National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2010-2011 Annual Report

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National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2010-2011 Annual Report

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Title:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute 2010-2011 Annual Report
Series Title:
NCKRI Annual Reports
Creator:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute
Place of Publication:
Carlsbad, New Mexico
Publisher:
National Cave and Karst Research Institute
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Language:
English

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Karst ( lc )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-05274 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5274 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Karst Information Portal

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serial

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TABLE OF CONTENTS .................... 1 Headquarters ................................ ...... 2 Awards ................................ .............. 5 Advancement ................................ ...... 6 NCKRI Research ................................ .. 9 Geophysical Investigations ............................... 9 Fort Stanton Cave ................................ ......... 9 White Sands National Monument .................... 9 Brine Well Cavity Sinkholes ........................... 10 I&W Brine Well Survey: Trying to Prevent a Collapse ................................ ................... 10 NASA Infrared Instrument Development .............. 11 Karst Flooding in Guatemala ............................ 12 Naica Cave: Giant Hot Crystals, Amazing Microorganisms ................................ ............. 12 Karst Information Portal ................................ ... 13 Granite Cave Microbiology: Spain and Portugal 13 Smallest Bacteria Discovered ...................... 13 Education Program ................................ 14 Strategic Education Plan ................................ .. 14 Education Program Goals ................................ 14 Education Program Projects ............................... 15 National Cave and Karst Museum ..................... 15 Boy Scouts of America ................................ ..... 15 Karst Field Trip for the Mobility Impaired ........... 15 US Forest Service Cave and Karst Resource Management Training ................................ .. 16 NCKRI Website ................................ .............. 16 Student Activities ................................ 17 Cave and Karst Studies Program at NMT .......... 17 Student Projects ................................ ...... 17 Outreach ................................ ............ 18 Board Activities/Board of Directors ......... 22 NCKRI Staff ................................ ........ 24 Staff Publications ................................ 26 2010 2011 Budget .............................. 28 Headquarters ................................ .... 29 Cover Photo Entrance side of newly constructed NCKRI Headquarters. Back Cover Photo Opposite side of newly constructed NCKRI Headquarters. Photos by George Veni. Vision Statement The National Cave and Karst Research Institute organization, facilitating and conducting programs in research, education, data management, and stewardship in all fields of speleology through its own efforts and by establishing an international consortium of partners whose individual efforts will be supported to promote cooperation, synergy, flexibility, and creativity. Organization and Mission NCKRI was created by the U.S. Congress in 1998 in partnership with the State of New Mexico and the City of Carlsbad. Initially an institute within the National Park Service, NCKRI is now a non profit 501(c)(3) corporation that retains its federal, state, and city partnerships. Federal and state funding for NCKRI is administered by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (aka New Mexico Tech or NMT). Funds not produced by agreements through NMT are accepted directly by NCKRI. Karst Research Institute Act of 1998, 16 U.S.C. §4310, iden1) further the science of speleology; 2) centralize and standardize speleological information; 3) foster interdisciplinary cooperation in cave and karst research programs; 4) promote public education; 5) promote national and international cooperation in protecting the environment for the benefit of cave and karst landforms; and 6) promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices. NCKRI Annual Report Series NCKRI produces a report of its activities each year. The 30 June of the following year. Digital copies of this and previous reports are available for free at www.nckri.org. NCKRI is a proud institute of 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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Landmarks. The National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) established several important physical and figurative landmarks during this 2010 2011 year. The biggest landmark is our newly built headquarters, and a model of green and innovative features. More than 350 people came to its opening (pages 2 5) in Carlsbad. The opening was preceded a week earlier by unveiling the dramatic Jim White Sculpture (page 3), the first of several public art pieces NCKRI plans to host. ship program, Adopt A Bat program, and the establishment of NCKRI as a stakeholder with local to national professional fund raising organizations and programs (pages 6 equipments, resources, and many new friends to NCKRI, all of which boost This plan gives NCKRI a broad vision for teaching people about caves and karst (page 14). Before implementing some parts of the plan, we are creating the tools to make them possible. Most notably, our website at www.nckri.org is undergoing a complete redesign and should be launched by the time you media. For the first time, NCKRI is providing contract research services. This report describes two projects in New Mexico, one at White Sands National Monument and the other at a brine well in Carlsbad (page 9 11). NCKRI has no intention of becoming a consulting company, but it will conduct consulting projects. When I ran my consulting company for 20 years before coming to NCKRI, I did so in the typical fashion of finishing a project, delivering the report to the client, and then moving on to the next job. Only a tiny fraction of that good work has been published where it can benefit others. NCKRI will focus mostly on projects where the results seem likely to have national and international application. Contracts are in essence no different than research grants, where funds are provided to investigate a question. The report, but to take the extra effort and make the information and results needed during the current national economic doldrums. And there is still much more to do. Now that NCKRI Headquarters is open and we have started designing fabulous exhibits for our museum, we are focusing on raising funds to complete construction of our lab and library and to build those wonderful exhibits near future. Despite the national economy, NCKRI continues to grow and make excellent progress, and a big reason for that success is your support and help from all of our partners. George Veni, Ph.D. NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 1

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 2 NCKRI HEADQUARTERS Construction Wrap up of construction and getting moved and settled into NCKRI Headquarters took center stage for much of this year as we finished our first three phases of building. Phase 1 completed the foundation, main structure, exterior, and only the lobby, bookstore, restrooms, and exhibit hall inside. We started Phase 1, knowing it would not give us a fully usable building, but it served the important job of freezing 80% of the construction price from further inflation while we found funds to complete the remaining 20%. The construction would also be an unmistakable testament to our commitment to seeing it finished and thus encourage contributions from other funding sources. The strategy worked! As Phase 1 was wrapping up in December 2009, the City of Carlsbad found funds for the next phase of work. Phase 2 completed the classroom. For Phase 3, in May 2010 the city again found funds, this time to complete all of the offices, board room, break room, and work room. As this annual report is being written, Phase 3.1 is happening thanks to funding from the National Park Service. Through their support we are completing the installation of our security system, cabinetry, and much of our landscaping Construction wrapped up in December 2010. Before our furniture was installed, we held our first event, hosting a special briefing for Senator Tom Udall (see box above). Over the next couple of weeks, the furniture arrived, including a generous donation from New Mexico Tech (see box below, left). On February 24, 2011, good people at the Permian Basin Regional Training Center who had leased us our temporary offices for the past 6 years, and settled into our permanent home. Once moved in, in Spring 2011 we quickly got to work on Phase 4 of lowing an international search, we hired the renowned Storyline Studios of Bothell, Washington, to design spectacular cave and karst museum exhibits while we search for funds to build them. We postponed fund raising for our final phase of construction, Phase 5, to complete the library and laboratory, until the next year. Instead, we focused on our... New Mexico Tech Furniture Donation NCKRI is proud to be one of several superb research and teaching institutes that are a part of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT). Due to the current national economic crisis, one of those institutes needed to scale back its program, resulting in a surplus of gently used furniture that NMT distributed to its other institutes. NCKRI thanks NMT for its constant support and guidance, and in this case for $35,378.31 of office furniture and supplies that we are putting to good use. On January 20, 2011, Senator Tom Udall opened his office in Carlsbad the first congressional office for the city. He also came to NCKRI Headquarters to learn agement and the National Park Service on White Nose Syndrome, which is devastating bat populations in the northeast quarter of the country. Photo courtesy of NPS (L R) Jim Goodbar, BLM; Dr. George Veni, NCKRI; Senator Tom Udall; Dale Pate, NPS; John Benjamin, NPS.

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3 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Celebration! On Saturday, May 14, 2011, NCKRI officially opened its headquarters with an Opening Day Celebration! that celebrated the broad community of friends, who came together to dream and achieve great things by creating and supporting NCKRI. NCKRI was borne out of a partnership between the federal government through the National Park Service, the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the City tion came through the Carlsbad DeThe Cascades at Carlsbad acceptance into the local community was fostered by the Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce, Carlsbad Rotary, Clubs. The Southwest Region of the National Speleological Society provides extra hands when needed for field research. All print, radio, and TV media have long been generous with their time and great coverage. Elected city, county, state, and federal officials have helped at every turn, and multiple federal agencies, universities, organizations, scientists, and individuals from around the world have given NCKRI their support. bration included many events and activities for adults and kids: exhibits on NCKRI and the caves and karst of the Carlsbad area; four lectures by world class cave and karst scientists; building tours; an inflatable cave courtesy of the Bureau of Land Management; rock and mineral identification; karst groundwater model demonstrations; and booths from the CDOD, National Park Service, and US Forest Service. Over 350 people attended! Many donated blood at the United Blood Services bloodmobile. opened caver style when representatives of New Mexico Tech, Greer Construction Company, and our founding city, state, and federal partners, pulled on a haul line to swing the doors wide. Without their efforts, NCKRI Headquarters would never have been built. Photo by Dianne Gillespie Cave cake, ready for celebratory dining! Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker NCKRI Board members Jim Goodbar and Ronal Kerbo cut the cave cake. They are two of the three federal cave coordinators who came up with the initial idea of NCKRI. Jim White Sculpture Jim White was unveiled on May 6, 2011. The sculpture is located at the south end of NCKRI Headquarters, greeting visitors as they enter The Cascades at Carlsbad White was the leader of the exploration of Carlsbad Cavern and instrumental in bringing it to national attention, which led to the creation of Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Rivera was hailed for his masterful work, which was mostly funded by New Mexico legislature and assistance from several organizations, including NCKRI. Photo by Ann Dowdy Unveiling of the Jim White sculpture by artist Sonny Rivera and the Jim White Sculpture Committee. Photo by Dianne Gillespie system: (L R on rope) Dave Steensen (NCKRI Board and National Park Service), retired New Mexico Congressman John Heaton, Richard Cervantes (NCKRI Board and NMT), retired Carlsbad Mayor Bob Forrest, and Greer Construction Company Vice President, Joe Nichols.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 4 NCKRI HQ: a quick tour Opening NCKRI Headquarters is a new beginning for the institute. It Congressional mandates through: more advanced research and educational programs; museum exhibits; and additional funds from its bookstore, rental of meeting and conference space, enhanced programs, and a generally higher profile. This page shows people enjoying our opening celebration and headquarters an environmentally and people friendly multi function building with 1,609 m 2 (17,315 ft 2 ) of space over two levels. The first floor is designed mostly for general visitation. The second floor will be used primarily by researchers and office visitors. Notable features include: The National Cave and Karst Museum encompasses the foyer, lobby, and exhibit hall for a total area of 263 m 2 (2,827 ft 2 ); traveling and temporary exhibits will be displayed until our permanent exhibits are installed. Classroom/conference space totals 174 m 2 (1,876 ft 2 ) and is designed for meetings, workshops, classes, symposia, and social events, and will seat about 150 people. Three stout metal beams for vertical and rescue demonstrations and practice cross 7.1 m, and 9.1 m above the courtyard floor. Several rings high in the beams and low in the courtyard walls provide sturdy anchors for rope work. cial roost in the world to be incorwill be carefully monitored to better understand the needs of bats in general and the specific species that will occupy the roost. Video will be and website and the data will be available to scientists for study. NCKRI Headquarters is a model of environmental low impact and sustainable building and management features and practices. Such practices are especially important when building in karst areas. It also demonstrates how investing in environmentally friendly infrastructure both saves and earns money in the long run. NCKRI can now begin to move forward at an accelerated rate. We appreciate our friends who have supported us this far and welcome new friends to join us. The opening day event is over, but the party to study, teach about, and manage caves and karst is just beginning. Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker Lechuguilla Cave exhibit, donated by Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker Inside the inflatable cave provided by the Bureau of Land Management. Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker Visitors enjoying booths and exhibits in the Exhibit Hall. Photo by Dianne Gillespie News media and over 350 guests attended

