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Prior, Jason Prior, Matthew
Abundancia y distribucin de los hongos durante la estacin lluviosa en Monteverde, Costa Rica
Macrofungal abundance and distribution during the wet season in Monteverde, Costa Rica
Fungi are a diverse group of organisms that play a myriad of important roles in all ecosystems. From providing medication for humans to interacting mutualistically with tropical plants, this kingdom offers benefits to many organisms. However, there is much to be learned from this highly understudied collection of species. This study focused on expanding a database of fungi in and around the Estacin biolgica de Monteverde. Each fungus collected was photographed and data such as date and time, weather conditions, microhabitat conditions, and morphological characteristics were recorded and entered into the database. Milagro Mata identified 25 of the collected species to the family, genus, or species level. By expanding this database we hope to increase knowledge and interest in the local macrofungal communities.
Los hongos son un grupo diverso de organismos que desempean una gran variedad de funciones importantes en todos los ecosistemas. Desde proveer medicinas a los seres humanos hasta interactuar mutualisticamente con las plantas tropicales, este reino ofrece beneficios a muchos organismos. No obstante, hay mucho que aprender de esta coleccin de especies que ha sido poco estudiada. Este estudio se enfoco en expandir la base de datos de los hongos en y alrededor de la Estacin Biolgica de Monteverde.
Text in English.
Macrofungi--Costa Rica--Estacin Biolgica de Monteverde
Fungi--Taxonomy and ecology
Microhabitats--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Macrohongos--Costa Rica--Estacin Biolgica de Monteverde
Hongos --Morfologa --Costa Rica
Tropical Ecology 2006
Ecologa Tropical 2006
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
M39-00066--[Macrofungal abundance and distribution during the wet season in Monteverde, Costa Rica--supporting materials--images][ppt]; M39-00067-- [Macrofungal abundance and distribution during the wet season in Monteverde, Costa Rica--supporting materials--additions to the database of fungi at the Estacion biologica de Monteverde (Summer 2006)]
i Related document;
1 Macrofungal abundance and distribution during the wet season in Monteverde, Costa Rica Jason Prior Matthew Prior Department of Biology, Central Michigan University ABSTRACT Fungi are a diverse group of organisms that play a myriad of important roles i n all ecosystems. From providing medication for humans to interacting mutualistically with tropical plants, this kingdom offers benefits to many organisms. However, there is much to be learned from this highly understudied collection of species. This st udy focused on expanding a database of fungi in and around the EstaciÃ³n BiolÃ³gica de Monteverde. Each fungus collected was photographed and data such as date and time, weather conditions, microhabitat conditions, and morphological characteristics were rec orded and entered into the database. Milagro Mata identified 25 of the collected species to the family, genus, or species level. By expanding this database we hope to increase knowledge and interest in th e local macrofungal communities . RESUMEN Los hong os son un grupo diverso de organismos que juegan una mirÃada de papeles importantes en todos los ecosistemas. Desde proveer medicinas a los seres humanos hasta interactuar mutualÃsticamente con plantas tropicales, este reino ofrece beneficios a muchos org anismos. No obstante, hay mucho que aprender de esta colecciÃ³n de especies que ha sido muy poco estudiada. Este estudio se enfocÃ³ en expandir la base de datos de los hongos en, y alrededor de la EstaciÃ³n biolÃ³gica de Monteverde. Cada hongo colectado fue fotografiado y otros datos como la fecha, la hora, las condiciones del tiempo, del microhÃ¡bitat , y las caracterÃsticas morfolÃ³gicas, fueron registrados en una base de datos. Milagro Mata identificÃ³ 25 de las especies colectadas a nivel de familia, gÃ©nero , o especie. Al expandir esta base de datos, se espera aumentar el conocimiento y el interÃ©s en las comunidades de los macrohongos locales. INTRODUCTION Fungi are a group of living organisms that are diverse, both in their methods of obtaining nutrients as well as their taxonomic nomenclature. This kingdom contains many species ranging from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Although fungi are often thought to be plants, members of this kingdom are taxonomically more closely related to animals. U nlike plants, fungi lack light harvesting organelles, such as chloroplasts, that are necessary for photosynthesis; thus they must obtain nutrients and energy from other organisms, living or dead, through absorption Mata 1999. Most fungi are saprophytic and obtain energy by attacking organisms that have died from some other cause. Other fungi are parasitic and acquire nourishment from living organisms, but do not kill their host. Some fungi are necrophytic and attack a dying organism with toxins and enz ymes, killing it in the process. Some symbiotic fungi interact with living organisms mutualistically, usually exchanging water and nutrients fungi for carbohydrates plants, increasing the fitness of both organisms Alexopoulos et al. 1996. In Costa Rica, approximately 2,000 species of fungi have been documented, and it is estimated that a total of 40,000 to 70,000 species of fungi inhabit this country Mata 1999. As of 1991,
