Proceedings of a conference on GIS in transit : Using geographic information systems to enhance transit planning marketing, and operations

Proceedings of a conference on GIS in transit : Using geographic information systems to enhance transit planning marketing, and operations

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Proceedings of a conference on GIS in transit : Using geographic information systems to enhance transit planning marketing, and operations
National Urban Transit Institute (U.S.)
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Subjects / Keywords:
Business planning--Information services ( lcsh )
Geographic information systems ( lcsh )
Marketing research--Computer programs ( lcsh )
letter ( marcgt )

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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C01-00060 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.60 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Proceedings of a conference on GIS in transit : Using geographic information systems to enhance transit planning marketing, and operations
Tampa, Fla
b Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
c 1996
Business planning--Information services
Geographic information systems
Marketing research--Computer programs
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research.
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4 856


Proceedings of a Conference on in ffansit Using Geographic Information Systems to Enhance Transit Planning, Marketing, and Operations CUTR National Urban Transit Institute at the Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida CUTR 1996


2 Procettfings of a Conference on GIS in Transit


CUTR would like to acknowledge and offer our thanks to the following individuals and organizations who worked to make this conference a success: For sponsorship: Reception Sponsors : Caliper Corporation ESRI lntergraph Corporation International Computer Works Conference Co-Sponsors: American Public Transit Association Association of American Geographers Community Transportation Association of Ame rica Federa l Transit Administration Research and Special Programs Administration Women's Transportation Seminar World Computer Graphics Foundation For contributions of time and expertise to the production of the conference: Walter Kulyk, and William Wiggins Federal Transit Admi ns tration; Richard Simonetta, American Public Transit Association & Metropoli tan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority ; Larry Pham, and Laurie Radow, American Public Transit Association ; Ronald Abler, and Elizabeth Beetschen, Association of American Geographers; Pat Cass, and Elaine Joost, Research and Special Programs Administration; Larry Harman LJH Consulting ; Kenneth Dueker Port land State University; Lyna Wiggins, Rutgers University ; Sharon Dent Hillsborough Area Rapid Transit; Paul Skoutelas LYNX : Paul Toliver, Seattle Metro ; Michael Townes, PenTran For conference planning and coordination: Fredalyn Frasier, Patricia Henderson Anne Ka/1, Joe Balderson Caffie Smith, Joe Hagge, Greg Feffara, Martin Catala, Tiffany Turner, Shelly Happel, John Osborne and Suzi Dieringer, Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of me U.S. Depanment of Transportation, University Transportation Centers or University Research l'nstitutes Program, in the ;nterest of infotmation exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability tor the content s or use thereof. )> n ::J 0 (l) a. OQ (l) 3 (l) ::J rt VJ Proceedings of a Conference o n GIS i n Transit 3


4 frouedints of a Conference on GIS i n Transit


The concept for A Conference on GIS in Transit evolved out of a growing awareness that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) could improve the planning, management operations and evaluation of transit systems. GIS has evolved over the past decade as a field of informat ion management that enab les users t o efficiently store, retrieve edit, manipula te and graphically display spatially-referenced data and to integ rate such data from mulliple databases using both topo l ogica l and attribute information. GIS has the potential to significantly imp rove the quality of urban transporta tion plann ing data while redu cing the cost of data collect ion and pre para t ion. GIS also enables transit agencies and loca l planning organizations to share databases. Th e net potent ial impact of GIS applications is to enhance customer service and improve the cost-effectiveness of service delivery through more efficient planning and analysis. The potential for more effective app licati on of GIS in t r ansit is great if current and potent i al futu re users share experiences Although many transit agen cies and MPOs use GIS they rarely exchange information Applications of GIS are diverse and few agencies have been able to maximize its potential To a large degree vendors have driven the adoption of GIS by transit and transportation planning agencies-a dozen different GIS software packages are currently in use by t r ansit agencies and MPOs f o r p lan ning and analysis While some networking does take place between indiv idua l transit agencies and MPOs, CUTR felt a forum for systematic discussion of benefits issues and problems would offer an opportunity to accelerate the in formation exchange process. Furthermore, we felt that a national conference on GIS applications in transit would provide such a forum. In planning this conference it was o u r in tent to bring together representa tives from transit ope ra tors plann ing agencies, the research community and vendors of technology to share experiences, perspectives and viewpoints on the subject. The conference format was developed to i nclude: Speakers addressing both policy and techni cal issues Panel discussions on a selection of the topics proposed above Workshops on particular t opics Vendor demons t rations of different GIS software packages The conference was highly interactive and provided maximum opportunities for discussion and d i al ogue In preparation for the conference, input on topics and format were solicited from professionals around the country. In order to better reach individuals with a potent ia l i nterest in GIS in Transit, several organizat ions were i nvited to co-sponsor the conference The presentation of the conference and production and dissemination of the proceedings were funded by the Research and Special Programs Adminis t ration (RSPA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation as part of the National Urban Tran sit Institute (NUT!) funds allocated to CUTR. fretdinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 5


6 Proceedinp of a Conference o n in Transit


Conference Agenda Keynote Speeches National Transit GIS Presentation Summaries Case Studies Annotated Bibliography Exhibitors Attendees Proceedinrs of a Conference on GIS i n Transit 7


8 froceedinti of a Conlmnce on GIS in Transit


Sunday, August I 3 7:30pm Reception at Florida Aquarium Monday, August 14 7:30am 8:30am 9:45am 10:00 am Continental Registration !Welcome(Ballroom) Gary Brosch, Cent" for Urban TransptJTtation Resdation, A= Rf8ional Transit (HAR1) Rosemary Mathias, Women' s Transportation Seminar Opening Plenary Session (Ballroom) Ronald Sheck, Center for Urban Transportation RaMrdl /(m,'(JTE 5Hw OQ m ::J a. s:u


Monday, August 14 (continued) 10:00 am (wntimml) 12:00 noon 1:30pm ! Data Base Design and Spatial Data (Lancaster Room) Moderator: RobtrtAangetnbrug, Univ. ofSouth Florida "An Enterprise GIS Database Design for Transit AppJicationsn Zhongren Ptng, Portland Sllltt Uni veniry "Usc ofFTA's National GIS Transit Database for Guideway Transit Demand Analysis', YoungKyun Lee, Florida International Univmil) ! Luncheon (Terract) KEYN!YrESPFAKER: Michael Dobson, Rand MtNally & Company Concurrtnt Sessions ! Trends in SoftwareTechnology(BaJ/room) Modt'fator: William Wiggins, Federal Transit Admin. Panelists: Jim Lam, Calip

Monday. August 14 (continued) 3:15pm 3:30pm "Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit (MARTA's) lntdligentT ransportation Syste m : A Showease for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games" Wayne Sara1ua Georgia Institute of Technology Using GIS to Identify Locations with the Greatest Potential for lnereased Transit Ridership" Victor Henry Balt imore MeLropo/ium Council Break Concurrent Sessi

Tuesday, August 15 8:00am 10:00 am 10:15 pm !FTASpecial Sessions (Ballroom) "FT A's Efforts in Context with USDOTs GIS Program Walt Ku/ylt Federal TransitAdminislration ''Transit GIS Demonstration: Next Steps" Wi/li4m Wiggim Fed"al Transit Administration "System Architecture and Connectivity" Paula Okunie.JJ, Vi.ggen Corporation Bruce Spear, ofTra.nJportation S14tistics Wendt O'Nein Ul4h State Universil) Break Concurrent SesJions <-"Issues and Applications for Large Transit Systems" (Lancaster Room) MOikra/JJr: Lyna Wiggins, R>ttgers Univertity Panelists: Nancy Neuerbttrg, SettttleMetro Bill Green, Dtlaware Vallty Regina/ Planning Council Brenda Claybrook, DART +! "Issues and Applications for Medium Transit Systems" (Ballroom) Motkra/JJr: Laurie Radow, APTA Panelists: Linda Dowling, Suntran jack Reilly Ctzpita/ DiJsria Tramp. Authorit!' Prianka Seneviratnt, Ut4.h State University + "Iss ues and Applications for Small and Rural Transit Systems" (Steele Room) Motkrator: La"y Harman, L.}. HarUZn Consulting Pantlisu:Boyd Tbompson ARC Transit David Gionet, Bloomington Public Transportation C

Tuesday, August 1 5 (conanued} 12 noon 1:45pm J:QQ pm 3:15pm 4:15pm 4:30pm (+ Luncheon (Ttmtct} KYNortSPAK/I: RicbardSimonttta,APTA ! Results from Concurrent Scssions(Ballroom) Lyna Wiggins, RMtgcrs UniversifY Laurie Radow, APTA lArry Harman, Lj. Harman : Planningvs. Operations: Areas ofCoordination Melanit Braun, Minndottc GKidtstar Project > Transit CEO's Panel Discussion ofNextSteps in GIS Moderator: Walt Kul)k, FTA Panelists: Pall/ Toliver, StauleMetro Richard Simonetta MARTA Michael Townes, Pmtran Paul Skout.Ia,, LYNX : Conference Wrap-Up Walt Kulyk, Fedtral TranJit AdminiJtration Ron Sheck, CUTR Larry Harman, LJ. Harman Comulting Adjourn fflxetdints of a Conference on GIS in Transit 13


14 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS i n Transit


Michael W. Dobson Vice President of Industry Affairs & Chief Cartographer Rand McNally & Company The full text was not available ; however foll owing are representa tions of slides used in Mr. Dobson's presentation. GIS-T How Rand Me: Nally Got Into the Mapping Business Trains, T imetables and Maps The Automob\te 1900 8 000 horseless carriage-s 1910-1,000 .000 2,000 ,000 1908 st paved street one m ile long, Woodward Avenue in Detroit GIS-T 19071st pedestrian island SFO 1911- 19101s t manua l t r affic signal. NYC 19 14 1s t e lectronic t r affic s i gnal 1 915 -1st no Jeft tum, Buffalo 1913 1 s f drivei n gas station. Gulf. P i ttsburgh 1914 -Gulf asks Rand McNally for maps 7\ m '< ::J 0 rt m Vl ""0 m m n ::r m en


GIS-T 1909 -Photo-Auto Guides 1917 Blazed Trails/Auto Trails Illinois Auto Trails Map was firs t to show numbered highways 1924 first Rand McNally Road Atlas and every year sinoe 1925 Uniform h ighway numbering The Future We design the future the way we each want and expect it to be. We Invent the future as we move toward it Under u ncertain and dynamic conditions, you need two things before you can move forward: a sense of vis ion -robust structure T oday's talk will focus on the vision YOU m ust supply the structure What will be delivered? In other words, what are the applications and markets that we might see? 16 Prttdings of a Conference on GIS in Transil Today Rand McNally's journey is only one story from the world of Transportation Getting here was the easy part How do we all get to tomorrow? What should we know to help us understand how to get there? How May the Future Unfold? Legacy Systems -the long goodbye Wo rldNe t l nte rOperability High tech cornucopia The computer meets consumer/ electronics Dominance of global tec hnology/ information/ publishi ng kelretsus Applications and Markets Electronic publishing/the Internet Electronic Information sytems Multimedia Intelligent transportation system Integrated messaging systems Advanced traveler information systems Personal and portable Information systems GIS


Let's look at some of these markets that will influence GIS-T The right place /right time? To paraphrase the conventional wisdom used during the last e l ection: "It's money, school, and kids, stupid!" More on Income Households with children : -Above $25,000-50% like l y to buy PC Below $25,00070% not likely ever to buy PC -85% have a video game system No children -30% likely to buy PC 25% have video game systems Retired households -90% unlikely to buy PC vision Multimedia The right place at the right time Meaning? Households with children are more likely to have computers presentthan childless households PC penetratio n Is highest among adult full-time stu dents The actua l income of the household influences the disposition toward PCs This Is A Problem There are a lot of technophobes and even more people who cannot afford technology froaedints of a Conferen c e o n GIS in Transit 17


1 8 What's the Installed Base? By 1997, it Is esti mated that 57 million homes will have PCs The majority of new PC sales are M PC ready, i.e. they have a double speed CD-ROM and a modem What's the market profile? It is believed i n the software industry that this pyramid must be entered from the top Other Platforms The home as a market is thought to be divi ded into three segments: the game/play room the enterta i nme n t center the home office This means multiple platforms and m ultiple commun i cations methods and lots of cost PriXteilings of a Conference on GIS in Transit What's the Market Profile? It Is a pyramid capped by Innovators (approximately .5M people}, followed by early adapters (5M people } resting on regular buyers (50M people} The prevailing wisdom is that early i nnovators buy performance, the ear l y adapters buy performance/Value, and the remaining 90 percent of the market buys based on va l ue/price THIS is a problem, TOO! Techno logy is a classed society how do we change that? Do people really understand how to use the technology? Multiple Platforms? This is also a problem


Information Superhighway The Internet Based on the Internet: -Begu n by ARPA in late 1960s/ primary responsibility today was NSF's and is now head ing toward commercial service providers -Purpose: to permit scientists working on federal research projects anywhere In the U.S. to tie Into Information Superhighway, continued Tho Internet promises soon to be come the electronic foundation of the National I n formation lnfrastruc ture proposed by the Clinton admin Istration The principal use of the I nternet was to transfer files from one location to another Information Superhighway, >ntinued Usage patterns: 45% research 29% commercial 10%defense 7% government 6% educational but do not overtook the significance of the web or of the use of MUDs and Moos Information Superhighway, continued computers at remote sites in order to use the files and computer resources at other locations. -Today the Internet is a supranational i nformation h ighway connecting federal, regional cam pus/academic, private. and foreign users Inte rnet Is beginning to be known for IRC and www. These are the parts that the visionaries missed Information Superhighway, eonUnued The seconD greatest use was for electronic mail Today It Is to sell things The goal for the system Is to provide one gigabite-per-second transfer rates (allowing one to transfer the complete Encyclopedia Britannica from New York to Sydney In one minute) Information Superhighway, cont1nut<1 And don't miss the MSN AOL, or CServe connections --editors are always needed Nobody Is making money on the Internet. This Is a problem, because it says technology is not as exciting to the general publ i c as we think it is! Pro(eti/inti of a Conference on GIS in Transit 19


Integrated Communications Systems (ICS ) A serv ice tha t addres ses the need to easily com m u n icate and access I nformation private i nformation a n d commu n i cation database FAX e-m ail, te le p h o n y p ublic I nformation on-line services FAX, tel epho n y, mail Integrated Communications Systems, contin ued Integra t ed Sing l e source for all messages an d i n formatio n Porteble D ockable This is a problem, too, since you cannot buy a PDA that works Or find enough bandwidth to do anyth ing I nteresting other than pagi n g 20 fr(J(ett/inp o f a Conference on GIS in Transit Integrated Communications Systems, cont inued persona l assistants agen ts service bank i ng travel, traffic, shopping personalized wireline wireless operating system and device choi ce Integrated Communication Systems And If you add GPS, you have the Kll lerApp How will all these things be delivered? Wor l d net. globa l spanning digital highways RBOCS Cable W i reless the realtime map u pdate b l ues Wireline As today in familiar places( but with batteries)


In Familiar Places? This Is Also A Problem The home The school The mobile office In your pocket Where you work Who is going to set these standards? Who is going to create these univer sal devices, develop open arehitec lures? Who is going to provide access? ITS ITS Architecture subsystems Remote access kiosks, home or office computer, persona l portable device Center traffic/fleet management, ISP Roadside-traffic sensor, signal message sign, toll station Vehicle mayday, navigat ion, toll, communications ITS Car nav/GPS 3 billion by 2000 but the average compounded growth rate used to calculate tl\ese numbers is over 60 percent THA rs A PROBLEM, TOO! Subsystem Tennina tors Users center personnel, drivers, travelers Systemsroadside/vehicle systems Environment environmental features such as air quality sensed by ITS subsystems Other subsystems-other vehicles, other centers The previous topics provide the rapidly changing environment within which G I S-T will either flourish or fall In large part, success depends on your ability to understand these tre nds and make products that work, FOR EXAMPLE: Pro

Geographic Information Systems in Transit (GIS-T) Beliefs-GIS-T will: generate new activities not possible with previously existing technologies provide cost effective solutions to dealing with current problems enhance integrated problem solving make us more productive In current activities PRODUCTS THAT WORK Match customer needs Reduce customer anxiety Have theee characteristics -quality -timeliness -completeness -utility But this will not happen unless we look at the worl d around us and understand what Is happening and make products that work. We have looked at the world-let's look at products that work. HUMANS, GIS, AND COMPUTING Some speculations Ventti l oqu lsts mediums Fred the Agent and Harry the ventriloquist Pigeons and bad software design -the fact that users will not give up a product or service should not be confused with proof that It is well designed HUMANS, MAPS, AND COMPUTING (HMAC) Some spec u lations The sensory and the Intellect A computer is a television the part that computes Is abstruse ills a box that hums The balance between processing and image 22 ProceedintJ of a Conference o n G I S in Transit