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5 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Awards Opening Day Celebration was for NCKRI to recognize and thank the community, organizations, and individual friends who have been so supportive. This made the event the ideal gram. Two awards were given. 2011 Distinguished Service Award recipient: Dr. Patricia Seiser This award is given to a person or organization in recognition of outstanding long term volunteer service to NCKRI. No more than one award of this type will be issued each year, and no more than one per individual or organization. Dr. Seiser epitomizes the type of person for whom this award was designed. She volunteered her time and talents day in and day out for NCKRI for over four years. She attended dozens of meetings on behalf of NCKRI. She gave dozens of presentations to classes, workshops, conferences, and organizations for NCKRI and to promote NCKRI. She arranged the NCKRI sponsored cross country trip for Smith and drove/escorted him around the country for 3 months. She coordinated distinguished lectures, proofread publications, handled administrative issues, and conducted field work throughout her volunteer tenure. In many ways, she was the face of NCKRI during its transition period from a federal to non profit institute, answering phones and e mails, providing information, attending functions, and otherwise filling in however she was needed. While other obligations have recently reduced her activity with NCKRI, she still serves Speleological Society and works to increase the level of partnership between the organizations. In many ways, NCKRI would not have come so far if not for the efforts of Dr. Patricia Seiser. 2011 Meritorious Service Award recipient: Dr. Kevin Stafford This award is given to an individual or organization in recognition for exceptional volunteer service on a specific NCKRI project or activity. No more than one award of this type will be issued each year. There is no limit to the number of times an individual or organization may receive this award. Dr. Stafford was the Editor in Chief in 2009 for NCKRI Symposium 1, Advances in Hypogene Karst Studies He took on this entirely voluntary task during his first year as an assistant professor in the Geology Department at Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas. In that tenure track position he was expected to develop a hydrology and hydrogeology curriculum for graduates and undergraduates. A hydrology program had not previously been offered in that department, so Kevin was starting completely from scratch. Nonetheless, he took on this additional project. For those not familiar with the requirements of editing a publication like this, it meant calling, e mailing, encouraging, and at times badgering authors to stay on schedule in delivering their papers, and then do the same for those reviewing the papers. It meant working with the authors and printer to make sure the photos would reproduce well, and to attractively lay out all of the text, figures, and photos. It required reading each paper several times to make sure that errors were not accidentally introduced by the revisions and layout. With this specific publication, since it was Series, it also meant drafting a Call for Papers Instructions to Authors and other associated documents and procedures that will streamline tions. Lastly, it should be noted that Kevin did not need to be coerced into this lead editorship. He saw the need, readily volunteered, and did a superb, professional job. Photo courtesy of Paula Bauer NCKRI Director and Awards Committee Chairman, Dr. Ron Green (right) reads the accomplishments of Dr. Kevin Stafford (left) to the crowd at the Opening Day Celebration; the limestone plaque award is shown below Photo by George Veni Dr. Patricia Seiser shows her Distinguished Service Award.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 6 Celebrating Support and Our New Advancement Program What a benchmark year for NCKRI! Not only did we move into and open a new facility but we also created and began to implement the new Advancement Program. Just seven months ago the Advancement Office was established to position, sion, and it is responsible for membership, fundraising and development, news and communications, marketing, community relations, and special events. 2010 2011 Advancement Highlights On October 25, 2010, Ann Dowdy ment Director. Ann has over 28 years of fundraising experience with a degree in Organizational University, Austin, Texas and philanthropic certification from St. EdAssociation of Non profit Organizations. adopted a Gift Acceptance Policy. development software program, was purchased. This major purchase lays the foundation groundwork for the fundraising program for years to come. NCKRI has teamed up with www.goodshop.com and www.goodsearch.com Supporters can now help raise funds for NCKRI by searching the internet and shopping at web sites. There was 100% participation in annual fund giving by the Board of Directors during FY 2010 2011. gram kicked off on May 14, 2011. The annual membership program is offered to all interested persons wanting to support NCKRI and to participate in the programs, activities, and other opportunities offered by the National Cave and Karst Research Institute and Museum. You can join online at www.nckri.org or call the Advancement office at 575 628 2702 to join using your Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card. When you become a member, you will receive a quarterly digital newsletter, reduced rates on special presentations, classes, lectures, and rentals and other educational programs, as well as discounts in the Museum Store. NCKRI can now accept gifts of cash, in kind, stocks and bonds, and through a new giving program leave a gift to NCKRI through planned giving. compiled by staff and is being distributed to potential donors. Advancement is active in the Carlsbad Rotary Club, the Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce, the Tourism Association of New Mexico, the American Association of Museums, Association of Fundraising Professionals, New Mexico Museum Association, Texas Association of Museums, Museum Store Association, and the Texas Association of Non profit Organizations. being published in this annual report. It is a great start to a new fundraising effort. NCKRI is now registered at www.guidestar.org Mission Fish/ eBay, grants.gov, the New Mexico ble Organizations Registrar, the Giving Alliance, and New Mexico Non profits. The Adopt A Bat program launched in May 2011 and will help raise funds for the maintenance and Roost. NCKRI Headquarters is the first building in the world with a bat roost as part of its design! The NCKRI roost is made of concrete and it is a part of the building. Once the NCKRI roost is occupied, we will ask people to not get under the roost. We are installing tiny cameras in the roost. The metal doors in the floor of our Bat Roost Office on ADVANCEMENT Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker One of the special guests at the opening S. Bat, shown here with fan and friend Chase Kicker. Logo designed by Dianne Gillespie. Photo by Ann Dowdy NCKRI friend and supporter, Martha Mauritson, Carlsbad Current Argus Managing Editor, adopted the first bat on May 12, 2011

