part of my review, most of the people I

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 67 interviewed find Louise Hose to be exactly the right person to do the job. Some find her abrasive and some find her wonderful. The consensus among the individuals I talked to is that she is the right person for the job, and is taking NCKRI in the right directions. Some of the work to bring folks back to NCKRI can be accomplished throu gh working with others on the Institute team, particularly Tom Strong. It was stre ssed that it is important to hi re the right people and then let them do their job. Louise Hose is dedicated a nd committed to developing NCKRI, and must have the necessary latitude to do her job. Concerns were expressed by seve ral individuals that the direct or has a disdain for federal employees and federal agencies. Whether it is true or not is irrelevant; the perception is there and it is widespread. I also feel there is a need to increase the visibility of the role of the National Park Service in NCKRI. The NPS should be listed as a partner organizations/sponsor/affiliate in everything NCKRI does, including grant applications and presenta tions at meetings. Institute personnel should be out schmoozing with superintendents of the many parks that have caves. Other agencies are interested in advancing the de velopment of the Institute and its goals, but not at the budget level. The Institute needs to work to expand governmental support beyond Carlsbad and New Mexico; other senators in other states need to advocate for NCKRI, and they will only do that when the Institute is doing something in their areas for them. Several interviewees obser ved that the NPS may not be the best fit for NCKRI, and characterized the NPS as essentially a land management organi zation. Suggestions were made that the USGS might be a better federal partner with its emphasis on research. All members of the original fede ral working group that I talked to are willing to work with NCKRI if asked. They want to work on meaningf ul projects, and not ju st busy work. All want the Institute to succeed, regardless of what direct ion it takes. The best approach seems to be to invite them to participate on specific projects with significant value. As it was put: not dumb, nit-picky stuff. One specific suggestion that I like very much was to help NCKRI decide on which projects should be supported, how can they be funded, what is the best way to support specific projects, and so on. 7. Research Issues One area of concern the review er encountered among federal em ployees interviewed was the need for the Institute to address the balance be tween applied and basic research. In order to increase visibility and ensu re steady funding, the research done by and supported by NCKRI should show some immediate value or applicatio n. Going down the applied research road to a large extent will benefit everyone. Applied research can also be used to fund basic research. NCKRI does need to do some of its own research. Scientists can be hired, they can be visitors, NCKRI can sponsor summer research camps for undergraduates, and it can sponsor Post-docs. But the Institute does need to be actively pr oducing research. (A minor pet peeve of this reviewer; when accomplishments are listed in annual reports, it should not include work in progress or submitted or in review, only work act ually completed (published or reported on) to avoid inflating accomplishments. Thats my pet peeve for the day.) A warning from one Federal employee was to let the scientists/ visiting research ers/post-docs/ staff, et c actually do their own research. If they turn into administrators or paper-pushers, you will have unhappy scientists and

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 68 high turnover. 8. New Mexico Tech. I visited NMT for two days in August. Faciliti es and support are excellent. Several new students were there and seem quite pleased with their ch oice. According to Penny Boston, students are of uniformly high quality. NMT also has an excelle nt placement record for its graduates. a) Cave and Karst Program Dr. Penny Boston is overwhelmed with work, some of it her own, some for NCKRI, and other work is admi nistrative. She has been working very hard on developing grant proposals, and is havi ng some success. Penny made a significant error in not hiring an assistant immediat ely, then lost ground when an incompetent assistant was hired. She has since remedied the situation and is working on an alternative plan for getting the effective office suppor t that the program, and Penny, desperately needs. i. Curriculum Development. Despite these problems, I am concerned that in two years a formal cave and karst curriculum has not been developed. It is a complex task to develop a curriculum for a trul y interdisciplinary program, and Boston has the right approach in mind with a core curriculum that offers different tracks to meet the varying needs of the students, but it has not happened yet. In addition to the curriculum, program objectives and an assessment plan for student academic achievement in the major must be developed. ii. Web presence Also of major concern to this reviewer is web visibility, which is absolutely essential no w. NCKRI is the first thing that comes up when you google caves and karst. There is no menti on of cave and karst on the academic programs home page for NMT. A Google search for cave and karst education turns up a lot of references to NCKRI, but nothing dedicated to the NMT program in the first 100 hits. NMT is there, bu t only through news articles related to NCKRI. Likewise, a google of cave a nd karst education and NMT turns up NCKRI-related articles, a nd information on Boston, but nothing on academics. WKU does not have caves and karst lis ted under academic degrees, but they do have a nice WKU Karst Cent er web site linked to thei r Centers and Institutes page. A search for cave and karst from the WKU home page immediately brings up the Center for Caves and Karst, complete with offers to sell tee shirts. The cave and karst program at NMT is housed in the department of Earth and Environmental Science, yet the NMT EES home page search has no mention of caves and karst, except as a part of Bo stons title. Boston knows this is a critical need and has provided information to th e webmaster at NMT, but has not had results. I hope her new arrangement with the program assistant will allow this to happen very soon. (Still no cha nge in hits through Googl e as of late November 2004.)