HMAC Some speculations (continued) Universalists v. Particularists --Universalists say that everything Is driven by principle. Nothing happens by accident. There are no special cases. Particularists feel that the world is too complex to submit to simple rules. There are "distinguishing factors." HMAC Some speculations (continued) Universalists v Particularists -This is why product Interfaces are counter-intuitive and annoying -And why they do not work the way you want them to And also why the GIS world is interested In "agents" HMAC Some speculations (continued) The two previous ideas are major reasons why: -GIS apps. can be difficult to use: The problem of unique sottwar desi gn Tho 31ternallon task and computing {writing a lette rllas k/ a ppll ca t l o n l -Standards are desirable -Windows Is successful -Integrated office suite software is HMAC Some speculations (continued) Universalists v. Particularists People who build GIS solutions are particularists -Customers are either seeking a universalist solution to a problem or are particularists of a different persuasion HMAC Some speculations (continued) GIS use, understanding, and design Understanding is a path and not a point. It is a path of connections between thought and thought, patterns over patterns. It is relation ships -You can only understand something relative to something your already understand HMAC Some speculations (continued) Making things understandable should not be confused with simplification -The idea of simplification and the "dumbing of America" Understanding is not about simplification, it is about organization and classification PrO

HMAC Some speculations (continued) One of the biggest lies technology causes us to believe Is that there Is only one way of doing thi ngs th e way that the software is organized! This is called flashcard memory I t leads to simp l ification and an inability to solve probl ems that do not meet the workflow HMAC Some speculat ions (continued) lnteractivity -Should be the distinguishing feature of electronic products since the computer is the only media capable of providing interactivity But a,. e rror me-ssages Interactive? -What would we want of useful lnterac tlvity? GIS Some speculations (continued) A language of emotional expression Emotionally satisfying Interaction -Transparent responses -Consistency -Ramps -or a scale of difficulty Application specific Illiterates Climbing the ladder Application Aficionados 24 froreedinp of a Conference on GIS i n Transit HMAC Some speculations (continued ) In MAPS, organization and classification are often confused with graphic design Style and color added to a Map to spice It up usually has the opposite effect This Is called "rainbow worship" GIS Some speculat ions (continued) What do we want in interactivity? T hat's simple-"we want" Our expectation of control to be real Creation of artificial personality We Want GIS PRODUCTS That Act Like Humans


GIS Concl u ding Issues Will GIS c r eate specialists rather than generalists (point v pattern)? Will G I S turn our attention from the task to the technology? Will GIS re-direct our competencies? Can we (as users) influence the course of G I S development? If not, we can answer "yes" to the questions above GIS Concluding Issues Developers are twice as likely as the ge n eral population to be i ntroverts and three times as likely to be c l assified as intuitive thinkers (Landaue r 95) We are developers you and me As developers, our job Is to raise t h e productivity of the users we support Pr(J(edingt of a Conference on GIS in Transit 25


Richard Simonetta Chairman, American Public Transit Association (APTA) General Manager of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit System (MARTA) I can't think of a more crucial time to hold a conference on t he use of Geographic Information Sys tems to Enhance Transit Planning. Marketing, and Operations. We stand at a crossroads with respect to t rans port at ion policy issues a n d t he techno logical advances of GIS. In fact, this topic is of such interest to our industry that Passenger Transport, APT A's weekly newspaper, w ill devote most of its September 4 issue to trans i t agency use of GIS and othe r smart technology concepts. The success of new light rail systems such as Metrolink in St. Lou is new commuter rail services, and innovative marketing as evidenced in Orlando demonstrates tha t t rans it can attract customers who would otherwise add to the congestion on the nation's metropolitan-area roadways. Also, paratransit services associated with the Americans with Disabilities Act represent an expansion of our basic mission to serve the transit-dependent. But, growing numbers of elderly Americans will need improved tran sit service in the future, as will central city residen ts who want to reach suburban jobs a nd thousands who want to move from welfare to work. How can today's transit systems resp ond to this diverse range of customers needs when. with every new fiscal year we are asked to do more with l ess? In an era of constantly rising customer expectations, how can we attract riders away from congested roadways? How can we reduce costs w ith out sacrificing the quality that all customers demand? If transit agencies can incorporate the a rray of computer-driven technolog ies now at hand into an i ntegrated system, we will be better prepared to satisfy this diverse group of customers more effectively than ever before. The cost of GIS, which was p r ohib iti ve only a few years ago, has dropped enough to put this technol ogy within reach of large and med i um-sized transit agencies. Today s general managers can no longer assume that this technology is reserved for the next generation of managers We must recognize that GIS is here today. The question is n ot whether, but how GIS can serve the trans it industry. In addition to the drop in cost, we now understand that different computer-based technologies complement each other. We do not have to choose technologies independent from one another. It is not a q uestion of GIS versus Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) or Integrated Intelligent Fare Systems. Rather, these can all be integrated components that work together. One of transit s marketing proble ms is that custo mers fear that we w ill waste their time. As plan ners, we know that if enough of our customers respond to thi s fear by driving alone, they will all waste more of their time stuck in t raffic With GIS, we can counter t he a ut o's perceived advantage in at least three ways. Fir s t, we can provide transit customers with real time information about the most efficient routes for their trips. Second, we can eliminate much of the uncertainty about how long t hey must wait for the next bus or railcar And t hird we can remind them about the traffic delays and tie-ups that t hey are avoid ing by using transit. What else can GIS do for transit systems? It can help us comply with federal leg islation Because it can mange locat ion-referenced data, GIS can help us comply with requirements established under ISTEA the Clean Air Act, a n d ADA. These laws require the in tegration of transportation data with 26 Proceedintiof a Conference on GIS in Transit


population, land use, and air quality models. Where prev i ously transit systems needed limited sets of data, today no transit system can service without accurate extensive integrated data. ISTEA s call for major reforms in national t ransportation policy is one imp ortant reason we need to thin k about GIS. ISTEA strongly reinforced the need for transit systems to work with other agencies With GIS and other computer-based technologies transit systems can share and in tegrate data. The integrated data will allow the many loca l, regional, and stale agencies to develop a coordinated implementation of the ISTEA management systems The application of GIS to ISTEA's management systems is just getting u nde r way. GIS is also being applied to federal requ irements under the Americans Disabilities Act. ADA requires public transit systems to provide parat ransil service for people who are unable to use regular fixed-route service because of their disab ilities. A recent APTA survey found that the costs of providing ADA paratransit service is al r eady more than $1 billion per year and full compliance isn't requ ired until fiscal year 1g97. Original DOT estimates projected fiscal year 1g97 costs at under $600 million. This is an expensive service. GIS will help many transit systems figure out how to transport people w ith disabilities more efficiently from paratransit origins to paratransit destinations. Imp roved p ro ductivity of ADA-related paratransil services can produce huge economic returns. In addition to these public policy issues in which GIS offers a locat ion-based method to summarize many layers of information it provides transit systems with a clearer way to communicate. There are several groups of people who benefrt. First are transit board members and other pub lic officials When discussing p rop osed schedule and fare changes, GIS provides a much more vivid depiction of anticipated results with the overlays of demographic zones ridersh ip levels. proposed new rou tes and other data categories. Answers can be given at the t ime the que stions are raised because the different layers of data are integrated and easily accessible. Second, the public benefrts. Changes in service are always difficult to rationa lize and communicate to customers. When schedule changes are displayed as accurately as p ossible to include all portions of a route at different times of day and t hen overlaid the route's population ridership levels and trip origins and destinations, it is easier for the publi c to understand the reasoni ng behind the proposed changes. Third are trans it agency employees. The new emphasis on customer service is just one facet of a new management approach that seeks to reduce the layers of authority and shift responsibility to employees who deal directly with customers. This approach depends on improved communication within the transit agency. Employees need to understand the kinds of information conveyed by GIS jus t as much as the public officials and customers do. Fo r all audiences, GIS has remarkable potential to move ahead in linking transi t plans with regiona l growth plans, long-te r m land use, air quality, and other issues that are at the heart of ISTEA's reform of federal transportati on policy. For GIS to be a successfu l management too l. it cannot be confined to a single office or department in a transit system It mus t be developed across department lines and reach out to agencies outside the transit system. Its i ntegrat ion enables GIS to serve as a valuable management tool. Proceedings of a Conference o n GIS i n Transit 27


According to Mo ore's law, the i nformat ion storage capacity of a state-of-the-art computer chip d oubles every two years. The value of GIS techn ology for transit operat ions is sure to increase at a geometric rate as well. Just as networking turned personal computers f rom stand-alone number and word processors into much broader and more flexible management too ls GIS technology must undergo a similar transformation. Under the head ing of customer service, for example, many different departments produce individual databases. The coordination and integra t i on of data allows faster response to customer inquiries. One department's digital base map of an agency's service area can be lin ked to bus schedules developed by another department. These layers can be combined w i th data from the local metro politan planning organization or other unit of government. In the short term customers receive more accurate and timely responses to their inquiries. In the long term, they benefit because transit agencies can do a better job of planning services and responding to needs. A real-life as well as real-t ime, example of a GIS application can be found in Atlanta's preparat ion for the 1996 Summer Olympics Atlanta expects a large number of out-of-town visitors during the summer. MARTA s usual rail ridership of about 220 000 per day will increase to 600,000 or more during the 17 days of Olympic events. Plus MARTA s peak bus operation will increase from a pprox i mately 60 buses today, to over 1500 buses during the games. For the Olympic Spectator Transpor tation System to work, MARTA must satisfy more customers more completely than ever before. We must get them to their events on time. We must transport them safely and securely We must give them enough informat ion to decide on the fastest route to each destination befo re they begin their trips. And we must provide this informa t ion in a way that is easy to understand and use To help prepare for this surge of riders, we put our ITS project on the fast track. A project that would nor mally have taken several years to complete got underway earlier this year. It w ill be ready for test ing next March and will be up and running in time for the July 19 opening ceremonies of the Summer Olympics This $16.25 million ITS program includes five related efforts: 1 Wrth the help of a Global PosHioning Satellite system MARTA planners are currently map ping 10,000 bus stops and 2,500 designate d landmarks in Funon and OeKalb counties. 2. Once this information is correlated wHh all Atlanta roadways for computerized mapping, MARTA's schedule information staff will be able to handle requests for route and schedule informat ion more quickly and efficiently. This will be a way to test if we are meeting the rising expectations of our customers. 3 The same computer maps will be displayed at some 200 information kiosks that the Georgia DOT will install at visitor centers, rail stations, and other locations in Atlanta and throughout the state These informat ion kiosks will dis pl ay information about congestion and accidents on Atlanta's majo r highways. Commuters can use the in f orma t ion to avoid certa in areas or choose other routes. We will begin to train employees on the new system during the spring of1996. 4 MARTA will install Automatic Vehicle locators (AVl) in 250 of our buses so we can track them on the computer map to provide real-time" information for passengers 5. One hundred of the 250 AVl buses will ha ve in-vehicle stop announcements, 15 buses will have automated bus passenger counters, and 10-15 bus stops will have changeable real ti me message signs. 28 Promdinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit


We know that not all of these efforts qua l ify as GIS. They comprise a range of new tech no logies that integrated with GIS w ill give t he greater Atlanta m etropol i tan area an advanced, competitive transit system that respo nds to its customers. Rather t han duplicate GIS efforts now underway at MPOs and state DOTs or the efforts of other regional and state agencies systems should, if at all possible. become part of a local or regional GIS consortium. Both voters and elected officia l s can appreciate the cost savings that resu lt from t his kind of coord i nation. A consortium's first effort may revolve around transportation However, once the value of a reg ional cooperative effort is understood there is no reason why a loca l GIS consortium cannot include information f rom the local agencies responsible to housing employment services. health care services for the elderly veterans. and other needs. Georgia DOT is taking efforts to d evelop GIS coordination on a reg iona l basis, and MARTA is an active participant. One of the first and most crit ical policy issues is winning acceptance for GIS Given the choice of purchasing a bus or a GIS system. transit managers and board members may choose the bus. It's visible, and it reconfirms the agency's primary goal. It is hard to sell new, unfamiliar technology. The key is to explain how GIS manages and communi cates information so that customers will receive better more cost-effective service. With a system that ties GIS to AVL, transit vehicles can be tracked in real-time. Just as car phones prov ide a single driver with a direct link to the police and other emergency services AVL offers bus drivers a direct link in case of emergencies. The education of staff not just management, is cmical to implement ing GIS and associated tech nologies. At MARTA we have a process that involves a wide range of participants. This has le a d to rapid acceptance and enthusiasm for the new technologies. There are education requirements associated with any GIS effort. Often, the willingness of a transit system to in"iate a GIS effort can be t raced to the interest and dogge d pu rsu it of one or a few stall members. However, once GIS is introduced into a transit system. the need for a highly technical, highly analytical staff will increase. GIS, with all its attributes, will req ui r e the staff managing it to know how to use these many layers of integrated data to the transit system's advantage. General managers must make sure that GIS efforts inco rporate t he education of all stall to ensure its success. We are just beginning to understand the policy aspects of GIS. This techno logy is pushing d ecis ion makers to look at information and make decisions differently. What is interes ting is how r e lev ant GIS is to three of the major developments that are driv ing tran sit today: establishing links between transportation and land use, responding t o customers, and giving employees more responsib ility A few years ago, APT A's "Transit 2000" task force called on transit agencies to become managers of mobility. Transit's success in taking on the broader miss ion will depen d on its ability to use GIS, other computer-b ased techno logies, and integrated databases. With these too ls we can success fully manage mob ility in ways that benefit our economy, our environment, and the overall quality of life in our communities. fromdincs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 29


30 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit


William E. Wiggins Transportation Program Specialist, Office of Mobility Innovation, Federal Transit Administration The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is making progress in its efforts to develop a National Trans i t Geographic Information System ( GIS). In 1994 FTA launched a t hree-year effort t o c r eate a National Transit GIS. FTA's efforts in creating the Nat iona l Transit GIS have fully supported the development of a GIS-based nati onal transportation system for transit routes as a service layer e l ement of a National Spatial Data Base Infrastructure (NSOI) FTA's development of a national inventory of transit data bases will be available to the indus try w ith basic route in forma t ion. This information will consist of data on the fixed guideway and fixed bus route t ransrt n etworks The development of these spatia l data bases will ident ify the geographic locat ion and layout of transrt guideway infrastru ct ure (heavy and light rail systems, commuter rail people movers. inc line d planes, and h ighoccupancy vehicles (HOV) lanes), transit routes (fixe d bus routes and ferry lines) and inte r modal transfer point s (bus stops, stations ferry terminals). Additionally transit attribute data such as ridership fare revenue miles, and passenger miles will eventually be included in the system. These efforts will be the major compo nents to the FT A's Transit GIS. FTA p ro jects the Trans it GIS woul d offer transit managers the capabil ity to perform peer group analyses and provide policy makers direct and comprehensive data on existing transit i nventories and project and progra m management infor mat i o n. As a management tool, FT A believes that the T ransit GIS woul d augmen t i t s capability in transit p l anning, policy implementation and grant administration. During FTA' s Pha se One development of the T r ansit GIS t he major thrust has been in identifying the public transportation assets of the country. FTA has collected a large volume of that i nforma t ion and has begun the process of creating the data sets t hat came from a va r iety of different formats includ in g paper maps and digital databases maintained by the transrt agencies Also during Phase One, and as part of a na tional outreach effort FT A organized an industry s t eering committee to assist in its developmen t efforts. FTA is also part icipat ing in a numbe r of t ran sit industry conferences and meetings to seek indu s t ry part i cipation and support of the Transit GIS.