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7 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE the second floor will let us install cameras, microphones, and other probes into the roost without bothering the bats. You will be able to watch the bats on our website, and later in one of our museum exhibits. Each adoption is only $25 and includes: a Certificate of Adoption, educational information about the NCKRI Bat Roost and Bats, and You do not receive a live bat. For more information and to Adopt A Bat visit www.nckri.org in conjunction with the opening of the new building in May 2011. Join us on Facebook and follow our adventures. Series was part of the programming during the opening on May 14, 2011. Speakers included: Dr. Penny Boston, Debbie Buecher, Dr. John (Jack) Hess, and Geary Schindel. NCKRI supported the Carlsbad Partnering for a Strong Institute Founding Partners were those present and who played a Today, they continue to serve as major supporting partners in many ways. Each Founding Partner maintains one Board of Directors: City of Carlsbad, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and US National Park Service. Education Partners Bat Conservation International Carlsbad Municipal Schools Geological Society of America Hoffman Environmental Research Institute/Western Kentucky Uni versity National Speleological Society NASA New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology University of New Mexico University of South Florida US Bureau of Land Management US Fish and Wildlife Service US Forest Service US Geologic Survey US National Park Service International Partners Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology International Union of Speleology Karst Research Institute Ukranian Institute of Speleology and Karstology Research Partners Bat Conservation International Edwards Aquifer Authority Fort Stanton Cave Study Project Hoffman Environmental Research Institute/Western Kentucky Uni versity New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources University of New Mexico US Bureau of Land Management US Geologic Survey US National Park Service Stewardship Partners Bat Conservation International Edwards Aquifer Authority Hoffman Environmental Research Institute/Western Kentucky University National Speleological Society US Bureau of Land Management US Fish and Wildlife Service US Forest Service US Geologic Survey US National Park Service Giving Recognition Annual Giving Our Annual Giving Program recognizes those individuals and corporations who made gifts or pledges during FY 2010 2011: Bacon Lee and Associates Margaret and John Barry Paula Bauer and Dale Pate Dick Billings Dr. Van Brahana Dr. Robert Brinkmann Dr. Harry Burgess Khloe Campbell Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce Carlsbad Current Argus Carlsbad Museum and Art Center Carlsbad Radio Stations, 104.1 FM KCDY, 92.1 FM KATK, 1240 AM KAMQ and MIX 104.1 Richard Cervantes Todd Chavez Ann and Terry Dowdy Garden Mart, Inc. Dianne Gillespie Jim Goodbar Dr. Ronald T. Green Gunn, Lee & Cave, P.C. Dr. John (Jack) Hess Hobby Lobby, Roswell JellyCat, Inc. Michael Kehs Ronal Kerbo Aaron Kirsten KOBR TV 8 Lucky Duck Printing LLC Pat Mack Albert Marchione Martha Mauritson Hazel Medville New Mexico State University at Carlsbad Photo courtesy of Desiree Kicker Debbie Buecher, wildlife biologist and bat specialist shows an audience a mastiff bat. Logo designed by Dianne Gillespie.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 8 Dr. George Placitas Jesse Richardson Fernando Santana Geary Schindel Dr. Patricia Seiser Sew What! Dr. Kevin Stafford Bill Steele Dave Steensen Thomas Strong Judy Stubbs Sunset Elementary School United Blood Services US Bureau of Land Management US Cable Community Channel 23 US Forest Service US National Park Service Karen Veni David Weary J.G. Wheeler Giving to the Future of NCKRI Private gifts support the important mission of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute. Your contributions enhance programs, provide for excellence in staff, and support research programs. Thank you for your generosity and for making NCKRI a priority in your charitable giving choices. Many Ways to Give At the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, every gift is making a difference. Through Annual Giving at NCKRI, donors and friends support the areas of greatest need; including scholarships, equipment, facilities, maintenance and improvements, research, and exhibit development. The annual fund is the cornerstone of our fundraising program. Through gifts to the Annual Giving program, our supporters demonstrate their regard for the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, its mission, and their desire to support that mission. Give Online : The simplest way to give. Visit www.nckri.org to make your gift. Give by telephone with a credit card: Call our Advancement Office at 575 628 2702 and we will assist you in making your gift. Give through the mail : Use the contribution envelope included in the printed Annual Report to make your gift. Legacy Cavers Legacy Cavers are donors who have chosen to make a planned or deferred gift through their estate planning that will have an everlasting impact on the organization. Planned or deferred gifts include: bequest through a will, charitable gift annuity, charitable remainder trust, charitable lead trust, and gift of life insurance, real estate, or other assets. Gifts such as this not only help NCKRI, but also provide the donor with additional income, convert low income assets to higher income assets, help care for your surviving family members, avoid long term capital gains tax, reduce your estate taxes, and generate income tax deductions. The NCKRI Advancement staff will work with you in arranging proper forms of recognition that and your preferences. Your gift may also be given anonymously. For tax purposes, the National Cave and Karst Research Institute is a 501(c)(3) with a tax exempt ID: #42 1741207. NCKRI has not retained any professional solicitor and 100% of each contribution is received directly by NCKRI For more information on leaving a legacy, please call 575 628 2702. Scholarships Change Lives Scholarship support is one of the most important ways to impact the lives of students. There are several ways to support student scholarships at the National Cave and Karst Research Institute: program; By making a gift to an existing scholarship fund; or By creating a new scholarship fund. You can designate your program of choice and name the scholarship fund in memory or honor of someone. ideas. Thank you for your support and for being an important part Photo courtesy of Paula Bauer Carlsbad Radio was broadcasting during Photo by George Veni Caver and master wood sculptor Michael Kehs created 15 name tom designed to the function of the room or interests of its occupant.

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9 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE NCKRI RESEARCH Geophysical Investigations NCKRI expanded its electrical resistivity (ER) survey program this year to include a broad variety of surface and subsurface karst features in southeastern New Mexico. This work made use of the AGI SuperSting R8/ IP TM resistivity equipment and Topcon GR3 global positioning system acquired during the previous fiscal year. Resistivity profiles collected with the SuperSting equipment package illustrate vertical and lateral variations in subsurface resistivity, and are strongly affected by the presence of air or water filled conduits. The resistivity method is thus well suited for investigations of karst phenomena. Depth of investigation of a resistivity survey is directly related to length of the array of electrodes. Many of the surveys conducted this year used 112 electrodes in a pole dipole configuration for a maximum depth of investigation of ~230 m. Fort Stanton Cave NCKRI personnel conducted our first use of a full 112 electrode array over a projected southwest extension of the Snowy River passage of Fort Stanton Cave in the northern Sacramento Mountains. The surveyed length of Fort Stanton Cave is currently 23.8 km, making it the third longest cave in the state, after Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave. Snowy River is a passage more than 7 km long and its southern limit is nearing the limit of what can be explored involved deploying almost 700 m of electrical cable with assistance from 10 volunteers from the Fort Stanton Cave Study Project. The results of the ER surveys show high resistivity anomalies several hundred meters southwest of the end of cave survey in Snowy River South, ~120 meters below ground level, indicating that the passage continues in that direction for at least another half kilometer. White Sands National Monument NCKRI staff hydrologist Dr. Lewis Land spent five days in December, 2010 conducting ER surveys at White Sands National Monument (WSNM), as part of a long term project conducted by colleagues with the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. This investigation was the first externally funded project tivity equipment. The goal of the larger study, which is funded by the National Park Service, is to characterize the local and sub regional hydrology of the dune fields and adjacent areas within the Monument, and their relationship to regional hydrologic conditions in the Tularosa Basin. The gypsum dune sands at WSNM are an exceptionally challenging environment for conducting electrical resistivity surveys because of the very high contact resistance usually encountered between the electrodes and the sand. Results at WSNM show that resistivity methods can be conducted in aeolian dune sand. Total dissolved solids (TDS) content of groundwater contained within the dunes and adjacent areas appears to be the main factor controlling resistivity distribution. In most areas surveyed, shallow perched aquifers containing water of variable TDS overlie an extensive, deeper, low resistivity brine filled aquifer system. Photo by Lewis Land Eastern margin of gypsum dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Image courtesy of John Corcoran, III; Modified Map showing locations of resistivity anomalies (red ovals) over projected southwest extension of the Snowy River passage of Fort Stanton Cave (dashed red line).

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 10 Brine Well Cavity Sinkholes NCKRI personnel also conducted electrical resistivity surveys adjacent to the JWS and Loco Hills sinkholes in northern Eddy County, New Mexico. Both of these sinkholes formed in 2008 by the collapse of cavities created by brine wells solution mining bedded salt in the Permian Salado Formation ~140 m below ground level. These surveys were conducted as a proof of concept of the use of electrical resistivity methods for investigations of brine filled cavities associated with solution mining operations. Field assistance was provided by volunteers from the Fort Stanton Cave Study Project, National Park Service, Pecos Valley Grotto, and US Bureau of Land Management Carlsbad Field Office. Data from an ER survey conducted ~15 m from the southern edge of the JWS Sinkhole show a near surface zone of high apparent resistivity, probably caused by air filled pore space in near surface Quaternary alluvium. Most of the profile is dominated by a ~130 m wide zone of very low resistivity, slightly offset from the position of the JWS Sinkhole as projected onto the survey line. Resistivity values of <5 ohm m are consistent with high salinity groundwater, and suggest the presence of a large, brine or brine saturated breccia filled cavity ~80 m below ground level. An ER survey of the Loco Hills Sinkhole showed similar results, but also revealed a possible plume of hydrocarbons from materials used to fill the sinkhole. I&W Brine Well Survey: Trying to Prevent a Collapse Collapse of the JWS and Loco Hills brine well cavities prompted the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division (NMOCD) to review its regulations regarding brine well operations in the New Mexico oil fields. During the review, the I&W brine well facility, located within the city limits of Carlsbad, New Mexico, was identified as having a similar geologic setting and pumping history. Unlike the northern Eddy County sinkholes, which are located in remote areas of the southeastern New Mexico oil fields, the I&W operation is sited in a more densely populated area within the city of Carlsbad near a rail line and the intersection of two major highways. A catastrophic collapse in this area would inflict extensive damage to individual property and civic infrastructure. On April 6 11, 2011, NCKRI personnel under contract with NMOCD deployed six ER survey lines over the I&W site. Each line Topcon GPS equipment. The presence of urban infrastructure presented significant challenges since electrical cable had to be deployed through densely populated areas, beneath chain link fences, and across roadways and an irrigation canal. Additionally, many of these obstacles were potential sources of electrical interference that could ruin the survey. In spite of these challenges, all ER profiles yielded coherent results and attained a maximum depth of investigation of ~228 m, extending below the base of the Salado salt beds. Results of the survey show a prominent zone of low resistivity directly below the I&W Eugenie #1 wellhead, as well as other low resistivity zones beneath the site that represent either open cavities or highly fractured and/or brecciated zones that are saturated with brine. These low resistivity zones extend to the north beneath the highway intersection and south beneath residential areas south of the irrigation canal. The data suggest that solution mining of the Salado Formation has caused significant upward stoping into overlying mudstone, dolomite and gypsum of the Rustler Formation. additional insight to two other methods employed by NMOCD to define the size and shape of the cavity and the condition of the surrounding bedrock and overlying alluvium. The purpose of these studies is to determine the best method for preventing a collapse, and not accidentally triggering a collapse in the process. Until remediation begins, an extensive and highly sensitive series of equipment monitors the site for the slightest movement, and is connected to alarms that notify local emergency services. Photo by Lewis Land Aerial view of JWS Sinkhole, northern Eddy County, New Mexico; diameter is 111 m and depth is approximately 40 m. Photo by George Veni Carlsbad Irrigation District South Canal. SuperSting resistivity meter deployed near center of figure; Topcon GPS base receiver to right. The I&W survey was the first ER project NCKRI personnel conducted that involved a water crossing.

