Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology. Volume 6: Symposium 4, Recent Discoveries. Late Papers Submissions. Administrative Details

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Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology. Volume 6: Symposium 4, Recent Discoveries. Late Papers Submissions. Administrative Details

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Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology. Volume 6: Symposium 4, Recent Discoveries. Late Papers Submissions. Administrative Details
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12th International Congress of Speleology. Volume 6
Alternate title:
Symposium 4, Recent Discoveries. Late Papers Submissions. Administrative Details
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Jeannin, Pierre-Yves (editor)
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International Union of Speleology
Swiss Speleological Society
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Speleology ( lcsh )
Caves ( lcsh )
Karst ( lcsh )
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Conference papers and proceedings ( TGN )

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LA ( H A U XDEfoNDS SWITZERLAND 10 th -17 t h AUGUST 1997 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12 th INTERNATIONAL (ONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY VOLUME 6 RECENT DISCOVERIES CONGRESS REPORT INTERNATIONAL UNION OF S PELEOLOGY/ Swiss S PELEOLOGICAL S omTY

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Swiss Speleological Society (SSS / SGH) Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology Volume 6 Sy m pos iu m 4 Recent discoveries Late Papers submissions Administrative Details La Chaux de Fonds Switzerland 10 17.08.1997

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ISBN 2 8837 4 011 9 ( Vol. 6 ) ISBN 2-8837 4 012 7 ( Vol. 1 6 ) Publisher : Cover : Sales : Library of the Swiss Speleological Society Progres 33 CH 2300 La Chaux de-Fonds and Speleo Projects Therwilerstr. 43 CH 4054 BASEL Switzerland Titanengang Holloch Switzerland (photo Ballmann / Widmer ) Bibliotheque de la Societe Suisse de Speleologie c / o Bibliotheque de la Ville Rue du Progres 33 CH-2300 La Chaux de Fonds Fax : xx (41 ) 21 947 53 78 email : ssslib@vtx.ch Printed in Switzerland Papers published from the camera ready cop i es prepared by the authors after rev i ewing by the members of the scientific committee. Despite this the scient i fic board wishes to make clear that it shall take no responsability for any mistakes and omissions or for the opinions stated by the authors.

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Editor : Pierre-Yves Jeannin Symposium 4: Recent discoveries Coordination : Editorial board and support : Patrick Deriaz Jean-Jacques Bolanz Francy Bonardo Yvo Weidmann Vassili Giannopulos Late papers submissions and administrative details Coordination : Editorial board and support : Photos without authors : Patrick Deriaz Daniela Spring Jean-Claude Lalou Michel Bovey Sybille Kilchmann Pierre Cattin Patrick Deriaz Jean-Franc;ois Robert Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Ill

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IGU UGI E@ n Sponsors International Union of Speleology Union lnternationale de Speleologie lnternationale Union fOr Spelaologie Swiss Speleological Society (SSS) Societe Suisse de Speleologie (SSS) Schweizerische Gesellschaft fOr Hohlenforschung (SGH) 12 1h INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY 1997 UIS LA CHAUXDEFONDS SWITZERLAND United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation Organisation des Nations Unies pour !'Educati on la Science et la Culture International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) Association lnternationale des Hydrogeologues (AIH) International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Association lnternationale des Sc iences Hydrologiques (AISH) Swiss Academy of Sciences (S AS ) Academie Suisse des Sciences Naturelles (A SSN ) Schweizer ische Akademie fOr Naturwissenschaften (SANW) International Geographic Union Union Geographique lnternationale International Association of Geomorphologists (I AG ) Association lnternationale des Geomorphologues (AIG) Schweizerischer Nat i onalfonds zur Forderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung Fends National Su isse de la Recherche Scientifique Swiss Nat ional Sc ience Foundation IV Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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Sponsors 12 th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY 1997 UIS Arbeitsgemeinschaft Hollochforschung Archeone, cercle neuchatelois d 'archeologie Arova-Mammut SA Badische Karton, Deutschland Banque cantonale neuchateloise Brasserie du Cardinal, Fribourg Cafe La Semeuse Chocolats Camille Bloch SA Commission scientifique de la Societe Suisse de Speleologie Corum, Ries, Bannwart & Cie SA Cyclope Video, La Chaux-de-Fonds Dell Computer Distriboissons SA Etat de Neuchatel Fashion Watch SA Fonds Jean-Pierre Jequier, Universite de Neuchatel Groupe speleo Bienne Groupe speleo des Franches-Montagnes Groupe speleo Hades, Le Locle Groupe speleo Troglolog, Neuchatel lnterreg, Region Pacte France et Suisse, CTJ-Programme Inter Unec, Besan~on Laboratoire Dubois SA Loterie romande, Neuchatel et Jura Migros, Neuchatel et Fribourg Montres Girard-Perregaux-D.JeanRichard SA Office federal de l'environnement, des forets et du paysage (OFEFP) Ostschweiz Gesellschaft fur Hohlenforschung, Winterthur Panathlon-C lu b des Mo n tagnes neuc h ateloises Petzl, France Photo Vision du Theatre, La Chaux-de-Fonds Pierre Freiburghaus SA LA CHAUXDEFONDS SWITZERLAND Plaza Cinema SA, Vita l Epelbaum Prochimie SA PX Holding Ralston Energy Systems SA Schmalbach Lubecca, Wien SGH-Alpstein, Appenzell SGH-Bern SGH-lnterlaken SIA, comite central Sicli, Neuchatel Simda-France Singer Jean & Cie SA Societe jurassienne d 'emulation Societe neuchateloise d 'utilite publique Societe speleologique Nyon Societe suisse d 'hydrogeolog i e Societe suisse de speleologie (SSS-SGH) Speleo-Club des Montagnes neuchateloises Speleo-Club des Prealpes fribourgeoises Speleo-Club Cheseaux Speleo-Club Val-de-Travers Spe l eo-Club Vallee de Joux SSS-Saint-Exupery, Vouvry Sulzer-lntermedics SA Swiss Academy of Humanities and social Sciences Swiss Academy of Sciences (SAS) Swiss National Science Foundation TelecomPTT TSA, France Universite de Neuchatel University of Franche Comte at Besan~on Vi ll e de La Chaux de-Fonds Ville de Ne u chatel Ville d u Locle Wintert h ur Ass urances, N e u chatel Zenit h -Vie, Compagnie d' assurances Pully Proceedings of the 12 1 h I nternationa l C o ngress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6 V

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Table of Contents Symposium 4: Explorations and Speleology Session 5: Recent discoveries Barredo S P Estudio espeleol6gico preliminar en Sierras Bayas Argent i na un paleokarst? ....... ...... ... ... ...... . .......... ..... .. ..... ...... ..... 2 Betr i sey Freder i c Dernieres explorations dans la Grotte du Poteu ( Vala i s-Su i sse ) .......... 5 Bernabe i Tull i o De V i vo Anton i o de Dominici Dav i de G i u l ivo ltalo R i o la Venta project progetto Rio la Venta Sette anni di esploraz i o ni nel canyon sacro del Rio la Ven ta ........... ..... .. .... .. .... .. . ... ... ..... ... . .... 7 Christen Dav i d Per r in Jerome Les grands gouffres du Jura vaudois .................... ...... ...... ... ............. 11 Dame Fab i en E x ploration du systeme Z Le M.413 Gouffre des Partages . ..... . ..... 15 Despain Joel Drouin Ph i lippe Drole Fran j o Drouin Philippe Gabrovsek Franci J i n Yuzhang Mihevc Andre i, Otan i car Bojan The Gunung Buda Project. Preliminary Report on the 1997 j o i nt US and Malaysian caving expedition to Gunung Buda Lim bang Division Sarawak Malaysia ... .. ..... ..... ... ..... ... 19 Dernieres decouvertes dans la grotte de la Cascade de Glandieu (Bregnier Cordon Ain France ) .. .. ... . .... . .. ... . ... .. ...... ... 21 New survey of Skocjanske jame ... . . .... ... . . ...... ....... ..... .. . .... ......... 25 Dernieres decouvertes dans la grotte du Crochet ( Torc i eu A i n France ) ....... ..... . .............. ...... . ..... ...... ...... .. ..... .. ........ 29 Shi Mengx i ong Zhang Shouyue Hajna Nadja Zupan Speleological Exploration at Tianshengq i ao Natural Gunn John Brown Leslie Kyselak Jiri Fage Luc Henri Maire Richard Pernette Jean Frangois Br i dge Shui Cheng NW Guizhou S China .. .. ...... ...... ... ... ............... 32 Mechara : a New Cav i ng Area in Ethiopia ................ ....... .. . .... . .. . . . 36 New 600 m deep cave in Julian Alps Slovenia . . ... .................... . .... . 41 L'.expedition Ultima Esperanza en Patagonie chilienne : les karsts de extreme . .................. . .. ..... . .. .. ... .... ..... .. .... .. 43 Lagrou David Coessens Vincent Masschelein Jan Belgian-Vietnamese Speleological Expedit i on Son La 1995 1996 .... .. 50 Ostyanova Nella Turchinov Igor New discoveries in Optymistychna cave (Western Ukraine ) ......... .. .... .. 54 Mouret Claude Brouquisse Frangois Mouret Claude Mouret Claude Perret C ., Jutzet J. M Weidmann Y Redonte Gabriel Jorge Strinati Pierre Ordonez Maria Elena Vasileva Danica Vasileva Danica Vasileva Dan i ca Large karst cave systems in central Laos .. ... .... ....... .... ... . .. . . .. .. ..... 55 Human use of caves in Myanmar (ex Burma) . . ....... ............ .. .... . .... 58 Human use of caves in Laos .. .. ... . ... .. .. . .............. . . .. .. .. .. ... .. ........ ..... 61 Explorations Cerro Rabon Mexique 1997 ........... .. ... ... .. . . . .. ... . .. ... 64 Espeleologia minera en el noroeste de la Republica Argentina ... . . . . . . . . ....... .. .. ...... . ... ... ........ .... . .. ... .. ..... .. ................. 67 Grottes explorees au Honduras en 1997 ........ ... .. .... .. .... .... .. .. . ............ 71 Results of Explorations in the Cave Devil s Wheerpools-Yugoslavia (Pecina nad vrazjim firovima) ....... . . . . .. . ........... ... 7 4 Caves of Yugoslavia .. .. . . . .. ........ .. . .. .. ............ .... ....... .......... . .. ... .. . 76 Some speleological Activities in Yugoslavia . ........ ............. ... .. .. . ..... .. 78 Proceed i ngs of the 1 2 th Internat i onal Congres s of Speleology 199 7, Switz e rland Vol u m e 6 V II

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Late Paper Submissions. Communications de derniere minute Clarke Arthur Palacios Vargas Jose G Gamboa Vargas Jose A Rohner Andreas Vargovich Robert We i sgerber Gerd Karst Bio space: an introduction and description of some of the disturbance impacts to invertebrate cavernicoles in Tasmania ............. 80 Recent biospeleological studies in Campeche ( Mex i co ) ......... .. . . . .. ... 85 Liste Schweizer Hohlenspinnen ............. . . . .. ..... ................. ......... .. .... 91 New Data on Collembola of Ukrainian Caves ..... ....... .... .. ........... ....... 94 Speleology and Archaeology of Mining A Comparison Spelaologie und Montanarchaologie ein Vergleich ............................. 96 Meetings and Excursions. Reunions et excursions Arlt Thilo Bartholeyns Jean-Pierre Delannoy Jean-Jacques Audra Phil i ppe Pe r r i n Jerome Eb i Christ i an Hauselmann Ph i l i pp Kempe Stephan Hall i day Will i am R Regez Jean-Louis Martini Jacques E J. Sauro Ugo Grandgirard V i ncent Tripet Jean P i erre Wenger Remy Dodelin Christ i an Slagmolen Andre Nageli Ueli Wookey Bergbau-Spelaologie : Licht i n unsere Bergbauvergangenheit .............. 100 Table ronde sur la protection du karst .. . . ... .. ..................... . ... . ... .... . . 101 Rapport de la d i scussion sur History of alpine karst system ...... ...... 102 Workshop on Electron i c techniques in Speleology . ... .... . . .. . . . ....... 104 3rd International Meet i ng on Subterranean Topography : the Symbol l i st revised . .. . . .... ....... .. ............................. 106 Report of the Discussion on Pseudokarst .. . ................... ... ........ .. ... .. 107 Report of the Discussion on Cave Climatology ... .. ... .. ..................... .. 107 Signi fi cance and Application of the Term Speleothem. Results of the D i scuss i on on Cave Mineralogy ... ....... ...... . .... ...... .... 108 Geotopes and their Management. Resu l ts of the Discussion on Geotopes ................................ ....... ...... .......... ........ 109 Report of the Discussion on Ep i karst .. ....................................... ........ 111 Compte rendu de la journee du sauvetage souterrain .......................... 112 Compte rendu du stage de secours i nternational .. . . .. ... ...... .......... . 114 Compte rendu des reunions de la Commission des Speleo secours de l UIS tenues durant le 12e Congres international ......... .... ............ 115 Medical Aspects of Rescue in a Large Cave ...................... ................. 117 Survey i ng report .................................................................................... 118 Administrative Details. Partie administrative M i serez Jean Jacques Lalou Jean Claude Jeannin Pierre Yves Merci a La Chaux-de-Fonds cite accue i llante ... .. ..... .. ... .. ... .. ... . .. ... 122 Organiser un congres : une sinecure (d amitie) Einen Kongress organ i sieren : eine leichte Beschaftigung (in Freundschaft angeboten ) 124 Un congres i nternational une exper i ence unique ( que l on ev i tera soigneusement de repeter !). E i n internationaler Kongress e i ne einzigartige Erfahrung ( nicht zur Wiederholung empfohlen ) ................. 127 Comite d organisation. Organ i sationskomitee .. . .. ..... .... . .. . . . .. ... . .. 132 VIII P r o cee d ings o f the 12 t h I n t erna t i o nal C o ng r ess o f Sp e l e olog y 1997, S witzer la nd, Vo lume 6

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Speeches of the opening ceremony. Discours de la ceremonie d'ouverture Georges Jeanbourquin Francis Matthey Manfred Spreafico Paolo Forti Walter Wildi Maurice Audetat Vice-president du Conseil communal de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds ... .. .. ....... . .. .. .. ... ... ... .... . . . . .... . . . .. . ... .. ...... .. 134 Vice-president du Conseil d Etat du canton de Neuchatel ...... .. .. . ..... ... . ... .. ... . . .. ..... .. .. . ............ ...... 135 Directeur a.i. du Service hydrologique et geologique national . ........... ... .... .. ..... . . .. . . . ... .... . ........ ..... .. .. .. ..... 136 President of the U.I.S . . .......... .. .............. .. . ... . .. ... . .. ....... . ... .... ....... 137 Vice-president de l Academie Suisse des Sciences Naturelles . ... . .. .. 138 President d honneur de la S S S. Membre d honneur du Bureau de l U.I.S ... . ... . . . ........ ... ........... ... . . .. 139 List of Participants. Listes des participants ... . . ...... ...... ........... .. ..... . .. 141 Authors index volume 1 to 6 ....... ..... . . .. ... . ..... ... .. ..... ...... ............. ..... 183 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzer l and Volume 6 I X

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Recent discoveries Explorations recentes

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Estudio espeleol6gico preliminar en Sierras Bayas, Argentina, un paleokarst? B a rr e d o S .P G e6 lo ga. Grupo E p e l eo l 6g ico Ar ge ntino GEA U ni ve r s id a d d e Bu e no s Air es UBA / Co n se j o ac i o n a l d e In ves ti gac i o n es C i e ntffi cas y T ec ni cas CO IC E T. E-m a il : gea@ m a il.r e tin a.ar 6 s b a rr e d o@ m a il.r e tin a a r Resumen L o e tud ios r ea J iza d os p o r e l Grup o Es p e l eo l og i co Ar ge ntin o e n Si e rr as B ayas, p a rt ido de O l avarrfa A r ge ntin a a fi n es d e l a fi o 1 996, p e rrniti e ron a n a li zar e l es t a d o d e l k ar t asoc i a d o a do s c u evas d o l o m f ti ca y a d e m as pl a nt ear un m o d e l o d e o ri ge n p ara a mb as. E n l a p rox imi da d es d e es t a l oca lid ad se desarro ll a l as s i e r ra S ep t e ntri o n a l es do n de a fl ora e l G rup o Si e rr a s B ayas. D os so n l a cavi d a d es a n a li za d as un a co n oc id a co m o M a tild e Ca tri e l mi e n tras q u e l a otra d e t ec t a d a r ec i e nt e m e nt e se l a d eno mi no M a ll egn i S e r ea li zaro n t a r eas pr e liminar es d e ex pl o r ac i o n y r eco no c imi e nt o qu e co mpr e nd e n l a l oca l izac i o n d e l as b ocas de acceso, m e di c i o n d e t e mp e r a tur a a n al i s i s geo l og i co ex p e diti vo y o b servac i o n es r efe r e nt e a l a m o rf o l ogfa ka r s t ica de ca d a un a d e e ll as. Es tudi os geo l og i cos pr ev i os r eve l aro n l a pr e e n c i a d e un p a l eo k a r t e n l a se dim e ntit as s up er i o r es de l gr up o. Se u g i e r e qu e e t a c u evas d e ri va n d e p rocesos k a r s ti cos f os il es. L a id e ntifi cac i o n d e es p e l eo t e m as y p os i b l es co ndu ctos d e c ir c ul acio n ac ti vos indi ca r fa n r eac ti vac i o n d e l s i s t e m a p ara l os ti e mp os ac tu a l es. Abstract Ex pl ora ti o n s tudi es carr i e d o ut b y th e Sp e l eo l og i ca l Group o f Ar ge ntin a in th e Si e rr as B aya t ow n Ol ava rr ia D e p art m e n t A r ge ntin a at th e e nd o f 1 996 p e rmitt e d th e a n a l ys i s of t wo d o l o miti c caves th e s t a t e o f th e assoc i a t ed ka r s t a nd prop ose a m o d e l fo r th e ir o ri g in C l ose t o thi s t ow n i s d eve l o p e d th e Si e rr a S e pt e ntri o n a l e r a n ge w h e r e th e Si e rr as B aya Group o ut c rop T wo caves h ave b ee n visi t e d o n e i s kn ow n a M a tild e C a tri e l w hil e th e o th e r r ece ntl y di scove r ed was id e nti fied as M a ll eg ni Pr e limin ary ex pl o rat io n a n d r ecog nit io n wo rk s we r e hold co mpri s in g th e l oca ti o n of th e key h o l es t e mp e r a tu re m eas ur e m e nt ex p ed it ive geo l og i c an a l ys i s a nd fin a ll y o b se rv a ti o n s r e l a t e d t o th e kar s t morph o lo gy of eac h on e S o m e geo l og i c tudi es r evea l e d th e ex i s t e n ce o f a p a l e ok a r t d eve l o p e d in th e yo un ge t se dim e nt s o f th e gro up It i s u gges t e d h e r e t h a t t h e pr e e n ce of s u c h p a l eoka r s t imm e d ia t e l y ove rl y in g th ese ro c k s mi g ht b e indi ca ti ve o f an anc i e nt k a r s t ph e n o m e n a r e l a t e d t o th e do l o miti c caves w h i l e th e ex i s t e n ce o f ac ti ve s p e l e oth e m s a nd p ro b a bl e fl ow co nduit s wo uld s u gges t r eac ti va ti o n lntroducci6n L a pr ese n c i a d e cave rnami e nt os e n l os ni ve l e d o l o mfti cos d e l a i e rr a B ayas h a s id o d e t ec tad o p o r l a l a b o r e c i e ntffi cas d e B arrio er a l ( 1 99 l ), P o ir e e Ini g u ez ( l 984) a unqu e es t os a ut o r es n o r ea li za ron es tudi o es p e l eo l og i c o s. L u ego d e l a d e nun cia d e un a nu eva cav id a d (C u eva Mall eg n i) e l Grup o E p e l eo l og i co A r ge ntin o r ea li zo un a ca mp a fi a a fin es d e l afio 1 99 6 p ara eva Ju are l es t a d o d e l kar s t y a mp li a r l os co no c imi e nt os sob r e s u evo lu c i o n L o r es ult ado o bt e nid o se fi a l a n q u e l a c u evas ex i s t e nt es p rese nt a n es p e l eo t e m as (es t a l ac tit as e n ges t ac i o n ac umul ac ion es botro id a l e d e ca rb o n a t o d e ca l c i o bl a n co t a pi za nd o p a r e d es y pi so. e t c) y rasgos m orfo l og i cos qu e indi ca r fa n qu e se tr a t a d e un k ars t ac ti vo d e evo lu c i o n l e nt a. P o r o tr o l a d o ye n fun c i o n d e es tudi os geo l og i cos pr ev i o e d e t ec t o l a ex i s t e n c i a d e un p a l eo k a r t l oca l iza d o e n l o e d i m e ntit as inm e di ata m e nt e up rayace nt es a l ni ve l d o l o mfti c o p o rt a d o r. Es t o i ntrodu ce un a hip o t es i s co n r es p ec t o a l a ge n es i s d ee t a cav id a d es. L a mi s m a s u gie r e qu e l os pro cesos ka r ti cos pudi e ron h a b e r e i ni c i a d o e n ti e mp o p a l eozo i cos e int e rrumpid os p o t e ri o rn1 e nt e p o r ca mbi os r e l a ti vos d e l ni ve l d e l m ar co njunt a m e nt e co n l os ca mbio s c lim a ti cos imp e r a nt es e n ese mo m e nt o P os t e ri o rrn e nt e p o r t ec t o ni s m o es t as roca s u fre n a ce n so y eros i o n qu e d a nd o nu eva m e nt e ex pu e t a a l o p rocesos k a r s ti cos o b se r va bl es e n l a ac tu aJ id a d Ubicaci6n y Geografia L as c u evas se h a ll an ubi ca d a e n l a S ie rr as B ayas qu e oc up an l a po r c i o n occ id e nt a l de l as i e rr as S e pt e ntri o n a l es de l a pro v in c i a d e Bu e n os A ir es e ntr e l os 36 y 3 7 d e l a titud ur y lo s 60 y 61 de l o n g i t ud oes t e (vea e fig I ). Es t e co rd o n ti e n e un a di s p os i c i o n NO S E y n o so br e p asa l os 5 00 m so br e e l ni ve l d e m ar. L as s i e rr as pr ese ntan un a a ltu ra m ax im a d e 3 15 m so br e e l ni ve l d e l m a r es t an d o l as c u evas a a p roxi m a d a m e nt e 25 0 270 m nm D e la s d o c u evas e tudi a d a e n es t a e t a p a so l o un a h a s id o t o p og r a fi ca m e nt e s itu a d a es t a es l a c u eva M ati ld e Ca tri e l c u ya s coo rd e n a d as geog r aficas so n : 6 0 0 8' 25" L o n g itud O es t e y 36 56' 1 0" L a t i tud Sur Se e n c u e ntr a en l a ca m era d e T affo l e ti a un a aJ tu ra d e 253 m so br e e t ni ve l d e l m a r. L a o tra c u eva r ec i e nt e m e nt e d e nun c i a d a e t a itu a d a e n l os t e rr e n os d e l S r Ma ll eg n i, e n l a l a d e r a n o r es t e d e l ce rr o Ag u i rr e p o r lo qu e fu e in fo rrn a lm e nt e b a uti za d a co m o C u eva Ma ll eg ni Se e n c u e ntra a un os 64 m a l n o r es t e d e l a b oca d e l a c u eva M a tild e Ca tr ie l a un a a ltitud d e 263 m sob r e e l ni ve l d e l mar, sefia l a nd o u n d es n ive l e ntr e a m b as bocas d e I O m. Su desarro ll o e h as t a e l pr ese nt e, d e 1 9 m co n un d es n i ve l d e 4.4 m (vease fig. 2) E l c lim a es ca lid o a t e mplad o hum e d o co n un p ro m e di o de llu v i as an u a l d e 800 mm s i e nd o fund a m e nt a lm e nt e a bund an t e e n ve r a n o L as t e mp era tur as osc il a n e ntr e 1 5 y 30 C e n e l ve ran o y p ara e l in v i e rn o en tr e 5 y I 5 C co n un a m e di a p ara l a zo n a de 1 3 8 o C. Marco Geol6gico Co mpr e nd e l a s u ce s i o n pr eca mbri ca co n oc id a co m o Gru po Si e rr as B ayas ( P O I RE, 1 987) co mpu es t a p o r l as s i g ui e nt es unid a d e : Mi e mb ro C u a r c it as ln fe r io r es Mi e mb ro D o l o m fa Mi e m bro P sa m o p e lita d e l a Forma c i 6n Vi ll a M on i ca; Mi e mbr o P amope lit a s Sup e ri o r es, Mi e mbr o C u a r c it as Sup e ri o r es Mi e mbr o A r c ilit as qu e co n s titu ye n l a F o rma c i 6 n Cerro L ar g o y Mi e m bro Ca li zas d e l a 2 Proceed i ngs of the 12 t h I nternational Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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64 / / I ; RO ~I NCIA D E BUENOS AIRES SIERRAS BAYAS UR U GUAY ARG E N T INA Fig 1: Mapa de ubic a ci6n d e L as Sierras Septentriona l es Formaci611 Loma Negra. En co njunt o, e t as unidad es co nforman un manto s ubhori zo ntal c u yo es pe so r maximo no s up e ra lo s 35 0 m a unqu e l a potencia media o c il a e ntr e l o 50 my 70 m Se apoya e n discordancia ero iva sob r e un b asa m e nt o fgneo--metamorfico e infrayace p o r m e dio de di sco rd a n c i a a l a Forma c i6n Cerro Negro de edad cambro--ordovfc i ca. Su o ri gen se vi n c ul a a facies de plataforma (TERUGGI et al., 19 58), mas precisamente a un a mbi e nt e ep i co nLin e ntal y lit o r al m ar ino d e a lta e n ergfa y po ca profundid a d que produjo el depo ito de l as c u a r ci t a inferiores (o rto c uar c it as) como are n as de playas, dunas s ub ac u eas y barra s lit ora l e mi e nrra s que l a d e truc c i o n y r edepos it o d e estr u ct u ras a l ga l es e n l a forma de calcarenita ma rarde afectada por ac ti vi d ad qufmica co n s t i tu yero n l a dolomfas. Como l o seiia l ara Poir e ( 1 984), l a presencia d e facies de lutita s rojas e n l a base d e l M i e mbro P amopelita marcarfa l a c ulmin ac i on del ciclo regresivo iniciado con l a C uar c it as ln fe ri ore U na nu eva t ra n gre i on queda s u ger id a CUEVA MALLEGNI Sierras Bayas Part i do de Olavarr ia Provincia de Buenos Aires ESPELEOMETRIA Ouarrollo : U l m 0un1v, 1 m T e cho max.; 3 Sm A ncho mu .: 3 6m P L A NT A REPUBLICA ARGENTINA P ERFIL por l a pr ese n cia d e psamitas y p e lita s va ri co l o r es en e l Mi e mb ro P sa mop e lita s ya qu e indi ca n pro f undiz acio n mi e ntra s que, l as Cuarcitas Sup e rior es indi ca n un nu evo cic l o regre ivo. Po t e riorm e nt e, un cambio en l a e ner gfa ambiental p ermitio la d e p os ir ac i o n d e l as arcilitas y de la s cal i zas micrfticas e n un ambiente tranqui l o zona d e albuferas. Un nu evo d esce n so del niv e l del mar probablemente vi n c ul ado a g la c ia c ion es, produjo la ex po ici6n s ub aerea d e l ub trato carbo m i ti co aco mp a ii ado de fe n o m e n os de di so lu c i o n karstica que dieron lu ga r a l a formacion d e el pai aje kar tico ac tu a lm e nt e ex humad o co mo paleokar t ( B ARRIO, 1 991 ). L a a u se n c i a de eva p o rita s ( B A RRIO, op. ci r .) indican un pal eocl im a ca lido y hum e do para esos ti e mpo s. Esto co n c u erda co n lo s es tudi os r ealizado por Terrugi et al .. ( 1 958), qu e indican qu e e l ba amemo e t aba fuertemente alterado por acc i on d e un c lim a ca lido y h umedo. La e ro s ion qu e s ufrieron es t as roca d e bilit adas por lo s pro ceso quimico p e rmit.i o la instalacion de un mar poco profundo e n un ambiente de pl a taform a. Morfolog1a Karstica L as c u evas se de a rroll a n e n lo niveles dolomftico por disolucion co mo proceso principal acompaiiados de pro cesos de corrosio n y de plome co m o pro cesos sec und arios. Se accede, en a mb o casos, por cond u ctos vert i ca l es ge n erados probablemente p o r e t desplome de parte del t ec ho d e la cavidad. L a c u eva Mallegni presenta un a sa l a principal donde puede ob e r va r se e l de arro ll o de co n c r ec ion es carbonat i cas co n aspecto botroidal y es t a l ac tit as e n es t a do de gestac i o n (vease fig. 3) ( B ARREDO, 1 997). La co n c r ec i ones tapizan no solo el techo ino t amb i e n p a rt e de l as paredes y e l piso conju nt ame nt e con l as eflo r esce nci as ca rbon a ti cas resu l t a nt e de proce o de di olucion/ corro i o n. E t a ultimas corres pond e n a carbona t o de ca l c i o blanco pr ese nt e como mantos o co mo ve nill a de r e ll e n o en la s mi cro fi s ura s. El pi so esta co n s tituido por m ate rial detrftico l oca l y ex t emo. H OJAG E A 132 GRUPO ESPELEOL OGI CO ARGENTINO SIGNOS C A RTOGRAFICOS 0 dUIOI y blOQUU o~ ..&4. .. conc~c t onu laluo f pend 1 eA let 11\ura al t e cho bo ca de acceso cwlH , illl ESC A LA GAAFICA Corte transv e rsal a-a EVANTAt.flENTO : 68 Camp ana GEA D ic, embre 1996 Osvaldo Martinez v Gabr iel Aedonle PRE CISIO N : JC CARTOGAAFIA : 5 BAAAEDO GRUPO ESPE LEOLOGICO AAGENTINO (G. E A ) E,p,op,odadLEV 11723 Fig 2: Piano to p og r
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En l a c u eva Matilde Catriel en cambio, pudo estab l ecerse l a presencia de un a ala pequeiia y otra de mayor desarrollo, ce r ca de 4 m por 6 m a l a que se accede por un ori ficio horizontal de dificil transito. La c u eva presenta un desarrollo total de unos 25 30 m y un desnivel de 5 m. A grandes rasgos puede seiia lar se que existe un fuerte contro l por el diaclasamiento ubmeridional pre ente, de manera que estas sa las se disponen con rumba simi lar y su origen se debe, en parte, a los procesos de disolucion oc urrido s a traves de estas est ru c tura s. La sa l a principal pre en t a eflore cencias carbonatica al igual que la cueva anterior, con au enc i a de concreciones de c u a lqui er tipo alvo a l g un as microestalactitas e n gestacion. El techo presenta cavidades sem i esfericas de no mas de 2 m de diametro ( t ipo chimeneas) producto de disolucion/corrosion. E l piso e halla tapizado mayormente por sed im ento detrftico Fino (po lvo ), aloctono y clastos L amaiio grava gruesa hasta ai lados bloque de no mas de 1 ,5 m de largo originados en procesos gravitator i os coma el desplome in situ proximo a l a boca de acceso. En l a porcion po terior de la sala. sa bre el detrito Fino. pudo determinar e la pre encia de rasgo morfologico que indicarfan l a circulacion de una corriente de agua, proveniente del ex t e rior e n forma de arroyo s inuoso que deja un lag residual de clas t os tamaiio grav ill a o sabu lit a (Barredo, 1997). Dicho arroyo se extiende ma s alla de l a pared final por media de un orificio de 30 cm de a ltu ra l o que deja abierta la posibilidad que la cueva pueda co ntinu arse en esa direccion. Mediciones de temperatura realizadas en la parte posterior de la cueva indican un va l or de aproximadamente I 2 C para e l aire, temperatura que se toma coma es t ab l e dado que este sec t or de l a cueva e ta suficientemente ais l ado del exterior. Discusi6n Hacienda referencia a los procesos que dieron o ri ge n a una superficie discordante entre e l Grupo Sierras Bayas y l a suprayacente Fomiacion Cerro Negro Barrio ( 1991 ) propane que una vez depo itada las ca li zas del techo del grupo se produjo el retiro del mar y l a consiguiente expo icion subaerea, acom p afiados de fenomenos de disolucion karstica bajo un clima calido y hum edo. Esta paleosuperficie irregular es identificada por el au t or, coma un paleokarst. Paralelamente este ambiente epicontine ntal ufrio flucruacione del nivel del mar e n una s u cesion de transgresiones y regresiones acompafiadas de procesos erosivos y depositacionales. Asf es muy probable que una vez d epositadas las dolomfas y tras un eve nto regresivo. esta h ayan s ufrido procesos de disolucion kar s tica y deposito de arc ill a (facies de lutitas rojas ba a l e del Miembro Psamopelitas), todo bajo un c lima ca lido donde primo l as condic ion es humedas y la escasa evaporacion. Un nuevo asce n so del nivel del mar impidio que e l karst evo lu cionara a s u e t apas maduras. mientras que e depo itaban l as pelitas s uperiore del Miembro Psamopelita s. Finalmente una nueva regre s ion permitio la instalacion de otro paisaje karstico en el If mite superior del grupo. La exhumacion po s terior de estas unidade s por movimiento s tectonicos y erosion y. la instalacion de un clima templado humedo perrnitieron la rein s talacion del ambiente kar s tico al estado actual. Conclusiones Si bien el trabajo llevado a cabo fue de naturaleza expeditiva puede estimarse, con un relativo grado de seg uridad que se tr a ta de un karst activo pero que evo lu ciona muy lentamente debido al clima y a la precipitacione s anua l es. que en e ta region no so n lo suficien t emente abundante El estado del kar s t queda confirrnado por la existenc i a de estalac tit as e n proceso de gestacion y de posible s corrientes de circulacion de ag u a proveniente s del exterior La hipotesi s de una primera etapa de karstificacion de edad paleozoica, es merarnente e peculativa. Se ba sa en la existencia de un paleokarst desarrollado en l as unidade s s uprayacentes al nivel dolomftico. En funci6n d e la s variaciones del nivel del mar conjuntamente con lo cambios c lim aticos (aparentemente cfclicos) que acompaiiaron la depo itaci6n de los edimentos del grupo, es po ible presuponer que lo proce o de disolucion de !as dolomita s se hayan iniciado bajo condic i ones de clima calido y humedo relacionado al paleopai aje kar tico superior o bien haber se de arrollado con anterioridad al mi s mo. Bibliografia BARREDO S. P. 1997. Exploraci6n y analisis evolutivo de Sier ras Bayas. Revista Salamanca. Grupo E s peleologico Argentina Bueno s Aires, en prensa. BARRIO, C.A. D.G. POIRE&A M INIGUEZ 1991. Elcontacto entre l a Formaci6n Loma Negra (Gr up o Sierras Bayas) y la Formaci6n Cerro Negro un ejemp l o de paleokar t. Olavarria provincia de Buenos Aires. R evista de l a Asociacion Geologica Argentina. Bueno s Aires, XLVI ( 1 -2): 69-76. POLRE, D .G. & A. M. r N lGUEZ 1 984 Miembro Psamopelitas de l a Formaci6n Sierras Bayas partido de Olavarrfa. provincia de Bueno s Aire s Revista de l a A ociacion Geo16gica Argentina. Bu enos Aires XXXIX (3-4): 276-283. PO[RE, D .G, 1 987 Mineralogfa y Sedimentologfa de la Fomiaci6n Sierras Bayas en el nucleo epten tri onal de las sierras hom6nima Olavarrfa provincia de Bu e no s Aires Facultad de Ciencia Naturale y Museo de la Plata, Tesis Do c t oral, (inedita), 494 p. TERUGGI M. E., V E. MAURINO T. A. LIMOUSIN & 0 SCHAUER 195 8. Geologfa de l as sierras del Tandil. R ev i s ta de l a Asociacion Geo16gica Argentina. Buenos Aires, 13 (3): 1 85-204. 4 Proceedings of the 12'h International Congress of S p e l eo l ogy 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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Dernieres explorations dans la Grotte du Poteu ( Valais-Suisse ) Fr e deric B e tri s e y Ru e de s Pl ace s, C H 1 97 1 C h a m p l a n Resume Ex plor ee de m a ni e r e s p e l eo l ogique pour la pr e mi e r e fois au debut du s i ec l e, la Oron e du P o t e u a Saillon co nn ai' t actuellement un developpement e n v ir o n di x ki l ometres d e ga l e rie s, pour quelque 250 m e tre s d e d e niv e llation Mai s l es colorations effectuees d a n s l e go uffr e du Gr a nd Cor (-600 m ) prouv e nt un e p e rc ee de p l u s d e 2000 m e tr es d e d e n i vellation. A ya n t d eco uv e rt l a rivi e r e prin c ip a l e. pui s troi s s iphon s s ucce s if s, 'ex p l oration d ev i e lll de p l u s en plu s diffi c il e. Abstract First ex pl o r e d by cav in g experts a t th e s t a rt o f this ce ntur y. Pot e u cave at Sa il I on h as a ppro x imat e l y I O kilom e tr es of ga l e ri es in a d e pth of o nl y 250 metre But th e d ye tra c ing s in th e cave of th e Grand Cor ( -600m .) h ave pro ve d th a t th e cave sys t e m ha s a depth o f 2000 m e tr es. Havin g di scove r e d th e prin c ip a l ri ve r a nd 3 s ucc ess i ve feeder tr ea m s, th e ex ploration of th e cave sys t e m h as become mor e and more diffi c ult. 1 Introduction L 'ex plor a tion dun reseau t e l qu e l e Pot e u a n ecess it e d e j a pr e d'un s i ec l e e t e n n ecess it era p e ut -et r e un a utr e. Chaque ge n e rati o n de s p e l eo l ogues valaisans e t d ailleurs s y so nt alle l es, avec plu s o u moin s d e difficult es e t d e r e u ss it e. M a i s m e m e i le s mo ye n s t ec hniqu es d e no s pr ec ur se ur s e tai e nt moin s avances. l'ac ces a l a pointe ac tu e llem e nt r e nd ) 'ex plorati on passablement plus e n gagee e t difficile. D e plu s n o u s so mm es arrives a l a limit e d e ) ex ploration sa n s bivouac : e ntr e 20 e t 25 h eures d exp l ora tion s co n tinue de t e ll es ort i e se fo nt un e a deux fo i s par a nn ee dan s l es que lqu es semaines d e ti age favorable. E nfin l es t o ut es d ernie r es decouvertes o nt e r e realisees e n plongee s peleo e t e n ex pl ora ti on post-siphon, rendant l es ava n cees qu e lqu e peu o lit a ir es .. 2. Historique M a i s p a rl e r du Pot e u sa n s c it e r l es di ffe r e nt es e t a p es prim o diales d e so n ex ploration era it un e gage ur e. En effet, ii se mbl era it que d e ja au t e mp s d e la pr e hi s t oire ce tt e cav it e, qui re t e e n co r e l a plu s important e du Valai s ac tu e ll e m e nt ait e t e choisie comme ab ri p a r l es pr e mi e r s homm es. C'es t a l ors se ul e m e nt e n 1905 qu e l'on peut parl e r de pr e mi e r e ex pl ora tion m e n ee par l e prof e e ur H Schardt, s uivi es d e diff e r e nt s l eves d es premieres alles ( Pitt ard e n 1940 ; prof Ambi.ilh en 4 1 ). En 1 947, J Germanier e t L. Du c r et ex pl o r e r e nt l es puits de ntr ee. L e releve sera effect u e e n 49 par Savioz Grobet e t Exquis (GROBET 1 95 1 ). Pui s c 'e ten 1 973 que la cavi t e a tt ei nt 3 km de developpemelll, grace aux effo rt s de Du e, B e rcla z e t P e rr e n ( B ERCLAZ 1974 ). P e u ap r es, e n 1976 un e percee Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 5

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r e marqu a ble avec l a d ec ouv e rte du S e pti e m e Ci e l e t du Yol c an l es plu s b e ll es co n c r e ti o n s du P o t e u es t e ncor e e ff ec tu ee par Due P e rren e t Ma s otti .( B E R C L AZ 1978 ) II faut a lor s a u e ndr e 19 8 8 ou la plu s b e ll e d ec ouv e rt e es t r e ali see: ce ll e d e l a ri v i e re e t du s iphon. par Berth o d Con s tantin et Da ye r. ( C o STANT I 1 98 9 ) L a c a vit e a qu e lqu e di x kilom e tr es d e d eve lopp e m e nt. 3 Explorations recentes D es l o r s d e g ro sses e t l o n g u e s orti es s ont or ga ni sees pour esaye r d e c ontourn e r ce s iphon Mai s l e esca lad e e n artif d e puit r e mont a nt s, par Pr e i s i g e t L a thion e n av a l d e l a rivi e r e, n abouti se nt a ri e n ( B trn 1 sEY 1993 ) e t l es g al e ri es a val de sce ndante s n e m e nent qu au r e e a u a c tif. c' e s t a dir e a la 1ivi e r e, s ur un e diz a ine d e metr es, e t a so n ec happ ee, a tra ve r s un e fi ss ur e o u un s iphon n oye Alor s, c es t a u ss i a u so mm e t d e l a R a mp e Ou es t qu e l on ess a ye d e d ec ou v rir un e s uit e non n oyee I B Du c lu za u x y d eco u v r e un e g al e ri e p e rp e ndi c ul a ir e d e I 00 m e tr es d e l o n g Malh e ur e u e m e nt e lle s'o b s tru e co lmat ee par l a b o u e. Un puit s r e mont a nt es t a u ss i e xpl o r e, m a i s d e vi e nt trop e troit (s orti e GSR GSL F ) II faut a l o r s so n ge r a fran c hir ce s iph o n t e rmin a l. Un e pr e mi e r e t e nt a ti ve e n 1 993, p a r A P a hud e t J L e roi. m o ntr e qu il d e p asse l e 16 0 m e tr es d e d e v e l o pp e m e nt e t a, ju s qu e l a un e pro fo nd e ur m ax im a l e d e 2 5 m e tr e ( B ETR I SEY 1 9 9 4). En d ece mbr e 1995 un e sec ond e t e nt a ti ve .p a r R B o ud o n p e nn e t d e p asse r e n fin ce s iph o n qui totali se 3 70 m e tr e d e l o n g Un a utre es t d e j a e n v u e ( B ET RI SEY I 9 9 6 ). En fin e n m a r s 1 99 6 R Boudon r e pl o n ge e t ex plor e l e d e u x i e m e iph o n qui. Jui e t plu s co urt : 60 m e tr e a 7 m e tr es m ax imum U n troi s i e m e es t d e n o u vea u e n v u e. m a i s s urt o ut un e l arge ga l e ri e ec h e co ntinu e. m e m e a pr es l es 400 m e tr e ex pl o r es ( B ETR I S E Y 1 996). 4 Perspectives a venir C omme le Pot e u es t c on s titu e d e troi s niv e au x bien diff e r e nt s : l e r ese au fo s sil e c on c r e tionn e e t sec, l e r esea u se mi a c tif no ye e n p a rti e ou total e m e nt o r s d es cru es, e t l e r esea u a c tif a ssez p e u a u e i g n a bl e, e t qu e ses ga l e ri e ont d e u x o ri e nt a ti o n s prin c ip a l es p e rp e ndicul a ir e au p e nd age o u d a n s ce d e rni e r ( P ERR I N 1 99 7 ) o n co n s t a t e qu il se d eve l o pp e e n esca li e r du m o in s l es p a rti es fr a n c hi ss able s. C e l a r ev i e nt a dir e qu ii f a udrait d ec ou v rir a ppro x i m a ti ve m e nt au niv e au d e l a Ramp e Ou es t un e i ss u e ca pabl e d e s hunt e r l e s iphon C" es t a in s i qu e l es o rti es futur es ero nt axees s ur l a p oss ibilit e d e trouv e r un p a age a ec m e n a nt au x zo n es p os t -s iph o n M a i s un e s orti e plon gee sera a u ss i e nvi sagee, ca r t e l fut d e j a l e c a s a u Pot e u, c 'es t e n p assa nt par un e g al e ri e no yee m a i s ev id e nt e qu e l on a d e couv e rt l es ga l e rie s se ch es, m a i s d e vant et r e ag randi es a l e ur d e bu1. Br e f ii n o u s r es t e e n c or e d e b e ll es h e ur es d 'ex pl o r a ti o n d eva nt nou s Refere nc es B E RCLAZ M .A ( 1 9 74 ). L a Grott e du P o t e u A c te s 5' C o n g r es N ti o n a l d e s p e l eo l og i e B E RCLA Z M -A ( 1 974). 1 973 un a n a u P o t e u Cave rn es Y a l a i sa nn es 2/74. B E RCLA Z M .A ( 1 978). Qu a tr e n v l. a nn ees d 'ex pl o. dn .r e ca u d u P o t e u A c t es 6e C o n g r es N a ti o n B ETR I SEY F. ( 19 93). P o t e u 9 3. GSR Info s 1 / 9 3. B E TR I SEY F. ( 1 9 9 4) Pl o n gee s p e l e o a u P o t e u GSR In fos 1 /9 4 B ET R I SEY F. ( 1 99 6 ). P o t e u. a ut o mn e 9 5 GSR in fos I /96. B ETR I SEY F. ( 1 996) P o t e u print e mp s 96. GSR In fo 2/96. Co STANT T ( 1 989). Sp ec i a l P o t e u GSR In fos 1 /89. G ROBET A ( 1 9 51 ) L a Gr o tt e du Pot e u x de S a il I o n St a l ac tit e 1 / 5 I P E RR I N J ., T acc hini P ( I 99 7 ). L e sys t e m e k a r tiqu e gro tt e du P o t e u -so ur ce d e l a S a r vaz. Ces A c t es. 6 Proce e ding s o f t h e 1 2 th Internat i ona l Congress of Speleology 1 99 7 Switzerland Volume 6

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Rio la Venta project progetto Rio la Venta Sette anni di esplorazioni nel canyon sacro del Rio la Venta Tu lli o BE R ABEi, Antonio DE V I VO, Davi d e D OM I I C I lta l o GIULIVO A ssoc i az ion e G e o g r afi ca L a V e nt a, Vi a Priam o Tron 3 5 / f 3 1100 Tr ev i o Itali a T e l/fa x 0 422/32 09 8 1 Vo ca bolo Chior a no I 0 0 2 046 M ag ljano S a bina ( Rl ) Italia T e l/f ax 0744/9 l00 2 7 W e b s it e : http :/ /www.itr e c om / l ave nt a. Emai l : l a v e nt a@ itr e c om Abstract : Rio la Venta Project: 7 years exploring the sacred canyon of Rio la Venta Th e Ri o L a Y en t a P ro j ec t i s a pl a n of geogra phi ca l r esearc h es ( in c ludin g a r c h aeo l og i ca l anthr o p o l og i ca l p e l eo l og i ca l geo l og i ca l h yd r ogeo l og i ca l a nd w ild e m e s sec ti o n s) s t a rt e d in 1 99 4, h av in g as a im th e s tud y o f a w id e a lm os t t o t a ll y un ex pl o r e d a r ea o f th e s t a t e of C hi a p as ( S o uth e rn M ex i co) c ut throu g h b y Ri o L a Y e nt a an 8 0 km l o n g g r ea t ca n yo n du g m o r e th a n 4 00 m e t e r d ee p int o th e t ropi ca l fo r es t. T h e p rojec t o r ga ni ze d a nd ca rri e d o ut b y th e geog r a phi ca l assoc i a ti o n L a Y e nt a ( Tr ev i o, I ta l y), was awa rd e d in 1 993 th e R o l ex Award fo r E nt erp r ise a n int e rn a t io n a l p ri ze of g r ea t pr es ti ge U p t o th e p r e e nt tim e a pp rox im a t e l y 11 0 caves we r e ex pl o r ed carry in g o ut t o p ogra phi ca l s urv eys for a t o t a l d eve l o pm e nt of 28 km ; p a rti c ul a rl y n o t ewo rth y i s th e C u e v a d e l Ri o L a Y e nt a, a r es ur ge n ce o p e nin g in th e ca n yo n a nd d ee p e nin g 11 km int o th e for es t o n it l ef t orog r a phi c id e, a n d co nn ec tin g h y d rogeo l og i ca ll y t o th e w id e k a r s t sys t e m n ea rb y th e v ill age of L o p ez M a t eos. Su c h y t e rn pr e e ntin g mo r e th an 22 k m or d eve l o pm e nt a nd 24 e ntr a n ce a pp ea r m o r e a n d m o r e as a t ro pi ca l ka r s t p ar k of g r ea t imp o rt a n ce. B es i des, in th e co ur e o r th e pr o j ec t impr ess i ve m o num e nt a l ce ntr e c l ose d int o th e fo r es t were r eac h e d ; s u c h ce ntr es m ay b e asc ri bed t o th e l a t e c l assic Zo qu es, co nr e mp ora r y n e i g hb o ur of th e M ayas of w h o m ve r y littl e i s kn ow n ; th e di sco v e r y o f buri a l s it e a nd oth e r s i g n s of occ up a ti o n i n m os t o f th e ex pl o r e d caves, m a inl y th ose a l o n g th e hi g h ca n yo n c li ffs g i ves thi s a r ea a n o t ewo rth y arc h aeo l og i ca l imp o r t a n ce. lntroduzione II Ri o La Y e nl a e un p r ofo nd o canyo n d e ll o s t a l o d e l C h ia p a in Mes i co int ag li a t o i n un a se l va t ro pi ca l e t ra l e piu imp o n e nti e ri gog li ose a l m o nd o p e r m ag nifi ce n za d e ll e s truttur e n a tur a li e d e l l e bi o di ve r s it a c h e l a ca ratt e ri zz an o. U n ca n yo n d i i m paregg i a bil e b e ll ezza, un traforo n a tu ra l e co n p o rt a l e tr a i piu a lti e m aes t o i a l m o nd o, un s i t e m a ca r s i co tr o pi ca l e a ui vo t ra i p i u es t es i de l M ess i co gro tt e foss ili ri cca m e nt e co n c r ez ion a t e es pl o r az i o ni qu as i imp o s i b ili n e i profoncli p ozz i c h e i a pr o n o co m e occ hi n e ll a se l va, riso r ge n ze di ac qu a l i mpi cla e ea ca t e cl'acq u a pi e tri fica t e, sco r c i p a n ora m ici co m e qu a dri n a tu ra l i num erose ves ti g i a di a nti c h e e poco co n osc iut e c i v il ta vis ut e n e ll a se l va co n u so se p o l cra J e e ritual e d e ll e gro tt e, in se di a m e nti co l o ni a li ecc. : in qu es t o co nt e t o n e l m a r zo 1 994 e co min c i a t a l'avve ntu ra de l Pr oge tt o R io L a Y e nt a >> un p i ano di ri ce r c h e geo grafic h e (arc h eo l og i c h e, an tr o p o l og i c h e. spe l eo l og i c h e geo l og i c h e id roge ol og i c h e, n a tu ra li s ti c h e, ecc ) c h e e s t a t o fin ora p o rtat o ava nti co n d u e s p e d iz i o n i l an n o e c h e c i ve dr a imp eg n a ti a n co ra n e l 1 998. In t o t a l e s on o t a r e effe nu a t e fin ora 8 spediz i o n i, cle ll e qu a li l a pri m a f u un a ri cog ni z i o n e n e l 1 99 0 In un pr ece d e nt e d oc um e nt o a pp a r so s u Sp e l eo l og ia 11 33 ( n ti z i a ri o d e ll a Soc i e t a Sp e l eo l og i ca It a li a n a) d e ll 'o tt o br e 1 99 5 g i a s i i llu t raro n o g li o bi e tt iv i d e ll e ri ce r c h e in co r o ed i primi ri s ult a ti esp l ora ti v i ; in un s u ccessivo agg i o rn a m e nt o a pp a r so se mpr e s u Sp e l eo l og i a n 3 5 d e l di ce mbr e 1 996 fu p ubbli ca t o ii rili evo int gra l e d e ll a C u eva d e l Ri o L a Y e nt a, l a piu imp o rt a nt e g rott a es pl ra t a n e ll' area. Ne l pr e e nt e a rti co l o quindi i d esc ri ve s int e ti ca m e nt e l o s t a t o di ava n za m e nt o d e ll e ri ce r c h e n e l ca mp o s p e l eo l og i co e el a r c h eo l og i co, a ll a lu ce d e i ri s ult a ti co n seg uiti co n l a r ece nt e mi i o n e d e l ge nn a i o a pril e 1 99 7 c h e h a v i s t o co in vo lti o ltr e 5 0 p a rt c ip a nti 11 proge tt o o r ga ni zza to e ges tit o d a ll 'Assoc i az i o n e G eog r a fi ca L a Y e nt a co n se d e i n Tr ev i so, go d e di num eros i p a tro c ini o ltr e c h e d e ll 'a pp ogg i o l og i s ti co d e l G o v e rno m es i ca n o e di v ari i s tituti cie nt i fi c i ; h a g i a fin ora v int o ii pr es ti g i o o pr e mi o R o l ex A wa rd fo r E nt e rpri e n e l 1 993. e n e l 1 99 5 i e agg iudi ca t o l a ge n z i a n a d a r ge nt o a l film fes ti va l di Tr e nt o co n ii d oc um e nt a ri o Ri o L a Y e nt a: un ca n yo n t ra du e ocea ni I r ece nti ri s ult a ti d e lla s p e di z i o n e, in fin e, so n o s t a ti ogge u o di un d oc um e nt ar i o cie ntifi co int e r n azio n a l e a p ro du z i o n e it a l ofr a n ce e t a run i t e n se, c h e sad\ vero s imilm e nt e ultim a t o e di st ribuit o n e ll 'a utunn o 1 997. Le ricerche speleologiche N e ll a r ea ca r i ca d e l Ri o L a Y e nt a, co mpr e n de nd o l a S e l va El O co t e e l a limit rofa S e l va d e l M e r ca dit o, n e l co r so d e ll e s p e di z i o ni protr a u es i fin a p a rrir e d a l 1 97 1 a d o p e ra di va ri g ruppi it a li a ni e Fra n ce i o n o s t a t e fin ora es pl o rat e c ir ca 230 gro ll e e t o p ografa t i c ir ca 55 km d i c uni co li e ga ll e ri e In t a l e co nt es t o e a pp a r so d ec i s i vo ii co ntribut o d e l p roge u o Ri o L a Y e nt a c h e, a p a rt ir e d a l 1 994, h a es pl o r a t o c ir ca 11 0 g r o t t e effe ttu a nd o fin ora rili ev i t o p og r a fi c i p e r qu a i 28 kn1 di sv ilupp o co mpl ess i vo. L e ri ce r c h e s p e l eo l og i c h e d e l pro ge tt o, in ve rit a. hann o o ri gi n e a l 1 99 0 a nn o in c ui p e r l a prim a vo lt a v i e n e effe ttu a t a ( Sp e l eo l og i a 11 23 o tt o br e J 990) l a di ce a d e l ri o lun go c ir ca 80 km ; i n t a l e c ir cos t a n za I 'a tt e n z i o n e prin c ip a l e d eg li es pl ora t o r i fu ri vo lt a ese n z i a lm e nt e a JJ a co n osce n za d e ll e num erose diffi co lt a co nn esse a ll a t ra n s it a bilit a int eg ral e d e l ca n yo n. Su cces i va m e nt e i focal i zzo l 'a tt e n z i o n e s ull e g r o tt e pr e e nt i lun go l e a lt e p a r e ti d e l ca n yo n ove o ltr e ai L an ti sg rott ame nt i di int e r s trat o di riJ eva nt e imp o rt a n za a r c h eo l og i ca. fu ro n o rin ve nut e ri so r ge n ze d 'ac qu a piu o m e n o gro se: Ag u acero, L os B o rd os. Muj e r es M ex i ca n as C u eva d e l Ri o L a Y e nt a, E l O co t e. G r ande Casc at a e Vu e lt a t a nt o p e r c it a r e l e prin c ip a li so n o so l o alc un e tr a l e t a nt e ri so r g i ve in co nt ra t e c h e h a nn o s tim o l a t o l a co n o ce n za s p e l eo lo g i ca d e ll e e l ve in d es tra e s ini s tr a oro g r a fi ca e p ro p os t o q u es t a r ea co m e un gros o e rb a t o i o di ri so r e idrop o t a b i li p er rum a nit a. ln d e t ra o r ogra fi ca d e l Ri o L a V e nt a tull e l e r ice r c h e h an n o do v uto far e i c onti co n l a imp e n e tr a bilit a d e ll a S e l va El O co t e, un t e rr e no o lcat o d a p rofo ndi k a rr e n e co p e rt o d a un a fi tt a vege t az i o n e c h e c on e nt e an c h e a ll e piu es p e rt e g uid e p e n e t raz i o ni di m ass i m o 1 000 m a l gio rn o. O g ni t e nt a ti vo fa n o p er ragg iun ge r e a p i e di Proceedings of the 12 Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzer l and Volume 6 7

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Photo 1 : Climbing a wall in the Rio La Venta Canyon ( 80 km long) i t an ti ob i e tti vi avvistati con i so rv o li ae r e i e pertanto mi serame nt e fa llit o, a n c h e se durante g li s t ess i so n o s t a t e acq ui s it e informazioni arc h eo l og i c h e ull 'a nti co u o d e lla se l va ri ve l a t es i di fondamenta l e imp o rtan za p e r ii pro s i eg uo d e l pro ge tt o. S o l o duranc e l ultim a sped izi o n e e s t a to finalmente ra gg iunt o l Ombli go d e l Mundo ii cosi dd e ll o bu co nero avvis t a to n e l ve rd e della g iun g l a fin dal 1 994, graz i e a co mpl e e e ri c hi ose m a n ov r e aeree co n u o mini ospes i quasi I 00 m a l di so tt o di un e li co tt ero: l e co ndi z ioni es tr eme hann o co n se ntit o di sce nd e r e l 'abi so m a non di pro seg uir e n e ll 'im m e n a grotta l a c ui esp l o ra zio n e sa r a ovv ian1 e nt e ogge tt o primario della pro ima mi ss i o n e. L a r ea in si ni stra orografica d e l ri o L a Venta prima di qu es t o progetto, era pr a ti came nt e sco no sc iut a a l m o nd o s p e l eo lo g i co. L 'esp l o r az i o n e della C u eva del Rio La V en t a, un a grossa ri so r ge n za c h e part e ndo dal ca n yo n s i a dd e ntra p e r 11 km, dimo s tr o inve ce in m odo in e quivo ca bil e c h e questa p a rt e d e ll a se l va do veva po ssede re cara tt e ri s ti c h e spe l eo l og i c h e prati ca m en t e uni c h e II gra nd e ri o ipo geo s tu zz i cava o ltr e m odo ii desiderio d e ll a ri ce r ca d e l s uo in g hi ott it o i o n a rural e, e fu esse n z i a lm e nt e p e r tale motivo c h e, dopa ii fallimento dei t e ntati vi fa tli d a ll int e rn o co n lun g h e ed es t e nu a nti es pl oraz i o ni, l e ri ce r c h e del progetto s i co cen tr aro n o s ull a se l va in ini s tr a orografica c h e, n o n p ossede nd o un t o p o nim o ge n era l e n e ll a cartogra fi a u fficia l e s i id e ntifi ca con i n o mi delle co loni e in essa pr ese nti : L azaro Ca rd e na s, L o p ez Mat eos. U nid ad Mod e l o, Emiliano Zapata e V e nu s tian o Carranza. e i dintorni di tutt e qu es t e co loni e so n o s t a l e seg nalat e gro 1t e ma al mom e nt a, farta eccez ion e p e r Unidad Mod e l o e La zaro Ca rd e na s do ve pur ave nd o svo lto ri ce r c h e int e r essa nti non e s t a t o a n cora raggiunto un buon li ve ll o di co no sce n za l e n os tr e a tten z i ni so n o s t a t e ri vo lt e esse n z i a lm e nt e a ll a co mpr e n s i o n e d e l s i s t e ma ca r s i co d e ll a L o p ez Mat eos. Qu es ta co l onia s i apre a i bordi di una vasta e s ub pian egg i a nt e depress i one c hiu s a pa s ta a lla quota di c ir ca 700 m s lm ; l a pi a n a e s olcat a da un rio s up e rfi c ial e, d e tto di O s man co n portat e es tr m a m e nt e variabili e m ed i a m e nt e co mpre se int o rn o ad 1 -2 m e/sec II rio verso va ll e s i in g hiott e n e l Traforo di O s m a n alla quota di 680 m s lm e dopo aver per co r so ii Sumidero I 0 i i Sotan o d e l Qu e t za l ed ii Sumid e ro 2 riaffiora n e ll a C u eva d e l Rio L a V e nt a p er p rose g uir e in so tt e rr a n eo l a s u a corsa al ca n yo n ove co nflui sce a lla quo ta di 275 m s lm Ri sa l e ncl o ii ri o O s m a n i a ttra ve r sa l 'i nt era piana Fino ad incontrare nuovamente dall al t ra parte l e truttur e a cockpi t da c ui pr ovie n e r acq u a ; og ni biforcazione del ri o cond u ce ad un nuovo ingresso di gro tt a ed ecco c h e a m o nt e della piana di Lopez M a t eos ii s i s t e m a di int e rdi g it a p e r risalire, gro tt a dopo grotta fi1 10 a ll e piu alte quot e che delimitano a s ud la st ruttura m o no c lin a li ca d e ll a se lva. Dopo l a Cueva d e l Cafetal d e l Rio O s m a n d e ll 'Ejida l de L as Cotorras, dell'Ar co e di P e dro e M a nu e l g i a sco p e rt e n eg li a nni pa ssa ti so no s t a t e es pl ora t e durant e l ultim a mi ss i o n e L a Cueva El D orado B eba, Lu cero, Lu cas e Manu e l Monterosa 3", Pescado R ojo Tigre, Mur c i e l agos e so prattull o clel ara nj o che h a nn o con sen tit o di aggiungere ult e ri o ri t asse lli a questa esa lt a nt e ri cos tru zio n e del r e ti co l o cars i co della L opez M ateo Attualmente e accerta t o e tran s it ab il e o l o ii collegame nt o Osman-Ejidal, p er ii resto cro lli e sifo ni imp ed i sco n o ii p assagg i o a ll o s p e l eo l ogo. In d efi nitiva co munqu e, a n c h e se sara n ecessa ri o effe llu a r e ult e ri o ri co ll ega m e nti e tro va r e i t asse lli a n co r a m a n can ti s i puo g i a p a rlar e di un uni co vas t o s i s t e m a carsico tr op i ca l e ca r a tt e ri zza t o da un pi a n o s up er i o r e di ga ll e ri e fossili, tal ora co n s p e l eo t e mi di n o t evo l e b e ll ezza sce n ograf i ca co m e n e l caso delle gro tt e Ejidal e P edro e M a nu e l. e da un p ia n o pos t o c ir ca I O m piu in basso di ga ll e ri e a ll aga t e ave sco rr e 1 'ac qu a d e l ri o so 1t e rr a n eo. Finora l int ero s i ste m a d e ll a L opez M a t eos, riportato n e ll a a l l ega t a pl a nim e tri a s i articola in ol tr e 22 km di ga ll e ri e co n ben 24 ingressi e g i a s i co nfi g ur a co m e un p arco carsico tropi ca l e di n o t evo l e imp o rt a n za. S o n o in co r so l e pro ced ur e co n UNESCO e a ltri o r ga ni s mi p er l a necessaria tut e l a e va l o ri zzaz i o n e d e ll a r ea. Le ricerche archeologiche e ll 'a mbito d e ll a s p e di z ion e Ri o L a V e nt a I 997 p e r l a prim a vo lt a so n o s t a li p or t a ti d eg li archeologi s ui lu og hi scope rti dagli s p e l eo l ogi n eg li a nni precedenti: luo g hi di difficilissimo acces o, alcuni dei quali ubi ca ti s u par e ti ve rti g in ose c h e h a nn o ri c hi es t o ca l a t e e risalite di o ltr e 1 40 m n e l v u o t o, c h e h a nno co nf er m a t o l 'eccezionale imp o rtan za d e ll e sco p e rt e fa rt e I ri ce r ca tori d e l Centro It a li a no Studi e Ri ce r c h e Archeologiche Pr eco l o mbi a n e di Br esc ia coo rdinati dal Pr of. Giuseppe Or efic i l ln s tituto N ac ion a l d e Antropologia e Hi s tori a di Tu x tla Guti e rr ez co n l a pr ese n za cos t a nt e d e ll'ar c h eologo Dr Eliseo Linar e e l 'Universidad d e Ciencias y Artes d e l Estado d e Chiapas n e ll a per so na d e l Prof Th o ma s L ee, h a nn o raggiunto n e l fo lt o d e ll a Foresta tropi ca l e b e n sei ce ntri co n a r c hit e ttura m on um e nt a l e, a l c uni clei quali di gra ndi dim e n ioni. L o s tato di co n se r vaz i o n e delle s trultur e e o ttim o ed e po s ibil e osse rv are l e de corazio ni delle facc i a t e in pi e t ra di t e mpli e p a l azzi. L e dim e n s i o ni e l a co mpl essi t a d e ll a trultura int e rn a di questi in sed i a m e nti cara tt e ri zza ti d a va ri e tipol og i e di ed ifi ci, cam pi da g io co d e ll a p a ll a, grad inal e, t e rra zza m e nti e gra ndi mu rag li e m ega liti che, indi ca n o un a n o t evo l e import a n za n e l panor a m a so c io politico dell a M esoa m e rica m e riclion a l e. In t e rmini ge n era li p oss iam o afferrnare c h e gli insecliamenti es pl ora ti rappr ese ntano i ce ntri e litari di un a c i v ilt a sv iluppat a i t ra ii VI e d ii X seco lo n e ll' a r ea d e l Rio L a V e nta e probabilm e nt e in a r ee co nti g u e. P e r qu a nt a ri g u a rd a l af fili az i o n e c ultural e, I ip o t esi 8 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volume 6

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IL SISTEMA CARSICO D I LOPEZ MATEOS {Chiapas Mexico) Denominazione coordina t e UTM 1 Cueva del Rio La Venta 25 784 71 512 2 Sumidero 2 25 335 69 025 3 Solano del Quetzal 25.387 67 857 4 Sumidero 1' 25 281 67 166 5 Cueva del Tiarillo 25 414 67 211 6 Cueva del Rio Osman 23 769 65 567 7 Cueva Eiida l 24 095 74 761 8 Cueva de Las Cotorras 23 702 66 704 9 Cueva del Cafetal 23 .1 53 65 511 10 Cueva di Pedro e Manuel 23.151 63 301 0 sv1lu p p o o eno min a zione 11 000m 11 Cueva dell' Ar co 12 Cueva del N a ranjo 340m 13 Cueva El D orad o 600m 14 Cueva Beb a 200m 15 Cueva Lucero 680m 16 Cueva di Lucas e Manuel 2 100m 17 Cueva Pescado Roio 1 1 4 0m 18 Cueva del Tiore 1 000m 19 Cueva Murcie l aaos 550m 20 Cueva Monterosa 3 0 r:J o<\ J:J D JI oO C;; 0 2 coordinate UTM 23 576 62 823 24 950 63 610 23.951 62.582 24 568 63 133 25 233 66 136 22 961 63 772 25 035 62 210 25 085 62 207 24.620 60 838 21 887 65 657 0 0 0 c::J 5Km sv1lu p p o 230m 2 500 m 350m 230m 220m 439m 80m 140m 140m 240m 0 0 0 186 \ Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 9

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c h e p a r e piu co n s i t e nt e e qu e ll a seco ndo l a qu a l e i cos trutt o ri di qu es t e c itt a sa r e bb e ro s t a ti di e mi a zo qu e se bb e n e a lcun e ca rat t e ri s ti c h e a r c hit e tt o ni c h e s i a n o d e l tutt o nu ove. T a l e e mia g i a not a in a l t ri p e ri o di d e lt a s t o ri a pr eco l o mbi a n a de l M ess i co e n e lt 'a ttu lit a, e i n vece i g n o t a p e r qu e l c h e ri g u a rd a ii C l ass i co T ar d o (600900 d C.), p e ri odo di m ass im o pl e nd o r e d e lt a vic in a c i v ilt a m aya e d i gra n p a n e d e ll a m esoa m e ri ca m e ridi o n a l e. S e l' i po t e i e g iu s t a c i t rove r e mm o di fro nt e a ll e imp o n e nti ves ti g i a d eg li zo qu e t a rd oc l ass i c i co nt e mporan e i e vi c ini d e i m aya di c ui s i sa p c hi ss im o. S e g i a ii num ero e l a q u a lit a d e i iti m o num e nt a li cos titui co n o un vero e pr o p r i o t e oro arc h eo l og i co, l a pr e e n za d i g randi qu an tit a di gro tt e secc h e co n se p o ltur e e a ltr e tr acce di occ up az i o n e r e n de l in s i e m e d i s t rao rdin aria imp o rt a n za. In un a de lt e cav it a es pl ra t e o n o s t a t e rin ve nut e b e n I I se p o ltur e di b a mbini e in un a se co nd a cav it a e s t a t a id e nti fica t a un 'offe r ta co n s i s t e nt e in ce r am i c h e int eg r e un a sc ultu ra raffig ur a nt e un a t es t a d i g i ag u aro e fra m me nti di un cran i o d i un ba mbin o L a gro tt a de tt a E l Cas till o da t a l a pr ese n za d i un p roba bil e a lt a r e m o n o liti co e a n c h e s ull a base d e lt ubi caz i o n e de ll a gro tt a in un o d e i lu og hi piu s tr ao rdin a ri d e lt int e ro ca n yo n e mb ra in vece cos tituir e un a r ea ce rim o ni a l e l ega t a a lt a fun z i o n e sacra c h e ii Fium e d ove tt e svo l ge r e n e lt anti c h ita. L e cav it a, o ltr e a fo mir e da ti e co nt es ti d i gra nd e utili ta pe r com p ara rli co n q u e lti c h e pos o n o e m e r ge r e da i s i ti m o num e nt a li h a nn o pr ese r va t o m a t e ri a li d e p e ribili co m e t ess uti e vege t a li c h e cos titu i co n o un a vera r ar it a n e lt a r c h eo l og i a m ess i ca n a. L a prob a bil e co nt e mp ora n e it a d e lt utili zzaz i o n e di gro tt e e s iti mo n u m e nt a li p e rm e tt e, q u i ndi d i ri cos trui re un pa n ora m a di gra n de co mpl ess it a, r i cco di d a ti di cara tt e r e arc h i t e tt o n ico, se p o l cra l e e ri t ua l e c h e rap p rese nt a u n u11 i cu111 ne lt a m bi t o d e ll a ttu a l e a r c h o l og i a m esoa m e r ica n a. A tutt o c i o va agg iunt a l impr ess i o n a nt e ubi caz i o n e d e lt a m ag g i o r p a rt e d e lt e gro tt e (ce ntinai a), di fese da p a r e ti ve rti ca li c h e e r a necessar i o ca l are co n g r a nd e a bilit a: p a rli a m o q uin d i di p o p o l zio ni c h e aveva n o sv ilup pa t o un a capaci t a ar r am pi cato ri a d i al ti simo li ve lt o tec ni co, co m e for e n o n n e esis t o n o n e lt a s t o ri a d e l l"u o m o L e da t az i o n i a l Carbo ni o 1 4 fi n ora effe ttu a t e a c u ra d e l P rof. S a l va t o r e [mp rota de l Dip a rtim e n to di Fi s i ca d e ll" U ni ve r s it a L a Sa pi enza di R o m a ha nn o co n fe nn a t o i p e ri o di pi u an ti c hi (i mp a l ca tur e in l egno d e l 400 d .C.) e acce rt ato c h e l a fr u iz i o n e d e l ca n yon e co ntinu a t a. in fo m 1e d i ve r e fi n o a p e r io d i r e l ativa m e nt e r ece n ti. Co ll egate a ll 'a r c h eo l ogia so n o l e ri ce r c h e in co r so a c u ra d e i geo l og i d e ll' E NEA F a b r i zio Ant o n io li e C l a u d i o Pu g li s i ri vo lt e a lt a co m pr e n i o n e d e ll evo lu z i o n e geo m o r fo l og i ca r ece nt e de l ca n yo n a l s u o l asso di so lt eva m e nt o in t e mpi s t o ri c i ed a lt e va ri az i o ni d e l p a l eoc lim a. Enti che patrocinano ii progetto : In [t a li a Mini s t ero U ni ve r s it a e R ice r ca Sc i e nti fica Dip a rtim e nt o A mbi e nt e ENEA Casaccia di R oma Dip a rtim e nti di Fis i ca U ni ve r s it a L a Sap i enza di R oma l s titut o It a li ano di Sp e l eo l og i a, U ni ve r si t a di B o l og n a l s titut o di Ant ro p o l og i a F i s i ca, U ni ver s i t a di P adova Soc i e t a S p e l eo l og i ca ll a li a n a C lub A lpino It a li a n o Ce nt ro It a li a n o Stu d i e Ri ce r c h e A r c h eo l og i c h e Pr eco l o m bia n e In E u ro p a U ni o n Int e rn a ti o n a l e de S p e l eo l ogie U ni ve r s it a N i co l a K o p e mi ko, T o run ( P o l o ni a) D i p a rtim e nt o di A nt ro p o l og i a e S t or i a. U n ive r s it a di V a r sav i a ( P o l o ni a) In M ess i co Gob i e m o de l Es t a d o de C h ia p a I A H ln s titut o acio n a l de A ntr o p o l og i a e H is t o ri a S ec r e t a ri a d e Eco l ogia R ec ur sos N a tu rales y P esca, C hi a p as l ns titut o d e Hi s t o ri a Na tu ra l d e C hi a p as U ni ve r s i dad d e Ciencia s y A rt e de l es t ado de C hi a p as Co mi s i o n ac i o n a l de l Agua Sponsor RO C KPORT D U PO N T FE RRI 0 NOS K ONG, D U R ACE LL F IL TEC L U M ACA FO RM E TI C OL E M A PR O R A, R AUM E R K O D A K N IT A L IB E RI A, AV I ACSA Bibliografia B ER ABE i T. ( 1 990) II fium e d e l ve nt o. Spe l eo l og i a. a nn o X I n. 23 o tt o br e 1 990, 7I 2. B ERNABE I T. D E V i vo A ., G 1 uvo I. ( 1 995 ) P roge tt o R io L a Ve nt a. Spe l eo l og i a a nn o XV I n .33 o tt o b re 1 995. 31-43. R 1vAooss1 M ( I 996) U n og n o c h iama t o R io L a Ven t a Spe l eo l og i a a nn o XV !l n. 35 d i cemb r e 1 996, 6572. 10 Proce e d in g s of the 12 th Int e rnat i onal Congre ss of Speleology 199 7 Sw i tzerland Vo l um e 6

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Les grands gouffres du Jura vaudois par Da v id C hri s ten & J e r o m e P e rrin SC Va ll ee d e Jou x e t GS Lau sa nn e Resume L e Jura vaudoi s e s itu e au x confin s NW du canton de Vaud ( Sui s e o cc id e ntal e). Le s pro pe c tion s s p e leolo g iqu es so nt inten e d e pui qu e lqu es d e c e nni es. C e s derni e res ann e e s p l u s ieur s nouve ll e s cavit es importante s ont e t e d ec ouvertes gra ce notamment a I 'e mer ge nc e d e t ec hniqu es mod e rn es de d es ob s truct i on e t la mi s e ajour de l inv e nt a ir e d es c avit es. D e fait l e Jura v a udo i s pr ese nte la plu s fort e d e n s it e d e go uffr e profond d e tout e la c ha1ne du Jura ui s e e t fra111 ;:a i s. C e tt e d e n s it e e l evee de ca vit es peut 'ex pliqu e r par differ e nt s fa c t e ur s d 'o rdr e geo lo g iqu e, geo morph o lo g iqu e e t geogra phiqu e. Abstract Th e Jura audoi s i s s ituat e d in th e W ex tr e mity of th e ca nton d e Vaud (W es t e rn S w it ze rland ) Th e s p e l eo l og i c al r esea r c h i s int e n e inc e a co upl e o f d eca d e R ece ntl y n ew d ee p c av e wer e di sc over e d owin g to mod e rn t ec hnique s of e nlar ge m e nt a nd th e brin g in g up to d a t e of th e ca ve 'Ii tin g. Now th e Jura vaudoi s s how s th e hi g he s t den s i t y of de e p c av es of a ll th e Jur a m o untain s. Thi s hi g h d e n s it y ca n b e ex plain e d b y seve ral fa c tor s lik e th e geo lo gy, th e ge omorpholo gy a nd th e ge o g raph y. 1. Introduction L e Jura va ud o i domin e a u NW l e pl a t ea u m o l as iqu e e t l es l ac L e man e t d e N e u c h a t e l. T o ut e foi s la p a rti e qui nou int e r esse e s itu e e ntr e l e co l du M o ll e ndruz e t l e co l d e l a Gi v rin e ( fi g ur e I ). Ce tt e r eg ion se c ara c t e ri e m o rphol og iqu e m e nt par un e pr e mi e r e c h a1 n e co mpr e n a nt l e so mm e t du Mont T e ndr e culmin a nt a 1 6 7 9 m e ll e es t s ui v i e p a r l a Vall ee d e J o u x occ up ee p a r un la c d ori g in e g l ac i a ir e, pui s l a c h a 1n e du Ri o u x m a rqu e l a fr o nti e r e a v ec l a Fr a n ce. Ce tt e p a rti e du Jura es t co u ve rte d e fo r e t s d e co ni fe r es a lt e r n a nt avec d imp o rt a nt s p a tu rages; se ul e l a V a ll ee d e Jou x co mpt e un e p o pul a ti o n d 'e n v iron 60 00 h a bit a nt s. L a ge olo g i e du sec t e ur se ca ra c t e ri se p a r un e s u ccess ion d an ti cl in a u x e t d e sy nclin a u x d e l a r ges dim e n s i o n s o ri e nt es E-SW Plu s i e ur s fa ill es, d 'o ri e ntati o n a ppro x im a ti ve NW r ec oup e nt ces pli s. l es d e u x p lu im po rt a nt e o nt l e d ecroc h e m e nt d e V a ll o r be P o nt a rli e r p a san t a pro x imit e du co l du M o ll e ndru z e t l e d ec ro c h e m e nt St -Ce r g u eM o r ez m a rqu a nt l e co l d e l a Gi v rin e. L 'ossa tur e d e l a c h a1 n e e t fo rm ee p a r l es ca l ca ir es du M a lm m o ntr an t q u e l q u es p assee m ame u ses: a u-d es o u s vie nn e nt l e m a rn es d e I' A r gov i e n ( O xfo r d i e n ), ell es a fn e ur e nt p a r pl ace au c o e ur d es an ti c lin a u x. A u d e s u s du M a lm r e p ose nt l es ca l ca ir es e t m a m es du Cre t ace in fe ri e ur a ffl e u ran t prin c ip a l e m e nt da n s l es va ll ees sy ncli n a l es (AUBERT. 1 987). L e c lim a t humi de e t f ro id a favo ri se un e int e n se k a r s tifi ca ti o n de l a r eg i o n I ab l a ti o n s up e rfi c i e ll e es t d e 5c m/l 000 a n s ( A UBERT 1 987). L es calca i res d u M a lm (e n v i ro n 400 m e tr es d e pui ssa n ce) re n fer m e nt l a pl upa rt des fo rm es ka r s tiqu es, l a pi az. go uffr es. b a in fe rm es .. D 'i m po rt a nt e so ur ces ka r s tiqu es so urd e nt a u pi e d d u Ju ra, co t e l ema n iq u e, e t s ur l e ve r sa nt S E de l a V a ll ee d e J o u x. La p ra t iq u e de l a s p e l eo l og i e a e t e tr es so ut e nu e d es l es a nn ees 1 950. Plu sieurs cl u bs o nt oe u v r e d a n s l a reg i o n ci t o n s l es S C Va l l ee de J o u x. GS L a u san n e, S C N yo n S SS G e n eve L 'e l a b o rati o n d' un in ve nt a ir e d es cav it es d e l a p a rti e SW du Jura v a ud o i s es t e n co u rs, o n r ece n se ac tu e ll e m e nt qu e lqu e 750 cav it es, co rr es p o nd a nt a 1 .8 cav it es/km 1 L e t ab l ea u I pr ese nt e l es go u ff r e d e p assa nt I 00 me tr es d e pr ofonde ur On vo it qu e I Odes 1 5 go u ff r es li s t es o nt e t e ex pl o r es ces 1 5 de rni e r es a nn ees. C e tt e evo luti o n p e ut s'ex pliqu e r p ri n ci p a l e m e nt pa r utili sa ti o n d es t ec hni q u es m o d e rn es d e de obs tru c ti o n e t u n trava il d in ve nt a i re app r ofo n d i Ce tt e d e n it e de grands go u ff r es es t l a p lu s e l evee d e t o ut I 'a r c j ura ss i e n L 'e t a t d e co nn a i s a n ces s p e l eo l og iqu es d a n s ce tt e im po rt a nt e zo n e ka r tiqu e m e rit a it d 'et r e pr ese nt ee a ceco n g r es. Ce tt e co mmuni ca ti o n s' in sc rit d a n s l a li g n ee d e tr av au x d A uDETAT & Gu 1 G ARD ( 1 958) e t AUDETAT ( 1 96 5 ). 2. Typologie des cavites L a fi g ur e 2 r e pr ese nt e la c oup e proj e t ee d e l a g l ac i e r e d e Dru c h a u x, ce go u ff r e p e ut etr e co n id e r e co mm e un e cav it e t y p e d es g rand s g ouffr es du Jura vaudoi s. C e g ouffr e d esce nd ju s qu 'a 2 00 m par un e s u cce s i o n de puit s ac tif s e n c ru e A ce tt e co t e, un ni vea u d e m a rn es se pr ese nt e e t l a cav it e se di v i se e n 4 r esea u x: l e r esea u d es Gro s, ac tif c ondui t a -3 00 m. ; l e r e ea u S a t a n gag n e a u ss i -3 00 m apr es un l o n g m e andr e; l e r esea u Pr es id e nt m e n e p a r un e s uc c e ss ion d e puit s e t d e c ourt es ga l e ri es a un e g rand e sa ll e d eve l o p p ee a pro x imit e du toit d e m a m e d e I' Ar g o v i e n ce tt e sa ll e marqu e l e p o int b as du go uffr e, -398 m Le 4 e m e r esea u n o mm e h e min ees d e I Auro c h s, r e mont e a pro x imit e d e l a s ur face Tou s l es g ouffr e li s t es dan s l e t a bl e au I 0 111 un ca ra c t e r e es se nti e ll e m e nt ve rti ca l : d es puit s s ou ve nt l a r ge so nt e ntr eco up es p a r d e co urt s m ea ndr es ge n e ral e m e nt e tr o it s. D e m ea ndr es o u de ga l e ri es plu s l o n gs se d eve l o pp e nt a u co nt ac t d e ce rt ai n s ni vea u x marn e u x. T o u s l es go u ff r e 'o u v r e nt d a n s l e ca l ca ir es du M a l m ( S e qu a ni e n Kimm e ri dg i e n P o rtl a ndi e n ). S e ul s l es go u ffres debu t a nt d a n s l e P o rtlandi e n o u a u so mm e t du Kimm e rid g i e n so n t s u ce ptibl es d e d e p asse r 2 00 m e tr e d e profond e ur Ces go uffr es se t e m1in e nt a p rox imit e du ni vea u d e b ase r eg i o n a l co n s titu e p a r l e m a rn es de I' A r gov i e n Au c un co ll ec t e ur a u ni vea u de ces m ames n 'a pu et r e deco u ve rt p o urt a nt l es eco ul e m e nt s so nt d ra in es vers d e g ro sse so ur ces e n n o mbr e limit e a u pi ed d e l a c h a1 n e ( V e n oge. M a l ag n e, Aub o nn e, T o l e ur e, M o nt an t B rass u s, L yo nn e). L es eco u l e m e nt s r e n co ntr es da n s ces go u ff r es so nt s ur to ut ac ti fs l ors d e la fo nt e d es n e i ges e t a pr es d es orages. l es de bit s m ax im a pe u ven t s'e l eve r a qu e lqu e l i tr es/seco nd e. D a n qu e lqu e go uffr e ( C asca d e, Pl e in e Lun e, Pr e d 'A ub o nn e) d e gros co ll ec t e ur s foss il e si tu es bi e n a u d ess u s du ni vea u de base ac tu e l 0 111 pu etre exp l o r e s ur qu e l q u es ce nt a in es de m e tr e Ces ga l e ri e avo i s in an t l e 5 m e tr es d e di a m e tr e o nt gene ral e m e nt b i e n co n c r e ti o nn ees, l e ur so l es t e nduit d 'a r g il e. L 'iige d e l a fo rmat ion de ces grosses ga l e ri es es t malh e ur e u se m e nt in co nnu ; t o ut efo i s, au v u d e imp o rt ance des re mpli ssages, ces ga l e ri es so nt p robab l m e nt n c i e nn es! 3. Pourquoi tant de gouffres profonds dans cette region? Nou s a li on s t e nt e r d 'e num ere r qu e lqu es e l e m e nt s qui o nt favo ri se ce tt e a b o nd a n ce d e g r a nd s g ouffr es cl a n s l a r eg i o n a) L 'a ltitud e d e ce tt e p a rti e d e l a c h a fo e du Ju ra es t e l evee, le p o t e nti e l h y drauliqu e e t d e 6 0 0700 m e tr es ve r sa nt Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 1 1

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Figure I: Carte situant les grands gouffres du Jura Vaudois 12 Proceedings of the 12 "' International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volume 6 Situation des gouffres profonds du Jura Vaudois 0 2Km. V Gouffre (N se referant au tableau 1) Village D. Christen 1997

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nom d e la cavite commune a ltitud e profondeur d e veloppement ge o l ogi e e ntr e e bibliographie I gouffre Cath y Arzier 1500m -400111 ? -2 000111 ? Kimme rid gien SC -RBY. 1987 2 glacie re d e Druchaux Berolle 1495111 -398m 2268111 Kimm e ridgien Maillefer & Jeannin 1991 3 go uffre du Pe1i1 Pre Bi ere 1455m -J90m IIOOm '/ Ponlandi e n GSL. 1986 4 go uffre du lapiaz de co mbe Arzier 1380m -300m'/ ? Ponlandien Trebillc 5 go uffre de la Pleine Lune Le Chcnil 1430m 272m 1730111 Kimm e ridgien H eiss. 1996 6 go uff re d e la Ca sc ade Le Cheni1 1375111 -235 m I 1 83111 Kimme ridgien Bcerli. 199 3 7 go uffre Amoine Momrich e r 1420m -214m 40-lm Kimm e ridgien GSL. 19 6 8 g.ouffrc du Casque Bi e re 1490m 198m 465m Kimme ridgien H e i ss. 1994 9 gouffre de Lon g irod Longirod 1370m -170111 465m Kimme ridgien 10 baume de Loge s Arzi c r 1350111 145111 560m Kimm e ridgien Wiuw e r. 198 7 11 baume des deux Erables Arzier 1450m 1 36 m 333 m S e quanien Dutrui1. 1 986 12 grande baurne du P re d 'A ubonne Gim e l 1400111 126111 ? ? P o nlandien GSL. I 986. Lnlou 197 9 1 3 go uffre a Pilulc Arzier 1 20m P o nlandien 14 baum c n 2 du Cro de, Dan se, Arzier 14 90 m -10 m 246m Kimm e ridgi e n GSL. 1986 15 baumc de s P c 1i1es Chau, n 6 Arzier 1445m 105m 22 0111 Seq uani en GSL. 1986. Lalou. 19 79 Tableau 1 : Li s le des gouffres >100m d e profondeur Jura vaudois; en gras: gouffres explores ces 15 derniere s annee s, = gouffres e n cours d 'ex ploration. l cmanique. Cetle hau1 e a lti1u de favori e Je s precipi1a1ion s et l 'e nneigement, 'ab l a tion es t de rail plus e l evee qu ailleur s dan s le Jura b) L'exi tence d'un g lacier l ocal ur celle partie du Jur a lor de la derniere g l acia ti on a mi s ii nu le kar I et a empeche le colmatage du karst s uperficiel. C'est le concep t de Jura ro c heux d eve lopp e par AUBERT ( 1 965) II est evident que ce g l acier a rendu un pr ec ieux service aux s p e l eo l og u es vau dois en ev it a nt l e colma t age de s go uffre e t en l es a lim en tant en periode de fonte. c) L es zone de paturage s so nt plu limit ee que dan s d 'a utr es r eg ion jura s ienne s. Ce l a a perrnis d"eviter de co lm ata ges artificiels de cavi1es. R emarquons que ces 3 facteurs son t forteme nt li es l es un s aux autre d) Le premier c ha1non (Mt Tendr e-M t Pel e) e t plu s tal e quau-delii de decroc h emen t s de St Cerg u e e t Pontarlier Vallorbe L es ca l caires du Malm affleuren t proportionnel l ement plus. certaines zo n es so nt particuli e rement t ourrnen t ees, l e co mbe s e t l es ba ss in s ferm es abo nd e nt... 4. Conclusions Cer t a in s s p e l eo l ogues des a nn ees 60 co n s id eraie nt ce ll e r eg i o n sa n s avenir. ce pendant l es nombreuse s exp l orations recente s infir men t leur s pr evi ion Si l 'o n regarde l a figure I avec quelque a tl e nti o n on consta t e qu e l a repartition des grand go u ffres n 'es t en tout cas pas alea toire : o n en trouve un e serie s ur l e versant lemanique de 1 antic lin al du Mt Tendre en tr e l e co l du Marchairuz e t l e so mme t du Mt-T en dre gros o-modo. La deuxieme ser i e e s itue ur l e ve r an t Vall ee de J oux en de us de Boi d'Amon t. Ce1te repartition n e s'ex pliquc pa s c l airement car J es cond iti o n s geo l og iqu es e t geogra phiqu es re tent ensib l ement l e m e me s pour 'e n se mble de l a region L 'a b se nce de grande cavi t es dan s le Ri so u x p e ut eve nru e ll e ment s pliquer p ar I a ltitud e plu s basse d e ce c h a1non (o n vo it sur l e ta bleau I que l e gouffre l e plu ba e n altitude 'o uvr e a 1 350 m). Alors que l"ab se nc e de g rand s gouffres au W du Mt-Tendre e t peut -e tr e li ee a l 'a bondance des zones patur ees. Le s decouvert e spe leologique s futur es pem1ettront d'etayer ces vagues hypothese s. Remerciements No u s n ou devon s de remerc i e r tou s l es spe l eo l ogues qui ont oeuvre a un e meilleure co nnai ssa n ce du mond e so ut e rrain de ce u e r eg ion, nou s p e n ons particulierement a G. H eiss q ui effectue un t ravai l de terrain co n s id e rable p our la mi se a jour d e I inventaire. References A U BERT D 1 965. Ca l o tt e g l ac i a ir e e t morphologie j u rassienne. Eclogae geo l. H elv. 58/ 1 : 555-578. A U BERT D. 19 7. Guide geo l og iqu e de l a V a ll ee de Joux. Ed. d e la feu ill c cl 'Av i s de l a Vall ee de J o u x: 62p. A DET AT M 1 965. R epa rtition de s cavite s du Jura s ui s e fran~ai par gro up es morphologique s Acte s du IV co ngr es int. de s p e l eo . Ljubljana. A DETAT M. & G JGNARD J P 1 958. La spe l eo logie dan s l e Jura s ui e: l a Vall ee de Joux e t ses e nviron Actes du II co ngr e int. de s pel eo B a ri : 257-273. B EE RLI P 1993. Gouffre de l a Cascade S t alactite 1/93 : 4-13 D TRU IT J 1 986 Bau m e des cleux Erables. L e Trou Uourn. GS L a u sa nn e) n 43: I 0-13 GSL. 1 986. Gouffre s du Jura va ud ois. L e Trou Uoum. GS Lau s anne) n 42: 28p. H E I SS G. 1 994. Le go uffr e du Casq u e. L e Trou Uourn. GS Lau sa nn e) 11 59: 32-36. Proceedings of the 12 th Int ernati onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 13

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H E I SS G 1 996 G o uffr e d e l a P l e i n e Lun e L e Trou U ou rn GS L a u sa nn e) 11 6 0 : 7 I 8. L A LO J C. 1 9 7 9. Co mpt e r e ndu du s t age d e p e r fec ti o nn e m e nt t ec h niqu e SSS a o G t 1 979. St a l ac t it e 2/79 M A J LL EFE R A. & J E AN I P Y 19 9 1 L a g l ac i ere du Cr e u x d 'E n fe r Baume N du Creux d'Enfer l'Aurochs 0 5 20 Topo S C V J De s s i n : D C d e D ru c h a u x, B e ro li e VD St a l ac ti t e I /9 1 : 3-24 SCN & RBY. 1 9 8 7. B a um e Ou es t du M o nt-P e l e (go u ff r e 55 C a th y ). Publi c s p ec i a l e SC NRBY : 3 5 p W nTWER M 1 98 7 B a u m e d e s Lo ges. L e Trou (jo um GS L a u sa nn e) 11 45: 1 0 1 3. Glaciere de Druchaux Coupe projetee a 91 Nord Projez i erter Seitenriss i n R i chtung 91 nach Norden Commune de Berolle / VO Oeveloppement : Profondeur : Glaciere de Druchau x: Baume N 3 du Creux d'Enfer: Trou de l'Aurochs : 50m P21 Reseau President 2268 m -397 m 513 090 / 159 560 1495 m 513 070 / 159 570 1 500 m 513 109 / 159 605 1505 m B .A. / S S / C.A. / C D / D P / F J -E /M A / S Y / S J C 14 Proceedings of the 12 th Interna t ional Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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Exploration du systeme Z Le M.413 Gouffre des Partages par Fab i e n O a rn e (l nt ercl ub s Go uffr e d es Partages) Ex pl o rati o n s : S .C. P o it ev in C l a n d es Trit o n s, C. D S 4 2 (CE SA M E, S .C. Or e ill ar d s, S.G. Fo r ez.) Coo rd o nn ees : X : 34 9 0 3; Y : 76,9 1 ; Z: 2 116 m Situ a ti o n : M ass i f d e l a Pi e rr eS a int M a rtin co mmun e d A r e tt e, P y r e n eesAtl a ntiqu es FRAN CE Sp e l eo m e tTi e : P rofo nd e ur : 70 I m D eve l o pp e m e nt : 15 0 00 111 Le systeme Z, qu est-ce que c est ? II s'ag it a I 'o ri g in e d un e h y p o th ese d e J ea n Mi c h e l A m e il ( S .C. P o it ev in ) r e pri se p a r C o r e ntin Qu effe l ec s ur !' ex i s t e n ce pr o b a bl e d' un g r a nd sys t e 111 e h y drol og iqu e ind e p e n da nt e ntr e l a ri v i e r e d e l a Pi e rr e S a int M a rtin ( P S M d a n s l e t ex t e) e t l e r esea u d 'A ni a J arra. Ce tt e h y p o th ese p o rt a it l e n o m d e Z. E ll e p r evoya it un g rand sys t e m e e qui va l e nt a u B U 5 6 O U a l a P. S. M. L e 11 0 111 es t r es t e e t l h p o th ese es t d eve nu e r ea lit e .. Un petit historique E n 1 983, in v it es p a r l es P o it ev in s, l es St e ph a n o i s d eco u v r e nt un trou qui se 111bl e b i e n pa rtir N o rn d e co d e: M .4 1 3. U n so ir d e u x j e un es ex pl o r a t e ur s s t ep h a n o i s e n r esso rt e nt h a llu c in e il s se so nt p oses e n do u ce ur da n s un e gra nd e sa ll e ( l a sa ll e N in e), ve r s -300. Le l e nd e 111 a in un e eq uip e r e n fo r cee p a r d es P o it ev in s dr esse l a t p og raphi e e t s urt o ut d eco u v r e L a ri v i e r '. Z n 'es t plu s un 111 y th e, e ll e ex i t e 1 984. U n s i p h on a l 'a m o nt d e l a sa ll e in e d eve r se so n tr o p pl e in de c ru e d a n s ce q u i es t a pp e l e B ra n c h e No rd ", l a B ra n c h e S u d" co n s titu a nt l 'ava l l og iqu e. M a lh e ur e u se m e nt l a p rog r ess i o n es t s t o pp ee a 450 111 d a n s l a Br anc h e S ud a 500 m et r es a p e in e du t e rminu s d e 1 983. E n t rois po int es, d a utr es s p e l eos ex pl o r e nt un Psycose : paysage ba s e t aquatiqu e a m o nt sa n s di ffic ult e U n t e m1inu s es t a tt e int a 1 500 m de l a sa ll e in e L 'a nn ee 1 984 a e t e co n s id e r ee co 111111 e deceva nt e ca r l e t ro u n a p as li v r e to ut ce qu ii prom e tt a it e t s 'avere n e rt e m e nt plu s diffi c i l e qu il n y p a rai ssa it... E n I 985 l a t o p ogra phi e d e l 'a m o nt es t l evee et un e t e nt a t ive d e d e o b s tru c ti o n n e d o nn e ri e n L 'ex pl o r a ti o n d e l 'ava l n 'es t pas n o n plu s p o ur s ui v i e. Ce se ra t o ut p o ur l e M .4 1 3 ce tt e a nn eel a. 1 98 6. L es St e phan o i s s'ac h a rn e n t e n co r e. D a n s l a B ra n c h e No rd il s fini sse nt p ar d eco u v rir un b oya u in fi\ rn e d a n s l e qu e l es t as pir e l e co u ra nt d 'a ir. A pr es d e n o mbr e u x p assages b as e t aq u a t qu es, il s d eco u v r e nt un e ga l e ri e plu s l a r ge ( 1 0 x 5 m ) qui se t e r min e s ur un e n o u ve ll e vo Gt e 111ouill a nt e. E n 1 987, il s po ur s ui ve nt d a n s l 'ava l m a i s l e m a n q u e d e ca n d i da t s p o ur l es b a in s g l aces n e p e rm e t p as de gra n des d eco u ve rr e 1 988. A u c un e exp l ora ti o n n 'a li e u l a cav it e e t a nt e nti e r e m e nt b o u c h ee pa r l a n e i ge. 1 989. U n e b e ll e ava n cee s t e ph a n op o it evi n e a li eu d a n s l a B ran c h e No rd L a "s a ll e Vi b ra nt e" es t d eco u ve rt e a in si qu e l a "ga l e r ie des M a nnit es". U n bi vo u ac es t in s t a ll e a -450 m 1 99 0 D a n s l a Br a n c h e No rd l es eq ui pe s 'e nli e nt da n s de boya u x d i ffic il es vers 5 00 m. D a n s l a Br a n c h e S ud l e t e rm in u s de 1 984 es t r ev u e t un p assage es t t ro u ve da n s un e tr e mi e C'es t l a Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switze r land Volume 6 15

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\ 0,, 71 0,, t 1, \ o,,, ,. \ \ 'l, '!, i Pie d'Arlas 2044m Llano Carreras +KJ .111) TANS 0 1!!!!1=~~-===;;;;;;;i km decouverte de l a "sa ll e d e l'Epin e". L a desobstruction d'un s iph on fos ile co mbl e es t com m e n cee. 1 99 1 D e u x sort i e se ul eme nt son t realisees dans l a Bran che Sud pour pour uivre la desobstruction. Le camp se t e rmin e dans une ternpete de neige et le gouffre reste equipe t ou t e l 'annee 1992. Seuls l es Stephanois poursuivenl dans l a Bran c h e Nord pour essayer de forcer des etroitures sous le L5. Pris par une crue, ils ont ob li ges d'abandonner t ou t l eur materiel. 1993. L'etroiture terminale de la branche ord e L franchie apres d 'enom1es efforts e t livre I 00 m de premiere chere m e nt gag n es. I 994. II n 'y a pas vraiment de camp s ur l e M.413 mais un pro je t de co l ora ti on de la riviere Z voit l e jour a !'initiativ e de l'A.R.S.l.P. II s'agi t tout de meme de l a plus vaste operation de trai;:agc jarnai reali ee sur l a Pierre Saint-Martin : I 3 eq uip es re pre entanl pres de 200 speleologues (dont de plongeurs) sont 1110bili ees, 5 gouffres et 4 resurgences som equipes et survei ll e 20 nuocapteurs sont disposes a I 7 endroits differents et 5 kg de nuo resceine doivent etre deverses a l 'amont de la difnuence dans l e M.4 I 3 Le resultat du trai;:age indique que Z appartiendrait aux deux grands sys t ernes de la Pierre, Saint-Vincent et Saint-Georges et ne pas erait pas par la Verna. La Branche Sud irait ver !'AN. pour donner un reseau de 1100 111 de profondeur. La Branche Nord, quanl a elle, resterait independante jusqu 'a -1640 m I 995. Les re ullats du trai;:age auiren t une poignee de fideles (S C. Poitevin, G.S. Loudun, Tri t ons et Cesarne) qui so uh a it ent re prendre les explorations. La desobstruction de la sa ll e de l 'Epine est realisee et livre 2.7 km de premiere a des speleos un peu ahuris de decouvrir de superbes galeries de 20 x 20 ma 30 x 30 m Arret sur rien a -650 111 dans du "tres gros" La cavite est baptisee Gouf fre des Partages (Cl6t deths Partatges en Bearnais) et les passages portent de nom de fi l m ou sont des allusions cinema t ographi ques (centenaire du cinema oblige!). 1 996. Malgre une crue memorable qui bloque 9 exp lor ateurs pendant I 5 heures. l 'interclubs Gouffre des Partages exp l ore pres de 5 kilometres de galeries plus fantaisistes les unes que l es a utr es, a partir d'une uperbe tente de bivouac in t allee a -640 m au li eu dit "37 2 I e matin''. Malgre le developpement, l a profondeur n'est que de 700 metres. car l e pendage est quasimenl nul a ce t endroit. Le gouffre se 1 em1ine sur un siphon "le big blues' mais de 110111<.,. \ 'l~ 'I, V '!, ,!, t?r '/ ? (I'? Pie d Anie 2504m Saum Couy 1 i ?, .. \ '1, -621 -llOllm 23 15m -2000m _,,. M413 : Gouffi-e des Partages 14870 m, -700 m I Salle Nin e 2 Siphon des Panages 3 Ramping du T roisieme type 4 Salle de l 'Ep ine S Les L5 du Desir 6 Mouilleuse Precocc 7 Belle de nuit 8 Bivouac 37.2 le matin 9 Vol au dessus d'un nid de coucou JO Salle Patachou II Salle West side siory l2 A Bout de souflle 13 Rct our vers le futur 14 Big B lues _, ,. Plan Coupe projetee Az 113 gr d'apres Alexandre Pon~ 0 lnterelub~ Gouffre des Partage s 1997 breux departs d e ga l e ri e re tent a ex plor er. Le d eve l op p e m e nt total est de 1 2 532 m I 997. Le moral de troupes reste bon d'autanl plus que cetle an n ee ii n y a pas de neige e t que l 'e ti age es t maximum. L a galerie qui pourrait mener a !'AN 8. "A bout de souffle'' est poursuivie mais bute s ur un puits remontant. "Le bon, l a brute et le Truand''. reseau de conduites forcees en rive droite, livre 500 metres de pre miere mais n e pem1e1 pas de co urt -circui t er l e siphon. Des escala des sont realisee un peu partout mais ne livrent pas la s uit e. Seul R etour vers l e futur'' con tinu e e t se rapproche du M3 l. Une jonc ti on avec l e reseau de l a Pierre Saint-Manin se profile e t donnerait un r esea u de 71 km pour 1400 m de denivele. 2460 m etres de ga l ries son t a in si exp l ores. Le re ea u pre ente un developpement de 15 km. Description succincte Le Gouffre des Partages presente quelque particu l arite Les puits sont enneiges et eng l ace ju qu'a -200 m, ce qui ne facilite pas l a progression. Bien que l 'entree soit couverte de roles chaque annee. la cavite s'obstrue de plus en plus et necessite de longues et froides seances de desobstruction 'hivernale". A pre 316 metres de puits sans autres difficultes, on se pose dans la "salle ine", vas t e sa ll e d'effondrement dont l 'eboulis depasse 40 metres de hauteur. L'amont conduit rapidement au siphon des Partages qui di tri bue l 'eau dans chaque branche. Car, ce n'est pa banal ii y a deux avals La plus importante difnuence observee en France et peut etre dans le monde epare en deux la meme riviere sur pres de 3 km creant deux branches parfaitement distinctes et alimentanl l es dis cussions des speleologues et des specia li te depui plu de I 0 ans. Dan l 'amont done, apres 1. 5 kilometre de parcours aise dans de grandes ga l eries, la riviere jaillit d'un pa sage bas. ii la base d'un puits remontant juste ous le pied An i e ... Le trai;:age realise en I 994 avail montre l 'appartenance de la riviere Z a u x deux systeme de la P.S.M. comme si elle etait ache val sur l a li gne de partage des eaux ... La connuence ayan t ete trou vee a -680 men I 996, le trajet de l a circu l ation d'eau qui a lim ente Bentia e t lll amina, les deux resurgences du mas if, redevient un mystere. 16 Proceedings of the 12' h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volume 6

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L'aval Nord est une s u ccession de pas sages bas et aquatiques necessitant pontonniere et cago ul e Marbore jusqu'a la "sa Jl e Vi brante" vers -450 m environ. Lui fon t s uit e l a "ga l erie des Marmi te "et un e succession de ga l eries et de petites salles jusqu 'a u ter minus actue l vers -520 m dans un e tremie peu engageante. L'aval Sud comme n ce par 300 metres de galeries basses et ega lement aquat iqu es, l e R amping du 3eme Type ". L 'a rrivee dans l a Salle de l 'Epine se fait entre les b l ocs vers -450. La desobstruction de l a "Grande Evasion" li vre 800 metres de parcours aise dans de grandes ga l eries actives (le debit e t d 'e nviron 50 1/s) jusqu 'a u s i phon de l a Mouilleuse Precoce". Bien avant rive droite, a h aute ur du Leurre de Verite ", s ouvre un petit reseau, les L5 du Desir ", qui mene a moins de JO metre du terminu s du L5 cavite s itu ee plus en ava l sur l e trajet de Z que le Gouffre des Partages ... Deux nouvelles desobstructions rive droite donnent acces a d'enormes galeries de type P.S M. de 20 x 20 a 30 x 30 m de sec tion surp lu s d'un km. C'est pourquoi le bivouac d e "37 l e ma tin est installe au bout de l a Grande Yadrouille", juste avant de s'e ngager dans une zone plus comp l exe et fracturee ou l e socle se redresse. C'est la d eco uverte des passages de Vol au dessus d un nid de coucous ", la sa lle Patachou "C irculez y'a rien a voir" et West Side Story ", petite sa lle-carrefour noeud du re eau ou a lieu la confluence. De la part Retour vers l e Futur", amont remontant de plus d I km au nord-est en direction de l a Branche ord puis du M3 l, en tree haute du reseau de la P.S M. Part egalement de We t Side Story ", l e Grand Chemin" su perbe portion de galerie active ou la rivi ere. tour a tour, serpente paresseusement entre des dunes de sa ble ou bien s'ecou le entre le immenses parois d'un meandre de 5 metres de l arge. Nous sommes a hauteur du "Grand Canyo n de l a P S.M. La co ur se se termine dans un b ea u siphon l e Big Blue s" a 700 m Un amont, 1ive ga u c h e, "A. Bout de Souffle livre 800 metre s de ga l er i es qui aurait du cons titu er l a porte du sud, en direction d e l AN .8. Ri ve droite 500 metres avant l e siphon, se developpe l e reseau de conduites forcees "A bout de souffle" sur pres de 800 metres ega l ement. L'e spo ir de cour-circuiter le s iphon s'est certes amenuise mais ii semble possible de le franchir par une de so bstruction d'autant que le courant d 'a ir est toujours present. A s uivr e ... Bibliographie succincte Bulletin ARSlP n I 6, l 989. Speleo en Z a la Pierre -Sa im-Martin du S.C. Poitevin, 1989 De n ombreuses notes et art i c l es dans ARSIP info, Spe l eo-Doss iers, La Botte Spelunca et Speleo ... Remerciements Grand merci a D .A .F. Montei l S.A. A.B.M. S.A. et Expe, pour leur aide financiere et l e ur don de materiel. .. Merci aussi a association A.L.E.D.E.S. ( panneaux solaires), Spelemat (materiel) et Licatex (pontonnieres et cagoules) pour leur aide technique ... lnterclub s Gouffre des Partages : Clan des Tritons (69), S.C. Poitevin (86) C.D.S. 42 (S.G. Forez, S.C. Oreillards CESAME) ainsi que la participation de s peleo s du G.S. Loudun (86), du S.C. Bezi e r s (34), des Dolomite (69) et du G.S.M.de Fontaine (38). Belle de Nuits: galerie de 300 m de long bordee d'une coulee de calcite de plus de 100 m Proceedings of the 12 h International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland, Volume 6 17

