Theory and research in social education

Theory and research in social education

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Theory and research in social education
National Council for the Social Studies -- College and University Faculty Assembly
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Theory and research in social education.
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THEORY AND RESEARCH in Social Education Vol XI No 3 Fall 1983 Jackstadt and t Econon ;ic Knowledge and High School Student Brennan t Attitudes Toward the American Economic System, Business, and Labor Unions Hurst, Kinney and t The Decision-Makilbg Process Weirs Harr :isi'm,iii and Gray A Rationale for Value Education Hahn and t Women and Economic Textbooks Blankership Editorial Comment Recent ERIC/Chess Documents


Theory and Research in Social Education Volume XI t Number 3 t Fall 1983 TRSE is the official journal of the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Published quarterly, it is a general review open to all social studies educators, social scientists, historians and philosophers A general statement of purpose, and submission, subscription and advertising information may be found at the end of the journal € 1983 by the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies All rights reserved i


Editor : Jack L Nelson Rutgers University Editorial Board : Beverly Armento Georgia State University Cleo Cherryholmes Michigan State University Millard Clements New York University Catherine Cornbleth University of Pittsburgh Lee Ehman Indiana University Janet Eyler Vanderbilt University Patrick Ferguson University of Alabama Jack Fraenkel San Francisco State Henry Giroux Miami University, Ohio Jean Grambs University of Maryland Carole Hahn Emory University Robin McKeown University of California, Riverside Lawrence Metcalf University of Illinois John Napier University of Georgia Murry Nelson Pennsylvania State University Thomas Popkewitz University of Wisconsin JoAnn Sweeney University of Texas Stanley Wronski Michigan State University 11 Associate Editor : Kenneth D Carlson Rutgers University Editorial Assistant : William Fernekes Book Review Editor : William Stanley Louisiana State University The College and University Faculty Assembly Executive Committee 1982-3 Chair Murry R Nelson The Pennsylvania State University Secretary : Ambrose A Clegg Kent State University Treasurer .Samuel R Bell Bradley University 1983 Program Co-Chairs Jack Frankel San Francisco State University Richard Gross Stanford University Members : Janet Alleman-Brooks Michigan State University Catherine Cornbleth University of Pittsburgh Richard Diem University of Texas at San Antonio Lee Ehman Indiana University Sharon Pray Muir Oklahoma State University Charles Myers Vanderbilt University John Napier University of Georgia Kathy Scott Florida State University Robert Tabachnik University of Wisconsin


The National Council for the Social Studies Officers 1983-4 President : Carole L Hahn t Vice-President : Donald Bragaw Emory University t New York State Education Department President-Elect : Jean Craven t Executive Director : Lynne Iglitzin Albuquerque Public Schools Reviewers for this Issue of TRSE The editors wish to express special appreciation to the following scholars who served as referees of manuscripts submitted James Barth, Purdue University Lee Ehman, Indiana University Patrick Ferguson, University of Alabama Jack Fraenkel, San Francisco State University G Dale Greenawald, Social Science Education Consortium Benita Jorkasky, SUNY Brockport Theodore Kaltsounis, University of Washington William Martin, University of West Florida Lawrence Metcalf, University of Illinois Patricia Moseley, North Texas State University Stuart Palonsky, Mendham, New Jersey Public Schools Gerald Ponder, North Texas State University Howard Schober, Louisiana Council for Economic Education Charles Skoro, Boise, Idaho iii


Volume XI Number 3 Fall, 1983 V CONTENTS Stephen L Jackstadt and Jerry M Brennan Economic Knowledge and High School Student Attitudes Toward the American Economic System, Business, and Labor Unions 1 Joe B Hurst, Mark Kinney and Steven J Weiss The Decision-Making Process 17 Ronald E Harshman and Charles E Gray A Rationale for Value Education 45 Carole L Hahn and Glen Blankenship Women and Economic Textbooks 67 Editorial Comment 77 Recent ERIC/Chess Documents 78 Call for Proposals : 1984 CUFA 83


Theory and Research in Social Education Fall, 1983 Volume XI Number 3, pp 1-15 by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Economic Knowledge and High School Student Attitudes Toward the American Economic System, Business, and Labor Unions Stephen L Jackstadt Center for Economic Education University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Jerry M Brennan University of Hawaii Introduction This study examines the relationship between high school students' economic knowledge and their attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions Economics educators have often assumed that attitudes toward economic institutions and issues are a function of knowledge and that greater cognitive knowledge of economics will make students more sympathetic toward the American economic system and its constituent institutions A number of researchers have shown that economic courses in high school can lead to statistically significant gains in economic knowledge as measured by several standarized tests (Bach and Saunders, 1965 ; Mayer and Paden, 1968) Other studies at the college level have shown that courses in economics may affect student's liberalism/conservatism (Luker, 1972 ; Luker and Procter, 1981), their egalitarianism (Sosin and Campbell, 1979), as well as their attitudes toward free trade (Thompson, 1


1973), labor unions, socialism, social welfare, and economic freedom (Riddle, 1978) There is little research evidence, however, to support the popular contention that knowledge gain will lead directly to the development of specific attitudes The purposes of this study are to determine whether or not a positive relationship does exist between high school students' economic knowledge and their attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions, and to ascertain whether economic learning predicts changes in these attitudes Knowledge and Attitudes The basic notion that knowledge and attitudes are related and that a gain in knowledge may lead to attitude change is well-founded The concept of attitude has been used in social psychology since the turn of the century and, as might be expected with a term that has been used over such a long period of time, its definition has varied A definition, however, which includes the central characteristics used by most theorists would be : "An attitude is an idea charged with emotion which predisposes a class of actions to a particular class of social situations ." (Triandis, 1971, p .2) This definition suggests that attitudes have three components : a cognitive component, and affective component, and a behavioral component From this it is clear that cognitive economic knowledge (or lack of same) is one element in the formation of attitudes toward economic issues and institutions, and that economic learning may result in attitude change Of course, attitudes are not simply a function of knowledge Attitudes are formed over a lifetime and may be accounted for in terms of subjects' family background, experience, and education For this reason two hypothetical causal models are formulated on the basis of knowledge and theory in order to examine the relationship between relevant demographic variables, economic knowledge, and economic attitudes on the one hand, and between demographic variables, economic learning, and attitude change on the other The models described in the study are tested by means of path analysis, using standardized regression coefficients as path coefficients Each of the two models assumes a specific causal ordering of variables By comparing the expected paths in these hypothetical models with empirically obtained paths, the validity of the proposed models can be judged In addition, a variety of simple descriptive statistics and measures of association are used to clarify the findings of the study Economic knowledge was measured by students' scores on the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) developed and published by the Joint Council on Economic Education The TEL is available in two forms to facilitate pre and post-testing while minimizing "practice effects ." Economic learning was 2


measured by the residualized difference between pre and post-test scores on the TEL Students' attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions were measured by three separate attitude scales constructed by the authors The items which comprise the scales were either composed by the authors or taken from extant scales included in Dawson (1980) according to criteria suggested by Edwards (1957, pp 13-14) The result was three Likert scales consisting of 30 items each These scales were administered to 82 high school students as a field test Results of the field test were itemanalyzed and alpha reliabilities were computed Items which seemed ambiguous or which detracted from reliability were deleted in order to arrive at the three twenty-item scales employed in the study In the actual studies, pre and post-test alpha reliabilities were .69 and .74 respectively for the scale measuring attitudes toward the American economic system, .61 and .65 for attitudes toward business, and .76 and .77 for attitudes toward labor unions Sample items from the scales : "The American economic system allows the rich to exploit the poor ." (American economic system) "Business should have a stronger voice in running the U .S ." (business) "Labor unions can take credit for the high standard of living of most American workers ." (labor unions) Changes in students' attitudes were measured as the residualized differences between pre and post-test scores on each of the respective attitude scales Models Model I shown in Figure 1, relates the stock of students' knowledge to existing attitudes and assumes a positive relationship between parents' education, parents' occupation, and academic achievement, as measured by students' total scores on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) This positive relationship between variables measuring socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement is one of the most consistently replicated findings in sociological and educational research (Jencks, 1972 ; Shah, 1968 ; Boocock, 1966) We would also expect academic achievement to be a strong predictor of economic knowledge Although there is a paucity of studies regarding the relationship between high school students' general academic achievement and the amount of economic knowledge they possess, several studies at the college level have found college entrance examination scores (SAT, ACT) to *Residualized difference = post-test score (b pretest + intercept) 3




be positively associated with economics test performance (Highsmith, 1974) Ecomonic knowledge, in turn, is held to be associated, in a positive way, with attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions Parents' union membership is assumed to have a positive effect on attitudes toward labor unions and a negative effect on attitudes toward business Several researchers have found that union members differ slightly from the general public in certain of their views Bok and Dunlap report that union members have more favorable attitudes toward unions than nonmembers, tend to give unions the main credit for the high standards of living of U .S workers, and have less faith in business leaders (Bok and Dunlap, 1970) Although Rajan reports that children with union parents possess no greater knowledge of labor union history and structure than children of non-union parents (Rajan, 1977), it seems reasonable to assume that parents' attitudes will "rub off" onto their children Media attention, which describes the frequency with which students read the newspaper or watch the news on, television, is held to be a predictor of economic knowledge Weisbrod has criticized researchers for paying too little attention to the impact of television and popular journalism on the economic knowledge and attitudes of students, since the vast majority of people never take a formal course in economics and will be exposed to economics mainly through informal media such as television, newspapers, and magazines (Weisbrod, 1979) In spite of this fact, virtually no research on this variable has been conducted at the high school level At the college level one study found that students' reading of the business section of a weekly news magazine correlated positively with economics test performance (Lewis and Dahl, 1972) It would seem reasonable, in spite of a lack of supporting evidence, to postulate a positive relationship between media attention and economic knowledge due to the fact that news stories on economic topics are frequently carried in newspapers and on television Furthermore, we expect young people from higher SES families to read the paper and watch the news with greater frequency than those from lower SES families We also assume that academic achievement is positively related to media attention since students who are strong in reading, english, and other academic areas are able to read the newspaper with greater facility and tend to have a stronger interest in the news Lastly, grade level is identified as a determinant of economic knowledge The fact that students achieve higher scores on economics tests as they advance from lower to higher grade-levels has been established by norm data for virtually every standardized test, including the TEL (Soper, 1979) Model II (Figure 2) is a variation on the basic model presented in Figure 1 It relates the flow of students' learning to attitude change As in Model I, we assume a positive relationship between SES variables and achievement, 5




which in turn affects economic learning, as measured by residualized gain scores on the TEL TEL gain is held to have direct effect on attitudes toward all three attitude objects It is also assumed that current enrollment in an economics course (i .e taking a course during the semester in which the study was conducted) has a direct positive impact on economic learning Procedures Data to test the models were collected during the spring semester, 1979 The sample population consisted of 1,050 students in 19 of Hawaii's 62 public senior high schools Twenty-eight teachers participated in the testing project All were volunteers Participating students were enrolled in 16 different kinds of social studies classes (e .g geography, American history, career education, economics) 52% were males and 48% females Grades 10 through 12 were included in the sample All students were pre and post-tested on their economic knowledge and their attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions The pre-test (Form A) of the TEL and the Attitudes Scales, including a demographic questionnaire, were administered in all schools during the first week of the semester The post-test (Form B) of the TEL and the Attitude Scales were administered during the last three weeks of the semester Pre-test and post-test versions of the Attitude Scales were identical Findings-Model I Economic Knowledge and Attitudes (Figure 3) The basic notion that students' attitudes toward the American economic system and business are related to the amount of economic knowledge they possess is supported by the magnitudes of the direct paths from economic knowledge to-each of these attitudes No relationship is found, however, between knowledge and attitudes toward labor unions Economic knowledge however, is not the only variable affecting students' attitudes toward business and the American economic system In fact, the best single predictor of students' attitudes toward business is grade level The unexpected negative paths leading from grade level to attitudes toward the American economic system (.165) and business (.124) suggest that students become more cynical in their attitudes toward these institutions as they grow older Whether this is due to maturational factors associated with adolescence or to some anti-business, anti-capitalism aspects of the school curriculum is not clear Mitigating this age-related cynicism is the positive effect of economic knowledge and of having taken a previous course in economics Paths of .056 and .074 respectively, link previous course with attitudes toward the American economic system and business Previous economics course work also affects students' attitudes toward the American economics system and business indirectly through its effect on economic knowledge ( .155) 7




Attitudes toward business were also affected by students' media attention and their parents' occupational level Students who, attended more to the news media had more positive attitudes toward business than other students ( .061) and not surprisingly, parents' occupation was positively related to attitudes toward business ( .071) As expected, parents union membership predicted students' attitudes toward labor unions, with the children of union members displaying more favorable attitudes than the children of non-members .A path of .154 links these variables An unpredicted, but not surprising result shows parents' occupation to be negatively related to attitudes toward unions That is, children with parents who are not in the professional, business or managerial category are shown to have more favorable attitudes toward unions than children of parents who are professionals, business people or managers (.056) The assumption that the children of union members would be antipathetic toward business, is not confirmed Model I accounts for 10 percent of the variance in attitudes toward the American economic system, 3 .98 percent of the variance in attitudes toward business, and 2 .71 percent of the variance in attitudes toward labor unions It should be noted that the variables which affect students attitudes toward the American economic system are generally the same variables which affect their attitudes toward business In each case, economic knowledge, grade level and previous course are the best predictors It would seem that economic knowledge and school-related factors are related to the formation of attitudes toward the American economic system and business, while variables associated with parents' occupational situation are relatively more important in formation of attitudes toward labor unions Table 1 summarizes the direct relationship between attitudes and antecedent variables-in the model . Economic Knowledge The pattern of linkage among the variables which affect economic knowledge is also consistent with predictions In fact, the direct paths leading to economic knowledge, as measured by students' pretest scores on the Test of Economic Literacy confirm the relationship predicted by the hypothetical model to a greater extent than did the direct paths leading to the three attitude variables The direct path of .558 which links academic achievement and economic knowledge, for, example, supports expectations derived from the literature In addition, academic achievement has an indirect affect on economic knowledge via media attention, with a path of .067 from media attention to economic knowledge Grade level, as expected, was also a predictor of economic knowledge The direct path of .163 supports the view that students gain economic knowledge as they grow older and pass from grade to grade Furthermore, grade level is related indirectly to economic knowledge via previous economics course The higher the grade level, the more likely it is that a student will have taken a previous course ( .146) Previous course in turn, is a predictor of economic knowledge, with a direct path of .155 Thus grade 9


Table 1 : Variables Which Directly Predict Attitudes Toward the American Economics System, Business, and Labor Unions (*) All path coefficients are significant beyond the .05 level level has both a direct and indirect positive influence on economic knowledge An unpredicted but not surprising finding was that parents' occupation also predicted economic knowledge ( .072) High-occupation parents, perhaps, are more prone to discuss economic matters in the home than are blue collar, military, and other non-professional parents In all, the model accounts for 37 .81 percent of the variance in economic knowledge Evidently, it is easier to specify antecedents of economic knowledge than it is to identify the factors which account for the formation of economic attitudes Other Variables As expected, both parents' education and occupation predicted academic achievement, as measured by students' total scores on the Stanford Achievement Test Parents' education was the stronger predictor, with a direct path of .161 as compared to a path of .098 for parents' occupation These two variables also predicted whether or not students had taken a previous course in economics Parents' education was positively related to students having taken a previous course, with a path of .100 A rather puzzling finding, however, shows parents' occupation to be negatively related to previous course That is to say, we find that students whose parents are professionals are less likely to have taken a previous course in economics than students whose parents are non-professionals (.100) This is just the opposite of what we might expect, although a plausible explanation may be that students from professional families might have greater ex1 0 Attitude Variable Antecedent Variable Path Coefficient* Economic Knowledge .282 American Grade Level .165 Economic System Previous Economics Course .056 Grade Level .124 Economic Knowledge .107 Business Previous Economics Course .074 Parents' Occupation .071 Media Attention .061 Labor Unions Parents' Union Membership .154 Parents' Occupation .056


pectations of going on to college and thus are too busy taking standard college courses such as math, chemistry, and languages to bother with economics Contrary to expectations, the SES variables did not predict students' media attention The best predictor of this variable was total SAT score ( .100) Parents' union membership also predicted media attention ( .061) This latter finding was unexpected, as was the path of .054 leading from parents' occupation to grade level Apparently, students whose parents are in the profession or work at the managerial level of business stay in school longer than other students Findings-Model II Economic Learning and Attitude Change (Figure 4) As expected, economic learning predicted change in attitude toward all three attitude objects, with paths to attitudes toward the American economic system, business and labor unions of .161, .050 and .056 respectively Economic learning was the best single predictor of change in attitudes toward the American economic system Other predictors were parents, education ( .082), academic achievement ( .074), and current economics course ( .072) Current couse was also directly related to changes in attitude toward business ( .088) Parents' union membership is, quite surprisingly, the best single predictor, with a direct path of .094 Other variables which are related to change in attitude toward business include academic achievement ( .074) and grade level (.073) The negative sign on the latter coefficient is consistent with findings in Model I Only two variables predicted change in attitudes toward labor unions These are parents' union membership ( .103) and economic learning ( .056) Model II accounted for 6 .19 percent of the variance in attitude change toward the American economic system, 3 .32 percent of the variance in change in attitude toward business, and 1 .35 percent of the variance in change in attitudes toward unions Table 2 summarizes the direct relationships between attitude change and other variables in' the model) Economic Learning Current economics course is, as expected, the best predictor of economic learning ( .305) As shown in Table 3, students who took a course in economics during the semester in which the study was conducted learned significantly more economics than students who did not take such a course Differences in learning between the two groups are significant at p = .0001 It should be noted, however, that students who were enrolled in economics courses for the semester during which the study was conducted already knew more economics than students who were not enrolled in such a course This is evidenced by a sigr_)ficant difference (P .0001) in the pretest scores of the two groups Furthermore, even students who did not take economics appear to have gained a significant amount of economic 1 1