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11 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE NASA Infrared Instrument Development In the third year of this project, the unique, tunable acousto optical laser spectrometer is being lab tested with a test suite of cave geomicrobial materials and other cave minerals developed by Dr. Boston and her team. Plans continue for deploying a field testable unit in late 2011 or early 2012 in a selection of caves with microbially significant environments and in other unique environments. NASA is funding this research, using caves as models for where microbial life might be found on other planets. INW4 ER line, which passed within 2 meters of the I&W Eugenie #1 wellhead. Map showing locations of possible subsurface cavities in Rustler and Salado formations. Solid red highlighted lines indicate areas of probable cavity formation. Dashed red lines show areas of possible brine saturated breccia. The area outlined by a solid yellow line is probably underlain by a solution cavity; dashed yellow lines are areas of low resistivity. Reports of Investigation NCKRI established this new report series in 2011 to publish the findings of its research projects. The reports are produced on a non regular schedule determined by the timing of the investigations. This series is not limited to any topic or field of research, except that they involve caves and/or karst. To minimize environmental impact, generally few or no copies will be printed. Digital copies are available for free at www.nckri.org The first two Reports of Investigation describe the I&W electrical resistivity survey described on the previous page, and the Guatemalan karst flooding remediation study described on the next page.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 12 Karst Flooding in Guatemala In February 2011, NCKRI joined a humanitarian karst flood control project with Engineers without Borders (EWB), a non profit organization based in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Lewis Land spent two weeks in Guatemala neers to investigate the possibility of constructing a ditch to divert flood waters around the village of Las Cruces, in western Peten. Conversion of the forest upstream of the village to agricultural land, combined with large storms, caused severe flooding in Las Cruces during the past three years. The area is underlain with limestone, and a small cave, El Tragante, is located in the center of town. Prior to clearing the forest, all floodwaters would flow into the cave. The villagers also use the cave to dispose of graywater and some raw sewage, which has obvious potential to contaminate the underlying karst aquifer. EWB was concerned that their proposed flood control ditch might encounter near surface caves, exacerbating aquifer contamination and flooding, since some of the flooding was caused by water rising from wells due to too much water going underground. Dr. Land supervised the digging of 24 test pits to determine depth to bedrock and the potential for shallow caves in the area. Results of the test pit survey, coupled with observations of the local geology, indicate the presence of an irregular bedrock surface overlain by one to several meters of clay and silt. Limestone bedrock is probably more than 4 m deep over ~90% of the length of the proposed ditch. Near surface bedrock (<4 m) was encountered in three pits over a distance of roughly 500 m, along which more difficult construction conditions should be anticipated. No caves were encountered during test pit excavations. Logistical factors prevented use of resistivity equipment to determine if caves occur below the thicker soils. If so, the soils in the ditch floor might wash into the caves and collapse the ditch. NCKRI proposed lining the ditch to prevent or minimize infiltration that could lead to collapse. Naica Cave: Giant Hot Crystals, Amazing Microorganisms Dr. Penny Boston in collaboration with Dr. Diana Northup and Michael Spilde (University of New Mexico) continues to analyze materials collected during the 2008 and 2009 Naica expeditions to Chihuahua, Mexico. The Naica mines intersect several caves, some of which are nearly as hot as 50 C (120 F) and contain gypsum crystals up to 10 m long. The crystals formed when hot water filled the cave, now drained by the mining, and hold promise for containing unique microorganisms, trapped in tiny pockets of fluid in the gypsum. Based on DNA analyses, the nearest relatives to the microorganisms found in this remarkable system include microbes from other caves elsewhere in the world, volcanic soils, heavy metals, and other unique envihighlighted this year in the National Geographic television documentary, Return to the Giant Crystal Caves the much anticipated sequel to the Giant Crystal Cave Photo by Lewis Land Pipe discharging raw sewage into El Tragante Cave, Las Cruces, Peten, Guatemala. Photo by Lewis Land Graywater discharging into a drainage canal and recharging the karst aquifer, Las Cruces, Peten, Guatemala.

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13 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE SEM image by M.N. Spilde and P.J. Boston (Above) Large spherical bacteria, medium sized bacteria with furry projections, and extremely tiny cave nanobacteria from Lechuguilla Cave. Karst Information Portal The Karst Information Portal (KIP) is a joint project of NCKRI, University of South Florida (USF), University of New Mexico, and the International Union of Speleology (UIS). It is an on line cave and karst reference source and research tool. KIP usage continues to expand. The graph below reflects usage through August 1, 2011. Google referrals account for 71% of visits. The registered user base has expanded to 385 individuals. Approximately 37% of the content collection includes digital objects. We continue to digitize Dr. George Veni's private library of technical reports and make them accessible via KIP. We continue to focus on adding records for content from Latin America including EspeleoAR Noti FEALC Espeleocol and Mundos Subterraneos We just completed the digitization of The Texas Caver and will be entering the metadata in the coming months. The Geoportal launched in March 2011 and we are populating it with content in several fields including karst, archaeology, and climate change. This repository offers online mapping services and access to initial core geospatial data that will opportunistically expand to include karst relevant information. This marks a $52,000 new investment in the KIP initiative in 2011. We are now working on a stand alone Cave Life Bibliography. It is built on the foundation of data collected by several scientists, notably Dr. William Elliott and James Reddell. Dr. Elliott is working with us to get the framework in shape so that we can import the over 25,000 records that he and his colleagues have collected in past years. Granite Cave Microbiology: Spain and Portugal Dr. Penny Boston and her team have begun to work on the geomicrobiology and mineralogy of granite caves in northern Spain and northern Portugal in collaboration with Dr. Juan Ramon Vidal Romani at the University of Coruna, Spain. The team is testing the hypothesis that the presence of heavy microbial colonization on the granite walls is helping to mobilize the silica in the granite rocks and enabling production of unusual opal speleothems within these systems. Smallest Bacteria Discovered Samples collected in 2010 from the Ghost Town area in the eastern branch of Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, have yielded some of the smallest confirmed bacterial sizes known. These tiny bacteria and much larger cousins liberally coat biofilm and mud speleothems that resemble drippy miniature stalactites. These structures are excellent examples of a geomicrobial cave material that includes mineral, clay, biological, and biofilm components. KIP usage 2001 to July 2011. Metadata Element Current Change from 2009 Number of Classifications 173 +12 Number of Controlled Names 7,840 +204 Resources Published for Viewing 4,992 +393 Total Number of Resources 5,945 +417 Total Distinct Resource Search Terms 38,416 +4,895 Photo by Penny Boston (Above) Folon Cave, Spain, wall showing thick white microbial growth. SEM image by M.N. Spilde and P.J. Boston (Right) Fuzzy actinobacteria growing on the walls of Trappa Cave, Galliacia, Spain. Cave walls are liberally coated with a heavy microbial growth. The organisms are coated in thin layers of opal silicate mineral

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 14 Strategic Education Plan In June 2009 NCKRI Education Director, Dianne Gillespie, began a fact finding and partnership building expedition across the US to establish a foundation for (SEP). Ms. Gillespie found many great cave and karst educational programs, some active, but some suffering the effects of the US economic downturn. She used the knowledge gained from the research expedition, and from the directive and recommendations of recent legislation and reports, to Education Program goals. Strategic Education Plan Maintaining or restoring the integrity of cave and karst systems depends upon public understanding daily lives and as repositories of significant biological, geological, hydrological, paleoclimatological, and cultural resources. Research, education, and stewardship are improvide cutting edge academic and education programs and work in collaboration with others to elevate karst. In accordance with our manwill: 1. Further the science of speleology by: Promoting the integration of speleology and topics within the framework of the sciences and standardized curriculum. Contributing to the developtechnology, engineering, and math (STEM) workforce, at all levels. Contributing to the development of students in cave and karst sciences. 2. Centralize and standardize speleological information by developing a physical and virtual cave and karst educational library. 3. Foster interdisciplinary cooperation in cave and karst research by: Developing and facilitating cave and karst research and stewardship projects. Developing world class cave and karst research facilities. 4. Promote public education by: Developing an interactive and engaging cave and karst museum. Developing and facilitating formal, non formal, and informal educational programs. Developing and utilizing mass communication media, products, and programs. Building strategic partnerships with other educational institutions and programs to promote and integrate cave and karst sciences and topics. 5. Promote national and international cooperation in the protection of the environment for the benefit of caves and karst by: Engaging national and internavision and mission. Developing and facilitating educational and outreach products and programs for national and international cave and karst audiences. Utilizing mass communication media to disseminate information, policies, and best practices for cave and karst environmental protection. 6. Promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices by: Developing, conducting, facilitating, or supporting cave and karst symposia. Developing, conducting, facilitating, or supporting trainings, or workshops to disseminate best practices for cave and karst management. Contributing to the development of the cave and karst workforce. Education Program Goals encompasses two major projects, i CAVER (International Cave/Karst Awareness Via Education and Research) and the National Cave and Karst Museum (NCKM). We are building a program to increase the perception, awareness, and knowledge of caves and karst by developing high quality educational products and programs and through strategic collaborations and partnerships. Program goals include: 1. Provide a lifelong continuum of informal educational opportunities by developing inspiring events, exhibits, expeditions, curricula, tours, and publications to vision as well as cave and karst topics, facilitated through mass communication, seminars, symposia, and NCKM. EDUCATION PROGRAM