2 approximately 100,000 species of fungi were described worldwide, and as m any as 1.5 million were estimated to exist. Next only to insects, this kingdom is thought to have the second highest species richness Hawksworth 1991. Fungi play a wide range of roles within all of the ecosystem s distributed around the world Mata 19 99. Fungi cycle nutrients resulting from dead plant and animal tissue, thus allowing the reuse of limited biotic and abiotic resources Rossman et al. 1998. Mycorrhizal fungi interact mutualistically with many tropical plants. Since tropical soils ten d to be rather infertile, nutrient uptake can be difficult for many plants. Fungi help these tropical plants obtain the nutrients necessary to grow and reproduce. In return, the mycorrhizal fungi absorb carbohydrates from the plant Mata 1999. Fungi al so provide food for many organisms. For instance, leaf cutting ants bring leaves to their nests where they farm fungi to use as a primary food source Stevens 1983. Humans also use fungi to aid in the preparation of foods such as cheese, beer, wine and bread. Conversely, fungi may have a negative impact on an environment. Some fungal species are known to act as pests by devastating crops in agricultural communities around the world Griffith et al. 2000. Within the realm of human beings, many fungi a re used medicinally. Penicillin and many other heavily used antibiotics are synthesized from fungal compounds and aid humans in the recovery from many bacterial infections Rossman et al. 1998. With such a low estimated number of species discovered, and such a high medicinal potential, it is imperative that fungal research continues. We believe that it is important to make an inventory and catalogue the abundance and distributions of fungal species located in Monteverde for many reasons. In order to l earn about an organism, one must have an organized system of naming and classifying organisms of similar taxa e.g. fungi. With an organized database, information about the fungal diversity of Monteverde will be accessible to the public and will increa se interest in this area of study. This will result in more research being conducted, which will lead to a better overall understanding of fungi. Similarly, it is important to know the fungal diversity of this area in order to determine if there is any m edicinal or scientific significance associated with the local fungi. If a certain species of fungus is endemic to Monteverde it could be beneficial to conserve that area. On the other hand, if a species of fungus is threatening the survival of another en dangered plant or animal species, it would be advantageous to take the necessary precautions to prevent further destruction. Not all fungi produce fruiting bodies at the same time throughout the year; thus it is important to create an inventory of fungi sp anning all seasons. In Monteverde, seasons are characterized by differences in precipitation and cloud types Clark et al. 2000. As precipitation increases, soil moisture levels also increase. All species of fungi require water, however, some require m ore than others. In unfavorable conditions e.g. water reduction, fungi produce fruiting bodies that release spores to increase an individual s fitness. Thus, precipitation levels can affect the abundance and growth of fungi. Cloud cover can also play a role in fungal species composition. Increased cloud cover will reduce the amount of solar heat that warms the soil, thus creating a difference in soil conditions throughout the seasons Pace 1998. Because precipitation and cloud types vary across seas ons, this may result in the presence of certain species in one season and different fungi in another season. We hypothesized that the fungal species found between July and August in Monteverde are affected by these abiotic parameters. Therefore, we predic ted that the community composition observed during the wet season in which we