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Zone des puits 18 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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The Gunung Buda Project Preliminary Report on the 1997 joint US and Malaysian caving expedition to Gunung Buda Limbang Division Sarawak, Malaysia by J oe l D es p a in Summary and Background T h e 1 997 expedi ti o n was a n o th e r u cce sfu l a t te mpt t o d oc um e nt th e cave a nd k ars t fea tu re of b ea utiful G unun g Bud a T hi s s p ec t acu l ar lim e t o n e m o unt a in wa fi r t v i s it e d b y Briti s h cave r s in 1 984 a nd a fu ll ca l eA m e ri ca n / M a l aysian Ex p e d i ti o n doc u me n te d 30 k il o m eter of cave p a sages h e r e i n I 995. Durin g th e five wee k I 99 7 ex p e diti o n e i g ht n e w c a ve we r e u rveye d i n Gunun g Bud a ( H o rn bill Lor i B a b y l o n M ojo L a n g ur Thund e r T w ili g ht an d Fruit B a t ) a nd on e in Gunun g B e na ra t ( D e li ve ran ce) t o th e so uth in Gunun g Mulu N at i o n a l P a r k. Additi o n a l s u rvey wo r k was co mpl e t e d i n seve n caves ( Gr ee n Ca th e d ra l Sn a il Sh e ll Quill L owe r Turtl e, U pp e r Turtl e Sea B reeze, and Bi ocyc l o n e) th a t we r e p a rti a ll y ex pl o r ed i n 1 995. T wo cave o ri g in a ll y l oca t e d b y th e Briti h ( Di app o intm e nt a n d Cam p ) we r e al o r ev i s it ed a n d ex pl o r ed a n d u rveyed P e rh a p th e ex p e diti o n 's m o t ig nifi can t eve nt wa o n F e bru ary 1 2 w h e n a t ea m of fo ur co nn ected G ree n Ca th e dr a l and U pp e r Turtl e caves c r ea t i n g a cave sys t e m 2 1 ki l o m ete r s in l e n g th and 298 m e t e r s d ee p A t o t a l of 26 k il o m ete r s of n ew p assage wa s urv eye d Ph o t og raph ic d oc um e nt a ti o n was und e rt ake n in fo u1t ee n cave ( D e li vera n ce, Sn a il Sh e ll M o j o, Gr ee n Ca th dr a l Thund e r Bi ocyc l o n e, H o rnbill L o ri s, Quill L a n g ur B a b a l o n T w ili g ht R o ly P o l y, a nd Fruit B a t ). A pr e limin ary bi o l og i ca l in ve nt ory wa co ndu c t e d in R o l y P o l y C a ve, fo und in 1 995. S e dim e nt a mpl i n g fo r th e purp o e o f p a l eo m ag n e ti c d a tin g was co mpl e t e d in U pp er T urtl e, Sn a il S h e ll G r ee n Ca th e dral R o l y P o l y, M o j o, a nd Pit Vip e r caves. Continued Exploration G r een Cathedral Co ntinu ed ex pl ora ti o n in Gr ee n Ca th e dr a l foc u sed o n th e N o rth e rn and S o u t h e rn ec t io n o r t h e cave. M os t wo rk h e r e was co p l e t e d in th e fi r t h a l f of th e f i ve week ex p e diti o n M a n y l ea d s in th e e l eve n k il o m e t e r l o n g ca v e l e d fro m a co mpl ex o r lar ge pa s sages tr e ndin g n o rth a nd eas t. An initi a l trip d ro pp e d C h eve t Pit an d ur veye d o th e r l ea d s in thi s a r ea Th o u g h th e ra pp e l s w e r e s p ec t ac ul a r a nd l ed t o l arge p a sage th e e p assages qui c kl y e nd e d Oth e r l ea d s l e d t o l arge p assages but un fo rtun a t e l y a l so l ed b ac k in to k n ow n a r eas. T wo s p ec t ac ul ar c limbin g l ea d s we r e pur u e d in t h i area. O n e l ed fro m th e A x i a l A n o m a l y an d an ot h e r from Sn a k e H eave n Th ese we r e c h a ll e n g in g c limb s and a lthou g h both did n o t l ea d t o co ntinuin g p assage th ey d ee p e n e d th e cave t o a tot a l of 298 m e t e r s. A pit was dro pp ed a t JE 3, w hi c h l e d t o m o r e th a n 5 00 m e t e r of l owe r l eve l p assage, an d a n o th e r p as age wa fo ll owe d n o rth t o an un s t a bl e br ea kd own c h o k e in th e ame a r eas of Gr ee n Ca th dra l. On a d d iti o n a l trip P o rt a il R oya l e w as fo und t o n o t go, a pit a t JE79 was dropp e d l ea d s fr o m th e C i s t e r c i a n C h a mb e r we r e pur s u e d fo r 45 0 m e t e r an d e nt ra n ces n ear th e St a in e d Gl ass Wind ow e n tra n ces c h ecked. Whil e n o n e of th e l ea d s in thi s a r ea co ntinu e d a n y grea t d i s t a n ce m o r e th a n fo ur kil o m e t e r s of t o t a l p assage was exp l o r e d A t th e So uth e rn e nd of th e cave o n F e bru ary 9 a c limbin g t ea m co mpl e t e d th e c limbin g l ea d in J effery' fi n a l p assage. Thi s l ea d w ith t ro n g a ir a nd tr e ndin g so uth h a d b ee n a hi g h priorit y for th e '97 ex p e diti o n T h e c limb was easy a nd th e p assage co ntinu e d up wa rd t o seve r a l e ntr a n ces pit l ea d a nd co nt i nuin g p a age. On Fe bru a r y I 2 a t ea m of fo u r fo ll owe d co ntinuin g p as ages in thi s ex t e n i ve area of l eads to e m e r ge in th e m a in p assage of U pp e r T urtl e Cave. T h e l o n g awa it e d co nn ec ti o n b e t wee n th ese t wo ex t e n s i ve cave sys t e m s wa co mpl e t e d Th e r es ult was a 2 1 kil o m t e r l o n g sy t. e m 298 m e t e r d ee p Th e pit in th is a r ea l e d t o m a n y goo d l ea d s th a t w ill r e m a in until o ur r e turn ex p e diti o n Turtl e Sys t e m a nd Sl ow L o ri s Cave : Tu rt l e cave saw s u rvey ac t ivity thr o u g h o ut t h e expe diti o n and y i e l ded a g r ea t dea l of ad d ti o n a l p assage. A t ota l of 1 .7 kil o m e t e r was ur veye d S eve r a l trip s wo r ke d hi g h l eads o ut of th e G r ee n Eyes R oo m S t ro n g ai r fl ow in t hi s a r ea see m ed t o tr e nd t o w a rd s S n a il Sh e ll Cave, h o w eve r a n o th e r e ntran ce was di scove r e d L ea d s in th e cave's eas t e rn br anc h l ea d t o 500 m o f pl easa nt p assage, wa t erfa ll a nd s ump s. T owa r ds th e e nd o f th e ex p ed iti o n a pit w as d ro pp ed o n th e ea t e rn e d ge of th e Gr ee n E yes R o om w hi c h l e ad to a n a dditi o n a l 50 0 m o f l arge t o mod e rat e s i ze p assage tr e ndin g e a s t a nd n o rth t owar d s Gr ee n Ca th e dral. Th e n ea r s ump in L o w e r Turtl e was r es ur veye d ( ori g in a ll y see n b y th e Briti h ) mi d way throu g h th e ex p e diti o n Turtl e was co nn ec t e d fr o m th e Gr ee n C a th e dr a l id e o n F e bru ary 1 2 v i a a pasage l ea din g int o th e m a in p assage. Sl o w L o ri s Cave was fo und ear l y in th e ex p e diti o n a b ove t h e hi g h e t e ntran ces t o t h e Turtl e C a v e S ys t e m Th e fir st d ays s ur vey r e v ea l e d 7 00 m e t e r o f lar ge p assage a nd eve r a l e ntran ces in a cave th a t was s urpri s in g l y far w es t w ith i n Gunun g Bud a. S ub se qu e nt tr i p s d ro pp e d eve r a l pit s, a nd pu h ed th e m a in p as age an o th e r 6 00 m e t e r s t o a fi n a l e ntr a n ce. Snail Shell Th e lar ges t ca v e in th e s outh Bud a c liff s saw seve r a l s i g ni fi ca nt trip s in th e fir t few wee k s of th e ex p e diti o n Th e l a r ge h ori zo nt a l p assage h a l f way up th e ramp wa i g nifi c antl y ex t e nd ed t o a n ew e ntran ce 2 5 0 m e t e r s up th e s t ee p l o p es of Bu da. Oth e r tr ips l oo k e d a t c limbin g l ea d s a nd ti g ht d ow n tr e ndin g l ea d s th a t mi g ht l ea d to th e U pp e r T urtl e sys t e m Oth e r ur veys i n t h e Pi g l e t sec ti o n s o f th e cave r evea l e d ex t e n i ve l owe r l eve l p assages A t o t a l of 3. 5 ki l o m e t e r s wa urv eye d in th e cave g i v in g a t o t a l l e n g th of 1 0.8 ki lom e t e r s. Good l ea d s includin g th e t o p of t h e l o n g ramp se ri e ex pl o r ed in 95, a nd a climbin g l ea d in Pi g l et re m a in in Snai l Sh e ll. Biocyclone Thi s l a r gep assage d cave in th e lim e t o n e bl ock n o rth eas t of th e m a in Bud a m as i f saw o nl y a s in g l e u rvey tr ip t h i s ex p edi t ion. 50 0 m e t e r s was s u rveye d in thr ee a r eas i n cl u d in g th e b a e of a pit b e l ow th e M o unt a in R oo m a nd n ear th e Ce ntip e d es D ance H a l l. M a n y l a r ge l ea d s re m a in in thi s cave an d s i x un e nt e r e d e n t r a n ce s a r e k n ow n in th e a r ea. Proceed i ngs of the 12 th Internat i onal Congress o f Speleology 199 7, Sw i tzer l and Vo l ume 6 19

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Sea Breeze S ea Br eeze w a v i s it e d t w i ce. Thi co mpl ex c a ve w ith intri g u in g air tlo w p rove d t o h ave m a n y c hall e n g in g pa ssages in c l udin g a n ea r mud s ump a nd s m a ll phr ea ti c tub es. Cave r s r e n a m e d th e cave S l eaze, Brui se T w o exce ll e nt l ea d s r e m a in h owe v e r on e a p i t an d th e o th e r a h a rt climb w i t h goo d a ir tl ow. New Caves Deliverance Mid way throu g h th e ex p e dition a gro up d ec id e d t o s p e nd th e d ay o n th e s l o p es o fGunun g B e n a rat so uth of Bud a a nd within th e co n fi n es of Gunun g Mulu a ti o n a l P ar k Th ey we r e r ewar d ed w ith th e di co v ery o f a s p ec t ac ul a r ca v e sys t e m. A s m a ll e ntr a n ce l ea d s t o ve r y l arge p assage (ave r ag in g 30 m b y 20 m ) a nd a dr o p t o a l a r ge roo m ( I 0 0 m in di a m e t e r ). Th e m a in b o r e h o l e co n t inu e d fo r over a k il o m e t e r. Oth e r l ea d s we r e pur s u e d t o ve r y we ll d ecora t e d p ass a ges w ith unu s u a l l a r ge c r ys t a l s. A t rave r se c limb l e d t o a n ad d i ti o n a l l a r ge. but h o rt p assage. A t o t a l of 3 5 k il o m e t e r s was s ur veye d in th e cave. A f ew goo d l ea d s r e m a in but th e e w ill r q u ire m a j o r cl imb s Hornbills Secret Thi s cave was l oca t ed in th e va ll ey (ac tu a ll y a se ri es of do li ne ) so uth of north ca mp Th e e nt ra n ce i s a 7 me t e r pit c h 10 l a r ge wa l k in g p assage go in g b o th dir ec ti o n s. Th e m a in s ur vey l e d to i n c r eas in g l y l arger passages c ulmin a tin g i n th e Blu e Sk y B o r e h o l e a 3 0 m e t e r di a m e t e r p a sage e ndin g in a n 80 m e t e r t a ll ky l ig ht. Oth e r s ur veys ex pl o r e d eas t an d n o rth fro m th e e n tra n ce an d dow n a 2 0 m e t e r s h a ft int o a 30 m e t e r d i a m e t e r roo m Exce ll e nt l eads re m a in in thi s cave in c ludin g severa l t r e ndin g o uth und e r t h e m ai n n o rth Bud a lim e t o n e bl oc k 1 .9 kil o m e t e r s was s ur veye d i n H o rnbill. Babylon Th e Briti s h di scove r e d Di sa pp o in t m e nt a nd C a mp ca v e mid way up th e wes t e rn id e of G unun g Bud a i n 1 984. T h e 1 99 7 ex p diti o n se t up a ca mp in thi s a r ea. Th ese t wo caves we r e r es ur veye d a n d B aby l o n cave d i scove r e d in th e cl i ffs a b ove D isa pp o intm en t. B aby l o n co n i s t s m os tl y o f a l a r ge wa lkin g p assage l ea din g LO an o t he r e nt ra n ce ( K op i Cave) and co nn ec tin g P a n cake t o Ca mp Cave. T h e r e are a l o m a n y pit s a n over l y in g l eve l a nd a 20 m e t e r di a m e t er roo m Di sap p o intm e nt Cave h as n o t ye t bee n co nn ec t e d in t o th e sys t e m but a n ew p assage di scove r e d a t th e e nd o f th e ex p e di ti o n l e nd s h o p e fo r a f utur e ti ein C ave in th is a r ea t o t a l 4.2 k il m e t e r s in s ur veyed l e n g th w ith 1 .2 kil o m e t e r s co n s i s tin g o f r es ur vey i n Ca mp a nd D i a ppointm e nt Thunder Cave r o n th e 1 997 ex p e diti o n we r e t ake n t o Thund e r Ca v e b y l oca l r es id e nt o f th e area Th e ca v e co n s i s t s of a l a r ge p assage w ith r e-co nn ec tin g s id e l ea d s th a t e nd s in a 5 0 m e t e r di a m e t e r r oo m n a m e d th e Limb a n g C h a mb er Exce ll e nt climbin g l ea d r e m a in fr o m th e Limb a n g C h a mb e r On e kil o m e t e r wa s ur veye d in th e cave. Mojo Th e e ntr a n ce t o M o j o C ave w as found in th e 9 5 ex p e di ti o n but n eve r e nt e r e d Thi s yea r it was s ur veye d at th e b eg innin g o f th e ex p e diti o n Th e cave i s 229 m e t e r s l o n g a nd ve r y we ll d e c ora t e d A seco nd e ntr a n ce p rov id e a tunnin g v i ew n o rth int o Mulu P ar k Twilight Complex Th e Twili g ht Caves h ave d eve l o p e d in a s m a ll o utli e r o f lim s ton e n ea r wh e r e th e wes t Bud a tr a il r eac h es th e m a in l ogg in g ro ad. Th ese we r e fir t n o ti ce d in 5 but n o t s u rveye d o r full y ex pl o r ed. Surv ey work in '97 h as r evea l e d a n ex t e n s i ve n e t wo r k o f m o d era t e s i ze p assages w ith m a n y e ntran ces A t o t a l of 1 .75 kil o m e t e r s of cave p as age wa s ur veye d Fruit Bat Frui t Bat Cave h as fo rm e d in a n o th e r o utl y in g bl ock of lim s t o n e Th e cave co n s i s t s of severa l l a r ge p assages a n d roo m s w ith num ero u s e nt ra n ces. Th e caves a r e ve r y bi o l og i ca ll y ri c h 900 m e t e r s was s u rveye d i n t hi cave by g uid es fro m Mulu N a ti o n a l P a r k. Conclusion Whil e m any of th e sec r e t s of Gunun g Bu da h ave b ee n r evea l ed t o cave ex p l o r ers th e r e ca n b e n o d o ubt th a t a tr e m e n do u s qu a ntit y of ad diti o n a l cave pa s sages h ave ye t t o b e d i cove r e d T o da t e 60 k i l o m e t e r s h ave b ee n s ur veye d w ithin thi s b ea utiful m o unt a in But th e m a n y go r ges s t eep s l o p es a nd d o lin es ofG unun g Bud a co nt ai n m a n y m o r e cave awa itin g d i cove r y. Expedition Personel Amer i ca n s: G eo r ge Pr es t Exped iti o n Coo rdin a t o r D r. R oge r M o rti me r Medica l D oc t o r Jo e l D es p a in Ex p e diti o n Ass i s t a nt Coo rdin a t o r D j un a B ew l ey Ph o t ograp h y/ S o und R ecor d i n gs D o n Coo n s Car t ogra ph y D a m ia n l ve ri g h Ca rt ogra ph y/So und R eco r d in gs Vi v i a n L of tin Ph o t ograp h y/Car t ogra ph y M a rk R os b roo k Ca rt ogra ph y Dr H e r b L aege r Ca rt og r a ph y/C limb e r Andr ea F utr e ll G eo l og i s t /Ca rt ogra ph y Mik e Futr e ll Cartogra ph y Gr eg St ock Ca rt ogra ph y K y l e F e dd e rl y Car t ograp h y/C limb e r M err il ee P ro ffitt Ca rt ogra ph y{f r eas ur e r Bill F ra nt z Ph o t og r ap h y/Ca rt og r a ph y {fr ea ur e r R o n Simm o n Ph o t og r a ph y/Ca rt og raph y M a r k F ritzk e Ca rt og r a ph y/C limb e r S t a n A lli so n Ca rt ogra ph y/C limb e r Dr D ave Bunn e ll Ph o t ogra ph y/Ca rt ogra ph y Dr Br a d H acke r Ca rt ogra ph y M a l ays i a n s: Sim o n S a ndi Na ti ona l P a rk s O ffice r. Fo r e t ry D epa rtm e nt D ave W Gill K a r s t M a n age r Fo r e tr y D e p a rtm e nt S o l o m o n Jum ara n gMulu P a rk Guid e R o b e rt G a ni Mulu P a r k Guid e P e t e r Te pun Mulu P a r k G uid e Philip L a win g Mulu P a rk Guid e Larry S i ga Mulu P ark Guid e M a ti as Mati as Mulu P a r k Guid e Lim a n G a ni Mul u P a r k G ui de D aya n g Timah Paran g Ca mp C o ok M a li a n a J o hn y Ass i s t a nt Ca mp Cook John y a k Sawin g Dri ve r 20 P r oceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volum e 6

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Dernieres decouvertes dans la grotte de la Cascade de Glandieu (Bregnier-Cordon, Ain, France) p a r Philipp e Dr o uin Chavanne 38390 Bouve sseQuirieu, France La gro ll e de l a Cascade de Glandieu a ete decouverte par R ger Excoffier vers 1967, apres desobstruction. La gro ll e de Glandieu, e ll e, est co nnu e depuis lon g t e mp s pui sq u e des occ up a ti o n s pr e hi toriques y ont e t e r eve l ees. L e Groupe Ulysse s p e l eo a r e pri s e n 1996 e t 1997 I 'e tude et l a t opograp hi e de ce deux cav it es ai n i qu e de l a g r o tt e du Gland. t o ut es s o u vrant s ur l a meme co mmun e, permellanl de mieux com prendre l e ur gene e. P o ur l a petite hi s toir e, s i g n a lon s que nous avia n s deja debute l a topographie de l a grotte de la Ca ca d e de Glandieu e n av ril 1 985. Cette topo g r ap hi e, coo rd o nn ee par Christian Kr esay, es t r eslee inachevee e t l e not e e n o nt e t e perdue Quand on sa il l a difficulte a topo g r ap hi er cette cavi t e (abo nd a n ce du co n cretio nn ement, rempli age masquant l e con duit s. grande l argeur ). o n comprend mieux noire reticence a reprendre l e eve de terrain. Pourtant et act u e ll eme nt apre dix eance de t opograp hi e a deux eq uip es, nou som m es presque au bout de no s peines . Les releves o nt ete r ea li ses par moi-meme e t par Yvan R ob in l a symhese des dessins es t de Anne Martelat. Ri en n a u rai t pu etre mene a bien ans le decouvreur de la grotte R oger Excoffier, qui nou s a toujours accompagne ou terre ors de nos sorties Ainsi, l 'ecar t des ages en tr e l e decouvreur (76 ans) e t la plus jeune de nos aide topographes (6 ans) temoigne d une certai n e forme de spe l eo l og i e inter generationne ll e .. Parall e l e m e nt a la topographie. nou s avons mene a bien des r ec h e r c h es biblio grap hiqu es s ur l e r esea u ainsi que diverses etu de e n co ur (de t e rmination du m a t e ri e l os t eo lo g iqu e par Mi c h el Philippe e tud e d e se dim e nt s allochtones e t c.). o u s pr ese nt ons a uj o urd hui a I 'occas ion de cette co mmuni ca tion la topo grap hi e pro v i so ir e de l a cavi t e, dont l e d eve lopp e m e nt reste a ca l c ul e r (sans doute co mpri e n l 'eta t ac tu e l de no s exp l oratio n s, en tr e 500 et 1000 m). Description U n por c h e itue dans un e falaise d axe gro ieremelll nord-sud dominant l a vallee du Rh one se p our uit par un passage remontant le l o n g d une coulee s t a l agm itiqu e. Ce ll e-ci se poursuit a u nord par de petits condu it s remontants proches de l a surface mai e pro longe ega l emem au ud par un e ga l erie descendante emrecoupee de p assages etroi t s, qui rejoint 'axe principal de l a cavi t e. On se trouve a l ors dans une ga l er i e co n c r e ti onnee que l on parcourt vers re t. Le so l e t par s eme de go ur s r emp li s deau selon l es s ai s on s et s ur le co t es s ouvrem de nombreux divenicules colma t e par le concre ti on n ement. Un passage r emontalll pem1et de rejoindre la Tab l ed orientation croisement de deux galeries materialise par un gro bloc forman t un e table. D e u x passages se presentent a l or Un aspect du concretionnement dans la grande salle. L inventeur de la cavite se trouve a gauche. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 21

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Anenti on. ce docu ment es t une t o pograpbit provi so ore le s rele v es n Ctant pa s t ous tcnnin e~ e t la sy nthCse rcstant a vtrifier en quclquc s poin ts. oouimment l a grande salle Le cbifT ra ge du dc' v el o ppement reste a efTectutr comme le calcul des c oordonnce s d es diff c'rent cs grones du systi:me ains i quc le marqua~ de s a ltitude s rela1 i es en diff~rcnts points du n!scau Nml997 0 20m Grotte de la Cascade de Glandieu Au n o rd o n p e ut par co urir ur un e ce nt a in e d e m e tr es un e ga l e ri e t o uj o ur s co n c r e ti o nn ee, m a i s s urt o ut pr ese nt an t d e be a u x r e m pli ssages g l ac i a ir es avec d es g al e t s d e plu s d un m e tr e d e diam e tr e. Le fo nd d e ce tt e ga l e ri e n 'es t se p a r e d e l a gro tt e d e Gl a ndi e u qu e p a r un e di za in e d e m e tr es d e r e mpli ssage, sa n s d o ut e d e co n c r e ti o nn e m e nt. II s'ag it probabl e m e nt d un e ca ptur e d e l 'axe prin c ip a l d e l a gr ott e d e l a Casc ad e d e Glandi e u ve r s la vall ee du Gl an d a I 'occas i o n d e l 'e n fo ui sse m e nt d e ce tt e d e rni e r e, m a i s ce tt e h y p o th ese r e t e a e t aye r Qu o iqu il e n s oit ii sera it a b s urd e d e t e nt e r d e r e li e r l es d e u x cav it es pa r d eso b s tru c ti o n l e co n c r e ti o nn e m e nt a b o nd a nt d e l a gro tt e d e l a C a ca d e d e Gl a ndi e u obl ige ace qu e ce ll e-c i so il p ree r vee d e t o ut e v i s it e int e mp es ti ve, ce qui es t l e cas d e pui s l a d co u ve rt e d e l a cav it e. Qu e lqu es di ve rti c ul es p e u ve nt e n co r e se v i s it e r d a n s ce sec t e u r, ce rt a in s p e rrn e tt a nt d e r e j o indr e l e d e u x i e m e p assage. A I 'es t l e d e u x i e m e p assage se d eve l o pp e d a n s un e s u cce s i o n d e sa ll es o u l e co ncr e ti o nn e m e nt es t tr es a b o nd a nt ju s qu 'a un e sa ll e avec d es blo cs e ff o ndr es e t un e b e ll e co ul ee s t a l ag mitiqu e : l e Or g u es. T o uj o ur s ve r s l 'es t o n trou ve e n uit e un e s u cces ion d e p as ages p e nn e tt a nt d 'a tt e indr e un e gra nd e a ll e e n j o int d e tr a t e re m o nt a nt l a r ge d e pr es d e 30 111 e t tr es co n c r e ti o nn ee. L e h a ut de l a sa ll e pr ese nt e un e s u ccess i o n d e b ea u x go ur s ac ti fs a lor s qu e l a Grotte de Glandieu Systeme de la Cascade de Glandieu Commnne : Bregnicr Cordon (Ain) Topographic : Groupe Ulysse spelfo 1996-1997 Releves : Philippe Drouin et Yvan Robin Synthese et dessin : Anne Martclat Topofil decametre Campas Cl clinometre Suunto Cl Mini Morin B C.R A. 4 b f"1::.:np a rti e ud pr e e nt e un r e mpli ssage d e sa bl es o u d e ga l e t s. D e u x c h e min ees s'o u vra nt a u pl afo nd d e ce tt e a ll e p e rrn e tt e nt d e p ar co urir d e c ourt es g al e ri e co lmat ees p a r l e co n c r e ti o nn e m e nt. U n e co ul ee r e mont a nt e li v r e e n s uit e I 'acces a d e u x ga l e ri es. Y ers l e n o rd o n p e ut p a r co urir d es ga l e ri es h o ri zo n t a l es t e m1i n ees p a r un pl a n d 'ea u sa n s uit e. Y e r s I 'es t un r essa ut d esce ndant pui un a utr e r e m o nt a nt li v r e nt acces a un e t age s up e ri e ur con c r e ti o nn e, I. e rmin e p a r un s i ph o n a m o nt. P e u a pr e l e so mm e t du r essa ut un co ur a nt d 'a ir p e r m e t d 'e n v i sage r un prol o n ge m e nt dan s un e zo n e tr es co n c r e ti o nn ee. P a rt o ut d e g ro s ga l e t s g l ac i a ir es s ont co in ces dan s J es p a rti es J es plu s b asses d e ga l e ri es, c r e u sees d a n s l e Kimm e rid g i e n Perspectives A c tu e ll e m e nt ii n e n o u s r es t e a t o p og raphi e r qu e l a p a rti e ce n tr a l e d e l a g r a nd e a ll e e t l 'a m o nt du s iph o n t e mp o rair e, d e rri e r e l e qu e l R oge r E xc offi e r e tim e l e d eve lopp e m e nt a 50 o u 70 m. M a i s l e plu s import a nt e t Gl a ndi e u II l a s uit e v irtu e ll e a m o nt qui n o u s fait r eve r e t se trou ve, p e ut -e tr e, d e rri e r e un rid ea u d e co n c r ti o n s b a l aye p a r un fa ibl e co ur a nt d 'a ir II s'ag it d e 'axe prin c ip a l d e l a ga l e ri e e t a d eco u ve rt e n o u s p e rrn e ttr a. si l e p as age es t p n e t ra bl e, d e mi e u x co mpr e ndr e I 'o ri g in e du r e m p li ssage d e gros 22 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 199 7, Switzerland Volume 6

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ga l e t s g la c i a ir es qui e pr ese nt e d a n s l a g rou e L a bibli ogra phi e c i d esso u s se ra ex pl o it ee pro c h a in e m e nt e t n o u s publi e ron ult e ri e ur e m e nt un a rti c l e d e y nth ese, v oir e un e m o n og raphi e, ur ce t int e r essa nt r esea u avec l a t o p og raphi e co m pl e t e P a rmi ce tt e li s t e d e r e f e r e n ce o n lira p a rti c uli e r e m e nt l es tra v aux d e MUii e r e t R eyg rob e ll e t l es plu s int e r ess ant s. 11 es t p a ra d oxa l qu un e cav it e a u ss i p ass ionnant e, m o rph o l og iqu e m e nt p a r l a nt a it s u sc it e i p e u d e tr ava u x. Es p ero n s qu e l a n o u ve ll e t o p g raphi e p e rm e lt e d e r e l a n ce r e tud e sc i e ntifiqu e e t ex pl o rati o n p e l eo l og iqu e. Bibliographie os r e l eve t o p ogra phiqu e d e m o ntr e nt qu e l a g r o tt e d e Gl a ndi e u e t l a g rott e d e l a Casc ad e d e Gl a ndi e u n e so nt se par ees qu e p a r qu e lqu es di za in es d e m e tr es d e co n c r e tionn e m e nt s ma ss if s. Au ss i n o u s avo n s r eg roup e i c i l a bibli ogra phi e d e ces d e u x ca vit es. A. A 1 968. Co mpt e r e ndu d es so rti es. Bull e ti n de li aison d u G ro up e Urs u s ( L yo n ), 1 968 ( 11 ) : n p ( I p .). A. A 1 975. P o ur un in ve ntair e d es cav it es d initi a ti o n du d e p a rt e m e nt d e I Ain. Bull e tin de I' Associa ti on spo rt n a lllr e ed u ca ti on ( L yo n ). 1 9 75 ( I ) : n.p ( 5 p .). A .A 1 976. Co mpt e r e ndu d e so rti e L' xce 111 riq u e, bull e tin du S pe l eoclub d e Lut ece ( P a ri s), 1 976 (9) : n p (2 p .). A. A 1 977. R eca pitul a ti f d es so rti es d e l' a nn ee 1 9 7 6. L' Ain de scend. bull e tin du G ro up e s p e l eo l og iqu e d e B o ur g ( B o ur g-e n Br es e), I 977 (8) : p .3 0 -32 ( p .3 0 ) A A 1 977. R eca pitulati f d es s orti es d e l 'a nn ee 1 9 77. L 'A in d sce n d. bull e tin du Group e s p e l eo l og iqu e d e B o ur g ( B o ur g-e n Br e e), 1 978 (9) : p 57 ( p .5). A.A I 986. Co mpt e r e ndu d 'ac ti v it es du d e u x i e m e trim es tr e 1 986. Spe l eo M.J .C. I nfo, bull e tin du G ro up e s p e l eo l og iqu e d e l a M a i so n des j e un es e t d e l a c ultur e d e B e ll cga rd e ( B e ll ega rd e-s ur V a l e rin e) 1 986 (6) : p .2-5 ( p .3). Galets coinces A.A. 1 98 6 C o mpt e r e ndu d 'ac ti v it es du tr o i i e m e trim e tr e 1 986. S p e l eo M.J .C. In fo bull e tin du Group e s p e l eo l og iqu e d e l a M a i o n d es j e un es e t d e l a c ultur e d e B e ll ega rd e ( B e ll ega rd e-s ur Y a l e rin e), 1 986 (7) : p .25 ( p. 2). A A 1 994. Ri c h esses t o u r i s tiqu es e t a rc/ 1 eologiq u es des co m1111111 es m ra l es du ca 111 O 11 de B e il ey. Publi ca ti o n d e I' Ass o c i a ti o n Bu gey c ultur e !. Pr ein ve nt a ir e du d e p a rt e m e nt d e I A in IX+ 3 7 3 p ( p .68). B ELMO T, A. 1 985. C a rt e a r c h eo l og iqu e d e Br eg ni e r-Cord o n L e Bu gey ( B e il ey), 1 98 5 (72) : p 111 311 26 ( p 11 4 e t 11 22). B ERO o, J -M 1 895 La g rou e d es H o t ea u x. Bull e t i n de l a Soc i ete des sc i e n ces natur e ll es de /'A i n ( B o ur g-e n Br esse). n 3. 2e e m e tre 1 895, p .2 6 -35 I ph o t og r a ph ie h o r s t ex t e B RUYA T P. I 987. Ac ti v it e 1 985. C o mpt e r e ndu s u cc in c t. S.C. V. Ac ti l'i l es, bull e tin du Sp e l eo-c lub d e Vill e urb a nn e ( Vill e urb a nn e). 1 987 ( 47 ): p 7 -23 ( p 10 ). B.R G M 1 9 65 Ca t a l og u e r eg i o n a l des cai it es 11 a 111r e l/ es. ln ve nt a ir e a u 3 1 / 12 /64. Jura Alpe s. I e r e p a rti e. E diti o n s du Bu r ea u d e r ec h e r c h es geo l og iqu es e t mini eres ( Orl ea n s), 5 + 39 p. ( p I ) C 11 ANEL, E. I 899. Grott e go uffr es, a b T m e pui ts o u t o mb a r e tt e a bri s du d e p a rt e m e nt d e 1 Ain (s uit e). Bull e tin de l a Sociele des 11 a t11r a /i s 1 es de /' A in ( B o ur g-e n Br esse), 1 899. pr e mi e r bull e tin d e 1 899 { 11 4 ), p .710 ( p .8-9). C111ROL, B 1 985. Co ntributi o n a I in ve nt a i re pe l eo l ogi qu e d e 1 A in Ju ra m e ridi o n a l. Speleo O J num ero s p ec i a l. bull e tin du Co mit e d e p a rt e m e nt a l d e s p e l eo l og i e d e l 'A in 1 985, 42 5 p ( p 1 0 1 1 02 10 4, pl a n s e t co up es). C 111 ROL, B. 1 987. R a n ge m e nt d es c avit es du d e p a rt e m e nt d e I A in p a r o rdr e d e croi ss ant d e l e ur s d eve l o pp e m e nt s, p a r o rdr e d ecro i ssa nt d e l e u rs d e ni ve ll a ti o n s. Spe l eo O I. bull e tin du Co mit e d e p a rt e m e nt a l d e p e l eo l og i e d e I' A in I 98 7 ( I I ) : p .878 ( p .8 7 ). C 111 ROL, B 1 99 1 Bil a n d e co n se il s a nim a ti o n s p e l eo l og i e d an l' A in (e t e 1 99 0 ). Spe l eo O J bull e tin du Co mit e d e p a rt e m e nt a l de s p e l eo lo g i e d e l A i n. 1 99 1 ( 14 ): p .82-83 ( p .83). Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Vo l ume 6 23

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CH T ROL, B 1 992. C h ro niqu e d un e t e s p e l eo l og iqu e 1 99 1 d a n s I Ain (b il a n d es c on se il s a nim a ti o n s). S p e / eo 0 / bull e tin du C o mit e de p a rt e m e nt a l d e s p e l eo l og i e d e I Ain 1 992 ( I 5) : p 68 70 ( p 6 8). CHIROL, B 1 993. Bi I an de co n se il s a nim a ti o n s 1 992. S p e / eo O J bull e tin du Co mit e d e p a rt e m e ntal d e s p e l eo l og i e d e I' Ain 1 993 ( 1 6) : p .22-23 ( p .22). CHIROL, B 1 994. Bil an d e co n se il s a nim a ti o n d a n l Ain (e t e 1 993). Spe l eo 0 1 bull e tin du Co mit e d e part e m e nt a l d e s p e l eo l og i e de l 'A in 1 994 ( 1 7): p 7 -9 ( p .8). COLIN, P 1 978. Ac t ivi t e 1 978 du G ro up e U l ysse spe l eo. Spe / eo l ogie Dossiers, bull e tin d u Co mit e d e p a rt e m e nt a l d e spe l eo l og i e du Rh o n e ( L yo n ) 1 978 ( 1 4): p .33-34 ( p .33). COMB I ER, J 1 964. o u ve ll es fo uill es pr e hi s t o r i qu es d a n s l 'A in Le Bugey ( B e il ey), 1 964 ( 5 I ) : p I 55 6 ( p .42). CoRCELLE, J 1 895. G ro tt es du Jura m e ridi o n a l (a ut o ur d e C ulo z). Spe l unca B11/l e t i11, 1 895, t.l fasc.4, p 11 91 28 ( p 1 201 22). CoRCELLE, J 1 896. L es gro tt es du Ju ra m e ri d i o n a l (a ut o ur d e C ul oz). Bull e ti n de l a Soc i ete de geograp hi e d e I' A i n, n 4-5, p 5 26 8 ( p 5 457). D EMEAUX, J .J 1 976. Bi I a n d' un e a dh e i o n a u S.C.L. L Exce11 t r i q 11 e, b ull e tin du Sp e l eo-c lub d e Lut ece ( P a ri ), 1 976 (9) : n p (2 p .). D EMENT H O C. I 909. Prin c i pa l es so ur ces d es e tu des s ur l e Bu gey dep ui s se o ri gi n es j u q u 'a l a nn ex i o n avec n o t es ex pli ca ti ves. Le Bugey ( B e il ey), 1 909 ( 1 -2) : p .437 1 (p.6 1 ). D RESCO, E. & H UBERT, M 1 975. A r a n ae s p e lun ca rum Ga ll iae II Annales de spelologie ( P a r i ), t. 3 0 fasc.3, p .44 I -450 (p.447). D ROUIN, P. 1 979. L a g r o tt e de Gl a ndi e u G.U.S. Activ it es. bull e tin d u Gro u pe U l ysse s p c l eo, 1 979 ( 1 9) : p .9 11 pl an e t co up e D RO U IN, P I 982. O bserva ti o n de c h a u ve -so u ri de 1 969 a 1 980 (d'a pr es G.U.S. Actil i t es n I a 3 0 ). Mea n dres, bull e tin du G ro up e U l ysse s p e l eo, 1 982 (3 1 ) : p. 1 51 6 ( p I 5). D Ro 1 P ( 1 985): So rti e du eco nd se m es tr e 1 985. Meandres, bu ll e tin d u Gro up e U l y e s p e l eo, 1 985 (48) : p .3-5 ( p .3). D Rou 1 P & K R I EGJ ACQU I ER, R 1 986. C l asse m e nt d es prin c ip a l es cavites d u depa rt eme nt de I' A in (e n me t re au I er ja n vier 1 987). I n Ec h o d es p rofo n de ur (A in ). Spe /11 11ca, 1 986 (24): 6. D ROUIN, P ; L AURENT, R. & M EYSSONN I ER, M 1 977. L e gra nd e cavi t es d u de p ar t e m e nt de I' A in Spe l eo l ogie D ossiers, b ull e tin d u Co mit e de p arte m e n tal de p e l eo l og i e d u Rh one, 1 977 ( 1 3) : p 1 -92 (p. 1 0, 38, 39, pl a n e t co up e). FERRI, J & MILLET, P 1 982. Gl a ndi e u L'Exce11triq11e, b ull e t i n d u Spe l eo-cl ub d e Lut ece ( P aris), 1 982 ( 1 4) : n p (2 p.) FouR I ER, E. 1 9 1 3. R ec h e r c h es s p e l eo l og iqu es e t h ydro l og i q u es dans l a c h a1 n e du Ju ra ( 1 4e e t Se ca mp ag n es 1 9 11 1 9 1 2 1 9 1 3). Spel u nca ( P ar i s), 1.I X, fasc.72, 59 p ( p .52). G I BERT, J ; M ATH I EU, J & R EYGROBELLET, J .L. I 974. Evo luti o n spat i ot e mp o r e ll e d u pe upl e m e nt d e l a gro tt e du Con n o r an (Torcie u departe m e nt de I A in Fra n ce). Ac t es du 5e Congres nationa l de speleo / og i e (lnt e rl ake n 1 4 a u 1 6 se pt e mbr e 1 974). S uppl e m e nt 11 9 1i Stalactite, b ull e tin de l a Soe i e t e s ui sse de spe l eo l og i e, 1 975 : p.27-45 (p.36). G, ET, R 1 96 1. Fa un e cave mi co l e du Ju ra m e ridi o n a l e t d es c h a fo es ub a l p in es d a uph i n o i ses. II. Co ntributi o n a l a eo nn a i ssa n ce des inverteb r e Anna/es de spe l eo l og i e ( P a ri s), 1 96 1 (3) : p.303-325 ( p .307, 3 1 3-3 1 5. 3 1 9). G.U. S 1 979. Sortie du 4e t r i m es tr e 1 978. G.U.S. Activi t es, bul le tin d u Gro up e U l y e spe l eo, 1 979 (22) : p 47. L AURENT, R ; G I BERT, J & G 1 ET R 1 986. Li v r e t de pr ese nt a t ion ge n era l e e t bi b li ograp h ie de I 'exc u rsio n da n l e Ju ra m e ridi o n a l ( B a Bu gey; Va l romey, l i e C r e m ie u ) de la R e un io n de tr ava il d e l a Co mmi ss i o n des p h e n omenes k a r s t iq u es e t de I Assoc i a ti o n fr a n r;a i se d e k a r s t o l og i e ( L yo n 2 0 -2 1 m a i 1 986), I O p ., 1 2 fi g ur es ( p .6). L AURE T, R ; GI BERT, J & G, ET, R 1 98 6 Li v r e t g uid e d e t e rr a in d e 'exc ur s i o n d a n s l e Ju ra m e ridi o n a l ( B asBu gey; Y a lrom ey, ll e Cr e mi e u ) d e l a R e uni o n d e tra va il d e l a Co mmi ss ion d es ph e n o m e n es k a r s tiqu es e t d e I A ssoc i a ti o n fr a n r;a i se d e k ars t o l ogie ( L yo n 2 02 1 m a i 1 986) 5 p ., I O fi g ur es, 3 p l a n c h es de ph o t ogra phi es ( p .5). L AURENT, R ; RI AL L A o, A. & GI NET, R 1 972. E tud e pr e limin a ir e p o ur l e p a r e n a tur e r eg i o n a l du Bu gey. 7 L es cav it es n a tur e ll es et l a fa un e so ut e rr a in e du B asBu gey (A i n). Bulletin de l a Societe d' eco l og i e ( Brun oy), t.111 fasc.4 ( 1 972): p .40 1 -4 1 2 (p.4 0 3, 405). L A RE T, R ; R IALLAND, A. & G I NET, R 1 973. L es cav it es n a tur e ll es e t l a fa un e so ut e rr ai n e. Pl aq 11 e 11 e d u P a r e nature/ regiona l d u Bu gey ( Ain ), ( B o ur g-e n Br esse), 1 973: p .3850 ( p .39, 42). M EvssoNN I ER. M 1 968. Essa i d 'i n ve nt aire spe l eo l og i que du de p a rt e m e nt de I A in I e r e p a rti e. S C.V Actfrites, b ull e tin du Sp e l eo-c lub d e Yill e urb a nn e, 1 968 ( 1 2): p .2 I -67. M EYSSONN I ER, M 1 987. Ob se r va ti o n d e c h a u ves-so u ris fa it es l ors de sor ti es d e m e mb res d u S .C. Y. e n 1 985. S.C. V. Activites. bull e t in du S p e l eo-cl ub d e Vill e urb a nn e, 1 98 7 (47): p .45. MEvsso I ER, M ; B ALLES I O, R & P H I LIPPE, M 1 993. Etat des r eco lt es os t eo l og iqu es e t pa l eo nt o l og i q u es effect u ee p a r l es s p e l eo l og u es d e l a reg i o n Rh o n e-A lp es ( d e 1 980 a 1 992). Spe l eo D ossiers, bull e t i n d u Com it e d e p a rt e m e nt a l d e pe l eo l ogie du Rh o n e, n 23 p. I 551 71 (p. I 56). M OLLER, I. 1 970. Co ntri b ut io n a I 'e tud e de l a gro tt e de G l a ndi eu. B ulle t in de l a Societe des sc i ences na tu re ll es de Fribow;r: ( Sui se), 1 9691 970 (59), fasc. I p.35-43 ( pl a n ). N 1 coo, J & CHARDO M. 1 986. R e un io n d e l a Co m m i ss i o n des p h e n o m e n es ka r s ti q u e e t de I A F. K a Yill e u rba n ne, U n iversite C l a u de B e rn ard L yon I l e ma r d i 20 m a i 1 986, organisee par I 'Eq u ipe d' h ydro bi o l ogie e t d'eco l ogie so ut e r ra in e U.A. d u C.N. R .S. 11 367. B u lleti n de I' Associationfranc;aise de karstologie. 1 986 ( I ) : p 1 -4 (p.2). N1coo, J & CI IARDO M. 1 987. R e un io n de l a Com mi ss i o n des p h e n o m e n es k ars tiqu es e t d e I' A. F.K In R e uni o n s. K a r sto l ogia b ull e tin d e l a F e d era ti o n fra n r;a i se d e spe l eo l ogie e t de I A soc i ation fra n r;a i se d e ka r s t o l og i e, 1 986 (8) : p 5 8-60 ( p .59). P AULD UBREU I L, J 1 959. Du RJ1 0 11 e a u Gl a n d. Visages de /'Ain 1 959 (47): p.21 7 ( p .9). RAvERAT, A I 867. Les \'a/lees du Bu gey. Excursions his t oriq11es, pi lt o r esq u es e t artis t iques clans l e B11 gey, l a B resse, l a Savoie et le pays de Gex. C h ez I 'a ut e ur ( L yo n ), t.I XX VIII + 507 p ; t.II 506 p. R eed iti o n Ed iti o n s p rov in c i a l es ( B o ur g-e n B resse), 1 99 1 ( p 1 89). R EYGROBELLET, J .L. ; M ATH I EU, J ; L AURENT, R ; GI BERT, ] & R ENA LT, P 1 975. R e p a rtiti o n d u pe upl e m ent p ar ra pp o rt a l a geomo rph o l og i e de l a gro tt e d e l a Cascade de G l a n d i e u (Ai n ). S p e lun ca M e m oi r es (Pa ri s), 1 975 (8) : p.1 95-204 ( pl a n ). TARDY, F. I 895. Bibl iogra phi e. L es h o mm es p r e hi s t o r i qu es da n l'Ai n pa r MM l' a bb e To umi e r e t C h a rl e G u i ll o n Anna l es de la Societe d' e mul a t ion de I' Ain, l e rtrim es tr e 1 895, p .99I 1 2 ( p l 04). TouRN I ER, J I 9 I I. L es p r e m ie r s h a bit a nt d u Bu gey. E p oque pa l eo lithiqu e (s uit e). L a grot t e a bri d e l a B o nn e Fe mm e. Br egn i er Co r do n ( Ain ). L e Bu gey ( B e il ey), 1 9 1 I (6), p .273-286, 2 pl a n c h es h o r s tex t e, 1 9 11 ) (p.274). To RN I ER J & G ILLO C. 1 895. L es hommes prehistoriq u es clans /'Ain. I Grolle des H o t ea u x. II Gro 11 e de la Bonne Femme a Br egn i er-Cordon. lmp r im e ri e Yill e fr a n c h e ( B o ur g-e n Br esse), X + I 05 p ., 7 pl a n c h es h o r s t exte ( p .79-8 1 ). 24 Proceeding s o f th e 12 th International Congress of Spel e ology 199 7 Swit ze rland Volu m e 6

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New survey of Skocjanske jame par Franjo Drole Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU Titov trg 2, SI-6230 Postojna, Slovenia Abstract The article describes a brief history ~f the research and the most deserving persons who created from the beginning to the end of the 19 th century the plan of Skocjanske jame near Divaca (Slovenia) These caves have been registered on the li s t of UNESCO world s heritage since 1986. In 1992 Ministry for Science and Technology, Ministry of Environment and Physical planing as well as some other institutions financially supported the beginning of the new research for making a new and modem plan of this magnificent underground object. The Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU from Postojna ha s been one of the leading performers of the project. In the text there is also a description of the new and modem measurements the result of which is shown on the figure 2. On the basis of these results the author suggests that the same methods should also be used for the survey of other important caves. Short history of research Serious scientific research of Skocjanske jame goes back to the be g innin gs of the 19 th century The aim of this research w as to make measurements and on the basis of them the plan of the cave characterised b y such a large dimension In the literature dealing with this research there can be found the following names: Joze f Eggenhoffner 1815 Jakob Svetina 1840 dr. Adolf Schmid! Ivan Rudolf 1851 Anton Hanke Jo z ef Marini c, Friedrich MOiler Jurij and Joze Cerkvenik Joze and Pa v le Antonci c, Joze Nedoh and Franc Cerkvenik 1883 (SIMIC 1996). Then Anton Hanke (1840 1891) was the leading person of the re s earch. After his earl y death his work was continued by hi s c olleagues On 6 th September 1893 the y reached Jezero smrti (Lake of death) today called Mrtvo jezero (Dead lake ) and found out that there was no possibility to go on because of a siphon After finishing the research along the river Reka they started to climb wherever they hoped to find the continuation of the caves They used the old Alpine style of climbing. That means that they cut steps in the stone and equipped them with iron wires. Using thi s technique and powerful carbide lamps they discovered Tiha jama (Silent cave) on 22nd July 1904 (CUSCITO ... 1990). This cave lies about 60 m above the river Reka After that there were no other important discoverie s until the beginning of 1991, when the cave divers found a passage through the rotten wood in the siphon brought there by the river. The exact location of this siphon is in Marchesettije v o jezero (Marchesetti lake ) near Mrt vo jezero (Dead lake) This discovery opened a new pa g e in the exploring of Skocjanske jame. On the basi s o f measurements and sketches from 1887 the plan wa s made which was valid with smaller corrections until 1996 (figur e 1 ) This plan was added with other documents to UNESCO for the registration of this cave on the list of UNESCO world s heritage in 1986. 500 m VELIKA MALA $,K OC.J AN ===------------OOLONA OOUNA ~: -. M rtvo jezer o I . .,_-~=Sv etlnov RudoUov Na r a v nl :::~nl~ev r:~ :r~k!: M a rtel ov d v orana PuU c k OY dv o r na P utl c ko v a ...._ ~:!: o lin .__ OV 'a lo ,-c U ffW 1 n l rna I T unal ) ( Vst op I n lz a1 op Rak 0 Br atna Rlnaldlnijeva d vo r n Dvorana P,anlnskega druAtv MUll rJav dv o r n a dv oran TIHA .JAMA PODOL1.Nt PROFIL TLORIS NAC:::RT !.KOCJANSKIH JAM lz leta 1887 Figure 1. Old plan of Skocjanske jame from the year 1887 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 25

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Due to the increasing demands of various works in the region of Skocjanske jame two projects were W1dertaken in 1992 with the help of the management of HTG Sezana, the Community of Sezana Institute for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage, Slovene national commission for UNESCO Ministry of Technology and Science and Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (KRANJC 1996). One of the major aims of these projects is new and up-to date plan which will serve as a basis for further planning and managing with this magnificent W1dergroW1d object and the surroW1dings are which influences it. Co-ordinator and the main performer of both projects is the Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU from Postojna. New Survey This survey is devided into two parts The first part represents the part of the caves called Velika dolina (Big Doline) Tiha jama (Silent cave) and the swallow-hole part of the cave in Velika dolina (Big Doline) and the second part : Velika dolina (Big Doline) Tornincevajama (Tominc cave) Okno pod Naravnirn mostom (Window W1der Natural bridge) Mala dolina (Small Doline) Mariniceva jama (Marinitsch cave) in Mohorciceva jama (Mohorcich cave). Here is a shortly described first part of the survey which was divided due to the nature of the work to more periods lasting W1til March 1997. Their final result is a drawn plan of the first part of the new survey (figure 2). The basis for the survey of the entire system of Skocjanske jame is a precise cave polygon with the entire length of 5227 m and 93 polygon points related to the Gauss-Kruger coordinate system of the state survey thus enabling the position of the cave in the area. For the measurement of the polygon and later of the detailed points an electronic theodolite (NIKON DTM A 10 LG) was used For the communication among the members of the group of surveyors which on average c on s isted of 4 members we used the USW hand stations because a normal conversation was disturbed due to extreme roaring of the river, even at lowest discharge To be able to draw in the plan also the line marking. the widest part of the cave we used a special instrument A. MT. PROFILER 2000 with a distance-metre WILD DIOR 3001 which could measure the distances to inaccessible points without a reflexible prism. With this instrument we measured 38 cross-sections, which will in the final part of the survey make it easier to calculate the volume of the cave For a test we calculated after Winkler's formula the volume of Martelova dvorana (Martel chamber) consisting of2 2 million m 3 As a curiosity I can tell you that only one of the cross-sections has 12.000 m 2 (figure 3) This kind of instrument is usually used in road and railway tunnel constructing but can also be very useful in cave surveying. Working with this instrument the group consisted of 8 members because many parts and equipment had to be transported for the continuation of the work not to be disturbed For the less important and heavily accessible parts of the cave we used a compass and inclinometer (SUUNTO) and a steal measuring tape. These measurements were also related to the basic polygon s o that we have now for each detailed point absolute X Y and Z coordinates. At the end of the first part of the surve y we could define from the measurements a few very interesting facts such as: the new length of the cave is 5 800 m ; the above sea level of Reka at swallow-hole in Velika dolina (Big Doline) is 270 m ; the above sea level of Martelovo jezero (Martel lake) is 214 m; a well-known 6 th fall is only 3 m high; the ceiling of Svetinova dvorana (Svetina chamber) is I 04 m above the river; the height of Martelova dvorana (Martel chamber) is 146 m above the river; regarding the old measurements a 30 degree declination from the direction of the canyon in Rinaldijeva dvorana (Rinaldini chamber) was foW1d out ; with the new position of the ca v e a very promising blowing holes were foW1d ; the viewpoint on the edge ofVelika dolina (Big Doline) is 163 m above the river ; Hankejev most (Hanke bridge) is 47 m above the river ; the highest level of the water in Velika dolina (Big Doline) raised for 76 m and reached 346 m above s ea level ; the marcation sign for the high water of the river in Tiha jama (Silent cave ) is 323 m above s ea level and man y other interesting points The second part the survey will be completed in a year time. Conclusion On the basis of the above stated results I suggest that more up-to-date and precise surveys should be done with more modem equipment for all important caves (at least main polygons). In that way we can discover completely new and till now Wlknown parts at the territory of well-known ca v e s or we can find out some big mistakes of previous survey s. Literature CUSCITO G & HALUPCA E. & FOSCAN L. & URSIC B & URSIC M. & FORTI F & HABE F & DOLCE S & STOCH F & LEBEN F 1990 REKA Timav Ljubljana (Slovenia) : MJadinska knjiga str : 2 11 237 KRANJC A. 1996 Kras Ljubljana ( Slovenia ): Mediacarso, str : I 0 SIMIC, M. 1996 Kras Ljubljana (Slovenia): Mediacarso str : 18 23. 26 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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A H SLOVENIA O LJUBLJANA CRO 100 km SKOCJANSKEJAME ZALITI KANAL MARTEL OVA DVORANA PUTICKOVA DVORANA HANKEJEV KANAL RINALDINIJEVA DVORANA 500 m HANKEJEVA DVORANA VHOD lzdelal: IZRK ZRC SAZU Postojna lzmera: 1992 1997 Figur e 2. First part of new plan of Skocjanske jame PONOR REKE MULLERJEVA DVORANA TI HA JAMA Proceedings of the 12 111 International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Vo l ume 6 2 7

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30 MARTELOVA DVORANA 2 5 20 p 1 2000 m 2 GEOGRAD d o o 60 Senrakob Objekt: SKOCJANSKEJAME lnvestitor : IZRK ZRC SAZU 70 Obdelal : ZADRAVEC Rlsal : Precni prom s t: 4 Datum lzmere : 19 2 1993 50m Figur e 3. One of the largest cross-se c tion in Martel chamber 28 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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Dernieres decouvertes dans la grotte du Crochet (Torcieu, Ain, France) Pa r Philipp e Dr o uin Groupe Uly s se spe l eo Chavanne s, F 38390 Bouve ss e-Quirieu Ce t arti c l e c on s titu e l a s uit e d e l a sy nth ese c on ce rn a nt l e e n tr ees s up e ri e ur es p o t e nti e ll es d e ce ll e cav it e ( D ROU I N, 1 9 97 ). II co n s titu e ega l e m e nt l e c ompl e m e nt a u x d e u x tom es paru s d e A tla s t opogra phi q u e de l a g r o tt e d u C r oc h e t ( C O LI N e t D ROU I N. I 985, I 995) ava nt l a publi c ation d un troi s i e m e v olum e, e n co ur s d e r e d a cti o n D 'a oOt I 982 a I 99 I l es ex plorati o n s dan s l e r esea u Br ec ht s itu e d e rri e r e la voOt e mouill a nt e t e rminant l e r ese au S c hill e r s ont prin c ipal e m e nt l e fait d e P asc al Colin e t R e mi Gu e rin a 'exce p ti o n du r esea u d e rA z imut ex pl o r e p a r l e Br esse Bu gey s p e l eo l g i e s ur e n v i ro n 4 00 m ( A.A. 1 989). L es ex pl ora tion s o nt e t e r e pri ses d e 1 995 a 1 99 7 p a r l e Group e U l ysse s p e l eo d a n s l e but d e t e rmin e r l a t o p ogra phi e pr ec i se d e ce tt e p a rti e, sy nth e ti see p a r Y va n R o bin ( R OB I N. I 99 7 ). En r ea lit e. 44 de p a rt s n 'ava i e nt pas e t e v u s e n d e t a il. E n av ril m a i et oc t o br e 1 995, l e m a t d esca l a d e es t tran s p o rt e d a n s l a cav it e e t n o u s co mm e n c;:o n s l a t o p ogra phi e du r esea u de I Az imul a u co ur d e q u a tr e so rti es. D e f ev ri e r a juin 1 996, o n ze so rti es de se pt a tr e i ze h e ur e so u s t e rr e p e rm e tt e nt d esca l a d e r d e n o mb re u ses c h e min ees e t d e t o p ogra phi e r l a qu a i t o t a lit e d es d e p a rt s. Cec i a j o ut e I 1 89 m d e deve l o pp e m e nt a u r esea u q ui p asse a 7 398 m D a n s ce r esea u B rec ht ii n e n o u s r es t e q u e d e u x c h e min ees a re m o nt e r e t un e q uin za in e de d epa rt s a vo i r. D ixhuit s p e l eo l og u es d u G.U.S. o nt p a rt c ip e a u x ex pl ora ti o n s. .ci E "' _J z 100 m Reseau Brecht GROTTE DU CROCHET Torcieu Ain PLAN 1 Reseau du I I Trou Souffleur I I I figure 1 : grotte du Crochet fin 1991 No s proj e t s pour 1 99 7 so nt d e t e rn1in e r I 'ex pl o ration d e ce r e se au e t d e c on ce ntr e r n os e ff o rt s s ur l e r ese au du Trou s oufn e ur. Bibliographie A A 19 8 9 Grott e du Cr oc h e t. R esea u s up e ri e ur E x pl o ration s BB S dan s l e r ese au Br ec ht. S p e l eo 0 1 bull e tin du C o mit e d e part e m e nt a l d e s p e l eo lo g i e d e I Ain 1 989 ( 1 2) : p 4 1 -44, pl a n C O LI N P. & D Ro I N, P 19 8 5 Atl as t o p ogra phiqu e d e la g r o tt e d u Croc h e t ( I e r e p a rri e ). Publi c ation du Group e Ul ysse s p e l eo: 1 3 p 52 plan c h es d e t o po g raphi es. COLIN. P. & D Rou1 P 1 99 5 A tl as r opograp lti q u e de l a gro ll e du Croc h e t (2e partie). Publi ca ti o n du G ro up e U l ysse s p e l eo : 1 3 p ., 55 pl a n c h es d e t o p ogra phi es. D RO U I N, P I 99 7 Tr e nt e a n s d e r ec h e r c h e d un e e ntr ee s up e ri e ur e d e l a gro tt e du Croc h e t (Ju ra fr a n c;:a i s. d e p a rt e m e nt d e I Ain ). P r o ceed in gs of th e 1 2 t h I n t e rn a ti o n a l Congress of Spe l eo l ogy ( L a Ch a u xd eFond s S w it ze rl a nd I Oth l 7 th Au g u s t 1 997) Publi s h e d b y Int e rnation a l U ni o n o f Sp e l eo lo gy a nd S w i ss Sp e l eo l og i ca l So c i e t y. V o lum e 4. S y mp os ium 4: E x pl ora ti o n a nd Sp e l eo l ogy: p 1I 91 22. R oBI Y 1 997. R e pri se d es ex pl ora ti o n s da n s l a g r o tt e du Croc h et. R esea u Br ec ht. T orc i e u Ai n Spe l eoD ossiers. b ull e tin du Co m i t e de p a rt e m e nt a l d e p e l eo l og i e du Rh o n e 1 997 (27) : p 46-5 1 Meandre en aval de la salle du Chaos Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volume 6 29

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Meandre du Desespoir Fig. 2 : Reseau Brecht au I janvier 1997 Voute Galerie des Coquillages 30 Proceed ings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 RESEAU BRECHT PLAN 0 20 m ,:: Cl) .D E
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Aspect de la galerie en aval de la galerie des Coquillages Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 31

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Speleological Exploration at Tianshengqiao Natural Bridge, Shui Cheng, NW Guizhou, S China by Fra n ci Gab r ov se k*, Y u z h a n gJ in **, A ndr ej M ih evc*, B oja n Oto nic ar Me n gx i o n g S hi **, S h o u y u e Z h a n g **, N adja Z up a n H a jn a* Karst Re se arch In titute Z R C SAZU Titov trg 2, 6230 Po tojna Sloveni a ** In titute of G eo logy Chine se Academy of Scienc e B e ijing China Abstract Durin g ovember 19 96, gro up of 4 r e earc h e r s from Slo ve nia and 4 r esea r c her s from China worked in th e a r ea of Tian Sh e n g Qia o Natural Brid ge, north of Liu pan hui NW Guizhou in China. In thi p a p er are pr ese nt e d so m e r es ult s mad e by joint t ea m in few day The geo morpholo g i ca l mappin g of about 2 km 1 bi g area, ex ploration of thr ee cave and th e ir mappin g, so m e m eas ur e m e nt of main s tru c tural e l e m e nt s on th e ur face and in th e caves, litolo gy a naly ses x-ray of sa nd a nd chemistry of th e wa t e r from Swallo w cave were don e. The s urfac e i s well karstified, but s how urface fluvi a l forms, an1ong which th e d ee pest i s th e canyon of the G a n H e river, w hi c h flow s und er th e natural brid ge. W e visited eve n cave but be ca u se of th e l ac k of tim e a nd equipment we were able to s urv ey o nly thre e of th e m Cave sy t e rn. a nd co ll apse depression b e tw ee n them a r e s tron g l y r e lat ed 10 main faults and fissures direction Introduction Kar s t R esea r c h In s titut e ZRC SAZU and Jn s titut e of Geolo gy, Academia Sinica from 1995 to 1996 worked on joint proje c t b y titl e "Kar s t Environment Prot ec tion and Exploration of cave re so ur ces." Proj ec t was s i g n ed and finan ced b y Th e Mini s tr y of S c i e n ce and T ec hnolo gy of th e R e publi c of Slov e ni a and The Chinese a tional Committee of Scien ce and T ec hnolo gy. Durin g Nov e mb e r I 996, g roup of 4 re sea rcher s from Slov e ni a and 4 r esea r c h e r s from China worked in th e area ofTianshengqiao a tur a l Brid ge, of Liup a n s hui W Gui z hou in South China. In this p a p e r a r e pr e e nt ed o m e re s ult mad e b y joint t ea m in few day. W e did ome geo morpholo g i ca l mappin g of about 2 km 2, ex plor e d thr ee caves and drown th e ir map s, did so m e m eas urement of m a in s tru c tural e l e ment s on the s urfac e a nd in th e caves, did litholo g i ca l analyses of rock amples, xr ay of e dim e nt sa mpl e and che mi tr y of th e wa t e r from S wa ll ow cave. Researches Geomorphology The area of the natural brid ge Tien h e nqui ao is si tu a t ed o n the o uth e rn lop e sweeping from th e e l eva ti on of 2300 m tow ard th e va ll ey of th e main ri ver in e l eva ti o n of a b o ut 1600 m ( fi g ur e 2). Th e s urfac e i s well kar s tifi e d but s how s s urfac e fluvi a l forms, s hallow fluvial va ll eys, ca n yo n s, a mon g which th e d ee p es t i s th e canyo n o f th e G a n H e riv e r which flow s und er the n a tur a l brid ge. D o lin e a nd c l o ed depression are on th e edge of th e plat ea u only. On th e s lop es th ey are only a lon g th e ri vers. w hi c h formed th e Tienshenquiao and along th e riv e r flowin g from th e Swallow cave. The e d e pr e ion are e lon ga t e d co llap se d e pr e i o n s, with teep o r ve rti ca l walls developed from the di s int egra t e d cave sys tem On die upp e r part of th e s lop e in about 140 m d ee p ca n yo n of th e Gan H e i c ut. In upp e r p ar t th e ca n yo n is forn1ed in lim es ton e, in l owe r i s m o r e marly lim es ton e. Canyon developed from th e s ink ing ri ve r cave which ce ilin g remained only one place as the n a tural bridge Tien s henqui ao. Th e a l titud e of th e brid ge i s 1861 m a.s. l.. bridge i s a bout 15 m thick a nd 30 m wide. It i s u sed for th e road co nn ec ti o n o f th e vii!a ge Ganhe and Y a ntou s han g. From th e brid ge to th e river below i s 1 36 m Geology Th e area b e lon g t o tr a n s itional s lop e of th e Yunn a n Pl a t ea u t o Guizhou plat ea u which i folded be l t composed of a se ri es yn clines and anticlines ( M A I RE, ZH ANG & SONG 199 I ). In th e wider v i c init y of the inv e ti ga ted area few hundr ed to thousand m e tr es thi ck package of ca rbonat e, s ilici c la s ti c a nd ba a lt rock from Middl e Carboniferous t o L owe r Jura i c in age are present (Z11A G & W ALTHMAN T 19 85). Lithology The caves and th e natur a l brid ge a r e developed in dark-grey thin b ed d e d to pl a t y so m ew h e r e l a min a t ed Lo we r Tri ass i c mi cr iti c lim es tone s a nd marly lim es ton es wi th int e r ca lation 's of m a rl s a nd dolomites. Th e rocks are c haract e ri ti ca ll y bioturbated a nd ome where s how mottl ed s tru c tur e. B eds often co ntain c la yey dis olu tion see ms and s t y lolit es. Among other s tru c tural c haract e ri st i cs i olated rippl e a nd l a min as mainl y of biocla t s occur occasion a ll y. ln so me pl ace de iccation cracks were noticed. Bi oc l a t s are the mo st important allochem Among a ll oc h em biocla t s prevail. The mo s t frequent were mollu scs (es p ecia ll y s n a il s) and ostraco d es in rippl es a l so c rinoide s. Jn thin ec tion s p y rit e framboids and concentration of organic matt e r are visible. W e ca n conclude th a t ca rbon a t e were depo it ed in s h a ll ow m ore o r l ess r es tri c t ed ca rbonat e s h e lf sea w h e r e so m e tim es hi g h er e n ergy eve nt occurred. Occasionally t erre trial influence i evi dent. Somewhere desiccation cracks indi ca t e e m e r s i o n co ndition s. Structural elements of the limestone and dolomite beds ln th e area beds ge n e rall y dip t oward S-SE. m eas ur ed direc ti o n of dip are from 1 600 to I 70 with dip angle from 20 t o 25 Frequency of fissure dir ec tion s i s s ho w n by int e n it y a nd l e n gt h of bar s in a ro se u e ( li g ur e I ). The mo s t ex pr esse d dir ec tion of faults a nd fi ss ures i s a bout 90 27 0 (E W ). Th e seco nd place occupies the dire c tion i s a bout o< 1 I 80 (N S) a nd th e third o n e i s direction 32 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Switzerland Volume 6

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N 340 350 1 0 20 330 30 320 4 0 3 1 0 5 0 300 60 290 70 280 8 0 270 90 260 1 00 250 11 0 2 4 0 1 20 230 1 30 strike of structural 220 14 0 210 1 50 zones 200 190 170 1 60 dip of strata 180 Figure I: dip of strata and strikes of structural zones,intensity is expressed by length of the bars 45 22 5 ( E SW ). Cave sys t e m th e m o rph o l ogy o f th e c h a nn e l s in th e caves a nd co ll a p se d e pr ess i o n s be t wee n th e m a r e s t ro n g l y r e l a t e d t o dir ec t io n s o f all thr ee m a in fa ult s a nd fi ss ur es d i r ec ti o n s ( fi g ur e 3): I E W 2 S 3 E SW Th e m a in c h a nn e l s of th e caves a r e d eve l o p e d in fir s t dir ec ti o n in seco nd and third dir ec ti o n ju s t s om e p a rt s of m a in p assages are d eve l o p e d. w Legend: 1 Tianshengqiao 2. Gan He cave s 3 Swallow cave 4. Tunnel cave 5 Middle cave 6. Muddy cave river 7. Dry riv er cave 8. coll ap se e ntranc es f cave e ntranc e Hydrology In th e s tudi e d a r ea th e r e i s a co nflu e n ce o f t wo und e r gro und ri ve r Fir s t ri ve r i s G a n H e riv e r th e seco nd o n e t h e ri ve r fro m S wa ll o w ca v e. T o th e N a tural Brid ge wa t e r G a n H e fl ows o n th e s urfa ce in th e dir ec ti o n NW S E, a ft e r fl ows b e l ow brid ge s ink s t o th e ponor of Gan H e c a ve, wh e r e r e a c h es th e wa t e r from S wa ll ow cave whi c h flow s a l s o throu g h Middl e cave a nd th e n t o Ga n H e cave. At l ow wa t e r ri ve r s j o in und e r gro und a nd fl ow t owa rd s s prin g w hi c h s h o uld b e o ut of th e ar ea prob a bl y in th e m ai n ri ve r va ll ey Onl y a t hi g h wa t e r s ri ve r s fi ll th e l owe r cave ga ll e ri es a nd fl ow o n th e s ur face fo r t wo tim es a nd th e n fl ow tr o u g h th e Ri ve r cave int o th e m a in ri ve r Al th e tim e of th e v i s it th e di sc h arge of b o th ri ve r s t oge th e r was a b o ut I 00 1 /s Th e t e mp era tur e o f wa t e r in S wa ll ow cave was 9, 7 C a nd th e t e mp era tur e o f a ir w as I0 ,4 C. Th e c h e mi ca l co mp s iti o n of th e ca v e riv e r was as foll o w s: pH 8,2 5 ; dilut e d C O 0,60 m g/ I ; HCO 3 97 60 m g/1; C J 4 ,8 0 m g/1; SO / 3,82 m g/ I ; C a 2 36 00 m g/ I ; M g 2 0 98 m g/ I a nd w ith TH ( t o t a l h a rdn ess) 5 ,2 5 dH Caves In th e a r ea o f a tu ra l Brid ge w e v i s it ed seve n caves (fig ur e 2 a nd 3) but b eca u se of th e l ac k o f tim e a nd eq u i pm e n t we were a bl e t o s ur veye d o nl y thr ee of th e m. I. S wa ll ow cave: S o uth o f th e brid ge b e l ow th e 90 m hi g h wa ll th e r e i s a n op e nin g t o th e 5 0 m hi g h a nd 70 m w id e e nt ra n ce int o S wa ll ow cave ln thi s part o f th e cave h e r e are th e r e m a in s of hu m a n dw e llin g a nd tra ces of sa ltp e tr e produ c ti o n fr o m th e cave se di m e nt s. N E Figure 2: Tianshengqiao natural bridge area 3D view, with cave e ntran ces Proce e dings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 3 3

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Cave was r e ea r c h e d a nd urv eyed up tr ea m fo r abou t 500 m 1 0 1 a l l e n g th of th e s ur veye d p a r l o f th e cave i s 938 m L n t h e cave t wo m o rph o l og i ca l a nd ge n e ti c unit ca n be ee n a n ac ti ve n a rr ow, hi g h ga ll e r y a nd a m aze o f o ld e r phr e ati c c h a nn e l s. A c ti ve n a rr ow a nd hi g h ga l l e r y whi c h ri se in s ur veye d p a rt fo r 2 1 m Trou g h thi ga ll e r y fl ows riv e r w hi c h ca rri es dri f t woo d a m o n g w hi c h 4 0 c m thi c k a nd se v e ral m l o n g trunk we r e found s h ow in g, th a t thi s ri ve r is a s inkin g ri ve r Th e di sc h a r ge of th e ri ve r was a b o ut 5 0 I/ Sur vey was d o n e up s tr ea m until a lak e a nd 3 m h ig h ea ca d e. Th e canyo n i f ew m wi d e a n d a b o ut 2 0 m hi g h. beco min g l owe r up w ard Th e m ai n c h an n e l i s d eve l o p e d a l o n g s tr o n g s tru c tural zo n e w ith fa ult s a nd fi ss ur es i n E W dir ec ti o n a nd i n o m e part s in fisur es w hi c h fo rm th e a n g l e o f 45 w ith ii thi s i N E SW dir ec ti o n Th e wa ll r oc k co n i t o f thin b e dd e d t o pl a t y d ar k g r ey in so m e p l aces o bvi o u s l y bi o turb a t e d l im es t o n e a nd m ar l y lim es ton e w ith di sso luti o n see m s a nd s t y l o l it es. Sm a l l e r a nd up 1 0 t e n c m l a r ge sca ll o p s a r e th e m o t p ro min e nt fea tur es o f th e cave roc k y r e li ef. Oth e r m o rph o l og i c unit o f th e cave i s a m aze of o ld e r phr ea ti c cha nn e l s w hi c h are abo ut 1 5 m a b ove th e ac tu a l s tr ea m in th e e n t ra n ce p a rt Th e ga ll e ri e a r e dippin g w ith t ra t a a nd th ey u sed o n e bedd in g-p l a n e fo r forma ti o n T h e o ri e nt a t io n of th ese c h a nn e l s i 2 000 1 800 16 00 1 400 12 00 1000 800 400 m 600 m 800 m 1000 m 1200 m Legend: =w= Strike and dip of fault r e l a t e d t o t wo di ffe r e nt s tru c tu ra l zo n es, th e m os t i mp o rt a nt i EW dir ec ti o n a nd th e seco nd o n e i s N ESW dir ec ti o n A l th e e nt ra n ce p a rt of th e cave s m a ll e r anas t o m os i s c h a nn e l s are v i sib l e a l ong th ree eve ral m e tr e se p ara t e d b e ddin g pl a n pa rt i n gs. S e dim e nt s, g r ave l sa n d a nd s ill we r e fo un d i n ap p ea r pa rt s of th e cave, indi ca tin g o ld e r infill o f th e cave Fro m th e s m a ll ph rea t ic c h a nn e l a t th e t o p of hi g h ga ll e r y sa m p l e of sa n d mixed by si ll X ray was d o n e o n In s titut e o f Min era l ogy, U ni vers it y o f Lj u b l ja n a. Th e Phillip s di ffrac ti o m e tr e wa u se d un der co n d iti ons CuK (I = 1 ,54 x I 0 1 nm ), a ut oma ti c dive r ge n ce l i t. The ana l yse s h ows t he f o ll ow in g mi nera l compo i ti o n : q u a rt z, muscovite, do l omi t e, sa nidin e c hl o rit e a n d sa ltp e tr e ( K O J Qu artz. muscov i te, dolo mit e. sa nidin e a nd c hl o rit e we r e bro u g ht i nt o the cave by t h e s t ream fr o m v i c init y n o n ca rb o n a t e r ocks a n d do l o m i t e is orig in a t ed from cave wa ll s. 2. Middl e cave: Ri ve r fro m th e Swa ll ow cave si n ks af t e r 50 m o f fl ow o n th e s ur face in a cave, w h ic h h as a n o th e r e nt rance in furth e r E. W e co uld fo ll ow th e ri ve r in th e cave t owards eas t where it pro b a b l y j o in s th e G an H e cave In th e d e pr ess i o n w h e r e th e second e nt rance to the cave is t here i s a l so s m a ll ca n yo n w h ic h was d r y in th e t ime of t h e v i s it. Cave a ll th e t i m e fo ll ow th e EW direc t io n t he second entrance is opened 1 400 m 1600 m 1 800 m 2000 m F i ssured zone 1 Tianshengqiao 2. Gan He cave 3. Swallow cave 4 Tunnel cave 6 Muddy cave 7 Dry river cave 8 collapse entrances ,.....--...._ river 5 M i ddle cave caves F i g ur e 3 : Tia11 s h e n g qiao natural brid ge c a ves and g e n e rali se d ge olo g i c al s tru c tur es of th e ar e a 34 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Sp eleol o gy 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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a l ong th e fissures in N-S direction. 3. Gan H e cave: Gan river now s und e r th e Tienshenquiao and afte r 200 m s ink s in a cave. Entrance to th e cave i s narrow and teep. From thi cave wa t er flows in a t l east two direction as m e n tioned a b ove 4. Tunnel cave: This is 8 1 m l o n g cave. It s e ntr a n ce i s in th e vertica l wall of th e ca n yon above it s bottom. Cave rises towards eas t at first th a n l owe r s and opens und er th e ve rti ca l wall aga in Cave i s a r e m a inin g of a n old b eca u se of the outside influenc es much tran sformed phre a ti c ga ll ery In ge n era l cave i s also e l o n ga t ed in E-W direction, but in th e cave i s we ll expre ed a l so NE SW direction. 5. Mudd y cave: It s en tran ce i s in th e lo wes t part of the second bigge t depres ion in th e area. It i t e mpor ary s prin g of the river which flow s o n th e s urfa ce for about 200 m and th e n s ink s into th e Dr y riv er cave. At th e tim e of th e visit it wa dr y, ex plored only to the l eve l o f th e l ake of han g in g wa t e r Cave follows th e dip of b ed ding pl a n e which i 170 /20.25. 6. Dry ri ver cave: Cave i a ponor of the ri ve r co min g from th e Muddy cave Cave i s on th e opposite eas t e rn s id e of th e depr es s ion. Cave ga ll e r y s tart s with 20 m hi g h e ntran ce and ca n be fol low ed for 335 m to th e ex it at th e riverbed of th e m a in riv e r. Mo s t part of th e cave i mor e than I O m wide a nd hi g h and dip s eve nl y fo r 27 m Two co ll ap e entrance reach cave in th e E part very near th e s prin g from th e cave in th e main valley of th e area At th e tim e of th e visit cave was dry so m e water was in th e pool s of trapped water only At r a iny seaso n cave tran mit s lar ge water quantity. Gallerie s are oriented along s tru c tural zones in E-W direction so me part s of the c hannel s also u se well expressed N-S dire c tion and NE-SW dir ec tion The co llap se e ntrance s are co nne c ted to cro in g of main tructural zones where th e lim esto n e i s more broken Conclusions Natural brid ge Tienshenquiao and whole row of th e c l ose d de pressions betw ee n Swallow cave a nd th e Ri ve r cave h ave devel oped in the lim es t o n e se qu e nc e which i pure in upper part and m o r e marl y in th e lo wer part B eca u se of th e grea t gradie m caused by the down c ullin g of th e main ri ve r both Gan H e ri ver a nd th e Swallow cave river s t a rt t o s ink in th e karst. First ga ll e ri es prob a bl y followed th e bedding plane s a nd fo ll owed the dip Some of th e phr ea tic s m a ll c r o s sec tion and w ith o ld se dim e nt s fill e d gal l er i e ca n st ill be see n in th e Swallow cave Op e nin g of th e kar t laterally to th e valley of the main riv er m a d e sink in g of th e rivers po ss ibl e. Ri ve r s probably formed n a rro w a nd hi gh und e r grou nd ga ll e rie s. Collap e e lon ga ted along th e m a in tructure in E-W dir ec tion occurred. Collapse depre s ion were l a tt e r co nn ec t ed in e lon ga ted canyon lik e d e pre ss ion with ome tunnel caves and th e Ti e n s henqui ao brid ge as th e r e main s of th e previous cave system Th e Tien h e nqui ao cave sys t e m pr ese nt s a n int e r es tin g case of th e s p e l eoge n e is a nd gives a n opportunity for man y n ew cave re sea r c h and di scove ri es. R efer enc es M A IR E, R ., ZHANG, S & S ONG S . 1991 G e n e e d es K a r t Subtropicaux de Chine du Sud ( Gui z houu Si c huan Hubei ). Gebihe 89 K a r s t d e Chine. Kar s tolo g ia M e moir es n 4, 16 21 86 V e ni ss ieux ZH ANG, D. & W ALTHMA T. 1985 Gui z hou. Manu sc ript co p y. Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 35

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Mechara A New Caving Area in Ethiopia b y John Gunn and Leslie Brown L imesto n e R esea r c h Group, University of Hu dder fie l d, Queen gate. Huddersfie l d HD I 3DH, England Abstract There are over I 00.000 quare kilometres of carbonate rocks in Ethiopia but very lit1le is known about the extent of karst terrain and the total length of known limestone caves i less than 30 km giving what must be one of the highe t ratios of lime tone outcrop: cave passage of any country in the world! The purpose of this paper i to describe a new caving area near to Mechara in the western Harerghe Province of the Oromia Region Sof Omar t he Kubla Kahn of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, remains the longest ( 15. 1 km) and most famous cave in Ethiopia b ut two expeditions to the Mechara area have explored over 7 km of comp l ex maze pas age in Achere and Ayanage caves which are now the second and third longest in the country. 1. Introduction Although everal early exp l orers made ea ual visits to Sof Omar Cave and some archaeological cave site ( ee MORTON, 1976) the first published accounts of cave exploration in Ethiopia are those of CAUSER ( 1962) who visited Zayei Cave in Tigray and ROBSO ( 1967) who de cribes a vi it to Sof Omar by him se lf and Chris Clapham. They completed the passage from sink to rising and pub li s hed an excellent survey. In 1972 the British Speleo l ogical Ex pedition to Ethiopia (BSEE) travelled around the coumry and their report (CATLI I 973) remains the fullest account of the countries caves. In 1974 the country became a Marxi s t dictator hip [the DergueJ with virtually no access to we terners although Bill Morton. a British lecturer in the Geology Department at Addis Ababa Uni ver ity who had accompanied the BSEE. wrote an account of some further exploration (MORTON, 1976) and would no doubt have go ne on to do more if he had not been hot following an argument with the militia During the Dergue team s of Russian cavers visited Sof Omar on two occasion to asse s it touri s t pot e ntial but did not undertake any original exploration [ALEXANDER KLIMCHOUK pers. comm.J. In 1991 the Dergue were finally over thrown by the EPRDM and since then the country ha s moved gradu ally toward s a more table and democratic form of government and to develop the economy and infra tructure. Sof Omar was visited by numerou touri ts many of whom s igned a record book kept by the village head, Sheik Achmed. The only known visit by cavers wa undertaken by a team from Switzerland who took pictures for the I 995 Speleocalendar. In I 994 the Briti s h Council funded an academic link between the Geography Department at Addis Ababa University and the Department of Geographical and Environmen tal Science at the Univer ity of Huddersfield a part of the British upport for the development proce ss. As part ofthi link. John Gunn vi ited the coumry in February 1994 and made a foray north of Addis Ababa to the hermits cave at Debre Libanos and into the gorge of the Mager River. a tributary of the Blue Nile. Following thi Hudder field Univer ity Caving Club (HUCC) decided that Ethiopia would be a good place to mount their first major overseas expedition which took place between December I 995 and Febru ary 1996. In ovember 1996. five members of the Limestone Re sea rch Group (LRG) returned for a further four week expedition. More detail. about the country, the various logistical problems en countered on the two Huddersfield expeditions and how they were re olved are given in our main report and our sc ientific finding s will be publi hed in Cave and Kar s t Science. The pre se nt paper provides a brief outline of the geology and caving regions of Ethio pia and a de crip t ion of a new caving area which ha s grea t poten tial for further discoveries 2. Geology The basement rocks of Ethiopia are Precambrian in age and include gneiss, sc hist metavolcanics, greywackes and marble which have been metamorpho ed to varying degrees. They have been subjected to several orogenic episodes and are often trongly folded. Uplift and erosion during the late Palaeozoic coured the region removing all Palaeozoic strata creating a rough, uneven to pography which forms an unconformable boundary with the over lying near-horizontal Me sozo ic se diment The Me sozo i c uccession is composed of the Adigrat Sand s tone, the Antalo Lime s tone and the Amba Aradam formations which were deposited during a major marine incur sio n that cov ered many parts of Ea tern Africa durin g late-Tria s ic to mid-Cr taceous time. The succession is th i ckest at the Somali border where it exceeds 3000 m. and progressively thin s to the north-west even tually pinching out before the Eritrean and Sudanese border s ( MORTO 1973 & JORDAN I 976). The lower unit of the uc ces ion. the Adigrat Sand s tone Formation, consists of sa nd s tone s and conglomerates deposited at the continental margin of the progracling marine incursion. As sands and conglomerates were deposited at the retreating continental margin. carbonate wa pre cipitated in the advancing s hallow sea and built up the great thick ne ss of the Antalo Lime tone Forn,ation. However. adva nce of the marin e incursion wa reversed during ea rly to mid-Cretaceou s time As the marine incur s ion retreated so the land advanced and the continental sands and conglomerates of the Amba Aradam Forma tion were depo s it e d above the Antalo Lime tone Formation. Although lime s ton e i s the main component of the Antalo Lime s tone Fonnation as a whole, other components s uch as calcarenite. marl hale ilt s tone and gypsum often form the greater p e rcent age of particular unit s. Due to thi s variation in lithology the Ethio pian Geological Survey have divided the Antalo Lime s tone For mation into three sub-groupings: the Haman lei Series. the Uarandab Serie s and the Gabredare Series. Both the Hamanlei and the Gabredare Serie con i t mainly of lime s tone interbedded with marl s, hales siltstones and gypsum, whilst the Uarandab Serie consists of dark s hale s and marls with gypsiferous lime s tones The uplift which was responsible for the retreat of the marine incur ion continued to the end of the Cretaceou period raising land above sea l evel and initiating a period of erosion. The undulating topography created by thi s erosion mark s an unconforniable bound ary with the overlying Tertiary flood ba sa lt s the extrusion of which i related to the initiation of the Main Ethiopia Rift Valley, part of the Ea t African Rift Valley system. Initiation of volcanic activity occurred approximately 30 Ma (MOHR, 1983) as the Precambrian and Mesozoic crust was tensioned and then fractured by exten36 Proceedings of the 12 International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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10 N .,,, ..... SUDAN it+.+. KE NY A 40E Fig I : the geology of Ethiopia (after Morton, 1973) s i o n a l t ec t o ni cs. T h e int e n se o utp o urin g o f a g r ea t vo lum e o f fl oo d basa lt s cove r e d a n area 7 5 0, 000 km 2, w hi c h cove r e d v irtu a ll y a ll of Et hi o pi a a nd p a rt of Y e m e n ( MOHR 1 983). T h ese fo rm e d th e l owe r se ri es o r th e T ra p Se ri es co n s i s tin g o f th e As h a n g hi. A ib a a nd A l aj i B a a ll s w hi c h excee d l000 m in thi ck n e s. M a j o r fa ultin g a nd fr ac turin g occ urr e d in as oc i a ti o n w ith vo l ca ni m durin g th e d eve l o pm e nt o f th e rift v all ey throu g h o ut th e T e rti a r y. Do w n fa ult in g of th e rift va ll ey was assoc i a t e d w ith uplift of it s m a r g in s, form in g hi g hl a nd s of ove r 4 00 0 m Ma ss eros i o n of th e hi g hl a nd s h as c r ea t e d a ru gge d an d d ee pl y sca rr e d t o p ogra ph y o f hi g h esca rp m e nt s a nd d ee p va ll eys. Th e vol c ani cs th a t o n ce cove r e d virtu a ll y th e w hol e c ountr y h ave b ee n s tripp e d b ac k so th a t th e und e rl y in g M e ozo i c se dim e nt s n ow fo rm ex t e n s i ve pl a t ea u s 1 0 th e n o rth -wes t a n d so uthea I of th e rift. 3. Caving Regions Th e Briti s h S pe l eo l og i c al E x p e diti o n t o Et hi o pi a d esc rib e d thr ee m a in cav in g a r eas in Ethiopi a : Ti gr a y, H ara r a nd B a l e ( Fi g ur e I ; 0.____ __ .._ __ _.__ __ __.___ __ ----'_ _:~~0 0 km SC AL.E T t r tjo r y-Recenl vo 1 con 1 ca II m i nor 1 ffl,,,t1 U Polaeozo 1 c-L Te r t i ary 11d rn1ntary roe ~ Anto l o li rT\tJton,, Precomb r, o n metamorphic rockt bo u ndin9 the R i f t Red So ti c ARABIA G U L F OF ADEN 1o N SOMAL I .. ........ tl REPUBLI 0 CEA N C A TLIN 1 9 7 3). Th ey a l so m a d e a bri ef v i it t o th e Nege l e a r ea but fo und n o caves. As th e geo l ogy m a p s h ows ex t e n s i ve lim es t o n e o ut cro p s th e area was v i s it e d durin g th e fir s t Hu d d e r sf i e ld expe di ti o n H oweve r. th e access ibl e lim es t o n es p rove d t o b e a r g illa ceo u s a nd thinl y b e dd e d w ith n o o b v i o u s k a r s t fea tur e or caves. In th e Ti gray a r ea th e BS E E r eco rd ed m a n y cave e ntr a n ces but n o n e ga v e access t o caves o f a n y l e n g th T h e l o n ges t a t 330 m i s Z aye i Cave ( C A USER 1 962). In eas t e rn H a r e r g h e, lim es t o ne s c r o p o ut in a be lt fr o m th e so uth e rn m a r g in of th e M a in Ethiopi a n Ri f t V a ll ey t owa rd s th e S o m a li B o rd e r Th e BS EE (Ca tlin. 1 973) a nd MORTO ( 1 976) ex pl o r e d a numb e r o f esse nti a ll y ve rti ca l caves in c ludin g Enk of tu M o hu th e d ee p es t in th e co untr y a t 1 92 m S o f Om a r C ave in B a l e pro v in ce i s a n I s l a m ic H o l y Pl ace a nd h as b ee n kno w n fo r man y hundr e d s o f yea r s. It i s r e put e d t o b e th e Kubl a K a hn o f S a mu e l T ay l o r C o l e rid ge, h e r e A l p h th e sac r ed ri ve r ran do w n 1 0 a unl e s sea' Th e m e mb e r s o f B SEE ex pl o r ed a nd urv eye d a n ex t e n s i ve n e tw o rk o f n ew passages in S o f Om a r Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 3 7

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F i g. 2 : th e Mec h a ra R eg i on bringing its length to over 15 km. They also explored a number of mailer caves in Bale the longest of which was ur Mohammed [2.8 km]. The Mechara Region Mechara is a small se ttlement in the west of Harerghe (Fig ure I) which was first visited by the HUCC ex pedition. A ll of the cave exp l ored to date are in a b l ock of lime s tone whic h is bounded by two va l leys with ephemeral streams and extend from 5-7 km south of the settlement (Figure 2). The surface topography is flu vial rather than karstic although there are a few s mal l karren on expo ed limestone The vegetation i s a thick acacia thorn scrub through w h ich it is difficult 10 pass and the e ntrance s to all caves were s hown to us by the local vi ll agers. Unlike so me countries, the villagers had not explored the caves for any di s t a nce and they see med convinced that there must be something of very great value to make us want to go undergro u nd! All entrance were recorded u s ing a Garmin GPS40 and in the case of major caves several fixes were obtained on separate day s and t h e mean taken in an attempt to improve the accuracy. The two main caves, Achere and Aynage are described be l ow; location s are given using UTM coordinates. Achere Cave (37P 0651075 095180) Achere i s a complex maze cave which ha everal s mall e trances at the ba e of a low cliff and a larger upper entrance in a bench a t th e top of the cliff (Fig ure s 2 and 3). The cliff forn1s the north wall of a no11h-we s t to so uth-ea s t t e nding valley and the lower entrances are so me I O m above the pre ent day bed of an ephem eral river which was dry throughout January 1996 but flow e d for severa l days in ovember 1996 fo l lowin g heavy rain. The lower e ntran ces a ll lead into a passage which pa sses beneath the upper ent ran ce and lead s to Ba se Chamber th e large s t in the cave ( 41 111 x 6 m x 7 111 high ). Like much of the e ntran ce ser ie s, the floor of Base Camber is a very fine dust which makes exploration so m what unpl easa nt. Initial exp loration s focused on the northern e nd of the c hamber where a rift which became progressively tighter and more un s tabl e was pushed to Mrs P 's Diner, and th e north eas t e rn end of the chamber where a walking passage lead 10 an ex trem e ly unpleasant s queeze though what was virtually a 'd u s s ump to more rift passage and 'T he Scream Chamber. Returnin g to Ba se Chamber, a narrow side pa ssage was found l ea ding to the main part of the cave. The pa ssage emerges into an area of knee deep dust and guano and a northward s trendin g climb up a slope of even deeper dust to Guano Hei g ht s. The passage at the top ma y well continue but awaits a visit from omeone who e idea of fun i s Lower Garedare Se rl es Upper G aredare S er l es 3 I 4 5 diving' dusts ump From the foot of Guano Heights two routes give access to Buckrose Street, arguably the lea t plea sa nt part of the cave as visitors are enveloped i n a fog of fine material stirred up by those in front and visibili t y i s rapidly reduced to near zero. The a l ternative route is via Cobb l e Coffin Crawl, so called becau se of the need to pass beneath a s u bs t antial deposit of partially cono l idated, well rounded pebb l es and cobb l es wh i ch are large l y of igneous or i g i n and in p l aces appear t o be held up on l y by gravity. Aside from i ts value in st i m u la t ing production of adrena l ine thi s deposit i s of considerable scientific i nterest as it i s een in t he roof and walls a l ong the full length of the Cobble Coffin Passage to Guano Heights bu t nowhere e l se in the cave. Moving north, th e r e is less of the very fine dust and a l though there are bat and guano throughout the cave, the Breath of Fresh Air Series is aptly named. The major i ty of the cave is made up of a complex network of rift s with occasional breakdown chambers. The main p assages tr e nd north-east to south-west and are b l ocked at both ends, mainly by s haley breakdown but occas i ona ll y by ancient de s iccated and guano cove r ed, pe l eothems. Similar ancient depo s it s, often show i ng signs of re-so l u ti on are pre se n t in m u ch of t he cave but there i s on l y one, very small, area of active deposition in Moenco Chamber On e notab l e feature of the cave is that nowhere i s there a so l id rock floor and it is more appropriate to r e fer to pa ssage depth from th e roof which maintain s a fair l y constant elevation at a prominent s hale bed rather than to pas sage he i ght. Each main rift has a n un dulating long profile. the di s tance from roof to floor ranging from 20 cm at the top of breakdown pile to 6 m at the bottom of th e intervening low s'. The HUCC expedition s urveyed so m e 3500 m of passage making Achere the second l ongest cave in Ethiopia and the s ub se quent LRG expedition surveyed a further 330 111 with some lead s till to be pu s hed a nd a potential link to Aynage Cave (see below) Aynage Cave (37P 0651100 0952366) The e ntrance s to Aynage Cave are located in th e so uth wall of th e valley to the north of Achere ( Fi g ure 2). Aynage was explored for a s hort di s tance to a climb by member s of the HUCC expedi tion This was passed by th e LRG team who explore d and s urve yed over 3300 m of passage includin g a connection to the nearby Spi der Cave which had not previou s ly been e ntered (Fig ure 3). Lik e Achere, both Aynage Cave and Spider Cave have low e r entrances c lo se to the base of a low cliff and upper entrances close to th e top of the cliff. The upper e ntrance of Aynage lead s directly into the Moenco Serie s of pas sages which include two c hamb e rs with relict s peleothems and a series of rift pa ssages. The Monk ey Entrance, a low crawl with severa l monk ey ske leton s, also gives access to the 38 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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A.C AATM>pl Ola"nt>o r SS 5nal """ RJ lll Tlanlpa1a Room I Ii Tutur !Ills NS BUc:tfos 9 1 C 1110,1 B F A l'l r eatl> of A1>on Aa s.1H M C MO EN = OliWl'lt., r N ol" t h /\ i AYNAGE Mech ar a V ill age Wes1 Hararghe Eth io p i a U HA 3 7P 065 11 00 0952366 Alt it ude 1550m (baromet ri c ) Passage Length 3308m l frZ) j ~ t) j I J{ i J I I I u =-V I 1 / LJ --l I I = I ,)!: ; ( lon l"/ IDtw ACHERE ~ fry 1 / / r .J:f / Uechara V il lage West Hararg,e Eth i op i a Ktfo~ / ..___ / I) / j UTM 37P 0651075 095 1 80 1 --( z/ / r'_ Allit,d, 1534 m (bMomelric) c / F. /2 ~ ) r (( / 2!" r > :::--~ 1.-l /, ;-r/ / / ~---y 'i: ~c.,r~ / ., 7~ I ) f / / I \t p) ( -/ ~ / /.J / -f/ i 'y-' 1 ,, I I ,' / / / I / _, / Surveyed 1o BCRA Grade 4 by C, VP. E th i o p i a 95 and 96 Exped iti o n Membe rs Comp il ed using Survex Fig. 3 : S ur vey o f Ac h e r e and Ay anag e c a ves Moe n co S e ri e and t o th e eas t i Th e G raveyar d a n a r ea w ith a numb e r o f s k e l e t o n in cl udin g wa rth og, a nt e l o p e a nd m o nk ey A n o th e r a nt e l o p e ke l e t o n w ith mumm i fi e d fl es h li es in Ant e l o p e C hamb e r c l o e L o th e M a in Entr a n ce. Abo ve Ant e l o p e C h amb e r a s h o rt l e n g th of l ow p assage o p e n s in th e Whit e C l i ffs of D ove r a 0 50 100 150 200 250 SCALE (Metres) fin e sec ti o n of p a s sage I O m hi g h a n d up t o 6 m w i de. T h e we s t e rn id e o f th e p assage co ntinu es upw a rd s an d e nd s in a wa ll of fl ow t o n e A s m a ll rift t re nd s n o rt h a n d e nd in a cl im b dow n int o an o th e r r i f t w h i c h goe b ac k b e n ea th th e fl ows t o n e wa ll t o r ejo in th e Whit e C l iff s p a sage in Cas t l e C h a mb e r. Thi s is a n a r ea of ab un Proceedings of t h e 12 th Internat i onal C ong ress of Speleology 1 997 Switzerland Volume 6 3 9

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dant peleothem mo l of it relict a nd partly covered by g u a n o but with a sma ll numb er of active s tra w sta la c tit e About I Orn beyond Cas tl e Chamber. a steep c limb up a n a rro w rift o n the west s id e of the passage l eads t o a low, tight craw l wh i ch leads to Snake Cl imb The climb enters a breakdown c h a mb er from w h e r e a narrow rift l eads north over and under now ton e to even tu a ll y e m er Spider Cave th e h ome of some rather l arge arachnids. R eturning t o White Cliffs Passage, and continuing so uth a 3 m c limb gives acce s to LRG Passage. This fine hi gh rift passage provides th e eas i es t ac ce s to th e re t of the cave via the Pi t on Pitch and a climb up th e omewha t unstable Weathering H eigh t s Typically, this route was round a nd rapidly surveyed, on the l as t visi t t o the cave! Apart from this, a ll trips into the further reaches or the cave we r e via the 14 m 'Two Rich Pitch' which was initially descended using a I O m ladder to th e bottom of an unstable boulder s l ope followed by an ea y climb down a rift. An a lt erna tiv e route was soon found t o the top of the boulder slope, thereby avoiding an awkward step at the top of the c l imb. From the bottom of Two Ri ch Pitch th e cave was initially explored in an easterly direction to a T junction; then south up an unstable, steeply ascending rift; down an equa ll y unstable I 0 m c limb a nd wes t through The Lesser Squeeze. This l ed into P erc i val Boulevard, a fine passage of simi lar dimensions to the White C liff s Passage and from which an eas i er route back to Two Ri ch Pitch wa event u a lly round. South a nd wes t of Percival Boulevard th e cave is very simi l ar to Achere Cave towards which it is h eading with large sub-parallel and int erco nn ected rift The Trapdoor Se rie was named for th e t endency of the noor, and anyone s t anding on it, t o disappear in a random and somewha t alarm in g manner; BDH Chamber has nothing to do with a upplier of c h emica l s and everyt hin g to do wi th the fac t that Bat s Di e Here (a nd in l arge num ber !). A t th e southern e nd of the cave, The Bezabih Hot e l Series immortalise our ho t in Mechara. The Aynage Spider Cave sys t em is the third longe t in Ethiopia with over 3300 m of s urv eyed passage a nd severa l going leads. On th e basis of the GPS l ocations for the two entrance it wo uld a pp ear that the end of th e Great South Road in Aynage is abou t 30 m from o t e Pa sage in Achere Cave and while a co nn ec tion wou ld require digging it is c l ear that the caves are part of what was once a much more extens i ve system which a l so included Lion Cave. The Achere-Aynage sys t em was almost cer t ain l y formed lon g before th e present day topography a nd it is lik e l y th at s imil ar caves wi ll be found e l sewhere in th e valley sides. After l eav in g th e Mechara area th e HUCC t eam und e rto ok reconnai sance surveys in the Gelemso Hirna, Ogolcho, Dodola and Supa-Dupa area The LRG t eam followed up l eads in the Boke area so uth of Gelemso and th e Galeti area south of Hirn a. How ever. none of these produced anything other than short rift caves. Hence, for th e present Mecham remains the pre-eminent caving area in Ethiopia alt h ough there are l arge areas of lim estone which are current l y inacce ible or unsafe in which there may be ignifi cant systems. Acknowledgements Tourism i s see n as an important part of Elhiopia's economic development and we received invaluable support from the Oromo Bureau of Trade, Lndu stry and Tourism and particularly from Tesfaye Bekele and Tesfa Teshome who accompanied us on our tr avels in the Oromo R egion. The initial st imulu s for the expedit i ons was provided by the British Counci l funded Academic Link Programme and the BC director in Ethiopia Michael Sargent provided helpful advi e and support. In Britain, financial support was provided by the Royal Geographical Society. th e Ghar Parau Foundation the British Sports Council. th e Founda t ion for Sports and the Arts and the University of Hudd ersfie ld. Both expeditions benefited from the generous support of Moenco and its managing Director Godfrey Percival. References CATLIN, D. (ed.). 1973. The Caves of Elhiopia. Trans. Cave Re search Group (GB), 15: 107 1 68. CAUSER, D 1962. A Cave in E thi opia. Wessex Cave Club Jour nal, 7. No 86. JORDAN R. 1 976. The Ju rassic of North-Eastern Et hi opia. In : (A. PILGER & A. ROSLER. eds.): Afar Between Cont in en t al and Oceanic Ri fti n g. IUC C Sci. Rep. 16: 92-95. Stullgart (Scheizerbart). MOHR, P 1 983. Ethiopian Flood Basalt Province. Nature 303: 577584. MORTON, W.H. 1 973. Geology of E thi opia. Trans. Cave Resear c h Group (GB). 1 5: 10 811 2. MORTO W.H 1976. Enkoftu Mohu and o th er Ethiopian discov erie Trans. British Ca1 e Research Association, 3: 55-61. ROBSON G. E. 1967. The Caves of Sof Omar. Ethiopian Tourist Organisation. Addis Ababa & Geographical Journal, 1 33, part 3, 344-348. 40 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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New 600 m deep cave in Julian Alps Slovenia Jiri Kyselak Czech Sp e l eo lo g ical So c i e ty Kali s ni cka 4-6, I 30 00 Prah a 3 Czech R e publi c A bs tr ac t A new 600 m deep cave C 11 wa exp l ored between Jul y 96 and March 97 on Moznica plateau in western part of Juli an A lp s, Slovenia. Description of the plateau Moznica plateau is s itu a t e d on Slovenian/Italian border in wes t ern p a rt of Julian Alps. Plateau i s ea 2 km l ong a nd 500 m wi d e, average h e i g ht i s 1 700 m a.s. l. lt i s for m ed b y hi g hl y eroded lim estone plates inclin ed in a t e rr ace-s h ape t o the so uth ( I 0 ). The relief is di ec t ed by a ser i es of deep n orth so uth trending depressions transected by west eas t trending t ec t o ni c trenches. Series of co ntinu o u s depressions and dense vegeta ti on make the m ove m e nt o n the plateau difficult. We l oka li zed severa l prings under the so uth s lop es of the plateau in Moznica va ll ey between 900 and I 000 111 a.s.l. which were n ot ac ti ve during o ur trips but it s h ows reach strea m s during floods. Easiest access to the plateau i s a turist track from Sella Nevea on the italian side of the border. History of exploration We came to th e plateau fo r th e first tim e in July 96. W e l oca li zed and documented seven caves t o 40 111 d ee p and a n 80 m deep s ha ft w ith con tinu a ti on on the bottom a nd a promissing draft. Next trip we organ i zed in October 96 during which th e depth of280 m was reached with the con tinu a ti on of next shaft est im a t ed for 50 111. Next trip in January 97 was c har ac t erized by a l o t of s now it took u s 6 hours to get from the upp e r stat i o n of cab l eway to bivouac above th e plat ea u We descended n ex t s h afts of 55 85 and 45 m, surveyed the who l e cave and made photodocumentation. We s topp ed above next s haft estimated for 80 111. Three s hort weekend trips followed. In the end of February two m e n team descended 1 20 m s h af t "Sum Sw i stu" by-passing the "Ex t aze" s h af t a nd anot h er team pu s h ed th e cave to act u a l bottom at -603 111. Durin g an Easter trip new shafts were surveyed a nd documented. Description of the cave The e ntr a n ce of I x 4 111 i s at 16 80 m a.s. l. E-W oriented and lo ca t ed about I 00 m from th e so uth edge of the plateau.First s h aft Tutovka" ope n s after 30 111 int o a c h amber I Ox 20 111 40 m hi g h There i s a hu ge i ce block 30 m above the s n ow covered bottom. A high horizontal p assage cca Im w id e goes t o the west being int er rupt ed by t wo ste p s of 12 a nd I 0 111. The walls a nd the bottom of the passage were cove r ed by seaso n a l ice c r ea tin g a big icefall in seco nd step. A narrow m ea nd e r with i ce on the bottom opens int o a beautiful I I 00 m deep s haft "Ex t aze This s haft was passed by wi th a noth e r even deeper one "S um Swistu because the e ntr a n ce t o Extaze co uld be dangerous during floods and there i s a l ot of seaso n a l icecles just a l o n g first m e t ers of descent The way to Sum Swistu l eads up above huge blocks of co n g l omerates.T h e s h aft is rigged dry way down but the m a in p ar t of th e s h aft i s c r eated o n a crossi n g of EW a nd N-S trenches a nd th e nam e was g i ve n because of the so und of icecles fa llin g down the m i a n part of the s h aft. From th at p oi nt th e following shafts are crea t e d m ai nl y o n N-S tectonic. B e t wee n 85 m Mad e in H eave n and 45 m V ago n draft was s pott e d for th e la st tim e Character of s h af t s a nd rock c h a n ges from V ago n ". The l a t s h af t s a r e c h aracte ri s ti c by a lot of un sta bl e blocks. The bottom of the cave i s I m wide and 6 m l ong fissure too n a rr ow in the e nd s a nd a bolderchoked. The exp l ora tion of th e cave h as not been finished ye t but because of a limit ed potential of th e plateau we do not expec t a big progress in depth of th e cave but we ex p ec t t o exp lor e mor e s h afts co nn ec t ed with th e cave. Durin g winter trips seve r a l s pot s where the snow cover was melted throu g h were lo ca li zed. References Sebela R 1 997. ova petistovka v J ul skych Alpach, Sp e l eofo rum 97 Sebela R. 19 97. New 500m deep s haft in Juli a n Alps in Sl ove ni a. Proceedings of the 12 th International C on gress of Spe l eology, 1997 Switzer l and Volume 6 41

