National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2007-2008 Annual Report

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2007-2008 Annual Report

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2007-2008 Annual Report
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NCKRI Annual Reports
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National Cave and Karst Research Institute
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Carlsbad, New Mexico
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University of South Florida
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www.nckri.orgANNUALREPORT2007-2008

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2 TheNationalCaveandKarstResearchInstitute(NCKRI)marksthecloseofitsfirstfullyearasanindependent, non-profitinstitutewiththisfiscalyear2007-2008annualreport.NCKRIwascreatedbytheU.S.Congressin1998asa federalentity,locatedintheCityofCarlsbad,NewMexico,undertheauspicesoftheU.S.NationalParkServiceto: (1)furtherthescienceofspeleology; (2)centralizeandstandardizespeleologicalinformation; (3)fosterinterdisciplinarycooperationincaveandkarstresearchprograms; (4)promotepubliceducation; (5)promotenationalandinternational cooperationinprotectingtheenvironmentforthebenefitofcaveandkarst landforms;and (6)promoteanddevelopenvironmentallysoundandsustainableresourcemanagementpractices, In2006,NCKRIwaschangedtoanon-profitcorporation,operatedthroughtheNewMexicoInstituteofMiningand Technology(NewMexicoTechorNMT),tomaximizeitsflexib ilitytoenterintopartnershipswithotherentities,raise funds,andrespondquicklytonewopportunities.NCKRIisactuallynowahybridnon-profitthroughitsstatusasan independentcorporationwhilemaintainingitsCongressional mandates,obligations,andfunding.TheNationalPark ServicenowtransfersannualfederalappropriationstoNMTonbehalfofNCKRI.Additionally,NCKRIhasmaintained itskeyinitialpartnerships,thefederalgovernmentthroughtheNationalParkService,theStateofNewMexicothrough NewMexicoTech,andtheCityofCarlsbad.EachpartnerhasapermanentpositionontheNCKRIboardandactively participatesinNCKRIactivitiesasaformulaforsuccess. ThisreportsummarizesNCKRIsactivitiesfromJuly2007throughJune2008.Itisdesignedandwrittentoberead andenjoyed,aswellastoinform.Publicationslistsfromstaffandstudentsareincludedasguidestodetailedreports onsignificantprojectsandactivities.Despitethecurrentlo wstaffingoffourfull-timepersonnel,twopart-time,andtwo part-timevolunteers,productivityhasbeenhigh.Thefollowingpagesdescribe14notablestaffprojectsandeight studentresearchprojects,whichgenerated26researchpublicationsandconferencereports.NCKRIstaffeddisplaysat adozennationalandinternationalconferences,plantingseedsforfuturepartnershipsandprojects.Educationalefforts includedlectures,communityoutreach,andourfirstchildrensbook. LessfeaturedinthisreportarethemanytasksandlonghoursspentstrengtheningNCKRIsadministrative foundation.Severaldocumentsandprocedureswerewritt enorrevisedtoreflectNCKRIschangeintoanon-profit corporation.Anewlogowascreated.OurfirstAdministrativeCoordinator,DebbieHerr,washiredandisreducing yearsofbackloggeddocumentpilesintoorderly,readily-accessiblypaperanddigitalfiles.Wehavebeenworkingwith theU.S.Congresstoreviseourenabl inglegislationandincreaseNCKRIsabilitytoworkwithfederalagencies. Seeminglyendlesshourshavebeenspentdesigningandrefiningarchitecturalplanstobeginconstructionofour headquarters.Whilelessinterestingtoreadabout,thesebehind-the-sceneseffortsarecrucialtoNCKRIsgrowthand continuedsuccess. AsIreflectonthepastyearsachievements,Imbothpleasedandfrustrated.TheNCKRIteamisproductive, diverse,andstrong.Ascanbeseeninthisreport,thereisalottobehappyabout.Thefrustrationcomesfromthinking aheadtowhatNCKRIcanbeonceitsheadquartersisfinishedandfullystaffed.Imreadyforthatnow.Thereisso muchworktodotomeetourmandates.Still,Imbeingpatie ntandappreciateeveryonespatienceandsupportaswe firstsetastrongfoundationonwhichtobuildNCKRIsfuture. GeorgeVeni,Ph.D. ExecutiveDirector NationalCaveandKarstResearchInstitute

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2Executive Report 4NCKRI Projects 12Student Activities 16Outreach 20Organizational Structure 21Board Activities 22Board of Directors 24NCKRI Staff 25Staff Publications 262007-2008 Budget 28Strategic Plans 3 Coverphoto: MoriaArch,ashort,truncatedcaveintheOpararaRiverBasinofKahurangiNational Park,SouthIsland,NewZealand.ThisphotocelebratesoneofNCKRIsmajorprojectsfor20072008,theKarstInformationPortal(p.8),havingappearedonthecoveroftheKarstInformation Portalbrochure. Contentspagephoto: GoufreBalaa,Lebanon,dramaticallyillustratestheconnectionbetween surfaceandsubsurfacewaterinkarstregions Backcoverphoto: NCKRIhydrogeologistDr.LewisLand,TexasStateUniversitygeologistDr. BenjaminSchwartz,andNCKRIdistinguishedlecturerMarcusGaryexaminecavesintheChosa Drawarea,EddyCounty,NewMexico;studyareaofNCKRIScholarDr.KevinStafford(p.14). PhotosbyGeorgeVeni.

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4RoswellArtesianBasin,SoutheastNewMexicoWaterlevelsinthekarsticSanAndreslimestoneaquiferof theRoswellArtesianBasindisplaysignificantchangesona varietyoftimescales.Largeseasonalfluctuationsaredirectly relatedtotheirrigationcycleintheArtesianBasin,lowerin summermonthsandhigherinwinterwhenlessirrigation occurs.Longer-termvariationsaretheresultofbothhuman andclimaticfactors.Sincethestartofirrigatedfarmingmore thanacenturyago,overuseofwaterresourcescausedwater levelsintheaquifertofallbyasmuchas70m.Thegeneral declineinwaterlevelbegantoreverseinthemid-1980sdue toavarietyofconservationmeasures,combinedwithaperiod ofgreaterrainfalltowardtheendofthetwentiethcentury.Regional map of Roswell Artesian Basin, lower Pecos Valley, southeastern New Mexico. BLNWR = Bitter Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. BLSP = Bottomless Lakes State Park NCKRI hydrogeologist Dr. Lewis Land is the lead investigator for this project, which began in 2004. Talon Newton, hydrologist with the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, provided field and technical support. The Pecos Valley Artesian Conservancy District, an independent agency of the state of New Mexico, provided funding for this investigation. Results were published in the February 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association. An expanded report was published as a 2007 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Open File Report. A: HydrographofGreenfieldmonitoringwell,showing pronouncedannualcyclesandlonger-termvariations inwaterlevelintheSanAndresartesianaquifer.At varioustimesinthepast40yearsofrecord,the Greenfieldwellhasflowedtothesurface.Water levelsshownabovelandsurfacewerecalculated fromwaterpressuremeasurements. B: Hydrographdetailshowingseasonalirrigation cyclesfrom2000-2005.During2007-2008,NCKRIspearheadedandparticipatedinadiversearrayofprojectstohelpadvanceourscientific understandingofcaveandkarstresources,promoteinformationsharingamongscientists,educators,andthecaving community,andadvancecaveandkarstmanagement.Indoingso,NCKRIwasengagedinanumberofpartnerships withfederal,state,local,anduniversityorganizations.Weareproudoftheseaccomplishmentsandthefoundationthey havelainforNCKRIsfuture.Asummaryoftheseactivities,andthekeypartnersandstaffinvolved,aredescribed belowandinthefollowingpages.

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5 Dr. Lewis Land was lead investigator for this project, which began in 2004. Funding was provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Results of the study were presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. A paper documenting the results has been completed with co-author/investigator Dr. G. F. Huff, hydrologist with the Alberta Geological Survey, and will be submitted for publication in Hydrogeology Journal Collecting water samples from Sinkhole 59, Bitter Lakes NWR. Phil Moyer is Dr. Lands dive partner. Photo courtesy of Lewis LandBitterLakesNationalWildlifeRefugeSeveralnaturalandanthropogenictracerswereusedtoevaluategroundwaterresidencetimewithintheSan AndreslimestoneaquiferinthevicinityofBitterLake sNationalWildlifeRefuge(NWR).Naturalgroundwater dischargeoccursfromaregionofkarstsprings,wetlandsandsinkholelakesatBitterLakes,locatedinthePecos ValleyeastofRoswell,NewMexico.Thespringsandsinkholesareformedingypsumbedrock,thatservesasa leakyconfiningunitforanartesianaquiferintheunder lyingSanAndreslimestone,andarefedbyupwardseepage ofgroundwaterfromtheaquifer(seefigurebelow). WetlandsontheRefugeprovidehabitatforanumberofthreatenedandendangeredspecies.Refugemanagers areconcernedaboutthepotentialforcontaminationfromoilandgasdrillingandotherhumanactivitiesintheaquifer rechargearea.Estimatesofthetimerequiredforgroundwater,andhencecontaminants,totravelthroughtheaquifer varywidelybecauseofuncertaintiesregardingtherolethatkarstconduitflowplaysinsubsurfacetransport.Abetter understandingofgroundwaterresidencetimeisthusrequiredtomakeinformeddecisionsaboutthemanagementof waterresourcesandwildlifehabitatatBitterLakes. Watersampleswerecollectedfromninekarstspringsandsinkholesandanartesianwelllocatedontherefuge, andanalyzedfortritium,sulfurhexafluoride,chlorofluorocarbons,carbon-14,andstableisotopesofoxygenand deuterium.Resultsofthesetracerinvestigationsshowthat theartesianaquifercontainsasignificantcomponentof waterrechargedwithinthelast20to50years.Waterdischargingintothesinkholelakesisprobablyamixtureofthis oldergroundwater,someofwhichmayindirectlycomefromolderPaleozoicaquifersinthehighSacramento Mountainstothewest,andgroundwaterofrecentagewhosevolumehasnotyetbeendetermined. Cross-section of the Roswell Artesian Basin near Roswell, New Mexico, showing groundwater flow conditions in the shallow and artesian aquifers with respect to sinkholes at Bitter Lakes NWR and Bottomless Lakes State Park.

