CONTENTS Early American Reading Books ............................................. .................1 Major Acquisitions ................................ ..........7 Exhibits .......................................... ...............10 How Tampa Lost the Fort Brooke Military Reservation ....................................... ............11 Associates Events and Activities .................. 18 In Memoriam ....................................... .........19 Cover: Frontispiece from Charles Sanders' First Reader (c. 1845). Programs, activities, and services o f the Universi ty of South Florida are available to all on a non-discriminatory basis, without regard to ra ce, color, creed, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The University is an affirmative action Equal Opportunity Employer. Ex Libris Vol. 5, No. 1 Ex Libris is published by the USF Library Associates, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Please address suggestions and comments to J. B. Do bkin, Executive Secretary, USF Library Associates, USF Library, Tampa, Fla. 33620. Not printed at State expense. Except as noted, illustrations in Ex Libris are reproduced from works in the Special Collections Department of the University of South F lorida Library. Photography is by the photography department of USF's Division of Educati onal Resources.
Early American Reading Books CAN YOUR DOG read?", asks Lyman Cobb in his New Juvenile Reader No. 1 published in 1847. This work and more than 160 othe r reading books are included in the early school-book holdings of the Special Collectio ns Department of the University of South Florida Library at Tampa, Florida. Perhaps better than any history lesson, these volum es with their pages well-worn by little hands delineate the growth of the American s pirit. Published during the years 1798 through 1866, these books reflect the changing Amer ican scene not only in the manner of their printing, writing style, and expected reading level, but most especially in the content of their reading selections. During the Colonial Period, the very earliest reading materials for children were hymn books and the Bible which irrevocably influenced the content of future school books. By 1642, twelve years after the settlement of Boston, the General Court of Massachusetts charged parents with the responsibility of making sure that their children learned to read and write. This instruction was frequently provided by what was called a Dame School: a woman, usually a widow, kept school in her home. It was during this period that the first text, the Hornbook, came into general use. Not really a book at all, the Hornbook was only a three by four inch bit of paper fastened to a thin piece of board and covered with a translucent sheet of horn to protect it from little fingers. On it was printed the alphabet, a listing of vowels and d iphthongs, and The Lord's Prayer. An example of such a hornbook is included in the Speci al Collections of the University of South Florida. Later in 1647, the law which is the foundation of the Massachusetts school system was enacted. The Preamble begins with this p remise: It being one chiefe project of yt ould deluder, Sat han, to keep men from the knowledge of ye Scriptures, effort must be made to thwart this ould deluder yt learning may not be buried in ye grave of or fathrs in ye ch urch and commonwealth. _ Thus the battle was joined, and this struggle betwe en Man and Satan influenced the content of every American reading book. Religious t hemes dominated the early works, and even later after other subjects were introduced , the child was continually warned about the evils of blasphemy, thievery, lying, and even drunkenness. Unquestioning obedience was expected of all, or the "wages of sin " would result. As in the rest of the world during the 18th and 19th centuries, children were regarded as miniature-sized adults. Although there was a gradual decline in rel igious themes, the famous McGuffey Readers (1836-1920) retained religious content much later t han others did. In appearance, the early readers are very different from the modern variety. Much smaller in size (usually 3Â¼" x 4Â½") and with fewer pages, the books intended for elementary children were bound with paper covers or very thin boards covered with paper or cloth. Because nearly all textbooks were p rinted on rag paper, the pages in the Many of the reading books housed in the USF collection were used in early American schools like this one, pictured in Lyman CobbÂ’s New Juvenile Reader No. 1 , New York: Collins, 1847.
readers are still in rather good condition much lik e the early American newspapers are. Although early books utilized the elongated "S", th is printing style ended in America about 1800. Two examples of this use of the elongated "S" in the US F Collection are, The American Preceptor (1801), and The Columbian Orator (1811), both by Caleb Bingham. Curiously, early textbooks were printed in much sma ller type: eight or nine point as compared to the eighte en or twenty-four point type of today's readers. One can envision generations of children wearing bifocals b efore the age of ten! Very few textbooks before the 1830's contained pictures, but the letters of the alphabet were usua lly illustrated. The inclusion of colored pictures did not become common until after 1890. In the early days, American teachers were so poorly educated and ill-prepared that they depended heavil y on textbooks for what to teach and how to teach. Accordingly, it was common for textbook authors to include teaching suggestions in their books either in the preface, or in the introduction, or in a special se ction addressed, "To the Teacher." The earliest books contained either a preface or introduction and only rarely a table of contents. I ndexes were not common until the later part of the 19th ce ntury, but notes and glossaries were never used. However, except for the very earliest books, some sort of vi sual aid, chart, or illustration was usually included. An int eresting example of this in the USF Collection is the "earth quake" type printing in Ebenezer Porter's Rhetorical Reader: the words rise and fall on the page to indicate inflect ion. Because of the absence of early copyright laws, railroads, and efficient mail service, there was no large scale publishing by individual firms. The earliest American textbooks were produced by local printing shops who also sold books. Frequentl y, more than one local printer would reprint the same book in the same town. This is graphically demonstrated by the fact that 23 different copies of Murray's Readers of different dates and titles in the USF Collection we re printed by 21 different printing shops, and six of them were located in Philadelphia. Noah Webster tried to prevent this practice by attempting to get the fede ral government to pass an early copyright law. But fail ing in this, he did succeed in persuading a number of stat es to Seen here is the title page of an edition of one of the famous McGuffey readers. Introduced in the late 1830Â’s, the McGuffey readers virtually dominated the field of American reading books during the second half of the 19th century. Caleb BinghamÂ’s The American Preceptor , originally published in 1794, was one of the most succesful early American textbooks, appearing in at least 68 editions.