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 69 iii. Administrative support NMT has been and continues to be very supportive of NCKRI and the cave and karst education pr ogram. However, in order to grow the program faculty it will be necessary fo r the number of students to increase. NMT seems to be concerned about details of the lease for the building, and future funding for the lease. NMT officials believe that much of the success of the Institute is contingent on users of the facility in Carlsbad. b) Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources A very interesting discussion with Peter Scholle centered around the balance between applied and basic research. Ne w Mexico is a poor state, and the funding base for NCKRI must diversify. He highly recommends NCKRI seek state funding from areas such as FEMA and Department of Transportation funds that are dedicated to public safety issues at the state level. The money orig inally came from the feds, but is granted to each state to use as needed. Among issues that could be funded this way are studies of karst hazards, such as active sinkhole surveys, water quality is sues, and issues involving sites for roads and facilities. He suggests that generous funding for applied research can be used to help sponsor basic research. Currently the Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re sources has no tie to the academic Cave and Karst program at NMT. Yet the Bureau does sponsor about 15-20 graduate students, to some degree, to work on issues important to the stat e of New Mexico. Relationship building between the Bureau and the Cave and Karst program in developing cooperative research with NCKRI could benefit everyone. c. Dr. Lewis Land I interviewed Dr. Lewis Land and also got to hear a very well-organized presentation he gave to the Rotary on the Ca pitan Aquifer that supplies water to Carlsbad. Although his affiliation with the In stitute is given on his presentations and his business cards, Dr. Land seems to be of uncertain stat us with regard to his role with NCKRI. While it is clear from reading the monthly updates that he is busy and doing useful and appropriate work, his lack of reporting and evaluative responsibil ities to the Institute allow hi m to function as a free agent, without regard to helping to build NCKRI. It is also clear from talking to Dr. Peter Scholle, his supervisor at NMT, that Land is doing what his boss expects him to do. Dr. Land has a tenure committee at NMT and is obviously, and appropriate ly, concerned about doing what needs to be done to secure continuing appointment. Howeve r, I recommend that he become more involved in furthering the work of the Institute. There is no reason that I can see why he could not work on a karst hydrology related grant propos al to the state of Florida, fo r example, that would pay part of his salary that would normally come from NM, and such a project would advance the work and visibility of NCKRI. Such a grant project would also benefit his tenure case at NMT. Alternatively, perhaps one day a week he coul d be reassigned to work specifically for the Institute. I feel that he is talented, and could make many impo rtant additional contributions to the development of the Institute, but he is curre ntly an underutilized asset to the program. 9. Fundraising issues :