Table 2 : Variables Which Directly Predict Change in Attitudes Toward the American Economic System, Business, and Labor Unions (*) All path coefficients are significant beyond the .05 level knowledge over the semester, although students in economics courses learned much more Since the TEL Test Manual reports a norming sample mean of 21 .59 for Form A (pretest) and a mean of 22 .89 for Form B (posttest) the apparent gains made by students not enrolled in economics may be due simply to the fact that the posttest was easier Aside from current economics course, the only variable in Model II which predicts learning is academic achievement ( .222) Together, these two variables account for 15 .58 percent of the variance in economic learning This proportion is relatively low, in light of the fact that Model I accounted for nearly 38 percent of knowledge variance at the pretest Of the important factors left out of Model II, teacher quality or course quality would seem particularly important As suggested by the wide variance in TEL for students who took a current economics course, differences in course quality may have been considerable The absence of a measure of course quality in the model probably enlarges error variance and attenuates path coefficients Summary The data derived by this study generally confirm the relationships set forth in the hypothetical models It seems clear that high school students' attitudes toward the American economic system and business are affected positively by the amount of economic knowledge they possess In addition, 1 3 Attitude Variable Antecedent Variable Path Coefficient* Economic Knowledge .161 American Parents' Education .082 Economic System Academic Achievement Current Economics .074 Course .072 Parents' Union Membership Current Economics .094 Business Course .088 Academic Achievement .074 Grade Level .073 Economic Knowledge .050 Parents' Union Labor Unions Membership .103 Economic Knowledge .056


Table 3 : Mean Scores on the Test of Economic Literacy Pretest t Posttest t-test pre vs post = p < .0001 t-test pre vs post = p < .0001 t-test for t t-test for course v s n o t course v s n o course = p < .0001 t course = p < .0001 high school economics courses were found to be effective means of increasing economic knowledge, thereby bringing about positive changes in students' attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions Although our models explain relatively little of the total variance in either attitudes or attitude change, the fact that the models are supported suggests that a more adequate description of the processes of attitude formation and change may be made possible by inclusion of other variables (teachers' attitudes, characteristics of high school economics courses, characteristics of textbooks) or by the direct measurement of attitudes References Attiyeh, Richard E ., G L Bach, and Keith Lumsden, "The Efficiency of Programmed Learning in Teaching Economics : The Result of a Nationwide Experiment ." American Economic Review, (June, 1965), 329-356 Bach, G L and Saunders, Phillip, "Economic Education : Aspirations and Achievements ." American Economic Review, (June, 1965), 329-356 Bok, Derek C and John T Dunlap, Labor and the American Community New York : Simon and Schuster, 1970 Boocock, Duane S ., "Toward a Sociology of Learning : A Selective Review of Existing Research ." Sociology of Education, 34 :1 (Winter, 1966), 95-101 Dawson, George, Attitudes and Opinions on Economic Issues Old Westbury, New York : Empire State College for Business and Economic Education, 1980 Edwards, Allen E ., Techniques of Attitude Scale Construction New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957 1 4 Mean S D Mean S .D Current Economics 20 .06 5 .21 25 .00 5 .20 Course (N = 198) (N = 153) No Current 19 .07 4 .96 20 .26 5 .92 Course (N = 852) (N = 560)


Highsmith, Robert, "A Study to Measure the Impact of In-Service Institutes on the Students of Teachers Who Have Participated ." Journal of Economic Education, 5 :2 (Spring, 1974), 77-81 Jencks, Christopher, et al, Inequality : A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America New York : Harper and Row, 1972 Lewis, Darrell R and Tor Dahl, "Factors Influencing Performance in the Principles Course Revisited," in Research Papers in Economic Education Arthur Welsh, editor New York : Joint Council on Economic Education, 1977, 145-155 Luker, William A ., "A Relationship Between Economic Knowledge and Certain Elements of the Affective Domain," in Research Papers in Economic Education, Arthur L Welsh (ed .) New York : Joint Council on Economic Education, 1972, 12-23 Luker, William and Wanda Proctor, "The Effect of an Introductory Course in Microeconomics on the Political Orientation of Students ." Journal of Economic Education, 12 (Summer, 1981), 54-57 Moyer, Eugene M and Donald W Paden, "On the Efficiency of High School Economics Course ." American Economic Review, 58 :4 (September, 1968), 870-877 Rajan, G S ., "Parental Influence and Trade Union Knowledge ." Labor Studies Journal, 2 :1 (Spring, 1977), 50-53 Riddle, Terry, "Student Opinions on Economic Issues : The Effects of an Introductory Economics Course ." Journal of Economic Education, 9 (Spring, 1978), 111-114 Rosenberg, M J and others (ed .), Attitude Organization and Change New Haven : Yale University Press, 1960 Rothman, Mitchell P and James H Scott, Jr ., "The Effect of an Introductory Economics Course on Student Political Attitudes ." Journal of Economic Education, 6 (Spring, 1975), 107-112 Sewell, William H and Vimal P Shah, "Parents Education and Childrens' Educational Aspirations and Achievements ." American Sociological Review, 32 :2 (April, 1968), 191 Sosin, Kim and Campbell R McConnell, "The Impact of Introductory Economics on Student Perceptions of Income Distribution ." Journal of Economic Education, 11 (Fall, 1979) Thompson, Fred A ., "The Interaction of Cognition and Affect : The Issue of Free Trade ." Journal of Economic Education, 4 (Spring, 1973), 111-115 Triandis, Harry C ., Attitude and Attitude Change New York : Wiley, 1976 Weisbrod, Burton A ., "Research in Economic Education : Is it Asking the Right Questions?" American Economic Review, 69 :2 (May, 1979), 15-21 1 5


Theory and Research in Social Education Fall, 1983 Volume XI Number 3, pp 17-43 € by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies The Decision Making Process Joe B Hurst Educational Theory Mark Kinney Foundations of Education Steven J Weiss Economics The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 Introduction and Problem Awareness The purpose of this article is to explore the process' of decision making, identify important implications for social education and recommend steps for increasing realistic decision making in schools An additional goal is to create a more integrated perspective of individual, group, social and political decision making while stimulating a broader, more action-oriented view of social education from elementary school through graduate school .' Historical Background Rational decision making is rooted in the rich inquiry tradition of which social studies education has been a part for the past thirty years at least Until the late 1950s there was a trend in social studies to define cognitive skills in terms of, subject matter acquisition while assuming that "pupils would ,automatically learn scientific process of investigation and thus become critical thinkers" (Massialas and Hurst, 1978, 35) Then a new movement based upon John Dewey's view of thinking (1910) began to gain prominence According to Dewey, thinking began with the recognition 17


of a perplexing problem and could be divided into five steps or phases including suggestion, intellectualization, hypothesizing, reasoning and testing hypotheses (Dewey, 1910) This "new social studies" movement resulted in the development of several theoretical and instructional models that emphasized the practice of "inquiry skills" during classroom problem solving These models included "Reflective Thinking" (Hunt and Metcalf, 1955, 1968) ; "Group Investigation" (Thelen, 1954, 1960) ; "Jurisprudential Inquiry" (Oliver and Shaver, 1966) ; "Social Inquiry" (Massialas and Cox, 1969 ; Massialas, et al ., 1975) and "Inductive Thinking" (Taba, 1967) 'The emphasis of the movement was mainly on critical thinking, problem solving, discovery, inquiry and social science concepts and principles In his seminal article Shirley Engle (1960) argued that instruction aimed at effective citizenship had to abandon the remembering of isolated facts and stimulate the testing of individual and social beliefs and convictions To Engle decision making at the "data" and "policy level" was the "heart" of social studies From this point on many educators continued to advocate the inquiry approach ; a few called it "rational decision making" (Kaltsounis, 1971 ; Engle and Longstreet, 1972) ; while others labeled many of the same skills "basic citizenship competencies" (Gillespie and Patrick, 1974 ; Newmann, 1975 ; Massialas and Hurst, 1978 ; Remy, 1980) Problem Definition The concern of this article is that a clearer understanding of decision making in social studies education be developed A study of the literature indicates that students, teachers, administrators, parents, college faculty and other citizens are affected by this problem It becomes clear that the central issue is that there is a disagreement about what decision making is and a lack of concensus about the ability of the schools and teachers to promote the use of skills in real situations This lack of concensus is most commonly raised in terms of five very specific issues : 1 The learning of Machiavellian thinking and values by students who make individual decisions 2 The overlooking of the power of intuitive approaches to problem solving 3 The belief that individual, group, and political decision making are totally separate processes 4 The institutional restraints within the schools 5 The traditional approaches to teacher training Our goal is to discuss each of these five issues while using a decision making model as a frame of reference A Review of the Process Throughout the literature there is a tendency to describe rational decision-making as a four-, five-, or six-step process 1 8


Scholars in a number of fields define decision making as : (1) defining the problem ; (2) generating alternative solutions ; (3) evaluating possible solutions ; (4) selecting the "best" alternative and (5) implementing the decision (Kalsounis, 1971 ; Epperley, et al ., 1977 ; Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; Leamer, et al ., 1977 ; Bachhuber and Harwood, 1978 ; Meszaros, 1978 ; Brammer, 1979 ; Fels, et al ., 1979 ; Smoot, et al ., 1979 ; Glover, 1980 ; Hermanson, et al ., 1980 ; Simon, 1980 ; Bannister and Monsma, 1981 ; Dessler, 1982) Our review of the literature supports the view that there tends to be approximately six or seven major phases of rational decision making and over fifty crucial alternative sub-steps The major phases, or stages, of rational decision making as we see them include : 1) Problem Awareness 2) Problem Definition 3) Developing Alternatives 4) Evaluating Alternatives 5) Implementing, a Plan 6) Evaluating Results (Heppner, 1978 ; Hurst, et al ., 1979 and 1980) Throughout the literature there is an apparent overlap among these stages and a repetition of some sub-steps throughout the process which illustrates the "continual need" for, or a necessary recycling backward and forward to widen and deepen self-awareness, data, collection and analysis, problem definition, goal setting, consideration of values and criteria, creative views and approaches and evaluation (Koberg and Bagnall, 1976) The review of the literature that follows is organized around these six stages The Problem Awareness Stage Several scholars describe a "pre-definition" stage which consists of problem awareness and identification, collecting information,' self analysis, asking key questions, accepting responsibility and committing oneself to action (Dewey, 1910 ; Patton and Giffin, 1973 ; Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; and Carkhuff and Anthony, 1979) In his review of the literature Heppner (1978) found a "generalorientation stage" common to the decision making models he examined He further found that generally there were three distinct sub-steps connected with this stage of the process : (1) "verbally acknowledge" that a problem exists and behave as though one can "cope effectively," (2) identify and label "troublesome situations," and (3) avoid acting on impulse or ignoring important problems (Heppner, 1978) Koberg and Bagnall (1976) call this stage "acceptance" of the problem During acceptance a person determines whether or not she or he will try to solve the particular problem(s) identified Important aspects of problem acceptance include consideration of one's commitment to solving the problem, personal motivation, available resources and existing comments Some view this as an "exploration of external ramifications" of the par1 9


ticular problem (Carkhuff and Anthony, 1979) Therefore, the first stage in decision making is the careful assessment of oneself and the situation through the use of several "Wh" questions : (1) Where am I at this time? What is happening? What does this mean to me? Whose actions are affecting me and the situation? What do I feel and why? (2) What is the difference between and the implications of where I am and where I'd like to be? What do I contribute to the problem? (3) What are my personal values, goals and priorities? What do I really mean by each of these? How can I describe each of them in specific words? By carefully defining one's own values, goals and priorities early in the process one can avoid the most common mistake in making an important decision : basing it upon the single value that "is most immediate, obvious and accessible" (Carkhuff and Anthony, 141) The Problem Definition Stage An accurate, specific definition of the problem is an important tool in decision making An unclear perception and statement of the actual problem leads to ineffective decision making and wasted effort (Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; McCasky, 1976 ; Brammer, 1979 ; Adams, 1980) One review of the decision literature concludes that very little research has been done and "much remains unknown" about the defining stage of decision making (Heppner, 1978, 369) Every model studied has a "definition stage" which incorporates two or more of the following steps : (1) Obtain and analyze available, relevant information about the problem (2) Define vague and unfamiliar words and statements in simple, concrete terms (3) Assess one's behaviors, emotions, values, beliefs, feelings, knowledge, resources, needs, priorities and competencies (4) Assess one's environment and the possible consequences of particular actions and reactions related to the problem (5) Delineate the problem situation including goals, expectations and conflicts (Heppner, 1978) Such an identification, analysis and statement of the situation provides a comprehensive view of the real problem and any related problems or "subproblems ." Theory and experience in teaching creative behavior suggests that a person write down a number of different statements of the problem (Adams, 1980) Parries (1965) recommends that creative problem solvers write several problem statements in a positive form at different levels of specificity while trying to find "the broadest relevant statement ." This tends to increase one's options for creative solutions He also recommends that one identify sub-problems by determining causes of the problem and blocks to solving it and then write positive problem statments for each sub-problem 2 0


The Developing Alternatives Stage According to Hayes (1981), many difficulties in creative problem solving and decision making arise from trying to think up alternative solutions Two techniques help stimulate the production of ideas -brainstorming and analogizing Although brainstorming was designed originally for groups, the same principles can be employed by individuals during their own "private ideagenerating sessions ." These principles include separating idea generation from evaluation, writing down ideas as they come, welcoming crazy or wild ideas, combining ideas, controlling one's internal editor and reviewing the list to stimulate new ideas Analogizing involves the use of a specific "checklist" of analogy types (e .g ., personal, direct, symbolic, fantasy, form, function and material) and the identification of analogies for each type (Hayes, 1981) Heppner (1978) contends that there are four major aspects of the generating alternatives phase These aspects are avoiding fixation, overcoming emotional factors, brainstorming and associating ideas Too often problem solvers may block their own progress and creativity by concentrating 'time, energy, effort and thought power upon limitations they associate with the task, small cues, irrelevant data, and past experiences and habit Sometimes negative emotions such as fear, anxiety and frustration can reduce the range (flexibility) and depth (fluency) of creative thinking (Heppner, 1978 ; Glover, 1980 ; Adams, 1980) Generating alternatives requires deferring judgment, "hanging loose," piggybacking on other ideas and thinking of possibilities rapidly Unfortunately, in our experience, most decision makers fail to defer judgement and tend to censor possibilities which sound impractical, dumb, silly or crazy Most of the "ideation" phase involves obtaining help from other people and "spurring" new ideas (Parnes, 1965 ; Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; Adams, 1980) Burns (1976) argues that two reliable sources of ideas are (1) asking or "polling" a number of people (or reading a variety of sources) and (2) recalling what has been done in similar situations in the past "The seasoned idea man knows ideas are worth a dime a dozen," so what is needed is a search for principles, analogous cases and applications that lead to other ideas (Koberg and Bagnall, 1976, 73) The Evaluating Alternatives Stage Once a list of alternatives has been developed the decision maker has to assess the quality of each and identify the "best" solution Throughout the evaluation of alternatives the decision maker tries to identify and compare alternatives, consequences, costs, benefits, risks and probabilities This stage of decision making may be difficult because it often requires sound judgment, specific criteria, statistical reasoning and knowledge of probability theory LaBrecque' (1980) points to research by Tversky that concludes that people use techniques which reduce complex statistical and logical reasoning to simple judgments This reduction process often leads to errors in judgment : 2 1


1 Using stereotypic images instead of probability 2 Judging alternatives based upon data that "comes to mind most readily ." 3 Interpreting events according to one's perceptions and opinions only 4 Predicting consequences without using "base-rate" data, patterns, trends and probabilistic principles 5 Ignoring covariation of events and overusing semantic associations 6 Overestimating the role of people's dispositions and intentions as a cause of their behavior (LaBrecque, 1980) "To make intelligent decisions in a world of uncertainty requires that we make probabilistic predictions that do not underestimate the obscurity of the future" (Behn and Vaupel, 1976, 28) An effective decision maker needs to "confess" that one can never predict the future perfectly, but often has to make "intelligent probabilistic guesses ." According to Hermanson et al (1980), the "selecting" stage requires (1) predicting the consequences of each alternative and (2) choosing the preferred consequences which meet pre-set goals, and even then, because individuals differ, they are likely to have different personal preferences Thus, "decision makers may make very different decisions even though they predict the same consequences" (Hermanson, et al, 1980, 9) The selection of the best alternative is a "weighing of evidence ." The decision maker reviews the goals, considers short-term risks and priorities and analyzes relevant values (Epperley, et al ., 1977) With the information above a person can assign a weight to each alternative based upon its net effects, e .g ., benefits minus costs, positive outcomes less obstacles and negative outcomes Carkhuff and Anthony (1979) recommend a very systematic process for evaluating and selecting alternatives Their procedure involves six steps : (1) combining or modifying alternatives to make up realistic plans ; (2) specifying, rank ordering and weighting important values (goals) ; (3) creating a matrix ; (4) establishing a "favorability scale" for each value ; (5) completing the matrix ; and (6) choosing the alternative with the highest favorability score Prioritizing values or goals requires a ranking from most to least important Prioritizing also requires a relative weight for each value because the most important value may be twice or four times as important as the second most important one Once the matrix cells are created, the decision maker needs a procedure for assessing each alternative's impact on or fulfillment of every value in the matrix One procedure requires a "cell score ." The favorability scale establishes a range of preferred consequences (e .g ., + + + o, -) and provides a score for each alternative Many theorists suggest the use of a matrix table to compare the quality of various alternatives (Parnes, 1965 ; Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; Behn and Vaupel, 1976, Marple, 1977) 2 2