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-1 00 -2 00 -300 ~00 Entrance 0 (Alt. 1 610 ) Tutovka P 75 P12 {) I ""(1 -110 :1 ( e;.~r 1 1, ( :,~~ I~" Koora ~P 17 0 Sum Svistu P 121 c11 SPELEOEXPEDmON Moznica Julske Alpy Slovinsko Rozvinuty rez (Exten ded elevation) Exploration: July 1996 October 1996 January 1 997 March 1997 R. Sebela, V Belehradek R. Blazek R. Sebela 0 Stas F Musil J Kyselak, R. Blazek R. Sebela 0 Stas L. Matuska Z. Motycka J Kyselak Z. Motycka F Musil V. Belehradek P Stfelec Map : R. Sebela R. Blaiek Drawn by: R Sebela L. Matuska -225 . .. Studna starych ortu P. 75 Propa t hruzy a jeili vitii hruzy P 80 l \ -=~ .J r Herkulovy la.zni P 30 I\ -Sol r , , [Z] Skalnl obrys j eskyne Rock contour of the cave D Pravdl!podobn y obrys Probable contour IT] Tek ouci voda Flow i ng water Skalnl bloky Rock blocks Snlh > Snow Led Ice Slepence Congl omerates 42 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Spel eology 1997 Switzerland Volum e 6

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L'expedition Ultima Esperanza en Patagonie chilienne les karsts de l'extreme p a r Lu cH e nri F AGE Richard M A IR E, Je a nF r a rn ;o i s P E R NE TT E Ass o c i a ti o n Ce ntr e T e rr e C h a t ea u P as qu e t 33 760 E sco u ss an s, t e l. 05 56 23 9 4 00 fa x 05 5 6 23 64 32 Resume E n j a n v i e r 1 997 d i x spe l eos fr a n r;:ais r ea l isa i e nt l a pr e mi ere ex p ed iti o n d e s p e l eo l og i e a u C hili un p ays qu e l o n croya it exe mpt d u m o indr e k arst. C'est q u e l es ka r s t s so n t bi en cac h es s u r l a fr a n ge l a plu s o ri e nt a l e d es 'i l es d e l a r c hip e l d e P a t ago ni e a u n ivea u d e 50eme s Hu r l a nt s. E n 27 jo ur s d e m e r d a n s l es ca n a u x l abyr inthiqu es, s ur un b a t ea u d e 1 6 m ervan t a l a fo i s d e m o d e d e tr anspo rt p o ur l a pr os p ec t i o n e t d e ca mp d e b ase a u pi e d d es k ars t s d e m ar br e L es ti es Di ego de Alm ag ro e t M a d re d e Di os so nt a tt e int es o b servees. D e u x m assif s ka r s t i qu es d e l a pr e mi e r e 'il e so nt pro s p ec t es, m a l g r e d es co ndit io n s m e t eoro l og i qu es e p o u va nt a bl es Au bil a n qu a tr e cavites ex pl oree s, do nt l a p e rt e d e I Ave nir m ag ni fi qu e cav it e ac ti ve qui trave r se un b l oc d e m a rbr e e n c h iisse d ans du gres e t un e r es u rge n ce en b o rd de mer p l o n gee. L e kars t l es plu s a u tr a u x d u m o n de so nt a u ss i p an ni l es plu s b ea u x, avec d es fo rm es d eros i o n e t un ecosys t e m e r e m a r q u ab l e Abstract Ja nu ary 1 997 : t e n F r e n c h cave r s carr i e d o ut th e fi r s t cav in g ex p e diti o n i n C hi Ii a co untr y w h ic h e v e r y b o d y b e li eve d free fr o m karst u nt il n ow. Th a t s b eca u se th e ka r s t s are very we ll hid e d o n th e eas t e rn p ar t o f th e i s l a nd s of P a t ago ni a arc hip ae l ago und er th e R oarin g 501h. Sa ilin g th e c h a n e l s du r in g 2 7 d ays o n a 1 6 m l o n g b oa t w hi c h was th e m o d e of tr a n s p o rt a ti o n as we ll as th e b ase ca mp a t th e b o tt om of t h e kars t s of m ar bl e th ey r eac h e d and o b serve d th e i s l a nd s of Di ego d e A l rn agro a nd M a dr e d e Di os. T wo k a r s ti c a r eas of th e fi r st o n e we r e p ro s p ec t e d i n s pit e of dr ea d f ul wea th er a nd s t o rm F o ur caves we r e ex p l o r e d includin g th e p e rt e d e I Ave n i r a wo nd erf ul ac t ive cave t h a t run th ro u g h th e m ar bl e b e t wee n sa nd s t o n e roc k s. A m ar in e s prin g was di ve d as we ll. Th e m os t so uth e rn k a r s t s of th e ea rth are a l s o amo n g th e m os t b ea uti fu l o n es, with fan t as ti c s h a p es o f e ro s i o n an d uniqu e ecosys t e m E N 1 992 Ri c h ard M a ir e a ppr e nd a l a l ec tur e d e I 'a rti c l e d e CE cc 1 0N 1 ( 1 988) l a pr ese n ce d e m a rbr es e t ca l ca ir es ka r s tifi es dan s l a fra n ge occ id e n ta l e de 'i l e d e l a r c hip e l d e P a t ago ni e. Troi s a n s p lu s ta rd avec J eanFr a n r;:o i s P e rn e tt e, Ja c qu es S a ut e r ea u e t Mi che l L e tr 6 n e ii re u ss i sse nt a a tt e indr e l 'il e Di ego d e A lm agro a bo r d d' un b a t ea u de pec h e e t a rp e n te nt q u e lqu es h eu r es du ra nt un l ap i az de ma r bre extrao r d in a ir e, m o n tra nt des can n e lu res e t d e fo r m e d eros i o n exce p t i o nn e ll es. D e l a n a quit I i dee d un e ver it a bl e expe diti o n d e r eco nn aissance e t d ex pl ora ti o n s i t o ut efo i s d es go u fres se pr ese nt aie nt a n os co r des Messie ur s ava it dit l e Pro fes s eu r de so n a ir l e plu s se ri e u x l a 01) no u s a /I ons ii fa ut s a l/ enc/ r e a lr o uv e r l e s pir e s c ondit i o n s me t eo de la p l a n e t e l es ka r s t s l es plus aus 1 ra11x. Ce se r a de l a 1 rai e g eograp h ie d np l orat i o n avant m e m e de faire de l a s p e l eo P our 1 r o u 1 r pire. i i faudrai t c h e r c her du co 1 e de /'A111ar c 1iq u e. L 'ex plorador a l ancr e au pi e d du ma ss if kar s tique qu e perc e la P e rt e d e l Av enir en c hii sse dan s du gr es Une veritable expedition P a t ago n ie. L e n o m se ul fa it d e j a r eve r avec ses pi es ace r es l a pro x imit e du ca p H o rn e t l a p a mpa M a i s quan d o n pr ec i se a r c hip e l d e M age ll an C inquanti e m es Hurl a nt s e t s urt o ut pr ese n ce d eca l ca ir es in ex p l o r es s ur d es 'i l es in access ibl es a I 'a u tre b o ut du m o nd e c'es t un e a utr e p a ir e d e m a n c h es. P as o n s ur l es d e t a il s e nnu ye u x d es pr e p ara ti fs e t d es a ut o ri sa tion s a dmini stra ti ves, d es s u rp ri se d e d e rni e r es minut es e t d e l a va l seh es it a t io n q u an t a l' e mb arca ti o n ca p a b l e d e n o u s e mm e n e r a u b o u t du m o nd e .. Fin a l e m e nt c es t di x p erso nn es qui p a rt e n t avec un bud get. .. him a l aye n! C'es t c h e r a l o u e r un b a t ea u P r oc ee d i ngs of th e 12 th In t ernational Congres s of Spe l eology 199 7 Sw i tzerla n d Vo l ume 6 43

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Br e f le 4 janvi e r. nou s e mb a rquion a Pu e rto Nat a l es, d a n s l a m e r int e ri e ur e d 'U ltim a E s p e r a n za. a bord d un b a tim e nt e n b o i de 1 6 m e tr es d e l o n g, p o rt a nt l e nom pr e d es tin e d Exp l o rad o r Ce l a a v a il f a illi m a l co mm e n ce r ca r l a m e t e o l oca l e a nn o rn ;:a it un e se m a in e d e t e mp e t e, d eca l a nt d 'a ut a nt l e d e p ar t. Quand o n dit t e mp e t e e n P a t ago ni e, ce n 'es t p as un e bl ag u e a l a P ag n o l. N o u s so mm es d o n e p a rti d e nuit qu a nd l e ve nt m o ll it hi s t o ir e d e m e nr e J es b o ut s l e l e nd e m a in a n s qu e l es a ut o rit es p o rtu a ir e n e t ro u ve nt a y r e dir e. Du ra nt q u a tr e jo ur s. ii fa llut n egoc i e r avec l es f uri es d es c i e u x pa t ago n s, pa rtir l o t l e m a ti n. l o u voye r d a n d es ca n a u x l a b y rinthi q u es, e t s'a brit e r l e plu s t a rd p oss ibl e d ans d es c riqu es co nnu es d u se ul ca pit a in e, qu ii a pp e l a it sa n s rir e un p u er t o U n b o n pu erto se do it d e di s p ose r d un co upl e d e d a uph i n s q u i v i e nn e nt sa lu e r le arr i va nt s co mm e d e a n i m a u x bi e n e l eve On com pr e n a it qu a nd J es de u x m a t e l o t tri co t a i e nt d es a m a rr e a ut o ur d u b a t ea u p osa nt j u sq u 'a t ro i g r a ppin s a l a s uit e e t d e u x l o urd es a u ss i eres a tt ac h ees a des h e tr es a nt a r c ti q u e d u ri vage, qu e l es nuit r i sq u aie nl de n e pa et r e ca lm e L "eq u ipage ne do rm a it p as bea u coup. t an di s q u e J es dix me mbr e d e 'exped iti o n i n co n c i e nt s des dra m es e n p repara ti o n ro upill a i e nt fe rm e ur J es b a t fl anc d e ca l e L Exp l orado r n e t a il pas se ul e m e nt un m ode de t ra n s p o rt c'eta it a u si un ca mp de b ase flo tt a nt. so it un e surface de de u x fo i s 30 m 2 o u i i fa ut n egoc i er chaq u e m o u veme nt de p e r so nn e co mm e de ac ... D e sa ut s de pu ce e n e ca l es n o u fin 1 m es p o ur t rave r se r l e ca n a l e l so n l eq u e l r ec;:oi t de pl e in fo u e t l a force d un ocea n qui n 'a de pac i fi qu e q u e son no m L a pro u e de l" Explorador t apa it d ur men t da n s un e l 10 ul e cro i see j u sq u 'a ce q u e nou pG m es n o u s fa u fi l er a n o u vea u l e l ong de ca n a u x et r i qu es. E n fin, da n s I 'ec h a n c rur e d' un fjor d de grosses m asses bl a n c h es ap p ar u re nt a h o ri zo n t e l s des g l ac i e r s s u spe n d u s. D a n s un t rave ll i n g de ci n e m a, I Exp l orador g li ssa it ve r s un e T e r re pr o mi se d evo r ee d 'e n v i e p ar d i x p ai r es d 'ye u x, a rm es d e j u m e ll es, a pp a r e il s ph o t o e t ca m era. C'e t a it m ag nifiqu e. D es m asse de m a rbr es m o n o lith es c r e u sees d e ca nn e lur es e t t ara ud ees d un l a pi az p ro m e tt e ur. e d r essa i e nt co in cees e ntr e des p a n s d e gres so mbr es. L a m e r l a f r o nd a i so n d es b os qu e t d a rbr es ra b o u g ri e t t o rdu s p a r l e v e nt l es ro c h es bl a n c h es, d es p a n s d e c i e l bl e u dan s J es nu ages qui fi l a i e nt a tir e d 'a il e: ce s p ec t ac l e m e rit a it a lui se ul l e voyage d e P a t ago ni e. Les glaciers de marbre D a n s l h ys t e ri e o n e mb a rqu a s ur un p e tit c an o t d e b o i s, tr es T i n tin e t I e o ir e p o ur a Il e r p ose r l e pi e d s ur ce fa m e u x l a pi az, pui s qu e l e t e mp e t a it b ea u L e c apitain e Jui av ait d e j a c ompri s qu 'e n e a d e ma l o t ie m po l a b a i e e t a it int e n a bl e. car l e v e nt d a n l e a rchip e l s se jou e d e t o u l es o b t ac l es, c r e ant d e r e douta bl es ra b a tt a nt s p o u va nt fa ir e rip e r n imp o rt e qu e l b a t e au s ur ses a n c r es. Co n c lu s ion p o ur e xplor e r ce bout d e k a r s t ii fallait in s t a l l e r d e u x t e nt es a t e rr e. L e plu s e tonnant es t qu il e s oit trouv e ufli a mm e nt d in co n cient pour y ca mp e r ( Marc J e r o m e, J a qu e e t Mi c h e l ), l e r es t e d e l 'e quip e de v ant e fa ir e d e po se r l e l e n d e main s ur la point e s ud de la p e nin s ul e e t t e nt e r d e r a lli c r l e c a mp par Je s C r e te C e pro g ramm e fut r es p ec t e, m a i l e l e nd e main ev id e mm e nt l e t e mp r e d e vint normal c es t a dir e ex ec r a bl e : rafal es a I 00 km / h e t plui es. La pro p ec tion e t 1 'cs calad e d e ce form e d e lapia z in c royable n 'e n furent gu e r e aff ec t ec tcll e m c nt nou e tion s e m e r ve ill e du s pe c tacl e hallu c inant off e rt par dam e Natur e e t le s g ouf fres b e ant qui ou v rai e nt s ou s no s bott es ( qu e lqu es P50 cl 'e tr ee ... ) mais d e r c joindr e l e c amp ii n e n fut plu s qu es tion Nou red escc ndimc ur l a pointc s ud avec un pinc e ment au creur : l e bat ea u a ll a it-il r e v e nir ? Car l"E x pl o rad o r eia it a brit e a 2 0 km d e l a d a n s une c riqu e i ol ee, e t l e ve nt qui s oul e vait l e e mbrun s ju qu a 2 0 m e tre d e h a ul ne pr es a ge ait ri e n d e bon. H e ur e u sc m e nt, Lesformes d'erosions du marbre sur Diego de Almagro j o u a nt a sa ut em o ut o n s ur l es vag u cs, ii a pparut da n s la brum e, e t un m a t e l o t s i p ro li xe a l 'o rdin a ir e n o u s ra p a tri a sa n s d e e rr c r l cs d e nt s, e n d c u x voyage limit e d a n un ca n o t r e n d u minu c ul e p o ur l cs vag u es. II r e t a it l 'a utr e p ar ti e d es fo u s fra n c;:a i s so u s l e ur s t e nt es, mai s l e ca pit a in c ju ge a la p ec h c au fond d e l a bai e lr op ri qu ee J o int s p ar radi o, il s a pprir e nt qu il s d eva i e nt r es i s t e r e n co r e un e j o urn ee o u J es t e nt e b a ttu es p a r l e ve nt e t l a plui e. Qu a n d n o u s J es r ec up e r a m es l e l e nd e m a in un gra nd so urir e d e p assa nt d es g il e t s d e a u ve ta ge, il s ava i e nt d es m o t s d 'a p oca l y p se p o ur r aco n t c r l e ur od y ee, m a i s il s ava i e nt Fa it d e l a pe l eo Oui un c p e rt e r e p e r ee a 500 m du ri vage ava it e t e desce ndu e l e pr e mi e r so ir alor s qu un p c tit pipi d e 3 0 1/ s y co ul a it ; d e u x, t ro i s pu i t s, a rr e t vc r s 50 s ur fin d e l a c ord e L e l e nd e m a in 500 1/ s sc pr eci pit a i e nt d a n s ce t e n fer. .. D eso rn1 a i n o u e n sav i o n s assez p o ur co mpr e ndr e q u 'a m o in s, co mm e l e s u gge ra M a r c. d e po se r un co nt a in e r a t e rr e. l e se ul ca m p d e ba se po ss ibl e e t a it l 'Exp l o rad o r, c l qu il fa ll a il trou ve r un p a n d e k a r t pro c h c d"un hu o n pu e rt o L e ca pit a in c l e d e ni c h a d e 1 a utr e co t e d e l a point e, d a n l e c n o Abr a h a m Tro i s ce nt s m e tr es a u-d ess u d e n o u s, un d o m e d e l a pi az sc intill a it d e scs mi li e ca nn lur cs En un c se m a in e s'ec ri v it a l o r s l a plu s b e ll e p age d e n o tr e ex p e dition : I 'ex plorati o n d e l a P e ri e d e I A ve nir L e 1 2 j a n v i e r l es d e u x toubib s e t Ri c h a rd pro pec t e r c nt l e d o m e d e lapi az domin a nt notr e mouilla ge. ou s av i o n s r e p e r e l a ve ill e un s uperbe ca n y on. profond e t e troit. qui e mbl e tra ve r se r l e m a r br e. Pendant qu c le s doct e ur s pro s pc c taicnt qu e lqu e g r o ttc s e t g ouf fr cs, Ri c hard d ec ou v rit un c p c rt c fabul c u se s itu ec ve r s 24 0 m d 'a l titud e d a n s un c a dr e geo m o rpholo g iqu c exce pti o nn c l. L es di e u x d e l a s p e l eo e t d e l a k a r s to r e unie s e t a i c nt avec n o u On es t e n pr e44 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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Gr es Perte de l' Avenir Systeme (sans echelle) du systeme hydrogeologique original de la Perie de l'Avenir: deux lacs glaciaires superposes se deversent par un puits \ / 'y ~ actd,sma,br,s Seno Abraham, Ile Di ego de Almagro Coupe developpee Coordonnees 51 '32" sud 75 4'2" ouest Seno Abraham ,,, / --Marbres --\ ,, lapiaz de surface '~1 ,.. :, shunt tossile 1 G res I I affluent voute mouillante se n ce de d e u x l acs g l ac i a ir es etages l e plu s h a ut e t l e plu s v as t e se d eve r s ant p a r d e u x casca d es dan s un sec ond s itu e 50 m e n c ontr e b as ( voir sc h e m a) A I ex tr e mit e du d e u x i e m e l ac, l e t o rr e nt se j e tt e dir ec t e m e nt d a n s un a btm e d e 50 m d e profond e ur ju s te au co nt ac t d es g r es s ombr es imp e nn ea bl es e t d es marbr es b l a n cs z e br es d e ca nn e lur es ge ant es. L e jour d e la d e c o u ve rt e l e d e bit d e vait a tt e in dr e 2 111 3 /s. C'es t in co nt es tabl e m e nt un e d es plu s b e ll es p e rt es co n nu es e n mili e u k a r s tiqu e. L 'ex p e diti o n ava il e nfin trou ve s on go uffr e qui a d efa ut d e se r eve ler tr es pro fo nd e tait di g n e d e r es p ec t not a mm e nt a cau se d es c ru es e t d es co nditi o n s d a cces. Ain s i. c h a qu e jour ii fa ll a it d e u x h e ur es d e m arc h e d a bord dans l a for e t m o u ss u e ma ge llaniqu e pi egee d e c h a u s e -tr a pe s, ma c h e tt e e n m a in p o ur esc al a d e r e n s uit e un e raid e p e nt e d e g r es e n s'a rc bout a nt c ontr e l es rafal es d e ve nt e t fran c hir e nfin l e d o m e d e m a rbr e e t so n co l ou l es pi e 1T e v o l e nt s ou s l a viol e n ce d 'e / v i e nt o L'exploration de la Perte de I Avenir L 'ex pl o rati o n d e ce tt e ca vit e s'a v e ra d 'e mbl ee se v e r e e t diffi ci l e. L a p e rt e d 'e ntr ee avec sa ca s cad e e t a it intimidant e L e 1 3 j a n v i e r Rich a rd e quip a l e puit s: le t e mp s e t a it v ilain mai s i i put d es ce ndr e un e parti e du puit s pour r ec onn a ttr e l es li e u x. L e l e nd e m a in 1 4 j a nvi e r ii t e rmina l 'e quip e m e nt du puit s e t d esce ndit e nfin l e g ouffr e. A 5 m du fo nd un p e ndul e s ur un p a li e r lar ge d e 2 m ev it a canyon l es t e rribl es e mbrun s d e l a casca d e U n e m a in co ur a nt e p e rmit d e r e j o indre fin a l e m e nt l e lit du torr e nt a u b o ut d e 8 0 m s ur l a v ir e. U n e r ec onnai ss an ce ra pid e l e c ondui s it ju s qu a un e tr e mi e d e gros bl ocs qui b a rrai e nt l e ca n yo n s out e rrain L e tro u se mbl a it co nti nu e r. L ambi a n ce e t a it a l a c ru e e t Ri c h ar d r e m o nt a e n c ou ra nt. L e l e nd e m a in l e sys t e m e s upp ose fut a tt a qu e par I 'a m o nt co mm e p a r l ava l m a i s l es troup es e t a i e nt m a i g r e s e n rai so n d e s co nditi o n s diffi c il e s e t d e s pl o n gees ( voir plu s b a s ) e ntr e pri se s d a n s un e r es ur ge n ce e n b a rd d e mer L 'e quip e d e l a p e rt e fr a n c hit la tr e mi e. D e rri e r e l e c an yo n so u t e rr a in se pour s ui va it : l arge ur 4 m h a ut e ur 2 0 m lit d e ga l e t s a vec t o ut e l a ri v i e r e e t s urt o ut un fort co urant d" a ir a s pirant qui l a i s s a it a u g ur e r un e jon c ti o n avec 1 autr e co t e d e l a m o nta g n e. ll s but e r e nt s ur d es ba ss in s profond s qu il s n e pur e nt fr a n c hir d ir ec t e m e nt e n rai so n d e la temp e r a tur e d e l e au ( 5 C) m a i s 1 e s ca l a d e d e l a p aro i ga u c h e p e rmit d 'e quip e r un e vir e s ur 3 0 m L e ca n yo n se r esse rr a it un e traver see avec un p e ndul e d e li c at e t un e r y r o li e nn e d e 4 m d o nn a ac ces a la riv e droit e. D e l autr e co t e l a v ir e e tr o it e fin it p a r di s p rattr e L e quip e c omm e nc a a e quip e r e n p aro i m a i s ii fa udr a it un t e mp s e n o rm e pour t o ut e quip e r h o r s c ru e. Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 45

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Au m e m e mom e nt l 'e quip e aval c on s titu ee uniqu e m e nt d e Ri c hard s' attaquait a u canyon aval. Un g rondem e nt a ss ourdi ss ant r e monlail d es e ntraille s de la terr e. A v e c 60 a 70 m de corde s, ii e quipa au niv e au d un gro s blo c coinc e au s omm e t du c anyon L a d esce nt e fut t ec hniqu e ca r l e c anyon m es urait 2 a 3 m de lar ge a p e in e e t l a co rd e n e t o m bait p as dir ec t e m e nt au fond e n rai s on d e la fo rm e m ea ndr e u e d es p a roi A 50 m du d e p a rt la lumi e r e du j o ur se r e dui s it m a i s ii a p e r 9 ut l e fond du ca ny o n oc cup e par l e t o rr e nt imp e tu e u x. La c ord e e t a it Lrop c ourt e. L e t e mp pr es a il. ii fall a it ab s olum e nt fair e vit e pour L e nnin e r I 'ex pl ora ti o n L e ca pit a in e p o u va it a t o ut m o m e nt d ec id e r d e l eve r l 'a n c r e ca r l e m o uill age e tait m o in Or qu e pr ev u L e l e nd e m a in 1 6 j a n v i e r n e a nnon 9a p as tr es bi e n S o u s un ve nt di a b o liqu e, l a casc ad e d 'e ntr ee av a il t e nd ance a r e mont e r L e bruit a l int e ri e ur du go uffr e e t a it e pouv a nt a bl e : au bruit d e l a casca d e s'a jout a it ce lui d es rafal es d e v e nt q ui 'e n g ouffrai e nt a l int e ri e ur co mm e d ans l a tu ye r e d un r eac t e ur D a n s l e c an y on so u t e rr ai n a pr es l a tr e mi e l e co urant d 'a ir e t a it d un e r are v i o l e n ce e t n os l a mp e n e cessa i e nt d e s'e t e indr e. Arri ves a u ni vea u d e b as in profond s, ii se p assa un ph e n o m e n e in c ro y abl e p o ur un p e l eo: la f e uill e d e m e ur es t o p o fut a rra c h ee du ca rn e t p a r l e v e nt o ut e rr a in Du j a m a i s v u L e r e tour a u ca mp fut m orose : on n e p e ut p as co ntinu e r a e qui p e r a in i e n p a roi ce l a pr e n d L ro p d e L e mp J acq u es n 1 a pu ava n ce r qu e de 6 a 8 m A ce ry thm e, o n y e t e n co r e d a n 15 j o ur s. II fa ut a ll e r d ro it a u b ut c es t -adir e dan s l 'ea u avec l es co mbin a i so n s n eo pr e n es e n e p e r a nt qu il n y a it p as d e c ru e ... L e 17 j a n v i e r o u j a m a i s. l e trou d eva il se d o nn e r II n e fai sa it pa b ea u m a i c'eta it l a d e u x i e m e j o urn ee o u ii n a pr a ti q u e m e nt pas plu L a casca d e d'e ntr ee e t a it r e duit e a un d e bi t d e 3 00 1 /s. Mi c h e l e t J e r o m e h a bill e d e n eo pr e n es fr anc hir e nt a n s p ro bl m e l e b a s in s pr ofo nd s ca r l e ni vea u e t a it d esce ndu J ea n -F r a n 9o i s l e r e j o i g nit p o ur fa ir e d es ph o to s. L 'ea u arri va it a l a p o itrin e e t ii n 'e t a il p as n ecess air e d e n age r N e anmoin s, l e l ac d a ns l e qu e l i l s ava n 9a i e nt a nn o n 9a un a b a i sse m e nt d e l a vo 0t e. Au d esso u s l a ri v i e r e se mbl a it e pr eci pit e r d a n s un l a min o ir e t ro il so mbr e e t cas ca d a nt. H e ur e u e m e nt un e ga l e ri e foss il e d e m arra it a d ro it e avec co urant d 'a ir ce qui e t a it d e b o n a u g ur e e t l es d e u x l a r ro n s p e n se r e nt p o u vo ir ev it e r a in s i l es p ass a ges et r o it s e t humid es d e l a ri v i e r e Apr es un p a r co ur s r e mont a nt d un e v in g t a in e d e m e tr e il s t o urn e r e nt ve r s l e n o rd a u ni vea u d un e fa il l e pr o fond e, e t bi e nt o t il s dur e nl in s t a ll e r d es c ord es e n m a in co urant e. Il s s'a rr e t e r e nt fi n a l e m e nt au-d es u s d un puit s es tim e a 15 o u 20 m A u fo nd. l a rivie r e r ea ppar a i sa it e n casca d e P e ndant ce t e mp s, Ri c h ar d tou c h a it l e fo nd du ca n yo n avec un e n o u ve ll e co rd e. L es

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    ca dr e s ou t e rr a in e t ex t e ri e ur. L a tr a v e r see c ompl e t e doit m es ur e r I 30 m p o ur un lci l o m e tr e d e d eve l o pp e m e nt e n v iron m a i s l esse n t i e l a e t e Fa it. M a int e n an t n o u s savo n s qu il ex i s t e un p o t e nti e l imp o rt a nt d e go u ffres d a n s Di ego d e A lm agro, m a i s l e p ro bl e m e prin c ip a l d m e u re l e d a n ger d es c ru es n o t a mm e nt d a n s l es p u i t s e t I es c an yo n s so u t e rr a in e t ro it s ... Plongee australe D e u x pl o n gees s u ccess i ves d e Mi c h e l Philip s o nt p e nni s d 'ex pl o r e r ce qui es t l e pr e mi e r e t l e se ul s iph o n d e P a t ago ni e e t du C hi Ii La r es ur ge n ce qui dr a in e un m ass i f p ara U e l e a l a p e rt e d e I Ave nir p ossede un e so rti e d o ubl e, l a pr e mi e r e a u ni vea u d e l a m e r ex pl o r ee e n a pn ee, e t v it e imp e n e tr a bl e, l a seco nd e, e n r e t rn it es t access ibl e p a r un p o r c h e l a t era l. L e d e bi t est pui ssa nt I 'ea u g l acee ( 5 3 C). On p e ut r e m o nt e r l a ri v i e r e s ur un e tr e nt a in e d e m e tr esj u s qu 'a un s i p h o n A ga u c h e, un e gale ri e foss il ee tr o it e co u ve rt e d ar g i l e a e t e r e m o n t ee s ur un e c inqu an t a in e d e m e tr es a rr e t s ur e tr o itur e. L e iph o n m es ur e 6 5 m e tr es avec un p o int b as a -2 0 m A u d e l a Mi c h e l put r e m o nt e r un e m ag ni fi qu e ga l e ri e d e m ar br e, avec d es marmit es d e gean t d un blan c imm ac ul e, ju s qu 'a un carrefo ur Arre t s ur tr e mi e avec d es r ac in es d un co t e e t d e l a utr e, a u pi e d d un e esc al a d e d e li ca t e e n co mbin a i so n e tan c h e d e pl o n gee A v a nt d e partir ve r l 'il e d e Guar e IJ o ce nt lcil o m e tr es a u n o rd I Exp l o rad o r n o u s e mm e n a dan s l e se n o Hu e mul un e profond e e t l o n g u e e nt a ill e d e m er j u s t e d e rri e r e l e se n o A br a h am. N o u s n avi o n s d ye u x qu e p o ur un m ass if ex tr ao rdin a ir e, qui s e tal a it e n esca Ii e r s d e gea nt d e l a m e r ju s qu 'a u Pi e d e l 'Ave nir (8 00 m ) ... E n co r e un obj ec tif d e reve p o ur un e pr oc h a in e ex p e dition R eco nn a i ssance s ur M a dr e d e Di os C'es t qu e n o u s n av i o n s e n c or e p as v u Gu are lJ o, l a se ul e li e h a bit ee d es a r c hip e l s, o u d e pui s un e c inquant ai n e d ann ees, un e co mp ag ni e c hili e nn e fin a n cee par l es A m e ri ca in s, ex ploit e l e ca l ca i re c omm e a dju van t. .. d e l 'ac i e r un e nj e u s tr a t eg iqu e d e t a ill e e n A m e riqu e l a tin e. Si I 'il e m e m e d e Gu are ll o a p e u d int e r e t p o ur l e s p e l eo ca r J es e n c l aves d e m a rbr es d a n s l es gres so nt tro p p e tit es, qu o iqu e s uffi san t es p o ur ex pl o it a ti o n d un e carr i e r e ( di sc r e t e) a ci e l o u ve rt n o u s av ion s d e pui s ce prom o ntoir e un e v u e r e m ar qu a bl e s ur l es 'iles T ar lton e t M a dr e d e Di os a qu e lqu es e n ca blur es d e l a propr es a r e j o u i r l e ca: ur d e t o ut s p e l e o : d es so rt es d e Pi e rr eS ai nt M a rtin co mm e M ar t e l l a d eco uvrit e n 190 8 ... avec d es fa l a i ses d e ce nt ai n es d e m e tr es c r e u ee d e ca nn e lur es ve rti c al es e t d es p o r c h es qui b a ill a i e nt a u b o rd d e l a m e r. C e p e nd a nt n o u s n e p il m es d e b ar qu e r e n r a i so n d es dan ge r s qu e J' Ex pl ora d o r a ur a it co uru a s appro c h e r de ces co t es p ara d is i a qu es a u s p e l eo e t r e d o ut a bl es p o ur l es m ar in s e t ii fa llut m e m e n egoc i e r avec l e ca pit a in e, i nqui e t p o ur so n e m b arca ti o n un e r eco nn ais ance l e lon g d es co t es. D es lor s, un e d o ubl e ce rtitud e e tait ac qui se. D 'a bord qu e l es k. a r s t s d es Ar c hip e l s e t a i e nt d e v ra i es s tar s d 'a utant plu s brillan t es qu e U e so n t v i e r ges d e r o ut e ex pl ora ti o n E n s uit e qu il falJ a it di s p ose r d un e lo gis tiqu e a ppropri ee, s ur I a qu e lJ e n o u s n e n o u s ete n d ro n s p as car un e ex p e diti o n es t d or es e t d eja pro g r a mm ee e t n o u s n e vo udrion s p as qu o n n o u s l a s ouffl e so u s l e n ez ... Un patrimoine mondial L a ca rt e geo l og iqu e m o ntr e qu e l e t e rr a in s se dim e nt a ir es s u cepti bl es d e co nt e nir d es ca lcair es, don e d es cav it es n a tur e lJ es, se s itu e nt dan s l a p artie l a plu s ex t e m e d es il es d e P a t ag oni e. Pr mi e r e b arr i ere m o nt ag n e u se, U u s qu a 1000 m d al titud e) l es 'iles J es p lu s ex t e m es s ubi sse nt influ e n ce d es m asse d 'a ir p ac ifiqu es e t an tar c tiqu es co n sti tu a nt un d es li e u x l es plu s humid es d e l a pl a n e t e avec d es pr ec ipit a ti o n s a nnu e ll es d e l o rdr e d e 8 000 mm A ce l a s'a j o ut e un ve nt qu a i co n s tant a d o min a nt e n o rd -o u est La vasque du siphon plonge par Michel ( m oye nn e a nnu e ll e 70 k m/h a Gu are ll o). Ces ve nt s so nt cana l ises d ans I es fj o rd s e tr o it s (canales), pr e nn e nt d e l a vitesse (effe t ve nturi ) e t p ro dui se nt fr e qu e mm e nt d es t o urbill o n s d evas t a t e ur s s u r l a m er. Ces roc h es tres carac t e ri s tiqu es v u es d e l o in fo nt p a rti e d un e e tr o it e e t l o n g u e b a nd e d e roc h e e dim e n taire lirnit ee a l o u e t p a r 'ocea n P aci fiqu e e t a J' es t par d es roc h es gran itiqu es. Cette b a nd e se dim e nt a ir e t r es a n c i e nn e (e r e prin ia ir e, Ca rb o n ire r e e t P er mi e n ) co nti e nt d es ca lc a ir es, m a i s a u ss i d es gres, d es r oc h e s m e tam o rphi sees e t d es roc h es vo l c anose d i m e nt a ir es. A I 'e p o qu e l a co rdill e r e d es And es e t ai t diff e r e nt e. U n cl i m a t tr op i c al a p e rrni s l a fo miation d e r ec if s cora lli e n s a ll o n ges a l o ri gi n e d es a ffl e u re m e nt s ca l ca ir es ac tu e l s. P a r l a s uit e (6 0 M A) l a c h a i'n e d es A nd e s s es t pli ssee eca ill ee e t so ul evee e n r a i so n d e I 'e n fo n ce m e nt d e l a pl a qu e ocea niqu e p ac ifiqu e so u s l a pl a qu e co ntin e nt a l e d 'A m e ri qu e du Sud C es fo r ces t ec t o niqu es o nt pli sse I es te rr ains se d i m e n t a ir es e t pro vo qu e d a n s ce rt a in s cas un e c ui sso n e t un e r ec ri s t a lli s ati o n d es roc h es par co mpr essio n d e t e rr a in s. C' es t p o ur ce tt e rai s on qu e J es ca l ca ir es d e l 'i l e Di ego d e A lm agro so nt en r ea lit e d es m ar br es bl ancs a gros c ri s t a u x co n te n an t d es ve in es som b r es ( min e rau x di ve r s) e t d es fil o n s de roc h es m ag m at iqu e s (la mpr o ph y r es). M a i s l a s tru c tur e o ri g in e ll e d es r ec i fs co r a!J i e n s a e t e g l oba J m e nt co n e r vee. On r e n co n t r e a in s i d es m asses d o l o miti sees plu gr i ses c ont e n a nt d o n e b ea u co up plu s d e car b o n a t e de m ag n esi u m a lor s qu e l e ca l ca ir e es t fo rm e d e ca rb ona t e d e ca l c ium Cette d o l o miti sa ti o n es t un pro cess u s co mpl exe q u i se pr od uit a I o ri g i ne d a n s l es r ec if s co ralJi e n s p ar p e n e tr a ti o n d e l'ea u d e m e r d ans l es r ec i fs, tran sfo nn an t ain s i l e c arbon a t e d e calc ium (CaC O 3) des cora u x e n car bon a t e d o ubl e d e m agnes ium e t d e calc ium (Ca, Mg ) (C O 3)2 Ce tt e ro c h e d o l o mitiqu e es t m oi n s favora bl e a l a di sso lu tio n e t t e nd a se d esagrege r e n d o nn a nt d es sa bl es d o l o mitiqu es t y piqu es. D a n s l 'il e d e Gu are ll o e t 'e n se mbl e d e l' arc h i p e l M a dr e de Di os, J es ca l ca ir es n o nt p as e t e tr a n sfo nn es e n m ar br es. le i l es foss il es e t mi crofoss il es so nt bi e n co n e r ves d a n s l a m asse d es cal ca ir es e n parti c uli e r J es fo r a mini fe r e d e ty p e fu si lin i d es, des cri n o ide s d es co r a u x, etc L es co u c h es ca lc a i res o nt plu s d e 500 m d 'e p a i sse ur e t so nt fo rt e m e nt fr ac tur ees, p e nn e tt an t un e p e n etra ti o n ai ee d es ea u x de plui e dan s l a m asse ca lc a ir e e t l a fo rm a ti o n d un e multitud e d e go u ffres. Bilan scientifique N o u s sa v o n s d eso nnai s qu e l e C hili pr ese nt e d es k. ars t s r e m ar qu a bl es, ri c h es e n cav it es profond es d ans I es m ar br es e t ca l caires prim a ir es d es arc h i p e l s d Ultim a Es p e r anza. P ar l et ud e d es ea u x n o u s sa v o n s qu e l a v it esse d e k ar s ti fica ti o n es t re m a rqu a bl e, l a plu s imp o rt a nt e actue ll e m e nt m es ur ee d a n s l e m o nd e p o ur d es karsts d e nud es d e t y p e a lpin : l e ca lc ai r e "fo nd ai n s i en s u rface a l a v i t esse d e 6 c m / 10 00 ans (3 a 4 fo i s plu s qu e da n s l es Alp es o u l es Proceedings of the 12 '" I n ternational Congress of Spe l eology 1997 Sw i tzerla n d Volume 6 47

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    ... Les parois de marbres veuiees de noir vers -80 dans la perte de l 48 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Le s deux lac s alimen tant la P e rt e d e l 'Ave nir Pyre n ees) Le se ul e n dro i t po u va nt event u e ll eme nt r i va li ser avec l a Patago ni e so n t l es h a u tes m o nt ag n es ca l ca i res de l I r i a n J aya e n No u ve ll e G uin ee, a plu s de 4500 m d'a ltitu de. Les 'il es d e m arb r es e t d e ca l ca ir es pr esen t e nt a u b o rd d e l a m er des tro t to i rs gea n ts e t ages co mm e un e se ri e de ma r c h es e ntr e O et 1 2 m d'a lt i tu de C h aq u e m a r c h e h a ut e de I a 2 m co rr espo nd a un e e nt a ill e d e co rr os i o n m a rin e et r e pr ese nt e un stade d e so ul eve m e nt de l ''ile, a pr es l a fon t e m ass i ve d es g l ac i e r s q u a t e rn a ir es ii y a I O 000 a n s, fon t e qui a a ll ege l a m o n tag n e Ce p rocess u s co nnu e n S ca n d i navie, es t s p ec t ac ul ai r e i c i e n ra i so n des ca l caires qui o nt l 'ava n tage de pr ese nt er des e n coc h es p a rti c uli e r e m e nt v i s ibl es e n rai so n d u carac t e r e ka r s tiqu e d e l a roc h e (e n coc h es de co rr os i o n ) Ce ta u x de s urr ect i o n d es Il es var i e se l o n l es li e u x ( plu s imp o rt a nt a Di ego de A lm ag r o avec I 01 2 m qu 'a Gu a r e ll o (6 a 7 m ), ce qui s i g ni fie ra it qu e Di ego de A lm agro a co rnrn d es g l ac i e r s plu s g ro s, ph e n m e n e p ro b a bl e co m p t e t e nu d e l a p os it io n e n l a titud e.) D a n s l es roc h es calca ir es e t J es m ar br es, l e r e li ef g la c i a ir e est de t y p e g l ac i o-kar tiqu e avec un e co m b in a i so n des act i o n s m eca ni qu es d es g l ac i e r s (c irqu es, roc h es m o ut o nn ees, do m es) e t d es ac ti o n s d e di sso luti o n kars tiqu e. L es fo rn 1es g l ac i ok a r tiqu es so nt t y piqu es d es kars t s h a ul a l pin s ... m a i s i c i il s so nt s itu es e n b o r d d e m e r. Ces k a r s t s o nt e n plu s un e g rand e o ri g in a l ite ca r il s pr ese nt e nt a u ss i s ur l e ur s b o rdur es o u e n "il o t s p roteges a u fo nd d es d e pr es s i o n s roc h e u ses, un e fore t a u s t ra l e a h et r es primiti fs ( noth ofag u s) qui r esse m b l e a u x fo r et e qu a t o ri a l es humid es des h a ut es m o nt g n es co mm e l a fore t nu age u se m o u ss u e de o u ve ll eGuin ee e ntr e 3 000 e t 4 00 0 m d a ltitud e. Ce tt e r esse mbl ance es t r ee ll e p ar sa ph ys i o n o mi e, ce rt a in es es p eces d 'a rbr es (fo u ge r es a rb o r esce nt es, m o u sses e t e piph y t es) p a r so n humidit e ex tr e m e, p ar l a co u ve rtur e nu age u se e t l es b ro uill a rd s pr es qu e p e rm a n e nt s, p a r l a t e mp era tur e m oye nn e d e I 'a nn ee qui es t s up er i e ur e a 0 C. L e r es ult a t l e plu s imp o rt a nt d e ce tt e ex p e diti o n es t in co nt es t bl e m e nt l a d eco u ve rt e d un m o nd e pr a tiqu e m e nt in co nnu avec l es p lu s b ea u x l a pi az du m o nd e, qui fo nt d e ce tr e r eg i o n r ec ul ee un mu see de fo rm e n a tur e ll es d un e gra nd e es th e tiqu e II s'ag it d un pa trim o in e n a tur e d e ni vea u m o ndi a l e n ra i so n de sa b ea ut e e t d e so n carac t e r e exce pti o nn e l. II es t di ffic il e d e dir e s' il es t p oss ibl e de I 'ex pl o i te r s ur l e pl a n t o uri s tiqu e, s an s d o ut e d o it il r es t e r ains i e n so uh a it a nt qu e l e car ri e r e (co mm e ce ll e d e Gu are ll o) n e d efi g ur e nt p as un t e l p aysage. Si M a dr e d e Di os pr ese nt e l es plu s gra n des zo n es k ars tiqu es du C h i Ii Di ego d e A lm agro avec ses m ar br es posse d e l es scu lptu res de d i sso lu t i o n l es p lu s spectac ul a ir es et Jes p lu s b e ll es act u e ll e m e nt co nnu es d a n s l e m onde. Remerciements L 'ex p e diti o n U lt ima Es p e ran za, o r ga ni see par I Assoc1ATION CENTRET ERRE, Chateau P asq u e l 33760 Escoussans, a rei;:u l e par ra in age d e l a Fede r a ti o n Fra n i;:a i se d e S p e l eo l og i e. L' e quipe: S t ep h an i e BI LLOUD (e n voyee S p ec i a l e d e Grands R epo r tages), J ac qu es D URAND, Lu cH e n r i FAGE, J acq u es FE JES, R ic h a r d M AIRE (res p o n sab l e sc i e nti fiq u e), J ean Frani;:o i s PERNETTE (c h ef d'ex p ed iti o n ), M i c h e l P H I LIPS, J acq u es SAUTEREAU DE Cl JAFFE, J e r o m e TAING UY, M arc TAlNTURlER. Remerciements L eq uip e re m erc i e c h a l e ur e u se m e nt ce u x q ui o nt a id e ce tt e ex p ed iti o n e t n o t a rnm e nt l 'A mb assa d e d u C hili e n Fra n ce e t l es en t re pri ses s ui va n tes p o ur l e ur s e quip eme nt s : TSA, Ca r i n t hi a, Tupp e r wa r e, Cam p i n g G az, Th o rl o, Sa m as-Me ll os, M o u n t ains H a rd ware. L a S pir o ... Bibliographie Cana l Tri n i dad a Estrec h o de M aga ll anes, Chi l e 1 995 Mapa esca l a 1 / 500 000. S erv i c i o Hi d ro gra fi co y Ocea n ografico de l a Ar m a d a d e C hil e, Va lp ara i so. Cana l Oes t e, C hil e 1 994 M a p a esca l a 1 /50 000. Se r v i cio Hid rogr afi co y O cea n ografico d e l a A rn1 a d a de C hil e, V a lp ara i so. (Car t e t o p og r a ph iq u e d u sec t e u r d e G u are ll o, M a d re d e Di os). CEC I ONI ( G .) 1 982 E l fe n o m e n o cars ti co en C hil e. I nform. geogr. Chi l e, 29, p. 57-79. EscoBAR T ( F. ) e d 1 980 Mapa geo l ogico de Chi l e, esca / a I I / 000000. S e r v i co ac i o n a l d e G eo l og i a y Mi n er i a, Ch il e, Sa nti ago. F AGE L. H ., MA I RE R P 1-1 1 L1PS M ., SAUTEREAU J 1 997 L es ka r sts d e 'ex t re m e: un e eto il e es t n ee, in Spe l eo n 26, av ri l -j uin I 997 p. 81 5. FORSYTH ( R .) a nd M PODOZ I S (C.) 1 983 G eo l og i a de l B asame nt o P reJu ras i co Su pe ri or e n e l A r c hip e l ago M ad r e de Di os M aga ll a n es, C hil e. Se r v i cio Nacio n a l de Geo l og i a y Mineria. Chi l e, B o/ 39, p. 1 -63. Proceedings of th e 12 'h Internat i onal Congres s of Sp e leology 1997 Sw i tz e rl a nd Volume 6 49

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    Belgian-Vietnamese Speleological Expedition Son La 1995-1996 David Lagro u i, V in ce n t Coesse n s 2, J a n Massc h e l e in 3 1 In tituut v oor Aard we t e n sc h a pp e n K U L e u ve n R e din ge n tr aa t 1 6, B3 000 L e u ve n B e l gi um 2 SPEKUL N a am s e s tra a t 96 B -3 000 L e uv e n B e l g ium 3 Fund a m e nt a l P e d ag o gy, KU L e u ve n V esa liu ss tr aa t 2, B -3 000 L e u ve n B e l g ium Abstract N in e B e l g ian s p e l eo lo g i s t s ( SPEK UL a nd BVKCA ) ex pl o r e d th e k a r s ti c r eg i o n of S o n L a in n o rth w es t e rn Vi e tn am t oge th e r w ith 5 geo l og i s t s fro m th e Vi e tn a m ese G eo l og i ca l Su rvey Th e ex p e d i t io n was a c ontinu a ti o n o n th e o n e h e l d in l 993 by t h e B V K CA, w hi ch wo r ke d in th e n ea r of S o n L a T ow n Thi s tim e, we we nt l o o lcin g fo r caves in th e n ear of t h e Nan1 Mu a ri ve r i n th e So uth eas t of So n L a a n d t o th e n o rth w es t in th e va ll eys a round Hi g h way 6. F e w da ys we r e a l so s p e nt in Thu a n Ch a u di s tri c t close t o th e L ai C h a u borde r 1 1 3 kar t p h e n o m e n a we r e c h ecke d and 40 caves wi th a t o t a l s urv eye d d eve l o pm e nt of ove r 1 0 km we r e m a pp e d Introduction On initi a tiv e of th e G eo l og i ca l Sur vey of Vi e tnam th e R esearc h In s titut e o n G eo l ogy a nd Min e r a l R eso ur ces (RIGMR ), th e B e l g i a n G eo l og i ca l Surv ey, th e B e l g i a n C h in ese N ie tn a m e e Kar s t a nd Caves A ssoc i a t io n (B YK C A ) a nd th e Sp e l e ol og i ca l A ssoc i a ti o n o f th e U ni ve r si t y of L e u ve n ( SPEK U L ) a seco nd p e l eo l og i ca l ex p e diti o n was o r ga ni ze d in D ece mb e r 1 99 5 January 1 9 9 6 t o i n ves ti ga t e th e kar t fea tur e in th e S o n L a r egio n in t h e n o rth wes t of Yi e tn an 1 H oweve r th e ex p e diti o n h as offe r e d a l so th e t a rtin g poi nt fo r th e e l a b ora t io n of a l o n g t e rm r esearc h p ro j ec t bet wee n RlGMR BYK C A SP E K U L a nd s om e B e l g i a n uni ve r s iti es o n th e p ro bl e m s of s u s t a in a bl e d eve l o pm e nt in th e kars t areas o f NW Vietnam ( in c ludin g n o t o nl y S o n La but also th e La i C h a u pro v in ce). (see MASS C HEL E IN SWENNEN 1 9 9 7). Ind ee d e ffi c i e nt l a nd an d wa t e r m anage m e n t as dri v in g for ce for s u sta in a bl e d eve l o pm e nt i s i n th ese areas i m p o ibl e with o ut a t h o r o u g h kn ow l e d ge of und e r g round wa t e r r e o ur ces. Th e r efo r e s pel e ol og i ca l m a ppin g and cave in ves ti ga ti o n s wi ll be i nt egra t e d in th e b roa d e r a nd multi disc iplinar y r esea r c h o n th e natur a l a nd human co nd it i o n s o f d eve l o pm e nt in th e k ars t areas s itu a t e d in th e m o unt a in o u s e ttin g of th e D a ri ve r (' Bl ac k R ive r ') ca t c h e m e nt. Th ese a r eas a r e c h arac t e ri ze d b y th e r e du ce d pr ese n ce o f p e rm ane nt s urfa ce w a t e r fl ow, b y und e r gro und wa t e r p assages w ith i n caves a nd b y th e hi g h I Sheet s1s1 1 I S on -LA AREA 6 SAN PHE + Oien B ien P h u Route No 6 AREA 5 BA.N BON 10km "' Ha N o i v uln e rabi l it y o f gro und wa t e r r eso ur ces. Th e m os t int eres tin g r es ult a r e d esc rib e d b e l ow fo r t h e co mpl e t e r epo rt co n tac t o n e of th e a uth o r s The Results Location and subdivision of the explored areas Th e partiti o nin g of th e m a p was b ase d o n th e a ll oca ti o n s do n e in I 993. A we wo rk e d furth e r away fr o m S o n L a fo ur m o r e areas we r e d e fin e d. A ll a r eas a r e dra w n aro und m a j o r roa d s. T o th e eas t R o ut e o 6 a nd 60 I fo ll ow th e Nam L a r i ve r t o th e n o rth B eyo n d S o n L a, R o ut e No 6 h ea d s n o rth w es t fo ll ow in g th e Na m Mu o i ri ve r va ll ey. F ro m these m ai n val l eys all id e-va ll eys were ex pl ored o n foo t up t o th e p l a t ea u Area 1 : Khau Pha Th e a r ea aro und th e und e r g round N a m L a ri ve r was st udi e d th o r o u g hl y durin g th e 1 993 ex p e diti o n T hi s year, th e m ai n si n h o l es w e r e till c h o k e d a nd no a tt e mpt s we r e d o n e t o fr ee a p os s ibl e access On th e l as t d ay a n a rr ow d ra ftin g h o l e was fo un d n ear th e s inkh o l es, whi c h was n o t ex pl o r e d Co uld thi s b e th e l o n g l oo k e dfo r access t o th e und e r g r o und co ur se of th e N a m L a? Area 2: Nam Khum Initi a ll y, th e ex pl ora ti o n of thi s a r ea ind ica t e d a co mpl ex a qu a t ic sys t e m with m ost p ro b a bl y, th e cave of Th a m T a T o n g a s exs ur ge n ce On th e seco nd ex pediti o n th e area betwee n N am Khu m an d th e p o l j e o f B an Th a m was exp l o r ed exte n s i ve l y, in o rd e r t o un ve i l th e mi ss in g tr a j ec t ory o f th e Jan R ive r b y findin g n ew ac ~--------~ cesses t o it. S o m e we r e fo und in Soo l.o AREA 7 MAI SON d ee d but t urn e d o ut t o b e imp e n e t ra bl e or we r e e ndin g a t a s ump T wo km t o th e n o rth ano th e r m ain dr a i n wa fo und e m e r g in g in th e v ill age o f Phi e n g g u a w hi c h u n fo rtun a t e l y soo n e n ds a t a ump It i s c l ear th a t fu rth e r ex pl o r a ti o n of th ese sy t e rn s can n o t be do n e wi th o ut di v in g so m e o f th e m a n y s ump s th a t we r e e n co unt e r e d H a n g R an ( Sn ake Cave) Thi s imp o rt an t cave ( drinkin g """ wa t e r fo r So n L a T ow n ) was ex'---= ---------~ pl o r e d in 1 993 an d 1 7 1 7 m wa s 50 Proceed i ngs of the 12 th In ternationa l Congress of S p ele o l o gy 1997 Switzerla n d Volume 6

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    s ur veye d. W e r e turn e d t o inve s ti g at e s om e p o int s which w e r e m a rk e d a s po ss ibl e co ntinu a tion s Th e c a v e e nd e d a t a s ump a t th e sa m e lo ca tion as found b e for e. Down tr ea m th e inl e t c omin g from th e north (w hi c h j o in s th e river at 500 m from th e pitche s) wa s ex pl o r e d a nd s urv eye d At th e e nd th e ga ll e r y b e com es v e ry mudd y, till a s m a ll l a k e i s r eac h e d w h e r e th e pa ssage b eco m es s ubm e r ge d Thi s s ump ca nn o t b e p as e d w ith o ut th e a ppropri a t e ge ar. It i s o v i o u s that thi ga ll e r y b eco m es a n import a nt wat e rs uppl y t o th e main s tr ea m in th e r a in y seas on. Th a m t a T o ng P a rt II {th e r e v e n ge ) Thi p a rt h a d b ee n s ur veye d durin g th e pr ev iou s ex p e diti o n but th e d a t a of th e p a rt a f t e r th e fir s t s ump h a d b ee n l os t. Aft e r thi s s ump th e cave w id e n s a nd co ntinu es in th e s am e way. Th e n o rth e rn s id e i s p a rti c ularl y b ea utifull y d ecora t e d w ith fl ows ton e C l ose t o di e t e nnin a l s ump di e cave w id e n s Th e r e i s a l arge mudd y be ac h in w hi c h o n e ink s up t o th e wa i s t! Thi s p o int i s ve r y c lo se t o th e s ump o f N a m L o n g T h a m H oa T h e l oca l k id s w h o l ea d u s t o th e cave we r e n o t r e all y exagge r a tin g w h e n th ey t o ld u s a b o ut c h a mb e r s as l arge as fi e ld s in thi s cave o n th e asce ndin g s id e of th e s t ee p h o rt c ut tr ack t o B a n Th a m A s m a ll b o uld e r s l o p e brin gs yo u int o th e e ntr a n ce c h a mb e r fr o m w hi c h th e r e a r e t hr ee ways o n Th e ri g ht o n e w hi c h g o es d ow n a b o ut 1 2 m b e l ow th e e nt ra n ce c h a mb e r mi g ht b e a n access t o a l owe r l eve l (A t t h is p o int we r e n o t fa r away fro m th e d o wn s tr ea m um p of H a n g R a n .) Onl y th e middl e way o n h as a d eve l o pm e nt o f in te r es t h ea din g t owa r ds th e va ll ey o f B a n Th a m. It e nt e r s a ve r y o l d, l a r ge foss il cave w ith w hit e-grey co l o ur e d wa ll s in w hi c h so m e p assages a r e eq uipp e d w ith b a mb oo A way up brin gs o n e t o a n a r row p assage w hi c h i s fo ll owe d by an o ld casca d e. From h e r e th e as p ect o f th e cave c h a n ges ; th e ga ll e r y i s m o r e s tr ea mlin e d a nd th e wal l s h ave a ru s t y brow n co l o ur. Th e p assage n ow fo ll ows th e m ag ni fice nt foss il ri ve r so m e tim es m o r e th a n 20 m w id e. Aft e r a b o ut I 00 m th e ga ll e r y n arrows an d goes d ow nhill t o th e l as t bi g c h a mb e r w ith a mudcove r e d fl o or and hu ge o ld co n c r e ti o n s. Th e way o n n a rro ws a nd s udd e nl y t o p s in a p a age w hi c h i s cove r e d w idi mud N o way o n was fo und h e r e. S eve r a l pit c h es w e r e e n co unt e r e d a nd mi g ht l ea d t o a low e r l e v e l. Th e o n es n ea r th e n a r ro w p assage d ese r ve a tt e nti o n THAM HOA Are a 2 Cave 28 I"'""'"'" ..,m I O.plh m ~ ,w,,11op,o, --, SPEl.10~ """' """ SOIIU.1995 Area 3: Born Bay =1 10 0 0 10 20 30 o SO T hi s s mall a r ea be t wee n th e v ill ages of B a n Hum a nd B a n L a M u o n g a l o n g th e Na m L a rive r co nt a in s o nl y a few caves. Th e t wo mos t imp o rt a nt o n es, T h a m Di e n g I an d 2, are l oca t e d a b o ut 30 m above th e va ll ey b o tt om. Th ey a r e foss il a nd we ll d ecora t e d caves w ith so m e littl e pi t c h es but qui ck l y c h oked a n d furth e r w ith o ut int e r es t. Area 4: Ban Thong Thi s a rea which turn e d out to b e promi s in g was a lr ea d y v i it e d durin g th e la s t d ays o f th e 1 9 9 3 ex p e diti o n Durin g th e 1 995 ex p e dition Qu ee n s C a v e wa s e xplor e d to th e s ump ( -16 8 m ), whi c h m a d e th e c ave th e d ee p es t of di e Son L a a r ea A s ex plorati o n of thi s a r ea took a l o t of tim e ( 2 h o ur s of w a lkin g), l oca l fa nn e r s we r e s o fri e ndl y to ho s t u s in a ne ar b y farm B es id es a few imp e n e t ra bl e s ink s, all o th e r caves found in th e a r e a a r e foss il o n es. S o m e of th e m a r e b ea utifull y d ec orat e d oth e r s a r e ve rti c al s ha f t s whi c h b ec om e c hok e d. Qu ee n 's C ave Th e ex p e diti o n o f 1 993 s topp e d a t a d e pth of 151 m in a s m a ll 10 ,. JO -50 I QUEEN S CAVE I I Ar1 1 4 Clve2 I= .. . ,am ~..... == ~c ir c ul ar p assage (co nduit e fo r cee ( I m di a m e t e r )). Fo r di e d esc ripti o n o f th ese part s o f th e cave see D U SA R e t a l. 1 994. Th e narrow p assage i s h a lf fill e d w ith wa t er and mud On e du c k i s ra th e r di ffic ult o n e s qu eeze t a k es so m e tim e t o p ass. A f t e r 2 0 m o f c ra w lin g it b eco m es bi gge r a nd i s foll owed b y a pit c h o f 3 m ( n o e quipm e nt r eq uir e d ). A s m a ll p assage i s fo ll owed by a I I m pit c h A t th e b o tt o m th e r e i s a c h a mb e r w hi ch i s l arge (8 b y 2 m ) c omp a r e d to th e pr ev i o u s p as age A s ump full o f fi s h i s r eac h e d Th e t o t a l d e pth of Qu ee n s Cave i s 16 8 m th e d ee p es t cave in NW Vi e t nam so f ar. Whil s t s ur vey in g, th e a i r b eca m e co nt a mi n a t e d b y C O 2 -gas, whi c h m a d e it h ard to ge t o ut. Wh e n d e ri ggi n g n ex t d ay, in di e m ean d e r afte r th e 7. 5 m p i tc h a t wo m e t e r s n a k e with a r e d tai l was e n co un te r ed s l ee pin g in th e nai TOwes t p assage w hi c h m a d e u s co m e b ack a few d ays l a t e r. L oca l fa rm e r s co n fi rm e d o u r d ec i s i o n it was a v e r y p o i so n o u s o n e L a t e r o n th e s n ake turn e d o ut t o b e a h ar ml ess E l a ph e s p ec i es Area 5: Ban Bon On th e ro a d fro m So n L a to Thu ai i C h a u d esce ndin g fro m th e pl a t ea u t o B a n C un g Mu o n g o n e m ee t s a very bea utiful va ll ey h ead in g so uth fr o m t h e s m a ll v iJ!a ge o f B a n B o n runnin g int o th e hill s t ow ai d s B a n L ay a nd fu1th e r t o B a n Ta t. Thi s va ll ey is d ra in e d by a s m a ll riv e r f ed fro m t wo exs ur ge n ces a t th e v ill age of B a n B o n On e o f th ese t wo can b e fo ll o w e d fo r so m e tim e in a very n ice Pro c eed i ngs of the 12 'h International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Switzerland Volume 6 5 1

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    p assage t o a s ump Th e w a t e r i s prob a bl y that w hi c h di s app ea r s n ea r th e vill age o f Ban La y so m e 1 60 m hi g h e r int o a hu g e por c h ( n o t c orr ec tl y drawn on th e t o po g raphi c m a p ) w hi c h g i ves w ay to a up e rb wa t e r cave. At th e o th e r s id e o f th e ro a d n o rth of B a n B o n a nd up th e l o p es m a n y s m a ll caves w h e r e e nt e r e d o n e eve n r e a c in g a d e pth o f 89 m M a n y of th e e cave ha ve not b e ex pl o r e d full y and d ese r ve a seco nd l oo k s in ce th ey m ay g iv e acce t o th e und e r g round co ur se of th e w a t e r that exs ur ges a t diff e r e 111 p o int s o n th e ri g ht s id e a l o n g th e ro a d to B a n Cun g Mu o n g. B a n L a i T o th e eas t o f th e v ill age of B a n L a i a r e l a ti ve l y l a r ge tr ea m way, c omin g from th e w es t out of a 11 0 11 k a r s tic a r e a m ee t s th e ca rb o n a t e r ock (ve r y s t ee p wa ll ) a nd e nt e r a ve r y lar ge p o r c h (40 m w id e, 2 0 m hi g h ) Thi s wa t e r i s s upp ose d t o r es ur ge in N a m a n ( ee fi g ur e) so m e 1 7 0 m l o w e r Thi s s up e rb c a ve s tart s with a ve r y l a r ge p o r c h l ea din g int o a bi g e ntr a n ce c h a mb e r. Bluff C h a m b e r ', w h e r e th e riv e r ea ca d es d ow n b e t wee n hu ge blo c k s th a t o n e o ft e n ha s t o climb d ow n A t th e ri g ht h a nd s id e o f th e c hamb e r a nd a ft er r e m ov in g o m e bl oc k s a s m a ll e r foss il p assage co uld b e fo l l owed fo r ove r a hundr ed m e t e r s, w h e r e it beca m e t oo ti g ht ( n o t s ur veye d ). F o ll ow in g th e s tr ea m way, w ith a c limb d ow n a 8 m cas cade o n e e nt e r s a l arge a nd hi g h ga Jl e r y. Thi s ga ll e r y ge t s l owe r 20 m f urth er o n a nd o n e can fo ll ow th e wa t e r t o th e l e ft in a s m a ll e r pa age (2 m w id e, 4 m hi g h ), whi c h l ea d a ft e r 80 m int o a sec o n d l arge c hamb e r Bl ac k C h a mb e r '. Thi s n a m e i s du e t o it s d ar k n ess, ca u se d b y th e very mudd y wa ll s, tes t ify in g t o th e e n o m10u s n oo d s th a t p ass h e r e durin g th e rain y seaso n Ju s t be for e o n e e nt e r s th e m a il e r p assage. a littl e c limb (2 m ) t o th e ri g ht. g i ves way t o a spec t ac ul a r a nd very bea utiful a lm os t c ir c ul ar p assage Fo ss il Tu be, w hi c h a l so l ea d s int o Bl ac k C h a mb e r '. In thi s c h a mb e r th e r ive r run s a l o n g th e l e ft wa ll a nd di sa pp ea r s a t th e far e n d be t wee n bl oc k s. T h e way o n wa fo und af t e r so m e sea r c hin g, d ow n a s t e p int o a ti g ht ri f t f ill e d up w ith w h o l e tr ees D ow n th e rift a lilll e du c k l ea d s t o a s m a ll ca n a l a nd a noth e r d u ck. H e r e th e dim e n io n b eco m e bi gge r agai n. A littl e rift fo l l owe d b y a p ec t ac ul a r casca d e ( C 6) l ea d s t o a l a r ge r a nd s t eep ri f t int e rrupt e d b y a mall a nd l o w p assage; a n o th e r s t e p ( R 5) a nd o n e e nt e r s a n o th e r l arge c h a mb e r Bl oc k Ch a m be r '. Th e fl oo r o f thi c h a mb e r i s ve r y s t ee p a nd co mp ose d of hu ge bl oc k s. At th e b o tt o m th e ri ve r run s m oo thl y into a hori zo nt a l rift t o a s ump a t a dep th of -1 56 m. W e s p e nt a l o t o f tim e l oo kin g for th e way o n but w ith o ut s u ccess, d e pit e a n ex p ose d climb ( I O m ). At thi s p o int we a r e o nl y 2 0 m ab ove th e r es ur ge n ce o f N a m Nan but a t a di s t a n ce of m o r e th a n I km a nd it ll r e quir e h a rd di gg in g ... o r m ay b e so m e o n e wo uld lik e t o tr y th e s ump ... B o H o m Th e 0 .9 b y 0 .5 m e ntr a n ce i s in th e b ac k ya rd of th e v ill age r o n a rid ge aga in s t th e roc k a nd i s imm e di a t e l y foll owe d b y a pit c h of 1 8 111 whi c h l ea d s int o a l a r ge ma s t e r c a ve Do w n s tr ea m th e d ra ft di sa pp ea r in a t oon a rr ow c ra c k U p s tr ea m o n e ca n fo llo w a l a r ge ga ll e r y, 3 m w id e a nd 5 m hi g h in w h ic h th e r e a r e tra ces of a I BAN LAY I I ""'""' I I = :: 1 s m a ll in ac ti ve ri ve r (casca d e a nd rim s t o n e d a m s). T h e r e i s very lilll e w at e r in th e cave. Som e mudd y inf ee d e r a r e e n c ount e r e d but a ll of th e m a r e dr y Aft e r a b o ut 2 50 m fr o m th e e ntran ce pit c h th e ce ilin g l owe r an d th e ri ve rb e d n a rr ows t o fo rm th e fir t d ri ed out s ump th e b o n o m of w hi c h i s cove r e d w ith coa r se-gra in e d sa nd On e a 1Ti ves in a l arge c hamb e r fill e d w ith hu ge bl ocks. Th e seco nd ump i l o n ge r ( I O m ) a nd co nt a in s a s tr o n g dra f t w hi c h di a p p ea r s ju s t b e hind th e s ump in a s t ee p inl e t. Th e s ump i s quit e l a r ge, but fill e d with mud a lm os t t o th e ce ilin g, o th a t o n e mu s t fo ll ow th e s m a l I ri ve rb ed th a t c ut it s w a y throu g h th e mud A ft er th e s um p th e ga ll e ry w id e n aga in f o r a w hil e, fo r a b o ut 40 111 w h e r e a l ow p as a ge l e ad s t o th e W a itin g R oo m b e for e th e l a t a nd h a rd es t s ump w hi c h we p ar ti a ll y du g o ut. A ft e r I O m it n a rr ows, du cks do w n a nd th e n co ntinu es h o ri zo nt a ll y. Wh e n co m i n g b ac k a p ack g ot tu c k b y th e fir t a id kit in thi s p a rt. a nd b eca u se o f th e b a d a i r. it t oo k u s thr ee a ll e mpt t o ge t it o ut. Af t e r th e ump th e b o tt o m of t he m a in s tr ea m was cove r e d w ith g r ave l a nd mud a nd th e r e was a se ri o u s l ac k o f oxyge n ( thi s mi g ht b e r eso l ved, s in ce we du g o ut th e third s ump ). Fr o m t i m e t o tim e, a littl e c limb i s r e quir e d over s h arp l y e rod e d bl oc k s a n d anc i e nt casca d e h e r e a nd th e r e a r e o m e fo rm a tion s g roup e d t oge th e r At th e e nd th e ga ll e r y z i gzags a n d ge t s mudd y. H e r e we fo und foo tprint s of a m a mm a l. A t th e e nd th e area i s a lm o t a p e rf ec t c ir c l e, w h e r e a hi g h casca d e mi g ht h ave b ee n ac tiv e M ay b e th e r e i s a wa y o n b e hind th e fl ow t o n e ag ain st th e ce ilin g. Area 6: Ban Phe F o ll ow in g R o ut e 6 fro m S o n L a t o D ie n Bi e n o n e m ee t s th e a m Mu o n g ri ve r in B a n V ay. Thi s ri ve r d isa pp ears un de r g r o un d a few km t o th e n o rth A ft e r a sea r c h for th e und e r gro und riv e r we fo un d a bi g cave, Th a m H a n A l so. th e s upp ose d r es ur ge n ce of th is ri ve r i lo c at e d a b o ut I m o r e km t o th e n o rth a t th e c ont ac t b e t wee n th e k a r s tifi e d lim es t o n es a nd sa nd s t o n es a nd s h a l es (see 1 997 ex p e dition r e p o rt ). It was imp e n e trabl e, but a b ea utiful w ind ow t o th e und e r g round ri ve r was found I 00 m t o th e o uth ( Hu o i N a m U n I ). It e nd e d a t t wo s ump s, b o th up s tr ea m a nd d ow n s tr ea m Aft e r r eac hin g th e ump of Th a m Han we s t arte d l oo kin g fo r o th e r e n tran ce t o th e und e r gro un d ri ve r A l o t of int e r es tin g c a ves were fo und In Co Ph a i a s t ro n g a nd w e t dr a ft co uld b e f e l t, m aki n g u s be li eve th a t thi s cave i s co nn ec t e d t o th e und e r g r o und Na m Mu o n g. H oweve r it ll r e quir e eve ral v i s it t o fo r ce o ur way throu g h th e n a 1T ow p assage. It i s cl e ar th a t w e onl y un ve il ed a s m a ll part o f thi s co mpl ex h y dr o l og i ca l sys t e m It i wo rth t o n o ti ce a tran ge ph n o m e n o n w hi c h ca n b e o b erve d in thi s va ll ey. In dee d th e a m Mu o n g riv e r ee m s t o h ave a l ow /hi g h tid e r eg im e, th e w a t e r l eve l i s a b o ut 50 c m l owe r a t l ow tid e. Thi s ph e n o m e n o n co uld be ex pl a in e d b y th e pr ese n ce o f l arge n a tural und e r gro und wa t e r r eser vo ir s, th a t wo rk li ke a s iph o n Alth o u g h m o r e th o r o u g h inv es ti ga ti o n s a r e r e quir e d Th a m H a n A ft e r a l o n g sea r c h fo r a n e nt ra n ce t o th e und e r g r o und Na m Mu o n g sys t e m we fo und a n acces a b o ut 1 5 m a b ove th e va ll ey b o ll o m w h e r e a s tr o n g, h o t we t dr a ft co ul d be fe lt. Th e r e was n o d o ubt a b o ut th e co nn ec ti o n t o th e und e r g round ri ve r. A f t e r d esce nd in g I O m w ith o ut e quipm e nt a dr y r o om was r eac h e d w h e r e co n tinu a ti o n was fo un d easi l y beca u se o f th e s t ro n g d ra ft. A m a ll in clin e d p assage b e t wee n fo miati o n s g i ves way t o a l a r ge dr y r oo m Th e n oo r con s i s t s o f hu ge bl oc k s, und e r w hi c h o n e c an h ea r an inl e t o f th e hi g h di sc h arge ri ve r. G o in g d ow n th e roo m we r eac h ed th e inl e t but th e r oo m co ntinu es ove r 50 m I O m a b o v e th e inl e t. Th e roo m turn s 8 0 t o th e NE a nd 50 m furth e r th e ri ve r c om es in S evera l inl e t s co m e t oge th e r a nd form a ri ve r w ith a hu ge di sc h a r ge. Th e ri ve r was fo ll owe d n o rth ove r 2 00 m in a b ea utifu l ac ti ve j o int w ith s t ee p wall s. A p a rt o f th e riv e r di sa pp ea r s in a s m a ll fi ss ur e th a t b eco m es t oo n a rr ow. T o th e ri g ht a h o r izo nt a l fi ss ur e goes t o 52 Proceedings of the 12 th I nternational C o ngress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    the east and after 50 m the river is reached again. Here one can observe interesting erosional phenomena lik e solution pockets more than I m in diameter and depth. The ceil in g became l ow and we abandoned the river again. Approximately 40 m further, the river is met again by climbing down 4 m. The cave becomes larg er again. At the l eft s id e a 10 m waterfal l comes in. A spectac ul ar descent near the wate 1i a ll became too dangerous. The wild river was fol lowed about I 0 m higher in a horizontal fissure. where we went down to the river in a joint (PIO). Here, it disappears in another fis s ure, which become narrow and choked with blocks. Up high we found a route behind a boulder and 50 m further, after a decent, the river was reached aga in The gallery i s big and the ceil ing i high at '"Tern1inal Lake' where the river gets up to 25 m wide. About 60 m further the ceiling comes down along a bedding plane In a small tube a siphon was found (no continuation without diving gear). The hydrology of the sys t em is quite different from wha t we expected from the topographic map. Only a littl e part of the incoming water is emerging to th e north. Indeed the discharge to the north i s s mall with respect to the s ink a dye trace will be needed. The cave turns to the east, into the mountain. We searched for several days for an entrance to Tham Han behind the sump, but without success. However Po Badin i s probably part of the fossil river of Tham Han and Co Phai probably connects to the active river, while Huoi am Un I constitutes a window to that river. Area 7: Mai Son Leaving Son La town to the south-east, route 69 brings you to the am Mua river. The area on the eastern ide of thi s road be tween Ban Mat and Ban Cop Men turned out to be unintere ting from speleo l ogical point of view: the caves. located in the base of low karstic towers, are small and fossil, most of them being choked with mud almo t to the top. A few km to the south, in the Ban Key Puon area, close to the karst boundary we were s hown an intere ing cave draining the water to th e va ll ey of Ban Cup. Because we ,. THAM HAN Na-er.. 13 I 0 10 20 lO 'O SO 1 g:.~; I inve ti gated this area at the end of our stay, no more caves were found. How ever, it seems to be interesting to check the other s ide branches of th e am Mua river. Area 8: Lai Vai Towards the end of the expedi ti on, two days were spent in the Thuan Chau area, close to the Lai Chau border. where a promising va ll ey was found. At the Eastern s ide. in the near of the village of am Pe caves turned out to be choked or dammed. One very beau tiful ga ll ery in Ban Li could be followed over 400 m up to a sump, caused by the dan1 at am Pc. In the Western part of the valley, dominated by several huge and deep doline the river is artificially kept above ground. We suppose that a large ma ter cave might be present below. The exploration of one of the dolines wa aborted due t o l ack of rope. However, the reached point li es lower than the eme r gence at Ban Kinh ... Conclusion Both expeditions of 1993 and 1995 have been very succes ful. In the eight areas 144 karst phenomena have been de scr ibed and 58 urveys have been made. Total measured development is 19815 m total decline 2979 rn. Some major underground water courses have been exp l ored and mapped ( uch as am Khum-Tham Ta Tong ), but a lot of work remain s to be done. Thi will most probably re quire the use of cave diving techniques to continue the explora ti ons and to map further underground drains. Long tern, goal is to estab li sh a kar t re earch sec tion at the RIGMR and development of sk ill s for efficient and sa fe und erground monitoring by loc a l authorities. However. it is clear that a fruitful contact between Viet namese and Belgian cientists and s peleologists has been estab li s hed. We all hope that our very plea ant cooperation on the field wi ll lead to further explorations of the beautiful karst of NW Viet nam and we are sure that it wil l offer us much more exicting find ings and fan t a tic moments. List of participants Manuela Van B aars, Phan Cu Tien, Do Tuyet Thai Du y Ke Le Can h Tuan, Dinh Xuan Quyet, Dao Dinh Bae Vincent Coessens Christophe D eb l aere. Lieven Debontridder. Johan Frankie. David Lagrou, Koen Mandonx, Jan Masschelein, Mamix Van Dijcke. Bibliography COESSE S V 1997 Vietnam: Expeditiever s la g 1995 Spelerpes 81: 3-19. DU SAR M.; MASSCHELEIN J .; PHAN CU TIE & DO TUYET 1 994. Belgian-Vietname e Speleological Expedition Son La 1993 Professional P aper 4 (271) / 1994: 60 p. MASSCHELEIN, J. & SWENNEN, R 1 997. Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by susta inabl e water a nd land management and soc i a l l earning: its conditions and facili tation. Leuven (project proposal) 40 p. Area Cave ame Village Type of cave /e ntrance Dev Den Comments 2 Hang Ran Ban Tham Main Drain 1 880 -87 probably resurges at Tham Ta Tong 2 Tham Ta Tong Ban Ca Import ant exs ur gence 580 -18 Continuation of 1993 2 Tham Ho a Ban Khum Hu ge old fossil cave 582 28 Fossil H a n g Ran ? 4 Queen 's Cave Ban Say Shaft vertical system 407 1 68 De epest cave in Son La 5 Ban Lay Ban La y Sinkhole. Large underground river 548 -156 Sump 5 Bo H orn Ban Bon Fossil master cave 645 -22 CO2 6 Tham H an Ban Thum Underground am Muong 623 -45 Complex hydrology Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6 53

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    New d i scoveries in Optymistychna cave (Western Ukraine ) Nella Ostyanova & Igor Turchinov Lviv speleoclub "Native Land", ul. Yakhnianina 29, Lviv Centre of creativity for youth and children in Halychyna 290017 Lviv Ukraine. January 1997 brought a great speleological discovery in the world's longest gypsum cave Optymistychna ( Optimis tic") approximately 192 km in lenghth. It is located in the Dnister river region in Ukraine. During the expedition by speleoclub "Batkivschyna" translated means "Native land" and which is a part of the Lviv Centre of creativity for youth and children in Halychyna, discovered a new extension to the cave. The opening of the new region to the south-west ern part of the cave (the region known as Anaconda") was long expected. To the benefit of the expedition of the cave was the strong movement of air, wide placings of the min eral formations and exciting geological perspectives. It was not possible to register the exact distance due to the fact of the great distance that it covers, this being approximately 6 hours walking distance from the entrance. After several expeditions in the search to find the con tinuation of the cave, which was recorded methodically, in the south western perimeter of the region known as Ana conda". On the night of the 25th January 1997 the stom1 group which consisted of 5 members (I. Serdyuk S. Lavrenko, I. Petrov, L. Pohutz, 0. Dobryanski) found the entrance via the edge of the cave and have the possibility of eeing for the first time new unexplored galleries and halls. The work that was can-ied out during the exploration of the cave was very difficult as the stonn group had no physical support from the main group. The undergroundsto,m base camp was found to be an absolutely dry, and the group found difficult with their water supply. Apart from the continua tion in recording the discovery of the perimeter cave, the following day the group were able to continue in their ex ploration to the centre of the cave where they discovered an underground re ervoir and thus this helped solve the prob lem of the water supply. Without a doubt the findings of the new region was tremendous. The distance of the passage streched for 20 metres to gain entrance to this new part. To pass through the passage for the group required between 40 to 50 minutes of strenuous work. On coming out of the pasage you enter into a small labyrinth of not very wide and narrow passages, following this you enter into a system of galleries and halls, which have attributed the name of"Ma Media This region is l ocated in the upper part of the gyp sum stratum Here you can find the most considerable gal leries and halls in the Optymistychna cave, for examp l e, the gallery known a "Telecompa n y Mist", which is 420 metres long, the gallery known as "Radio Lux", al o the length be ing approximately 420 metres and the hall known as "Kilimandzaro" which is approximately 100 metres in length and 6 8 metres wide. The ma i n halls and galleries have typica l characteristics and inter connected by a system of labyrinths of less wider passages which are l ocated on the more low level. The region is rich in l arge (up to 50 60 cm) gypsum crystals and other different secondary mineral form The expectations of the discover were beyond belief and the results of the findings are still waiting to be published in the Dnister river region. It now looks like the region known as Mas s Media" is a connection to a new large cave structure, through which we passed via the south-western part of the gallery Telecompany Mi t". This part of the cave differs in charac ter greatly. Continuing the expedition in a north-westerly direction it is notable that the mineral formations decrease in ammount and a dense formation of labyrinths becomes apparent. The passages are generally triangular in shape and vary from 2 2 metres wide and 4 5 metres high. Here we can find the gallery known as "speleoclub Nativeland It has a definite character, the width being from 4 -10 metres and the height being from 4 8 metre s The gallery is subdived by col lapsed blocks into several smaller halls. To the south of the gallery there is a labyrinth of passages which are located on the more low level. The first expedition of this type of labyrinth passages in the Dnister river region was definitely one of excitement. To this date there have been two expeditions where discoveries have been made. The result being that 8 km have been added to the map of Optymistychna cave. It is of great excitement that the speleoclub Nativeland" was the fust to explore these new findings in Optymistychna cave, and the fact that no other person had been in these parts before. It i s also excit ing to know the fact that there is still more to be explored Just a few words to mention the tactics used in the first expedition of the new open region. Entrance to the open re gion is on l y possible via the underground base camp which is located in the region "Anaconda west". The work of the camp is made more difficult by the fact that water is difficult to come by and the group require to travel to the central part of the cave to obtain water. Paits of the region are only ac cessib l e without extreme care and great efforts of work. In the case that water will be discovered somewhere in the new open region on l y then will the base camp be able to be relo cated further into the cave. The continuation of the exploration in the new open re gion has great perspectives and expectations. The area of spreading of gypsum make up 4 x 5 km and is characterized by absence of laige dislocations of the gypsum stratum. Today the genera l le n gth of the passages in Optymistychna cave measure a distance of approximately 200 km. O u r forecasts suggest that there many labyrinths yet to be discovered and exp l ored and thus the length of the o l d part of Optymistychna cave will exceed by 2 3 times the distance. 54 P roceedings of the 12 th I nternational Congress of S p eleology 1997, Switzer l and, Volume 6

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    Large karst cave systems in central Laos b y C l a ud e Mour e t a nd F r a n c;o i s Br o uqui sse** La Tamanie F-87 380 Magnac-Bourg ** Appt 118: 210 rue de Ecol e orm a l e, F 33 200 Bord e au xCaud e ran Abstract ew ex pl o rati o n co ndu c t e d in 1 997 ( th e a uth o r s, J e r o m e LOR DO N a nd J ea n Fr a n 9ois VA C Q U I E. l a r ge l y i n co-opera ti o n w ith L ao ti a n fri e nd s) r es ult e d in s urv ey in g furth e r p a age in th e a m Hin B o un ( a m= Ri ve r ) a nd a m N o n cave y t e rn w hi c h we r e a lr eady s tudi e d in 1 99 5 ( MO U RET C OLLIG ON a nd V A CQUI E, 1 99 4 1 997). S o m e oth e r i gn ifi ca nt di sc o ve ri e a r e a l o pr ese nt e d in c lu d in g n ew d a ta o n th e o utl e t s of w a t e r s from th e Ban Vi e n g Po l j e ( MOUR E T BROUQU I SSE 1 99 7 ). E x plorati o n s in th e N a m Ph a Th e n e g i a nt c l o e d d e pr e s i o n a l so b ro u g ht int e r es tin g n ew v i ews o n th e Kh a mm o u a n e K a r s t. A li s t of m a in caves in C e ntral L aos i s a tt ac h e d Regional setting: Nam Hin Boun and Nam Non areas Th ese thr o u g h caves cro s a severa l km l arge P e rm o -C a rb o n ifero u s ca rb o n a t e m ass i f, w h ic h i s m a d e up o f a lim es t o n e, d o l m iti c t o a va ri a bl e a m o unt. a nd of do l o mit e (a r o und 1 0 %) Thi s m ass if is dir ec tl y a nd un co n fo rm a bl y ove rl a in b y M e o zo i c sa nd t o n e a nd s h a l e w hi c h r e ult in hi g h pl a t ea u s o f ge ntl y fo ld e d fo nn a tion s. Th e ir s t ee p b o undin g s lop es s t a rt ri s in g e ith e r dir ec tl y o n th e ca rb o n a t e, o r c l ose to it s b o undin g cliff s ( N a m Non ), o r a littl e futh e r away ( a m Hin B o un ). A ll th e e f ea tur es b roa dl y tr e nd W W -E S E. Th e ca rb o n a t e m ass i f i bo und e d t o th e so uth b y th e am Hin B o un pl ai n w hi c h i s m a inl y a l i m es t o n e fl a t w ith so m e inli e r of s ub tratum a nd a vary in g thi c kn e o f a llu v ium. Kar s t prin gs follo w th e b o undin g c li ff, as th e m a in si nkh o l e d o o n th e up tr e run s id e. Ri ve r s, t e mp ra r y o r p e r e nni a l u u a ll y in c i se th e pl a in as th e l oc al ba se l e v e l i s Nm d e t e rmin e d b y th e a m Hin B o un it se l f a t i ts l ow wa t e r co n d i ti o n s. S o m e l ow l yi n g a r eas w ith ge ntl y ro llin g hill s o r i so l a t ed ca rb o n a t e to we r s ex i t be t wee n th e inkh o l es a nd th e sa nd t o n e / h a l e s l o p e Th e low l y in g a r e a s b e t wee n th e s inkh o l es a nd th e s l o p es h ave a n e l e v a tion o f 1 5 5 m w hil e n e arb y s ummit s r eac h up t o 1 5 7 8 m a I. Th e ca rbon a t e e l e vation a v e ra ge ea 600 m a nd do es n o t ex cee d 88 4 m Th e s ili c i-cl as ti c n a tur e o f th e wa t e r s h e d i s ve r y import a nt as it p ro vid e qui c k ve l oc it y run o ff in a l a r ge qu an tit y, t oge th e r wi th c h e mi ca l wa t e r agg r e s i v it y a nd l a r ge a m o unt o f o lid es: be d l oad (sa lt a tion a nd rollin g) a nd g rain s in s u s pen s i o n C o bbl e a r e ex tr e m e l y abund a nt in th e a m on Ri ve r w h e r e th ey form l a r ge p rog r a din g unit up t o e v e r a l m e tr e hi g h a nd I O t o 2 0 m l a r ge. NAM HIN BOUN 1 994 B COLLIGNON C MOURET J F VACQU I E 4 BCRA 1 9 9 7 F BROUQUISSE C MOURET J LORDON J F VACQUIE SyntMse C MOURET N m NAM NON 1km Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 55

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    A nti d un es a r e a l so v i si bl e, indi ca tin g a ve r y hi g h fl ow ve l oc it y w hi c h i s f urth e r co nfinn e d b y imbri ca t e d co bbl es in l a r ge qu a nti ti e a nd eve n b y a 60 c m l a r ge sa nd s t o n e b o uld e r w hi c h was o b s e r ved i n th e tr ea m bed a li1tl e d ow n s tr ea m of th e cave in 1 994, a n d n o t a n y m o r e in 1 997 In th e N a m Hin B o un Cave, a llu v ium i s m os tl y of p e bbl e s i ze a n d i n m a n y p ar t s of th e cave (a t l eas t i n man y s h a ll ow a r eas) it i s ceme nt e d i nt o a co n g l o m era t e, b y calc it e an d p os ibl y so m e iron h yd r ox id e Ce rt a inl y. th e a llu v ium in thi s cave i l ess m o bil e th a n i n t h e a m o n Cave. Th i m ay b e d u e t o th e pe r e nni a l c h arac t er of i t tr ea m ( t o th e co n trary of a m o n ), th e r efo r e t o a m o r e r eg ular di sc h a r ge a nd t o th e g r ea t e r di sta n ce be t wee n th e sa nd s t o n e s l o p e a nd th e cave: fl as h fl oo d s ve l oc iti es m ay b e l owe r ln bo th cave as n o m rn l. gra in s i ze hi g hl y dimini h e in l a r ge r ec ti o n s w ith l owe r ve l oci ti e S a nd i we ll a bund a nt in th e eco nd ary dow n s tr ea m br a n c h of th e a m o n cave; it f o nn s hi g h b a nk s in th e a m Hin B o un Cave, in c ludin g p o int b ars a nd fi e ld s" o f sa nd d un es, up t o a round 8 m a b ove th e s tr ea m l ow wa t er l eve l. Th e c lim a t e co nd i ti o n s a r e th o e of a t woea o n tr o pi ca l a r ea, w ith a yea rl y ra in fa ll d e pth be t wee n 2000 and 25 00 mm a n d a n 10km 1----i j::: ,:,:-. d .. 1=233 b De LJd --. ,_9 ave r age t e m pera tur e of 25 9 Ca t 1 40 m as l. F r ee s u rface eva p ora ti o n i s 15 58 mm a t thi s e l eva ti o n M o r e d e t ai l e d d a t a a r e ava il a bl e in MO U R E T e t a l. 1 997a b. T hi s yea r th o u g h we ex pl o r ed i n th e m i dd l e pa rt of t he dry sea o n th e wa t e r l eve l i n do nn a nt wa t e r areas was up t o 5 m h ig h er th a n in April 1 994, thi s s p ec i a ll y b eca u se h eavy ra in s occ urr e d thr ee wee k s b efo r e. Nam Hin Boun 1 997 di scove ri es co n s i t of s id e p assage wi th t empo r ary fl ow s o r foss il. On e n ew up s tr ea m ex it was fo und co n fi nnin g th e h p o th es i s o f a fo s il i nl e t. A l arge c h a m be r was a l so s u rveye d ( 1 50 X I 00 X 5 5 111 ), w hi c h i s l a r ge l y cove r e d w ith b o uld e r Th e deve l o pm e nt i s n ow 1 2.4 k m Nam Non A 5 00 111 l o n g t e mp ora r y p assage up t o a ump was s ur veyed as we ll as l o n g fos ii p a age in cl udin g a c h a m be r ( 11 0 X 1 00 X 55 m ). Th e cave i s n ow 9 k m l o n g. It clear l y a p pea r s as a hu ge cave ,os 10 .:. :: .... : 1a .-. ;-:; ;. .. \. ~ : ~01\1~ ~E1~ ~ ; -;/i'.f ,\<0: } : ,_\ :' ~ I I {: :., ... ::. Legend of the map (adapted from MOURET et al, 1995) a: Mesozoic (sandstones and shales). b: Permo-Carboniferous (dolomitic limestones and dolomite). c: Basal Carboniferous and older Paleozoic (sandstones, shales, metamorphic rocks, so me limestones). d: Undifferenciated Pre Carboniferous Paleozoic and Mesozoic. e: Fault./: Anticline axis. g: Syncline axis. h: Elevation (high low). i : Cave.j: Watershed boundary: Xe Bang Fai at the sink and at Mahaxai am Hin Boun at the sink, Nam on at the s ink. Explored caves 1: Nam Hin Boun area. 2: Nam Non area 3: Xe Bang Fai 4: Tham En. 5: Tham Kuon Poy. 6: Four caves near Ban Phin. 7: Marie Cassan Cave. 8: Tham Deua. 9: Several caves including Tham En 10: Sinking stream .11 : Tham Houey Khi Heup and Tham Thon. (9, 10 & 11 in Nam Pha Thene closed depression). 12: Phong Na (Vietnam) 13: am Ngo and Nam Houk). 14: Ban Vieng Polje. 15: Nong Thao. 16: Tham Houay Sai and Tham Kou11 Don. 56 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Switzerland Volume 6

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    ys t e m In th e m a in t e mpor a r y pa ssage, severa l I 00 to 2 00 m lon g l akes were e n co unt e r e d in 1997 while in April 1 994 only min o r r e mainin g po o l s we r e o b se rv e d. Th e e lak es were d ee p and cov ered th e e ntir e width of th e 30 m wide p assage. Th e up s tr ea m s ump was fully cove r ed. Tr ee trunks up to 15 m l o n g we r e o b se r ve d d ow n stream th e n arrow s ump which i s a n o th er indication of th e po we r of th e fl as h fl oods. Fo ss il pa sages h ave a n ave ra ge sec tion of 30 X 2 0 m whi c h ca n e nlar ge n ear c hamb e r s. Th e floor i s m a inl y flow s ton e, cove r e d w ith num e r o u s s m a ll dry rim t o n e po o l s, and c lay. Oth e r p e l eo th e m s a r e present in m o d era t e quantities. B o uld e r s are o b serve d in th e lar ge r p ar t s a nd s p ec i a ll y in th e 110 X I 00 X 55 m c h a mb e r Th e fossil passages are l oca t ed I Oto 20 m above th e m a in t e mp o rar y fl ow in g p assage. Exploration of n ear b y caves was a lr ea d y s t a rt e d includin g th e p e r e nni a l s prin g of th e Nam Gn e n g (5 I/ sec), a n ear b y cave called Tham Ph a Kh a n H o n g w hi c h i s a fl ood ex it a nd a t e mporar y va uclu s i a n s prin g w ith foss il passages: Tham Son Other areas investigated in 1997 In th e famou a m Pha Th e n e c lo se d d ep r ess ion a g i ga nti c ero d e d anticlininorium (25 X I 0 km ), seve r a l caves h ave b ee n s ur veye d in c ludin g Than1 En (2.5 km ), Tham Th o n (3.6 km ) a nd sev era l ot h e r cave D ow n tr ea m of th e B a n Vi e n g P o lj e, t wo m ajor caves h ave b ee n s urv eye d ove r hundr e d s of m e tr es: Tham Hou ay S a i and Tham K o un Don w hi c h are exac tl y lo ca t ed w h e r e m os t lik e l y photogeological interpretation pl ace d them (see m a p in MOURET et a l I 997a). W e pl a n t o return to a ll th e caves m e nti o n e d in this p a p e r dur in g th e 1997 1 998 d ry seaso n to co ntinu e developing our kowl edge o n th e l ao ti a n kar t and be h e lpful t o th e wonderful L ao tian p eo pl e. Bibliography M ouRET, C ., B ROUQUISSE, F. 1997 a. L es eco ul e m e nt s karstiques du polje de B a n Yi e n g. Switzerland L a C h a u xd e-Fo nd s, 1 2 th lnt ern. Congr. Sp e l eo., pr ocee din gs, 4 p M OURET, c. B RO QUISSE, F. V ACQUIE, J .F., co mpil e r s, 19 97. Ex ploration s spe l eo l og iqu es a u Lao s, I 99119 96. R a pp o rt de presentation d es res ult a t s. R e port t o L ao ti an G ove rnm e nt March 10 5 p. M OURET, C. COLLIG o B. V ACQUIE, J .F. 1995 Exploration s recentes d a n s l e ce ntr e du Lao s. Switzerland, Br e it e nb ac h I 0 th a l. Congr. Sp e l eo., abs tr ac t. Full t ex t und e r printin g. M OURET, C., CoLLIGN O B ., V ACQ I E, J .F. 1 997 b Giant und ergro und rivers in Central Laos. Switz e rl a nd La Chaux-de-Fond 1 2 th I t e rn. Congr. Spel eo., proc ee din gs, 4, 57-60 Acknowledgements Th e authors gra t ef ull y ac kno w l e d ge th e ir L ao tian friends, w ith o ut th e h e lp of w hom n o thin g would h ave been po ss ibl e, s p ec i a ll y Mr Yanni vo n g SOUMPHOLPHAKDY Mr KHAM th e friendly r e pr ese ntativ es of th e Laotian Governm e nt a nd th e inh a bit a nt s, s p c i a ll y Mr LTKA family. Sin ce r e th a nk s to J LORDON and J .-F. VACQUlE List of main cave developments i n Central Laos 12400 m : a m H i n Boun ( thi p ape r ). 9000 m: am Non ( thi s p a p e r ). 9000 m : Xe B a n g F a i ( MOURET e t a l 1 995). 3600 m : Tham Thon ( thi s p a p e r ) 3 000 m : Mari e Ca sa n C ave (CASSAN, 1 953). 2500 m : Tham En at Nam Ph a Thene ( thi s pap e r ). 2000 m : Th a m Hou ey Khi H e up ( MACEY 1 908). 19 80 m : Tham En near Thakh e k ( MO U RET and VACQUIE 1 993). Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 57

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    Human use of caves in Myanmar (ex Burma) par Claude Mouret L a T a m a ni e, F -87 38 0 M ag n acB o ur g Abstract M ya nm ar caves a r e littl e kn ow n a nd th e ir u se as we ll Thi s p a p er pr e e nt s b o th bibli og r a phi c d a t a a nd o b e r va t io n s ma d e by th e a uth or fro m 1 995 t o 1 997, th a nk s t o s p ec i a l a uth o ri za ti o n s. Hum a n u se of caves i s ind ee d full o f va ri e t y a nd o ft e n unu u a l : rub y min es pir a t es hi deo ut hidin g o f o ld m a nu c ript s . M o r e c l ass i ca l a r e Buddhi s t t e mpl e g u a n o a nd nit ra t es m i n es, bird n es t s co ll ec t und e r gro und fi s hin g. s h e lt e r s. T h e u se b y th e Pr e hi s t o ri c M a n i s d e m o n s tr a t e d b y th e P a d a lhin cave p a intin gs. S c i e n ce a nd s p e l eo l ogy, so fa r h ave h a d littl e d e v e l o pm e nt. P a l eo nt o l ogy, pr e hi L o r y, a r c h eo l ogy bi os p eo l ogy a nd cave m a ppin g t a rt e d in th e 1 9 th Ce ntur y, but littl e h as fo ll owe d A bri e f r eco nn ai a n ce i n 1 987, a qui ck l ook by A u s t ra li a n i n 1 988 a n d 1995 t o 1 997 a uth o r s s tudi es w ith d e t a il e d mappin g o f t e n caves are th e fir s t m o d e m r es ult s. Prehistoric cave paintings and cave use Twe lv e cave p a int i n g m a d e w ith r e d oc hr e we r e di scove r e d in 1 969 in th e 2 5 m l o n g P a d a hlin C ave I o n th e Sh a n Pl a t e au : a so l a r w h ee l be t wee n two co n ve r g in g lin es o n t he ce ilin g a l a r ge fi s h a d ee r biso n s bull s fo ll owe d b y a ca lf a qu es ti o n a bl e hum a n s kull and p o ibl y th e r ea r part of a n e l e ph a nt a t a 3 t o 4 m h e i g ht ( MN A, 1 996 ; U HLA THEI 1 99 6 ). E xcava tion s in 245 m l o n g Cave 2 (a nd ? in C ave 1 ) h ave l e d t o th e di scove r y of n ea rl y 1 6 00 s t o n e t oo l a few hum an fossi l s, hundr e d s of ani m a l b o n e fr ag m e nt s, c h a r coa l pi ece s h e ll o f co ntin e nt a l m o llu sc c l ay m o und s, e t c. Gas trop o d s in caves n ea r L as hi o we r e int e rpr e t e d b y B E Q UAE RT ( 1 943) as r e m a in s o f hum a n m ea l Caves used by animists and Hindu Th e cave of M ar bl e R oc k s I s land M ye ik ( M e r g ui ) Ar c hip e l ago An d a man S ea h a a 2 00 m l arge l ake o p e n e d t o th e sky l oca t e d b e hind a 3 0 m l o n g p ass a ge cove r e d at hi g h tid e On it s far s id e, t h e r e was in 1 933 a b o uld e r pl a t e r e d w ith go ld l eave a nd fruit offe r i n gs aro und Th e r e l a t e d go d wa ass um e d t o li ve in th e rock an d was th e rul e r of th e l ake. Th e l oca l fi s h e rm e n ( S a l o n s) w e r e in awe of it a nd r eg ul a rl y m a d e o ff e rin gs. ( COLLIS 1 9 5 3). Th e Buddhi s t K ayo n C a v e t e mpl e, n ea r M a wl a m y in e ( M o ulm e in ) i s so m e tim es u se d for a nimi s t/Hindu pr ac ti ces as o b se r ve d b y th e a uth o r in 1 99 5 a t th e wes t e rn e ntran ce. Cave temples used by Theravada Buddhists Cave t e mpl es a r e r e l a ti ve l y co mmon. 1 2 of th e 15 cave ex pl o r e d b y th e a uthor h a d thi s fun c tion on th e Shan Pl a t e au a nd Pa an M a wl a m yi n e area. Th ey ar e u se d fo r pr aye r a nd m e dit a ti o n but a r e not full y c on s id e r e d as t e mpl es. Th ey a r e of t e n f ull o f Buddha im ages, mo s tl y in a ea t e d p os i ti o n Th e Pind aya C ave, n e ar Kala w ( Shan Pl a t ea u ) h as 8 0 9 4 im ages. R ec linin g Buddh a im ages ar e mor e abundant in th e P a-a n M aw l a m y in e area ( K ayo n C ave S a tdan n ea r P a a n K awg on Ph a Yin Yin aw, e t c.) Im ages a r e u u a ll y l oca t e d o n b o th s id es o f a ce ntr a l a ll ey, w ith a mu c h bi gge r and m ag nifi ce nt Buddh a im age a t th e e nd Wh e r e th ey a r e ti g htl y p ac k e d ( Pind aya), n a rrow a ll eys a r e found Buddh a im ages c an h ave a ll s i ze up to seve ral m e tr es hi g h ; th e bi gges t o n es a r e mad e of bri c k c o ve r e d with c e m e nt pl as t e r or s tu cco. Sm a ll e r on es ca n b e o f m a rbl e, wo od ( t ea k ), ce m e nt o r m e t a l. Th ey a r e p a int e d l ac qu e r e d o r g ild e d In K awgo n and Kho K e T a un g C aves n e ar P a-a n thou sa nd o f t e rr ac ott a Buddh a im ages a r e s tu c k s id e b y s id e o n th e hi g h wa ll s a nd th e va ult. ln th e P e ik K y in M ya un g C ave n ea r Pin-Oo L w in ( M ay myo ) on th e Sh a n Pl a t e au whi c h wa s tr a n sfo rm e d int o a Bud d hi s t s it e in 1 990 th e m ajo r Buddh a i m age h ave e l ec tr o ni c a u ras, w hi c h blink a nd p er m a n e ntl y c h a n ge th e ir s h a p e. A numb e r of sea t e d Buddh a im ages s h ow th e Bu dd h a p ro t ec t ed b e l ow a hu ge n aga. P agodas are co mm o n m ay r eac h t e n m e t re h ig h a nd a r e p a int ed o r g il de d R ea li ti c sce n es of L o r d Bu d dh a' s li fe ex i s t in so m e caves s p ec i a ll y a t P e ik K y in M ya un g w ith m a n y m a n-m a d e b o ddh i tr ees crea tin g a jun g l e a tm osp h er i n re m o t e p a rt of th e cave. Aro und L o r d Buddh a, are s h ow n p eo pl e a nd a nim a l s : n a k es t o rt o i ses d eers e t c. Sce n e s w ith hin d ui influ e n ce can be a l so e n co unt e r e d a s in Ph a Yin Yin aw Cave. Amo n g ot h e r p ossib l e a ttribut es. th e r e a r e i so l a t e d a nim a l s (fo r in t a n ce, a o n e m e tr e hi g h frog a t K ayo n Cave). Th e se ttin g o f th e im ages in th e cave i s u s u a ll y a d a pt e d t o th e cave m o rph o l ogy. Fo r in s t a n ce. hi g h p agodas are l ocate d be l ow ce ilin g co up o l as ( P i nd aya), a nd th e size of i m age s fo ll ows t h e e l eva ti o n o f th e va ult. Enl a r ge m e nt a r e p ro n e t o bi gge r im ages o r t o ce n es. On e ca n see a l so m a j or im ages j u s t ahea d of flows t o n e fr o m th e fa ult s, o r of va ult l ows, w hi c h ac t as a p ro t ect i ve sy m bo l. R e m o t e c ir c ul a r c h a m be r a r e o r ga ni se d as a s m a ll t e mpl e C h a ra c t e ri s ti c fea tur e of th e caves are u ed: dark b row n ea rth b e n e fi c ial t o h ea lth ( Pind aya) thin lim es t o n e blad es o r thin s p e l eo th e m s u se d as go n gs n ea r Buddh a im ages ( Pin daya, Shw e m a l e). co nd e n sa ti o n o n Buddh a im ages co n s id e r e d as a swea t b e n e fi c i a l t o h ea lth ( Pind aya) p oo l o f h o l y wate r be l ow drippin g spe l eo th e m s ( Pind aya) etc P ec uliar pra c ti ces ex i s t : in th e Fi s h Cave on th e Y a nkin Hill n ear Mand a l ay seve ral m a n m a d e fi s h es h ave t o be wa t e r e d with p a il s. Th e cave fl oo r i s so m e tim es a h a rd p ac k e d s ur face V e r y of t e n th e r e i s a co n c r e t e p a th way. Til es a r e u se d A t P e ik K y in M ya un g Ca v e, th e co n c r e t e p a th way h as b ee n built a b ove th e cave s tr ea m Th e ca v es r e quirin g li g ht h ave e l ec tri c it y In th e o ld e n d ays ( Y UL E 1 8 5 8), s ti cks of d r y b a mb oo we r e u se d S o m e of th e caves h ave b ee n a t e mpl e fo r ce nturi es: Pind aya, K awg on K ay on ?. e t c. E xce pti o nn a ll y a r e cave n ear l y aba nd o nn ed ( Ph aga t Ca v e), but th e ir Buddhi s t a ttribut es l oo e a b so lut e l y n o t th e ir s a c r e d c h a r ac t e r M a n du g caves a r e e n co unt e r e d in Ce nt ra l M ya nm a r : P ow int a un g a nd Sh we b a Caves n ea r M o n ywa; K ya uk g u T a mi w h e t U min va ll ey, T a n gyiS way -D aw C aves in th e Gr ea t er B agan ( P ga n ) a r ea; S ag ain g Hill n ea r Mand a la y. Legends A s in m a n y co untri es. l ege nd s o f imp os ibl y l o n g und e r g round p assages ex i s t in M yan m a r Acco rdin g t o l oca l b e li ef ( BOARD O F TRUSTEE 19 9 5 ) th e Pind aya C a v e w ould co nn ec t th e B aga n p a58 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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    godas, distant of s ome 180 km The Shwe-Ohn-Min Cave is said to connect the main pagoda in Mandalay (150 km away) and it s pa go da s would have been erected so me I O 000 years ago ( DUNKLEY e1 al, 1989 ). Other leg e nds connect caves and local folklore. Another information both a legend and a s pirit re l ated tribe belief was r e ported by botani s t U HTA HLA ( 195 ?), about Bungru Bu a cave in the north e rn Kachin State The Hkanon natives be li eve that so me part of the cave contains all items needed by the nats (s pirit s) for their eve ry day living : patterns of huts paddy pounders, agriculture a nd hou se hold implement s, cooking u s ten s il s, etc., beli eved to be mod e led from th e pre se nt ones of Kach in peopl e. A Buddhi s m-r e lat e d l egend says that durin g one of Hi s Liv es, Lord Buddha was an elephant, and that H e lived in a cave near Mawlamyine now b ea rin g Hi s Name (DUNKLEY e t al, 1989 ): Sadaw or Satdan meaning "roya l elephant". Surpr in s ingly if thi s legend is true thi s cave i s the only one in the Mawlamyine Pa-an area with no Buddha ima ge. There is another Satdan Cave in the nearb y Shwekab y in M ass if near Pa-an. Search for food Bird nests They are collected in caves of th e Myeik Archipelago. CAR PENTER ( 1868 ) was the first one to d esc rib e this. SCOTT O CONNOR ( 1904 ) reported the activity in two caves of Elephant I s l a nd In Gwa Chee Boh a cave with an entrance at the sea l eve l nest collect was made twi ce a year by Mala ys from P e nan g, who had tak e n the place from Bum,ans after accidents. The Malay s u se d dammer torch es and rattan rope s, and were able to collect up to s ix very large bag s of ne s t s in the ten day s, full time spent in the cave Th ey were also going into the main cave of the island where a passage at the sea level covered with water at high tide l eads to an inland lake b e low a roof opening to the outside, then to a dry cave with ne sts. The Malays are respectful of the place and organise a feast near the cave mouth at every visit. COLLIS ( 1953 ) went to the a r chipelago in 1933 and vis it ed a cave in Grey Rock s Island An entrance tunnel open at low tide was leading to a lar ge c hamber with a lake and open in gs to the outside at the top. The Burmese nest monopolist was with him and so me Salons (sea-gy p s ie s) as we ll One of them ma.de a demon s tration, in climbing with a torch into some 15 m high dark va ult s, and co ll ecting there a dozen of edib l e ne s t s. Fishing and else SCOTT O CONNOR mentioned that Salons spear sea fish in the lake of th e main cave of Elephant Island. A person with him (fro m Myeik ?, not a sea -gypsy) brought away with him the python he killed in the cave, probably for ea.ting. COLLIS reported Salons fi s hing in the open s ky cave sea water lake in a cave in Marble Rocks i s l and. They were praying a lo cal gi ld ed boulder represent ing the god of the place (see above). Villager s go fishing to a freshwater lake fully covering the floor of a sma ll cave near Satdan ( Pa-an area) (100 m X 30 m X 3-5 m approx.), in the ka.rst lake separat in g it from Satdan Cave and in the water-covered plain on the othe r s id e. The l ake level is low enough for thi s at the dry season. Canoes with oars and gaffs are u sed; there is no need of light. Shelter caves and treasure hunting The two caves mentionned by COLLIS ( 1953) in th e Myeik Archipe l ago were reputed t o be former pirate hideouts thanks to the tunnels access ibl e only a t low tide and to the lak es behind opened to the sky. Manu sc ript s from temple s have so metime s been hidden into caves to prevent th e m to be looted by invader s, as in th e Ph a Yin Yinaw Cave (o r Bingyi ) ( JOHNSTON e t al., 19 I I) or in th e Damatha Cavern (in DUNKLEY e t al, 1989 ). At th e end of World War IT Shwe-Ohn-Min Cave was u sed by Japanese so ldi er to protect them se lve s against Briti s h troop s. In a s mall unnamed cave in Kalaw outskirts severa l dig g i ng place s had be e n made ppar e ntly in sea rch of trea s ur e sa id to have b een abandonned by th e Japanese at the end of th e war ( DUNKLEY e1 al, 1989 ). Guano and nitrates Guano was ob erved by SCOTT O CONNOR ( 1904) in Ph aga t Cave who report ed lar ge heap s of it and a lar ge number s of b a t s. In 1995 large amounts of guano and a large number of bats (200 000 or eve n more ) were s till there Some pit s in th e floor may be due to g uano collect (o r to sto ne quarryin g), but probably it i s also gat h ered by hand or with a sma ll tool on relativ e ly re g ular s urfa ces covered with a thin guano blanket. BURKHfLL ( 1911 ) proposed exploiting the guano from th e Satdan (=Sadaw) Cave, but according to CHHlBBER ( 1934 a), it was not certain d1at th e depo s it, which was locally thicker than one inch was ever u sed. In 1995 there was little quantity of g uano in th e cave and a relatively low number of bats. CHHIBBER ( 1934a ) also reported "we ll known" caves on the so uthern edge of th e Shan Plateau, which yield large quantitie s of guano used as a fertilizer. Nitrates exploitation in caves of the Shan Plateau was reported by MIDDLEMISS ( 1900). CHHIBBER ( 1934b ) follow e d in m e ntionning extraction of nitrate impregnated cave earth from th e floor of caves near Nan, Tok ( 19 59 '; 97 0 I ') in the southern part of the plateau. Gemstones and items for decoration Myanmar is world-famous for it s rubie s, which are found in questionably Preca.mbrian metamorphic Lin,estone interbedded with gneiss. Data from SCOTT O'CONNOR ( 1904 ), PENZER ( 1922 ), CHHIBBER ( 1934a b ), ENRIQUEZ ( 1 935) and BENDER ( 1984) are used to present the difficultly accessible concerned areas. The Mogok area i s the most famous Placer mining may hav e started there as early as the Sixth Century AD or even before. At so me s tage anyway before the British annexation of Upper Myanmar in 1885 very specific mining works for rubie s, called ludwins ", were set up in caves and ka.rst s fi ss ures ". Ka.rstification makes the unsoluble rubies free and they remain in little water reworked cave fills. These cave fills were exploited first becau se they were commonly rich in well preserved rubies up to 25 % of the fill in a few cases. Cave walls were a l so broken with l ocally made gunpowder. Many of the caves are rather narrow but some reach a I O m width. One of them wa "so vast in size" that large sc ale digging s were started in side; the roof caved in and the work was stopped. The caves are usually accessed from the top. Digging occur at least downto a 70 m depth. It is a dangerous work: roof collapse hazards perilous de sce nts on un safe l adders in vertical shafts.jam ming in a n arrow passage foul air ... Oil lamps, shorth anded spades and baskets are the ma.in tools. In the most favorable cases, the cave fill i s brought to surface for treatment u ing a balance pole; otherwise, it is carried by men themselves. After 1889, the Bum,a Ruby Mines LTD tried t o develop un derground mining at an industrial sca l e, but it quickly proved to be uneconomical. Other methods were used instead. Some sto n e stat u es or vases for decoration have been seen by the author both at the Myanmar boarder in Thailand (near Ma e Sot) and in Yangon. They were made of typical flow s tone s and like l y come from caves of the Karen area near Thailand or perhap s from the Shan Plateau. Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 59