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 70 A current and growing problem f acing the Institute is the limitation on fundraising that DOI or federal funds be matched from non-federal courses. Everyone I talked to about this issue agrees this needs to change. Representative Heaton believes the opportune time to push for such a change is during the grand opening festivities asso ciated with the new building. If necessary, the match provision can remain in place, but what desperately needs to be changed is the limitation that prevents use of federa l funds from non-NPS sources. It is important to get other agencies to step forward with f unding, and this applies to federal agencies and private organizations. In general and as discussed before, the Institute will have to show these organizations and indi viduals what NCKRI can do to he lp them. The first step would be to find out what they need from the Inst itute. NCKRI must be vi sible beyond Carlsbad. A non-federal/non-governmental manager/administrator would be in a better position to solicit donations and grants. Once NCKRI is operational, Mew Mexico Tech can take the lead role in handling the overall administration through thei r offices. A NMT affiliation for the director opens up many opportunities that are limited under the federal agency model. 10. Speaker Series Build on the success of the Distinguished Visiting Faculty Speaker series program at Carlsbad by taking it to a wider audience. The model I suggest is the Sigma Xi Distinguished Lectureship Series (M aterial from the Sigma Xi web s ite attached. Attachment 1.) A simplified overview of the process would be to se lect a group of speakers willing to participate as a speaker. The speaker provides a brief abstract of their work, and a fe w lecture topics/titles that are identified by audience le vel from General to Specialize d. NCKRI would be responsible for publicity and sending out lists of available speakers each year to member organizations and other appropriate venues, such as universities and caving organizati ons. In the case of Sigma Xi, they rely on the host institution to make all arra ngements directly with the speaker, to pay the speaker a $200 stipend and c over all local expenses. Sigm a Xi provides subsidies upon application to defray costs of travel for the speaker. At least for the first few years, it would be most effective if NCKRI could defray all costs. Speakers may also decline the honorarium or contribute it to NCKRI. 11. Travel. The director is hindered in meeting the mission and goals of NCKRI because of NPS imposed restrictions on tr avel, particularly international travel She could be more effective if it did not, literally, require an act of Congress for her to attend, for example, the International Union of Speleology meetings in summer 2005 in Greece. The benefits to NCKRI are potentially very large. This particular probl em would be solved if the Direct or were out of the NPS, or a more formal part of NMT. 12.Minor recommendations : a. A small grants program should be devel oped, but dont tie up sta ff with reviews and administrative details; this can be given to an advisory board or othe r volunteer group. Every grant given must include a significant assessme nt component to justif y having spent the funds. (Suggestions, see Attachment 2 from the Lake Ch amplain Research Institute, and consult the Sigma Xi web page.)

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 71 b. One individual felt that the National Cave Association of show cave owners is at a good juncture to partner with NCKRI. There has been a lot of turn over in old owners, and the young turks coming in understand the value of educat ion. Show caves see ed ucation as a way of increasing their business and are willing to contribute to such activities. c. This recommendation comes from my bias as a biologist, but I f eel that the Institute needs to expand its focus beyond geology. Perhaps it would he lp for the Institute to report to someone at NPS with broader divisional responsibilities, although by all accounts, Dave Shaver is doing an excellent job. Conferences and workshops so fa r organized by NCKRI seem nearly exclusively to be geology focused, yet the geomicrobiology asp ects would certainly be appropriate to present at the American Society for Mi crobiology, or at the internationa l microbiology meetings, at the Ecological Society of America annual meetings or at multidisciplinary meetings like the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meetings. In addition to sponsoring symposia and having NCKRI-affiliated scientists make presentations, these are good venues for raising awareness about the Institute among scientists and graduate students. Penny Boston and I discussed hosting such an interdis ciplinary session at the next AAAS meeting, and it is something I will continue to work on after my return to New York. I know the Institute has developed associations with Karst Waters Institut e, and that is a very positive step. Can NCKRI contribute or partner in some way with Bat Conservation International? d. Develop a formal Associates/Affiliates (or some such name) program for individuals. Associates can serve as a significant resour ce for NCKRI by providing information, expert testimony, support, and networking. The Director is already doing this, but formalizing it would enhance NCKRI prestige and make folk s more likely to associate form ally with it; they can put it on their resume. Associates should have some benefit not available to the general public, such as free or reduced cost interlibrary loan and pe rhaps access to some small grant program seed money. The attached information from the Lake Champlain Research Consortium Affiliates might serve as a model for formation of a formal Associates program (Attachment 3). It is also important to recognize contributi ons by qualified scholars and by talented amateurs who may lack the academic credentials but be making important c ontributions in their area, or even just those with interest in furthering the mission and goals of NCKRI. Conclusions Overall, this review is happeni ng at a very early stage in the development of NCKRI. Concerns were raised that NCRKI began as a project without a master pl an, but now has plans that are ambitious but achievable with the passion and de dication of Director Lo uise Hose. Having a building will be a critical step in establishing NC KRI as a real entity and not just a virtual one. The principle partners are all pleased to be working with NCKRI, and look forward to the realization of what has b een a long-time dream. Please contact me if I can provide you with additi onal information or clarif ications. It has been very enjoyable and interesting to work on this review of NCKRI. Kathleen H. Lavoie Dean, Faculty of Arts and Science 101 Hudson Hall