In Phase One efforts, FT A collected over 300 fixed route bus systems and completed the first version of the fixed guideway databases. The project has far exceeded the projected output pro ducing GIS databases for more than 2500 bus routes for over 140 transit agencies in the first two months. By July 20, 1995, t rans it bus networks for over 475 transit properties were represented in FTA's Transit GIS. By the end of this fiscal year (Sep tember 30, 1995), FTA expects to have transit bus networks for almost 600 transit agencies. The fixed guideway data bases, which were completed earlier in the year, are being mailed to the industry for comment and review .. When all the databases are comp leted, including the fixed guide ways and transit bus networks they will be provided to the local transit systems for their use. For the first time, all the fixed bus routes of the country will have been converted to a standard digital map based on 1992 Topologically-integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TlGER)ILINE files. There will be a GIS map available for all properties at the scale of the Census TIGER files. This will act as a base product that local agencies can "customize" further. The data could be offered in digital format. For the first time a transit GIS inventory has been completed. agencies with and without bus route GIS databases have been i den tified. The types of GIS software being used and the nature of GIS applications being adopted at various agencies around the country are being identified and disseminated through this project. As that information becomes available, across the nation, transit properties will know, learn and benefit from each experiences in terms of GIS imple mentation. FT A has used its GIS for a number of applications, including preparing maps on natura l and man-made disasters that impact public transportation. It has also used its GIS to make national analysis of transit assistance and review compliance issues associated with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. FT A has recently used the GIS to review the location of a number of demon stration sites to determine their proximity to other Federal assistance initiatives. In the area of transit planning, FT A is planning more integrated use of GIS. FTA efforts in GIS have been designed to create a comprehensive, national inventory of public transit. This effort has also sought to put some identity on the mass web of public transit assets that exist and contr ibute to our national transportation infrastructure. GIS technology, a rather new tool, is proving to be an asset in transportation operations and planning. FTA's goal is to further its use and benefit to the transit industry 32 Procmlints of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Overview of GIS in Transit by William Ball Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida Significant potential ex ists for the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in public t ransp ortation. Some transit agencies and transportation planning organizations have become extremely active in the use of GIS ; however, the more active users have been typically within the largest transit systems and metropolitan planning organiza tions Smaller planning organizations have been less likely to invest the resources necessary to establish a GIS that i s adequate enough to resuH in significant benefits. This is p r imarily due to the fact that, in the past, the resources necessary to initiate and mainta in a GIS system were rather sign ifi cant. Only in recent years has the technology progressed to the point where basic GIS funct ion s and applications have b ecome more affordable for smaller agencies The creation of geographic databases for areas served by public transit can significantly enhance the transit planning capabilities of loca l transit systems, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and other planning organizations. Potential benefits in c lude cost savings resulting from increased efficiency in performing transit plan ning and analy sis, increased precision in planning activities, the ability to assess the feasibility of more service alternatives, quicker respons e t ime for assessing the implications of service design and frequencies, more and better customer infor ma tion for existing and potential pa t rons and the ability to communicate the re sults in a format that can be readily understood by the public and decision makers among others. This presentation is based on a project conducted for the Florida Department of Transportation and was conceived to summarize and advance the state of the art in the use of GIS for enhancing the capa bi lities in t ransit planning and operations. Four major objectives were identified, including:


to identify uses for GIS in public transportation to compile an inventory of transportat ion -related GIS systems. databases and applicat ions in Florida to document uses of G IS in transit through literature review, survey results. and personal Interviews to develop example uses of GIS that will be shared with transit agencies throughout Florida and the U.S. The results of these efforts were summarized in the conference presentation. Copies of the techni cal report, ''The Use of GIS in Public Transport at ion" (June 1995), also were distributed at the confer ence 34 Prl)(etdinp of a (onferen

National Transit GIS Survey Results by Larry Harman L.j Harman Consulting In 1995 the Federal Tra nsit Administration (FTA} conducted a survey of GIS use in transit by transit agencies and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in the United States. The survey built up on a p revious study conducted in 1991. The objective of the survey was to inventory t he use of GIS in transit planning a nd operations throughout the nation in four areas : c urrent use of GIS spatial data resources diffusion of GIS technology future plans for implementation The 1995 survey greatly expanded the size of the population from the 1991 survey, but condensed the scope of t he survey to a four-page interview ins t rument. In 1995, 269 entities were contacted, and 202 survey instruments were completed This included 63 completed interviews from the original71 contacts in 199 1 The 1995 survey contacted all transit agencies and MPOs in urban ized areas with a population of 200, 000 or above. In addition 92 transit agencies without GIS were identified in urbanized areas under 200.000 and in non-urbanized areas of the country. Responses t o the question, o oes your agency currently use GIS? were grouped by fleet size (maximum peak hour vehi c les). Nea rly every transit agency (TAl with a very la rge fleet (500 and above) in dicated that they were using GIS in some fashion. Below that threshold, GIS use dropped markedly. When questioned about fut ure plans for using GIS, the pictu re did not change greatly. Particularly small operators in the below-50-vehicle-fleet category showed near ly universal avoid ance of GIS techno logy Given the GIS products on the market in early 1995 their cost, skill level requirements, and supporting GIS data sets it is easy to suggest why the GIS products have not penetrated the small bus o perato r mari

The sources of street data used by both the transit agencies and the MPOs show a great re lia nce on the Bureau of Census's TIGER line files although the r e i s a clear indication of both TAs and MPOs l o ok ing to other sources for s t reet data. The diffusion of GIS products into the t ransit plann ing market shows no domination of one vendor at this time Clearly, ARC/INFO has a stronger presence in the MPO market, and TransCAD has a strong presence in the transit agency ma r ke t. Map Info sales have been equa lly strong i n both markets However the numbers are too small, and too many product improvements are coming out in this highly competitive GIS market to make any far-reaching judgement about vendor preferences from this survey. 36 froatdinti of a Conference on GIS in Transit


GIS as an AID to Transit Planning from Vermont to Puerto Rico by james Wens/ey Mulcisystems, Inc. GIS has become an important analysis tool for transit p lanning both for small and large transit systems and for a variety of modes and services. GIS aids analysis with graphical displays of information including demographic and transit route ridership characteristics shown in conju nct ion with familiar map displays of the city and its roadways. In addition to graphical displays GIS aids analysis by computing demographic characteristics for varying sizes of buffer areas around transit routes and stops. GIS aids in presentation of complex information for policymakers and the public because it is able to simultaneously show geographic location color and symbols to illus trate relationships. The presentation included a variety of examples of GIS used in a series of transit p lanning studies throughout the U.S. All examples were produced using TransCAD 3.0. The examples included displays of census data done to aid service planning for small transit properties and examples of displays produced for major studies of fixed route services in San Juan and Cleveland and a study of alternative downtown rail terminals in New York. The New York example showed the use of Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) data to examine origins and destinations of work trips to Manhattan. An example from Boston Illustrated the ability of GIS to access external data, in this case a database of survey results, and display travel patterns. Several examples f rom San Juan showed transit ridership data for route segments and stops on an accurate geographic display of one or more routes The ability of GIS to aid in corridor planning studies was shown by examples of simultaneous displays of transit routes alongside the precise loca tions of major traffic generators or demographic data. Buffer areas of varying sizes then i llustrate the locat ions within specified distances of transit. Finally, an example was shown of the use of GIS to generate transportation net works for demand modeling purposes. froceedingsol a Conference on GIS in Transit 3 7


Planning San Diegos Transit Systems Using GIS by Linda Culp & julie jamarta SANDAG The San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) is the regional planning agency and the Metropolitan P lann ing Organization for the San Diego region. A major emphasis at SANDAG is to assist t he region's t ransit operators in their planning and marl

Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authoritys Bus Stop Inventory by Dennis Hinebaugh Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida The purpose of this project was to develop a bus stop inventory database file to assist PSTA in responding to customer inqu ir ies regarding the amenities and configuration of particular bus stops, and to aid in identify ing ADA eligible bus trips. The first phase of the project inc l uded the collection of data at approx i mately 8,000 bus stops along 55 routes. Thi s inventory included the co llec tion of the following data: 1. Location cross street distance from intersection nearside, midblock farside designation 2. Distance between stops 3. Routes served by stop 4. Roadway characteristics 5. Bus Stop amenities 6. Pedestrian amenities The pro ject also included the entering of the bus stop data into a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. and the geocod ing of bus stop location and route level data (headway span of service) into Maplnfo. The bus sto p inventory data was also attached to the Maplnfo file for easy access to the data while viewing the stop locat ion. Using Maplnfo, bus route alignment and U.S. Census data were combined to show service area coverage Title VI requiremen ts, ADA requirements for service area and a combination of elderly, low income, and zero-auto household data to show census tracts with a high propensity to use transit services. Other potential uses of the database and graphical representation include collec tion of Section 15 data, and the sorting of bus stop data by polit i cal jurisdiction. fromdinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit 39


An Enterprise GIS Database Design forT ran sit Applications by Zhongren Peng, Ph.D. Center for Urban Studies Portland State University jonathan N. Groff 7i"i-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon Portland, Oregon Kenneth}. Dueker, Ph.D. Center for Urban Studies Portland State University Some advanced applications of GIS are emerging i n the t r ansit industry, such as automat i c trip planning, paratransit scheduling, and rea l -time bus dispatch and contro l Traditional project-oriented GIS databases that focus on ind i vidual applicat i ons are redundant and incons i s t ent. As more app li cations prospe r in various departments of an agency, an institutional effort i s needed to develop an integrative enterprise GIS to meet end-use r requirements. Although transit networl

Use of FTA's National GIS Transit Database for Guideway Transit Demand Analysis by Young-Kyun Lee, Ph.D. L. David Shen, Ph.D. Fang Zhao, Ph.D. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Florida International University The Federal Trans i t Admin i stration ( FTA) is conducting an ongo ing, three-year pro j ect to deve lo p a Nationa l GIS Database The Nationa l Transit GIS enables immedia t e access of guideway inventory and selec t ed data on fixed gui deway transit facilit i es. Currently, the Lehman Center for Transportation Research ( L CTR) at the F l orida Inte rnat ional University (FlU) in Miami. Florida is conducting a project to study demog r aphic i mpact on urban guideway transit demand. We use TIGER/Line files from the U.S. Census Bu r eau, 1990 nati onal census data, and FT A's pre l iminary National GIS transit database w i th TransCAD running on a m i crocomputer Geographic boundar i es of the census tracts are extracted from the TIGER/Line files, and demographic and socio-econom i c data are ext r acted from the census data on CD-ROM, while spatia l information of gui deway t ransit stations are provided by FTA s da t abase. In our paper, we present the current sta tus of LCTR's project and discuss the hands-on experience with the preliminary FTA national transit database. We a l so discuss the wish lists for FTA's National Transit GIS proje c t. Pt()(ttdints of a Conference on GIS in Transit 41


Case Studies of GIS in Action: Minnesota's Guidestar Project by 1'1elanie Braun 1'1innesota Department of Transportation Travlink is a one-year pu b lic transportation federa l operationa l test that began in December 1994 It uses Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD), Automatic Vehi cle Location (A Vl), G lobal Positioning System (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to track 80 of the Metropolitan Counc il Transit Operat i ons (MCTO) fleet of 800 buses This is of great benefit to MCTO opera t ions and planning efforts For Trav/ink it allows real-time schedule information and other traffic and transit information to be shared with commuters. This is done through electronic signs computer monitors, inte r active touch-screen kiosks and an on-l i ne system for use in homes or offices. Part of the test i ncludes recruiting severa l hundred commuters from Twin CHies western suburbs to use the on l i ne system 42 Proceeding! of a Conference on G I S in Transit


Case Studies of GIS in Action: Combining Fixed Route Customer lnformation,Trip Planning, and Paratransit Scheduling by john Attanucci Hultisystems, Inc. Multisystems, Inc. has recently deve l oped and i mplemented an integrated Customer lnformat i onfT r ip Plann i ng, Parat r ansit Management and Schedul i ng, and GIS appl i cation package for the Greater Cleve l and Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA) Based on a fu ll -featured t r ansportat ion GIS, this system i s the first fully -i ntegrated applicat ion i n the trans i t i ndustry to combine paratransit/ADA serv i ce manage m ent with fixed -r oute telephone-based customer information w i thin a common modifiable GIS environment. The Cleveland package was developed using the newest release of TransCAD -a Microsoft Windows vers i on designed to allow th i rd part i es to use it as a develop ment platform for building transportat ion GtS-based applications The vast majority of the applicat ion was developed using TransCAD s "macro" programming language, which provides developers and even users the ability to customize user screens, set-up new push button icons and dialog boxes, and produce reports using standard Windows application conventions. The paratransit!ADA service management module was put i nto full production use at GCRTA in Septembe r 1995 while the customer trip planning database was being input for daily use in early 1996. The paratransit schedul i ng system allows a reservationist to automatically schedule a "dual mode" trip (a fixed route linehaul trip with paratransit feeder and distribution services) to more economically serve long crosstown ADA-eligible trips Theoret i cally, the comb i nation of fixed-route customer information with ADA reservat ions and scheduling could allow the telephone i n formation/ reservationist staffs to be combined within a transit agency. TransCAD can also be used by an agency's transit planning staff to assist in service planning, ridership analysis thematic displays and is ideally suited for demographic analysis of service corridors This GIS too l can a l so be used by various departments within the agency to track bus stop locations and amenit i es produce custom marketing mater i als, prov ide inte r nal and externa l performance monitoring analyses and serve as a base map for an automatic veh i c l e location system. This next gener at ion of GIS-based products represents a major leap forward in transit i nformation technology. Promdints of a Conference on GIS in Transit 43


Case Studies of GIS in Action: GIS in Transit: Applications and Lessons Learned by joe Hagge Beverly Ward Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida The use of geographically referenced data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transporta tion p l anning has undergone rapid expansion. This growth has been facilitated by the computer hardware and software technological advances that p l ace the use of geographically referenced data at the convenience of virtually anyone with a persona l computer. This proliferation of the use of geographically referenced data to conduct t r ansportation analyses may be accompanied by a limited perception of the constraints associated w i th developing geographic ana l ytical systems suitable for transportation plann i ng A better understand ing of these constra i nts i s paramount to the optima l use of such systems. GIS allows transportation professiona l s to view data in ways not previously possib l e Viewing GIS as simply a new tool, however, is not appropriate. GIS is quickly becoming a way of thinking in a spat i al and temporal manner which was not possible in the past. Although GIS does represent data graphically, using such systems simply provides graphic informa t i on is an inefficient use of time The distinction between geographically referenced data and geo graphic information systems is used to draw attention to a common practice of using geographic (geo-graphies) images. Geograph i c information systems have been described as "specialized computer and software des i gned to capture, integrate, analyze synthesize, and present geograph i cally referenced data The true value of GIS is to be found in its capabilities of capturing, integrat ing, analyzing, and synthesizing data in a spatia l context The GIS operations of the Center for Urban Transportat ion Research (CUTR) are developing at a brisk pace. At last count, there were 17 billable projects that involved significant GIS applications The benefrts of spatial data analyses include the capability of planners to view and analyze data in relation to the landscape over which it occurs By making modifications to queries, the same data can be viewed in different measures of space, such as census tracts, traffic analysis zones, MPO planning zones, or other divisions Through the simultaneous use of multiple layers of data different data sets can be compared while using different d i visions of space Layering a l so make it possible to explore time and space relationships of data sets. Considerable tradeoffs between time, accu racy and future utility of these applications have been made during the life of these projects. The current applications of GIS in transportation can be compared to that of early word processing. In the move from typewriters to computers word processing was viewed as a more effic i ent means of automating the writing process. Few users today speak of using computers to simply "type." Even the term "word processing" i s being displaced by such terms as "word smithing" and "desktop 44 Proceedings of a Conference on G I S in Transit


publishing." It is the capabilit i es of computer hardware and software applications that allow the user to manipulate w ritten words in a manner that exceeds mere automation Shoshana Zuboff. in In the Age of the Smart Machine. refers to this process as informating." Likewise. the capab ilit ies of GIS have expanded both how we l earn and what we are l earning. This paper will discuss the GIS lesso ns learned at CUTR a t r ansportat i o n research i nstitute. as related to the various a p plicat i ons. Inheren t in this learning process are several informa tion manage m ent implications that will be of in te rest to o the r GIS users and other practit i oners who are involved in datai ntens ive research and appl i cations. 1Ken Kinsey end Uti Avi n "GIS in Action, Urban Land. Mardl1992 p 18. 'Shoshana Zul>off. In /he Age of /he Small Machine. Procettfings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 45


Case Studies of GIS in Action: MARTAs Intelligent Transportation System: A Showcase for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games by Wayne Sarasua Robert Awuah-Baffour Diana Estrada William Bachman Georgia Institute of Technology The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) has contracted with a number of consult ants to implement an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The purpose of this system is to create a showcase of technology which will be in place in time for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games and to leave with MARTA a legacy which will improve performance and increase ridership in the long term. The project focuses on putting in place at MARTA three areas of technology: 1) Advanced Traveler Information Systems that provide an automated means of assisting MARTA patrons with travel information, 2) Automatic Vehicle Location/Monitoring (AVUA VM) for tracking bus positions in real-time, and 3) an interface with Georgia DOTs Advanced Transportation Management System (ATMS) so that up-to-date traffic and r oad condition informat ion can be made available to MARTA. This presentation will describe the activities that have taken place to date in the p lanning design, and implementation of the MARTA ITS. Particular emphasis will be given to the GIS role on this project which is to provide support to the customer service appl ica tion. The benefits of using GIS in this capacity will be addressed. Discussion on how Global Positioning System technology is being used in the development of the bus stop inventory will be provided 46 froceedinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Case Studies of GIS in Action: Using GIS to Identify Locations with the Greatest Potential for Increased Transit Ridership by Victor Henry Baltimore Metropolitan Council Stuart Sirota Maryland Mass Transit Administration Our paper presents how GIS was used i n support of a marketing initi ative to incr ease ridership on the Centra l light Rai l line in Baltimore, Marylan d. The primary objective of the i nitiative was to develop a marketing strategy that identifie d geographic locat ions in which to target market i ng efforts G I S was ide n tified as an ideal tool to perform spatial analysis and y i eld the desired resuHs. The analys i s was performe d by importing severa l exist ing data sources into the G I S These data sources included passenger survey data, census d ata, and l o cal demographic forecasts. Ulti m ately the GIS was used to i solate i n di vidual transportation ana l ysis zones that contained the greatest pote n tial for new ridership. GIS a l so created dramat i c color-thematic maps used to present the fin dings of the study to senior management. Proceedings of a Confe rence on GIS in Transit 4 7