enact laws which enabled him to support his family with royalties from his books during the writing of his dictionary. Advertisements of other available texts in textbook s began about 1800 and became an accepted practice af ter 1850. Accompanying this advertising was the inclusi on of recommendations for the text written by prominent persons: Noah Webster, John Adams, and others. However, the rise of large publishing firms caused the decline of this practice. Another interesting characteristic of many of the e arly textbooks was the use of long titles that described the book. One such example in the USF Special Collectio ns is the incredibly lengthy title of this reader by D aniel Staniford published in 1807. The complete title in all its glory is, A Short But Comprehensive Grammar Rendered Simple and Easy by Familiar Questions and Answers Adapted to the Capacity of Youth, and Designed For the Use of Schools and Private Families to which is add ed an Appendix, Comprehending a List of Vulgarisms and Grammatical Improprieties Used in Common Convers-tion. Considering that the textbook itself is only 76 pag es in length, this is a formidable title indeed. One w ould think that the student deserved an "A" just for making it all the way through the title! The reading levels of the early textbooks are impre ssive because absolutely no concession was made to the struggling student. Ther e were no episodes of Dick and Jan pulling Spot, the dog, in a wagon. Rather, the earl y American child was regaled with passages from the King James version of the Bible o r excerpts from the works of William Shakespeare. Even the original stories written for the textbooks were peppered with complex sentences, embedded clauses, and complicate d vocabulary. The majority of the early reading textbooks must be classed as presentday college reading level. Only a very few of the early school-book holdings of the USF Sp ecial Collections can be termed elementary or basic readers. In the early days of A merica, the skill of reading, as well as other subjects, was "taught to the tune of a hickor y stick." The whipping of students by the schoolmaster was not only an accepted but an ex pected practice. One suspects that the majority of students diligently studied their reade rs and tried hard to meet the criteria of the child in the following poem. The Description of a Good Boy The boy that is good Does mind his book well; And if he can't read Will strive for to spell. His school he does love; And when he is there, For plays and for toys, First issued in 1799, Lindley Murray Â’s English Reader became the most popular reader of its day.
No time can he spare. Although printing styles, reading levels, and other physical aspects are indicative of the developing c ountry, it is the content of the early readers that most cl early mirrors the changes in American thought. This is evidenced by the use of the Bible and hymn books as the earliest reading materials in the Colonial days of America. For the early settlers, religion was the overriding characteristic of their lives. They considered thei r own values the only absolutely correct ones by which to live. A bit later, the early spellers were brought here f rom England, but some of the chief sources of reading f or Colonial children were printed in America. The USF collection has a later edition of one such work. It is The Union Spelling Book which features an illustrated alphabet and lists of spelling words which, curious ly, are not used in the accompanying reading lessons. There is also a musical alphabet with the letters placed on a staff of music. The contents include the usual heavy reli gious themes and warnings about the evils of disobedience and drunkenness. The work is definitely secondary schoo l reading level. The American Revolution brought about sweeping chan ges because the readers in post-revolutionary America had a new function to pe rform: developing loyalty to the new nation. An indication of this new patriotism was th e replacement of King George's portrait with one of George Washington in the reade rs. An example in the USF Special Collection is an edition of Fisher's National Primer with a frontispiece of George Washington (looking angry). In keeping with the sep aration of church and state, the religious content of the new readers was reduced wh ile more stress was placed upon inculcating morals. The readers also reflected the emphasis upon developing an intelligent and informed citizenry, a theme that in fluenced American thought during the Age of, Jefferson (1776-1828). Thomas Jefferson, a Deist, doubted that organized religion works in behalf of the individual for his happiness. He believed it to be too restrictive: a carrot (Heaven) if one is good, or a stick (Hell) if one is evil. Jefferson contended that there is no need for the "carrot and stick" approach. It is necessary only to appeal to the good in people to cause them to make the right decisions. Further, people make wrong decisions because they are uneducated an d need to be educated to gain understanding. Jefferson felt that education is cru cial to teach people to care about others. Appropriately, more readers appeared that exalted t he positive virtues of Man: charity, caring for animals, the Golden Rule, and o thers. So the trend at the turn of the century was away from a Protestant ethic towards a social ethic. The works of both Caleb Bingham and Noah Webster which are represented in t he USF Special Collection attained popularity during this period. Bingham's The American Preceptor (1801) and The Columbian Orator (1811) emphasized high-moral values and a political defens e of democracy. Representative titles of some of the les sons are, "On the Duty of School Noah Webster of dictionary fame also authored one of the first American readers.
Boys" and "Filial Duty and Affection." Noah Webster 's An American Selection of Lessons in Reading and Speaking. The Third Part o f a Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1798?) also extols the virtues of leading a virtuous life. But the texts that outstri pped all others in popularity were the Lindley Murray Readers written in England by the American-born Murray. The USF holdings include 23 different copies of Murray's works. The content of these readers includes the us ual moral and religious themes, short excerpts from the Bible, and a surprisingly secular selection, a translation of Pliny. The Age of Jackson (1824-1850) ushered in innovative ideas that caused the emergence of polit ical parties in America. A new breed of professional politicians invented ways to involve and manage the people. The need to get the voter to the polls nece ssitated campaign methods that used slogans, campaign button s, newspapers, rallies, and above all, campaign speech es. Accordingly, with the new emphasis upon public speaking, the "orator" or "speaker" texts which had been around for some time really came into their own. Th eir contents usually included poetry, prose, and patrio tic speeches. Most popular of all was the above-mention ed Rhetorical Reader of Ebenezer Porter published in 1831 with its "earthquake" style of printing to indicate inflection. During this same period, readers continued to empha size the building of character through the development of proper moral attitudes a nd behavior. Sharp contrasts were drawn between right and wrong. Evil suffered prompt , severe punishment, and good was as promptly rewarded. Character reform was incredib ly sudden, successful, and permanent in all cases. Two examples in the USF Col lection illustrate this beautifully. George Merriam's The Child's Guide (1841) includes such literary gems as, "The Girl Who Ate Too Much," and "The Girl Who Told Lies," bu t best of all is the classic, "The Listener." This last recounts the trials and tribul ations of a little girl who liked to eavesdrop. The work is illustrated, but unfortunate ly it is present-day secondary school reading level. The other work is William Cardell's Story o f Jack Halyard, The Sailor Boy; or the Virtuous Family. Virtue triumphs in this "Horatio Alger" plot. It is illustrated, and although intended to be used as an early reader , it is present-day college reading level. Readers in series made an appearance about this tim e also. Lyman Cobb of Â“Can your dog read?Â” fame holds the distinction of being the first author to conceive a really graded series of readers and to begin with the lowest read er. He had a realistic view of reading levels of works for children. Examples of his grade d series are included in the USF schoolbook holdings, and they are among the few tru ly elementary level readers in the collection. But, unquestionably, the most widesprea d and influential textbooks ever used in American classrooms were The McGuffey Readers . From 1836 until 1920, 122 million copies of the series were printed! A quarter of a m illion were sold between 1920 and 1960, and the latest editions of the Readers are still printed and for sale. No other series Patriotic themes were popular in American textbooks of the 19 th century, as is shown by this primer published around 1853.