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 72 Plattsburgh State University of New York Plattsburgh, NY 12901 lavoiekh@plattsburgh.edu Preliminary Report 8/13/04 Final Report 11/25/04 Attachment 1. Information from Sigm aXi.org website on Speaker Program How to Host a Successful Lecture Invitations should be extended direct ly to the individual lecturer. All a rrangements about dates, travel and hospitality should be worked out between the sponsoring Sigma Xi chapter and the invited visitor. Chapters hosting lecturers are required to provide a stipend of $200. In the distribution of subsid ies to chap ters, the Lectureship Committee will only consider a $200 honorarium per visit as part of the subsidy, and lecturers may not request more than this. However, because chapte rs are encouraged to schedule multiple activities for a lecturer during his/her visit, it is appropriate for the chapter to consider increasing the honorarium based on the demands they are making of the speaker and the length of the visit. Any additional honorarium is to be decided between the chapter and the lecturer and lecturers may not refuse an invitation based on the amount of the honorarium. Financial Support Consider asking the institutions affiliated with the chapter for support for the lecture. Other support may come from academic societies, businesses or industry that are particularly interested in the topic. Applications for a subsidy through the Sigma Xi Administrative Offices were due by March 1. If you have any questions, please e-mail lectureships@sigmaxi.org Make Arrangements Arrangements should be confirmed with the lecturer in writing through either U.S. mail or e-mail. Arrangements should be made as early in the fisca l year (July June fiscal year) as possible. The Distinguished Lecturers frequently have busy travel schedules and early planning will optimize the chapter's chances of getting thei r first choice for lecturer. The Committee on Lectureships, through the Sigma Xi Administrative Offices, should be informed of the arrangements as soon as they are confirmed. Please contact the offices through mail, phone 800-243-6534 x 206 or chapters @sigmaxi.org. Cosponsor Visits When making the initial arrangements for the lecturer's visit, contact nearby chapters about cosponsoring the lecture or having the lecturer visi t both chapters. Because airfare is typically the largest expense in hosting a Distinguished Lecturer, this can significantly lower the cost. Chapters that are able to be flexib le on the dates of the lecture can save money. Expectations for Lecture Review with the lecturer the expected length of the talk and question and answer period. Also what audio/visual equipment the lecturer will need. Advertising

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 73 Be sure to adequately advertise the lecture. This includes notifying the public affairs office of the institutions affiliated with the chapter. Copies of the Distinguished Lecturer's C.V. can be obtained from the lecturer. Announcements should be ma de to appropriate classes as well as on the institution's calendar. If it is a public lecture on a topic that could be understood by K-12 students, contact the local schools with information about the lecture. Contact lectureships@sigmaxi.org for a high-resolution photograph of the lect urer to use in advertising. Maximize the Opportunity While the lecturer is at the chapter, consideration should be given to having the lecturer engage in additional activities such as speaking to a class, having a meal with students and/or faculty, meeting with the local press or visiting an area sch ool. Many lecturers have commented that meeting students and faculty members and seeing campuses they might not otherwise see is the greatest reward of being a Distinguished Lecturer. Strong consideration should be given to having a public lecture. If the lecture is part of the chapter banquet, consider opening up the lect ure to the public after the meal function. Consideration should be given as well to includin g populations that might not otherwise have access to high quality speakers. Each Sigma Xi member should invite a nonmember to the lecture. This is an EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITY to introduce co lleagues to Sigma Xi. Don't forget to invite senior administrative staff to the lecture. Logistics Every effort should be made to ensure that the lecture proceeds smoothly. This includes the standard checks of room readiness, projection equipment, etc. Assist the lecturers in confirming plane reservations and related travel arrangements. Inform the speaker whether a member of the ch apter will provide transportation to and from the airport. Shortly after arrival at the institution, the lectur er should be shown the au ditorium or room where the lecture will be held. At this time double-check audio-visual equipment. The lecturer should be given the honorarium and expense reimbursement as promptly as possible. Unless otherwise requested by the lecturer, the host is responsible for all local arrangements including transportation, lodging, meals, etc. Checklist Financial Support ___ Ask provost, chancellor deans, heads of laboratories, or senior administrati on staff, other academic societies, businesses or industry for support. ___ Apply for subsidy for Distinguished Lecturer. Deadline is March 1. Publicity ___ Announcements to classes. ___ Announcements to media. ___ Announcements to local schools. ___ Announcements on institutio nal calendar of events. ___ Announcements on chapter listservs.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 74 ___ Arrange media intervie ws for lecturer. Sigma Xi Administrative Offices ___ Notify once date of lecture is set. ___ Send Lecture Report Form after lecture. Nearby Chapters ___ Coordinate visit with nearby chapters if possible. ___ Invite nearby chap ters to attend. Arrangements with Lecturer ___ Confirm in writing all arrangements. ___ Agree ahead of time on the le cturer's activities (lecture, class discussion, media interview, etc.). Lecturers have agreed to accept a $200 honorarium per visit. Chapters however can offer a larger honorarium. Show the lecturer the location of the talk as soon as possible after arrival. Check room and equipment directly prior to the featured talk. ___ Pay lecturer promptly. http://www.sigmaxi.org/programs/lectureships/host.shtml Attachment 2: Example of a Small Grants Program Call for LCRI Research Seed Grants: 2001-02 LCRI Affiliates and their research students are eligible to submit LCRI research seed grants These seeds are small awards ($500-$1500) designed to provide students with a research experience, foster collaborative research and promote the development of external proposals. Applications are due on March 30 GUIDELINES: Seed grant awards should involve use of LCRI facilities and equipment with preference given to projects that foster collaborative interdisciplinary interactions and address the Institutes goals and objectives. Eligible expenses include research supplies (including computer software if justifi ed), travel for collaborative research proposal development, and research intern stipends (up to $1000 of the total budget) to support student research. Proposals should include a short (2-page) narrative describing the nature of the proposed research, how the award will function as a seed for future research and grant development, a brief summ ary of the methods, and how the project will involve students. Students are elig ible to serve as proposal authors or co-authors as long as an LCRI affiliate is also involved. Please include a summary budget and a brief proposal cover letter stating how

