Citation
Species abundance of fungi is greater in landslide areas compared to undisturbed areas of the forest in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

Material Information

Title:
Species abundance of fungi is greater in landslide areas compared to undisturbed areas of the forest in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica
Abbreviated Title:
La abundancia de especies de hongos es mayor en áreas de deslizamiento en comparación con áreas no perturbadas del bosque en Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica
Creator:
Lopez, Sunshine
Publication Date:
Language:
Text in English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Fungi--Variation ( lcsh )
Hongos--Variación ( lcsh )
EAP Fall 2017
EAP Otoño 2017
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Cerro Plano
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Cerro Plano
Genre:
Reports

Notes

Abstract:
Fungi plays an important role in the ecosystem by decomposing dead plants, and other organic matter. Without this process, there would be an accumulation of organic material in the forest which would go un-decomposed. Fungi which are saprotrophic macrofungi from the phyla Basidioycota and Ascomycota have the vital job of recycling nutrients from dead plant material in the forest back into the soil. The abundance of organic material created by the landslides on the reserve behind Estación Biológica in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica may have given rise to nearly twice the amount of different species of fungi (n=31) compared to those alongside undisturbed trails (n=18) where there was not an abundance of organic material. I found more basidiomycetes compared to ascomycetes in both the landslides and the undisturbed areas. Some types of fungi require a succession of decomposition to take place before establishing mycelium, whereas I found others which were substrate specific. Species of fungi which were very common were Agaricales sensu lato, Coprinellus disseminatus, and Scutellinia scutellata. Other species were substrate specific, such as the red mushrooms of Hygrocybe coccinea. ( , )
Abstract:
Los hongos desempeñan un papel importante en el medio ambiente al descomponer materia orgánica. Sin este proceso, habría una acumulación de material orgánico en el bosque ya que no se descompondría. Los hongos saprótrofos de Basidioycota y Ascomycota tienen el vital trabajo de reciclar los nutrientes de la materia orgánica de vuelta al suelo. La abundancia de material orgánico creado por los deslizamientos de tierra en la reserva detrás de Estación Biológica en Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica puede ser la responsable de que encontrara casi el doble de la cantidad de diferentes especies de hongos (31) en comparación con junto a senderos inalterados (18) donde no había una abundancia de material orgánico. Encontré más basidiomicetes que ascomicetes en ambos senderos. Algunos tipos de hongos requieren que ocurra una sucesión de descomposición antes de establecer el micelio, mientras otros que se encontraron fueron específicos del sustrato. Las especies de hongos más comunes fueron Agaricales sensu lato, Coprinellus disseminatus y Scutellinia scutellata. Otras especies fueron específicas del sustrato, como las setas rojas de Hygrocybe coccinea.
Biographical:
Student affiliation: Department of Biological Science, University of California, Merced.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Monteverde Institute
Holding Location:
Monteverde Institute
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
Resource Identifier:
M39-00650 ( USFLDC DOI )
m39.650 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Tropical Ecology Collection [Monteverde Institute]

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 1 Species Abundance of Fungi is Great er in Landslide Areas Compared to Undisturbed Areas of the Forest in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica Sunshine Lopez Department of Biological Science University of California, Merced UCEAP Tropical Biology and Conservation Program, Fall 2017 15 December 2017 ABSTRACT Fungi plays an important role in the ecosystem by decomposing dead plants, and other organic matter. Without this process, there would be an accumulation of organic mater ial in the forest which would go un decomposed. Fungi which are saprotrophic macrofu ngi from the phyla Basidioycota and Ascomycota have the vital job of recycling nutrients from dead plant material in the forest back into the soil. The abundance of organic material created by the landslides on the reserve behind Estacin Biolgica in Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica may have given rise to nearly twice the amount of different species of fungi ( n= 31) co mpared to those alongside undisturbed trails ( n= 18) where there was not an abundance of organic material. I found more basidiomycetes compared to ascomycetes in both the landslides and the undisturbed areas Some types of fungi require a succession of decomposition to take place before establishing mycelium whereas I found others which were substrate specific. Species of fungi which were very common were Agaricales sensu lato Coprinellus disseminatus and Scutellinia scutellata Other species were substrate specific, such as the red mushrooms of Hygrocybe coccinea La a bundancia de especies de hongos es mayor en reas de deslizamiento en comparacin con rea s no perturbadas del bosque en Monteverde, P untarenas, Costa R ica RESUMEN Los hongos desempean un papel importante en el medio ambiente al descomponer materia orgnica Sin este proceso, habra una acumulacin de material orgnico en el bosque ya que no se descompondra. Los hongos saprtrofos de Basidioycota y Ascomycota tiene n el vital trabajo de reciclar los nutrientes de la materia orgnica de vuelta al suelo. La abundancia de material orgnico creado por los deslizamientos de tierra en la reserva detrs de Estacin Biolgica en Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica puede ser l a responsable de que encontrara casi el doble d e la cantidad de diferentes especies de hongos (31) en compara cin con junto a senderos inalterados (18) donde no haba una abund ancia de material orgnico. Encontr ms basidiomicete s que asco micete s en ambo s senderos Algunos tipos de hongos requieren que ocurra una sucesin de descomposicin a ntes de establecer el micelio, mientras otros que se encontraron fueron especficos del sustrato. Las especies de hongos ms comunes fueron Agaricales sensu lato Copr inellus disseminatus y Scutellinia scutellata Otra s especies fueron especficas del sustrato, como las setas rojas de Hygrocybe coccinea