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    Scientific research and speleology Prehistory, paleontology. arc heolo gy and biospeology were carried ou t to a sma ll extent. Prehistoric remains specia lly hum an bones, were look ed for, in 1 939 and 1940, by DE TERRA and MOVIUS ( 1943 ) on th e Shan Plateau following the discovery of the China Man near Beijing but they met with no u ccess. More recent discoveries at th e Padahlin Cave have been pre ented above. Paleontology was carried out in caves of th e Mogok region where Mid Pleistocene vertebrates were excavated: bamboo bear Stegodon and Palaeoloxodon. Caves near Lashio have s h own Ho locene fauna (DE TERRA e t MOVJUS, 1 943). A small cave in th e aungkwe Hill near the Ataran Riv er (Mawlamyine area) had a up to I m-thick bone bed covered with flowstone, which was exca vated by the Briti h Museum, revealing bear, ox, deer and antelope (CHHIBBER. 1934a). The bones were not in ana t omic connec tion. Archeologi t mainly inve tigated cave in Pa-an area in the 19th Century, and a little in this ce ntur y. Some research was prob ably made at Powintaung. Biospeology was carried out pecially by ANDERSON ( 1899) for bats, F.H. GRAVELY in 1889 and ANNANDALE a liule after. Their result have been gathered by B LEBRETON (i n MOURET & LEBRETO 1 997). Little peleology has been carried o ut in Myanmar. though many author described cave often the same. Phagat Cave was the first one to be mapped (LOW, 1833 ), followed by Satdan Cave near Mawlamyine (CHHIBBER, 1928) and Pindaya Cave in 1 980, by U MYAING, U TIN MGWE a nd U WIN MAUNG. WHJTE ( 1987) ucceeded in a brief reconnaissance on th e Shan Plateau and an Au tralian team of 4 persons made a five-day inves tigation in 1988, including the visi t of nine hort cave and the mapping of the l onges t one: Myinmehtu Cave (330 m) (DUNKLEY et al, 1 989). The author and his wife, wit h special authorizat i ons, mapped in 1 995-96 two caves near Mawlamyine (Satdan = Sadaw and Kayon), four near Pa-an (Phaga t Kawgon Satdan -800 m, Pha Yin Yinaw = Bingyi, Kho Ke Taung), two near Kalaw ( Pind aya, Shwe-Ohn-Min) and in 1997 one near Pin-Oo-Lwin : Peik Kyin Myaung, an underground river. Some more cave were ske t ched in 1995. 1 996 and 1 997 (MOU RET 1 997). Tourism There is so far no on l y t ouri m-devoted cave in Myanmar All those where tourists go are also temple s. Buddhists u sua ll y link religion and nice moment According to CHHIBBER ( 1928), the Kayon Cave temple received 20 000 vi itor a year. ln 1995, the au thor could see th at it is till a major place where to go during the week-end, but it is co mpl ete l y c lo sed to foreigners. Just a h ead of the cliff in which the opening to Pha Yin Yinaw Cave i s lo ca t ed, a ea 50 X 50 m pool of thermal wa t er a t around 40 ~ C is used for bath by the visitors to the cave t e mple The cave t emp l es of th e Shan Plate a u have for lon g l arge l y been vi ited by nationals (M IDDLEMISS I 900) wit h a religiou purpo e, which may be a ociated with some touri s ti c th o u ght Pindaya Cave special l y, a nd P e ik Kyin Myaung Cave are visited by foreigners. Pinda ya Cave is l a r ge l y advertised in brochures for tourists. A cave near Taunggyi i said to be under present development for touri s m (ve rb a l information) but p e rh aps it is mostly a reli gio u s touri s m The Two Stars Cave near Pin-Oo-Lwin is currently being transformed into a new temple. Bibliography BE DER, F. I 984. Geology of Burma. Berlin-Stuttgart Gebrlider Bomtraeger, 260 p BEQUAERT, J. I 943. Fre s h-water s h ells from cave deposit s in the Southern Shan State, Burma. Trans. Amer Phil. Soc.. S. 32: 431436, Pl. 33 BOARD OF TRUSTEE. I 995. Self guide to the natural cave mu eum of Pindaya Myanmar. Pindaya, Shwe U Min Pagoda, The Board of tru s t ee ed.: 7p. BURKHILL I. H 1911. Guano in Lndia. The Agricultural Ledger 1: 7 CARPENTER, A. 1868. The bird nest or Elephant Islands, Mergui Archipelago.Ree. Geol. Surv. lndia. 2 1 : 29-30 CHHIBBER, H L. 1928. A note on the lime tone cave in the neighbourhood of yaungbinzeik, Kyaikmaraw Town hip Amherst District Lower Bum,a Burma Res Soc. Joum. 28: 124-131 CHHIBBER H. L. 1934a. Geology ofBurn,a. London. MacMillan and Co, LTD: 538 p CHHIBBER, H. L. 1934b. The mineral resource s of Burma. Lon don, MacMillan and Co, LTD: 320 p. COLLIS, M. I 953. Into hidden Burma. Londre Faber and Faber ed., 267 p DE TERRA H. MOVIUS H.L. 1943. Research on Early Man in Burma. Philadelphia. Trans. Amer Phil. Soc. N.S., 32, 3: 267-466, 102 Fig. DUNKLEY, J R. SEFTON, M., N I CHTERLI D ., TAYLOR J 1989 Karst s and caves of Burma (Myanmar). Cave Science, 16 3: 123-13 I ENRIQUEZ. Major C. M 1935. Beautiful Burma. Rangoon, Myanmahita Magazine ed.: 148 p. HLA THEL (U). 1996. Sophisticated stone image at Padahlin. Yangon Myanmar Per pectives 5, 12 : 55-57 JOHNSTON el al. 1911. The Bingyi Caves, Burma I I 9I 22. Lon don Hut chin on, 2 Vol. : 911 p. LOW J. I 833. Observations on the geological appearances and genera l features of portions of the Malayan Peninsula. Asiatic Re s., 18 : 128-162, reprinted in: Miscellaneou s Paper s on lndo-China, I: 179-20 I ( I 986) MrDDLEMISS C. S. 1900 R eport on a geological reconnaissance in part of the Southern Shan State and Karenni. Gen Rep. Geol. Survey of Indi a for 1899 and 1 900: 1 2215 3 MINISTRY OF CULTU RE 1 979. Pictorial guide t o Pagan. R angoon, Archeology Department Printing & Publishing Corp. : 63 + 8 p ., I map MNA. 1 996. Senior General tours Padalin Cave cu ltu ra l r e li giou edifices in Mandalay. Di cove ry of I 600 s ton e weapon I 2 wall paintings enab l es anthropologica l r esearch. Yangon "T h e ew Light of Myanmar". Sat. 28 Sept .. IV 164: I MOURET C. 1997 Myanmar. Spelunca, Special I ssue, "Contri butions to Speleology": und e r printing MOURET, C., LEBRETO B. 19 97. Myanmar In Encyclopedie de Biospeologie: under printing PENZER N. M. 1 922. The mineral re o ur ces of Burma. London, Routl edge & Sons: 176 p. SCOTT O'CONNOR, V. C. I 904. The Silken East. A record of lif e and travel in Burma. 3rd.edi ti on. 1993. Hong-Kong Paul STRACHA Ki cada l e ed.: 384 p THA HLA U. 195 ? (soon after 195 3). R epor t on Triangle Expedi tion. K ac hin State. North Burma. 67 p. YULE Sir H 1858. A narrative of a mission to the court of Ava. London: 177 178 & 330-331 60 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6

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    Human use of caves in Laos b y C l a ud e Mo ur et La Tamanie F-87 38 0 Magnac-Bour g Abstract Thi s p a p e r pr ese nt s s umm a ri zes ava il a bl e kn ow l e d ge fr o m bibli ogra ph y a nd p ecia ll y fr o m fi e ld o b e r v ati o n s m a d e b y th e a uth o r fro m I 99 I t o I 99 7 Cave u se i s kn ow n fo r P a l aeo lithi c tim e a nd buri a l s it es a r e p rove d fo r th e M eso lithi c a nd yo un ge r p e ri o d s. R ece nt buri a l pl aces a r e kn ow n as we ll C aves a r e s till u se d a s h e lt e r b y hunt e r s, hunt e r s-ga th e r e r s, fi s h e rm e n a nd fa rm e r s. Durin g w a r s, caves we r e u se d by v ill age r s as t e mp ora r y s h e lt e r s ag ain s t bomb s. Mor e p e rm a n e nt u e a l o took pla ce for fac t o ri es, sc h o ol s, ho s pit a l s a nd eve n for G ove rn m e nt qu a rt e r s. Fi s hin g i s a m ajo r ac ti vi t y in cave Oth er kind s o f fo o d are a l so co ll ec t e d : yo un g sw iftl e t s fr o m th e n es t fl y in g sw iftl e t a nd h o n ey. Min era l r eso ur ce fr o m cave co n s i s t o f drin k in g wa t e r g u a n o an d a lp e t e r P o t e nti a l fo r tin o r e ex i s t s. Caves a r e th e h o m e of s pirit s, w hi c h a r e pr aye d a nd tam e d w ith ac rifi ce Buddhi s t t e mpl e a nd h e rmit r e tr ea t s are co mm o nl y e n co un t e r e d Fin a ll y, a l ess co mmon u se i s tran s portation in o rd e r to a v oid lim es ton e ma ss if s h a rd t o c ro ss at s urfa ce: b y ca no e o ve r 7. 5 km o r b y hikin g o r hor e-r idin g ove r I 5 km. W e co ntinu e wo rkin g o n th e s ubj ec t. Resume D e nombr e u ses g rott es du Lao s o nt e t e utili sees par H o mm e d e pui s fort l on g t e mp s, avec d es u sages pr ec i s. C e tt e utili sa ti o n r e mon t e au moin s a u Pal eo lithiqu e e t ii es t prou ve qu e d es l e M eso lithiqu e e ll es fur e nt utili sees co mm e s it es fun e rair es, e n plu d e u s a ge a nt e ri e ur c omm e l i e u x d e ra s e mbl e m e nt d e r e p as e t p e ut -e tr e d e v i e. On r e trouv e ces fon c tion s a u N eo lithiqu e e t prob a bl e m e nt a l 'age du Bron ze D e n os j o ur s, ce rt a in es g rott es se rv e nt e n co r e d 'a bri occas i o nn e l p o ur l es c ha sse ur s, l es p ec h e ur s, l es c u e ill e ur s, l es ag ri c ult e ur s o u ... l es buffl es. ea nm o in s e n p e ri o d e tr o ubl ee. n o t a mm e nt p e ndant l a g u e rr e du Vi e tn a m e ll e o nt e t e b ea u co up plu s l a r ge m e nt utili see p o ur ec h a pp e r a u x b o mb ar d e m e nt int e n se e t r e p e t e C e rt a in es ont s impl e m e nt se rvi d e fa~o n t e mp o rair e, pour l es v ill ages vo i s in e t bi e n qu e p a rti e ll e m e nt a m e n agee ava i e n t s ou ve nt un co nfort mod es t e. D 'a utr es e t a i e nt au c ontrair e utili sees e n p e m, a n e n ce, p o ur a brit e r d e QG d es u s in es e t a t e li e r s. d es e co l es e t hopitaux. L e ur c hoi x e ta it a lor s fail s oi g n e us e m e nt pour pa sse r inap e r ~ u es e t s urtout p o ur e tr e l e plu s po ss ibl e a 1 'a bri d es raid s ae ri e n s. Le s L ao ti e n p arco ur e nl s ouv e nt l es g r o tt e p o ur y trou ve r d e l a n o urritur e, s urt o ut du p o i o n ( poi so n s c h a t. a n g uill e p e r c h es ... ), ca ptur e a u fil e t a l a n asse ou a la li g n e. L es j e un e hirond e ll es so nt pri es a u nid a ce rt a in es a i so n s, a in s i qu e l es a dult es e n vo l. II n 'y a p as, e mbl e -t il d e r ec olt e d e nid s d hirond e ll es S o nt ega l e m e nt r ec u e illi s d a n s l es g rott es l e mi e l ( pr es d es e ntr ees) e t parf o i s du g ibi e r L e g uan o es t utili se c omm e e n g rai s e t l e sa lp e tr e es t oign e u se m e nt r ec u e illi On tr o u ve p ar foi s d e l 'ea u d e boi on so u s t e rr e, p as for ce m e nl pur e. D e tr aces d h y drocarbur es o nt e l e i g na l e e s e n mili e u k a r s tiqu e d e s urfa ce. U sage p e u fr e qu e nt l es g ron e se r ve nt parfoi d e voi es d e c ommuni ca tion plu s a i sees qu e l es voi es ex t e ri e ur es d es ma i f qui d ev rai e nt r eco up e r l es pin ac l e a ce r es. Ain s i. l a N a m Hin Boun so ut e rr a in e es t r eg uli e r e m e nt tr ave r see e n piro g u e s ur 7 5 km p o ur l e fr e t e t l es pa ssage r s. D 'a utr es so nt pa ssa bl e a pi e d vo ir e a c h eva l. s ur d es di s t a n ces a ll a nl ju qu a 1500 m Enfin l e g r o tt es o nt un e fon c ti o n r e li g i e u se, d ab o rd v i s avi d e e prit s ( Phi s), pui s e n t an t qu e t e mpl e B o uddhi t es o ut e r ra in s o u c omm e li e u x d e r e trait e d 'e rmit es. Tou ces u sages c ontribu e nt a fair e du L a o s un l i e u de pr e dil ec tion p o ur l 'e tud e d e utili sa tion d es g rott es e lud e qu e nou s c ontinu o n s C aves in L aos h ave b ee n u e el fo r imm e m o ri a l tim es, w ith a var i e t y o f purpo ses : th e m a in o n es b e in g buri a l r e li g i o n li v in g qu a rt e r s, sea r c h fo r fo od a nd tr a n s p o rt a ti o n rout es Th ese purp o es a r e h e r e s umm a ri ze d Religious purposes, underground temples C ave u se fo r r e li g i o n i c ommon in mo t of S o uth e a s t A ia Ln L ao a nimi t p rac ti ces a nd b e li e f go b e id e Buddhi t fa ith T h o u g h Th e r ava d a Buddhi s m d e v e l o p e d in th e co untr y b e tw ee n th e Si x th a nd th e inth C e nturi es AD a nimi m n eve r fu ll y di sa p pe a r e d a nd at ce rtain p e riod s t e nd e d to becom e dom i nant ag ain C aves h ave t ra diti o nn a ll y b ee n c on id e r e d a t th e hom e of s om e Phi s" (s pirit ), s pe c i a ll y C ave Phi s a nd Wat e r Phi s Thi s i s w h y a sac rifi ce a nd pra ye r s ar e c ommonl y p e rf o rm e d b e for e ca v e ex pl ra ti o n Durin g th e 1 99 1 to 1 9 97 ex pl o r a ti o n s, we h ave p a rti c ip a t e d eve r y yea r in so m e m a nn e r, u s ually b y c ontributin g m o n ey nec esa ry to bu y all n ecessa r y it e m ", s uch as c hi c k e n pi g l et s, v eg e t a bl es or ri ce alc o h o l jar s. Th e sac rifi ce it e m a r e s ymboli c all y o ff e r e d to th e Phi s durin g th e pra ye r s a t th e cave e ntr a n ce, but af t e r w ard th ey a r e h are d b e t wee n v ill age r s (an d s p e l e ol og i l !) durin g l a r ge feas t s w ith a ve ry fri e ndl y a tm os ph e r a nd exce ll e nt co mmuni ca ti o n b e t wee n diff e r e nt p e opl e. Ment i on s o f o ff e rin gs to c av e pirit s a nd o f fe ar s for th e m a r e found in lit e ratur e ( MACEY I 90 8) : for in t a n c e offe nd e d s pirit co uld r e v e n ge in a ffli c tin g v ill age r s w ith hun ge r s m a llp ox o r c h o era THONG SITH e t a l. ( 1 9 90 ) h ave publi s h e d th e s t ory o f very agg r ess iv e s pirit s in a cave n ea r Lu a n g P ra b a n g: everyo n e e nt e rin g th e ca v e di es qui c kl y; e v e n p e opl e o nl y go in g n ear th e cave ge t qui c k l y their no se bl ee din g Under g round Buddhi s t t e mpl es a r e co mm o n in L aos, th e m os t famou s on es b e in g in Luan g Prab a n g r eg i o n : Tham Thin g, Th a m Ph o um Tham N g u T h e t w o fir t o n es a t l eas t h a v e bee n u se d s in ce prob a bl y th e Si x t ee nth C e ntury AD and we r e d esc ri be d a nd ni ce l y drawn b y fir s t Fr e n c h ex plor e r s in 1 8 67 ( GARNIER 1 8 7 3) Th ey r es i s t e d man y inv as i o n s a nd a r e a pl ace o f r es p ec t. Th ey a r e l a r ge l y fill e d o f Buddha im ages a nd all it e m s n ecessa ry t o fa ith pr ac ti ce, Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 61

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    w hi c h a r e ve r y sac r e d eve n wh e n th ey look n o lon ge r in u se. Oth e r ca v e t e mpl es ar e e n c ount e r e d n e ar V a n g vi e n g ( Th a m X a n g, Th a m H o u y), Vi e ntian e ( natural and m a n du g sa nd s ton e caves), o r Th a kh e k ( Th a m Ph ac han M a ha xa i Cave . ), e t c. Ca ves u se d b y h e rmit s a r e u s u a ll y ca ll e d Th a m Ru s i and s h e lt e r a f ew Buddh a ima ges. C aves a r e co mm o nl y di s pla ye d o n o ut s id e t e mpl e wall s, as p a intin gs, ca r v in gs, e n g ra v in gs on w oo d ce m e nt e t c. u s u a ll y in assoc iati o n w ith sea t e d Buddha ima ges. Burial grounds, from Palaeolithic times to Present P a la eo lithi c an d M es olithi c hum a n r e m a in we r e di cove r e d in t wo caves in N o rth e rn L aos: Tham H a n g a nd Th a m Ph a L o i H ow eve r. int e nti o n a l buri a l i s pro ve d o nl y s in ce th e L owe r N eo lithi c: t e n bu r i a l s it es we r e d iscove r e d in N o rth e rn L aos a nd a ttribut e d t o Neg rit os, M e l a n e i a n s a nd Ind o n es i a n sM o n go l o id s". In o n e o f th ese s it es, th e buri a l was m a d e in a cro u c hin g p os iti o n ( SAURIN 1 967). U pp e r N eo lithi c b uri a l s we r e e n co unt e r e d a t Th ai n H a n g a nd T h a m Ph a L o i a n d re l a t e d t o Neg rit os a nd M e l anes i a n s ( S A URI N, 1 967). S o m e o th e r s we r e discove r e d i n th e Kh a mm o u a n e P rov in ce, n ea r T h a kh ek a n d M a ha xa i w h e r e b o di es o r r e main s we r e buri e d t oge th er w ith fun era l h a rd wa r e. S o m e o f th e buri a l s it es we r e in n a r row ka r s t fiss ur es (C OLA N I 93 I ; S A URIN 1 96 7 ). ln Xi e n g Kh o u ai 1 g P rov in ce, M C OL AN (193 1 ) di scove r e d ea rth p o t s, w ith burn t hum a n b o n es buri e d in a cave with wa ll s bl acke n e d b y smoke. th a t h e int er pr e t e d as a c r e m a t o rium Th e age m ay h ave b ee n eo li t hi c o r Br o n ze Age. A m o r e r ece nt buri a l s i te was di scove r e d in 1 996, durin g a s p l eo l og i ca l ex p ed it io n. i n a cave n ea r th e Vi e tn a m b o rd e r : Th a m L o n g (Co ffin Cave). It is a w id e roc k s h e lt e r th e fl oo r o f w hi c h i s s l opy p ara ll e l to th e c li ff. Co ffin s aie pl ace d o n woo d e n pl a t for m s n ear th e h e lt e r wa ll m a inl y a t th e t o p of th e s l o p e. Eac h coffi n i s d u g o ut of a si n g l e p i ece of wood, s plit int o a m a in pa rt a nd a l id. T h e m a in p a rt i s e ith e r b roa dl y p ara ll e l e pi ped i c in s id e, o r in cl ud es a laige r p art fo r th e b ody pr o p er a nd a n a rr owe r o n e fo r th e l egs. The c l os ur e of t h e t wo par t s was e n s u re d ei th e r b y p egs (v i s ibl e h o l es) o r li ke l y b y vege t a l ti es s u c h as ra tt a n ( h o l es mi ss in g a n d t ies n o t o b served). T h e l e n g th o f coffi n s vary b e t wee n 1 .2 a n d 2.5 m Th o u g h l oca l peo pl e are we ll awa r e o f th e buri a l s it e, n o b o d y knows h ow o ld it co ul d b e a n d w h a t e thni c gro up was a t it s o ri gi n Shelter caves Caves h ave wide l y bee n u se d as s h e lt e r s d urin g wa r s, s p ec i a ll y d urin g th e V i e t nai1 1 War, w hi c h e nd ed i n I 975 as a r es p o n se t o h eavy b o mbin g over th e co untr y I t i s a dmitt e d th a t La os r ece i ved m o r e b o mb s dur i n g thi s war th a n th e w h o l e wo rld durin g W o rl d W a r Two Caves we r e spec i a ll y u se d in Sa m Ne u a P rov in ce n ex t t o n or th e rn Vie tn am eve n by th e Gove rn me nt. U nd e r gro u nd fac t ories ai, d wo r ks h o p s we r e num e rou s, fo r in s t a n ce fo r ges, co u o n m ill s printin g office m a nu fac turin g: of m e di c in es, ag ri c ultu re u s t e n s il s. coo kin g u s t e n s il s, e t c. S c h oo l s a n d h os p it a l s we r e pr e e nt A ll we r e dul y l oca t e d t o b e prot ec t e d f ro m a ir ra id s, b e in g in dee p cai,yo n s. o r be hind n a tu ra l rock pil e fo r exa mpl e. Ac ti vi t y was of t e n n oc tu rna l to avo i d s m oke t o b e ee n in th e a ir o r p eo pl e go in g t o or co min g from th e o ut s id e. Li v in g qu a rt e r s w e r e of t e n p r ese nt th o u g h co mm o nl y un c om fo rt a bl e : m o i s tur e, w at e r drip pin g, l ack of fr es h a i r. etc. Jn so m e of t h e m b ea utifi c ati o n was carr i e d o ut t o m ake th e m m o r e hum a n w ith fl owe r s in p o t s fo r in s t a n ce ( D EC OR N OY. 1 968). S o m e e l ec tri c it y li g htin g was so m ti me p rov i ded by ge n era t o r s. Te mp ora r y s h e lt e r s fo r v ill age r s wi th o ut a n y s p ec ifi c ac ti v it y. for th e tim e of a n a ir raid w e r e o ft e n m o r e s impl e. w ith so m e b as i c e quipm e nt : b a mb oo m a t s, l eve l e d s t o n e fl oo r s m a ll w a ll s ... Th e e ntr a n ce w as hidd e n as we ll as p oss ibl e ( DENGLER I 979) b ut fir e was o ccas i o nn a ll y se t a t ni g ht for li g htin g, coo kin g o r wa ,m in g. Som e s h e lt e r s h a d n o wa t e r fo r drin k in g. S o m e o th e r s we r e p ar tl y inv ave d b y wa t e r durin g th e r a in y seaso n Durin g p eace tim e, cave e ntran ces a r e m a inl y u se d b y hunt e r s, fi s h e 1m e n and fi e ld wo rk e r s. Buff a l o h e rd s co mm o nl y e nt e r acces s ibl e caves a nd go in so m e c a ses quit e far in th e d a rk b eyo nd th e e ntran ce li g ht zo n e. S o m e buff a lo s kill th e m se l ves by fa llin g int o pit s. Search for food L oca l p eo pl e co mm o nl y go t o a numb e r of caves fo r foo d ga th e rin g s p ec i a ll y in th e Kh a mm o u a n e Pro v in ce w h e r e th e fo ll ow in g exa mpl es a r e l oca t e d Th e m os t co mm o n ac ti v it y is fi s hin g. It oc c ur s e ith e r a t th e cave e ntr a n ce o r d ee p in s id e. W e h ave see n peo pl e w ith fi s hin g rod s a t a l ake a t 2 km fr o m th e e ntrai, ce i n th e Na m o n Cave a nd w e h ave b ee n ass ur e d th a t so m e fi s h e rm e n eve n d i g af t e r th e flo o d th e n ew sa nd d e p os it s in a n a rr ow p assage, in o r de r t o go fis hin g fu r th e r up s tr ea m Fi s hin g rods are so m e tim es l ef t n ea r ca v e s t rea m s for th e fo ll ow in g tim e. P eop l e m ay u se n e t aero s th e s tr ea m (U nd e r gro und N a m Hin B o un ) o r p ara ll e l t o th e wa t e r s ur face ( Th a m Pi a Se u a). Fi s h trap s aie so m e tim es u se d s p ec i a ll y n ea r th e e ntr a n ces. U nd e r gr ound fi s hin g was a lr ea d y m e nti o nn ed b y M ACE Y in 1 908 fo r th e Und e r gro und Xe B a n g F ai. P eo p l e u se d t o burn r es in tor c h es o r dr y b a mb oo s ti cks t o go in th e caves. Sin ce 1 996 we h ave o b se r ve d a c l ear t e nd e n cy t o u se e l ec tri c li g ht s wo r k in g o n p o rt a bl e b a tt er i es. Fi s hin g i s a m a j o r ac ti v i ty, wid e l y p rac ti ced a m o n g v ill age r s. Sp ec iall y awa it e d i s th e b eg innin g o f th e ra in y seaso n w h e n fis h ri c h und e r g round wa t er s t arts fl ow in g a t s urf ace. A t the e nd of th e seaso n t ra p s a r e pl ace d a l o n g s ur face s tr ea m s w h e n th ey p rogres s i ve l y dr y up a n d wa t er red i sa pp ea r s int o th e un de r gro und karst. L oca ll y, fi s h i s pr o t ec t e d from excess i ve pr e d a t io n a nd so m e re se r ves h ave b ee n se t up eve n a t ve r y r e m o t e pl aces as t h e U n de r gro un d X e B a n g Fa i Th e r e, 5 0 c m l o n g p a l e co l o ur e d fi s h es a r e co mm o nl y see n M os t co mm o n a r e ca t fi s h es ee l s, sca l e fi s h es ... Ty pi ca l blin d t ra n s p a r e nt cave fi s h see m s t o b e exce pti o nn a l. T urt les we r e s t i ll ca u g ht in caves o m e 5 0 yea r s ago ( Th a m a m G n e n g). Caves a r e a l so u se d fo r cave w iftl e t s huntin g (ad ult a nd yo u ngs a t th e n es t ) a nd fo r h o n ey co ll ec t n ea r e nt ra n ces. T h e r e a r e a few exam pl es of hunt e r s e nt e rin g caves t o ca t c h w ild a nim a l s th a t t h ey wo und e d a t s ur face: wi l d b oar a t 3 k m from th e e ntr a n ce in th e U n de r gro und Na m Non t iger in Th a m Na m e t c Search for natural resources W a t e r i s so m e tim es th e s ubj ec t of un de r gro un d t ri p s. T h e vi l l agers fr o m B a n Khu a (NE o fTh ak h ek) h ave n o dr in k in g wa t er a t th e dr y seaso n i f th ey d o n o t e nt e r Th a m K o un T c h a m T c h a m a cave w hi c h h as a p e nn a n e nt s t rea m b e l ow th e p o l je s u rface. K ars t s prin gs h ave bee n l oca ll y d a mm e d t o c r ea t e a r ese r ve for irri ga ti o n as a t M ar i e Cassa n Cave (CA SS AN 1 950). n ea r N h o mm a l at. G u a n o i s sea r c h ed f o r b y v illa ge r s in a few a r eas. n ear th e Un d e r g round N a m Hin B o un a nd in Th a m E n in th e Nam P h a Th e n e d e pr ess i o n fo r in s t a n ce. S a lp e t e r h as b ee n co ll ec t e d fo r a l o n g t i m e in caves of t h e Nh o mm a lat a r ea, w h e r e it was produ ced b y li x i v i a tin g cave so il a nd b o ilin g th e so luti o n o bt a in e d ( S AU RJ N I 952). H yd ro cai b o n see p s h ave b ee n m e nt io nn ed fro m lim es t o n e i n th e Nhm o mm ara t a r ea but so fa r n o d ee p we ll co ul d be dr i ll ed ( S AU RIN e t a l 1 960). 62 Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Transportation routes Th e Und e r g round a m Hin Baun i s co mm o nl y u se d t o ca rr y h eavy l oa d s ac r oss th e m o un ta in Ca n oes a r e h ea vil y p ac k e d w ith goo d s a nd p eop l e a n d c ro ss th e 7.5 km l o n g und e r g round runn e l. At a few pl aces r i m s t o n e d a m o r s h a ll ow s tr ea m b e d r e quir e un l oa din g p ri or t o c r o in g, th e n r e l oa din g. Thi s i n o p ro bl e m as th e n ecessa r y effor t i fa r l ess tirin g th a n cross in g th e m o unt a in o ut i d e. A f ew acc i de nt s occ urr e d durin g occas i o n a l n as h n oo d s. Th e cave cross in g was a lr ea d y o b e rv e d in I 889 (CU P E T I 9 0 0) and was t a kin g a few h o ur s ( d ow n s tr ea m war d ) t o m os t of th e d ay ( up s tr ea m war d ). Simil ar n av i ga ti o n wa o b e r ve d a l o n g th e U nd e r g r o und H o u ei Khi H e up ( M ACE Y 1 908). A numb e r o f caves co uld b e foll owe d a t l ow wa t e r s b y hikin g o r b y h o r e ridin g: th e U nd e r g r o und H o u e i Khi H e up and seve ral o f th e m aro und th e am Ph a Th e n e d e pr ess i o n or a t so m e v i c init y ( CUl SINl E R 1 929). Su c h cave cross in gs r eac h b e t wee n 300 a n d 15 00 m l o n g. Acknowledgements Th e a uth o r s in ce r e l y thank s th e L ao ti a n o ffi c i a l s fo r th e ir kind s up po rt r ega rdin g o ur cave exp l ora ti o n s. o thi ng wo uld h ave b ee n pos ibl e w ith o ut th e he lp o f o ur fr i e nd s an d s p ec i a ll y Mr V a nni vo n g S o umph o lph akdy a nd th e l a t e C l a ud e Vin ce nt. Our th a n ks a l so go 1 0 o ur s p e l eo l og i s t fri e nd s a nd s p ec i a ll y t o F Br o uqui sse, B Co lli g n o n J. L o rd o n a nd J F. V ac qui e. R efe r e n ces CA SS A N H F.A. 1 95 0 U n s p e l eo l og u e e n lnd oc hin e. S c i e n ce e t V oyage,59: 378-382 C OL A N 1 M 1 93 1 R ap p o rt s ur l es r ec h e r c h es d ans l a prov in ce de Ca mm o n e t a u T ra n -N inh ( L aos). H a n o i B EFE O 3 1 : 330 33 1 CU ISINIER L. 1 929 R eg i o n s ca l ca ir e de l lnd oc hin e. P a ri A nn Geog r .: 38, 266-273 CU P E T P 1 900 V oyage a u L aos e t chez l es a u vages d u s u d-e s t de I Ind oc hin e. P a r i s, L ero u x Mi ss i o n P avieln doc h i n e 1 879 1 895 3: 428 p D EC ORNOY J 1 968. G u e rr e o ubli ee a u L aos. P ar i s L e M o n de 4 e t 4 juill e t D EN GLER D 1 979. Esca p e fro m L aos P res id io ed.: 2 1 2 p G A RNIER F. 1 873. V oyage d ex pl ora t ion e n Lnd o-C h i n e effec tu e pe nd a nt l es a nn ee 1 8661 86 7 e t 1 868 p ar u ne co mm iss i on fra111;:a i e pr e id ee p a r l e ca p i t a in e d e fr ega t e D o u da rt d e L ag r ee. P ari s, H ac h e tt e MAC E Y P 1 908. C our s d 'ea u so ut e rrain s du Ca mm o n a u L aos. Sp e lun ca Bull. & M e m . 7. 52 : 28 p MO U R E T C. BRO U Q U ISSE F. V AC Q U IE J .F. (Co m pi l er ) 1 997. Ex pl ora ti o n p e l eo l og iqu es a u L ao 1 99 1-1 996. R a pp o rt de p r ese nt a tion d e r es ult a t s. Fran ce, M a r c h R e p o rt t o L ao ti a n Gov e rnm e nt : I 0 5 p MO U R E T C. 1 997. L utili sa tion d e gro tt es p a r l h o mm e a u L aos. ln MOURET e t a l. ( C o mpil e r s), 1 997 : 25 p S AU RIN E I 952. S t a t io n n eo lithiqu e avec o ut i ll age e n si l ex a h o mm a lat (Ca mm o n L aos). BEF E O 46 .1 : 297-302 + pl. S AU RlN E 1 969. L es rec h e r c h e pr e hi s t o riqu es a u Ca mb odge, La o s e t Vi e t a m ( 1 8771 966). A s i a n P e r p ec ti ves, XII : 27 4 1 S A URlN E ., L E THI VIEN 1 96 0 L e S a km a ri e n d e Nh o mm ara th ( L aos) e t ses Fu s ulinid es. Ann F ae S c. s i go n : 377 4 0 2 THONGSlTH V BO U AR A VO G P 1 990. W elco m e t o L aos. Vi e nti a n e, S ta t e Print i n g Ent e rpri se: I 08 p Proceedings of the 12 '" Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 63

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    Explorations Cerro Rabon Mexique 1997 v on C. Perret J.-M. Jut ze t .. und Y. W e idmann .. R o l and s tra ss e 36 C H -8004 ZUric h ; .. Ep in e tt es J 2 CH 1 723 Ma rl y ; ... Roland s tra sse 36 CH -8 004 Zur i c h Z u sam menfass u ng D as G e bi e l run d um d e n Ce rr o R a b o n b e find e t s i c h im ze ntral e n T e i! vo n M ex i co, im St aa t e O ax a ca. Di eses int e n s i v ve rk a r s t e t e K a lkpl a t ea u e r s tr eck t s i c h I 8 00 m Ub e r d e m t ro pi sc h e n Ti e n a nd d es G o l fe v o n M ex i co S e it rund I 0 J a hr e n w ird in di e e m G e bi e t vo n Ce rr o R a b o n im r ege lm ii s i ge m Ab s t a nd vo n 2 J a hr e n ge for sc ht. Di e Ex p ed iti o n e n find e n zu r li c k ge h e nd a uf e in e a lt e Fr e un dsc h af t (o d e r ware n es di e 2 0 Kil ogrn mm S c h o ko l ad e?), mit a m e ri k ani sc h e n und sc h we i ze ri sc h e n H ii hl e n fo r sc h e r t a n Bi h e r k o nnt e n in di e e n z ahlr e i c h e n E x p e d it i o n e n rund 1 3 0 Hiih l e n e n td ec kt e rfor sc ht ve rm esse n und geze i c hn e l w e r d e n. U nt e r di ese n H ii hl e n b e find e t s i c h a u c h d as S ys t e m de Ki j ah e X o nt joa. Di ese ri es i ge H ii hl e n sy e m e r s tr ec kt s i c h a u f rund 25 Kil o m e t e r und 1 200 M e t e r Ti efe unt e r de m jun g fr ii uli c h e n Urwa ld es de r Si e rr a M aza t eca. Auf gr und d e r B e l as tun g vi e l e r Ex p e diti o n s t e iln e hm e r im Y o r fe ld d es ln t e m a ti o n a l e n U IS K o n g r ess in L a C h a u xd e-Fo nd s w urd e 1 99 7 nur e in e Kl e in s t ex p e diti o n mit un gefii hr 6 T e iln e hm e r ge pl a nt un d dur c h ge flihrt. T rad iti o n e ll e r we i se se t z t e s i c h a u c h di eses J ahr diese G rupp e w i e d e r int e rn a ti o n a l zu sa mm e n S c h we i ze r Am e rik a n e r un d e in M ex ik a n e r ve r s u c ht e n im M a r z 1 997 wiede r ei n ige Ge h e imni e d e Unt e r g rund es z u IUft e n Di e E x p e di t i o n k a m e t was s t oc k e nd z um L a uf e n d a zu e r s t d as gesa mt e t ec hni sc h e M a t e ri a l d e r Ex p e diti o n ges u c ht we rd e n m u s t e. Di e e w urd e a u f d e r l e t z t e n Ex p e diti o n 1 995 irrtUmli c h e r we i se in e in e r n oc h unb ekan nt e n H ii hl e im U r wa l d ve r s t ec kt. ac h 3 T age n int e n s i ve r Su c h e und e ini ge n Fl asc h e n Bi er k o nnt e d as M a t e ri a l n ac h R e k o n s trukti o n e in es Y e nn ess un gsfe hl e r w i e d e r ge fund e n we rd e n. P a rall e l zu di ese r Su c h e w urd e e b e n fa ll s e hr zu fii ll i g e in e n e u e k l e in e H ii h l e, di e Nit a G a t z iquin e ntd ec kt N ac h e ini ge n M e t e m k l e in e m M iia nd e r und e in e r kl e in e n S c h ac ht s tuf e fo l g t e e in S c h ac ht we l c h e r dur c h se in e gewa lti ge n r ii umli c h e A u s m asse n un d se in e r Ti e f e e hr bee indru c kt. N ac h de n e r s t e n 5 0 M e t e r in d e r Y e rti ka l e n we lch e in e in e r ange n e hm e n Sc h ac ht g r iisse vo n I O M e t e r Dur c hm esse r s i c h in di e Ti e f e w in d e t fo l ge n no c hmal s 1 50 M e t e r in e in e m gewa lti ge n H o hlraum vo n fas t 50 M e t e r Br e it e L ei d e r flihrt a m Grund di ese 20 0 M e t e r S c h ac ht e k e in G a n g we it e r und di e H ii hl e e nd e t in e in e m Y e r Lur z a m Grund e d e S c h ac ht es. B e i de r Su c h e n ac h de m ve r c h o ll e n e n M a t e ri a l ko nnt e ganz in d e r ii h e e in e bi l a n g un beka nnt e D o lin e e nt deck t we r de n. In di e er D o lin e flihrt e e in e G a n g a m Fu sse d e r D o lin e dur c h e in e n Y e r s tur z we it e r und traf b a l d a u f e in e g r iisse r e Y e r werf un g. Di ese Y e r we rfun g s t e llt e s i c h b a ld a l s H a u p t ve r we rfun g di eses kl e in e n H iih l e n sys t e m s h era u s. S o e nt w i c k e lt e s i c h di ese nun foss il e H ii hl e Ub e r d r e i unt e r sc hi e dli c h e S t ockwe r ke di ese r Y e r we rfun g e ntlan g. S ii mtli c h e offe n e Fo rt se tzun ge n e n de t e n ei d e r in z u e n ge n S pa lt e n Obwo hl die e H ii hl e e ini ge ac hb a rh ii hl e n mit b e t r iic htli c h e n T i e f e n und grosse n Y e rtik a l s tuf e n b es it z t fU hrt e s i e un s ,, nu r' 6 0 M e t e r in di e Ti efe. D as H a upt z i e l de r E x p e diti o n 1 997 war d ie W e it e r e rfor sc hun g d er grosse n 1 995 e ntd ec kt e n Fo rt se tzun g in d e r .S o O n J an" H ii hl e. D iese H ii h l e bild e t e in P a r a ll e l sys t e m zu m Ki ja h e Xo ntj oa, und es ko nnt e a uf d e r Ex p e d i ti o n 1 995 e in n e u e r As t erforsc ht we r de n we l c h er un a bh ii n g i g vo m R es t d es Sys t e m in di e Ti efe z i e ht. Auf run d 400 M e t e r Ti e f e k o nnt e vo r zwe i J a hr e e in grosses G ang fr ag m e nt vo n 40 M e t e r Br e i l e e ntd eck t we rd e n D i e F o rt se tzun g d i e es g i ga nti sc h e n G a n gzuges fa nd s i c h in e in e m k l e in e r e n M iia nd er vo n v i e r M e t e r B re it e u n d Lu f t zug! D e rn M iian d e r fo l ge nd ge l a n g m a n i.ib e r v i e l e S c h ac ht tu f e n zw i sc h e n I O un d 90 M e t e r l angsa m in di e Ti efe. Li nks und r ec ht s d es M iia nd e r s e r iiff n e n s i c h S e it e n ga n g an S e it e n gang we l c h e s i c h bi s zu ihr e r Er fo r sc hun g n oc h e t was ge dul de n mi.i sse n N ac h e in e r l ange n T o ur w urd e d e r e r s t e Y o r s to ss o b e n a n e in er n e u e n grosse n S c h ac ht tuf e a b ge b roc h e n Ei n ige T age s p ii t e r mit n e u e m M a t e ri a l un d ei n er grosse n Fl asc h e t a r ke n K affees w urd e a m l e t z t e n W e n de punkt we it e r gefo r c ht. O b e r un zii hli ge S c h ac ht s tu fen ge l a n g m a n ko r ke n z i e h e rarti g ti efe r. Am E nd e d es l e t z t e n Se il es e r ii ffn e t e s i c h d e n l a n gsa m sc h ac htmi.id e n H ii hl e n fo r sc h e rn e in h o ri zo nt a l es S ys t e m
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    o n evo luti o n geo m o rph o l og iqu e, l es or i g in es d e s on o cc up a ti o n hum a in e o u e n co r e l a ri c h e se uniqu e d e sa jun g l e. P o ur fair e pl ace a u x c ultur es, un e l a r ge p a rt d e la For e t tr o pi ca l e prim a ir e a e t e c oup ee. S e ul es l es r eg i o n s d 'a ltitud e et ce n a in s sec t e ur s peu a ccess ibl es ontju s qu i c i e t e pr ese rv es d e tout e in c ur s ion hum a in e. L a k a r s tifi ca ti o n du C e rro R a b o n es t s i inten se qu e l es eco ul e m e nt s d e s ur face, m a l g r e l 'a b o nd a n ce d e plui e so nt qu as im e nt in ex i s t a nt s. L es ea u x infiltr ees d esce nd e nt ve rti ca l e m e nt a pr es d e I 000 m d e pro fo nd e ur d a n s l es ca lc a ir es pour r e j o indr e unimp o rt a nt r esea u d e co nduit s k a r s tiqu es do nt un e p ar ti e infim e a ju s qu a pr ese nt e t e ex pl o r ee. L es ex p e diti o n s s p e l eo l og iqu es s ur l e m ass i f du Ce rr o R a b o n 0 111 a pport e qu e lqu es res ult a t s s p ec t ac ul a ir es : un imp o rt a nt r esea u d e g a l e ri es ( Kij a h e X o ntjo a) d o nt l e d eve l o pp e m e nt d e pa sse 2 5 km p o ur un e profond e ur d e 1 2 0 9 m a e t e ex plor e. L es p a rti es l es plu s pro fo nd es se diri ge nt v e r s l e n o rd e t se trou ve nt se mbl et il plu ba s qu e l a gra nd e e m e r ge n ce d Or o p a n s itu ee a u s ud qui a l o n g t e mp s e t e co n s id eree co mm e 1 'ex ut o ir e d e ce sys t e m e Ce nt tr e nt e cav it es 0 111 e t e t o p ogra phi ees. P o ur l es s itu e r e l les o nt e t e r e li ee p a r un e t o p ogra phi e d e s ur face qui d e p asse ac tu e ll e m e nt 23 km d e l o n g u e ur. L a m a j o rit e d e cav it es es t d e ty p e a lpin L a p rofo n de ur d es puit s d e p asse fr e qu e mm e nt 15 0 m e t un e tr es g r a nd e sa ll e a e t e d eco u ve rt e. 2. Explorations 1997 E n 1 99 7 un n o mbr e r e duit d e s p e l eos 'e t r e ndu a u C e n o R a b o n l a plup a rt d e Sui sse e t a nt occ up es a l a pr e p a r a ti o n du co n g r es U IS L 'ex p e diti o n a d e but e p a r l es fo m1 a lit es d u sage (c h asse au x a ut o ri sa ti o n s. ac h a t s d e n o urritur e, pr e p a ration du m t er i e l p o ur l e t r ans p o rt p ar l es li n e e t c). C'es t d o n e un p e tit gro up e d e s i x p e r so nn es, m a j o rit a ir e m e nt d es Sui s es, m a i s a u ss i un M ex i ca in e t d es A m e ri ca in s ( !' ex p e diti o n 97 n e d erogea nt a in s i p as a l a t ra diti o n int e m a ti o n a l e du Pro yec t o Ce r ro R a b o n ), qui a p a rti c ip e a u x ex pl o r a ti o n s e n m a r d e ce tt e a nn ee s ur l e m ass if. C e n o mbr e e t a it bi e n p e t it a u v u du t rava il pr e limin a ir e e t d es a m e na ge m e nt s n ecess air es av ant d e co mm e n ce r 'ex pl o r a ti o n propr e m e nt dit e, not a mm e nt la taille d e c h e min s d a n s l a For e t l e tran s port du m a t ri e l juqu 'a u x e ntr ees e t l 'e quip e m e nt En r eva n c h e, ce nombr e r duit nou s a p e rmi s d int e n s ifi e r l es c ont ac t s a vec l a popul a ti o n l ca l e, plut o t fa rou c h e e n ve r s l es g r a nd s g roup es L 'ex p e dition a comm e n ce plut o t s in g uli e r e m e nt. D un e ca mpa g ne a l autr e, l e mat e ri e l es t ge n e ral e m e nt c on se rv e a l 'a bri d a n s it a Sak afaa i ca vit e e xplor ee e n 19 93 e t bi e n co nnu e. Qu e ll e n 'a don e pa s e t e n o tr e s urpri se, l o r s qu e l a pr e mi e r e e quip e r ev int br e d o uill e, aya nt b e l e t bi e n trou ve l a g rott e. m a i s an s tr ace d e m a t e ri e l Situ a ti o n a sez fac h e u se s' il e n e t v u qu e t o ut l 'e quip m e nt av a il e t e ca lcul e e n t e n a nt co mpt e d e ce tt e r ese r ve, p ar ti c uli r e m e nt import a nt e ( pr es d un km d e co rd e, I 00 maillon s, 2 00 pl qu e tt es, e t c). L h y p o th ese du vo l e t a nt qu as im e nt exc lu e, n o u s avo n s d o n e c omm e n ce a r ec h e r c h e r l e m a t e ri e l d a n s l es a l e nt o ur s, l o r qu e l e s ou ve nir d un e imp o rt a nt e e rr e ur d e b o ucl age d a n s l a t o p o d e s urfa ce d es e nviron s n o u s a do1111 e un e pr e mi e r e pi s t e. Et c'es t e ff ec ti ve m e nt e n s ui va nt a tr ave r s l a Fo r e t l 'a n c i e n c h e min e m e nt t o p o, a pr es troi j o ur s d e r ec h e r c h e e t qu e lqu es b o ut e ill es d e bi ere, qu e n o u s so mm es fin a l e m e nt t o mb es s ur l 'e ntr ee d un e g r o tt e i co nnu e, s in o n d es troi s s p e l eos qui y ava i e nt d e p ose tout e l a m asse du m a t e ri e l d e u x ans a up arava nt c r oya nt qu il s'ag i ssa it d e it a S a k afaa 'i! Ce tt e cav it e, a n s s uit e p a r a ill e ur a r ei;: u l og iqu e m e n t l e n o m d e ,, Nit a I ca n t beli eve it it 's n o t it a Sak afaa t '. Di s p osa nt a lor s d e tout l e m a t e ri e l n o u s avo n s pu nou s l a n ce r dan s I 'ex pl o rati o n d un e cav it e d eco u ve rt e e n t a ill a nt l es c h e min s d 'acces a u Kij a h e. B a pti see Nit a G a t z iquin ( puit s d e l 'a r c h e), e ll e pr ese nt e d ab o rd un p e tit m e andr e; un r ess aut d o nn e e n s uit e acces a un puit s d e 2 00 m p a rti c uli e r e m e nt impr ess ionnant d e p a r ses dim e n s ion L es 50 pr e mi e r s m e tr es d e ve rti ca l e, d un di a m e tr e d eja h o nor a bl e d e qu e lqu e I O m e tr e d e b o u c h e nt a l ors brut a l m e nt d a n s l e v id e, d a n s un puit s d e pr es d e 5 0 m e t res d e l a r ge u r e t 1 5 0 m e tr es d e profond e ur L 'e n o rm e e b o uli s du fo nd n e n o u s a p as p e rmi d e trou ve r un acces a l a s uit e d e ce tt e cav it e. E n p a rall e l e, un e p e tit e cav it e a e t e d eco u ve rt e o r s d e l a r c h e r c h e du m a t e ri e l d a n s un e d o lin e a d jace nt e a ce ll e d e i t a S a k a faa'i Ell e se d eve l o pp e s ou s l 'e b o uli s qui c ombl e la dolin e, e n un r esea u d e p e tit s m e andr es e t un e Faill e prin c ip a l e, s ur troi ni Vue generale du Cerro Rabon. Le paysage est domine par la morphologie en collines et dolines karstiques, recouvertes deforets. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switze r land Volume 6 65

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    ntrees Kijahe So On Jan Bi g Bones < Electrolux Borehole _} SN ose Bor e hol e Niveau de ba se Kijahe Xontjoa Fig. I: Vue schematique tridimensionnelle du systeme actuellement connu du Kijahe Xontjoa et du So On Jan (by Cerro R abon 97 I TO P ORO B OT) veaux sa n s cependan t qu un e uit e penetrable en profondeur n ai t e t e decouverte. Ce p et it sys t eme bien que tr es proche de plu s i e ur s cavites co n s id erab l es r ece l a nt e n outre des ve rti ca l es importantes ne nous a offert .,que 60 m env iron de profondeur. L'un des but pour 1 997 eta it bien e nt e ndu d exp lor e r l a s uit e du go u ff r e du So On Jan apparte nant a u ys t eme du Kijahe Xontjoa dans lequet t a derniere expedi ti o n de I 995 avait decouvert une nouvelle bran c h e independante du sys t eme, et s etai t arretee vers 400 m dans un tron~on d'une gra nd e ga l e ri e d e 40 m de lar ge ur Ce printemp deux de centes u ccess i ves ont permi d'en decouvrir l a suite e n un grand m ea ndr e (q uatr e m etres de l arge ur et parcouru par un bon co ur an t d air!) raide et e ntr eco up e de nombreux puit ou nou omme borne a ui v r e l e c h eminement principal bali e en quelque sorte par l e couran t d ai r en dedaignant pour 'instant l es galer i es l a t era t es. Cet enorme esca li er nou s a finalement pern1is de prendre pied dans ce qui se mbl e etre un nouveau y teme horizontal ver -870 m. ou avon top ographie trois sa ll es de dimensions vraiment int eressa nt es (Sa n Jose B o r e h o l es e n I hon neur de San Jo e patron du v illa ge principal du ma s if ou e de roulait en ce jour la fete annuelle en s on nom ) e t avons e ntr ev u de nombreuses uite s. Le equipes futures devront equ ip e r un bivouac afin de permettre I exp l orat ion de l a sui t e dan s cette region de la cavite qui se developpe a proximite des galerie s de b as e du Kijahe mai semb l e se diriger ver le nord o u est. en plein no-man 's land s p e l eo l ogiq u e. 3. Perspectives L ex p edition prit fin apre trois emaine intensives Le n ombre reduit de participants a I exped iti o n a pern1i s de nouer des contact s fructueux avec la population indigene. Cet echange nou a emb l e particulierement imp ortant et sera it a entretenir !or s d expedition futures v u l e s ten s ion s non negligeable s que peut connaTtre le Mexique, tant au niveau politique que social. Des renversement s politique peuvent amener de bru ques changements et debaucher su r diver s problemes, tel le mecontentement de la population rurale vis-a-vis de I 'Etat mexicain population qui n a ouven t guere d a utr e c hoi x que l a cu ltur e de drogue pour subvenir a ses besoins. En tant qu'expedition on e trouve qu on le veuille ou non dan ce jeu ,,de societe ", qui tend a t oujo ur eparer le pouvoir et !'ar gent d'une part e t l a p op ul a ti o n d e I 'a utr e part. Du point de vue speleolog iqu e finalement les decouvertes de cette annee pourraient rendre raisonnab l e le reve le plu fou l e cha mp es t libr e pour t a prochaine expedit i on ... 66 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Espeleolog1a minera en el noroeste de la Republica Argentina Ga bri e l J o r ge R e d o nt e Grupo E s p e l e ol6 g i c o Ar ge n ti n o ( GEA ), C.C. 232 Su c ur s a l 3 1403 Bueno s Air es, Ar ge ntina E-mai l : gea@ m a il.r e tina .a r Abstract Thi s s tud y d oc um e nt s th e ex pl o rati o n s c arri e d o ut b y th e Grup o Es p e l eo l 6g i co A r ge ntin a ( G EA) in th e n o rth we t o f th e A r ge nt i n e R e pu b l ic, in S a n Ju a n L a Ri o j a a nd Ca t a m a r ca p rov in ces Th e zo n es th a t we r e v i s it e d w ith minin g s p e l eo l og i ca l int e r es t we r e Yilli cun M o unt a in F a m at in a M o unt a in s a nd ln ca hu as i min e. Th e fi rs t area h as a l o t o f l ege nd s o n indi a n a nd j es uiti c min es T h e F a m a tin a M o unt a in s h as a ri c h minin g hi s t o ri a l p e rh a p s th e m os t imp o rt a nt in thi s co untr y a nd it s t i ll co n serve min es th a t we r e d o n e in pr e -Hi s p a ni c tim es. Th a t m o unt a in s h as as r eg i o n a l b ase m e nt Ord ov i c ian m a rin e e dim e nl a r y ro cks Th e m a in d eve l o pm e nt o n tunn e l s i s co rr es p o nd ed t o L a M e ji ca n a min e s p e ri o d It had a l o t o f ac ti v it y b e t wee n 1 894 1 926. Sin ce th e n th e 7 000 m of ga ll e ri es th a t th ey a r e pl ace d fr o m m o r e th a n 44 00 m o f a ltitud e ove r th e sea l eve l h ave s t aye d a b a ndon e d In thi s ex pl ora ti o n it co uld see a l o t of th at ga ll e ri es w ith c olumn s, s t a l ac tit es a nd s t a l ag mit es of i ce with a n int e n s i ve turqu o i se co l o r It is p ro du ce d by co pp e r s ulph a t e th a t pr ecip it a t es in to th e tunn e l va ult s. T h e ln ca hu asi mi ne i s pl ace d a l 3900 m of a ltitud e ove r th e sea l eve l in th e Pun a of Ca t a m a r ca. Th e geo l ogy of thi s a r ea i s co n s t it ut ed by u p p e r Or dov i c i a n p e ri od rocks. Th e m i n era li za ti o n i s r e l a t e d t o q ua rt z ve in s w ith go ld T hi s d epos it was di scovered in th e pr eHi span i c period lL wa wo r ke d by th e In ca c ultur e, a n d th e m b y th e J es uit p r i es t s. In 1 936 th e N u eva Co mp a fii a Min era ln ca hu as i r es t a rt s t h e exp l o it a ti o n w i th n ew ga ll er i es over vei n s in severa l l eve l s. Th a t ex pl oi t a ti o n was a b an d o n e d i n 1 954. Th e t ota l ga ll e ri es s u m 4350 m and t oday th ey a r e m os tl y inund a t ed. Resumen E t e tr a b a j o d oc um e nl a l as ex pl orac i o n es r ea li za d as p o r e l Gru po Es p e l eo l 6g i co A r ge ntin a ( G EA) e n e l n o r oes t e d e l a R e publ ica A r ge ntin a, e n l as p rov in c i as de S a n Ju a n La Ri o j a y Ca t a m a r ca. L as zo n as v i s it a d as co n int e r es es p e l eo l 6g i co min ero f u e ron l a s i e r ra d e Y illi cu n l a s i e rr a d e Fa m a tin a y l a min a ln ca hu as i. L a prim era zo n a ti e n e mu c h as l ege nd as de min as indf ge n as y min as jes u f ti cas L a s i erra de F an a t ina p o ee un ri co hi sto ri a l min e ro qui zas e l m as imp o rt a nt e d e l p ais, y co n se r va a un min as r ea li za d as e n ti e mp os prehispan i cos. E l b asan e nt o reg i o n a l de l a sie rr a l o co n s titu ye n se dim e nl i t as m a rin a o rd ovfc i cas. E l m ayo r desa rr o ll o de t u n e l es co rr e po n de a l perfo d o d e l a M ina L a M ej i ca n a qu e tu vo gran act i vi d a d e mr e l os afios 1 897 y 1 926. D es d e e nt o n ce l os 7 0 00 m de ga l e r fas a m as d e 4400 m de a ltitu d sobre e l ni ve l de l m a r q u e d aro n aba n do n ados E n este r eco n oc imi e nt o pu d i ero n observa r se mu c h as de esas ga l e r fas q u e p o een co l umnas, estalact i ta s y e s t a l ag mit as de hi e l o de un int e n so co l o r tur q u esa d eb id o a l s ul fato de cob r e qu e pr ec ipit a e n l as b6ve d as d e l o s t une l e L a m i n a l nca h uas i se e n c u e nt ra a u no s 3900 m d e a ltitud sob r e e l ni ve l de l m ar e n l a Pun a Ca t a m a rqu e fi a. L a geo l ogfa d e l area es t a cons tirui da p o r r ocas d e l pe r fo d o Or dovfcico s u per i o r L a min era li zac i 6 n es t a r e l ac i o n a d a a ve t as d e c u arzo p o rt a d o r as de oro. Es t e yac imi e m o fu e desc u b i e rt o e n l a epoca pr e hi s p a ni ca. F u e L ra b a j a d o p o r l a c ul t u ra In ca y p os t e ri o rm e n te p o r l os sace rd o t es j es uit as. E n 1 936 l a "N u eva Co mp afi i a Min era In ca hu as i r e ini c i 6 l a ex pl o t ac i 6 n co n nu evas ga l e r fas so br e ve t a e n var i os ni ve l es. L a ex pl o t ac i 6 n fu e a b a nd o n a d a e n 1 954 E l t o t a l de ga l erfas to t a li za 4350 m qu e a l pr ese nt e se e n c u e m ra n m ayo n ne m e inund adas lntroducci6n E nt re oc tu bre y dicie m b r e de 1 996 e l G R U P O ES P E L EO L OGICO A R GENT I NO (GEA) rea l iz6 exp l oracio n es en l as prov in c i a s de San J ua n L a Ri oja y Cata m arca e n e l n oroes t e de l a R e p u bl ica Arge min a. L a ex pl oraci6 n tu vo co m o ob j e ti vo de reco n ocer s it ios de int eres es p e l eo l 6g i co min ero Dur a nt e l a co n q u is t a espa fi o l a l a bu s qu eda de min e r a l es e n e l nu evo co ntin e nl e, e n espec i a l oro y p l a t a, t u vo un int e r es m ay u sc ul o. E n l a A r ge ntin a, l os P ad r es d e l a Co m pan i a de J es u s ( J es u f t as) d iri g i e r o n imp o rt a m es emp r e ndimi e nt os mu c h os de e ll os e n l as mi s m as min as qu e ya exp l o t aba n con t ecnicas mu y ru di m e nt arias l os abo ri ge n e s. Prac t ica m e nl e n o ex i t e n a nt ecedentes de est ud ios referi d os a espe l eo l ogfa minera en l a A r ge nt i n a. So l o s e co n oce un t rabajo arqueo l 6g i co r ea l izado e n l as m i n as in dfge n as de sa l d e T ruqui c6, en C h os M a i a norte de l a prov in c i a de l e u que n y a l g un as c it as a l a b oreos min eros J es u ft i cos e n C6rdoba, Sa n Lui s y e n l as mi nas de G u a l il a n Sa n Ju an. U n a l eye nd a mu y di f undid a e n L o d o e l n oroes t e a r ge ntin o es t a r e f e rid a a l "e nt e rr a mi e nt o d e s i e t e a l fo r jas h ec h a co n ca b ezas de g u a n aco r e pl e t a d e o r o. q u e l o indi o e n s u hui da d e l os es p a fi o l es h ab r fa n e co ndid o e n un p i q u e o un a c u eva. E l g u a n aco es un came lid o q u e ot r ora era co mun ve r e n l a r egion. E n e s t e trabajo se come nt a n as observac i o n es r ea li za d as e n l a sie rr a d e Yilli cu n Provi n c i a d e Sa n Ju an e n e l D istri t o M in ero de L a Mej i ca n a. Sie rr a de Fama tin a, Pr ov in c i a de L a Ri o j a y en l a mina ln ca hu asi Sa l ar de H o mb re M u er l o, P rov in cia de Ca t a m arca (vease fig u ra I ). La sierra de Villicun, minas y leyendas Ex i s t e un a l eye nd a q u e h a bl a d e un a min a de oro qu e h abrfan h ec h o l os indi os" e n l a s i erra d e Yill icu n P rov in c i a d e Sa n Ju a n E n di st int as cam p afias se r eco n oc i 6 l a fa l da o r ie nt a l de es t a sierra e nl re as coo rd e n a d as 3 1 Q y3 1 2 30 d e l a titu d s ur y 68 2 20 y 68 2 40 de l o n g itud oes t e E n l a i e r ra d e Yilli cu n a fl o r a n rocas de edad Ca mbr oOrd ovfc i ca. p r i n c ip a lm e nl e ca l izas y d o l o m itas pe rt e n ec i e nt es a l as Forrnac i o n es: L a L aja, Zo nd a. L a F l ec h a y San Ju a n ( B A LOD 1 996). Se h a ll aro n indi c i os de a nt ig u os l a b o r eos en l as zo n a d e n o min a d as E l B o qu e t e y Ca m era L a L aja E n e l pri mer s iti o se l oca l i z aron rudim e nt a ri os l a b o r eos s up e r fic i a l es e n l as n ac i e nt es d e l rf o d e l A lt o, ce r ca d e l a c umbr e de l a i e r ra ( 1 8 1 8 m .s. n m ) En \ as p rox imid a d e d e l a Ca nt era L a L aja exp l o t ada p o r l a e mpr esa Min e r a T EA S.A., se r eco n oc i ero n l a s im a de L a L aja y l a c u eva d e L a L aja C hi ca Es t as dos p e qu e fi as cav i dades ca l ca r eas ti e n e n l a carac t e rf s ti ca d e ser n at u ra l es pero co n ga l e r fa s Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzer l and Volume 6 6 7

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    / 'wM I ,MUERTO ,,_-J PROVINCIA ') -" DE ~ CATAMARCA r'---d es ni ve l d e 3 500 m e ntr e u ex tr e m os E t e ca bl eca rril co nt a b a d e nu eve e t ac i o n es do n de m a quin a ri a a va p o r alim e nt ada co n l e ii a p os ibilit a b a e l t ra l a d o JA G a l e nas r e l vadas apro,t 7 0CXJm L v antam,o n to G. REOCHTE 1996 G RUPO ESPEL.EOUlGI CO AR G E NTINO .. u c.,,.,,,nl Sc_ ,mOJ)"'-Airn A fin e d e l s i g l o XIX c on a port e eco n 6 mi c o in g l e es, se r e ini c i 6 l a bu qu e d a d e oro pl a t a y c obre. La Min a La M e ji ca n a y e l g rupo d e min as d ee t a r eg i 6 n se desa rrollar o n e n profundid a d y ex t e n s i 6 n d e ga l e rfa s s ubt e rr a n e a s h a t a 1 92 6 c u a ndo se p a rali za l a min a. L a min a p o e f a un ca bl eca rril qu e la un fa co n l a c iud a d d e C hil ec ito c on 3 4 km d e ex t e n s i 6 n y qu e s up e raba un Figura 2 Piano topografico de lamina La Mejicana 68 Proceed i ngs of the 12 International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Distrito Minero La Mejicana La Mejicana e lamina mas imp ortante del Distrito Minero. Se han podido reconocer un os 7000111 de galerfas realizadas e n distintos perfodos hi storicos. En noviembre de 1996 de esta mina e recorrieron parcialmente mucha galerfa entre ella : los niveles 3 y 6 de Sanpedro, El nivel 3 de Upulungus y E l R e taurador (Vease Figura 2). Existen zonas muy derrumbada y otras donde todo parece estar como el dfa en que se s u spendi6 el trabajo, co n vagonetas repletas de mineral sobre rieles no corroidos. Tambien se recorri6 un pique de eguridad que unfa l os nivele 3 y 6 con un desnivel vertical de 220 m. Algunos pasajes son impracticables por derrumbes o bien, en la zona de las bocaminas, por la cantidad de hielo acumulada. Algunos sectores. como la galerfa Upulungu poseen columnas. e talactitas y e talagmita de hielo, o de carbonato que presentan coloracion turque a (vease figura 3) por e l sulfa t o de cobre que percola por las paredes y los techos de las galerfas. Otras exploracione e realizaron en la minas: Montey, Offir, La Forastera, Del Oro y otras labortes meno importantes. Lamina Montey solo pudo recorrer e parcialmente ya que se encuentra muy inundada. En lamina Atacama un antiguo derrumbe ha cerrado totalmente el paso. Segun algunos e to ocurri6 en 1925 y quedaron atrapado dentro de lamina alguno trabajadores que nunca pudieron alir. En e l sftio conocido como La Estrechura, al sudoeste del campamen t o Cueva de Perez. se h al l o el pique In ca de Lo E queleto (pozo vertical de 50 m). La entrada es horizontal y muy antigua pre umiendose que fue obra de culturas aborigenes. Se halla en rocas muy si li cificadas y nose conoce su finalidad. Finalmente e ob ervaron laboreo antiguos junto a l camino a lo largo del rfo Amari llo viejas con tru cc ion e molinos y fundicione hoy en ruinas Las pequefias cuevas de Norona, de Perez y de Juan Dfaz son de origen natural, de arro ll adas en los cong lom erados cuaternarios y fueron refugio de l avadores de oro. Aun e n esto tiempos alguna son utilizadas temporalmente. La mina lncahuasi In ca hu as i o Casa del In ca es un nombr e comun en l a t opo nimi a argentina y sudan1ericana. Esta mina se encuentra a unos 3900 m .. n.m. en el horde suroe te del Salar del H ombre Muerto, en la Puna Catamarquefia, en la l a titud s ur 25 Q 25 y la l ongit ud oes t e 67 Q 20' E l acceso mas recomendable es de de la ciudad de Salta recorriendo e uno 400 km. La rut a provincial N Q 43 pasa a esca o l000 m de las ruinas aba ndon adas del anliguo pueblo minero de lncahuasi. La roca de caja esta const ituid a por pelitas y grauvacas del Ordovfcico uperior. Dichas rocas estan afectadas por metamorfismo dinamico y a lt e r acio n hidr o t e mrnl e n di tint os grados de intensidad. La estruc tur a local posee varios sistemas de fracturas, de edades diferentes, que afec t an a l area tanto a l as rocas como a l as vetas de cuarzo. La mineralizaci6n esta relacionada a detenninadas ve t a de cuarzo portadora de oro (GONZALEZ y VIRUEL DE RAMIREZ 1 992). Este yacimien t o fue descubierto en la epoca prehispanica y trabajado por lo s In ca (BE RTAGNI 1 938). P os t erio rm ente l os sacerdo t es je uitas conti nu aro n dirigiendo l a l abores mineras hasta 1777 e n que fueron expu l sados por el R ey de Espana. De este perfodo se pudieron observar a l gunas galerfa subterraneas que a l canza r on la profundidad maxima de 50 m, donde el nivel freatico causaba un esco ll o insuperable para e tos mineros. La explotaci6n mayormente era realizada por rajos y tiene una extension de 240 m En 1936 l a Nueva Compafiia Minera ln cahuasi reinicia la exp l otac i on por debajo del nivel freatico con un de arrollo de galerfa sobre vetas, en di tintos niveles eparados 30 metros entre f hasta una profundidad aproximada de 200 m. La explo t aci6n fue abandonada en 1954 y desde e nt onces estos cinco niveles inferiores que totalizan unos 4110 m de galerfas se hallan inundados (GONZALEZ y VI RUEL DE RAMIR EZ, op.cit.). Conclusiones La E peleologfa Minera no tiene muchos antecedentes en Argentina. Los grupos espe l eo 1 6gicos locales han comenzado recientemente a tener en cuenta a esta actividad dando los primeros pasos en la exp l oraci6n y documentaci6n de la importancia hist6rica de vieja mina exi tentes en t erritorio argentino. Los tr es sitios aquf mencionados son solo algunos de l os que se tiene noticia y con tituyen un indicador del potencial campo de e tudio para la inve tigacion hist6rica, geologica, m i neral6gica y biol6gica. Agradecimientos A l os ge61ogo Pedro Rufz y Guillenno Almandoz de la em pre a RTZ-CRA, y Mario 0. Balod de Minera TEAS.A. A Luis Carabelli, director de la Comision de Cavidades Artificiales de la Federaci6n Espeleo16gica de America Latina y e l Caribe (F.E.A.L.C.) y al Geog. Mat. Osvaldo Martinez de GEA, compafiero de exp l orac i 6n en Famatina. Y muy e pecialmente a la empre a Minera TEA S.A. que posibilit6 l a presentacion de este trabajo. Bibliografia BALOD, M.O. 1996. Estudio geologico Camera La Laja. Albardon San Juan. Minera TEAS.A., inedito. BERTAGNI, A. 1938. lnfonn e sobre las minas de oro de la region Incahua i, Territorio Nacional de Los Andes, Direccion dee Minas y Geologfa, lnedito. GONZALEZ 0. E. y M. E. VIRUEL DE RAMIREZ. 1992. Geologfa de l a mina ln ca hu as i Dpt o. Antofagasta de l a Sierra. Catamarca. En: Actas del 4 Q Congre o acional de Geologfa Economica, A.A.G.E O.L.A.M.I., Cordoba: 72-82 MARCOS 0. y ZANETTJNI. 1 992 Geologfa y exploracion del Proyecto Nevados del Famatina. Jn fonne de la Secretarfa de Estado de Minerfa de La Ri oja y l a Dir eccion Nacional de Fabricacione Militares, La Ri oja. REDONTE, G. J. I 997. Cuevas y espe l eo l ogfa minera en el evado de Famatina, Provincia de La Ri oja, Argentina. En: Actas del IV Congreso E peleologico de America Latina y e l Caribe, Malargi.ie (en prensa). TURNER, J. C. 1 97 1 Descripci6n Geo16gica de l a H oja 15d Famatina, Provincia de La Ri oja. Bol e tin # 12 6, Servicio Geol6gico acio n a l Bueno Aires Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland, Volume 6 69

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    Figura 3. Fotograffa de la galerfa Upulungus en lamina La Mejicana. Estalactitas y estalagmitas de hielo. 70 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Grottes explorees au Honduras en 1997 par Pierre Strinati et Maria E l ena Ordonez Abstract S ur vey of th e kars t r eg i o n s, hi s t o r y of th e s p e l eo l og i ca l r e earc h es a n d d esc ripti o n o f five caves ex pl o r e d i n H ond u ras. Resume Pr ese nt a ti o n d es r eg i o n s k a r s tiqu es, hi s t o riqu e d es r ec h e r c h es s p e l eo l og iqu es e t d esc ripti o n d e c inq gro n es ex pl o r ees a u H o ndu ras. Resumen Pr e e nt ac i 6 n d e l as r eg i o n es k a r s ti cas, hi s t o ri a d e l as in ves ti gac i o n es es p e l eo 1 6g i cas y d esc ripti o n d e c in co cuevas exp l oradas in H o ndu ra Introduction L e H o ndu ras es t un p ays e n co r e p e u co nnu a u p o int d e v u e p e l eo l og i q u e. II p osse d e ce p e nd a nt un ce rt a in n o m b r e d e r eg i o n s ca l ca ir es favora bl es a l a k a r s tifi ca ti o n C es ca lc a ir es ge n e ral e m e nt c r e t aces so nt r e p a ndu s d a n s plu s i e ur s d e p a rt e m e nt s, n o t a mm e nt Co p a n S a nt a B a rb a r a, Co ma y a g ua Y oro, L a P az, Ol a n c h o e t Gr c i as a Di os. Parmi l es pr ec ur se ur s d e l a s p e l eo lo g i e a u H o ndu ras on trou ve, co mm e c'e t so u ve nt l e cas, d es sc i e ntifiqu es. Ce so nl d es a r c h eo l og u es e n effe t qui o nt d e crit d es g rott es pr es d e l a v ill e m aya d e Cop an ( GORDO 1 898) e t l es gr ott es d eC u ya m e l ( HEALY 1 9 7 4) L a vra i e ex plo ra ti o n s p e l eo l og iqu e du H o ndura s a d e but e dan s l es a nn ee 7 0 a !'initi a ti ve d 'ex pl o rat e ur s a m e ri c ain s e t can a di e n s, n o t a mrn e nt J Barb o r a k F. Bo g l e, L. Co h e n R Fin c h S Knut s on e t T Mill e r. On trou ve ra l a li s t e d es t r ava u x publi es e t l es prin c i p a u x r es ult a t s o bt e nu s p ar ces e xplorat e ur s dan s l a m o n og raphi e d e HAWK I S & MCKE ZIE ( 1 993). D e pui s l a publi ca tion d e ce t imp o rtant ou vrage, o n p e ut m e ntionn e r l a p a rution d e qu e lqu es a utr es rapport s d 'ex p e diti o n s. JONES ( 1 994) d o nn e un r ec it a n ec d o tiq u e d un e ex p e diti o n britanniqu e d a n s l e d e part e m e nt 14 PACIFICO 89" 88" ~ d Ol a n c h o. SIV E LLI ( I 99 4 ) d ec ril un e gro tt e ex pl o r ee d a n s l e d p a rt e m e nt d e Y o ro E n fin SIVELLI & D E GRANDE ( 19 9 6 ) d ec ri ve nt l es g rott es ex pl o r ees o r s d un e ex p e d i ti o n d a n l es d e p a rt m e nt s d Ol a n c h o e t d e Gra c ia s a Di os. D e pui s 1 994, d e n o mbr e u x ar ti c l es sc i e ntifiqu es ou d e v ul ga ri sa ti o n 0 111 r e ndu co mpt e d es import a nt es d eco u ve rt es a r c h eo l ogi qu es e ff ec tu ees a l a C u e v a d e l Rf o T a l g u a p ar l es c h e r c h e ur s d e I 1n s titut o H o ndur e ii o d e Antrop o lo g f a e Hi t o ri a. L a fa un e d es gro tt es du Hondura s es t qu as i in co nnu e. On trou ve ra l a li s t e d es tra va u x J a co n ce rnant d a n s l e tra va il d e STRIN AT I e t a l ( 1 98 7 ). A fin d e mi e u x c onn a 1tr e ce tt e fa un e, n o u s avo n s fai l e n 1 99 5 d es r ec h e r c h es bi os p eo l og iqu es d a n s d e u x gro tt es du H o n du ras ( STRIN A Tl 1 99 5 ). En 1997 n o u s so mrn e r e t o urn es d a n s un e d e ces gro tt es e t n o u s e n a von s ex pl o r e troi s a utr es. L e but d e l a pr ese nt e n o t e es t d e s itu e r e t d ec rir e so mm a ir e m e nt l es qu a tr e g rott es e xpl o r ees e n 1 99 7 L a g rott e v i s it ee uniqu e m e nl e n J 995 se ra eg al e m e nt d ec rit e. Qu a nt a u x r es ult a t s zoo l og iqu es d e n os ex ploration s, il s f e ront l 'o bj e t d e trav a u x ult e ri e ur s MAR CARIBE NICARAGUA 50 100 km ss 84 Fig I: Carte du Hondura s montrant la situ ation des grottes d ec rit es dan s l e texte. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 71

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    Situation et description des grottes 1. Cue v a El M as i cal (Departamento de Santa Barba r a ) Cette gro tt e est s itu ee a proximite du v illa ge de S a n Ni co l as, qui se trou ve a un e dizaine de kilom e tr es a l 'o u es t de la ville d e Santa B a rb ara. La gro tt e figure s ur l a ca rt e a u l : 50 000 ( H o j a 2560 IV San Nicolas). Souvent visitee par l a p o pul at ion l oca l e, l a Cueva El M as i cal est ci t ee pour l a premiere fois dans la litt erat ur e spe l eo l og iqu e par FINCH ( l 982). Le premier plan r ea li se par Finch et ses co llab ora teurs a ete publie par BOGLE ( 198 2). La C u eva El Masical 'o uvr e par un porche l a r ge e t haut si tu e a 30 metres au-dess u s du lit du Rfo d e Macholoa, soi t a un e a ltitud e de 500 metres. La grotte cons i ste t o ut d'abord en un co uloir h au t e t large dans l eq u e l l a lumi ere du jour p e n etre assez profond e m e nt. Apres un co ud e, l e plafond s'aba i sse et la ga l erie devient plus si nueuse. A e nvir on 1.300 metres de 1 'e ntr ee se trouve un e bifurca tion menant dans deux ga l eries active Le 22 mai 1 997, nous avons visite une partie de la ga l e ri e se che afin de recolter de la faune cavernico l e. Dans cette zone a sol horizontal ii y a de nombreux blocs ebou l es et plusieurs amas de guano. Le jour de la vis it e la temperature de I 'air etait de 22 C. 2. Cueva Calichal (Depart a mento de Santa Barbara) Cette grotte est situee dans l a meme zone que la Cueva E l Masical. Moins connue que ce ll e-ci, e ll e est cependant ega l ement visitee par l a population l oca l e e t e ll e est depuis peu exp l oitee pour son guano de chauves-souris E ll e s o u vre au pied d'une co llin e par un o rifi ce tres etroit; raltitude de l 'entree est d'environ 420 metres. Norman Oswaldo Vega de San Nicolas qui nous a accompa gne !ors des explorations de 1 995 et de I 997, a dresse un plan sche matique de l a cavite; so n developpement tota l est d'environ I 25 metre La grotte e t fom1ee d un e ga l erie horizontale rectiligne dont l a l argeur varie de 3 a 8 metres et dont la hauteur va en a u mentant depuis l e puits d'entree jusqu a atteindre une dizaine de metre Dans la zone t ermina l e se trouvait en 1995 une imp or t ante ma e de g uan o; en 1997, l e g uan o etait moins important s uit e a une exp l oitation recente de ce lui -ci. La grotte est peu decoree; elle ne possede que quelques concre tion s massives. Nous avons explore ce tt e grotte pour la premiere fois l e 22 avri l 1 995 e n compagnie de C h ar l es Hu g et de Norman Oswaldo Vega. Afin d'effectuer de nouvelles recoltes zoo lo giques, nous y sommes retournes en compagn i e de Nom1an Oswaldo Vega l e 2 1 mai 1 997. Lors de nos deux visites l a temperature de air dans l a zone terminale etait l a meme: 26 C. 3. Cueva de Taulabe (Departamento de Comayagua ) La Cueva de Taulabe se itue au bord de l a route joignant le s viUes de Siguatepeque e t Taulabe, a e nviron I kilometre d e cette demiere lo ca lit e. Cette gro tt e figure s ur l a carte au I : 50 000 ( Hoj a 2660 Ill Taulabe). Son a ltitud e est m e ntionn ee s ur l a ca rt e: 633 metre II s'agit d'une grotte amenagee partiellement pour l e tou risme. Un se nti er a e t e co n st ruit dan s la pr e mi ere parti e d e la cavite et un ec lairag e e l ectriq u e a e t e in s t a ll e. II es t a not e r que s ur l a car t e topo grap hiqu e e t s ur l es docu ments touri s tiqu es l a grotte fi g ure so u s l e nom de "C u evas de Taulabe". En fait, ii s'ag it bi e n d un e se ul e gro tt e co mpo see d un e longue galerie s inueu se se divisant e n d e u x dan s sa parti e termi n a l e. L e d eve lopp eme nt tota l de la grotte a tteint l e kilometre. Un plan de la Cueva de Taulabe a e te publi e par MILLER ( 1981 ). L a Cueva de Taulabe po sse d e un e gra nd e var i e t e de concre tion ouvent rougeatres: talactites, s tala g mite s, co lonnes. La parti e proche de I 'en tr ee es t sec h e, mai s plu s en profondeur l humidit e est tres forte. Accompagnes par Charles Hu g, nous avo n s v i site ce tt e gro tt e l e 20 av ril 1 995. Ce jour-l a l a temperature de l 'air etait de 24 C. 4. Cueva del Vie j o ( Departamen t o de L a P az ) La Cueva del Viejo se trouve a proximite de l a ville de La Paz s ur l e nanc d'un etroit va llon au fond duquel co ul e un ruisseau. Elle est bien connue de l a population l oca l e, mais semb l e n avoir ete s i g nal ee que par TSCHINKEL ( 1 984) sous l e nom de Cueva Vieja". MANKINS & MEYER ( 1965 ) c it ent une "Cueva del Viejo" au Hondura s, mais sans en preciser l a sit uati on. L'altitude de la Cueva del Viejo est d environ 800 m et r es. La grot t e s ouvre par un l arge proche donnant acces a un e ga l erie al l anl en se retrecissant. Ap r es quelques metres cette ga l erie forme un coude et o n arrive dans un e c h ambre totalement obsc ur e a pla fo nd eleve. Le so l es t recouvert de guano partiellement liquid e. A partir de ce point et sur des dizaines de metres regne une puissante odeur d'ammoniac. Plus en profondeur le so l de la galer i e est re co u ver t de poussiere et de cai ll o u x. L air est re l ativement sec; sa temperature etait de 24 C le 20 mai I 997. Nous avons recolte de la faune dans de nombreuses parties de la grotte, mais I 'exploration comp l ete ainsi que la topographie de la cavite restent a faire. 5. Cueva del Rfo Talgua (Departamento de Olancho ). Cette grotte est ituee a environ 7 kilometres au nord-est de la vi ll e de Catacamas. Elle s'ouvre a peu de distance du lit du Rio Ta l gua. Depuis toujours. elle a ete visitee par la population locale, mais l a premiere publication spe l eologique la concemant est celle de COHEN ( 1986). Dans ce travail figure un plan detaille de la grotte realise par Cohen avec I 'a id e de nombreux autres spe l eo l gues. La grotte possede plusieurs entrees; !' a ltitud e de l'entree prin cipaJe est d'environ 450 metres. La Cueva del Rio Talgua est une grande cavite depassant l es 3 kilometres de developpement. E ll e est parcourue par un affiuent du Rio Talgua et elle est tres riche en concret i o n s calcaires; elle possede notamment de tres belles sta l actites et draperies blanches. Mais son principal interet est d 'ordre arc h eolog iqu e. En avri l I 994, des speleo l og u es l ocaux ont en effet decouvert des galer i es et des sa ll es non ex pl orees par Cohen qui contenaient de tr es importants documents archeologiques. JI s'agit d'une part de vases en ceramiq u e ou e n marbr e et de fragments de jade et d'autre part d'un cime ti ere compose d'os longs et de cranes dispo ses par groupes et recouverts de cris t a u x de calcite. Lorsqu ils sont ec lair es, l es cra n es recouverts de calcite deviennent tres brillants; c'est pourquoi o n a utili se a l e ur s uj et le t em1e de "ca la veras lumino sas Afin d'eviter l e pillage de l a zone archeologique, l a Cueva del Ri o Talgua a e t e fermee par une gr ill e. D epuis 199 4 d'importantes recherches archeologiques o nt e t e effect u ees dans l a Cueva del R fo Talgua e t dans ses environs par des chercheurs de I In st itut o Hondur eiio de Antropologia e Hi s toria e t n otamment par l e Dr George H ase m an n. Quelques travau x ont deja ete publies, mais l es recherches so nt loin d'etre tem1inees. Les premiers resultats mon trent que le s restes a r c h eo lo g ique s so nt vieux de pres de 3.000 ans e t que le s population s qui viva ient dans l a region de Talgua n e t aie nt pa s apparentees aux Mayas. ( BRADY et al. 1995 a et 1995b ). Grace a un e autorisation dorm ee par l 'IHA H nou s avons pu etudier la faune cave micol e de la Cueva del Rio Talgua l e 24 mai 1 997. Nos re c h e r c h es ont e t e effectuees dans l es premieres ga l e ri es faisant s uit e a l a porte d 'acces. Dan s cette zo n e l es milieux so nt varies: sol argileux, ca illoux co ncr e tion s massives, depots d e gua n o b ass in s d'eaux. L humidit e es t tres grande; quanta la temperature 72 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Spe l eology 1997, Switzer l and Volume 6

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    de I 'a ir e ll e etait de 20C e t ce ll e de I 'ea u de I 9 C. Bibliographie BOGLE, F. 1 982, Caving in Hondura s. Part H Speleonews 26 (2): 1 6-2 1. BRADY J E ., G. HASEMA N & J H FOGARTY 1995 a. H a r ves t of s kull s and bones. Archaeo l ogy 1 8 (3): 36-40. BRADY J .E., G. HASEMA N & J H FOGARTY 1995b. S ecre t os e c ondido s h a ll azgo lumin o os. Americas 47 (4): 615 C OHEN L. 19 86. Exp loration s of th e Rfo Talgua. NSS News 44 ( 5 ): I 1 31 16 FCNCH R 1 982. Cavi n g in H o ndu ras. Part one. Speleonews 26 ( I ) : 31 3. GORDON G B 1 898. Cavern s of Copa n Mu se um of Amer i can Archaeology and Ethnology M e m o ir s I ( 5): 1 3914 8 + I pl. H AW KINS T. & A. MCKENZIE. 1 993. Th e C aves of H o ndur as. Serpent dans la zone obscure de la Cueva de/ Viejo A fir t Li s t. Briti s h Tea Caver s xi ii+ 59 p. HEALY P.F. 1 974. The Cuyam e l Cave s: precla ss i c s ite s in north eas t Hondura s. American Amiquit y 39 (3): 435 447. JO ES J 1 994. Hondu ras R eece 1 994. A s h ort R epo rt 26 p. MANK[NS J V. & J R MEYER. 1 965. R at Snake pr eys o n Bat in tot a l Darkn es J Mammal 46 (3): 496. MILLER T. 1 98 1 Taulab e, Hondura s. Canadian Caver 1 3 ( I ): 40-42 SIVELLI, M 1 994. Vi aggio in Hondura s. So 11 o terra 97: 5-13 SlVELLI M & F. DEGRAND E. 19 96. H ond ur as, Montaiia s d e Colon 95 Speleologia 34: 84-95. STRJNATI, P 1 995. R eco nnai ssa n ce bio s p eo l og iqu e a u H o ndu ra Gr o 11 es & Goujfres 137 : 34. STRCNATI, P ., G. CORTES & C GOICOECHEA 1 987. Quelqu es Grottes du Costa Ri ca et l e ur Faune. Ac r es Be Congres nati o nal Societe s ui sse de Speleologie: 23-32 TSCHINKEL W.R. 1984. Zophobas atra111s ( Fab. ) and Z. ru gipes Kir sc h (Co l eop t era: Tenebrionidae ) a r e the ame Specie s Coleop t eris t s Bull. 38 ( 4 ): 325-333. Proceedings of the 12 1h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 73

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    Results of Explorations in The Cave Devil's Wheerpools-Yugoslavia (Pecina nad vrazjim firovima) By Danica Vasileva Federal Hydrometeorological Institute Bircaninova 6, 11000 Belgrade Yugoslavia Chronological Review, Position The Cave Over Devil's Wheerpools was discovered in July 1987. It is situated north-west, 15km far from the Bijelo Polje town (see Figure 1) in the area Pester's Plateau The entrance of the cave is located in the deep Oalovica Gorge. Figure 1: Posjtion of the Cave over Devils Whcc.rpools The only possible approach to the entrance is by foot, The main entrance is at 750m a.s.l. in the inaccessible Oalovica Gorge. The large spring Head of Bistrica is situated downstream, less than 2km far from the entrance The local inhabitants of the Oalovici, Campari and Balsici 0 .., SACK S MARINE WAY villages used to hide the entrance of the cave a s the bi g g est secret from time immemorial becau s e it s erved th em during the war as a refuge The neare s t place to the cave where is possible to come by bus (during summer onl y), is Susica and afterward by all terrain vehicle to the Oal ov i ca village.The name of Devil's Wheerpools originates fr o m a few smaller and deeper pots situated in the river Bi s tric a in Oalovica Gorge. In August 1988 the explorations of the cave hav e be e n continued. The total length of 10,800m was obtained Recent Explorations During a few last months some new horizons in th e length of 3,500m have been explored.Now the total length of the cave amounts 14 300m and the precise topographi c map has been done (see Figure 2). The two upper horizons have been explored Th e lowest one has a permanent groundwater flow which drains out toward Oalovica Gorge during the period of hydrological minimum Based on previous results reached and according to our estimation the total length of the c a v e could be between 15,000 and 20,000m. The speleol o gi sts expect to find another exit/entrance in the eastern sid e of the cave Their expectation may be realised even thi s summer. It is impossible to describe the dimension and beaut y of the cave. The system of canals is complex and looks like a labyrinth. Some of the halls and galleries reach the ceilin g heights of 30m. All kinds of cave ornaments could be 500 CAN AL 750 1000 CAVE OVER DEVIL S WHEERPOOLS PECINA NAD VRAZJIM FIROV I MA BUELO POUE, YUGOSU.V I A lMTDt D IIIAOVtC Figure 2: Ground plan of the Cave over Devils Whcc.rpools 74 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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    found such as: stalactites, stalagmites columns, roses, rimstone pools showing the colours on spectrum. One stalagmite reaches the hight of 18m. When the cave opens the door for the tourist visits it will be a big surprise of unexpected beauty along three level horizons, dimension of halls and galleries and permanent groundwater flow, probably length more than 15,000m. Everyone interested in final exploration of this gigantic beauty is welcome to join yugoslav speleologists. The address is: Planinarski savez Beograda -Speleolo~ki odsek(Caving Club of Mountaineering Association of Belgrad e) Zmaja od Nocaja 9/IV 11000 Belgrade Yugoslavia E-mail: CEPBEG@EUNET.YU Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland Volume 6 75

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    Caves of Yugoslavia by Danica V asileva Federal Hydrometeorological Institute, Bircaninova 6, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia The kars t terrains (limestone-dolomite rocks) cover about 20000km 2 or 20 % of the total area of Yugoslavia More than 2000 of speleology interesting findings have been marked on this territory According to the present data there are 25 caves but only 8 of them fulfil necessary conditions for the tourist exploitation. These caves are unevenly scattered and located in certain regions. The most remarkable concentartion could be found in southwestem, Belgrade (Uzice) Cave over Devil's Wheerpools ( Pe s ter ) [we s tern part of Yugoslavia], Lipska Cave [southwe s tren part of Yugoslavia] During the last two decade s a large s tep in speleological discovering has been done, but due to la c k o f a wide-spread organized action of the s ociety and t o extremely poor information, this kind of touri s m i s onl y of local importance D ~ovac ( ~ CIDMAN'$ ABYSS Figure 1: Schematic .review of caves position in Yugos/a via western and eastern part of Yugoslavia (see Figure 1). Among the caves which fulfil necessary conditions for tourist visits are Ravnistarka and Ceremosnja (near Ku c evo, see the map) Rajkova cave (Majdanpek), Resava Cave (Despotovac) Zlotske Caves and Bogovinska Cave ( Bor) Cerjanska Cave (Nis), Vetrena Dupka Cave (Jerma) [ eastern Yugoslavia], Potpec1ca Cave and Stopica Cave Rajko cave is located in the v1c1TUty of the cit y Majdanpek. The Rajko's lost-river flows along its total length. The cave is consisted of two completely separated caves: the Abyss Cave and the Source Cave. The cave i s 2,304m long, but only the length of 1,410.Sm has been prepared for tourist visits. The name of the cave originates after a haiduk named Rajko, who lived in the last century. He plundered rich men merchants, stage coaches Th e 76 Proceedings of the 121h International Congress of Speleology, 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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    story says that he robbed the immense treasure and hid it in the cave. The cave is rich in ornaments. It is 120km far from Belgrade-Nis highway and 200km from Belgrade. The cave has been opened for tourist visits since 1975. Ceremosnja cave lies in the eastern part of Yugoslavia in the vicinity of the city Kucevo. It is 75km away from the Belgrade-Nis highway and 150km from Belgrade The total length of the cave is 775 5m and the tourist path is 43 lm long. The cave, ethnopark and arburetum (cave of Carpathic plants) make a unique tourist complex. The cave has been opened for tourist visits since 1980 Resava cave lies in eastern part of Yugoslavia. The cave is 52km far from Belgrade-Nis highway and 152km from Belgrade. The total length of the cave is 2,850m and the tourist path is 800m long. Zlotske caves are consisted of two caves: Lazar s and Vernjikica Caves. They are located in eastern part of Yugoslavia near the city Zlot. The caves are 22km far from the city Bor and 240km from Belgrade The total length of Lazar's Cave is 1,592m and the tourist path is 620 5m long. The total length of Vernjikica Cave is 1,015m and tourist path is 650m long. The caves have been opened for tourist visits since 1959 Cerjanska cave is located in southeastern part of Yugoslavia The Main Canal and the Abyss Cave is 3,360m long and the total length is 4,240m. The undreground flow exists in the Main Canal most of the yaer. The cave has not yet been prepared for tourist visits. Bogovinska cave is located in the eastern part of Serbia, 3km far from the road Boljevac-Zlot. It is consisted of canals and galleries situated at three levels: the highest which is dry, the Main Canal periodically hydrogeological active and the lowest one with permanent groundwater flow The Bogovinska Cave has not yet been prepared for tourist visits Petnicka cave is located in the village Petnica, near the city Valjevo. It is consisted of the Upper Cave which is dry and the Lower Cave with permanent groundwater spring In the vicinity of the cave there are: recreation center with sports terrains, basins with thermal water and restaurant. Potpeclca cave lies in the surrounding of the city Uzice (14km) and it is 2.5km far from the magistral road Belgrade-Uzice-Adriatic Coast. The total length of the cave is 555 5m and the tourist path is 400m long One of the curiosity of the cave is gigantic entrance (dimension 50xl2m). It is the largest entrance in Yugoslavia. The cave has been opened for tourist visits since 1981. Stopica cave lies in the vicinity of the city Uzice about 10km far from the magistral road Belgrade-Uzice-Adriatic Coast. The total length of the cave is l ,69 l.5m. It is consisted of abysses and springs that Trnavska Stream flows through. The cave has not yet been prepared for tourist visits The main attraction is the Canal with rimstone pools and the Large Room with rimstone pools the largest and the deepest one (over 7m). Cave over Devil's Wheerpools is the most recently discovered cave It lies about 15km southeast from Bijel o Polje The cave entrance is accessible by foot only, because of the steep and inaccessible Dalovica Gorge. It 's difficult to describe its beauty and dimension. The cave reach es more than 15, 000m of explored canals and is the large st one in Yugoslavia All kinds of cave ornaments can be found such as: stalactites, stalagmites columns, draperie s, corals, aragonite ornaments, roses rimstone pools showing the colours on spectrum (slides ground plan). Usacka cave's system and Tubica cave lie near th e city Sjenica (western Yugoslavia) These are two very attractive caves originated by the activity of lost-riv e r s Tubica cave is extraordinar by expanded network of narrow canals. It is rich in cave ornaments and consisted of three units : Usacka, Ice Cave and Abyss Cave which are related The Tubica cave has favourably distributied canals and even 6 exits/entrances which are very attractive. The se caves have not yet been prepared for tourist visits. Marble cave lies near Lipljane, 3km far from the road Pristina-Skoplje. It was discovered in 1969 and has ben opened for tourist visits since 1976 The total length is 1,118m and 440m have been prepared for tourist visit s The canals and halls are situated at three lavels. Lipska cave is situtaed at the southwestern part of Yugoslavia, near the city Cetinje. It was discovered by the end of the last century. The cave was interesting to th e tourist even before the Second World War They visited it by using the carbide lamps for illumination. The Lipska Cave is very well known by its additional attractions: rich in cave ornaments, beautiful Cetinje surrounding and historical monument the Njegus Mausoleum. The cave ha s not yet been opened for tourist visits. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland, Volume 6 77

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    Some Speleological Act i vities i n Y u goslav i a b y Danica V asileva Federal Hydrometeorological Institute, Bircaninova 6, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia Bac k groun d There are a lot of pits in the southern part of Yugoslavia covered by "holokarst" in the meaning of "full" or "complete" karst referred to the limestone terrains where all the karst phenomena have been developed. The deepest pit in Yugoslavia, called the Pit Vjetrena brda (Windy Hills), reaches the depth of 897m. It was discovered in 1985. The pit Dubok do ( D eep Valley) in Njeg u si village reaches the depth of 620m, the p it Du basnica (eastern Yugoslavia) of 254m, Maksa's p it more than 250m, the pit Dvestotka (Two Hundred) and the Meande r P it about 200m. All the pits, except the Deep Valley and the Pit Dubasnica, are located over the Risan's Bay at the locality called "the Stone Sea" (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Localities of speleo l ogical explorations during 1997 in Yugoslavia Curr en t E xpl o r a ti o ns The speleologists of the Caving Club of Mountaineering Association of Belgrade (CCAMB) made great efforts by the end of the last and during this year to continue the explorations at the pit V jetrena brda (Windy Hills) Another 137 meters have been reached. Every next descending hid curiosity and uncertainty about unknown depths During the exploration the pit was mapped with a lot of necessary parameters such as: depth, width, cracks, fissures, crevices, orientation, galleries (if any existed). The permanent groundwater stream flows at the bottom of the pit. In cooperation with speleodivers (Diver's Association of Serbia) the speleologists of CCMAB dove 83m deep Fountainhead Krupac, located in eastern Yugoslavia. It was the deepest diving in Yugoslavia. Comparing to the previous deep diving into Spila Risan (Adriatic Coast) at the depth of 45m, and more than 300m long, in cooperation with French divers (July-August 1996), it could be said that this is not a small accomplishment! Current speleological explorations are concentrated mainly in southwestern part of Yugoslavia. These are: Cave over Devil's Wheerpools, the Pit Vjetrena Brda Maganik, Lovcen and Njegusi Mts (pits). The explorations of the Cerjanska Cave (long 4,400m) have been continued this summer in the eastern part of Yugoslavia (Student Speleologic and Alpinistic Cl u b) The spe l eo l ogists of Yugoslavia are very ambitious having many plans for the future, before all, to continue and to finish the current explorations, to complete the mapping and further to start with new one. They did all of these explorations volunteering and with great enthusiasm The further speleological activities will be extremely dramatic, because the terrai n s covered by holokarst have not been speleological searched after the Second World War. The n u mero u s of karst phenomena are hidden in these terrains. Everyone interested m expressing speleo l ogical s kil ls is welcome to join us. The addresses are: Planinarski savez Beograda -speleoloski odsek(Caving Club of Mountaineering Association of Belgrade) Zmaja od Nocaja 9/IV 11000 B elgrade, Yugoslavia E-mail:CEP B EG @E UNET. YU ASAI< Student Spe l eologic and Alpinistic Club Studentski trg 16/11 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia E-mail:Mihajlo and Milena Mandic,ZIS@BEOTEL.YU Speleologic Group of Young Explorers Assosiation 14000 Valjevo, Yugoslavia P.O.Box 118 78 Proceedings of the 12 111 International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland, Volume 6

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    Late Paper Submissions Communications de derniere minute