According to Patton and Giffin (1973), the purpose of the selection phase is to identify the most functional and satisfying alternative At this point, the decision maker(s) can ask "three fundamental questions :" 1 Will the plan produce the desired results or changes? Does it meet the needs identified? 2 Can the plan be implemented? 3 Does the plan have any severe disadvantages, unwarranted risks or major costs Each proposed alternative must be evaluated in terms of its probable effect on important supporting and blocking forces Patton and Giffin further emphasize the process of predicting outcomes from past experiences by : (1) discovering reasons or principles, (2) identifying "relevant similarities" in like events, and (3) calculating probabilities All efforts toward an evaluation of a proposal rest upon a knowledge of previous instances .in which a particular plan, or something very similar, has been tried "We cannot emphasize enough the need for a careful collection of such data" (Patton and Giffin, 177) The Implementing a Plan Stage Implementing the chosen alternative requires planning, organization, action and commitment The decision maker or problem solver makes a final plan,` sets up a time schedule, uses supportive relationships and takes action (Epperley, et al ., 1977) Effective implementation involves both "think-" and "do-steps ." Do steps are specific activities aimed at particular goals Think-steps are check points for determining the success of past and present steps (Carkhuff and Anthony, 1979) This process of identifying action steps demands the establishment of realistic 'subgoals, intermediate steps or tasks and a hierarchical sequence of action (Lippitt, et al ., 1973 ; Cormier and Cormier, 1979) One important thing about implementation is to develop definite plans which clearly specify responsibilities Taking action is the essential step in implementation and requiresmotivation, willingness to change and commitment (Marple, 1977) Evaluating Results Stage The evaluation stage of decision making requires data collection, judgment and modification of one's plan The "verification" and "evaluation" of the implementation stage is a testing, judging and matching (goals and values with action and results) process During the evalution phase the decision maker : (1) identifies'the actual consequences of the plan and (2) matches these results with one's standards or goals (Heppner, 1978) These two steps "result in identifying successful outcomes which are cues for reinforcement and delineating discrepancies that trigger redefinition and modification" (Heppner, 372) Careful attention to data collection and analysis is a key aspect of the evaluation stage The decision maker has to answer important questions regarding : a) the specific steps taken, b) the actual, expected and desired 2 3


results, c) needed revisions and additions and d) future expectations "Evaluation is the time for accounting ; for comparing the beginning with the end ; for detecting flaws and discoveries ; and for planting the seeds of future challenge" (Koberg and Bagnall, 1976, 94) Evaluation is a measuring of both quantity of achievement and a judgment of the total value of the plan and the entire "journey ." That is, evaluation includes judging goal achievement, assessing the decision making process itself and identifying important "side effects," especially what has been learned about decision making, analagous cases, new knowledge and data, and oneself (Glover, 1980 ; Hayes, 1981) Hayes, in fact, calls this the "consolidating gains" phase and treats it as a separate stage of the decision process Finally, evaluation involves revision of goals, problem definition, ideas, plans and means for measurement This revision or feedback cycle provides on-going assessment of progress and cues to future success (Koberg and Bagnall, 1976 ; Epperley, et al ., 1977 ; Marple, 1977 ; Dick and Carey, 1978 ; Massialas and Hurst, 1978) Developing and Evaluating Alternatives Real decision making, active student participation and democratic classrooms and schools will require changes in traditional education and educational institutions Such change will require new views, attitudes and action In the following sections we will discuss the most common criticism of the rational decision making process Rational decision making is .]) creating Machiavellian thinking ; 2) denying the power of intuitive thinking ; 3) separating individual decision making from group, social and political decision making ; 4) blocked by organizational constraints ; and 5) not possible because teachers are not trained to use it effectively A New View of Individual Decision Making One problem is the belief that the use of rational decision making by individuals is tantamount to selfishness and Machiavellian thinking At times this belief is expressed directly : "The school should not seek to train little Machiavellis" (Massialas and Hurst, 1978, 107) Sometimes it is expressed more indirectly : "its proponents run the risk of not understanding that there are important political and ethical elements in decision making" (Author unknown, 1982) Many people view individual, rational decision making as the maximization of personal values and need fulfillment always at the expense of moral or ethical and social considerations Walzer expressed this opinion very clearly : First of all the decider must be a certain sort of person I always imagine him as a Machiavellian prince ; it is perhaps one of the more dubious achievements of democratic government that it has univer2 4


salized that image (emphasis our own) . hard headed, toughminded, cool, calculating, and ruthless! . Machiavelli . wanted instrumental decisions to be made in an absolutely single-minded way, with regard to this question only : Which of these alternatives most efficiently (with least cost to the prince or his consitutents) maximizes the value of X? Decision-making is a caleblatio od advantage, and nothing above all, no species of piety or sentimentality-must be allowed to interfere with the reckoning . It is difficult to specify costs and benefits for the individuals and even more difficult to aggregate the results . The Machiavellian model is 'dominant in our culture (Walzer, 1980, 163-164) According to Walzer the emphasis on democratic and group decision making has resulted in a limited, negative view of individual decision making, to the extent that social education hasn't neglected it, but has avoided it like the plague This belief is a block to achieving some goals of social education because it stereotypes individual decision making and ignores its role in group, social and political decision making In addition, such a belief causes a conflict within the field because rational decision making "is the type economists assume prevails in market settings, the action of homo economicus" (Temin, 1980, 163) and therefore is the essence of economic and consumer economic education (Kourilsky, 1974 ; Boulding, 1975 ; Mezaros, 1978 ; Warmke, et al ., 1980 ; Bannister and Monsma, 1980 ; Brenneke, 1981) Individual decision making can be based upon personal social and moral values (Nadar, 1979 ; Hurst et al ., 1981) For instance, consumers can purchase a car on the basis of its antipolluting, energy-efficient characteristics and its being manufactured by an American company as well as its cost, repair record, size, comfort and color A vital aspect of individual decision making is autonomy Using their own Machiavelli scale, Christie and Geis (1974) have been able to describe people by their level of autonomy : "high Machs" generally are resistant to social influence, oriented to cognitions and initiating and controlling of external structure, while "low Machs" are susceptible to social influence, oriented to people and accepting and following, of external structure Similarly, Witkin and his colleagues (1962) have identified another continuum of autonomous behaviors, from "field independence to articulation ." A description of this range of personal characteristics is as follows : A person at the global end of the continuum is likely to be characterized as intellectually intuitive, perceptually holistic, emotionally expressive, socially dependent and other-directed, and motivationally diffuse A person on the articulate end . is likely to be . intellec2 5


tually analytical and systematic, perceptually discriminating, emotionally self-controlled, socially independent and self-reliant, and motivationally focused (Gruenfeld and MacEachron, 1975, 28) Channelled into appropriate uses, the different styles of decision making from global to articulated, or from low to high Machs, add a depth to student understanding, interaction and decision making necessary to confront real problems and to develop individual styles and competencies We also believe that interaction and cooperation among students with different orientations may promote greater acceptance, feelings of efficacy and problem solving effectiveness Therefore, one goal of citizenship education ought to be to examine the need for and uses of individual autonomy and social-dependence and to learn ways in which to integrate them into democratic participation and effective decision-making The Machiavellian model of decision making emphasizes nonmoral criteria while the moral model uses moral evaluation so that "policy is fixed through a process of reflection upon the character and extent of individual and collective rights" (Walzer, 1980, 165) Individual rational decision making need not be Machiavellian nor divorced from moral and ethical considerations According to Fitzgibbons (1981), assessing the "rationality" of any decision only on the basis of "nonmoral criteria" leads to a "qualified claim" that the decision was rational from a particular nonmoral point of view Nonmoral evaluations are judgments of something or someone exclusive of their ethical or moral worth and usually claim that something has a "certain value as a thing of a particular sort" (e .g ., this is a good dry wine) Moral evaluations, on the other hand, are judgments which rank something or someone on ethical or moral "good-bad scales ." Moral obligations are propositions about what "ethically ought to occur" (Fitzgibbons, 1981) To make what Fitzgibbons calls an "unqualified claim" about the rationality of a decision, one must consider whether the decider took into account relevant moral and nonmoral criteria and obligations Therefore, by Fitzgibbons' definition rational decision making means that the decider has not overlooked or ignored any relevant moral evaluations and obligations In other words, when making a rational decision one considers any moral obligations first and then considers moral evaluations, nonmoral evaluations and moral and nonmoral reasons for making another decision instead (Fitzgibbons, 1981) This view is consistent with that of several educators who approach critical thinking and citizenship education in similar ways : 1 Appraising of consequences and justifications of criteria for appraising consequences (Hunt and Metcalf, 1968) 2 Normative skills reflecting the ethical standards of our pluralistic, democratic society (e .g ., empathizing, being fair, promoting equality, and applying justice (Massialas and Hurst, 1978) 3 The democratic beliefs of justice, equality, responsibility, freedom, diversity and privacy (NCSS, 1980) 2 6


4 "In a democratic society the exercise of these [citizenship] competencies should be constrained and tempered by a commitment to human rights and to democratic participation in the shaping and sharing of values" (Remy, 1980, p 3) 5 The basic values of the "American Creed" are the basis for rational understanding and application of moral standards of behavior in real"democratic schools" (Shaver and Strong, 1982 .) 4 An important action step would be to strengthen our commitment to and increase our efforts at stimulating the use of democratic and moral values as criteria in individual, group, social and political decision making Students in social studies classrooms need a chance to analyze others' decisions, make up their minds and act in Fitzgibbon's "rational" manner while actually trying to make and provide input into individual and group decisions that affect students in the classroom, school, local community and world Systematic and Intuitive Decision Making Recent research about the brains and major differences in "problem solving" or "decision making styles" has challenged the concentrated focus on systematic decision making Too often a systematic style is "honored" while intuitive decision making is considered irrational and emotional (Ewing, 1977) The norm for appropriate action in our culture is that one should choose very specific goals and then plan and act rationally Many people feel very uncomfortable when this is not done (McCaskey, 1977) One study of different problem solving styles finds that approximately 70 percent of the subjects fall into one of four favored problem solving approaches (see Figure 1) Approximately 30 percent favor one of the four but used one or two of the others frequently (Ewing, 1977) According to Ewing there are two general problem solving styles, "systematic and intuitive," and two information-gathering styles, "perceptive and receptive ." FIGURE 1 FOUR POSSIBLE PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACHES 2 7 INFORMATION GATHERING STYLE PROBLEM SOLVING STYLE PERCEPTIVE RECEPTIVE Intuitive 1 Intuitive Perceptive 2 Intuitive Receptive Systematic 3 Systematic Perceptive 4 Systematic Receptive


Systematic thinkers are ones who size up the situation (defining the actual problem), organize a solution and devise "step-by-step" procedures to implement the plan Intuitive thinkers, on the other hand, follow hunches, do not commit themselves too soon and continue to redefine the problem in order to "come up with" possible solutions Perceptive data gatherers begin with a mental picture of what information is important, look for facts to fit this picture and pay close attention to relationships among facts Receptive data gatherers focus on details and facts without trying to fit them into a particular conceptual scheme, suspend judgment, avoid preconceptions and tend to be "fascinated with the feel and inherent quality of new facts" (Ewing, p 72) One important conclusion of this study is that different types of problems require different styles and problem solvers may get stuck because they use their preferred style rather than trying to match a particular problem with the "most appropriate style" for solving it (Ewing, p 138) For instance, the intuitive-receptive style would be more effective for an elusive, hard-todefine problem than the systematic-perceptive style The intuitive-receptive problem solver would tend to suspend judgment, focus on facts and details and continually redefine the problem which would be more appropriate for this type of problem than the systematic-perceptive who defines the problem right away and collects data to fit this view Another study of individual decision making style found unique differences among the styles of different people from high school through middle age (Johnson, 1978) Johnson describes two different styles of data collection and analysis Spontaneous data gatherers tended to be characterized as having a holistic reaction to events, quick psychological commitment and a flexible goal orientation, while systematic "collectors" tended to react collectively (break situation into parts) to events, make psychological commitments cautiously and exhibit a "methodical" goal orientation People having an external style of data analysis "think outloud" because they need to talk about things before they can tell how they feel about them Internal analyzers prefer to think about things before they talk about them Johnson therefore concludes that professional helpers need to consider these differences in style when working with individuals as they learn and use decision making skills (Johnson, 1978) Stimac emphasizes "individual assessment" of one's own style and patterns of decision making in the teaching and learning of decision skills She suggests that people examine carefully their own "decision passages," looking for such "ingredients as problem defining, searching for alternatives, autonomy, risk taking, timing, responsibility and values (Stimac, 1977) Oftentimes creativity is viewed as intuitive and unsystematic while decision making is considered to be systematic and logical "Creative problem solving" uses both problem solving styles (intuitive and systematic) to reach important goals and solve a variety of problems (Koberg and Bagnall, 2 8


1976) Therefore, one important consideration when infusing decision making into social studies curricula would be teaching about systematic and intuitive approaches to problems, helping students to identify their own preferred problem solving styles and developing student skills in different approaches We also believe that student sharing and cooperation will stimulate greater understanding of the problem solving process and more positive self-images, the sense that one's own style is acceptable and effective Individual, Group, Social and Political Decision Making There is a tendency to divorce individual decision making from group, social and political decision making and to study each separately Temin argues that little has been done to integrate theory, research and experience concerning economic, political and social decision making because "economists study instrumental behavior ; lawyers and political scientists study command behavior ; sociologists and social psychologists concentrate on customary behavior" (Temin, 1980, 181) As a result the boundary areas and transition points among the different types of decision making have been neglected It is important, therefore, to combine theory, research and experience from diverse disciplines and to study how individual, group, social and political decision making relate to each other (Lippitt, 1975) Many models for group decision making or problem solving are based upon the rational process For example, Patton and Giffin (1973) use a "problem-solving process" drawn from the work of Dewey to describe how groups could ideally solve problems, compare their own decision making with "the ideal" and take steps toward positive action The problem-solving process ideally, or logically, consists of (1) identification of a group problem, including determination of concern shaped by the group members, (2) analysis of the nature of the problem, including contributing factors, restraining factors, and the degree of intensity of the difficulty, (3) critical evaluation of the possible ways of trying to resolve the difficulty, and (4) development of a plan for group action designed to implement the problem-solution agreed upon (Patton and Giffin, 1973, 125-126) There are decision models in the field of organizational management that appear to be "group versions" of the individual, rational process One formula for group decision making has six logical steps : (1) exploring the "field and need ;" (2) defining the problem ; (3) discussing possible solutions, disadvantages and advantages ; (4) delegating responsibilities and setting standards ; (5) considering alternatives and selecting preferred solutions ; and (6) implementing and evaluating (Newell, 1978) Other management decision models have similar rational steps (Simon, 1971 ; McCaskey, 1977 ; Elbing, 1978 ; Hermanson et al ., 1980 ; Hersey and Blanchard, 1982 ; Dessler, 1982) 2 9


Dessler argues that there are three valuable techniques for stimulating and improving creative decision making in groups These techniques are : (1) providing individuals with specific directions about being creative ; (2) brainstorming during which individuals associate and share ideas rapidly ; and (3) synectics through which individual analogies and views of a problem stimulate new group perspectives (Dessler, 1982) Finally, individual members can influence greatly group decision making by thoughtfully demonstrating task (goal-oriented) and maintenance (relationship-oriented) behaviors as they reduce individualistic (anti-group) behaviors (Johnson and Johnson, 1975 ; Kinney and Hurst, 1979) Throughout the literature on group decision making there is an emphasis on the rational role of each individual member and his decisions to act for the good of the group .' With respect to social decision making, Barth and Shermis (1979) argue that there are no systematic models for analyzing or solving social problems, nor is there even an adequate definition of what constitutes a "social problem ." In an effort to stimulate more individual and group defining of social problems in the classroom, they propose a format for writing problem definitions which involves "specifying assumptions, delineating values and indicating the nature of a healthy society" (Barth and Shermis, 1979, 14) This step toward defining social problems is a necessary beginning, but as we have written elsewhere, there are several rational processes and models to help social educators and students go beyond problem definition and analysis and on to active resolution of important social issues (Hurst, Weiss and Kinney, 1979) For instance, those who advocate the force-field analysis technique, one model for group or social decision making, suggest another problem-definition format : (1) who is affected, (2) who is causing it, (3) what type of problem it is and (4) what the goal for improvement is (Jung et al ., 1975) The entire process requires carefully defining the problem, identifying and analyzing forces that block or support problem solution, brainstorming possible action steps for each force, developing action plans and implementing the final plan (Lewin, 1951 ; Lippitt et al ., 1973) We have found that definitions of social problems are available in the literature Horton and Leslie, for example, define social problems in terms of collective action "A formal definition might read, `A social problem is a condition affecting a significant number of people in ways considered undesirable about which it is felt something can be done through collective social action"' (Horton and Leslie, 1974, 4) It is this "collective social action" that is the vital link among individual, group, social and political decision making because it must involve individual and group efforts to provide input into and to influence the political system to obtain desired outcomes (Steinbrenner, 1974 ; Gillespie and Patrick, 1974 ; Newman, 1975 ; Massialas and Hurst, 1978) 3 0