PAGE 2

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 2 Fungi is a complex and diverse kingdom, it contains nine subkingdoms and within one of them, Dikarya there are two Phylum which can be commonly seen in the fi eld, and they include the macrofungi of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota ( Mata et al. 2003 ). Basidiomycota and Ascomycota make up approximately 98% of all know fungi (Stajich et al. 2009) Ascomycetes m ake up more than half of the individuals in Dikarya and have an important role in nature as they act as sa probes, parasites, and mutualist s (Stajich et al. 2009 ). Basidiomycetes contain three subphyla which include Pucciniomycotina, Ustilaginomyc otino, a nd Agaricomycotina and appear in nature as plant parasites and mushrooms (Stajich et al. 2009 ). Fluctuations in weather and abundance of organic material can directly affect the population and overall species richness of fungi in a specifi c area (Lod ge an d Cantrell 1995 ) of t ropical s torm Nate created an accumulation of debris in the form of tree trunks and dead plant material. The areas in the forest where the landslides took place may have provided plenty of organic material for saprotrophic fungi to thrive. Studies have found that areas of the forest which have been destroyed by clear cutting for harvesting wood from the United States and Australia resulted in a different fungal community to grow in the clear cut areas, compared to the fungi which can be found in unaffected areas of the forest (Jones et al. 2003 ). Saprotrophic macrofungi ha ve the vital job of breaking down dead plant material in the forest, and by doing so they recycle nut rients back into the soil (Mata et al. 2003). Saprotrophic m acrofungi is the most noticeable of fungi due to the visible sporocarps ( Mata et al. 2003 ). Examples include Dictyopanus pusillus Phyllipsia d o mingenesi s, and Polyporus phillipenesis (Mata et al 2003 ). My observations in the forest behind the Estacin Biolgica in Monteverde led me to ask the question, what is the difference in specie s richness of fungi found in areas of the forest affected by landslides, versus areas in the forest which were unaffected by landslides after a storm? MATERIALS AND METHODS I laid out my quadrats behind the Estacin Biolgica in Monteverde Puntarenas, Costa Rica where there are several trails. I laid out a total of 24 quadrats between three areas : the Mquina river where debris collect ed from the storm, the trail Cariblancos which was affected by landslides, and the trail El Ji l guero which was undisturbed/un affected by landslides. There were a total of 3 quadrats beside the Mquina river T here were 3 parts along both trails which contained a total of 21 5 x 5 m e ter quadrats. There were 9 quadrats along the Cariblancos trail and 12 quadra ts along the El Jiguero trail. Each quadrat was created by using a trans ect tape to measure them out beside the trail, and the edges were marked with red flags. F or the Cariblancos trail I created 2 quadrats on each sid e of a landslide where there wa s an accumulation of debris on both the right and left side of the tra il. As for the El Jiguero trail, there were 2 quadrats placed to the left of the trail and 2 more to the right of the trail, a total of 4 quadrats for each part I stepped in each quadra t and searched for mushrooms sprouting from leaf litter, soil, and other organic matter. I identified macrofungi by taking phot os in situ using a digital camera, and analyzed them on a laptop. Resources I used to identify fungi included field books such as Macrofungi de Costa Rica Volume 1 and 2 by Milagro Mata and mus hroomobserver.org. I also uploaded my photos on mushroomobserver.org to have them identif ied by a community of mycologists. I kept a species list of all the fungi I found at the differ ent sites. I also made no te of whether t he species of fungi were from the phyla Basidiomycota or Ascomycota

PAGE 3

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 3 Fungi found in the field can be found in mushroomobserver.org under the username slopezucm, and a booklet of picture s of different species can be locat ed in the library of the Estacin Biolgica in Monteverde RESULTS I identified 38 different species of fungi in the Cariblancas and El Jiguero trail s I listed them in order of the most commonly found species to the least common (Table 1). In the same table I included the 24 different genera in order o f the most to the least common In total, there were 64 different species and morphospecies found across 24 quadrats for both the Cariblancas and El Jiguero trail There were nearly t wice th e amount of di fferent species of fungi ( n= 31 ) in the landslide section com pared to those found in the undisturbed El Jiguero trail ( n= 18 ) There were significantly more fungi found in the landslide quadrats ( =8, SD=1.94 ) than the undisturbed trail quadrats ( =5, SD=2.23 ) (Figure 1, t(22)= 3.37 p= 0.0006 ). T he amount o f new species found in each quadrat is illustrated by an upward trend (Figure 2). T he amount of species found in the landslide quadrats of the Cariblancas trail (from 12 to 49 ) increased at a faster rate between quadrats than those in the undisturbed El Jiguero trail (from 5 to 30 ) Overall, I found more basidiomycetes ( n= 30 ) in the quadrats of both trails in comparison to ascomycetes ( n= 8 ) ( Figure 3 ). The most commonly found species of mushrooms were Agaricales sensu lato Coprinellus disseminatu s and Seutellinia scutellata Amon g the least commonly found mushrooms were Cyathus striatus Ophiocordyceps sphecocephala and Cookeina speciosa Pictures of the mentioned species can b e found in the Appendix. Figure 1. Number of species found in th e landslide quadrats of the Cariblancas trail, and the undisturbed quadrats of the El Jiguero trail t(22)= 3.37 p= 0.0006 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Average Number of Species In Each Quadrat Landslide Quadrats Undisturbed Quadrats

PAGE 4

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 4 Figure 2. Number of species found in the landslide quadrats of the Cariblancas trail, and the undisturbed quadrats of the El Jiguero trail Figure 3. Number of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes found in both the landslide and undisturbed trail sites. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of Different Species Number of Quadrats Landslide Undisturbed trail 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Landslide Trail Number of different species Quadrats Basidiomycota Ascomycota

PAGE 5

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 5 Table 1. S pecies found i n the landslide and trail sites. Genera which did not have the species identified, and were found i n the landslide and trail quadrats are also included in this table. Species Landslide ( out of 12 quadrats ) Trail (out of 12 quadrats) Agaricales sensu lato 8 5 Coprin ell us disseminatus 8 4 Sc utellinia scutellata 7 3 Marasmiaceae sensu lato 4 5 Bactridium flavuum 4 2 Xylaria hypoxylon 4 1 Flavellophora parva 1 4 Coprinus comatus 3 0 Xylaria polymorpha 2 1 Mycena reussell 2 1 Poria sensu lato 2 1 Pleurotus sensu lato 2 1 Tubifera ferruginosa 2 0 Auricularia nigrican 2 0 Polyporus tricholoma 0 2 Hygrocybe coccinea 0 2 Cookeina tricholoma 2 0 Panus neostrigus 0 2 Xylaria comosa 2 0 Cookeina speciosa 1 0 Agaricomycetes doweld 1 0 Calistosporum luteo olivacoum 1 0 Coprinellus comatus 1 0 Sphaerobolus stellatus 1 0 Mycena speira 0 1 Ophiocordyceps sphercocephala 0 1 Mycena chloroxantha 0 1 Clavaria clavalinopsis 1 0 Deflexula flascicularis 1 0 Polyporales sensu lato 1 0 Chlorociboria aeruginascens 0 1 Cyathus striatus 2 0 Dictyopanus pusillus 1 0 Phillipsia domingenesis 1 0 Auricularia nigrican 1 0 Tremella foliacea 1 0 Peziza hemisphoerica 1 0 Schizopora flavipora 1 0 Mycena sp. 6 5