ISTEA Management Systems: Logical Modelling by james Tucker Graphic Data Systems Corporation The lnte rmoda l Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) underscored the need for applying new technology to transportation decision support systems Recognizing the urgency imposed by the legislatio n Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDSC) has developed an approach that provides for the timely development and implementation of integrated business models for the IS TEA management systems: bridge, pavement sa1ety, public transportation intennodal, and congestion (traffic monitoring is also inc luded) Wrth the business models in place, transportation managers can develop work plans to meet the ISTEA requirements-work plans that eliminate redundancy and inefficiency and that recognize the in tegrat ion requirements implied by the legislation. The business models are developed through a rigorous and systematic review of the processes and data currently used within the agency using time-proven tools and techniques of logical modeling. Challenges The challenges facing the agencies are many and include the following: Meeting the ISTEA Management System's deadlines Having open database, GIS. and management systems without compromising accountability of persons responsible for each system area. Establishing criteria for infrastructure investment. Being responsive to citizens: urban and rural transportation needs Providing old and new employees with system "ownership" Obtaining funding and financing for systems implementation The Business Model The key to effective analysis is the building of a logical model of a system that meets the users' requirements and that takes into consideration the systems currently in place. This logical model, plus a statement of objectives and constraints. makes up a statement of requirements. The value of such a statement is that it expresses what the systems will be required to do without preclud ing how the systems should be physically implemented. Due to the simplicity of the visual presentation, the logica l model also provides non-technical users with an overall understanding of the system and how the various components fit together. This paper describes the process of log i ca l modeling and workplan development for IS TEA require ments. 48 Promdin;s of a Conferen

The GIS/ISTEA Pooled Fund Study: An Approach to Transportation Planning by David R Fletcher Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. Thomas Henderson New Hexico State Highway and Transportation Department juan Espinoza, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories The GIS T Pooled Fund Study was in i tiated in November. 1993 to prov ide an i ntegrated, modally unbiased and jurisdictiona ll y neutra l approach to meet i ng the requirements of t h e 1991 / n termodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) for management systems metropolitan plann i ng, and statewide planning. This was to be done within the context of GIS. The first phase of the study produced an informat ion architecture that ach i eves this objective and goes beyond simply the tSTEA requirements to include the entire ente r p r ise of transportation planning. The second phase moved a port ion of that In t o analys i s and prelim i nary design using object-oriented modelling techniques. The final phase will produce a variety of demonstrations simu l ations, and implementa tions, including incorporat ion of the information defined by the study into an actual strategic plan fo r one department o f transportat i on. The study is sponsored by 40 states the District of Columbia and nine private sector firms or consortiums. New Mex i co serves as the l ead state The private sector s p onsors have playe d a key role by prov i ding review and input during the study and by adapting the resulting a r ch i tecture to their own products and serv i ces for demonstration purposes An exhibition to demonstrate the use of the study results by both the public and p r i v ate sectors were held in conjunction the American Associat ion of State Highway Transportation Officia l s (AASHTO) Annual Meeting in Norfo l k Virginia October 28-31, 1995. Procmlingsol a Conference on GIS in Transit 49


Dynamic Visualization of Network Flow in GIS-T by Young-Kyun Lee, Ph.D. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Florida International University Sang-Ki Hong Department of Geography The Ohio State University An enormous amount of roa d network flow data are generated from various sources on a dai ly basis under urban settings. Where there is a movement of people and goods flow data are produced, and these flows occur through a series of nodes and links. The direction and the volume of these flows have great impact on the spatial organization of the places where the movements are taking p lace. Public transit vehicles, with the exception of those running on exclusive right-of-way, share the same roadway network with private automobiles and their operation is affected by network conditions. However, real-world networks consist of hundreds o r thousands of nodes and links. This inherent complexity and the sheer volume of data make it very difficult to analyze and understand the pro cesses behind these network flows. For a large data-set such as network flow on urban streets, visualizing various characteristics of the data has been regarded as one of the most efficient ways to explain and explore the data. The need for visualization leads us to the relatively new a rea of dynamic visualization, which is a rapidly developing field aided by the explosive growth in computer technology and the recognition of human ability to process visual i nformation Effective visualization tools can benefit transportation engineers who are concerned with the network flows as a resuH of modeling procedures. We present how dynamic visualization can be implemente d for network flow data on urban streets 50 Procetdinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Issues and Applications for Large Transit Systems Brenda Claybrook Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) The paper presented at the conference, GIS in Transit at Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), gives a general description of transit appl i cations that can benefit from the use of GIS technology both as a standard operating platform and also as a management tool for analysis Applications that are currently supported and/or in development at DART are detailed along with guidelines for develop.. ment. Graph i c and non-graphic data elements are discussed. along with sources for various data sets, data collection processes, maintenance of data sets and data integrity and credibility The need for standards (data and transfer) and the difficult i es encountered when working with standards are explored, along with the challenges and benefits of implement ing GIS in a transit environment. For additional information, refer to the DART case study in the Case Studies section of these proceedings. William L. Green Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission Philadelphia, Pennsylvania GIS offers an expanded opportunity to consider a number of important variables i n planning transit service and routes Traditionally, popu lation density has been most widely relied upon to suggest that an area i s "transit friendly," and, thus likely to have sufficient ridership to justify the service. This logic better served planners when employment and commercial destination were more predictably concentrated in relatively few areas. Current spatial disbursement of both employment and commercial activity to an increasing number of suburban centers suggests consideration of additional variables such as land use, employment and commercial center locations and joumey-to-wori< data. Such analysis of multiple, spatially-oriented variables is idea lly suited to GIS technology. GIS allows ready, super-imposition of existing and proposed transit service on land use to see if routes conveniently serve less dense but larger suburban res idential areas. Combining this view with the location of employmenVcommercial centers and commuting patterns from journey-to-work data helps determine the answer to this quest i on: Is the transit service accessible, and does it serve common and/or multiple rider destinations? While the results of such analysis will vary in different parts of the county, clearly future transit service plann ing will need to better consider the spatial realignment of employmenVcommercial activity as well as less dense suburban r esident i al locations. GIS is idea l and will l ikely become the transit planne(s new "best friend." frumdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 51


Nancy Neuerburg Seattle Metro The follow in g are reproductions of the slides used by Ms Neuerburg i n her p rese ntation King County Metro Transit Transit Service & Facilities Service area = 2 128 square miles 200+ routes 33 cities 2,500 route miles Service area population = 1.6 million 40 million annual vehicle miles To tal active fleet= 1 ,141 9,000+ bus stops Annual ridership= 71.6 million 1,200 bus shelters 90 park-and-ride tots Non-Transit Service GIS History at Metro Vanpool van in service = 530 1982In-house G IS developmen t Vanpool ridership= 2 7 million 1990 Obtained funding for new Ridematch applicants = 9,000 efforts Paratransit ridership= 480,000 1991 -Reg. street map update project 1991 -GIS feasibility needs assess. 1992 GIS alternatives analysis 1993-5 Core GIS built 1995+ Addit i onal usre appl i cations 52 Procmfinrsof a Conference on GIS in Transit


GIS Development Phases Obtain funding Needs Assess. Alternative Analysis I m plementation 8 mths 6 m ths. 9 m ths 24 mths $60,000 $250,000 $2 000,000 TOTAL 42 mths $2,320,000 Key GIS Application Areas Plann ing Examples Ridership Travel time Park-and-Ride lot usage Employer employee locat ion s Survey r esults Census/demographics Facil"ies and right -o f -way Organizational Issues Educationa l clients and decision makers Costs/benefits I nternal and external support Effective project management structure Issues that Drive a Need for GIS Widespread use of geog raphic in f o rma tion in t rans i t Redundant data management Inefficiencies due to multip l e systems Higher Expectations for quality visuals and ana lyses Meeting new requirements cost-effective e.g ADA Key GIS Application Areas Operations and Maintenance Examples Mileage track ing Vehicle tracking Operator driving Instruct ions Security incidents Accident l ocations Organizational Issues: Strong internal and external alliances and support Regional and internal data sharing Create cos t savings Create political successes Create "win" for all participants Proctedints of a Conference on GIS in Transit 53


Organizational Issues: Effective project management structure Business client representative Information systems tech nical project manager Balanced business and technical needs C rea te "win" for all participants Technical Issues: Good, cost-effective design Data can be maintained by most "vested" user Underlying network can be improved without impacting attributes and appli cations Top 10 Success Factors Educated clients and decision makers Clear rationale for i nvesting in GIS Strong internal and external allianaces and support Effective project management structure Common v isio n 54 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit Technical Issues Large data sets Data conversion Link to street network Design trade-offs Systems Integration Desktop set-ups Acceptance and Maintenance Issues Al i gnment of cli ent and development team visions Agreement on test plans and acceptance criteria User interfaces and training Coordination o f data maintenance Top 10 Success Factors Effective project planning and management Good, cost-effective design Training (developers. O&M staff, users) Communication and integrity Have fun!


Issues and Applications for Medium Transit Systems Linda Dowling City of Albuquerque 7iansit and Parking Department The City of Albuquerque Transit and Parking Departmen t has joined with the Sandia National Labora tories (SNL) through the federal earmarking of funds, to use SNL's hazardous material tracking GIS software as the basis for a full function, client-sensitive tool for the city's paratransit services The technical interest of this project is the great advance of technology expected as GIS-T is com bined with the exotic dispatch and scheduling environment of a rapidly-growing paratransit function of the City. Paratransit, the door-to-door pickup and delivery of impaired individuals is the mandate of the Americans with D isabi lities Act (ADA). While commercial software tools exist, none have been identified to be simultaneously sensitive to ADA requirements and user-friendly The further scope of this project is to utilize these maps and city travel information to feed fixed-route deviated scheduling and ADA-authorized main streaming of paratransit clients. Expectations of the next phase include offering a neighborhood circulator system, w ithout regard to ADA eligibility, as a fixed-route feeder system. The project has a short-term emphasis, with completion slated for May, 1996. Successful comple t ion should lead to future fund ing for more advanced, customer-accessible GIS for travelers in New Mexico and reaching out into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) corridor. jack Reilly Capital District Transportation Authority Albany, New York In early 1995, the Capital District Transportation Authority in itia ted a GIS project in cooperation with the New York State Department ofTransportation the Capital District Transportation Committee, the region's metropolitan planning organization, and the Capital District Regional Planning Commission. The objectives of the project were to support a number of policy marketing, and operations planning functions at the agency. Further the system was intended to compliment a number of other perfor mance measurement systems used at the agency including ride check software and the use of farebox data. The project is partitioned into three phases. The first phase is data collection. In this task, we have created three databases. The first database is a bus stop database that includes a number of characteristics of each of our 4,000 bus stops, including location, routes that serve the stop, etc. We have prepared a route database tha t inc ludes characteristics of our routes such as span and fromdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 55


frequency of service and perfo rmance measures such as revenue to cost ratio. This dataset also includes the key generators on the route. Fina ll y we have a database of census data that i ncludes a number of individual and househo l d characteristics of each of about 500 traffic ana lysis zones in the transit district. This activity i s nearly complete The second phase is data di splay. We propose to d isp l ay the perfonmance attributes of our r outes on maps and boarding and alighting data by stop. Our objective i s to develop traffic flow maps comparable to those used by h i ghway planners . Further we expect to develop a number of the matic maps showing key demographic variables of each of the traffic analys i s zones. F o r the third and final phase we wish to use GIS t o support the deve lo pment of a number of social performance measurements of our transit system including the percent of househo lds w ith access to the transit system. the percent able to access a regional shopping mall, etc. T his activity will d rive the deve lo pment of serv ice standa rd s for the transit system and assist in the development of a marketing plan. The expected duration of this project is about one year 56 Promdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Issues and Applications for Small and Rural Transit Systems Boyd Thompson ARC Transit Palatka, Florida ARC Transit's AVL pro jec t was funded by the Florida Department of Transportation in May, 1994 with $40,937 in state Service Development funds Fourteen (14) vehicle modules. the AVL base station and several vehicle radios were purchased with the grant. Management Analysts in Ormond Beach, F lori da served as contractor with Hyperdyne of Alexandria, Virginia and Canyon Development Group of Tucson Arizona subcontracted to Management Analysts The system consists of an onboard credit card reader, digital odometer, GPS receive r and radio interface. Data is t ransm itted from the vehicle's radio to the transportation systems base station where it is received by the base PC 486 computer. Voice and data share the same channel. In Florida Medicaid recipients are issued a credit card identification. This card is scanned into the reade r by the driver at the time that the Medicaid passenger boards and exists the vehicle. As a result time, passenger identification number, vehicle number, la t i tude, longitude, and odometer reading are transmitted to the base computer. This data is then automatically collated in the billing computer with trip records manually edited, and then transmitted on-line to Medicaid 's fiscal agent. For the use of dispatch, real-time position of the vehicle is acquired by the base station's automated poling of the vehicle roster. Every three seconds the base computer and ra dio query the next vehicle on the roster to determine its location. In response, time. vehicle number latitude longitude. and odometer reading are transmitted f rom the vehicle to the base computer and map displayed on the monitor. Development of the system remained in the test phase through August, 1995. All project test objec tives were met, and as of September, 1995, the system is being phased into operational use. The GPS/card reader make it possible to monitor the duplication of vehicle time and mileage within a system This level of duplication rela tes directly to the efficiency of passenger loading. By allowing for the correction of a system's performance figures to a standard m.p.h., cost a llocation enables comparisons between urban and rural and between service formats. Thi s makes possible to accurately state what a given time and mileage should cost. If we know that we have achieved the highest possible passenger loadings in conjunction with the lowest possible vehicle costs we know that the service delivery system is at peak efficiency; we know that we have achieved coordination. Promi/ingJ of a Conference on GIS in Transit 57


David Gionet Bloomington Public Transit Corporation The B l oomington (Indiana) Public Transportation Corpo r at ion opera t es two services, Bloom i ngton Trans i t fixed route bus service and BT Access demand response service for persons wit h d i sabi li ties B l oom i ngton is located in s outh central Ind i ana and is a regional gove r nment indust r ial, and service center for the area. The city one of the fastest growing in the midwest, has a popu l ation of 62,000 year-round r esidents, and is home t o I nd i ana University one of the largest i n the country, with 35,000 students and more than 7,000 facu lty and staff. Bloomington Transit operates a fleet of 19 buses and provides about 600,000 miles of service per year. The system will provide a liHie more than a million passenger trips i n 1995. BT Access is operated using four vans and will provide about 18,000 trips th i s yea r to the system s 500 registered users The BPTC is managed by McDonald Transit Associates Inc headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas Indiana University also operates a bus serv i ce serving campus locations and Monroe a n d Owen counties operate a third transit n etwork to provide rides into the city from surrounding areas. Be tween the three operations, more passenger trips are made by local transit in B l oomington each year than in any other city in Indiana except Ind i anapolis. Over the past several years, the C ity of Bloomington, in combination with Monroe County and Indi ana Univers i ty, has devel oped a GIS database for the City and a fringe immedia t ely outside the City's boundaries. The City chose Genimap software for developing the layers of data for its streets, parks, utilities zoning, and a host of other areas In add i tion the system was designed to accom modate layers of data to be developed by the private sector, inc l uding such entities as telephone, electric, gas, and cable utilit ies. And of course the City made available access to the GIS for loca l public services such as the BPTC Traditionally most transit planning for the urbanized area has been performed by BPTC staff by a means of a pass through agreement with the local MPO fo r Federal Transit Administration 49 U S .C. 5303 (Section 8) planning funds In 1994, the BPTC added a GIS development element to that agreement. It was the idea of the BPTC staff tha t customer information accuracy could be measurabl y improved if bus schedule information were available by pointing at a bus stop on a computer ized map instead of looking up key time points i n a timetable and est i mating the e l apsed time to that s t reet corner or stop Additionally, such a system would drastically reduce training time for those new staff giving customer information over the phone Or, more to the point, at B l oomington Transit where a lot o f job sharing t a kes place, it would allow anyone the ability to answer a scheduling question wit h precision In the fall of 1994 the BPTC hired an Indiana University graduate student to digitize the system s fixed bus routes First the bus routes were mapped out in color coded fashion. Then. BPTC staff develojled Microsoft Excel spreadsheets in which to code the bus stop and schedule data Each street corner was named in a fash ion to be recognized by Gen i map and schedu led bus pickup t i mes at each stop were figured to the minute throughout the entire day. Formulas were used where possible. Data fields were then transcribed via ASCII text file, and a user friendly menu system was des i gned. 58 ProceedinjJ ol a Conference on GIS in Transit