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    Karst Bio-space: an introduction and description of some of the disturbance impacts to invertebrate cavernicoles in Tasmania (Australia) A rthur C l a rk e ( Department of Zoology University of Ta s mania Sandy Bay Ta s mania 7005 Au s trali a) Abstract K a r t bi o s p ace i s r e pr ese nt e d a s d1 e s um-t o t a l of th e actual or p o t e nti a l habit a t s a nd mi c ro h a bitat s of al l li v in g s p ec i es in kar s l. Thi s bi o s p ace ca n b e furth e r d esc rib e d in t e rm s of ar ea l s i ze dim e n s i o n s as microc av e rn s (< I mm ), m eso-ca v e rn s ( I t o 1 5-2 0 mm ) a nd m acro cave rn s (> 1 5 -2. 0 c m ). ln man y kar s t s includin g th e so luti o nal k ars t of ca rbon a t e ro c k s, th e m eso cave rn s p ro b a bl y r e pr ese nt th e m a j o r h a bit a t s p ace co mpon e nt for inv e rt e brat e cav e rru c ole s in d1 e k ars t bi o-s p ace. M os t o f th e c arb o n a t e ro c k kar t s o f T as m an i a ( Au s trali a) occ ur in for es t e d k a r s t a r eas o r li e d ow n s tr ea m from a c tiv e l y l ogge d k a r s t ca t c hm e nt s ln m a n y o f dl ese ar e a s, g round-br eak in g ac ti v it y assoc i a t e d w ith tim be r pl a nt a t a tion s and timb e r h a r ves tin g h as h a d a s i g nifi ca nt imp ac t o n k ars t pr ocesses imp ac tin g o n cave rni co l o u s in ve rt e b ra t es, p a rti c ul a r a qu a ti c s p ec i es w hi c h li ve in th e m eso cave rn s and m ac ro -c a ve rn s o f th e sa turat e d e pik ars t and e nd o k ars t a n d fl oo d e d ( phr ea ti c) r eg ion s Foreword Th e followin g p a p e r o n k a r s t bio -s p ace i s ba se d on a c on ce pt int ro du ce d in a r ece ntl y c ommi ss ion e d r e p o rt a nd s ub se qu e nt p a p e r s w hich d e t a il th e imp ac t s t o ca ve fauna in T as m a ni a ( CLARKE 1 99 7 a; 1997b ; 19 9 7 c). Th e initi a l r e port w as co mmi ss ion e d a s on e of a se ri es o f r e port s fo r th e biodi ve r s ity co mp o n e nt of th e e n v iron m e nt a nd h e rit age a sess m e nt for th e T as m an i a n a nd Co mm o wea lth g o ve rnm e nt s c ompr e h e n s iv e r eg i o n a l a se s m e nt ( CRA ) pro cess for T as mani a n fo r es t s ( Th e CRA pro cess in it se lf i s a pr e liminar y s t age in th e n ego ti a ti o n of a R eg i o n a l F o r es t A g r ee m e nt ( RF A) for T as m a ni a). Karst bio-space: an introduction K a r s t bi op ace" ca n b e d e fin e d a s th e s um-t o t a l of th e ac tu a l o r p o t e ntial habitat a nd mi c ro habitat s of a ll li v in g s p e ci es in k a r s t (C LARKE 1 99 7 a; 1 99 7b; 1 99 7 c). Th e bi o-s p ace i s comp osed of va ri o u s unit s of d e ri ve d "s pa ce" within th e r oc k m ass: th ese c an b e d esc rib e d o r ca t ego ri sed acco rdin g t o s i ze dim e n s i o n as mi cro-cav e rn s, m es ocave rn s an d m acro-cave rn s ( HAMILTON SMITH ,pers. c omm., 1 99 7 ; HOWARTH & STON E 1 990). Th e mi c rocave rn s h ave a di a m e t e r o f l ess t h a n o n e millim e tr e; th e m eso-ca v e rn s ran ge i n s i ze fr o m 1 15 mm ( p e rh a p up t o 20 mm ) an d cave rn o u si ze d s p aces o r m ac r o-cave rn s" w hi c h e n co mp ass th ose cav iti es w ith a di a m e t e r in excess of 15 -20 mm ( 1 .5-2 c m ) an d o b v i o u s l y includ in g caves: th e hum a nl y e nt era bl e co mp o n e nt of th e k ars t bi o-s p ace ln c arb o n a t e rocks. thi s k ars t bi o-s p ace i s co mp osed of th e in t erco nn ec t e d n e t wo r k of s p aces r efe rr e d t o as cracks, j o int s pip es, vert i ca l c h a nn e l s tub es vo i ds h o ri zo nt a l co nduit s a n d ca viti es (i n c ludin g caves), th a t h ave fo nn e d a s a r es ult of th e l o n gt e rm effec t of a ll so luti o n p rocesses in ca rb o n a t e rock a nd s ub seq u e nt geo m o r p h ic eve nt s. A t a n y g i ve n tim e, d e p e ndin g o n co nditi o n s o f r ec h a r ge (wa t e r input ) a nd di sc h arge ( drain age) th is h o n eyco mb e d n e t wo r k o f s p aces or s p o n gewo r k in kar s t m ay b e a ir fill e d wa t e r fill e d o r a lt e rn a tin g in b e t wee n Thi s n e t wo rk of a i r o r wa t e r fill e d s p aces ca n b e inh a bit e d th ro u g h o ut b y in ve rt e b ra t e (a nd v e rt e b ra t e) fa un a a nd alon g wi th t h e minut e s p aces i n th e int e r s ti ces of cave se dim e nt s a nd d e tritu s ca n a ll b e co ll ec ti ve l y t e rm e d as th e k ars t bi op ace w h e r e a qu a t ic a nd t e rr es tri a l s p ec i es h ave th e p o t e nti a l t o m ove fr ee l y a nd mi gra t e throu g h o ut t h e bi o-s p ace foll o win g m o i s tur e a nd nu t ri e nt in p ut s. Th e actual o r pot e nti a ll y w a t e r-fill e d part s ofdl e k ar t bio -s p ace a r e co mm o nl y r e f e rr e d t o as c omp o n e nt s of th e k a r s t a qui fe r o r k a r s t h y dro l og i ca l sys t e m Th ese in c lud e th e la ye r s o f k a r s ti fied ro c k in th e un sa turat e d e pikar s ti c r eg i o n th e r ec har ge o r di sc h arge wa t e r s of c a ve s tr e am s a nd th e p e rman e ntl y flo o d e d or sa tu ra t e d phr ea ti c zo n e ( FORD & WILLIAMS 1 989; GILLIESON 1 996 ; JENNINGS 1 98 5 ) C a rb o n a t e ro c k s s u c h as lim es t o n e ar e d e p os it e d in la ye r s o r bed s ; so m e l aye r s m ay b e m o r e olubl e and m o r e p e rn1 ea bl e to wa t e r th a n o th e r s, c au s in g se l ec t ive so lution d eve l o pm e nt of cav iti es o r p e rmittin g bodi es of wa t e r t o b e p e r c h e d o n e a b o v e a n o th e r. Thi s h as imp o rt a nt impli ca ti o n s fo r cave rni co lou faun a p ar ti c ul a rl y durin g p e ri o d s of r ec h arge, p e nnittin g g r e at e r mobi l it y o f a qu a ti c s p ec i es thr o u g h th e bi o-s p ace, and a l so trappin g" t e rr es trial s p ec i es th a t ma y b e for ce d int o th e un sat u a t e d cav iti es o f th e e pik ars t r eg ion till r ec h arge wa t e r s s u bs i de. Durin g p e riod s of s i g nifi ca nt r ec h a r ge, dra in age wa t e r fr o m swa ll e t s or s urfa ce see pa ge ca n f ee d se par a t e h ydro l og i c al sys t e m s an d e m e r ge a t di ffe r e nt e fflu xes o r s prin gs ( INGL ESMITH 1 974) pro v idin g an ex pl a n a ti o n fo r th e fa c t that th e a m e a qu a ti c s p ec i e s m ay b e pr ese nt in a dj o inin g h y drolo g i ca l sys t e m s w ithin o n e ka r s t a r ea. Bi o l og i s t s ca nn o t effec ti ve l y s tud y d1 e fa un al co mp o n e nt of mi cro-cave rn s a n d m eso-cave rn s a nd h e n ce o ur k n ow l e d ge of cav e rn ico l o u s in ve rt e brat es i s limit e d t o th ose caves th a t a r e acces s ibl e. It h as b ee n es tim a t e d th a t fo r m os t ka r s t areas of th e wo rl d o nl y I 0 % of a ll caves h ave s ur face o p e nin gs o r con n ec ti o n s e a blin g und e r gro und exp l ora t io n a n d bi o l og i ca l s tud y (CU RL 1 958). Th e r eco rd o f co ll ec ti o n s o f in ve r te b ra t e fa un a from caves o nl y r e pr ese nt s a s m a ll pro p o rti o n of th e fa un a i n th e t o t a l bi os p ace of any g i ve n kars t area w ith p o t e nti a ll y m a n y m ore s p ecies t o b e fo un d p a rti c ul a rl y in t h e s m a ll m eso-cave rn s p aces of th e e pik a r s ti c or gro un dwa t e r ( phr ea ti c) zo n es w hi c h are n o t access ibl e. Th e v i s ibl e kars t bi o-s p ace o f caves in c lud es a ll th e v i s u a ll y m o r e o b v i o u s mi croh a bi ta t s fo r t e rr es tri a l s p ec i es i n m ac r o-cav e rn s (o r caves) s u c h as th e ex p ose d s ur faces o r s m a ll p o r es a n d c r ac k s in cave wa ll s cave ce il i n g and o th er rock s ur faces H ow eve r eve n in l a r ge cave th e r e a r e m a n y o th e r l e s o b vio u s h abi t a t s fo r in ve rt e b ra t e fa un a. T h e minu sc ul e int e r s titi a l s p aces be t wee n dirt p a rti cles, sa n d gra in s, grave l s s m a ll s t o n es o r o r ga ni c m a t e ri a l d e p os it e d by fl oo d wa t e r s o n cave floor s ub s t ra t e can b e t e rm e d as mi cro-cave rn s a n d tin y m eso-cave rn s T h ese a r e a ll p o80 Proceed i ng s of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Swit z erland Volum e 6

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    t e ntiall y habit a t ni c h es for in ve rt e brat e c av e rni c ol es, a lon g w ith th e l a r ge r void s betw ee n ro c k fragm e nt s or th e bould e r s in a ro c k fall c hamb e r Similarl y th e w a t e r-fi ll e d int e r s titi a of b e dload s and o r g ra ve l o r s tr e am s id e d e p o it s m ay be h a bit a t ni c he s fo r aqu a ti c fa una e.g. th e tin y b a th y n e ll acea n s yn ca rid fro m aturat e d s tr e am s ide and s in W es t e rn Grand Fi s sur e of E x it Cav e in th e Id a Bay kar t of s outh e rn T a m a ni a ( CLARKE 1997 a; 1 9 97b ) Und e r s id e o f l oose co bbl e in a s tr e amb e d m ay be th e h a bit a t for aqu a ti c l ar v a e o r th e f ee din g s it e o f c ran g ony c toid a m phi p o d and a n as pid ea n sy n ca rid s, whil e th e s id es o f mor e firml y we d ge d or "ce m e nt e d co bbl es in a s tr ea m w a y o r th e s ilty or g ani c s ub s tr a t e of th e s tr a mb e d c ould b e o cc upi e d b y m a ll a quati c s n a il s s u c h a s t h e minut e 1 -2 mm lon g h y drobiid ga tr o pod s The formation of karst bio-space in carbo nate rocks of Tasmania ln car bon a t e ro c k s, th e kar s t bios p ace i s initiall y form e d b y o luti o n pr oces e plu s th e s ub se qu e nt geo m o rphi c a c t s o f co rro i o n e ro s ion d e p os iti o n o f se dim e nt a nd co ll a p e of we ak e n e d r oc k s tr a ta th a t in tot a l ar e d esc rib e d a s th e pr ocess of k a r s tifi c ation 1n T a m a ni a n k a r s t o luti o n w at e r i s ge n e r a ll y ac idi c a nd ha s thr ee o ri g in s: fir s tl y, c arb o ni c ac id d e ri ve d fr o m h y dr a ti o n of a tmo s ph e ri c car b o n di ox id e (C O ), plu s th e CO 2 produ ce d b y bi o lo g i ca l pro cesses in so il s ( FORD & WILLIAMS 1 98 9 ; 1 99 6 ; JENNI GS 1 98 5 ), eco ndl y, th e humi c a nd ful v i c ac id pr o du ce d b y rottin g vege t a tion in so il and l eaf litt e r ( FORD & WILLIAMS 1 989) a nd thirdl y, th e s ulphuri c ac id d e ri ve d from th e wea th e rin g o f p y riti c lim es t o n es, int e rb e dd e d s h a l es a nd min era li se d p a l aeo k a r t ( CL A RKE I 993; 1 99 5 ; HOUSH OLD 1 995; JAMES 1 99 1 ; JENNINGS l 98 5 ; OSBORNE I 99 5 ). Wh e r e rain wa t e r see p age i s pr e val e nt in fo r es t e d k a r s t areas, th e co n ce ntr a ti o n o f ca rb o ni c ac id i s co n s id e rabl y e nh a n ce d a s w a t e r s ub se qu e ntl y see p s th ro u g h th e mul c h and humu s l aye r s o f s oil s ab so rb s a dditional c arbon from th e fo r e t o r o th e r vegeta ti o n cove r Du e t o th e i mp o rtant rol e pl aye d b y d ecay in g l ea f litt e r and o il humu s co nt e nt in pr o m o tin g so lu ti o n it i s imp e rati ve that s oil s ov e rl y in g lim es t o n e are not di s turb e d (C LARK E, 1 997a; 1 997c: GILLIESON 1 996; HARDI G & FORD 1 993; JE INGS 1 98 5 ; L E WIS 1 996). Invertebrate cavernicoles in Tasmanian karsts Th e in ve rt e brat e faun a o f c a ves, co mm o nl y r e f e rr e d t o a cave rni co l es, ca n be impl y d e fin e d as a n y (i n ve rt e brat e) a nim al li v in g in a cave (E BERHARD e r a l ., 1 99 1 ). Th ese cove r a w id e ra n ge o f in ve rt e b ra t e taxa w ith v ar y iJ1 g d eg r ees o f d e p e nd e n ce o n th e s ubt e rr a n ean h a bit a t ra n g in g fro m t h ose o bli ga t e s p ec i es t t a ll y d e p e nd e nt o n caves t o o pp o rtuni s ti c o r acc id e nt a l s p ec i es th a t fo ll ow s tr ea m way int o cave or are was h e d i n / fa ll in o r s impl y ca rri e d in b y a ir c urr e nt s. Co ll ec ti o n r eco rd s indi ca t e that th e m j o rit y o f th e acc id e nt a l s p ec i es found in T as m a ni a n tr ea m caves a r e !l y in g in sec t e.g. Pl eco pt e r a (s t o n e fli es), Tri c h o pt e ra (ca ddi fli e ), E ph e m ero pt e r a ( m ay fli e ), Od o n a t a ( d rago nfli es), Dipt era n m yce tophilid s (g l ow wo nn ), c hiron o mid s ( mid ges), tipulid s (c ran e !li es). tri c h oce rid (w int e r c r a n e fli es), c uli c id s ( m os quit oes), ciar id (f un g u fli e ), a nd ph o rid s ( hun c hb ack fl i es) (C LARKE 1 997a; 1 997 b ). Anim a l s th a t ca n o nl y li ve in c a ves a nd n ow h e r e e l se a r e so m t i m es r e f e rr e d t o as o bli ga t e b eca u e th ey are cavelimit e d ". t t a ll y d e p e n de nt o n th e cave h a bit a t a nd th e r efore o bli ged t o li ve in th a t s ubt e rr a n ea n e n v ironm e nt. Obli ga t e s p ecies are u s u a ll y co n fin e d t o th e d ar k zo n e of caves fo rm e rl y kn ow n as th e t rog li c zo n e ( RI C HARDS l 962) and so m e tim es desc ri bed as th e d ee p cave zo n e (E B E RHARD e r a l 1 99 1 ; EBERHARD 1 992c) o ft e n l ca t e d in th e inn e r o r d ee p e r p a rt s o f a cave, away fro m ex t e rn a l influ e n ces, a nd n o rm a ll y co n s id e r e d t o be a ve r y t a bl e, but humid e n v ironm e nt w ith n a turall y lo w nutri e nt input. In thi s s t a bl e e n v i ronm e nt th e r e i s a r e du ce d seas onal d e finiti o n of r e pr o du c ti ve eve nt s, w hi c h are u s u a ll y m o r e r e l a t e d t o mi croclim a t e c onditi o n s w ithin a p a rti c ul ar h a bit a t ( DORAN 1 99 1 ). M a n y o f th e o bli ga t e c av e rnicole s a r e c r y pti c ( or se cr e tiv e) b y n a tur e, o r b y v irtu e of th e ir pr e ferred mi c ro h a bitat ( a s n a rrow wa ll c r ev i ces o r th e int e r s titial s p aces in so il a nd s tr e am id e d e p o i t ) o r du e t o th e ir ve r y s mall s iz e ( oft e n < 5 mm ) and ma y e lud e e v e n th e b es t of cave bi o lo g i s t s leuth C oll e ction r eco rd s a nd ca v e fa un a r e p o rt indi ca t e th a t p o pul tion number s ar e v a ri a bl e. Wh e n d e void o f di s turb a nc e imp ac t s om e a qu a ti c s p ec i es a pp e ar to b e a bundant throu g h o ut a g i ve n h y drol og ic a l y t e rn wh e r e a s s om e t e rr es tri a l s pe c i es a ppear t o h ave a ve r y r es tri c t e d di s tribution and ar e rar e l y ee n b y s p e l e ol og i s t s. In T as m a ni a, th e blind ca rabid b ee tJ e G oede rr ec hu s me n d um ae i o nl y known from a s mall sec tion ofk a r s t bi op ace in th e E x it Cave sys t e m of th e Id a Ba y kar s t. Wh e n fir s t di scove r e d b y c ave bi o l g i s t s in th e north wes t e rn ex tr e mit y o f E x it C ave durin g ear l y M a r c h 1 9 69 G m e n d um ae was o nl y kno w n fr o m t wo fe m a l e s p ec im e n s found in on e s mall p ass a ge se ction ; s ub se qu e nt c oll ec tion s in l a t e M a r c h a nd M ay ( 196 9) from th e s am e ar ea y i e ld e d t wo m a l es a nd tw o m o r e fe mal e App rox imat e l y t we nty s pe c im e n s we r e co ll ec t e d in D ece mb e r 1 9 74 b y a v i s itin g Jap a n e e e ntom o lo g i t ( SH U ICHI p ers. co mm ., 1997 ), but s in ce th e n th e be e tl e h as o nl y b ee n r e p o rt e d from a s in g l e p ec im e n c oll ec t e d b y th e w rit e r in M arc h 1 989 from Thun Jun c tion ( IB-020 ), an a dj o inin g v e rti ca l ca v e sys t e m c onn ec tin g dir ec tl y with E x it Cav e n ear s it e of th e e arli e r c ol l ec ti o n S o m e a qu a ti c pe cie m ay h ave r e l a tiv e l y l arge popul a ti o n s w ith a wid e ge o g raphi c di s p e r sa l ran ge du e t o e nh a n ce d m o bilit y in aqu a ti c m e dium s a nd m ay b e found in severa l cave sys t e m s w ithin a n y g i ve n h y drolo g i ca l p rov in ce How eve r so m e aqu a ti c s p ec i es with a bund a nt p o pulation s hav e low di p e r a l p o w e r as exe mpli fi e d b y th e minut e h y dr o biid ga tr o p o d s: a qu a ti c s n a il w hi c h a r e kn ow n to o ft e n o nl y li ve in s m a ll bodi es of wa t e r (E B E RHARD 19 92a). Hydrobiid s h a v e b ee n r ec ord e d from s in g l e ca v es o r cave sys t e m s in T as mani a ( PONDER 1 992), a nd in cave ys t e m s of t h e Id a B ay and Pr ec ipitou Bluff kar s t s, th e r e are eve r a l p o pul a ti o n s of diff e r e nt s p ec i es li v in g s ymp a tri ca ll y in th e sa m e cave s tr ea m ( CL A RKE 1 99 0 c; 1 997 b ; EBERHARD 1 992 b : 1 99 5 ). ln caves w h e r e th e d o min a nt h y drolo g ic a l r eg im e i s see p age o r p e r co l a ti on w a t e r rath e r th a n throu g hflow w a t e r aqu a ti c p ec i es a pp ear t o b e l ess abundant e.g. th e s m a ll population o f tro g l o biti c (o bli gate) h e t e rid i so p o d in A F. ( IB 110 ) a t Id a B ay ( CLARKE 1 989a; 1 99 0 c). Th e s p ec i es di ve r s it y ( richn ess) o f cave co mmuniti es in c lu des th e t o t a l r a n ge of s p ec i es in a ll cave zo n es a nd a ll mi c r oh a b i t a t s. S o m e cave co mmuniti es in c lud e di ve r se asse mbl ages w ith m a n y o bli gate cave s p ec i es, w h e r eas so m e cave co mmuniti e a r e pr d o min a ntl y co mp osed of acc id e nt a l s p ec i es m ain l y t e rr es tri al spe cies. Exa mpl es of s p ec i e di ve r s it y o r s p ec i es ri c hn ess a nd th e va r a bl e numb e r s of a qu a t ic an d t e rr e tri a l p ec i es w ithin cave co m muniti es of T a m an i an cave a r e g i ve n in T a bl e I. In ve rt e brat e spec i es in T as m a ni a n cave co mmuniti e li ve in a pr e d o min a ntl y ( and n a tur a ll y) l ow l eve l nutri e nt e n v ironm e nt de p e nd e nt o n n a tur a l o r ga n ic input fr o m t h e ur face sys t e m s a nd n tri e nt r ecyc lin g wi thin th e r es p ec ti ve cave eco y t e rn M os t cave ecosys t e m s ar e ve r y fr ag il e and eas il y s u sce pt i bl e t o di s turb a n ce fro m b o th s u rface i mp ac t o r "w ithin cave v i it o r im pac t (C L A RKE 1 98 9b ; 1 997 b ; 1 99 7 c). Fund ame nt a l t o Lh e v i a bil i L y of th ese cav e c ommuniti es i s th e s t a bilit y o f a m o i s tur e r eg im e: e ith e r a co n s t a nt s uppl y of 'clea n unp o llut e d s tr ea m wa t e r w ith n a tur a l nutri e nt inpul a nd /o r p e r co l a ti o n (see p age) wa t e r s w hi c h m ai n tai n n a tu ra l ca v e a ir humidi ty in a s t a bl e e n v i ro nm e nt w ith l ow eva p tr ans pir a ti o n ra t es. S o m e o f th e T as m a ni an cave i n ve rt e br a t es are Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 199 7, Sw i tzerland Volume 6 81

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    Cave number Cave name Occurrence Aquatic Species Terrestrial spp. records BH-008 Main Drain 38 4 25 BH-203 Thylacine Lair 110 7 8 1 CP-006 APPM Cave 11 0 11 CP-037 Philrod Cave 28 5 17 E-20 1 Sherrills Cave 47 0 32 F-034 Kutikina Cave 76 6 43 FG-201 Flowery Gully Cave 62 I 45 G-X3 Rum P ot 26 2 17 GP-001 Gunns Plains Cave 77 9 42 H 2 1 4 King George V Cave 1 24 5 30 IB-010 M ystery C r eek Cave 1 04 5 45 IB 014 Exi t Cave 1 54 10 50 fB-110 Ar thur s Folly 64 14 24 JF-004 Khazad Dum 51 6 33 JF-006 Cas hi on Creek Cave 72 0 25 JF-036 Growling Swallet 49 4 23 L-004 Mostyn Hardy Cave 87 13 45 MC-001 Kubla Khan 63 5 54 MC-032 Baldocks Cave 46 I 17 MC-052 Scotts Cave 47 3 19 L 003 Spider Den 71 I 45 PB-001 Damper Cave 73 7 32 PB 004 Cueva Blanca 43 5 23 PB-006 Bauhaus 67 3 32 R-202 Glue Passage Cave 3 1 3 20 VF-X2 Sa li sb ur y River Cave 33 3 22 WE-XI Campers Cavern 30 0 25 Table I: A list of27 selected caves from karst areas in Tasmania (shown in Figure I). These caves comprise the majority of Tasmanian cave fauna occurrence records and the list indicates respective numbers of aquatic and terrestrial species based on published and unpublished records in Clarke (1987; 1989c; 1990b) and Eberhard (1992c) and the RFA Cave Fauna database (Clarke 1997a). a l so important as species in t e rm s of evo lutionar y biology (CLA RKE I 997a; 1 997b; EBERHARD et al. 1 991). Separated from their surface a n ces t o r s, many of th e cavern i co lou s in ve rt brates in karst a r eas of Tasmania in c lud e phylogenetically or distributionally i so lat ed re li c t s which have evo lv e d in s ubterran ea n enviro nm e nt s ove r a considerable period of tim e, possibly dating back t o a geomorp hi c era in th e ubt e rran ean biospace b efore th e development of th e caves they now liv e in ( HOLSINGER 19 88). Du e to sepa r a ti on of karst areas or co nti g uou s cave (d rain age) ys t e m s within a karst a r ea, ge n e ti c i so lation ha occurred and s p ec ia tion of cave rnicolou s faunas indicat e hi g h l eve l s of e nd e mi c ity and mo s t of these obligate s p ec ie s ca n be co n s id ere d as rar e and threatened s p ecies (CLA RKE 1997a ; 19 97b), though ac tu a l ca t ego ri sa ti o n to a conserva tion s tatu s ma y depend on h a bitat thr ea t s or di turban ces t o th e karst biopa ce. Surface impacts to invertebrate cavernico les in the forested karst of Tasmania Forest practices commo nl y include ground breaking activity s u ch as road makin g developing sn i gging tr acks or dragging logs. Ground-breaking activities a l so includ e quarrying of s tone for r oad e mpla ce m e nt or fill for lo wl y in g areas or as road grave l s; timb er h arvest in g it se lf including tree-falling, c l earing, wi ndro w in g and burning plu s the s ub seq u ent development and maintenance of tim ber plantations. Most of th ese forestry practices wi ll l ead to s i gnifi cant impa c t s on cave rni co lou s fa un as, particularly direct effec t s on aquatic inv e rt e brat es and indir ec t effec t s o n t e rr es tri a l s p ec i es ei ther in karst a r eas und e rn ea th forest ac ti v it y or kar t downstream from catchments that are being worked. The cave fau n a of the epi karstic a nd e ndo-k ars ti c portions of th e karst biospace wi ll be di r ect l y impacted b y s ur face disturbances in karst (CLARKE, 1 997b), 82 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    particularly ground breaking ac tivit y and destruction of s urfa ce lit t e r o r mul c h by forestry pra c ti ces includin g fir e (HOLLAND, I 994). So il m a ntl es on car bon a t e rock are ge n e rally thin c l ayey re si du a l so il (G ILLlESO 1996 ; JEN I NGS. 1985: KIERNA 1 988) wi th eve n thinn e r mantle s where lim es tone purity i s high e r ( LEWIS 1 996). The soi l s over carbo n a t e ro c k in kar s t area s h ave been lik e n ed to being on a s i eve, b eca u se s urfa ce wate r s th at drain into th e imm ed iat e underl y in g e pikar st (see be l ow) ca n carry so il particl es and g rit s directly into the kar s t h ydro l ogic sys tem ( LEWlS 1 996). Solutional kar t proce es may also be impeded by block ages in so lution widened cracks or fissures in th e bedro ck due to mobili sa tion of c l ay and g rit s from di st urb e d so il profil es. ln in t a nc e w h e r e karst s lop es have b ee n r e du ce d to bar e rock s urf aces Figu re 1: Map of Tasmania showing locations of 50 carbonate rock karst areas in fore s ted regions; these karst areas include all the caves with recorded occurrence records for in vertebrate species (see Clarke 1997a; 1997b) 0 0 N i due to so il lo ss from l ogg in g and burnin g, trees are n ot li kely to grow again until the litter and moss ba e ha become r e-es t ab li s h ed, a proce s which cou ld take severa l cen turi es t o occ ur In areas pre vio u s l y cove r ed by g l acia l till s, e.g. on th e now s te e p bar e rock s l opes of l ogged a nd burnt lim es t o n e urface on Van co u ve r I s l a nd in Canada, the forest may n o t return until .... th e n ext g l acier h ave depo s it ed a n ew l ayer of till. ... ( H ARDrNG & FORD 1 993). Ground breaking ac ti vi t y in karst ca t c hm e nt s u s uall y l eads t o an increa se of edimen t influx into st r eams and forest removal or c h a n ged vegetation r eg im es in th e ca t c hment w hi c h l ead t o a lt e r ed tr eam n ow condi ti on Flooding in trean1 caves of t e n occ ur s a a r es ult of the increa sed water yield fo ll owing forest r e moval. Aquatic cavernico l es in h ypogean ( und e r gro un d) habitat s of kar t a r eas w ill be threat e n e d by the sa me impact s that affec t aquatic s p ec i e in epigean ( u rface) habitat s. Th e effects on cave fauna wi ll be more mark e d becau e of th e limit ed mobility of so me s p cie t o avo id imp ac t s (e.g th e minut e h ydrobiid gastro p ods) or th e narrow h abitat ran ge due to r es tricted h ydrological sys tem limit s imp osed by th e indi v idual s ubt e rr anean karst tog et h e r w ith th e n atura ll y lo w nutri e nt input l eve l s. Turbid floodwat ers h ave been ob e r ved emerging from cave e ffluxe in th e Gunn Plain s kar t in northern Ta m a ni a and in the Weld River karst of so uthern Tasma nia (C LARKE 1 997a ; 1 997c) Both th ese kar s t s are si tuated down s tr ea m from l ogging operatio n s in forested ca t c hm e nt s. Som e of ~GP LO L 0 _,;c ./cP 100km PS/ II .,, 0 A C, Q th e s tr ea m caves in th e Gunns Pl a in s kar t area co ntain very few aq uati c s p ec i es and during a r ece nt visit in l a t e D ecember 1 996, th e writer not ed that the terrestrial s p ec i es co mp o n ent of cave com mu niti es in th ese s it es at Gunns Plain s a pp ear to be m a inl y limit ed to e pi gea n acc id e nt a l pecies a nd tr og l oxe n e Simi l ar impact hav e been r e port ed in sectio n s of th e Mole Creek karst as a result of poor m anagement in fo r es ted a r eas, particularly on pri va t e l and holdin gs ( KIER A 1 984: 19 88). T e rr estria l cavernico l e in hyp ogean habitat ofkars t area will be direc tl y and indirectly impa c t ed b y effec t s o n aq u at i c species and alterations t o s tr ea m h ydro l ogy w hi c h promote sed im e nt depo Proceedings of th e 1 2 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 83

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    si tion affect moi st ure input level s or int erfere with natural air cur rent movements. Terrestrial cave faunas will also be directly im pacted by disturbances to th e epigean karst s urfac e which will modify bio-space humidities due to r educed percolation tlow or introduce toxic pollutants (inc ludin g sedimentation) and simi l arly modify othe r natural meteorological conditions related to air vol umes and air flow (CLARKE 199 7a; 19 97c). In so uth ern Tasmania lim estone quarrying has severe l y im pacted the invertebrate fauna of two cave systems whic h h ave re lated hydrological drainage during periods of high recharge: Exit Cave and Bradley-Chesterman Cave (CLARKE 1 989b ; EBERHARD 1992b; HOUSHOLD, 1 995). References CLARKE A. ( 1987) A report and commentary on biological stud ies from caves in southern Tasmania. Supplementary report to Fi nal Submission to Commonwealth ( H e l sham) Inquiry into Lemonthyme & Southern Forest (Exhibit No. 185) presented 291 1-1987. 2 I pp CLARKE, A. ( 1989a) Invertebrate s pecies from Arthurs Folly (IB1 LO). From unpublished submiss i on: "Caves nrnth of the South Lune Road and proposed W.H.A. boundary to Secretary, Lands Parks & Wildlife ( I 0-4-1989) 7 pp. CLARKE A. (1989b) Some environmental aspects of karst: the sensitivity of karst hydrologies to human impacts. Report s ubmtt ed to Tasmanian Dept. of Envrionment & Planning. May 1989. 13 pp. CLARKE, A. ( 1 989c) Fauna from the cave s and karsts of the Subs Hill area Western Tasmania. Unpublished preliminary report to Tasmanian Dept. Parks, Wildlife and Heritage. 24pp. CLARKE. A. ( 1990) ldabase a karst data base for the Ida Bay area. Vol. 3, (Appendix 5) in Houshold, I. and Spate A. "The Ida Bay Karst Study: geomorpho l ogy and hydrology of th e Id a Bay karst area August 1990. 67 pp. CLARKE, A. ( l 993) Sedimentary ore depo its: a di cu sion of the variation and changes in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) l ead-zinc and stra tiforn1 copper deposits throu g h time. Unpub li shed paper University of Tasmania. CLARKE, A. ( 1 995) Searching for palaeokarst at Id a Bay in so uth ern Tasmania. Speleo Spiel, 287: 4I 0. CLA RKE A. (1997a) Management prescriptions for Tasmania's cave fa una R eport to Tasmanian RFA E n v ironm e nt and H er ita ge Technical Committee Ta manian Park s and Wildlife Service. March I 997. 186 pp. CLARKE A. (1997b) Karst Bios p ace. In Press (as P ape r presented to) A.S.F. Conference I 997 Pro c. 21 s t Bi enn i a l Conference Aust. Speleo. Fed., Quorn, South Australia. April 1997 1 2 pp CLARKE, A. ( I 997c) Impacts on cave fauna and recommended protection measures in forested karst areas of Tasmania. In Pr ess (as Pap e r pr ese nt ed to) A.S F. Conference 1997 Proc. 21st Bien nial Conference Au t. Speleo. Fed., Quorn, South Australia. April 1997. 11 pp. CURL, R .L. ( 195 8) A s t a ti stica l th eo r y of cave e ntranc e evo lution Bull. Nat. Speleo. Soc., 20: 9-22. DORAN N ( 1991 ) Cave adaptation in the Ta manian Cave Spi der Hickmania troglodytes. Unpubl. BSc. Honour s Thesis, Zool ogy D ep t Uni. of Tas. 11 2 pp. EBERHARD S. ( 1992a ) Inv es ti ga tion of th e potential for hydrobiid s n ai l s t o be used as enviro nm e ntal indi cators in cave streams. Pre liminary Draft R eport, to P.W.H., February. 1992. 1 8 pp. EBERHARD S. ( 1 992b) The effec t of tream sedimen t ation on population densitie of hydrobiid molluscs in caves Unpubl. Re port to Dept. Parks Wildlife & H eritage May 1992. 11 pp. EBER HARD S.M. ( 1 992c) The invertebrate cave fauna of Tas mania: eco l ogy and conservation biology MSc. Thesis, University of Tasmania August 1992. 184 pp. EBERHARD S. ( 1 995) Impact of a limestone quarry on aquatic cave fa una at Id a Bay in Tasmania. ln Press for Proc. I I h ACK MA Conf., Tasmania 1995. EBERHARD S.M. RICHARDSON A.M.M. & SWAIN, R. ( 1991) The invertebrate cave fauna of Tasmania. Zoology Dept. Univer sity of Tasmania. 172 pp. FORD, D.C & WILLIAMS P.W. ( 1 989) Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology. Unwin Hyman, London. 601 pp. GILUESON D.S. ( 1996) Caves: proces es development and man agement. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK. 324 pp HARDING K.A & FORD D.C. ( 1993) lmpacts of primary de forestation upon lime tone slopes in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Environmental Geology: environmental change s in karst areas. 21 : 137-143. HOLLAND, E (1994) The effects of fire on soluble rock land scape s Helictite 32 (I): 3-10. HOLSINGER J .R. ( 1988) Troglobites: the evolution of cave-dwell ing organisms. American Scientist 76 (2) : 146-153 HOUSHOLD, I. ( 1995 ) Rehabilitation of the Lune River limestone quarry. In Press for Proc. 11 h ACK MA Conf .. Ta s mania, 1995. HOWARTH, F.G. & STONE F.D. ( 1990) Elevated carbon dioxide levels in Bayliss Cave Australia: Implications for the evolution of obligate cave specie s. Pacific Science 44 (3): 207-218. INGLE-SMITH D. ( 1974) Limestone hydrology and its relevance to app li ed geography. Paper presented at Anglo-Polish Seminar Torun, Poland Sept. 1974. 18 pp. JAMES J. ( 1991) A discussion of the solution of lim estone by su lphuri c ac id and its imp ortance in A u tralian caves ln Brooks S. (ed ) Cave Leeuwin 1991 Proc. l 8 th Biennial Conf. Aust. Speleo Fed .. Margaret River W.A pp. 87-93. JENNINGS J.N. ( 1 985) Karst Geomorphology Basil Blackwell, Oxford. 293 pp. KIERNAN K. ( 1 984) Land use in kar t areas Forestry operations and the Mole Creek Caves. Report to Forestry Commission of Tas mania National Parks and Wildlife Service of Tasmania and Aus tralian H e rita ge Commission. 320 pp. KIERNAN K. ( 1 988) The management of solub l e rock l andscapes: an Australian perspective. Speleological Research Co un ci l Ltd. Sydney, Australia. 6 I pp. LEWIS S. ( 19 96) Clearcutting o n karst: soi l erodes into lim estone caves. Watershed Sentinel 5 (4). OSBORNE, A. ( 19 95) Evidence for two phases of Late Palaeozoic karstification cave development and sed im ent filling in so uth -east e rn Australia. Cave a nd Karst Science Trans. Brit. Cave R es. Association. 22 (I): 39-44. PONDER W.F. ( 1 992) A n ew ge nu s a nd s p ecies of aq uati c cave li v in g s nail from Tasmania (Mo llu sca: Gastropoda: H ydrobiidae). P a p. Pr oc. Ro y. Soc. Tas., 1 26: 23-28. RI CHA RDS A M. ( 1962 ) Cave anima l s a nd th eir env ironm e nt. H e lictit e, I ( I ) : 31 3. 84 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Recent biospeleological studies in Campeche (Yucatan peninsula, Mexico) 1 Jose G. Palacios-Vargas *, Jo se A Gamboa-Vargas** Laboratorio de Ecologfa y Sistematica de Microartr6podos D ep to Biolo gfa, Facultad de Ciencias. UNAM. 04510 MExico D. F. ** Facultad de Ingenierfa, UADY, Periferico y Ave. Industrias no co ntaminant es, 97000 Merida, Yucatan Mexico. Project with the support of CONACyT ( National Comitee for Science and Technology) No. 50 I 5 7 NP Abstract Only 23 cave have been tudied from Campeche State in the pa t. The fauna cited a tTOglobites from tho se caves are arthropod mainly of big ize a the I opoda, Amphipoda, Decapoda Scorpion s, Araneae and Orthoptera R ece ntl y, for making an eva lu ation of the cave fauna from Campeche and compare it with that from Yucatan State ( Palacio -Vargas I 993, 1995 ; Zeppelini Filho et al ., 1 995), we hav e done four expeditions to their cave two on 1996 (October and December ) and two on 1997 ( March and May ). Several caves were exp lored the mo s t import a nt for their dimensions, formation and fauna are Xtancumbilxunaan and Actun-Kin. In all th e caves we hav e collected sa mple s of so il, guano and detritu s. The temperature of the caves are from 20 to 25 degree Ce l s iu s. We have focus our attention mainly in the microarthropod s and have found more than one hundred different s pecie s. Th e mo t intere s ting record s are of Pauropod Diplopod s, many mites of Cryptostigmata. and Me sos timat a Order s and new s peci es of Collembola ( ln secta). Map s of th e most important caves as well as a Ii t of mo t intere s ting arthropods are pre se nted Introduction Th e Penin ula of Yucatan i s known becau e the big amount of caves it ha s. Mo t of them are rather s uperficial not very deep Deepe s t cave in the area is Actun Chulul with about 1 30 m ( Araujo et al .. 1994 ), before it was Xtancumbilxunaan from Carnpeche State (90 m d ee p ). Some of the cave sys tem can be everal kilometer lon g and many of them combi n e several environment aquatic and terrestrial wi th in t eres tin g a nd different biotopes depending on biotic and geologica l facts. The main geologic Lructures from thi P e ninsula are hown in figure I the kind of roes, se diment and geo logical time s are s hown in Fig 2. The first most imp ortant wo rk on the Co ll e mbola ( H exapoda) from the region was done by Mill ( 1 938) who d esc ribed several pecie and recorded so me ot h er. Some of the fir s t mite s from Yucatan cave were de sc ribed by Wharton ( 1938 ). Fir s t compila tion s abo ut the cave fauna from the P e nin s ul a we r e done b y Pearse ( 1936. 1 945). All the information about the Bio peleology of Yu ca t an Pen in ul a was compiled by Reddell ( 1971 1981 ), and r cently few works have been pub l i hed, and they deal mainly with microarthropod s ( Palacios-Vargas et al. 1 985 ; Pa l ac io s-Va r gas & Gomez 1994 ). From Campeche State o nl y th e cave Xtancumbi l xunaan was once previou ly ex plored and it fa un a s tud ied by the senior author in 1991 ( P a l acio Var gas, 1 993). The present contrib ution was to mak e a r ea l know l edge of the fauna from caves of Camp ec h e one of th e three s t ates of Yucatan P e nin s ula Further st udie s of cave from Quintana Roo will a ll ow u s to compare the fauna from the who l e Penin ula Materials and methods Four expeditions were done to Camp ec he State to co ll ect cave fauna. ln order t o avo id perturbation, bat were not s tudi ed. Two expedit i o n s were on 1996 (Oc t obe r a nd December) and two in 1997 ( March and Ma y). Five caves were s tudied: Actun Guachapil (= Huachapil ) in figure 3 Cueva de los Tucanes Xtancumbilxunaan ( fi g 4), Actun Kin ( fig 5 ) and cenote Chonhua Only from three of then th e topo grap h y was done and i s includ ed h ere. The effor t of collecti n g for each cave wa different Xtancumbilxunaan wa s col l ec t ed a t the four expedi ti on Actun Kin twic e and the o th er three only o n ce S a mple s of so il, debris and guano were t ake n in all th e caves and were proceeded in B e rlese funnel s, fir t without any ource of heal and af t er with heat till it s tot al dryne ss. A l s o manual collec tion s were done for s p ec imen s of big s ize Small arthropods as Protura, Diplu ra, Collembola, A car i and other were mount e d in lide for it morphologic a l st ud y and identifi ca tion under micro cope. Results A total of 114 differ e nt taxa were co ll ected ( Table I ), few of th em we r e id e ntifi ed t o s pecies l eve l due t o th e l ack of lit erature and r ecen t taxonomical revision of th e genera living in caves. From Fig. I : Main geological structures of Yucatan P e nin su la Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Spe leol ogy 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 85

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    E 0 50 ICM. Fig 2 : Geolog i cal periods, kind of r ocks and sed im ents th e m it i s th e fir t tim e th a t o m e gro up s h ave b ee n c it e d fr o m caves. Thr ee n ew p ec i es o f Co ll e mb o l a a n d seve n o f mit es we r e di scove r e d a nd w ill b e d esc rib ed. Discussion and conclusions A total o f I 1 4 s p ec i es we r e r eco rd e d fr o m th e e, a b o ut I O a r e n ew s p ec i es t o sc i e n ce. Th e cave w ith m o r e di ve r s it y w as A c tun Kin ( 5 3 s p ec i es), and af t e r Xtan c umbil x un aa n ( 51 ), Gu ac hapil (4 1 ), C h o nhu as (2 0 ) a nd Tu ca n es ( 11 ) It see m s th a t th e m os t int e r es tin g b eca u se th e r e a r e s till se v e ral n e w s p ec i es o f C ol l e mbol a, ( from ROCAS SEOlt; Gil Quoternorio Mioceno P Pocen [S] Mloceno 0 Ii goc eno [Ifill Eoceno E.Poleoce El Cretoclco 0 Cretciclco El Poleozoico ROCAS IGNEAS B Mesozolco B Poleozoico Poleozoico ..... F o I lo s Limit, de estodo Carretero s th e ge n e ra P se 11 dosi11e ll a, A rrh o p a l i t es a nd Mega l o th o r ax) i s X t a n c umbil x un aan cave. A l so m a n y mit es we r e fo und but s t i ll m o r e t axo n o mi ca l s tudi es a r e n ee d e d t o h ave a co mpl e t e fa uni s ti c li s t of thi s g roup A ft e r o ur s tud y. i n th e caves ex pl ore d th e r e a r e r e pr ese nt e d fo ur A r ac hnid a o rd e r s w ith o nl y s i x s p ec i es. A m o n g Aca rid a o r ders. M e o ti g m a t a h a d 24 s p ec i e Th e m os t w id e l y r e pr e e nt e d fa mi li es we r e La e l a pid ae (Cos m o l ae / a p s), Rh o d aca rid ae, A sc id ae, P o l yas pidid ae, and U rop o did ae From th e o rd e r Pr os ti g m a t a th e r e we r e id e ntifi e d 24 s p ec i es fr o m e l e v e n famili es M os t a bund a nt a nd b e tt e r r e pr ese nt e d in a ll th e cave a r e T ro mbi d iid ae a nd 86 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Spele o logy 199 7, Switzerland Volume 6

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    C un ax id ae. A m o n g a t o t a l o f 72 s p ec i e of mit es, from th e C r y pt o ti g m a t a th e r e we r e so rt e d 2 4 spec i es fro m 2 1 f amili es. Th e r e a r e seve r a l C ru s t acea but m os t fr e qu e nt are l so pod a. Int e r es tin g r eco rd s we r e th ose o f so m e Protura a nd Diplur a, but f e w s p ec i es. T h e Co ll e mb o l a i r e pr ese nt e d b y 2 5 s p ec i es fr o m e l eve n famili es. Th e Pt e r ygo t a gro up we r e n o t tudi e d in d eta il. A bri e f co mp a ri so n w ith th e cave fa un a fr o m Yu ca t a n St a t e h ow th e fo ll owi n g r es ult s. Thi s i s th e fir s t tim e that P a lpi g r a di a r e c it e d fr o m Ca mp ec h e. Oth e r ara c hnid s as P se ud osc orpion s, A mbl y p yg i a nd S c hi zo mid a a r e co mm o n in b o th s t a t es, but in Ca mp ec h e we did n o t fi nd Opili o nid s. Mit es in caves f rom b o th t a t es ar e: L ae l a pid ae ( Co s m o l ae l a p s), Z e r co nid ae, A sc id ae, Dithin oze r c onid ae a nd Uropodid ae, s h a rin g severa l ge n era. ew fo r th e r eg ion a r e P o do c inid s fo und in Ca m pec h e caves. Th e C un ax id ae and Rh agi di id ae see m t o be mu c h m o r e di ve r se a t th e c a ves h e r e s tudi e d with eve r a l n ew s p ec i e th a t s how int e r es tin g a d a pt a ti o n s to cave lif e ( tro g l o morphi s m s) S c ut aca rid s, T o mbi c ulid s and Trombidid s a r e c omm o n in th e g u a n o of th e caves fr o m b o th s t a t e Th e C ry pt o ti g m a t a s h a r e d we r e: Aph e l aca rid ae, P a rh y p oc hth o nid ae, H y po c hth o niid ae Sph ae ro c hth o nid ae, Phthi raca rid ae L o hm a nniid ae N o thrid ae H e rm a nni e llid ae a n d G a lumnid ae P a u ro pd s a nd S y mph y l a r e pr ese nt n ew r eco rd fo r th e caves of Ca mp ec h e as we ll a th e Protur a n s and Diplur a n s. C a mp ec h e a nd Yu ca t a n St a t e s h a r e m a n y s p ec i es o f Co ll e mbol a as X e n y ll a yuca 1 a n a, Tull berg i a gr. co l/i s F o l so min a o n yc h i urin a l so10 mi e l/ a minor, Me t asi n e l/ a Ja l c i fe r T r ogo l ap h y sa s p ., C y p h oderus i1111omi11a 1U s a nd Nee /i des murinu s. But a l o n ew p ec i e fr o m th e ge n era P se u dosi n e ll a, A r r h o p a lit es and M ega / 01 h orax w e r e found S evera l n ew t axa for th e s t a t e a nd th e P e nin s ul a we r e al so r ec ord e d Acknowledgements Thi s proj ec t wa m a d e th a nk s to th e h e lp o f CONAC y T. Id e n t i fi ca ti o n o f so m e g roup s o f mit es we r e d o n e b y G a bri e la C as t a n o ( M e o ti g m a ra ), Bl a n ca M e ji a ( Bd e ll o id ea) a nd I sa b e l S a n c h ez ( Pro s ti g m a ta ) p o gra du a t e tud e nt s o f F ac ult a d d e Ci e n c i a U AM Fi e ld wo rk wa m a d e th a nk t o th e h e lp of Bi o l og i s t s A d a C as tillo a nd S a ul A g uil a r ( Fa c ult a d d e C i e n c i a ) and Mr. Om ar Ramfr ez ( Grupo T z icano z t o c Mor e li a). Bibliography ARAUJO 0 J A G AMBOA & P E R EZ A J 1 994. Ac tun Chulul : l a cave rn a m as profund a d e Yu c at a n Mund os Subt e rr a n e o s, 5 :91 7. MI LLS, H B 1 938. C o ll e mb o l a fr o m Yu ca t a n caves. Carn eg i e In s t. W as hin g t o n Publ ., 49 1 : 1 831 9 0 P ALAC I OSV A R GAS, J G. 1995 Nu evos d a t os so br e l a fa un a cave rnf co la d e Yu ca t a n M ex i c o Mund os Subl e rr a n eo 6 :41 2. P ALAC I OS -V ARGAS J. G 1 993. Ev a lu ac i 6 n d e l a fa un a c a ve rnf co l a t e rr es tr e d e Yu ca t an. M e m Bio p eo l ., 2 0 : 15 7 1 63 P ALAC I OSV ARGAS J G M OJ EDA & K C HR I STIANSE 1 985. T ax onomf a y Bi ogeogra fi a d e T rog l opede t es (Co ll e mb o l a: P a ron e llid ae) e n A m e ri ca, co n e n fas i s e n l a es p ec i e cave rnf co l as. Foli a Entom o l. M ex 65:3-3 5 P ALAC I OSV ARGAS J G. & J A. G o m ez. 1 994. E l u so d e t ra rnp as para l a co l ec t a d e co l e mb o l os ca v e rnf co l as e n e l es t a d o d e Yu catan. Mundo s Subt e rran eo 5:48 -49 P ea r e, A S. 1 93 6 R e ult of s ur vey o fth e ce n o t es in Yu ca t an Car n eg i e ln s t. W as h Pub!. 457 : 1 7 28. P EARSE, A S 1 94 5 L a fa un a. En c i c l o pedi a y u ca t ane n se, I: I 0 9-27 1 R E D DE LL J R 1 9 71. A pr e liminar y bibli og raph y of M ex i ca n cave bi o l ogy w ith a c h ec kli t o f publi s h e d r eco rd s A oc. M ex. Cave Stud 3: 11 84. R EDDELL, J R 1 98 l. A r ev i ew of th e cave rni co l e fa un a of M exico Gu a t e m a l a a nd B e li ze M e m Mu Uni ve r s it y o f T exas a t Au s tin T exa U SA 327 pp WH A R TON, G W 1 938. A car in a o f Yu ca t an caves. C arn eg i e In s t. W as hin g t o n Pub! ., 49 1 : 1 3 7 15 2. Z EPPE LI N Fil ho D & G C as tano M e n eses 1 99 5 E tudio pr e limin a r d e l a faun a ca v e rn fco la d e Yu c at a n M ex i co. Mund os Subt e rr a n eos, 6 :41 2. ACTUN HUACHAPI Perfil cie l o c ceso p r;nc;pol MUN l C!PI DE HOPELCHEN,CAMPECHE,ME !CO Topogrof,o erectvodo con Svt,.1n os y c;nto por-1 M o r,o GoMboo Gongot"'o,Jose Gol'lboo Val"'gos y 0r"larRo~irez Goono. 1997 Escolo groflco en r,ts 0 10 20 30 4 0 50 Acce s o pr ,nc; pol S i m bolog ia 0 A H .. o ( D ofuui } Co nt et'l"ft o Con(OT'I\O U\f..,.;do Roc a. U\alunt4ca ..... ... '' "" CU eoloJJn l'nig"""to. d ,-oeo., talac1Kto.t i, nfunm.u PltM
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    l!iili!i i i i i!ii ii !i!i!i!i!ii!ililiili!l.i i!i .. i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 ~ l XT ANCU MBILX UNAAN H op e l ch en Campech e, M e x i co Tupogra,f i a.. real i z a da c on S uun to y cin ta por : Omar R a..m i rez y J o se Gamboa }( C ORTE . -, ., -o \ k D \/ . . V _. @ v ~ i Vi V' ... -. V V V V ~-> _. / @ v $ v __ .. . V ., .. PLA N TA Fig. 4 : Xtancumbilxancan cave, lateral and upper views. ACTUN KIN IIUN/C/P/0 OE KAI.IKJ/UL CU/PECHE I/EX / C O Topogra,Jta. JehUJtl.o con Svvntos JI ein.tCl p~ P e r fil de a c ce s o prin ci pal Fig. 5 : Acllin Kin cave Upper view. E scala gr a / ica. e n metro s 0 I O 20 30 40 50 88 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Sw i tzerland Volume 6 S i rnbolog i a C> Acceso (Dolina) C o n t orno Con to rno in f eri d o R oc a inalte r a. da Ar bo Ra iz Bloq ues d e c ol a ps o Frag ment os d e r o cas E st al acti. tas y col umnas P en d ien t e suave t D esni v el a brupt o I) Cue rp o de agu a Area. i nund a.bl e Suelo hori z onta l 0 Cou r s b .d Sirnbologia 0 Acceao (Dolino. ) 'Contorno J C ontorno inferld.o Roca. i na.ltcrada. Arl:iol Ra. i i: Blo~ de oola.pao Fra.gmentos de rocas Estala.cti.ta.s l/ columna.s Pcndtente ,u.a.ve t De.m i vel a.brupto 0 Cuerpo de o,guo, . Area. inu.ndfibl.t S u elo horizonta.l C o u rs

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    Table 1 Comparative faunistic list of five caves f r om Campeche I= Actun Guachapil; 4 = Actun Kin ; 2 = Cueva Los Tucanes ; 5 = Cueva-Cenote Chunhuas 3 = Xtacumbilxunaan; TAXA 2 3 4 5 TAXA 2 3 4 5 ANNELIDA X Ereynetidae ARTHROPODA Ereyne1es sp. X CHELICERATA Tydeidae X ARACHNIDA Bdellida e X Palpigradi Cyra magda/enae X Ko ene nid ae Spinibdella depressa X Eukoenenia s p X X Cunaxidae Pseudo sco rpionida Da c1yloscirus s p X X X Chemetidae Siruta s p X Allochernes p X X X Cunaxa p X X Tejachemes s p X Cunaxoides s p X X X Amblypygi Neocunaxoides s p X X Paraphr yn u s s p X P se ud obonzia s p. X Schizomida Scuta car idae X Schizomus s p X Tar soc hey l idae X Aranea X X X Tarsocheylus s p X ACARIDA Trombiculidae X Me sostig mata Trombidiidae X X X Para itidae Trombi c ula p X Para si 1u s s p. X Cryptostigmata Rhodacarida e X X X Aphelacaridae Rh odacarus s p X Aphe/acarus s p X Rh odacarellus s p. X X Ctenacarus s p X A sc id ae X X X Parhypochthoniidae Antennoseius s p. X Parh ypoc hthoniu s sp. X As c a s p X Hypochthoniidae Podocinidae Eohypochrhonius sp. X P odocinum sp. X Brachychthoniidae X Zerconidae Eobra c hy c hlhonius sp. X Micro z ercon s p X Cosmochthoniidae X Phyto se iida e Sphaerochthoni idae Ambl yse ius p. X Sphaero c hlh on iu s sp. X X Eviphididae Phthiracarida Alliphis s p X X H o pl o phor e lla s p. X Ma croc helidae X Euphthiracaridae Pachylaelapidae Rh yso 1ritia s p. X Zy go seius s p X Epilohmannidae Laelapida e Epilohmannia p X Cosmo/ae/aps s p. X X X X Lohmannidae Geolaelaps s p. X T orpaca ru s p. X O/ eo lae/aps sp. X Lohmannia s p X Polya pididae othridae P o l yaspis p X X X No1hrus s p X Dithino ze rconida e X X X Trhypochthoni ida e X Uropodidae Malaconothrida e Di sco ur el/a s p. X Ma/aconothrus s p X X Din ychus s p X X Trima/aconolhrus s p. X Me1ag y n e lla sp. X H erma nniellida e Nen1eria s p X X X Sa cc ul oba l es sp. X Urodiaspis s p Carabodidae X Astigmata Oppidae Acaridae X X X Mulrioppia s p X Pro stig mata Thyrisomidae X Bimi c haelida e S c utob e lbidae X Bimi c haelia sp. X X Oribatulidae Eupodidae X X Sche/oriba1es sp. X X Rh ag idiid ae Hapl ozet idae X F oveac heles sp. X Galumnidae X X R obusroc h e l es hi/Ii X MANDIBULATA P oeci l o ph ys is w eye r e nsis X X CRUSTACEA Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 89

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    TAXA 2 3 4 5 TAXA 2 3 4 5 I so poda J sotomodes ea. a/exius X Annadillidae X Folsomina o n yc hiurina X X X X DIPLOPODA J soto ma sp. X Julidae X l soto mi e l/a min o r X X X PAUROPODA Entomobryidae Pauropodidae P se 11d os inella vera X Pa11ropus sp. X P se ud os inel/a sp. nov.l X X X SYMPHYLA P se11dos inella s p nov.2 X Seolopendrellidae M etasine l/a fa/cifera X X X Scolopendrel/opsis ea. s11b1111da X Paron e llidae HEXAPODA Par o n e /Ja sp. X PROTURA Trogolaphysa sp. X X X Eo entomjdae Cyphoderidae Eosentomon p. X Cyphoderus inn o minatu s X Aeerentomidae X Neelidae DLPLURA Nee/ides 11111ri1111s X Projapygidae X N min11111s X Campodeidae Megalothorax minimus X X X Campodea sp. X M egalo thorax p nov. X COLLEMBOLA Arrhopalitidae H ypogastruridae Arrhopalires ea. c hristians en i X Xenylla y u ca tana X X Collophora s p. X Neanuridae Katiannidae Paranura co lorata X Sminth11rin11s sp. X Braehystomellidae PTERYGOTA Bra c h ys tomella sp. X ORTHOPTERA X Onyehiuridae PSOCOPTERA X Mesaphorura qr. iowensis X HEMIPTERA X X M. gr. gran u/ara X HOMOPTERA X Tullber g ia gr. co l/is X COLEOPTERA X X X X X lsotomidae LEPIDOPTERA X X X Proisotoma centralis X X DIPTERA X X Fo/somides parvulus X 90 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Liste Schweizer Hohlenspinnen A ndr eas R o hn er Lind e n weg 3 b C H 5605 D ott i ko n Abstract Bi o p e l eo l og i ca l in ve Li ga ti o n s o f s pid e r s in S w it ze rl a nd h ave bee n m o d es t. A s a rul e, a ll ki nd of an im a l h ave bee n co ll ec t e d in caves lO b e d e t e rmin e d l a t e r b y o m e s p ec i a li s t M o t o ft e n ho weve r th ese a nim a l s ar e k e pt in co ll ec tion s but a r e till wa itin g fo r a sc i e nti fic ev alu a ti o n Thi r e p o rt a tt e mpt s t o li s t a ll S w i ss cave s pid e r s w hi c h h ave bee n d esc ri be d so fa r a nd t o a dd th e r es ult s of m y ow n co ll ec tin g of cave p i d e r s ove r th e pa t thr ee yea r s. Kurzfassung Di ese r T ex t in fo rmi e rt Ub e r di e bi s h e ut e n ac h ge wi ese n e n Spinn e nfund e a u s S c hw e i ze r H o hl e n Al s H a uptqu e ll e fiir di e N ac hw ei e vor 1 96 6 di e nt e STRTNATI 1 966. In di ese m Bu c h w urd e n sii mtli c h e in Hohl e n na c h gew i ese n e n Ti e r a rt e n au fge li s t et. e u e, e i ge n e D a t e n t an 1m e n a u S a mmlun ge n di e i c h mit Hil fe ei ni ge r Hohl e n fo r c h e r an l ege n k o nnt e. In di ve r e n P e riodik a w urd e zu d e m n ac h B e m e rku ge n Ub e r Spinn e nb eo b ac htun ge n ges u c ht Zu 99 % w ird d a b e i di e H e rb s t s pinn e M e ta m e nardi a n gege b e n s i c h e rli c h di e a u ffa ll e nd s t e E r c h e inun g in e n ge n H o hl e n In d e r A rt e nl is t e n we rd e n nur di e e un ac h weise mit d e r e n Fund o rt e n a n gege b e n Schweizer Hohlenspinnen D ie Spinn e nd a t e n s t am m e n a u s e in e m Zeitra um vo n e t was m e hr a l s I00Jahr e n D a t e n vo n 1 6A ut o r e n w urd e n be r e it s bei STRIN A Tl ( 1 966) a u s fiih r li c h e r o rt e rt und we rd e n hi e r ni c ht im E in ze ln e n a u fgefii hrt. E r st n ac h weise vo n in H o hl e n gefa n ge n e n S pinn e n we r de n mit e in e m s p ezie U ge k e nn ze i c hn e t und de r e n F und o rt un d Fundd a t e n wer d e n a n gege b e n. ln gesa mt l iegen vo n 336 H o hl e n O a t e n U be r S pinn e n vor (Tafe l I ) d a b ei w urd e n 5 1 A rt e n n achgewiese n (S t and D eze m be r 1 996). E in G r o t e il d e r B e l eg ti e r e i s t im N a tu r hi s t o ri sc h e n Mu se um Ge n f depo ni e rt we it e r e Tiere li egen i n mei n er H o hl e n sp i nne n Sa mmlun g. Exemp l are se l te n e r Ar l e n wie z. B P o rrh o mm a rose nh a u e ri w u r d e n d e m Na turhi s t o r i c h e n Mu se um B ase l Ub e r l asse n D ass Spi nn e n a u ch a u f d i e a m e n geb u ng von H o hl e n E i nfl u s h abe n ze i g t ein A u zug a u s de m Ze ntr a l a r c h iv d e r S G H wo rin 7 Nachgewiese n e Spinnen fam ilien Tehrid ii dae Pholcidae Onop i dae 4 0 50 100 150 200 250 Diagramm 1 : Hiiufigk e it der eirz ze ln e n. Spirznenfamili e n H o hl e n di e B eze i c hnun g Spinn e /Ar a i g n ee b es i tze n ( BITf E RLI mUndl. Mitt e il g.) Spinnenfamilien ln sgesa mt w urd e n e l f ve r sc hi e d e n e S pi nn e n fa mil ie n i n H o h l e n n ac h gew i ese n ( Di agra mm I ). A m h ii u figs t e n ve rtr e t e n s in d d i e Te t rag n a thid ae gefo l g t vo n d e n L i n yp h ii d ae, es t ic id ae un d Age l e nid ae. A li e A rt e n a u s a nd e r e n F a mili e n w urd e n nur d ur ch e in ze ln e Fund e n b e l eg t und s ind e h e r zu fa lli ge G iis t e in H o hl en. E in e A u s n a hm e si nd d i e Ph olc id ae, we l c h e abe r n ur in d er SUd sc h we i z in H o hl en vertre t e n si nd Mit 26 A rln ac h we i se n s t e ll e n d i e Lin y phiid ae di e arte nr e i c h s t e Fa m i l ie i n H o hl en dar; a ll er din gs s ind nu r we n igeArte n ec h te H oh l enbewo hn e r (trog l ob i o nt ). Tetragnathidae D ie a u ffa ll igs t e un d h ii u figs t e H o hl e n sp inn e n a rt U ber h a u p t i t Me t a m e n ar di (Tafe l 2). Gefo l g t w ir d s i e vo n de r etwa k l e in e r en Art Me t e lli na mer i anae (Ta f e l 3). In sgesam t w ur den vier Te tr ag n a thi dae A rt e n n ac h gewiese n : Hoh/en mit Spinnenfunde Tafel 1 : Ge s ammiibersicht der besuchten Hiihlen Pro c e e d i ngs of th e 12 th In tern ational Congres s of Speleology 199 7, Switz e rl a nd Volume 6 91

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    Meta menarcli Metel/ina merianae Meta bourneti Metellina meng e i Nachweise 180 45 In 33 H o hl e n w urd e Meta menarcli und Metellina m e riana e gemeinsa m gefu nd e n. In we l c h e m Ma sse s i e s i c h konkurrenzieren i I nicht bekannt. M e tellina merianae ist a b e r vie! h ii ufi ger ausse rh a lb vo n H o hl en zu finden a l s M e ta m e narcli Meta bourn e ti die g ro ss t e Schw eize r H o hl e n s pinne w urd e bislang nur in e in e r Tessiner Hohl e gefu nd en. Sie kommt a n so n s t en im m e dit e rr a n e n R aum vor. Linyphiidae Di e Linyphiidae i s t die arte nr e i c h s t e Schweizer Spinnenfamilie. In unseren H o hl e n kommen sec h s und zwa n z i g Arten vor. Allerdings s ind die ei n ze ln en Arlen nur in wenigen H o hl e n ge fund e n wo rd e n Die mei t en gefangenen Indi v idu e n s tammen vo n d er Art Lepthyphantes pa/lie/us (9 Nachweise ) (Tafe l 4), gefo l g t von P o rrhomma co nv ex um (6 Nachweise) Viele Arten w urd e n nur mit ei n em lndi v iduum belegt. Folgende A rt e n w urd e n gefange n : Nachwei se Bath y pham es s imili s 3 Staubliloch Melch seeFrutt K erns OW Alter Bi e rl agersto ll en, P faffi kon ZH, Se i c hb erg l och, Wildhaus SG Centromerus sel/arius Erigone clentipalpis Al p ee lh o hl e Sennwald SG Labul/a th oracica L ep thyphantes a/acris K o ni g Ludwig Schacht, Schwende A l L ep th yp ha111e s ex pun c tus I FurgglenhohJe, RUt e Al, L ep thyphant es jlal'ipes I L e pth y phant es / epros us 3 L ep th yphantes monachus A lt wasse r R7 /039, RUt e Al L ep th ypha111es obsc urus I L e pthyphant es pa/lie/us 9 L e pth y pha111es t eneb ri co l a L ep th yp hantes v ariabilis C h a lb e rerh oh l e I Schwende Al Lepthyphan t es :immermanni *3 Gartenalphohle, Schwende AL Konig Ludwig Schacht Schwende AT Alpeelhohle Sennwald SG, Mi c rar g us herbi gra clus 5 Mi c ron e ta via ria P o rrhomma ca mpb e lli P o rrhomma co n vexu m I 6 Porrhomma mi c r op htalmum 2 P o rrhomma p ygmaeu m 2 P o rrhomma r ose nhau e ri 2 Tapinopa / ong icl e ns 2 1 2. 02. 1 995 27. 01. 1 994 14 JO 1 995 11. 07. 1 995 09. JO. 1 995 23. 07. 1 994 24. 07. 19 94 09.10.1994 15.0 8 .199 4 09. 10 19 9 5 l 1.0 7. 1 995 Kl e inh o hl e beim SchiJtloch, Mu ota thaJ SZ 06. 09. 19 96 Tro g l ohyphantes /u cifug us 2 Tr og l o h y phant es sorcle llii Wal c k e na er ia obtusa Di e int e r essa nt es t e Artist P or rh omma r ose nhaueri welche e r st zweima l in der Schweiz n ac h gew i ese n w urd e. P orrhomma r osen h aueri i s t die e in z i ge H o hl e n s pinn e n a rt mit s t a rk r e du z i e rt en A u ge n Sie g ilt aJs ec ht e r H o hl e nb ewo hn er ( Troglobiont). Der Grund fUr die se lt e n e n B eo b ac htun ge n von Lin y phiid ae l ieg t in ihr er ge rin ge n Grosse und ihr e r versteckten L e b e n swe i se. Meta menardi Tafel 2: Hoh/en mit Meta menardi Metellina meriane Tafel 3: Hohlen mit Metellina merianae Lepthyphantes pallidus Tafel 4: H ohlen mit Lepthy p hantes pallidus Ihr e Netze s p a nn e n s i e zwi c h e n F e l s ritz e n und Bl ocksc hutt deren Hohlriium e man c hmaJ nur zwe i Zentimeter a u seinander lieg e n Die etze si nd h a u c hdUnn und kaum wahrzunehmen. Nesticidae In der Schweiz w urd en bi s l a n g zwe i Arlen festgeste llt : Nachwei e Nesticus ce llul a nu s 22 Nesticus e r e mit a 15 Nesticidae bauen in H oh l en ihr e Netze imm e r unter k l e in e Fel na se n in h o h ere n Wandb ere i c h en. Nesticus ce l/ulanu s ist we it ver br e it e t und kommt bi s in e in e Hoh e von ea. 1000 mUM vor (Tafe l 5). Funclorte we l c h e h o h er li ege n si nd imm e r sackartig nach oben 92 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    ge ri c ht e t e H o hl e n Nesl i cus ere mit a k o mmt nur in w ii m1 e r e n G ge nd e n d e r Sc h we i z vo r ( T afe l 6), zur H a upt sac h e im T ess in ( 1 2 ac h we i se). Di e r es tli c h e n dr e i N ac h we i se s t a mm e n a u s d e m W a ll is (2 H o hl e n ) und dem W aa dt ( I H o hl e). ln d re i H o hl e n kam e n b e id e A rt e n ge m e in sam vo r A u c h hi e r i s t d as K o nkurr e n zve rh a lt e n d er be id e n A rt e n ni c ht unt e r s u c ht wo rd e n lnt e r essan t i s t de r Nac h we i s vo n Nes l icus erem il a in d e r K o i n e r K a n a li sa ti o n ( J AGE R 1 995). Ob s i e a u c h in d e r K a n a li a ti o n fau n a de r Sc h we i z vo r ko mmt w u r d e n oc h n i c h t unt e r s u c ht. Agelenidae Di ese S pi n n e n fami li e i s t im E in ga n gs b e r e i c h vo n H o hl e n zu finde n M i t Abstand a m h a u figs t e n ko mmt di e A rt Tege n a r ia si l ves tri s vo r (Tafe l 7). Sie is t in de r ga n ze n S c h we i z ve rbr e it et, gefo l g t vo n Tege11aria parie t ina. F o l ge nd e Arte n d i eser Fa m i li e w ur de n i n H o hl e n n ac h gew i ese n : Nac h we i se Tegenaria si l ves l ris Tegenar i a pa r ie1ina 1 6 3 Tege n a ri a 1 ri de111i11a 3 H islopona 10,p i da 2 Tegena ri a a lr ica Tegenar i a domes ii ca Ga rt e n a lph o hl e, Sc h we nd e A I Tegena r ia pagana I Tege n a ri a ferug i nea* R a p pers fl ue h o hl e, E nn e tbur ge n NW, 1 5. 08 1 994 0 5 05. 1 995 D e r G rund wes h a lb Age l e nid ae nur im Ei n ga n gs b e r e i c h vo n H o hl e n z u fi n de n in d, li eg t ve rmutli c h d ar in d ass s i e Li c ht fiir e in e e r fo l gre i c h e Jagd bra u c h e n Wirkli c h t r og l o bi o nt e Arl e n g ibt es be i d i e e r Fa mili e in de r S c hw e i z ni c ht. W e it e r e S pinn e nn ac h we i se Ne b s t d e n A rl e n d e r vo ran gega n ge n e n Spinn e n fa mili e n w u r d e n n oc h we it e r e A rt e n a u s s i e b e n F a mili e n n ac h gew i ese n E ini ge Ar t e n k o mm e n af t e r s a u c h in H ii u se rn vo r z. B A m a u ro biida e und Ph o l c id ae. Nac h we i se Amau r obi u s fe11es 1 ralis A m a urobiid ae Ama u robi u s ferox Am a u ro biid ae Cic ur i n a c i cur Di c t y nid ae Fl e d e rm a u s l oc h W e l sc h e nrohr SO C l ubiona com/a An1 i s1ea e / egans Apos l en u s f u sc u s C lubi o nid ae H a hniid ae Liocranid ae Li ocra nu m ru p i co / a Liocranida e Li oc r a num rupico l a Lio cra nid ae B occ d a l a C u coo, V aca llo TI Tap i nes 1h is inermis Oonopid ae B occ d a l a C u coo, Va c a l lo TI Ph o l cus p h a / angioides Ph o l c id ae Ph o l cus op ili onoides Ph o l c id ae R ober /u s l ividus Th e ridiid ae Danksagung I 26. 0 6. 1 99 5 2 l 1 8. 0 3 1 994 l 1 8. 0 3 1 9 9 4 3 I l Ohn e Hilf e vo n int e r ess i e rt e n H o hl e nfor c h e m i t d as Er ar b e t e n e in e r Fa un a a u f e in e m G e bi e t wi e d e m d e r S c hw e i z ni c ht m og li c h Vi e l e h a b e n mir d a b e i ge h o lf e n Dank e n mo c ht e i c h d es h a lb V Ae ll e n ; T Arb e n z; F. Auf d e r Maur ; R Boll e r ; R D e lla Toffol a; C. F av r e -Bull e; P M o r e l ; G Ru egg; P. Strin a ti ; M. Tru sse l ; s o w i e d e n A ra c hn o l oge n R Fo e li x, Ch Kropf und A Hiin gg i fiir Di s ku s i o n e n und D e t e rmin a ti o n v o n s chwi e ri ge m B e l eg mat e riaL Literatur BITTERLI T 1 99 5 Sp e l a ol og i sc h es ln ve nt ar d e r S c hwei z Band Nesticus cel/ulanus Tafel 5 : Vorkommen der Nesticu s cellulanu s N e s ti c us e re mita Tafel 6: Vorkommen der Nesticus eremita Me t e/Jina me ri ane Tafel 7 : Vo r kommen der Tegenaria silvestris III / Hohl e n d e r R eg i o n Sp e l eo lo g i sc h e K o mmi ss ion d e r S c h we i ze ri sc h e n G ese ll sc h a ft fiir H o hl e nfor sc hun g Ill : I 328 GIGON R & WENGER R 1 98 6 Sp e l iio l og i sc h es lnv e n ta r d e r S c h we i z Band TI / R eg i o n Jura Sp e l e ol ogisc h e K o mmi ss i o n d e r S c hw e i ze ri sc h e n G ese ll sc ha f t fiir H o hl e nfor sc hun g. II .: I 290 H A NGGI A & STOCKLI, E. & NE TWIG W 1 995. L e b e n s riium e mitt e l e urop ii i sc h e r Spinn e n Mi sce llan ea F a uni s ti ca H e l ve ti ae 4: I 46 0. J A G E R P. 1 99 5 Er st n ac h we i s v on Hol oc n e mu s plu c h e i und zwe it e r N ac hw e i s v o n N es ti c u s e r e mita fiir D e ut sc hl a nd in Koln ( Ar ane a e : Ph o l c id ae, N es ti c id ae). Ara c hn o l og i c h e Mitt e ilun ge n JO : 2022 MAUR E R R & H AN GGI A l 990. K a t a l og d e r S c h we i ze ri sc h e n Spinn e n. Docum e nt a F a uni s ti ca H e lv e ti ae 1 2 STRINATI P 1 96 6 Fa un e cave rni co l e d e l a Sui sse. A nn Sp e l eo l. l l : 52 6 8 3 57 5 7 1 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 9 3

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    New Data on Collembola of Ukrainian Caves Robert Vargovich Ukra ini a n Speleological Associa ti o n bi os p e l eo l ogy sec tion P etefi 5-40, 295400 Mukachevo Ukraine A bs tract Collembolofauna of Ukrain i an caves i s a lmo s t not studied so far. Durin g la s t years th e co ll ection of Co ll embo l a from the caves of West Ukraine a n d Cr im ea was ga th e r ed. The elaboration of th e m a teri a l h as been s t a rt e d in I 996I 997 years. 6 1 spec i es from I O fami li es ha ve been pro cesse d by th e pr ese nt m ome nt th ere are tro g l ob i o nt forms amo n g them. P a rt of th e s p ec i es are n ew for th e scie n ce; th e ir d esc rip tion s a r e b e in g pr e par e d fo r the publ ication. PeaoMe KoJDieM6ono4>ayua nemep YKpaHHbI no cHX nop no'ITH He H:JyqeHa. B TCqem1e nocne,llHHX ne-r co6paHa K0JDICKUIDI Kon neM6on HJ nemep 3ana.llHOH YKpaHHbl H Kpb!Ma. O6pa60TI

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    Fam. Onychiuridae I. Protaphorura armata (T ullb e r g, 1 869). (2). Perlina cave. Co mopolite. 2. Protaphorura subarmata Gisin 1 957. (2), Optimisticheskaya cave. Europe. 3. Protaphorura s11b11/iginata (Gisin, 1 956). (2), Optimistic h eskaya cave. Central Europe and Scandinavia. 4. Deuteraphorura fimetaria Stach. ( 1 ,2), Perlina cave and Ga lj ar ka dira cave. Po sib l e, cosmopol it e. 5. Mesaphorura macrochaeta ( Ru sek, I 976). (2), Perlina cave. Europe, orth America. 6. Oligaphorura 11ralica ( K chani l amova. 1 986). ( I ), Optimi tiche skaya cave. Eas t Europe. 7. Cribrochi11r11s s 11b c ribros11s Gisin. ( I ), Dovgorudnya cave 8. Paro11 yc hi11ru s sp. (I), Druzhba cave. 9. Onychiuroides gra 1111l os 11s Stach, 1 929. ( I ), Chervo nij Kamen cave ys t em. Centra l and We s t Europe. I 0. Onychi11roides cf. pse11dogra1111/osus Gisin, 195 I. ( 1 ,2). Chervon i j Kamen cave system. ( I ), Dovgorudnya cave ( I ), Catacombs (2). Po ssib le different s ub species. West Europe. 11. Onychiuroides lf post11micus Bonet, 19 3 l. (2), Stremitelnaja cave. Jugo s lavia Romania. 12 Orthonychiurus rectopapillarus Stach, 1933. ( I ), Druzhba cave. Carpathia. endemic. 13 H ymenaphomra polonica Pomor s ki 1990 ( I ), Druzhba cave. Cen t ral Europe. 14. H ymenaphomra creatricis Pomor sk i. 1990. ( I). Druzhba cave. Central Europe. 15. Kalaph orura t11bercula1a (Moniez, l 89 l ). ( l ), Druzhba cave. Middle Europe. 1 6 Tetradontophora bielanens i s Yaga. ( 1 ,2), caves of Pridnestrovj e and Carpathia. Central Eu r ope. Fam. lsotomidae I. Folsomia mano/achei Bagnall 1939 (2), Optimisticheskaya cave. Middle and orth E urop e. 2. Fo/somia multiseta Stach, 1 947. (2), Optimi s tiche s kaya cave and Perlina cave. Centra l and So uth Europe. 3. Folsomiafimeraria Linne 1758. (2), Perlin a cave. H o l arctic. 4. Folsomia ca ndida ( Willem 1 902). (2), Slavka cave. Europe, Marocco. A ia Au tralia 5. Folsomia /awrensei Ru ek, 1 984. ( I ), Druzhba cave. Middle Europe. 6. l soto m e lla minor ( Schaffer. 1 895). (2). Optimistichesk aya cave. Co mopolite. 7. l sotoma notabilis S c haffer, 1 896. (2), Optimi s ti c h e kaya cave. Cosmopolite. 8 l soroma ti g rina (Nico l et, 1 842). (2). Optimisticheskaya cave. Co mopolite. 9. lsot oma propi11q11a Axe l on, 1 903. (I), Druzhba cave. Middle Europe. Fam. Entomobryidae I. H etero11111rus nitidus (Temp l eton, 1835 ). (2), Optimistiche s kaya cave, Mlinki cave, P er lin a cave, Bilche cave. Possible, Cos mopolite. 2. He1er o11111rus cf nitidus. (I), Galjar s ka dira cave. 3. H e ter omu m s. gr. nitidus. ( I ), Grebin cave. 4. E11tomob1)'a marginata (Tu ll berg, 1871 ). (2), Optimistiche kaya cave, Perlina cave Europe, Azerbaijan ort h Ame ri ca. 5. P se 11dosi11 el/a :ygophora (Schi ll e, 1912). (2), Stremitelnaja cave. Central Europe 6. P se ud osine lla sp. ( I ), Beregovckaja cave. Fam. Tomoceridae I P/111 0 111uru s carpa thicu s Ru sek et Weiner 1978 ( I) Druzhba cave, Grebin cave, Chervonij Camen cave, Cheremchina cave. North a nd W e t Carpa thi a. 2. P ogonogna1 h e l/11 s jlal'escens (T ull berg 1871 ). ( I ), Molochnij Kamen cave, Soko l ec cave. 3. Tomo ce rus minor (Lubbock, 1 862). ( 1 ,2), Molochnij Kamen cave, Panska Skala cave. Europe. 4. T o mo cerus minutus (Tu ll berg 1 876). ( I ), Molochnij Kam e n cave. Europe, Siberia. Fam. Oncopoduridae I. Oncopodura crassicornis Shoebotham. (2), Bilche cave. Eu ro p e. 2. Oncopod11ra gr. crassicornis. (2), Stremitelnaja cave. Fam. Dicyrtomidae I Ptenothrix atra ( Linnae, 1 758). ( I ), Grebin cave, Belyh Sten cave. Europe. Fam. Arrhopalitidae I. Arrhopalites pygmaeus (Wankel). ( I). Zhemchuzhnaja cave. Eu r ope. North America. 2. Arrhopalires bifidus Stach, 1 945. (2), Bilche cave, Mlink.i cave. E u rope. 3. Arrhopalires carpat hi cus 11. sp. ( I ). Dru zhba cave. 4. Arrhopalites gr. ag telekiensis n. sp. (3) Ka t e re cave. 5. Arrhopalires gr. coecus 11 sp. (3) Ka s tere cave. 6. Arrhopalites lf secu11dari11s. (3), Vja l ova-Azimutnaja cave Fam. Neelidae I. Megalothorax minimus Willem 1 900. (2), Stremitelnaja cave, Perlina cave. Po ssib le Cosmopolite. Discussion The Ii t which was given, is preliminary as the great part of collected material i not identificated yet. Among Collembo l a which were found, probabl y, only s pe c i es Wil/emia virae which h as fea tur es of chaetom reduction that i s not characteristic for other spe c i es of the genu : all found Arrhopalites with e longated antenna and le gs and al o so me spec ie which were not included in the list, are troglobiont Mo t of the s pecies po ibly belong t o the ca ego ry of troglofile s and troglox e n s. References BOJARSKA 0. 1933. Przyczynki do biologii I morfologii skoczogonkow (Collembola) jask.iniowych Polski. Matcrialy z Pamietnik.a XIV zjazdu lekarzy I przyrodnikow polskich w Po.znaniu wrzesien. KAPRUS I. J. in press. HoroXBOCTKH BoJibtHo-Ilon:ollb.11. B MOH.: 3JconoJ'HJl H ctiaJHa IT0'IBCHHblX 6ccIT03BOHO'IHblX KapnaT. LEBEDINSKY J.N. 1900. K ctia)'HC KpblMCKHX nemep. 3an.HOBOC. 0-Ba CCTCCTB0HCITl,ITaTCJICH T.23 Bbm.2: 47-64. LEBEDINSKY J .N. 1904. K ctiaJHC KpblMCKHX nemep. Ibid: T.25, B&m.2: 75-88. LJOVUSHKIN s. I. 1962. K ctiaJHC nemep IlpHJ:J:HecrpoB&.11. Eron. MO HIT, T. LXVII, B&m. 3: 2937 STACH J. 1945. The species of the genus Arrhopa/ites occurring in European caves. Prace Muz. Przyrodn., 1: 147. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw itzerlan d Volume 6 95

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    Speleology and Archaeology of Mining a Comparison Spelaologie und Montanarchaologie ein Vergleich Gerd Weisgerber In titut fiir Montanarchaologie. Deut s ches Bergbau-Mu se um Am Bergbaumu se um 28 D44971 Bo c hum Cave s are the ubject of both a r c h aeo lo gy and peleology. Di coveries lik e Altamira, Lascaux, Grorte Chauvet or Ceprano a l ways stimu lat ed re sea rch both in caves as such and in the arc haeo lo gica l r e main s th e r e But h e r e anot h er l ink between both ha s t o b e considered. It i s not th e Gem1an but the French tradition of mining archae ology that bring s the s ubject of this l ecture about. In Gem1any, and to my knowledge in Great Britain too people are involved e ith er in caves or in the underground remain s of ancient mining and th ey were nearly a l ways working se parat e l y (exce ption s will be demon s trated l ater). But in France the s itu ation i s different, th e t erm s p e leologie d e mine s ha s no parallel in th e other tradition ( FLUCK 1990 7 ). Speleology and the archaeo lo gy of min es both int e nd hi s tori ca l r esea rch The y therefore hav e common te c hnical feature which mo s tly deriv e from the underground wo rk of both Speleology i s working s ince much mor e than a hundr ed years and primarily con tributing to th e hi s tory of earth. In co111ras t to that mining archaeo l ogy i yo ung e r it s t a rt e d on l y th e l ast 20 year to b e of a rem a rk a bl e int e n s it y. Of co ur se th e r e were spo radic and acc id e 111 a l obser vatio n s ea rli e r thi s ce ntury in and on prehistoric, ancielll, and old minin g. But exce pt from th e s tudy by ZSCHOCKE/PREU IS CHEN ( 19 32) th e po ss ibl e attributions of minin g archaeology to th e knowl e d ge of human hi s t o r y of t ec hniqu e ( WEISGERBER 19 89), eco nomics, a nd socia l organ i za ti o n were rather n eg l ec t ed. Techniques of speleology and mining archaeology The diff e r ence of research questions between spe l eo l ogy and mining a r chaeo l ogy results in different methods and research strat egies. But both need technically th e same or imilar equipmen t. Both fields h ave to fight darknes wet n ess a n d water, co ldn ess or heat, narrowness and problems of or i e 111 a ti on, and l as t but n o t l east dan ger. Therefo r e e.g. types of l a mp s, compass. and specia l dresse are used. ln case when both wi ll h ave to overcome different l eve l they have to use basic or highly sophisticated climbing or even diving eq uipm ent For both climb in g and diving the French tradi tion eems t o predominate as the Equipe of Pierre F lu ck (ANCEL/ FLUCK 1 988) or C hri sti n e BA ILL Y-MAITRE ( 1994) h ave often demon trated. This impression may be caused by th e fact th a t the mos t i111en ively researched mining a r ea in France the m i n es around S t e Marie-aux-Mines/Vosges (see the periodical Pie1Tes e t Terre from the beginning). nearly all eem to go back on l y to th e 16th century when R enaissance techniques (AGRICOLA 1556) a ll owed extreme l y deep and ystema ti c mineral exp l oitation. For Fluck's researc h sha f't s of g r eat depth on l y co ul d be overcome by spor ti ve climbers with be t equipment. C limbin g and diving to e nt er the place of research are rare in mining archaeology but common in peleology On th e o th er hand as n a tural caves became c r ea t ed over millennias they of t en are so lid and do not need ar tifi c i a l s upp ort. But as in co ntra s t mines are relatively yo un g th ey co uld crea t e e n or mous disbalancing of the h os t rock. Most of the mines n eeded a kind of s upport (woo d or masonary) already durin g the work. Though th e wood i ometime s well pre serve d it se ldom mean s that it till can bear its fom1er function. Therefore in minin g ar chaeo lo gy construction of n ew s up ports often can co n s um e a l arge part of e nerg y and fund s Caves per d e finition e m are open and s ome time wide wherea s mines a nd their en tran ce are often co ll apsed and hidden thu s needing a lot of work before they can be entered. Documentation After th ese technical preliminarie s: Both research di sc iplin s hav e to document th e ir di sco verie For s pel e ology thi m ea n to document th e evidences found, e.g rock material, geo l ogical se ting width and hight of chan1bers, l e ngth of galleries, their sec tion s water courses, sy phons. and nice f ea tur e (w hi c h often are romantically n a med ). The main mean of documentation will b e to pographical s urv eying and photography. For mining archaeology documentation mean s both th e natural min e ralization plu s th e min e r s work. Especially di e importance of th e tudy of min era li za tion s hould b e s tr e se d ( WEISGERBER / Fig. 1: Timna lsrael, copper mine S 28/2 and S 28 /3 : The upper Chalkolithic gallery with peck mark s was cut down in a later period by metal tools, probably Bron ze Age. 96 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw itzer land Volume 6

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    P E RNI C KA J 99 5 ). Fo r any a n s w e r o f a s impl e ec onomic qu es t i o n e.g. h ow mu c h min era l / m e t a l w as produ ce d a t a g i ve n tim es pan i n a g i ve n min e, a d e t ai l e d kn o wl e d ge o f th e d e p os it a nd it s o r e co nt e nt s i s b as i c. B y m eas urin g g r a d e, exte n i o n s, a nd id e ntifi ca ti o n o f th e min e ral s thi s b a e h a t o b e es t a bli s h e d W o rkin g dir ec ti o n s a nd sec tion s of c h a mb e r s, a d it s, and s h afts, d ra w in gs of an y kind of s upp o rt a nd m ar kin g o f any s p ec ifi c in s t a l a ti o n s s u c h as ni c h es fo r l a mp s, or in c linati o n s o f c ra c k s ca u se d b y th e m i nin g (a l so fo r th e ow n sec urit y) h ave t o be m a pp e d a nd w ill b e th e m a in t as k o f th e min e s ur veyo r Th e s tud y o f th e dir ec ti o n s of ex pl o it a ti o n i s ex tr e m e l y imp o rt a nt. T h e arc h ae o l og i ca l r eco rdin g of t ec hni c al o r n o rmal fmd s s u c h as t oo l s r e m ai n s of clo th es, a nd r e li cs of m ea l s (ce r a mi cs, b o n es, exc r e m e nt s) e t c o n t h e m a p s i s se l f und e r s t ood. S o m e o f o ur b ooks o n anc i e nt minin g m ay b e u se d as exa mpl es (C ONRAD e t a l. 1 98 0 ; WAG N ER / WE ISG E RB E R 1 98 5 1 988). M o r eove r pur e arc h aeo l og y e nt e r s t h e fi e ld b eca u se minin g arc h aeo l ogy i s m o r e th a n ju t co ll ec t fi nd s v i s ibl e o n th e dump s an d fl oo r s of ga ll e ri es. Lik e in a n o nn al di g excava ti o n s h ave t o b e do n e und e r gro und t o l ea rn a b o ut fmd s itu a t io n s a nd s tr a ti g raph y. As minin g ac ti v iti es ra r e l y b e l o n g t o o nl y o n e p e ri od s t ra ti g raph y w ill b e a m a in key to hi s t o ri ca l und e r stan din g. So m e tim es di ffer e n t too l m ar k s at t h e wa ll faces ( Fi g. I ) ind ica t e di ffe r e nt p e ri o d s of ac ti v iti e (C ONR AD e t a J 1 980, 1 46 fi g. J 701 72). A l so in min i n g arc h aeo l ogy s u rvey in g a n d p h otogra ph y are mea n s of d oc um e n ta ti on but a l so t ex tu a l desc ripti o n s of th e o b se r vations are a mu st. T hi s m ay b e so m et im e s bo rin g but ca n n o t b e neg l ec t ed: U n de r g r ou n d s i tuatio n s can c h ange fro m day t o d ay. Wh a t yo u h ave see n t oday may be in access i b l e next ti m e. To d oc um e nt the mines in th e commo n sta n da rd s p ecia l m i ne survey in g eq uip ment a n d m e th od s are avai l ab l e. Hi storica l i n strume nt s so m e ti mes can be of more h elp than th e l a t est o n e des i g n ed for l arge m ode m mines. As h istorical eq ui pmen t i s adapted to t h e n o nn a l n a r rown ess o f o ld ga ll e ri es, th e h a n g in g co mp ass i s indi s p e n s ibl e ( WEISGERBER 1 98 7 ). S ec tion s of ga ll e r ies of t e n t e ll th e ir hi t o r y. Th e ir d oc um e nt a tion ca n b e esse nti a l. To a cce l e rat e thi s tim eco n s umin g pro ce dur e t h e DBM d eve l o p e d a s p ec i a l kind of rin g fl as h w hi c h a ll ows fas t r ec ordin g in sca l e ( Fi g. 2). A diff e r e n ce in th e pr efe r e n ce of sca l es u se d in s p e l eo l ogy an d minin g ar c ha eo l ogy i s m a ni fes t. Wh e r eas sca l es I : I 0 0, 2 00 o r 5 00 and I 000 ar e pr efe r e d in s p e l e olo gy a dapt e d t o th e ex t e n s ion a n d co mpl ex it y o f cave sys t e m s in minin g arc h aeo l ogy sca l es for d t a il s of I : I O o r I :2 0 are n ecessa r y. U s u a ll y scales of I :5 0 o r I: I 00 m ay b e s uffi c iant fo r an c i e nt min es in t o t a l. V e rti ca l sec ti o n s wi th proj ec ti o n of every fea tur e in on e pl a n e ( S e i ge rri B) a r e t y pi ca l fo r min e s ur vey in g w h e r eas cave r s pr e f e r l o n gi tudin a l sec ti o n s ( L ii n ge n sc hnitt ). Artifical caves Out of th e man y caves ori g inal l y co n s id e r e d t o b e n a tur al and fin a ll y r evea l e d t o b e c r ea t e d b y minin g o nl y two s h o uld b e m e n ti o n e d h e r e b eca u se of th e ir o utr a n g in g age. Li o n s Cave rn a l o n g kn ow n cave in S wa il a nd / South Afri ca, wa c r ea t e d s in ce a t l eas t 4 0 0 0 0 yea r s b y minin g h e r e th e iron ore s p ec ul a rit e w hi c h gave th e fin es t r e d pi g m e n t af t e r g rindin g. P a l aeo lith ic sto n e t oo l s we r e fo und an d r a di ocar b o n d a t es e n s ur e th e age ( DART 1 968 ; BO S HIE R 1 969) Th e o th er mu c h s m a ll e r cave was d i scove r e d d u r in g min i n g o n th e n o rth G r ee k i s l an d of Th asos so m e 4 0 years ago. Our exca va ti o n s t oge th er w ith th e G r eek A ntiqui t i es A u t h o riti es revea l ed a l so a l owe r p a J ae lithi c age of th e cave. I t was o n ce c r ea t e d fo r t h e sa m e purp ose to w in red pi g m e nt s. P oo r t oo l s of ant l er flin t, and bo n es toget h e r w i t h l oca l grave l h a mm e r s r e fl ec t th e d iffi c ul t ac t i vit i es 20.000 years ago in di sco ur ag in g h a r d h e m a ti te (F i g. 2). On o n e s id e t h e is l a nd co ul d be r eac h ed by feet in t h o s e days bu t on t he Fig 2: Lim en ar i a I s l e of T ha s o s/G r eece: In thi s 20.000 ye ar s o ld r e d o c hr e min e a ring/la s h i s u se d t o do c um e nt rap i dl y cross sections. Proceedings o f the 12 th In ternational Congr ess o f Sp ele o l o gy, 1997 S witze r land V olume 6 97

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    o th e r o n e m ay im ag in e ho w s tron g w as th e n ee d of th e r e d pi g m e nt t o s t ar t thi s ex tr e m e l y h a rd w ork ( KO U KOULI e t a l. 19 88). Th e pi g m e nt prob a bl y was u se d for c ulti c purp oses Natural caves giving access to minerals highly desired Wh e r e a s s p e l eo lo g i ca l a nd minin g a r c h aeo l og i ca l r esea r c h h a p p e n m os tl y se p ara t e d in o m e c a ses th ey a r e wo rkin g t oge th e r L o n g John a N o rtham e ri ca n Indi a n tru c k b y a hu g h e bl oc k of ro c k wh e n minin g pl as t e r crys tal s (se l e nit e) in th e l a r g e M a mm o th Cave a th o u sa nd years ag o w a fo und b y cave r s a nd not b y a r c h ae o l og i s t s, th ey ca m e in l a t e r. A s th e min e r di e d a t 22 km di s tan ce fr o m t o d ays e nt ra n ce th e qu es ti o n r e m a in s if thi was th e o nl y e n t ra n ce in hi s d ays t oo. F o rtunat e l y durin g t h e co n fe r e n ce a t L a C h a u xd eFond s a p a p e r was g iv e n o n r ece nt a r c ha e olo g i ca l r sea r c h in th e Mamm o th C ave ( WATSON 1 99 7 ) r evea lin g two p e ri o d s o f main occ upati o n a nd minin g ac ti v iti e b y pr eco lumbi a n indi a n s (ea. 2000 B .C a nd 8 00 -3 00 B C. ). It was o b v iou s th a t th e cave h a n o part w hi c h was n o t v i s it e d b y th e a n c i e nt s Th e l a r ge K oo n a ld a C ave in th e Null a rb o r lim es t o n e o f so uth A u s t ra li a h a m ys t e ri o u s e n grav in gs o f l o n g parall e l lin es a l o n g th e wa ll s ( BROWN 1 968; EDWARDS 1 969; M UL VANEY 1 978). T h ey o nl y we r e r easo n a bl y int e rpr e t e d a b o ut 20 yea r s a go: Th e a b o ri g in a l s e nt e r e d th e s ink h o l e t o ge t flint o ut of th e w a ll s. Th e e n grave d lin es a r e th e mark s o f th e ir fin ge r s w h e n th ey tri e d t o find th e ir way ba c k thr o u g h th e d a rk t o th e s ur face( GREENWAY 1 9 7 4 243 f ) ln both ea es n a tu ra l caves ga v e access t o rar e a nd hi g hl y wa nt e d rawm a t e ri a l s. Na tur a l caves becoming ore depos i ts Th e r e a r e exa mpl es o f a m o r e co mpl ex co mbin a ti o n o f s p e l o l ogy a nd minin g arc h aeo l ogy. In b o th cases for m e r n a tural c a ves d urin g geo l og i c al tim e beca m e fill e d w ith o r e b ear in g se dim e nt s T h e e we r e th e s ubj ec t of minin g ac ti v iti es w hi c h t o a ce rt a in d g r ee e mpti e d th e cave a nd thu s p a rtl y r es tor e d th e fo rm e r s h a p e of it. Fam o u s we r e th e go ld min es o f th e i s l a nd o fTh asos ( HERO DOT YI 66-6 7 ). But th ey o nl y we r e di cove r e d in th e 8 0i e in lim o niti c se dim e nt in kar s ti c cave o f diff e r e nt i ze ( VAVELIDJS e t a l. 19 88). F o r th e a n c i e nt Gr ee k min e r s o f co ur se it was mu c h eas i e r t o w in th e go ld b ea rin g so ft se dim e nt s than t o c ut throu g h h a rd marbl e in o rd e r t o find th e kar ti c se dim e nt tr a p s ( WEISGERBER 1 988). Th e o th e r exa mpl e i fo und in th e F e l se nm ee r n ea r H e rn e r nea r l se rl o hn in G e rm a n y. H e r e b ea n -o r e was e nb e dd e d in pr e-g l c i a l c l ay se dim e nt in l a r ge k a r s ti c caves was h e d out b y und e r gro und riv e r s. Th e min i n g of thi s iron o r e wa s s t ar t e d durin g th e I 0th ce ntur y AD as pro ve n b y a r a di oca rb o n t e t o f th e DBM T ge th e r with p os t m e di eva l ac ti v iti es th e min e fo rm a n e t o f m a n y k il o m e t e r s l e n g th ( HANlSCH 1 99 0 ). Th e S p e l eoGroup S a u e rland e. V. w a r es p o n s ibl e for th e geo lo g i ca l a nd minin g arc h ae olo g i ca l r e ea r c h th e mappin g o f th e co mpl ex i s on th e way. Th e l as t exa mpl es m ay s t ay for e n co u rag in g effec t s for th e b e n e fit o f b o th ea rth a nd minin g hi s t o r y w hi c h m ay r es ult in co ll a b o ra ti o n of both. W e h ave t o l ear n fr o m eac h o th e r. Durin g o rtin g o ut th e s lid es h ow n h e r e, it ca m e t o m y mind t h a t it i s th e und e r s tandin g o f b e aut y o f o ur di scove ri es wh a t mak es th e di ffe r e n ce. Ma y be so m e thin g lik e thi s v i ew of s int e r c asca d es in th e Grott es d es D e m o i e ll es in s outh e rn Fran ce w ill b e r eg ard e d as b ea utiful b y both p e l e olo g i s t s a nd minin g arc h ae ol og i s t s. But s int e r casc ad es in thi s an c i e nt Gr ee k g old min e wiJl s top an y fur th e r minin g ar c ha e ol og ic a l r esea r c h b ec au se nobod y will d es tro y th e m. A minin g ar c ha eo lo g i s t probably will find thi s vi e w of a 3 500 yea r o ld co pp e r min e w ith ori g in a l w oo d e n s upport b e autiful o r t hi th e b e t pr e e rv e d R o m a n min e o f th e w h o l e R o man Empir e i n Jord a n o r eve n t hi s woo d e n s upp o rt fr o m 1 22 0 AD in G e rm a n y. Bibliography A C EL B /FL U CK P 1 988 : U n e ex pl o it a ti o n mini e r e du XVIe s. d a n s J es Y osges. L e fil o n Sa int L o ui s du e u e nb e r g ( H a ut Rhin ). Carac t e r es e t evo luti o n ( D oc um e nt s d 'a r c h eo l og i e fr a m ;:a i se, o. 1 6), Pari s. BArLLY MAITRE. M .-C h /BR V NO D U PR AZ J .: B ra nd es e n-Oi sa n s. L a min e d a r ge nt d es D a u p hin s (X II -X JV e s.) se r e. L yo n 1 994. BOSHIER A. K 1 969: Minin g Ge n es i s i n : M i n i n g S u rvey 64 2 1 -28. BROWN R 1 968 : K oo n a ld a see n thr o u g h th e eyes o f a fie ld wo rk e r in : A rt efac t IO. 6-7. C ONRAD H G./ROTH EN B E RG B 1 980: A nt ikes Kup fe r im Timn aT a l. 40 0 0 J a hr e B e r g b a u un d Y e rhii tt un g in d e r Ara b a h ( I rae l ) ( V e r o ff e ntli c hun ge n a u s d e m D e ut sc h e n B e r g b a u Mu se um N r 2 0 ), B oc hum D A RT R A 1 968: Th e Birth o f Sy mb o l ogy in : Af ri ca n Studi es 2 7 1 5-27 (J o h a nn es bur g). EDWARDS R 1 969 : Pr e hi s t o ri c a rt in K oo n a ld a Cave (A u s t ra li a) in : B o ll D e l C e ntro Ca mun o D i Pr e i s t. 4, 117 1 30. FL UC K P 1 990: Intr o du c ti o n in : Pi e rr es e t T e rr e 3 4 1 99 0 5-8 F L UC K P 1 99 7 : B ref hi s t o riqu e d e l a s p e l eo l og i e mini e r e e n A l sace, in : Pr oceed in gs of th e 1 2 th Int e rn a ti o n a l Co n g r ess o f Sp e l eo l ogy, V o l. 3, S y mp os ium 2: Ar c h aeo l ogy a n d P aleo nt o l ogy i n Caves. 1 8 7 1 9 0 L a C h a u xd eF o nd s. H A IS C H W 1 990: Ta u se nd jli hri ge r E i se n e r zbe r g b a u i m o rd sa u e rl a n d i n : D e r A n sc hnitt 42 204-206. KO U KO U LI -C HRYS A TH A KI C h ./ WEISGERB E R G. / GI A LOGLO U, G ./VA Y E LJDIS M 1 988: Pr ii hi s t o ri sc h e r un d jun ge r B e r g b a u a u f Ei se npi g m e nt e a u f Th asos, in : W ag n e r / W e i ge rb e r (Ed.) 1 988 24 1 -244. M U LV A NEY D J 1 9 7 8: A u s trali a B efo r e t h e E ur o p ea n s, in : Bul l e tin N o. 1 5 of th e in s titut e of A r c h aeo l ogy 35-47 PORT E R R ./ I E M E Y E R H G (E d s.) 1 987: Di e groBe n A b e n te u e r d e r A r c h iio l og i e, Bd 9 Sa l z bur g VAV E LJDIS M /P E R N I C K A, E./ W A GN E R G .A. 1 988: Di e G o ld vo rk o mm e n vo n Th asos in : W A G E R G A /WEISGERB E R G (E d s.) 1 988: A ntik e E d e l und Buntm e t a ll gew innun g a u f Th asos ( Y e r ti ff e ntli c hun ge n a u s de m D e ut sc h e n B e r g b a u-Mu e um 42) B oc hum 1 98-2 1 I WAGNER GA/WEISG E RBER G (E d s ) 1 98 5 : Silb e r Bl e i und G o ld a uf Sifn o ( Y e r tiffe ntli c hun ge n a u s d e m D e ut sc h e n B e r g b a u Mu se um 3 1 ). B oc hum WAGNER G A /W E ISG E RB E R G (Eds.) 1 988: A ntik e Ed e l un d Buntm e t a ll gew innun g a u f Th asos ( Y e r tiffe ntli c hun ge n a u s d e m D e ut sc h e n B e r g b a u Mu e um 42). B oc hum W A TSON P.J 1 997: Th e Pr e hi s t o r y of S a lt s Cave and M a mm o th C ave, M a mm o th Cave Na ti o n a l P a rk K e ntu cky, U SA i n : P roceed in gs o f th e 1 2 th Int e rn a ti o n a l C o n gress of Sp e l eo l ogy, V o l. 3, S y m p os ium 2: Ar c h aeo l ogy a nd P a l eo nt o l ogy in Cave 29 3 0 L a Ch a u xd eF o nd s. W E ISGERB E R G. 1 987a : M o nt a n a r c h lio l og i e e in W eg zum Y e r s t li ndni s friih e r R o h s t offve r so r g un g in : P o rtn e r/Ni e m eye r 1 987 3 505 -3 5 4 0. WEISGERBER G 1 988 7b : Vi e r J a hrz e hnt e M o ntan arc h iio l og i e a m D e ut sc h e n B e r g b a u Mu se um in : D e r A n sc hnitt 39, 1 92-208. WEISGERBER G 1 988: B e m e r k un ge n z ur a nti ken B e r g b a ut ec hnik a u f Th asos, in: W ag n e r G A /W e i sge r be r G (Eds.) 1 988, 19 8-2 1 I. WEISGERBER G 1 989: M o nt a n arc h iio l og i e. Grund z ii ge e in er ys t e m a ti sc h e n B e r g b a ukund e Fiir V o r und Friih gesc hi c ht e und Antik e, in : D e r An sc hnitt 4 1 1 989, 1902 0 4; 42 1 99 0 21 8. WEISGERBER G./PERNJCKA E 1 99 5: Or e minin g in pr e hi t o ri c Europ e: an o ve rvi ew, in: MORTEA N I G /NORTHOVER J P ( Ed s.) : Pr e hi s tori c Gold in Eur o p e, Dordr ec ht 15 91 82. ZSCHO C KE K ./ PR EU S C H E N E. 1 932: D as ur ze itli che B e r g bau ge bi e t vo n Miihlb ac h Bi sc h o f h ofe n Wi e n 98 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Sw i tzerland Volume 6

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    Meetings and Excursions Reunions et excursions