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15 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2. Develop a Cave and Karst Studies program facilitated through NCKM for cave and karst hobbyists, citizen scientists, educators, students, and managers. 3. Develop and facilitate cave and karst related stewardship and citizen science projects. 4. Provide continuing education and training experiences for pre service and in service cave and karst educators and managers. 5. Build strategic partnerships with agencies and organizations conducting educational programs in topics such as climatology, environmental ethics, environmental sciences, geography, geology, hydrology, paleontology, and speleology. 6. Promote the development of middle and high school students to seek careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, particularly in cave and karst related disciplines. 7. Develop high quality educational curricula for international distribuof partners. 8. Promote the integration of cave and karst topics into international and national educational standards. 9. Develop and facilitate informal and formal curricula, products, and proception of caves and karst. 10. Become a clearinghouse for cave and karst educational products, and develop and acquire educational library and the Karst Information Portal. Education Program Projects i CAVER i CAVER (International Cave/ karst Awareness Via Education and vehicle for international and national educational and outreach curricula, programs and products (publications, maps, videos, teaching aids, etc.). i CAVER will incorporate Project CAVERN, CAVER and Expedition CAVER as those materials are developed and refined, and then modified linguistically and culturally for international audiences; multiple versions will be created. National Cave and Karst Museum NCKRI Headquarters will contain the National Cave and Karst Museum (NCKM). NCKRI will develop exciting, state of the art exhibits, a bookstore, and on site education programs through work with federal land management agencies, the state of New Mexico, the City of Carlsbad, New Mexico Tech, other university partners, cave and karst organizations, and local school districts. Exhibits and educational programs will be developed to attract visitors and inform them about important cave and karst issues. The NCKRI bookstore will distribute educational materials and products developed by NCKRI, in addition to a variety of retail items related to caves and karst. Classroom space, when not used for meetings, workshops, conferences, and other activities, will be available for temporary exhibits on current research, and traveling exhibits. Boy Scouts of America NCKRI sponsors a local Boy Scouts of America (BSA) Career Exploring Venture Crew in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A venture crew is a BSA youth development program. Venturing gives young men and women positive experiences that help prepare them to become caring and responsible adults. Karst Field Trip for the Mobility Impaired Ms. Gillespie continues to work with Dr. Christopher Atchison, Georgia State University, and others to develop a unique field trip for the 2011 Geological Society of America Convention. This trip will promote opportunity for non traditional, mobility impaired geo science students to engage in learning in the field. It will include a research trip into a cave. Carlsbad Municipal Schools Day Celebration Ms. Gillespie approached the Carlsbad Municipal Schools to partner with NCKRI in developing our temporary exhibits for our Opening Day Celebration. This meeting resulted in the production of a donated NCKRI Museum Exhibits Dr. Veni and Ms. Gillespie met seum exhibit designers to begin planning the development of permanent exhibits. They discussed caves, karst, and the opportunities and challenges NCKRI faces with interpreting these resources. As a part of this meeting, the NCKRI team conducted in cave tours of two local caves to facilitate an understanding about caves and karst for Storyline. Jewel Cave Bat Watch Funding is approved for a bat monitoring project at Jewel Cave National Monument. Video of the bats will stream as a live feed to www.nckri.org as a watchable wildPhoto by Dianne Gillespie Project piece donated to NCKRI by Sunset Elementary School

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 16 life educational experience and exhibit. Ms. Gillespie will be working with Jewel Cave National Monument staff to coordinate the educational component of this project. US Forest Service Cave and Karst Resource Management Training Cave and karst resources present land managers with unique conditions and challenges because these complex and intricate hydrological and ecological systems require individuals to encompass and grasp multiple scientific disciplines for effective management. White nose Syndrome (WNS), a newly discovered wildlife disease affecting hibernating bats, has placed unprecedented demands on federal land and natural resource managers. WNS is a rapidly spreading and poorly understood disease that has caused the death of millions of bats. Federal land agencies have issued closure of all caves on federal lands in the hope of slowing the spread of WNS and avoiding impact to cave obligate biota. In addition, federal agencies have collaborated on a National WNS Management Plan, which raised the demand for proper management of both bats and critical bat habitat, and resulted in an increase in professionals responsible for cave management and thus the need for effective cave management training. The US Forest Service, NCKRI, Conservation Division designed the US Forest Service Cave and Karst Resource Management Training which included the essentials of partnership cultivation. The June 2010 course was held in Elkins, West Virginia in cooperation with the Monongahela National Forest, with a combination of classroom and field instruction. Website: nckri.org New Appearance New Approach. You told us we needed a new website and we listened. Over the past few months, we have worked on a The new website is designed to give a user friendly experience with engaging content. Appearance is the most notable change (draft version below), but the most significant change is in our approach. The new nckri.org expands our ability to educate the public about the fragility and importance of caves and karst environments and their related resources. The primary objective of the new NCKRI website is to provide an effective outreach and communication tool that will inspire our audience to learn about caves and faceted approach in protecting them. Our new website design features a clean layout with simplified navigation to allow users to quickly find the content they are looking for. You will be able to click easily and smoothly through our pages to find information on NCKRI projects, programs, opportunities, and staff. Through the added val of our first furry residents. The new nckri.org is dynamic and ever changing; we like to think of it as an active educational tool. Over the next few months, we will add new content and developing more features. We invite you to virtually explore the mysteries of caves and karst with us at www.nckri.org. Ever wonder what NCKRI is up to? For quick information and updates, you can now follow us on Twitter and find us on Facebook! Photo courtesy of Val Hildreth Werker WNS decontamination procedures before field study in Bowden Cave, West Virginia. Photo courtesy of Val Hildreth Werker Karst Resource Management trainee learns graffiti removal techniques Bowden Cave, West Virginia.

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17 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Cave and Karst Studies Program at NMT Cave and Karst Studies at New Mexico Tech demic program and taught through ences Department. A variety of regular courses and special topics are taught by Dr. Penelope Boston on a rotating 2 year frequency, several in collaboration with other faculty (Dr. Tom Kieft, Biology, Dr. Kent Condie and Dr. John Wilson in Earth and Environmental Science) including: Cave and Karst Systems Cave and Karst Laboratory Advanced Topics in Speleo hydrology Karst Tufa Spring Mound Research Model Impact Energetics of Earth and Mars Moonmilk Research Research Experience on Cave Pearl Origins Fundamentals of Geobiology Survey of Geomicrobiology Frontiers of Geobiology and Geomicrobiology Astrobiology Extraterrestrial Dissolutional Landforms Astrogeology: Mars and Beyond Spaceship Earth: Integrated Global Planetary Science Dr. Boston currently supervises dents, two undergraduate senior theses, and four independent studies. During the 2010 2011 year, researchers and students of the Cave and Karst Studies program have engaged in excellent and exciting research, continuing ongoing projects and beginning a new study of climate signals contained in cave sediments. With extensive grant submission activities and laboratory supervision by Dr. Rasima Bakhtiyarova, the program has set a very high academic and research standard at NMT. Student Projects Sulfuric Acid Caves and Sulfur Springs of Tabasco, Mexico Laura Rosales Lagarde, PhD Candidate, Geology, has submitted one paper and has two more papers in preparation on the origins of the hydrogen sulfide and other gases and waters flowing into Cueva de Villa Luz and other sulfur caves and springs in the region of southern Tabasco, Mexico. She anticipates defense of her dissertation in fall 2011. Groundwater of the Salt Basin Sophie Sigstedt, MS Student, Hydrology, defended her MS thesis, Environmental Tracers in Groundwater of the Salt Basin, New Mexico, and Implications for Water Resources, in July 2010. Andre Richie, MS Student, Hydrology, defended his thesis, Hydrogeologic framework and development of a 3 D groundwater flow model of the Salt Basin, New Mexico and Texas in February of 2011 and is currently working as a consultant at AMEC Consultants in Socorro, NM. Ice Caves in Antarctica Aaron Curtis, MS Student, Geology, continues to analyze ice samples from Antarctica obtained during the previous two field seasons as part of his work on the physical and biological dynamics of fumarolic ice caves and towers on Erebus Volcano. He will be returning to Antarctica for a third field season in November of 2011. He has submitted two manuscripts to journals, one in collaboration with NCKRI Scholar Laura Rosales Lagarde. Fort Stanton Cave Kristina Daisy Morgan, MS Student, Hydrology, is working on the hydrological and climate history of Fort analyzing the highly structured mud deposits in Mud Turtle Crawl, the main passages, and in Snowy River itself. She is developing pioneering techniques never before applied to caves, to look at dateable materials and clues to above ground vegetation (pollen, plant crystals known as phytoliths, and diatom algae). Bureau of Land Management Cave Assistance Agreement The Fort Stanton Cave Snowy River Passage project continues in spite of White nose Syndrome fears and current closure of the cave. Samples collected in previous years are undergoing analysis by Dr. Boston, NCKRI Scholar Daisy Morgan, and collaborators at UNM and elsewhere. STUDENT ACTIVITIES Photo by Nial Peters, courtesy of Aaron Curtis Aaron Curtis in an ice cave, Antarctica.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 18 Student Support at Other Universities outreach efforts extend to universities outside of New Mexico Tech. General support through information is provided to many students. Formal support is currently provided by Executive Director Dr. George Veni, who served this year on the committee of one student at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and one student at Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. Their projects are summarized below. Thermal Imaging of Caves Keith Muhlestein successfully defended his dissertation proposal to conduct thermal imaging studies of caves and karst features. His hope is to develop the technology for reliable application in environmental assessments of karst areas. To expand his skill set and range of experience, Keith volunteered to work on a week long cave thermal imaging study in the Mojave Desert in April 2011. GIS Evaluation of a Limestone and Gypsum Karst Area, Greece defended her Ph.D. dissertation on geographic information system (GIS) modeling of the karst geomorphology and land use in the Ksiromero region of western Greece. Her study area has limestone mountains surrounding gypsum plains and hills dotted with alluvium filled sinkholes and poljes (large, flat floored sinkholes). She has published six papers on her work; another is due in fall 2011. Professional Partnerships AGI Membership! NCKRI became the 48 th Member Society of the American Geological Institute (AGI) in February 2011. AGI is a non profit federation of 49 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists and other earth scientists. Founded in 1948, AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice of shared interests in the profession, plays a major role in strengthening geoscience education, and increases public awareness on how the geosciences play crucial roles in socinatural hazards, and interaction with the environment. AGI membership mission in educating the public, policymakers, and the geoscience community about how karst functions, and the resources and challenges it presents. International Union of Speleology Affiliation NCKRI has become the first Affiliated Organization of the International Union of Speleology (UIS). Jedovnice, Czech Republic, in April 2011, the Bureau voted unanimously to accept NCKRI. The UIS and NCKRI are already working in partnership on the Karst Information Portal and the International Journal of Speleology so this affiliation formalizes an already firm and strengthening relationship. The UIS is in essence the United Nations of cave organizations, with 60 members nations united to advance cave exploration and study. Professional Meetings NCKRI attended, sponsored, and/ or had a booth at many conferences during the past year: 6 th Congress of the Federation of Latin American and Caribbean Speleological Associations and 70 th Anniversary of the Cuban Speleological Society; Matanzas, Cuba. 12 th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst; St. Louis, Missouri. 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems; Bowling Green, Kentucky. Geological Society of America Convention; Denver, Colorado. National Speleological Society Convention; Essex, Vermont. National Speleological Society Board of Governors Meeting; Albuquerque, New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Workshop; Fayetteville, Arkansas. The first public event at NCKRI Headquarters occurred on March 21 25, 2011 when NCKRI hosted the Cave and Karst Resources Management Workshop Additionally, NCKRI staff organized or co organized the following events: Dr. Land: Co chaired a technical session at the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems, and gave two presentations on the Eddy County sinkholes and geophysical investigations at Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico. Co chaired a technical session on engineering geology and evaporite karst at the 2010 Geological Society of America Convention. Dr. Veni: Moderated a discussion on international karst research cooperation at the 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and EcoImage courtesy of Keith Muhlestein Thermal image of laboratory proof of concept study simulating heat flow through cave like structures. OUTREACH