Effective citizenship and political action require rational individual thinking and behavior as well as appropriate group action The choice to join an interest group, write a letter, talk to friends, contribute money, lead an interest group, e tc i s up to the individual citizen, preferably after some reflection Similarly, cooperative group and political action is built upon the commitments of individuals who are trying to accomplish "personal" goals in some way (Hurst, et al ., 1981) According to Walzer, an essential element of democratic citizenship is vicarious decision making prior to (anticipative) and following (retrospective) major political decisions Those of us who are involved in political education should pay attention to anticipative and retrospective decision making The study of politics should have this purpose : It should help ordinary citizens reflect upon the most important matters of state It should prepare leaders, would-be leaders, and vicarious leaders-all of us-for the democratic business of taking stands and shaping policies . . Politics is our own (real and vicarious) activity . . It is important that we be able to think in some systematic way about the conduct of others, of our allies and adversaries in the political arena That is a matter of orienting ourselves politically, of understanding the background conditions of decision making But the goal of orientation is action, and the relevant action is making up one's mind (Walzer, 1980, 160-161) Walzer encourages political educators to prepare citizens to think reflectively, take defensible positions and act morally in the tradition of social inquiry Political scientists, economists and educators often employ some version of the rational decision process as a guideline for analyzing, comparing and evaluating political decisions (Steinbrenner, 1974 ; Learner et al ., 1977 ; Bibby et al ;, 1978 ; Walzer, 1980) Usually the procedure is to teach students about a process for making decisions and then to examine case study material in terms of the definition of the problem ; individual, group and social goals ; alternative solutions ; values and criteria and action taken (Leamer et al ., 1977 ; Bibby et al ., 1978) Case or decision analysis is the beginning and "making up one's mind" and taking appropriate action are the desired results in the classroom It is this use of the rational process as an overveiw of an "ideal way to make decisions" that encourages us to point out the double value of a thorough understanding of rational decision making : the major phases provide a general guideline to the nature of the process while the individual substeps identify very specific, vital elements of rational problem solving and decision making Institutional and Societal Restraints For several decades now, scholars have been calling for increased participation in social studies classrooms Unfortunately, the many pleas for student action (e .g ., Gillespie and 3 1


Patrick, 1974 ; Gillespie and Lazarus, 1975 ; Berman, 1978 ; Chapman and Davis, 1978 ; Remy, 1980 ; Shaver and Strong, 1982) have not resulted in increased student decision making and participation in the classroom, school or community (Barth and Shermis, 1979 ; Massialas and Hurst, 1978) It is important to recognize the factors within the organizational fabric which create this lack of participation Schools are conservative bureaucratic institutions within western societies They function as reflectors of the larger society, by and large This bureaucratic nature of the schools implies a hierarchical authority structure in which large size, rules of procedure, and offices with specific rules and regulations are found Each of these aspects of a bureaucratic structure make it difficult to introduce changes Within the school setting this authority structure has been especially broad and far reaching (Parelius and Parelius, 1978) This broad authority is based upon the belief that the schools must provide not only for the intellectual development of students but also for the emotional and physical growth of the "whole person ." This is characteristically done through a broad set of procedures and expectations These expectations make it difficult for the people in power in the situation to perceive student autonomy and involvement in decision making as anything other than threatening In addition to the bureaucratic restraints, there is a set of student role constraints One of the traditional functions of the schools is to classify students and channel students into appropriate future life roles and vocations This channeling and certifying process is most often achieved through the development of compliant student behaviors and role set Such items as control, being on time, achievement, future gratification, docility, and obedience are learned from the earliest educational experiences (Parelius and Parelius, 1978) It is no wonder then that efforts to introduce decision making into the school setting are often difficult From the student perspective these formal structures which inhibit active decision making often occur through the following mediating events 1 The costs of participating are too great and not worth the benefits (real power is proscribed by existing rules and input may result in no change) 2 Participation can bring latent conflicts out into the open which cannot effectively be handled by the current procedures 3 The scope of the participation may not match the expectations 4 Participants may lack the needed skills for participation 5 Participation may not meet the individual student's needs 6 Participants may believe that involvement will cause less good will to be directed toward them by the "powerful people" in the school Temin (1980) proposes that there are three types of decision making which occur throughout societal and institutional contexts Custom is used 3 2


most often when change is slow and by individuals and groups that have low autonomy and high social perspectives Instrumental or rational decision making is most likely used by people who are highly autonomous and in economic "exchange-type" decisions Command decisions are made through institutional hierarchies where power is held by a few decision makers When change is extremely rapid or individuals have very low autonomy, the appeal is to abdicate decisions to the command structure (Temin, 1980) As we see decision making in the schools, it is dominated by command decisions despite the slowness of change, the autonomy levels of students and teachers, or the importance of the decision As a result students are robbed of real experience with appropriate traditional, instrumental and command decision making behaviors and their consequences because students are not allowed to participate in serious decisions that affect them in the classroom, school or local community Even with all of these obstacles facing us, there are well known principles and approaches to involving students in meaningful decision making within the schools One approach involves training students in communication and decision making skills and utilizing them within the traditional structures of the school such as student councils and representation on governing bodies (Chesler and Lohman, 1972, 14-16) Lippitt (1969) calls for structures to be introduced into the schools which go beyond the traditional He calls for functional, or ad hoc groupings to solve current problems ; systems of programmatic effort which bridge grade levels ; horizontal linkages of communication and cooperation ; collaboration of professionals, paraprofessionals, and volunteers ; and formal and informal socialization efforts (Lippitt, 1969 ; Toffler, 1981) Efforts in the direction of real life decision making are essential in order to develop citizens who can operate within the increasingly complex social milieu of western society (Toffler, 1981) We can see clearly that implementation of decision making in real life situations involving personal, group, institutional, and societal issues can and must be done in order to develop socially aware citizens who demonstrate autonomy, social perspective and democratic action The Campus as a Laboratory For the past seventy years, scholars have been arguing for a democratic laboratory in our schools so that students can develop and use decision-making and participatory skills while being involved in decisions that affect them "The concept of a democratic classroom must be reflected not only in the classroom but throughout the entire school . . We must involve students as much as possible in both the planning and running of their school and direct participation in classroom activities" (Bushman, 1981, 2) An amazing point to consider is that almost no one has made a plea for a democratic laboratory on the college and university campuses where 3 3


teachers are trained and retrained This is as great a need as having one in elementary and secondary schools Virtually no one has suggested that teachers (pre-service and in-service) become participants in a democratic laboratory where they can become actively involved in classroom, campus, community and world decisions (Hurst, 1980) The campus usually is a beehive of economic, social and political activity where teacher trainees can be active For instance, this can be seen by reading a few headlines from the local campus student newspaper At The University of Toledo recent issues of the Collegian had such headlines as : "Former UT Student to Run for Governor" "Change to Semester System"? "Beer Bill Delayed" "New Guaranteed Student Loan Regulations Set" "Anti-Nuclear Movement Grows" "Communication Problem of Black Student Union" "Administration Keeping Quiet About Accreditation Inspection" "Gubernatorial Debate Scheduled" (in Student Union) "Campus Crime Log" What we need is to build upon this basic interest in real life decision making and provide a real life laboratory in the college classroom We hypothesize that unless social studies teachers are trained in a real-life laboratory they will continue the traditional decision making in the schools where administrators, coaches, teachers, maintenance people and text-book authors make most of the decisions for students and their parents Why should teachers trained in a college tradition of "mere remembering" take to "heart" real-life decision-making? A perusal of most social studies programs in teacher training institutions results in finding that over a third of the social science requirements are in history According to Wirt and Kirst (1975), this emphasis on history results in the tendency for social studies teachers to emphasize the "descriptive side" of human behavior and events rather than a humanistic or behavioral view In their opinion, teacher training de-emphasizes the social scientist's point of view and overemphasizes lower level thinking processes We often hear the criticism that teachers have little ability to think and deal with controversy Long ago, Beale argued that "the majority of teachers do not know what a controversial subject is . . The vast majority share the views and prejudices and ideals of the community . [and] have never done enough thinking to work out an explicit social philosophy" (Beale, 1936) Barth and Shermis argue that this may still be true, and we argue that this may be because of how social studies teachers are trained One practical step would be to greatly alter how teacher training programs are organized and operated This would require greater student participation in decisions about requirements, grades, administration, rules, assignments, staffing, time schedules, field placements, etc The old cliche 3 4


that the students are too young, immature and unknowledgable to make these decisions will still be stated, but social educators truly dedicated to active participation can lead the charge beyond writing in professional journals We can start in our own classrooms, departments, colleges and institutions We can start by actively campaigning for more student involvement and participation in the decisions that affect them In our own classes we can share power and responsibility with students while we help them campaign for changes at the department, college and institution level We can join them, or oppose them, when we want to take positions on campus, local and world politics We can model life in a democratic laboratory and live it rather than prepare teachers for life in traditional classrooms Perhaps we can join our colleagues in counselor education who are realizing a need for political education in the professional training of school and agency counselors .' Several of them recommend the teaching of political awareness and "political action skills" as a part of the counselor education program, so that trainees will take part in government relations activities as a regular part of their practice and will be prepared to act effectively to make needed political and social changes (Haight, 1982 ; Wigtil and Bandy, 1978 ; Sweeney, 1980 ; Whiteley and Sprandel, 1972) Perhaps this can become part of the professional training of school administrators as well What the field needs is campus laboratories where undergraduate and graduate students (especially those in training to be professors of social education!) can work with others on campus to promote active involvement and decision making and improved public and teacher education It is vital that we work toward the goals of democratic schools and effective citizenship education The ultimate goal of the school-as-lab approach is to maximize individuals' sense of political efficacy, interest, and trust so that they can develop an interest in and a sensitivity to what is happening in their environment They can feel competent in participating in decisions that affect them, and have confidence in the actions of the people with whom they interact In addition to these basic orientations, individuals learn to act as members of a group -they develop a sense of identification and belongingness (Massialas and Hurst, 1978, 26-27) These goals of the "laboratory school" make just as much sense as objectives for social studies teacher trainees as they do for their students Therefore, campus laboratories would be a major step forward, especially because students, faculty and administration would be working together for better teacher education Implementation and Evaluation This section combines the decision making stages of implementation and evaluation while summarizing and drawing conclusions based upon our 3 5


review of literature and recent experience There is much available and being done, and yet so many opportunities and so far to go There is a great need for further research and additional writing in the area of real-life decision making and how to promote it effectively in schools, colleges and universities Butler and Meichenbaum (1981) have examined the extent of research and pointed out significant issues with respect to assessing realistic problem-solving and decision-making skills Further work needs to focus upon the integration of theory, experience and research on decision making across many disciplines, including behavioral psychology, career planning, economics, humanities, management, organizational development, philosophy, psychology, political science, sociology, social education and supervision The results of this work need to be disseminated to those who make decisions that affect children, young adults and helping professionals in training New models of decision making and instruction that can overcome present stumbling blocks need to be developed and tested Finally, we urge our interested colleagues to do further writing that integrates and articulates for theorists, researchers and educators the strengths, weaknesses and similarities of various decision making paradigms Second, there is a great need for the development and testing of appropriate materials and methodologies which facilitate the implementation, assessment and evaluation of real decision making models Practical instruction for a wide variety of instructional settings needs to be developed and needs to become available Many of the methodologies and materials already available are at the K-12 grade levels, where students most often are locked out of real decision making because of institutional restraints and traditional decision making in educational, social, economic and political institutions Thus instruction at other grade levels needs to be emphasized (Simon, 1980 ; Hurst, 1980) Finally, there is a great need for additional sharing of experience, ideas, models and research results among those who recognize and "accept" this problem We therefore issue a call to those of you out there Please suggest concrete steps to follow Add input into the various stages of decision making in motion already : new problem awareness and definition, other creative alternatives, appropriate action plans and important evaluation of results The goal is to find more efficient ways to promote real decision making Perhaps it will be a conference, computer network, edited book, set of instructional materials, research plan, new journal, or symposium We welcome input and suggestions to continue Endnotes 'The authors have structured this article around six phases of systematic decision making The opening paragraphs of each major section are in Italic print because they serve two pur3 6


poses : 1) introduce the section and 2) provide a concrete example of one or more phases of the process 'These and other models are adequately discussed in B, Joyce and M Weil, Models pf Teaching, Second Edition ; Englewood Cliffs : Prentice-Hall, Inc ., 1980 We also recommend, and hope to do ourselves, that a similar book describing the variety of decision making models be written 3 Data collection, analysis and application is a substep of all of the phases (Koberg and Bognall, 1976 ; Epperly et al ., 1977 ; Hurst et al ., 1980) 'Only five examples are cited here but the same emphasis is found in the works of Oliver and Shaver, Engle and Longstreet, Michaelis, Thelen, Berlock, Dewey, Cox, Kohlberg, Metcalf, Newmann, Nelson, Lewin, Shaftel, Ochoa, and many others 'Much new research has focused on the functions served by the right and left hemispheres of the human brain (e .g ., Ornstein, 1972, 1973 ; Bolles, 1978 ; Restak, 1979) We cannot do justice in this article to the findings in this area that tend to support two types of thinking : intuitive (right) and logical (left) thinking 'Much has been written concerning situational leadership which involves matching leadership and decision making styles with the nature of the goals, situation and people involved (Tannenbaum and Schmidt, 1960) 'The most recent edition of the Personal and Guidance Journal is a special issue on political action against the "destruction of our life, our goals and the values that support people ." References Adams, J L Conceptual blockbusting : A guide to better ideas San Francisco : W H Freeman and Company, 1980 Adelson, J Rites of passage : How children learn the principles of community American Educator, 1982, Summer, 6-13, 31-33, 46 Bachhuber, T D ., & Harwood, R K Directions : A guide to career planning Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978 Bannister, R ., & Monsma, C Classification of concepts in consumer education Cincinnati, Ohio : South-Western Publishing Company, 1981 Barth, J L ., & Shermis, S S Defining social problems Theory and Research in Social Education, 1979, 7, 1-21 Beale, H K Are American teachers free? Report of the Commission of the Social Studies, Part XII of the American Historical Association, Investigation of the Social Studies in the Schools New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936 Behn, R D ., & Vaupel, J W Analytical thinking for busy decision makers : Thinking about uncertainty Durham, N .C : Duke University Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs, 1976 Berman, L New priorities in the curriculum Columbus, OH : Charles Merrill, 1968 Bibby, J F ., Schuss, L M ., & Watson, G G (eds .) Analyzing government regulation : A resource guide New York : Joint Council of Economic Education, 1978 Bolles, R N The three boxes of life Berkeley, Cal : Ten Speed Press, 1978 Boulding, K E Economics as a science New York : McGraw-Hill, 1970 3 7


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Unknown author Critique of the present article done by a anonymous evaluator for Theory and Research in Social Education, 1982 Verba, S ., & Nie, N H Participation in America : Political democracy and social equality New York : Harper and Row, 1972 Walzer, M Political decision-making and political education In M Richter (ed .), Political theory and political education Princeton, N .J : Princeton University Press, 1980, 159-176 Warmke, R F ., Muessig, R H ., & Miller, S L The study and teaching of economics Columbus, Ohio : Charles Merrill, 1980 Weiss, S J ., Hurst, J B ., & Kinney, M Creative problem solving for social studies The Social Studies, 1980, 71, 244-250 White, D .J Fundamentals of decision theory New York : North-Holland, 1976 Whitely, J M ., & Sprandel, H Z APGA as a political organization Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1972, 50, 475-584 Wigtil, J V ., & Bandy, I G Counseling-related legislation : A seminar Counselor Education and Supervision, 1978, 18, 58-64 Williams, E D Teacher education : The continuous process In S Symmes (ed .) Economic education : Links to the social studies Washington, D C : National Council for the Social Studies, 1981, 67-81 Wirt, F M ., & Kirst, M W Political and Social Foundations of Education Berkeley : McCutchan, 1975 Witkin, H A ., et al Psychological differentiation New York : Wiley, 1962 Woodcock, G Democracy, heretical and radical In C G Bernello and D Roussopoules (eds .) The case for participatory democracy New York : Grossman Publishers, 1977, 11-25 Wronski, S P Sociology and citizenship : The concept of culture Social Education, 1981, 45, 544-547 4 3


Theory and Research in Social Education Fall, 1983 Volume Xl Number 3, pp 45-66 a by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies A Rationale For Value Education Ronald E Harshman Continuing Education University of Wisconsin-Superior Superior, Wisconsin 54880 Charles E Gray Illinois State University Introduction A definitive rationale for value education does not exist Consequently, a comprehensive plan for a value education curriculum has not been developed Value educators have failed to make clear the specific skills, attitudes, and knowledge that a person "educated in values" should possess .' Although value education is generally identified with social studies, other areas of the curriculum have value content The humanities, in particular, are closely related to value formation and commitment, but their role in value education has not been adequately examined 2 Values education has achieved academic respectability due in part to the following : (a) the numerous writings of Louis Raths, Merrill Harmin, and Sidney" Simon ; (b) the public issues materials developed by Donald Oliver, James Shaver, and Fred Newmann : (c) the publication of the 41st yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies edited by Lawrence E Metcalf ; and (d) the moral development research and writings of Lawrence Kohlberg and his associates These educators have identified three reasonably distinct approaches to values education : (1) values clarification, (2) values analysis, and (3) moral reasoning 3 4 5