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    Bergbau-Spelaologie : Licht in unsere Bergbauvergangenhe i t von Thi l o Arlt Min e ralo g i s ch petro g raphi s che s ln s titut Univ e r s itat B e rn Balt ze r s tr I CH 3 01 2 B e rn I m R a hm e n d e bi h e r g r oss t e n H o hl e n fo r sc h e r Tr effe n s, d e m 1 2. lnt e rn a ti o n a l e n K o n g r es flir Sp e l ii olo g i e, wurd e e r tm a l s e in S y mp o ium flir B e r g b a u s p e l iio l og i e dur c h ge fUhrt. Ob wo hl mit Sp e l iio l og i e s t re n g ge n o mm e n di e For c hun g i n K ars th o hl e n ge m e int i t w ird d e r B eg riff h e ut e fi.ir Unt e rt agefo r c hun g im we it r e n Sinn e ve r we nd e t. so a u c h fi.ir E i s h o hl e n L ava h o hl e n o d e r ki.in s t li c h e K ave m e n W iih r e nd di e k l ass i sc h e H o hl e n fo r c hun g e in e r ei n geowisse n sc h aft l ic h e Di sz iplin i s t ge ht d i e B e r g b a u Sp e l ii olo g i e v i e lm e hr in d e n a r c h iio l og i sc h e n F ac hb e r e i c h D a lnt e m a ti o n a l e S y mpo s ium flir B e r g b a u Sp e l iio l og i e br ac ht e e r s tm a l Wi sse n sc h af tl e r und Am a t e ur e zu a mm e n di e s i c h mit de r Erfo r sc hun g vo n U nt e rt agea nl age n ve rl asse n er B e r g b a u e b e fasse n Trot z des exo ti sc h e n F o r sc hun gsge bi e t es n a hm e n 23 T e il ne hm e r a u s 6 v e r sc hi e d e n e n L ii nd e m a kti v a m S y mp os ium t e il und h a b e n ihr e ji.in gs t e n Er ge bni sse h a upt siic hli c h in Y o rtr iige n pr iise n t ie rt. Mit ihr e r Ar be it vo r Ort ze i g t e n di e B e r g b a u Sp e l iio l oge n dass s i e m e i s t e in e Mitt e l s t e llun g zw i sc h e n d e n kl ass i sc h e n A r c h iio l oge n und d e n Hi t o rik e rn e inn e hm e n W ii hr e nd E r s t e r e in d e r R ege l mit Au sg r a bun ge n ihr Wi sse n e r we it e m s ind L e tzt e r e auf de n dur c h sc hriftli c h e Qu e ll e n b e l egte n G esc h ic ht s t e il b es chriink t. G era d e z urT ec hnik gesc hi c ht e d es Mitt e l a lt e r s kann dah e r di e B e r bau Sp e l ii olo g i e e in e n wi c hti ge n Beitra g l e i s t e n So k a m e n a u c h di e m e i s t e n B e itr iige au s d e m B e r e ich d e r Momanar c hiiolo g i e. D e nnoch di e Stabilit ii t ss tudi e von Lu c Fun c k e n g ab e in e n Ein bli c k we l c h prakti sc h e B e d e utun g di e B e r g b a u-Spel iio lo g i e a u c h fi.ir Auf g ab e nb e r e i c h e wi e G e l ii nd es i c h e run g, Trinkwa sse ge winnun g od e r D e poni e raumbewertun g h a t. Di e Er chli ess un g d e r a u fge l as e n e n A nl agen fi.ir d e n T o ur is mu s o d er fi.i r w i sse n sc h af tl c h e For sc hun g in a nd e r e n Di sz iplin e n e i hi e r nur e r wii hnt. Dur c h d as P rogra m m flihrt e n di e O rgan i sa t o r e n des S y mp osi um s und d e r w i sse n sc h af t l i c h e n B eg l e it ex kur i o n T hi l o Arlt un d H ansP e t e r St o l z W e it e r e D is ku ss i o n s l e it e r wa r e n d i e P ro f esso r e n G e rd W e i sge rb e r Pi e rr e F lu c k und L a mb e rt o L a ur e ti Di e a n sc hli esse n de, dr e it iig i ge Ex kur io n ( 1 8.-20.8.97) fi.ihrt e e in e 26k o pfi ge, se hr i nt e m a ti o n a l e G rupp e zu de n B e r g b a u e n des E l sass. D a b e i w u rde n di e E i se n e r zAbb a u e B o urn o i s un d B e th o n co urt sow i e de r S c hmi e d eH oc h o f e nk o mpl ex vo n M o nt ag n ey b e i c hti g t. U nt e rt age g in g e in d i e B e r g b a u e R e i c h e n be r g und B o ur bac h l eB as u nd a l s H o h e punkt k a nn d e r Y e rtik a l dur c h s ti eg d es B e r gwer k s S t.Mi c h e l St.L o u is Eise nthi.ir b e tr ac h t e t we rd e n D a nk d e r fac h k undi ge n L e irun g vo n H a n P e t e r St o l z, unt er s ti.it z t vo n o rt sa n siiss i gen S p ez i a li s t e n bli e b kei n e F rage un bea nt wo rt e t. D e r l etz t e T ag m i t e in e r n asse n T o ur i n die M ine d e Pl o mb e in e m Mitt agesse n o r ga ni s i e rt vo n d e r A ssoc i a ti o n Sp e l eo l og iqu e pour l Etud e e t l a Prot ec ti o n d es An c i e nn es Min es ( AS E PAM ) und e in e r Mu se um sbes i c hti g un g in St eM a ri e-a u xMin es rund e t e da Pro g ramm a b S owo hl da s S y mp os ium a l s au c h di e w i e n sc haftli c h e B eg l e it ex kur s i o n s ti e e n b e i d e n T e iln e hm e rn a uf se hr p os iti ve R eso n a n z. W ii hr e nd im S y mpo s ium e in e e h e r ge rin ge Dur c h mi c hun g vo n H o hl e n und B e r g b a ufor c h e m zu b e kl age n war, s ti es di e B eg l e it ex kur s i o n a uch b e i H o hl e nfor c h e m a u f se hr g ro sses lnt e r es e. 1 oo Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Table ronde sur la protection du karst Par Jean-Pierre Bartholeyns En guise d introduction : Le karst es t 1111 milie!I excess i vemen t fragile qui r ece l e des , afe ur s patrimoniales excep ti onne ll es. Otllre, l e miliell souter rain karstique, celui des g r o 1t es, rivieres solllerrai11es e t des 11ap pes aquiferes des roches ca / ca ir es e t qui cons til!l e w1 habital pour cer tain es especes so 111 erra i11 es, presente so l/ vent Lin interet paysa ger, biologique, geo / ogiqlle, minera/ogiqlle, geomo rph o l ogiq ll e et archeologique majeur. L es problemes de ref/exion quanta la protection e t la con serva ti on d!I karst se mbl e nt e tr e id en tiqL1 es clans bi e n des pays. * La realisation d' w1 inv e ntair e des actions menees et des moyens mis en
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    Rapport de la discussion sur History of alpine karst system par J ea n-J acq ue s Delanno y 1 Philippe A udra 2 et J e r o me Perrin 3 1 lnstitut de Geographie A l pine, 17 rue Maurice Gignoux, 38031 Grenob l e Cedex France 2 Gestion et valorisation de l environnement (GVE), URA 01476 du CNRS Univer s ite de Nice-Sophia-Antipo li s 98 Boulevard Edo u ard Herriot, BP 209, 06204 Nice Cedex & Cagep (URA 903), A i x-en-Provence 3 I 1 47 Montricher Suisse Chairpersons: Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Philippe Audra L es communication s s ur l e them e Hi s tor y of Alpine kar s t s y s t e m ont p e rmi s de pr es enter 'e n se mbl e d es prin c ipau x p a r a m e tre s int e rv e nant d a n s la kar s togen ese e t ont se rvi d e s upport a la di s cu ss ion s ur l a pl a ce d e la s p e leolo g i e dan s l a c ompr e h e n s i o n e t d a n s I 'e vo lut ion d es sys t e m es k ars tiqu es a l pin s. L es c ommuni ca tion d e B. L o i se l e ur e t d e N Van a ra ont p e m1i s d a b o rd e r J es param e tr es d Et a t du sys t e m e k ars tiqu e, t e l s l e c o nt ex t e lith o l og iqu e, l e d o nn ees s tru c rurale s, l es eve n e m e nt s t ec toniqu es ... L es c ommuni c ati o n s d e Ph Audra A Bini e t d e T Bitt e rli p ose nt avec acuit e l e fa c t e ur s co ntr 6 1ant l a k a r s tific a tion notamm e nt J es flu x d 'ea u d 'o rdr e so it m e t eo riqu e, so il flu v i a l s oit g l ac i a ir e, e t ega l e m e nt l es p a r a m e tr es int e r v enant d a n s l a d e finition du g radi e nt h y drauliqu e, d 'o rdr e so it ge ol og iqu e ( t ec t o niqu e), so il geo m o rph o l og iqu e. L 'e n se mbl e d es co mmuni ca tion s pr ese nt ees prop ose nt d e sce n a rii kar s t oge niqu es e t m o rph oge niqu es co h e r e nt s b ases s ur I 'e tud e du k a r s t profond not a mm e nt d e l a di s tributi o n s pati a l e d es a n c i e nn es ga l e ri es n oyees. L a pl ace d e l a s p e l eoge n ese m e rit e d 'e tr e i c i so uli g n ee : ii a pp araT t d e plu s e n plu s qu e l a r eco n s tituti o n s p e l eoge niqu e p e rm e t d e propo se r d e n o u ve ll es p e r s p ec ti ves m o rph oge niqu es. D e ) 'e n se mbl e d e ces r eco n s tituti o n s k a r s t oge niqu es, r esso rt c l a ir e m e nt l e ca ra c t e r e a n c i e n d es g rand es cav it es alpin es t a nt d e fac tur e h o ri zo nt a l e qu e ve rti ca l e. S a n s n eg li ge r l es in c id e n ces d es g l ac iati o n s pl e i s t oce n e ce ll es-c i n 'o nt plu s l a pl ace pr e p o nd e r an t e qu 'e ll es ava i e nt ii y a e n co r e un e di za in e d a nn ees. D e 'e n se mbl e d e ces co mmuni ca ti o n s se d egage un ce rt a in n o mbr e d e qu es ti o n s e t plu s p a rti c uli ere m e nt l a s ui va nt e : es t -ce J es m e m es eve n e m e nt s geo l og iqu es, geo m o rph o l ogi qu es o u c l i m a tiqu es qui o nt j o u e s ur I 'e n se mbl e d es A lp es? Qu e ll e es t l a p a rt d e I eve n e m e nt m ess ini e n d a n s l es A l pes se pt e ntri o n a l es e t n o r d-o ri e nt a l e ? Sur l e ve r sa nt m e dit e rr aneen e t e n b o r d ur e d es gra nd s ca n yo n s m ess ini e n s: p e ut -o n faire l a p a rt d e !'in cis i o n m ess ini e nn e e t d e l a t ec t oge n ese pli oce n e? Qu e ll es so nt J es i n c id e n ces des gra nd s g l ac i e r s a l pin s qui o nt occ up e J es prin c ip a l es va ll ees qui co n s t i tu e nt p a r a ill e u rs, l e ni vea u d e b ase h y d rogra phiqu e de bi e n des sys t e m es ka r s ti q u es? C'es t s ur ces qu es ti o n s qu e l a disc u ss i o n a e t e l a n cee L a pr e mi e r e int e r ve nt io n es t d 'Ugo SAU RO Ce lui -c i es t g l o b a l e m e nt d 'acco r d avec l e m o d e l e d evo luti o n p ro p ose p a r P h. A ud ra. U. Sa u ro ra pp e ll e l es fac t e ur s q u i Jui a pp ara i sse nt imp or t a nt s d a n s l a ka r s t oge n ese d un m ass i f: J es d o nn ees geo l og iqu es e t m or ph oge niqu es, l a t ec t o niqu e passee e t ac tu e ll e e t l e u r s t y l e r ec ip ro qu e de fr ac tu ra ti o n ai n s i qu e J es eve n e m e nt s m o rph o clim a tiqu es e t m o rph o d y n a miqu es L a di ffic ult e r es id e d a n s l a r eco nn a i ssa n ce m o rph oge niqu e d es p aysages k a r s tiqu es D un po int d e paysages exo k ars tiqu es d a n s J es A l pes du Sud o n p e ut di tin g u e r : d e re li q u es d e kars t s a butt es e l abores d u ra nt l e Neoge n e (s u d du M o nt e B a l do, Ca nd ag li a Pl a t ea u d a n s l e sec t e ur Ca n s i g l io Cava ll o); d es fo nn es flu vio-ka r s ti q u es h e r i t ees (s u d d u sec t e ur S e tt e Comuni A s ia go); e t d es form es g la c io-kar s tiqu es qu a t e rn a ir es ( Mont e Baldo parti e so mmit a le d e S e tt e Comuni A s i ag o ). C es di f e r e nt es form es p e rm e tt e nt d e d e finir plu s i e ur s e pi s od es k a r s to ge nique s. A. BLNI int e rvi e nt pour s i g nal e r qu au m o in s p o ur le s Alp es du Sud l a d e march e r e po sa nt s ur I id e ntifi ca ti o n d es diff e r e nt es ph ases de kar s tifi c ation lui se mbl e s in o n d e pa ssee, au m o in s r e du c tric e, voir e ca ri ca tu ra l e Comm e nt p e ut on fair e l a p a rt d es nombr e u x e v e n e m e nt s ( d 'o rdr e g eolo g iqu e e t geo m o rphol og iqu e) qui ont e u li e u d e pui s l e Mi oce ne alor qu 'o n n e di s po se qu e d e qu e lqu es e l e m e nt s e p a r ses, d e qu e lque s trom ;:o n s d e g a l e ri es d o nt ii es t parfoi s diffi c il e d e d e finir c l a ir e m e nt l a c h ro n o l og i e. II Jui se mbl e difficil e d e fa ir e l a part d e 'e pi s od e m ess ini e n e t d e l a t ec to ge n ese ca r d a n s l es Alpe s du Sud ces e v e n e m e nt s so nt co nj o int s : l a k ars tifi c ati o n es t I 'ex pr ess ion d e ces eve n e m e nt s. Enfin A Bini in s i s t e s ur l e fait qu il es t n ecessa ir e d e t rava ill e r avec d es t ec toni c i e n s a fin d e p o uvoir mi e u x fa ir e l a p a rt d es eve n e m e nt s t ec t o niqu es e t d e l e ur s in c id e n ces s ur l e k ars t (sy n e t p os t e ri e ur s). P DUBOIS es t d 'acco rd a v ec A Bini s ur l e fa it qu il es t n ecessa ir e d e t rava ill e r co nj o intem e nt avec l es geo l og u e On n e p e ut plu s se p e m1 e ttr e d e fair e d es r e c o n s tituti o n s k a r s to ge niqu es sa n s prendr e e n co mpt e l a ju s t e pla ce d es eve n e m e nt t ec t o niqu es. P a r co ntr e, P. Dub o i s ex prim e d es r ese r ves s ur I 'ex i s t e n ce d e ca n yo n s li es a l a c ri se d e sa linit e m ess ini e nn e, n o tamm e nt s ur l e ur p os iti o n s tru c tural e ac tu e ll e qui n 'a ri e n a vo ir avec ce qu 'e ll e eta it initi a l e m e nt d o u d es int e rpr e t a ti o n s m o rph oge niqu es qui n e Jui se mbl e nt p as co h ere nt es e t ri go ur e u ses. P Dub o i s i g n a l e q u e J es v it esses ac tu e ll es d e so ul eve m e nt d es Alp es so nt im po rt a nt e : s i o n ex trap o l e ces d o nn ees a u p asse : o n a ur a i t un so ul eve m e nt a u dro i t du M o nt Bl a n c d e 1000 m p o ur l e d e mi e r milli o n d 'a nn ees. Avec de te ll es v it e ses de so ul e v e m e nt l e ka r s t p e ut se d eve l o p per u es ra pid e m e nt. A. BJNI n e ti e nt pas a e n gage r l a di sc u ss i o n s ur l e th e m e de l a c ri se m ess ini e n ne: p o ur Jui c es t LIil fa il ii s u ffi t d e se re p o rt e r a u x e nt a ill es flu viat il es r e m p li es d e Pli oce n e m a rin F. HO BL EA fa it r e m ar qu e r qu e l es gra n ds r esea u x a l pin s q u il a o b se rv es n o t a mm e nt ce u x qu il r a pp o rt e a u Te rti a ir e o n t du se deve l o pp e r Ir es ra p i d e m e nt e t a nt d o nn e, a l a fois. l e co nt exte t ecto niqu e (fo rt grad i e nt h y d ra uliqu e) e t c lim a tiqu e (co nditi o n s t ro pi ca l es) L es fo nn es so ut e rr a in es se mbl e nt. e n effe t d e m o nt re r q u e ces sys t e m es ka r s ti q u es se sera i e nt age n ces e t a u ra i e nt a tt e i n t l e ur s tru c tu re d 'e quilibr e. J C HOPPY es t e n d esacco rd avec l e fai t qu e l a ka r s tifi cat i on se fasse tr es v it e A l 'e t a t initi a l l e k a r s t n e p e ut se deve l o pp e r r a pid e m e nt ca r J es vi d es ka r s tiqu es n 'ex i s t e nt p as e t q u e l e fac t eu r t e mp s es t n ecessai r e a l a k a rt oge n ese. J .J DEL ANNO Y p e n se e ff ec ti ve m e nt q u 'a I eta t dit initi a l l a ka r s tifi ca ti o n re qui e rt un ce rt a in t e mp s, m a i s un e fo i s q u e l es v i des ex i s t e nt ( hi era r c hi ses e t d e p e n da nt s d un e s tru c tur e de 102 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Switzerland Volum e 6

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    dra in age k a r s tiqu e), l a k a r t oge n ese p e ut e tr e tr e ra pid e ; l e k a r t r eag it ra pid e m e nt a t o ut es m o difi ca ti o n du p o t e nti e l d e ka r s tifi ca ti o n (g radi e nt h y drauliqu e, foumitur e e n H p e t e n CO 2 e t c). C'es t d 'a ill e ur s tout l int e r e t du k a r s t d e r eag ir rapid e m e nt e t d e e r ea d a pt e r a u x n o u ve ll es d o nn es geo morpholo g iqu es, clim a tiqu es .. Le s r esea u x o ut e rrain s, n o tamm e nt l e ur a ge n ce m e nt (zo n e va d osezo n e n oyee), port e nt l a s i g n a tur e d es ruptur es d e l a sy m e tri e du t e mp ; d es qu e l es c onditi o n s c h a n ge nt (occ a s i o nn ee par d es e v e n e m e nt s maj e ur s), 1 a nci e nn e s tru c tur e es t a b a ndonn ee, un e n o u ve ll e se m e t e n pl ace. L int e r e t d e l a s p e l eo l og i e es t d e r eco nn ai tr e l e s tru c tur es h e rit ees e t l e ur seq u e n ce t e mp o r e ll e. Ph AUDRA int e rr oge ju s t e m e nt ur ce tru c tur es d e d ra in age, not a mm e nt l e an c i e n r e ea u x ub h o ri zo nt a u x (fac tur e n oyee) co mmun e m e nt ra pp o rt es a u ni vea u d e b ase k a r s tiqu e. E s t ee s i ce rt a in qu e ce l a ? Comm e nt ex pliqu e r alor s l es g ro sses co nduit es fo r cees ayan t un e n e tt e d ec li v it e ur plu s i e ur s ce nt a in e d e m e tr es d e d e ni ve l e D a n s ce cas, o u se s itu e l e ni vea u d e b ase: e n haul o u e n b as d e ces co nduit s? Ph A UDR A so uh a it era it qu 'o n di sc ut e d e ce tt e qu es ti o n i c i o u un e a utr e fo i s, e t a nt donn e l e t e mp s qui r es t e J .J DELAN OY a im e r ai tqu 'o n a b o rd eega l e m e nt in c i de n ce d es g rand s e difi ce g l ac i a ir es d a n s l a k a r t oge n ese, n o t a mm e nt vis a v i s d es point s d 'e m e r ge n ce d es ea u x k a r s tiqu es. L es g la c i e r s fo nt il s fo n c ti o n d e b a rr age ? A BIN! n e p e n se p as qu e l es g l ac i e r s e nt rai' n e nt un e fo rt e pr ess ion s ur l es ve r sa nt s al o r s qu 'e ll e es t ind e niabl e s ur l e fo nd d e l a va ll e e e n g l acee. M a int e n a nt i i a pp arai t de li ca t d e d ff inir I in c id e n ce d es g l ac i e r d e va ll ee ur l es c ir c ul a ti o n s e nd o k a r tiqu es, d 'a utant plu s qu e l es g l ac i e r s s ont l 'o bj e t d e n o mbr e u se var i a ti o n d e d e bit d e fr e qu e nt es c ru es e t d ec ru es g l ac i ai r es. L ors d es d ec ru es, ii d o it e produir e d e pui a nt es v id a n ges du k ars t. D e l 'e n e mbl e d e ces point s di sc u ss i o n s, ii a pp arai' t c l a ir e m e nt qu ii Fa ill e co nfr o nt e r n os expe ri e n ces e t n os m ode l es ka r s t oge ni q u es a fin d e l es co mp a r e r e t ai n s i d e t e nt e r d e d efi nir l es prin c ip a u x a c t e ur s k a r s t oge niqu es e t l e ur s a ss i ses s p a tial es. P o ur t ra v a ill e r d a n s ce se n s, A BINI p ro p ose l a co n s tituti o n d un gro up e d e t ravai l ur l a k a r s t oge n ese d e 'A r c a lpin L es p e r so nn es int e r essees p o ur p a rti c ip e r ace g roup e so nt invit ees a pr e ndr e c ont ac t avec A Bini d o nt l 'a dr esse se t ro u ve c i d esso u New working group Karst history of alpine ranges In th e cour se of th e di sc u ss ion of th e sess ion Kar s t hi tory of alpine ran ges, it b e came clear th a t eac h re sea r c h e r h as hi own s urv ey ar ea that i s limited with r es p e ct to th e w hol e alpine c h a in. Th e ge olo g ical e voluti o n of th e e are a ar e diff e rent and c on s equ e ntl y, th e c h arac t e ri s ti cs of e a c h k a r s t ar e diff e r e nt. On that a c c ount it i difficult to find th e way to s u gge t both c one lation and an e volution a ry fr a m e work of th e kar s t that c ould b e u e ful con s iderin g lar ge r ar e a s, or e v e n th e w hol e alpine ran ge. Be s ide s the e re as on it mu s t b e con id e red that research m e thodologie s vary according to different re s earcher s s o the c ompari s on of their outcom es b ec om e h a rd e r. The s e kind of reflection s led to the n ee d of a workgroup that could find a olution to the problem. The workgroup hould work at the harmonization of the actual knowledg e a bout a lpin e k a r s t with th e aim of pointin g out b o th th e c om mon featur e of th e ev olution and th e loc a l factor s that m a k e diff e r e n c e s Other g o a l s of th e work g roup ar e: make a n a t t e mpt of harmoni ze th e r ese ar c h m e th o dolo g i es emplo ye d b y differ e nt p e opl e, a nd th e s upportin g of th e int e rdi sc ipli nar y s tudie s invol v in g the e arth sc i e n ce br a n c h es that a r e u se ful for th e s tud y of th e ge olo g ic a l e volution of th e kar t. It will b e pr es ent e d a project at th e UNESCO c onc e rnin g thi s work g roup. P e opl e who a r e int e r es t e d a t thi s work pl a n plea se co t ac t: Prof. Alfr e do Bini Dipartim e nto di S c i e n ze della T e rra Uni ve r s it a d eg li Studi di Milano vi a M a n g i ag alli 34, 2 01 33 MILANO Italy tel : 02/2 3 6982 3 8 fa x : 02n06 382 6 l email: bini@ e 35 gp.terra.unimi.it Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 103

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    Workshop on Electronic techniques in Speleology ESC02 C hri s tian E bi Spectrospin AG, In d u striestrasse 26, 8117 Fa ll anden, Switzerland Abstract A pre-congress workshop on E l ectronic Techniques i n Speleology took place on the 8' h and 9' h August, I 997 in Muotathal. On the fir s t day there we r e presentations o n diffe r ent commun i cation method s and on co ll ection of sc ientific data i n caves u ing dataloggers The program on the second day co n s i sted of practical demonstrations of equipment bought by the participants in the entrance series of Holloch Cave. Introduction Computers have been used for a long time in ca l cu l a t ing and drawing cave surveys, but it has been rare to meet other complex electronic devices in th e caving world. Use in caves places strin gent demands upon the weight, power-consumption and mechani cal sturdiness of cave instruments. Modern designs offer increa ing min i aturization, with power savings, they are smaller and con se quently also more robust. Recently cavers h ave become very in terested in advances in illumination-methods, communications tech nology radio location power supplies for drills dataloggers sen sors and bat-detectors. To promote future cooperation and to enable face-to-face con tact, the Holloch Cave Research Association organized t his work s hop in Muotathal in Central Switzerland. Participants At the Work s hop mor e people participated than ex pected. Twenty one active parti c ipants From nine different nation s were welcomed. Sp ecifica ll y the organizers were pl eased that severa l of the most well-known expe rts on the area of the Speleo-electronics attended. Whil e some of the participants were already in commu nic a tion by em a il before the workshop, for many this was their first c hanc e to meet face-to-face, and to see and u se the equipment designed and built by others. Presentations On Friday several presentations were given, on the topi cs of comm uni ca tion a nd co ll ec tion of scie ntifi c data by datalogging. These two areas of Speleo-electronics were id entified by th e par ticipants as their areas of grea t est interest in a pre-convention ques tionnaire. Jacques Hurni (Switzerland) opened the l ect ur e-se rie s w ith a report on cave radio for rescue purposes in Switzerland. For r es cues in the Hollo c h specia l comm unication-d evices are necessary to allow wireless propagation distances of approximately 800 m through the rock. [IJ.[2]. Felix Ziegler (Switze rland ) paid attention to at the develop ment of devices which were li g ht in weight and had low power demand. The application of the ear th -c urr ent-techno lo gy has proved the most efficient antenna-system. H e mentioned that a good l arge s ignal behaviour i s more important in this app li ca tion than a very low noise prearnplifier due to the hi g h impa ct of atmosp h e ric noi se. The device ca ll ed AGHfunk operates in the long-wave band and the system can be connected ove r a VHF-Link with the r escue headq uarters. I a n Drummond (Canada), co-founder of th e m agazine Speleonics told about the successes in Canada with cave-radio equip ment. The cave-radio eq uipm en t that he developed u ses CBradio equipmen t as a basis. The o ut p u t-frequency of27MHz is con verted into the VLF/ l ong-wave bands ln this manner a cave-radio can be built in an evening, wh i ch moreover is very familiar and easy to operate [3] Ian Drummond asked the developers of cave radio eq ui pment, to consider measur i ng two parameter s, noise floor and intermodulation distortion of the receiver to allow a perfor mance comparison. Felix Ziegler point e d out the complication of the selectivity of loop-antennas. Most l oop-antennas are selective and so the preamplifer i s a broadband one. Earth-current receiver s often use an input filter and so the comparison is complicated. Ian Drummond suggested a project to measur e the intensity of atmospher i c noise in caving areas aro u nd the world, with exchange the re s ults. He introduces the project with a calibration-procedure, which allows the absolute va l ue of the field-strength in A/m to be mea s ured. Wookey witlz tlze single wire telephone "Miclziep/zone" (AUS) 104 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Graham ay lor ( Fran ce) r e port e d on th e ac 11v1t1 es of A DRASE C 38 ( A ss ociation D e p a rt e m e nt aJe de s R a dio Amateur s d e l a S ec urit e Civi l e D e p 38 l sere, France ). ln 1 996 in the Gouffre B erge r th e r e wa a erio u s acc id e nt which ca u e d th e development of wire l ess comm uni catio n eq uip ment for u se in thi cave. They ac hi eved very c l ea r r eception un dergrou nd a t a d e pth of 640 m with abo ut 540 m of rock thickne s above. Graham a l so reported s ome impr e s ive theor e ti ca l co nt e mpl tions to th e topi c Are l oop really be s t for underground comms a co mpari so n b e t ween loop -a nt e nna and currentinj ec tion Gra ham aylor a l so pr ese nted fr e qu e n cy-spec tra of th e l o n g-wave band Di s turban cefr ee fr e quenci es can b e identifi ed in by thi s way. Michael Lake and Jill R ow lin g ( Au s tralia ) pre se nt ed the Au tra li an s in g l e-wi r e-te l e ph o n e ca ll ed the Michiephone. Thi s sys t em was origina ll y d e veloped in 1 974 by Neville Michie and t oday form the s tandard communication eq uipm en t in the Au s tralian cave re c ue e rvi ces (Cave Re sc ue Squad s, CRS ). The de s ign was reworked by Michael Lak e and i now the s ize of a cigarette-box. Thi s eq uip ment once again s how e d how imple o luti ons are often mo s t ef fective and e n ab l e widespread u se of the system. Frank R e id (U SA ), a very ex perienced s peleo e n g in eer a nd e ditor of the m agaz ine Sp e l eo ni cs, told u s of hi s m a ny lon g-yea r s of experience and how e d pi c tur e of u cces ful radio-locations t o find n ew e ntran ces in caves. Frank i s an imm eas u rab l e tr eas ure hou se of id eas, articles a nd s nipp e t s of knowl e d ge. Frank ea rn e d g reat es t attention with hi s s pectacular picture of the excava tion of an artificial e ntran ce into a cave through an extreme l y un conven tion a l u se of ex plo s iv es. Fel i x Ziegler (Sw it zer l and) introduc e d the me as ur e ment of th e hi g h water-levels in the Hollo c h which h ave been mad e for many yea r now The exce ptionally hi g h pre ss ure s, put s p ec i a l require ment s on th e co n s truction of th e data-lo gge r Th e n ewes t de s i g n ca n m eas ur e s imult a n eo u s l y pr ess ur e, t e mp era ture and co ndu c ti it y in a s iphon o r a hi g h water-zone over a duration of one year. The micr o pr oce or, the memory a nd th e interface-circuits are ac commodated in a l e n gt h of Im bra ss tub e. The probe co uld e ndur e pressures up t o 22 bar. ev ill e Mi c hi e (A u tralia) i s not only th e d eve l operoftheAus tr a li a n Michi ep h o n e, h e a l so d eve l ops very exac tin g me as ur e m e nt in st rum e nt s. Some of th ese in s trum e nt s h e pr ese nt ed with pictur es. These include in st rum en t s t o measure cave-climate p ara m e t e r s u c h as CO ,, a nd du t in t o uri s t part of cave [4]. H e demonstrated hi s portabie t e mp eratu r e and humidity-equipment which ca n r egi ter changes of 0.1 % a t near I 00 % humidit y H e a l so s how e d pi c tur es of an exq ui s it e l y se n s iti ve barom e t e r which can r eco rd c hang es of one hundredth of a millibar for work in s tud y in g cave winds. Neville a l so demonstrated a commercia l product of the US-company O SET. Thi company make miniature D a t al oggers fo r a l ow price. The units record for ove r a year, and is uppli ed wi th ea y t o use softwa r e. Finally I an Drummond s h owed a tin y data-logger, w hi c h n o t es how many objec t wit h a li g ht e m e r a cave. Wh y with li g ht ? So on l y human s, and not bats rodents and l os t birds are co unt ed! The appliance work up to I O years wi th out battery-change Following the pre e nt a ti ons man y different di sc u s ions oc curred among the participants a nd most used the oppo rtunit y. to disp l ay instrum e nts and demonstrate the in strumen t s th ey had bought. Practical Demonstrations The next day equipment wa taken into th e entra n ce part of the Holloch, approximate l y 600 m in th e cave. The fo ll ow in g sys t em were u ed into th e cave, AGH-Funk ( Switzerland ea rth -c urr e n t sys t e m ), ASS cave radio ( Canada indu ction radio ) and th e Mi c hi e phon e. Frank R e id did intere s tin g exper im en t s wi th a portabl e se n s i tive E-field audio-receiver. H e wa s able t o re ce iv e the s i g n a l from the si n g l e-wire tel e phone wi th hi s s h ort w hip -antenna. A co nn ec ti on to th e wire of the Mi c hi ep hon e wa not nece s ary. B oth Frank and the operator s of the Michiephon e were excited as thi s observa tion opens the pos s ibilit y of a wir e l ess monitor for u se by peopl e on a cave re sc ue The r ad i o-communicatio n wit h th e eart h injection m e thod a l l owed good rec e ption ove r a distan ce of 267 m t o th e s ur face-sta tion a nd also Lo the 450 m distant VHF rela y sta tion. It was n eces sa ry to bl a nk out a s trong beat on 46 kHz with a notch filter. Th e r ed u ct ion of di turbances a nd mor e flexible frequency/channel l ec ti on i s a t opic for future development s. The ASS cave radio w ith th e CB-radio as ba se a ll ows easy c han nel e l ect i on. I an Drummond did co mpari so n-mea s ur e ment s be tween eart h -cu rr ent inj ec tion and loop-antenn as. Remarks At the c onclu s ion of th e Work s hop an end-discussion was h e ld which was manag ed by I an Drummond Th e participant r e lat ed wha t idea s they had ga ined a nd what ac tion s they wanted to pur s u e. The id ea of coo peratin g on world-wide proj ec t s hould not be l ost and the n ew won friends s h o uld not be lo s t either. Wook ey dr ew attention t o th e Cave R a dio and Ele c tronic s Group ( CREG ) of the Briti h C ave R e earc h A ociation ( BCRA ), as an international forum. The g roup re g ularly publi he a journal. The Journal forms an exce llent platform for public a tion s on th e a r ea of th e s peleo -e l ectro ni c Frank R eid m e ntion e d further th e US-based m agaz ine Speleonic s and the e l ectronic M a ilin gli st (s p e l eo ni c requ es t @ altad e na.net). Lite r ature l I J Hurni J 1995 Drahtlo se NachrichtenUbertragung in gro en a turhohl e n Stalactite 45 2 : 82-87 [ 2] Hurni J. Ebi Chr. 1996 A lpin e Cave R a dioEarth-current a t H o ll och, CREG Journ a l 25 pp. 4-5 [ 3 ] Drummond Ian ( 1 993). Converting CB R a dio s for Use as Low frequency Cave Radio s. Speleonic 1 9, pp. 3-8 [4] Mi c hi e evi ll e ( 1 997). The Thr ea t 1 0 Caves of th e Hum an Du s t Source, UJS97. Pro ceedi n gs V pp. 43-46 Ian Drummond (CDN) and Jill Rowling (AUS) discussing on Cave Radio Proceed in gs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 105

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    3rd International Meeting on Subterranean Topography: the Symbol list revised P hilipp H a u se lm a nn H a ld e n s tr asse 32, 3 014 B e rn S w it ze rl a nd pra ezis@ mpi unib e.c h Abstract On th e occas i o n of th e I 2' h U IS Co n g r ess in L a C h a u xd eF o n ds a wo r k h o p was o r gan i sed in or d e r l o rev i se th e pro p ose d U IS y m bo l l is t. Th e wo rk s h o p was m o r e int e rn a ti o n a l th a n th e pr ece din g o n es, h owever we r eg r e t t h e a b se n ce o f so m e co untri es th a t a r e l ea din g i n th e do m a in o f s p e l e ol ogy. Th e w id e l y publi s h e d prop osa l s h a d b ee n we ll acce pt e d in ge n era l so thi s w or ks h o p h a d o nl y t o di sc u ss m i n o r impr ove m e nt s a nd a dditi o n s. Thi s w a s d o n e in a v e ry e ff ec ti ve and fri e ndl y m a nn e r so th a t we ca n co n s id e r th e ac tu a l li s t as th e fi n a l o n e. It is n ot th e pl ace h ere t o publi s h th e c h a n ge m e nt s, m ay b e it i w orth n o tin g th a t th e di ffe r e nti a ti o n b e t wee n n o rm a l sy mb o l s a nd a dditi o n a l o n es h as b ee n ca n ce ll e d Th e n ex t s t e p is t o vo t e thi s fin a l li s t b y U IS n a t io n a l d e l ega t es a t as k th a t i sc h e dul e d t o th e e n d o f 1 997. Th e n th e li s t w ill b e offic i a ll y p u b li s h e d as th e U IS S y mb o l Li s t. Th e a uth o r of thi s a b tr ac t b eca m e C h a irm a n of th e W o rkin g gro up o n t o p og raph y a nd d raw in g. Thi s wo rkin g gro up i s e mb e dd e d in th e U IS In fo rm a ti cs co mmi ssio n a nd d ea l s w ith v irtu a ll y a ll thin g s co nn ec t ed t o t o p og r a ph y a n d m a ppin g An yo n e i nt e r es t ed in j o inin g th e disc u ss i o n s i s i n v it e d t o se nd a n e m a il (o r a l e tt e r ) t o m e. Zusammenfassung Im R a hm e n d es 1 2. U IS K o n g r es es in L a Ch a u xd eF o nd s w urd e e in W o rk s h o p o r ga ni s i e rt. d e r z um Zi e l h a tt e di e vo r gesc hl age n e U IS Si g n a turli t e z u r ev idi e r e n Di ese r W o rk s h o p w i es e in e int e rn a ti o n a l e r e B e t e ili g un g a u f a l s di e vo rh e r ge h e nd e n e id e r wa r e n d e nn oc h e ini ge in d e r H o hl e n fo r sc hun g fi.ihr e nd e L an d e r a bw ese nd. Di e publi z i e rt e n V o r c hla ge w urd e n gene r e ll wo hl w oll e nd a u fge n o mm e n so d ass di ese r W o rk s h o p nur kl e in e r e V e rb esse run ge n un d Z u sa t ze zu di sk uti e r e n h a tt e. Di es gesc h a h in e in e r se hr e ff e kti ve n und fr e undli c h e n A tm os ph a r e so d ass di e e nt s t a n de n e Li s t e a l s d a E ndp ro dukt a n gese h e n we rd e n ka nn E s w Urd e zu we it fi.ihr e n a ll e A nd e run ge n hi e r zu publi z i e r e n A l s w i c ht ig t e Ne u e run g se i hi e r nur e r wa hnt. d ass di e U nt e r sc h e idun g in H a uptli s t e und Zu satz wegfii llt D e r n ac h s t e S c hritt w ird se in d ass D e l eg i e rt e a u s d e n e in ze ln e n L a nd e rn Ub e r di e Li s t e a b s timm e n Di es i s t fi.ir E nd e 1 997 ge pl a nt. D a n ac h w ird di e Li s t e a l s di e o ffi z i e ll e U IS Si g n a turli s t e publi z i e rt we r de n D e r Au t o r di e es B e itr ages wurd e V o r s it ze nd e r d e r Arb e it sgr upp e Ub e r V e rm ess un g und Z e i c hnun g. Di ese Arb e it sg rupp e w urd e in di e U IS In fo rm a tikk o mmi ss ion int eg ri e rt. Si e b e h a nd e lt a ll e Fra ge n rund um V e nn ess un g und Ze i c hnun g. J e d e rm a nn d e r s i c h fi.ir di ese Fr a ge n int e r es i e rt i s t e in ge l a d e n mir e in e m a il ( od e r e inen Bri ef) zu sc hi c k e n. Resume D a n s l e ca dr e du 1 2 C o n g r es UIS a L a Ch a u xd e -Fond s, un e t a bl e rond e s 'es t o cc up ee d e l a r ev i s ion d es s i g n es co n ve nti o nn e l s util i s es e n t o p ogra phi e so ut e rr a in e C e tt e tabl e rond e e tait plu s int e mati o n a l e qu e l es pr ece d e nt es bi e n qu o n y r eg r e tt a it 'a b se n ce d e qu e lqu es p ay qui j o u e nt un r o l e m a j e ur d a ns l a p e l eo lo g i e m o ndi a l e. L es pr o p os iti o n s publi ees o nt e t e e n ge n e ral acce pt ees; l a t a bl e rond e n 'e ut qu 'a di sc ut e r d 'a m e li o r a ti o n s e t d a dditi o n s min e ur es. Cec i se p assa it dan s un e ambian ce tr es e ffic ace e t sy mp a thique e t ii fa ut co n s id e r e r l a li s t e r ev i see co mm e d e finiti ve. C e tt e li s te final e se ra v ot ee p a r l es d e l eg u es UIS a la fin d e 1 997 En s uit e la li s t e se ra publi ee offi c i e ll e m e nt co mm e Li s t e UIS d es Sign es Conv e ntionn e l s L aut e ur de c e r es um e es t dev e nu pr es id e nt du g ro u pe d e travail d e topo g raphi e e t d ess in C e g roup e es t int eg r e d a n s l a c ommi ss i o n informatique d e l UTS II traite to u te s l es qu es tion s l i ees a l a topo gra phi e e t a u d ess in Tout e p e r so nn e int e r essee a p a rti c ip e r es t pri ee d e m 'e nvo y er un c ourri e r e l ec troniq u e o u u n e l e ttr e. 106 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Report of the Discussion on Pseudokarst by Step h a n K e mp e a nd W illi a m R Ha llid ay 2 1 Techni s che Universitat Darrn s tadt, Geol-Palaontol. Inst. Schnittspahnstr. 9 64287 Darmstadt Germany 2 Hawaii Speleological Survey of the National Speleo l ogical Society, 6530 Cornwall Court, 37205 Na s hville TN, USA Chairper s ons: WiJliam. R. Halliday, Stephan Kempe Eszterhas Istvan The g roup was mainly concerned with th e ta k to find an ac ce ptable definition of p se udokar s t In order to do thi s, it wa felt that, first a definition of karst wa s needed. After about an hour of intensiv e discu ss ion th e following definition s w e re obtained and mo t of th e participant s agreed: I ) Definition s hould b e based on land s cape s, not i olated fea ture s. 2) Karst s are land sca p es with a predominanc e of s ub s urface run off, evolved throu g h time by so l ution and ( to a s maller p a rt ) by phy s ic a l erosion. Subcla sses includ e ( i ) Carbonate (o r classi ca l ) karst ; ( ii ) gy p s um karst ; (iii) salt karst; ( i v) quartzit e kar s t ; or (v) c la ss if y by dominant litho l ogy in case mor e than one of the above rock typ es are pre se nt. 3) P se udok a r sts are land sca pe s with morphologie s r ese mblin g karst a nd /o r m ay hav e a pr e dominanc e of s ubsurface draina ge throu g h co nduit t y p e voids, but la ck th e e l e ment of lon g -t e rm evo lution by so lution and phy i ca l erosion. Subcla sses includ e ( i ) P se udokar s t on l ava; ( ii ) p eudokarst on i ce ( not e that we did not consider m e ltin g a so lution pro cess); (i ii ) p se udok a r s t on permafro s t ; ( iv ) p se udok a r s t on talu s; (v) p se udokarst on unconsolidated se dim e nts or volcanic as h We further s tre sse d the point that an individual cave as s uch i s not necessarily part of a karst or a pseudokar s t land sca pe Caves therefore should be cla ss ified by th e pro cess or processe s which forn1ed them. Onl y th e n can it be determined if a cave is a kar s t or pseudokar s t feature, or j u s t a cave in an odd place. For ex amp l e, a talu s cave may be just that ; it only become s an ele ment of a ps e udokarst if it causes extensive s ub s urfa ce drain age on a land sca pe level. 4) lmportant s pecific comments: i n so me loc a liti es of kar s t-lik e features in poorly so luble rock, there may b e an interfa ce b tween kar s t and p se udokarst rather than a boundary The po ss bi l ity of di sso lution kar s t in andesite was mentioned ; di s olu t i on feature s of lat e rite were not mention e d. An exten iv e p se udokar s t in moderately consolidated volcanic breccia with numerou s dolin es was reported to exist in NW Wyoming USA A l so r e p o rted was the ex i s tence of cavities re s ulting from m e lt ing of ice bodie s in ea rthy depo s it s, and also a s izeabl e grav it y sliding p se udokar s t in New York s tat e, USA, with closed de pression s and und erg round s tream s. Report of the Discussion on Cave Climatology by J ea nLo ui s R egez Ne l kenweg 8, 4144 Arlesheim Chairpersons: Bulat Mavlyudov, Giovanni Badino The main th e m es discussed were: Fluxes of heat and wate r b e tw ee n the ai r and th e wall of the ga ll e r y of a cave. Climatological aspec t s re l eva nt to th e prote c tion of s h ow caves. Measurement of paran1eters r e l eva nt to cave c limatolo gy. Modelling of cave c lim ato lo gy. Future direction The discussion brought up a lot of arguments o n the m eans t o measure a nd model the climatology of caves. The basic ph ys i ca l processes of heat co ndu c ti on, water evaporation a nd co nd ensa ti o n and the tr ansfe r of vaporisa ti o n h eat are we ll known. Many argu ments ce ntr ed of th e difficulties t o mak e measurements of relevant parameters w hi ch are eno u g h accurate and sam pl ed often e n oug h at e n o u g h places in th e cave t o be s tudi ed. The reality i s that n ot much m eas ur ements of temperature, humidit y, CO 2 wi nd speed have been done in the past. One participant (Nevi ll e Mit c hi e) presented a row of instrument developed for measurements und e r co ndi tions h appen in g in caves. Some participants s tr essed that th e pa rame t ers must be measured t o a very good preci ion. D epe ndin g on the cave t o b e st udi ed, th e d i fferent pro cesses involved in cave c lim a tolo gy h ave different quantit a tiv e co ntribution s. This was very perceptible in the discus ion it was not a l ways possible t o make th e difference between an argument s p ec ifi c t o a give n cave a nd an argument which i applicable to a ll caves. Obviously some better h e uri s ti c t o l ead th e r esearc h work is needed th ere. The id ea of m ode llin g a cave, making riti ca l m eas ur eme nt s t o c h eck the model r efi nin g th e mod e l a nd makin g m o r e m eas ur e m ents wa s put forward. H ow to protect s h ow caves i s a s p ec i a l problem. Everyone in th e round think s th at a detailed c limatol ogic m ode llin g of the cave i s an import a nt part of the work to be done to get th e data n ecessary to m a n age a s ho w cave in a s u sta in able way. There were a bun c h of propo sa l s for the future: Extend cavi n g wo rk t o in c lud e m eas ur e m e nt s of temperature CO 2 humidit y a ir s p ee d. Make th e ap p rop ri ate in s trum e nt avai l ab l e. Put mor e wo rk o n se ttin g up climatologic models. Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 10 7

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    Significance and Application of the Term Speleothem Results of the Discussion on Cave Mineralogy by Jacques E.J. Marti ni Co un c i l fo r Geosc i e n ce, Pri va t e B ag X l 1 2, Pr e t or i a, 00 I So uth Afr i ca C h a irp e r s on s: Ca ro l Hill P ao l o F o rti W R H a llid ay (U.S.A.) Th e d e finiti o n b y G. M oo r e wo rk s very we ll fo r lim e t o n e caves, but n o t fo r vo l ca ni c cave w hi c h a pp ea r n ow as a n imp o rt a nt catego r y. On e h o uld s p ea k of l ava s p e l eo th e m s w hi c h in c lud e a l a r ge va ri ety o f ty p es: s t a l ac tit e s t a l agm it e rimp oo l e t c. T hi s i s mor e a min e r a l og i cal probl e m ra th e r t h a n m o rph o l og i ca l. In th e case o f vo l ca ni c caves o n e s h o uld n o t s p ea k o f s p e l eo th e m s in ce w a t e r i s n o t in vo l ve d in th e ge n e ti c p ro cess. C. Hill (U S. A ). Mu d fo rm a ti o n s a r e a l o ca ll e d s p e l eo th e m s b y so m e p eo pl es, but th ey a r e n t s p e l eo th e m s b y o ur d e finiti o n beca u se mud i s n o t a min era l it i s a mi x tur e of diff e r e nt min era l s. C. S e lf (U. K .) A s t a l ac tit e c annot b e id e ntifi ed as a s p e l eo th e m i f it i s ta k e n o ut of it co nt ex t th a t i und e r a brid ge a nd n o t in a cave. Th e t e rm s p e l eo th e m lik e s tru c tur e co uld b e u se d fo r s u c h q u es ti o n a bl e cases Ano th e r t e rm k ars t o t y pi c co u l d a l s o cover a fo rm a tion w h e th e r in o r o ut of a cave. A A C i g n a ( It a l y). S e l f's o pini o n s h o uld b e s upp o rt e d t o ace t a in ex t e nt but a w id e r se n se s h o uld b e a d o pt e d Sp e l eo th e m s h o uld b e ge n e r a l fo r in s t a n ce a ca t aco mb ca n b e co n s id e r e d as an ar tifi c i a l cave. M a lt sev s co n ce pt of co n s train i n g th e t e m1 t o th e kars t e n v i ro nm e nt i s n o t a d v i sa bl e. C. Hill (U. S .A.). Th e t e rm s p e l e oth e m h o ul d b e r es tri c t e d t o n a tu ra l caves b eca u se s p e l eo m ea n s cave G V e ni (U. S .A.). St a l ac tit es in l ava tub es a r e sy n ge n e ti c with th e cave Thi s m ig ht i ndu ce t o ex t e nd th e t e rm t o roo f p e nd a nt s, w hi c h a r e o b v i o u s l y n o t p e l eo th e m s. W.R H a llid ay (U S. A.) L a va s t a l ac tit es are n o t roo f p e nd a nt and a r e o f seco nd a r y o ri g in du e t o m e ltin g of th e ro o f b y gas ac t ion. G V e ni (U. S A .). Fo r i c i c l es in g l ac i e r caves, th e a pp e ll a ti o n s p e l eo th e m e n co unt e r s th e sa m e probl e m th a n fo r l ava s t a l ac tit es. W.R H a llida y (U. S A .). V e ni s s t a t e m e nt i s n o t co rr ec t : i c i c l es in g l ac i e r caves are p os t p e l e o ge n es i s. G V e ni (U. S A .). Thi s qu es tion s h o uld b e di sc u sse d i n a s p c i a l g roup. B.P. Ona c ( R o m a ni a). L a v a tub es a r e n o t co n s id e r e d as c a ves, o nl y k a r s t cav iti es s h o uld h ave thi s a pp e ll a ti o n M oo r e's o pini o n i s s upp o rt e d : caves a r e r es tri c t e d to k a r s t C Hill (U. S .A.). T o th e co ntrar y of On ac s o pini o n l ava tu bes s h o uld b e co n id e r e d as caves F o r in s t ance m any min era l s d esc ri bed in Ca v e Min e ral s of th e W o rld a r e fro m l ava tub es. J Jam es (A u s tr al i a). M oo r e's co n ce pt s h o uld be s upp o rt e d Th e de finiti o n of a pr i m ary min era l in a c a ve i s th e p ro bl e m t o b e so l ve d F. U rb a ni ( V e n ezue l a). Th e d e finiti o n o f k ars t h as t o b e sc rut ni ze d F o r in s t a n ce qu a rt z it e ka r s t h ave b ee n acce pt ed as s u c h o nl y r ece ntl y. Th e r e for e thi s a pp e ll a ti o n s h o uld be take n i n a b roa d se n s e. Ab o ut s p e l eo th e m s, thi s t e m1 s h o uld b e d e fin e d as a seco n da r y min era l d e p os it in a cav it y. Thi s in c lud es a l so a rt i fi c i a l cav iti es. Sm a ll n a tural cav iti es w ith n o d a rk zo n e s h o ul d a l so b e co n s id e r ed as c a ves. S Fri s i a ( It a l y) Th ere i s th e p ro bl e m of d e trit a l se dim e nt s in caves: a r e th ey p e l eo th e m s? A noth e r probl e m i s: s h o uld n o n -kar t cav iti es lik e geo di c v u g o f di age n e ti c o ri g in or t ec t o ni c vo id s b e co n s id e r e d as caves ? W F ra nt z (U. S A .). Th e t e nn fo m ia ti o n i s r eco mm e nd ed as it i s m o r e ge n e ral a nd m ay in c lud e mud fea tur es Thi s s p e l eo t erm s h o uld b e ex t e nd e d t o fo rm a tion s in th e li g ht zo n e. K. Tak acs -B o ln e r (Hun ga r y). Th e c on ce pt of s p e l eot h e m s h o uld n o t b e ex t e nd e d t o a rtifi c i a l caves. I. Vi e hm a nn ( R o m a ni a) Th e m o r p h o l ogy c h a r ac t e ri z in g s p e l eo th e m s s h o uld fo ll ow th e e t y m o l ogy m o r e cl ose l y than in p rac ti ce. F o r in s tanc e th e t e rm h e li c tit e s hould a ppl y t o p igt a il s h a p e d s p e l eo th e m s o nl y a nd n o t fo r s t a l ac tit es grow in g int o a n y dir ec ti o n a und e r s t oo d b y th e m a j o rit y of th e cave r s. S i mil ar l y th e t e rm moonmilk i s n o t co rr ec t T o b e n o ti ce d th a t th e t e rm s p e l e oth e m was acce pt e d in E urop e onl y w ith diffi c ult y. ln co nclu s i o n thi s t e rm can b e n eve rth e l ess acce pt e d but o nl y fo r c h e mi ca l d e p os it s. N Mi c hi e (A u s tr a li a). Mo o r e's d e finiti o n of s p e l eo th e m th a t i s d e p os it e d b y wa t e r o nl y, i s not a cce pt a bl e It s h o uld b e ex t e nd e d t o wa t e r fr ee d e p os iti o n lik e d e po s iti o n fr o m va p o ur s. S Kni g ht (U. S A ). Sp e l eo th e m i s a bro a d t e rm co in e d b y u age th a t e v e n nonsc i e nti s t s und e r s t a nd W o rd s lik e s p e l eo -t y p th e m o r s p e l e o lik e-t h e m w ould b e a d e qu a t e w ord s for s tru tur es n o t form e d in caves fo r in s t a n ce. T h ese wo rd s wo uld a l so b e und e r s t a nd a bl e t o n o nsc i e nti s t s 108 Procee d ings of the 12 th International Congress of S p e l eol o gy 1997 Swi t zer l a nd Volume 6

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    Geotopes and their Management Results of the Discussion on Geotopes by Ugo Sauro' a nd Vincent G r a ndgir a rd 2 'D ipartim ento di Geografia, Via del Santo 26, J -3 5123 Padova 2 University of Fribourg, Institute of Geography CH-1700 Fribourg Chairperson: Ugo Sauro Introduction The discussion on geotopes ha involved everal participant Dr Vincent Grandgirard presented a review about the concept of geotope and the po s ible s trategy to u se this notion to establish an inventory and to promote the con ervation of geological and geo morphological heritage ( ee the enclo ed paper). The propo al of Dr Grandgirard have been appreciated by the participants. ln the discussion, a general agreement has been reached about the oppor tunity to promote an inventory of karsl geotope at an internation a l l eve l. Method for the evaluation of the kar I geotopes must be s tandardised and te ted in different countries. For each population of similar geotopes it is possible lo perforn1 a compari on based on quantitative, semiquantitative a nd qualitative paran1eters ( mor phometry, geological and biological contents, hi s torical and cul tural heritage. etc.) to identify the mo s t typical and the mo st pe cu liar forms, to establi ha hierarchy of value and to plan the conser vation and/or the utili sat ion for cultural and recreative purpo ses. For a correct management, each kar L geotope mu t be considered as a part of a kar l gee-ecosystem. ln fact so me types of human impact in a kar s t gee-ecosystem may be reflected also on its com ponent parts. In the future it could be important to organise a workhop on karst geotopes and 10 establi ha commis ion at least at an European level. As an hypothesis for a workshop 1 suggest to Link it with the meeting on Karst sys tem s organized in France for September of 1999. Origin and Definition of the Term Geotope The Lenn geotope was initially created as a counterpart of the term biotope The geotope concept aims al the integration of geoconservation into legal texts and into land use planning and natur e con ervation procedure In English-speaking countries and particularly in the UK th e term geosite i s u ed as a sy nonym of geotope Geotope s are parts of the geosphere having particular importance for the comprehension of the hi tory of the Earth. Geotope s form the geological and geomorphological heritage. They are the memory of the Earth's past and tl1e key for the comprehen s ion of its present and future state. They are an e se ntial e l ement of the natural heritag e. According to their characteri tic geotopes can be arranged into severa l types re l ated to the different domains of Earth ciences. One can distingu i s h structural, mineralogical pet rographical, geochemical hydrogeological paleontological, stra tigraphical edimentologica l geomorphological, pedological e tc. geotopes. A geotope can obviously belong to seve r a l types. Geomorphological geotopes correspond to landform active or not which deliver information allowing lo read the history of the Earth to understand it s pre se nt dynamic and to appreciate its future evo lution. Among geomorphological geotopes, several sub-type can be propo ed according to their comp l exity and to the geomorpho logical processe recognized as responsible for their genesis. Karst geo tope are one of these sub-types. The Utility of Geological and Geomor phological Heritage Conservation The intrin sic value and the s in g ularity of the geo logic a l and geomorphological heritage must be re s pect e d. This i s all the more important s inc e the geological and geomorphological herit age is finite and non r e newable. From a more practical point of view, pre serving tl1is heritage can be justified for the following reason s: to expand knowledge in Earth cience and to improve th e un derstanding of processes through which th e natural environ ment evolves; to have intact and exemplary ites available for u se as concrete illustration s in educating Earth sciences s peciali s t For the e specia li sts field s ite s are in fact an irreplaceable s tudy l abora tory ; to provide t eac her s and their s tudent s as well as all per so n s with a particular intere t (for example nature lover s, s peleolo gi t s) with accessible and well documented sites a llowin g them to familiarize them se lves with the Earth and it s hi s tory ; to preserve geological and geomorphological sites' aesthetic or landscape value. ecological importance, cultural or hi storica l s ignificance etc. The combination of these qualities give the se s ite s particular importance for the collective identity. They are often valued as rec reation s ite as well. The e elements thu s prove that conserving our geological and geomorphological heritage se rve s the intere s t s of several partie s at the ame time: Earth sc ience s s pecialists, th e general public and nature itself. From the Individual to the International Level Geo l ogical and geomorpho l ogical heritage mu s t not be seen as belonging only to the cientific community and to planners. It con servation can only be guaranteed once the general public claims thi s heritage as its own and a sumes the role as its guardian. Geoconservation mu s t be promoted at all decision making level (local, regional national and international ). Effort must be mad e to increase awareness concerni n g th e recognition and conservation of geotopes. New management tool s must be developed in the field s of l egisla ti on, land-u se planning and nature con ervation. ln thi per pective inventorie s of geotope are ba s ic data for their conser vation. Process for an Inventory of Geotopes An inventory of geotopes constitute a fundamental informa tion for user s who mo t often do not have any particular knowl edge in the field of Earth cience s. To become a reference, such an inventory mu s t deliver convinci n g and under s tandable result s. lt mu s t therefore be based on a clearly defined proce s as well a on so lid sc i e ntili c data. The propo ed proce s for the realization of an inventory of geotope can be broken into five s ucc ess ive stages: Proceed i ngs of the 12' International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 109

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    categorization of the objec t s; inventory of th e objec t s; eva lu a ti o n of the objects; se l ec ti on of th e geo t opes; characterization of the geo t opes. Management of Geotopes The first step in order fonnulating man ageme nt m eas ur es for the geo top es i s th e assessmen t of any threats t o them (degrada tion of their integrity or their activity). Damage ca u ed to geotopes is in genera l irreversible as they ca nn o t be r eco n structed or compen sa ted For thi rea on, measures for the management of geomor phological geo t opes can only be protection measures (for examp l e, crea ti o n of a n alllra l r eserve, restricted u se) or en h a n ce m e nt mea s ures (fo r examp l e, creation of a n a tur e trail in creas in g publi c awarene improving accessibi lit y). The respon s ibility for man aging geotopes could be co n ferred lo l oca l or r egio n a l gro up s in volved in their conservation (scie ntifi c societie associa ti ons for nature conservation, museum sc h oo l s, uni versities, planners, gov ernme nt au th orit i es, property owners, etc.). A Few References GEOLOGICA B ALCANICA ( 1996 ): Special I ss ue Geological H eri t age ( I st Subregional Meeting Co n ervation of the Geological Heri tage in SE Europe, Bulgaria, 6-12 May 1 995). 26/1. GR ANDG IRARD, V. ( 1 997): Geomorphologie, protection de l a n at ur e et gest i on du paysage. These de doctoral o 11 63, U niv e r si t e de Fribourg (Suisse), lmprimerie St-Paul, Fribourg. M EMO IR ES DE LA S oc 1 m G EOLOG IQ UE DE FRA NCE ( 1994) : Proceed ings of the I t Int ernational Sympo s ium on the Conservation of our Geological H eritage Digne l es Bains 1 l-16Juin 1 991. Nouvelle Serie, No 1 65. MEMORIE DES CRrTT IV E DELLA CART A G EOLOGICA D I TALIA (for th com ing): Proceedings of the 2nd Int e rn at i onal Symposium on the Cone rv atio n of our Geological H e rit age, Rom e, 20-22 May 1 996. O H ALLORAN D & Al. (E ds) ( 1 994): Geological and Land sca p e Conservat i on. Proceedings of the Malvern International Confer ence 1 993. Geological Society London. OKOLOGIS C HE B1LD UNGSSTATTE OB ERFRA KE ( 1 993): Geotopschutz (Workshop Geotop ch ut z und Geowi sse nschaftlicher Naturschutz 5 .6. Marz 1 992). Materialen I. WILSO N C. (Ed.) ( 1994 ): Eart h Heritage Conservation. Geolo g ical Society & The Open University, London. Contact Addresses ProG EO (t h e European A ssoc iation for the Con ervation of the Geological Heritage): Executive Secretary: Dr W.A.P. Wimbledon Countryside Council for Wales Castleto n Court, Fortran R oad, St Mellons Cardiff CF3 0LT, United Kingdom Int e rn et ProGEO Homepage: http ://www.sgu.se/progeo/ The Malvern Int ernat ion a l Task Force for Earth Heritage Con servation: c/o Joint Nature Conservation Committee Monkstone H ouse, City Road Peterborough, PEI IJY. United Kingdom. Int ernet Malvern Homepage: http://exodu s.o pen .ac. uk/ mal vern/Mal vern.html Work Group for the Protection of Geotopes in Switzerland: President: Dr M. Felber Mu eo cantona l e di s toria naturale. Viale Cattaneo 4, 6900 Lugano Switzerland Dr Vincent Grandgirard In s titut e of Geography University Perolles 1700 FRIBOURG (SWITZERLAND) Tel.: 0041 (0)26 30090 10 Fax: 0041 (0)26 3009746 110 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland Volume 6

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    Report of the Discussion on Epikarst b y Jean-Pierre Tripet Swiss National H y drolo g i cal and Geological Survey Federal Office of Environment, Forest and Land scape, 3003 B ern, Switzerland Chairperson: Alexander Klimchouk Introduction, key topics A Klimchouk opens the discussion and notice that the paper presented within the Session 2, Epikarstic zone: morpho l ogy, h draulics and genesis refer to very different a pects. In order to organize the exchange of idea he propo e to discuss the follow ing topics: I ature, definition and co nc eptua l model of epikarst 2. Factor controlling the epikarst fom1ation, relative importance of these factor 3. Evolution of epikarst, development tages ; Clusters of kar s t landfonns typical for certain stages Soil formation and soi l degradation 4. Unified characterization of epikar tin order to enab l e its com parison from region to region. He further emphazises that the way to a systematic corre l ation be tween epikarst and kar s t morphology requires a deep under s tanding of epikar tic and weathering proce e During the di cu ion, a further major que s tion i pointed out: 5. Analysis of the hydrodynamic functioning of the epikarst. Some important comments Some important contributions to the discussion are s ummarized below. Mo s t of them are related to several from the key topic men tioned in the intr oduction and it appear s that a s hort di cu sion i s not sufficient for a well s tructured analysis of the present knowl edge. 1. Definition of epikarst It i s sugge Led by ome participalll that the definition of the permeability factor (s tru cture, geometry of the voids and discontinuities) is of basic importance for the epikarst definition. The e factor result from tres release and weathering In other words, the ob ervation and description of the hydraulic function ing of the epikar I would be of paramount importance This opin ion needs further di sc ussion 2. Significance of the dolines In many cases the doline represent the la t evolu ti on L age of shafts and, in other words, r es ult from an upward karstification (e.g. observations in Slovenia and in ll a l y). Howe ver, another type of do lin es exists: th e dissolution do lin es, that have ano th er origin and are not nece arily in connection with a s haft. For this reason, a doline does not a l ways correspond to the place where the vertical flow i s the quicker. This ob ervation shows that it is necessary to distinguish the phenomena specifically related to the epikarst (more recent) from tho e related to the deep kar t and ultimately appearing a t the s ur face. It is also of basic importance to locate and to swdy the haft which cons titut e the hydraulic link between the epikarst and the deeper karst. 3. Self-cleaning properties of the epikarst During the groundwater percolation through the epikarst a se lf cleaning of the water can take place (e.g.: ob ervations in Slovenia ). In the ep ik arst, which effect i s dominant and under which condi tion s: the self-cleaning effect due to the flow through fine materi a l or the high flow velocity ( horizontal or vertical) towards the deeper karstic network ? 4. Difficulty to observe the epikarst The study and the understanding of the e pikar s t are made mor e difficult due to the carce opportunities for direct ob ervation ln many cases, mo t of the knowledge on epikarst are derived from observation made in quarries (e.g. in Poland). Conclusions The discussion has shown that many important observations and measurements related to epikar t have been made as yet. Valu able s tudies related to a conceptual model of the tructure and func tioning of th e epikarsl have been carried out. However additional synthes i s work is needed in order to evaluate th e available knowl edge, to define more pecifically the lacunae in the knowledge and to make recommendations how LO improve the knowledge. An important aspect to be improved is the correlation betwe e n epikars t and karst morphology. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 111

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    Compte rendu de la journee du sauvetage souterrain (samedi 16 aoOt 1997) p a r R e m y We n ge r La cle de s champ s, CH2 207 Coffran e L a Commi ss i o n d es seco ur s d e l a S oc i e t e s ui sse d e s p e l eo l og i e a o r ga ni se du ra nt l e 1 2 c Co n g r es int e rn a ti o n a l un e Journ ee du sa u ve t age so ut e rr a in o u s av i o n s fa it ce c h o i x d e pr efe r e n ce a l a t nu e d e r e uni o n s fo rrn e ll es e t th eo riqu es qui n o u s se mbl a i e nt n e p as pr ese nt e r d int e r e t. L e but d e ce tt e j o urn ee e t a it d e r e unir a u m e m e mom e nt e t a u m e m e e ndroit tout es l es p e r so nne s int e r essees par l a probl e m a ti qu e d es seco ur s s out e rrain s, cec i dan s un ca dr e qui fav o ri se l es ec h a n ges d 'ex p e ri e n ces e t d id ees, e t qui n e so it p as trop ri g id e Plu s d un e ce ntain e d e c on g r ess i s t es ve n a nt d e pr es d e v in g t p ays diff e r e nt s o nt pri s p a rt a ce tt e r e n co ntr e L e programm e e t a it va ri e: d e m o n trat io n s pr e e nt a tion s d e quip e m e nt s s p ec i a li se co mmuni ca ti o n s s ur I 'o r g ani sa ti o n e t l a s tru c tur e d es Sp e l eo-se co ur s, d e b a t di sc u ss i o n s ur l e th e m e d e utili sa ti o n d 'ex plo s if s o r s d e a u ve t ages so ut e rr a in s. L es coo rd o nn ees d es p e r so nn es qui o nt pr ese nt e d es d e m o n t ra ti o n s o u d es e quip e m e nt s fi g ur e d a n s l a li s l e d 'a dr esses c i-d es so u s. Demonstrations techniques : L e sys t e m e du t ra n s port d e br a n ca rd avec !' a id e d e l a po u li e m o bil e pr ese nt e p a r Rud o lf GL U TZ Sui sse L e y t e m e d e co mmuni ca ti o n t e l e ph o niqu e ave c un e ul fil mo n o ph one d eve l o pp e par l e Sp e l eo-seco ur s s ui sse. F c il e d u sage ii a d eja fa it ses pr e u ves o r s d 'o p e rati o n s d e seco ur s. Pr ese nt e p a r E dou a rd M a rrnill o d. Presentations d equipements specialises : L e sys t e m e de co mm1111i ca ri o n rad i oe l ec rri q u e V LF d eve l o pp e p uI AGH ( Arb e it sge m e in sc h a ft H o llo c hfor sc hun g). Le brancard S c hwar ze r S e mbl et-il ce qui se fa il d e mi e u x p o ur !"in s t a nt: l a s t tion e mp o rt ee so u s t e rr e p ese m o in s d un kil o e t es t Lr es p e u vo lumin e u se F ac il e d e mpl o i ii a d e j a e t e t es t e a g r an d e profond e ur avec s u cces Pr ese nt e p a r J ac qu es Hurni L e rran sfo rm a r e ur e l ec rri q u e p o ur l a p ose d e l o n g u es li g n es ( 4 km 3x 1 5 mm 2 ). R e duit se n s ibl e m e nt l es p e rt es d e char ge s ur d e gra nde s di s t a n ces. Tr es util e dan s l es cas d e mina ge !or s d e sa uv e ta g e s. Pr ese nt e p a r W e rn e r Jan z. L a c i v i e r e e r a n c h e du Sp e l eo-seco ur s fran y ai s pr ese nt ee p a r J ac qu es Mi c h e l (vo ir publi ca ti o n dan s l e Vol. 5 d es ac t es du c on g r es) L e bra n c a r d R eacr d e l a CRO (Cave R esc u e Or g ani sa ti o n Grand eBr e t ag n e). Tr es b o n b ra n ca rd d o nt l es parti c ul a ri t es s ont l a l ege r e t e e t l e fa ibl e e n co mbr e m e nt. Pr ese nt e p ar Bri a n Joplin g. L e b ra n card Sc h wa r :e r du Sp e l eo-seco ur s s ui sse. U tili se p a r ce n e or ga ni sa ti o n d e pui s plu d e quin ze a n s A va nt age d e ce bran ca rd a u ss i a pp e l e s ar co ph age : tr es bonn e pr t e ction l a t e ral e du bl esse; d e faut m a j e ur : l 'e n co mbr e m e nt. Pr ese nt e p a r D a ni e l Burkh a lt e r Communications : Si x c ommuni c ation s e n rapp o rt avec l es acc id e nt s so ut e r rain s, l a m e d ec in e e t l es o r ga ni sa ti o n s de a u ve t age e n gro t t es o nl e t e pr ese nt ee du rant ce tt e j o urn ee. lniti a l e m e nt pr ev u e e n cl o tur e d e ce pr og ramm e, un e d e m o n t ra ti o n co nj o int e e ntr e l a R E GA ( Gard e A e ri e rm e Sui sse d e S a u ve t age) e t l e Sp e l eo seco ur s s ui sse a e t e a nnul ee e n rai so n d'un g r ave acc id e nt s ur ve nu a l un d es h e li co pt e r es d e l a R E GA qu e lqu es j o ur s a up a ravant 112 Proceed i ng s of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Sw i tz e rland Volum e 6

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    Liste des participants Almeida Jo ao Paulo Rua Saraiva de Carvalho 223, P I 350 Li boa Altay Birhan 88 Sok.4/6 A on giris-Emek TR 6510 Ankara Auf der Maur Franz, Klo s t e rli str. 29. CH 6430 Schwyz Baumgartn e r Silvio Vi a Berna coni 31 b CH 6850 M e ndrisio B e rnecker Thoma s, Himm e lreich s tr 35, D 79379 Miillheim Bia er Gido Grund s tr 37 CH 6430 Schwyz Bo e mun Dr Dominiqu e, F 2893 Boillat Thierry Grand-Rue 21, CH 2732 Re co nvili e r Bou jong Dirk Am Hotbuehl 21 D 96 I 23 Litzendorf Brauni g Nil Heubach tr. I D 73037 Goppingen Burkhalter Dani e l Mattenhof s tr 29, CH 3007 B e rn Butt J eff, AUS 7004 South Hobart Buz zi ni Rob e rto Via Mura cc io 3 CH 6612 A cona Co Le Thierry Chemin de Roche s, F 3200 Le Vernet D avi d Eric, Montaduit F 39240 L eg na D ec h a n ez Laur e nt En Faill y, CH I 679 Villaraboud D e l a by S e r ge, Rue de s Champ Ely ee 50, B 1050 Bruxelle s D e ria z Patrick Ch. de s lnvu ex, CH I 6 I 4 Granges Dod e lin Chri Lian La Chamiaz, F 73340 B e llecomb e-e n Bauge s Efrain M erca do HC-02 Bo x 7429, P.R 627 Camuy ( Pu e rto Ri co) Erdem Bul e nt. lmam Gesme Cad. G-47 Sok. o 9 Seyarantepe, TR 80670 I s tanbul Genz Kla s Ulrich Elebeken 6, D 22299 Hambur g Gerardo Franco Calle Uracoa, Qta Yarit za. El M a rque s, VEN I 07 I Caracas ( V e n ezue la ) Glutz Ruedi CH 4504 Solothum Go Shunichiro 2-30-10 Yuri gaoka Ninomiya Nakagun JAP 2590 I Kana gawa Goto Satoshi 7-2-4 Taka ago Kat s u hik a Ku JAP 125 Tokyo Gudefin Jaques lvornay F 74440 Mieu s y Gudefin Evelyn lvorn ay, F 74440 Mieu y H ajek Wolf ga n g, J ed l e r s d o rf e r s tr.99/21/5 A 1210 Wi e n H eged ii s G y ul a, Arany Jano s U. 9 H 1 22 1 Budap es t Hod gso n Anne. Low Bentham 2 Highfield T e rrace GB LA27EP L a nca s ter Hurni Jaques, Willstr. 4, CH 2560 idau H ykade Walt e r H einric h L e tl e r g. 23/2/12. A 1220 Wi e n Janz W e rn e r All chwiler tr. 46, CH 4055 Ba se l Joplin g, Brian Unit 13 B .. E W. Mount Str ee t echells, GB 87 5RD Birmingham Jordi Martin Ro enberg tr. 43, CH 5024 Kiitti ge n Jo s t Andrea s, Steigerw eg 23 CH 3006 B e rn Ky se ljak Jirl Miteral lvanovick e' ndm 3 CS 62000 Brno Lake Michael 2 Derribong Place Aus 2120 Sydney Leyk Matthie s, Rittw eg 11 D 72070 Tiibing e n Ludwig P e ter Panholz e rweg 20, A 4030 Lin z Marmillod Edouard Ch. du Champs P a qui s 4, CH 1605 Chexbres Matt s Grace 176 William St. AUS 2200 Banktown NSW Michel Jaque s, 30 Rue Clement Jan in F 2 I 000 Dijon Michel Jo e lle 30, Rue Clement Janin F 21000 Dijon Montero I s mail Arturo Lui s Vive s 2 00 col.Polanco MEX 11510 Mexico D F. Morlock Wolfgang Bilfingerstr. 79 D 71691 Freiberg Mo se John 15807 River RD USA 77079 Hou s ton TX ageli Ueli, Ka se rn s rr 3, CH 8865 Bilten Paquette Don 835 Hic cko ry Dr USA 47403 Bloomington lN Patrick Michel Polzer Norbert O s t e r o d e r Str. 16 D 38678 Clau thal-Zell e rf e ld Prunt e r Yv es, 2 Pla ce des Arts F 7420 Thonon Pulfer Toni, Kanton ss tr 51, CH 8863 Buttikon Ro ss Dr. Christopher, Gei sw ie se n tr. 17 D 72070 Tiibin ge n Rowling Jill 2 Derribon g Place AUS 2120 Thornleign, NSW Semikolennykh Andrey A. Ru ss ian Academy of Sciences In stitute of Geography, Staromonetny per 29, RUS 1090 I 7 Mo skwa Sigvard s on Leif Timmerrnon S 61060 Tystberga Slagmolen Andre, Rue A. Marbotin I 13 B I 030 Bruxelle s Sologny Patri ck, I 05 Rue de Mar sa nnay F 21300 Chenove Sologny Emmanuel I 05 Rue de Mar annay, F 21300 Chenove Yan Waardenburg Arjan, Springwe g 91 c, L 351 I VL Utrecht Wenger Remy La Cle de s Champs CH 2207 Coffrane Williams Bob Forststrasse 75 D 78 I 26 Koni gsfe ld Yamamoto Tomohiro Mi y uki Hi ga hi-machi 314 JAP 572 eyagawa Yamani hi To hirnit s u 4-40 l 4-61 Ko s hiba Ryu gasaki, JAP 30 I [baraki Zeller Cam1en, Max-Eyth-Str. 21, D 73095 Albershau en Ziegler Felix, Po tfa c h 167 CH 8804 Au Proceed i ngs of the 12 '" Internat ion al Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 113

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    Compte rendu du stage de secours international p ar C hri s ti a n D o d e lin Or g ani se par l e Sp e l eo seco ur s fran ~ ai ce ta ge e tait l un d es n o mbr e u x ca mp s po tc on g r es propo se Du 19 a u 2 9 a out ii a reuni s ur l e ma ss if d es B a u ges e n Sa v oi e, un e qu ara nt a in e d e p a rti c i p an t ve nu s d e o n ze p ay L 'exe r c i ce d e t ec hniqu es d e sec our s e n falai se, l a pr ese nt a tion d e m a t e ri e l p ec iali se, I e v ac u a tion e n puit s ve rtic a u x e t e n rivi e r e, l a d e o b tru c ti o n e t un exe r c ic e d 'evac u a ti o n e n co ndition s r ee ll es o nt co mp o e l e e nti e l du pro g r a mm e d e ce t age. Qu e lqu es p ays o nt pr ese nt e p a r de s m oye n s a udi ov i s u e l s o r ga ni sa tion d es seco ur c h ez e ux : Au s trali e, B e l g iqu e, Slov e ni e, R o um a ni e, Fr a n ce. P o ur l o r ga ni a ti o n d e ce tage, ii a fa llu fa ir e c ir c ul e r !"infor m a ti o n pr evo ir un e pro gress i o n e t se l ec ti o nn e r l es cav it es utili sa bl es e t d un int e r e t p e d agog iqu e, apport e r d e l a c on v ivi a lit e e t un e r e p o n e a u x probl e m es ann exes d es un s e t d es a utr es, b e n e fi c i e r d un h e b e r ge m e nt e t d e n o urritur e s uffi sa nt e d a n s un ca dr e co n fo r t a bl e, in c l ur e l es p a rt e n a ir es s p e l eos, pr e par e r un ce rt a in n o mbr e d e do c um e nt s, se r e m e ttr e e n m e m o ir e l e qu e lqu e m o t s d a n g l a i s e t d 'es p ag n o l a ppri s ii y a 3 0 an s ... M a i s t o ut ce la n a u ra it a b o uti a ri e n s il n y ava il e u d es p ar ti c ip a nt s s ou c i e ux d ec h a n ge r d 'a ppr e ndr e; s i l e gro up e n 'a v a it p a e t e a u s i d e m a nd e ur e t a l 'a ffut crayo n e n m a in o u a pp are il ph o t o, t o ut e n fai sa nt l es c h o e t o ut e n ex p e rim e nt a nt t o ut e n c h e r c h an t a co mpr e ndr e Qu e l es li e n s qui e o nt c r ees e ntr e no s p ays, n o o r ga ni ti o n s co ntinu e nt a se deve l o pp e r p o ur qu e l es pro g r e Fa it p a r c h c un d e ntr e n o u s pr o fit e nt a l a co mmun a ut e s p e l eo A o n ec h e ll e, ce tt e r e n co ntr e es t d eve nu e un m o m e nt imp o rt a nt d a n s l a vie de l'UIS Dessin realise pour la p ro m otion de lajournee du sauvetage so u terrain 114 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Compte rendu des reunions de la Commission des Speleo secours de l'UIS tenues durant le 12e Congres international. A ndr e S l ag m o l e n Premiere reunion: Apr e a voir dr esse l e bi Ian tr es po s itifd es travau x d e l a C o mmi ss i o n a u co ur s d es quatr e d e mi e r es a nn ees diff e r e nt s pro bl e m es ont e t e a bord e l o r s d e l a pr e mi e r e r e union Le s prin c ip a u x e n ont : l e s di s t a n ces parfoi s important e e ntT e l e li e u ou s ont ba sees l es sec ti o n s d e Sp e l eo-sec our s e t l es zon es kar s tiqu es; l in s uffi sa n ce d e mat e ri e l d e seco ur s ( trop on e r e u x d a n s b e au co up d e p ays) Solutions envisagees : En c ou rage r e t in t e n i fi e r l es co nt ac t s e t ec h a n ges e ntr e pa ys limitroph es a fin d e p o uvoir se pr e t e r ass i s t a n ce mutu e ll e e n ea d 'acc id e nt. Adapt e r l e m a t e ri e l e t l es t ec hniqu es a u x t y p es de g r o tt es d e a r eg ion e 1 pouvoir utili se r ce m a t er i e l d in s tin c t ( l e sa u ve t age d o it se c on cev oir avec un m a t e ri e l s imil a ir e a ce lui qu e l'on utili se d habitud e e n s p e l e o ) ... L es e xp e diti o n lointain es dans l es p ays d e pour v u s d e Sp e l e osec our d e point e d ev raient e tr e a m e m e d e pr a t qu e r I 'a uto eco ur s. Diffu se r au m ax imum manu e l s d e sa u ve t age e t publi ca tion s te c hniqu es Un e d ece ntr a li a tion de l a Commi s ion es t propo see ur l a b ase du pr o j e t du pr es id e nt Andr e Sl ag m o l e n (v oir c i-d esou ). Ell e sera mi se a l ordr e du jour d e l a d e uxi e m e r e nion Proposal for a new organization of the UIS cave rescue commission Th e C o mmi s i o n h a d s in ce it s c r ea ti o n th e v o c ation t o r ece iv e a nd di s tribut e inform a ti o n co min g fr o m C ave R e c u e or g ani za ti o n s wo rld w id e. W e mu s t ac kn ow l e d ge that finan c i a l r e our ces a r e n e c essa r y for that. But a s th e UIS h as n o f undin g it cann o t s upport finan c iall y it s Co mmi ss ion s. Th e r e for e th e C ave R e c u e Commi ss i o n b e n e fit s from n o s ub idi e and it s all v olunt ary m e mber s s upport op e rati o n ex p e n ses ( m a il t e l e ph o n e e t c ) a t oo h eavy burden for th e m thu s limitin g tr o n g l y ac ti v it y. Mor e ov e r o ur ex p e ri e n ce how s th a t w i hin g LO c ov e r from a s in g l e point a ll kar s t zo n e a nd C a ve R e c u e or g ani za ti o n i s pur e ut o pi a. H a bit s traditi o n s lan g u ages tim e diff e r e n ces, t ec hniqu es u se d a.II a r e major ob s ta c l e A s oluti o n wo uld b e t o d ece ntrali ze th e C o mmi ss i o n in ord e r t o a llow for b e li e r e ffi c i e n cy w h e n c oll ec tin g a nd r e tr a n s mittin g in fo rm t io n Al s o po ss ibl e r esc u e t o a n ex pediti o n h av in g a n a cc id e nt in a lar ge c ave s y s t e m of a r eg ion w ithout cave r esc u e r s i s o n e of th e c on ce rn of th e U I.S Bur ea u W e s hould in s uch a ea e c all in an e ffi c ient ca v e r es cue body as clo se a s p oss ibl e from th e pl ace o f acc ident. T o thi s e nd a go od coo rdin a ti o n s h o uld b e es t a bli h e d betw ee n r e c u e o r ga ni za tion s. Th e r efo r e af t e r h av in g a n a l yze d n ee d s and m ea n s a n o th e r di tributi o n of world co v e r age h as be e n s tudi e d and i s p ro p ose d t o yo u Two kind of s ubdi v i s i o n ca n b e co n s id e r e d: b y co nti11 e 111 ( whi c h see m s to m e di e mo s t ration a l ); b y c o mmuni ca ti on lan g u age zo n e ( En g li s h Fr e n c h Spani s h Ru s i a n G e rm a n ). Thi s a pp ea r s to m e l ess co n ve ni e nt as l a n g u ages are n o t n ece sary th e a m e o n a co ntin e nt as a w h o l e. W e w ould c r ea t e r eg ion a l e ntiti es, eac h und e r di e r es pon s ibilit y o f a C ave R esc u e Co mmi ss i o n R eg i o n a l Coo rdin a t o r T o d e fin e th e r eg i o n s w e c ould a li g n o ur se lv es on th e g eographi c al di s tribution of c ontin e nt s; e ventuall y for th e m a in co ntin e nt s we co uld s ubdi v id e acco rdin g l a n g u ages ( for exa mpl e: o rth e m a nd S o uth e rn Am e ri ca). W e h ave n ow t o think a b o ut th ese di ffe r e nt fo rmul as and t ake a d ec i s ion durin g th e n ex t m ee tin g of th e C o mrni s ion I f thi s s u gge ti o n i s a ppr ove d we w ill t a k e a pro v i s i o n a l m eas ur e b y co mmittin g a p e r o n t o o r g aniz e in eac h r eg i o n a r eg i o n a l m ee tin g durin g whi c h p a rti c ipant s w ill b e abl e t o o r ga ni ze a nd c r ea t e th e e R eg ion s a nd th e n nam e coo rdin a tor s. Th e Bur ea u o f th e C o mmi ss ion wo uld th e n a pp ea r as foll ows: Pr es id e nt s, v i cePr es id e nt s and S ec r e t a ri es, M e m be r s a nd R eg i o n a l Coo rdin a t o r s. Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 1 15

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    Seconde reunion D ec ision s a pprou vees par le s m e mbre s pr es ent s lor s d e l a d e u x i e m e r e uni o n : D ece ntr a li sa ti o n d e la Commi ss ion a fin d e p e nn e ttr e une diffu s ion m e ill e ur e e t plu s rapid e d es in fo rmation s A ce t e ff e t d es coo rdonn a t e ur s r eg ion a u x e ront mi s e n pl ace; l es r eg ion s v o nt fa r e e t a bli es e t l es m e mbr es d e c h a qu e r g ion se c h o i s iront un c oord o nnat e ur qui d e viendra d 'o fi ce m e mbr e du bur ea u d e l a CSS L es p ays fa i sa nt p a rti e d e la FEALC ( F e d e r a ti o n d e I Am riqu e Latin e e t d es C a ra ibe s) o nt d e j a d es i g n e l e ur c oor donn a t e ur r eg i o n a l ii s 'ag i t d e Efr a' im MERCADO ( Pu e rto Ri co). P o ur r e p o ndr e a l a d e mand e ex pr esse du Bur ea u d e I UIS un e li s t e a u ss i co mpl e t e qu e po ss ibl e d es ex p e dition s l o in ta in e sera e t a bli e; cec i p e rm e ttr a un e so lid a rit e e ntr e l es ex p e dition s pro c h es e t d e ce Fait un e plu s g rand e rapidit e d 'ac ti o n d es seco ur s e n cas d 'acc id e nt. C'es t Brun o D e lprat m e mbr e du bur ea u d e l a co mmi ss i o n qui ass um e ra ce tt e mi ss ion Les coordonnateurs regionaux But: D es c oord o nn a t e ur s r eg ion a u x se ront mi s e n pl ace a fin d e r a p pr oc h e r l a C ommi ss i o n d es o r ga ni sa tion s d e sa u ve t age s ur l e t e ra in Chaix: L e c oordonn a t e ur es t d es i g n e d e mo c ratiqu e m e nt par ses c oll e g u es d e l a r eg i o n (s uiv an t l es r eg l e m e nt s d e l U IS c haqu e p ays p osse d e un d e l eg u e). Representation : L e co ord o nn a t e ur es t membr e d e droit d e l a C o mmi ss ion d es Sp e l eo-s e c our s d e I UIS 11 a pour d e v o ir d e l a r e pr ese nter e t d e Jui fa ir e r eg ulier e m e nt rapport. Duree: S o n m a ndat a un e dur ee ma x imum d e 4 a n s r e nouvelabl e. L a co mmi ss ion ou s on pr e id e nt p e ut s u s p e ndr e e t fair e r e mpl a c e r un coo rd o rmat e ur ina c tif o u inad e quat. Reunions et contacts : L 'e loi g n e m e nt se r a l e principal o b s t ac l e a u x r e union s T o ut voyage e t d e pl a c e m e nt qu e l qu 'e n s oit l e but se ra o c c as i o n d e co nt ac t s e ntr e l es diff e r e nt s m e mbr es d e l a c ommi ss ion. L es mo ye n s L e pr es id e nt A ndr e Sla g m o l e n ( B e l g iqu e) es t r eco nduit dan s ses fon c ti o n s ju s qu au pro c h a in C o n gres e n 2 001. L e vi ce -pr es id e nt G yo r g y D e n es ( H o n g ri e) aya nt d e m a nd e a et r e d ec h arge d e ses fon c ti o n s a u se in d e l a co mmi s i o n es t r e mpl ace p a r Tr i Fo n Da a li ev ( Bul gar i e), t a ndi s qu e G race M a tt s (A u s t ra li e) es t n o mm ee seco nd e v i cepr es id e nt e. Reunions de secours : Un e r e uni o n d e seco ur s s p e l eo d e qu a tr e jo ur s sera o r gan i see a u print e mp s pr oc h a in d a n s l e Sud d e I A ll e m ag n e: in vit a ti o n es t l a n cee a ce u x qu e ce l a int e r esse ( 5 p e r so nn es p a r p ays m ax imum ). L e Sp e l eo seco ur s du N ew S o uth W a l es (A u s t ra li e) o r ga ni se un exe r cice Sp e l eo-seco ur s l e 3e m e wee k e nd d oc t br e e t y co n v i e ce u x qui d es ir e nt y parti c ip e r. L a c ommi ss i o n par l a vo i e d e so n pr es id e nt r e m e r c i e G yo r gy D e n es p o ur t o ut e so n ac ti v it e a u se in d e l a co mm iss ion ( n o t a m m e nt J es sy mp os ium s d Agg t e l e k e n 1 983 e t d e Bud a p es t e n 1 989). d e c ommuni ca ti o n se ront e mplo yes a u m ax imum Role des coordonnateurs regionaux : fl s exe r ce ront dan s l e ur r eg i o n tout es J es a ttributi o n s d e l a C o mi ss i o n d es Sp e l eo-seco ur s e t a u n o m d e ce ll e-c i c'es t -a -dir e p r in c ip a l e m e nt: Ren se i g n e r e t d oc um e nt e r s ur J es publi ca ti o n s e t e tud es e xi s tant es Per ce v o ir ces e l e m e nt d a n s l e ur r eg i o n Aid e r a l a fo rm a ti o n d es Sp e l eo-seco ur n a ti o n a u x R e pondr e a u x r e n se i g n e m e nt s d e m a nd es Tran s m e ttr e ve r s l a Commi ss i o n J es cas n aya nt pu e tr e r eso lu s F o urnir se m es tri e ll e m e nt l e rapp o rt d e l e ur s ac tivit es Su sc it e r d es co nt ac t s e ntr e p a y s a fin d am e li o r e r l a coo p e rati o n En cas d 'acc id e nt s ur d e m a nd e, et r e a m e m e d indiqu ero u I on p e ut trou ve r l e o u l e s p ec iali s t es o u r e nfort s n ecessa i r es a u bon d e roul e m e nt d une int e r ve nti o n d e seco ur s Pou v oir r e n se i g n e r l es ex p e dition s e tr a n ge r es s ur la ou J es e quip es l e plu s a pt es a pratiqu e r un sa u ve t age d a n s l e ty p e d e g rott e ex pl o r ee, s ass ur e r d e ex i s t e n ce d e mo ye n s d e tran s port s a d e quat s e t fournir la pro ce dur e d 'a pp e l e n cas d a cc id e nt 116 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Medical Aspects of Rescue in a Large Cave b y Ueli Nageli A rbeit s gemein s chaft Hollochfor s chun g AG H Sw it ze rl a nd Dr. med. Ulrich R. age l i, Kasemstra se 3, C H -8865 Bilten, Switzer l and Summary Large cave systems cause particular problem for med i cal support, which must be considered and prepared long before a rescue. Professional help can be expected only after many hours or even days. Treatment for pain and hock prevention however should start a oon as pos ible. Therefore, cavers need special training in first aid and materia l must be stored in per i pheral areas of the cave. Jn large cave time between an accident and arrival of profes sional help can be considerably long. In the case of the Holloch with its total length of 170 km and only three entrances we must calculate at least several hours and in certain ituations more than a day. Even the be t re cue organisation will arrive too late, if the cavers on the site of an accident or in case of disease have not begun competent treatment beforehand. Immediate and effective mea ure are required. Protection against heat-lo s i basic. The next priority is the prevention of shock, becau ea patient, once shock i established, has very little chance to get out of the cave alive. Effective treatment of pain is as important a other mea ure to urvive until evacuation i possible. This means in evere cases intravenous fluid replacement and parenteral drug administration. Individual preparation and training in first aid are important for every caver. On the other ide, adequate provisions not only outside, but also in the cave, must be taken by the re cue organisation. Infusion for intravenous fluid replacement, drug and other medical equipment must be stored in the cave. In the Holloch stocks exist in the most remote parts of the cave. Selected speleologists. at least two or three in every group. are in tructed and regularly trained in the techniques of injections, han dling of infusions dressings and application of splint They al o receive directives how lo proceed in standard situations. Basic knowledge about frequent di ease i al o included in this training. Their task include the survey of the patient until a physician ar rives a well as support of the patient and physician during the subsequent evacuation. With these standard proceedings. we consider the ri k of vere mi takes as minimal. On the other hand, the benefit of rapid and competent treatment to a severely injured caver could be very important or even decisional for his survival or for the possibility to avoid pem,anenl disability. Proc e ed i ng s of th e 1 2 th I nt e rn a t i o na l Congr ess o f S peleo l og y, 19 97, Sw itzerlan d V o lume 6 117

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    Surveying report Wookey Th e r e we r e a numb e r of eve nt s a nd l ec tur es o f int e r es t l o s ur veyo r s a t th e Co n g r ess in S w it ze rl a nd Th e r e was S y mb o l s di sc u s i o n and ratifi ca ti o n Co mputin g w o rk s hop o n s oft wa r e a nd dra in g, d e m o n s t ra ti o n s of T o p o robot Surv ex, WinKar s t a nd o th e r s, M a p G e n era li sa ti o n Sur vey in g c omp e tition a nd a po s tco n g r ess s ur vey in g a nd co mputin g wo rk s hop a t Z w in g lip ass. S o m e of th ese m ay ge n e rat e futur e a rticl es in th e ir ow n ri g ht but h e r e i s a s um m a r y t o k e e p yo u up t o dat e Introduction Th e w ee k l o n g C o n g r ess was b ase d a t L a Ch a u x -d eFond s in th e Jura c lo se t o th e Fr e n c h b o rd e r o f S w it ze rl a nd It w as s plit int o seve ral s ympo s i a, th e m os t int e r es tin g o f w hi c h t o cave s urv ey or s was Mappin g and t ec hniqu es'. Th e r e wer e num e rou s c a mp s, w o rk s h o p s a nd e v e nt s b o th b e for e a nd a ft e r s pr ea d ove r a wid e a r ea fr o m It a l y t o P o l a nd W e we nt a cro ss t o th e o th e r s id e of Swit ze r land to go s ur vey in g a nd t o t a lk about s urv ey d a t a exc h a n ge for m a t s. Software Th e fir s t m o rnin g s tart e d w ith d e m o's of cave s urv e yin g so ft ware. J ea n-Pi e rr e C asso u was s uppo se d t o b e fir s t off w ith H a d es 2 000 but h e n eve r m a d e it t o th e c onf e r e n ce, so I hav e n t s e e n th a t so ftw a r e. I und e r s tand it i s a d eve lopm e nt o f th e Vi s u e lTopo w hi c h i s quit e p o pul ar P C so ft wa r e in Fran ce N ex t up was Me ( Wo o k ey) t a l k in g ab o ut Sur vex, w ith Oil y dri v in g th e co mput e r. Sl01 s we r e o nl y 2 0 minut es so we c ould o nl y g i ve a qui c k ove rvi ew o f th e so ft wa r e it d es i g n a nd hi s t o r y, a nd s ho w in g h ow it w ork s und e r b o th Wind ows 9 5/DOS a nd RIS C OS. ex t was M a rtin H e ll e r g i v in g hi s T o p oro b o t d e m o. Thi s was ve r y impr ess i ve, co n s i s tin g o f a se t o f s lid e im ages s howin g va ri o u s im ages w hi c h h a d b ee n mad e with th e publi c l y availabl e Lim li g ht ca v e s ur vey pro g r a m a nd v ar iou s o th e r bit s o f so ftw a r e fo r di g it a l e l e v a ti o n m o d e llin g a nd im ag in g S o m e o f th e ima ges we r e: A n ove rvi ew o f S w it ze rl a nd a nd it s r e li e f a ll th e kar s t s it es in th e co untr y, a fli g ht ove r th e t e rrain s tr e t c hin g a n o rm a l top o map ove r th e t e rrain m o d e l s h ow in g th e c ont o ur s an d ri ve r s s tr e t c h e d int o pl ace, r e m ov in g a ll th e co l o ur fr o m a t e r ra in m o d e l so as to c l e arl y see th e s h a p e w ith o ut di s tra c ti o n s, addin g mi s t t o va ll eys t o mak e th e m look c on v in c in g s h ow in g a ca v e ( Si e b e n H e n gs t e) in s id e th e t e n a in m o d e l u s in g a t ra n s p a r e nt a r ea, th e fr ac t a l bump m a ppin g e nh a n ce d 3 D cave m o d e l s th a t Lim e li g ht pr o du ce and fl y in g a round th e m M os t of th ese im ages a r e n o t p oss ibl e with o ut th e ex p e n s i ve di g it a l e l eva ti o n d a t a and sof t wa r e to m a nipulat e it but i t was ve r y impr ess i ve a nd s h owe d w h a t ca n a lr ea d y b e ac hi eve d In th e a ft e rn oo n as p a rt o f th e In fo rm a l Sess i o n o n C aves a n d Co mput e r s' Gany P e tri e ( p ro noun ce d P ee tr ee, n o t p e tr ee b y th e way. we di scove r e d ) s h owed th e lat es t ve r s i o n o f Win K a r s t (v5. 0 ). D eta il s a r e e l sew h e r e in thi s i ss u e, but I p ar ti c ul a rl y n o t e d th e s p eed i mp rove m e nt s a nd th e n ew tri a n g ul a r j un c ti o n r e p rese nt a ti o n Th e de m o was o pt i mi s t ica ll y g i ve n o n NT, w hi c h h e was u in g fo r th e fir s t tim e. so it d id bl ow u p o n ce J Usin g MacroMedia and CorelDraw A l so i n thi s sessio n was A ndr eas Ne um an n a s tud e nt of M a r li n H e ll er. H e s h owed u s a num be r of thin gs w hi c h h e i s c urr e ntl y wo r k in g o n T h e firs t of t hese was a MacroMed i a Dir ec t o r 'a ppli ca ti o n w h ich gave yo u a n impr ess i ve v i sua l K ars t in fo rm a ti o n d a t a b ase fo r ve r y liul e wo rk B y co mbinin g a m a p of S w it ze rl a nd (o n e o f M a rtin 's pr ev i o u s s lid es) w ith th e ex i s tin g Sw i ss K a r s t d a t a b ase it i s a impl e m a tt e r to pl o t th e l oca ti o n s of th e caves o n th e im age acco rdin g l o c rit e ri a s u c h as l e n g th cave t y p e, a ltitu de, cave l e n g th e t c. Z oo m l eve l s and link s t o th e T o p o rob o t s ur veys o f th e ca v es ca n a l so b e a dd e d a lthou g h th a t b it i s n o t ye t co mpl e t e. Th e e ff ec t i s ve r y s imil a r t o th e pr og r a m b y Gu y va n R e nt e r ge m (see C PS p 8), but h as th e a d v ant age of b e in g eas il y m ove d t o th e we b for ge n e ral access, a nd r e quir e d n o r ea l pro g rammin g. No t e th a t th e Swi ss d a tab ase o nl y output s co-o rdin a t es t o th e n ea r es t l km to s top p e opl e u s in g thi s to find th e caves. N ex t Andr eas s h owe d u s s om e of th e wo rk h e h as b ee n d o in g on dra w in g c av es w ith Cor e lDraw v7. H e h as b ee n in ves ti ga tin g th e u se fuln e s of thi s so rt o f so ftw a r e for dra w in g s ur veys g i ve n th a t it i s a bout l / 2 Q 1 h th e pri ce of hi g he nd C AD o ft wa r e li ke AutoCAD. In ge n era l h e ha s found it to be sa ti sfac t o r y, a nd it i eas i e r to learn t o u se th a n Aut o CAD H e s ho we d a co up l e o f nift y thin gs you c a n do. T o ge t ti c k m a rk s around a pit c h e d ge h e d e fin e d a n ew font c ontainin g ti c k s, and holl o w e d a nd fi li e d tri a n g l es ( Th ese ar e u se d in Au s tri a n s urv eys to indi ca t e th e s i ze o f th e s t e p and wh e th e r or not it i s climb a bl e). By u s in g th e fit t ex t path to c ur ve f un c ti o n y ou ca n th e n ju s t se l ec t th e pitche d ge lin e a nd th e n t y p e to fill it with ti c k mark (o f v ar y in g t y p e if r e quir e d ) V e r y n ea t. T o ge t ni c e lookin g bould e r s h e u s ed th e 'ca lli gr aph y' fea tur e. Thi s va ri es th e l in e w idth acco rdin g to th e a n g l e of th e lin es, a s d oes a w id enibb e d p e n Y o u dra w th e b o uld e r th e n s p ec if y th e a n g l e t o u se. Th e e ff ec t i s pl e a s in g, and mak es it l oo k as if th e b o uld e r i s lit fr o m o n e s id e, e mph as i s in g it s 3 D-n ess. Lat e r I t a lk e d to him a b o ut o m e o f th e limit a ti o n s I h a d found in Co r e lD raw 3 (see C P 1 3, p6 ), prin c ipall y th e p ro bl e m of g roupin g ac ro ss l aye r s H e s u ges t e d that th e ID' fe atur e of th e n ewe r ve r s i o n co uld b e u se d t o k ee p all th e part s o f th e pi c tur e ass o c i a t e d ac ro ss l aye r s I will in ves ti g at e thi s so luti o n w h e n I ca n ge t h o ld of a n ewe r ve r s i o n o f C o r e lDraw. Fin a ll y Andr eas t a lk e d a bout Map G e n era li ati o n. Thi s i th e pro cess of r e du c in g th e d e t a il and drawin g a r e pr ese nt a ti o n rath e r th a n th e obj e ct w hil s t s till g i v in g th e ri g ht id ea On e thin g h e h ad t o wo rk on w a s se mia ut o m a tin g th e dra w in g o f c li ffs H e wro t e so m e s oftw a r e w hi c h o n ce it i s s hown th e o utlin es o f th e ro c k y a r ea, will look at th e dir ec ti o n of s lop e a nd a dd th e int e rm e di a t e d o wn s l o p e lin es w ith a ppropriat e we i g htin g, t o g i ve a r e ali s ti c ef f ec t. H e h as a l so wo rk e d o n aut o m a tin g th e d raw in g o f ro c k s o n sc r ee s l o p es. w ith r a nd o mi sa ti o n to g iv e ge n era ll y s m a ll e r roc k s a t th e top and l a r ge r o n es a t th e b o ttom w ith o ut it l oo kin g a rtifi c i a l. T o p o rob o t a l so h as a ge n era li sa ti o n f ea tur e w hi c h co mbin es p ara l l e l p assages, a nd r e m oves unimp o rt a nt o n es w h e n th e cave i s v i ewed fr o m a l o n g way o ff Thi s h e lp s with s p ee d of di s pl ay, as we ll as h e lpin g th e cave t o co ntinu e t o mak e se n se as yo u zoo m o ut. Surveying Workshop Af t e r th e co n g r ess th e s ur veyo r s M a rtin H e ll e r Yvo Wi e dm a nn Philipp H ii u se lm a nn A ndr eas Ne um a nn Urs Sa ndfu c h s, E ri c h Pl a lln e r P e t e r H i mm e lb e r ger. Wookey, A n dy A t ki n so n Oil y B e u s (U K ). N a n cy Pi s t o l e. P e t er H a b e rlun d. Ga r ry P e tri e (U S ), J eff Butt (A u s t ra li a) drove to Z uri c h t o s p e n d t he ni g ht ea t t ea, a n d pl ay w ith M a rtin 's a m az in g co ll ec t io n o f wooden pu zz l es Th e n ex t m o rnin g we pl aye d a n am u s in g co n voy game th ro u g h th e t ra ffi c l ig ht s o f Z uri c h a n d t h en drove l o W i l d h aus. 118 Proc ee ding s of the 12 1 h International Congres s of Speleology 199 7, Switzerland Volume 6

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    fr o m wh e r e we w e nt up b y c abl e ca r th e n walk e d whil s t our ba gs t rave ll e d b y ca r a nd th e n goo d s ca bl e. W e o nl y h a d t o ca rry a ll th e ge ar & fo o d th e l as t 2 0 minut es up to th e hut. W e w e r e g i ve n a n ov e rview of the a r ea & it s g eolo gy, whi c h h a pl e nt y of cav in g pot e nti a l. a nd team k ee n w e nt to do a bit of cav in g/s ur vey in g, w hil s t n ea rly e v e ryon e e l se we nt for a walk And y & I c h ec k e d o ut a l a r ge cave e ntranc e a b o ut I km from th e hut. ln id e th e r e i s a n i ce l a k e th a t a pp a r e ntl y o nl y o p e n e d up a few yea r s b ac k t o r evea l a 4 km lon g cave th a t i s m os tly un s ur veye d W e go t as f a r as th e i cy bl as t co min g out of a d a mp i ce s l o p e b efo r e turnin g b ac k ( n o t ve r y e nti c in g in s hort s and zoom ). Al on e s id e o f th e i ce -l a k e was a pit 5 c m a bov e th e i ce w ith it s han ge r a nd c r a b e nt o mb e d in i ce m os t o dd! Th e r e was pl e nt y o f t a lk in th e e v e nin g, a nd th e n ex t d ay we go t d ow n t o bu s in ess. Mo s t p e opl e we nt s urv ey in g t o c omp a r e t ec h niqu es e p ec i a ll y o n ve rti ca l se ction s, whil s t M a rtin W oo k ey, Oil y. A nd y & G a rr y s t aye d in th e un hin e t o di sc u ss d a t a-exc h a n ge s t a n d a r ds, a nd m o r e fund a m e ntall y a co mpl e t e cave d a t am o d e l th a t co uld e n co mp ass ex i s tin g s urv ey d a t a fr o m th e U S U K & Euro pea n s t y l es, as we ll as de fin e fu!Ur e r e quir e m e nt s u c h as a co m pl e t e 3 D a rbitr a r y m es h a nd int e rm e di a t e co nc e pt s u c h as tub es & c h a mb e r W e t ar t ed b y wo rkin g o ut a hi era r c h y o f fo rm s, a nd e qui va l e n c i es s u c h as th e U S /U K se t of s h ots th a t form a s ur vey, a nd th e E urop ea n co n ce pt o f a se ri es, w hi c h i s a sec ti o n o f p asage. W e a l so l ooked a t t h e pro s a nd co n s of a t agge d d a t a fo m ia t a nd a t a bl eb ase d ( i .e. r e l a ti o n a l d a tab a e) fo rm a t co min g d ow n in favo ur o f t h e m o r e n ex ibl e d a t a b ase fo rm a t. W e we r e a bl e l o d fi n e th e b a i s o f a co mpl e t e cave d a t a m o d e l. w hi c h co uld b e u sed fo r a pro gra m s i nt e rn a l r e pr ese nt a ti o n. o r a tr ansfe r s t a nd a r d. Th e de t a il s of thi w ill be in a fo nh co min g ar ti cle Th e a uth o r of Su rvex a nd T o p o rob o t ( M a rtin a nd Oil y) ag r ee d t o l oo k a t ways o f co l l a b ora tin g in futur e r a th e r th a n p ro du c in g co mp e tin g a ppli ca ti o n s. Practical surveying O n ce th e s u rveyors re turn e d we we r e ab l e to l oo k a l th e va ri o u s ske t c hi ng sty l e Th i was ve r y int eres t ing, wi th a w i de var i tion i n sy m bo l s, l ayou t & sty l e. Yvo i mpressed everyo n e w ith his in-cave s k e t c h th a t l ooked a l o t sex i er th a n ma n y peo pl e's fi n is h ed urveys. a l though there was ome doubt a lo whether hi s l ig ht was better t h a n ancy's or if he was mak i ng u p the wa ll s a l th e ends of the rift somew h at. Yvo u es th e t echnique, pop ul ar in m ain l and Europe of drawing in 'shape l ine s on the e l evation. w hi c h show th e curvatur e of th e s h a ft or pa ss a ge. S o m e tim es s imil a r lin es s h ow th e geo m o rph o l ogy in s t ea d Philipp h a d a n exa mpl e o f thi s. W e h a d a bit o f a n a r g um e nt a b o ut th e ir u se o f th e t ic k e d lin e' sy mb o l. nornrnll y found a round pit c h h e ad s in th e U K Th ey u se d thi s sy m b o l o n th e e l e v a ti o n t o s h ow a s t e p but th e t ick are o n th e wa ll c l oses t, in thi s c a se, rath e r th a n o n th e o n e furth es t away a s w h e n it i s u e d o n th e fl oo r. I th o u g ht th a t thi s was in co n s i s t e nt. but th ey m a int a in e d th a t in fac t thi s was a s ubtl y diffe r e nt sy mb o l. a nd th a t it l oo k e d ri g ht lik e thi s, w hi c h I think i s p ro b a bl y tru e. Y o u h ave t o think o f th e ti c k s as indi ca tin g th e bl oc k s tru c tur e of th e wa ll. W e al so di sc u ssed th e r e lati ve m e rit s of proj ec t e d and ex t e nd e d e l eva ti o n s, a nd va ri o u s ways o f dra w in g aw k wa r d p assages (o n es w ith d ee p und e r c ut s, b o th und e r c ut s a nd ove r c ut s. h a din g rift s e t c ). It was n o t e d o n a s ur vey th a t Philipp was u si n g as a n exa mpl e h e h a d avo id e d u s in g th e '-4 73 m n o t a ti o n as h e th o u g h i t mi g ht o n e d ay co nn ec t w ith a n o th e r cave th a t h a d a hi g h e r e nt ra n ce. Thi s wo uld m ake a ll th e d e pth wro n g, so h e u se d m et r es-a b ove-seal eve l int e ad. W e a l so l oo k e d a t J e ff 's s ur veys w hi c h h a d a ll b ee n d raw n o n co mput e r u in g C l ar i s D raw. H e h ad b as i ca ll y ju t t r ea t ed th e com put e r j u s t lik e a pi ece o f p a p e r but o b v i o u l y it m a k es l e tt e rin g a nd co n i t e nt lin e-wi dth mu c h eas i e r Philipp s till did a ll hi s dra w in g o n p a p e r aro und a T o p oro b o t s k e l e t o n but h e d i d u se th e co mput e r t o pl o t o u t a ll t h e n a m es on a se p ara t e s h ee t w hi c h i s t a p e d b e hin d th e fi lm t h a t th e s u rvey i dr aw n o n fo r fin a l ph o t oco p y in g. On e o th e r a r ea o f di sc u ss i o n was th e way d i ffe r e nt gro up s h ave o r ga ni se d th e ir s ur vey d a t a a r c hi ve M ar tin H e ll e r h as b ee n run nin g ht S w i ss o n e fo r m a n y yea r s, w ith a p o li cy of o nl y m ak in g da t a ava il a bl e acco r d in g t o th e w i s h es of t hose co ll ec tin g th e da t a. Thi s h as wo rk e d ve r y we ll o n ce tru s t was es t a bli s h e d, a n d th e r e is now a ce nt ra l r e p o it o r y of n ea rl y a ll th e u rvey data in Sw i tzer l a nd. A s imil ar sc h e m e h as bee n runnin g fo r a s h o rt e r tim e in H a ut Savoie. Summary I n conc lu s i on I m u st say th at th e event was very we ll o r gani s ed a n ve r y int e r es t ing It was pa rti cu l a rl y good t o pu t so many face to names and emai l addre s ses, and I now h ave a very long l ist of in v it es t o go cav in g around the wor l d. Thoro u ghly recommended. The n ex t one i s in Brazil in 4 years time, so start saving u p your holidays. Pro c eed in g s of th e 12 h Int e rnat i o na l Congr ess o f Sp e l e o l ogy 1 99 7 Sw i t zerlan d V o lume 6 119

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    Administrative Details Partie administrative