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19 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE systems. Co chaired the 12 th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst; Dr. Land chaired its Sinkhole Mitigation and Repair session. NCKRI also sponsored: The 3D photography exhibit, Underground of Enchantment at the Carlsbad Museum and Art Center, which will begin traveling outside of New Mexico next year. Guest Lectures by NCKRI Drs. Boston, Land, and Veni and Ms. Gillespie were invited to give the following presentations and lectures: Organisms from the Depths of the Earth to the Depths of Time: The Geological Legacy of Metabolism at the National Research Council Bioinspired Energy Workshop in January 2011. Planetary Protection on Mars Sample Return Mission at the NASA Planetary Protection Subcommittee Meeting in November 2010. R.A.F. Penrose Lecture The Planet Within at the April 2011 meeting of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in honor of Nobel Laureate Dr. Baruch Blumberg. Caves on Earth, Mars and Beyond to the CalTech Summer Science Program which is jointly held each summer at NMT and Westmont College (Santa Barbara, California). This program targets groups of exceptional high school students at the junior/ senior level and Dr. Boston has presented to them for seven consecutive years. Microbial ecosystems at depth: Contrasts in nutrient and other environmental gradients between natural caves and ultra deep mines, New Mexico Geological Society Spring Meeting, April 2011, Socorro, New Mexico. The Near Subsurface Habitat of Mars: Caves, Vugs, & Drilling at the International Mars Habitability Conference in Lisbon, Portugal in mid June 2011. The results of deliberations on the E 2 E Mars Sample Return Science Definition Team (Joint NASA/ESA working group) in Lisbon, Portugal at the meeting of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group. Recent geophysical investigations at Fort Stanton Cave at the Pecos Valley Grotto of the National Speleological Society in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Results of hydrological research by NCKRI personnel at Fort Stanton Cave to the Carlsbad Rotary Club, November 2010. Discoveries in the Snowy River Passage of Fort Stanton Cave to the Artesia chapter of the Desk and Derrick Club. Artesian groundwater resources in karstic aquifers of the Pecos Valley region of New Mexico to the Pecos Valley Grotto of the National Speleological Society, Carlsbad, and at the Enchanted Evenings educational event at Bottomless Lakes State Park, Roswell, New Mexico, June 2011. Cave and karst research institutes, FEALC, and the UIS: directions of growth for partnerships and success, keynote lecture by Dr. Veni for the 6th Congress of the Federation of Latin American and Caribbean Speleological Associations, Matanzas, Cuba, August 2010. Hydrogeologic controls on the evolution of the Edwards Plateau Karst, Texas, USA to the Winter Technical Meeting of the Southwest Regional of the National Speleological Society, December 2010. roost for the joint Bat Conservation International US Forest Service Bat Workshop. NCKRI Given Management of the Sinkhole Conference The Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst generSince 1984, this highly respected international conference series has been instrumental in bringing together geoscientists and engineers to better prevent and fix many of the land use challenges that occur in karst areas. The Committee unanimously agreed to turn over its management to NCKRI. NCKRI is keeping the Organizing Committee intact and continues to expand that team with more excellent karst engineers and geologists, as well as NCKRI staff. The 13 th Sinkhole Conference will be held on May 6 10, 2013 in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This venue will be the furthest west for the conference, which has visited 11 other cities throughout the eastern and central United States. There is already discussion of possibly taking future meetings to other countries. Photo by George Veni Engineers and geoscientists learn about underground limestone quarries in Illinois during the field trip for the 12th Sinkhole Conference, January 11, 2011 SRS 2 resistivity profile over projected southwest extension of the Snowy River Passage of Fort Stanton Cave. High resistivity anomaly represented by bright red and orange colors indicates the probable location the passage.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 20 Distinguished Lecture Series Series now has a new home at NCKRI Headquarters. The first of these lectures were given during with presentations from: Dr. Jack Hess, Executive Director of the Geological Society of America, Introduction to Caves and Karst. Debbie Buecher, Wildlife Biologist, Buecher Biological Consulting, Bats: Masters of the Night Sky and Meet a Live Bat! Geary Schindel, Chief Technical Officer of the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Karst. Dr. Penelope Boston, Geomicrobiologist and Academic Director of NCKRI, The Planet Under Our Feet: From Giant Crystals to Rock eating Microbes. Co Sponsored Speakers NCKRI co sponsors the Edwards Lecture Series in San Antonio, Texas. During the period of this annual report, Dr. Ralph Ewers spoke on Understanding Karst Characteristics and the Transport and Storage of Contaminants Within Them in September 2010, and was followed in April 2011 by Dr. John Mylroie who presented the seminar, The Spectrum of Karst: Rock, Climate, and Hydrology as Cave Controls. National Involvement NCKRI is a recognized sponsor for the United Nations Environment Year of the Bat as well as being the North American Contact. tion Director, serves on t he National WNS Communications and Outreach Working Group. This committee consists mainly of governmental agency representatives. However, for balanced prospective, non profit informal educators have been invited to take part. The working group completed a review and revision of the Battle for Bats brochure and an article for the NSS News This committee developed outreach programs and materials for the National Speleological Sociwood Springs, Colorado. Community Involvement Beginning in March 2011, NCKRI now hosts the monthly meetings of the Pecos Valley Grotto of the National Speleological Society on the third Thursday of each month at 7 pm. Anyone interested in caves, cave exploration, cave research, or any other cave related topic is welcome to attend. Dianne Gillespie developed a presentation targeting a young audience at the Carlsbad Library as a part of their water education week. Participants explored an artificial cave, listened to stories about caves, and learned about karst and the water cycle. NCKRI Staff: Participated in the Carlsbad ChamBat BriPhoto by George Veni Millions of bats take flight every evening for about half the year in the US, providing tremendous services such as insect control and pollination. Photo by George Veni NCKRI board member Geary Schindel pours dye into tubing that flows into a cave in order to better understand complex groundwater flow in the karstic Edwards Aquifer, Texas.

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21 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE gade This delegation of community leaders visits leaders of New Mexico government at the state capitol in Santa Fe to raise their awareness and support for issues in the City of Carlsbad and Eddy County. Celebrated our fourth year of partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and National Forest Service in Relay for Life a nationwide campaign to raise awareness and funds to fight cancer. Regularly attended meetings of the Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce, Carlsbad Department of Development, and Carlsbad Rotary Club, and participated in related activities supporting new businesses and community leaders. Participated in the annual Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce Business Fair. Promoted and supported the development of the Underground of Enchantment a 3D photography exhibit featuring Lechuguilla Cave, at the Carlsbad Museum and Art Center. Media Dr. Penelope Boston: Starred in Return to the Giant Crystal Caves the much anticipated National Geographic sequel to the Giant Crystal Cave that aired in the US and Canada in October and December 2010. This production revisited the Naica Cave in Chihuahua, Mexico, showed a newly discovered cave in the area, and presented new information about the microbiology of this unique cave system. Taped a television special with Phil Platt Bad Universe highlighting Dr. in Spider Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Broadcast on the Discovery Channel in August and September 2010. Advised on scientific issues and participated in 3D filming of fieldwork and interviews with the team that developed a new exhibit on origins and early evolution of life, Origin at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. The new exhibit officially opened on June 30, 2011. Dianne Gillespie: Recorded in a 30 second spot at KOBR Roswell, New Mexico, to Opening Day Celebration. Along with Dr. George Veni, was recorded in a special report for the KOCT TV Carlsbad Community Channel to raise awareness of NCKRI and its Opening Day Celebration. Dr. George Veni: Gave New Mexico radio interviews on the opening of NCKRI Headquarters to the Mike Jaxson Show, PVBX Radio, Artesia; Frank Niemeyer Show, Carlsbad Radio KATK and KCDY, Carlsbad; and the Bob Scholl Show, Radio Station KCCC, Carlsbad. Provided several Carlsbad area newspaper interviews on the construction and opening of NCKRI Headquarters. Was interviewed by the Canadian press about a hotel explosion in Quintana Roo, Mexico, that could have been related to explosive gases in an underlying cave Photo by George Veni Dianne Gillespie uses a model to demonstrate how groundwater that moves through karst aquifers flows far faster and through much more complex flow paths, and has far greater vulnerability to contamination than groundwater in non karst aquifers. Photo courtesy of Penny Boston Dr. Penny Boston prepares a crystal sample from the Naica caves for analysis.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 22 BOARD ACTIVITIES The NCKRI Board of Directors awarded its first awards to two outstanding volunteers: Dr. Patricia Seiser and Dr. Kevin Stafford (see page 5). The Board met in Lakewood, Colorado in November 2010, and in Carlsbad, New Mexico, in May 2011, Celebration. The May meeting was preceded by a strategic planning retreat for the Board and staff where better defined. In addition to Board meetings, the Executive Committee met via telephone monthly, and several meetings of the entire board were held electronically and over the telephone. Two directors retired from the Board this year Ronal Kerbo (National Park Service, retired) and David Kampwerth (US Fish and Wildlife Service). Their positions will be filled before the October 2011 meeting. Actions of the Board Hired Ann Dowdy as the Advancement Director. Approved a purchasing policy. Affiliated with the American Geological Institute in February 2011. Held a one day strategic retreat in May 2011. Accepted the Education DirecApproved an Applied Science and Management Agenda prepared by the Board committee. Approved NCKRI sponsorship of the Karst Waters Institute meeting Carbonate Chemistry: Reactions and Processes in Aquifers and Reservoirs to be held in August 2011, and sponsorship of the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, to be held in October 2011. Hazel Medville, Chairman Member since 2005, Chairman since and Computer Science. Hazel is a retired Computer Engineer/Manager who now spends much of her time surveying caves in Hawaii and Colorado. She was the President Pro Tem and Government Liaison for the National Speleological Society, the Technical Program Chairman for the 15th International Congress of Speleology, and is currently the Director of the West Virginia and Hawaii Speleological Surveys. In 2003, Hazel was honored to receive the William J. Stephenson Outstanding Service Award from the National Speleological Society in recognition of her long term contributions to the society. Dale Pate, Vice Chairman Member from 2000 2002; 2006 to present, and Vice Chairman since phy. Dale has been the National Park Service Acting Cave and Karst Program Coordinator since May 2007, and the Supervisory Physical Scientist (Cave Specialist) at Carlsbad Cavern National Park since July 1991. Richard Cervantes, Secretary/Treasurer Member since 2005; permanent position representing New Mexico Tech. ing and Information Systems, and is ciate Vice President of Research and Economic Development. He is responsible for administrative affairs including budget preparation, fiscal and project management, proposal development and contract negotiation. Dr. Harry Burgess Member since 2005; permanent position appointed by the Mayor of Carlsgree in Fire and Emergency ManageBusiness Administration; Ph.D. in Economic Development. Harry repretion with NCKRI. He is the City Administrator but also has an extensive caving background, having worked previously with the National Park Service at Carlsbad Caverns and served on the Board of the National Cave Rescue Commission. He also taught caving for the National Outdoor Leadership School. BOARD OF DIRECTORS Photo courtesy of Mike Spilde NCKRI Board and staff at the entrance of NCKRI Headquarters.

