xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
leader 00000nas 2200000Ka 4500
controlfield tag 008 000000c19749999pautr p s 0 0eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a M39-00040
Preferencia de oviposicin por las mariposas Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) en las hojas Passiflora biflora (Passifloraceae) con altas concentraciones de cianuro
Preferential oviposition by Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) butterflies on Passiflora biflora (Passifloraceae) leaves with higher cyanide concentrations
Passiflora spp. produces cyanogenic glycosides to prevent herbivory. The butterfly subfamily Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) has broken through this defense with the ability to ingest the cyanogenic compounds. A coevolutionary arms race of adaptations and counter-adaptations followed, in which it is believed that Passiflora spp. evolved a series of counter-adaptive defenses, like egg-mimics, leaf shape, and extrafloral nectarines, to specifically combat heliconiines. While sometimes overcoming these adaptations, heliconiines still consider them for oviposition. Additionally, the role of cyanide may also have an effect on oviposition. It has been suggested that while detrimental to larvae, cyanide provides protection that promotes oviposition. There are also numerous studies suggesting defensive and nutritional benefits of CN when Heliconiinae is able to sequester cyanogenic compounds. Many times there are trade-offs in the defenses of young leaves, which might suggest that cyanide indicates fewer defenses. This study examines the role of cyanide (CN) concentrations in Passiflora biflora on ovipostion by Heliconiinae. Two studies were performed on cyanide preference. First, an analysis of cyanide concentration in similar leaves with and without eggs was conducted. Second, leaves had their cyanide concentrations artificially increased with CN/methanol extract and were then monitored for oviposition. When analyzing the cyanide concentrations of similar leaves with and without eggs, a trend of preferential oviposition on leaves of higher cyanide concentration was observed. There also seemed to be a two-fold difference, on average, between leaves with and without eggs, 0.50g and 0.25g CN respectively. The second study showed a preference for leaves with CN/methanol extract to leaves with extract alone and leaves with no alteration with eggs totaling nine, one, and one, respectively. This study suggests the importance of cyanide concentration for oviposition by heliconiines. This behavior might be explained by the protection provided from non-heliconiine herbivores or by possible nutritional and chemical benefits associated with the sequestration of CN. Additionally, if trade-offs are present, cyanide might indicate fewer non-cyanide defenses.
Passiflora spp produce glucsidos de cianuro para prevenir la herbivora. La subfamilia de mariposas Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) ha traspasado esta defensa con la habilidad de ingerir compuestos con cianuro. Una carrera armamentista coevolutivos de adaptaciones y contra adaptaciones seguidas, en la cual se cree que Passiflora spp evoluciona una serie de defensas adaptativas, como el mimetismo de huevos, la forma de la hoja, y los nectarios extraflorales, para combatir especficamente a estas mariposas. Mientras algunas veces las mariposas sobrepasan estas adaptaciones considerando estas plantas para la oviposicin. Adems, el papel del cianuro puede tener un efecto en la oviposicin. Se ha sugerido que en lugar de destruir la larva, el cianuro provee una proteccin impulsando la oviposicin. Existen tambin numerosos estudios que sugieren beneficios nutricionales y defensivos del CN cuando Heliconiinae es capaz de tomar compuestos cianognicos. Algunas veces existen compensaciones en la defensa de las hojas jvenes, lo que puede indicar menos defensas. Este estudio examina el papel de concentraciones del cianuro (CN) en la oviposicin de Passiflora biflora por Heliconiinae.
Text in English.