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    Merci a La Chaux-de-Fonds, cite accueillante Au-d e l a d es a pparen ces, I or g ani sa tion d un Con g r es int e rnational d e s p e l eo l og i e n 'es t p as s impl e. L a So c i e t e Sui sse d e Sp e l e olo g i e e n a Fa it 'ex p er ien ce, qui a r e l eve ce d e fi avec s u cces. T o ut efo i s, sa n s l 'a pp o rt p a 1 fo i s d ec i s if d e l a Vill e d e L a Ch a u xd eFond s, d e ses a utorit es, d e es e mplo yes e t d e sa p o pul a ti o n 1 'exe r c i ce e ut ete di ffic il e, vo ir e h as ard e u x. Ain s i d e I 'ass o c i a tion d e d e u x volont es e t c omp e ten ces l a SSS e t l a Vill e un g rand Co n g r es s'es t t e nu d a n s un e mod es t e c it e ui e ouv e rt e ur l e mond e D e a mi s e tran ge r s y o nt a u ss i c ontribu e, n o t a mm e nt ve nu s d e F ra n ce. D e l o n g u e d a t e, l a M e tropol e h o rl oge r e 'e t e xport ee p o ur s urvi v r e A I 'occas i o n du gra nd r e nd ez-vo u s d es p e l eo l og u e e t s p ec i a li s t es du mond e so ut e rr a in ve nu s d es qu a tr e c oin s d e l a pl a n e t e, l a c it e s'e I vo ulu e acc u e ill a nt e, o u ve rt e, d evo u ee a l a ca u se L 'e prit pionni e r a v e nturi e r e t un tant oi p e u fr o nd e ur d e L o ui s Ch evro l et, L e Co rbu s i e r Bl a i se Ce ndr a r s, t o u s fi l s d e L a Ch a u xd eFond s, s'es t r e v e l e e n co r e bi e n v i va nt e n ce m o i s d 'ao ut 1 99 7 o u n o u avo n s acc u e illi n os am i s s p e l eo l og u es. Oh ce rt es, ii y e ut d es imp e rf ec tion s, d es t a tonn e m e nt s, d es fr e mi sse m e nt s M a i s, se l o n O sc ar Wild e, 'ex p e ri e n ce n 'es t -el l e p as l e nom qu e c h ac un d o nn e a ses e rr e ur s? Ou a u ss i lor s qu e l e d eco ura ge m e nt d eva nt l a t ac h e se mbl a it n o u s s u b m e r ge r l es qu a tr e ann ees d e pr e p ara ti o n a u C o n g r e e t e lon un pro ve rb e ara b e" Qui ve ut ag ir t ro u ve un m oye n q ui a b a nd o nn e t ro u ve un e exc u se". Avec l 'a ppui d e t o u s. n o u s n 'a v o n s j a m a i s a b a nd o nn e e t e n avo n s e t e r eco m pe n se p a r l a j o i e et l a sa ti sfact i o n d e n os h o t es d 'e tr e i c i rasse mbl es. Et I hi ve r jur ass i e n a s u cce d e a u b e t e t e qui n o u s f ut o ff e rt. J e s ui s r e t o urn e, n os t a l g iqu e so u s l a n e i ge q ui t o mb ai t a l a nuir s ur l es p as d e j a pr es qu e effaces d e co n g r ess i t es. En ve l o pp e d a n s un e p a i s m a nt ea u bl anc, j 'a i r ev u I 'e pl a n a d e du G y m n ase, l e l a r ge p a rt e rr e du C a mpin g, ( 'ave nu e L eo p o ld R o b e rt d ese rt e d ev ant Mu s i caTh ea tr e, l a To ur Es p ac it e so lit aire et figee. S o u ve nir d un r eve? N o n D un p roje t r ea li e A pr e t a nt d e vra i es m e trop o l es, P ar i s. Vi e nn e, Bud a p es t B a r ce l o n e o u P ek in e t ava n t Br as ili a, voir l e plu s gran d ra embl e m e nt d es s p e l eo l og u es e n m a p e tit e v ill e s i ac ti ve. Y assoc i e r ses h a bit a nt M erci a r o u s, a ce u x d'ic i a ce u x d 'a ill e ur s. L e r es p o n sa bl e l oca l : Dr J .J. Mi se r ez C h ef du S e r v i ce d e H yg i e n e e t d e 'E nvironn e m e nt s p e l eo l og u e e n o n t e mp s e t a ses h e ur e 122 P r o cee d ings o f the 12 th In te rn ati o nal Congress o f S p e l e o l o gy 1997 Switzer l a nd Volume 6

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    Proceedings of the 12 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 123

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    Organiser un congres une sinecure (d'amitie) Einen Kongress organisieren eine leichte Beschaftigung (in Freundschaft angeboten) Certain jour de 1992 je ne me rappelle plu s lequel mais c 'e tait le printemps ou I 'eteUr m 'acc roche di sc retement a u cours d une r e ncontr e et me lance. provocant : ous avon critique le s Hongroi s en 1989 lor s qu il s organi sa ient le I 0 Congr es international d une mani e re qui nou s parai sa il trop e lit aire: pourquoi ne pa s organiser nous m e me s l e 12 et d e montrer qu il est po ss ibl e d'attirer plu d e 1000 spe l eos a un co ngr e ? Pa s b e t e, le Barbu S a loi s : ii sa vait bien qu ii fa i s ait vibrer une corde sen s ibl e et qu e l e pr esi d e nt de la Soci e t e Suisse de Sp e leologie qu e j'etais al ors, e tait bien plac e pour so ut e nir cette ini tiativ e ... En octobre 1992. Urs propo e pu bliquement que la Suisse pr ese nt e sa ca ndidature a I 'orga ni sa tion d un pro c hain congre intern a tion a l : la machin e es t lanc ee, et certe id ee era d e b a ttue !or s de no s assemblee d e janvier e t d 'av ril 1993 pour etre finalement a dopte e ors d un e r e union convoquee a eel effet, e n juin d e l a m e me ann ee. Un petit groupe de troi s per so nn es prepare un concept d 'o rgani sa tion e t notre do s ierde candidature. Deux d 'e n tr e nou s se ront del eg u e a P e kin pour pr ese nter la candidature s ui sse. ll s en revi e nnent avec le plebi sc ite d es d e l gues de l U.l.S. Le depart e t ainsi donne a un marathon de quatre a n s, dont l a ligne d arrivee e t tracee a La Chaux de-Fonds en aoOt 1997. Le dernier con gres international du millenaire doit e tr e quelque c ho e d'inoubliable ou mi so n ur I 000 congre iste e t r evo n plu s ou moins a haute voix d'en r eu nir 1500 ... Gonfles a bloc les P titsSui se Urs Widmer Une (S ubLim e) association e t un comite ont co n titue s : ce lui-ci 'e lar gira petit a petit pour aboutir a un noyau de 16 per on nes. Une s tru c tur e en gro up es de travail autonomes e t respon sa bles es t mise e n place. Toutes l es critique em i es so nt recu ei lli es et integrees de fac;on co n st ructiv e au projet, qui ne cesse de s'e tof fer tout e n re spec t a nt l e principe de base : orga ni ser, s ur l a base du benevola t int egra l un co n gre attrayant e t peu coOte u x, pour qu il s oit populaire et s u c it e une lar ge rencontre e ntr e peleologue s et sc ientifique du monde entier. Nou s pa sons meme de la termino logie officielle Congres internat i onal a celle de Congre s mon dial : vrai ment goniles, l es H e lv etes La decision est pri e d'associer au Congre un festival a udio vis u e l international, qui portera l e nom de SPELEMEDI A, e t d ouvrir l es deux maniJe sta tion s au gra nd publi c non spe leologiqu e D e recherche (so uvent decourageante) de spo n so r s en re spect (parfo i s a pproximatif) d es de l ais l e train avance cah in -caha : de sea nc e de comite en reunion d es div ers grou pe s de travail de deception en bonnes nouv e ll es, de co up s de g u e ule en travau x acharnes P asse nt l es mois passent l es annees .. Fin I 996 bi Ian .. miAn einem gew i sse n Tag im 1992 i c h e rinn e r e mi c h nicht m e hr an we l chem, aber e war im Friihling oder im Sommer m ac ht s ich Urs anliisslich e ine s Treff e n s di s kr e t an mich heran und sag t h era u sfo rdernd : Wir h abe n die Ungarn im 1989 wegen der Or ga ni sa tion d es I 0. lnt e rnati o nal e n Kon g r esses kriti s i e rt und ihn en vorgeworfen, e r sei z u e lit a r gewese n : warum organi i e ren ni c ht wir d e n 12 und ze ig e n da s es mo g lich i s t uber I 000 Spel aos a n e inem Kon g r ess z u haben ? Nicht bltid di ese r bartige B as l er: e r wusste gena u
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    Jean-Claude Lalou tige: les entrees de fonds dcviennent realite mais les inscriptions de congressistes ne suivent pas le meme chemin (250 inscrits fin novembre). Reunion de crise : va-1-011 baisser le prix, vendre le Congres tous azimuts, prendre un bouillon et envoyer notre pre dent en prison (pour de1tes)? Et c'est I 'explosion Durant le fetes de fin d'annee, le telefax du Service d'Hygiene de La Chaux-de-Fonds, ou le secre tari at du Congress 'installe avec la complicite de son directeur et des autori tes communale n 'arrive plus a suivre. JI nous faudra deux jours entiers pour trier les petits rouleaux de papier qui jonchaient le sol du bureau. En une emaine, pre de 500 in criptions affluent : nos reves deviendraient-ils realite ? Et on passe de I 'inquietude de ne pas etre assez nombreux a l 'affolement de devoir gerer l es innombrable demandes pas tou jour justifiees qui nous parviennent par tous le ca nau x possi bles. Quelques anecdotes peuvent etre evoquees, qui s'ec h e lonn ent du rant l'annee I 997 (l'annee du Congres !) et montrent a quel trai tement sont soumis les nerfs des organisateurs. Celui-ci en est a son sept i eme changement d'inscription (et setonne den 'avoir pas rec;u a sep ti eme confirmation par retour). Celui-la hesite toujours a venir (i i s'agit de son cinquieme mail ace sujet) quoi qu'il nous dise ne pas pouvoir venir et nous demandc consei l (s'agit-il d'une consultation psychologique ?). Une 1roi ieme nou demande si elle doit prendre sa t en te pour s'insta ller au camping (e ll e vient en voiture et ne veut surtout pas se charger inutilement). Un quatrieme nous adresse un e-mail d'injures parce qu'on ne lui a pa repondu le jour meme (nous boirons ensemb le une bonne biere a son arrivee au Congres). Un autre nous traite de voleurs parce que le remboursement lie a sa modification d'inscription ne lui est pas parvenu illico (une semaine plu tard, ii nous a s urera qu 'ii a recouverl totale con fiance e n l 'eflicacite e t l h onne tet e helvetiques ). La barque est pleine et I 'on craint chavirer. Malgre ma hobi e anti-web. j" adresse co llectivemenl aux quelque ce ntain es de co n gre istes dont nou connaissons l 'adre se e le ctron ique un mes sage de detresse et de ras-le-bol : 011Wed.9111/y /997. UIS Congress 97 wrote: > H e ll o.all of you. all aro1111d (or under) the planet! die wir oft nur ungefiihr einhalten konnen, ge taltet s ich als sc hwi rig und ist entmutigend, doch es geht mal o mal so vorwiirts : Komitee sitzungen mit den diversen Arbeitsgruppen, von Ent1iiu schungen zu guten Nachrichten, von Wortwech e ln zu Arbeitsan fallen. Die Monate, die Jahre gehen vorbei ... Ende 1996 Bilanz ... frisiert : die versprochenen Summen kommen herein, aber die An meldungen der Kongressteilnehmer halten nicht Schritt (250 An meldungen Ende November). Krisensitzung : soil man mit den Prei sen hinunter, den Kongress zu Ausverkauf preisen verhokern, vie! Geld verlieren und unseren Priisidenten ins Gefiingnis stecken (Schuldhaft) ? Plotzlich eine Explo ion! Am Silvester ist derTelefax des Ser viced 'Hygiene de La Chaux-de-Fonds, wo das Kongress-Sekreta riat sich installiert hat, mit seinem Direktor und den kommunalen Behorden als Komplizen, komplett i.iberfordert. Wir benotigen zwei voile Tage, um die kleinen Papierrollen zu sortieren. welche den gesamten Boden des Bi.iro bedecken. ln einer Woche treffen un gefahr 500 Anmeldungen ein. Werden unsere Triiume in Erfi.illung gehen? Nach der Befiirchtung, nicht zahlreich genug zu sein, nun die gewaltige Aufgabe die zahllo en Anfragen (die nicht immer ge rechtfertigt sind) zu verwalten, welche uns i.iber alle moglichen Kanale zukommen. Manche Anekdoten konnen in Erinnerung ge rufen werden, welche wahrend des Jahre 1997 (das Jahr des Kon gresses !) zu ammengekommen sind und zeigen, welcher Bean spruchung die erven der Organisatoren au. gesetzt waren. Dieser hat gerade die siebente Anderung seiner Anmeldung eingereicht (und wundert sich. warum er seine siebente Bestiiti gung nicht postwendend erhalten hat). Jener zogert immer noch, ob er nicht doch kommen soil (es handelt sich um sein fi.inftes E-mail in dieser Sache), obwohl er uns sagt, er konne nicht kommen aber uns um Rat fragt (handelt es sich um eine psychologische Konsultation ?) Eine t1ritte fragt uns, ob sie ihr Zell mitnehmen muss, um ich auf dem Campingplatz zu installieren (sie kommt per Auto und will absolut nicht zuviel mitnehmen). Ein vier t er schickt ein E-mail mit Verwi.inschungen, da wir ihm nicht am g l eichen Tag geantwortel haben (wir werden zusammen ein Bier Lrinken bei einer Ankunft). Ein anderer bezichtigt uns des Diebstahls, weil die mit seiner Pierre-Yves Jean11i11 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 125

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    > D o y ou kn o w that yo u ar e at th e m o m e nt m o r e than l 200 co min g t o La Chau x -d e -Fond s 1his summ e r ? 0 yes we ar e happ y . > D o yo u ima g in e th e amounI o f w o rk f o r a s mall team o f b e n ev ol e nt c a ve rs w h o d ec id e d lo mak e it !h e Bi g Und e r g round R e nd ezV o u s of th e e nd o f this ce ntw y? 0 yes, we ar e rir e d ... > D o yo u kn ow that m o r e than half o f th e man y qu e sti o n s we r ece i ve e a c h da y co uld find rh e ir own an s w e r in 1h e S ec ond o r 1h e Third Circular ? 0 yes we ar e som e tim e s ann oye d ... > So pl e as e ... > ... r e ad all th e inf o rmati o n y ou ha ve alr e ad y r ece iv e d b e f o r e mailin g > w air f o r 1h e an s w e r /0 yo ur r e l ev a111 qu es 1i o ns > . b e s ur e we n eve r f o r g et yo u but g i ve an s w e rs as soo n a s p oss ibl e > A s soo n a s p oss ibl e m e ans : > wh e n we ha ve 1h e go od ans we r w hi c h i s n o r al w a ys ev id e nl > wh e n we ha ve th e tim e lo d o it am o n g man y o th e r s. > S o m e lim es it m e an s an h o ur, s o m e tim es it m e an s a w ee k > S ee yo u all soo n : lim e is hurr y in g up Le c alme radio s' in s taLle pour l e moi s qui reste et nous perrn e t d e reperer plus fa c il e ment les mes s age s r e ellement important s e t urgent s, par e x emple c eu x qui nou s perrnettent de communiqu e r entre nou s pour r e gler le dernier s problem es. Quelqu es extrait s non pertinent s de s e-m a il s quasi quotidiens e ntr e le re s pon s able scientifique (PYJ ), qui telecommande toute !'or ga ni s ation d e s on se ct e ur depui s l 'Allemagne e t le s e cr e taire ge n e ral (JCL ), qui ne quitte pratiquement plu La Chau x -de-Fond s d e pui s j a nvi e r : > d e PYJ a JCL l e 7 .7: J e c omm e n ce vraiment a d e jant e r ca r dan d e u x se m ai n es, pour m o i la pr e par a ti o n doit e tre t e m1in ee : a pr e j e p e in s e t j e d e m e n age ... > d e JCL a PYJ l e 1 6. 7 ( 2 3 h45 ): Qu o n n e m e pa.rl e plu s (ja m a i s) d in v it e(s) Qu e l boulot m .. iqu e pour un e ca u se m ... iqu e. Co mm e nt avo n n o u s r e u ss i a n o u s fa ir e a n o u s m e m es ce ca d ea u e mp o i so nn e? C'e t tout p o ur ce s oir a .. d e m a in > d e PYJ a J C L l e 1 7.7: H e ur e u x d e vo ir qu e tu s ur v i s t o u j o ur s P o ur m a part j 'a i un p e u d e p e in e. E t v o il a M a l g r e qu e lqu es fa ibl esses pr ev i s ibl es, in s uffi sa n ces in a dmi ss ibl es b av ur es sca ndal e u ses, r ec l a m a ti o n s ju s tifi ees ( m a i s t o ut es r e marquabl e m e nt r a r es), l e C o n g r es se r a l a g r a nd e fe t e qu e n o u s av i o n s r evee, e t m e m e un p e u plu s : 1 650 co n g r ess i s t es e t 20 0 0 vi s it e ur s occas i o nn e l s. L es o r ga ni sa t e ur s, qui n 'o nt p as v u g rand c h ose du Co n g r es, o nt vid es : il s o nt d o nn e t o ut l e ur ju s. Yi ve m e nt l e pro c h a in Qu e I 'o n pui sse p ro fil e r du co nfort a bl e s t a tut d e c on g r e s i s t e : eco ut e r d es co mmuni ca ti o n s. d ec ouvrir d es publi ca ti o n s, fa ir e d e l a s p e l eo a l 'a utr e b o ut du m o nd e, b o ir e d es ve rr es, r e n o u e r des a m i ti es int e rrompu es p ar l a di s t a n ce e t. .. co n se r ve r l e droit d e ro u s p ete r J ea n -C l a ud e L a l o u (a n c i e n ) sec r e t a ir e ge n era l d u 1 2 Co n g r e m o ndi a l d e s p e l eo l ogie Anderung der Ein s chreibun g verbunden e RUckzahlun g nicht s o fort bei ihm eingetroffen i s t ( eine Woch e s piiter v e r s ich e rt e r un s dass er das voile Yertrauen in die schweizeri sc he TU c hti g keit und Ehrlichkeit wi e dergefunden habe ). Das Boot i s t voll und wir befUrchten zu kent e m. Trot z mein e r Web-Phobie s chreib e i c h an einige hundert Kon g r ess teiln e hm e r von welchen wir die elektroni s che Adre ss e haben e in Y e r z weiflungs-M ess a g e ( ich habe die Na s e voll ) : On W e d 9 Jul y 199 7, UIS C on g r e ss 9 7 wro l e : > H e ll o, all o f yo u all ar o und (o r und e r ) th e plan e t > D o yo u kn. ow thal yo u ar e al 1h e m o m e nt m o r e lhan 12 00 c omin g 1 0 La Chau x -d eF o nd s !hi s summ e r ? 0 yes, we ar e happ y ... > D o yo u ima g in e !h e amounl o f wo rk f o r a s mall t e am of b e n evo l e nt c a ve r s w h o d eci d e d t o mak e ii !h e Bi g U nd e r g r o un d R e nd ezVou s o f !h e e nd o f !hi s ce ntur y? 0 yes, we ar e tir e d ... > D o yo u kn ow Iha/ m o r e 1han half o f 1h e man y qu e sti o n s we r ece i ve e a c h da y co uld find !h e ir own an swe r in !h e S eco nd o r th e Third Cir c ular ? 0 yes, we ar e s o m e lim es ann oye d . > S o pl e a se ... > . r e ad all !h e inf o rmalion. yo u ha ve alr e ad y r ece i ve d b efo r e mailin g > . w ait f o r rh e an swe r 1 0 y our r e l ev anl qu es ti o ns > . b e s ur e we n eve rf o r ge l yo u but g i ve an swe r s as soo n a s p oss ibl e > As so o n a s pos s ibl e m e ans : > w h e n we ha ve th e goo d an swe r w hi c h i s n o t al w a ys ev ide nt > w h e n we ha ve th e rim e t o d o it am o n g m a n y o th e r s. > S o m e tim es it m e an s an h o w ; so m e lim es it m e an s a week. > S ee yo u a ll soo n : tim e i s hurr y in g up Im l e tzt e n Ubri gge bli e b e n e n Monat m ac ht s i c h Funk s till e br e it und e rl a ubt un s di e w i c hti ge n und wirkli c h drin ge nd e n Na c hri c t e n l e i c ht e r a u s findi g zu m ac h e n z. B di e j e n.i ge n di e un s e rl a ub e n unt e r un s z u k o mmuni z i e r e n um di e l e t z t e n Probl e m e z u lo se n Eini ge Au sz U ge vo n ni c ht zur S ac h e ge h o r e nd e n qu as i t ag t iig li c h e n Email s z wi sc h e n d e m Y e r a ntwortli c h e n Wi sse n sc haft ( PY J ), we lch e r di e gesa mt e Or ga ni sa ti o n se in es R esso rt s a u s D e ut sc h land t e l ediri g i e rt und d e m G e n e ral se kretiir (J C L ), d e r pr a kti sc h L a C h a u xd e -F o nd s vo n Janu ar a n ni c ht m e hr ve rl a se n h a t : \'O il PYJ a n J C L a m 7.7. : l c hfan ge w ir k li c h a n a u s: u fl ip pen. de nn in :we i Woc h e n mu ssfi" i r mi c h die Vorbe r ei lun g bee nd e r se i n un d n ac hh e r ma l e i c h un d : i e h e um . vo n J C L a n PYJ am 1 6.7. (24.45 h ): Man so l/ m i r ni e (me h r) 1'0 11 G as r en r ede n Was fi ir e i n Sc h . kra m pf fi"i r ei n e Sc h ... sac h e W i e habe n w ir das nu rfe rii ggeb ra c ht w 1s se l bsr e i n sofa ul es Ei : 11 l egen ? D as i s a ll esfi i r h e ut e abe n d, b i s ... mo r gen 1 von PYJ an J C L am 1 7.7. : C ur :u se h en, doss d u 11 oc/ 1 / ebs 1 Mei n e r se ir s h abe ich e t was M ii h e. E t vo il a T ro t z e ini ge r vo rh e r se hb arer Sc h wiic h e n un ve r ze ih li c h e r U nzul ii n g li c h ke it e n s k a nd a l ose r P a nn e n un d b e r ec hti g t e r R e kl a m a ti o n e n (a b e r a ll e d oc h b e m e rk e n swe rt se lt e n ) is t de r K o n g r ess d as g r osse Fest gewo rd e n vo n we l c h e m w ir ge tr i:i umt h a b e n un d soga r m e hr : 1 650 K o n g r ess t e iln e hm e r un d 2000 ge l ge ntli c h e B es u c h e r Di e O r ga ni sa t o r e n we l c h e nic h t se hr v i e l vom K o n g r ess gese h e n h a b e n s ind a u sge pum p t : s i e h a b e n ihr e n ga n ze n Saf t gege b e n. Es l e b e de r n i:ic h s t e W o m a n vom be qu emen S t a tu s des K o n g r ess t e iln e hm e r s p rofi ti e r e n k a nn : Vo rt riige a nh o r e n Pu b li ka ti o n e n e ntd ec k e n H o hl e n fo r sc hun g b e tr e i be n a m a nd e r e n E n de de r W e lt e ini ge G l ase r t rin k e n di e dur c h d i e Di s t a n z a b gebroc h n e n F r e und sc h af t e n e rn e u e rn und ... d as R ec ht h aben zu m eckern J ea n -C l a ud e L a l o u (gewese n e r ) Ge n e r a l se kr e t i:i. r d es 1 2. We lt ko n g r esses fur H o hl e n forsc hun g. U b e r se t z un g : S u z i Kin z l 126 Proceedings of the 12 th Internat i onal Congre s s of Sp e leology 19 9 7 Switzerland Volum e 6

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    Un congres international, une experience unique (que l'on evitera soigneusement de repeter !) Ein internationaler Kongress eine einzigartige Erfahrung (nicht zur Wiederholung empfohlen) Une sema in e de congres, c'est quatr e an de boulot e t un e lon gue a ve ntur e aus i palpitante e t fatigante que I exp loration du Holloch. Comme en spe l eo, chacun a donne tout ce qu'il a pu. Comme dans un c lub. ou ii n e faut pa s s'attend r e ace que chacun oit capab l e de descend re a I 000 c h acun a ses Ii mites et doit s 'ar reter quand ii e t convaincu de l es avoir atteintes. II ressort a lor s comme i i peut en controlan t plus ou moins bien l a si tuati on. Plus de 1650 congressistes, 450 communicatio n s sc i e ntifiqu es, 1543 pages d Actes, 50 pay represente et un budget ... top secret. Parlons-en de celui-ci : avec quelque 300 pre t ations offerte payante ou non, la comptabi lit e devient vite labyrinthique; ii faut etre vigilant pour ne pas s'y perdre Ajoutez a cela un petit quart de co n gressistes guere plus de trois ou quatre cents plutot ra leurs des qu'il agit d'argent (s ui sse !); as aisonnez le tout de tracas erie admini trative necessaires pour recuperer les 400'000 francs (s ui sses !) de spo n sors indispensables ii eq uilibr e r l e budget et le labyrinlhe re semble facheusement a un enfer (Ho ll en aJle mand). Qui ose reprocher au comite de prendre ix mois pour bou cler les compte ? Bi Ian juste po itif a peine quelque milliers de francs de benefice qui seront, se l on les statuts de Sublime verses a LIil pro jet speleo l ogique juge digne d' interet. Le plus traumati ant. c'e t la gestion de demande d'informa tion Avec une telle bastringue, le me ages affluent par tous Jes bouts : e-mail, telephone, bo1te a u x l ettres surchargee et fax au bout du rouleau. Question typique posee par e-mail au secretariat : Pour Eine Woche Kongres das bedeutet vier Jahre Arbeit und ein l anges, eben o aufregendes und ermiidende Abenteuer wie die Erforschung de Holl ochs. Wie bei einer Hi:ihlenexpedition auch, hat jeder se in Bestes gegebe n Vergleichbar z u einem Verein kann auch nicht von jedem erwarte t werden. dass er die Kote I 000 m erreicht. Jeder hat seine Grenzen die er nicht iiber sc hritten ollte. ur damit ist gewiihrleistet, dass er die Situation noch mehr oder weniger im Griff h at ... Ober 1650 Kongressteilnehmer, 450 wissenschaft li che Vortra ge, 1543 Seiten Akten. 50 Lander und ein Budget. .. top secret. Aber prechen wir doch genau davon : mit rund 300 verschie denen teils kostenlosen teils verrechneten Angeboten wird die Buchhaltung rasch zu einem Labyrinth: man muss schon sehr wach sam ein, um sich darin nicht zu verirren Fiigen wir noch ein becheidene Viertel Kongressteilnehmer hinzu kaum mehr als drei bis vierhundert welche sic h stets beklagen, oba ld es um bare (und ers t noch Schweizer) Miinze geht; erganzen wir das ganze mit den unvermeidlichen administrativen Scherereien, um das Budget mit Sponsorbeitragen von 400'000 (Schweizer) Franken au zuglei chen, so wird dieses Labyrinth z u einem richtiggehenden Hi:ill (loch). Wcr wagt es bi er noch, dem Kongre svor t and etwa vor zuwerfen, wenn er ftir den definitiven finanziellen Ab chluss sech Monate beni:itigt? Kurzum, die Bilanz i t po itiv, e verbleiben ei nige wenige tausend Franken, welche gemiiss den SubLime-Statu ten fiir ein interessante s s peltiologi ches Projekt zur Verfiigung s tehen Le secretariat du congres [ors d'une periode calme Das Kongress-Sekretariat, als es ausnahmsweise eimnal etwas ruhiger wurde. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 127

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    ec out e r l a c onf e r e n ce du Prof. Tump o mp es, j a i l e c h o i x e ntr e l 'av i o n d e 1 8 h 3 0 l e 11 0 8 e t ce lui d e 8 h 3 0 l e 1 2. 0 8 a u d e p a rt d e C hi s in a u V e uill ez m e r ese rv e r un h o t e l e n c on se qu e nc e, m e r c i A n a l yso n s ce tt e qu es ti o n assez ban a l e. Qu a nd p asse l e P ro f Tump o mp es ? R ec h e rch e : l e 1 2 0 8 e ntr e 1 4 h e t 17 h Ou se tr o u ve C hi s in a u ? R ec h e r c h e : En Ukrain e Qu e l t e mp s d e vo l ? R ec h e r c h e : 4 h e ur es 1 5 minut es Don e, h e ur e d 'a rri vee a G e n e v e ? 22 h 45 o u 1 2 h 45 Avec l 'av i o n du s oir imp oss ibl e d 'a rri ve r a L a C h a u xd eF o nd s, ii fa ut d o n e dom1ir a G e n eve. A vec 1 a v i o n du m a tin a n iv ee prob a bl e a u ce ntr e du co n g r es a 16 h 3 0 c inq c h a n ces s ur s i x d e m a nqu e r l a co nf e r e nc e. II fa ut d o n e d e mand e r a ce m o n s i e ur s' il pr efe r e dormir a Gen eve (b o nj o ur l es pri x) ou pr e n dr e l 'a vion pr ece d e nt. .. Suit e a u pr oc hain em a il. . E v id e mm e nt o n p e ut tri e r l es em a il s e t n e p as r e pondr e, m a i s o u d o rmira+il l a nuit du 11 a u 12 ? Qui p aye l a c h a mbr e s i o n l a r ese r ve e t qu il n e v i e nt p as? W as a m m e i s t e n t ra um a t is i e rt e, w a r d e r U m ga n g mit d e n un za hli ge n Anfr age n Y o n a li e n S e it e n s tr o mt e n M e ldun ge n h e r e in : email T e l e ph o n iib e rfiillt e Bri e fka s t e n und a u fge b ra u c ht e Fax roll e n St e ll ve rtr e t e nd e in e d e r t y pi sc h e n A nfr age n a n d as S e kr e t ri a t : Um d e n Y o rtr ag vo n Prof. Tump o mp es ni c ht zu ve rp asse n k a nn i c h d e n Flu g a b C hi s in a u um 1 8.30 U hr a m I 1 .08. o d e r um 0 8.3 0 Uhr a m 1 2 .0 8. bu c h e n Bitt e r ese r v i e r e n Si e mir e in e nt s pr c h e nd es Hot e l. D a nk e L ass t un s di ese a n s i c h b a n a l e F rage e t was a n a l ys i e r e n : W a nn i s t d e r Y o rtra g vo n P rof. Tump o mp es ? Nac h fo r c hun g: a m 1 2.08. zw i sc h e n 1 4. 0 0 und 1 7.00 U hr. W o li eg t C hi s in a u ? N ac h fo r sc hun g : In d e r U k ra in e W e l c h e F lu gze it ? N ac hfor sc hun g : 4. 15 h Al so Ankunft sze it in G e n f? 22.4 5 U hr o d e r 1 2.4 5 Uhr. Mit d e m A b e ndflu g b es t e ht k e in e Ch a n ce, L a C h a u d eF o nd s g l e i c h e nt ags zu e rr e i c h e n. o hn e U b e rn ac htun g in G e n f ge ht es ni c ht. Mit d e m M o r ge nflu g An k unft im K o n g r essze n t rum gege n I 6 .3 0 Uhr ; grosse W a hr sc h e inli c hk e it d e n Y o rtr ag z u ve r Decoration, oeuvre de Florence Bovay. Dekoration das Werk von Florence Bovay U n e a utr e qu es ti o n occ up a nt l e so mm e t du hit p ara d e d e I 'e m ai l e t du t y p e: J e m int e r esse au x e ffl o r esce n ces a ra g onitiqu es e t a l e ur c omp os iti o n i so t o piqu e e n r e l a ti o n avec l es p a l eoc limat s. J e n a i pa s b ea u co up d e t e mp e tj a im e r a i s savo ir qu a nd l es co n fe r e n ces li ees ace th e m e a uront li e u e t qu e ll e co n fe r e n ces fi g ur e nt a u pr og r a mm e L a r e p o n se ra pid e es t : 3 sess i o n s (72 co nf e r e ces) e ntr e l e lundi m a tin e t l e v e ndr e di a pr esmidi s ont s u sce pti b l es d e v ou s int e r e ser l a p e r so nn e es t -e ll e co nt e nt e ? L a r e pon e a tt e ndu e es t plut 6 t : Y o i c i J es 8 c onf e r e n ces trait a nt du th e m e qui vo u s int e r esse a v ec J es d a t es e t h e ur es d e pa ssage pr ev u es Ce tt e r e p o n se d e m a nd e a ppro x imati ve m e nt un e h e ur e d e tra va il e t ii fa d ra y a jout e r un e ph ra e du s tyl e : E n fo n c ti o n du d es i s t e m e nt t ar dif d e ce rtain s co nf e r e n c i e r s, J es h e ur es a nn o n cee s ont s uj e tt es a modifi c ation L e t e mp s pa sse v it e, e t l e c on g r es a ppr oc h e, o n e c ont e nt e a lor s d es r e p o n ses minimum .. Br e f I int e rn e t a du b o n m a i s ii n e fa ut p a s e n a bu se r L es m a il s n o u s d o nn e nt v i te l e se ntim e nt d e tr e l e ca pit a in e d un b ap asse n D e r H e rr mu ss a l so a n ge fra g t we rd e n o b e r e in e O b e r n ac htun g in G e nf ( we l c h bee indru c k e nd e R ec hnun g ) vo r z i e ht o d er o b e r ni c ht e in friih e r es Flu gze u g n e hm e n w ill .. N ac h s t es em ai l .. N a tiirli c h di e em a il s k o nn e n a u c h o rti e rt und nur t e il we i e b ean t wo rt e t we rd e n A b e r w o sc hl af t nun d e r H e rr i n d e r N ac h t v om 11. zum 1 2 Au g u s t ? U nd w e r z ahlt d as r eserv i e rt e Zimm e r we nn d e r H e rr ni c ht e r c h e int ? E in e a nd e r e F rage, we l c h e di e Hitli s t e d e r em a il an fiihrt : lch int e r ess i e r e mi c h fiir di e arag oniti sc h e Kri s t a ll s truktur und di e l so t o p e n Zu sa mm e n se tzun g im Zu sa mm e nhan g mit d e m P a l ao klim a. Jch h a b e nur we ni g Z e it und m o cht e ge rn e w i sse n wa nn di e Y o r tr age zu di ese m Th e m a t a ttfind e n und um we l c h e Y o rtr age es s i c h h a nd e lt Di e rasc h e Ant wo rt l aut e t: 3 S ess i o n e n (72 V o 1tr age) z wi sc h e n M o nt ag mor ge n und Fr e it ag n ac hmitta g k o nnt e n fiir S ie v on lnt e r esse se in 1 s t di e P e r so n damit z ufri e d e n ges t e llt ? W a hr c h e inli c h w ird e h e r di e fo l ge nd e Antwort e r wa rt e t : N ac hfol ge n d di e 8 Y o rtr age, we lch e 1hr b e v o r z u g t es Th e m a b e h a nd e ln mit de n vo r gese h e n e n O a t e n und Z e it e n Di eseA nt wo rt ve rl a n g t rund e in e 128 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 199 7, Switzerland Volume 6

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    t e au a v ec d e ve nu es d 'ea u d a n s l a co qu e; ava nt d e c omm e n ce r a trav a ill e r r ee ll e m e nt ii fa ut c h a qu e jour pomp e r l es email s p e dant d e u x h e ur es p o ur se r e m e ttr e a Flot. L e vrai tra va il ge lion d es arti c l es e t du pro g r a mm e sc i e ntifiqu e, dan s m o n cas n e co m m e n ce qu 'a pr es ce t ec hauff e m e nl j o urn a li e r Y ers l a fin ii a m e m e fa llu dir e t o p e t n e plu s r e p o ndr e a u x e -m a il s ca r !' o r ga ni s ati o n ge n e ral e n e d eve n a it plu s p os ibl e. D e d e u x mau x, ii fallait c hoi s ir l e m o indr e Qu e ce u x qui so nt e n c or e tout fru tr es, ve uill e nt bi e n n o u s e n exc u se r m a i s notr e bud ge t n e nou s p e rn, e tt a it pa s d e p aye r qu e lqu un a pl e in t e mp s p o ur r e pondr e a l a plui e d 'e -mail s qui nou s a r ro a it. SubLim e, c haqu e m e mbr e du co mit e e t du s t a ff a du l 'e tr e p o ur qu e l a manif es t a ti o n se p as e co rr ec t e m e nt. Bi e n s Or ii y a e u qu e l qu es loup ees, m a i s so mm e t o ut e a ssez min e ur es. Le plu s dr o l e es t d e r ece v o ir d es co mm e nt a ir es a pr es l e c on g r es nou s inforniant d e l a pi e tr e t e nu e d e l a so ir ee d e g al a o u e n c or e d un probl e m e qu an tit a ti f d e nourritur e a u b a nqu e t. M e r c i p o ur l e filor1 o n n 'av ait p as r e m a rqu e, ti e n On Fe ra mi e u x l a pro c h a in e f o i s ( ii n 'y a u ra p as d e pro c h a in e fo i s, o u f !) Bon ce o n d e n o u s ju s tifi e r mai s qu a nd o n bo sse co mm e d es n eg r e ii es t p a r fo i s d es r e m a rqu es qui e n e r ve nt p ass abl e m e nt. M e voil a lib e r e Mai s qu e l s r es ult a t s co n c r e t s ? A p a rt l e ac t es qui off r e nt un tour d h o ri zo n qu as i ex h a u s ti f d e l a s p e l eo lo g i e m o ndi a l e (s urtout sc i e ntifiqu e e t p as t e ll e m e nt ex pl o rat o ir e, ii e t vra i ), ii n e r es t e a p r iori p as gra nd c ho se d e tr e c on c r e l Un c on g r es n e ge n e r e tout e foi s p as qu e d es ac t es, m a i s a u ss i un e foul e d 'a utr e publi ca ti o n s, t o p og r a phi es e t a utr e mont age a ud io-v i s u e l qu e l 'o n d es ir e pr ese nt e r a ce tt e occas i o n On c it era l e li v r e K ars t e t gro tt es d e Sui sse, Cave Min era l s of th e W o rld B a m es e t go u ff r es du ca nt o n d e N e u c h a t e l. G y p s um K a r s t o f th e W o rld e t bi e n d 'a utr es e n co r e ... L es r e n co ntr es e t l es ec h a n ges e ntr e sc i e ntifiqu es e t/ou s p e l eos o nt qu a nd m e m e e t e ex tr e m e m e lll n o mbr e u x e t o u ve nt fru c tu e u x. L es 70 0 sc i e ntifiqu es pr ese nt s y o nt co t oye l es 9 00 s p e l e o s a d es occas i o n s tr e d i ve r es. P ar exe mpl e, ce rt a in s j e un es c h e r c h e ur s se so nt e m e r ve ill e de voir d'e min e nt s p rofes e ur a ut e ur d e li v r es ce l e br es, se br osse r l es d e nt ii co t e d 'e u x d a n s l es roul o tt es du cam pin g ... D 'a u tres o nt pu l es s urpr e ndr e e n t rai n d e d a n se r d a n s l a b o u e au x d e rni e r es minut es d e l a fe t e fo lkl o riqu e .. M a i s ii y a a u ss i e u d es co nt ac t plu s se ri e u x l o r s d e di c u s i o n p a rfoi s a ni m ees a l a fin d e sessions sc i e nti f iqu es. II es t t o ut d e m e m e imp o rtant d e r e l eve r q u e l a p a l e tt e d es cie n tifiqu es pr ese nt s e t a it bi e n ga mi e: l a plup a rt d es pont es se so nt d e pl aces, e t j e cro i qu e c'e t a it un occas i o n uniqu e d e l es r e n co n tr e r t o u s e n i p e u d e t e mp s. Ce rt a in s proj e t s so nt d 'a ill e ur s n es d e ce re n co ntr e ; l a e n v u e d un li v r e f utur ; i c i l a c r ea ti o n d un gro up e d e tr ava il i nt e rn a ti o n al s ur un th e m e s p ec ifiqu e; e t la b as un proj e t d e r ec h e r c h e a lli an t plu sie ur s s p ec iali t es qui n 'ava i e nl ju s qu i c i p as e u l 'occa i o n de se r e n co ntr e r P o ur l es p e l eos, ii fa ll a it v r a im e nt l e fa ir e ex pr es pour n e p as r e n co nu r d es aco l y t es d es qu a tr e c oin s du m o nd e e t ec h a n ge r d es id ees avec e u x. L e m oye n c l ass iqu e eta it ev id e mm e nt d a Il e r eco u t e r l e ur co n fe r e n ce, m a i s l es fe t es fo lkl o riqu e o u a utr e nu it s cl a n l a g r a nd e t e nt e d u c ampin g, ou e n co r e l es multipl e exc ur s ion s y co ntribu a i e nt a u s i l a r ge m e nt. J e sa i s qu e d e tr es n o mbr e u x c a mp s e t ex p e diti o n s l o int ai n es so nl n es p e nd a nt l e co n g r es. Qu e vo ul ez-vo u s d e plu s? L a pr e mi e r e r e u s it e d un c ongr es e t d 'y ra e mbl e rdu m o nd e. Si ce rt a in s y v i e nn e nt pour r a l e r c'es t l e ur probl e m e, ca r fin a l e m e nt c'es t e u x qui n e profit e nt p as d e l a pr e e n ce fourmill a nt e d es mille e t qu e lqu es a utr e tro g lophil es ve nu a l a T c hau x p o ur v o ir du m o nd e ... D e rni e r imp ac t dir ec t du co n g r es : l a parti c ip a tion d e l a p o pu l a tion d e la r eg i o n pui s qu e pr e d e I 2 000 p e r so nn es o nt v u 'ex po s ition Sp e l a i o n qui e j o urn a it a u Mu se um d I-li t o ir e Natur e ll e Stund e Arb e it und mU ss t e zud e m mit e in e m Na c h sa t z im Stil n d e run ge n w ege n m og li c h e r Ab sage n d e r Autor e n vo rb e h a lt e n e r gii n z t w e rd e n Di e Z e it dr ii n g t d e r Kon g r ess n ii h e rt s i c h w ir b esc hr ii nk e n un e r e Ant wo rt e n a uf e in Minimum ... Kurzum d as Int e rn e t h a t se in e g ut e n S e it e n m a n s ollt e s i c h a ber ni c ht mi s brau c h e n !a sse n Di e e -m a il s ge b e n e in e m r asc h d as G e fUhl ein es K a pit ii n in d esse n B o ot W asse r e indr i n g t. B evo r e r mit d e r e ig e ntli c h e n Arb e it b eg inn e n k a nn mu ss e r j e d e n Ta g wii h r e nd z w e i Stund e n di e email s au ssc h o pf e n Di e wirkli c h e A r beit in m e in e m F a ll e di e B e tr e uun g d e r Artik e l und d es w i sse n c h a ftli c h e n Pro g ramm es kann j e w e il s e r s t n ac h di ese r t iig li c h e n AufwiirrnUbun g beg inn e n G ege n d as End e z u mu ss t e ga r a u f j eg li c he Antw o rt verz i c ht e t w e rd e n damit di e Or g ani sa ti o n d es K o n g re sses Uberhaupt noch mo g li c h war. .. Yon z w e i Ub e ln mu ss t e d as g ering e r e a u sges u c ht w e rd e n wir bitt e n a ll e di e j e ni ge n we l c h e s t e t s no c h fru s tri e rt s ind um Ent c huldi g un g; abe r un se r Bud ge t e rl a ubt e es nun e inm a l ni c ht j e mand e n vo ll ze itli c h z ur B ea nt w o rtun g d e r em a il Flut a n z u s t e ll e n P e rfekt und e rh a b e n ( fr a n z.: SubLim e) mu s t e j e de s Mit g li e d d es Kon g r essvo r s tand s und d es Mitarb e it e r s t a b s se in d a mit d er K o n g r ess v olli g f e hl e rl os Ub e r di e BUhn e ge h e n k o nnt e S e ib t ver s t ii ndli c h ga b es e ini ge F e hl c hl iige, im G esa mt ra hm e n gese h e n j e d oc h w a r e n i e ni c ht se hr we e ntli c h oc h h e ut e e rh a lt e n wi r K o mm e ntar e z um a rm se li g ge t a lt e t e n G a l aa b e nd od e r zu m m e n ge nmii s i g un ge nU ge nd e n Bank e tt-E sse n Yi e l e n Dank fUr di e Hinw e i se wir h ii tt e n es se lb s t nicht b e m e rkt Wir w e rd e n es d as n iic h t e Mai be sse r m ac h e n (z um GIU c k g ibt es k e in n iic h s t es M ai ) W e nn man wi e di e Skl ave n sc huft e t i s t es nun e inm a l o, d as e in e m di ese Art vo n B e m e rkun ge n a uf d e n G e i s t ge h e n k o nn e n D oc h ge nu g d avo n ic h h abe mir d e n Fru s t vo n d e r S ee l e ge c hri e be n !a ss en wir nun di e R ec htf e rti g un ge n b e i se i te. W e l c h es s ind nun di e konkr e t e n Er ge bni sse d es Kon g r esses? Si e ht man v o n d e n Akt e n a b w e l c h e e in e n e r sc h o p fe nd e n Qu e c hnitt dur c h di e we lt we it e Spel iio l og i e ve rrnitt e ln (v.a. in w i sse sc h a ftli c h e r Hin s i c ht l e id e r i s t di e r e in e F o r c hun g unt e rv e rtr e t e n ), i s t a uf den e r s t e n Bli c k nur we ni g w irkli c h K o nkr e t es a ufzu ziih l e n Anlii ss li c h ei n e K o n g r esses w e rd e n ni c ht nur Ak t e n gesc h af fe n so nd e rn es e nt s t e ht e in e ga n ze R e ih e we it e r e r Y e r o ff e ntli c hun ge n Hohl e nplan e und a nd e r e r a udio v i s u e ll e r Produkt e, w e l c h e b e i di ese r G e l ege nh e it ge rn e geze i g t w e rd e n E r w iihnt se i e n di e W e r ke K a r s t und I-l o hl e n d e r S c h we i z, C ave M i n erals of th e W o rld B a m es e t G o u ff r es du C ant o n d e N e u c h a t e l G y p um K a r s t of t h e W o rld und v i e l e, v i e l e a nd e r e m e hr ... Zahllo s und a u sse r s t fru c htb a r wa r e n di e Tr e ff e n und d e r ge ge n se iti ge Au s t a u sc h z wi sc h e n e h e r wi se n sc h a ftli c h und pr ak ti sc h t a ti ge n Hohl e nfor sc h e rn l ag d as Y e rh a ltni d oc h b e i e t wa 70 0 z u 9 00 T e iln e hm e rn S o put z t e n jun ge H o hl e nfor c h e r ihr e Z ii hn e di r e kt n e b e n bek a nnt e n Prof ess or e n und Aut o r e n berUhmt e r BU c h er. A nd e r e Ub e rr a c ht e n di e K o r y ph iie n wa hr e nd d e n l etz t e n Minut e n d e Folklor efes t e b e im Tan ze n dur c h d e n S c hl a mm A ber es ga b a uch e rn s th a ft e r e K o ntakt e, a u sge l os t dur c h Di s ku ss ion e n a m End e wi sse n sc h a ftli c h e r S ess ion e n Es mu ss b e t o nt we rd e n d ass e in e wo hl ga rni e r t e P a l e tt e a n Wi sse n sc haftl e rn zu gege n war Di e G e l ege nh e it war wo hl e inm a li g, in s o kurz e r Zeit di e ge a mt e I-l o hl e n fo r sc h e r Promin e n z a n zu tr e ff e n Ni c ht w e ni ge Proj e kt e s ind a uf di ese Tr e ff e n z urU c kzufUh r e n : dort di e G e burt s tunde e in es zukUnfti ge n Bu c h es. hi er di e Ent s t e hun g e in e r int e rnational e n Arb e it sg rupp e zu e in e m s p ez i e l e n Th e m a; und dort hint e n e in For sc hun gs pr o j e kt we l c h es m e r e r e Sp ez i a li s t e n di e s i c h bi s lan g ni c ht ge kannt h a ben z u sa mm e n fUhrt Wa s di e Sp e l iio a nbelan g t s o mu s t e man s i c h w a hrli c h MUh e ge b e n um k e in e K o nt ak t e mit I-l o hl e n fo r sc h e rn a u s a li e n vi e r I-lim m e l s ri c htun ge n z u knUpf e n und ld ee n a u sz ut a u sc h e n Al s kl a i sc h e M e thod e b o t s i c h offe nkundi g d e r B es u c h d e r Yortr age a n Proceed i ngs of the 12 th Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 129

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    Nein! Nie/it abschneiden! /eh versprech 's ja, wir organisieren keinen Kongress mehr! ! 130 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 s ,,, I I I

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    pendant le congres, pui s e promenait dan s plusieurs villes de s I Arc Jura ss ien par la s uite. Le conferences, SP ELEMEDIA, excursions et autres expositions ouvertes au public ont aussi attire plusieurs mil li e r s de per onnes. C'est done tout e une image de la speleo qui 'e I repandue avec le congres. Enfin, la con equence la p l us durable esperon -le, sera l ln ti tut Sui se de Speleologie et de Karstologie qui d evra it voir le jour prochainement ur le haut du canton de euchlitel. Ce pari ii r e ussit, pourra reellement etre considere comme une suite directe du congres qui a perrnis d 'es quis se r les chemins possible s pour parvenir a mettre s ur pied cette entrepri e. Pierre-Yve Jeannin aber auch da Folklorefest oder die Niichte im grossen Camping zelt oder auch die zahlreichen Exkursionen haben zum gege n seiti gen Au tau eh beigetragen. lch wei s, da ss zahlreiche Camp und Expeditionen in Ferne Lander wahrend d es Kongres ses geboren warden sind. Was wollt 1hr mehr ? Der wichtigste Erfolg eines Kongre sses i t es, die Men chen zusan1menzubringen Wenn sic h einige bekl gen, so liegt da s Problem bei ihnen ; denn letztli c h sind s ie es, wel che nicht von der Anwesenheit der tau se nd und etwas mehr Troglophi l en profitierten die nach La Chaux-de-Fonds gekommen sind, um die Welt zu sehen ... Letzte direkte Auswirkung de Kongre sse : die Beteiligun g der Bevolkerung ahezu 12 000 Leute haben die Ausstellung Spelaion gesehen, die wiihrend de s Kongresses im Mu se um d Hi s toire Na turelle und so dann in mehreren Stadten de Jurabogen beheimat et war. Yortriige, SPEL EMEDIA, Exk ur sionen und andere Ausstellungen waren der Offentlichkeit zuganglich und haben auch mehrere tau se nd Leute angezogen Mit dem Kongres s ist somit e in umfa ssen de Bi l d der Hohlenforschung verrnitte l t worden. Und sc hJie ss lich die hoffentlich dauerhafte s te Kon seq uenz : das Schweizerische lnstitut fiir Spe l iiologie und Karstforschung wel ches demniich s t in den Hohen des Kantons Neuenburg e nt s teh en soil. Falls diese Unterfangen ge l ingt, kann da s Speliiologische In s titut als direkte Falge des Kongre e angesehen werden, welcher die moglichen Wege zu
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    Reno Berna corn Contacts avec l U l.S. & les administrations Kontakte zur UIS und Administration Claire-Lise Bullot Tre orerie Kase Pierre Cattin Financement Finanzierung Bernard Dudan Presidence du Comite Pra ident Comite d'organisation Organisationskomitee Marc Boillat Programme d'animation Veranstaltungen Michel Bovey Support technique Techni che Unter s tlitzun g Contact speleo Kontakte mit Hohlenforschern Pierre-Yve Programme scientilique Wissen chaftliches Programm 132 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Sybille Kilchmann Coordination du s taff Staff Koordination Olivier Maire Camp s s p e l eo l og iqu es Sp e l ao l og i c h e L age r Jean-Jacques Mierez Or g ani ation lo c al e L o k a l e Or ga ni sa ti o n Urs Widmer coo rdinati o n Koordin a tion Comite d'organisation Organisationskomitee Jean-Claude Lalou Secr e tarial ge n e ral Gen e ral se krelariat Prisca Mariotta T ra du c ti o n s Obe r se t z un ge n Eric Ti s sot S e r v i ce d e p res e Pr esse Guy Ventouillac S pe l e m e di a Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzer l and Volume 6 133

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    Speaks of opening ceremony Discours de la ceremonie d ouverture Geo r ges J ea nbourquin Vice -pr es id e nt du C on se il c ommun a l d e l a V ill e de L a C h a u x -d e F ond s Monsieur le Conseiller d'Etat, Monsieur le President de l'Union internationale de spe l eo l ogie, Monsieur l e President de l a ociete suisse de speleologie, Me dame Mes ieurs, c h ers amis de la l ampe frontale C'est tout natureUement avec un plaisir particu l ier que nous vous apportons l e alut de Autorites de l a Ville et l eurs meilleurs messages a occasion de cette ceremo ni e d'ouver ture du 12 < Congres international de speleologie. Notre cite est tres sensib l e a l 'honneur qui lui est fait d 'av oir ete choi ie comme it e du congres, apres toute une erie de vi ll e prestigieuses. Nous en sommes particulierement reconnaissants au co mited'organi ation, ainsi qu 'a l Union internationale de spe leologie. Nous savons que vous vo u s passionnez pour I 'exp l ora tion l a decouverte et l 'e tude des sites de profondeur, mai permettez-nous de faire une re connaissance de s urf ace en vou dormant quelques-unes des caracteristiques de notre ville et de cette reg ion. La Chaux-de-Fonds, qui se trouve implantee sur un site karstique, est situee a I 000 m, raison pour laquelle c' est une de dernieres villes de Suisse a avoir vu le jour. A l 'a ttention de no amis fran~ais nous releveron s que la localite a ete erigee en mairie par un acte signe a Rouen, par le Due Henri II de Longueville en 1656. Pour nos am is allemand nou releveron s que ce canton fut Principaute prussienne a partir de 1707 et jusqu 'en 1 848. C'est done dire que nous avons eu des li ens institution nets avec I Europe avant d 'et r e Suisses. Nous so ulignon egalement qu il existe ici un esprit d'ouverture sur l'ex terieur qui a trouve sa confirmation par le vote ur I 'E urope ou plus de 80% des electrices et elec teurs ont marque leur approbation a cet effacement des fron tieres. Sur le plan economique, I 'e l ement determinant du d eve loppement de La Chaux-de-Fonds est l indu s trie horlog e re qui re te l 'ac tivite a la fois la plus importante et l a plu s pre tigieu e et qui a rendu celebre cette vii le dan le monde en tier. Les montres produites ici sont paimi le s plus belles tech niquement l es plus evol u ees o u l es plu s compliquees et com mercialisees par le s marque l es plus connues. Nou s citerons Gi.rard-Perregaux, qui a apporte son app ui ace congres, et n'oublierons pas des maisons comme Corum, Ebel, Car tier ou Chanel, pour n e donner que quelques exemp l es. Avec pres de 40 000 habitants, cette cite abr it e de nom breuses in stitutions cu ltur e l l es, des musees dont nous recom mandons a chacun la visite, en in sistant tout particulierement s ur l e Musee international d'horlogerie qui se lon l 'ex pr e sion consacree par l es guides va ut a lui seul le voyage La spe l eologie est un e activite a facettes multiple s, qui concerne plusieurs disciplines scientifiques, de l a geo l ogie a l a biologie, en passant par l a c himi e. C'e t au si une forme de port, un e maniere de partir a I aventure. Mais je crois s urtout et c'est ( impression que j 'e n conserve personnellement pour m 'y etre adonne pendant quelques annees comme beaucoup de gens de cette region que c'est un e maniere de se creer des amities durable s et de vivre des moments inoubliables entre ami dans une am biance sai n e. Un travail considerab l e a ete effectue par le Comite d'or ganisation, appuye de nombreux benevole s. Nous tenons a exprimer notre gratitude et notre reconnaissance a toute s le s personnes qui se sont engagee a toute s l es institutions et entrepr i ses qui ont so utenu ce congres. Nous formons nos vreux l es meilleurs pour une pleine reussite de I 'e nsemble de ces mani festations, dont la riche sse et la diversite nous semb l ent exceptionne ll es. Nous so mmes done persuade s que l es congressistes con se rveront de leur pa ssage a La Chaux-de-Fonds et dans sa region un souvenir durable et lumin eux. Welcome to all Eng li s h speaking participants. We are very happy to have you with u s at L a Chaux-de Fonds a nd hope that everything will run moothl y and up to your expectations, especia ll y the quality of the events organized. The congress'sguide wi ll give you all the n ecessa r y in fonnation on our town. We h ope you w ill keep a good m e mory of your stay w ith us. Have a nice time 134 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    F r a nci s Ma tth ey V i ce -pr es id e n t du Co n se il d 'Etat du ca nt o n d e Ne u c h a tel Mon i e ur l e pr es id e nt d e l Union int e rn a tion a l e d e s p e l eo lo g i e Mon s i e ur l e r e pr ese ntant d e l a Conf e d e ration Mon s i e ur l e pr es id e nt d e l a vill e d e L a Chau x -d e -Fond s, M es d a m es e t M e s i e ur s le s or g ani sa t e ur du 1 2e Con g r es int e rn a tion a l de s p e l eo lo g i e M es d a m es, M ess i e ur s, Au nom du go uv e m e m e nt d e la R e publiqu e e t c anton d e e u c h a t e l c 'e t avec h o nn e ur e t a miti e qu e j e vou ouh a it e a t o u un e tr es c ordial e e t c haleur e u e bi e n ve nu e dan s ce p ays W e l c om e t o a ll o f y ou L a di e a nd G e ntl e m e n a nd fir s t of a ll to o ur d ea r fri e nd a nd e nthu i a t s o f s p e l eo lo gy. Thank s a l o t for c omin g her e t o L a Ch a ux d eFond s, in th e C a nton of N e u c h a t e l on e of th e 2 6 fe d e ral Stat es of S w it ze rl a nd b e in g s m a ll o f s i ze h oweve r w ith g r ea t a uton o m y. M e r c i a vo u s tou s d 'av oir r e pondu a ) invit a tion d es or ga ni sa t e ur s du C o n gres e t d e I Uni o n int e rnational e d e s p e l eo l og i e. M e r c i a vo u s d e r e joindr e e t d ec ou v rir ce tt e v iU e e t ce tt e r eg i o n o u 'a m o ur d e l a n a tur e 'acco mp ag n e pour b ea u c oup d e l a p as ion e t d e l int e r e t p o ur l a s p e l e olo g i e. II a d aill e ur s fa llu ce t amour c e tt e pa ss ion e t c e t int e r e t p o ur a voir ) initi a ti ve, l e c oura ge e t l a vo l o nt e d or g ani se r i c i ce co n g r e d 'y assoc i e r d a utr es r eg i o n s e t d e pr e par e r d 'a u s i va s t e e t int e n s e ac tivit e exc ur i o n c amp s e t sy m po s ium s. M e r c i a B e rn ar d Dudan pr es id e nt du Comjt e d or ga ni a ti o n M e r c i a M. J ea n Jacqu e Mi e r ez, c h ev ill e ou v ri e r e d e ce c on g r e Yotr e m a ni fes t a tion t e moi g ne a v ec ec lat de la riche sse d e face tt es d e l a s p e l e olo g i e que c e s oit s ur l e pl a n s cienti fi qu e, t ec hniqu e, s portif e nvironn e m e nt a l e t a rti s tiqu e J' y a jout e r a i s au i ce dim e n ion s e t c e b es oin tout au ss i e se nti e l s a I homm e qu e s ont I aventur e, l a beaut e, la ma g i e e t l e r e v e C e n 'es t p e ut -e tr e pa un h a ard qu e ce c on g r es e r ea li se i c i dan s ce c anton d e N e u c h a t e l e t d a n s ce tt e vill e d e l a Ch a u x -de-Fond i l on aitqu e la s p e l e olo g i e r e clam e deu x qu a lit es esse nti e ll es : I 'e prit de pionni e r e t d e d e couvert e ain s i qu e l a c on c i e n ce du t e mp s e t d e l a dur ee. E t ce s ont bi e n d e pionnier s, d e d e fri c heur s qui ont c on s truit ce h a ut p ays, c omm e, a u bord du l ac d e N e u c h a t e l 'es t d e v e lopp ee e n p a rti c uli e r l a c ivili sa ti o n d e l a T e n e. D e pionnjer qui au fi l d es ge n e ration s ont fa it d e l a me s ur e du t e mp s, d e l horlo ge ri e e t a u j ourd hui d e l a rni c roe l ec tr o niqu e, I 'ac tivit e prin c ipal e d e ce ca nt o n L e ge otop e n e u c h a t e loi qu e d 'a utr e o nt qualifi e avec un e point e d e c h a uvini me d e it e biolo g iqu e uniqu e e n Europ e>>, avec ses g ouffr es, ses g rott es, se dolin es, ses cl u ses, ses l a pi az, es t co l o ni se c omm e vou s l e savez par d e n o m br e u x a nim a u x : i n ec t es, c ru s t ace ve r a ra c hnid es e t mill ep a tt e not a mm e nt. C 'e t don e avec un e l eg itim e fi e rt e e t r ec onn a i ssa n ce e n ve r s l e r es p o n sa bl e d e I Union int e rn a ti o n a l e d e s p e l eo l og i e, qu e I 'o n sa itqu 'e n no mont ag n e e d e pl ace cesjo ur un e foul e d e pa ionn e et d e sc i e ntifiqu es a fin d 'e tudi e r tro g lox e n es tro g lophil e t tro g lobi es L a di e a nd G e ntl e m e n lik e th e ro c k so lid and p e r seve rin g p e opl e from th e mount a in s, y ou are f amili ar w ith gr ea tn ess a nd b ea uty o f n a tur e, y ou m eas ur e a nd ex p e ri e n ce th e e fanta s tic fe ature s throu g h natur e's li v e and chan g e durin g milli o n s of y e ar s Throu g h y our p e l e olo gy ac ti v iti es, yo u a ppr e ci a t e, a d mir e, lov e what m a n h as so m e tim es thr ea t e n e d or eve n demo l i s h e d by l a ck of car e fuln ess, for es i g ht a nd c on sc iou n ess. For the se re as on s, w e badl y n ee d y our v i g ilan ce, y our c urio s ity and your knowl e d ge to ass ur e th e r e p e ct of n a tur e a nd particularl y of th a t part of th e univ e r se th e time and y e ar s hav e g iv e n u s C' es t d a n s ces e ntim e nt s d e g ratitud e qu au nom du Con s eil d Etat n e u c h a t e loi j e ti e n s a form e r m es vre u x J es m e ill e ur s pour ce 1 2 Con g r es int e rnational d e s p e l eo l o g i e de La Chau x -d eFond s Je form e au ss i l e vo e u qu e ce tt e manife s t a tion s oit e ncor e la r e n c ontr e d e I a miti e. Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 1 3 5

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    Manfred Spreafico Directeur a.i. du Ser v ice h y drologique et geologique national M es d a m es e t M ess i e ur s, c h e r s Coll eg u es, J' a i I honn e ur e t l e pl a i s ir d e vo u s tran s m e ttr e l es sa lut ti o n s d e M a dam e Ruth Dr e ifu ss, C o n se ill e r e f e d era l e, Ch effe du D e part e m e nt fe d e ral d e I int er i e u r. C' es t avec joi e e t in t e r e t qu e M a d a m e Dr e ifu ss a acce pt e, ii y a un e a nn ee, d e pr es id e r l e C o mit e d h o nn e ur d e ce Co n g r es. M a lh e ur e u se m e nt ii n e lui a p as e t e po ibl e d 'e tr e pr ese nt e i c i a ujourd hui e t d e v ou s a dr esse r p e r onn e ll e m e nt un m es sage. Ell e m a ce p e ndant pri e d e vou s t ra n s m e ttr e ses m e ill e ur s v re u x e t d e v ou s ass ur e r qu 'e ll e so uh a it e a c h ac un o r ga ni a t e ur s e t parti c ipant s, qu e cet t e m a ni fes t a tion s oil un e co mpl e t e r e u s it e. L a di es an d ge ntl e m e n d e ar co ll eag u es, I h ave th e h o n o r t o t ra n s mit yo u b es t r ega rd s fr om Min i s t e r Mr s Ru t h Dr e ifu h ea d of th e Fe d era l D e p ar tm e nt of t h e Int e ri o r. L as t year, h e ag r ee d w ith g r ea t pl eas ur e t o take th e c h ai r of th e Co mmitt ee of h o n or of thi s co n gress. U n fo t un a t e l y, s h e i s pr eve nt e d fro m b e in g a m o n g u s t o d ay a nd th e r efo r e s h e ca nn o t g i ve a p e r so n a l pr e e nt at i o n But s h e kindl y as k e d m e t o fo r wa rd h e r b es t w i s h es t o yo u and s h e h o p es for a s u ccess ful o ut c om e o f th e co nf e r e n ce. E n t a nt qu e dir ec t e ur du S e r v i ce h y dr o l og iqu e e t geo l g i q u e n a ti o n a l j e r e m e r c i e l e o r ga ni sa t e ur s d e n o u avo ir in vite a co n t ribu er a I 'o r ga ni sa ti o n d u Co n g r es. P arm i l e tac h es de n o ir e S e r v i ce, qui r e pr e e nt e l e ce ntr e de co mp te n ce d e l a Co n fe d era ti o n d a n s l es d o m ai n es d e l h y d ro l og i e et d e l a geo l og i e, ii co n vie n t d e m e nti o nn e r p a r exe mpl e : J es r e l eves h ydro l og i q u es e t geo l og i q u e d int e r e t n at i n a l n o t a mm e nt p o ur l es b eso in s d e l a p ro t ec ti o n d e l 'e n v i ro nn e m e nt d e l a gest i o n d es ea u x, d es ac ti v it es publiqu es d e pl a nifi ca ti o n e t d e co n s tru c ti o n d e l a r ec h e r c h e sc i e ntifi que e t de ( in fo rm a ti o n du publi c; 'e n co u rage m e nt d e l a co ll a b ora ti o n e n tre l es mili e u x i n teresses a I h y d ro l og i e et a l a geo l og i e e n S u isse e t a I 'et r a n ger e t I i n fo rm a ti o n d u publi c s ur J es co n d i tio n s h y d ro l og iqu es e t geo l og iqu es du p ays, l a mi se a di s p os iti o n d e r e n se i gne m e nt s e t l a publi ca ti o n d e t rava u x t ec hni q u es et sc i e n t i fi q u e P o ur l 'acco mpli sse m e nt d e ces t ac h es, n o u s so mm es v i ve m e nt int e r esses p a r l es tr ava u x d e ca r ac t e r e multidi sc iplin a ir e d es s p e l eo l og u es. L es o b se r va ti o n s r ea l iees p a r ce u x-c i d ans l es d o m a in es de I h y d ro l og i e, d e l a geo l og i e, d e l a bi o l og i e e t d e l 'a r c h eo l og i e r e pr ese nt e nt un e co mp osa n te imp o rt a nt e de l a co nn a i ssa n ce du so u s so l a l ec h e ll e n a ti o n ale P arsa co ntri b uti o n a l e tud e e t a l a p ro t ec ti o n d es b i o t opes cave rni co l es e t des si t es ka r s tiqu es, l a s p e l e olo g i e jou e un r o l e important dan s l e d o m a in e d e l a prot ec tion d e 1 'e n v ironn e m e nt e t du p aysage. C a v e m es e t ph e nom e n e k a r s tiqu es s ont d es m a ni fes t t i o n s d e l a n a tur e qui e n plu s d e l int e r e t c i e ntifiqu e qu il s pr ese nt e nt s ont d es e l e m e nt s int e r essa nt s du p aysage e n m e m e t e mp s qu e d es geo t o p es a co n se r ve r p o ur l a p os t er it e ll s doiv e nt don e e tr e pr ese rv es d es influ e n ces s u sce ptibl es d a lter e r l e ur ub tan ce, l e ur s tru c tur e, l e ur fo rm e ou e n co r e l e ur e volution n a tur e ll e a v e nir L es s p e l eo lo g u es so nt a m e m e d e fo urnir un e a id e esse nti e ll e a l a co n se r va ti o n d e t e l s geo t o p es ll s p e u ve nt t o ut p a rti c uli e r e m e nt co n tr ibu e r a ce qu e e n plu s d e l int e r e t qu e J es sc i e nti fi qu es p o rt e nt d eja a l 'e ntr e ti e n d es geo t o p es, l int ere t plu s ge n e r a l du gran d pu bli c so it ega l e m e nt d e plu s e n plu o u ve nt o ri e nt e d a n s ce tt e dir ec ti o n l a Cave rn s a nd kars ti c ph e n o m e n a are, n o t o nl y in a sc i e n tifi c way, important e l e m e nt s of o u r l a nd sca p e. Th ey s h o uld th e r e for e b e pr ese r ve d as ge ot o p es fo r futur e ge n e rati o n s. Th ey are t o b e pr eve nt e d fr om an y influ e n ces, w hi c h co uld a ff ec t th e ir s ub s tan ce, s tru c tur e, h a p e a nd n a tu ra l d eve l o p m e nt. In thi s se n se spe l eo l og i s t s a r e imp o rtant co ntribut o r s t o geo t o p e prot ec ti o n B es id e th e sc i e ntifi c in te r es t in th ese ph e n o m e n a, th ey m ay h e lp t o build up a b roa d publi c in te r est fo r geo t o p e p ro t ect i o n M es d a m es e t M ess i e ur p e rm e tt ez -m o i d ajo ut er un e r e m ar qu e p e r so nn e ll e. Not r e S e r v i ce pr esen t e da n s l e cadre de ce Co n g r e un e ex p os iti o n s ur l e th e m e L a t e rr e et I ea u t r eso r s d e n o tr e e n v ironn e m e nt a u G y mn ase d e L a C h a u xd e-Fo nd L ex p os iti o n ra pp e ll e a qu e l s utili sa t e ur s s ad r esse nt l es d o nn ees h y drol og iqu es e t geo l og iqu es; e l le d o nn e d es in fo rm a ti o n s s ur l es va ri a ti o n s d e I eco ul e m e n t, J es o b se r va ti o n s e t m es ur e r ea li ee s ur J es ea u x e t l e ro c h es l e cy cl e d e I 'ea u l a di ff u s i o n d e p o llu a nt s d a n s J es co ur s d ea u l' a l a m1 e e n cas d e c ru e, J es e t a p e de l a fo rm ti o n des A lp es e t l a pr eve nti o n d es d a n ge r n at u re l s. L 'ex p s iti o n q ui co u vre l arge m e nt l es d o m a in es d i n t eret d es spe l eo l og u es, es t o u ve rt ej u s qu 'a u 1 7 ao ut. J e vo u s so uh a it e, M es d a m es e t M ess i e u rs. de fr u c tu e u x de b a t s sc i e ntifiqu e e t de p a s i o nn a nt es vis it es so ut e rr a in es; je so uh a it e ega l e m e nt qu e, g r ace ace Co n gres, l a co ll a b ora ti o n int e rn a ti o n a l e se r e n fo r ce e t se p o ur s ui ve avec l e s u cces qu 'e ll e m e rit e. I w i s h yo u fruitful sc i e ntifi c di sc u s i o n s, int e r es tin g ex c ur s i o n s t o th e und ergro und a n d a s u ccess ful co ntinu a ti o n of int e rn a ti o n al coo p era ti o n in s p e l eo l og i c sc i e n ce. 136 Proc e ed i ng s of t he 1 2 th International Cong r e ss of Sp e leology 1 99 7 Sw i tzerland Vol u m e 6

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    Paolo Forti President of the U.I.S. Ladies and Gentlemen, Distinguished Guests, And, l ast but not l east, Cavers, It s a great pleasure for me to speak in this opening Cerimony of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology on behalf of the International U.I.S. In reality I must admit that this is not a happy day for me: a you know I am Italian and until yesterday the wide t speleological meeting was held in my Country. Today the Organising Committee and the Swiss Speleo l ogical Society stolen us this record and I think that it would be rather impossible that another Country will organise a larger reunion in the near future .... Of course it's a joke I was delighted when hearing the incredible number of atten dant In the e fir t hours of my permanence I was really im pressed by the professional quality of the Organisator of this Congress, even if I perfectly know that all of them are volunteers. I visited La Chaux-de-Fonds last year and at that time I realised that the Congress will be a success, but I failed in forecasting the level of such a success. The merit is of course of the Organising Committee, but this success will not be possible if the local, Cantonal and National Authorities did not co-operate to reach this goal. I know Swiss Speleology since 20 years or even more, and I admired its interest in workjng not only on a national or local basi but also, and perhap mainly, in an interna tional level. Swiss ho t the library of the U I.S by it settlement: thi institution as the first public library specialised in Karst in the World and it s still now one of the largest and best organised of the World. Swiss prints the most important publication of the U.I.S.: the Speleological Abstract the redaction of which is inside the Speleological Library firstly in Neuchatel and now hosted here in La Chaux-de-Fonds. At the moment to l eave Italy for this event I decided to carry with me a gift to Swiss Speleology and I searched for an ancient book to improve the patrimony of the Library People who knows me very well may testify how hard is for me to give a book, mostly if it is an ancient one, to someone e l se But I decided to make this gift to the Swiss becau e it 's a must for me to thank to Swiss Spelelology not only for this beautiful Congress but also becau e it's mostly due to it efforts in printing the Speleological Abstract a nd in act ing as the Bibliographical Centre of the U.I.S. if now Spele ology is accepted among the other older Sciences even if still in a sub-ordined position. I think that Swiss Speleology has the possibility to grow and develop its researches thus helping the who l e karst sci entific movement if tl1e Local, Cantonal and National Au thorities will support those beautiful cavers. It s time to help cavers to be definitively accepted and integrated in the cientific world and thi may be done by creating a l o here in Switzerland, an official organism l ink ing Speleology to Science Such an organism already exists in several other countries like in Italy (the Italian Institute of Speleology at the University of Bologna), in Slovenia (The Karst Research Institute of Postojna), in Romania (The Emi l Racovitza Institute of Bucarest) in China (The Karst Insti tute of Guilin) etc. The present ha to be the time for a Swiss Institute of Speleology. I want to conclude this my short talk aying that succe ss of this Congress is the be t gift I can expect for the end of my term of service as President of the U.I.S. lam rather sure that the next Presidents w ill not have the chance to receive a gift of such a level. Thank you, Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 137

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    Walter Wildi vice-president de I' Academie Suisse des Sciences Naturelles Messieur le representants de Autorites de l a Confede ration, de la Republique et Canton de Neuchatel et de la Ville de La Chaux de Fonds, Chers peleologues, Mesdame Messieurs C'est avec un grand plai ir que j'apporte aujourd'hui les vreux pour une pleine reu ite de ce 12e Congre Lnternatio nal de Speleologie de la part de I' ASSN, en remerciant les organisateur uisses et fran~ais de leurs efforts et sacrifi ce et le autorite de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds et de la Republique et Canton de Neuchatel de leur disponibilite pour accueillir cet evenement. En 1970 I Academie Suisse des Sciences Naturelles fonda la Commis ion de speleologie, chargee de la promotion des connaissance de la partie "occulte" de notre pays, et dont I 'activite complete de fa~on harmonieu e celle de la Societe Suis e de Speleologie creee en 1939. Mais quel peut bien etre I' int eret de I' ASSN pour soute nir un domaine scientifique comme l a speleo l ogie ? Pour repondre a cette que tion ii convient de rappeler quelques vocations et fonctions essentielles de I' Academie, qui offre une plate-forme et un lieu de rencontre aux scienti fiques de ce pay quel que soit leur domaine d'activite pro fe sionnel, s'efforce de promouvoir l a connaissance scientifiq u e dans le public, elabore et publie des bases scientifiques du patrimoine nature! de notre pay L Academie favorise particulierement I' interdisciplinarite en ciences. Or, c'e t sur ce point que la speleo l ogie joue un role particulier en focali ant des interets proche des sciences de la Terre, de I archeo l ogie et de la biologie, notam ment. Vu par un geologue, l es cavites souterraines offrent des possibilites d'observation extraordinaires: Elles permettent de retracer I 'histoire de la Terre pour les periodes d emer ion et les reliefs terrestres, depourvus de depots de ba in edimentaire Les conditions sont parti cu li erement intere santes pour I 'etude de la neotectonique, de l'histoire climatique et des changements en cours. Elles permettent I' observation et favorisent la compre hen ion de la circulation souterraine de l 'eau et joueront dans l'avenir un role croissant dan le domaine du stockage de materiaux et de Ja geologie appliquee en general. Elles offrent enfin des habitat particuliers, situes a in terface entre bio phere et lithosphere que I on ne pourrait etudier ailleurs dan des conditions au i favorables La beaute des grottes et esprit d exploration sportive d'un e pace inconnu constituaient dans le pa se, et consti tuent toujours le attrait l es plus fort de la speleologie. Le potentiel de recherche et d'innovation est neanmoins grand et je suis en consequence co n vaincu que la science appor tera dans les annee a venir sa contribution a la promotion de no connais ance de espace souterrains. C'est dan cet e poir que je ouhaite a tous le peleologues ici pre ent non seu l emenl beaucoup de plaisir, mais aussi un grand en ri chisse m ent de leurs connaissances au cours de ce congres. 138 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Maurice A udetat Pr es ident d honn e ur de la S .S. S M embre d honneur du Bureau de l' U. I. S M es d a m e M ess i e ur s, Ch ers Confr e r es e n Sp e l eo l o g i e, P e rm e tt ez -moi un di c our s parti s an Mon int e ntion es t e n e ff e t d e d e montr e r qu e N e u c h a t e l es t un fo ye r important d e l a p e l eo l ogie ui sse e t int e rnati o n a l e 11 n 'es t p as b es oin d e r e mont e r a l h o mm e pr e hi s toriqu e p o ur co mpr e ndr e p o urquoi l e c ant o n d e e u c h a t e l es t d ve nu l un d es h a ut s li e u x d e l a s p e l eo l og i e: e n t e rr e n e u c h a t e l o i e, e n Sui sse e t a u se in d e I 'U ni o n lnt e rnational e d e Sp e l e olo g i e. L int e r e t port e a l a s p e l eo l og i e par l es e u c h a t e l o i es t l'un e d es r a i s on pour l es qu e ll es l e C o n g r es mondi a l s' ouvr e a ujou r d hui a L a Ch a u xd e -Fond s. Mon pr o p os n es t p a d 'e num ere r t o u l es h o mm es d e sc i e n ce e t l e n a turali s t es qui d e pui s d e tr es nombr e u ses a nn ee e t m e m e qu e lqu e s i e cl es o nt ex p l o r e e t e tudi e d e n o mbr e u ses ca vit e n a tureU es du ca nton d e N e uch a t e l. J e tie n s se ul e m e nt a r a pp e l e r l a m e moir e d e qu e lqu es di s paru s e t a c it e r qu e l qu e ac tif s ori g in a ir es d e ce canton q u i ont co ntribu e a u d eve l o pp e m e nt d e l a p e l eo l og i e, lo c al e m e nt o u plu s l ar ge m e nt. J ean S c hn o rr v i va it a L a Ch a u xd e-Fo nd dan s J es an n ees tr e nt e. II e t a it g ra ve ur d a n s I h o rl oge ri e, m e ti e r qui a di p a ru avec l a gra nd e c ri se h o rl oge r e A mi d e l a n a tur e, ii p art i c ip e avec E d o u ar d Gru e t d a n s l e ca dr e du C lu b Jur asie n Ne u c h a t e l o i s a l 'ac ti v it e d un G ro up e d e tud es arc h eo l og iqu es. D a n s ce ca dr e, J e an S c hn o rr se d eco u v r e un e p as s i on p o ur l' e tud e et I 'ex pl o rati o n d es gro tt es l a Sp e l eo l g i e qui co mm e n ~a i t a se d eve l o pp e r e n E urop e C h o m e ur v i van t d e fa~o n extre m e m e nt m o d e t e, J ea n S c hn o rr ex pl o r e de n o mbr e u es gro tt es du ca nt o n. So u ve n t e ul d e muni d e mate ri e l et s'eclairant a l a b o u g i e i i exec ut e a a id e d un e bo u sso l e d es pl a n s d e cav it e d un e r e m ar qu a bl e pr ec i i o n II reve d 'e t a bli r un ca t a l og u e d es cav i te du ca n to n e t ii e n e t ab lit J es pr e mi e r es b ases s ur d es fic h es m a nu sc rit es. E n 1 938 l o r s d e n ot r e p r e mi e r e r e n co ntr e, n o u s d eve n o n s d e s ui te a mi s et d eci d o n d e r ea li se r e n e mbl e ce tr ava il. H e l a l a g u erre s u rv i e nt : J ea n es t m o bili e d a n un ca mp d e tr va il et a san t e frag il e n e cesse d e s a l te r er. A pr es l a g u e rr e ii devra r e n o n ce r a p ra tiqu e r l a s p e l eo l og i e m a i co ntinu era as'yi nt e r e erj u s qu a a m o rt e n 1 953 D e l o r s,je m e ui s p ro mi s d e co ntinu e r so n re u v r e En s ui te d 'a utr es c arnarad es ont p e rm i s de co ntinu e r cette ac tivit e etj 'a im e rai s r e ndr e hornm age : AVi ll y A e ll e n un d es compagnon s du d e but q u i d ev i e n dr a C o n s erv a t e urdu Mu see d Hi toir e n a tur e il e d e L a Ch a u x d eFond s p u i s dir e ct e ur du Mu se um d e G e n eve. A Pierr e Gir a rd : un so lid e e t fid e l e co mp agno n d 'ex pl ration A J e an Pi e rr e Trip e t d e v e n u h y dro geo l og u e a N e u c h t e l avec qui n o u s av on s pu c o n s titu e r la Commi s i o n sc i e n tifiq u e de l a So c i e t e Sui sse d e Sp e l eo lo g i e. J e an-Pi e rr e es t au ss i a l ori g in e d e l a fo nd a tion d e la Cornmi i on d e Sp l e o l o g i e d e I Ac a d e mi e Sui sse d es S c i e n ces N a tur e ll e Au Pro fesse ur Andr e Bur ge r an c i e n dir ec t e ur du C e n tre d H y dro g eolo g i e d e l 'U ni ve r s it e d e N e u c h a t e l e t a ses co l l a bor a t e ur s. Aupr e d 'e u x, nou s av on s durant d e n o mbr e u ses ann ees trouv e un appui sc i e ntifiqu e e t un e co ll a b o rati o n efficace, d o ubl es d un e g rand e a miti e A P i e rr e C a ttin dir ec teur d es St age d e l a S oc i e t e Su isse d e Sp e l eo l og i e, qui se o nt d e roul es a M o ti e r s, dan s l e ca n t o n d e Ne u c h a t e l durant u n e di za in e d ann e e s. J'a im era i s e nfin r e ndr e un h o mm age t o ut p a rti c uli e r a m o n a mi R ay m o nd Gi g on trop t o t di s p ar u avec qui n o u avo n p a rt age l es m o m e nt s diffi c il es du d e but. J' a im e a m e ra pp e l e r l es sea n ce d e tr a v a i l d a n s un c h a l e t du C lub Ju ras s i e n : R ay m o nd ve n a it d e L a C h a u x -d e-Fo n ds a ve t o sa m ac hin e a ec rir e un lu xe a l 'e p o qu e s ur l e p o r teb aga ge Seance a u ssi d ans sa cl asse g l ac i ale d e I eco l e d es P t it sP o nt s. R ay m o n d a co ll a b o r e ac ti ve m e nt a u x d e but s d u ca t alog u e d es cavites du ca nt o n d e Ne u c h a t e l ava n t d e po u vo i r e n v i sage r l a publi ca ti o n d e I in ve n ta ir e qu i p o rt e o n n o m II a r e ndu a l a p e l eo l og i e un serv i ce in est im ab l e en ge ran t et e n d eve l o pp an t l a Bibli o th eq u e de l a Soc i e t e Sui sse d e Sp e l eo l og i e, a qui o n a ra pid e m e nt reco nnu u n e va l e u r m o ndi a l e D un n at ur e timid e e t m odes t e, R ay m o n d p a s sai t m e m e pai fo i s in a p e r ~ u P e nd an t d es annees, n o u s avo n s s ui vi e n se mbl e evo luti o n d e l a s p e l eo l og i e a u co ur s d inn om b ra bl es r e n co nt res de pui s J es ave ntur e u es ex pl ora ti o n s du d e but ju s qu a u x rece n t Co n g r es. E n s u ite, R ay m o nd jo u e un r o l e d a n s l 'act i v it e de I 'U ni o n Int e rn a t io n a l e a u se in de P r o cee d in g s o f t h e 1 2 '" Int ern at i onal C ongres s o f Sp e l e ology 19 97, Sw i t ze r la n d Vol ume 6 139

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    la Commission de Bibliographie ou, avec Reno Bernasconi, ii contribue au developpement du Bulletin Bibliographique (Speleological Abstracts). Membre d honneur de la Societe Suisse de Speleologie, son depart si brusque a laisse un grand vide. Toutefois, la vie doit continuer et, grace a des collegues devoues, la releve a lieu. Les speleologues neuchatelois pour suivent leur role dans la speleologie suisse et internationale : votre serviteur presidera la Societe Suisse pendant 9 ans avant de devenir secretaire adjoint et vice-president de Union lnternationale. Quelques annees plus tard c'est mon arni Bernard Dudan qui presidera la Societe Suisse apres en avoir ete le vice-president. Jean-Jacques Miserez deviendra presi dent de la Commission scientifique et, plus tard Pierre-Yves Jeannin de l 'U niversite de Neuchatel lui succedera. Voici resumee la contribution de quelques Neuchatelois remarqua bles, ans oublier les nombreux collegues devoues qui con sacrent beaucoup d 'e nergie a I 'animation de la Societe Suisse de Speleologie et sont aussi Jes artisans de ce Congres. J'aimerais conclure en rendant un hommage particulier au Professeur Hubert Trimmel de Vienne : secretaire general de I 'U nion de s sa fondation et ensuite pre s ident ii a Fait preuve d une fidelite remarquable et d un tres grand devoue ment pendant pres de trente ans au service de la speleologie internationale. Si je ne me trompe pas Hubert Tr i mmel doit etre le seul congressiste a avoir participe aux douze congres internationaux. Enfin, c'est au grand absent de ce Congres que j'aime rais adresser une pensee emue : a notre arni le professeur Bernard Geze geologue et speleologue, decede en decem bre dernier. Bernard Geze ancien compagnon de Robert de Joly l'un d es fondateurs de la Federation Fran~aise de Spe leologie, president fondateur de I 'Union Internationale de Speleologie et pre s ident d'honneur depuis 1973. Nou s aurions aime le voir panni nous aujourd'hui, d 'a utant plu s qu il est a l'origine de ces congres internationaux et qu il a toujours reuvre pour qu ils deviennent accessibles a tou s. Aujourd hui, grace a cette cha1ne d 'ac tions et d'hommes passionnes, nous avons le plaisir de voir s'ouvrir un Con gres mondial de Speleologie en ten-e neuchateloise Merci a tou et Vive le Congres International de Speleologie 140 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland Volume 6

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    List of Participants Listes des participants Organizers of the Congress are identified by on *. Countries are Ii ted with the following international abreviations : Les organisateurs du congres onl identifies par un *. Le s pay s sont donne s par leur abreviation internationale se lon la Ii te suivante : AF Afghani tan CN China (People's Rep ) GI Gibraltar AL Albania ex Chri s tma s I s land GB Great Britain DZ Algeria cc Cocos (Keeling) I s lands GR Greece AD Andorra co Colombia GL Greenland AO Angola KM Comoros GD Grenada AI Anguilla CG Congo (Rep) GP Guadeloupe AG Antigua and Barbuda CK Cook I land s GU Guam AR Argentina CR Co s ta Rica GT Guatemala AM Annenia Cl Cote d Ivoire ( Rep) GB Guern ey AW Aruba HR Croatia GN Guinea SH A cension CU Cuba GW Guinea-Bi ssa u AU Australia CY Cypru s GY Guyana AT Au tria CS Czech and Slovak Fed Rep HT Haiti AZ Azerbaijan cz Czech Rep H Hondura ( Rep ) BS Bahama KP Dern People 's Rep of Korea HK Hong Kong BH Bahrain DK Denmark HU Hungary (Rep) BO Bangladesh DJ Djibouti IS Iceland BB Barbado OM Dominica IN India BY Belaru DO Dominican Rep ID Indone s ia BE Belgium Eat Timor IR lran (Islamic Rep) BZ Belize EC Ecuador IQ Iraq BJ Benin EG Egypt IE Ireland BM Bennuda SY El Salvador GB I s le of Man BT Bhutan GQ Equatorial Guinea IL Israel BO Bolivia ER Eritrea IT Italy BA Bo nia and Herzegovina EE E tonia JM Jamaica BW Bot wana ET Ethiopia JP Japan BR Brazil FK Falkland I s land (Malvinas) GB Jersey B Brunei Daru alam FO Faroe I s lands JO Jordan BG Bul ga ria (Rep) FJ Fiji KZ Kazakh s tan BF Burkina Faso FI Finland KE Kenya BI Burundi FR France Kl Kiribati KH Cambodia GF French Guiana KR Korea (Rep) CM Cameroon PF French Polynesia KW Kuwait CA Canada GA Gabon KG Kyrgyz s tan CV Cape Verde GM Gambia LA Lao People 's Dern Rep KY Cayman I land GE Georgia LY Latvia CF Central African Rep DO German Dern Rep LB Lebanon TD Chad DE Gennany LS Le so tho CL Chile GH Ghana LR Liberia Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 141

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    LY Libyan Jamahiriya PA Panama (Rep) SY Syrian Arab Rep LI Liechtenstein PG Papua New Guinea TJ Tajikistan LT Lithuania PY Paraguay TZ Tanzania (United Rep) LU Luxembourg PE Peru TH Thailand MO Macao PH Philippines MK the Fornier Yugoslav Republic MG Madagascar PN Pitcairn Islands of Macedonia MW Malawi PL Poland (Rep) TG Togo MY Malaysia PT Portugal TK Tokelau MV Maldives PR Puerto Rico TO Tonga ML Mali QA Qatar TI Trinidad and Tobago MT Malta RE Reunion SH Tristan da Cunha MH Marshall Islands RO Romania TN Tunisia MQ Martinique RU Russian Federation TR Turkey MR Mauritania RW Rwanda TM Turkmenistan MU Mauritius KN Saint Christopher (St. Kitts) TC Turks and Caicos Islands MX Mexico and Nevis TV Tuvalu FM Micronesia (Federated States) LC Saint Lucia UG Uganda MD Moldova vc Saint Vincent and the GrenadiUA Ukraine MC Monaco nes SU Union of Soviet Socialist MN Mongolia AS Samoa Republics MS Montserrat SM San Marino AE United Arab Emirates MA Morocco ST Sao Tome and Principe us United State of America MZ Mozambique SA Saudi Arabia UY Uruguay MM Myanmar SN Senegal uz Uzbekistan NA Namibia SC Seychelles vu Vanuatu NR Nauru SL Sierra Leone VA Vatican NP Nepal SG Singapore VE Venezuela NL Netherlands SK Slovakia VN Viet Nam AN Netherlands Antilles SI Slovenia VG Virgin Islands NC New Caledonia SB Solomon Islands VI Virgin Islands of the United NZ New Zealand so Somalia States of America NI Nicaragua ZA South Africa WF Wallis and Futuna Islands NE Niger ES Spain WS Western Samoa NG Nigeria LK Sri Lanka YE Yemen NU Niue SH St Helena YD Yemen (People s Dem Rep) F Norfolk Island SD Sudan YU Yugoslavia NO Norway SR Suriname ZR Zaire OM Oman sz Swaziland ZM Zambia PC Pacific Islands SE Sweden zw Zimbabwe PK Pakistan CH Switzerland PW Palau 142 Proceedings of the 12 th Internationa l Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6

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    2416 8076 Abdu l -nour Hani Lebanese Universi t y Speleologie, BP 90 549 I DEIDET-EL-MET LB Abel Thekla Abele Andre -'=Konradin-Kreutze r -Str. I 5i;; 73525 SCHWA B I SCH GMO DDE Abou Jaoude Fady 8.P. 80422 Station Abou Jaoude DORA LB 1 3 I Abrial Thierry 32. Cours Gambe tt a 69007 LYO FR Abul-hab Jalil College or medicine P.O Box 14132 BAGDADIQ Adatte Patrick It';~~~_,,.,_ Pares I 15 w 2000 EUCHA TEL CH r:, g Aeberhard Peter Hint. Engehalde 56 3004 BER 1,, 1:, Arrine Daniil Podvoi kogo St. I 0/13 123317 MOSCOW RU AHMAD Sapuan EYE ,~i-,,. ational Park & Wi l dlife .ah ,.,. 93660 KU R C HI NG I SARAWAK MY Alarcon A l onso Paseo de la Estacio n 90 Se LA RO D A ES 2646 80-14 A l brec ht Wal t er Rosenstrasse 6 72135 DETTENHAUSE DE Albukrek Metin Maya Sit 4 / 3 Etiler 80600 I STA BUL TR A I fonso Carabeo Jose Escuela De E peleo l ogia EL MO CADA-Y I NALES P. DEL R I O 24240 CU Allison Cara University or Bris t ol Dept. or Geography. BRISTOL 858 I SS GB A l meida Joao Pau l o Rue Alfredo Ruas n. 74 I. E. Pedemai s 2675RAMADA PT ALMEIDA SANTOS 1-,-. GE I FRA C l lH~ ARTHUR GOMES 275 18049-300 SOROCABA BR Allay Birhan ,_ 88.Sok, 4/6 A-on Giris _, Emek Mah. 1 I 06510A KA R A TR Alves-Bento Jose Rua Saraiva de Carvalho 233 1350 LISBOA PT Amdouni ico l e Gen t ianes 27 s ." 2300 LA C H AUX-DE1 FO DS C H Ammari Patricia ''j =82. rue Pierre Grange ,=,. 73290 LA MOTTE ,I SE R YOLEX F R L-.. a.. ... _,, 3854 TI ERE LA Anderson David J. 1084 Cre twood Ln. BOU GBROOK I LLINO I S 60440 US Andreica Alina Bianca Str. Madach 38 3400 CLUJAPOCA RO Andrew Barry Edward I O Town Head Way SETTLE YORKSHIRE BD249RG GB Amognini Marco ,t; ,,. Madonna della Salute 10 a 6900 MASSAGNO CH Aparicio Dominique 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FO DS Archakov Alexey ; ,. Prorsousnaya I I 0-3-44 Jij. 117347 MOSCOU RU ,, Armand Dominique -:,~,U M R. 9933 i~'; Av. des Facultes i[U 33405 TA L E CE FR ;I Proce e d i ng s of th e 12 th Int e rnational Congres s of Sp e leology 1 9 9 7, Sw i t zer l an d Volum e 6 143

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    2697 3533 Arn o ux D e lphin e* I lg ,, H yg i e n e & En v ironn e m e n1 .li, s.,r 23 0 0 LA C HAUX-DEil i.! FO DS C H _, A rrud a A lian Paiv a Pq S e rr a mbi I. BI 33, Apt o 2 01 Pir a n g i 5 908 0 100 N A TAL RN BR Ase n ov Din a l ov Vi c t o r C/ S ev ill a 3 4 I 4300 1 T A RR A GONA ES A ud e t a l M a ur ice I 0 Av. de Ne u c h a t e l 1 450 S TE-C ROIX C H A ul e r A u g u t o U ni v of Bri s t o l En g l a n d D e pt. of Geog r a ph y B5 8 I SS BRISTOL BR Avve ni re F ra n cesco H yg i e n e & E n v ironn e m e nl 230 0 L A C H AU X DE FON DS C H Axe ll Phil i pp e* A xe ll Co mmuni ca ti o n 94 ru e de l a Ca l ee 6927 RESTEIG NE BE B a d ao ui Hu g h es Im ISSA E L KHO U RY SODE C O AC HRAFIEH BEYRO U TH LB B a lbi Ad r ia n a B ea tri z lr; ,_ Av. Li be n ado r 7528 I. D 1 1 429 B UE O S A IR E S A R B a l derer W e rn e r B a ll a B e l a -"'"V o l og d a ut. I 0 llJ /2 1 r; 352 5 MlSKOL C H U .I _._.._.._ , 1,1 2925 3609 B a ll e r Bri g iu e S e r v i ce d U rb a ni s m e 23 0 0 L A C HA U X DE FO N D S C H B a ll es t a S a n c h ez Fr e d e ri co C. I V a l e n c i a 45 024 5 0 RIOPAR (A LB ACE T E) ES B a llm a nn Su ra Th erw il e r s t rasse 4 3 4045 B A S E L C H B a llm e r L a ur e nt B a llm e r M ic h e lin e L es Buil es 35 2300 L A C HA UXD FO N DS C H B a lth asa n M o ni q u e Co n c h es 33 1 203 1 C O NC H E S /GENE V E C H B a n kovs ki A nt o n 4 1 Ve m a d sk i pr. 9 5 /2 11 7526 MO SC OW R U 1 1 ~111 B a nn e r y J ea n L o ui s ,:'~ 24 av. d e Bu rex-Co n age !ii 9 1 440 B U R ES F R --1:1 B a rbu V a lt e r Str J e pil o r 32 Bi a 33 9e B Ap. I 1 J u d Br asov 2200 BRASOV RO B a m1 an b ek Bu ra k G azetec il e r Sit es i B4 Bl ok D a i re 22, D e rb e nt 80884 IS TAN B U L TR 144 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    36 1 0 B arredo Sil v i a -=j:c, Ca ill a de co rr eo 232 ; Su cc ur sa l 3 ,, 14 03 B UE OS A I R E S A R B ask un B e ril Cave R es. Assoc. PK 670 Y e ni zo hir 06445 A K A R A TR 'Nill.I B auc hl e Jorg I m K riinz li scke r 3 h:aa:c 79576 W E IL AM RH E I D E B a um e R o n a l d R ue des C l os 2 2725 LE NO IRMONT C H B a u m l e r Georg ,ki;\,_ HH V L a i c hin ge n h= H a u p t str 9 1 I, 73340 AMSTETTE N D E B a u r Ge rh ard Ge i ger 2 87477 SU L Z BER G D E B eay n o F a d y B P. 3 1 M S O U RI E H E L MET LB B edosA nn e i\ei:,, I 0 3 ru e d e l a Pro v id e n ce 5 ";,3 1 500 TO U LO U SE FR :;, ., 742 B ee rli F ran 9oise \i\;, C h. d es Cyg n es 5 fff 1 007 L AU S A E C H 1:1 B e nd e r ev A l exey Geo l og i ca l In s titut Ac G. B o n c h ev S tr bl. 24 11 13SOF I A B G B e r g P a li H as li 2 6044 U DLI GEN SWIL C H B e rn abe i Tulli o V oca b o l o C hi o r a no n I 0 02046 M AG LIANO SABINA IT 502 B e rn asco ni C hri s tin e H ofw il s tr 9, P os tf ac h 3053 M O C HENB UC HSE E C H B ero n P e t ar Kiril ov 11 ,::,,,_ Mu se um of Na t. H is t ory ,,~ Bui. Ru sk i I 1 1 1 I 000 SOFLA B G ., B esan9o n J ea n l o ui s I trave r se des Mu s i c i e n s 34830 C L A Pf E R S FR B e tri sey F r e d e r ic G.S .R. Ru e d es Pl aces 1 971 C H AM PL AN C H Bi e d e rm a nn Fr ani;:o i s L a P e r c h e 20 G B 2900 PORR E NTR U Y C H Bi e ri C hri s ti a n Bu c h s tr 1 3 3203 M U HLEB E R G C H Proceed i ngs of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 145

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    2309 Bijaouane Mohamed H ygiene & Enviro nn eme nt 2300 LA C H AlJX-DE FONDS C H Biola y Dani e lle Sources 8 20 1 4 B6LECH 'NJ~I Biol ay Eric Sourc e5.8 2014 BOLE C H Bi zy ukin Andrey Sharapov skaya 2-314 2 14 2003 MITISHY RU Bland Simon =,32 Link sv iew Ave . ifflll~; LEO AY 2750 N S.W. AU i !I ,., 3628 Blandin St e phani e* ,d,~;, Le K e nn e dy 5 t'j-' 7 A ru e Xavier Marmj s l :I 25000 BESAN<;::ON FR Bl ant J ea n-D a niel Mu see Hi s t o ire Natu r elle 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FONDS C H Bl e in And r e 28, Chemin d'Eyi n s 1 260 YON CH Bl e in Deni se 28. Chemin d Eysins 1 260 YON C H Blond e ll e Philipp e* Blum Franziska J;a;,_ W e inin ge r s tr. 79 .,m,_;; 8 1 05 REGENSDORF CH Bock Matthi as Bodin J acques L a Mont Ber ge r e 1 7770 VILLARS LES BOIS FR Boe g li A lfr ed B oe hl A n ge lik a = Viktor-von Scheffel, m l\J; Stra sse 36 r' i!I 96049 BAMBERG DE I.I 146 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 B oemare D o miniqu e La Charniaz 73340 BELLECOMBE EN-BAUGES FR Bo es Claude -:;-,_ Avenue Salentiny 9 -"~; 9080 ElTELBRUCK LU :I I B ogda n ova I ris ~ ;; ,,, Q H of 6 5 =cc: 30 1 3 BER C H Boill at J ean-F ran ~o i s R osie r s 10 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FONDS CH B ois l a i g u e R oger L avo ir 7 78730 LO GVLLLIERS FR Bol a nd K e n f,~;,_ St. Francis-Church 1 =','" 326 L o n s dal e Street I :I MELBOLJRNE 3000 AU B o ln e r Takac s K ata lin ,_ K o lt o u. 2 1 a.; 11 2 1 B UDA P EST H U

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    ~Ill Bonacci Ognjen [ ~ Civi_l Engineering Fae. I r, Matice Hr vatske st. 15 \ ,:, 2 l000SPLITHR 1Wlll Bonardo Constanze La Pelleu se l ,:cc:, 2207 COFFRANE CH 1Wlll Bonardo Francy .l~filTTft 2207 COFFRANE C H 1Wlll Bonora Raffaele 11&~ Prevoux I ,1&:I 2416 LE PREVOUX CH Borra s Llabre s Catalina 1 ip;;,,_ Cl Oliver 6, 3e, I er ='=' 07014 PALMA DE ; !I MA LLORCA ES Borreguero Miguel Chapelle 7 2035 CORCELLES CH Bo s t e d Peter 230 I Sharon Rd. MENLO PARK CA 94025 us 3108 2862 Boullier icky 1 ~,-. 52 bi s. rue de .flif,.;, la Sabliere I di 75014 PARIS FR I.I Bouquet Willy La Verpillere 1 2 2113 BOVERESSE C H Bouthors Michel Route d Enval 63200 ST GENES L E FANT FR Bovay Florence Corniche 6 2400 LE LOCLE CH Bowden Norma n Sankteriksgatan I 02 3 tr 11331 STOCKHOLM SE Boycott An t ony 14 Walton Rise, W estbury on-Trym BRISTOL BS9 3EW GB Briiunig Nils 73037 GOPP ING EN DE Brody Andor Radnoti Miklo u. 4 1 1137 BUDAPEST HU Brook Carolina 35 Park s ide Rd Meanwood LEEDS LS6 4LY GB Brouquisse Frarn;:ois ~i=,,_ 210 Ecole Nonna l e ~';' Re s. Bellevue Apt. 188 1 1,I 33200 BORDEAUX FR ., Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 14 7

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    Brush John Bukuru Jean ~ = Pare 23 1 ~;I 2300 I LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH I Bulichov Anatoly ovosibirsk State Uni. Pi rogova s tr 2 630090 OVOSIBJRSK RU I ;;;~ Bullot Claire-Lise ~, g i Sur-le-Sciex Cremieres 1605 CHEXBRES CH Bullot Guy Bunnell Dav e 320 Brook Dr BOULDER CREEK '1 II CAUFORNlA 95006 us Burkhalter Daniel r--,,... .,....,"!lllllfl Butt Jeff -=j22 Clutha Pla ce li !I SOUTH HOBART 7004 AU 10 87 Buzzini Roberto Pa sse tto 12 6600 LOCARNO CH Caetano Da Noiva Paulo Rua General Trindade 1 38 2485 MIRA DE AIRE PT au~1m1 Caetano Pedro irn ::, Praceta D ou tor Moura (". Guedes 5 I D I !I 2560 TORRES VEDRAS PT Calandri Gilberto Piazza Ulisse Calvi 8 Casella Po s tale 58 18100 LMPERIA IT Calderon Ibarra Miguel R Av. Este 2 co n Sur 23 Apart 16 3 La Candelaria CARACAS D F. I0I0VE CaJford Judith Campion Gerard Cao Nanyan ational Parks Baiwanzhuang I 00835 BEIJING CN Cappa Emanuele Via Monti g lioni I 18(15 /S) 00046 GROTTAFERRATA ROME LT Cappa Giulio l t;j, :_ Via Montiglioni 118( 15/S ) 5 j': 00046 GROTTAFERRATA ,! I ROME IT 2366 2929 148 Proceedings of the 12' International Congress of Speleology, 1997 Switzerland, Volume 6 Carvalho Marcelo Av. lpiran ga 324 Bloco C 2 Andar Saopolo 01046-010 SAO PAULO BR Casellini Michel I~ :: ,; Rue du La c 25 C Ii,: ,, I 020 RENENS CH Cassou J eanPi e rr e C.E.R.M.O.S. 5 Cite L an n edarre 65100 LOURDES FR Castellani Vittorio Cattin Pierr e . ,_ 1 route de B ea umont ,;; ;;;; 1700 FRIBOURG CH Cech Brigitte Keldorferga sse 4/3/1 0 I I00WIE AT Cech Petra {i l l,, Kar s t-u Hiihlenkundl.Abt. 1 ,f,.Me sse pl. I / 10 I: A-1070 WlE AT Centro Ri cerc h e Carsiche c. Seppenhofer Via Diaz 1 3 34 l70GORLZ1A IT Cerreto D a ni e l Services lndu str iel s 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FONDS CH Cervera Guillaume P.A. orbert SA Chabert Claude f~li:,, S.C. Pari s et U.I.S: 1 'Tr 49 Av Jean Mou Im 1 ,1 75014 PARJS FR .,

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    1107 2630 Chaben Jacque s 1Y!IU Chablais Yvan fi~ Rte de Beaumont 9 1700 FRIBOURG C H Chailloux Dani~I lW i [g 17 Gabne ll e d Estrees 91830 LE COUDRAY MO TCEAUX FR Chalumeau Annie 2. traverse Cadene l 13120 GARDANNE FR Charles Cyril 270 Rue du Maconnai s 73000 CHAMBERY FR Charmont Frani ;;o i s 333 chemin de l a Plaine 06140 VE CE FR Chavagnac Valerie Landdorfstrasse 48 A ; ,. 3098 KONlZ CH di , Chazine Jean-Michel La Bremonde 84480 BIJOUX FR 132 Chochon Noelle Av. P ess ican 293 == 06 1 00 I CE FR Choppy Jacques I 82 Rue de Vaugirard 75015 PARIS FR Christen en Henrik Spinnfiskargatan 46 ll1 72349 V ASTERAS SE ,:, Cigna Arrigo A. Soc Spel. lt a l iana Fraz. Tuffo 14023 COCCONATO (AT) I T Cimino Antonio Geofisica Mineraria Via Stabile I I 0 90139 PALERMO IT 111111r~ 11 C l arke Anhur K e nn e th .re;;;;;,_ 17 D ar lin g Parade. Mt Stuan uj'" HOBART TASMANIA l i!I 7000 AU ., C l arke Dick A u s tral. Speleol. Fed. 16 /3 0 Mentone PDE MENTO E 3194AU C l arke Owen 11 P entwyn H e i g ht s Abersychan, Pontypool GWENT P4 7TN GB 244 2995 'l.v,JI III Clottes Jean rfp Culture & Francophonie t 1 .-.= 11 rue du Four ca t I [ 09000 FOi X FR Coca Spencer Am Kr e uzweg 2 83435 BAD REICHENHALL DE Coggan Marjorie I 8 Cruikshank St. WA !ASSA ACT 2903 AU Cohen Jacque s I I rue Henri Descoin s 47000 AGE S FR Collette Ian Harold /iJ=i ,_ 132, onhstead S t ee t - h~r Scarborough ill PERTH WA6019AU Co lli gnon Bernard S.C. Orsay Faculte I I Rue Simonet 75013 PARIS FR Co l za t o Nivaldo Ru a Campinas I 05 Cx. P ostal IOI 13920-000 PEDREIRA-SP BR Comaty Antoine C/O Speleo C lub du Liban B. P. 70-923 A TELIAS LB Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 149