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the grant application meets the LCRI goals/objectives and how the award will foster collaborative interdisciplinary research and student research. Preference for awards will be given to collaborative interdisciplinary res earch involving junior faculty and projects involving undergraduate student research. Seed Grant applications should be submitted by March 30 to the LCRI coordinator: Dr. Timothy Mihuc, LCRI coordinator 101 Hudson Hall Plattsburgh State University Plattsburgh, NY 12901 Attachment 3: Example of an Affiliates Program Lake Champlain Research Institute: Affiliates I. LCRI goals and objectives: The primary objective of LCRI is to promote undergraduate student research. Current affiliate activities include regional interdisciplinary investigations of biological, physical, economic, historical and educational issues. The Institute is actively involv ed in research in the Lake Champlain Basin, providing reliable information to environmental policy makers, and improving our understanding of regional natural resources. Although now broader in scope, LCRI was originally established in 1996 to support basic and applied research relating to aquatic ecosystems in the Lake Champlain basin. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 75

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 76 II. Research Affiliates: LCRI affiliates conduct research in many areas incl uding biological, physical, economic, historical and educational topics of conc ern for the Lake Champlain/Adirondack region. Affiliates are eligible for access to all LCRI facilities and equipment. Applying to become an LCRI affiliate: Affiliate applications are accepted at any time by submitting a letter of application and curriculum vitae to the LCRI coordinator (Dr. Timothy Mihuc, 101 Hudson Hall, Plattsburgh State University, Plattsburgh, NY 12901). The application letter should justify how the applicant will improve t heir individual research capabilities and foster collaborative re search with others by becoming an LCRI research affiliate. LCRI Research Committee: Current members: Drs. Buckley, Deutschman, Rice, and Romanowicz Affiliates will nominate and elect representatives to serve on the LCRI research committee which will provide input on research activities in order to pr omote the goals and objectives of the Institute. LCRI Research committeeDuties 1) Provide input on research directions/avenues for LCRI 2) Promote and provide ideas for collaborative research 3) Support development of funding opportunities 4) Interact with other organizations (i.e., Lake Champlain Research Consortium, etc) 5) Suggest uses of LCRI facilities to promote the goals and objectives of the Institute 6) Provide recommendations to the Dean for LCRI award recipients and LCRI seed grant recipients

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APPENDIX F NCKRI Project Summary Report January 2005 through December 2005 Quantitative Monitoring of Metabolic Activities Inferred from the Activities of Specific Subset Compone nts of Microbial Biofilms Forming on Cave-Like Substrata Cooperative Agreement H2360020009 Task Order 02-01, Mod. 2 Effective June 1, 2002 through May 31, 2007 Principal Investigator: Rick Fowler WATERS Laboratory Center for Water Resource Studies Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 Other Administrative Personnel: Andrew Ernest and Marsha Wallace Center for Water Resource Studies Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 Hazel Barton Assistant Professor of Integrated Science Northern Kentucky University Highland Heights, KY 41099 Shivendra Sahi Department of Biology Biotechnology Center Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 David C. White and Aaron Peacock Center for Biomarker Analysis 10515 Research Drive, Suite 300 Knoxville, TN 37932-2575 Rick Olson Science and Resources Management Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Cave, KY 42259 Jana Fattic WATERS Laboratory Center for Water Resource Studies Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 77

