aat - Art & Architecture Thesaurus is a structured vocabulary of around 34,000 concepts, including 131,000 terms, descriptions, bibliographic citations, and other information relating to fine art, architecture, decorative arts, archival materials, and material culture.
archaistic - Refers to works created in a style imitating earlier Archaic styles, especially Hellenistic sculpture dating between 323 and 100 BCE that imitates the Archaic Greek style but was produced by new, more sophisticated carving techniques.
bronze - MFA Boston An alloy of copper and tin sometimes containing small amounts of zinc, lead, silver, aluminum, or phosphorus. Bronze artifacts have been discovered in Thailand dating from 3600 BCE, while Chinese and Middle Eastern bronzes have been dated as early as 2000 BCE. Bronze is stronger, harder, and more durable than brass or iron. It was used for weapons, tools, vases, household goods, coinage, jewelry, and cast sculptures.
borax - Natural or refined sodium tetraborate with ten molecules of water, i.e., Na2B4O7.10H2O. Borax also has pentahydrate (five molecules of water) and anhydrous forms.
cane - A cane is the result of the arranging of rods, single and bi-colour, and other canes to create a specific pattern, which are then fused, cased if necessary, and stretched.
chevrons - Simple geometric forms composed of Vs used singly, in a vertical series, or in a string to form a zigzag.
chiton - Tunics, short or long, and generally of linen, worn by men and women in ancient Greece.
classicism - Includes any manifestation of the material culture of classical Greece and Rome. With reference to the period of late 18th- and 19th-century art and architecture which featured a return to classical principles, use "Neoclassical." With reference to the period of architecture and ornament of the late 18th- to early 20th-century based relatively closely on ancient classical forms, use "Classical Revival."
cloak - Sleeveless outer garments which fasten at the neck and fall loosely from the shoulders to cover the entire body; may have a yoke or some shaping from the neck to the shoulders.
crizzling - When an object has been made with ingredients that tend to draw moisture into the glass surface over may years, surface cracking, called crizzling can develop if the object is placed in a dehydrating environment.
ewer - Tall, wide-mouthed vessels, generally having a pouring lip, and that have a deep bowl on a stemmed base and a single vertical handle. The bowl is usually cylindrical, baluster-shaped, or helmet-shaped.
flasks - Spheroidal, bulbous shape, pear-shaped, or flattened vessels with a narrow neck and a small mouth, usually of glass, ceramic, metal, animal skin, wicker, or another material and used for various purposes. Also used specifically for distinctive narrow-necked vessels, usually of glass, having a rounded body, used in laboratories.
gadroons - A decorative pattern formed of a series of convex ridges.
gilding - Surface application of metal in the form of leaf, powder applied directly to the surface, powder mixed with a binder, or other forms to approximate the effect of solid or inlaid metal.
himation - Greek mantles, generally of wool.
hoplite shields - Round shields of ancient Greece, developed in the 8th century BCE, of an evenly convex shape sharply offset at the rim, and having on the back a central armband and a hand grip near the rim.
hydriae - Ancient Greek or Roman vessels for water with three handles: two horizontal side handles for lifting and one vertical back handle for holding and pouring. Many hydriae were also made in bronze in addition to terracotta and, unlike the metal versions of other shapes, a good number survive.
iconography - Refers to subject matter in works of art, including characters, animals, plants, themes, stories, events, places, objects, and their symbolism.
inlay - Any process by which small pieces of one material are inserted into a larger piece of another so as to create a design.
kohl - A black powder used as eye make-up.
lanceolate - Shape resembling a spear or lance-head in shape, tapering to a point at the apex and sometimes the base.
mameluke - Refers to the art and architecture associated with the Mamluks, a warrior caste who came to rule Egypt and Syria from about 1250 to the early 16th century although they were influential and powerful in the Middle East for over 700 years.
mosaic glass - Glass made with slices of colored canes which can be used as inlays for walls and furniture, fashioned into beads and various kinds of jewelry, or arranged in molds and fused together to form vessels.
network canes - A network cane is a length of glass of one colour with a spiral of another colour wrapped around it. In early Imperial composite mosaic glass they are sometimes found as rim canes, but as they make their appearance in the Hellenistic period, they will also be considered along with earlier forms of canes.
obsidian - Obsidian is formed when the intense heat of a volcano fuses masses of silica together, forming the hard glass.
oil lamps - Lamps designed to burn oil as fuel, typically with a reservoir for holding the oil and an opening from which a wick can be extended.
oinochoe - Refers to one of the most common forms of oinochoe. This type is usually red-figured and features a trefoil (three-spouted) mouth and bulbous body continuously curved from neck to foot. The chous was a standard unit of measure, equivalent to about 3.28 liters. The chous was especially associated with the Anthesteria, an Athenian festival celebrating wine, the wine god Dionysos, and the dead. The second day of the festival was called 'Chous.' It was customary during the festival to drink from choes and to pour libations from them at tombs. Miniature red-figured choes, decorated with scenes of children at play, were probably festival gifts to children or gifts offered at a child's grave.
peplos - Woolen garments worn by women of ancient Greece; often open on one side, and fastened on both shoulders.
perfume bottles - Term applied to a wide variety of bottles of different size and shape intended primarily for holding or dispersing perfume. Includes those made for sale to cosmetics manufacturers as well as those often decorative forms meant to be placed on the dressing table and sometimes part of a toilet set.
polychromy - The practice of painting or decorating in several colors; a term used mostly regarding sculpture, architectural decoration, ceramics, and various ancient artifacts. For the attribute describing the result of this process, use polychrome.
pontil mark - Rough place on a blown glass piece where the pontil rod has been broken away. May be ground or ground and polished to form a smooth circular depression.
potash - A potassium carbonate in the form of a white alkaline granular powder. It is used in glass manufacture, soft soap, and wool washing.
pyxis-storing - Relatively small, squat lidded boxlike vessels for holding cosmetics and toilet articles in ancient Greece. Generally cylindrical in shape. Often found in the graves of women and warriors.
silvering - The act or process of covering with silver.
soda ash - An anhydrous grayish-white, odorless, water-soluble powder, NA2CO3, usually obtained by the Solvay process and containing about 1 percent of impurities consisting of sulfates, chlorides, and bicarbonates. It is used in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, soaps, paper, petroleum products, as a cleanser, for bleaching, and in water treatment.
tunic - Simple slip-on garments made with or without sleeves and usually knee-length or longer and belted at the waist; especially those worn by men and women of ancient Greece and Rome. Also, garments extending from the neckline to the waist or longer, usually high-necked and worn over other garments.
unguentarium - Containers probably used to hold ointments and perfume. Early ceramic examples found at Petra (probably 4th-century BCE) were in the typical Hellenistic form of the spindle bottle, but this form was later completely replaced by a series of high-necked types with round to ovoid bodies of varying and apparently standardized forms (from the 1st century BCE onwards). The number of unguentaria found at Petra suggests that they were made locally; their manufacture would have been linked to the myrrh and other unguents that the Nabataeans traded. They have also been found at western sites. Pear-shaped glass unguentaria were later made at various locations in the Arablian peninsula.