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    2628 Contaxi Sissy Aristophanous 59 Halandri 15232ATHENES GR Cordeiro Orlando Caetano Av. D. uno Alvares Pereira 74, S esq. P-2800 ALMADA PT Coste Thierry Chemin des Roche s 03200 LE VERNET FR Crochet J ean-Yves Lab. de Paleontologie C.C. 064. Pl. E-Bataillon 34095 MO TPELLIER FR Crochet Philippe Le Carignan Bal. Capt. 97, 145 Cour Watt 34000 MO TPELLIER FR Cronk Carolyn 1 1g 1 ,,_ 1595 Blueberry Hills Rd liT",' MONUMENT COLORADO 1 11 80132 us --,I Cruchaud Anne-Marie* Quartier-du-Mil ieu 2127 LES BAYARDS CH Cruz Junior Francisco Av. Marechal Fiuza de 1 Castro 373 / 435 05596-000 f. SAO PAULO SP BR Dalhuisen Tjeru F. Bolstr. 25 lII 1072 LB AMSTERDAM NL Dall e Mule Renato ;,._ Viale Trento e Trieste 8 .~.ii 31029 VITTORIO VENETO (TV) IT Danilejko Svetlana m/r Zelenij Irkutsk 664000 IRKUTSK RU David Ren e Grand Ru e 38620 ST GEOlRE-EN VALDAI E FR 261 2972 36 12 150 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Day Michael Departm e nt of Geography P.O. Box 413MILWAUKEE, WISC. 53201 US D e Sadelaer Geerl Kruis s traat I 9 9120 BEVEREN BE De Swart Di ck F. Jan Lutma traat 19 C 2871 SCHOO HOVE WL L De Swart H e rman W. Kool s traat 56 2312 PT-LEIDEN NL Deehan Geoff Union Pictures 36 Marshall Street LO DO WIV ILLGB Deharveng Louis ,,,, I 03, rue de la Providence i,,-_, 31500TOULOUSE FR Delanghe Damien 124 rue du Tondu 33000 BORDEAUX FR

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    Delhom J ean-Fran~ois Ru e de la Paix 8 1630 B U LLE C H Demierre Charly ,_ Val d'Angrogne 1000 LAUSANNE C H AJLLY Den H aan In ge K oolstraat 56 23 12 PT LEIDEN NL Den es Gyorgy -;;=0 MTSZ-BMSZ Bajc sy 3 1 -Borbel y u. 5. I 13 2 B UDAPEST HU D e ne s Val e ria :;h MTSZ BMSZ Bajc sy 3 1 -.. v'l 5 '"':'' Borb e l y U.5 I 1 32 BUDAPEST H U L Deriaz Madeleine rue H e nri Corjevon 25 1 400 YVERDON 2851 3047 2496 Deriaz Patrick Ch. des ln vuex 1614GRA GESC H De sroc h es Michel A 7 Cite d e l "E nclos C h emin d e l a G r esi ll e 38 1 50 ROUSSILLO F R Dezuari Mar c Boi s de Vaux 1 9 b 1007 LAUSA NE GE Dimitrov Mihov A l exandre Calle Sevilla 3. 4e, I er 43001 TARRAGONA ES Di se r e n s C l a ud e-A l ain Ch. du Buv e l o t 7 111 0 MORGES C H Djuro v i c Pr e dra g In s titute Jovan Cvijic Acad Scie n ces & Ar t s I 1000 BELGRADE YU Do Thi Khoa Dept. Fore i g n Language s Giai-P h o n g Street H aB a Di s HANOI VN L Doem e n Alphonse fi!lii,,_ Societe spe l eo l ogique de I,,..,, W a ll onie. Ru e Belvau x 93 4030 LIEGE BE Do e rfli ge r Natha li e C HY N Un i Neuc h iite l Ru e des Platan es 1 6 175 2 VILLA R S C H AND C H D owney K evi n 21 Mas sas oit Street ORTHAMPTO MA01060 US Drail y Christelle Dire c tion des Fouille s Av des Till e ul s 62 4000 LIEGE BE Dra ye H e rrnin e CARSS e t SCP Ch de R o uli e r s 4 27630 ECOS FR Drumm o nd I a n Ji~.,_ 627 Var s it y Est C R .N. W. . ,n,. CALGARY ALBERTA ,I T3B 3C4CA ,I Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 151

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    Due Lionelle I 35, rue Alexandre L o u ce 06220 GOLF JUAN FR Ducimetiere Pascal La-Fouine 17 1 294 GENT HOD C H Ducluzaux Bruno Dumitre sc u Tudor Rue des Fahys 79 2000 NEUC H J\ TEL C H Duran VaJsero Ju a n Jose In s tiluto Tecnologico Geominero de Espana 28003 MADRID ES 1WIU Du1rui1 J acq u es* R oute de Prilly 14 1008 LAUSANNE C H Eav i s Jam es Andrew Eg l off Michel Eichner Andreas /iii''Kar s t& H iih l enku nd e .,. ".,._ '" Utzmannsbach 2 ,I 91245 SIMMELSDO RF DE I ~i~enbart Dieter ,i1 1:r Eiswirth Matthia s Applied Geology Kai se r s tra sse 12 76128 KARLSRUHE DE Ek Camille Emb l anch Ch ri tophe H ydrogeo l ogie Avig n on 33, ru e Loui sPa s teur 84000 AV I GNON FR Emery Marie-France iH '!,, Chance ll erie 2300 LA C H AUX-DE FONDS C H Emily Alexandre 25, rue de s Se! ves 06510 CARROS FR 2736 152 Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 ,I Englert Thomas Sonnenbergstr. 55 72336 E GSTLATT DE Entner Il se Eraso Romero Adolro Erdem BUlent Im am gesme cad G-4750K No. 9 O t osanayi 80670 ISTANB U L TR Erdogan Kubilay Sehit Halil Jbr ahim Cad. Apt n. 46 / 3 I STANBUL TR E pagne Marthe -F rance 2300 LA CHAUX DE FONDS CH E sse r Fran~oise ~eli;,_ 2 1 3 ru e de l a Co llin e "~';' 4 1 00 SERA G BE d 1,1 Eszterhils lstva n

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    3 166 4096 Eth e rington Iri s f~"H a m se ll Manor Lod g e "',. '' ERIDGE GREEN TUNBRIDGE WELLS TN 3 9LE GB Eth e rin g ton M a l c olm ~,;;, Ham se ll M a nor Lod ge ,.1.. 1 j'_;; ERIDGE GREEN fl, T U BRIDGE I ,I WELLS TN 3 9LE GB Etr e l ec R eg i e B e rth o u zoz B e nhou zoz Ga sse r Av Lon ge m a ll e 7 I 0 2 0 RE ENS CH F age Lu c -H e nri Ed S pe l eo B P 114 84404 A PT CE DEX 04 FR F a i v r e C h a rl es* fii, ,, Avoca t-Bill e 1 2 5 23 00 L A C HA U X DE FONDS C H F a nkh a u se r D o ll y* Mu s i caTh ea tr e 2300 LA C HA U X DE FONDS F a nkh a u se r Ern es t Mu s i ca -Th ea tr e 23 00 LA C HA U X-DE-FONDS F a nt o li J e an-Loui s I ru e Emil e Zola 7 3 4 9 0 LA RAVOfRE FR Farina Dani e l e ;1 Con s ultin g g eolo g i I &:1 = = !-:-; Vi a M. P o lo 9 1!1 61100 PESARO IT 3 1 97 F arra o ur ,trn ;, c/o Ca pt. F a rra M.E.A H ea throw Airp o rt 3 ,I LONDON GB ,I F a str es Thi e rr y Ru e d e I E co l e I 55 23 WEILLEN BE Faulkn e r Tr evo r F o ur Oak s, Wilm s l ow Park WILMSLOW C HESHIRE SK 9 2 BD GB F ave rj o n Mar c Ru e d e Bid o n 07700 ST MARCEL D ARDECHE FR F av r e Ce cil e Grand Ru e 19 A 2 054 C HE Z ARD ST MARTIN CH 1UJll) F av r e -Bull e Claud e -Al G ra nd-Ru e 19 A 2 054 C HEZARD CH NUI F e r g u so n L y nn i'IJ~ Nat. S c i e n ces Lon gw ood -li l;; Coll I Ii FARMYILLE YIRG 23909 l:I U S F e rrari J ea n mare -= I ru e du M ag a s in ii ;~; 25 3 00 PO TARUER FR ill !J 36 1 3 F e rr a roli St e phani e ).;~ ,_ H o pital d e la vill e lie '" 2 3 00 L A C HA U X DE FONDS CH Fi ge r e M a rtin 144 ru e d es Art s 3 4400 L U NEL FR Filli s t o rf Emmanu e l 23 00 LA C HAUX DE FONDS Filli s t o rf Su z ann e* M o nta g non s 50 23 00 LA CHAUX DE FONDS C H Fi sc h e r H e l e n e Lm Ti e r g art e n 4 9 8 055 Z U RICH C H Fl e mmin g Larr y Corp s d e l a P a i x B P 2 09 8 LIBREVILLE GA FI u c k Pi e rr e Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 153

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    Fo rd D e r ek C. W.:: ':i '('S>/ ,t} ;, D e p a rtm e nt o f Ge o g raph y 1 280 M a m S tr ee t W es t H A MfL T O L 8 S 4 KI C A F o rt i P ao l o F rag li ca M a ri a 'j--Vi a Ca rdu cc i 1 65 fi' 97 1 00 R A G U S A TT . _ ,_ 1,, 799 4026 F ra n co Lu go G e rard o Jo se Ca ll e Uracoa n a Y ar it a E l M a rqu es CA R ACA S 10 7 1 VE F ra nk H a n sW e rn e r H o hl e n und H e im a lv e r e in P os tf ac h 1 367 89 1 46 L A I C HINGEN DE Frank Ri c h ar d ~~!~;,_ HHV L a i c hin ge n ... "i':' M e i se n weg 9 1!1 89 1 5 0 L A I C HINGEN DE Fr a nti se k Mih a l BARDEJOVSKA NOVA YES SK 2905 Fr a n tz Willi a m :,-,. 1 6345 En g l ewoo d Ave .1. .fi,/1,_,, LOS GAT OS. CA 95 0 32 US tu I,, I.I Fr e ibur g h a u s P ie rr e Co ll ege 1 00 2300 L A C H AU X D EFO N D S C H Fr e l ec h ox Pi er r e 1 7 Ou es t 2720 TR A M E L AN C H F r ey P a ca l 37 av. Buh e rlin 25 11 0 B AU M E L ES D A M ES F R Fri s i a Si l via Fril sc hi R o l f C hi e b sbac h s tr 7 1 8 1 62 S TEr N M AU R C H F ro m e ntin G a bri e ll e .,__ L e G o nt ard i ElJ,= 38 1 22 MO S T E RO UX !I MILIE U FR LI 1 256 Ga l va n T ony Jard ini e r e 93 2300 L A C H AUXD E F O N D S C H Gam b oa Jo s e In d. n o co nt ami n a nt es pa r P e ri ferico o n e ME RID A YUCATAN MX ''l~ UI Garas i c M l aden r Nova Yes 66 ~-i!g; 1 0000 ZAG REB HR r, 1,1 Gar b y Geo r ges Ci d ex 1 427 T huri ssey 7 1 260 M ON TB E LLET FR Ga r ciaDil s D e L a V ega Serg i o Ap. d e co rr eos 11.10 9 4 1 080 SE VILL A ES Ga r ci n P ierre Ru e d es B e l e ti eres 26 1 90 STE EULA U E EN ROY A S F R Garg uil o H e n ri C lu b aJ pin fra m ;:ais I 9 rue A. T hi e r s 1 3 1 00 M A R SE ILL E F R G a rni e r Thi erry L e D eve n so n B A ll ee de Pin (!J 1 3009 M A R SE lLL E FR I 111.i~ U G asse r Ca th e r i n e L es P e tit es L ac h e r e ll es ,:::" 2 1 05 TRA VE RS C H 154 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6

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    3 165 ~Ill Ga ser Fran <,o is Grandson 4 5.: i;; ; 20 1 7 BO U DRY C H C H Gebhard Klaus v-;JjJ,,_ Fakelan 2 ,';" 72525 MONS! GEN/ I :I BOTIINGE DE Genoux Marc Kirchenrni n 9 3 1 73 OBERWANGEN C H Geotrade SA P Auberson Rt e de Lau anne 1 7 1400 YVERDON C H Gerber Fernande H ygiene & E n vironnement 2300 LA C H AUXD E-FON DS C H BACH AT 1273 Ghanem Emile Ghergari Lucretia M a ri a Univ. B abe Bol ai Str Kogalniceanu I 3400 CLU J A PO CA RO Giannopulo s Yas s ili ~1: Aris t ofanus 59, H a l andri "'" 15232 AT H E ES GR !I I 1:1 Gibe rt Janine Uni. Lyon I HBES bat 403 43 Bd du 11 / 11 / 191 8 69622 VILLEURBANNE FR Gietl Diana I 1 700 Royale BEAUPRE QUEBEC GOA I EO CA Gi l bert St e phen 394, M e lt o n R oad Sprotbrough DONCASTER DN5 7PA GB Gill David MY Gillieson D av id =,,. ,_ Univ. ew South Wale s .li, 3 '" Geography & Oceanography CA BERRAACT260IAU Gines Ange l 1:1~, __ La go Mayor 9, so n R apinya "'" 3 0701 3 PALMA-DE MALLORCA ES Gines Gracia Joaquin ~f=',. Ciencies de la Terra ., "' Crtra. Valldemossa km 7 .5 I I 07071 PALMA MALL. ES 339 Go Shunichiro 2-30-10 Yurigaoka NAKAGU KANAGAWA 25901 JP Goar Micha e l 1683 Cole Village LAS C R UCES, NM 88001 us Gobat Christian C h ance l l e ri e 2300 LA C H AUXD FONDS C H Gogibeda s hvili Ln ga 29, str. Tavi so phl e ba MTZKHETAGE Go g ita s hvili Victoria ,~i.,_ ul ovakovsnogo 6/4 ,..._ 290000 LVIV UA Gogniat St ep han e Pri se Ducommun 2035 CORCELLES CH Goldie H e l e n D epartment of Geograph y 17'.' South R oad i!I DURHAM OH.I 3 LE GB Gontchar Kat e rina Mi s hina Str. 4, kv 67 25215 1 KLEY UA ::f 1 11 Gonzal ez C h ato J ose Fran c i sco Zurban\n, 6-2 48903 BARAKALDO (V I ZKAYA) ES Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 155

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    2526 Goto Sa 1 oshi Goutier Silvia ~_ Oostergo 9 ~f 27 1 6 AP ZOETE RMEER NL Goy Philip pe Rt e de Lausanne 49 105 2 LE MONT -S UR LA USANNE C H Goy Philipp e Nelkenstrasse 7 5300 T U RGI CH Goy Ursula e l ken tra sse 7 5300 TURG I CH Graber Tanja B e ll ev u e 20 2400 LE LOCLE Grad z in sk i Mi c h a l Geologica l Scie n ces Oleandry Str 2a 30-063 KRAKOW PL Graf J eanP a ul La Frasse 1 837 C H ATEAUD 'OEX C H 2940 2597 Grangeat Nicole A,:.,. 39, rue Guynemer 51 =''' 73000 C H AM BERRY FR I,, I ,I Granger D arry l Eanh & Atmosp h e ri c Sc. 1 397 C IYL. LAFAYETTE IN 479071 397 US Grasso Domenico A l ess. CHY Uni. Neucha t e l Ru e Em il e-Argand 11 2007 NEUCHA TEL C H Gravini Silvana 2 1 Massasoit Street ORTHAMPTON, MA 0 106 0 US Greer M av i s =4803 W. East Rid ge Road "' COLOMB I A MO 65202 US Greif Si lk e Dui s bur ge r Str. 1 09 40885 RATINGEN D E Griffith s K are n ,:;~ ,. 544 Sprin g bok R oad i,::,,, CAMPBE LL RIVER B .C. I :I V 9 W 8A2 CA 156 Proceedings of the 12 'h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Sw i tzerland Volume 6 Grobet Andre 4 rue du Scex 1 950 S lO CH Gru n Bjorn K elmi er H eide 25 4720 KELMIS BE Gudaitiene I rena Jonuciai M as t aiciu P as t as 34 1 6 KAUNO RAJ. LT Gueorguieva Anel i a ~ij?:. Ca ll e Sevilla 3. 4e, I e r ii !ff 43001 TARRAGON A ES 1:1

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    Guerin Pierre dit Pik ~,_ Carpe Diem -.."l-._.. ._... I 1250 POMAS FR 485 235 2308 Guichard Christiane Guinand Frarn;:ois ~,~ Chaussee de Bruxelles 277 la=' I 190 BRUXELLES BE Guiraud Annie Le Carignan Bat. C appt. 97 145 Cour Watt 34000 MONTPELLIER FR Gumy athalie En Failly 71 1679 VILLARABOUD CH Guner Fii s un i,f ,_ Ku zgu n Sok I / 12 h '" Asagi Ayraou, Evim Apt. 06540 A KARA TR Gurnee Jeanne 231 Irvin g avenue CLOSTER. NJ 07624 US Guyot Jean Loup Or s tom. CP 09747 CEP 70001-970 BRASILIA OF BR Guzeev Andrey AcademikaVa r gy. 38, 173 I 17133 MOSCOU RU 3114 2293 4 Haberland P e ter c/o A.J. Snyder E s tate Ro se ndal e NEW YORK 12472-0150 US Hae se n Laurent ~,=. Hamerenne 11 .. figg, 5580 HAMERENNE BE '!I AT Haldi Nelly Freiburgstrasse 935 3174 THORISHAUS CH Halton Pam e l a A 600 Plant Bed Circle FUQUAY-VARLNA, N. CAROLINA 27526 US Hamilton Smith Elery PO Box 36 Carlton South VICTORIA 3053 AU Hammer sc hmidt Elmar .. ~Hl i E: "ii H anneberg Arn1in Diana s trass e 2 85540 HAAR DE 2706 Harri s Kevin 35 Norwich Road NASHUA. H 03062 US Harri son Blake RR I Bo x 2 H PECOS NEW MEXICO 87552 US Haseke Harald Getbaidegasse 14 5020 SALZBURG AT ' V!.1111 Ha se n Evelyn i fi-~ Oberland s tr. 85 Iii,: ,;',' 8610 USTER !If ,:, Haun Michael Hau swi rlh Christian ,kiiE 16, chemin de l a Caroline Iii 12 I 3 PETIT LANCY CH ,:, Hautier Muri e l \~:,, Residenc e Trull e man s 6 81480TUIZE BE ,,t.-~-.;l~,71,.. u1 Havlic ek David JIHOZAPADNl IIJ-27 14100 PRAHA 4-SPOR ILOV CZ Hedley Ian Dept. de Mineralogie 13 rue De s Mara,cher s 1211 GENEVE4CH Hegedii s Gyula /(ii;.,,_ Term esze tbat Szovet seg h:!,~, Bajc sy Zsilinszky Ut 3 1 .I H-1065 BUDAPEST HU Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 157

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    H e ini ge r Ni co la Ru e d e l a P a i x 2 1 23 00 L A C H AU X DE FONDS CH H e n ke John H e n n in ge r G eo r g H e lmh o lt zsrasse 2 0 LFW Ab t 25 1 0 1 069 DRESDEN D E H ero l d T hil o H e rr ma n n T o m Gir i zstr. 90 4562 BIB E RIST C H 2565 3 1 76 H e r ve V a l e ri e I O C l a ir V a ll o n Hill A l a n 1 7 E l A r co Dr ive A LB U Q UE RQ UE, N M 87 1 23 US Hi m m e lb e r ge r P e t e r U nt e r werks tr asse 8 4 1 32 MUTTE N Z C H H obbs S u s an __ 60 1 W h i l e Oak D r. S PRI NGF I E LD O HI O 4550-l US H ob l ea Fabie n 25 ave nu e Lu c i e n B ui sson 69330 ME Y Z I EU F R 158 Proceedings of the 12 '" International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 H off m an n -k rii ge r Jutt a I J,-,_ B ego ni e n s t r 58 .1. .li,1'{' 44289 DOR T M UN D D E """" i,I ~i;J H of m a n n Peter In a-Se i de l B oge n 70 8 1 929 MUNC H EN D E H o ll and Ernst Je n o l an Caves ( J .C. R .T.) P O Box 1495 B A R T H U R ST NSW 2795 A H o ll er Susan P .O. B ox 1 00 C 28762 US O LD FORT C. 28762 US SE

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    1345 3161 Hdrchner Andre Kornb e rgstr. 38 98528 SUHL DE Horrillo Municio Jokin Barrio Arriaundi n. 13 48200 IURRETA (VIZCAYA) ES Hot z l Hein z* Univ. Lehrsl. Houriet Fram ;:o i se 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Howcroft Darcy ,i,. l 056 University Terrace 1 RE O NV 89503 US Howe s Chris /;,a:.,. 51, Timbers Square, Roath .,u. n, CARDIFF CF2 3SH GB ,;, 2506 1354 3 119 2371 Hubbard David ~;~',, Miner a l Re so urces,P.O. Box .o1h~ 3667, CHARLOTTESVILLE ,I VIRGINIA VA 22903 us 1,1 ''ll'UIIJ Huber Bernhard .~ 1 '21.i~,;iGeotechnisches Buro 15.:t f= i Salzmannstr. 29/ I 1 ,j DE ii Huber Petra 1 "l:. Hag s felder Allee I O r 76131 KARLSRUHE DE !,1 1Wlll Huber Roland 14 Re se rved rd UPPER COOMERA QEENSLAND 4210 AU Hubka Ingrid Fran z-G rub e r -S tra sse 5 5020 SALZBURG AT Hubka Walt e r Fran z-G rub e r -s Lr. 5 A-5020 SALZBURG AT "NJIU Hugo I sabe ll e Erlen s tras se I .. 9320 ARBON CH Hugu e nin Gilbert* Le Gibet 2113 BOVERESSE CH Hugu en in Pascal Rte de s Fontaine s 6 2057 VILLIERS CH Huguenin Roland Par e 53 2000 NEUCHA TEL CH Humair Marie-H e l e ne Chs-Humben 12 t:' 2300 qJ LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS i,I Huppert George ti, Depl of Geography ,__ i ,~;: U1liv. of Wiscon s in 1 J LACROSSE/ WI 54601 US 1,1 2954 lkini Pierrot Charriere 89 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS Lng eme Yvonn e* :.~ 4/6 Foster St. Ji, .;, HAMlLTON VIC 3300 AU 1, Ln s t. Hydro geo logi e U. Geotherrnie Joanneum Re s. ElisabethsLrasse 16 Ill 80 10GRAZAT NIE-EL-METU Jaccard Mireille Chancellerie 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Jacob s Hendrik Potaard e 31 185 3 GRIMBERGEN BE Jacot De sco mbe s Gerard .... Pre s ident Wil so n 7 i:,i:= 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Jii gg i Randy Himere Engehaldenstr. 62 3004 BERN CH Jaillet Stephane Ru e de Chalaidrelles 55000 BAR LE DUC FR Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6 159

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    677 3122 Jalov A l exey Vasil Levsky 75 I 000 SOFIA BG J ambresic Gordana Quater. Pal. & Geo l ogy I j A. K ovacica S / II 1 ( I 0OO0ZAGREB HR ., J ames Juli a Mary :,:r Chemistry School F I I 1 <'';= Sydney Univer s ity ,, SYD EY NSW 2006 AU J a n z W erner Allschwilerstrasse 46 4055 BAS EL C H Jeanneret a th a li e f (l;, Chemin des Li eron 2 I. t'f.' 2000 EUCHATEL C H ',i i,1 J eannere t Pi erre Les Com bettes 1452 LES RASSES C H Jeannin l s abe ll c Emes t R o ul e t 1 2 2034 P ESEUX C H J eansson Evert Brinkviigen 9 90320 UMEA SE 1 66 J eutter Peter J e utt er Sharon Ji f a n g Shen China Univ e rsity of Geoscience s Yujiashan 430074 WUHA H U B E i C NAY FR Jut ze t J eanM a r c Ch. de s Epine tt es 1 2 1723 MARLY C H Kadlec Jaroslav -,,. 1111 K aeser Marc-Antoine ~~i' Seminaire de Pr e hi s t o ir e I 1 ,Av. Du peyrou 7 1 ,1 2000 EUCHATELCH ., 308 160 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Kalogridou H elen ~lli ,. Koumouriotou 43 .ifi,: "' 1 2242 AEGALCO GR 'I I Karako t a n og l o u l akovo s 1 8A Syrou 1 5 1 27ME LIS S I AG R K arkabi Sarni c/o Emile Ghanem I S, av de Miremont 1 206 GENEVE C H Karlen Mauricette Ch. de Boi -Ca r an 2 1222 VESE AZ C H K a u fmann Manin Gruben s tra se I 3322 SCHONBUHL C H

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    3 1 23 3 1 24 K e ll e r A n d r eas K .S.A. Ru e des Pl a t a n es 3 1 1 752 V ILL A RS S U R G L A EC H K e ll e r C hri s Se l ma tt weg 1 9 A 4246 W A HL E C H K e ll e r Kurt S e lm a tt weg 1 9 A 4246 W A HL EN C H K empe St ep h a n Geol.P alao nt o l. In s t Sc hn i u spa h n S t r. 9 64287 D A RMST A D T D E K e t zK e m pe C hri s thil d Am S c hl os St oc k a u 2 6480 7 DIEB U R G DE Kil c hm a nn S y bill e C h e min d e M o nt e ll y 48 1 007 L AUSANNE C H Kimmi c h R e n e Kin z l S u i A ll sc h w il e r s t rasse 4 6 ="" 4055 B A SEL C H Kirdi s St a m a ti s 40 Xr Smim is 1 7237 A TH E N E S GR C B A RCIK A H U Klim c h o u k Al exa nd e r In s t. of G eo l ogy "'." P O.B ox224/8 252030 KI E V UA Klu s m a nn J e n s ~lei;,,_ Brinkh o l s t rasse 84 .,u,ir 5 8642 ISERLOH DE _,.,,...,, 1:, ,..., ,. ., .. ...... u ... ,,. Kn aack C hr i ti a n 14 11 I J,-,_ c/o D E l sc hni g ,li,il;_= , R a ih e r w i ese n s tr. 2 1 l!I 76227 KARLSR U HE D E '' Kn ab Oli ve r K o K i n g T joen JI Ir H Ju anda 30 B OG OR ID K o mp a ni e t s Vo l o d y m y r ul. Sh evc h enka 30, kv. 48 2836 C HORTKJ V UA Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 16 1

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    293 Ko ze l Ronald Krafft Ramona Krasno s ht e in Arkady Mining In s titut e Karl Marx Stree t 78 a 614007 PERM RU Kr a u P e t er H o l e n weg42 4434 HOLSTEIN C H Kr a uthau e n B e rnd 2576 4109 Krawcz yk Wi es ta wa Silesian Geomorpho l ogy Bedzin ska 60 4 1 -200 SOSNOWLEC PL Krekeler Mark 6139 Sheits Road Cl C I NNAT I -O HI O 45252 us Krkl ec eve nka fSterova 13 ij 42000 VARAZD I N HR ,:, Kru ge r Renat e Buchenlandweg I I 0 89075 ULM DE Kru ge r Uwe Buch e nl a ndw eg 110 89075 ULM DE Kumm e r R olf* L erc h enweg 8 3427 UTZENS TORF C H Ku sc h l ngrid Kl os t erwiesgasse 7 1 tr 8010GRAZAT i,I 1 ,1 162 Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Labe ga lini Jo s e Ayrton =, Rua Ernesto Gotardelo 410 _. E l,lffe 375800-000 MONTE S I AO/ 1 !1 MGBR ., Lafar ge Christophe 70 rue Jaboulay 'Wil,.lii:!'= 69007 LYO FR Lai conas Erikas

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    8021 3615 839 8 56 Larocque Marie Lab. Hydr ASA URA 721 40 av. Recteur Pineau 86022 POITIERS FR Larson David 11,I 5, South 6th Ave .lil:ii~, LA GRANGE ILLLNOIS 1!1 60525-2402 us ,., Larson Eleanor Buens I 5 South 6 th Ave 1 'j~' LA GRA GE, ILL! OIS ,, .r 60525-240 us ., Lascar Jean-Paul 11, rue de l Avenir 33200 BORDEAUX FR Lastennel Roland Universite Bordeaux I. CDGA Bat. de Geologic 33405 TALENCE CEDEX FR Laude1 Frederic Laumann s Michael I lg;,,_ Hehnerstr. I 00 .Iii,.,,, 41069 l l !! MONCHE GLADBACH ,I DE Laurent Roger \J=Chene-en-Semine !if 74270 FRA GY FR 1:1 Lazzarono Ennio -:;\lie Via Giara Modon !Ti 36020 VALSTAG 1:1 Le P e nnec Robert AIT 11. rue du Belvedere 39200 ST-CLAUDE FR 3127 Lecoultre Hugues a,;._ Hygiene & Environnement 1 2300 I LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH 1Ulll.J Ledru Monique Pl. du Marche I Ii-2520 LA EUVEVLLLE CH Leel-ossy Szabolcs 1 .,\-,_ Batthyany u. 53 Ii,~'}' H-1015 BUDAPEST H U d1 ,., Legarcon Annie Revers de la Sure Le Logi s euf 13190 ALLAUCH FR Legarcon Raymond Rever s de la Sure Le Logis euf 13190 ALLAUCH FR Legratiet Bertrand Rue Sc de Marva! 2000 EUCHATELCH Lehmkuhl Achim Lehnen Gille s Vogeliacher 5 8180 BULACH CH o: 153 Lenart La s zlo -:i-=Hidrogeologiai Tanszek ).,, . M 1 s kolc1 Egye1em35 I 5 MISKOLC EGYETEM. HU 3616 2710 3251 Lengyel Jeno-pal 9 rue Le Bua 75020 PARIS FR Leniv Volodymyr ul. Budivelna 6 kv. 30 283600 CHORTK IV UA Leonard Y van Avenue de s Vanneaux 17 1420 BRAINE L ALLEUD BE Leone France co Via de Fe! ice I 0 95025 AC! S. ANTO 1 0 IT Leuenberger Markus Rylee AG Alie Bahnhofstr. 5 3110 MO SINGEN eh Leu s chner Kathrin Johanna-Romer-Stras s e I 09599 FREIBERG DE Levinson J oe E. I 560 West Street FORTLEE .J. 07024 2619 us Lewi s Victoria I 5 Bir c hfield Drive Longridge PRESTON PR 3 3HP GB Proceedings of the 12 t h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 163

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    3 1 28 GEN DE Lie s mann Wilfried B ergbau Andreasberg/Harz R o s dorfer Weg 33A 37073 GOTIINGEN DE Limagne Edit 54 Pont de la Chaux 39300 CHA TEL EUF FR SE Lindenmayr Franz Ammer ee s tra s e 43 82 1 94 GROBENZELL DE Linder Thierry Grand Ru e 8 b 2035 CO R CE LL E S CH Lin o Clayton F. I J,-.. Ru a Joao 296/1 1 -A. CE P .... li,i~; 01323-020 SAO PAULO BR l !I ., Liu Zaihua .. .-.'"'..j::, K a r s t Geology -=40 Qixing Rd I 541004 GU ILIN GUANGXI CN Lobanova I r yna ;0 Kh arkov koe Sposse 4/1 "" kv 34 253160 KIEV UA Loertscher Marion 2400 LE LOCLE C H n 1u 0 .... ,,., Lopez Correa M a tthi as 1 1gi ; ,_ J esinger H au pt Lr a e 53 ,ii ,j' '.' 72070 TUB[NGEN1 1 \1 UNTERJES I GEN DE 2967 164 Proceed ings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Ludwig Peter ,ii,=,. Panholzerweg 20 ~'.'' 4030 LI Z AT 'I ,1 .. Lugon Alain Grand Rue 50 2056 DOMBRESSON C H Uischer P au l G ut t ras s e I 18 8055 ZlJRICH C H Lutz Hu go Bar chwil s rras s e 12 4247 GRINDEL C H Lutz Markus Linden s trasse 18 4600WELSAT Lutz R oland C rutt a Sura 74 1 8 TOMILS C H GEN MacGregor K irk l.~;;i,,_ 78 Kin g Hi gh Avenue 1 ""':'' DOW SVIEW I ~I ONTARIO M3H 3 8 I CA

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    3 129 Ma c krill P a ul Les J ai ll eux 38250 LANS EN VERCORS FR Madelaine Eric 1.-ei~j I O eh. de Cambar ni e r Nord .liii-;; 06650 OP IO FR ,Ii 1:1 Magniez Guy ~(~; Biologi e Anima l e .1... 1. ~'f Bd Gabriel 6 i:1 21000 DIJON FR Ma g non Nicolas Loui s Gui ll aume 4 2074 MARIN C H Magnu sso n Run e Man ga n vage n 30 18746TABYSE ~II.I Maillot R o l a nd [mp asse du Dragon 49 2300 L A C HA UX-DEFONDS CH Maire Fran ~o is Ru e du Stand 74 2502 BI ENNE C H 1502 3 1 30 8009 Mair e Ri c h a rd M a i so n des Suds, CN RS Universite d e Bordeau x 3 33405 TALENCE CEDEX FR Mai s Karl ~\~!:, Mu se um s platz 1 / 10 1 "'", Kar s t & Hohl e nab1. f I AI 070 WIEN AT ,I Malf ey Stephane* Rt e des Couvie r s 6 2074 MAR I N C H M a lt sev V l ad imir Vniigeosystem lns1itute Lenin sky Pro s p.61 / J kv.57 I J 7333 MOSCOW R U M a nolache E l ena Babe sBol ya i/Mi crobio l ogy Ko ga lniceanu I 3400 CLUJAPOCA RO Marchand J ea n Fran~oi s 26, aven u e de s Alp es 0 1 210 FERNEY-VOLTAfRE FR Marechal Stephane 36 rue R aymon d B err uri er 78320 LE MESNlLST DENIS F R 3229 2888 Marimuthu G. Animal Behav & Ph ysiol. Madurai Kamaraj Un i v. MADURA 625 02 1 I N Marion Shirley SO, av. Genera l d e Gaulle 69230 ST GEN I S LAVAL FR M aro t e Pedro R Cabo 86 RCE 1 250 LISBOA PT Marra Ricardo SI-ICES 403 BI. C, Apto 20 I Cruzeiro ovo 70650 433 BRASILIA/OF BR Martaud Alain 33 ru e Compans 75019 PARIS FR M a rtaud Chris t i n e D Estienne Dorve s 20 92130 I SSY-MOULlNEAUX FR Martin R oger Rte d e L Aurore 2 c 1 700 FRIBOURG CH Proceed ings of the 12 1 Internat ional Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 165

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    3147 3195 Martini Jacques ..M1rn~, Geological Survey, Counc If Geosctence Private bag i:I PRETORIAX 112ZA Martini Sergio Pian D Ordia 1 90 19024 VARESE LIGUR E (LA SPEZIA) IT Martins Maria Joao Marwan Norbert Giimzstrasse 28/0 1 9 01307 DRESDEN DE Masai Kazuo 1-17-15 Fujimidai erirna TOKYO 177 JP Massart C l aude Rue du Wainag e 62 5060 VELArNE/SAMBRE BE Matteoli Alain Chemin de l Olivaie 83200 TOULON FR Matthew s Margot. Doc. """'66 Frogmor e Crescen t 5 ='" PARK ORCHARDS. ,, V I C 3114AU ., Matthews P e ter Doc. !Ag;'=66 Frogmore Crescent 5 1 <=' PARK ORCHARDS. I V I C 3114 AU 3618 Matthey Anne 544 gi',_ 2300 =".' LA C HA UX-DE-FONDS CH Matthieu Brigitte Prairie 48 2300 LA C H AUX-DE-FONDS C H Mavlyudov Bulat ,na11" In s t. of Geography RAS _____ S t aromonetny 29 109017 MOSCOW RU Mc Clurg David I 04 Graves Court VALLEJO CALIFORNIA 9459 1 US Meauxsoone Guy Les Eymes 38112 MEAUDRET FR Medville Ha ze l Speleological Survey '\l e ; 11762 Ind ian Ridge Rd. RESTON. VA 20191 US 2755 166 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Meia J ea n Villarets 2 2036 CORMONDREC H E CH TERTHURCH Meier Han srued i Route du Confin 54 1723 MARLY CH Meier Johann Fe ld strasse 17 8180 BULACH C H Melloul Abraham J. I srae l Water Commission P.O. Box 638 1 9 10 63 JERUSALEM IL Merazzi Adolfo Via ln nocenzo Xl 39 22 1 00 COMO I T Mercado Efrain H C-02 Bo x 7429 00627-9112CAMUY PUERTO-RICO PR Merrnod Marlyse Jaquet-Droz 18 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS Me11e1al Jean-PierT e DIREM BP 137 25014 BESA t:;ON CEDEX FR

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    3012 Meus B arbara Labora t oire sou t e rrain 09200 MOULIS FR Meyers Karlin e u satzweg 1 3 4102 BINNINGEN C H Minkevich Lr e n e Ssi =, Ushin ky t. 2, a p. 25 6 1 4077 P E RM RU Miotke A lmut ,tli,,. R oedd in ge r s tra sse 2 1 h=,,, 30823 GARBSEN DE ,, 1,1 3132 1 60 Miotke Franz Di e t er Universi t a t H a nn over 30823 GA RBSEN DE Mi erez Firouzeh D -P. Bourquin SS 2300 LA C H AUX-DE FONDS C H Mi s erez Jean Grenier 20 2300 LA C H AUXD E-FONDS Mi s erez J ean-Jacq u es D -P -Bourq uin SS 2300 LA C H AUX-DE-FO DS CH DS CH Miserez Teymo ur D P. B o urquin SS 2300 LA C H AUXD FO DS C H Mobley Emily Davis P.O. Box 10 SCHOHAR I E NY 1 2157 US Moeller icola s Pares 17 2000 NEUC H ATE L C H Moldovan Oana In titutul de Speologie C lin ici l or S 3400 CLU J RO Mondenx Vian G e rard ~~i~"10 7 H av de l a Gabelle h-w, H ann ik aux du Foumas l:i 06220 VALLAURIS FR 3 855 300 Monnard i co l as Sempach 1 7 j' 2300 .I LA CHAUX-DE-FO DS .,, Monod Philippe Face ord 1614 GRA GES-VEVEYSE CH Montandon Paul-Etienne H y g iene & Environ n ement 2300 LA C H AUX-DE-FONDS C H Monzat Philipp Morlo H an s Dorbaum s rr 38 48157 MUNSTER DE Morlock Monika Mosch Cymhia C.R.F..S.S. 1683 Co l e ViUage PR LAS C R UCES NM 88001 us M o enfe ld er J ed ~;;,_ B ayeri c h es Geoin s titut 1 ='.'' Univer s itat Bayreuth 1 II 95440 BA YREUTH DE ., Proceedings of the 12 1 h International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 16 7

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    Mo ses John 15807 Ri ver R oads HO USTO TX 77079 US Mosimann Miryam 1 428 PROVE CECH Mo ss Gary 7713 Shreve R oad FALLS C H U R C H i I VIRGINIA 22043 us I, ~W~IIIII Motta Jose Augus t o 2243 Rua C2 Qd. 1 4 Lt. 1 6 'i" P Laran jeiras I 74855-170 GO I A I A/GO BR Motycka Zdenek 1,= Kovacka 7 B ,. .f.;l!J; 61800BR OCZ . I Mouret Claude ,t= ,, C/O Total M.E.P. 1 -5. P yay R oad. Hlain 1 ,1 87380 MAGNAC-BOURG FR Mouriaux Pi erre I 0 rue Etienne Michard 93200 SAINT-DENIS FR Mou s ina Farida Muglova Penka L ab.So lar -TerrIn 11 u e n ces -~lll"ll IIII MUiler Gunhild 1k Schmalfelden 45 3240 "= =' 74575 SCHROZBERG DE MUiler Thi l o Wilhehmtra sse 35 [ IJ 70372 STUTTGART DE ,:, Murty K. s. E-3 Vi s hnukamal Apts 160 Shivajinagar NAGPUR 440 010 IN Mury Michel : .;;; ;;;;:;e 7 LA C HA UX-DE-FO DS C H Mu sa rd Pi erre-Yves* Mucaria J o ep h 3 I 57 Mwami J ames ,i1 3 0 Travaux Publi cs 2300 1!1 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH GTZ lm P as tor D ev .Proj P .O. B ox 964 MBARARA UG 168 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 ader Fadi American U ni v. Beiru1 P .O. B ox 11 -0236/ 1 476 B E IR UT LB aeff Stefan Weiherhof s tra sse I 68 4054 BASEL C H AJ IB H amid Nassedkin Vladimir '> Kharkovskoe Sho ssc 4/1 =i kv 34 253 160 K[EV UA datirwa Josene Chemin de Pri e 8 COUVETC H domi Samuel Amat. H orticultur. Assoc. P.O Box 5182 BAMENDA W. PROVINCE CM Nemeskurty Harri e t R adno ti Miklos 41 11 37 BUDAPEST H U Newman Gavin The Ciderrnill. Cambe ll s Farm Dri ve Kin gswes t on Lane BRISTOL BSI I OLU GB

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    28 1 297 1 2873 oura ud B erna rd I 6, rue Romagotz 17250 ROMEGOUX FR uiiez J imenez A nt onio Sociedad Espe l eo l ogica Calle septima nd.661 I LAHABANACU O 'sh ield s Susan Crestwood Lane 1 084 BOLi GBROOK LLLLNOIS 60440 US ''IV!.1111 Obert Daniel .,,,f~ Uni Pari s 6 / Geotectonique ii' Bte 129-T 26. U.P.C.M. I ,I 75252 PARIS CEDEX OS FR Ochner Laura Via Baltimora 1 60 B 10136TORI O IT Oddou Alain 135 rue A l exand r e Louce 06220 GOLF J UA FR Oderniatt J ean Am Tiirliplatz 8 1 93 EGLISAU C H Odukoya Mathew Alaba rue du R avin I 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FO O S Oedl Friedrich .Wf"'lc, Eisrie_ enwe lt Geselschafl i,~.,.Getre1dega sse 2 1 t!I 5020 SALZBURG AT I.I 2508 Oertvall Chris t er Okamoto Toru Tohoku For es t In s titut e Shimo-Kuriyagawa 72 IWATE MORIOKA 020-01 JP Oliphant Mall 4105 Lowell Ave CA LA C R ESCENTA 9 1 2 14 us Oliveira Ana Pupo C.C. Espeleologia A.A. U. Av. Campus Univ. San ti ago 3810 AVEI RO PT Olson Ri ck P.O Box 55 MAMMOTH CAVE KENTUCKY 42259 US Oppliger Mady ~;;-,_ H 6pital de l a Vi ll e ,, -2300 ,, LA C H AUX DE FONDS CH ,., ]WUI Oppliger Marie-Helene Court1ls 2 1 2016 CORTAILLO D C H Ortiz Mimi 1 -:cc 711 El Montesur, H a t o R ey ,1 "009 18 SAN J UAN PR Osborne Penney 1 27 Wyndora Ave HARBORD 2096 AU Otonicar B oja n .Mfoi~, K ars t R esearc h In s titut e (-Titov TRG 2 ,h 66230 PO STO JN A Sl ,I 739 Ournie Sylvette 49 Allee des Pommier 34700 LODEVE FR ,.m,-.i11 1 P abst Wolfgang -,~_ Groutterstr. 58 'a E 70499 STUTTGART DE Pacher Martina Pahud Andre Conches 33 12031 GENEVE C H P aiano Adriana 858 !SS BRISTOL BR E FR Palacios Vargas Jose G. Ecologia Microartropodos Faculdad de Ciencia UNAM 045 I O MEXICO D.F. MX P aloc H en ri ~,:;,_ Le R ane ,~',, F-30140 ST SEBASTIEN11 !I D A IGREFE UlLLE FR ., Pandurska Rumi a n a Zoo l ogica l In st itut e Bid. Tzar Osvoboditel I 1 000 SOFIA BG Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 169

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    2300 Pantcev Dar Profsouznaya 1103-44 117437 MOSCOU RU Panzica La Manna Marcello Via Valdemone 57 90144 PALERMO IT Paqueue Don 835 Hickory Dr BLOOMTNGTO lNDIAN A41403 US Paupe Patrick Pavuza Rud o lf Pease Charle R. Jr. P.O. BOX 10130 PRESCOTT AZ 86304 US 1\1111.l Pecaut Line lfi~ Temple-Allemand 5 l,:,;: 2300 LA C HA UX-DE-FO DS C H 8029 9 3044 P ech hold Eberhard Am Ring 73 71642 LUDWIGSBURG DE Pedde Sara Dept. of Anthropology 226 Lowry Hall KE T OHIO 44242-000 I US Perna Giuliano Salita Dei Molini 49 38050 VILLAZZANO (T IT Perna Vincenza Salita dei Molini 49 38050 VILLAZZANO TRE TOIT Perou Sid Perrenoud Eric Clos Villars 173 15 27 VILLENEUVE Perret Catherine Rolandstrasse 36 :, 8004 ZURICH CH -EPAGN LER Perrin Jerome Gd Faubourg 11 47 MONTRICHER CH P errot Fran~ois Nasieux I u Ii 2108 COUVETC H d 763 2696 170 Proceedings of the 12 11 International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 Peru sin Jocel yne ORE Petersen Natalia Edith Petit Jean-Pierre 4, rue Mathieu Prevot 12100 MILLAU FR Petina Marco Petrie Garry 19880 NW estucca Drive it,''' PO RTL D. OREGON !. 97229 us ., Pianzola Manuel Rue des Allee s 12 aturelle C/o H ori s berger J. B. 2300 LA CHAUX DE-FO DS CH Pierce Mile 42 Victoria Cres Montalben V I CTOR I A 3127 AU Pierce Rhonwen 42. Victoria Cres. Montalbert VICTORIA 3127 AU Pignolet Andre Oberlandstr. 59 3700 SPLEZ CH

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    3173 400 Pill e r D a ni e l Pint o Ana C ri s tin a Area de Pr e hi s tori a Campus d e l Mil a n DSCH 33007 OVIEDO -A STURJAS ES Pla gnes V ale ri e r~lf== BRGM Dir d e la R ec h e r c h e, ( 10 39. ru e d e Pinvil l e 1!1 34000 MONTPELLIER FR Pl a ttn e r Erich Siebenjurtenstrasse 5 4133 PRATTELN CH Plesa Co m e liu Ln s titut E mil e R acov it za Str. Gh. Dim a 28/27 3400 C LUJ -NA PO CA 6 RO Plessias P a n ayio ti s =,= K oun t ourio t o u 43 _li;f, 12242 AEGALCO GR I I I Plum at R obe rt Mar a i s 27 DS C H 2400 LE LO C L E C H 2883 2587 P oc hon Al ai n P e tit Port I 20 I 2 AUVERNlER CH Polz e r orbert O s t ertide r s tr asse 6/ 16 38678 C LAUSTHAL ZELLERFELD DE P o mi e Jacques 2 ru e S a int Simond 63000 CLERMONT FERRA D FR P orc h e t Fabienne Au Closy 1 692 MASSONNENS CH 1WIU P orre t Celine fi~ Ru e du C h a l e t 1 8 2300 SCH LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH P orre t Ra ymond H yg i ene & Environnement t 2300 1!1 LA C HAUX DE-FONDS CH P o r s t P e t e r L e h e n e s tr a e 84 79106 FREIBVRG DE P o rt er Megan I lg.,,_ Bi o l og i ca l Sciences _..._ ,n,,.'f' P O B ox 250006 111 CfNCfNNATl. OH 45221 US i,I P otz s ch H e lmut N iede r s tr I 0 42697 SOLi GEN DE P o t zsc h Mi c h e l e N ied e r s tr asse I 0 42697 SOLINGEN DE Pr eisig Dominiqu e Chemin des M e l ezes C.P. 275 1 965 SAVIESECH Prin z i va lli Anna M a ri a Via Valdemone 57 90 144 PALERMO IT Propo s Gerard 1 1,Le D evenso n B .... #,......,.. .Iii~'~, Allee de Pin s 38 l tll F 1 3009 MARSE I LLE FR 3634 Pr ose n c Su zana K o lodv s k a 2-4 1 550 LJUBLANA SI Pruni er Yves 2 Pl ace de Art 74200 THONO LES BAI S FR P sc h e r e r Andreas Hu gogasse 2 8 /6 11 I OWrENAT Puff e B ea t e Freiligrathstra s se 15 99423 WElMAR DE Pui g J eanMi c h e l Universite dAvignon 33 ru e L ou i s P as t eur 8400AV 1G NO FR Proceedings of the 12 "' International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 171

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    2350 Pulfer Markus Kantonsrrasse 51 8863 BUTTIKON CH CH Pulido Bosch Antonio Queen J.michael PO Box 510 RICHMONDVLLLE Y 12149 us Rad anovic-Guzvica Biserka Radem acher Si Ike Pfaffenwaldring 61 70550 STUTTGART DE R adwan Lucja I== Hard eggasse 69/l/2 -,.12 20 WIEN AT Ran ge l Rodri guez Alvaro Apto. 00-2, Bloque 5-8 Edif D esisa Urb e l bo que LA VICTORJA-EST ARAGUA VE R app Michael ,~l~;,_ Konrad-Adenauer Rin g 26 ,n,=,.=, 69214 EPPELHEIM DE 111 1,1 Razi Abdol-Hamid l,= Arc-en-Ciel 7 .,fo!iJ; 2300 I i !I LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH ., Rea Tom 8677 S. State Road 243 CLOVER DALE [NDIA A 46 I 20-9696 US Re gez Jean-Louis elkenweg 8 ii i 4144ARLESHEIM CH 2351 3159 3620 3890 172 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6 Reiner Gerhard Jn st. filr PaHiontologie Althanstrasse 14 1090WIE AT Reiner Harald Reineri Beatrice 1 ~_ B.P. 114 ,-~ 84404 APT CEDEX 04 FR Rekero Etxebarria Ander Barrio Arriaundi no. 13 (Base Ertzaintza) 48200 I URRETA-V LZ CAYA ES Renaud Patrice EVEYS CH R enault Dominique ~t= , 43, rue Andre Maneau 37700 ST PIERRE DES-CORPS FR Renevey Benoit Centre Pro atura Champ-Pinet 1 400 YVERDO -LES BAI S CH Rengnet Eric CH R eynard Serge ,t~:=Ru e des Champs Elysees SO 1111 ='." 1050 BRUXELLES BE !11 I.I

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    Rouvin ez Fabienn e Charmettes 12 2006 NEUCHA TEL CH Roux Fr e d e ri c 51 ru e R e n e Soulet 63000 CLERMONT FERRAND FR Rudolph Theodora -:;l= Altwiesenstr. 167 c= 805 1 ZU Rl C H CH Ru gg i e ri R osa rio Via Carducci 165 97 I 00 RAG USA IT 2874 3 1 60 Rumo Ra c h e l 1 724 SENEDES C H Ruppr echt Elke 1 2, ru e du Cana l 68128 VILLAGE-NEUF FR Sa'ghi Miklo 's S ag hi Juha sz lldiko ~lei,,. Baj csy Zs u 19 11 /8 i"'"' 7300 KOMLO HU iu 1,, I.I 1WIII Salamin Jo e ll e Auf Schochen 1 35 &,: ,,,, 4493 WE SLINGEN CH Salathe D o miniqu e Sonn eggweg 20 6210 SURSEE CH Salvatori Francesco Lo e. Calcinaro 7 a 06021 COSTACC I ARO I T Sanchez Cobos J Car l os Barrio Arriaundi 1 3 B a e Enzaintza 48200 IURRETA -V LZCAYA ES 1UJUI Sandfuchs Urs Oberdorfstr. 4 5424 U TEREHRENDINGEN CH Sandoz Cose tt e A.-M. Pi aget 8 1 2300 L A C HA UXDE FONDS CH 748 17 4 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Vo lume 6 Saut ere l Bri g itt e Loui sPernod 5 2108 COUVETC H Scaleante Jose Antonio 1 ;; 1 -,,. Av O scar P e dro so _.li,,:" H orta 1 44 ,!I 1 3083-5 10 CAM PLNAS-SP ,I BR Scaleante Oscarlina Av. 0 car P e dro so Hort a 144 1 3083-5 1 0 CAM PINAS -S P BR Schaffier Manfr ed Stationenweg 7 728 1 8 TRO C HTELFINGE DE S c h a fh e utl c Marku s Schar Claude Wol f m attweg I 4 1 44A RLESHEIM CH Scherrer R ene r,=. Bru ggwiese n s t r. 6 c: 8442 HETTLI GEN CH

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    Scheuner Joel Schilli Patrik Schmas s mann Silvia A,~. Hegenheim s tr. 26 .,ur '' 4123 ALLSC HW[L C H Schmid Renate Buchenlandweg I I 0 89075 ULM DE Schmidt Franz 8940 LIEZEN AT Sclunidt Tabea Schone Tilo FR Schreiner H a n sJiir ge n Schulstras se 30 CH 67365 SCHWEGE HEIM DE D Schwarz Andreas BECK DE Sem1e1 Jean -C laud e Pai x 23 2300 LA C H AUX-DE-FONDS CH S h ahinyan Samve l EREVANAM Schweingruber Cedric 737 Shanov Stefan Geo l ogica l l ns titut TP de La C h a u x-de-Fond 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH 97 Van Wa ge nen Av r 4D J ERSEY C I TY 07306 US Sealey Richard Sebela Stanka Semikolennykh A ndr ey I lg;,,_ Pervomaiskaya s ir. 941 33 .l i ,:1':' 1 05203 MOSCOW R U !!1 ,., 2307 G. Bon c h ev Str. bi. 24 111 3 SOFIA BG Shelepin Aleksey K erc h e n s k aya 32. 29 11 346 1 MOSCOU RU ,,-""" -.. -.n11 .-i Shof tall Donald 169 5004 Ba sse tt Ave. EV SV[LLE, I N 47715 US Shriva tava V. K. D ep t. of Geograp h y Hir apuri Co l ony I 9K A GORAK HPUR 273009 IN Shumkov Dimitry Garibaldy 10-4-362 I 17 393 MOSCOW R U Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 175

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    D I NGE CH Siegemhaler Tina ._ Geerenhag 2 5424 UNTEREHRENDINGE CH Si g v ardsson Leif Timmennon 6l060TYSTBERGA SE -~la l~:!11 Singh Ram Babu ,..,a,;; r r .' {' ,_ Department of Geography .,, University of Delhi 3158 3621 1 DELHI 110007 I N Singh Ramesh P Civil Engineering Institute of Techno l ogy KA PUR 208 016 IN Sivelli Michele i/,i;,_ Via Castelmerlo 17 '"-':.' BOLOG A IT ''! i:, Skile We 5779 E Cou 111 y Road 340 H I GH SPRINGS, FL 32643 us Skliaryk Valentin ul. Vi 1 ovskogo 8 283600 CHORTK I V UA 2751 Smith Dan PO Box 36 PETALUMA. CA 94953 US Smith Judy 9850 N. Sky l ine Drive 0 FLOYDS KNOBS. I 47119 us Soares Vieira Lisandro Rua Bruno Giongo 3610 Vila Deriggi 13569-260 S CAR L OS-SP BR Sobreira Antonio I ~ 1 ~,,Rua Maria Pia 490 R/C 1 1350 LISBOA PT Sofner Berni Deowiss. & Rohs 1 offe P os t fach S I O 1 53 3063 1 H AN OVE R D E Somlene Luc H ydrogeologie I SAMO R Technopole Brest I roise 29280 PLOUZANE FR Sommariva Sonia via San Ffelice 39/0 I S GE OVA I T 4106 2718 1 76 Pro c eeding s o f the 1 2'" Int e rnational Congr ess of Sp e l e ology 199 7 Switz e rland Volum e 6 Sommer Ursula Neusatzweg I 3 4102 B I N I GEN C H So n g Linhua f'i~ ,, l nslitut~ of Geography h 917 Build Datun Rd-Anwa1 I 1 100101 BEIJING CN 1UIIII Soria Fernando Travaux Public 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FONDS CH Soria-Azurduy Patricia P assage Leopold-Robe rt 3 2300 LA CHAUX-DE FONDS CH Soroka Douglas S ,k-,,_ 1008 Schwenkmill Rd. 1 ' PERKAS I E. PA 18944 US ,;I Southam Christine 108 Murdock Rd. POMFRET CE TER CT06259 US Southam Lawrence A. 108 Murdoch Rd. ~,i POMFRET CTR.CT 06259 us Souza Paiva Lucio MINAS GERAIS BR

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    2970 Spring Claire Ch. des lnvuex I614GRA GESCH Spring Daniela Ch. des lnvuex 1614 GRA GES CH Stargalla Peter Erne s tine tras se 12 I 44809 BOCHUM DE Stauffer Kurt Le Ros s ier I 2108 COUVET CH Steffen Gero Am Ber g baumuseum 28 44791 BOCHUM DE Stehle Han spe ter Breitwie ss tras se 68 8135 LANG AU CH Stein Gerhard ==ih, Hohlenkata s ter H essen ; .Generalober t-Beck-str.13 55129 MAINZ DE Steinbach Dirk L _1I 11r.11 111 Ste sse l Denise ~i=, Tieltstraat 4 -3391 MEENSEL KIEZEGEM BE St e ttler Roland Caille50 2006 NEUCHA TEL CH St eve n s Paul 77 5964 Seabright Ro ad SPRJNGFIELD VIRG 22152 us Stevens Su sa n 5964 Seabright R oad SPRJNGFIELD-VIRG!NlA 22152 us Stiegler Jean-Paul 5, rue de Emrepot s 69004 LYON FR Stoev Alexey A s tronomical Ob se rvatory 47 Gourko s tr. 6000 ST. ZAGORA BG Stoikova Diana Mlado s t ap. 46 3 400 MONTANA BG Stolz Han -Peter Talwe g 4 4 I 33 PRATTELN CH Stroutchkova Tatiana ill,, Korchagina Pavia i. i:Street 11 -2 19 1!1 129278 MOSCOW RU Stummer Gunter Kar s t u. hk. Abt. Me sse platz I /I 0 1070WIEN AT Stunzi H ans Weiningerstr. 79 8 105 REGENSDORF CH 435 3623 Sullivan Nicholas I J,-,_ 7018 Boy e r St. .liili~ PHILADELPHIA PA 191 19 1 1!1 us ., Su tacha Villada E teban Mamari9a 71-2D 48980 SA TURCE VIZCA YA ES Tacchini Pa sc al Sous-Geronde 97 3960 SCERRE C H Talloi s Philipp e Eden sLa r 6, rue Ca imir Reynaud 06110 LE CANET FR Tanner Helena uf dr Hochi 2 3052 ZOLLIKOFE CH Proceedings of the 12 h International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6 177

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    2652 560 2955 1812 Taylor Penny P.O. Box 10 SC H O H AR I E NY 1 2157 US Teutsch Georg Angewandte Geo l ogie Sigwarstrasse 10 72076 TUEBINGEN DE Teys ier Jasmine 23 rue Beranger 92240 MALAKOFF FR Theodorou George M Alexandrou 19 15122ATHE ESGR Thiebaud Suzanne Cretets 143 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Thieme Federico Via D Annunzio 2 20068 PESCHIERA BORROMEO (Ml)IT Thierrin Joseph CSD Porrentruy Rue A. Cuen in 2 2900 PORRENTRUY CH Thorpe Dudley J Bri 101 House 7274 Hecll Tawe Abercrave SWANSEA-WALES SA9 IXRGB Thurga t e Mia Tropical Environment TOWNSVILLE QVEE SLAND 48 11 AU 8041 Torcivia Dominique Point du four 13 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Tomova Bisera Venelin 19 IOOOSOFIA BG Torres Miguel Av. Sanz. Eclif. Penalito Apto. 5 c CARACAS I 070 VE Trapleui Mario Via A. da Prezzata 35 24126 BERGAMO IT Travin Vladimir ovoyazenevsky. 2 1 -3.453 117593 MOSCOU RU Tremblay Marc : , 11700 Royale .... .flill,~ BEAUPRE 1 1 !I QUEBEC GOA I EO CA ., 17 8 P rocee ding s of th e 1 2 th In te rn a t i on al Congr ess of Spel e ology 1 997, Sw i t ze rl a nd Vol ume 6 Trigueiro Ricardo Savio -::l=, Rua Djair Damas 1367 "'1.. -:Lagoa Seca I 59022-370 ATAL/RN BR ,. Tripel Carmen J ura s tras s e 57 i ,=,ss 3063 ITTIGE CH Trofimova Elena Institute of Geography Vlanbatorskaya s tr. I 664033 IRKUTSK RU Turati Eli a Sentier Carbee OVA YES 22054 MANDELLO LAR I O IT

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    2841 Tye Andrzej .4f" ,. D epL of Geomorphology -B e dzm ska 60 1 1 41-200 SOSNOWIEC PL U llmann Sascha A. Landstrasse 48 8702 ZO LLIKON CH Urushibara-Yos hin o K azuko Us tiind ag Jasmin Merlinweg 4 1 50997 KOLN RONDORF D E Via di Scopeto, 1 6 50039 VICCHIO (FI) IT Uyuerhaegen Daniele Centre Documentation UBS Rue Belvaux, 93 4030 LIEGE-GRIVEGNE BE Vale Abe l Urb. Las Cumb r es Ave. E. Pol 497 Box 230 00926-5636 SAN JUA PR 285 2504 3020 Van Den B e r ge Wi e tsk e Ko o l s tr aa t 56 23 1 2 PT LEIDEN NL Van den Br oeck Erik -=\j~ Avd M ae l estraa t 46 ,~' 9320 EREMBODEGEM BE I :,1 Vanar a Nathalie c/o S. Vogrig Lo ge m e nt Ecole Bour g 64 1 30 AUSSURUCQ FR Vargovitch Robert P etefi str. 5 / 40 295400 MUKACHEVO UA Vasileva D a ni ca :,;;; H ydrome t eoro l. In s titut e 1 Bircaninova 6, P .O. B 604 1 ,1 11 00 1 BELGRAD YU ,I Vasseur Marie C h ristine 2, Quai de France 38000 GRENOBLE FR Vasseur Philippe 2 I aven u e de Gaulle 05300 LARAGNE FR Vaucher P a ul -A. 2612 CORMORE T C H Vautier P asca l La H aute Voie 27560 LA POTERIE MATHIEU FR 2998 117 V e ni George I 1 304 Candle Park SA ANTO JO TEXAS 78249 US V e nt o uilla c Guy* 5 Ru e de Dii sse ldorf 27400 LO UVIE RS FR Verband H o hl e n & Kar t forsc h er Am Untersten Hamm e r 9 58644 ISERLOHN DE Verband bsterr. H ohlenforsc h e r Obere D onaustr. 97/ 1 /61 10 20W IE AT Verlagsmitarbeiter M. Jan Thorbecke K ar l st r asse I 0 72488 SIGMARINGE D E Viehmann l os if Proceedings of the 12 1 h Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 179

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    2299 Vinard Pascal Vinogradova Marina Kerchenskaya 32,29 13461 MOSCOU RU --rlr" m Vloeberghs Jan 2365 3175 -:: .. Vlaamse Speleologen Broekstraa1 23 B-3030 HEVERLEE BE Vloeberghs Johan Vogel Eric Rue des Essert 38 2054 CHEZARD CH Vogel Svanhildr Jean-Prouve 15 1 762 GIVISIEZ (F R ) CH Vogel Viviane Rue de Es erts 38 2054 CHEZARD CH Vogel Werner Schonlstrasse 6 a 83661 LE GGRIES-FALL DE Voirol Georges Auf Kaeppeliman 29 A 4133 PRA1TELN CH Voller Susanne Berlinerring 42 8047 GRAZAT Volodina Anna Kumserskaya 8-1-162 121351 MOSCOW RU Vonlanthen Florence Vorobjov Alexander Vladimirovich ul.Trudovaya 1 26, Fial 90 664081 lRKUTSK RU Vua1az Frarn,ois-David CHY Uni. Neucha1el j'. Ru e Emile-Ar!i_and 11 I I 2007 EUCHA TEL CH ii Vuilleme Joelle 20 Cre1 de la Fin 2024 ST-AUB[ CH Wacker Claude Chenes 6 ,: ; ;; ; 2072 SAINT-BLAISE CH Wallerberger Emmerich For 1au 20 4593 STEfNBACH / STEYR AT Watson Pany Jo lil' Cave Research Foundation t1:>. ,cc '' /jj 756 Harvard Ave,ST. LOUIS I:, MO63130-3134 us 3625 Wal on Richard A. (jif= Cave Research Foundation l 1 't,' 756 H arvard Ave.ST. LOUIS Ill MO63130-3134 US Webb David 3 de Vere Gardens Woodthorpe NOTTI GHAM NG5 4PH GB Weidmann Yvo Roland s tra sse 36 8004 ZURICH CH 486 2733 Wenger Remy La Cle des Champs 2207 COFFRANE CH Wermeille Michele* Recre1e 12 2300 LA CHAUX DE FONDS CH Werner Chri s 1opher P.O Box 3031 TALLAHASSEE FL 32315 us Whitaker Terence Michael Greenfoo1 Barn LOW BENTHAM VIA LA CASTER LA2 7EQ GB White Elizabeth L. R.R. I Box 527. Miller Rd PETERS BURG PA 16669-921 I US White ichola While William B. 11~,;~, R.R. I Box 527, Miller Rd 1 "~y; PETERSBURG ( II PA 16669-921 I us ..... ----' 3863 Wicky Sidonie Widmer J ean-Pierre Av. du Leman 62 1005 LA SA NE CH 180 Proceedings of the 12' International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6

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    1885 2375 108 Widmer Urs Therwilerstr. 43 4054 BASEL CH Wignyakuta Suwesta JI Ciliwung 28 BOGOR 16154 ID Wittwer Marc Clos-Devan! I 163 ETOY CH Wollner Thomas Eggstr. 22 9100 HERJSAU CH Wookey -"'"734 ewmarket Rd 1 0 r CAMBRIDGE CBS 8LF GB :11 ,:r WUlser Hu gues A,:,_ Affaires cu lturell es i,:-_,, 2300 LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS CH Wurth Georg Verkehrsstrasse I I Iii 44809 BOCHUM DE Wysocka Jean-Paul 23 rue Rene Payot 25500 MORTEAU FR Yamamoto Tomohiro 3-14 Miyukihigashi-Machi EYAGAWA 572 JP Yaseen Ahmed Essa Cytogenetic Zoology Dept. Faculty of Science QUE AEG 3232 8072 3174 2466 Zechner Eric Geology Department Florida lmemat. Univ. MIAMI 33199 US Zehnder Remo Lunaweg 21 DSCH 4500 SOLOTHURN CH Zhang Shouyue In s titute of Geology P.O. Box 9825 100029 BEIJTNG CN Zhang Zhaohui Biological Sciences 550001 GUIYA G GUJZHOU PROVfNCE C Zhu Yuanfeng Karst Geology 40 Qixing Road 541004 GUILIN-GUANGXI C Zimmermann Erich Therwiler trasse 33 4104 OBERWlL CH Zimmermann Kurt l..t -. Pommemstra se 8 -.l il ~!f; 79761 WT-TIE GEN DE ,11 r: Zink Sebastien GuggenbUhlstrasse 4 8404 WlNTERTHUR CH Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 181

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    Zosso Gr ego r y 2300 Zup a n H aj n a N a dj a -_ K a r s t R esea r c h LA C HA UXD EFO DS C H 3 == Tit ov TR G 2 I .I 66230 PO S TOJ N A SI 2415 Zo u ge ib M arw an c/o Ca pt. F a rr a, M E A T e rm 3 H ea thr ow Airp o rt LO DO G B People who also took part in the realisation of the 12 t h congress Ont egalement collabore a la realisation du 12 e Congres : A g u s t o ni J ea n G e r a ld Al s p a u g h M e l o ni e, A m s tut z R e n e, B ai llif Thi e rr y, B ea ud Ca rol e, B e n o it Pi e rr e, B e r ge r F e rn a nd B e rth e r J r o m e, B e rth o ud Ce dri c, B esa n a D a vid Bian c hi L o r e n zo, Bil a t C hri ti a n Bil a t St e ph a n e, Bl ase r Chri s t o ph e, Bl avo u x B e rn a rd B od m e r C l a ud e, B osse i co l as, Bou c h e y Emm an u e l B o uill e G eo r ge B o urquin Vin ce nt. B o u ve r a t J ac qu es, B ov i e r P ie rr eAnt o in e. Br a ndt Chri t o ph e, Br an dt Cy rill e, Brandt Fr e d er i c, B ro qu e t Chri tian Br o a rd Pi e rr e, B ros ar d Qu e ntin Bro ssard Vin ce nt Bro ss in Dominiqu e, B ross in J e an M a uri ce, Bru gge r Eri c, Brun o G eo r ges, Burt o n R o b e rt C a ill e Y vesP asca l Ca l a m e Y ves, C arn a l Frarn ;;o i s. Ca rp e nti e r Cos m e, Ca tt a n eo Fr a n 9o i s, C h a bl oz Gr ego ir e, Chall e t P a tri c k C h a rri e r e Edm o nd C h a rri e r e E d o u a rd C h a r ve t Co rinn e, C h a t e l a in R o l an d C hi ro l B e rn ar d C h o ll e t P asca l C h o ll e t P a tri ck, C h o pard Chri s ti an, C h orvo t G e r a rd Cl e m e n ce J eanP a ul C l e m e n ce T11i erry, C o rdi e r Ja cky, Co rdi e r J ea n M ar i e, Cosan d ey R e m y, C u c h e St e phan e, D andr ea Mi c h ae l D ae ll e nb ac h Ni co l as, D a rti g u e n ave C hri s t o ph e, D e h o n Ol iv i e r D e li s l e L a ur e nt D e n e r eaz D a ni e l D iaz Ju a n Din g B e rtr a nd Din g Eve l y n e Dr og u e C l a ud e, D roz J e an Pi e rr e, Dr ozdit Bu sse t J eanD e ni Dub o i s L a ur e n t, Dub o i S e r ge, Egger Thi e rr y, E r ar d S e r ge, F a hrni P a tri c k F a i v r e C h ar l es, Fa rt o n M arc, Filli s t o rf Geo r ges, Fi vaz Bl a i se, Fl e ur y Fr edy, FIU c ki ge r John F lu ry M a rku s, F ra n cey St e ph a n e, Fra sco tti L a ur e nt. Fr ey J ea n Frigeri Jo e l F ro id eva u x oe l G e hri Philipp e, G e i ge r Co rinn e, Ge i se r L a ur e nt Gind ra t Pi e rr eY ves, Gir ar d ie r J ea n Pi e rr e, Girar di n J ea n Pi erre, G og n ia t J ean -M a uri ce, G og n ia t P a tri c k G raf Ri c h a r d. Gr a n d j ea n V a l e ri e, G r e m a ud P a tri c k G r e mmin ge r S e r ge. Gr eze t H e nri Gubl e r Th o m as, Gu e nin St e ph a n e, Guill a um e E ri c, Guill a um eG e ntil M arce l Guill a um eG e ntil Ni co l as, Gul e r C l a ud e, Gurtn e r M a rtin Gu yo mard Ja c qu es G yge r Pi e rr e-A l a in H a b e r aa t Mi c h e l H a d o rn Thi erry. H ae n z i J ea n -C l a ud e H as l er J ea n J ac qu es, H e ld M ar i e-C l a u de, H e rm a nn M a nu e l Hipp e nm eye r C l a ud eEri c, H i r sc h i R o l a n d, H oc hli B ea t H oc hli i co l e, Hu g u e nin B e rn a rd Hupp e rt Hubert I saac R e n a ud J e an Favr e Vin ce nt J ea nn e r e t Al a in B e rnard J e ann e r e t Hu be rt J ea nn e Laur e nt. J e annin Fran c i s, J e qui e r C hri s t o ph e, J o bin C laud e, John Pi e tT e Jubin J ea n Philipp e, K a i se r ico l as, K as t e l e r A l a in K e rn e n St e ph a n Ki ss lin g J ea n Mi c h e l Kn e u ss Ni c ola s, K o hli Fr e d e ri c, Koni g C hri s ti a n K y ri ac o s P a tri c k L aco t e Ja c qu e L agge r Pi e rr eAndr e, L a n eve J ea n Fran 9 oi s, Lan eve S y lvio L e b e l R e m y, L ee St eve n s, L e ibund g ut Chri Li an, L e u e nb e r ge r Li o n e l L e uth o ld C e dri c, L e u z in ge r Y ves, Lind e r Ol v i e r L oco rot o nd o A n ge l o. M po y Jo se L o nji M ag nin C hri s t ia n M a r c hit e lli P a ca t M a tth ey Eri c, M a tth ey L a ur e nt M a uron P as ca l M aye D av id M e n eva ut Laur e nt M eye r Mi s h a, Milutin ov i c Obr a d Mi se r ez St e phan e, M o nard M a r cAndr e, Mon bar o n Ja cq u e E ri c, M o nni e r Y a nn M o nt a nd o n J ea n F ra n 9o i s, Mu e ll e r M a r e nd o, MUii e r D a ni e l MUii er J ea n Philipp e, N e u ko mm M a uri ce, Ni co l et J ea n D a ni e l ob P a ca l o irat Pi e rr e, o r o S y l va in N u ss b a um Geo r ges-A nd re, P a mbi anco Milk o, P a r e M a r c, P eg u e n e t J ac qu es, P e rr e n o ud Thi e rr y, P er r e t Ol ivie r P esca nt e Ri ccar d o, P e t e rn1 a nn Y ves, Pic a Giu e pp e, P ie n z ol a M a nu e l Pi e rr e humb e rt J ea n -Fra n 9o i s, Plumat Cl a ir e, Pr es t o r Jo e r g, Pr e t o t P asca l Pri o r M ic h e l Prud a t Pi e rr e, Pul ve r L o ri s, Pur ro B e rn a rd Quin c h e C l a ud e, R c in e P a tri ce, R ae m y C hri s t o ph e, R azac k M o umt az, R e inh a r d Jac q u es, R ex S y bill e, R ic h a rd Dani e l Ri c h a rd Did ie r R iese n C l a ud e, R obe rt Ni c oud J ea n Lu c, R od J ea n R o hr bac h Y va n R oss i e r R l a nd R o ta Fla v i o, R o u sse l C laud e, R yse r L a ur e nt S a l o m o n Gi se l e, Sa rt o r e ll o Al essa nd ra, S ca l e ra Y a n S c h a ll e r L a ur e nt S c hmid Mi r e ill e, S c hn egg C hri s ti an, Sc hu e pb ac h G era r d, S c h wa b S e b a ti e n S e t e r Mi c h e l Si egfr i ed P a tri c k Sim o n e t P a tri ck, S in ge l e P a t rice, Sog u e l Pi e rr e, Sp a rt P a tri ck, St e in e r Brun o, St e udl e r Philipp e, St o ll e r J ea n Fran 9o i Str e i ff Thi e rr y, Stud e r P ie rr e. S u a r ez N in e !. Teg u za R ay m o nd Thi eba ud C hri s tian Thi e b a ud Ph i lipp e, T ru sse l M ar tin T sc humi J ea n U r ec h R o ll o n Y a di R o b e rt o, V era S a l va d o r Y oc k e C hri s tin e Y oc k e R o b e rt Yo ge lb ac h e r D o m i ni q u e, Y o i ro l C hr is ti a n Y o n Ar x J ea n -C l a ud e, Y o n K ae n e l V in ce nt Yuill e S t ep h a n e, Yuill e umi e r Will y, W a nn e r B ea t r i ce, W e b e r Fra n cis, W ess ik e n Mi c h ae l a, Wi cki M arc, Widm e r Mi c h e l Will e B e rn a r d, W i nkl e r Pi e tT eAl a in W o rthin g t o n St eve, Y e rli P at ri c k Z i eg l e r J e an-Pierr e, Zin gg R a ph ae l Zumbrunn e n Oli v i e r Zurbu c h e n Oli v i e r 182 Proceedings of the 12 1 h Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 199 7, Sw i tzerland Volume 6

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    Authors Index volume 1 to 6 AAEMM m 1 9 1 Bixio Roberto [lJ 269 Clottes Jean 111 1 03 A bb a t e R LI 20 5 Bl a nd J I Ill Clottes Jean Ill 4 Abdul-Nour Hani m 35 Blin ov S M. II 3 1 9 Coca Spencer IV 87 Abul-Hab Jalil Ill 369 Blond e ) C. J 424 Codrea Viad Ill 1 79 A d a n k M a r k u s I V 65 Bock Matthia s III 1 99 Coesse n s Vin ce nt Vl 50 Adbes s elam Malek II 247 Bodin Jacque s II 259 Co in ea u N LII 350 A i go un C. II 247 Boehm Peter III 203 Collet Gu y C hristian ru 83 Aime Gerard III 5 Bohly Bernard m 22 1 C ollignon Bernard II 263 Alli s on Cara 1 6 Bolanz Jean-Jacque s IV 7 5 Co lli g n o n B e rn a r d I V 57 Ancel Bruno II] 1 95 Bolliger Thoma s ill 1 4 1 Co rd on ni e r M II 69 Ancel Bruno Ill 245 Bonacci Ognjen ll 27 Co rt e A dri a n o 1 83 A ncel Bruno Ill 249 Borow s ky Richard Ill 359 Co rt e Adri a n o 179 Andreev Sergiu P. lII 32 1 B o r sa t o An d r ea I 247 Coste Thierr y V 85 Andreo B II 25 1 B o r sa t o Andr ea I 77 Co ur s Se r ge ill 79 Arce n eg ui R oc i o 1 83 Borsato Andrea I1 5 7 Cox Ni c h o l as J I 285 Argant Alain lII 105 Boutin Claude lll 350 Craven Stephen Adrian V 1 5 Argant Alain TII 1 60 B oy d C li ffo rd C. III 37 Crochet JeanYve s 424 A rlt T h i l o III 203 B ra n d t Cy rill e I V 7 1 C ru z C. M II 95 Arlt Thilo Ill 253 B ro uqui sse F r a n 9o i s II 299 C ru z de l a A. V. II 95 A rlt T hil o Ill 257 Brouquisse Fran~ois 11 6 1 D a lm e ri Gi a np ao l o I 77 Ar lt T hil o V I 1 00 Brouquis s e Fran~oi s IV 47 D a m ya n ov Y I Il l Armand Dominique m 1 09 B ro uqui sse Fra n 9o i s Vl 55 D a m ya n ov Y 1 05 Arrigo C y ril JV 1 3 B row n L es li e VI 36 D a m ya n ov Y I 107 As tru c J .-G. 424 Bu c h as H o l ge r I 453 D a m ya n ov Y I 1 0 Atteia Olivier 11 1 25 Bulichov Anatol y V 89 D amya n ova A. 11 0 Att e i a Oli v i e r II 1 4 1 Bundschuh Jochen II 1 29 D a m ya n ova A. Ill A ud e t a t M a uri ce VT 1 39 Burri Ezio II 20 1 D a m ya n ova A. 105 Audra Philippe 1 65 Bu z j a k N e n a d III 30 1 D a m ya n ova A. 1 07 Audra Philippe 337 Ca l ve t J ea n P a ul ill 26 1 D aox i a n Yu a n 300 A u dra Phili p p e 429 Ca n ave ra s J. C. IT 1 03 Daoxian Yuan II 1 23 A ud ra Philip pe V I 1 02 Capellini Dante Terence Ill 1 45 D a m e F a bi e n VI 1 5 Au l e r A II 27 1 Cappa Emanuele III 9 D ay Mi c h ae l J. 133 A y ub Sora y a IV 45 Cappa Emanuele rv 79 D ay Mi c h ae l J. 2 1 5 Ay ub Sora y a V 35 Ca pp a Giuli o ill 9 d e B o ni s L. 424 B a d esc u A dri a n I 25 Ca pp a Giuli o rv 79 De Broyer C. V 1 03 Badino Giovanni 483 Ca rl so n K e nt R ill 347 d e D o mini c i D av id e V I 5 Bakalowicz Michel II 23 C arr asco F. IT 2 51 De Paola Marco I 202 B aka l ow i cz Mi c h e l II 55 Casati Luigi IV 67 D e Vi vo Ant o ni o Y I 5 B a l b i A. 69 Cassou Jean-Pierre V 53 D ec r ea u F r e d e ri c III 9 1 B a l de r e r W e rn e r JI 275 Castellani Vittorio Ill 265 D e fl an dr e G. I 93 B a nt o n 0 11 283 Cas t e ll an i V itt o ri o Ill 269 D e h a r ve n g L o ui s I V 47 B a r czewsk i M II 55 Cech Brigitte ill 209 Delaby Serge IV I l l Barredo Silvia P. I 69 C h a b e rt Ja c qu es rv 83 Delaby Serge I V 115 B arre d o S. P VI 2 Chabert Jacque s V 111 D e l an n oy J ea n Ja c qu es 6 1 Bar s anti C ecilia M. III 2 1 7 C h a n gy un Z h a n g rv 5 5 D e l a nn oy J ea n J acq u es 11 69 B art h o l ey n s J eanPi e rr e V 1 03 C h a u ve Pi er r e rr 247 D e l a nn oy J ea n -Jacq u es I 257 B ar th o l ey n s J ea n Pi er r e VI I O I Chazine Jean-Michel Ill I O I Delannoy Jean-Jacque s Vl 102 Blirt s chi Hans-Peter III 233 Choppy Jacques 3 D e m a tt e i s Ant o ni o II 29 1 Ba y le Chri s tian II I Choppy Jacques 367 Denneborg Michael I 34 1 B ecke r J ose H e nr iq u e V 35 Choppy Jacques 40 1 D e n ys C hri s ti a n e I 424 B e d os A nn e IV 47 Choppy Jacque s IV 83 D e n y C hri s ti a n e III 1 65 B e ll a P I 85 C hri s t e R o m a in II 22 1 D e n ys C hri s ti a n e II] 1 78 Bendere v Alexe y II 255 Christen David VT II D es p a in Joe l V I 1 9 B engea nu Mon i ca 235 Cigna Arrigo A 203 D es t o m bes J eanLu c 257 Benischke Ralf 425 C imino Antonio II 205 Destombes Jean-Luc II 69 Bernabei Tullio V I 5 C inq M ars J II 287 D es t o mb es J ea n Lu c I 61 Bernasconi Reno III 333 C l a r ck I. D II 287 Dimu cc i o Lu ca A n to ni o I 202 Bernasconi Reno Ill 337 C l a rk e Arthur Vl 80 Dimuccio Luca Antonio 400 Ber s tad Ida Malene I 53 Clemens Torsten 3 01 Djurovic Predrag 42 1 B et ri sey Fr e d er i c VI 5 C l e m e n s T o r s t e n II 10 7 Dodelin Christian V 73 Bini Alfredo I 345 Clemen s Torsten II 65 D o d e lin C hri s ti a n V I 11 4 Bitin s k aya L. N. V 3 1 C l e m e n s T o r s t e n I 307 Doerfliger Nathalie 11 1 33 Bitterli Thomas IV 5 C l osso n D a mi e n V 1 3 Doerfliger Nathalie II 209 Bitterli Thomas 349 C l osso n D a mi e n I 322 D oe rfli ge r Na th a li e rr 47 Proceedings of the 12 th Internat i onal Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 18 3

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    Dogwiler Toby 178 Forgeot Olivier 9 Gunn John YI 36 Dominguez Carmen 485 Fornos Joan J 37 Guyot Jean Loup I V 51 Dra ga n Bularda Mihail lll 285 Forti Paolo 187 Guyot Jean-Loup I[ 27 1 Dragoni Walter lll 265 Forti P ao l o 226 Guzvica Goran Ill 121 Draily Christelle Ill 6 1 Forti P ao l o VI 137 Habern,ann Dirk 251 Dre y brodt Wolfgang II 75 Fosse Philippe Ill 1 49 Hajna Nadja Z up a n Y I 32 Dreybrodt Wolfgang II 81 Frati l a Gheorghe Ill 179 Halliday William R I 437 Drol e Franjo Y I 25 Fratila Gheorghe 231 Hallida y William R. 199 Drouin Philippe IV 11 9 Frisia Silvia 247 Halliday William R I 461 Drouin Philippe Ill 113 Frisia Silvia 77 Halliday William R VI 107 Drouin Philippe VI 21 Frumkin Amos 139 Hanneberg Armin m 203 Drouin Philippe VI 29 Fuchs Gerald 425 Hanneber g Am,in Ill 253 Dry sda le R I 73 Funcken Luc Ill 205 Hanneberg Armin III 257 Du Fayet de l a Tour Alain lll 79 Funcken Luc IV 7 Hapka Roman lll 3 Dublyansky Yuri V. II 267 Funcken Luc IV 9 Hapka Roman III 57 Dubl ya nsk y Yuri V. 27 1 Furquim Scaleante Oscarlina A. I 363 Harlacher Christof 307 Duboi s Paul 3 Gaal Ludovit 464 Hanenberger J. L. 424 Ducimetiere Pa sca l IV 13 Gabrovek Franci VT 32 Hartmann A. II 239 Duday Henri Ill 79 Gabrovsek Franci IV 23 Hartmann J ens I 100 Duffaud S. 424 Gadat J.-Y. II 69 Hartmann Jen s 453 Dumont Laurent IV 13 Gaiffe M. 297 Ha ssa n H A. Ill 37 1 Ebi Christian YI 104 Galdenzi Sandro 187 Haun s Michael II 141 Ehret Mich e l Ill 221 Gale S. J. 73 Hiiu se lmann Philipp II 3 1 Einevo ll Sl')lvi I 53 Galik Alfred Ill 65 Hiiu se lmann Philipp I V Ei enlohr Laurent II 81 Gallerini Giuliano 143 Hiiu se lmann Philipp YI 106 Eiswirth Matthias 11 213 Gamboa-Vargas Jose A. YI 85 Havlicek David I 481 Ek Cami ll e 297 Garasic Mladen IV 1 23 Heaton Tim 77 Ek Camille 322 Garasic Mladen IV 125 Heijni s H. 73 Ek Camille V 1 3 Garasic Mladen 1 47 Heller Martin V 127 Emblanch Chri tophe II 17 Garcia A. E. II 95 Hercman Helena 45 Emblanch C hristophe II 5 Garcia Michel Ill 79 Hercman Helena 85 Engel Scott I 21 Gaspar E. 41 Hercman Helena 87 Epi Lorenzo V 29 Gaspar Radu D II 175 Hem,ann Felix II 141 Era o Adolfo Romero 483 Gaspar Radu D. JI 217 Herold Thilo II 275 Eraso Adolfo Romero 485 Genereux D II 199 Hill Carol A. 226 Espina a Lui s lll 359 Genty Dominiqu e 61 Hill Carol A. 390 Eszterhas lstvan 469 Genty Dominique 257 Hobbs fl1 H H. Ill 345 Faeh A. II 9 Georgiev L. N. l05 Hoblea Fabien II 35 Fage Luc-Henri VI 43 Georgiev L. N 107 Hoblea Fabien I 429 Fage Luc-Henry 111 1 01 Ghergari Lucretia 231 Hof Alex 137 Faillat Jean Pierre II 111 Ghergari Lucretia 227 Hofenpradli Angelica 235 Faillat Jean-Pierre 11 85 Giannandrea Paolo 202 Hoffmann Guido V 65 Fairchild Ian J. 247 Gietl Diana 497 Holland Ernst V 39 Fang Jinfu 395 Gillieson David 327 Holler Cato Jr. Ill 305 Farina Daniele 143 Gine s Ange l 37 Holmgren K. 55 Favre Gerald IV 1 3 Gines Joaquin 37 Hot inger John R. lll 347 Felici A lb erta IV 79 Giulivo lt a l o VI 7 Horat Peter II 9 Felici Alberto llI 9 Glazek Jerzy l 85 Hoti Makir IV 129 Felisiak lreneu sz I 17 Glazek Jerzy 405 Hotzl Heinz II 187 Ferguson Lynn M. lll 315 Glazek Jerzy 45 Hotz! Heinz II 213 Fernandez-Jalvo Yolanda III 165 Glowacki Piotr 366 Hotz! Heinz II 303 Fiedler Suzana 111 301 Gobrunova K. A. 11 3 1 9 Hoyos M. II 103 Filippov Andrey G I 465 Goggin Keith E. 381 Huang Yiming I 77 Fi cher M J 73 Gogniat Stephane II 229 Hubbard David Ill 37 Fluck Pierre Ill 187 Goldie Helen S. I 285 Hubbard David Ill 175 Foltete Jacques 169 Goodbar Jame s V 3 Hubbard David A. Jr. III 311 Font Estramar, Ass. Rech. IV 71 Grady Frederick lll 175 Hiickinghaus Dirk II 107 Ford Derek C. I 44 Gradzinski Michal 275 Hiickinghaus Dirk II 145 Ford Derek C. 88 Gradzinski Michal 81 Hiickinghaus Dirk II 65 Ford Derek C. II 1 20 Gradzinski Michal 85 Huff Warren 25 Ford Derek C. II 195 Gradzinski Michal JV 91 Huggenberger Peter Il 221 Ford Derek C. I 105 Grandgirard Vincent I 33 1 Huntoon Peter W. I 311 Ford Derek C. 107 Grandgirard Vincent VI 109 lmper David m 229 Ford Derek C. 111 Grasso Alessandro D. II 9 1 [sayevitch A. G. V 31 Ford Derek C. 146 Guadelli Jean-Luc III 11 7 Jaillet Stephane I 171 Ford Derek C. 261 Guardiario J D. A. II 199 Jalov Alexey IV 25 Ford Derek C. 262 Guglielmi Yves II 137 Jambresic Gordana 111 157 184 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 1997, Switzerland Volume 6

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    Jan Vit 45 Lascu Cristian I 25 Marinova E. 107 Jeanbourquin George s VI 134 Lastennet Roland II 17 Martin Philippe 129 J ea nbourquin P asca l II 13 La tennet Roland II 5 Martin Ro sa le s W. II 43 Jeannin PierreYves I 195 La ud et Frederic I 424 Martinek Klaus-Peter III 25 3 Jeannin Pierre-Y ves II 149 Laudet Frederic III 165 Martinek Klaus-Peter III 257 Jearmin Pierre-Yve s II 91 Laudet Frederic III 178 Martini Jacques E.J. I 22 3 Jeannin Pierre-Yve s IV l Laureti Lamberto III 236 Martini Jacque s E.J VI 108 Jeannin Pierre-Yve s I 293 Lauriol Bernard II 287 Martini Ser g io III 217 Jeannin Pi e rr e -Yve s I 349 Lauritzen Stein-Erik 178 Martini Sergio I 315 Jeannin Pierre-Yves VI 127 Lauritzen Stein-Erik I 45 Masotti Daniel V 21 Jifang Shen IV 55 Lauritzen Stein Erik I 55 Masotti Daniel V 25 Jin Yuzhang VI 32 Lauritzen Stein-Erik I 57 Masotti Daniel V 9 John so n Jerald III 41 Lauritzen Stein Erik I 85 Ma s sc h e l ein Jan VI 50 Jonn s son Sigurdur S. I 485 Lauritzen Stein-Erik II 320 M as soli-Nove ll i R. II 201 Jordan P. II 275 Lauritzen Stein-Erik I 49 Matthews Peter V 72 Jordi Martin V 77 Lauritzen Stein Erik 53 Matthews Peter V 72 Juli Timothy A. J I 65 Le Bee G II 111 Matthews Peter V 72 Junwei Wan IV 55 L e Pennec Robert II 39 Matthey Franci s VI 135 Jutzet J -M VI 64 Lee Thorp J. 55 Maucha Laszlo II 157 Kadlec Jaro s la v I 13 Leel-Ossy Szabolcs I 116 Maucba Laszlo II 321 Kadlec Jaro s la v 387 Legendre S. I 424 Mauduit Eric III 261 Kalmbach Uwe IV 29 Lesinsky Gabriel III 325 Mavlyudov Bulat R. I 1 91 Karl e n W. I 55 Leszkiewicz Jan I 489 Maximovich N G. u 319 Kashima Naruhiko III 281 Lewandowski Klau s III 213 McDermott Frank r 77 KaB Werner II 187 Lhenaff R. I 297 Mecchia Marco 483 KiiB Werner II 55 Li Juzhang I 395 Medv ill e Dougla s M. 381 Kawa hti I. S. III 371 Lied Rudolf II 107 Medville Dougla s M. 457 K ejo nen Aimo m 53 Lied Rudolf II 145 Medville Hazel E 457 K e jonen A imo IV 93 Liedl Rudolf II 153 MeierEdi II 221 Kempe S tephan I l00 Lied Rudolf II 65 Melloul Abraham J. II 225 K e mpe Stephan I 453 Lied! Rudolf I 195 Melo Fi lh o Leonildes IV 51 Kemp e Stephan III 13 Liessmann Wilfried III 237 M e lo-Filho Leonildes II 271 K e mpe Stephan 445 Lignere u x Yves III 71 Menichett i Marco I 1 87 Kempe Stephan 449 Lin Jun s hu 395 Menne Benjamin LI 119 Kempe Stephan VI 107 Linge Henriette 49 Menne Benjamin IV 33 Keppens E. I 93 Lip s Bernard IV 41 Menne Benjamin III 289 Ketz-Kempe Christhi l d m 13 Liu Zaihua I 300 Mes s oul i M. m 350 Kicinska Ditta I 168 Liyany un X C. C. LT 21 Meus Philippe II 55 Kienle J II 1 63 Lj ub ojevic Vladimir I 421 Miche l G. V l03 Kiss Stefan III 285 Lochner Bernd III 241 Michel J. V 81 Klimchouk A lexander I 157 Loiseleur Bernard 355 Michel R aymond V 13 Klimchouk A lexander 161 Loiseleur Bernard 441 Michie Neville V 43 Klimchouk A lexander I 306 Longinelli Antonio I 247 Middleton Gregory I 437 Kne z Martin 11 279 Looser Michel II 291 Mihevc Andrej 57 Knez Martin I 156 Lopez-Ch i cano M. II 43 Mihevc Andrej VI 32 Kor s hunov Viktor A. I 29 Lowe David J I 436 Mijatovic Borivoje F. II 295 Korzh y k Vitali V 7 Lozan Mina N III 321 Miserez Jean-Jacque s II 229 Ko sa Attila V 129 Lundberg Joyce I 178 Miserez Jean-Jacque s vr 122 Ko se l Vladimir III 3!0 Lundberg Jo yce IOI Mixon David I 21 Kostov Kon s tantin I 409 Macaluso M II 205 Mobrlok Ulf II 163 Kovacevic Tihomir rv 125 MacDonald William D I 105 Mohrlok Ulf II 167 Kra s no s htein Arkady E. V 31 MacDonald William D. I 107 Moldovan Oana m 319 Krawczyk Wieslawa Ewa I 493 MacDonald William D I 60 Montandon Paul-Etienne II 229 Krekeler Mark P. S. I 21 Madry B. II 81 Montero Garcia I s mael Arturo III 20 Krklec Nevenka m 157 Magniez Guy J. III 341 Montero Garcia I s mael Arturo V 80 Krou s e Roy H P. 105 Maire Richard 359 Morel Laurent V 99 Krouse Roy H. P. 107 Maire Richard VI 43 Morel Philippe III 3 Krouse Roy H. P 65 Maltsev Vladimir A 29 Morel Philippe m 137 Krutaj Farudin IV 129 Maltsev Vladimir A. 219 Morin Deni s III 225 Kusch H e inrich m 17 Maltsev Vladimir A. I 267 Motyka Jacek II 171 Kyselak Jiri VI 41 Mangan C. II 137 Motyka Jacek II 235 Labau V. I 4 1 Mangin Al a in II 283 Mouret Claude II 299 Lagrou David VI 50 Mania Jacky II 247 Mouret Claude IV 57 Laiconas E rika s III 169 Manolache Elena III 285 Mouret Claude III 36 3 Lalou Jean-Claude VT 1 24 Marandat B. 424 Mouret Claude VI 55 Lami H. II 247 Marechal Jean-Chri s tophe II 149 Mouret C l aude VI 58 Larocque Marie II 283 Marechal JeanC hri s tophe II 291 Mouret C l aude VI 61 Proceedings of the 1 2 th Int ernational Congress of Speleology 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 185

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    M o u s n y Vin ce nt V 1 3 Philipp e Mi c h e l llI 1 36 Salvatori Francesco V 11 5 Mudr y J ac qu es ll 1 3 7 Philippe Michel Ill 161 Salvatori Francesco V 11 7 Mudr y J ac qu es II 1 7 Pinto Ana Cristina Ill 1 7 1 Sanchez-Moral S ll 10 3 Mudr y Ja c qu es II 2 4 7 Plagnes Valerie II 17 9 S a n z -Rubi o E. II 1 03 Mudr y Ja c qu es II 2 51 Plesa Corneliu lII 329 S a rbu S e rb a n 25 Mudr y Ja c qu es II 5 Porter Megan L. III 34 5 S aso w s k y l ra 25 Mueller Robert J. I 2 15 Po s t awa A 11 23 5 Sauro Ugo V I 1 09 Mu g l ov a P e nk a III 95 Pr e i swe rk C hri s ti a n IV 37 Sauter Martin II 1 07 Mu g l ova P e n ka I 207 Prokhorenko Vitaliy V 93 Sa ut e r M a rtin 11 1 45 Mulaomerovic Jasminko III 87 Prokhorenko Vitaliy V 95 S a ut e r M a rtin II 1 53 Mull e r C l a udi a I 30 1 Proudlove Graham S. Ill 35 1 S a ut e r M a rtin II 1 67 Muller Elisabeth II 239 Proudlove Graham S. III 3 5 5 Sa ut e r M a rtin II 65 Mull e r Imr e II 22 1 Puech Vincent I 293 Sa ut e r M ar tin 1 95 Muller Imre 11 243 Pui g J.M II 5 Sa ut e r M a rt i n 30 1 Mun oz Al fo n so I 1 79 Pulid oBo sc h A nt o ni o II 43 S a ut e r M a rtin 307 Munson Cheryl Ann III 4 5 Pulina Marian 323 Sauter Martin 3 1 8 Mun so n P a tri c k J In 45 Pulina Marian I 366 Sbai Abdelkader 297 M y lroi e John E I 17 8 Pulin a Mari a n 489 Sbai Abdelkader ll 3 11 Naef F. II 9 Pulin a M a ri a n 493 S c h iife rj o h a nn V o lk er 473 iige li Ue l i Vl 11 7 Quini f Y ves 93 Scherrer Nadim C. 73 iggemann Stefan 25 1 QuinifY ves 2 5 7 S c h e rr e r S II 9 iggemann Stefan 151 QuinifY ves 6 1 S c hi ffe rd ec k e r Fr a n 9o i s II] 1 37 ini Roberto ill 273 R a d anov i c -Gu zv i ca Bi se rk a Ill l 2 l S c hmid G. II 55 O berw ind e r M a tthi as 45 3 R age J C. 424 Schnegg Pierre-Andre II 47 Ob e r wi nd e r M a tthi as 449 R ags d a l e Mi c h ae l I 2 1 Schone Tito Ill 277 O e l ze R a in e r 2 51 Rathgeber Thomas III 1 53 S c h wa r cz H e n ry P I 88 Onac Bogdan Petroniu 23 5 Ravazzi Cesare Ill 1 24 S c h wa r cz H e n ry P II 1 2 0 On ac B og d a n P e tr o niu 227 R azac k M. 11 2 5 9 S c h wa r cz H e nr y P 262 On ac Bo g d a n P e tr o niu 23 1 R azac k M. II 283 S co tt Jan e 436 Ord o n ez M a ri a El e n a VI 7 1 R e G I 69 Sebela Stanka 11 3 Or ecc hi o S II 2 05 Redonte Gabriel Jorge IV 99 S e il e r Kl a u sP II 239 Ostyanova Nella YI 5 4 R e d o nt e G a bri e l Jor ge VI 67 S e mi ko l e nn y kh A ndr e i A. 29 Ot o ni ar B o j a n VI 32 R egez J e an L o ui s VI 1 07 Semikolennykh Andrey A. V 87 Otanicar Bojan I 4 1 7 R e h ak Jo se f I 493 Semikolennykh Andre y A. Ill 293 Ot z M ar tin II 3 1 Reichert Barbara II 303 Sh a n ov S t efa n ll 255 P aar W e rn e r Ill 2 0 9 Reiner Gerhard m 1 8 1 Sh a no v St efa n Ill 367 P ac h e r M a rtin a III 65 Reisinger Christian III 1 29 Sh aw D Patri ck JI] 347 Paj6n Morejon Jesus M. 97 Reisner Victor IV 10 3 Sh aw P. A 55 Paj6n-morej6n Jesus M. II 95 R e m y J .A. 42 4 Sh e l e pin Al e k sey IV 10 3 P a l ac i osVar gas Jo se G VI 8 5 R e nn e r Sv e n II 15 3 Shen Jifang ll 2 1 Pandurska Rumiana Ill 3 67 Reynard Emmanuel V 17 Shi M e n gx i o n g VI 32 P a r t rid ge T. C. I 5 5 R ey n a ud A II 1 3 7 Shopov Yavor Y. I 1 05 Pascu Maria II 17 5 Ri c ht e r D e tl ev K 2 51 Shopov Yavor Y. 1 07 P as h e nk o S e r g u e i E l 27 1 Ri ga Didi e r IV 47 Shopov Yavor Y 11 0 Patrick Rosenthal III 22 5 R oge r s Bru ce W III 45 Shopov Yavor Y 111 P a uni ca I. 11 2 1 7 R og n o n P II 229 Shopov Yavor Y. 65 P a uni ca T 4 1 R o hn e r A ndr eas VI 9 1 Shopov Yavor Y. I 1 03 Pavuza Rudolf 7 Rosendahl Wilfried III 2 5 Shrivastava V. K. III 3 1 Pechhold Eberhard 2 11 R os p o nd e k M a riu sz 8 1 S i e b e nli s t K e rn e r Y. lll 203 Pedde Sara Ill 6 7 Rossi Carlos 17 9 S i e m e n s H 11 75 P e r ego R e n a t a III 1 2 4 Rossi Carlos 1 83 Si ge B I 424 Perego Renata llI 1 3 6 Roussel Claude II 3 07 Sim oes Wa s hin g t o n ill 83 Perna Giuliano 39 7 R o u v in ez Fabi e nn e III 57 Sim o n -Co in 9o n R. 424 P e m e tt e J ea n-Fran 9o i s VI 43 Rouzaud Frarn ; ois Ill 2 61 Singh Rame s h B. I 369 Perret C. Vl 64 Rouzaud Fran~ois m 4 9 Slabe Tadej I 377 P e rr e t Ca th e rin e IV 6 5 Rouzaud Fran~ois Ill 7 1 Sl ag m o l e n Andr e V I 11 5 P e rr e t J ea n Fr an9o i s IV 51 Rouzaud Fran~ois IlI 79 Smart Chris C. II 1 83 Perrette Yves 257 Rouzaud Fran~ois ill 97 Smart Chri s C. 11 3 1 5 Perrette Yves 6 1 Rouzaud Fran~ois III 9 1 Smart Chris C. II 5 1 Perrin Jerome II 99 R o u za ud J e an -Noe l lil 9 1 Sm a rt P e t e r L. 1 6 Perrin Jerome IV 1 9 Rowling Jill I 263 Sm y k B o l es l aw 275 P e rrin J e r o m e VI II Ro z k o w s ki Ja ce k 323 S o l e r V II 1 03 P e rr i n J e r o m e VI 10 2 Rubbioli E z io IV 51 Some l ette Luc II 111 P e titt a M a r c o II 2 01 Ruggieri Rosario IV 6 1 Song Linhua 2 7 9 Petrochilou Anna III 64 Ruggieri Rosario 1 2 5 Song Linhua 3 1 9 Philipp e Mi c h e l Ill 11 3 S a i e r s J E 11 1 99 Song Linhua 433 Philippe Michel [U 1 2 5 Salvatori Francesco V 107 S o uill ac, Sp e l eo-C lub de Ill 1 6 1 186 Proceedings of the 12 th International Congress of Speleology 199 7 Switzerland Volume 6

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    Soulier Michel III 71 Tsankov Ludmil T. 65 Weidmann Yvo IV 65 Spahlinger Wolf IV 29 Tuccimei Paola 37 Weisgerber Gerd Ill 216 Spicher Michel I 331 Tulis Jan IV 10 7 Weisgerber Gerd VJ 96 Spiro Baruch I 77 Turberg Pascal II 243 Weissensteiner Volker I 425 Spreafico Manfred VJ 1 36 Turchinov Igor 1 2 1 Wenger R emy VJ 112 Stibranyi Gustav V I 19 Turchinov Igor r 239 Werner Andreas II 187 Stichler W. II 303 Turchinov I gor YI 54 White Elisabeth L. II 191 Stiefelhagen Willy II 22 1 Tye Andrzej 289 White Elizabeth L. 155 Stoev Alexey I 207 Tye Andrzej 323 White Elizabeth L. 305 Stoev Alexey m 95 Ty on P. D 55 White William B. I] 191 Stoev Dimitar I 207 Tysseland Magne 235 White William B. l 155 Stoeva Mina Ill 95 Uhrin Marcel Ill 325 White William B. l 305 Stras enb ur g Jan 453 Urbani Franco I 243 White William B. l 89 Striebel Thomas I 473 Usuloglu Ender V 1 23 Wilcock John D. V 61 Strinati Pierre V1 71 Vacquie J ean-Franyois IV 57 Wildi Walter VJ 138 Stroutchkova Tatiana lll 78 Vadillo I. I] 251 Willems Luc 477 Stuart-Wi lli ams Hilary 88 Valdes J. J. ll 95 Williams Paul W. I 92 Sudre J. 424 Vallejo A. n 43 Wollman S. II 225 Summers Engel Annette 21 van Heyden P. E. II 1 20 Wolniewicz Klaus 453 Summers Engel Annette 25 Van Beynen P. E. I 262 Wookey V 57 Sustersic France 117 Vanara Nathalie 11 115 Wookey YI 118 Swinburne Nicola 88 Vanara Nathalie 359 Worthington Stephen R. H. n 195 Szulc Joachim 275 Vargovich Robert VI 94 Wutzig B III 277 Szulc Joachim 81 Vasileva Danica I 175 Xiying Xiao rv 55 Tacchini Pa cal IV 1 9 Yasileva Danica VJ 74 Xuewen Zhu II 121 Tama Tudor I 413 Yasileva Danica VJ 76 Yaseen Ahmed E. 111 371 Tankersley Kenneth B. III 75 Yasileva Danica VJ 78 Yonge Cha rl es J. J 107 Tankersley Kenneth B. m 45 Vasiliev Andrey G. III 321 Yonge Charles J Ill Tarhule-Lips Rozemarijn F. A. I 146 Vendramini Guilherme IV 51 Yonge Charles J. 436 Tarhule-Lips Rozemarijn F. A. 261 Veni George I 373 Yonge Charle J. 65 Tasler R. 481 Verheyden Sophie I 93 Yonge Charles J. 105 Terlau Craig A. 1 33 Yerheyden Sophie IV Ill Yonge Charles J I 60 Teutsch Georg II 1 63 Yerheyden Sophie IV 115 Zabo L. II 51 Teut eh Georg II 65 Versa Dorotea V 69 Zaenker Stefan 111 307 I 424 Zambo Laszlo I 44 Thys G V 103 Vianey-Liaud M. Viehmann losif I 227 Zechner Eric 11 199 Tognini Paola I 345 Viehmann losif III 133 Zhang Shouyue YI 32 Tomova Bisera V 131 I 413 Zhao Jin gbo I 300 II 120 Vremir Matei Toth V. A. I 87 Zhaohui Zhang Ill 297 Toussaint Michel III 21 Walanu Adam 385 Wan Junwei Y. II 21 Zhu Xuewen Tremblay Marc I 497 Zhu Yuanfeng V 47 II 303 Wang Daqing III 31 1 Trimbom P. Zuber A. II 171 YI ll I Wang Fuchang I 433 Tripet Jean-Pie1Te 29 Zuccoli Luisa 345 391 Watson Patt y Jo III Trofimova Elena 307 Zupan Hajna Nadja 33 I 105 Weber Dieter ITl 9 Tsankov Ludmil T VI 64 Zurbriigg Ch 11 Tsankov Ludmil T. l 107 Weidmann Y. Zwahlen Franyois II 209 Weidmann Yvo IV 37 T ankov Ludmil T. I 110 T ankov Ludmil T. I Ill S I 1 1997 Switzerland Volume 6 d I the 12 'h International Congress of pe eo ogy Procee mgs o 187

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    PAGE 200

    Nidlenloch S w,tzerlond ( PI 1010 Urs Widmer )


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