3 conducted our studies would differ from the composition of species catalogued at other times of the year by previous CIEE students. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Sites This study was conducted along the trails around the EstaciÃ³n BiolÃ³gica de Monteverde. Established trails acted as transects with the sample collection being restricted to ten meters on either side of the trail as in Rogers 2005. Our study focused on the ar eas of the trails that were previously studied by CIEE students. Of these areas, the trails closest to the Station were the primary study sites. Data were collected from July 15 to August 2, 2006. Collection Methods Each species was photographed with a digital camera and specific field data were recorded. Microhabitat conditions such as elevation, relative humidity, and percent canopy coverage were noted, using an altimeter, relative humidity meter, and a spherical densitometer , respectively. Other dat a, such as the abundance, growth habit, and the observed substrate were also recorded on a specimen data sheet that was created by Rogers 2005. After specimen collection, additional morphological characteristics were recorded, such as the shape of pileu s, presence and shape of stipe, color of sample, and texture of the margin were documented on the specimen data sheet as in Rogers 2005. Once all data were gathered and organized, our results were statistically analyzed and compared to the results prod uced by Rogers 2005 and Williams 2006. The Sorenson Qualitative Index was used to look for similarity in community composition between our results and the results found by Rogers 2005 and Williams 2006, individually. Identification While in the field, we observed fungi that appeared to be similar to species previously documented by Rogers 2005 and Williams 2006. These specimens were compared to the photographs provided in the database for identification. When a species was determined to be p art of the database, its presence was noted and new pictures were taken. No other data were recorded for previously documented species. After each collection, an attempt was made to identify each species using Macrohongos de Costa Rica Mata 1999; Mata e t al. 2003. To aid in the identification, spore prints were successfully produced for some specimens. Once all data collection was complete, two or three photographs of each specimen were compiled and sent to Milagro Mata, a mycologist at the National Biodiversity Institute, for identification. Database Expansion In an effort to expand the current fungal database and create a more complete collection of the macrofungi of Monteverde, we followed the protocol set by Rogers 2005. Since
4 the fruiting bodies found in the wet season were not catalogued, we thought it was necessary to include this part of the wet season in the database. All data collected were compiled into specimen data sheets for each species as in Rogers 2005. In order to expand t he database, slides were made that included the same data parameters used by Rogers as in 2005 in the original database. Photographs and taxonomic nomenclature were also included in the slides. RESULTS Altogether there were 35 fungal species gathered between July 15, 2006 and August 2, 2006. However, five of the species were determined to be part of the database already. Therefore, we recorded data for 30 new species. We collected one fewer specimen than did Williams 2006 and five more specimens th an did Rogers 2005. Out of these 35 species, four were also identified and described by Rogers 2005 and five were identified and described by Williams 2006. Using the Sorenson Qualitative Index, overlap between the species that we gathered and the s pecies collected by Rogers 2005 and Williams 2006 was calculated to be C s = 0.12 and C s = 0.14, respectively. After sending the photos to Milagro Mata for identification, we received a list of all the available taxonomic information on the specimens that we collected. There were 25 species that we received taxonomic information for. Eight out of those 25 were classified at the family level. Eleven were identified at the genus level, while six were identified to the species name. Of the identified spe cies, three were in common with Rogers 2006 and one with Williams 2006. However, in the field, we identified one other species in common with Rogers 2005 and four other species with Williams 2006. These five specimens that were determined to be pr eviously part of the database were not sent for identification. Five species were unidentifiable. The most common substrate that fruiting bodies were found on was dead or rotting wood 19 out of 35; 54%. Twelve out of 35 34% were found growing on soil, three out of 35 9% were found growing on dead leaves, and one species 3% was found to have fruiting bodies on both a decaying log and the soil Figure 1. The most common morphological form of fruiting bodies collected was a toadstool 23 out of 35. Six species of shelf fungi, two species of each, puffballs and coral fungi, and one species of slime fungus were collected Figure 2. Most of the toadstool species that we collected had a pileus of less than two centimeters 15 out of 23; 65.2%.