Butterflies--Feeds and feeding
Mariposas--Alimentos y alimentacin
Tropical Ecology 2008
Ecologa Tropical 2008
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
1 Preferential oviposition by Heliconiinae Nymphalidae butterflies on Passiflora biflora Passifloraceae leaves with higher cyanide concentrations Phillip Burkholder Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Tulsa ABSTRACT Passiflora sp p . produces cyanogenic glycosides to prevent herbivory. The butterfly subfamily Heliconiinae Nymphalidae has broken through this defense with the ability to ingest the cyanogenic compounds. A coevolutionary arms race of adaptations and counter adaptati ons followed, in which it is believed that Passiflora spp. evolved a series of counter adaptive defenses, like egg mimics, leaf shape, and extrafloral nectarines, to specifically combat heliconiines. While sometimes overcoming these adaptations, heliconii nes still consider them for oviposition. Additionally, the role of cyanide may also have an effect on oviposition. It has been suggested that while detrimental to larvae, cyanide provides protection that promotes oviposition. There are also numerous st udies suggesting defensive and nutritional benefits of CN when Heliconiinae is able to sequester cyanogenic compounds. Many times there are trade offs in the defenses of young leaves, which might suggest that cyanide indicates fewer defenses. This study examines the role of cyanide CN concentrations in Passiflora biflora on ovipostion by Heliconiinae. Two studies were performed on cyanide preference. First, an analysis of cyanide concentration in similar leaves with and without eggs was conducted. Sec ond, leaves had their cyanide concentrations artificially increased with CN/methanol extract and were then monitored for oviposition. When analyzing the cyanide concentrations of similar leaves with and without eggs, a trend of preferential oviposition o n leaves of higher cyanide concentration was observed. There also seemed to be a two fold difference, on average, between leaves with and without eggs, 0.50Âµg and 0.25Âµg CN respectively . The second study showed a preference for leaves with CN/methanol ext ract to leaves with extract alone and leaves with no alteration with eggs totaling nine, one, and one, respectively. This study suggests the importance of cyanide concentration for oviposition by heliconiines. This behavior might be explained by the prot ection provided from non heliconiine herbivores or by possible nutritional and chemical benefits associated with the sequestration of CN. Additionally, if trade offs are present, cyanide might indi cate fewer non cyanide defenses . RESUMEN Passiflora spp . produce glucÃ³sidos de cianuro para prevenir la herbivorÃa. La subfamilia de mariposas Heliconiinae Nymphalidae ha traspasado esta defensa con la habilidad de ingerir compuestos con cianuro. Una carrera armamentista coevolucionaria de adaptaciones y co ntra adaptaciones seguidas, en la cual se cree que Passiflora spp evoluciona una serie de defensas adaptativas, como mimetismo de huevos, forma de la hoja, y nectarios extraflorales, para combatir especÃficamente a estas mariposas. Mientras algunas veces las mariposas sobrepasan estas adaptaciones considerando estas plantas para ovipositar. Adicionalmente, el rol del cianuro puede tener un efecto en la ovoposiciÃ³n . Se ha sugerido que en lugar de destruir la larva, el cianuro provee una protecciÃ³n impulsa ndo la ovoposiciÃ³n . Existen tambiÃ©n numerosos estudios que sugieren beneficios nutricionales y defensivas del CN cuando Heliconiinae es capaz de tomar compuestos cianogÃ©nicos. Algunas veces existen compensaciones en la defensa de las hojas jÃ³venes , lo que