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GroundwaterRechargeandDischargeintheCapitanReefAquifer,NewMexicoTheCapitanReefaquiferistheprimarywatersupplyfortheCityofCarlsbadandmuchofsurroundingEddy County.ItisrechargedintheGuadalupeMountainsofTexasandNewMexico,anditsgroundwaterflowsnortheast todischargefromspringsalongthePecosRiverintheCityofCarlsbad.Whileitsgeneralhydrologyisknown,a detailedunderstandingoftheaquiferislacking.NCKRIhasinitiatedthefollowingpreliminarystudies,andplans morecomprehensiveresearchtofillthatinformationgap.Whiletheresultswillcertainlyprovevaluabletothelocal communities,theywillalsohelpdefinegroundwaterbeha viorinhypogenickarstaquifersinternationally. LechuguillaCave,currentlyrankedasthedeepestlimest onecaveinthecontinentalUnitedStates,isformedin middlePermianlimestoneintheGuadalupeMountainsofsout heasternNewMexico.Ashort-termriseinpoollevels inthecave,inresponsetoextremeprecipitationandflash-floodingonthesurface,demonstratedtheconnectivity betweensurfacewater,thecave,andtheregionalaquifer.LakeoftheWhiteRoses,thelowermostpoolinthecave, isthoughttointersectthewatertableoftheCapitanReefaquifer.Directmeasurementsanddataloggerrecords showthatpoollevelshadsteadilydeclinedmorethan5msincethepoolwasdiscoveredin1989,aperiodduring whichNewMexicowassubjecttoepisodicdroughtconditions. In2004,EddyCountyexperiencedunusuallyhighrainfallthatincludedaseverestorminearlyApril.Thiscaused flashfloodinginthePecosRiverandarroyosintheGuadalupeMountains,whichserveaslinearsourcesofrecharge totheCapitanReefaquifer.Within3days,poollevelsinLakeoftheWhiteRosesbegantorise,reversinga15-year decliningtrend.Waterlevelsinthepooleventuallyrose4cmabovepre-floodconditions,thenbegantodeclineover thenexttwoweeks.However,beginninginSeptember,poollevelsbegantoriseagain,ultimatelyincreasingby almostameterrelativetolevelsrecordedatthebeginningof2004.Thehigherwaterlevelspersistedforseveral months,consistentwiththelonger-termprecipitationrecordinEddyCounty,whichwastwicetheannualaveragein 2004.Theshortandmedium-termincreasesinpoollevelsi nLechuguillaCavealsocorrelatetoincreasesinwater levelsrecordedinamonitoringwellintheaquifermorethan32kmnortheastofthecave,andappeartoreflectthe tripleporositysystem,conduit+fracture+matrix,thatistypicalofkarsticaquifers. Dataloggerrecord from Lake of the White Roses. Blue line shows pool level, including a 4 cm rise in water level during the 2004 flood on the Pecos River and its tributaries. Red line is rainfall in Eddy County. 6 Profile of Lechuguilla Cave, Eddy Co., NM (no vertical exaggeration).

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7 NCKRIs Dr. Lewis Land provided the hydrologic in terpretation for the Lechuguilla Cave study, based on water level data collected by Paul Burger, Park Hydrol ogist at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The results have been accepted for publication in the proceedings vo lume of the Eleventh Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, a Geotechnical Special Publication of the American Society of Civil Engineers. An ex panded report that includes documentation of a rapid recharge event in the San Andres limestone aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has been published in the proceedings volume of a 2008 Karst Waters Institute conference in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Carlsbad spring survey was initiated by NCKRI Executive Director and hydrogeologist Dr. George Veni and led by Dr. Land. Laboratory analyses were prov ided by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in Albuquerque and Dr. Andrew Campbell's lab at New Mexico Tech in Socorro. Gary Schiffmiller, Environmental Scientist and Fisheries Biologist with NMED, was instrumental in the field sampling and coordination with the NMED lab. InJanuary2008,theCityofCarlsbaddrainedthelakealong thePecosRiver,createdbytheUpperTansillDam,toconduct normalmaintenancealongtheshoreline.Thelakeinundatesall butoneofthespringsthatprovidethebaseflowtothissection oftheriver.Bydrainingthelake,thespringswereexposedfor directsampling,whichwasconductedoverthreedaysatthe endofthemonth.Thepurposeofthesamplingwastocollect baselinedataontheirchemistryanddischargetodetermine theirindividualsourcesandwhatlevelofgroundwatermixing maybeoccurringfromdifferentsources.Currently,mostofthe watercomesfromtheCapitanReefaquifer.Watersamples fromtwowellsandthreeotherspringsintheareawerealso collectedforcomparison. Dozensofspringswerediscovered,manysmallandnextto eachother,andappearedtoformpossiblysixdistinctgroups. Watersampleswereanalyzedformajorions,nutrients,trace metals,andstableisotopes(18Oanddeuterium).Thelabresults arebeingevaluated.Oneobviousresultfromfieldobservationsis thattheCarlsbadSpring,theonlyspringnotnormallycoveredby thelakeandoftenconsideredthemainspring,isinfactnotthe largestspring.Atleast2-3timesasmuchwaterwasflowingfroma springabout100mdownstreamontheriversnorthbank. Carlsbad Spring, before draining of the lake Dr. Lewis Land evaluating multiple small springs cutting channels into the mud along the lowered shoreline The largest spring along the Pecos River in Carlsbad; photos by George Veni

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8KarstInformationPortalTheKarstInformationPortal(KIP)isanonlinesourceofdigitalresearchtools,databases,andcollaborative workspaces( www.karstportal.org ).Itwasdesignedtosolvetheproblemsofdataaccess,management,and evaluationthatchallengetheprogressofcaveandkarstscience,stewardship,andeducation.KIPwascreatedbya partnershipofNCKRI,theManagingOrganizationpromoting andorganizingKIPactivities,theUniversityofSouth Florida,theOperatingOrganizationinchargeofthehardwareandsoftwarewhichmakeKIPpossible,theUniversity ofNewMexico,whichdevelopsandevaluatesresearchandresourceconceptsfortheKIP,andtheInternational UnionofSpeleology,whichconductsoutreachtotheworldwidespeleologicalcommunity. TheKIPhashadabusyyear.Thiscorrespondscloselytothefirst12-monthperiodfollowingKIPsinitialsoft rollout;forthatreason,alotoftheworkwehavedonehasoccurredbehindthescenes.However,despiteits generallylowervisibility,theprogressmadebyKIPoverthisp eriodpositionsuswellforgrowthandexpansioninthe comingyears. Onebehind-the-scenesprojectistheKIPteamsworktoincludemoredatabasesofrawdatatomakeKIPafar strongerresourceformanyprofessionalkarstscientists.Itisimportantforuserstocontributetothegrowthofthese databasesbyaddingtheirownrelevantdata,orbyupdatingtheinformationalreadycontained.However,withouta qualitycontrolprocess,thequalityofthedatabasescouldbeseverelydegraded.Therefore,KIPhasdesigneda processthatenablesuserstobothcontributetoandupdatedatabasesstoredbyKIP,whileprovidingtheoriginal ownerofthedatabasesomecontrolovertheexactnatureofthosechanges.Thisqualitycontrolfeatureisessential inconvincingresearcherstoallowtheirdatatobemadeavailableinthismanner.Thisprocesshasbeendesigned, andspecificationsforimplementingitarenowinthehandsofKIPprogrammers. Dr. Alexander Klimchouk (courtesy, A. Klimchouk)KIPstaffhaveconductedandpostedsixoralhistorieswithsomeoftheleading namesinkarstscienceandcaveexploration,includingDr.DerekFord(Canada), JeanneGurnee(USA),Dr.WilliamR.Halliday(USA),Dr.AlexanderKlimchouk (Ukraine),Dr.HenrySchwartz(Canada),Dr.ElizabethL.White(USA),andDr.William B.White(USA).Thisprojectisongoing,andwehavetargetedmoreinterviewsubjects forthecomingyear.Wefeelthatitisimportanttopreservethewords,thoughtsand voicesoftheseindividualsastheirincrediblecareersmay,insomecases(butbyno meansall),enteraless-activephase. KIP,inconjunctionwiththeNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS),hasconducteda successfulpilotprojectofdigitizingbackissuesoftheNSSNewsandaddingthemto theKIPcatalog.ThisprojectwillnowbeexpandedtotheentirehistoryoftheNSS News.KIPisnowthesolesourceofNSSNewsissuesinelectronicformat,thus expandingthereachoftheNSSbeyonditsmembershipandtoanyonewithaninterest incavesandkarst,anywhereintheworld. Additionally,thereareplanstodigitizeanduploadbackissuesofNSSSpeleoDigestandNationalCaveand KarstManagementSymposiumproceedings.Non-NSSjournal shavealsobeencontactedregardingthepossibility ofgoingtoanonline,openaccessmodel,withKIPactingashost/publisher.Onesuchcooperativeventureiswith theAssociationforMexicanCaveStudies(AMCS).KIPisnowtheonlyelectronic,onlinesourceforpublications fromthreeoftheirseriesdatingfrom1965to1977. UniversityofSouthFloridagraduateassistants,workin gasKIPstaff,havecontinuedexpansionofthecontent catalog.Newitemsareaddedeveryweek,whichmakesforslowbutsteadygrowthofthesevitalmaterials.KIPstaff areexploringthepotentialofincludingonlinegeographic informationsystems(GIS)karstmappingcapabilitiesin KIP.Thisactionitemisstillintheresearchphase,aswehavebeguninvestigatingthedifferentinfrastructureoptions available.StafffromNCKRIandtheotherKIPpartnerorganizationshaveworkedtoraiseawarenessofKIPby publicizingitatseveralprofessionalconferencesviapostersessionsandpaperpresentationsinearthscience, informationscience,andkarststewardshipdisciplines.Some of the NSS and AMCS publications now available through the KIP