of textbooks under the name of a single person has ever equaled that record. Their success was due partly to their illustrations and f ormat (the introduction of new words in logical progression), but primarily their success w as due to the fact that they reflected the values in which Americans believed. They stressed i ndividual salvation through hard work, thrift, and competition: the bywords of laiss ez faire capitalism. They set the standards of morality and social life for more than half a century. Although William McGuffey is credited in print with the authorship of the series, his brother, Alexander, an authority on literature, did the major work on a number of the Readers and produced the most-praised Fifth Reader entirely on his own. For many American children, this Fifth Reader was their firs t introduction to good literature. Distinguished Americans who were reared on McGuffeys include such notables as Mark Twain, William McKinley, Lew Wallace, and Henry For d among others. Indeed, Ford developed such a deep affection for the series that during the 1930's he had printed facsimiles of the early readers. The McGuffery Era (1836-1920) included the Civil Wa r Period in America, and the Readers faithfully reflect the concerns of that tim e. William McGuffey, a strong pacifist, was horrified at the slaughter of the "Brothers War ." In the 1866 edition of the Fourth Reader, there is a dialogue between a father and hi s son, Charles, entitled, "Things by Their Right Names." When asked to tell a story, the father describes the "murder" of 20,000 people by 30,000 people. Not until the very end does the boy realize what his father is describing. C. O, now, I have found you out! You mean a battle. F. Indeed I do. I do not know of any murders half s o bloody. The Special Collection at USF includes 17 copies of various titles and editions of the McGuffey Series including both the famous Fifth Reader by Alexander, and the abovementioned Fourth Reader of 1866, one of the facsimiles that Henry Ford had printed in 1930. The early school-book holdings of the Special Colle ctions Department, published during the years 1798 through 1866, represent a con siderable segment of American history. Because these textbooks faithfully mirror the social and political growth of our nation, they provide an insight into the American s pirit. But on a much more personal level they permit the reader of 1982 to glimpse, if only briefly, what it was like to be a child in the early days of American. -by Jo Evans
MAJOR ACQUISITIONS IN THE CONSIDERABLE interval since notes of acquisi tions last appeared in Ex Libris , there has been major growth in most of the Librar y's special collections. Gifts ranging from single volumes to large collections ha ve been received from friends of the USF Library in Florida and elsewhere in the nation. Although it is not possible due to space limitations to list here all of the rare and unusual items added to the USF collection, some of the more notable gifts and other acquisitio ns are listed below. Harry K. Hudson Bequest We have received from the estate of the late Harry K. Hudson a large bequest of children's books and dime novels totaling in excess of one thousand volumes. Many of the books filled gaps in the holdings of USF's Harr y K. Hudson Series Book Collection, having been acquired for that purpose by Mr. Hudson before his death. Books duplicating volumes already in the USF collection were disposed of through a sealed bid auction, with the proceeds going to the Associates' endowmen t fund. The dime novels donated also filled many gaps in our holdings, while duplic ates were traded for a considerable number of other needed dime novels. The bequest als o included Mr. Hudson's personal papers relating to his career as a collector and st udent of American juvenile literature. The Hudson papers, occupying seven linear feet of s helf space, include correspondence with leading collectors and scholars of American ch ildren's literature throughout the nation, as well as Mr. Hudson's own research notes an d writings. The Hudson papers constitute an invaluable resource for bibliographic and historical study of juvenile literature. Hampton Dunn Collection Noted Florida newspaperman and historian Hampton Du nn of Tampa celebrated his "Golden Anniversary" as a newsman and writer this J anuary by donating his huge collection of Floridiana to the USF Library. The Du nn collection includes a vast array of materials relating to the history of our state, and is particularly rich in items dealing with the Tampa Bay area. In addition to more than a thou sand books on Florida's past, the collection includes pictures, oral history tapes, m anuscripts, historical newspaper editions, and memorabilia. Accompanying Mr. Dunn's research materials are copies of the more than a dozen books and innumerable article s on Florida history that he has written during this fifty-year writing career. The Dunn Collection is a truly major addition to the USF Library's resources, and will be co ming to the Library in installments over a period of years. The first installment, a bo dy of several thousand photographic negatives showing Tampa during the 1940's and 1950' s, has already been placed in the Special Collections Department. Anthony Pizzo Collection Tampa historian Tony Pizzo has designated the USF L ibrary as the permanent home for his unique collection of materials relating to the history of Tampa. Mr. Pizzo, a native of Tampa's Ybor City, is perhaps best known for his book Tampa Town: Cracker Village With a Latin Accent. The leading authority on Ybor City, Mr. Pizzo, duri ng his research into the history of Tampa's Latin community, has ga thered a phenomenal body of
documents, photographs, memorabilia, and other mate rials relating to Tampa's past. The Pizzo collection is a veritable treasure trove of s ource materials relating to the diverse groups that made up Tampa's unique immigrant commun ity. Formal presentation of Mr. Pizzo's collection to the University will take plac e at a dinner program in his honor to be held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Tampa o n the evening of October 23. Associates members are encouraged to plan to attend this event, which will also be the occasion of the first Tony Pizzo Florida History Le cture. Further information on this event appears in the Events section of this issue. Alma Sarett Papers The Library has received the papers of the late Dr. Alma Sarett, former USF professor of speech. Dr. Sarett, wife of noted writer Lew Sar ett, was personally acquainted with many significant 20th century literary figures such as Carl Sandburg, Archibald MacLeish and John Ciardi. Her papers include extens ive correspondence files with letters from these and other of her literary acquaintances. Accompanying Dr. Sarett's papers are many