Although each of the three approaches maintains a particular "slant" or emphasis, they share a number of perspectives : 1 The purpose of values education is the development of decisionmaking skills 2 The content of decision-making is problematic situations 3 The development of reason in value situations will influence action 4 Individuals who receive a values education will become independent and autonomous actors in value decisions 5 Emphasis in values education should not be on specific value content but particular forms of reasoning 6 The teacher has the responsibility for developing a classroom environment that is conducive to the non-judgmental exchange of ideas 7 Student value decisions are not to be evaluated 4 James Leming criticizes the three value education approaches for not addressing learning of specific social behaviors in natural social contexts and focussing on hypothetical or problematic situations posed to the child, rather than naturally occuring social situations He also objects to their emphasizing reasoning as a determinant of behavior or action without considering the attempts to explain, interpret, or rationalize that follow behavior or action Finally, he criticizes their failure to address the need for citizens who are loyal to basic social norms and are also able to exercise judgment concerning responsiblities and obligations .' Our purpose is to develop a rationale that addresses these criticisms, clarifies the meaning of value education, and identifies general goals and specific objectives for a value education curriculum We plan to develop a sequence of goals, objectives, and teaching strategies appropriate for various grade levels and corresponding to the maturation and affective development of young people General Goals and Objectives for Value Education Source I : Conventional Uses of the Term `Value' To achieve our purpose, we found it necessary to take a fresh look at the meaning of `value' and value education We began by reviewing definitions of `value' in search of a meaning from which goals and objectives for value education could be extrapolated Value education has no common meaning Fraenkel reports ten meanings for `value' that might serve as a base for value education 6 Thus, anyone who wishes to discuss value education must stipulate their definitions of "value" and "value education" If they do not, then their audience must determine a meaning from what is being said For some value or affective education means, . giving due attention to organic needs Others emphasize the cultivation of sensitivity to feelings Still others are concerned with individual purposes Some are interested in rational insight as a value and others in the development of continuous growth possibilities ."' 4 6


Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary identifies `value' as a noun and as a transitive verb ." The noun is defitied~as, "relative worth, utility, or importance : degree of excellence" and as, "something (as a principle or quality) instrinsically valuable or desirable ." The verb is defined as, "to rate or scale in usefulness, importance, or general worth : EVALUATE" and "to consider or rate highly : PRIZE, ESTEEM" Educators commonly refer to "values education" rather than "value education", therefore, we also considered the plural `values' Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary defines `values' as, "acts, customs, institutions, etc ., regarded in a particular, especially favorable way, by a people, ethnic group, etc ." 9 The Oxford American Dictionary provides the definition, "standards or principles considered valuable or important in life" and identifies moral values as examples ." There is no agreement as to which use, the noun or the verb, is primary If the noun use is primary-=if there are things that have value apart from any human activity -then the verb `to value' is derivative If the active verb is derivative, then the action of valuing is identifying those things that have intrinsic value However, if the verb use is primary, then the noun designates things that are the object or product of a human activity-of prizing, in a personal sense, or appraising or evaluating, in the sense of the intellectual activity of assigning a value to something ." John Dewey concluded that usage provides little help in determining the meaning of `value' and, in fact, proves confusing 12 However, we found usage helpful in determining meaning when we compared definitions of `value' with the perspectives shared by the three approaches to value education We concluded that these approaches accept the verb use as primary Each approach emphasizes the use of `value' to mean prizing, appraising, or evaluating The object of prizing, appraising, or evaluating is generally a standard, principle, custom, or institution considered especially worthy by a people, ethnic group, or society ; i .e ., the objects of valuing are values Source II : Contexts of Use For the Term `Value and Levels of Affect "The separation alleged to exist between the `world of facts' and the `realms of values' will disappear from human beliefs only as valuation phenomena are seen to have their immediate source in biological modes of behavior and to owe thier concrete content to the influence of cultural conditions ."" "It follows that valuation in its connection with desire is linked to existential situations and that it differs with differences in its existential context ." 14 The two preceding statements by John Dewey led us to explore biological origins and contexts of use for values We found two discussions com4 7


plementary and useful : Abraham Kaplan's The Conduct of Inquiry" and Philip Phenix's "Perceptions of an Ethicist About the Affective ." 16 Phenix describes a sequence of affective development with its foundations in organic or biological impulses Kaplan distinguishes different meanings for `value' according to context of use Kaplan identifies `value' in the personal context as the intrinsic value (direct experience of gratification) experienced by a particular individual at a particular time A value expression is the product of the experience The expression is subjective and relative ; i .e ., it is only valid for the individual making the statement and relevant only to those conditions present at the time the expression is made ." Phenix identifies two levels of affect in which individuals experience immediate gratification : (1) the level of organic impulse (the level of cravings for food, clothing, shelter, sexual gratification, etc .) and (2) the level of feelings At the organic impulse level, an individual's value experience is controlled by a fundamental desire for self-preservation, and gratification is achieved by satisfying basic needs According to Phenix, organic impulses provide the foundation for all "higher" values-individual worth, human dignity, justice, etc At the level of feelings, individuals experience value in the pleasure and pain perceived by the senses-the immediate feelings of pleasure and repugnance experienced by viewing things of exhilarating color, tasting things that are bitter or sweet, hearing things that are harmonious or in discord These feelings have their foundations in impulses but are not identical to organic impulses ." In the standard context, the focus shifts to propositions about the intrinsic value certain people, including but not limited to oneself, will experience under certain conditions The propositions are value statements that are capable of being empirically tested for validity According to Kaplan, individuals can make propositions about the value of something without valuing the thing themselves or committing themselves to the value identified ." Phenix identifies two levels of affect that correspond to the standard context : the levels of interests and judgements At these levels, individuals move from a passive to an active interaction with an environment and begin to consider purposes and alternatives as relevant to value decisions ; i .e ., they begin to distinguish among those things that provide direct gratification and those things that are means for attaining gratification At the level of interests, individuals establish ends to be achieved through action and interact creatively with an environment to satisfy their organic impulses or to achieve pleasure They begin to assert self-determination and recognize it in the actions of others, and they become creative participants in life At the level of judgments, individuals consider alternatives and the compatability and mutual reinforcements present among desires, pleasures, and 4 8


intentions, and they make decisions based upon the products of these considerations They achieve the means to relate personal desires, pleasures, and intentions to those of others 20 Phenix's fifth level of affect is commitment to idealization At this level, individuals develop a commitment to seeking ideal satisfaction of organic impulses or pleasures and to continuous creative growth Idealization presumes the possibility of progress and is fundamental to the desire to build a better future 21 The level of idealization corresponds to value in the ideal context as defined by Kaplan Propositions made in the ideal context allow for the widest possible range of predictions about intrinsic value A value judgment, in the strict sense, is produceda statement that something is good The Value judgment affirms how something is-how it would seem-under ideal conditions, and its possible applications are not limited by, the proposition itself Standards and principles considered important in life (moral values) are products of the ideal context 22 Idealization is distinguished by two characteristics ; (1) it does not represent a system, of fixed or absolute values but a creative endeavor to con tinuously improve the present system ; and (2) it is the product of human existence-its judgements have been tested and refined through prior experience, and their application in the future has been demonstrated by these tests However, their adequacy remains open to further evaluation in new situations 23 It is not static or absolute but is subject to change as the result of further experience or reflection The biological origins and contexts of use of value are important in addressing the validity of values-a persistent problem for value educators If we link value to organic impulses or feelings, then it is connected to conditions existing in particular situations-the conditions and situations identified by the context of use The adequacy of a value is dependent upon its adaptation to those conditions and is statable in the form of propositions Thus, the adequacy of the value is empirically testable 24 Source III : The Function of Education in Society The conservative tradition emphasizes the role of schools in the socialization of the young and the conservation and transmission of traditional values 25 In contrast to advocates of values clarification, values analysis, and moral development, conservatives view the noun use of `value' as primary and stress the learning of values Leming, as mentioned earlier, criticizes progressive value educators for failing to consider the validity of the conservative position and the conflict that exists between the need for citizens who are loyal to basic social norms and are also able to exercise judgment concerning responsibilities and obligations 26 Hullfish and Smith identify resolution of this conflict as one of the most difficult assignments given to schools "The unique and difficult assignment given the schools by free men is 4 9


(1) the transmission of knowledge and values in order that the gains of the past not be lost, and (2) the reconstruction of knowledge and values in order that the gains of the past and the present may become thresholds to an improved future, not doors closed against one ." 27 In order to address this problem, we examined the function of education in the socialization of the young We began by acknowledging that preservation and development of the value system and induction of the young into the cultural heritage of the group are primary reasons for support of public and private education Being educated means, in part, learning the beliefs, norms, attitudes, and knowledge of one's culture However, the cultural heritage includes the standards of science, logic, and truth, as well as standards for the good and the beautiful Learning these standards requires that individuals develop critical reflection on matters of value 28 We consider socialization to be an active process of interaction with an environment ; an active effort by an individual to modify an environment and, in turn, being modified by an environment in order to achieve goals considered important It requires each individual to display enough acceptable behavior to "fit in" and to maintain persuasive communication with others, but it does not require adoption of any attitudes, values, beliefs, or knowledge without reflection Individuals progressively move from learning the attitudes, beliefs, values, and knowledge of their culture to rationally choosing among alternatives and being able to create and evaluate alternatives The role of education is more than transmitting knowledge and values, it is assisting the child to move from deference to power and authority to attachment to groups and finally to achievement of an autonomous value and knowledge system based in reason and free from internal contradiction 29 Goals and Objectives We concluded from our examination of uses of value, affective development, and socialization that goals and objectives for value education should include the following characteristics : 1 Appropriate application of the noun, verb, and plural uses of `value' 2 Consideration of value in the personal, standard, and ideal contexts 3 Inclusion of all areas of study that have value content 4 Recognition of the need to address learning of specific social behaviors and acceptable levels of conduct 5 Consideration of reasoning that follows behavior as well as reasoning that determines behavior 6 Resolution of the conflict between the need to develop citizens loyal to basic social norms and citizens able to exercise judgment in choosing among alternatives 7 Identification of processes for determining the validity of vlaue expressions, statements, and judgments 5 0


8 A sequence that corresponds to the maturation and affective development of the, child We considered these guidelines as we developed the set of goals and objectives on the following pages The goals generally correspond to the levels of affect identified by Phenix, but we included a goal that addresses learning acceptable patterns of behavior GOAL I : The individual develops an appreciation and respect for organic impulses on which life depends and the ability to accept and express personal feelings of quality in experience OBJECTIVES : 1 Identifies things providing personal gratification or enjoyment 2 Experiences enjoyment through the use of each of the senses 3 Accepts new experiences 4 Abstracts attributes from things that give them quality or worth 5 Cherishes or prizes quality in experience 6 Communicates personal gratification, enjoyment, or experiences of quality through value expressions 7 Examines value expresions for their validity GOAL II : The individual develops patterns of behavior that display acceptable levels of adult knowledge, attitudes, and values OBJECTIVES : 1 Identifies rules of conduct and behavior accepted by the culture 2 Practices behaving in accordance with rules of conduct and behavior € t accepted by the culture 3 Participates as an effective member of groups 4 Develops attachment to groups 5 Identifies acts, customs, institutions, etc ., considered to be especially worthy within the culture GOAL III : The individual develops the ability to make decisions according to personal interest and intention and to recognize the interests and intentions of others OBJECTIVES : 1 Identifies categories of worth and quality of experience, and ranks things according to criteria for worth or quality of experience 2 Identifies means to attain things considered to be worthy or providing quality of experience, and means to avoid things considered not worthy or not providing quality of experience 3 Considers the compatability among things considered to be worthy or providing quality of experience and means for attaining those things 5 1


4 Identifies reasons for personal conduct and behavior and the conduct and behavior of others 5 Identifies reasons for rules of conduct and behavior 6 Distinguishes among actions that have an intrinsic effect on the rights and well being of individuals and actions that conform to behavioral expectations of a group 7 Identifies reasons for acts, customs, institutions, etc ., being considered especially worthy by the culture 8 Identifies acts, customs, institutions, etc ., considered to be especially worthy in other cultures and reasons for their value in those cultures 9 Relates personal desires for quality of experience and personal standards for conduct and behavior to those of others GOAL IV : The individual develops the use of rational reflection in making decisions among competing intrapersonal and interpersonal value claims and means for achieving gratification, and the ability to justify or provide warrants for these decisions OBJECTIVES : 1 Makes and tests value statements about things considered worthy or providing quality of experience by self and others 2 Makes and tests value statements about acts, customs, institutions, etc ., considered to be especially worthy within own culture and the culture of others 3 Identifies options offered within society 4 Chooses among options offered within society and among competing values, beliefs, and norms of the culture and justifies choices 5 Chooses standards of personal conduct and behavior that display acceptable levels of adult standards and norms and justifies choices GOAL V : The individual develops commitment to a set of self-chosen ideals and to the process of continuously re-examining these ideals OBJECTIVES : 1 Identifies ideal values, the means for attaining those values, and the consequences of adopting particular ideal values or means for attaining ideal values 2 Develops and tests propositions about value in the ideal ; makes and tests value judgments 3 Develops self-chosen standards or principles of special importance in life ; develops moral values 4 Continues to test values in the ideal and examines own value system for contradiction and conflicts with personal beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors 5 2


5 Develops a self-chosen system of ideal values that is free from contradiction We do not consider this sequence of goals and objectives to be invariant We recognize that even though a particular goal may be generally appropriate for a particular grade level or age group, one or more of its objectives may be more suitable for another range of grades or ages It will be necessary for teachers to re-address previous goals or objectives with consideration given to the larger range of experience of the more mature child In contrast to other positions regarding affective development, we believe that individuals at any level may be affected in their value decisions by considerations of organic impulse, feelings, or interests-by value in the personal context However, we consider values adopted after rational reflection to provide a more valid and consistent value system, and the development of such a system the ultimate goal of value education Value Education ; Curriculum and Teaching Our five goals provide a sequential framework, based upon Phenix's four levels of affect, that is consistent with Piaget's periods of cognitive development and recognizes the maturing child's need to participate in an expanding social environment and to generalize values They provide guidelines for developing a sequential and comprehensive value education curriculum that incorporates various elements of value of special concern to schooling (aesthetic, economic, social, personal, and moral values and value conflicts) They resolve the issue of whether to treat values as relative or universal by distinguishing different contexts of use ; identifying conditions in which an objective analysis of value may be conducted without accepting the value as one's own (the standard context) ; and distinguishing what will stand as evidence in testing the validity of value expressions, statements, and judgments, Finally, they provide a base for developing teaching strategies according to objective rather than choosing randomly from among competing approaches In the following pages we discuss the sequential framework in terms of its application for teaching We discuss each goal with reference to what it means, how it relates to cognitive development and grade level, and the kind of teaching strategies and activities that might be appropriate for implementing the goal Some of the recommended teaching strategies and activities are derived from approaches developed in the period since the late 1960's and will be familiar Others are new and are outlined here in an initial stage of gestation Implications for Teaching : Goal I Our first goal is concerned with value experiences that are reactive responses to environmental stimuli, reactions to organic impulses and sensual encounters, and are subjective and relative The extent and quality of these experiences are essential to an individual's 5 3


health and affective development and provide the base for value education Communications about these experiences take the form of personal value expressions The goal and its objectives are related to Piaget's cognitive development periods of sensori-motor (0-2 years) and pre-operations (2-7 years) 30 and roughly correspond to Kohlberg's pre-conventional level of moral development At this level, children's judgments about basic needs and sensual pleasures are made independently of a true sense of social awareness Although infants are able to make clear their early needs, it is not until the early pre-operational period, when they begin to develop language, that they are capable of articulating personal value expressions As their organic needs are satisfied and routinized, and as their senses become more acute, children develop an increasing sensitivity to their environment, and they make use of their new language proficiency to articulate value expressions According to Piaget, evaluations during the pre-operational period are perceptual in nature rather than cognitive ; they are under the control of immediate perceptions Children remain strongly egocentric and are unable to assume roles or see the view of others until age 6 or 7 31 Homes, families, day cares, and nursery schools serve as primary locales for satisfying early organic needs and providing sensory stimulation The quality of these environments influences the child's total affective development Those responsible for the care of children must make attention to children's organic needs and sensory stimulation their first concern A climate of love and caring, and the means for adequately satisfying organic impulses, is a prerequisite for the development of children who are open to experience Children need instruction in basic organic adjustment-those skills necessary for survival and adaptation in the world 32 They should learn ways of using available resources to satisfy their needs for food, shelter, clothing, etc ; ways of avoiding danger ; ways of discriminating among things that are beneficial and harmful ; ways of adapting to non-typical situations ; ways of maintaining normal health and vitality ; and ways of expressing common desires, satisfaction, and deficiencies Instruction needs to be highly directive, aimed at developing habitual behavior in accordance with basic survival needs and the need for order in societal life Psychological conditioning processes can be used to develop responses that enhance the child's adaptability and quality of life, but they should be applied in an atmosphere of genuine affection and zest for experience Kindergarten is a period that provides for affective development in children by emphasizing the intrinsic value of sense experiences At this age, sensual enjoyment among children is taken as a measure of the good, and subjective responses are encouraged Teachers should design learning activities to encourage children to observe and respond to the wonders of their surroundings, to sense their body, and to accept and enjoy personal feel5 4


ings Children should be involved in activities that help them discriminate among the varieties and qualities of sense experience, and they should be free to value experiences in their own right without having to justify them or view them as preparation for something else ." Kindergarten teachers should make a variety of sense experiences available through the use of music, art, drama and media, and museums, outdoor areas and other community resources They should avoid inhibiting creative personal value expression by providing a non-evaluative atmosphere and nuturing traits such as general sensitivity, tenderness, gentleness, consideration, appreciative awareness, listening, capacity to discriminate, and concern for validating value expressions Children should be encouraged to "look" with all their senses, and to describe the way objects feel, smell, look, move, and sound They should handle, stroke, manipulate, sketch, label, and experiment with things, and then be asked to hypothesize about their usefulness 34 Children cannot enjoy sense experiences in isolation They require a social setting with sufficient order and regularity to ensure each child the same freedom of experience and privilege of expression Children are prepared to function in such social environments by the habitual, adaptive, and survival routines learned in early childhood The habitual behavior and sensory experiences related to the first goal provide a foundation for affective development That base will be examined, reinforced, and altered as children develop and are increasingly able to relate to the social environment (goal 2), structure experiences in terms of emerging personal interests (goal 3), rationally appraise value experiences (goal 4), and integrate experiences with idealized principles (goal 5) Implications for Teaching Goals II and III The second and third goals focus upon value experiences related to individual self-determination and social awareness They are concerned with developing the ability of children to form more meaningful relationships with an environment and other people, achieving greater self-acceptance and acceptance of others, and becoming more open to experience Both goals emphasize active, purposeful behavior, and decision-making They mark the beginning of value education as an active endeavor on the part of children The second goal is intended to help children become social beings and understand the need for common rules of conduct and behavior Children are encouraged to behave in accordance with rules of conduct and behavior accepted by the culture-but always as thoughtful, goal-oriented human beings seeking to become autonomous individuals The third goal is designed to help children establish purposes or ends through active interaction with their physical and social environment, develop an understanding of who they are and what they believe, and recognize that others are engaged in similar activities, even if their means 5 5


and ends may be different The goal expands the value horizon of children by involving them in the following : (a) examining their values and standards of conduct and those of other individuals, groups, and cultures ; (b) comparing different values and standards of conduct ; and (c) identifying reasons offered in support of their own values and standards of conduct and those different from their own Goals two and three parallel the period of concrete operations (7-11 years) in Piagetian cognitive development ." From a transitional point of view, they are also related to the last two years of the pre-operational period and perhaps to the initial phase of the formal operations period (11-15 years) In the concrete operations period, children focus on specific concrete problems they confront They are capable of logical thought as long as the problems are not entirely verbal and their thinking can be applied to concrete objects and events .* During this period children become less egocentric, more cooperative, and willing and able to communicate with peers and adults They seek validation for personal ideas and decisions, and they become fully aware that others may come to different conclusions In addition, children become more socialized and develop a growing concern for rules as guides for behavior and decisions ." Teachers interested in implementing the second goal should begin by teaching students concrete ways to behave in particular situations At the same time, children should be shown how their behavior causes others to like, dislike, or ignore them, and be given alternative behaviors to practice Reasoning with children in this manner, especially explaining the painful consequences of their behavior to themselves and others, facilitates their development of prosocial orientations ." Teachers can further development of second goal objectives by involving students in discussions regarding the necessity of rules in social life and pointing out examples of appropriate behavior in real social situations and in literature Fairy tales, fables, myths, epic poems, and Biblical stories can be used to effectively stimulate discussions of rules and to provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate behavior Fairy tales, fables, and myths are especially useful because they stimulate children's imagination, reflect the communion of human life with other natural life, and develop the capacity of children to put themselves in the place of others Epic poems and Biblical stories are useful in exposing children to value in the ideal context Teachers should select fairy tales, myths, and stories carefully to insure that they are appropriate to the developmental level of students and that they identify relevant experiences for children Some myths and Biblical stories include value conflicts (chastity, murder, incest, etc .) that are inappropriate for young children or serve to reinforce stereotypes and prej*Most children are not capable of dealing with complex verbal, hypothetical, or futureoriented problems until the formal operations period 5 6


udices 38 However, most fables, myths, epic poems, and Biblical stories can be used to stimulate discussion, if teachers carefully question students to elicit a clear summary of the main point and then ask students to give examples from their own experiences that illustrate similar behaviors, rules, or conflicts Children can extend their ability to understand the feelings and viewpoints of others, and their own self-concept, through group experiences-especially if the population of the groups are heterogeneous Classroom and school groups can become social laboratories where children learn to subordinate personal wishes to the requirements of tasks, assume responsible roles, impose self-descipline, and move from dissension to consensus Teachers can facilitate student participation by assembling groups of the smallest number of students possible that include the needed intellectual resources, heterogeneity, and shared purposes, and by providing students with training in effective group procedures "It is possible to create groups in which individuals feel that they can afford to be independent and assert their selves ; in which they feel they can afford to acknowledge their short-comings without the loss of self-respect and accept criticism without a feeling of being rejected by the group ." 39 Both educators and laymen have advocated modeling as an effective technique for socializing the young After a survey of the literature, Leming reports that studies have repeatedly shown that modeling produces both short and long term changes in the social behavior of children 40 He discusses seven characteristics of effective modeling (adapted from Bronfrenbrenner) that can serve as a guide for teachers in using modeling : "1 The potency of the model increases with the extent to which the model is perceived as possessing a high degree of competence, status, and control over resources 2 The inductive power of the model increases with the degree of prior nuturance or regard exhibited by the model 3 The most `contagious' models for the child are likely to be those who are the major sources of support and control in the environment ; namely, parents, playmates, and older children and adults who play a prominent role in his/her everyday life 4 The inductive power of the model increases with the degree to which the person perceives the model as similar to him/herself 5 Several models, exhibiting similar behavior, are more powerful inducers of change than a single model 6 The potency of the model is enhanced when the behavior exhibited is a salient feature of the actions of a group of which the child already is or aspires to be a member 7 The power of the model to induce actual performance (as distinguished from acquisition) is strongly influenced by the observed consequences for the model of the exibited behavior ." 41 Children should not be restricted to models from the home and school 5 7


Individuals who are involved in the care of others, in the operation of community services, or in other activities that contribute to the collective interest of society should be invited into schools and allowed to share their experiences and convictions In addition, biographies and novels that focus on the contributions of individuals to the collective or societal interest, the welfare of others, and value in the ideal should be examined and discussed with students Classroom simulation related to actual social, political, or economic institutions can provide students with opportunities to distinguish among different kinds of values and to practice making socially relevant value choices A variety of role playing exercises can be devised to involve students in assuming adult roles, thereby encouraging them to apply adult standards in making role-related decisions In role playing, children become participants in a hypothetical problem siuation They think, feel, speak, and move as they would if they were real participants in the problem Teachers interested in implementing goal three should begin by inspecting a number of strategies designed to help students learn to develop concepts In particular, the concept formation strategies devised by Taba 42 and Fraenkel 43 can be used as a means of prompting students to identify those things and experiences that are of special worth and to organize them into meaningful groups and hierarchies Some value clarification strategies are useful in achieving goal three objectives Values clarification strategies are particularly useful in encouraging students to identify values they hold, examine the manner or means by which these values came to be accepted, and explore the degree of commitment to the professed values ." Teachers can use cultural analysis to help students examine both the value system of their own culture and those of other groups and cultures Both sociologists and social studies educators have developed models that can be used for analyzing value systems ." These models include methods for identification of contemporary values, examination of how values operate in the daily lives of citizens and have evolved over time, and comparisons of how values are ranked and ordered in different cultures ." Children should also be encouraged to inspect the consistency between their own patterns of behavior, and those of groups to which they belong, with more general value principles These examinations should include comparisons of their or their group's aims for behavior (what they or their group wants) and actual outcomes (what they or their group actually obtain) As discrepancies are encountered, students should be encouraged to identify reasons for discrepancies and changes in behavior that will better achieve their aims Students at the level of goal three objectives need to learn to accept and understand themselves and others, and to communicate with people different than themselves, including adults They need to develop self-esteem 5 8


and group acceptance in order that they can treat others with esteem They need positive regard from others, including teachers, in order that they can continue to grow effectively and cognitively Implications for Teaching : Goal IV Goal four closely corresponds to the period of formal operations (11-15 years) in cognitive development-the period in which students achieve the potential for adult thought ." Students can now think abstractly and are able to deal with complex verbal, hypothetical, and future-oriented problems Qualitative cognitive development is at its peak, although quantitative changes take place in later years The goal is developmental and should be introduced in early adolescence, receive increased emphasis through the middle or junior high school years, and be fully implemented in the high school curriculum Student achievement of the first three goals provides the raw materials that can now be developed by rational appraisal into defensible judgments of desirability ; warrants for personal choices The fourth goal is distinguished by understanding, testing, and choosing ; understanding personal and cultural standards of conduct and worth (including options within the culture and the values of other cultures) ; testing statements about standards of conduct and worth (including those from other cultures) ; and choosing defensible personal standards of conduct and worth It is concerned with the following cognitive skill objectives identified by Fraenkel : "An increased ability to : Predict outcomes Work back from a problem to~ a description of the kind of data needed to make a solution to the problem possible Evaluate analogies (the main form of moral argumentation) Assess recommendations using appropriate criteria ." 48 Values analysis is an effective procedure for implementing this goal Values analysis emphasizes the learning of analytical processes designed to aid students in developing clear, consistent, and empirically valid systems of belief, and commonly includes elements such as the following : 1 Clarification of value positions 2 Determination of warrants for value positions 3 Testing of warrants 4 Application of particular value positions in a variety of situations and circumstances 49 A number of values analysis, approaches ae described in values education literature The models developed by Metcalf 50 and his associates and by Pierce and Gray 51 are particularly useful for testing value statements in familiar or unfamilar contexts (objectives 1 and 2), and the approaches developed by the Harvard project 52 and by Taba 53 provide guidance to teachers in examining societal problems and helping students evaluate options available in their culture (objectives 2, 3, and 4) 5 9


Teachers should select content for values analysis that will help students view their culture and the culture of others with increased objectivity and develop a larger range of alternatives Content should be selected to interface with student experiences outside of school, and the resulting comparisons should be used to help students develop more accurate understandings of their present world and possible futures For the first two objectives, teachers should emphasize analysis of cultures past and present, including their own culture Emphasis should be given to generating and testing value statements about various cultures in various periods of time Content from history, literature, the arts, music, and philosophy can be used as a basis for generating and testing value statements For the last three objectives, emphasis should be placed on change rather than the status quo Students should be involved in thinking about the future-personal futures, technological futures, societal futures, world futures Facts and value statements about the past and present, developed in achievement of the first two objectives, should now be used to make projections about the future Students should be encouraged to investigate a variety of subjects and value statements and to apply the results of their investigations to the creation and evaluation of a variety of alternative futures for themselves and society Implications for Teaching : Goal V Our final goal is concerned with completing the affective development of students ; with developing idealization It is itself an ideal to be continuously pursued but never realized in a static and final form It emphasizes full development of student abilities to think of others as well as themselves, to consider the future as well as the present and the past, to be able to act as well as react, and to accept responsibilities for their actions Students achieving goal five will develop abilities to conduct independent inquiries, generate hypotheses and test them, induce generalizations from specific examples, and formulate principles They will be able to focus on genuine conflicts, consider appropriate procedures for resolving these conflicts, examine inconsistencies in their own thinking, and develop means for resolving these inconsistencies They will attain the following objectives identified by Fraenkel : "An increased ability to : Infer a general principle to apply to particular cases An increased willingness and ability to : Recognize inner and/or interpersonal conflicts in values when they appear Seek out the most just ways to resolve value conflicts with others ." 54 The essence of goal five is commitment A commitment to the good Commitment involves the following : (a) examining and testing propositions 6 0


about standards and principles of worth in the ideal, and (b) developing self-chosen standards and principles as guides for behavior But, fundamental to all else is a commitment to the ideal and continual quest for the good-a creative endeavor to continuously improve the existing system of values, and a belief in the possibility of human progress, individually and collectively Values in the ideal are not regarded a priori as static or absolute They are always subject to change as a result of further experience and reflection The process may be viewed as analagous to the idea of "becoming" as discussed by humanistic psychologists or existential philosophers The other four goals supply the essential materials for the quest toward excellence, and the commitment to the ideal guides the "flowering" of affective experiences on all of the lower levels ." At this level, individuals make provisions for impulses, pleasures, ego assertion, critical judgments, and idealization, but each is placed in proper relation to the others Goal five is the least adaptable to existing teaching strategies However, the goal does have a number of pedagogical implications from which we developed the following guidelines for teaching strategies : 1 Utilize the moral reasoning exercises and strategies based upon Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development as an introduction to the topic of idealization ." 2 Adapt the values analysis models for use in dealing with idealized values, with special emphasis on procedures for analyzing consistency and resolving value conflicts 3 Emerse students in the topic of idealization by means of an exploration of related ideas in the following areas : a Sociological and psychological literature ; e .g the ideas of Gunnar Myrdal and Abraham Maslow b Philosophical and theological literature ; e .g ., theories of value and the philosophy of ethics c Literary and dramatic works ; e .g ., Thoreau, Emerson, and Wilder d Historical personalities and events ; e .g ., Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow' Wilson, Martin Luther King, the decision to drop the atomic bomb e Interaction with classroom visitors from a number of careers ; e .g ., ministers, scientists, businessmen, skilled craftsmen 4 Involve students as participants in a variety of school and community activities where they will have opportunities to apply and refine their value systems in a practical way in real life situations Teachers can use a variety of resources to implement goal five Among the more' appropriate are historical and philosophical accounts of the development of ethical standards ; e .g ., The Declaration of Independence, The Magna Carta, the Charter of the United Nations Students can use these accounts to evaluate their own standards and the processes used to develop them In addition, teachers can select classics from works of art, 6 1


literature, music, and philosophy which exemplify standards of value in these areas, and they can involve students in comparison of these standards with those selected and applied by students in their daily lives Logical criteria can be used in classroom discussions and individual interviews with students to assist students in determining whether their value judgments meet the conditions for rational evaluation Among the criteria that can be applied are considerations of the truth and confirmation of the facts used to support judgments, the relevance of facts to the individual and the object of judgments, the range of facts taken into consideration in making judgments, and the acceptability of judgments to the individual Analogous cases can be introduced to clarify the commitment of the individual to a judgment ; the universal consequences of a principle being applied can be considered ; and the principle can be inspected for its agreement with more general or more deeply held principles ." If students are to achieve goal five, they will require more opportunities to participate in making decisions, to explore alternatives, to test value judgments, and to accept the consequences of their actions Schools and teachers will need to provide more opportunities for students to participate in adult roles both in and outside of school A model for community participation, labelled extended education, has been developed by Oldendorf, 5 B and Reimer 59 and others associated with Kohlberg's just community approach have described models for increased participation of students in governance of schools For students to achieve goal five objectives, the paradigm of secondary education will need to be restructured Students will not receive the feedback they require regarding their selected standards of behavior and value principles if they are restricted to the classroom six or seven hours a day, five days a week Student development of values in the ideal will require opportunities for students to engage in meaningful experiences outside of schoolcooperative education, volunteer service, family care, work-and the opportunity within school to discuss those experiences as they relate to personal value systems It will require opportunities to participate in governance of the school and face the consequences of decisions made in that governance It will require instructors who will serve as resources and counselors, not directors, in the process of examining self-chosen values Students in high school should be completing a foundation for a continuous affective development They should be preparing to take their place as effective adult members of society Therefore, secondary education should provide both freedom to explore and experience adult roles and values, and assistance in appraising behavior and attitudes for consistency with personal value systems Teachers in secondary schools should be mature in their own affective development and able to serve as models of the continuous search for value in the ideal Adolescents are naturally searching for meaning as they approach 6 2


adulthood and independence They are particularly receptive to explorations of the kinds suggest above However, it seems apparent that implementing the final goal is not an easy task In order to implement it in a meaningful way, new approaches must be developed, old ones revised, and, most important, secondary education will have to be restructured Implementing a Value Education Program Teachers and school personnel cannot implement a value education program in isolation An effective program will require community participation in providing students with the following : (1) opportunities to investigate adult roles, values, value conflicts, and decision making ; (2) models of commitment to idealization, community interest, and concern for the welfare of others ; and (3) experiences in assuming adult roles, considering the interests of others, and taking responsibility for the consequences of their actions If commitment to a program is to be achieved, and conflict within the community avoided, it is essential that community input and school/community agreement is achieved concerning the standards, norms, and experiences which are to be the focus of instruction prior to adoption of the curriculum School/community advisory and study groups should be established and given the responsibility for specifying the focus and limitations of the program ." In addition, other community agencies with responsibility in affective development and value education, e .g ., day cares, nursery schools, head start programs, YM and YWCA's, churches, parenting classes, and scouting organizations, should be enlisted as participants in the program Value education, to be effective, should emphasize a "holistic" approach to education-a school/community commitment to developing individuals with functionally complete, internally consistent, prosocial value systems References 1 Jack Fraenkel, "The Kohlbergian Bandwagon : Some Reservations," Social Education, 40 (April 1976), pp 216-22 2 Harry S Broudy, Enlightened Cherishing : An Essay on Aesthetic Education Chicago : University of Illinois Press, 1972 p 66 3 Walter D Pierce and Charles E Gray, Deciphering the Learning Domains Washington, D .C : University Press of America, 1979 pp 117-18 4 James S Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," Theory and Research in Social Education, 9 (Spring 1981), pp 12-13 5 Ibid ., pp 14-15 6 Jack R Fraenkel, "Goals for Teaching Values and Value Analysis," Journal of Research and Development in Education, 13 (1980), p 94 6 3


7 Philip H Phenix, "Perceptions of An Ethicist About the Affective," in Feeling, Valuing, and the Art of Growing ed Louise M Berman and Jessie A Roderick Washington, D .C : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1977 pp 69-70 8 Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1979 Edition, s v "value" 9 Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary, Unabridged Second Edition, s v "value" 10 The Oxford American Dictionary, s v "value" 11 John Dewey, "Theory of Valuation," in Foundations of the Unity of Science Volume II, eds ., Otto Neurath, Rudolf Carnap, and Charles Morris Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1970 pp 384-85 12 Ibid 13 Ibid ., p 444 14 Ibid ., pp 396-97 15 Abraham Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry Scranton, Pa : Chandler Publishing Co ., 1964 16 Phenix, "Perceptions of an Ethicist ." 17 Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry pp 390-91 18 Phenix, "Perceptions of An Ethicist," pp 61-64 19 Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry pp 391-92 20 Phenix, "Perceptions of An Ethicist," pp 64-68 21 Ibib ., pp 68-9 22 Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry pp 391-92 23 G Max Wingo, Philosophies of Education : An Introduction Lexington, Mass : D .C Heath and Co ., 1974 p 222 24 See Dewey, "Theory of Valuation," p 397, and James J Jelenek, The Learning of Value ." in Improving the Human Condition ed J J Jelenek Washington, D C : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1978 p 202 25 Wingo, Philosophies of Education p 88 26 Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," p 15 27 H Gordon Hullfish and Philip G Smith Reflective Thinking New York : Dodd, Mead and Co ., 1964 p 256 28 M L Bigge and M P Hunt Psychological Foundation of Education New York : Harper and Row, 1968 p 85 29 Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," p 17 6 4