2 puede indicar menos defensas. Este estudio examina el rol d concentraciones del cianuro CN en Passiflora biflora en la ovoposiciÃ³n por Heliconiinae. Dos estudios fueron realizados en la preferencia del cianuro. El primero, un anÃ¡lisis de la concentr aciÃ³n de cianuro en hojas similares con y sin huevos. Segundo, se incrementÃ³ artificialmente la concentraciÃ³n de cianuro en hojas con extractos de CN/methanol que fueron monitoreadas para ver ovoposiciÃ³n . Cuando se analizÃ³ las concentraciones de cianuro en hojas similares con y sin huevos, existe una tendencia a preferir ovipositar en hojas con altas concentraciones de cianuro. TambiÃ©n parece haber una diferencia, en promedio, entre hojas con y sin huevos en concentraciones de 0.50Âµg y 0.25Âµg CN respectivamente . El Segundo estudio muestra una preferencia por hojas con el extracto de CN/etanol sobre hojas con solo el extracto y hojas sin alteraciÃ³n, con un total de nueve, uno y uno huevos respectivamente. Este estudio sugiere que la importancia de las conc entraciones de cianuro en la ovoposiciÃ³n por Heliconiinae. Este comportamiento puede ser explicado por la protecciÃ³n provista para herbÃvoros diferentes a estas mariposas o por posibles beneficios quÃmicos y nutricionales asociados con la secuenciaciÃ³n de l CN. Adicionalmente , si hay una compensaciÃ³n presente, el cianuro puede indicar menores defensas no relacionadas con el cianuro. INTRODUCTION Many plants have evolved secondary compounds to combat herbivory, including Passiflora spp. vines which prod uce noxious cyanogenic glycosides that are converted to HCN during consumption Adsersen and Adsersen 1993; Benson et al. 1975; Levin 1976. This cyanogenic defense deters most herbivorous insects except for nymphalid butterflies in the subfamily Heliconi inae. Heliconiines have a similar cyanogenic defense against predators, and are able to synthesize the chemicals de novo Engler et al. 2000; Feuillet 2004. These butterflies are able to ingest CN containing compounds, which has been suggested as a resu lt of their defense against auto t oxicity Benson et al. 1975. Thus, the Heliconiinae , unlike most herbivores, overcame the CN defense of Passiflora spp. It is widely believed that this, in turn, caused Passiflora spp to evolve defenses solely against He liconiinae egg mimics, hairs, leaf shape , which heliconiines have sometimes overcome. The series of adaptations and counter adaptations has been termed a coevolutionary arms race Benson et al. 1975; DeVries 1987; Ehrlich and Raven 1964; Futuyma 1986; Turner 1981. Female heliconiine butterflies consider many of the adaptations of Passiflora spp. when ovipositing. For example, they avoid leaves with eggs or egg mimics, as heliconiine larvae are cannibalistic Gilbert and Singer 1975 . Additionally, t hey prefer young growth that is easier for small caterpillars to consume Coley and Aide 1991 . While it has been shown that egg mimics are able to deter females from oviposition, Heliconiinae has developed tremendous eyesight to distinguish the egg mimic s and have been known to probe them to test for authenticity Benson et al. 1975; DeVries 1987; Williams and Gilbert 1981. Additionally , Heliconius sara will often oviposit in the presence of eggs or egg mimics Benson et al. 1975. Passiflora spp. has a lso changed its leaf shape in order to escape oviposition. Leaf shape is often irregular to avoid recognition and sometimes similar to leaves of common species to avoid detection Benson et al. 1975. The female overcomes the changing leaf shape of Passi flora spp because she has chemoreceptors on her forelegs Benson et al. 1975, and the sensing of secondary compounds, like cyanogenic glycosides, is frequently used to recognize host plants when visual cues are unavailable Ehrlich and Raven 1964. Here, I investigated whether or not a female butterfly prefers to oviposit on leaves with higher cyanide concentration than those without. Leaves with more cyanide are less likely to be attacked by non heliconiine herbivores, may offer a higher nutritional rewa rd