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9The Worlds Longest Cave DepositSnowyRiverisacavepooldepositthat extendsforover6kminapassagediscovered inFortStantonCave,northernSacramento Mountains,NewMexico.Ithasbeendescribed asprobablythelongestcavedepositknownon earth.Hydrological,geological,andgeomicrobiologicalstudyofthecave,andespecially SnowyRiver,isapartnershipofNCKRIwiththe BureauofLandManagement(BLM),Fort StantonCaveStudyProject,NewMexico BureauofGeologyandMineralResources,and theUniversityofNewMexico. Untilrecently,hydrogeol ogicinvestigations havebeenconductedatlowlevelsduetoalack offundingtosupportsystematicwork.However, inlateSummer2007,duringrarefloodingof SnowyRiver,NCKRIfundedDr.LewisLandto Snowy River deposit, Fort Stanton Cave, Lincoln County, New Mexico; view south (upstream).collectsamplesforstableisotopeandgeochemicalanalysis.Thefollowingyear,BLMgaveNCKRIpermissionto collectcoresamplesfromtheSnowyRiverpooldeposit.InMay2008,Dr.Landcollectednine2.54-cmdiameter coreswithahand-helddrillfittedwithawater-cooleddiamondbit.Thecoresshowthatthedepositislaminated. Eachcalcitelaminaprobablyrepresentsadistinctfloodingevent,thusthecoresmayprovidevaluable paleohydrologicandpaleoclimatologicalinformationaboutthatpartofthesouthwestU.S.Thusfar,onecorehas beensampledforstableisotopesofoxygenandcarbon,andalayernearthebaseofthedeposithasbeendatedby Dr.VictorPolyak,oftheUniversityofNewMexico,at~810yearsbasedonuranium-thoriummethods. Core from Snowy River pool deposit. Photos submitted by Lewis Land. Dr. Land holding a core extracted from the Snowy River deposit.Dr.PenelopeBoston,actingspokespersonfortheSnowyRiver project,ledsenatorialandcongressionalstaffintoSnowyRiverto illustrateconservationissuesbearingonthecaveanditsgroundwater catchmentbasin,andoncavesandkarstingeneral.ShealsoorganizedCarbonatePoolPrecipitatesThisproject,supportedbytheNationalScienceFoundation,studiestheroleofmicrobiologicalandgeological processesinthecreationofuniquecarbonatepoolprecipitatesthatappeartohaveabiologicalinfluenceintheir development,suchaspoolfingers,complexpoolfloortextures(e.g.meringue),u-loops,andwebulites(gauzyappearingconnectionsbetweenpoolprecipitates).Basedoninitialworkpublishedin2000,thiscollaborationby NCKRIgeomicrobiologistDr.PenelopeBoston,Dr.LeslieMelim (WesternIllinoisUniversity),andDr.DianaNorthup (UniversityofNewMexico)isinvestigatinggeochemical,m icrofossil,andothertypesofevidencetoshedlightonthe developmentofsuchstructures. thefirsttelevisionfilmingofSnowyRiver,forbroadcastontheDiscovery scienceandmanagementactivitiesispending. Channels IntotheUnknownwithJoshBernstein inlateFall 2008.AmajorproposalforBLMfundingofextensive

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10 In2006,theNewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResources (NMBGMR)beganconductingamulti-yearinvestigationofgroundwater residencetimeandrechargeconditionsinkarsticaquifersofthesouthern SacramentoMountainswatershed.Thisregionisthesourceareaforanumber ofstreamsthatrechargethekarsticSanAndreslimestoneaquiferinthe RoswellBasineastofthemountainsandtheSaltBasin/OteroMesaregionto thesouth.ThisprojectisfundedbythestateofNewMexicothroughtheOtero SoilandWaterConservationDistrict,andmaylaterbeextendedfarthersouth toincludeinvestigationsofgroundwaterresourcesbeneathOteroMesa.An interimprogressreportwasrecentlypublishedbyNMBGMRandisavailablefor freedownloadat: http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/geoscience/projects/sacramentos/SM_report_june08.pdf Bluff Spring, Otero County, New Mexico, in winter. The spring discharges from a perched aquifer near the contact of the San Andr es and Yeso formations. Photo by Lewis Land. NCKRIs contribution to this NMBGMR project is thro ugh Dr. Lewis Lands involvem ent in the application of environmental tracers to determine groundwater resi dence time. His collaborators at the Bureau include Dr. Geoffrey Rawling, Talon Newton, Stacy Timmons, Peggy Johnson, Patrick Walsh, Dr. Michael Timmons, Bonnie Frey, Br igitte Felix, and Dr. Trevor Kludt.Iron-ManganeseDepositsinCavesandDesertVarnishThisprojectbyNCKRIsDr.PenelopeBostonatNewMexicoTechisincollaborationwithbiologistDr.Diana NorthupandmineralogistDr.MichaelSpilde,bothoftheUniversityofNewMexico,andothercolleaguesincluding manystudentsfrombothinstitutions.Ithasbeenfundedby theNationalScienceFoundationonseveralconsecutive grantsforeightyears.Theycompletedrecentstudiesontherelationshipbetweenthetypesofmetal-using microorganismsinavarietyofcavesandthosethatappeartocontributetosurfacerockcoatings(desertvarnish). StudysitesincludeLechuguillaCaveandSpiderCaveinNewMexico,JewelCaveinSouthDakota,anddesert varnishsitesinCalifornia,Colorado,NewMexico,Utah,andtheAtacamaDesert,Chile.Workcontinueswiththe organismsisolatedfromtheseenvironments.NaicaMineCaveGeomicrobesAFebruary2008 NationalGeographic documentaryfilm-shootprovidedanopportunitytobeginthestudyof possiblemicrobialcontentsinfluidandsolidinclusionswithinenormousselenitecrystalsinageothermallyactive minesysteminChihuahua,Mexico.Nestsofupto5-mlongcr ystalscrowdinglimestonecaverooms,crystallineiron oxidewalldeposits,andaworkingtemperatureof60oC,combinedtomakeauniqueworkingenvironment.ItalysLa VentaCavingGroupandDr.PaoloFortifromtheUniversityofBologna,providedvitalcollaborationwiththeirice suitsandvaluablescientificcontributions.LaboratoryanalysisofthefluidandsolidinclusionscontinuesatNew MexicoTech.ThefinishedtelevisiondocumentarywillbebroadcastinlateNovember2008ontheNational GeographicChannel.MetProCorp.CaveMicroorganismMetabolicCapabilitiesPriorworkbyNCKRIsteamandcolleagueshasshownthatcavemicroorganismsmaypossessmanyunusual metabolicandchemicalpropertiesthatdistinguishthemfromtheirsurfacecounterparts.Industrialand pharmaceuticalinterestinthesecompoundsandmetaboliccapabilitieshasbeeninhibitedbythecomplexityof workingwithorganismstakenoftenfromfederallymanagedlands.Inapiloteffort,andinconsultationwithNPS solicitors,wehaveundertakenascreeningprogramformic robialcapabilitiespossiblypossessedbysomeofour caveisolatesandwhichinterestourprojectsponsor,Met-ProCorporation.IfanyofourorganismsprovetohaveSouthern Sacramento Mountains Wa tershed Investigation, New MexicopropertiesofinteresttoMet-Pro,thisprojectwillprovideaperfectproof-of-conceptfortestingthenewmethods inplacetoenablecommercialutilizationofnatural biologicalresourcespresentinourfederallands Atsuchatime,asMet-Proexpressesinterest indevelopinganymicrobialcapabilities,wewill turnoverthenegotiationstotheNationalParkService,BureauofLandManagement, U.S.ForestService,orotherrelevantagency.

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11 InJune2008,NASA-fundedaprojecttodevelopandfield-testapointspectrometerbasedonacousto-optic tunablefiltertechnologytodetectbiologicalsignaturesinsamplescollectedduringplanetarymissionstoMars,icy moons,orasteroids.Samplesthatindicatethepresenceoforganicsorotherbiomarkersofinterestwillbefurther analyzedusingaminiaturetime-of-flightmassspectrometertocharacterizetracelevelsofcomplexorganics.This projectisconductedincollaborationwithDr.NancyChanoverofNewMexicoStateUniversity,andusesvarious caveandsurfacemicrobiologicalandorganicmaterialsastestsubjectsforinstrumentdevelopment. Dr. Penelope Boston leads NCKRIs research and educational work in geomicrobology, with special emphasis on its extraterrestrial applications. Partners, sponsors, and colleagues include organizations, agencies, and scientists throughout the U.S.Microbes,theMoon,Mars,andBeyond: NCKRIProjectsonExtraterrestrialCavesandLifeFormsFiveexpeditionsfortheNASASpacewardBoundTeacherTraining Programhaveoccurredsince2006inanongoingpartnershipwithNASA AmesResearchCentertoprovideextremeenvironmentfieldscience experiencesforK-12educators.Thecurrentreportperiodencompasses expeditionstotheMojaveDesertandMt.Shasta,California.Dr.Penelope Bostonistheteamleaderforcave,karst,lavatube,andmicrobiology activities.TheMarchandJune2008tripsserved27teachersandinvolved 25scientists.TheprojectcontinuesintothecomingyearwithmoreMojave work,andexpeditionstotheCanadianArcticandFlindersRanges,Australia. Forthepast15years,NCKRIsDr.PenelopeBoston andUniversityofNewMexicocolleaguesDr.Diana Northup,Dr.MichaelSpilde,andothershavebeen pursuingstudiesonthegeomicrobialinhabitantsoflava tubesassurrogatesforpossiblemicrobialhabitatson theMoonandMars.In2007and2008,subprojectsin Hawaii,theAzores,Mexico,andOregonwereaddedto theongoingworkinNewMexicoandCalifornia.The primaryresearchfocusischaracterizationofthe microbialcommunitiespresentandtherolestheymay beplayinginsecondarymineraldepositsinlavatubes. Inaddition,followingonNASA-fundedprojectsfrom 2001through2006,withpartnersatMITandTechShot, Inc.,workcontinuesontheroleofextraterrestriallava tubes(theMoonandMars)infuturespaceexploration. ApartlyNCKRI-sponsoredworkshopontheseissues willbeheldinFallof2008toassesslavatubestudies vis-a-visNASAsgoals.Microbial colonies on the wa ll of a lava tube in the Republic of Korea. P hoto by George Veni. NASA Planetary Biology Intern, Blaire Steven, from Canada, boiling samples for a geomicrobiology experiment in Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico. Photo courtesy of Kenneth Ingham.NASAAmesResearchCenterfundedmathematicalmodeling usingcellularautomatatechniquesinanattempttoreproduce unusualmicrobialpatternsthatareseeninanumberofcaves. Thesebiovermiculationsappeartobeacombinationofbiological andphysicalprocesses.Inadditiontothemodeling,theteamis designinglongtermmonitoringexperimentsonlivingcavematsto studytheeffectsofchangingenvironmentalparameterstomat development.Non-NCKRIteammembersincludeDr.Keith SchubertandDr.ErnestoGomez(CaliforniaStateUniversity,San Bernardino),Dr.HenrySun(DesertResearchInstitute,LasVegas), andDr.ChrisMcKay(NASAAmesResearchCenter).

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12Cave and Karst Studies Mission StatementCaveandKarstStudiesatNewMexicoTech(NMT) istheacademicprogramassociatedwithNCKRIandis housedprimarilywithintheEarthandEnvironmentalSciencesDepartmentatNMT.Wearebuildingaprogramof caveandkarstresearchandteachingexcellence,drawingattentiontotheunparalleledcaveandkarstresourcesof NewMexicoandtheAmericanSouthwest,whilealsohelpingtobuildtheNationalInstitute. C&KNMT sharesNCKRIsgoalsandhasspecialobjectives,whichinclude: 1) Providetrainingforundergraduateandgraduatestudentsincaveandkarstscience.Theacademicscope includesgeology,mineralogy,karsthydrology,microbiology,soils,environmentalgeochemistry,modelingof karstsystemsincludingmicrometeorology,karstwaterresources,karst-relatedgeohazards,andthepotentialfor karstandcavefeaturesonotherplanetarybodiesincludingthemoon. 2) Developworld-classresearchfacilitiesinsupportofthisacademiceffortatNMTandwithpartnersaroundthe nation. 3) Promotetherecruitmentanddevelopmentofstudent sseekingcareersdealingwithkarstandcavetopics. 4) PromoteintegrationandgreaterawarenessofcaveandkarstscienceswithinthegreaterframeworkoftheEarth sciences. 5) Promoteawarenessoftheuniquenatureofkarstaquifersandtheirroleinprovidinggroundwaterresources. 6) Providecaveandkarsteducationalexperiencesto internsfromotheragenciesandorganizations. 7) BuilduponexistingrelationshipswiththeU.S.NationalParkService,ForestService,BureauofLand Management,andthecaveresourcesthattheymanage. 8) Provideanacademicresourceincaveandkarstexpertiseforotherstateandfederalagencies,educational entities,andthepublic. 9) Participateinmediacoverageofcaveandkarstissuesforprintandbroadcastvenueslocally,nationally,and internationally. 10) BringthepreciousandoftenfragilecaveandkarstenvironmentstotheattentionofK-12educatorsandstudents, andthepublic.CaveandKarstStudiesCoursesatNMTAvarietyofregularcoursesandspecialtopicsaretaughtbyDr.PenelopeBostononarotating2-yearfrequency. Forthisreportingperiod,thesehaveincluded: AdvancedTopicsinSpeleohydrology Astrobiology Astrogeology:MarsandBeyond Cave&KarstSystemsandCave&KarstLaboratory ExtraterrestrialDissolutionalLandforms FrontiersofGeobiologyandGeomicrobiology KarstTufaSpringMoundResearch ModelImpactEnergeticsofEarthandMars MoonmilkResearch ResearchExperienceonCavePearlOrigins Duringthisreportsperiod,Dr.BostonsupervisedtwoPh.D.students,twoMastersstudents,oneundergraduate seniorthesis,andfourindependentstudyprojects.Dr.LewisLandservedonthreeNMTgraduatestudent committees,includingthatofKevinStaffordwhosuccessfullydefendedhisdissertationinMarch2008andsoon aftersecuredatenure-trackpositionasanassistantprofessorofgeologyatStephenF.AustinUniversityin Nacogdoches,Texas. STUDENTACTIVITIESAspartofNCKRIsbroadereducationaloutreachefforts, ExecutiveDirectorDr.GeorgeVenijoinedthe thesiscommitteeofKyleCunningham,whoispursuingaMastersdegreeinenvironmentalscience atTheUniversityofTexasatSanAntonio;herresearchfocusesonmonitoringgroundwater qualityinthekarsticEdwardsAquifer,Texas.

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13 Visiting Spanish graduate student, Andrea Martin-Perez, sampling a speleothem in Fort Stanton Cave. Photo courtesy of Kenneth Ingham.SnowyRiver,FortStantonCave,NewMexicoNCKRIs CaveandKarstStudiesProgram hasfacilitateda NMTSeniorCivilEngineeringDesignClassprojecttocreatean entryshaftandsecuritybunkerfortheproposeddrilledrouteto SnowyRiver.Theshaftwillmakefutureresearcheasierand possibleinmanycases,inadditiontoimprovingsafetyand preservingmicroclimatological andbiologicalconditionsinthat uniquesectionofthecave.STUDENTPROJECTSDuringthe2007-2008periodcoveredbythisAnnualReport,the CaveandKarstStudiesProgram ofNCKRIhas beenengagedinthelargestnumberofongoingandcontinuingprojectsinitshistory.Excellentstudents,extensive grantsubmissionactivities,thenewLaboratoryResearchAssociate,Dr.RasimaBakhtiyarova,andongoingsupport byLisaMajkowskiindevelopingbudgets,grants,andfundingopportunitieshasbeeninvaluableingrowingthe activeresearchprogramtothislevelofaccomplishment.Manyofthestudentshavebeeninvolvedwithprojects describedontheprecedingpages.Followingareprojectsledbystudents,orwherestudentshaveplayedmajor roles.MicrometeorologyofCavesInconjunctionwithDr.JohnWilsonandDr.AndersJorgensenofNMT,Dr.ScottTyleroftheUniversityof NevadainReno,andPaulBurgerofCarlsbadCavernsNationalPark,the CaveandKarstProgram isdeveloping physics-basedmodelsofmicrometerologicalprocessesincaves.BuildingontheworkofformerNCKRIScholar, SetsukoShindo,weareextendingthemodelingeffortsandaddingamajorfieldcomponentofopticalfiberandeddy correlationanalyses.ApilotfieldeffortinMarch2008resultedinpresentationstobegivenatthe2008Geological SocietyofAmericaConvention.MastersstudentRavindraDwivediisfocusingonboththemodelingeffortsand learningtoconducthighprecisionfieldmeasurementsofphysicalandchemicalparametersinthechallenging environmentsofcaves.OriginofMoonmilkThislong-termprojectcontinueswiththeworkofMastersstudentMeganCurry,underthesupervisionofDr. PenelopeBoston,andincollaborationwithDr.DianaNorthupoftheUniversityofNewMexicoandcolleaguesfrom severalotherinstitutions.Theoriginofpastymineraldepositsknowncollectivelyasmoonmilkhaslongbeen debated.Evidenceforbiological,geochemical,andphysicalprocesseshaveallbeenfoundbydifferentinvestigators. Wearetryingtodiscoverhowtheseformationsdependonthosedifferentprocessesandifenvironmentalconditions likemoisture,organicnutrients,temperature,orunderlyi ngbedrocktypeaffectthedevelopmentortypeofmoonmilk produced.Weareworkinginavarietyofcavesfromlimestonekarsttolavatubes,withfieldsitesinAlaska, California,Colorado,andNewMexico.SulfuricacidcavesandsulfurspringsofTabasco,MexicoResearchcontinuesongeomicrobiological,mineralogical,andgeologicalaspectsofthislong-runningproject (1998-present).Ph.D.studentLauraRosales-Lagardeisworkingtodeterminethegeologicaloriginsofthehydrogen sulfideandothergasesandwatersfl owingintoCuevadeVillaLuzandothersulfurcavesandspringsintheregion ofsouthernTabasco,Mexico.Dr.PenelopeBostonandcolleaguesfromtheUniversityofNewMexicoarestudying thegeomicrobiologyofthesesystems.RosalesandBostonledateamofmuseumdesignersandeducatorsfrom ChicagosMuseumofScienceandIndustrythroughCuevadeVillaLuz(theprimarysulfuricacidcaveinthearea) aspartoftheirdevelopmentofanewexplorationscienceexhibitscheduledforthatmuseumin2011,entitled Explore:BluePlanet,RedPlanet Beads-on-a-string structures from the Karst Information Portals scanning electron microscopy database of cave microbial images; courtesy, Diana Northup.

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CoffeeCaveCoffeeCaveislocatedinthelowerPecosRiver regionofsoutheasternNewMexico,inthemiddle PermianSevenRiversFormation.Itisarectilinear gypsummazecavewithatleastfourstratigraphically distinctlevels.Morphologicalfeaturesthroughoutthe caveprovideunequivocalevidenceofhypogenic speleogenesis(cavedevelopmentfromrisingwaters)in aconfinedaquifersystem.Morphologicfeaturesin individualcavelevelsincludeacompletesuitethat definesoriginalrisingflowpaths,rangingfrominletsfor hypogenicfluids(feeders)throughtransitionalforms (risingwallchannels)toceilinghalf-tubeflowfeatures andfluidoutlets(cupolasandexposedoverlyingbeds). Passagemorphologydoesnotsupportoriginsbasedon epigenicprocesses(descendingwaters)andlateral development,althoughthepresenceoffine-grained sedimentsinthecavesuggestsminimaloverprintingby backflooding.Itislikelythatadditionalhypogenickarst phenomenaarepresentinthevicinityofCoffeeCave becauseregionalhydrologicconditionsareoptimumfor confinedspeleogenesis,withartesiandischargestill activeintheregion. Map and cross-sections of Coffee Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Figure provided by Dr. Kevin Stafford. This reinterpretation of the origins of Coffee Cave has been documented in a chapter of Dr. Kevin Staffords doctoral dissertation, and has been published in a 2008 issue of the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. Dr. Stafford was lead investigator on the project. Dr. Lewis Land provided regional hydrologic context for the study and was second author. Dr. Alexander Klimchouk, Visiting NCKRI Scholar 2006-2007 and Executive Director of the Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology is third author.Salt Basin Aquifer Assessment TheSaltBasinisatectonicdepressionofmostlyPermian-agecarbonaterocksthatstraddletheNew Mexico/Texasborder.ThebasinisboundedbytheGuadalupeMountainsontheeast,theSacramentoMountainson thenorth,andOteroMesaonthewest.Priortoagriculturaldevelopment,groundwaterinthebasindischargedto salineplayasinthebasincenter,hencethefeaturesname.Sincethe1940s,largeamountsofwaterhavebeen pumpedforirrigatedagriculture,mostlyintheTexasportion.Additionally,stronginteresthasbeenexpressedinthe basinasapotentialfuturewatersupplyforElPaso,CiudadJuarez,andLasCruces.Thiscurrentandproposed exploitationofthegroundwaterresourcesoftheSaltBasinhashighlightedtheneedfortheirlong-termmanagement. StartinginSummer2007,weundertooka3-yearassessmentofthepotentialwaterresourcesofthearea.The projectissponsoredbytheInterstateStreamCommissionandco-managedbetweenDr.PenelopeBostonandNew MexicoTechHydrologyProfessor,Dr.FredPhillips.Thre eNCKRIstudentscholars,AndreRitchie,SophiaSigstedt, andTravisSwanson,areengagedinthishydrologicalassessment.Gypsum Karstification & E vaporite Microbial Forms Ph.D.studentKevinStafford(graduatedMay2008)workedintensivelyforthepastthreeyearsonmapping, describing,andtabulatingkarstfeaturesontheGypsumPlainareaofwestTexasandeasternNewMexico.Healso conductedstudiesonthemineralogicaltexturesoftheevapor ites,especiallythesurfaceremobilizedgypsitelayer. MastersstudentMeganCurrydidpreliminaryworkonsomeaspectsofthemicrobiologicalinhabitantsofthis biologicallychallengingenvironment.SomeoftheorganismshavebeenshowntowithstandMars-likelevelsofhigh intensityandshortwavelengthultravioletradiation,extremedessication,ultra-lowpressures(20mb),anda100% CO2atmosphereaspartofMarssimulationtestsinpartnershipwithTechShot,Inc.inIndiana. 14

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15STUDENTPUBLICATIONSRosales-Lagarde,L.,Boston,P.J.,Campbell,A.,and Stafford,K.W.,2008.Possiblestructuralconnection betweenChichnVolcanoandthesulfur-richspringsof VillaLuzCave(a.k.a.CuevadelasSardinas),southern Mexico. BulletinoftheAssociationforMexicanCave Studies(Austin,TX) 19(7):177-184. RosalesLagarde,L.,Boston,P.J.,Pullin,M.,Stafford, K.W.,2007.Exploracindelaextensiondela espeleognesisporcidosulfricoenlareginnortede Chiapas,surdeTabasco,Mxico.VIIICongreso NacionalMexicanodeEspeleologa,UninMexicanade AgrupacionesEspeleolgicas,Cuetzalan,Puebla,2-5 Febrero,Memorias,p.65-66. Rosales-Lagarde,L.,Spilde,M.,Boston,P.J.,Campbell, A.,Pullin,M.,andStafford,K.W.,2007.Possible regionalgroundwaterconnections:ChemistryofH2SrichspringseastofElChichonVolcano: in Espndola, J.M.,Arce,J.L.,andMacas,J.L.eds.,Proceedingsof theCommemorativeConferenceElChichnVolcano: Twenty-fiveyearslater.UniversidadNacional AutnomadeMxico,InstitutodeGeologa,Publicacin Especial6.SanCristbaldelasCasas,Chiapas, Mxico,p.95. Stafford,K.W.,2008.Cavernousporosityand associatedsulfatediagenesisintheCastileFormation: EddyCounty,NewMexicoandCulbersonCounty, Texas.WestTexasGeologicalSocietyBulletin47(6):1417,20-26. Stafford,K.W.,Land,L.,andKlimchouk,A.,2008. HypogenicspeleogenesiswithinSevenRivers Evaporites:CoffeeCave,EddyCounty,NM. Journalof CaveandKarstStudies 70(1):47-61. Stafford,K.W.,Nance,R.,Rosales-Lagarde,L.,and Boston,P.J.,2008.Epigeneandhypogenekarst manifestationsoftheCastileFormation:EddyCounty, NewMexicoandCulbersonCounty,Texas,USA. InternationalJournalofSpeleology 37(2):83-98. Stafford,K.W.,Rosales-Lagarde,L.,andBoston,P.J., 2008.Castileevaporitekarstpotentialmapofthe GypsumPlain,EddyCounty,NewMexicoand CulbersonCounty,Texas:AGISmethodological comparison. JournalofCaveandKarstStudies 70(1):35-46. NCKRI Scholar Kevin Stafford collecting a sediment core for analysi s from a Texas cave. Photo by George Veni. NCKRI Scholar Laura Rosales Lagarde (right) with Ramon Espinosa examining roots in a lava tube in San Juan, Morelos, Mexico Photo by Kenneth Ingham.

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OUTREACH16NewNCKRILogoAnewlogowasadoptedbyNCKRItoreflectNCKRIsorganizationalchangefromaninstitutewithintheNational ParkServicetoanindependentnon-profitcorporationadministeredbyNewMexicoTech.Itelegantlyrepresents cavesasnotsimplyisolatedundergroundfeaturesbutintegralcomponentsofsurfacekarstlandscapes.Graphic artistBethFratesiwascommissionedtocreatethenewlogo,whichwasacceptedinOctober2007.Bethisalso completingherPh.D.inkarstgeologyattheUniversityofSouthFlorida,akeyNCKRIpartnerintheKarst InformationPortalandotheractivities. PartnershipsWhether formal by contract or informal by casually working together, partnerships are key to NCKRIs success:NCKRI HeadquartersPessimistswarnabouttoomanycooksruiningmeals.Theyoverlookhowteameffortscancombinebroad experienceandinsightstocreatefeasts,asinthecaseofNCKRIHeadquarters.Thebuildingisbeingdesigned throughthecombinedeffortsofNCKRIwithitsthreefoundingpartners:thefederalgovernmentthroughtheNational ParkService,theStateofNewMexicothroughNewMexicoTech,andtheCityofCarlsbad,whichwillholdthetitle tothebuilding.WorkingwithNCAArchitects&Planners,fromAlbuquerque,NewMexico,progresshasbeenslower thannormalasteammembersrefinethedesignintoanoutstandingmodelofsustainableconstructionthatallows NCKRItoconductresearchandbusinessinamplelaboratory,library,andofficespace,whileeducatingthepublic abouttheimportanceofcavesandkarstthoughitsmuseum,classrooms,andbookstore.Withtechnicalexpertise fromBatConservationInternational,NCKRIHeadquarterswillbetheworldsfirstbuildingtoincludeabatroostas partofitsdesign.Theroostwillbemonitoredwithcameras,microphones,andprobes.FrankBinneyand Associates,Woodacre,California,isdesigningthemuseumplans,thatwillincludeseveralunique,state-of-the-art exhibits,someofwhichwilltieintothebatroost,rainwaterharvestingsystem,andground-sourceheatpump,to combinesoundenvironmentallyfriendlydesignwithNCKRIsresearchandeducationalprograms.Constructionis expectedtobeginneartheendof2008.NCKRIHeadquarterswillbethefirstbuildingoftheCascades redevelopmentareaalongthebeautifulPecosRiverneardowntownCarlsbad. Architectural perspectives of NCKRI Headquarters. Left: view northwest from the Pecos River toward downtown Carlsbad. Right: eastward view toward the Pecos River.

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17NewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResources(NMBGMR)NCKRIshydrogeologistDr.LewisLandalsoworksforNMBGMRandservesasaliaisontofacilitatethe exchangeofinformation,expertise,andtechnicalservices.Duringthisreportperiod,heassistedNMBGMRwith geologicfieldmappingoftheBitterLakesandLakeMcMillanNorthtopographicquadrangles,aspartofNMBGMRs StateMapproject,incooperationwiththeU.S.GeologicalSurveysNationalCooperativeGeologicMappingProgram ( http://ncgmp.usgs.gov ).LakeMcMillanNorthisanareanorthofCarlsbadwithabundantgypsumcaves,sinkholes, andothergypsumkarstfeaturesassociatedwithbothsurficialdissolutionandhypogenicprocesses,theresultof upwardleakagefromtheunderlyingSanAndresaquiferthroughgypsumconfiningbedsintheSevenRivers Formation(seeCoffeeCavereport,p.14).ApreliminaryversionoftheLakeMcMillanNorthmapandreportare availableforfreedownloadat: http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps /geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=167 Seep.4-5forasummaryofDr.LandsworkintheRoswellArtesianBasin,whichincludesBitterLakes.BitterLakes mapandreportareavailableat: http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=151 Cavernous escarpment along the McMillan Reservoir. Photo by George Veni.ConferencesNCKRIparticipatedinandsponsored(*)numerousconferences,includingboothswithdisplaysatthe: NationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS)Convention(Indiana,July2007) FederationofLatinAmericanandCaribbeanSpeleologicalAssociationsCongress(PuertoRico,August2007) InternationalConferenceon KarstHydrogeologyandEcosystems(Kentucky,August2007) U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyNon-pointSourcePollutionWorkshop(Texas,August,2007) *NationalCaveandKarstManagementSymposium(Missouri,October2007) U.S.ForestServiceCaveConservationCaf(Washington,D.C.,October2007) GeologicalSocietyofAmericaConvention(Colorado,October2007) SouthwesternRegionWinterTechnicalMeetingoftheNSS(NewMexico,December2007) AmericanGeophysicalUnionConvention(California,December,2007) AmericanPlanningAssociationConvention(Nevada,April2008) *U.S.GeologicalSurveyKarstInterestGroupWorkshop(Kentucky,May2008) *KarstWatersInstitutesymposium-KarstfromRecenttoReservoirs:InternationalConferenceonPaleokarstand Multi-permeabilityFlowSystems (SouthDakota,June2008). NCKRIspresenceandactivitiesattheseeventshasbeenvi taltostrengtheningrelationshipswiththecaveandkarst communityandintroducingNCKRItokeypeopleandorganizationsoutsideofthosecommunities. Dr.LandservedontheNMBGMRsearchcommitteefora newhydrologist,whichhiredTalonNewtoninDecember, 2007.NMBGMRfunctionsasthefocalpointfortheNew MexicoGeologicalSociety(NMGS).Dr.LandwasNMGS Presidentin2007andhisfive-yeartermofofficeonthe NMGSExecutiveCommitteewillconcludeattheendof2008. HisresponsibilitiesontheExecutiveCommitteethisyear includedre-writingtheguidelinesforNMGSfallfield conferences. NCKRIisalsothemajorsponsorofthe15thInternational CongressofSpeleology(ICS).AfunctionoftheInternationalUnion ofSpeleology,theICSistheworldspremierspeleological conferenceandisheldonlyonceeveryfouryears.The15thICSwill beinKerrville,Texas,inconjunctionwiththeNationalSpeleological Societysannualconvention.ExecutiveDirectorDr.GeorgeVeniis Chairmanofthe15thICS,andservesonthegoverningboardofthe InternationalUnionofSpeleology.NCKRIBoardChairmanHazel Medville,aswellasotherboardmembersandmanyNCKRIpartners arealsoonthe15thICSOrganizingCommittee.

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18 KarstContaminationDiagramKarstgroundwatersvulnerabilitytopollutionisdifficu ltforpeopletovisualize.WhileastudentatNewMexico TechasaNCKRIScholar,Dr.KevinStaffordproducedtheKarstContaminationDiagramtoillustrateinconceptually simplewayshowmanyhumanactivitiesoverkarstaquiferscaneasilydegradethequalityofpublicwatersupplies. Thediagramislaminatedanddouble-sided,withthereversesideinSpanish,translatedbyNewMexicoTech NCKRIScholarLauraRosales-Lagarde.Thediagramisavailableasateachingtoolforallages. The Mystery of Black Water CaveDr.KevinStaffordandLisaMajkowski co-authoredNCKRIsfirstchildrensbook, TheMysteryofBlackWaterCave (in press).Thestory,centeredonapuzzling pollutionproblemwiththewaterqualityin BlackWaterCave,hasagroupofcave animalssolvingthemystery.Thebookis gearedtowardelementary-agedstudents andintroducesthemtotrogloxenesRandy RaccoonandJakeSnake,troglophiles BethieBatandPennyPackrat,troglobites Mrs.FishandSallySalamander,and severalothercavecreatures.Inadditionto thebook,StaffordandMajkowski producedateachersguide,which expandsoncavegeology,geomorphology, hydrology,andbiologyaswellashuman impactsoncaves.Theguideincludesa mapexerciserelatedtothestory, suggestionsforstudentprojects,andalist ofcaveandkarstorganizations.Education

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DistinguishedLectureSeriesNCKRIsDistinguishedLectureSeriesisapubliceducationserviceprovidedtotheCityofCarlsbadand surroundingcommunities.Itfeaturespeoplewhohavemademajorcontributionstotheunderstandingofcavesand karst,withanemphasisoncurrenthottopics.TheseriesoccursinpartnershipwithNewMexicoStateUniversity Carlsbad,withthegenerousassistanceofDr.RickWiedemann,whichhoststhewell-attendedevents.Twolectures weregivenin2008: GeologicalandBiologicalDiscoveriesatSistemaZacatn: NewTechnologiesinUnderwaterCaveExploration MarcusGary,chiefgeologistofEnvironmentalL.L.P.,Buda,Texas,discussedtheuniqueexplorationandstudy ofSistemaZacatn,awater-filledcavesysteminnortheasternMexicothatincludestheworldsdeepestknown cenote(sinkhole)ElZacatn.GaryispartofaresearchteamworkingintheDEepPhreaticTHermaleXplorer (DEPTHX)project,fundedbyNASA.TheDEPTHXteamhasbeendevelopingaroboticsubmarinethatcould somedaybeusedtoexplorethesub-iceoceansofJupitersmoonEuropa.Garysteamofexplorershasbeen testingtheroboticsubmarineinSistemaZacatn,usingittomapthecenotes,aswellascollectbiological, geologicalandhydrologicalsamples.Garysgroundbreakingworkhasattractedinternationalacclaim.RiverBlitz2008SeveralNCKRIemployeesjoinedtheannualRiverBlitz,an annualcommunitycleanupdayalongthePecosRiver.NCKRI teamedwiththePecosValleyGrottooftheNational SpeleologicalSocietytoworkontheareaneartheMcMillan Dam.Twopickuptruckswereloadedwithsorted,recyclable trash.NCKRIwasafinancialsponsorfortheevent,andDr. LewisLandlecturedonthekarst-relatedissuesleadingtothe failureoftheMcMillanReservoir. NCKRI and Pecos Valley Grotto RiverBlitz2008 team. Photo courtesy of Bill Weston.CommunityNCKRILecturesandPublicInvolvementNCKRIregularlyreceivesrequeststogivepublic lecturesonitsstatusandoncavesandkarst.During thisreportperiod,Dr.LewisLandhasspokentothe Roswell,NewMexico,RotaryClubandfor BottomlessLakesStatePark.ExecutiveDirectorDr. GeorgeVenihasspokentotheCarlsbadChamber ofCommerce,CarlsbadDowntownLionsClub, CarlsbadHeightsLionsClub,andtotheAction CouncilforEmployment.Dr.Veniisalsoanactive memberoftheCarlsbadChamberofCommerce 19 TectonicInfluencesontheOriginofCavesintheGuadalupeMountains,NewMexicoandTexas HarveyDuChene,pastNCKRIBoardChairman, reconstructedthegeologicalhistorywhichresulted inthecreationoftheGuadalupeMountainsandtheir worldfamouscaves.Duchenetransformedahighly complexandtechnologicalsubjectintoaclearand concisepresentationenjoyedbyscientistsandnonscientistsalike. andCarlsbadRotaryClub,regularlyupdatingthemonNCKRIactivities.Dr.PatriciaSeiser,NCKRIsKarst StewardshipVolunteer,isNCKRIsliaisonwiththeNati onalSpeleologicalSocietyandcaverescueactivitiesin southeasternNewMexico.Slaughter Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Photo by George Veni.

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20 Board of Directors Executive Director Operations Division Technical Division TBH: To Be Hired Phase 1:Opening of NCKRI Headquarters (ca. 01/2010) Phase 2:FY 2010 2011 Phase 3:FY 2011 2013 (all hiring periods and positions dependent on available funding and needs) Operations Division Administrative Coordinator Administrative Assistant TBH Phase 3 Computer & GIS Coordinator TBH Phase 1 Advancement Coordinator TBH Phase 1 Publications Coordinator TBH Phase 2 or 3 Technical Division Academic Program Associate Director Administrative & Research Assistant Education Program Associate Director TBH 2008 Education Program Technician TBH Phase 3 Information Sciences Program Associate Director TBH Phase 1 Information Sciences Technician TBH Phase 3 Research Program Associate Director TBH Phase 3 Research Hydrogeologist Research Program Technician TBH Phase 2 Resource Stewardship Program Associate Director TBH Phase 2

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CommitteesoftheBoardofDirectorscontinuedtoworkontheKarstInformationPortal(KIP),Research DirectionsforNCKRI,museumplans,andthedefinitionofmembershipclassesforNCKRI.TheBoard approvedthefollowingactionsandactivitiesduringfiscalyear2007-2008: Strategicplanninggoals PoliciesforNCKRIemployeeandnon-employeetravel ContractwithFrankBinneyandAssociatestodesignaconceptualexhibitplanforamuseumonthe groundfloorofthenewNCKRIHeadquartersBuildinginCarlsbad,NewMexico ContractwithDr.AlexanderKlimchouktoassistwiththeupgradingoftheonlineSpeleogenesis journalanditscontributionstoKIP Fundingtotestanexperimentalmathematicalapproachtoteaching,inpartnershipwiththeNational NumeracyNetwork,bynumericallymodelingspeleogenesiswithstudentsfromNewMexicoTech, UniversityofNewMexico,andtheUniversityofSouthFlorida FacilitationofthedesignagateattheproposednewentranceforFortStantonCave,NewMexico Majorsponsorshipofthe15thInternationalCongressofSpeleology,tobeheldinKerrville,Texasin July2009 SponsorshipofameetingoftheU.S.GeologicalSurveyKarstInterestGroup,heldinBowlingGreen, KentuckyinMay2008 SponsorshipoftheKarstWatersInstitutesymposium, KarstfromRecenttoReservoirs:International ConferenceonPaleokarstandMulti-permeabilityFlowSystems ,heldinRapidCity,SouthDakota,June 200821 The May 2008 NCKRI Board meeting was held in NCKRIs offices in Carlsbad, New Mexico, which are leased from the Permian Basin Regional Training Center until NCKRI Headquarters is constructed. Photo by George Veni.

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BOARDOFDIRECTORSHazelMedvilleChairman Membersince2005;Chairmansince2006;BachelorsdegreeinStatisticsandComputerScience HazelisaretiredComputerEngineer/ManagerwhonowspendsmuchofhertimesurveyingcavesinHawaii andColorado.ShehasbeenthePresidentPro-TemandGovernmentLiaisonfortheNationalSpeleological Society,iscurrentlythedirectoroftheWestVirginiaandHawaiiSpeleologicalSurveys,andisactivein organizingthe15thInternationalCongressofSpeleology.DalePateViceChairman Memberfrom2000-2002,2006topresent,andhasbeenViceChairmansince2006;BachelorsinGeography DalehasbeentheNationalParkServiceActingCaveandKarstProgramCoordinatorsinceMay2007,anda SupervisoryPhysicalScientist(CaveSpecialist)atCarlsbadCavernsNationalParksinceJuly1991.RichardCervantesSecretary/Treasurer Membersince2005;PermanentpositionrepresentingNewMexicoTech;MastersDegreeinAccountingand InformationSystems,andisaCPA RichardistheAssociateVicePresidentofResearchandEconomicDevelopmentwithNewMexicoTech;he isresponsibleforadministrativeaffairsincludingbudgetpreparation,fiscalandprojectmanagement,proposal developmentandcontractnegotiation.CarolMcCoy MembersinceJuly2007;PermanentpositionrepresentingtheNationParkService(NPS);LawDegree, MastersDegreeinPublicPolicy,BachelorsDegreeinEnvironmentalStudies CarolistheChiefofthePlanning,EvaluationandPermitsBranchoftheNPSGeologicResourcesDivision; shemanagesamulti-disciplinarystaffthatprovidespolicyandtechnicalexpertisetoalllevelsoftheNPS organizationonavarietyofgeologicandmineralsmanagementissues,includingcaveandkarstresource stewardship.Shehasalsoworkedforalawfirm,theU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,andGeorge WashingtonUniversity.HarryBurgess Membersince2005,PermanentpositionappointedbytheMayorofCarlsbad,NewMexico;Bachelorsin IndustrialRelations;MastersinFireandEmergencyManagementAdministration;MastersofBusiness Administration HarryrepresentstheCityofCarlsbadinitsparticipationwithNCKRI.HeisCarlsbadsCityAdministrator,but alsohasacavingbackground,havingworkedpreviouslywiththeNationalParkServiceandbeingontheBoard oftheNationalCaveRescueCommission.HealsotaughtcavingfortheNationalOutdoorLeadershipSchool.Dr.RonaldT.Green MembersinceNovember2007;BachelorsinIndustrialEngineering;BachelorsinGeology;Mastersin Geophysics;Ph.D.inHydrology RonaldisaHydrogeologistwiththeSouthwestResearchInstitute,SanAntonio,TexasJimGoodbar Charterboardmember;BachelorsinParkandRecreationManagement,alsoGraduateStudiesinCave& KarstResources,Geology,andGeomorphology JimworksfortheU.S.BureauofLandManagement(BLM)astheSeniorCaveandKarstResources SpecialistwiththeWashingtonOffice.JimalsoservesastheBLMNewMexicoStateCaveCoordinatorandas theSeniorCaveandKarstSpecialistfortheBLMPecosDistrictandtheCarlsbadFieldOffice.Hisdutystation islocatedinCarlsbad,NewMexico,andhisprimarydutiesaretoestablishpolicyandprovideguidanceoncave andkarstresourcesmanagementtoBLMfieldofficesacrosstheUnitedStates,serveastheinternationalpoint ofcontactforallcave/karstrelatedissuesandrequestsforassistance,developandconducttrainingcoursesfor cave/karstresources,anddevelopbestmanagementpracticesforlanduseactionsinkarstlands. 22