I n the meant ime, hardwa re specs were developed tor the new system. Because of cost and l oca tion constraints the system would stand atone (and not be connected to the City of Bloomington's GIS network). The system o perates on a Hewlett Packard 715 UN I X computer. Upda t es t o the underly i ng map laye r are simply transferred f r om tape. Updates to the Bloomington T rans i t applica ti on are done directly at the dedicated workstation. The resu lt was i mpressive. Users can look up a l ocation by add r ess. i ntersection. subdiv i sion. major build ing name. or by poin t and click Once zoomed in on the user clicks on a node at the intersect i on, in d ic ates bus ro ute d ir ection desired and is p resente d with a list of all schedu led times for that route and d ir ection to the exact m i nute. If desired, the user can then p r in t a "persona li zed" bus schedule for the customer. Additionally, the user can te ll the customer ex actly how far t h e bus stop is f rom their dwelli ng, r ight down to the nearest foot. other applications the system is used for indude the ability to query by specific address, whether that address is within the i ncorpo rated city and therefore within the BPTC's service district. This i s important, because BT Access t rips mus t be limite d to the district. Also in development i s an application using the GIS for inve ntory of bus stop s igns, shelters and ot her "street and a permanen t home for passenger count data by bus stop In addition entry of scheduling data for the three bus systems is in deve l opment allowing for a central telephone information serv i ce with a cost sharing arrangement. Future uses also include easing transit r oute planning by using census and zoning data a lr eady encoded and the addit ion at some point of a real-time AVL system t o further improve the accuracy of customer information The cost to date of the entire system. including hardware. software licensing, software maintenance fee and the labor cost for system deve l opment is about $12,000 fflxmlints of a Conference on GIS in Tran1it 59


Transit CEOs' Panel Discussion: Next Steps in GIS In a panel discussion moderated by Walt Kulyk of the FT A's Office of Mobility Enhancement, execu tives of four transit agencies shared their views on the next steps needed to move GIS forward in the industry. Panelists included Richard Simonetta Chairman of the American Public Transit Associa tion (APTA), and General Manger MetropolrtanAtlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA); Paul Skoutelas, Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer, LYNX, Central Florida; Michael Townes Executive Director, Peninsula Transportation District, Hampton, Virginia ; and Nancy Neuerberg representing Paul Toliver, Director, Transportation Department, Seattle Metro. Simonetta placed GIS within the context of a transit system's decision-making needs. He noted that the industry has made great technological strides in the past 25 years and that GIS will allow to provide even better service in the future. He drew upon his experience at MARTA to show ways GIS can help the general manager set the organization's direction, ensure that staff members understand the agencies goals and provide support to achieve those goals. Simonetta talked about the role GIS plays in MARTA s strategic plan to show how new technology can benefit a transit agency. He described how GIS and Intelligent Transportation Systems can support each of the five major initiatives contained in the strategic plan: Customer orientation can be enhanced by using GIS to provide a database for understanding user travel behavior and desires. This informa tion allows the agency to be more responsive to changing traveler needs. As part of outreach and education efforts to community leaders and groups, in corporat in g data into GIS and using other visuals can aid MARTA's transit advocacy initiative The incorporation of GIS and ITS technology into the agency can contribute to employee development, lead to better understanding of agency operations strengthen skills, and improve productivity. Continuous quality improvement can benefit from GIS monitoring of system elements ident ifying weaknesses and taking follow up action to provide better service. By being fo cused, data collected from GIS can help ensure that MARTA is on target. GIS can play a role in business management by enabling policy boards to do a better job Better reports produced in a timely manner can help decision-makers Townes also noted that system planning and monitoring has changed dramatically over the past 25 years and that GIS and APTS are two technologies that hold the promise of great benefits. The unique and rapid analysis capabilities of GIS are very useful to the genera l manager in deal ing with situations as they develop. He cited the importance of carrying out a cost-benefit analysis before implementing GIS or APTS systems. At Pentran, GIS has hastened the response time to custom ers who call in for route and schedule information ; improved scheduling of paratransit vehicles, which has increased the number of rides available to potential users; and enhanced analysis of demographic characteristics for planning and for service revisions and adjustments. He also stated 60 Procedints of a Conference on GIS in Transit


that Pentran is exploring the possibility of using GJS/GPS rea l time data at informa t ion kiosks located at transfer centers. Townes stressed that there is a need for standards to guide the impl ementa t ion of GIS and that smaller systems i n particular, need guidance on GIS hardware and software. He cited the fast paced change of GIS technology as being a major concern. Echoing Simonetta Townes said that if GIS is to be a useful manage ment tool, it must help transit systems meet customer needs, serve as an advocate for t rans it, and provide for continuous quality improvemen t, particularly in li gh t of recent budget cuts. Skoutelas stated that the transit industry has approached GIS and AVL with some skepticism having been affected by previous wrong decis ions on new technology. He also said that his system. lYNX, has perceived GIS as an in tegral part of their vision for the future. A major thrust of this vision is the devel opment of a co mprehensive transportation system for the three -county area lYNX serves (Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties), whereby lYNX would be both a provider and coordinator of serv ices includ i ng bus and rail transit paratransit. ridesharing, vanpooling, and perh aps even taxi and private charter vehicles. Skoutelas addressed the question of how GIS contributes to the mission of his agency. He believes that the improved system performance will help ensure tha t lYNX is perceived as an important community asset. One of the planned uses of GIS/ITS i s to provide real-time customer information based upon an AVL system He fu rther explained that he perceives GIS as contributing to the agency's three major strategies: targeting and developing market niches ; being non-traditional in designing and marketing services; and changing others' percep t ions of lYNX. Neuerberg, who coordinates GIS operations for Seattle Metro. suggested that new and innovative strategies need to be explored. Incorporating GIS technology into route simulation for training of bus drivers was one example she discussed. Another example was combining AVL and GIS to monitor on-time performance information for operations management and for transit center displays of schedules and rea l-time information for customers. The panelists poin ted out that board members and the public may resist change. However as GIS, ITS and other techno logi es improve service delivery and demonstrate benefrts that justify invest men t, greater acceptance will, and has, resulted. Interest in and support for, these technologies is growing. Financial lim ita t ions create the biggest resi stance to incorporating GIS into transit o pera t ions The general managers stressed that inves t men t i n GIS must be explained as a way to enhance service; improve cost-effectiveness; and contribute to better air quality, economic develop ment, and overall quality of urban life of a Conference on GIS in Transit 61


Conference Wrap-Up The conference concluded with brief comments from three of the original convenors : Walt Kulyk of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA); Larry Harman formerly with EGG Oynatrend and now an independent consultant; and Ron Sheck, Senior Research Associate and lntermodal and Guideway Research Program Manager at the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR). Kulyk, who has led FTA's effort to build the National Transit GIS database, congratulated CUTR on ho lding an outstanding conference that resulted from a combination of good organization, quality of participants. and an atmosphere that encouraged an interchange of information, ideas and view points. Kulyk gave a federal perspective on several important points: The importance of "getting a handle" on standa rds, including common agreement on terms and data collected. The incredible strides vendors have made in the last year in develop ing software products or the industry. The need for us to encourage vendors to talk with each other and to meet the indus try's needs. The need for better exchange of information among members of the transit in dustry to share the very innovative things they are doing, not just in the area of GIS, but of other APTS technologies. Continuous dialog is crucial to the improvement of our industry. The need for feedback and input on the National Transit GIS. When those in the industry help, we are better able to help you as an industry. There is a need to work together to develop a plan for maintaining this system. Larry Harman presented a pracmioner's perspective and raised these points: Ethics of the user and truthfulness emerge as issues to be balanced with a good, clear, concise presentation that is essential for senior managers and board members Information must not be misrepresented. It is difficult to balance how much information is needed with limitations of budget and resources. Over 80 percent of the cost of using GIS is in getting data A real challenge to our industry is to show we can improve and acquire data at a reasonable cost. We have new and powerful tools that are very user friend ly We must be aware of the danger of people using them without fully understanding or being trained in information systems or geography. We need to educate users on the proper use and misuse of these tools. 62 Procetdints of a Conference on GIS in


In the last decade, we have seen a re-invention of transit as a more cus tomer-focused business and GIS has been a helpful tool in achieving that. The National GIS survey has revealed that the l eading application of GIS is in customer information, and vendors are providing us with tools for doing that. Ron Sheck made these observa t ions from a conference co-chairman perspective: We need to continuously examine how we can use GIS most effectively to meet the customer's needs. As guest speaker Michael Dobson said, "the bottom line for the t ransit industry is getting the riders where they want to go." Sheck stressed that strategic alliances are critical to the success of GIS: Internal strategic a lliances One is between the p la nn ing, customer infor mation/marketing, and operations areas. Another is the technology alliance between GIS, AVL. and GPS. External strategic alliance -One is between the transit agency and other transit agencies or transportation p rovi ders, including intercity rail and bus, specialized transporta tion local taxi oper ators, etc. Another is with community planning agencies such as MPOs, oors, cities, counties, special districts, etc In forming alliances think strategically about how you ally yourselves by theme organization, and technology. Always involve the vendor Sheck concluded by raising the question, ''Where do we go from here?" He stated that there has been significant interest in follow-up activity to the conference, perha p s another conference an organization to cont i nue the dialog, or other possibilities Sheck urged conference participants to share their thoughts and ideas for continuing an open dialogue on GIS in Transit with him or Walt Kulyk at FT A. Procmlings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 63


64 PriXeetfings of a on GIS in Transi t


6 6 Proem/inti of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Case Studies ofT ransit Systems Using GIS Significant potential exists for the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in planning, operations, and analysis. Some transportation organizations have become extremely active in the use of GIS; however, the more active users have been typically within the l argest transit systems and planning organizations Smaller organizations have been less likely to invest the resources necessary to establish a GIS that will result in significant benefits. This is primarily due to t h e fact that, in the past. the resources necessary to and maintain a GIS system were rather s i gnificant. Only in recent years has the techno l ogy prog ressed to th e point where basic GIS funct ions and applications have become more affordable for the smaller agencies. The creation of geographic databases for areas served by public transit can sign ifi cantly enhance the capabilities of locallransit systems metropolitan p lan ning organizations (MPOs) and other planning organizations Potential benefits include cost savings resulting from increased efficiency in performing transit planning and analysis, increased precision in planning activities. the ability to assess the of more service alternatives quicker response time for assessing the implic ations of service design and frequencies, and th e ability to communicate the results in a format understandable by the public, and decisionmakers. and others This techn ical report was prepared to present a series of case studies of transrt systems that have implemented a geographic i nformation system Many transit systems in the United States are using GIS currently and much can be learned from their imp le mentation experiences as well as from the various applications for which their GIS is used. The case stud ie s are presented for several transit systems and were selected to cover a r ange of system sizes. A brief d iscussion of GIS implementation issues is presented prio r to the case studies. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES GIS, as it is understood, today was init iated in the early to mid-1960s with the Canadian Geographic Information System an d with systems developed by the United Kingdom Experimental Cartography Unit. Comme rcia l turnkey systems began emerging in the 1 g8os w ith the development of the software Arc/Info by the Environmental Syslems Research Institute (ESR I) The first version of Arc/Info was re lea sed in 1982.1 The use of G I S has grown substanlia lly in the 1980s and 1990s and is used commonly today in the public and p r ivate sector throughout the world. This is reflected i n the 1994 GIS Industry Survey conducted by GIS World. Organizations from around the world responded to the survey, resulting in the i dentification of four hundred and e ight y GIS products and service providers' Significant g r owth in this industry will undoubtedly continue into the next century. 'Woodr ow W. Ntchols. Jr. "GIS-T i n Tra n&it P laMino and Management" North Caroli na : Southeastt r n Trensportation Center The U nivenity of North Carolina Institute for Research and E ducation. May 1994), p. 5 world. GIS INorld Souteebook 1995. 6th Edition (Novtcmber 1994 ) p. 23 PrtXfflfinp of a Conferen

It is important to put into perspective many of the i ssues associated with GIS implementation The i mplementat i on of a GIS i s a s i gnificant commitment for any organizat i on and i s considered a costly. long-term undertaking. 3 This was particula rl y true i n the earty development of the techno l ogy when G I S products were expensive and their benefrts somewhat uncerta in; however. as the technology continues to evolve the cost of acquiring operat ing, and mainta i ning a GIS i s declin ing, and the qual ity and user-friend li ness of t he products are improving. A s a result what may have required a substantial investment and not been affordable only five y ears ago may be affordable to many of these same organizations today. Not only is It now affordable, GIS technology including software, hardware. data integ r ation and training has evolve d to contribute further to t he feasibility of GIS Imp l emen tat ion The affordabili ty of a GIS does not necessa rily make the i mplementation process an easy one A s indi ca t ed previous ly the decisio n to impl ement a GIS is a subs tant ia l commitment. not just from a monetary perspective. The G I S implementation literature is in agreement regarding one of the most important i n gredients to successfu l implementation-the need for support from all levels within an organization espec i ally from management. In addi t ion. success i s usua lly dependent upon a single person who leads the charge i n the development of the system I mplementation failures are usually a result of people prob l ems and seldom a result of techno log ica l problems The message is clear. Even though GIS is fas t becoming an affordable option for even the smallest organizations a gencies contemplating GIS i nvestments should proceed with cauti on I t i s recommended that organizations develop a strategic plan for the development of a GIS prior to I nvesting in the technology. This plan may i nclude coordinating efforts with other a gencies I n the area to enable the sharing of databases and other resources. It m ay be appro priate to seek outside assistance in the earty stages of implementation to ensu re that the organizat ion has a sufficient understanding of relevant issues and applications However, it is Important that employees of the organization play an integral role in the p l a nn ing and development of the system so they can carry on the effo rts once the outside assistance is no lon ger avai la b le. Some skepticism may persist in many organizations regarding the significance of GIS benefits in transportation planning. This skepticism may stem from a belief t h at GIS does not add anythi n g new to the p l anning process that was not already handled in some other way in the past. Some even suggest tha t using GIS to perform certa i n t asks may t ake even longer than it did previously s i nce I t provides opportunities to produce more than is really needed to accomplish ce rtain objec t ives. If a t all possibl e this skepticism should be addressed prior to implementation This might be accompl i shed through a more formal feasibi lity assessment of a GIS progr a m, includi ng both quali tative and quantitative analyses As is often the case when i mplementing new technolog ies. the agency pursuing GIS should have i nformed understand ing of the cost and benefits, realistic expectations an appre ciation of the uncertainty sound motions for pursuing the change and a willingness to objectively assess and modify the p rogr a m direction if necessary This Is by no means a comprehensive discussion of GIS imple mentation iss u es. The intent i s to id entify many of the i mportant i ssue s t o serve as backgro und prio r to the case studies of G I S impl emen tat io n/appl ic ation in trans i t systems in th e United States. "Sien ArOf'lotf, lnfomuttion Systems.: A MaMgemttt (Onawa ontario. ca nada: liVDL Publications. 1989), p 259. 'lvonolf p. 249 6 8 fr()(ttt/inrs ol a Conference on GIS i n Transit


mEGION OF TRANSIT SYSTEMS FOR CASE STUDIES Based on the p rel i minary results of a recent survey of t ransit systems rega r ding their use of GIS, several transit systems were selected to serve as case s tudi es in this technica l report. The primary criteria for the selection of systems included the following: Active GIS Users The inventory of t ransit systems that indica te having and are using a GIS was reviewed. Fro m this l i st the more active users were iden t ified a nd considered for se l ection as a case study site. System Size The second criterion was used to ensure that the case studies includ ed transit systems representing each of three system size categories, including the 50-200 vehicle category. 201-500 vehic l e category and the over-500 vehicle category. METHODOlOGY Methods for obtaining case study informati o n followed a three-step procedure: I nterview potential participants. Obtain written information pertaining to GIS implemen tation. Present draft copy of prepared materials for partici pants t o edit a n d re t urn. Interviews An attempt was made to co ntact at least two transit systems from each vehicle size ca teg ory of active GIS users. Transit system participants were selected for phone interviews based on the following criteria, listed in order of importance: Transit systems known to have written materials documenting their GIS implementation process i.e. a needs assessment. Geographically dispersed transit systems If a metropolitan area had more than one transit authority, p reference was given to the system with the mos t vehicles operated in maximu m service Subsequent t o contact with the l argest auth o r ity, preferen ce was then given to another metropolitan area. The phone in terviews served two pur pos es: Identified the person(s) most knowledgeable about the GIS system and its implementation history Identified which transit agencies had a GIS system sufficiently implemented to support a case study. A secondary survey form was used to record responses to severa l quest io ns including: Describe the history of your GIS system implementation. Describe the benefits and obs ta cles encountered with your GIS system i mplementat io n. How have your GIS demands been met? What l essons have you l earned regarding system implementation? Procm/inp of a Conference on GIS in Transit 69