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TASK ORDER 02-01, Mod 2 Description of Work Project objectives and strategy: The primary hypothesis is that many of the most important cavebased geochemical processes are basically microbiological so the key is understanding the microbial ecology and the locus of th is ecology is in biofilms on the cave substrata; The secondary hypothesis is that the metabolic activity biomarke rs of the cave biofilm microbial community (e.g., lipid activity biomarkers and activity of specific groups of bacteria that incorporate 13 C-substrates into lipids and rDNA/rRNA) will be better correlated with other field activity measurements (e.g., direct measures of specific processes under study for the par ticular research program) than with the conventional measures of biomass and community composition that are the usual measures of the ecology; BioSep beads (3 mm diameter Nomex coated particulate activated carbon beads) containing either powdered cave wall limestone or isotopically labeled Ca 13 CO 3 will be incubated for two to four months in the F lint-Mammoth Cave System and compared to coupons of cave wall material and BioSep beads without the added cave material in a cave stream. Seventy percen t of the beads (~70 each) will b e retained by WKU for DNA analysis. Development of rapid and expanded quantita tive lipid analysis will allow separation of neutral and polar lipids during the extr action process using an automated Accelerated So lvent Extractor (ASE). This separation technique combined with the sensitivity of the LC/MS/MS allows the analysis of respiratory quinines, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-?-hydroxyalkonates, archaeol, and calda rchaeols from Archae; Coupling lipid analysis with 13 C enrichment experiments using solid phase samplers that will provide a readily recoverable, integrated microbial community that will be serially monitored; Lipid and DNA biomarkers which would be recovered after a few months and 13 C-determined in the PLFA by GC/IRMS; Triplicate samples of three surfaces w ith and without isotopically labeled carbonate will be set at each site. DNA will be extracted from bacterial cells adhering to the beads. The DNA fraction will be analyzed by Quantitative Real Time PCR (qRTPCR) and fluorescent fragment analysis. QRT-PCR will give an es timate of the biomass adhering to the particles and fragment ana lysis is a quick indicator of biodiversity, sometimes allowing identification of certain bacteria by the use of biomarker fragments. Some DNA will be used for cloning and sequencing in order to es tablish genetic relationships am ong the environmental bacteria c omprising the biofilms. DNA sequences will be posted online in the GenBank database ( http://ncbi.nih.nlm.gov ) for others to access for use in their research. Deliverables The proposed products include: 30 lipid analyses from 5 sites within Mammoth Cave, KY, derived from triplicates with limestone beads and triplicates with isot opic Ca 13 CO 3 beads. ($8,000 of the total funding). Complete DNA sequence data for 72 cloned bact erial genes derived from sediment at the same 5 sites within Mammoth Cave, KY ($44 ,000 of the total funding). Also perform qRT-PCR and TRFLP were appropriate. Report to the National Cave and Karst Research Institute detailing the methodology, including both successful and unsuccessful procedures, used in this study. The report will also include recommendations for further application of the techniques to other caves natio nwide. Storage of sample material for future analyses. Make cloned bacterial 16S rDNA sequences determined from the ca ve sediments publicly available on the internet. The genetic database will be fully compatible with GenBank, th e Ribosomal Database Project, and other on line tools for extensive genetic comparisons and identification of species. A research paper will be written and submitted for publishing this work. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 78