presentation copies of 20th century American l iterary works which greatly strengthen the USF rare books collection's holdings in this area. Girls Series Books A gift of over fifty scarce girls' series books was received from Mr. Edward T. LeBlanc of Fall River, Massachusetts. Mr. LeBlanc i s the editor of Dime Novel RoundUp, and a leading authority on American popular juvenil e literature. He has in the past taken a benevolent interest in our collection, assi sting us in developing our dime novel holdings. His current donation is a tangible expres sion of his interest that is very much appreciated. Growth in our girls' series book holdi ngs over the past year, which has been entirely through gifts and Associates' support, has been very encouraging. The fact that this collection has become one of the finest of its kind in existence is due to the generous gifts of donors like Mr. LeBlanc. William T. Brannon Papers The Library has received the papers of the late Wil liam T. Brannon. Mr. Brannon was known as "the dean of American detective writers," and was the author of several books and scores of articles on crime. During his long wr iting career, he contributed widely to such detective magazines as True Detective and Official Detective. Many of his articles dealt with Florida crimes, giving his papers a part icular relevance for our collection. The Brannon collection includes Mr. Brannon's research correspondence files, as well as copies of his works. The collection was obtained fo r the University through the efforts of USF faculty member Dr. Edgar Hirshberg. Horatio Alger Books St. Petersburg bookman and book collector, Mr. Wall ace Robinson, recently presented to the Library a gift of over five hundre d books by Horatio Alger. Including multiple editions of Alger's famous "rags to riches " novels, Mr. Robinson's gift more than triples USF's Alger holdings, and provides an inval uable resource for bibliographic research into the publication history of Alger titl es. The Alger books constitute the first installment of a large collection of books by Alger and other 19th century juvenile book
writers which Mr. Robinson will be donating to the Library over the next few years. Brasser Book Sale Donation A special vote of thanks is due to Mr. Thomas Brass er of Brasser's Books in Seminole for his gift of over one thousand books fo r the annual Library Associates book sale scheduled for this November. Mr. Brasser's don ation included books of all kinds, with books on history and crime being particularly numerous. Some of the latter have been added to the Library's main book collection, b ut the majority of the volumes have been added to our stock for the sale. Main Lobby Display Case Visitors to the University of South Florida campus library will notice a large new display case in the lobby on the first floor. This very impressive piece of equipment was given to the Library by Host International, concess ionaire at Tampa International Airport. Over seven feet tall and fifteen feet long, the woo d and glass display case was formerly used in the airport gift shop until replaced by new display facilities. This very useful gift was obtained through the good offices of Mr. Paul E . Camp, Sr. of Tampa. Thanks are also owed to Mr. James Olsen, Host Maintenance Mana ger, who was instrumental in seeing that the case reached USF.
Exhibits EXHIBITS of rare and unusual items from the Univers ity's collections are displayed in the Library on a continuing basis. Display areas are located on the first floor of the library building in the main lobby, and on the four th floor in the lobby and the Special Collections Reading Room. SEMESTER I, 1982-1983: First Floor Lobby: "Early American Reading Books" During the summer session and fall semester an exhi bit of reading text books used in early American schools will be on display in the lo unge area of the first floor lobby. Ranging in date from 1795 to 1865, these relics of American childhood will illustrate the development of the teaching of reading in the schoo ls of 19th century America before the Civil War. Drawn from the Library's extensive colle ction of 19th century American schoolbooks the items comprising the exhibit will p rovide a useful accompaniment to the article on American school readers appearing in the current issue of Ex Libris. The exhibit will remain on display until October 15. Fourth Floor Lobby: "Oliver Optic: The Works of W. T. Adams" William Taylor Adams (1822-1897) was one of the mos t successful American writers of children's books and stories during the second h alf of the 19th century. Writing under the pseudonym "Oliver Optic," he authored well over one hundred novels and over one thousand periodical articles for young people. In a ddition to his books and stories, he also edited Oliver Optic's Magazine, a popular children's journal. The exhibit for Semes ter I will display a selection of "Oliver Optic's" works drawn from the Library's collection. The exhibit will remain on display from September 1 to December 1. Special Exhibit On October 18, a special exhibit of items relating to the history of Ybor City from the collection of noted Tampa historian Tony Pizzo will be on display in the first floor lobby area. This exhibit will commemorate Mr. Pizzo's des ignation of the University of South Florida Library as the permanent home for his uniqu e Tampa history collection (see "Major Acquisitions" section of this issue). SEMESTER II, 1982-83: First Floor Lobby: "Recent Acquisitions" During the second semester a selection of books, ma nuscripts, pictures and other rare and unusual items acquired by the Library over the past year will be on display. The exhibit will include rare Floridiana, historical an d literary manuscripts, colorful early American children's books, dime novels ... in short , a full cross-section of the materials that have been acquired for the Library's special c ollections during past months. It will serve both as a celebration of the Library's contin ued growth and as unmistakable evidence of the generous support given to the Libra ry by its many friends. Fourth Floor Lobby: "Two Florida Writers View Crime and Criminals" The USF manuscript collection contains the papers o f two Florida writers who, in a manner of speaking, devoted themselves to crime. Th e first collection is that of mystery
writer Baynard Kendrick, best known for his creatio n of the blind detective Duncan McClain. The second set of papers belonged to Willi am T. Brannon, known as "the dean of American detective writers." Kendrick created a fictional world of sleuths and cunning villains. Brannon documented the harsh facts of cri me in the real world. The exhibit for Semester II will display the works and manuscripts of these two Florida writers, illustrating how each viewed his own slice of the f acts and fictions of crime.