30 Barry J Wadsworth Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development New York : David McKay Co ., 1971 pp 33-88 31 Ibid ., p 75 and pp 71-2 32 Phenix, "Perceptions of An Ethicist," pp 60-63 33 Ibid ., pp 63-4 34 Dorothy Hennings, George Hennings, and Serafina Banich Today's Elementary Social Studies Chicago : Rand McNally College Publishing Co ., 1980 p 66 35 Wadsworth, Piaget's Theory pp 89-100 36 Ibid ., pp 91-2 37 Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," p 10 38 Felix Adler The Moral Instruction of Children New York : D Appleton and Co ., 1912 p 94 39 Hilda Taba Curriculum Development Theory and Practice New York : Harcourt, Brace, Javanovich, Inc ., 1962 p 171 40 Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," p 9 41 Ibid ., pp 9-10 42 Hilda Taba, et al ., A Teacher's Handbook to Elementary Social Studies : An Inductive Approach Menlo Park, Calif : Addison-Wesley, 1971 pp 65-70 43 Jack Fraenkel Helping Students Think and Value Englewood Cliffs, N .J : Prentice Hall, 1980 pp 176-81 44 Louis E Raths, et al ., Values and Teaching : Working With Values in the Classroom Columbius, Ohio : Charles E Merrill, 1966 (revised edition 1978) Sidney B Simon, et al ., Values Clarification : A Handbook of Practical Strategies for Teachers and Students New York : Hart Publishing Co ., 1972 45 Fraenkel, Helping Students Think and Value, pp 230-34 46 Pierce and Gray, Deciphering the Learning Domains, pp 134-36 and 203-07 47 Wadsworth, Piaget's Theory, pp 101-07 48 Fraenkel, "Goals for Teaching Values," pp 98-99 49 Pierce and Gray, Deciphering the Learning Domains, pp 117-18 50 Lawrence E Metcalf, ed Values Education : Rationale, Strategies, and Procedures Washington, D .C : National Council for the Social Studies, 1971 51 Pierce and Gray, Deciphering the Learning Domains, pp 144-47 and 209-20 52 Donald W Oliver and James P Shaver, Teaching Public Issues in the High School Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co ., 1966 53 Taba, Teacher's Handbook, pp 79-80 6 5


54 Fraenkel, "Goals for Teaching Values," pp 98-99 55 Phenix, "Perceptions of An Ethicist," pp 68-69 and 71 56 Barry K Beyer, "Conducting Moral Discussions in the Classroom," Social Education, 40 (April 1976), pp 194-202 Ronald E Galbraith and Thomas M Jones Moral Reasoning Minneapolis : Greenhaven Press, 1976 57 Metcalf, Values Education 58 Walter P Oldendorf, "Extended Education : A Rationale for a Young Adolescent Citizen Education Curriculum," (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1980) Dissertation Abstracts International, 8104754 (1980) 59 Joseph Reimer, "Moral Education : The Just Community Approach," Phi Delta Kappan March, 1981, p 486 60 Leming, "On the Limits of Rational Moral Education," p 24 6 6


Theory and Research in Social Education Fall, 1983 Volume XI Number 3, pp 67-76 by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Women and Economics Textbooks Carole L Hahn Division of Educational Studies Emory University Atlanta, Georgia 30322 Glen Blankenship Renfroe Middle School Decatur, Georgia Women and Economics Textbooks Are secondary economics textbooks gender-biased? The answer to that question has gained importance as the number of students enrolled in economics courses, many of which are mandated, has steadily grown over the last decade (National Survey, 1982) Economics textbook publication has become big business ; the task of evaluating the available texts in terms of sex-fairness and accuracy is an important one Did the women's movement of the 1970's and the new publisher's guidelines have any effect on the materials that are read by economics classes in the 1980's? The purpose of this study was to determine whether textbooks used in secondary economics classes today convey the image that economics is a "man's world ." Do the text examples, photographs, illustrations, and case studies present males as the primary economic actors? In what type of roles are females shown? It is particularly important to look at the content of textbooks because they have such a powerful influence on the curriculum The National Science Foundation's extensive study of the status of social studies in the United States concluded that "the dominant instructional tool continues to 6 7


be the conventional textbook" (Shaver, et al ., 1979) Economics textbooks are, therefore, a potentially critical variable in the formation of students' attitudes toward their own economic roles Several earlier studies reported that the social studies books of the 1960's and 70's were sex-biased Males dominated elementary social studies textbooks ; the few women who did appear were in the traditional roles of housewife, nurse, secretary, teacher, waitress or librarian (O'Donnell, 1973) The dominance of males in social studies textbooks also was found in secondary United States history, government, and civics books (Trecker, 1971 ; Smith, 1977 ; MacLeod, 1973) One study of economics textbooks concluded that the books available to students in the 1970's were, with few exceptions, overwhelmingly sex-biased (Blankenship and Hahn, 1982) The question remained as to whether textbooks written or revised after the consciousness-raising of the seventies and the adoption of the new publishers' guidelines to authors were sex-fair Method The sample for this study consisted of secondary economics textbooks which were available for purchase in January 1982 and had been copyrighted no earlier than 1975 The content analysis of the books utilized a system developed by the authors The instrument was the same one which was used in an earlier study of economics textbooks (Blankenship and Hahn, 1982) It was similar to the ones used by other researchers to measure sex bias in civics textbooks, United States history textbooks, and United States government textbooks (Trecker, 1971 ; MacLeod, 1973) Nine different aspects of each of the textbooks were examined in an effort to determine the existence or absence of sex bias First, the index for each book was scrutinized and a tally was made of the frequency of citations of men and women To insure accurate classifications, the researchers read the text discussions of people with whom they were unfamiliar Secondly, each index was examined for the inclusion of women's issues Topics such as "women as heads of households", "sex discrimination", and "differential incomes for men and women" were noted Inclusion of such issues indicated a sensitivity to women's experiences in the economic world The next three indicators of sex equity were determined by frequency tabulations of the number of times men and women were quoted in the text, cited in "references for further reading" lists, or highlighted in special sections set apart from the text Fourthly, humorous cartoons were analyzed in terms of frequency and characterization of males and females Not all books used quotations extensively, listed further references, set off special sections, or used cartoons However, those books that did were examined for the equity and balance of their presentations The next two steps of data collection involved an examination of the photographs and illustrations in each textbook The number of photographs depicting males only, females only, and combinations of males and females were noted A separate listing of traditional and nontraditional 6 8


female work roles was tabulated An examination of photographs was deemed necessary because of their tendency to stimulate and create visual images for the readers Often it is these images which leave lasting impressions on learners The final area of analysis was the possible use of sexist language A search was made in each textbook for the use of biased terminology (e .g ., "the history of man," "businessman," "man-in-the-street," "salesman," "economic man," "Man's future,"), and the consistent use of male pronouns (i .e when a person buys stock he . ) The two researchers practiced using the instruments until they achieved an interrater reliability of .99 using a Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Findings Are secondary economics textbooks gender-biased? The answer is "for the most part, yes, but . . As can be seen in Table 1, more than ninety percent of the people cited in Table 1 : Classification of Index Entries by Gender *The list of textbooks in this and the other 3 tables are not presented in the same order as described in Appendix A 6 9 Textbook* Male Female A 7 0 B 15 1 C 37 2 D 113 7 E 13 0 F 31 2 G 15 0 H 59 1 I 89 11 J 2 0 K 47 5 L 31 2 M 4 0 N 12 2 0 10 0 P 26 8 Q 23 0 R 18 4 S 28 4 T 14 7 U 26 0 V 2 0 Total 622 56


the indices of the twenty two books examined are men The highest percentage of women cited in the indices reviewed-fifteen percent occurred in only three books! The only women who appear in more than one textbook are Margaret Thatcher, Queen Elizabeth, Mary Wells Lawrence and the economist Joan Robinson Women are noticeably underrepresented among the successful business people, economists, labor leaders and consumer advocates included in secondary economics textbooks Six of the textbooks examined use highlighted sections to draw attention to the lives of noteworthy economic actors Two of those books clearly made an effort to focus on women as well as men In one book, half of the biographical sketches are of women In the other book, females make up forty-two percent of the cases Female representation in the remaining four books with highlighted sections ranges from two to eleven percent If separate sections focusing on individual achievements convey a potent message about who is important in the economic world, then students will ascertain from the highlighted sections in most books that economics is a man's world Case studies, like biographical sketches, are used to capture student interest The one book which uses the case study approach seems wellintentioned by its use of women in nontraditional roles in the application exercises that follow the cases The cases themselves, however, focus on men as the central characters The men whose stories are told probably form a more powerful impression on readers than do the names in the exercises Messages are conveyed through the use of quotations, also Fifteen of the twenty-two books index direct quotations Of the 295 quotations included, only 39 (twelve percent) are attributed to women Even the books that make an effort to quote female economists dilute the effect by presenting quotes from six times as many men The few quotes which do appear are from economists, journalists, consumer advocates, educators, politicians, and lawyers Women in a variety of positions speak out daily on economic issues and could be better represented in most economics books Half of the textbooks contain lists of books for further reading or reference Almost all of the books cited are written by men As the number of female economists and business majors approaches parity with men, we can expect that the number of women writing books in the area will increase also This change may be slower to show up in secondary textbooks than changes in other variables studied Photographs and illustrations were analyzed for the dominance of males or females and for the roles in which men and women are portrayed The overwhelming number of pictures contain only men, as can be seen in Table 2 The men in the pictures are shown in a vast array of jobs in business, industry, agriculture, and the professions In these books, pictures of men 7 0


Table 2 : Photos/Illustrations shopping in grocery stores appear far more frequently than they did in earlier textbooks However, one still does not see men in nontraditional occupations, such as flight attendant, telephone operator, child care director, or nurse In only one book do we find a house-husband caring for the home and children Approximately one-half of the pictures of women show them either shopping or using bank services In the remaining pictures, women are still most often seen in traditionally female occupations such as bank clerk, nurse, or a small parts assembly line worker Women outside of the United States are most often shown as agricultural workers A few of the books have made a real effort to present women in non-traditional roles as frequently as they picture them in traditional ones In those texts, the reader sees female entrepreneurs, politicians, union leaders, bank officers, computer operators, construction workers, and dentists Many economic textbooks are picturing women in the greater variety of jobs which they now hold However, some 7 1 Textbook Single Sex Both Sexes Single Sex Male(s) Only Male(s) Dominant Male & Female Equal Female(s) Dominant Female(s) Only A 7 3 4 1 B 39 10 12 8 10 C 37 1 20 4 20 D 79 9 16 11 19 E 50 11 14 7 25 F 33 5 19 3 10 G 10 1 2 1 9 H 35 4 5 4 7 I 39 17 8 7 7 J 30 5 17 3 15 K 61 11 15 11 9 L 34 8 17 5 10 M 24 7 27 0 7 N 30 6 4 1 14 0 10 2 9 1 1 P 44 5 19 7 18 Q 6 3 2 R 49 7 27 6 18 S 45 4 12 3 21 T 30 2 14 6 30 U 2 7 1 0 1 V 19 10 17 2 18 Total 710 138 281 91 269


Table 3 : Portrayal of Women's Work Roles in Photographs and Illustrations still show women more often as consumers than as producers, while they depict the reverse for men The reality that close to half of the United State's labor force is female still is not reflected in the ratio of women workers to male workers in the photographs (see Table Three) Another dimension considered in the textbook analysis was the inclusion of material on women's unique experiences in the economy Only half of the books discussed women in the labor force and sex descrimination Four of the twenty-two books included women as labor leaders and women as heads of households No more than two books gave attention to any of the following topics : women's income relative to men's, affirmative action, women and unemployment, women and credit, women and social security, insurance rates for women, women's suffrage, and the women's movement Most books ignore these issues The few that include them discuss them in a paragraph or less Analysis of cartoons yielded mixed results Half of the books use humorous cartoons While males greatly outnumber females in the cartoons, the characters, most of whom are male, are negative caricatures 7 2 Textbook Non-Traditional Jobs for Women Traditional Jobs for Women A 2 B 6 31 C 0 16 D 6 36 E 21 27 F 14 24 G 6 5 H 13 I 12 9 J 4 16 K 4 19 L 8 8 M 3 6 N 16 0 0 2 P 18 17 Q 1 R 12 28 S 8 17 T 24 24 U 7 0 V 9 22 Total 160 327


The one area in which there was considerable improvement in these textbooks as compared to those studied earlier was in the use of sex-fair language Only one of the twenty-two economics textbooks published after 1975 consistently uses sexist language That particular book stands out as being totally unaffected by calls to eliminate bias in a variety of forms In that one book, no women are cited in the index ; the cartoons have no women in them ; the only illustrations of a woman (other than in a group representing the public) is one pushing a shopping basket ; the examples used throughout the text are males (with the exception of a reference to a man's wife who has a part-time clerical job ;) male pronouns are used throughout and become particularly glaring in chapter titles like "How Can the Consumer Get His Money's Worth ." The author refers to a bride and to a housewife, but never to a woman in a non-traditional role Fortunately, this is the only book that characterizes women as merely minor actors in the economic world Discussion This study finds secondary economics textbooks published since 1975 to be less sex-biased than textbooks examined in previous analyses Sexist language has, for the most part, been eliminated Women with non-traditional careers are often pictured in photographs, highlighted in biographical sketches, and used as examples in the texts Student readers will see that some women are indeed economic actors However, there is much yet to be done to accurately reflect women's economic life Far more male than female workers appear in photographs in spite of the fact that their numbers are almost equal in the labor force Female leaders in labor unions and women who have been successful in business are still underrepresented in most books Too little attention is given to the economic realities that pertain specifically to women A woman still makes only 59€ for every dollar made by a man and most households below the poverty level are headed by women The concentration of women in low-paying, traditionally female occupations and the impact of government programs on women are issues which economics students should consider While no single book is completely sex-fair, there are a few that do well on some criteria They might serve as examples of how positive changes can be made in the various areas Meeting Peoples Needs by Watson et al (1979) is noteworthy in its equal use of females and males as central characters in case studies This is the one book that shows that men sometimes stay home and care for the children while their wives pursue graduate study or careers Like most books, men dominate the photographs ; unlike most books, however, when the women do appear they are as likely to be in non-traditional roles as in traditional ones Several essays in this book are written by women, and female economists are quoted Economics of Our Free Enterprise System (Brown and Warner, 1982) is 7 3


particularly noteworthy in that it presents women as often as men in photographs and shows women in non-traditional roles as frequently as in traditional ones This book demonstrates that many women are successful in business and that they are good examples of entrepreneurs Free Enterprise : The American Economic System (Smith, Watts and Hogan, 1981), and Fundamentals of the American Free Enterprise (Hodgetts and Smart, 1982) are the two books which use women as frequently as men in the highlighted sections They also present women in many non-traditional roles While no single textbook treated males and females equally on all dimensions examined and discussed issues related to women, the books cited above can serve as partial examples Textbook authors and teachers who wish to include more material on issues like unequal pay, women as heads of households, and women in labor unions will find useful data from the Women's Bureau, Department of Labor, Washington DC 20210 In addition, many relevant articles may be found in periodicals such as Ms or Working Women Teacher textbook committees, authors, and publishers may find the criteria used in this analysis helpful in assessing the level of genderbalancing presented in newer texts This study did not examine the effect that textbooks have on student perceptions, nor did it consider other inputs, such as teacher and student statements, which may influence students beliefs about the role of women in the economy Clearly, such research is needed in the future to describe the meanings students acquire from economics classes 7 4


Appendix A List of Economics Textbooks Evaluated Antell, G Economics : Institutions and Analysis New York : Amsco School Publications, 1978 Antell, G ., and Harris, W Economics for Everybody New York : Amsco School Publications, 1976, 1980 Brown, J E ., and Wolf, H A Economics : Principles and Practices Columbus, OH : Charles E Merrill Publishing Company, 1979 Brown, K W ., and Warner, A R . Economics of Our Free Enterprise System, New York : McGraw Hill, 1982 Clawson, E U Our Economy : How It Works Menlo Park, CA : Addison Wesley, 1980 Davies, J K ., and Ovard, G F Economics and the American System New York : J B Lippincott, 1975 Goldstein, E ed What Citizens Need to Know About Economics Boca Raton, Fl : Social Issues Resources Series, Inc 1980 Hacker, A Free Enterprise in America New York : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1977 Heilbroner, R L ., and Singer, A The Development of American Economic Life New York : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978 Helburn, S W ., et al Economics in Society : Communist Economies Menlo Park, CA : Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1977 . Economics in Society : Third World Economies Menlo Park, CA : Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1976 Hodgetts, R M ., and Smart, T L Essentials of Economics and Free Enterprise Menlo Park, CA : Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1982 Luker, W A and Luker, G J Hard Choices : The Economics of the American Free Enterprise System Manchaca, TX : Sterling Swift Co ., 1981 McCarty, M H Dollars and Sense Glenview, IL : Scott, Foresman and Company, 1976 Miller, R L Economics : Today and Tomorrow New York : Harper and Row, 1978 Olsen, A R ., and Kennedy, J W Economics Principles and Applications Cincinnati : South-Western Publishing Co ., 1978 Smith, R J ., Watts, M W and Hogan, V D Free Enterprise : The American Economic System River Forest, IL : Laidlaw Brothers, 1981 7 5