Obtain Written Information When documentation was available materials were requested Respondents with recent written documentation were included In this report. Respondents without documentation but with a sufficiently implem en ted GIS system we re also se l ected as case studies. A "sufficiently Implemented' system is defined, for t he purposes of this report, as be i ng at l east partially functioning. However, because the purpose of selecting case studies was to determine what problems and pitfalls were encountered during implementation, preference was given to systems that were tully functional Present Haterials for Editing Finally, acquired information (phone and written ) was compiled and returned to the case study participants for editing and additions This helped insu re greater accuracy and filled gaps inh erent In phone and written sources Selection of case studies was further refined at the GIS in Transit Conference (August 13-15 1995) In Tampa, Florida. Because w ritten documentation of system implementatior) in small agencies was scarce, the conference provided an opportunity to examine at least one small agency 's experiences in greater depth Table 1 lists the transit systems selected as case stud i es for th i s techn i ca l report The case studies are organized into eight major sections: Overview of Transit System Overview of GIS at Transit System Hardwar e and Software Platform Spatial Data Resources Current GIS Applicatrons Benefits of GIS and Obst ac l es to Implementat ion G I S Implementat ion Str a t eg i es Lessons Lea rned 7 0 fromdinp of a Confmnct on GIS i n Transit


Table 1 TRANSIT SYSTEMS SEL EC TED FO R CASE STUD I ES System Name C ategOI}' Contact f o f Vehicles K ing County Metro Muni c i pa l ity of Large wayn e W atana b e 959 Metro p o lita n Seatt l e Los An g e l e s Co un ty Metropolitan Trans Large Paul Burke 1 ,964 A u thority San D i ego A ssoci ation of Governments La rg e Linda Culp N I A Dallas Area Rapid T ransit L arge Brenda Claybroo k 842 Milwau kee County T r ans it S y ste m M edium G r eta G n e iser 425 Michae l V e bber Capita l District Transportation Authority M edium Thomas Gugisbe r g 201 (Al bany T roy Sch en ectady ) Bloomington P ublic T ranspo rtation Small D a vi d G ion et 19 Corporat i o n (Bi o omin glon. Indiana ) La ura Hale y Johnso n City T r a n s i t ( J ohnso n C i ty, Sma ll G r egory A. Plumb 11 Tennessee) Don Kiel Proawlinrs of a Confmnc e on GIS i n Transit 71


K ing County Metro Transit Municipal ity of Metropol i tan S e at t le OVERVIEW OF KING COUNTY METRO King County Metro in Seattle is one of the most active users of GIS among transit agencies In the United States Over a three year per iod, Metro has invested nearly $2. 5 million in capital expenses to develop a core GIS over three years The system was completed in mid-1995. In addit ion, an estimated $225,000 is planned for GIS operating expenses in 1996. Thi s case study illustrates a comprehensive implementation of a GIS. Table 2 SERVICE AREA AND TRANSIT SYSTE M CHARACTERISTICS Servic e A rea Characteristics Service Area 2,128 square miles Service Area Population 1 6 minion Ci1ies 33 Service Charaeterla11ca Total Active Fleet 1,141 Annual Ridership 71. 6 million Routes 200+ Route M iles 2 ,500 Annual Vehicle M i tes 40 milfJOn Number of Bus Stops 10 000 Bus Shelters 1,200 Park-and-Ride Lots 90 Non Transit Service Vanpool Vans in Service 530 Vanpoot Ride rship 2 7 million R i dematch App lic ants 9 000 Paratransit Ridership 480,000 Soot Wt n W1tana"De I le W. Y o menmg a Succe&sf\11 Ttlntll GIS. t9Q$APrA Computtfn {Seatue: King County Motto 7 2 frttl!ints of a Confmn

OVERVIEW OF GIS AT K I N G COUNTY HHRO S i nce 1982 King County Me tro has been developing and using an i n-house GIS called TransGeo As of July 1992 TransGeo continued to be a critica l feeder system to Metro s Automatic Passenger Counte r system ARIS/BUSTIME. Commuter Information System Mileage M a i ntenance System and the Rad i o Automatic Vehicle System. A l though it served its purpose TransGeo had several m ajor s hortcomings First it lac ked m any of the basic features ava il able in commercial GIS packages now on the market. Second, it was not a user-friend ly software program. and, as a result, widespread use of the system wa s not possible due to the lack of skilled staff. Third with only a few terminals ava ilable to access the so ftware and only one user could use the interactive element of the software at a t ime Fourth, accessi bility was a l so a problem ; it w as difficult to upgrade and mai nta i n TransGe o to remain compatible with o ther systems that have been upgraded throughout the agency A brief history of GIS at M etro is presented in Table 3 Table 3 G IS HISTORY AT METRO 1982 In-house GIS developed (Tran sGeo ) 1990 Oblained funding for next efforts 1991 Regional slteetmap update project 1991 GIS feaslbllil}'/needs assessment 1 992 G I S allernatlves anal ysis 1993-95 G I S implemented .. wayne W21ahabe, 'lmplemenbrlg Suoutslul Ttintlt G I S 19$5APTA Ccthpunn CCnft!WQ cSt.etut King MeW TransiQ. In 1991, Kin g County M etro initi a t ed a GIS project to assess the GIS needs of the agency conduct an analysis of ahernative GIS impl eme ntation strategies assess the of implementing a GIS i n terms of costs and benems and devise an implementat ion plan shoul d a change i n the current GIS program be recommended A GIS project team was established to carry out this project A user needs assessment was conducted for several reasons inclu d in g: to establish a basic understand ing of the capabilities and limitations of a G I S to summarize the current GIS environment at Met ro to es t ablish the potential app l ication s for a G IS. to Ident ify major issue s i nvolving the applicat ion o f GIS at Metro Prorttlfinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 73


Ultimately. the objective was to determ ine whether G I S had appropriate applications i n the day-to day business needs of Metro The answer to th i s question was positive. Geograph i c information is used widely and frequently throughout the agency to support many diverse needs Once the need for a GIS system was clearly justified, an alternatives analysis for the imp l ementation of GIS al Metro was initiated Three alternatives were presented : Alternative #1 Do Nothing : In this alternative status quo would be maintained at Metro with geographic needs being met primarily by TransGeo Although this alternative is referred to as "do no th ing minor improvements would be necessary to meet the requir eme nts of ex i sting geographica l funct i ons A l ternative #2 M i nimum Buy/Customize : Under this alternative Metro would acqu i re a commercial GIS software and customize the basic functions to meet the more important needs of the agency. A minimum core" set of functions would be identified and Incl uded in this alternative to meet Metro's basic GIS business needs and to serve as a foundation for furthe r GIS development. Alternative #3 -Full Buy/Customize: Similar to Alternative #2, Metro wou ld purchase a commercial GIS software and would then customize the funct i ons that are needed to meet Metro s most important business needs However i n addition to the core functions and data i ncluded in alternative #2, this aHemalive seeks to be more exhaus tive in the deve l opment of customized a ppl i cations and databases Based on the results of the User Needs Assessment. the GIS team identified the minimum functional requirements and data that wou l d be necessary to meet Metro's basic GIS business needs. and would serve as a foundation for further GIS development. The team recommended the Implementation of a GIS with these minimum functional requirements in t he form of Anemative #2 Minimum Buy/Customize The remainder of this case study Is devoted to describing Alternative #2 since it is currently in the process of being implemented HARDWARE AHD SOFTWARE PLATFORM Hardware -The GIS i nfrastructure is illustrated in Fogure 1 a nd the 1995 GIS hardware network is illus trated in Figure 2. Table 4 indicates the number of display devices and peripherals that are currently available, as well as the number of new devices required under the alternative being Implemented. 7 4 PrffllingJ or a Confmnce on GIS in Transit


Di s play Devi ces Worlutattoas F igure 1 GIS INFRASTRUCTURE AT KING COUNTY METRO Infrastructure Peripherals Pro4udion Computer Environment 'DIM'S CISI>m -sower Mttto. ot Anatrlt aM lnfOm'lation Systems PIOjeQ PNMI Study, p 32. Promtfinrs of a Confmn

Figu r e 2 1995 GIS HARDWARE NETWORK NOTE: Shading indi&<>tes e:risting hardware I N F O Llll I R M A T I 0 Llrcll N s y T R A N s I T s T E M s Sys. Suppon .. S&CSwo. 'IEi' Prod.& w p c D T E c H s E R v I c E s F & p E X E "' 3 . T I v E Souroe: Metro. Municlpalr.y or Me"JOf)Oiita:n Sntue Anat,'si & and Recommendation: Geog(39hie lnfonnation Sys!ems Ptojec1 Phase I Feas ibilify p 3-4. 7 6 ftl)(etr/inp of a Conferell(e on GIS in Transi t


Table4 DISPLAY DEVICES AND PERIPHERALS Device Numb&r Personal 50 (20 with x -emulat ion) Computer Xt e rmina l 2 Wor k statio n 2 Plo tte r i n k let 1 Plotter 1 electrostatic Digitizing Tablet 1 . $rN!i'OI 1 Projlca Phase I Fea:s.tilily S!OO'y; p. 33. Hardware Configuration -The hardware configuration i s summarized in Table 5 and includes references t o the host server, desktop access, hard copy output, and user access phasing. Host Server Desktop Access Hard Copy Output Feas4:111ilY Stvdy, p A-2. T a b l e 5 S U MMA RY OF HAR D WARE CO N FIGU RATION Sy s t e m b egan w ith an existing I SO d eve l opm ent mac h ine (DEC 5500) wit h data being store d on a 6 gigaby t e storage device T his was upgraded to a production server wit h capacity to support GIS and other Acoess to the GIS is available through PCS Macs X-terminals and workstations connected to a Wide Area Network (WAN ) and Loca l Area Networks Core data and applica tions are ava i lable from desktop access point NorKOre data are with authorization. One electrostat i c plotter and two inkjet p lott ers are connected to the GIS These plotters can be accessed through the WAN/LAN network. local site printing also Is available where prin ter and/or a re available Software -No commercial GIS packages a re capable of meeting all of Metro's needs as currently available However. the software select i on process concluded that ESRI's Arc/Info software could best be adapted to meet the GIS needs of Metro. Arc/Info i s a high-end GIS with approximately PfD(ttdifltS of a umference on GIS in Tram it 77


6,000 separate commands w i thin seven separate modules. Using Arc/Info in its raw form woul d require an extensive training effort As a result, one of the goa l s of the system was to develop a powerful but s imple graphical user interface (GUI). This was acc omplished using ArcView, a product that provides user-friendly query display and mappi ng capab i li ties for the more common G I S needs. Table 6 illustrates the current software configuration. The estimated cost of th i s alternative is summarized in Tabl e 7. Table 6 CURRENT SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION 1995 Software Licenses Numbe r ArC/I nfo float ing seat li cense 1 Arc/Info Nodel ocked l i censes 12 ArcView l icenses 45 ArC/Info Tin license 1 Arc/ I nfo Grid license 1 Arcllnfo COGO l i cense 1 Arc/Info Networl< license 1 ArcCAD l i cense 1 lngres l i censes 3 Geocod ing package 1 X-emulation packages 20 Netware packages 50 co: Me1ro. MuniCipality of man SNrlle . 7 8 Proceedinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Table 7 ESTI MATE D PROJECT BUDGET Component of GIS FTEs 3 /93. J/94 31945 Total Capital 1995+ Capital Capital Operating HARD WARE OesJctop Aceess $ 162.000 s 18,000 $ 178 .000 $20.000 Ma in Host D isk and Memory 43,000 476,000 519,000 70,000 Pk>tter 60,000 7 000 67,000 7 ,000 TOTAL HARD WARE 265 ,000 499,000 764 ,000 97,000 SOFTWAR E Software licenses 94,000 23.000 1 17 ,000 17,000 PCNemorl< 6,000 6.000 12,000 3,000 TO T A L SOFTWARE 100,000 29,000 20.000 STAF F LABOR Transi1 G I S Coord inato r 1 .00 70.000 70,000 140 ,000 WPCD GIS Coord inator 0.25 1 8 ,000 17 ,000 35,000 ISO GIS Project Manager 1 .00 70,000 70,000 140,000 G IS Analysts: 3 .00 1 9 8.000 198,000 396.000 66,000 GIS Techtlici a n 1 .00 56,000 56,000 112.000 56,000 Client Trans it 0.25 1 8 ,000 17,000 35,000 TOTAL STAFF LABOR 6 .50 430,000 42 8,000 858, 000 122,000 SYS TEM SUPPORT Database Consulting 12,000 6,000 18,000 Arc/Info Contrac1or 60,000 60,000 1 20,000 Quality Assurance/Security 14,000 14,000 OoeumentationfTeehSupport 30, 000 3 0,000 60.000 G I S Consu/ling 35,000 35,000 70,000 TOTAL SYSTEM SUPPORT 152 000 131 ,000 282 ,000 TRAVEL/T RAI N ING Training Classes 20.000 40,000 60.000 Confl!ret'tGe$/Site Visits 12 .000 12.000 24,000 7 ,000 TOTAL TRAVEL/TRAI N I N G 32,000 52,000 64,000 7,000 TOTAL IAATERJALS 16,000 5,000 21,000 10,000 ISO OVERH EAD CHARGES 42,000 42,000 84,000 CONTINGENCY 110%1 104,000 116,000 220,000 TOTAL $1 140,000 $1,302,000 $2,442,000' $256,000" .. AcltJiltJII)ei'ICIIIlJf n 1995 was $2,010 000 ACCtlllxpen

SPATIAl DATA RESOURCES As i ndicated previously. a minimum core data set was identified that would meet the basic business needs of Metro. The core data set can be placed into three primary categories i ncluding Agency Core Data Transit Core Data, and (WPCD) Water Pollution Control Division Core Data. The first two categories are summarized in Figures 3 and 4. The WPCD Core Data is excluded since it is not directly related to transit. Non-core data items also were identified but not inc l uded in the base system proposa l. F i gure 3 AGENCY CORE DATA AND SOURCES Ce>uus Places -1990Censusirat:ts 1990Census/O.U.o-graphic In.fon:na.tion Shortlines -Street Network S ..... Ad

Figure 4 TRANSIT CORE OATA AND SOURCES Bus Stop!./ZoMJ (re\'enuc only) -Bus Stop Sheltt u ..,ployu sa ... Park & Ridt Lots Route Footp rints ( revenue. schooL clcadhead) Tilnepoints Tilnepoint lnWdwlp (T'Pb) Data Tn.nsit Core Data -Bus !Udonl>ip O.ta WPCDCort Data Da t a Bus Operating 0.... CommuteTrip Rn Law Zon.s & Rid!! Lot D&ta 1 -Riid< Free Ana Boundary TtoNlt C.Oten T..,Uoy Ovc:lwtod Tutwhnd Stadono Acddmts Sourct Of MC11Qp01ilan Seii:ISII AIIIIn'ti!lvtl and lnfonn;,tion Sy-tWm& Proj.ect Pl'last I FtJSitlility $t.ady : p 35. Prffllings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 81