How Tampa Lost the Fort Brooke Military Reservation HOUSED IN THE Special Collections Department is an extensive and growing collection of material of tremendous value to the l ocal historian. Of particular interest to the student of Tampa's history are two petitions of local citizens to Congress. These old documents help to illustrate a fascinating but inad equately recorded story; the long dispute over the title to the Fort Brooke Military Reservation land. It was the desire of many Tampans that this land should not be developed for commerce or industry, but set aside as a public park for its great natural beauty . In a letter home a soldier stationed on the reservation wrote of the many giant live oak tr ees, whose limbs were hung with "Spanish moss and with festoons of yellow jessamine ." It would be a great opportunity for the town to have such a scenic landscape adjacent to downtown. The larger petition is dated November 13, 1882, and is signed by 165 residents. It noted that that land now south of Whiting Street and west of Meridian Avenue would soon be abandoned as a military reservation, and expressed concern that the valuable tract would fall into the hands of speculators or railroad companies. The petitioners urged that the Senate vest the land in the town of Tampa for use as a "park or pub lic pleasure ground for the recreation of the inhabitants." The second petition asked that Louis Bell be allowed to retain his home in the event that the land was sold. Bell, abo ut eighty years old and a veteran of the Mexican and Seminole Wars, earned a "scanty subsist ence" from his garden and had lived on the reservation land for years. It is evid ence of the strong degree of interest in the ownership and use of the land that about 230 citize ns in a town with a population of 1,450 signed one or both of the petitions. Also in the Library's files are transcripts of seve ral letters and telegrams, most of which are dated in the crucial early weeks of the c ontroversy. They present a personal record of the events and are especially insightful as to the actions of such figures as community leader John T. Lesley and Florida's Unite d States Senator Wilkinson Call. Fort Brooke was established in response to the Trea ty of Moultrie Creek, an agreement negotiated between the new American gover nment in Florida and the Seminole tribes in 1823. Millions of acres in the c entral peninsula from Ocala to Charlotte Harbor were set aside for an Indian reser vation. A military post was suggested for the Tampa Bay area to "protect" the Seminoles f rom outside influences, to forestall the introduction of weapons from Cuba, and to serve as a station for the Indians to obtain Fort Brooke in 1838
rations and supplies. Lt. Col. George Mercer Brooke arrived with four companies of militia in January 1824 , and began constructing the cantonment on the east b ank of the Hillsborough River at the point where it enters Hil lsborough Bay. This spot was chosen largely because of the improvements made by Robert J. Hackley, who cleared the land and built a fine home and wharf. This settler was promptly dispossessed of his land by Col. Brooke and was thereafter unsuccessful in attempts to reclaim his plantation. Fort Brooke was the most important fort in Florida during the Second Seminole War but its utility decreased in later years. The last soldiers were shipped out in December 1882 . In the following month responsibility for the 148 acre reservation was transferred from the War Department to the General Land Office in the Department of the In terior. It was at this time that efforts were mounted to pr ocure the land in the name of the town. John T. Lesley sought the aid and advice of S enator Wilkinson Call, who agreed to investigate a workable plan. Fearful that the land would be obtained by speculators within the Land Office itself, Call in turn discussed the situation with the Secretary of the Interior. Acting on the Secretary's suggestions, he had made preparations to secure the reservation by mid-March, 1883. Since the town itse lf could not homestead the land, a plan was devised wherein men residing near the Gain esville land office would file an application for homestead and make the accompanying cash entry payment. At the same time one from Tampa would file a claim of preemptio n; the right of an actual settler to purchase land before others. Call wrote that this s cheme would serve to "secure both ends." Accordingly, Dr. Edmund S. Carew and J.A. Carlisle of Gainesville were selected by the Senator. On March 19, Carew filed for homestead on the entire tract and Carlisle made the cash entry. On the same day Call telegraph ed Lesley to proceed with the preemption. The cash payments of Carew and Carlisle were not accepted until late on March 22, when a plat of the land was received from the General Land Office in Washington. They had been advised by Senator Call o f when the plat had been sent and so were prepared to make the payments within five m inutes of its arrival in Gainesville. They were also instructed by Call to use his funds to pay the $421.00 entry money and homestead application fee. Call relayed this inform ation to Lesley, who immediately paid the Gainesville men's draft on the Senator's accoun t. Clifford Herrick was apparently the man selected by Lesley and his associates to fulfill their "end" of Senator Call's plan. He file d for preemption on March 26, alleging in his required statement that he made settlement and began improvements on the land five View of For Brooke sketched by an Army officer duri ng the Second Seminole War.
days earlier. The third man to claim the Fort Brook e land was old Louis Bell, who asserted his settlement rights by filing for prempt ion on March 30. Call termed his claim to the entire tract a "Land Office trick," and was sure that he would "not be allowed to claim more than the single lot he has asked for rep eatedly." Carew soon arrived with his family to take up resid ence in the vacated officers' quarters near the present intersection of Platt and Franklin Streets. It is unclear from available records why Dr. Carew established his hom e on the reservation. He was supposedly informed beforehand that his homestead w as only a means to prevent speculation on the land. It was to be turned over t o the people of Tampa as represented by Lesley and his friends. Neither Carew nor Carlisle used his own money in the process, but rather that of Senator Call, and indirectly tha t of John T. Lesley. Furthermore, Carew paid only the $20.00 register and receiver's fee, while Carlisle paid the crucial $421.00 entry money. A partial answer to this question may be found in the testimoney of Lesley at an 1889 hearing called by order of the Secretary of the Interior. He claimed that an agreement was reached with Carew on the advice of members of the town council and other prominent citizens. It was decided that after six months the reservation would be divided into six parts. The town of Tampa was to make its selection first, with that lot to be used as a public park. The other sections would then be divid ed among William B. Henderson, John A. Henderson, Stephen M. Sparkman, John T. Les ley, and Dr. Carew. According to Lesley, he was astonished when Carew later rejected the terms of their oral agreement. The doctor said that he was the only man who had an y rights to the land and he intended to hold it. It is not clear when this understanding was reached . The report of the hearing officers indicated that it was prior to the March 22 homeste ad. Yet, the agreement was made between Lesley and Carew, who had no contact or cor respondence before that date. If Carew was a party to this arrangment before March 2 2, or if he originally thought he was homesteading for Senator Call (as Lesley once claim ed he had admitted), his homestead application would have involved perjury. By law, an affidavit was signed by each applicant wherein he swore that he was neither acti ng as an agent for, nor "in collusion with any person, corporation or syndicate to give t hem the benefit of the land entered." The hearing officers concluded that at the time of his filing Carew was acting as an agent of Senator Call. He did not file in good faith for the purpose of making the land his home, but rather under an agreement to donate some of the land to the town of Tampa and hold the remainder jointly with several other persons. This circa 1900 post card view of the old Fort Broo ke officersÂ’ quarters shows some of the giant live oaks that onc e graced the former military reservation.
When Carew announced his determination to settle al l of the land, Lesley and his associates concentrated on advancing Clifford Herri ck's claim. The strength of this claim was the fact that Herrick's settlement date was one day prior to Carew's homestead. John S. Turner, a Virginia attorney selected by Senator Call, warned Lesley that it was "very important that Herrick's settlement + Beginning of improvements should be fixed on March 21." He was confident that Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa's future U.S. Representative, would see to the proper date. Spark man had in fact telegraphed Lesley when Herrick was still in Gainesville to "continue improvements," and to have "Clifford keep off all trespassers." Attorney Turner felt tha t Herrick had the "inside track," and Call reported that the Secretary of the Interior felt th at the Carew and Bell claims were inferior. Nevertheless, there was apparently some reason to q uestion the strength of Herrick's preemption. Turner thought it possible that Carew c ould cast doubt on the genuine nature of the claim. He also feared that Herrick might "go back on us and make a more profitable arrangement to himself by making a clean breast of it." Perhaps one of these contingencies was realized, for Herrick's claim is not considered in later Department of the Interior case reviews. On April 2, 1883, the commissioner of the General L and Office ordered the local land office to accept no more applications for homestead or preemption. The subsequent attempts of Frank Jones, Daniel Mather, Julius Caes ar, Andrew Stillings, and Enoch B. Chamberlain to file for all or part of the land wer e rejected. This was doubtlessly an unexpected development, and the unsuccessful applic ants requested an appeal. After reviewing the case, the commissioner reiterated his decision in December. He held that the land was not, and never had been subject to hom esteading or preemption. Because it lay adjacent to a town, the tract had a greatly enh anced value over agricultural lands normally available for homesteading. He concluded t herefore that it was in the public interest that everyone have an equal opportunity to purchase lots. He ordered that the only proper method of disposal was by a public sale , and the claims of Carew, Herrick, and Bell must be cancelled. The commissioner's deci sion was upheld by Interior Secretary Henry M. Teller. Two more important claimants emerged to compound th e confusion. In September 1887, the heirs of Robert J. Hackley, the settler t hrown off the site by Col. Brooke sixtythree years before, claimed the right of preemption and purchase. They argued that Hackley was guaranteed this right by an act of Cong ress in 1826, and upon his death it was transferred to them. In 1889 an act of the Stat e Legislature created the new City of Tampa and extended its incorporate limits to cover the reservation. On this basis the city maintained that it was entitled to the lands for us e as a public park. Late in that year a hearing was held before the off icers of the local land office to determine the character of the various claims. They ruled that the claim of the Hackley heirs was superior to all others. Hackley was the f irst settler and had twice attempted to regain the land by filing a claim of right of preem ption. The claim of the heirs of Louis Bell, who died on the reservation in 1885, was foun d to be worthy of consideration, but only because of Bell's "good character." They repor ted that the homestead and entry of Dr. Carew was not made for the purpose of establish ing a home and therefore was invalid. The claim of the City of Tampa was rejecte d since the rights of any legitimate settler could not be affected by a later incorporat ion. The officers recommended to the
commissioner of the General Land Office that the ca ses of all the claimants except those of the Bell and Hackley heirs be cancelled. All oth er persons living on the reservation land through 1883 were squatters, as the land was n ever legally opened to homesteading. The decisions of the local officers were appealed t o the commissioner, who upheld them except in regard to the heirs of Louis Bell. He fel t that if the Hackley claim was allowed, all others must be denied. The Hackley heirs alone at this juncture would be able to perfect their claim and have all of the land awarde d to them. Once again an appeal was requested, and the entire matter came before Secretary John W. Nobel in November 1892. He agreed that the Carew homestead was not made in good faith, and that the claims of the other settle rs or their heirs were also properly rejected. However, he went on to reverse the judgme nt for the Hackley heirs. The act of Congress in 1826 under which they claimed specifica lly exempted military reservations from those lands it made available for preemption a nd purchase. Furthermore, this act was not in effect during the time of Hackley's sett lement. The appropriate law in force at that time made any settler upon the lands of the Un ited States either a tenant at will or a trespasser. Hackely was the latter. As his settleme nt was illegal, he had no rights to the land which could d escend to his heirs. Secretary Noble's decision in effect meant that the status of the reservation was the same as when it w as abandoned by the Department of War. The land would be sold at public auction at whatever date the Secreta ry deemed proper. For differing reasons, few in Tampa were satisfied with this state of affairs. The land was never made available for public sale, but a large number of squatters settled on the reservation with their tar paper and wooden shacks. The Descriptive Pamphlet of Hillsborough County (1885) conceded that the land's natural beauty was "marred by the fences which have been erected around and through" what was to have b een an attractive public recreation area. The clouded t itle to such a valuable tract, with frontage on both the ri ver and the bay, was an impediment to the town's growth. Th e development of the port was especially hindered. Fi nally, none of the claimants had been able to gain a clear title, and the years of confusion added much bitterness. In this atmosphere it was charged that Senator Call had double-crossed the town. It was implied that there was something dishonestly secretive about Call's correspondence with Dr. Carew. A later author also cited the fact that Dr. Carew received the homestead application and entry money from the Senator to suggest that Call may have intended to obtain the land for himself. Both of these surmises are quite questionable. The plan to use Carew and Carlisle wa s known to Lesley and other prominent Tampans by March 19 at the latest. On tha t date Lesley received a telegram from Call notifying him that the two men were ready to act. While it is true that the Senator's money was used initially, it appears that this was done for the sake of Petition signed by 165 Tampa residents asking Congress to transfer the Fort Brooke Military Reservation to the town of Tampa for use as a park. Dated November 13, 1882.