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1. Activities, Progress, and Status 1.1. Optimization of DNA extraction procedure and demonstration of reproducibility. While waiting for the retrieval of artificial substrates until a full year of residence in cave aquifers, thorough optimization of our DNA extraction technique was carried out by examination of saturated clastic sediments from the well-st udied Charons Cascade site (Figure 1). Eight sediment samples were collected, quickly ai r dried at 65 C, a nd environmental DNA was extracted from triplicate 10 g masses of the samp les according to our standard protocol using a modification of the MOBio Megaprep Soil DNA ex traction kit. Triplicate quantitative RealTime PCR reactions were performed to am plify eubacterial 16S SSU-DNA from each DNA extract, along with triplicate re actions on quantitative standards of E. coli high molecular weight genomic DNA (Sigma cat. # D-0421) Results were normalized by ca lculating the total yield of DNA per gram of sediment (Fig. 2). Bacterial DNA concentrations in the sediments ranged from 553 10 ng/g to 3349 138 ng/g among eight samples taken within a 1 m radius at depths of 5-10 cm in sediment covered by the permanent pool at the base of the waterfall. On average, Charons Cascade sediment yielded 1261 ng/g with a standard error of .9%. A 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100SQ (ng/5 L)Ct Standards CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 CC6 CC7 CC8 Log. (Standards) B 1 10 100 1000 10000Sediment Samplesng DNA/g sediment 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 CC6 CC7 CC8 Figure 2. Demonstration of reproducibility among DNA extraction and qRTPCR reaction techniques using Mammoth Cave sediment Samples. A. Raw qRT-PCR data showing the log starting quantity (SQ) of environmental DNA as a function of the threshold cycle (Ct) among triplicates of eight sediment samples. B. Bar graph showing quantitative results normalized for comparison of yields of bacterial DNA per gram of sediment. Figure 1. Charons Cascade waterfall and pool. Rick Fowler and Hazel Barton (background) collecting sediments. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH IN STITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 79

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1.2. Extraction and quantification of DNA from biofilms on artificial substrates after one year residence at five cave aquifer study sites. Dye trace bags containing Bio-Sep beads impregnated with either limestone or Ca 13 CO 3 were retrieved (Fig. 3) and transported aseptically on ice to WATERS Laboratory. Isotopically labeled beads and one half of each sample of limestone beads were shipped to the Center for Biomarker analysis for membrane lipid profiling (Section 1.4). Masses of hydrated beads were measured and DNA was extracted from lime stone beads followed by triplicate qRT-PCR reactions to determine the yields of bacterial DNA from each sample (Figure 4) as described in Section 1. Bio-Sep bead traps were rinsed with water in situ to remove accretions of mud and sediment, and transported in sterile containers on ice back to the laboratory. Bacterial DNA yields from the five study sites ranged from just 6.3 ng/g at Mystic River and 476.2 ng/g at Eyeless Fish Trail where inputs originate from limited forested land cover up to 3463.2 ng/g at Owl Cave and 5135.5 ng/g at the Hawkins/Logsdon Ri ver confluence where major aquifers drain the sinkhole plain outside park boundaries. Roaring River yi elded an intermediate 1398.2 ng/g. 1 10 100 1000 10000ng DNA/g beads 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg 1 2 3 Avg EFT HL MR OC RR Figure 3. Recovery of dye trace bags containing Bio-Sep beads after one year in cave aquifers. A. SEM of BioSep bead before deployment showing limestone particles. B. SEM of a bead recoverd from Owl Cave after one year with biofilm secretions covering limestone particles. C. Clockwise, from upper left: Pool at Mystic River where influx of surface water originates from a forested watershed. Closeup of biofilm traps containing triplicates of limestone and Ca 13 CO 3 impregnated Bio-Sep beads. Recovery of traps from Ha wkins/Logsdon confluence where high currents washed away one of the triplicate limestone bags, leaving duplicates. Figure 4. Data showin g the concentration of bacterial DNA extracted from Bio-Sep beads. A. Raw qRT-PCR data showing the log starting quantity (SQ) of environmental DNA as a function of the threshold cycle (Ct) among triplicates at five sites. B. Bar graph showing quantitative results for each site normalized in order to compare yields of bacterial DNA p er g ram of substrate. 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100SQ (ng/5 L)Ct Standards EFT MR RR HL OC Log. (Standards)B A 5000X Before 5000X 365 days 5000X Before 5000X 365 daysB A C Mystic River Hawkins/Logsdon Confluence Limestone Ca 13 CO3 NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 80