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Dr.John(Jack)HessMemberatLarge Membersince2005;MemberatLargeofExecutiveCommittee;Ph.D.inGeology JackistheExecutiveDirectoroftheGeologicalSocietyofAmerica(GSA).PriortojoiningGSAin2001,he wasExecutiveDirectoroftheDivisionofHydrologicSciencesandVicePresidentforAcademicAffairsatthe DesertResearchInstituteinNevada.JohncurrentlyservesontheboardoftheKarstWatersInstitute,and LongsPeakCounciloftheBoyScoutsofAmerica,aswellasNCKRI.JohnisaFellowoftheGeologicalSociety ofAmerica,theNationalSpeleologicalSociety,andtheCaveResearchFoundation.Dr.KathleenLavoie Membersince2006;Ph.D.inBiologicalSciences KathleenisaBiologistandProfessorandDeanoftheFacultyofArtsandSciencesattheStateUniversityof NewYorkCollegeatPlattsburgh.Since1974,shehasstudiedthebiologyofanimalsthatliveincaves.Her researchdealswithmicrobiology,geomicrobiology,cavecrickets,sulfurcavesystems,andinvertebrate ecologywithasmatteringofworkonbats.KathleenwashonoredtoreceivetheScienceAwardfromthe NationalSpeleologicalSocietyin2007inrecognitionofherlongtermcontributionstocavescience.Dr.DonaldMcFarlane Membersince2005;BachelorsandMastersdegreesinZoology,andaPh.D.inEcology DonaldisaProfessorofBiology,TheClaremontColleges,California.HisprofessionalinterestsareinLate Pleistocenemammalianextinctionsandpaleoecologicalrecordsfromcaves.Hehasbeencavingsince1973, anddoneresearchintheWestIndies,Mexico,Ecuador,E urope,Kenya,NewZealand,Malaysia,andtheU.S.Dr.DianaNorthup MembersinceMay2006;Ph.D.inBiology DianaisProfessorEmeritaintheUniversityLibrariesattheUniversityofNewMexicoandaVisiting AssociateProfessorofBiology,Albuquerque,NewMexico.Since1984,hehasstudiedorganismsthatlivein caves.DianaandhercolleaguesontheSLIME(SubsurfaceLifeInMineralEnvironments)Teaminvestigate microbialinteractionswithrocksurfacesincavesandindesertvarnish.RandallOrndorff MemberfromDecember2000-2004and2006topres ent;BachelorsandMastersdegreesingeology RandalliscurrentlytheAssociateProgramCoordinatorfortheU.S.GeologicalSurvey(USGS)National CooperativeGeologicMappingProgram.HehasbeenwiththeUSGSsince1981asageologicmapperand expertonthegeologyoftheCambrian-OrdoviciancarbonaterocksoftheCentralAppalachiansandOzarks.His karstworkincludesgeologiccontrolsandframeworksonkarstdevelopmentoftheAppalachiansandOzarks.GearySchindel Membersince2004;BachelorsdegreeinG eologyandaMastersdegreeinGeography. GearyistheChiefTechnicalOfficeroftheEdwardsAquiferAuthorityinSanAntonio,Texasanddirectsthe scienceresearchprograms.TheEdwardsAquiferisamajorkarstaquiferthatprovideswatertomorethan1.7 millionpeopleinsouth-centralTexas.Dr.JerryTrout Charterboardmember;Ph.D.inEducation JerryiswiththeU.S.ForestService(USFS)attheCoronadoNationalForestinTucson,Arizona;he coordinatesallphasesofcavemanagement,conservation,andresearchforUSFSintheUnitedStates.He becamethefirstcavespecialistforUSFSin1972.Jerry sfirstcavingtripwasinCarlsbadCavernin1947.Dr.H.LenVacher Membersince2005;Ph.D.inGeology LenisaProfessorofGeologyattheUniversityofSouthFloridawherehehastaughthydrogeologyformany yearsandstudiedyoungcarbonateislandsexperiencingdiagenesis(settingsforeogenetickarst).Histeaching andsponsoredresearchnowfocusesonmathconceptsforgeologistsandcross-curriculumquantitative literacy.OneofthefoundingdirectorsoftheNationalNumeracyNetwork,anonprofitmembershiporganization promotingquantitativeliteracy,heisnowamanagingeditorofitsnewopen-accessjournal, Numeracy 23

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NCKRI STAFFDr. George Veni Executive DirectorDr.Veniisaninternationallyrecognizedhydrogeologistspecializingincavesandkarstterrains.PriortoNCKRI, heownedandservedasprincipalinvestigatorofGeorgeVeniandAssociatesformorethan20years.Hehas alsoconductedextensivekarstresearchthroughouttheUnitedStatesandinseveralothercountries,servedas theExecutiveSecretaryoftheNationalSpeleologicalSocietysSectionofCaveGeologyandGeographyfor11 yearsandPresidentoftheTexasSpeleologicalSurveyfor13years,andhasservedasamemberofthe governingboardoftheInternationalUnionofSpeleologysince2002.Heisasadoctoralcommitteeadvisorfor geologicalandbiologicaldissertationsatTheUniversityofTexasandteacheskarstgeosciencecoursesasan adjunctprofessorforWesternKentuckyUniversity.Hehaspublishedandpresentedover160papers,including fourbooks,onhydrogeology,biology,andenvironmentalmanagementinkarstterrains.Dr. Penelope Boston Academic Program Associate DirectorDr.BostonadministersNCKRIsCaveandKarstStudiesprogramatNewMexicoTech.Bostonteachesclasses incaveandkarstscience,geomicrobiology,astrobiology,andglobalsystems,andsupervisesasuiteofgraduate studentsworkingonthosetopics.Dr.BostonreceivedaNationalResearchCouncilPostdoctoralFellowshipat NASA-LangleyResearchCenterinVirginia,hasheldpositionsatNCAR,theUniversityofColorado,Universityof NewMexico,andfoundedandoperatedherownnon-profitresearchinstitution(ComplexSystemsRes.,Inc.)for 14yearsbeforejoiningNCKRIin2002.SheisaFellowoftheNASAInstituteforAdvancedConcepts,Past PresidentoftheAssociationofMarsExplorers,SeniorEditorofthejournal Astrobiology ,memberoftheNASA AdvisoryCouncilCommitteeonPlanetaryProtection, memberoftheNationalAcademyofSciencesCOMPLEX committee,andpastadvisoryboardmemberofthe JournalofCave&KarstStudies .Dr. Lewis Land Karst HydrologistDr.LandworksfortheNewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResourcesastheirkarsthydrologistfor southeasternNewMexico,andalsoservesastheBureausliaisonwiththeNationalCaveandKarstResearch Institute.Priortohiscareerasahydrogeologist,hespenteightyearsinthepetroleumindustryexploringfornew oilreservesintheMid-ContinentandRockyMountainregionsoftheU.S.,andoffshoreWestAfrica.HisPh.D. researchincludedsubmersibleinvestigationsofsubmarinesinkholesintheStraitsofFlorida.Dr.Landspenttwo yearswiththeNorthCarolinaDivisionofWaterReso urcesconductinggeophysicalsurveysofaquifersbeneath thecoastalplainofeasternNorthCarolinabeforecomingtoNCKRIandNewMexicoBureauin2003.Debbie Herr -Administrative Coordinator DebbiegraduatedfromNewMexicoStateUniversity-Carlsbadin1990withanAssociatesDegreeinSecretarial Administration.ShestartedworkingatNCKRIinJanuary2008.BeforethattimeDebbiespent11yearsinthe TruthorConsequencesMunicipalSchoolDistrictasasecretaryandmusicalaccompanist.Lisa Majkowski Cave & Karst Studies Program LiaisonLisaworksfortheNewMexicoTechEarthandEnvironmentalScienceDepartmentastheEarthSystems Specialist,aswellasbeingtheCaveandKarstStudiesProgramliaisonwithNCKRI.LisareceivedaB.S.degree ingeologyfromNewMexicoTechandhasheldaprofessionalstaffpositionwithNewMexicoTechsince2004. Focusareasincludegrantbudgetmanagement,technicalmeetingdevelopment,proposalmanagement,national conferenceexhibiting,scientificandtechnicalediting,andGIS.InadditiontoherrolewithNCKRI,Lisaisalsothe programmanagerforseveralprojectsincluding CRONUS-Earth,NM-EPSCoR(Hydrology),andthe InterdisciplinarySciencefortheEnvironmentREU.Dr. Patricia Seiser Karst Stewardship Volunteer Dr.Seiserspecializesincaveandkars tstewardship.Herresearchincave andkarststewardshipfocusesonthe conceptofCaveWilderness.SheisaFellowoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS),whereshehasbeena memberforover20years,andservesastheNSS/NCKRIliaison.Dr.SeiserservesontheboardoftheCave ResearchFoundation,hasbeenaninstructorfor10yearswiththeNationalCaveRescueCommission,andisan adjunctprofessorwithNewMexicoTech.InadditiontovolunteeringforNCKRI,sheworkswiththeNationalPark Service,theBureauofLandManagement,andtheForestService.In1998shewasnamedasoneof20women recognizedfortheirexplorationandresearchworkatCarlsbadCavernsNationalPark. 24