PAGE 6

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 6 Marasmius sp. 6 3 Clavaria sp. 2 1 Crepidotus sp. 1 2 Bactridium sp. 2 1 Ganoderma sp. 2 0 Discomycetes sp. 1 1 Trichoderma sp. 1 1 Scleroderma sp. 1 1 Coprinus sp. 1 0 Tubifera sp. 1 0 Gliophorus sp. 1 0 Entoloma sp. 1 0 Flabellophora sp. 1 0 Pseudohydmum sp. 1 0 Dictyonema sp. 1 0 Xylaria sp. 0 1 Pezizales sp. 1 0 Isaria sp. 0 1 Discomycetes sp. 0 1 Lactarius sp. 0 1 Heterobasidiomycetes sp. 0 1 Cookeina sp. 1 0 Leucoagaricus sp. 0 1

PAGE 7

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 7 DISCUSSION The species richness of fungi in the landslide quadrats of the Cariblancas trail was great er than the spe cies richness of the undisturbed quadrats in the El Jiguero trail T his may be due to the difference in the amount of decaying plant matter, specificity of substrate per species, and the successio n of fungi between the two trails In a study which looked at the microfungi of Costa R ica, researchers found varying species composition between four sites in the Osa Peninsula and stated that vegetation u nder the canopy of the sites imp acted the amount of microfungi found (Bills and Polishook 1994). Also, t here was a difference in the amount of microfungi found in the samples taken from four levels of substrata in the forest floor since each strata contained organic matter in a different stage of decomposition (Bills and Polishook 1994). Both trails in my study were in the same for est behind the Estacin Biolgica but the forest floor of the two trails were very different T he landslide quadrats had an abundance of recently fal len trees and dead plants in them The quadrats bes ide the undisturbed trail did not have many fallen trees, but there were a few nurse logs When there is an increase in the amount of decaying plant material, it is more likely that the species richness of fungi will be greater ( Chaverri and Vlchez 2006). This was especially evident when researchers looked at the species diversity of hypercrealean fungi in forests that were 1 2 years old compared to forests that were 25 27 years old (Chaverri and Vlchez 2006). T he younger forests had more decaying plant material so the diversity was greater than that in the old growth forest (Chaverri and Vlchez 2006). Since tropical storm Nate took place in October, and my study took place in November, much of the organic matter in the landslide site was relatively newly fallen plant material, whereas in the undisturbed trails there was an abundance of organic matter which had d ecomposed f or a longer period of time Some fungi such as Lepiota sp. can only grow on the leaf litter previously deco mposed by Marasmius sp (Mueller 2011) m aking it unlikely that such species, which require plant matter in the later stages of decomposition ) would b e found in newl y disturbed landslide quadrats The most abundant species in the landslide quadrats were the basidiomycete s Agaricales sensu lato Coprinellus disseminatus and an ascomycete Sc utellinia scutellata Although climate variability can impact fungal ecology both directly and indirectly (Andrew et al. 2016) the decomposers Without fungi decomposing dead plant matter, and other organic matter in the forest there would be an accumulation of branches, leaf litte r, and tree trunks which would go un decomposed (Mata et al. 2003). When the fungus is found growing on substrate such as dead leaves, wood, and/or animal feces then it is saprotrophic (Alexo poulos et al. 1996). Basidiomycetes are common saprotrophic fungi found in the forest, and greatly depend on the accumulation of organic matter such as decaying wood to get their nutrients (Stephenson 2010). In a study done on basidiomycetes in Sweden, res earchers found that the increase in logging in a boreal forest decreased the am ount of decaying wood on the fore st floor, and thus also decreased the total species number of basidiomycetes (Stephenson 2010). There were more fallen trees and de ad plants in the landslide quadrats which may have allowed fungi such as Agaricales sensu lato and Coprinellus disseminatus to thrive. Fungi found in the order Agaricales may come in mycorrhizal, parasitic, and saprobic forms ( Alexopoulos et al. 1996 ). I only found Ag aricales sensu lato growing on dead leaves and wood in both the landslide and undisturbed trail quadrats Coprinaceae f ungi (family of Coprinellus disseminaus ), are commonly found on the flo or in outdoor environments (Alexopoulos et al. 1996). Breaks in the canopy from the landslides

PAGE 8

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 8 allowed windows of sunlight to bypass the towering trees of the f orest and reach the forest floor. Fungi in the phyla Ascomycota require sunlight in order to produce fruiting bodies (Boddy et al. 2013). I found Scut ellinia scutellata, otherwise more often in the landslide quadrats of my study, possibly because there was more sunlight exposure along the El Jiguero trail where several landslides took place Despite the abun dance of some spec ies found throughout the different quadrats, there were quite a few species which were less prevalent including the ascomycetes Ophiocordyceps sphecocephala Cookeina speciosa and the basidiomycete Cyathus striatus Ophiocordyceps sphecocephala and Cookeina speciosa are from the phyla Ascomycota, and I found them only once in separate landslide quadrats Cyathus striatus is from the phyla Basi diomycota and occurred twice in separate landslide quadrat s My findings contrast a study done on the fungal diversity in different stages of tropical forest succession in Costa Rica, where Ophiocordyceps ( known as Cordyceps ) was the second most diverse genus in the old growth forest (Chaverri and Vlchez 2006). C ordyceps was found only once on a wasp that it parasitized in a quadrat of the undisturbed trail S ince Cordyceps is more likely to be found in older growth forest (Chaverri and Vlchez 2006) this adds to the reasoning behind why Cordyceps was found in the undisturbed trail quadrats, instead of the lan dslide quadrats Also in the same study they found that the older forests contained more insects and an increase in the amount of insects can affect the the number of Cordyceps found (Chaverri and Vlchez 2006). Despite Cookeina speciosa being the most commonly found fungus from the genus Pezizales in the phyla Ascomycota (Weinstein et al. 2002), I only found it in one quadrat out of 24 quadrats asses s ed A possible reason for this finding may be due to the riparian h abitat preference of this f ungi. I n my study area, I found Cookeina speciosa in one of the quadrats alongside the Mquina river. I n another forest where I was casually hiking I found the fruiting body of the Cookeina speciosa alongside a river in San Gerardo in the Guanacaste Province Cyathus striatus al. 2003). fruiting body is shaped in a peculiar way for the sole purpose of being dis tributed by rain droplets, as opposed to having its spores dispersed by wind like most fungi they eject the spores outward upo n impact (Alexopoulos et al. 199 6). Therefore, their dispersal depends more on rain fall in the landslide and trail sites and depends less on the amount of woody substrates found. I found lots of Mycena reusell and Marasmius sp. in quadrats in the two different trails, and both are known to grow on freshly fallen leaf litter (Lodge and Contrell 1995). I found both of these different species of fungi in the landslide, and undisturbed trail quadrats growing from the top of leaf lit ter. On the other hand, Hygrocybe coccinea is a species of fungi which primarily grows straight from mineral rich soil on the forest floor (Lodge and Cantrell 1995). Despite the fact that fungi in the genus Hygrocybe are considered versatile (Mata et al. 2003), I found the bright red fruiting body of Hygrocybe coccinea only in the undisturbed trail quadrats. This may be due to the fact that the undisturbed trail has a longer history of decomposing organic matter being integrated in the soil, whereas the tr ail where the landslide occurred had soil which had recently been mixed from falling down the slope of mountains. Ov erall, I found more species from the phyla Basidiomycota in all the different quadrats and only 7 of the species identi fied were Ascomycot a. The abundance of organic material in the form of plant matter which ac cumulated in the landslide quadrats provided fuel for the mycelium of more than 3 0 different species of fungi There are many factors which affect the ability of