5 Figure 1. The percentage of fruiting bodies that were found growing on the four different substrates observed dead leaf, dead wood, soil, dead wood and soil. Figure 2. The different morphological forms o f fungal fruiting bodies observed and the relative abundances of each gathered from July 15, 2006 to August 2, 2006. 34% 54% 9% 3% dead leaf dead wood soil dead wood and soil 17% 68% 3% 6% 6% shelf toadstool slime puffball coral
6 DISCUSSION As we predicted, species composition was different in July and early August than at any other catalogued time Rogers 2005; Williams 2006. However, there was overlap in species present during this study with species present both in the late wet season Rogers 2005 and the late dry season Williams 2006. As our Sorenson Qualitative Indices showed, our collection of species was slightly more similar to the catalogued species from Williams 2006 than from Rogers 2005. According to Clark et al. 2000, as elevation increases, the amount of precipitation also increases. Although Williams study took place in the dry season , the higher elevations that were studied may have had a similar amount of precipitation to our lower elevation study during the wet season. According to Mata 1999, toadstools are the most well known morphological form of fungi. This is supported by our results, which show that 24 of the 35 fungi that we found were in the form of a toadstool. Shelf fungi comprised the second largest morphological form, accounting for six of our 35 specimens. According to Alexopoulos 1996, many shelf fungi produce fru iting bodies that are visible for a long period of time. Since many live for a long time, we may have seen some of the same specimens that were found by Williams in May 2006, only a couple months prior to our study. As shown in our results, the most commo n substrate fungi were found on was decaying wood. This coincides with Rossman et al. 1998 who found that fungi are the major decomposer of woody tissues in tropical ecosystems. Since tropical soils tend to be infertile, nutrient rich decaying wood may provide a better substrate for the growth and fitness of fungi. Having the taxonomic nomenclature available, we compared our results to that of Williams 2006 and that of Rogers 2005. There were five species not identifiable, so there may have been mor e overlap with previous studies. The specimens that were not classified taxonomically appeared nothing like any of the species previously described. Therefore, after receiving this information none of our data changed. This was not expected, but promotes new ideas about the difference of fungal diversity throughout the seasons in Monteverde. It suggests that there may be a lot more macrofungal species occurring in Monteverde than previously thought. These new findings also suggest that the seasonal abiot ic differences truly do harbor a profound impact on fungal diversity. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Throughout our independent project, there were many individuals who helped us complete our study. First of all, we would like to thank Karen Masters for helping us or ganize our project and giving us advice along the way. We would also like to thank Carmen Rojas for helping us communicate with Milagro Mata and helping us translate our abstract. Milagro Mata, thank you for volunteering your time to help us identify the fungi that we collected. Camryn Pennington and Tom McFarland, thanks for answering all of our questions and obtaining all the supplies and equipment that we needed. Finally, we would like to thank the EstaciÃ³n biolÃ³gica de Monteverde staff for keeping c lean sheets on our beds and hot meals on the table.
7 LITERATURE CITED Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, and M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology , ed. 4. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., U.S.A., pp. 29,39, 563 574. Clark, K.L., R.O. Lawton, and P.R. Butler. 200 0. The Physical Environment . In: Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest , N. M. Nadkarni and N. T. Wheelwright, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 15 20. Griffith, K., D.C. Peck, and J. Stuckey. 2000. Agriculture in Mon teverde: Moving Toward Sustainability . In: Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest , N. M. Nadkarni and N. T. Wheelwright, eds. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pg. 402. Hawksworth, D.L., P.M. Kirk, B.C. Sutton, and D.N. Pegler . 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby s Dictionary of the Fungi Including the Lichens . 8th ed. CAB International, Wallingford, pg. 616. Mata, M. 1999. Macrohongos de Costa Rica , Vol. 1. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa R ica, pp. 11 244. Mata, M., R. Halling, and G.M. Mueller. 2003. Macrohongos de Costa Rica , Vol. 2. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica, pp. 9 231. Pace, G. 1998. Mushrooms of the World . Firefly Books Ltd., Buffa lo, NY, pg. 10. Rogers, C. 2005. Database of the Macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve. CIEE, Monteverde, Costa Rica, pp. 260 70. Rossman, A.Y., R.E. Tulloss, T.E. O Dell, and R.G. Thorn. 1998. Protocols for an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area. Parkway Publishers, Boone, NC, pg. 1. Stevens, G.C. 1983. Atta cephalotes Leaf cutting Ants. In: Costa Rican Natural History , D. H. Janzen, ed. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 688 91. Williams, S. 2006. Dr y Season Macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve. CIEE, Monteverde, Costa Rica, pp. 1 8.