82 CURRENT GIS APPliCATIONS Man y applications were i dentified in the feasibility study as user needs that could be met using the Metro Core GIS. These app lications are summari zed in a series of categories, each of wh ich is listed below along with examples of applications that are included in each category Capital planning and development Display park-and-ride data against service patterns, volumes, and passenger volumes. Service p l anning Produce maps of selected service areas and display route proposals; display informa t ion related to ri ders h i p demand such as popu l ation employment travel patterns popula ti on and employment densities Market development D i splay employer sites aga i ns t available transportatio n services and information such as transit service, park-and-ride etc. ; display and analyze demographic, census data etc. Accessible services Geocode ADA applicant addresses and perform location re lated analysis. Coach and facilllies maintenance Provide route patterns maintenance (track mileage by vehicle and route). Sales and customer services Use geocoding t o create customer mailing lists for routeleve l market ing. Research and market strategy Create displays and other test materia l s for focus groups ; geococle responden t s o ri g i ns and des ti nations to aeate a travel pattern database Transit operations C r ea t e qu ick i nformat i on maps/guides for operators to hel p answe r customer questions : provide timely and accurate maps for trainers and operators Risk, safety, and securityDisplay and analyze accident locations by various attributes Communications and community relations Use GIS to convey informa t ion to deo i sionmakers and general public. Regional trans i t project Calculate coverage of service against population (show what percentage of population in a subarea is w ithin 1/4 mile of a bus route, calculate how much of a route's length i s within a subarea). Environmental p l anning Display env i ronmental elements such as t r ansit r outes sewer / storm systems : d i sp lay environmen t a l elements such as rivers t akes bays hous ing patterns etc. OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION Several observations w ere offere d by King County M etro regarding potential obs tacles to Implementation. These are identified below according to technical and organizational problems that may hinder the implementation process. Technical Obstacles Software U mitations Individuals respons i ble for i mplementing a G I S s h o ul d alWays be cognizant that every software has its l i mitations K ing County Metro discovered li mitations with Arc/Info t hat rela t e to the ability to handle a long continuous set of li nks and nodes, which are necessary for many of the transit routes that run throughout the service area. Metro is working directly with Arc/Info to remedy this problem. Street Network M aintenance The street netwo rk In a GIS must be maintained over t ime frffllinrs of a Confmnct o n GIS i n Tram i t


to ensure that applications are developed using an accurate base network Determining who i s responsible for this ma i ntenance can be a significant obstacle to implement ing a GIS. Currently King County Metro is handling mai ntenance for the base network w hich gives them control over the proce ss but a lso burdens t hem with the cost of mai ntenance Consistent Rnancial Support Met ro believes they are fortunate in t hat they have had sign ificant and consistent funding to establish the i r GIS However, this also was a result of significant efforts by staff to sell the benefits of GIS throughout the agency Data Integration and Convers i on Issues The process of integrating and /or converting data into a GIS is arduous and time-<:onsuming and can p resent a significant obstacle in the implementation process. One standard might be to assume that a task will almost always ta k e four times longer than anticipated originally. Organizational Obstacles Desire for Quantifiable Benefits There is a t endency for man agement and decisionmak ers to want the benefits of GIS quantified and compared against the costs to determine if an investment in GIS is worthwh i le Metro suggests that this shou l d not be done since too many of the benefrts cannot be quantified Their approach was to present the costs identify what they will get for this investment and then ask management if they want these capabilities "Scope Creep Factor"-An important element of developing and G I S is sharing evidence of progress throughout the implementation process with management and decisionmakers. This will likely keep them interested in the GIS project and will maintain support for the effort in the future However, this a lso can result in what is termed the scope creep' factor Efforts made to show progress along the way often w ill result in the expansion of the origina l scope to meet new demand s and Inc lude new elements. This w ill likely contribute to the project effort falling behind schedule a nd o ve r budget. GIS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES I n a recent presentation by Wayne Watanabe of King County Metro, the top ten success factors for the Implementat ion of a transit GIS were identified from the perspective of Metro T ransit. Each of these factors is identified and discussed below Educaud Clients and Decisionmaken An extens ive education process was conducted with clients and decisionmakers re garding GIS uses and capabilities The process took approximately four months and included over 50 formal presentations In addition to this effo rt providing the foundation for conducting the future GIS needs assessment, it also helped "se ll" the GIS to i ndividuals throughout the organization. Clear R a tionale for Investing in GIS A convinci ng argument must be made to justify investmen t in a GIS In part i cular decision makers must be sufficient l y sold on the idea to garner support for the development of a GIS, as well as for ongoing operations and maintenance associated with a G IS. This will likely require significant emphasis on the intangible benefits of a GIS. This confirms the need for some type of needs assessment and an objective cons i derat ion of alternative GIS investments PrtXfflfinrs of a Confere.nce on GIS in Transit 83


Strong Internal and External Alliances Coo pera ti on and coordin a tion a mong and w i t h i n agencies i n a regi on will cont ri bute to sharing resources and data This can potentia l ly result i n cost s a vings po l itical successes and a win wi n s i tua ti on for all agencies participating in such a cooperat i ve arrangement. Elfe

los Ange les County Metropolitan Transit Authority The los Angeles County M etro politan T ran sit Authority (lACMTA ) is the l argest transit s ystem examined in the >500 vehicl e c at egory. However, unlik e Se attle and Dallas. the lACMTA jus\ recen tly began implementation of its GIS system Although hardware implementati on began in 1991. GIS app l icat i ons for transit planning did not beg i n until 1993 I mplementation is ongoing and comp l e t ion is expected in 1 996 The project i s one of the l arges t GIS b ased transportation developmen t i niti a tive s by a metropolitan plann i ng age ncy in th e n a tion It i s howeve r s h a dowed by the South e rn Ca l iforni a Association of Governmen ts (SCAG) ACCESS project wh ich will lin k over 185 cities to the SCAG los Angeles County office un im ately the in tent of the lACMTA pro jec t is t o establish an enterpr i se wide GIS that will link several MTA d epart ments and other agencies OVERVIEW OF TRANSIT SYSTEM Transit system chara ct e ristics for the LACMTA i nclude tw o d i stinct serv i ce types : Contract S erv i ces and Oirecl ty Operated S erv i ces Characteristics o f both service t ypes are outlined i n the f ollowing tables Table 8 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS FOR LACMTA CONTRACT SERVICES service Area ( s q mi) 4 .070 Service Area Populat ion 9 .087,715 Total Fleet 169 Maximum Number o f Vehicles Operated 164 Annual Passenger Miles 11,551.475 Annual Vehicle M ites 3,879.476 Total Annual Operating Expenses 11,353,797 PtHflints of a Confmn

Table 9 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS FOR LACMTA OIRECTL Y OPERA TED SERVICES Sel'llice Area (sq m i ) Service Area Population Total Fleet Maximum Number of Vehi c les Operated Annual Passenger Miles Annual Vehicle Miles Total Annual Operating Expenses f VI/JJ 11/Jitn) OVERVIEW OF GIS AT LOS ANGELES COUNTY METRO History of GIS Implementation 1 ,433 7 154,679 2 ,378 1,964 1 537,778,291 83,98 1 ,460 645,191,746 The evolution of Los Angeles County s GIS system began in two separate agencies : the Southern California Rapid Transit District (RTD) and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission (LACTC). T hese agencies late r merged to form the Los Angeles County Metr opol itan Transportation Authority. Prior to the merger, (1991-1992) t h e LACTC acquired two IBM RS/6000 computers and the RTD acquired a VAA system which included two RISC machines. The LACTC staff focused on map production and spatial queries using pre-existing databases and Arclnfo 5.0. The RTD staff had just started using their GIS to produce maps and some crude analysis when the two agencies merged. Although two discreet systems were acqu ired, the VAX system is used primarily for operat i ons and the IBM system was used for transit planning. The primary VAA application is trans i t operations dispatch in real time, specifically bus schedule tracking and route analysis. A computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system links the GIS with an automatic vehicle system (AVL) for maintaining and updating bus service routes. Although the VAX system is not a true GIS, it supports both a customized real-time system and Arclnfo 5.0. The Arclnfo module is used to update route patterns from the IBM system. The patterns a r e then fed into another application 8 6 Procmfints of a Conference on GIS in Transit


that permits trac k ing of flee t vehicles in real time The AVL system is currently not in use fleelwide Operat i ons (now part of MTA ) plans to begin AVL use on a portion of the fleet by Nove m ber 1995 Orig i nally the LACTC u sed n on-G IS softwa re for tra nsit demand modeling shortest path routing and other trans i t operations Maps were a l so produced but true GIS applications were not performed Needs were iden tified for updating databases and addressing inadequacies of the ex i sting systems. Analysis of these needs justified design, developmen t, and impl ementation of a comprehen s ive GIS I n April, 1993 a merger of the two a genc i es occurred to form the Los Ange l es County M etropolitan Transportatio n Autho r ity Short l y after the merger the p l anning machines were combined into one cluster and several othe r machi nes w ere eventually added. Unix Arclnfo w as acquired for the IB M system which i s primarily dedicated t o rail and high way planning The system uses both Arclnfo and TRANPLAN software on a Token Ring network loca te d at MTA s downtown headquarters. TRANPLAN is used f or transit modeling and Arclnfo is used for GIS analysis of modeled forecast results This case study focuses on the IBM system only. During the first year of implementation, GIS services were ava i lable to severa l groups within LACMTA includ ing Transportat ion Modeling P l ann i ng Scheduling and Oper a t i ons a nd Benefi t/Assessment. However, It was feH t hat expans ion of GIS service was necessary to prov ide more comprehensive se rvice to end users p a rticularly MTA planners (B enefit Assessment) who were not in tim ately familiar with the h igh end software. With this in m i nd desktop mapping s oftware ( ESRI s ArcView1 and l aler ArcView2) was chosen to facilitate easier viewing and ana ly sis of ava ilable spa ti a l datasets t o end users. The Benefit Assessment planners use ArcView to track the pa yment statu s of severa l thousand commercial property owners These property owners are assessed a fee for their anticipated benefit derived from their proximity to the Metrorai l subway This s tag e of Implementat i on is expected to be completed In 1996 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PLATFORH The GIS at LAC MTA consists of a networked (Ethernet) Unix based system that is loosely connected t o the rest of the in-house PC network through a T CP-IP bridge The LAC M TA PC network operates i n a LAN MAN environ ment which connects more than one hundred PCS. The Benefrts Assessment departm e nt has two high-end PCS and plan on using ArcVtew2 for front-end access to GIS databases Full connectivity i s expected to be completed in the near future T w o software packag es were chosen for p l anning applications : TRANPLAN and Arclnfo TRA N PLA N (Urban Analysis Group, Danville, C a lif ) i s used for transpo rta tion model ing and Arclnfo is used for GIS applications. At the t i me of th is writing eight staff members use the system : four full time G I S analysts and the remain ing alternat e be tween Arclnfo and TRANPLAN Prorttllinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 87


Table 1 0 HARDWARE DEV ICES AND PERIPHERALS Device Numbe r Pe r sonal Computer X terminal Workstat i on Plotler i n k j e t P l otler e l ectrostatic Cal comp 68436 Dig i tizing Tab l et Source P ( 1 995). PelsotlalmtMtw. AugUS:t 25, 199$ Tab l e 11 5 2 11 0 1 2 SOFTWARE LICENSES AT LAC M TA Software Licenses Number Arc/ I nfo Node-locked licenses 5 ArcView l i censes (1 U nix, 5 PC expand ing 6 to 8 PCS) A r c/ I nfo Grid li cense 1 A r c/ I nfo Networl< li cense 1 SAS 1 TRANPLAN 1 source Burke. P { 1995) 2 5 19'95. SPATIAL DATA RESOURCES The LACMTA uses a diverse selection of data sources, many of which are modified for G I S use. For thei r basemap, the LACMTA uses a s t ree t network leased f rom Thomas Brothers a mappi ng software vendor based in Calif orn i a. Annual updates and a data d i ctionary are provided as part of the lease contract. Other spatia l data and corresponding sources are listed in the tabl e below. 8 8 Proceerfints of a Conference on G I S in Transit


Table 12 DATA LAYERS AND SOURCES Description Source Par cel Data City Engi neering Admi n is trative Unit Bou nda ries Metropolitan Transportalion A ut hority Census Tracks Thomas Brothers Census Tra nsportation Planning U.S. Department o f Census Package Pol itical Boundaries County Tax Assessor MetroRail Thomas B r ot hers Bus Routes Thomas B r ot hers DIME Files Modeled Networl< Data Ca liforn i a Departmen t of Tran sportation (CaiTrans), SCAG, LACMTA Source. Btne. P. { 1 995). intervHJW, 1 995 Many data source layers used in the LACMTA s GIS are modified versions of exist ing databases Parcel data from the City Engineering department was obtained, post-processed and modified to obtain property u n its. Pa rcels were selected within .25 miles from p lanned red-line stations to calculated assessment charges. Some tots wer e further subdivided to reflect subleases as well as actual properties Bus routes were derived from DIME fi les and modified with tables from RTD s Computerized Customer I nformation System. These routes are main tained by the MTA (Customer I nformation and Operations) and other transit operat o rs. Customer I nforma t ion mai ntains the routes as DIME file derivatives and Operat i ons mai ntains the routes on the Thomas Brothers street basemap. The LACMTA also conducts ridersh i p surveys which are t hematically mapped. Transit patronage data is collected by Operations and is related to the bus files CURRENT GIS APPLICATIONS A Two-Tiered Approach In to an enterprise wide strategy for system imp leme ntation (horizonta l ) the LACMTA also intends on implement ing two (vertical) levels of GIS access The Arclnfo!TRANPLAN marriage will be centra ll y mai ntained a n d ArcView 2 w ill be available to p l anners for access i ng, v i ewing, and analyzing spatial datasets. Procmlings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 89


Th i s case study examines the IBM RS/6000 system and i ts use. As d i scussed earlier, t his sys t em employs TRANPLAN and Arclnfo for transit planning app li cations. T he two packages are li nked with data conversion software provided TRANPLAN. Wrth this link, the modeling team can seam le ssly access bo t h packages from the same workstation Urban Analysis will soon offer TRANPLAN to Arclnfo data conversion rout i nes which will hopefully improve dynam i c linking Arclnfo s spatia l analysis capa bilit ies are used to merge data sources with modeling scenarios in a graphic environment. Transportation zone models are devel o ped Arclnfo and then transferred to TRANPLAN for analysis. The resulting models are fed back into Arclnfo displayed, thematically mapped, and plotted. By l i nking modeled output to the GIS, results such as future road congestion and projected patronage on a proposed subway are easily visualized. When this data is overlaid on other population and demographic data, relationships begin to appear that may otherwise be difficult to extract from text reports Because los Angeles County has serious traffic problems, transportation p l anning has emphasized congestion reduction solutions. This involves obtaining comprehens i ve knowledge of trave l demands i n terms of time, place, and traveler identity. Bus service and light rail systems offer limited re lief Potential solutions are derived from combining transportation modeling information with geographic base maps to chart commuter patterns Analysis is performed in two stages. First, new transportation zones are created from ex i sting models. Second, trip analysis studies are performed within the zone models Minimum zone to zone travel times are displayed and mapped. A number of thematic maps are also created to accommodate requests from other groups the LACMTA These include transit corridor analysis local and regional transporta t ion balanc ing, mobility studies smart signals freeway improvements, bus and rail lines station location and rail analys is, and high-occupancy vehicle (HOY) la ne studies. Individual departments within the LACMTA also use the G I S database For example the Customer Information Services department uses an interactive routing and scheduling tool for responding to customer inquiries When citizens call to get travel info rmation customer service representat i ves visually disp lay route information and can print optimal bus routes and schedules ArcView 2 is currently in lim ited use the Benefrts/Assessments department as a pilot program Within the LACMTA the Benefits/Assessment departmen t is using ArcView 2 for tracking and assessing industrial and commercial properties to support the Metro Rail program This p r oject requires gathering and merging information from multiple departments and agencies including the County Assessor's Office {parcel maps), t he Los Angeles Building and Safety Department and the Department of Engineering (digitized city maps). Because over 12,000 parcels are used, inter agency access capabilities will greatly facilitate efficiency. BENEFITS AND OBSTAClES TO IHPlEHEHTATION los Angeles County has had mixed success with their system implementat ion. Some success was realized with increased mapping efficiency and advances in analysis However, some major obstacles remain for los Angeles County: 9 0 l'rocffllinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Interfacing Interfacing refers to imp rovements in database entry, access, and management. One of the b ig gest remaining challenges is planner access to GIS data. Decision makers need to easily access this information. display it graphically, and perform queries. As ment io ned earlier, a decis i o n was made to acquire ArcView 2 software to this goal. However, implemen tation is slow Obstacles in clude acquiring hardware, network logis t ics, user training and budget cuts. Data Source Compatibility Data source compatibility refers to the challenge of conforming different data source formats to work the GIS system Perhaps the b i ggest obstacle encountered by Los Angeles County was merging the existing proprietary database with the GIS system. Methods for updating the database were antiquated and c lu msy. Demands could be better met with visual references for database entry. This might be accomplished an Arclnfo workstation for database entry personnel. Moreover, t he GIS system needs to be optimized for speed. Avoiding Redundancy Avoiding redundancy is another imp lementat ion challenge. One suggestion is to make an attempt at reusing macros and developing a better database management system. Macro reuse can be part icu larly helpful when plotting maps. Changes and Reductions in Personnel Personnel reduction and turnover is common, part icularly with GIS personnel. The LACMTA has changed consunants three times since imp lementat ion began. The lac k of continuous expertise and training has meant that kee ping the databases updated is a challenge. Sources for updates are not always consistently ava ila b le. The LACMTA would like to work towards developing a GIS that is les s staff dependent. The Benefits/Assessment pilot program demonstrated that implementation o f Arcview2 would be benefici al. However, the current environment requires a network specialist every time a link is necessary for an outside system connection. Other Hindrances Lack of coordination between departments with GIS needs Staff divided between two buildings (soon to be resolved) Multiple management structures for GIS staff and equipment support The Customer Information staff at LACMTA would greatly benefit from a GIS to o l for maintaining route data Curren tly route updates are performed as text edits. This means that staff members need to type in coordinates to define route changes. These coordinates occasiona lly need to be estimated by interpolating between two known coordinates As an enterprise-based GIS, a procedure should of developed at LACMTA to centralize r oute editing and then distribute route updates and delivery schedules in various formats as needed. Pructedinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit 91