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1.3. Construction of clone libraries and DNA sequencing of eubacterial 16S SSU-DNA for identification of bacteria. Amplified eubacterial 16 SSU-DNA was ligated into the plasmid vector pGEM-T EZ (Promega, Madison, WI) and transformed into E.coli JM109 for creation of a cl one library segregating random copies of identifying bacterial sequences for each site. Individual eubacterial 16S SSUDNA sequences from at least 48 clones have been obtained in both forward and reverse directions in duplicate for each site. The to tal number of DNA sequences now under scrutiny totals 240. Our work presently is engaged in assembling the DNA sequence information of overlapping fragments into full length DNA sequen ces of the cloned gene s. Dr. Barton will create and interpret phyl ogenetic trees of the bacterial commun ities from the data we generate. 1.4. Biofilm Lipid Analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis is a method characterizing membrane lipids to yield data on the biomass, community structure, an d physiological status of bacterial communities comprising the cave aquifer biofilms developed on th e beads. This data will augment the nucleic acid data. Dr. Whites lab has re ported successful results and a comprehensive interpretation of the data is currently in progress. For detailed information see the Center for Biomarker Analysis website at http://cba.bio.utk.edu/ 2. Problems encountered Due to strong currents at Hawkins/Logsdon River one of the triplicate bags containing limestone Bio-Sep beads was lost and calcula tions were based on duplicates rather than triplicates. After recovery of artificial substrat es from the five study sites, mo lecular biology procedures were quite successful and all techniques performed successfully as practiced and optimized. 3. Considerations for estima ted completion of project Substrates have been recovered and successfully yielded quantitative nucleic acid data as planned. Lipid analysis is nearing completion a nd interpretation is fort hcoming. Nucleic acid sequences of over 200 clones have been generated and for the remainder of the project these and others will be generated, asse mbled, and interpreted. Dr. Barton will develop phylogenetic trees using nucleic acid sequences and lipid data will be incorporated into a comprehensive description of Mammoth Cave a quifer bacterial biogeochemistry by the expert panel assembled for this study. We anticipate that obtaining 72 full-length clone sequences from each of the study sites may be overly ambitious and perhaps unreali stic, given that clon ing artifacts will be apparent and some clones may have to be rejected as Dr. Barton sc rutinizes them. We shall utilize our time and financial resources to make certain the se quences we do obtain are accurate by performing secondary rounds of sequencing to cover ambiguous regions if necessary. Nevertheless we will produce as many clone sequences as possible with the goal of obtaining a sufficient number of sequences to provide a statis tically significant representation of the bacterial diversity. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2004-2005 BIENNIAL REPORT, 81

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998S.231One Hundred Fifth Congress of the United States of America at the second session begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the twenty-seventh day of January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-eight. An Act To establish the National Cave and Karst Research Institute in the State of New Mexico, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.This Act may be cited as the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998.SECTION 2. PURPOSES.The purposes of this Act are(1) to further the science of speleology;(2) to centralize and standardize speleological information;(3) to foster interdisciplinary cooperation in cave and karst research programs;(4) to promote public education;(5) to promote national and international cooperation in protecting the environment for the benefit of cave and karst landforms; and(6) to promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices.SECTION 3. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INSTITUTE.(a) GENERAL-The Secretary of the Interior (referred to in this Act as the Secretary), acting through the Director of the National Park Service, shall establish the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (referred to in this Act as the Institute).(b) PURPOSES-The Institute shall, to the extent practicable, further the purposes of this Act.(c) LOCATION-The Institute shall be located in the vicinity of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in the State of New Mexico. The Institute shall not be located inside the boundaries of Carlsbad Caverns National Park.SECTION 4. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTITUTE.(a) MANAGEMENT-The Institute shall be jointly administered by the National Park Service and a public or private agency, organization, or institution, as determined by the Secretary.(b) GUIDELINES-The Institute shall be operated and managed in accordance with the study prepared by the National Park Service pursuant to section 203 of the Act entitled An Act to conduct certain studies in the State of New Mexico, approved November 15, 1990 (Public Law 101-578; 16 U.S.C. 4310 note).(c) CONTRACTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS-The Secretary may enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with a public or private agency, organization, or institution to carry out this Act.(d) FACILITY-(1) LEASING OR ACQUIRING A FACILITY-The Secretary may lease or acquire a facility for the Institute.(2) CONSTRUCTION OF A FACILITY-If the Secretary determines that a suitable facility is not available for a lease or acquisition under paragraph (1), the Secretary may construct a facility for the Institute.(e) ACCEPTANCE OF GRANTS AND TRANSFERS-To carry out this Act, the Secretary may accept(1) a grant or donation from a private person; or(2) a transfer of funds from another Federal agency.SECTION 5. FUNDING.(a) MATCHING FUNDS-The Secretary may spend only such amount of Federal funds to carry out this Act as is matched by an equal amount of funds from non-Federal sources.(b) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS-There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act.

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1400 Commerce Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 www.nckri.org Photo by R. Scott Altenbach


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Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.