Watson, G G ., et al Economics : Meeting Peoples Needs, Chicago : Science Research Associates, 1979 Whiteaker, L The Individual and Society in America New York : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1979 Wolken, Lawrence Invitation to Economics Glenview, IL : Scott Foresman and Company, 1982 Wyllie, E E ., and Warmke, R F Free Enterprise in the United States Cincinnati : South-Western Publishing Company, 1980 References Blankenship, G ., & Hahn, C L Sex bias in Georgia high school economics textbooks Georgia social science journal, (Winter, 1982), 89-90 "National Survey of Economic Education 1981" in Curricular Currents, Social Education, 46 (February, 1982), 89-90 MacLeod, J S ., & Silverman, S T You won't do : What textbooks on U .S government teach high schoolgirls Pittsburgh, PA : Know, Inc ., 1973 (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 081 255) O'Donnell, R W Sex bias in primary social studies textbooks Educational Leadership, 1973, 31, 137-141 Shaver, P ., Davis, O L ., Jr ., & Helburn, S W "The status of social studies education : Impressions from three NSF studies," Social Education, 43 (February 1979) : 150-153 Soper, J R Test of economic literacy : Discussion guide and rationale New York : Joint Council on Economic Education, 1979 Smith, J W An appraisal of the treatment of females in the United States' high school history textbooks from 1956 until 1976 Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1977 Trecker, J L Women in U .S history high school textbooks Social Education, 35, 249-260 7 6


Editorial Comment There are many things which others do for you which cannot be repaid easily Thank you said in private may not convey sufficient gratitude for the efforts of others This editorial comment is to express more publicly the debt I have to Kenneth Carlson, who took further responsibilities for me by agreeing to edit TRSE during my leave from Rutgers 1982-3, and to William Fernekes, a doctoral candidate who shouldered similar burdens as editorial assistant Although I had indicated to the CUFA search committee for TRSE editor that I would be on leave during one of the years of editorship, it was my presumption that editing could be handled long distance My arrangements with Ken Carlson were to have him merely act as Rutgers campus intermediary so as to keep from too much imposition on his good will and time As it turned out, he and Bill Fernekes carried out major responsibilities for the journal and Ken should have been recognized as acting editor for these issues Ken and Bill are to be recognized for their work in maintaining a high quality publication, operating the extensive correspondence required, and furthering the development of the journal through subscription and related avenues Bill has been especially productive in organizing a subscription campaign among state social studies supervisors and others The results of their work will be indicated in future editorial comment Ken, Bill and I request your suggestions and opinions on the journal And we seek your continued support through membership in CUFA, subscriptions, assistance in the thorough review process, and in the submission of manuscripts for consideration Jack L Nelson TRSE Editor Search My three year term of office as Editor of TRSE concludes with Volume 12 (1984) The CUFA Executive Committee appointed a search committee for a new editor Contact Lee Ehman, School of Education, Indiana University for information 77


Recent Eric/Chess Documents Following are selected resources on educational research in social studies from the ERIC data base Documents are available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS), (P .O Box 190, Arlington, Virginia 22210) in either microfiche (MF) or paper copy (PC) as indicated in each abstract Documents are also available in microfiche in libraries throughout the United States that subscribe to ERIC Check the library nearest you Additional relevant documents can be found by searching the ERIC index Resources in Education ED229307 S0014641 Selection of a Research Topic in Economic Education McCarney, Bernard J 8 Oct 1982 12p ; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Joint Council on Economic Education (Kansas City, MO, October 8, 1982) EDRS Price-MFO1/PCO1 Plus Postage MF $0 .97 PC $2 .15 A rationale, survey of research findings, and research needs for economics education are offered The case for the universality of economic literacy has been forwarded by several leading economists Economics education is seen as an important key for the survival of humanity ; the task of the educator is to reduce partial ignorance, misinformation, and lack of foresight A survey of four major research reviews and recent issues of "The Journal of Economics Education" suggests that past efforts have been narrowly focused or redundant Also, while economic research is carefully quantified from a statistical stance, outcome measures were less satisfactory than found in science and mathematics educational research Future research should focus on the teacher's decision-making process on content selection and presentation, academic learning time, and differential benefit gains for students at different cognitive levels Major issues include investigating how students internally structure and make meaningful the variety of concepts and principles of economics and identifying how psychological and instructional variables assist in student learning (KC) Descriptors : *Economics Education ; *Educational Needs ; Educational Research ; Elementary Secondary Education ; Higher Education ; *Learning Theories ; Literature Reviews ; *Research Needs ; Teacher Effectiveness ED229290 S0014562 Computer Assisted Learning in a Sixth Form Economics Course Research Papers in Economics Education Wood, K R J London Univ (England) Inst of Education 7 8


Feb 1983 48p ; Some pages may be marginally legible EDRS Price--MFO1/PCO2 Plus Postage MF $0 .97 PC $3 .90 The impact that computer assisted learning (CAL) has had on economics teaching in British high schools and the extent of use of CAL materials by British economics primary and secondary teachers is provided through two case studies and a survey The first case study investigated the use of an economics computer simulationn as a teaching aid on the achievement of 2 groups of, 11 British high school students (1950-1972), and the current period (1973-1982) were included ; and (3) emphasis was given to Chinese, Japanese, and Jews An unequal number of textbooks and teaching manuals were evaluated for each time period Reviewers considered which ethnic groups were named, the tone of the citations (negative, positive, stereotyped), and the accuracy of the content It was found that between 1880 and 1920, the basic school policy was Americanization in which ethnic groups were given little consideration Few changes took place until the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s when ethnic studies were encouraged, but mainly at the secondary level Since 1973, teachers and textbook publishers have become more cognizant of ethnically balanced materials Multicultural education is an accepted practice, but teachers need better education and guidelines (BY) Descriptors : Acculturation ; Chinese Americans ; Cultural Isolation ; *Cultural Pluralism ; Educational Research ; Elementary Education ; Ethnic Discrimination ; Ethnic Stereotypes ; *Ethnocentrism ; Immigrants ; Japanese Americans ; Jews ; Minority Groups ; Multicultural Education ; Social Sciences ; *Social Studies ; *Textbook Evaluation ED228109 S0014474 A Case for Qualitative Research in the Social Studies Parsons, Jim ; And Others Alberta Univ ., Edmonton Faculty of Education Nov 1982 154p ; Figure 1 and appendix A may not reproduce clearly due to small print type of original document EDRS Price-MFO1/PCO7 Plus Postage MF $0 .97 PC $12 .65 As examples of the qualitative research attitude, six research papers, each of which addresses a serious educational question in a thoughtful and rigorous manner, are presented The first paper argues for the advancement of a qualitative research attitude in social studies, for such an attitude is consonant with the purposes of a reflective, critical, inquiring social studies curriculum The second paper addresses the quantitative versus qualitative research issue by studying recent social studies research to determine the directions taken by social studies educators The purpose of the third paper is to discuss the relationship between models of inservice educational programs and dominant metaphors of educational change within Western society Political influences which shaped social studies curriculum develop7 9


ment in Alberta (Canada) from 1975 to 1978 are discussed in the fourth paper The fifth paper describes and interprets how a teacher's ideology influences his or her interpretation of a social studies curriculum The final paper examines six approaches to values education (RM) Descriptors : Comparative Education ; Curriculum Development ; Educational Change ; :Educational Research ; Elementary Secondary Education ; Foreign Countries ; Inservice Teacher Education ; Political Influences ; *Social Studies ; Teacher Attitudes ; Trend Analysis ; Values Education Identifiers : Alberta ; *Qualitative Research ; Quantitative Research ED224765 S0014446 Why Kids Don't Like Social Studies Schug, Mark C ; And Others Nov 1982 26p ; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council for the Social Studies (Boston, MA, November, 1982) EDRS Price-MF01/PC02 Plus Postage MF $0 .97 PC $3 .90 A survey of 6th and 12th grade students in a Midwest school district reveals largely indifferent or negative attitudes toward social studies subjects Forty-six students responded to questions which asked them to name the most important, favorite, and least favorite subjects and to recall what was interesting and uninteresting in former social studies classes English, mathematics, and reading ranked ahead of the second case study, involving a group of 12 high school students split into 2 matching groups with regard to ability, compared the use of CAL with the lecture method Materials used in the case studies were those developed by the Schools Council Computers in the Curriculum Project Knowledge attainment and students' attitudes were assessed through preand posttests and questionnaires Results show that CAL does not have a superior effect on learning compared with more traditional methods ; student motivation is enhanced by the use of the computer ; the size and composition of the teaching group is an important determinant of learning ; and CAL may be best suited to high ability students The survey of a sample of 38 members of the Economics Association of Kent (response rate of 50%) and of 21 economics teachers attending an economics education conference in Kent (60% response rate) indicates that CAL has not been integrated into economics teaching to any significant extent (RM) Descriptors : *Academic Achievement ; Class Size ; Comparative Education ; *Computer Assisted Instruction ; *Economics Education ; Educational Research ; Elementary Secondary Education ; Foreign Countries ; High Schools ; *Student Attitudes ; Student Characteristics ; Student Motivation ; Surveys ; Use Studies Identifiers : *Great Britain 8 0


ED228158 S0014670 The Role of Elementary Textbooks in a Multicultural Society Schwartz, Lita Linzer ; Isser, Natalie Apr 1983 21p ; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Canada, April 11-14, 1983) EDRS Price-MFO1/PCO1 Plus Postage MF $0 .97 PC $2 .15 Given the assumption that children learn societal values in schools, textbooks and teaching manuals were reviewed to determined their effects on immigrant and minority-group children The study was limited in three ways : (1) only primary through eighth-grade materials were reviewed ; (2) only the immigration period (1880-1920), the post war period social studies as most important ; the majority of students based their decisions on skills needed for future careers Seventeen percent chose social studies as the most important subject Social studies ranked neither high nor low as a favorite or least favorite subject Student comments indicate that it is not perceived as a particularly enjoyable subject and is not considered especially difficult Elementary students enjoyed history and cultural studies while senior high students favored psychology, sociology, and anthropology Many students found social studies content boring, citing that the information is too far removed from their experience, too detailed, or too repetitious These reasons suggest the need to strive for greater variety in instruction and provide more opportunities for student success (KC) Descriptors : Attitude Measures ; *Course Content ; Educational Research ; Elementary Secondary Education ; Grade 6 ; Grade 12 ; *Instructional Improvement ; *Negative Attitudes ; *Social Studies ; *Student Attitudes 8 1


Abstracts Economic Knowledge and High School Student Attitudes Toward the American Economic System, Business, and Labor Unions This study examines the relationship between high school students' economic knowledge and their attitudes toward the American economic system, business, and labor unions Economics educators have often assumed that attitudes toward economic institutions and issues are a function of knowledge and that greater cognitive knowledge of economics will make students more sympathetic toward the American economic system and its constituent institutions In this study two models are examined in order to determine the relationships between certain demographic variables, economic knowledge and economic attitudes on the one hand and between demographic variables, economic learning, and attitude change on the other Results support the notion that economic knowledge is an element in the formation of economic attitudes A Rationale For Value Education The article presents a comprehensive curriculum model for value education in the schools It includes a rationale and educational goals and objectives which provide a framework for the development of a sequential K-12 value education curriculum The article also discusses teaching strategies and activities appropriate for implementing the goals The model is derived from ideas and research in the areas of value theory and justification, ethical philosophy, developmental psychology and socialization theory The Decision Making Process An extensive review of the literature in such fields as education, psychology, counseling, political science, economics, sociology, social psychology and administration indicates that there tends to be six or seven stages common to decision making models or processes and over fifty sub-steps Each of these phases and substeps are discussed in an effort to create a clearer and more integrated view of individual, group, social and political decision making while trying to stimulate a broader, more action-oriented use of decision making skills in social education from elementary through graduate school Women and Economics Textbooks A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks was made to determine whether the books were gender biased The comparative frequencies of references to men and women in the index, in quotations, in highlighted sections, and in photographs were noted The inclusion of women's issues, of non-traditional role models, and the avoidance of sexist language were noted also Overall, the economics text8 2


books were found to be less sex-biased than were the books examined in earlier studies However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks and little attention is given to economic realities which women face Call for Proposals 1984 CUFA Program The College and University Faculty Assembly (CUFA) of NCSS will receive proposals for papers and sessions for the 1984 Annual Meeting (Washington, D .C ., November 16-20) until February 10, 1984 Request CUFA proposal forms from : Richard Jantz Department of Curriculum and Instruction University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 or from the NCSS Office 3501 Newark Street, N .W Washington, DC 20016 8 3


books were found to be less sex-biased than were the books examined in earlier studies However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks and little attention is given to economic realities which women face Call for Proposals 1984 CUFA Program The College and University Faculty Assembly (CUFA) of NCSS will receive proposals for papers and sessions for the 1984 Annual Meeting (Washington, D .C ., November 16-20) until February 10, 1984 Request CUFA proposal forms from : Richard Jantz Department of Curriculum and Instruction University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 or from the NCSS Office 3501 Newark Street, N .W Washington, DC 20016 83


Book Review Section Book Review Editor : William Stanley College of Education Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 We are seeking critical reviews of scholarly works related to the concerns of social educators This includes books on education, the social sciences, history, philosophy, research and any other works which might make a contribution to the field Normally, textbooks will not be reviewed with the exception of those which appear to advance theory and research Essay reviews of two or more works on the same topic will be considered if they conform to manuscript guidelines for reviews Reviews which exceed the guidelines for length must be handled on a case by case basis as space permits Reviewers who have suggestions for reviews which might exceed the guidelines are urged to contact the book editor prior to submitting the review Reviewers should provide sufficient detail regarding the book's substance and approach, including positive and negative evaluations where relevant Finally, the review should include the specific importance of the book for social educators Manuscript Form The length may vary from 1,000 to 2,000 words ; the manuscript must be typed, double-spaced (including quotes) on 8'/2" x 11" paper The format is as follows for the top of the first page of the review, left side : Book Author's Name (Last Name first), Title, City of publication : Publisher, Date ; Total pages ; list price (if known) Reviewer's Name (Last Name Last) Institution Submit review manuscripts to : Professor William B Stanley, Book Editor Department of Curriculum and Instruction 64 Long Field House Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 8 4


Journal Information Theory and Research in Social Education is designed to stimulate and communicate systematic research and thinking in social education The purpose is to foster the creation and exchange of ideas and research findings that will expand knowledge about purposes, conditions, and effects of schooling and education about society and social relations We welcome manuscripts on a variety of topics including : Purposes of social education ; Models, theories, and related frameworks concerning the development, diffusion, and adoption of curricular materials ; Instructional strategies ; The relation of the social sciences, philosophy, history and/or the arts to social education ; The politics, economics, sociology, social psychology, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and/or the history of social education ; Alternative social organizations and utilizations of the school for social education ; Comparative studies of alternative models of social education ; Models of and research on alternative schemas for student participation and social action ; Relationship of different preand in-service patterns of teacher training to social education ; Models of the utilization of objectives in social education and related research findings ; Implications of learning theory, child development research, socialization and political socialization research for the purposes and practice of social education ; The relationship of different independent, explanatory variables to educational achievements in the area of learning about society and social relations ; The social climate and cohesion of schools and other school characteristics as independent, explanatory variables predicting general achievement 8 5


Submission of Manuscripts In order to facilitate the processing and review of manuscripts, authors are asked to follow these procedures : 1 Manuscripts should be typed with a dark ribbon or clearly mimeographed, multilithed, or photocopied Some corrections in dark ink will be accepted 2 Four copies of each manuscript should be submitted 3 The author's name and affiliation should appear on a separate cover page, along with an abstract of approximately 100 words 4 Only the title of the article should appear on the first page of the manuscript 5 All text, references, abstracts and endnotes should be double-spaced Manuscript Style 1 When citations are made, the name of the author, publication date, and any necessary page number should be enclosed in parentheses and located directly in the text The complete reference should be included in section labeled "References ." For example, "Teachers commonly assume that students must acquire background information before they can be expected to think or to test their insights ." (Hunt and Metcalf, 1968, p 54) 2 Endnotes should not be used to cite references Substantive endnotes should be numbered sequentially and inserted in text 3 References should be alphabetized and located at the end of the manuscript The reference list should contain only those sources which are cited in the text Examples of references to a chapter in an edited work, a book, and a journal article follow Ehman, Lee H and Hahn, Carole L "Contributions of Research To Social Studies Education ." In Howard D Mehlinger and O L Davis, Jr (Eds .), The Social Studies, Eightieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1981 Hunt, Maurice P and Metcalf, Lawrence E Teaching High School Social Studies (2nd ed .) New York : Harper & Row, 1968 Egan, Kieran "John Dewey and the Social Studies Curriculum ." Theory and Research in Social Education 1980, 8, 37-55 4 Each table and/or figure should be placed on a separate page and placed in a separate section at the end of the manuscript Arabic numerals should be used for numbering both figures and tables, and their location in the text should be indicated by the following note : Table/Figure t about here 5 Send manuscripts to : t Jack L Nelson Editor, TRSE Graduate School of Education Rutgers University New Brunswick, NJ 08903 8 6


Subscription Information A subscription to Theory and Research in Social Education may be obtained by membership in the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for Social Studies Membership information is available from the Membership Department, NCSS, 3501 Newark St ., NW, Washington, D .C ., 20016 Institutional and non-CUFA subscriptions are $25 .00 per year, foreign subscriptions $35 .00 Write to the Editor for these orders Back Issues/Reprints Back issues may be obtained for $4 .95 each and reprints of individual articles (beginning with Volume 7) are available Write to the Editor for these orders ; do not send payment until advised of availability of issue/reprint Change of Address/Missing Issues Send change of address notices and a recent mailing label to the Editor as soon as new address is known Also send queries about missing issues to the Editor Be sure to include a complete, proper address with such queries Advertising Information about advertising will be sent upon request 8 7


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