PAGE 9

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 9 fruiting bodies to be produced in different environments and some depend on substrate, light, and disturbance of the environment (Boddy et al. 2013). In a study on logging in Sweden, researchers monitored the species richness of basidiomycetes in the family Polyporaceae Hymenochaetaeceae and Corticiaceae and found t hat the reduction of logs in the forest decreased the species richness of the fungi (Ba der et al. 1995). Furthermore, changes in rainfall, tree falls, and even the occurrence of a hurricane can all affect fung al species in a forest (Lodge and Cantrell 1995). The occurrence of tropical s torm Nate devastated parts of the cloud forest behind the Estacion Biol gica with a record amount of rain which resulted in landslides to occur on the El Jiguero trail. The diffe rence in amount of fungal species between the El Jiguero and Cariblanca trails is easier to ass ess when comparing the fruiting bodies found between the different trails Although ascomycetes make up 64% of the fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya (Stajich et al. 2009), only the genus Pezizomycotina contains fruiting bodies in the form of macrofungi (Stephenson 2010). A purple fruiting body of an unknown species of fungi from the gen us Pezizomycotina was found in one landslide quadrat. T he amount of sun light in an environment has a small effect on the fruiting ability of basidiomycetes, but ascomycetes require sun light in order for a fruiting body to arise (Boddy et al. 2013). The abundance of sunlight in the landslide quadrats may have provided the vital nutrie nts needed to allow the seven out of the total eight species of ascomycetes identified to produce fruiting bodies. Boddy (2013) found that there are many fa ctors which affect macrofungi and fruiting in different environments and some depend on substrate, light, and distu rbance of the environment Environmental disturbances can sometimes invoke a response in the fungal community (Lodge and Cantrell 1995) and so landslides resulted in an accumulation of debris in parts of the forest which was perfect for sa protropic basidiomycetes, the most common type of macrofungi found in my sites. My results point to a couple of reasons why I found differences in species richness, such as the amount of decaying plant matter between the two sites, and the succession of fu ngi which occurs overtime. A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l ike to thank Sof a Arce Flores for her guidance throughout my project, and for trusting that I would be careful in the field and not die while out in the forest alone. I would also like to thank my homestay mom Luisa Vega for providing me with snacks which gave me energy and motivation to try my best to collect d ata. I would like to thank Marvi n Hidalgo the owner of the biological station. Without protected areas such as the reserve behind the stati on, there would be less opportunities for conducting research on dwindling habitat such as the cloud forest. Also, thanks to my peer reviewer Jesse Laine for being awesome. WORKS CITED D. Jean Lodge, Sharon Cantrell. Fungal communities in wet tropical forests: variation in time and space. Canadian Journal of Botany 1995, 73:1391 1398, https://doi.org/10.1139/b95 402 Jones, Melanie D., Durall Daniel M., Cairney, John W. G. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in young forest stands regenerating after clearcut logging. New Phytologist 2003, 157: 399 422. doi:10.1046/j.1469 8137.2003.00698.x Mata, Milagro, Mueller, Grego ry M., Halling, Roy. Costa Rica Macrofungi. Instituto Nacional

PAGE 10

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 10 de Bioversidad, 2003. Bills, G., & Polishook, J. (1994). Abundance and Diversity of Microfungi in Leaf Litter of a Lowland Rain Forest in Costa Rica. Mycologia, 86 (2), 187 198. doi:10.2307/37 60635 Chaverri, P. and Vlchez, B. (2006), Hypocrealean (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) Fungal Diversity in Different Stages of Tropical Forest Succession in Costa Rica 1 Biotropica, 38: 531 543. doi:10.1111/j.1744 7429.2006.00176.x Jason E. Stajich, Mary L. Berbee, Meredith Blackwell, David S. Hibbett, Timothy Y. James, Joseph W. Spatafora, John W. Taylor, The Fungi, In Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 18, 2009, Pages R840 R845, ISSN 0960 9822, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.004 Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Fernando Martinez Pea, Simon Egli, Paul M. Kirk, Claus Bssler, Ulf Bntgen, Jorge Aldea, Klaus Hiland, Lynne Boddy, Hvard Kauserud, Climate impacts on fungal community and trait dynamics, In Fungal Ecology, Volume 22, 2016, Pages 17 25, ISSN 1754 5048, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2016.03.005 Lynne Boddy, Ulf Bntgen, Simon Egl i, Alan C. Gange, Einar Heegaard, Paul M. Kirk, Aqilah Mohammad, Hvard Kauserud, Climate variation effects on fungal fruiting, In Fungal Ecology, Volume 10, 2014, Pages 20 33, ISSN 1754 5048, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2013.10.006. Current Biology Volume 19, no. 18, Pages 840 845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.004 Stephenson, Steven L. The kingdom fungi: the biology of mush rooms, molds, and lichens. 2010. ISBN 978 0 88192 894 4. Mueller, Greg M. Biodiversity of fungi: inventory and monitoring methods Academic Press, 2011 P. Bader, S. Jansson, B.G. Jonsson, Wood inhabiting fungi and substratum decline in selectively logged boreal spruce forests, In Biological Conservation, Volume 72, Issue 3, 1995, Pages 355 362, ISSN 0006 3207 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006 3207(94)00029 P Alexopoulos, C. J., W. Mims, and M Weinstein, Richard N., Pfister, Donald H., and Iturriaga, Teresa. A phylogenetic study on the genus Cookiena Mycologia Volume 94, 2002, Pages 673 682. Doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2003.11833195

PAGE 11

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 11 APPENDIX: Marasmiaceae sensu lato Hygrocybe coccinea Agaricales sensu lato Ophiocordyceps sphecocephala Cyathus striatus Sc utellinia scutellata

PAGE 12

Fungi Richness in Disturbed Areas Lopez 12 Cookeina speciosa