3 as CN contains nitrogen, which is generally limiting in plant material, and provide precursors for the larval and/or adults own defenses. In addition, there might be trade offs, in that more cyanide may mean fewer other defenses affecting oviposition. This is especially true in young leaves, which have not yet developed persistent mechanical defenses that compete against secondary compounds during production Koricheva et al. 2004. Higher cyanide concentration may deter potential competition and predat ion, offering protection to the larvae. It has been demonstrated that certain butterfly species, including heliconiine, oviposit preferentially for protection, even if it means forfeiting efficiency and nutrition Karban and Agrawal 2002. For example, b utterfly species Pieris napi F. Pieridae oviposits off its larval food plant to avoid parasitoid wasps Ohsaki and Sato 1994 . Additionally, the heliconiine species Dryas iulia has been observed ovipositing on adjacent plants, dead leaves, or other objects away from host plants to avoid predation by ants attracted by EFNs Benson et al. 1975. Occasionally, higher cyanide concentrations have been shown to be detrimental to some species of heliconiine. For example, larval mortality of Heliconius erato inc reases significantly when fed high CN leaves Hay Roe and Nation 2007. So the question is why endure increased mortality for higher CN concentration. Cyanide provides protection against both competition against non heliconiine herbivores and mortality f rom large generalist herbivores and omnivorous mammals. Many non heliconiine herbivores cannot ingest CN and are unable to compete for larval food sources Adserson and Adserson 1993; Benson et al . 1975; Levin 1976. Whereas many large herbivores and omn ivorous mammals are able to metabolize small quantities of cyanogenic compounds, their bitter taste often deters ingestion Gleadow and Woodrow 2002. Moreover, the absence of these animals might reduce direct harm on eggs or larvae, which could occur fro m the consumption of leaves. A number of species in the Heliconiinae have developed the ability to sequester cyanogenic compounds for nutrition by exchanging the nitrogen with a thiol group, thereby releasing nitrogen for its own use while deactivating th e noxious compound Engler et al . 2000; Nishida 2002. In addition, several studies suggest sequestered CN can be used directly for chemical defense and that higher a sequestered concentration in the larval stage directly relates to the concentration in t he adult stage Engler et al. 2000; Gleadow and Woodrow 2002; Karban and Agrawal 2002; Nishida 2002. Moreover, if reduced de novo CN synthesis translates to increased energy, then sequestering CN might allow energy to be redirected to larval growth and d evelopment. Therefore, I expect that female heliconiine butterflies will oviposit with greater frequency on leaves with higher cyanide concentrations to give their larvae access to more nitrogen for use in both growth and their own chemical protection. A dditionally, if decreased larval growth and development from CN related toxicity occurs, I still expect to find a higher frequency of oviposition due to the protective benefits that CN provides. However, if the detrimental effects lower frequency it would still indicate that CN concentration plays a significant role in oviposition. There is also the case as with Heliconius erato favorinus that neither suffers or benefits by CN Hay Roe and Nation 2007. If there is indeed a trade off in P. biflora defens es, then higher CN concentrations might indicate to the butterfly that there are fewer defenses. Thus, a heliconiine like H. erato favorinus could potentially prefer a higher CN leaf.
4 MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Site Cyanide preference was analyzed usi ng two studies. The first study compared concentrations of cyanide on similar leaves with and without eggs, and the second study increased the concentration of CN on leaves and recorded the frequency of oviposition. Both studies were performed at the but terfly rearing garden owned by Amabelis Argueda s in Cement e rio de Santa Elena de Monteverde, Costa Rica, at 1300 meters. The garden measured 18 x 24 x 8 m. Nearly a quarter of the area composed of P. biflora to rear heliconiine larvae. Cyanide Concentrat ion P. biflora leaves were collected throughout the garden. Eggs found on leaves were from one of several possible heliconiine species, based on reports of their host plant specificity Benson et al. 1975; DeVries 1987; Smiley 1978. Possible species in cluded: Heliconius sara fulgidas , Heliconius charithonia charithonia , Heliconius clysonymus montanus , Dryas iulia monerata , and Dione moneta poeyii . When a leaf with an egg was located, the leaf was taken along with the nearest leaf of similar age and siz e. When possible, this leaf was taken from an adjacent vine, and when not possible, half of the time this leaf was the next youngest and half of the time this leaf was the next oldest. Age was determined by the distance from the meristem. If herbivore d amage was found on either leaf the pair was excluded to keep paired weights and sizes approximately equal. The pairs were analyzed for cyanide concentration. Whole leaf samples were first weighed and then crushed to determine cyanide concentration. Cyani de was detected using the Sodium Picrate Test Seigler 1991 using three drops of toluene as the solvent. Each sample was allowed to react for ten minutes at room temperature 20 22Â°C. The resulting picrate filter paper was soaked in three mL of distill ed water for 30 seconds and the water analyzed in a spectrophotometer MRC, UV 200 RS at a wavelength of 540 nm. Recorded percent transmittance was converted to absorbance, and the results were plotted against the standard curve in order to obtain concen tration. The standard curved was created using serial dilutions of potassium cyanide and analyzed using the same conditions above, see sub section: Standard Curve. Statistical analysis performed employed the paired t test for significance. Additionally, mean cyanide concentrations of leaves with eggs vs. without were analyzed. Artificial Increase of Leaf Cyanide Concentration Leaf cyanide concentrations were artificially increased. A cyanide leaf extract was made with 10.5 g of ground leaf material fro m Passiflora collected in the garden and 20 mL of methanol. Young leaves, described in this study as within the first five open leaves of the meristem, were used to ensure CN was present, as youngest leaves have the highest cyanide concentrations Hay Roe and Nation 2007; Webber and Woodrow 2008 . A blank extract was made with only methanol. Leaves of P. biflora were tagged with a
5 small green mark, slightly darker than natural leaf color, in one of three locations, bottom left edge, bottom right edge, or petiole, indicating cyanide/methanol extract, extract alone, or control, respectively. Edge marks were green and short to make them unlike eggs or egg mimics, thus not interfering with oviposition. Petiole marks were short and along the underside to avo id detection. Young leaves were painted with cyanide/methanol extract and extract alone using a small paintbrush. The entire upperside of the leaf was painted with extract, and shortly after application no noticeable difference was observed between paint ed and unpainted leaves. Painted and unpainted leaves were randomly distributed within small patches consisting of 50 to 100 leaves as well as on single vines throughout the garden. Leaves that had eggs were excluded. Two separate paintings were conduct ed, one at the beginning of the experiment and one eight days later. The leaves were monitored for oviposition everyday with eggs being removed when found. Leaves were recorded as either with or without eggs. Standard Curve The standard curve for cyan ide concentration was created using serial dilutions of potassium cyanide starting at 100 Âµg/mL and ending at 0.1 Âµg/mL. Dilutions were made with a micropipette. Technique was the same as leaf cyanide determination, but 100 Ã°m L of the potassium cyanide con centrations were tested in lieu of whole leaf. After obtaining readings from the spectrophotometer a curve of absorbance vs. concentration Âµg cyanide was constructed. A blank utilizing all methods without the addition of cyanide or plant material was u sed to zero the instrument before beginning daily analysis. RESULTS Cyanide Concentration A total of 38 pairs of similar leaves with and without eggs were analyzed. The observed trend is that Heliconiinae butterflies oviposited more frequently on leav es with higher cyanide concentrations paired t test, t = 2.43, df = 37, p = 0.02. The average cyanide concentration for leaves of similar type with and without eggs were 0.50 Âµg/g leaf material and 0.25 Âµg/g leaf material respectively figure 1.
6 Fi gure 1. Average cyanide concentration for P. biflora leaves with and without heliconiine eggs. Standard error bars are shown. 38 pairs of similar leaves were tested for a total of 76 analyses. Leaves with eggs were found by inspecting vines in a butterf ly rearing garden; leaves without eggs were of similar age and size on the nearest vine or adjacent to leaves with eggs, alternating one leaf older or younger. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 With Eggs Without [CN] Â€g/g leaf material
7 Cyanide Manipulation 237 leaves were monitored for oviposition. Of 101 leav es painted with cyanide/methanol extract, nine eggs were found. One egg was found on the 102 methanol alone leaves, and one egg was found on the 34 control leaves Figure 2. There was a non random distribution with more eggs found on the leaves with cya nide/methanol extract than expected, indicating preference g test, g = 7.47, df = 2, p = 0.017. Figure 2. Frequency of heliconiine butterfly eggs on P. biflora leaves with cyanide/methanol extract, methanol extract alone, and control leaves with n o alterations. 9 1 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Cyanide Methanol None Number of Leaves w/o eggs w/eggs
8 Standard Curve The following standard curve figure 3 was constructed to analyze percent transmittance data. There was a very high confidence in the accuracy of resulting function R 2 = 0.9805 used to obtain cyanide concen trations from the recorded absorbencies. Figure 3. Cyanide concentration standard curve for testing Passiflora leaves y = 0.0325Lnx + 0.1722. The standard was a solution of potassium cyanide. DISCUSSION This study shows that heliconiine butter flies preferentially oviposit on P. biflora leaves with higher cyanide concentrations. Unaltered P. biflora leaves with eggs had higher CN concentrations, on average, than similar and adjacent leaves. Likewise, leaves with artificially increased CN were chosen more often by ovipositing heliconiines. These trends indicate that heliconiine butterflies choose to lay eggs on more highly concentrated leaves. Heliconiine butterflies seem to prefer leaves with more cyanide for oviposition. There are many bene fits that might be associated with higher CN concentrations. Even if CN related toxicity occurs in larvae, the added protection provided might still promote oviposition. Because cyanogenic glycosides contain nitrogen, which is often limiting in plant mat erial, there are possible nutritional benefits connected with more CN. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.0000 2.0000 4.0000 6.0000 8.0000 10.0000 12.0000 [CN] Â€g Absorbance
9 Additionally, CN could provide the precursors to the heliconiine s own defense. Because of potential trade offs, more cyanide might indicate fewer defenses, in which case Heliconiinae might oviposit more frequently even if there are no direct benefits. One of the first benefits associated with higher CN is the added protection from herbivores that could possibly harm the larvae by food depletion or direct damage. Cyanide acts as a de terrent against most forms of non heliconiine herbivory, including herbivory from omnivorous mammals Adsersen and Adsersen 1993; Benson et al. 1975; Levin 1976. Many of these non heliconiine herbivores are unable to ingest CN so they cannot compete for larval resources. Additionally, they are able to sense, or smell , cyanide, which indicates unpalatable or dangerous leaves Ehrlich and Raven 1964. Large herbivores and omnivorous mammals, which are able to ingest CN in small quantities, are deterred by the bitter taste of cyanogenic compounds Gleadow and Woodrow 2002. Large herbivores can harm larvae and eggs by the removal of whole leaves during feeding. With higher cyanide concentrations, leaves might have a more prominent taste and smell ther eby reducing non heliconiine herbivory. However, some heliconiine larvae are vulnerable to CN related toxins. Studies on Heliconius erato showed that ingestion of high levels of cyanogenic glycosides increases larval mortality Hay Roe and Nation 2007. Nevertheless, this may not deter females from ovipositing on leaves with high cyanide. In effect, this may substantiate the trend as numerous studies indicate that several species of butterfly, including those in Heliconiinae, forfeit nutrition and larva l growth efficiency for protection Benson et al. 1975; Karban and Agrawal 2002; Ohsaki and Sato 1994. Thus, it is possible that the butterflies in the garden benefit from the higher CN leaves and choose them for oviposition even if it causes them some h arm. Alongside added protection, the garden heliconiines could have chosen higher CN leaves for the purpose of nutrition or chemical defense. Although heliconiines are known for their de novo synthesis of CN Engler et al. 2000; Feuillet 2004, at least some species have more recently been shown to sequester CN from their Passiflora host plants Gleadow and Woodrow 2002; Karban and Agrawal 2002; Nishida 2002. If this is the case for the heliconiines in the garden, selecting high CN leaves may mean bette r chemical protection for the developing larvae. Further, if de novo synthesis is facultative, high CN leaves may save energy that can be diverted to growth. Engler et al. 2000 explored the effects of cyanide on Heliconius sara and discovered, for the first time, that it was able to metabolize the cyanogenic glycosides deactivating it while at the same time releasing nitrogen for nutritional use. While H. sara was not the only heliconiine present in the garden, the other species may also gain nutrition from CN. Thus, higher CN leaves may offer a leaf of higher nutritional value. The use of plant derived cyanogenic compounds by Heliconiicae creates an interesting paradox for host plants like P. biflora . P. biflora has attempted to deter heliconiines from oviposition through egg mimics and extrafloral nectaries EFNs, but research, however, has shown that heliconiines are not always deterred by these modifications Benson et al. 1975; DeVries 1987; Feuillet 2004; Williams and Gilbert 1981. Furtherm ore, the young leaves of Passiflora vines are more susceptible to herbivory Coley and Aide 1991 as well as more highly affected by trade offs for defense. Young leaves have not yet developed persistent mechanical defenses, such as toughness, pubescence, or egg mimics, all which compete against secondary compounds
10 for resources Koricheva et al. 2004. Thus, young leaves with more cyanide might indicate fewer other defenses. This might explain the trend in the garden for higher CN preference, especially if the butterflies function like H. erato, as cyanide itself also benefits larval development. Nonetheless, there are butterflies that neither benefit nor suffer from CN in any studied concentration Hay Roe and Nation 2007. These butterflies might als o prefer higher cyanide leaves given the possible reduced defenses associated with trade offs. However, some species of Passiflora have solved the problem of multiple defenses and limited energy pools. P. adenopoda has developed hooked trichomes, which pr ovides an absolute defense against butterfly larvae Gilbert 1971. Currently only three species of Passiflora have developed this modification and it has been suggested that this is the next step for Passiflora Heliconiinae coevolution Gilbert 1971. I f hooked trichomes provide an absolute defense against damage from larvae, a trade off would only need to occur between cyanide and pubescence as long as cyanide alone was powerful enough to deter other potential herbivores. Currently, though, most Passif lora vines do not have hooked trichomes and are unable to reduce CN as a defense because it is needed for non heliconiine herbivory. Additionally, because Passiflora may always use CN as its main generalist herbivory defense, it will continue to play an i mportant role in Heliconiinae oviposition. Future Studies Having seen trends in preferential oviposition on leaves with higher cyanide concentration this study and the deterrent effect of egg mimics DeVries 1987; Williams and Gilbert 1981, a suggested study would be the artificial increase in cyanide concentrations on leaves with egg mimics via extract or other method in order to compel Heliconiinae to oviposit on leaves with egg mimics rather than those without. This might help to better understand w hich deterrent impacts oviposition more. In addition, further studies could improve upon this study by utilizing known cyanide concentration manipulations in order to discover optimum cyanide concentrations for oviposition. A more telling approach to thi s study would be to monitor every leaf available for oviposition rather than small portions. If cyanide does play a significant role in oviposition, this study would possibly have more pronounced trends, as butterflies would almost always be faced with a choice between painted and unpainted leaves. In regards to the metabolic developments of H. sara , studies similar to Engler et al. 2000 should be performed on many species of Heliconiinae to further understand their metabolism as well as learn how commo n it is among this subfamily of butterflies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first like to thank Amabelis Arguedas for the use of her garden. Without it, my research would have been much more difficult to conduct. I would like to thank the Estaci Ã³ n Biol Ã³ gica d e Monteverde for providing me space to accomplish my goals. I would like to thank Alan Masters for his guidance through the project and his help with the spectrophotometer. Thanks to Karen Masters for helping me determine my needed statistical analyses a nd to Pablo Allen for walking me through them. Many thanks to Moncho CalderÃ³n for all the help translating my abstract.
11 LITERATURE CITED A DSERSEN , A. AND H. A DSERSEN. 1993. Cyanogenic Plants in the GalÃ¡pagos Islands: Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects . Oikos. 673: 511 520. B ENSON , W.W., K.S. B ROWN , AND L.E. G ILBERT. 1975. Coevolution of Plants and Herbivores: Passion Flower Butterflies. Evolution. 294: 659 680. C OLEY , P.D. AND T.M. AIDE. 1991. Comparison of Herbivory and Plant Defenses in Temperate and Tropical Broad Leaved Forests. In. P RICE , P.W, T.M L EWINSOHN , G.W. F ERNANDES, AND W.W. B ENSON Eds.. 1991. Plant Animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in Tropical and Temperate Regions, pp. 25 49. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York. D E V RIES, P.J. 1987. The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History, Volume I: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, pp. 186 187. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. E NGLER, H.S ., K.C. S PENCER, AND L.E. G ILBERT. 2000. Insect Metabolism: Preventing Cyanide Release from Leaves. Nature. 406: 144 145. E HRLICH, P.R . AND P.H. R AVEN. 1964. Butterflies and Plants: A Study of Coevolution. Evolution. 184: 586 608. F EUILLET, C . 2004. Passifloraceae. In S MITH, N., S.A . M ORI, A. H ENDERSON, D.W. S TEV ENSON, AND S.V. H EALD Eds.. 2004. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, pp.286 287. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey F REITAS , A.V.L., I.R. L EAL , AND S.O. F ERREIRA . 1999. Selection of Oviposition Sites by a Lepidopteran Community of a Tropi cal Forest in Southeastern Brazil. Biotropica. 312: 372 375. F UTUYMA , D.J. 1986. Evolutionary Biology, pp. 493 496. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. G ILBERT, L.E. 1971. Butterfly Plant Coevolution: Has Passiflora adenopoda Won the Sel ection Race with Heliconiine Butterflies?. Science. 1723983: 585 586. G ILBERT, L.E. AND M.C. S INGER. 1975. Butterfly Ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 6: 365 397. G LEADOW, R.M. AND I.E. W OODROW. 2002. Constraints on Effectiveness of Cyan ogenic Glycosides in Herbivore Defense. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 287: 1301 1313. H AY R OE , M.M. AND J. N ATION. 2007. Spectrum of Cyanide Toxicity and Allocation in Heliconius erato and Passiflora Host Plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33: 319 329. K ARBAN, R . AND A.A. A GRAWAL. 2002. Herbivore Offense. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 33: 641 664. K ORICHEVA , J., H. N YKÃ„NEN , AND E. G IANOLI. 2004. Meta analysis of Trade offs among Plant Antiherbivore Defenses: Are Plants Jake of All Trades, Ma sters of All?. The American Naturalist. 1634: E64 E75 L EVIN, D.A . 1976. The Chemical Defenses of Plants to Pathogens and Herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 7: 121 159.
12 N ISHIDA , R. 2002. Sequestration of Defensive Substances from Plants by Lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology. 47: 57 92. O HSAKI, N. AND Y. S ATO. 1994. Food Plant Choice of Pieris Butterflies as a Trade Off between Parasitoid Avoidance and Quality of Plants. Ecology. 751: 59 68. S EIGLER , D.S. 1991. Cyanide and Cyanog enic Glycosides. In R OSENTHAL , G.A., AND M.R. B ERENBAUM Eds.. 1991. Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites, 2 nd Edition, Volume I: The Chemical Participants, pp. 35 70. Academic Press, New York, New York. S MILEY, J. 1978. Plant C hemistry and the Evolution of Host Specificity: New Evidence from Heliconius and Passiflora. Science. 2014357: 745 747. T URNER, J.R.G . 1981. Adaptation and Evolution in Heliconius : A Defense of NeoDarwinism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 12: 99 121 W ILLIAMS, K.S . AND L.E. G ILBERT. 1981. Insects as Selective Agents on Plant Vegetative Morphology: Egg Mimicry Reduces Egg Laying by Butterflies. Science. 2124493: 467 469.