expediency. He wrote Lesley that, "There was no tim e to be lost, and all these several methods of defeating the land ring" were necessary. Call assured him that his role in the matter was "without any personal interest and solel y in pursuance of your wishes." Indeed, Call was involved for years in the effort t o have the Fort Brooke land granted to the town. The judgment of Secretary Nobel, which was favorabl e to none of the claimants, was appealed to his successor Hoke Smith. Secretary Smi th ruled that the order of the commissioner of the General Land Office to accept n o more applications for homestead or preemption after April 2, 1883, and to cancel al l previous claims, was not proper. Although the commissioner had the authority to disp ose of the lands either by public sale or under the homestead and preemption laws, once an entry had been allowed under one method he could not opt for the other. The revocati on of the order of April 2 necessitated the re-examination of all applications before and a fter that date. Dr. Carew had died on the last day of 1886 and his widow remained in the officer's quarters. Lizzie Carew continued to press the claim as heir to her husband , but limited it to two of the seven lots into which the land had been divided. Although the Carew entry was twice rejected in the past because of a lack of good faith, Secretary Smi th found no evidence to support that charge and ordered that the entry be allowed. The e arlier findings were based on the testimoney of John Lesley at the 1889 officers' hea ring. The Secretary felt that Lesley's statements were suspect because they were made in a revengeful spirit by a person interested in discrediting Carew's claim. Also orde red allowed were the claims of Frank Jones, Julius Caesar, Enoch B. Chamberlain, the hei rs of Louis Bell, and Martha Lewis, the mulatto widow of Andrew Stillings, to one lot e ach. The preemption application of Daniel Mather was rejected on the grounds that he n ever intended to reside on any part of the land, but filed only for speculative purposes. The claim of the Hackley heirs was again denied because Robert Hackley himself had no legal right to initiate a claim. This 1894 ruling was not the end of the title contr oversy. Unsuccessful within the Department of the Interior, the Hackley heirs broug ht their case before the Circuit Court for the Southern District of Florida. This case was dismissed and the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the dismi ssal. On November 7 and 8, 1904, the case known as Scott versus Carew was argued before the Supreme Court of the United States. Sally Field Scott and the other Hackley hei rs were represented by an array of nationally prominent attorneys, including former Flor ida governor Francis P. Fleming. Lizzie Carew and the other defendants secured the s ervices of William Wade Hampton, Edward R. Gunby, and Horatio Bisbee, Jr., the latte r being for four years the area's Republican Congressman. A decision affirming the di smissal by the Court of Appeals was handed down on January 3, 1905. Justice David J . Brewer wrote for the Court that Hackley was a trespasser on the land and had had no legal right thereto. Carew and the other settlers of 1883 were the lawful owners. After more than two decades of departmental and jud icial contests, the title to the Fort Brooke land was finally cleared. To many, the reser vation had been "lost," but certainly the day was long past when Tampa could have reasona bly hoped to obtain the land for a park. It would be surprising if such prime real est ate could have escaped development in a burgeoning young town. Today the live oaks are go ne. One can only imagine the appearance of Tampa's waterfront in 1982 if the hop es of a century ago were realized. -by Jeffrey Lewis
ASSOCIATES EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES Hampton Dunn Reception On January 25, 1982 Florida journalist and historian Hampton Dunn of Ta mpa commemorated his "Golden Anniversary" as a writer b y donating his huge collection of Floridiana to the University of South Florida Libra ry. The occasion was marked by a reception sponsored by the Library Associates in th e Special Collections area of the Library. Receiving the collection on behalf of the University was the wife of the University of South Florida President John Lott Bro wn. The reception, which began at 7:30 in the evening, was very well attended both by memb ers of the University community and by Mr. Dunn's many friends and admire rs. At times the Special Collections reading room was literally "wall to wal l with people." Featured at the event were displays of material from the Dunn Collection, an exhibit of Mr. Dunn's books on Florida history, and a showing of a sound and film presentation. For a description of the Dunn Collection, please see the "Major Acquisitions " section of this issue of Ex Libris. First Florida Antiquarian Book Fair On February 27, 1982 the Library Associates sponsored a reception in the Library's Special Collection Department for the antiquarian b ooksellers attending the Tampa Antiquarian Book Fair. The Book Fair, planned to be an annual event, drew exhibitors from throughout the nation, including some of Ameri ca's leading antiquarian booksellers. The fair was held in the historic Tampa Bay Hotel, now the University of Tampa, and gave Bay area bibliophiles and collectors the oppor tunity of examining and acquiring top quality rare books and other antiquarian materials. Dinner Program in Honor of Tony Pizzo On Saturday, October 23, 1982 , the Library Associates will hold a dinner program a t the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Tampa in honor of Tampa historian Tony Pizzo. The event will commemorate Mr. Pizzo's presentation of his unique Tampa history collection to the USF Library (see "Major Acquisiti ons"). USF President John Lott Brown will formally receive the donation for the Un iversity. The evening will begin with a reception from 6:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., followed by a dinner in the Hyatt's Buccaneer Suite. After dinner, the first of the Tony Pizzo Le ctures on Tampa history will be presented by Dr. Gary Mormino. This is planned to b e an annual Associates event. It is hoped that Governor Robert Graham of Florida will b e present for the evening. According to the Governor's staff, Governor Graham will plan to attend barring unavoidable conflicts in his busy schedule. Informa tion relative to reservations for the evening will be sent to all members of the Associat es in the Fall. Fourth Annual Library Associates Book Sale Coming up in November will be the annual Library As sociates book sale, at which books acquired by the Associates during the year an d not needed by the Library will be sold at bargain prices. The sale will again be held in the ballroom on the second floor of the University Center building at the USF Tampa cam pus. It will begin on Sunday, November 7, with the traditional preview session open to member s of the Library