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25STAFFPUBLICATIONSPublishedReportsandJournalArticlesBoston,P.J.2008.GlobalEcology:Gaia.In, EncyclopediaofEcology. ElsevierPress.Pp.1727-1730. Boston,P.J.2008.Manganese-ironmicrobiallyproducedm ineralsincavesanddesertvarnish.Endofprojectreport. NSFLowtemperaturegeochemistryandgeobiology. Dubowsky,S.,Plante,J.S.,Boston,P.J.etal.2008.H oppingmobilityconceptforsubsurfacesearchandrescue robots(IR-07-578).Invitedpaper. IndustrialRobot 35(3):238-245. Land,L.&Burger,P.,2008, Rapidrechargeeventsinasemi-aridenviron ment:Twoexamplesfromkarsticaquifers insoutheasternNewMexico ,Sasowsky,I.,Feazel,C.,Mylroie,J.,P almer,A.,&Palmer,M.,eds.,Karst:From RecenttoReservoirs:KarstWatersInstituteSpecialPublication14,p.116-120. Land,L.&Newton,B.T.,2008, Seasonalandlong-termvariationsinhydraulicheadinakarsticaquifer:Roswell ArtesianBasin,NewMexico :JournaloftheAmericanWaterResourcesAssociation,v.44,p.175-191. Land,L.&Newton,B.T.,2007, Seasonalandlong-termvariationsinhydraulicheadinakarsticaquifer:Roswell ArtesianBasin,NewMexico :NewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResourcesOpen-FileReport no.503,27p. McCraw,D.J.&Land,L.,2008,PreliminaryGeologicMapoftheLakeMcMillanNorth7.5-MinuteQuadrangleMap, EddyCo.,NewMexico:NewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResources,Open-FileGeologicMap-167, 1:24,000. McCraw,D.J.,Rawling,G.&Land,L.,2007,PreliminaryGeologicMapoftheBitterLakeQuadrangle,ChavesCo., NewMexico:NewMexicoBureauofGeologyandMineralResources,Open-FileGeologicMap-151,1:24,000. Rawling,G.,Timmons,S.,Newton,T.,Walsh,P.,Land,L.,Kludt,T.,Timmons,M.,Johnson,P.,&Felix,B.,2008, SacramentoMountainsHydrogeologyStudy,ProgressReport,July,2008:NewMexicoBureauofGeologyand MineralResources,AquiferMappingProgram,50p. Veni,G.,2008,Reviewof: RedefinedEdwardsAquiferRechargeZoneLimits :BulletinoftheSouthTexasGeological Society48(7):67-70.ConferenceAbstractsBoston, P. J., & Veni, G., 2008, National Cave and Karst Research Institute: a partner for the USGS. Karst Interest Group Workshop, Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S. Geological Survey. Fleury, S., Veni, G., Chavez, T.A., Boston, P.J., Nort hup, D.E., & Vacher, L., 2007, Superior karst stewardship through superior data management: the Karst Inform ation Portal. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, St. Louis, Missouri. Huff,G.F.&Land,L.,2007, GeochemicalevolutionandapparentflowratesofgroundwaterintheSanAndres limestone,BitterLakeNationalWildlifeRefuge,ChavesCounty,NewMexico :NewMexicoWaterResources ResearchInstitute,2007NewMexicoWaterResearchSymposium,abstractswithprograms,p.C-2. Land,L.,2007, Evaluationofgroundwaterresidencetimeinakarsticartesianaquiferusingnaturaland anthropogenictracers:RoswellArtesianBasin,NewMexico :GSAAbstractswithPrograms,v.39,no.6,p.330. Land,L.,2007, PreliminaryresultsofsurfaceandsubsurfacewaterchemistrysamplinginthevicinityofFortStanton Cave,LincolnCo.,NM :NationalSpeleologicalSociety-SouthwestRegion,WinterTechnicalMeeting,Las Cruces,NM,AbstractswithPrograms. Timmons,S.,Rawling,G.,Land,L.,&Johnson,P.,2007, Preliminarywaterchemistryresultsfromahydrogeologic studyinthesouthernSacramentomountains,NewMexico :GSAAbstractswithPrograms,v.39,no.6,p.40. Veni, G., 2007, Keynote address -Non-point source pollution of karst groundwater: a poorly-recognized national crisis : Proceedings, 15th National Nonpoint Source Monitoring Workshop, Austin, Texas, pp. 16. Veni, G., 2008, Karst groundwater: a national treasure, a national crisis (invited lecture). American Planning Association Convention, Las Vegas, Nevada. Veni, G., Northup, D.E., Boston, P.J., Chavez, T.A., Brin kmann, R., Vacher, H.L., Klimchouk, A., Collins, L. & van Reenen, J., 2007, Enhancing communication and knowledge discovery among karst scientists: the role of the Karst Information Portal (KIP) : Geological Society of America Convention, Denver, Colorado.

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26 National Park Service State of New Mexico COMBINED COMBINED FY07 Budget FY07 Actuals FY07 Budget FY07 Actuals FY 07 COMBINED BUDGET FY 07 COMBINED ACTUALSPROJECT SALARIES Staff 135,000 74,058 137,563 127,398 272,563 201,456 Students 50,000 90,066 50,000 90,066 Project SalariesSub-total 135,000 74,058 187,563 217,464 322,563 291,522 FRINGE BENEFITS Staff 43,200 25,912 38,186 39,902 81,386 65,814 Students 1,000 1,801 1,000 1,801 Fringe Benefits Sub-total 43,200 25,912 39,186 41,703 82,386 67,615 TOTAL PERSONNEL EXPENSES 178,200 99,970 226,749 259,167 404,949 359,137 OPERATING EXPENSES Maintenance Fund/Rent Utilities and janitorial Supplies & Expense 10,000 24,800 64,251 7,807 74,251 32,607 Telephone Equipment Charges 1,500 4,000 981 4,000 2,481 Travel 15,000 25,460 30,000 25,903 45,000 51,363 Equipment 1,580 152,300 2,403 152,300 3,983 Programs 20,000 6,134 -1,541 20,000 4,593 NMT Administrative Support 25,000 20,000 25,000 20,000 NMT "Indirect" from NPS Budget (8%) 19,400 12,685 19,400 12,685 NPS "Indirect" to GRD at 6% on NPS appropriation 15,400 15,400 15,400 15,400 TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSE 79,800 87,559 275,551 55,553 355,351 143,112 TOTAL PROPOSED BUDGET 258,000 187,529 502,300 314,720 760,300 502,249 FY 07 COMBINED BUDGET PERSONNEL SALARIES PERSONNEL BENEFITS OPERATING EXPENSES FY 07 COMBINED ACTUALS PERSONNEL SALARIES PERSONNEL BENEFITS OPERATING EXPENSES

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27 BelowarehighlightsofNCKRIsStrategicPlan,relativetoitsfiscalyearwhichbeginsannuallyon1July.Goals aregenerallydescribedandincludeannualevaluationsofprogresstowardthemandoverarchingconcepts. VisionStatement NCKRIwillbetheworldspremiercaveandkarstresearcho rganization,facilitatingandconductingprogramsin research,education,datamanagement,andstewardshipinallfieldsofspeleologythroughitsowneffortsandby establishinganinternationalconsortiumofpartnerswhoseindividualeffortswillbesupportedtopromote cooperation,synergy,flexibility,andcreativity. FY2008-2009 HireanEducationAssociateDirector BeginconstructionofNCKRIHeadquarters Conductbuilding-relatedfundraisingforadditionalorsuperiorexhibits,equipment,andconstruction,andtoendow keystaffpositionsandprojects ContinueworkingwithCongresstoreviseNCKRIsenablinglegislationtoremovefederalfundingconstraints Developlistsofpotentialprojectsandsponsors/partners;beginworkingtowardthemostlikelyorcrucial Developamembershipprogram ConductresearchandbeginpreparationtoestablishaNCKRIFoundation Developjobdescriptionsandselectpersonneltofillt hosejobswhenNCKRI Headquarte rsisreadytobestaffed FY2009-2010 Assistwiththe15thInternationalCongressofSpeleologyandbeginintensivelyinitiatinginternationalpartnerships, projects,andassociatedfund-raising MoveintoNCKRIHeadquarters;newlyselectedstaffbeginswork EstablishaNCKRIFoundation Continuehigh-levelnationalandinternationalcampaignforfundandpartnershipbuildingassociatedwiththe grandopeningofNCKRIHeadquarters BeginlocaltonationalkarsteducationprogramsforK-12,universities,agencies,andorganizations Begineffortstoestablishaninternationalcavesamplearchivefacility Beginintensivelyinitiatingnationalpartnerships,projec ts,andassociatedfund-raising,withthegoalofestablishing aconsortiumthatcanmoreeffectivelyworktosolvebasicandappliedproblems,andbemorecompetitivein receivingfunding Begindevelopmentofaninternationalkarstresearchcoalition,toincludeanetworkoflaboratoriesandfield researchsites FY2010-2011 ReestablishtheNCKRIVisitingScholarProgram,preferablyasanendowedposition BeginastudentresearchgrantandinternshipprogramtiedtoNCKRIprojectsandpartners FY2011-2013 Karsteducationprogramisestablishedwithmajoruniversitiesandagencies Completedevelopmentofanationalkarstresearchcoalition,toincludeanetworkoflaboratoriesandfield researchsites,andbeginexpandingitintoan internationalkarstresearchcoalition FY2013-2018 Karsteducationprogramisestablishedwith manyuniversitiesandagenciesinkarstareas Completedevelopmentofaninternationalkarstresearchcoalition ConstructabuildingseparatefromNCKRIheadquartersforresearchandarchivalstorageoflibraryandother materials,andasafieldstationforvisitingscholarsandstudentsSTRATEGICPLANS

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute 1400 Commerce Dr., Carlsbad New Mexico 88220 USA www.nckri.org


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