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Land use in Hardee County
h [electronic resource] /
prepared by Center for Economic Development Research, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida.
Hillsborough County zip code business and employment patterns analysis
Tampa, Fla. :
b Center for Economic Development Research,
1 online resource (20 p.) :
Title from PDF of cover (viewed Aug. 17, 2009).
Commissioned by Cargill Crop Nutrition, Inc., this report serves to to help the group better understand the economic and demographic structure of Hardee County, a largely rural area in central Fla.
Hardee County (Fla.)
x Economic conditions.
University of South Florida.
Center for Economic Development Research.
t Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR) Collection
Land Use in Hardee County Prepared By CENTER FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH College of Business Administration 1101 Channelside Dr., 2nd Floor N., Tampa, Florida 33602 Office: (813) 905-5854 or Fax: (813) 905-5856 February, 2003
i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... ......3 METHOD......................................................................................................................... .............4 ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................... ............4 CONCLUDING REMARKS........................................................................................................8 APPENDIX A. FLORIDA LAND USE AND COVER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM..............9 APPENDIX B. HARDEE COUNTY LAND USE: 1974...........................................................12 APPENDIX C. THEMATIC MAPS...........................................................................................13
ii Preface Hardee County is located in south-central Florida within the region served by the Central Florida Regional Planning Council (CFRPC), a state-mandated planning organization. Besides Hardee the CFRPC planning district is also comprised of DeSoto, Highlands, Polk, and Okeechobee counties. Cargill Crop Nutrition, Inc. commissioned this document to serve as a component of its campaign to better understand the economic and demographic structure of Hardee County and the south-central Florida region. This study is the second in a series of economic development studies designed to increase our understanding of the economic impacts of the phosphate industry in Hardee County. CEDR provides information and conducts research on issues related to economic growth and development in the Nation, in the state of Florida, and particularly in the central Florida region. The Center serves the faculty, staff, and students of the College of Business Administration, the University, and individuals and organizations in the UniversityÂ’s service area. CEDRÂ’s activities are designed to further the objectives of the University and specifically the objectives of the College of Business Administration. Robert Anderson, Dean, College of Business Administration (COBA), USF Dennis G. Colie, Dircetor, Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR), COBA, USF Danny R. Hughes, Research Associate, CEDR, COBA, USF
3 INTRODUCTION In an effort to better understand the economic and demographic structure of Hardee County and the south-central Florida region, Cargill Crop Nutrition, Inc. commissioned the Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR), College of Business Administration (COBA), University of South Florida (USF), to perform an analysis of land use in Hardee County. Predominantly a rural, agricultural county since its settlement, Hardee County has largely escaped the rapid urbanization experienced by its neighbors to the north and west. As Hardee County prepares to fuel the engines of growth, it is important to examine how land use has evolved in the county. This information is useful for supporting policy development in land use decisions, which are often critical to the foundations of sustained economic growth.