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23 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Dave Steensen Member since January 2009; permanent position representing the Nain Environmental Systems/Applied Geology. Dave is the NPS Geologic Resources Division Chief. One of his responsibilities is oversight and support of the Service wide cave and karst resource management program. Dr. John (Jack) Hess, Member at Large Member since 2005; Member at Large of the Executive Committee; Ph.D. in Geology. He is the Executive Director of the Geological Society of America (GSA). Prior to joining GSA in 2001, he was Executive Director of the Division of Hydrologic Sciences and Vice President for Academic Affairs at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada. He serves on the boards of the Karst Waters Institute and Longs Peak Council of the Boy Scouts of America, as well as NCKRI. He is a Fellow of GSA, the National Speleological Society, and the Cave Research Foundation. Dr. Robert Brinkmann Member since May 2010; Ph.D. in Geography. He recently left the University of South Florida to become the Director of Sustainability Studies at Hofstra University and the Director Sustainability Research at the National center for Suburban Studies. Bob works on many karst issues, particular karst policy, urban karst, environmental sustainability, and geomorphology. Todd Chavez in Library and Information Science. Director of Academic Resources at the University of South Florida cuses on understanding scholarship in the sciences including the tools and processes underlying its creation, organization, discovery, communication, and preservation. Activities include building non traditional library collections to support scientific research and publication, and applying bibliometric research methods to in the sciences. He is the Operations Manager and a founding partner of the Karst Information Portal. Dr. Ronald T. Green Ph.D. in Hydrology. Ron is a hydrogeologist with the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, where much of his work focuses on karst aquifers. Jim Goodbar Degree in Park and Recreation Management; graduate studies in cave and karst resources, geology, and geomorphology. Jim works in Carlsbad for the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as the Senior Cave and Karst Resources Specialist with the Washington Office. He serves as BLM New Mexico State Cave Coordinator and Senior Cave and Karst Specialist for the BLM Pecos District and the Carlsbad Office. His primary responsibilities: establish policy and provide guidance on cave/karst resource management to all BLM offices, serve as the international point of contact for all cave/karst related issues and requests for assistance, develop and conduct training for cave/karst resources, and develop best management practices for land use in karst. David Kampwerth Degree in Fishery Biology, and graduate work in karst ecology, geology, and hydrology. He has worked for the Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, US Bureau of Land Management, and is currently with the US Fish and Wildlife Service. David has taught national cave and karst management and underground abandoned mine courses, characterized karst and abandoned mines, and written policies regarding karst/mine resources. He has 35 years of caving experience, 31 years underground abandoned mine experience and education, and 20 years of professional karst conservation education and experience. Ronal Kerbo Member since June 2009, Cave and Karst Resources Specialist for the US National Park Service (NPS) for 31 years until March 2007. Ron retired from the NPS as the National Cave and Karst Program Coordinator and the acting Director of NCKRI Jesse Richardson and Applied Economics from Virginia Tech; Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia School of Law; Jesse is an Associate Professor in Urban Affairs and Planning at Virginia Tech and a practicing attorney. Geary Schindel gree in Geography. Geary is the Chief Technical Officer of the Edwards Aquifer Authority in San Antonio, Texas, and directs the Aquifer Science Research Program. The Edwards Aquifer is a major karst aquifer that provides water to more than 1.7 million people in south central Texas. David Weary Member since June 2009, Degree in Geology from George Mafrom Virginia Tech. He has worked for the US Geological Survey (USGS) in Reston, Virginia, since 1988; represents USGS on the NCKRI Board. A research geologist, he is Chief of the USGS KARST Project, which includes hydrogeologic studies and geologic mapping in the Missouri Ozarks and Shenandoah Valley of the Virginias, and work on the new national karst map in cooperation with NCKRI and the National Speleological Society.

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 24 Dr. George Veni, Executive Director Dr. Veni is an internationally recognized cave and karst hydrogeologist. Prior to NCKRI, he owned and served as principal investigator of George Veni and Associates for more than 20 years. He has conducted extensive karst research throughout the United States and in several other countries. His administrative work includes serving as the Executive Secretary of the National Geology and Geography for 11 years, President of the Texas Speleological Survey for 13 years, Adjunct Secretary of the International Union of Speleology (UIS) from 2002 2009, and UIS Vice President of Administration since 2009. He has served as a committee member of geological, geographical, and biological dissertations at The University of Texas and Harokopio University (Greece), and taught karst geosciences courses for Western Kentucky University for 12 years. He has published and presented over 180 papers and five books, on hydrogeology, biology, and environmental management in karst. Ann Dowdy, Advancement Director Ms. Dowdy joined NCKRI in October 2010 and brings an impressive background in fundraising. She has a Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Communication, St. Edward's University, Austin, Texas, and a 2010 Certification in Non profit Leadership and Management from the Texas Association of Non profit Organizations. Ms. Dowdy is a 28 year veteran in the fundraising and marketing profession. With a broad career in this field she has worked at an art museum, science museum, crisis center, private school and private foundation, and a national nonprofit before coming to NCKRI. Ms. Dowdy was part of a team of museum professionals that built the Museum of Science & Industry (MOSI) in Tampa, Florida. MOSI is the 5th largest science museum in the United States. A campaign goal of $37 million was raised to expand the museum to 250,000 square feet that included an IMAX Theatre. MOSI's membership reached an all time high of 20,000. MOSI grew from a regional science center to a nationally recognized science center and now serves around 700,000 visitors a year. Ms. Dowdy is a member of national level organizations such as the American Association of Museums (AAM), where she serves as an AAM Peer Reviewer, and the International Association of Fundraising Professionals/New Mexico Chapter. She is also a member of the Texas Association of Non profits, The Texas Museum Association, Museum Store Association, the Tourism Association of New Mexico, Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce, and the Carlsbad Rotary Club. Dianne Gillespie, Education Director Ms. Gillespie began working for NCKRI in June 2009 and brings with her a wealth of teaching experience, both formal and informal. While most of this experience has been gained in Kentucky and Tennessee classrooms teaching at many levels, she has also conducted and assisted with cave and karst education programs with the National Park Service, American Cave Conservation Association, and Western Kentucky University, among others. in Education, with a focus on science and history. Since 2009, she has served as the Education Division Chief of the National Speleological Society. She is an active and experienced cave explorer and surveyor on multiple and diverse projects. Ms. Gillespie brings a broad and creative set of talents to NCKRI, with a through a decade of theatrical and television production experiences with Kentucky Educational Television, the state of Florida, Discovery Channel, and more. Since joining NCKRI, she now serves on education and cave and karst management committees for Carlsbad Municipal Schools and the US Forest Service, and conducts cave and karst education programs nationally. NCKRI STAFF Photo courtesy of Paula Bauer (L R) Dianne Gillespie, Lewis Land, Ann Dowdy, Debbie Herr, and George Veni touring Carlsbad Cavern.

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25 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Debbie Herr, Administrative Coordinator Debbie joined NCKRI in January 2008 to organize and lead its administrative activities after working as a secretary in the Truth or Consequences Municipal School District for 11 gree in Secretarial Administration from New Mexico State University at Carlsbad, and has over 20 years experience as a secretary and administrative assistant. Debbie works as interim publisher for NCKRI, producing the annual report series and other materials. She is also a piano accompanist, having worked with many high school students, several churches, a community chorus, and many soloists, both vocal and instrumental Dr. Lewis A. Land, Karst Hydrologist Dr. Land is a karst hydrogeologist with the New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources (NMBGMR), cal investigator. Prior to his career as a hydrogeologist, Dr. Land spent eight years in the petroleum industry exploring for new oil reserves in the Mid Continent and Rocky Mountain regions of the U.S., and offshore West Africa. He received his Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, where his doctoral research included submersible investigations of submarine sinkholes in the Straits of Florida. Before coming to work for NCKRI and NMBGMR in 2002, Dr. Land spent two years with the North Carolina Division of Water Resources conducting geophysical surveys of aquifers beneath the coastal plain of North Carolina. on regional investigations of karstic aquifers and associated phenomena in southern New Mexico. He has served on several graduate student committees at New Mexico Tech (NMT), and is an adjunct faculty member in the NMT Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. He is a Past President of the New Mexico Geological Society (NMGS), and served for five years on the NMGS Executive Committee. Dr. Penelope Boston, Academic Director Dr. Boston teaches classes in cave and karst science, geomicrobiology, astrobiology, and global systems, and supervises graduate students studying those topics at New Mexico Tech. She received a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship at NASA Langley Research Center, has held positions at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the University of Colorado, University of New Mexico, and founded/operated her own non profit research institute (Complex Systems Research Inc.) for 14 years before joining NCKRI in 2002. She is a Fellow of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Past President of the Association of Mars Explorers, Senior Editor of Astrobiology member of the NASA Advisory Council Committee on Planetary Protection, member of the National Academy of Sciences COMPLEX committee, and past advisory board member for the Journal of Cave & Karst Studies. Lisa Majkowski, Cave & Karst Studies Program Liaison Lisa works for the New Mexico Tech Earth and Environmental Science Department as the Earth Systems Specialist, and worked as the Cave and Karst Studies Program Liaison with NCKRI until January 2011. Lisa reScience degrees in geology from New Mexico Tech. Focus areas included grant budget management, technical meeting development, proposal management, national conference exhibiting, scientific and technical reporting, and geographic information systems (GIS). In addition to her role with NCKRI, Lisa was also the program manager for several other large projects including the CRONUS Earth Project, the New Mexico EPSCoR Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (REU), the Chemistry Interdisciplinary Science for the Environment REU Program, and the NASA instrument project: New Mexico Exoplanet Spectrographic Survey Instrument. Lisa has conducted fieldwork to model the neo tectonic evolution of the Owens Valley in California. She also worked on an REU project which focused on using GIS techniques to understand the spatial distribution and temporal changes of the Mora Valley, New Mexico, acequia (irrigation canal) system. In February 2011, Lisa had to leave the NCKRI team. Lisa was an outstanding staff member, and we wish her well as she advances her career. Photo courtesy of Val Hildreth Werker

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 26 Continuing Staff Education NCKRI staff polish and expand their skills whenever possible. Formal training attended by one or more staff members in the past year includes: The Application of Geophysics in Karst and Applied Karst Hydrogeology with Emphasis on Dye Tracing and Groundwater Monitoring both taught at the 12 th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Understanding Karst Characteristics and the Transport and Storage of Contaminants Within Them through the Edwards Aquifer AuSeries. Strictly Business: The Dale Carnegies Immersion Seminar Leadership Carlsbad This program, through the Rotary Club and Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce, has been great for increasing the visibility of NCKRI and for establishing local contacts and potential partners. The Leadership Carlsbad program participants are required to establish a community project. Diwiki site to promote eco tourism for the region. Dianne spent a considerable amount of time from December 2010 to April 2011 in co developing the website plan, marketing materials, and web content. BCI Forest Service Workshop included three days of classroom time, two evenings of field work, and a tour of Carlsbad Caverns. Part of the classroom lessons focused on the importance of artifiBuild Your Internet Identity, by the Carlsbad Department of Development, offered helpful tips and tools on reaching online shoppers, creating a web presence, and productively marketing products and services. Topics included how to get your company noticed on the web, expanding your reach for finding new customers and creating an online presence. Reach Online Shoppers with or without a Website, given by the Carlsbad Department of Development, offered ideas and strategies to teach how to develop web presence, how to get your company noticed, and how to promote your products and services Cave and Karst Management. This intensive introduction to cave management practices was presented by the Bureau of Land Management at NCKRI Headquarters Designed for state and federal land managers, this course covered topics that included the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act, significant cave identification, cave inventories and monitoring, and White nose Syndrome, presented in classroom and field settings. Refereed Journal Papers Boston, P.J. 2010. INVITED PAPER. Location, Location, Location! Lava caves on Mars for habitat, resources, and science. Journal of Cosmology 12:3957 3979 special issue on Mars missions and exploration. McKay, C.P., Schulze Makuch, D., Boston, P.J., ten Kate, I.L., Davila, A.F., and Shock, E. 2011. Astrobiology January/February, 11(1): 2 8. doi:10.1089/ ast.2010.1122. Northup, D.E., Melim, L.A., Spilde, M.N., Hathaway, J.J.M., Garcia, M.G., Moya, M., Stone, F.D., Boston, P.J., Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E., and Riquelme, C. 2011. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets. Astrobiology AST 2010 0562.R2. Northup, D.E., Snider, J.R., Spilde, M.N., Porter, M.L. van de Kamp, J.L., Boston, P.J., and Nyberg, A.M. 2010. Diversity of rock varnish bacterial communities from Black Canyon, New Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeoscience 115:G02007 Conference Proceedings Papers Land, L. 2011. Geophysical records of anthropogenic sinkhole formation in the Delaware Basin region, southeast New Mexico and west Texas, USA. Proceedings of the Twelfth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst St. Louis, Missouri (proceedings in press). Photo by George Veni Dr. Lewis Land gives a lecture during the 12th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst in St. Louis, Missouri. STAFF PUBLICATIONS

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27 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Land, L. 2011. Geophysical prospecting for new cave passages: Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico, USA. Proceedings of the Twelfth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst St. Louis, Missouri (proceedings in press). Veni, George. 2011. National Cave and Karst Research Institute: growing capabilities and federal partnerships. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Workshop, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26 29, 2011, Scientific Investigation Report 2011 5031: 113 117. Veni, George. 2011. The National Cave and Karst Research Institute: a new home for the Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Program with Abstracts, 12 th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst St. Louis, Missouri, 26 (proceedings in press). Deligianni, and Kosmas Pavlopoulos. 2011 Land use and limitations in the sinkhole and polje karst of the Ksiromero Region, western Greece. Program with Abstracts, 12 th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst St. Louis, Missouri, 23 24 (proceedings in press). Books and Book Chapters Johnson, Steve, Schindel, Geary, and Veni, George. 2010. Tracing groundwater flowpaths in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone, Panther Springs Creek Basin, northern Bexar County, Texas. Edwards Aquifer Authority Report No. 10 01: 112. Land, Lewis, and George Veni. 2011. Electrical resistivity survey: I&W brine well, Eddy County, New Mexico. Report of Investigations 2 National Cave and Karst Research Institute: 14.. Unrefereed Papers Gary, Marcus, Shade, Beverly, Gary, Robin, and Veni, George. 2010. Spatial and temporal recharge variability related to groundwater interconnection of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Camp Bullis, Bexar and Comal counties, Texas. Geological Society of America Convention Denver, Colorado (on CD). Johnson, Steve, Schindel, Geary, and Veni, George. 2010. Tracing groundwater flowpaths in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone, Panther Springs Creek Basin, northern Bexar County, Texas. Bulletin of the South Texas Geological Society 51(3): 15 46. Land, Lewis A. 2010. Geophysical characterization of anthropogenic sinkholes in the Delaware Basin region, southeast New Mexico and west Texas. Geological Society of America Convention Denver, Colorado (on CD). Land, Lewis, and Veni, George. 2011. Geophysical investigations of anthropogenic karst phenomena in southeastern New Mexico. Proceedings, 2011 International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems Bowling Green, Kentucky, 98 99. Veni, George. 2010. Cave and karst research institutes, FEALC, and the UIS: directions of growth for partnerships and success. Keynote Address Program General y Cientifico, 6 th Congress of the Federation of Latin American and Caribbean Speleological Associations and 70 th Anniversary of the Cuban Speleological Society Matanzas, Cuba, 3. Photo by George Veni Deligianni in Greece. This complex area included dozens of basins excavated in the deep clay rich soils of enormous sinkholes to store water (as above, center) piped in from other areas. Often, smaller but still large sinkholes occurred nearby (above, right).

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NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT 28 2010 2011 BUDGET National Park Service State of New Mexico COMBINED FY 10 11 Budget FY 10 11 Actuals FY 10 11 Budget FY 10 11 Actuals FY 10 11 Combined Budget FY 10 11 Combined Actuals REVENUE State General Funds Appropriation 0 0 444,887 451,764 444,887 451,764 Federal Fund Appropriation 323,000 323,000 0 0 323,000 323,000 Fund Balance (Carryforward) 0 0 630,146 630,146 630,146 630,146 TOTAL REVENUE 323,000 323,000 1,075,033 1,081,910 1,398,033 1,404,910 EXPENSES Staff 188,049 158,606 222,138 186,531 410,187 345,137 Students 0 0 15,000 31,212 15,000 31,212 Project Salaries Sub total 188,049 158,606 237,138 217,743 425,187 376,349 FRINGE BENEFITS Staff 60,176 57,229 70,121 56,317 130,297 113,546 Students 0 0 300 113 300 113 Fringe Benefits Sub total 60,176 57,229 70,421 56,430 130,597 113,659 TOTAL PERSONNEL EXPENSE 248,225 215,835 307,559 274,173 555,784 490,008 OPERATING EXPENSES Rent, Utilities, Telephone 0 9,355 33,800 36,994 33,800 46,349 Supplies & Expenses 14,325 27,549 30,470 118,576 44,795 146,125 Facility Fixtures 0 0 0 16,375 0 16,375 Travel 16,000 16,397 23,010 28,365 39,010 44,762 Contractor Services 500 6,046 0 950 500 6,996 Property & Equipment 1,500 1,119 26,754 78,082 28,254 79,201 NMT Administrative Support 0 0 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 NMT "Indirect" from NPS Budget (8%) 22,450 22,104 0 0 22,450 22,104 NPS "Indirect" to GRD at 6% on NPS appropriation 20,000 20,000 0 0 20,000 20,000 TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSE 74,775 102,570 134,034 299,342 208,809 401,912 TOTAL ALL EXPENSES 323,000 318,405 441,593 573,515 764,593 891,920

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29 2010 2011 ANNUAL REPORT NATIONAL CAVE AND KARST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Photos by George Veni (Right) Debbie Herr at new reception desk made of tough, attractive, and eco friendly bamboo. (Middle right) Dr. Lewis Land in his new office. (Bottom right) Ann Dowdy desk is also made of bamboo. (Bottom left) Access into through hatches in an office floor. Six crevices for roosting bats are visible where the plate with the handle has been moved from one of eight compartments designed for mobile cameras. Seventy two holes for temperature, microphones, and other probes extend throughout the roost. Six are visible and plugged behind the handled plate. Bats had not moved into the roost, probably due to a drought keeping many away from Carlsbad in Spring 2011.


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