Associates only. The preview will run from 7:30 p.m . to 10:00 p.m. All members of the Associates are cordially invited to attend. Receivi ng first crack at the thousands of sale books is an important membership benefit that shoul d not be overlooked. The public portion of the sale will open at 9:00 a.m. on Monda y, November 8. The sale room will be open until 10:00 p.m. on Monday, and will reopen fr om 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. on the following day. Personpower for this year's sale is being provided by USF librarians under the co-sponsorship of the Library's Committee on Pr ofessional Concerns, which will receive a share of the profits. Donations of books for the sale have been received from many sources. Since the annual book sale is the maj or source of operating funds for the Associates, we would like to urge all our friends t o donate any unneeded volumes they may have for the sale. Not only is such a donation a painless way to benefit the Library Associates and the USF Library, but it also helps g et books that would otherwise be unread into the hands of people who will enjoy them . It also provides a useful tax deduction. Anyone wishing to donate books for the s ale should call Mr. Jay Dobkin or Mr. Paul Camp at 974-2731 in Tampa. In Memoriam Harry K. Hudson 1911-1982 In each field of man's knowledge there is almost al ways one individual whose accomplishmentsplace him or her into the forefront of that partic ular sphere. For those of us interested in the literature of the American boy, one name is constantly repeated as that of the leader. Harry K. Hudson achieved the lasting respect and ad miration of students and collectors of juvenile books by the compilation of his Bibliography of American Boys Books in Series 1900-1950. This work of love on Harry's part has provided us w ith a tool that makes our work with these books far simpler. Not only is this bibliography acclaimed for its tho roughness and meticulous attention to detail, but it now serves as a guide for those w ho are working in the assembly of similar studies, a case in point being the publicat ion of the University of Minnesota titled Girls Series Books: A Checklist of Hardback Books P ublished 1900-1975, which notes in its introduction that it is intended to parallel wi th Harry K. Hudson's bibliography. The University of South Florida Library plans to reprin t the Hudson bibliography with additional data gathered by Mr. Hudson in the not too d istant future. As a collector Hudson created one of the leading bo dies of material in existence in his field of interest. He began his collection before o ld juvenile books became popular with book dealers, libraries, or most collectors. By per sonal visit, by correspondence, and through advertisements in hobby magazines, Hudson k ept in close contact with most of the people and institutions interested in his area of expertise. In looking through back issues of such publications as Dime Novel Round-Up, Yellowback Library, and Boys Book Collector, we find numerous articles by Harry relating to the solution of bibliographic puzzles, or imparting to an appreciat ive audience news of some hitherto unknown or unrecorded series or author. Harry Hudson was a voracious reader of the literatu re that he collected and recorded. He seemed to relish the uncomplicated lifestyle del ineated in the series books and dime novels. The always moral, if violent, stories of ac tion played out in a masculine world were his antidote to the problems of today's societ y.
Without the collection that was put together over m any years by Mr. Hudson, the University of South Florida could never have hoped to become an acknowledged leader in the juvenile book field. During the balance of h is life after his personal collection was acquired by USF, Hudson actively sought for items n eeded to fill lacunae in the collection, and he presented those to us. Harry Hudson continues to aid us even after his pas sing. At his wish and through the generosity of his widow we have received about one thousand books from his estate. Those items which duplicate our holdings are to be disposed of with the proceeds going toward Special Collections. We regret the loss of this outstanding bookman, but we will always be able to point to the great and growing collection that bears his nam e. We will never be far from the influence of this scholar, bookman, and gentleman. It is with justifiable pride that we speak of the Harry K. Hudson collection of juvenile books pride in the excellence of the collection, and pride in the accomplishment the nam e represents.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARY ASSOCIATES Any person who wishes to help in furthering the goa ls of the USF Library Associates is eligible to become a member. Regular, sustaining, p atron, corporate, and student memberships are available on an annual basis. (Sept ember 1 to August 31) . Student memberships are open only to regularly enrolled stu dents of the University of South Florida, and are valid only so long as the member r emains a regular USF student. Life memberships are also available to interested person s. Membership in the Associates includes a subscriptio n to Ex Libris, a journal of articles and news about Associates activities, libr ary developments, and other topics likely to be of interest to Bay area bibliophiles. The member is also entitled to attend all Associates functions and, in addition, is eligible for book loan privileges at the University Library, subject to prevailing library regulations. So, if you are interested in helping us to obtain a better library for the University and its community, and want to participate in the many services and activities offered to members by the Library Associates, please use the m embership blank below and become one of us today.