4 METHOD Actual land use in Hardee County was determined by Geographical Information System (GIS) overlays of Hardee County from the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). These overlays are 1:24,000 scale United States Geological Survey images that have been photointerpreted according to the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification System (FLUCCS). SWFWMD verification of the photo-interpretation was conducted by preand post-interpretation helicopter overflights of selected areas. This analysis covers 1974, 1988, 1995, and 1999, the only years currently available. Due to advances in digital aerial photography that permit increased accuracy and changes in the FLUCCS over time, the 1974 images are not adequately comparable to later images. Thus, the 1974 land use images are not considered in the broader analysis. For completeness, land use patterns for Hardee County in 1974 are examined in Appendix B of this report. The Florida Land Use and Cover Classification System supports three levels of detail which are described in Appendix A Level 1 FLUCCS classifications are sufficiently detailed for this analysis and were used throughout except for the identification of property used for resource extraction. As the SWFWMD GIS overlays of Hardee County were only photo-interpreted at the Level 2 classifications, property indicated as extraction includes all property used for strip mines, sand and gravel pits, rock quarries, oil and gas fields, and holding ponds. Calculation of the total coverage for each land use category was performed using the ArcView 3.2 GIS softwareÂ’s X-Tools extension. Thematic maps detailing land use in Hardee County for each study year are included in Appendix C ANALYSIS Hardee County, carved out of Desoto County in 1921, covers 408,536 acres in southwest Florida. A map of Hardee County and its major roads and cities can be found in Appendix C (page 14). In this section, we examine the changes in Hardee County land use over three distinct points in time: 1988, 1995, and 1999. Land use is classified into nine broad categories for this analysis: Extraction, Urban and Built-up, Agriculture, Rangeland, Upland Forests, Water, Wetlands, Barren Land, and Transportation, Communication, and Utilities (TCU). As indicated previously in the report, this study examines actual land use as captured by aerial photography as opposed to zoned, planned, or appraised uses at each point in time. Table 1 provides the total quantity of acres actually engaged by each land use and what percentage it comprises of Hardee County land.
5 Table 1. Hardee County Land Use Land UseAcres% of TotalAcres% of TotalAcres% of Total Extraction6,104 1.49%10,572 2.59%22,821 5.59% Urban and Built-up5,670 1.39%7,384 1.81%7,740 1.89% Agriculture229,340 56.14%227,617 55.72%220,939 54.08% Rangeland39,278 9.61%34,010 8.32%30,065 7.36% Upland Forests47,701 11.68%48,643 11.91%48,276 11.82% Water883 0.22%1,519 0.37%1,656 0.41% Wetlands79,229 19.39%78,142 19.13%76,370 18.69% Barren Land62 0.02%284 0.07%243 0.06% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 267 0.07%365 0.09%428 0.10% 198819951999 As Table 1 indicates, Hardee County is predominantly agricultural in nature with substantial portions of forests, range, and wetlands. Figures 1-3 below present the data in Table 1 for each year. In Figure 1 we see that 57% of Hardee CountyÂ’s land area is used for agricultural purposes. In 1988, less than 2% of the countyÂ’s land area is developed (including infrastructure). Possessing no natural lakes, less than % of Hardee County is covered by water with a majority deriving from the winding Peace River, which bisects the county. Figure 1. Hardee County Land Use: 1988 Agriculture 57% Wetlands 19% Other 4% Rangeland 10% Upland Forests 12% Extraction 1% Urban and Built-up 1% Water 0% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 0% Barren Land 0% Figure 2 shows modest changes in land use from 1988 to 1995. While agriculture and rangeland use fell 1% and 2% respectively, land covered by wetlands and forests were largely unchanged. Although, water still comprised less than % of the countyÂ’s land area, the number of acres underwater increased 72.1%. This increase occurred due to the creation of four man-made lakes on land previously used for resource extraction. As shown on the 1995 land use map in Appendix C (page 17), increasing development to the east and northeast of Wauchula largely produced the 1% increase in urban and built-up land. Intensification of the mining industry in the
6 four-corners region led to a 2% increase in extraction land uses in the county. Figure 2. Hardee County Land Use: 1995 Agriculture 56% Rangeland 8% Wetlands 19% Other 5% Upland Forests 12% Water 0% Urban and Built-up 2% Extraction 3% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 0% Barren Land 0% Figure 3 details Hardee County land use in 1999. Again, forest and wetland acreage experienced very slight declines, maintaining their share of Hardee CountyÂ’s land. Extraction land use doubled from 1995, increasing their share to 6%. This resulted in additional declines in agricultural and rangeland, which saw declines of 2% and 1%, respectively. Developed and water acres increased slightly, leaving their shares uncxhanged. Figure 3. Hardee County Land Use: 1999 Agriculture 54% Rangeland 7% Wetlands 19% Other 2% Upland Forests 12% Urban and Built-up 2% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 0% Barren Land 0% Water 0% Extraction 6%
7 Table 2 displays the total and percentage change in acres for each of the land use categories in Hardee County from 1988 to 1999, as well as the change in each land usesÂ’ share of Hardee CountyÂ’s total land area. Table 2. Changes in Land Use by Category 1988-1999 Land UseAcres% Change in Coverage Change in Share of Total Land Area Extraction 16,716273.85%4.09% Urban and Built-up 2,07036.52%0.51% Agriculture (8,401)-3.66%-2.06% Rangeland (9,213)-23.46%-2.26% Upland Forests 5741.20%0.14% Water 77387.59%0.19% Wetlands (2,860)-3.61%-0.70% Barren Land 180289.35%0.04% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 16160.15%0.04% As indicated above, with the exception of extraction, agriculture, and rangeland, Hardee CountyÂ’s land use has changed very little from 1988 to 1999. While we see large percentage changes in the total acres used for water and barren land, they actually represent miniscule changes in their share of the countyÂ’s total land area due to the small amount of acres these uses originally covered. The only uses to lose acres over the period, agriculture, rangeland, and wetlands, have largely done so due to increased mineral extraction in the county. While an examination of historical land use can provide indications of land use trends and development patterns, future land use may be better determined when this information is combined with current zoning and land use plans, which typically indicate the desired land uses for a community. In Appendix C we have included a map of Zoning Districts in Hardee County (page 19) as well as the Year 2015 Conceptual Future Land Use Map (page 20) from the Hardee County Comprehensive Plan adopted on June 20, 2002. Of particular interest, land currently zoned for mineral extraction greatly exceeds the area covered by this use in 1999 and then is expected to disappear by 2015. Substantial increases in developed acreage are also foreseen with development clustered along the US 17 corridor north of Wauchula.
8 CONCLUDING REMARKS Examining actual land use as captured by United States Geological Survey images, we find that Hardee County land use patterns are slowly evolving from predominantly undeveloped uses, i.e. agriculture, rangeland, forests, and wetlands, which comprised approximately 92% of the county in 1999, to more developed uses. From 1988 to 1999, land used for natural resource extraction has increased 273.9%, or 22,820 acres, resulting in decreases in the share of land used for agriculture and rangeland. Wetlands have also fallen from 19.4% of Hardee CountyÂ’s total area to 18.7%. Urban land uses have increased 36.5% over this period, primarily along the US 17 corridor and to the east of Wauchula. Land used for infrastructure, defined as transportation, communication, and utilities in this study, has also increased during this period (60.2%) reflecting increasing growth and development in the county. A look at Hardee CountyÂ’s current zoning and 2015 conceptual land use corroborate these findings. While resource extraction is expected to intensify in the near future before eventually receding as the land is reclaimed for alternative uses, further urban development is anticipated, again, along the US 17 corridor north of Wauchula. While these visions of an increasingly urbanized Hardee County may yet unfold, it is likely that Hardee County shall retain its rural, agricultural character for the foreseeable future.
9 APPENDIX A. FLORIDA LAND USE AND COVER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Level 1/Level 2/Level 3 Description 1000 Urban and Built-up 1100 Residential, low density 1120 Mobile home units, low density 1200 Residential, medium density 1220 Mobile home units, medium density 1300 Residential, high density 1320 Mobile home density, high density 1400 Commercial and services 1420 Junk Yards 1440 Cultural and entertainment 1460 Tourist services 1480 Cemeteries 1500 Industrial 1560 Other heavy Industrial 1600 Extractive 1610 Strip Mines 1620 Sand and gravel pits 1630 Rock quarries 1640 Oil and gas fields 1660 Holding ponds 1700 Institutional 1710 Educational facilities 1720 Religious 1730 Military 1740 Medical and Health care 1760 Correctional 1790 Institutional under construction 1800 Recreational 1810 Swimming Beach 1820 Golf Courses 1830 Race Tracks 1840 Marinas and Fish camps 1850 Parks and zoos 1860 Community recreational facilities 1870 Stadiums 1880 Historic sites 1890 Other recreational 1900 Open land (Urban)
10 2000 Agriculture 2100 Cropland and pastureland 2200 Tree crops 2300 Feeding operations 2400 Nurseries and vineyards 2500 Specialty farms 2540 Aquaculture 2600 Other open land (Rural) 3000 Rangeland 3200 Shrub and brushland 3220 Coastal shrub 3300 Mixed rangeland 4000 Upland Forests 4100 Upland coniferous forests 4130 Sand pines 4200 Upland hardwood forests 4340 Mixed coniferous/hardwood 4350 Dead trees 4400 Tree plantations 4410 Coniferous plantations 4430 Forest regeneration areas 5000 Water 5100 Streams and watersways 5200 Lakes 5300 Reservoirs 5400 Bays and estuaries 5410 Embayments opening directly into the Gulf 5420 Embayments not opening directly into the Gulf 5600 Slough waters 5700 Oceans, Seas, and GulfÂ’s 6000 Wetlands 6100 Wetland hardwood forests 6110 Bay swamps 6120 Mangrove swamps 6130 Gum swamps 6150 Stream and lake swamps 6160 Inland ponds and swamps 6200 Wetland coniferous forests 6210 Cypress 6230 Atlantic cedar 6300 Wetland forest mixed 6400 Vegetated non-forested wetlands
11 6410 Freshwater marshes 6420 Saltwater marshes 6440 Emergent aquatic vegetation 6500 Non-vegetated 6530 Intermittent ponds 6900 Wetland shrub 7000 Barren land 7100 Beaches 7200 Sand other than beaches 7300 Exposed rock 7400 Disturbed land 7420 Borrow lakes 7450 Burned areas 7500 Riverine sandbars 8000 Transportation, communications, and utilities 8100 Transportation 8110 Airports 8120 Railroads 8140 Roads and highways 8150 Port facilities 8160 Canals and docks 8170 Oil, water, or gas transmission lines 8180 Auto parking facilities 8200 Communications 8210 Transmission towers 8220 Communication facilities 8300 Utilities 8310 Electrical power facilities 8320 Electrical power transmission lines 8330 Water supply lines 8340 Sewage treatment 8350 Solid waste disposal
12 APPENDIX B. HARDEE COUNTY LAND USE: 1974 Table B displays the distribution of property by land use in Hardee County in 1974. Consistent with our previous analysis, agriculture is the dominant land use in Hardee County followed by rangeland. At 3,225 acres, Urban and Built-up property comprise less than 1% of the county. Table B Land UseAcres% of Total Other non-classified115 0.03% Urban and Built-up3,225 0.79% Agriculture239,554 58.64% Rangeland87,637 21.45% Upland Forests11,873 2.91% Water456 0.11% Wetlands65,439 16.02% Barren Land101 0.02% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities136 0.03% This information is shown graphically in Figure B below. Appendix C (page 15) contains a thematic map detailing 1974 land use throughout the county. Figure B Agriculture 59% Rangeland 21% Upland Forests 3% Wetlands 16% Other 1% Other non-classified 0% Urban and Built-up 1% Transportartion, Communication, and Utilities 0% Barren Land 0% Water 0%
13 APPENDIX C. THEMATIC MAPS This section contains thematic maps displaying historical land use patterns within Hardee County. Information regarding the data and creation of these maps is detailed within the body of this report. Map Title Page Hardee County: Cities and Major Roads 14 Hardee County Land Use: 1974 15 Hardee County Land Use: 1988 16 Hardee County Land Use: 1995 17 Hardee County Land Use: 1999 18 Hardee County Zoning Districts: 2002 19 Hardee County Conceptual Land Use: 2015 20