8 Figure 3. An example of PowerPoint slides made for Hygrocybe miniata . This shows the data that were typically included in the database slides and the general orga nization of the information and pictures. Information such as taxonomic nomenclature, collection date and time, weather conditions, microhabitat conditions, and morphological characteristics, e.g. size and color, etc. are included. Hygrocybe miniata " Family: Tricholomataceae " Collection date: July 18, 2006 " Collection Time: 12.10 pm " Weather Conditions: Mostly sunny, few clouds. " Microhabitat conditions at collection site: Type of substrate : decaying wood Elevation: 1580 m Observed abundance: 10-15 Observed growth habit: clumped Relative Humidity: 75 % " Morphological Characteristics of collected samples: Basic form: Toadstool Shape of pileus : Hemispherical Diameter of pileus :17 mm Surface texture of pileus : velvety and smooth Presence of stipe : yes; 50 mm Shape of stipe : cylindrical to equal Color of mature sample: red Color of young specimen: slightly oranger Shape of margin using longitudinal section: decurved Texture of margin: plicate-striate Hymenium or fertile surface characteristics: " Color: orangish pink " Texture: gilled " Type of juncture with stipe : decurrent " Space between gills: subdistant " Color of spore print: brown
9 1. Polyporus tenuiculus 16. Morpho 3 2. Morpho 1 17. Morpho 4 3. Coprinus disseminatus 18. Tricholomataceae 4. Tricholomataceae 19. Pluteus sp. 5. Morganella fuliginea 20. Pluteus sp. 6. Morpho 2 21. Tricholomataceae 7. Oudemansiell a cannarii 22. Tricholomataceae 8. Crepidotus sp. 23. Tricholomataceae 9. Clavaria sp. 24. Lepiota sp. 10. Tricholomataceae 25. Scleroderma verrucosum 11. Hygrocybe miniata 26. Tricholomataceae 12. Psathyrella sp. 27. Coprinus sp. 13. Mara smius sp. 28. Gymnopus sp. 14. Mycena sp. 29. Morpho 5 15. Tremella sp. 30. Tricholomataceae Figure 4. A map of the trails around the EstaciÃ³n biolÃ³gica de Monteverde with a numbered list of fungi collected. The species number corresponds to th e numbered location on the map which shows where each specimen was found. Monteverde, Costa Rica, July 15 August 2, 2006. 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 21 22 23 24 26 27 30
10 APPENDIX A: Specimen data sheet for fungal inventories at Monteverde. Specimen number : Date: Time: Weather conditions: Mi crohabitat Conditions: Type of substrate: Relative humidity: Canopy cover %: Elevation: Abundance: Observed growth habit: Morphological Characteristics: Basic form: Shape of pileus: Diameter of pileus: Presence of stipe: Shape of stipe: If no stipe, length and width of pileus: Color of mature sample: Color of young sample: Shape of margin using longitudinal section: Texture of margin: Surface texture of pileus: Color of Context: Hymenium or fertile surface characteristics: Co lor: Texture: Type of juncture with stipe for those with lamellae: Space between gills: Stipe characteristics: Size: Color: Position: Presence of annulus: Location of annulus: Color of annulus: Presence of volva: Shape of volva: Color of volva: Texture of volva: Color of spore print: Color of bruising: Notes:
11 APPENDIX B: Morphological Terminology Keys Adapted from Mata 1999 Pileus shapes: Textures of the pileus margin: Lamellae spacing: Stipe positions: Shapes of pileus margins: Stipe shapes: Lamellae attachments: