Citation
The effects of feeders on pollen abundance and diversity carried by hummingbirds

Material Information

Title:
The effects of feeders on pollen abundance and diversity carried by hummingbirds
Translated Title:
Los efectos de los comederos en la abundancia y la diversidad de polen que llevan los colibríes
Creator:
Riggs, Georgia
Publication Date:
Language:
Text in English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hummingbirds ( lcsh )
Colibríes ( lcsh )
Pollinators ( lcsh )
Polinizadores ( lcsh )
Pollination by animals ( lcsh )
Polinizado por animales ( lcsh )
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
EAP Fall 2016
EAP Otoño 2016
Genre:
Reports

Notes

Abstract:
Hummingbird feeders may appear to be something that brings life and excitement close to viewers. However, not much is known about how this unlimited food source alters the pollination of plants that rely on hummingbirds. It could be possible that feeders deter hummingbirds from visiting flowers. I studied the effects of feeders on hummingbird-carried pollen abundance and diversity. I used two sites for my study, one that has had feeders for nearly 20 years and another site where I introduced feeders for the first time. With these feeders, I collected pollen samples from the heads of visiting hummingbirds and then examined the samples to count pollen morphospecies and abundance of grains. I found that the numbers of morphospecies found in the two sites were very similar, but there were significantly more pollen grains found at my long-time feeder site. During my study, I also observed very unique behavior of hummingbirds at feeders. At my long-time feeder site, I observed little aggression and territoriality, but the hummingbirds at my introduction site displayed high aggression and territorial behavior. My results show that hummingbirds that visit feeders are also visiting a variety of flowers. These results could imply that feeders have little effect on the important role of the hummingbird as a pollinator. ( ,, )
Abstract:
Los comederos de colibríes podrían aparentar una manera inofensiva de acercar estas aves a espectadores. Sin embargo, no sabemos mucho sobre el efecto que un recurso ilimitado de comida afecta la visitación de colibríes a plantas que dependen de estos para ser polinizadas. Es posible que los comederos disminuyan la tasa de visitación a flores por parte de estas aves. Estudié el efecto de los comederos sobre la carga de polen (diversidad y abundancia) de colibríes que visitan estos regularmente. Utilicé dos sitios para mi estudio, el primero ha tenido comederos por casi 20 años, en el segundo sitio introduje comederos por primera vez. Utilizando comederos modificados colecté polen de la cabeza de los colibríes que los visitaron. Posteriormente examiné las muestras y conté el número de morfoespecies de polen y la abundancia de granos de polen. El número de morfoespecies de polen entre sitios fue similar, sin embargo la abundancia fue mayor en el sitio que ha presentado comederos por casi veinte años. Durante mi estudio también observé que los colibríes en el sitio donde introduje comederos por primera vez fueron más agresivos a la hora de proteger el recurso. Este estudio presenta evidencia sobre la posible implicación de los comederos sobre la colonización realizada por colibríes.
Biographical:
Student affiliation: University of California, Davis
General Note:
Born Digital

Record Information

Source Institution:
Monteverde Institute
Holding Location:
Monteverde Institute
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
Resource Identifier:
M39-00610 ( USFLDC DOI )
m39.610 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Tropical Ecology Collection [Monteverde Institute]

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

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PAGE 18

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PAGE 19

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! ;\ Ee! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 h$00*I!"-32.90$! EE Ee! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!;a ; Ee! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 107)32'$2$! E Ee! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!;G ; Ee! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!;] ; EG! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!;_ ;

PAGE 20

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PAGE 21

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PAGE 22

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PAGE 23

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! Ee E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!E_ k E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!E\ ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!eF ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. <$).$-32'$2$!; ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e; ; E_! g*A$84$! EF;G B700>$. %-3'2'$2$!; ee] E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. "$H(7-$,! "-32.90$ ;

PAGE 24

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! Ek E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!eE ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!ee E E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!ek E E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!ea E E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. r3,.$5 a

PAGE 25

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! Ea E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!eG E\ E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!;] ;a E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e] E E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e_ ] E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!;k E E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e\

PAGE 26

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! EG E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!k ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!kF eE E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!; e E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!;G ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!kk ; E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!\ ;

PAGE 27

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! E] E_! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!ka ; E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!k; ; E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!;G ; E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!kE ; E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 r3,.$5 kF E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!G Ek

PAGE 28

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! E_ E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 D'2.(#2'$2$!E E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 %-3'2'$2$!E eFE E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 %-3'2'$2$!; G\ E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 "$H(7-$,! "-32.90$! EF\ E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!ke ; E\! g*A$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 107)32'$2$! ;

PAGE 29

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! E\ eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. %-3'2'$2$!; ea eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!G k eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!;G E eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!k\ E; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. B-*8$032'$2$!; ; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e\ ;a

PAGE 30

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! eF eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. h$00*I! "$H(7-$,! "-32.90$ eE eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. "$H(7-$,! "-32.90$ ;; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!eG ; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!kG ; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!k] ]

PAGE 31

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! e; eF! g*A$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!k_ ; ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!e\ EF ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!Ee E ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!ak E ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G B700>$. OJ)>>!aa e ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G B700>$. %-3'2'$2$!; ]

PAGE 32

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! eE ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!aF ; ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!a; ; ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 107)32'$2$! E ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 %-3'2'$2$!; ;k ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 %-3'2'$2$!E k_ ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!e\ e

PAGE 33

! "#$!%&&$'()!*&!+$$,$-)!*.!/*00$.!12--3$,!45!67883.943-,) :399)! ee ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!aE ; ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 "$H(7-$,! "-32.90$ E\ ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 <$).$-32'$2$!; ; ;! =$'$84$-! EF;G <200$-5 OJ)>>!ae ;eE