GIS IMPLHENTATION STRATEGIES Enttrprist-Widt lmpltmtn13tion The u"i m at e goal at LACMTA is to implement an enterprise-wide GIS system The bigges t benefit of GIS Implementation at this scale will be long range planning des i gned to reduce Los Angeles' dependence on automob il es A 20-year $183 million plan is being outlined for reducing the number of automobiles on County freeways This plan has recently been scaled back to approximately $75 billion This is a cooperative effort among several LACMTA departments induding Capital Planning and Operations Benefrts/Assessment, and Transportation Modeling Anticipating and meeting County-wide transportation demands Is the overall goal Through GIS implementin g each d epartment Is hel ped to understand current and predicted traffic demands and develop w orkab l e a lt ernatives within the framewo r k of the overall plan. GIS is a tool to help facilitate decision making. Because transit data is inherently spatial, geographic analysis is a natural extension of this concept. At LACMTA. the GIS process consists of several parts : centralized data maintenance analysis tools like TRANPLAN and the ability t o test options t o m ake recommendations Through the Mu ltiModa l Planning Department, Area Teams are ass i gned a spec ific reg i on of the Los Angeles County area Each team assesses the transportation status of a particular area and then develops alternative scenarios to resolve specific problems Plan suggestions must include multi-modal elements. Transportation demand studies are also performed by Area Teams. After suggested plans are outlined, the GIS staff maps each plan and ranks its potential success. All current projects are entered into a database analyzed and presented to planne rs with low and high cost alternatives The solutions obtained from the GIS indude a variety of transportation types For example, a low cost alternative may add a traffic signal on an arterial road and a HOV freeway lane A high cost plan may include a rail line Teams meet weekly to evaluate plans for each region in an attempt to form a comprehens ive solution. Because of the immense scale of integration and implementation, a GIS consult in g firm was hired Third Wave Corporation serves as LACMTA's Management Inform ation System ( M IS) department. Development of an enterprise wide GIS depends on coordination between previously in dependent agencies an d sat isfying the needs of end users in each department. Inter-agency coord i nation necessitated the development of a loca l area network with i n LACMTA. and wide area network for ou t side agencies. Implementation of Arcview2 remains a critica l element in enterprise wide implemen tation lESSONS lEARNED The majority of lessons teamed at the LACMTA are generic to information system development However, the larger an operati on becomes the more crucial investment in data management becomes Some general principles shared by the LACMTA GIS staff include: Anticipate needs--Anticipating some needs would have e nhanced the speed and efficiency of implementation For example, anticipation of delays in basemap acquisHion 9 2 Prtttli11fs ol a Conlmnce on GIS in Transit


may have facilitated overall system implementation T hese delays were not necessarily better because the i ssue was who was goi ng to pay for acqu i sition Formalize and review GIS needs regularly-Another recommendation made by LACMTA was to review the needs assessment more frequently Two y ears is perhaps too long for large system i mplementa tion Emphasize software support ..So ftwar e specialis t support for the proprietary database would have better facilitated compatibility with the GIS system. Facilitate inter-agency cooperation-Because the LACMTA f req uent l y relies on City data. an agree me nt on an update schedule wou l d h elp bot h parties. However comp l ication can arise from differences in update needs In clude end-users-The long term GIS plan is to allow more planners to access GIS data. Currently, planners who want GIS data must make requests and physically p i c k up data coverages in disk form GIS imp l ementat i on costs hav e not been formally ca l cu l ated by LACMTA and are difficult to extrapolate However less than $50,000 is attributed to annual GIS ma i ntenance (maintenance for Thomas Brother's p rod ucts, the IBM system Calcomp plotters and Arclnfo l i censes) This figure does not include staff, hardware capital costs. or data a cquisit i on PIU(tt/inrs of a Conftrme on GIS in Transit 93


San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) OVERVIEW Of TRANSIT SYSTfH Trans i t service w i thin the San Diego region is prov i ded by seven fixed route ope r ators who work with SANDAG to coord i nate fares transfers public i nformation and all major pub l ic transportat ion studies for the area. The San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) i s both the regional p l anning agency and the Metropo l itan P l anning Organizat ion for the San Diego region. SANDAG a l so acts as a r egional techn i ca l and informat i onal r esource for 18 incorporated cities and the County of San Diego government. Several divisions operate within SANDAG, including a research d i vis i on. Emphas i s in the research division i s placed on G I S services and the Ass i stance to Operators (ATO ) program. Planning and marketing assistance is provided for trans i t operators in the form of data and technical help. ATO projects include data collection and management, survey research geographic analysis, and transportation modeling Table 13 1994 SERVICE AREA CHARACTERISTICS FOR SAN DIEGO COUNTY Service Area (sq .mi) 4 237 Service Area Population 2.687,987 Source Culp, l ( 1995) OC1ober 11. OVERVIEW OF GIS AT SANDAG SANDAG has been using Arclnfo s i nce 1985, and has deve lo ped an extens i ve co!fection of spatial databases. These include census tracts and blocks, jurisd i ctions freeways local roads. transit routes and stops. A diverse sample of applicat i ons are employed by SANDAG including ridership forecasts, ADA ana l ysis. FTA Title V I requirements transit r i dership volumes, address-match i ng, Short Range Trans i t Plan needs. and demographic analys i s for user-defined areas Transit planning and marketing are key functions of SANDAG's GIS. Regional growth forecasts are compiled for cities and communrties for the years 2000, 2010. and 2015 Databases of population, housing employment estimates crime statistics and land use are maintained and used to produce historical, current and forecasted profiles Transi t operators often request SANDAG GIS staff to integrate and analyze data from these sources to produce a variety of alternatives for the i r specific geographic area. Examp l es include questions about a future light rai l corridor or areas surround i ng particular bus stops 9 4 fromdings of a Conferen

HARDWAR E AHD SOFTWARE P!ATfORH In the tate 1970s SANDAG developed a mainframe-ba sed census data retrieva l program to analyze popul a tion and employment accessi b l e to new transit routes. The program called TRANES (Transi t Network Eval uation Sys tem), was convert ed in th e early 1980s to a short-rang e trans i t p l anning PC application called STOPS STOPS allow ed d irect access tor tran sit operators to de t e r mine popu l at ion and employmen t w i thin walking distance to proposed t r ansit li nes and convert th is Informat ion into t ransit d emand As software sophistication progressed spatia l ana lysis at SA N DAG became centralized Fo r the past ten y ears SANDAG has used ESRI's Arctnfo 6 1 1 product on a No vell network of Uni x workstations. GIS applications at SANDAG have h i sto ricall y used macros developed in Arclnlo' s programming l anguage Arc M acro Language (A M L). SANDAG also uses ERDAS software to provide image processing a nd raster GIS capab ilities : Integration of raster imagety and vector data is provided by ERDAS-Arclnlo Live Link. Add i t i o nal software includes a Fortran compiler, SPSS 3 1 (statis tical analysis) and TRANPLA N (transportation planning software). S i g n i ficant Improvements i n persona l computers have recen tly allowed SANDA G to d ece ntralize some GIS applications SANDAG maintained databa ses are now networked and accessible to transit opera tors The follow ing tables briefly highlight SANDAG' s hardware and softwar e infras tructure Table 14 HARDWARE PERIPHERALS AND DEVICES Device Exlatlng Futur e Minicomp uter 1 0 (Prime 9955 II) Computer 22 0 X -terminal Workstation 10 2 Other Printers (2 HP4si 4 0 1 SPARC, 1 l ine) Plotter I nkjet 2 0 Digitizing Tablet 0 l 1t9S: ...... Procttdinrs of 3 on GIS in Transi t 95


Table 15 SOFTWARE LICENSES AT SANDAG Softwa re L icenses Number Arc/Info floaling seat license 7 Arc/Info Node l ocked licenses 6 ArcV i ew lice nses 1 Arc/Info Tin l icense 1 Arc/Info Grid license 2 Arc/Info COGO license 1 Arc/Info Netwo rk license 7 Geocod in g package (Arclnfo ArcView) X-em u latio n packages(PC Xware) 1 lng r es lice nses 16 Sovrce Culf>.l., {199S) 8, 199$ SPATIAL DATA RESOURCES General Coverages SANDAG collects and maintains a variety of GIS coverages for geographic areas and features, in cluding census tracts jurisd iction al boundaries, special districts freeways local streets, and natural resource areas Coverages fall into five major groups: general use jurisdictional and census tract boundaries), sensitive lands and natural resource coverages specia l districts (fire and sewer) land use coverages (constrained lands). and cross-reference files Table 16 illustrates the variety of data sources used at SANDAG. 9 6 frocmlincs of a Conference on GIS in Transit


Table 16 GENERAL GIS COVERAGES AT SANDAG Descri ption Source Base map DIME (U. S. Cens u s) Road Network DIME (U. S. Cens us) Passenger Counts SANDAG Passenger Counti ng Progra m Public Ow ne rship SANDAG Demographic Data U.S Census Regional Activity Centers Various loca l sources, collected and address-matched by SANDAG Special Districts (Slate Assembly County sources Registrar of Voters, Congressional fire, schoo l, sewer. Department of Pub l ic Works Department of jud icia l wa ter, etc. ) Education Political Boundaries Local Age n cy Fo r ma t iona l Committee Raii!Trolley USGS maps Land Use Air Photos. Sate llne Images, local j urisdi ction community plans m i sc. sources Sensitive Lands a n d N atu ral USGS D i gita l E l evation Models. County of Resources (hydro logy, cli ma te Sa n D iego, U .S. Soi l Conservatio n Serv i ce vegetation faults. elevation Ca l i f Dept. Fish & Game Ca l if Dept. Of preserves. a gr icultura l) Fores try & Fire Pr o t ectio n, loc al a nd pr ivate sources Crime Data ARJIS Sources:. Culp, L (1995) Pe rsonas Correspondence. Octobltr 4 1 9$5 San ol GOYemments RegX)nallnton'ft.ltion System Overview, (S&n OiegoA.uoeiatiOn of Governments.: San. Diego, Update Schedul e Quarte rl y Quarterly Annually -Ann ually ..... Annually As built Periodic (approx years) ...... -Annua l ly SANDAG i s also the designated Regional Census Data Center for the San Diego region and maintains complete census data. Regu lar requests are made for demographic p r ofiles for areas ranging in s ize from individual transit stop acc essibility to district o r regional cha ra cteristics. Transit Data Sources Much of SANDAG's t ran sit and t r ansportation data is collected through numerous quantitative surveys. Transit databases at SANDAG include: Regional On-Board Transft Survey Trip-making characteri s t ics are determined. i ncluding Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 97


purpose. fare mode of access, and information characteristics are also obta ined, including age gender, mcome occupatronaf number of veh icl es available househo l d size area of residence and frequency of publ i c transit use. Regional Transit Passenger Coun t i ng Program Boarding deboarding data are tabulated by stop. The program also provides on-trme performance 1nfonnabon lor all routes with in the region. . Resident Public Opin ion SurveyMeasures public use and non-use of pubhc transrt and levet of familiarity with serv ice s. The resuhs are used in planning and marketing transit service Trolley Ridership Estimation Program Vendomat informat ion is combined with survey i nlonnation collected on-board the veh i cles by fare i nspectors This produces a monthly estimate of ridership by fare payment type and by line. T ranspilrtation Data Sources Transportation databases used by SANDAG include: Average Daily Traffic Volumes Conducted by each jurisdiction for vehicle counts on focal streets and arter i als. Regional freeway counts are perfonned by CAL TRANS (California Department of Transportation). Annual reports are made available to SANDAG Bicycle Use Survey Identifies directional bicycle volumes at major street intersections and is conducted approximately every two years The infonnation collected is used by local government agen cles for facilitating regional bicycle use an alternative commuting means. Border Surveys Informat ion gathered helps assess the of the t rans portation system to accommodate intern ational tourism and commerce as well as to identify deficiencies in the infrastructure Level of Service Analysis (Freeways) Current and historic weekd ay LOS data from 61 locations along 11 freeways are maintained by CAL TRANS. Long term monitoring of traffic conditions helps to identify areas with the most critica l level s of congestion Level of Service Analysis (Arterials) Data is compiled that quantifies existing operating conditlons for approximately 93 arter ial roadways which includes approximately 600 one way miles of roadway in the San Diego region Transportat ion Networks This database contains ex i sting and proposed transportation faci lities and is maintai ned by SANDAG CAL TRANS, transit agencies and local jurisdictions. Travel Behavior Survey -A survey conducted in Spring, 1995 is used to calibrate trip generation, trip distribution and mode split models that comprise part of the regional transportat ion modeling package Vehicle Occupancy and Classification SurveyThree surveys conducted in 1981 1985. 1990 and Spring 1995 are used to evaluate facility needs, mode splits. vehicle emissions, and fuel consumption Occupancy count s over time can indicate the effe ctiveness of programs that encourage highe r vehicle occupancy through ridesharing 9 8 froattllnp of a Conlmnct on GIS in Transit


Table17 TRANSPORTATION MODEL COVERAGES Description Source Existing and planned DIME Networ1<. Local transportation network faci lities Circulation Plans, Regional Transportatio n Plan Existing loca l streets DIME Network Tran s i t routes Transit Oper ators City of San Diego traffic count City of San Diego stations County of San Diego traffic count County of San Diego stations CAL TRANS traffic cou nt stations CAL TRANS Source: San Diego Association ct Gcwemments ( 1993) Regiooallnfom'la-lion Sys1em 011erview. san Diego AsSOCiation of Govemments: San o:ego. Callfomla. CURRENT GIS APPLICATIONS SANDAG has taken a two-fold approach to GIS integration and transit planning The first is a centralized approach in which transportation modeling services are p rov i ded by SANDAG ATO staff to various operators on request. This approach provides sophisticated analysis of complex transit related queries using la rge databases. P owerfu l software applications required for this type of analysis tend to require extensive training time and are typically not user-friendly. The centralize d approach is common with l arge systems. However, recent improvements in personal computer capability has allowed SANDAG to decentralize ac cess to its GIS databases. The second approach endorses the use of PC workstations lin ked by a network to the main system. This decentralized approach is becoming increas ing l y popular with large GIS systems and provides several benefits. Once implemented, planners (end users) can easily access spatial databases with litt le or no formal GIS training. This approach can also reduce t he volume of commonly requested queries Budget restraints often dictate reductions in staff and decentralization can offset potential loss of efficiency. Furthermore, because networked systems are increasingly common interoperability between and among agenc i es is facilitated. SANDAG uses ESRI's ArcView2 for user-friendly access to their GIS databases. The following pa ragraphs highlight SANDAG's GIS applications as they re la te to the two approaches. Transit Modeling Arclnfo is used as the principal transit modeling tool at SANDAG. Because Arclnfo does not have transit modeling capability, TRANPLAN is used for t ransportation planning and modeling. TRANPLAN is used to evaluate the traffic impacts of proposed development and improvements to the region's existing and futu re highway and transit systems. Person or t rip movements between areas can also be analyzed with TRANPLAN Proceedings of a Conference o n GIS in Transit 99

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Fortran programs are used for linking TRANPlAN with Arclnfo. First, Arclnfo files are fed into TRANPlAN. Calculations are performed in TRANPlAN and the resu lts are then fed back into Arclnfo for map and report generation. An extensive master transportation coverage is maintained and contains both existing and planned network related features. These i nc l ude : freeways ramps high occu pancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, general plan circulation streets, streets used by public transit, local streets necessary for network connectivity highway access links, and rail lines Approximately 42,000 arcs and 34,000 nodes are included in this master transp o rtatio n coverage In preparation for running the model, updates to routes and alignment changes are coded into Arclnfo These changes are digitized and built using the Network module of Arclnfo. Coding is currently being upda ted from a point-by-point method to an arc method. Using Arclnfo 7 .O's dynamic segme nta t ion feature route coding efficiency and accuracy near rail l ines will improve. Models are updated w ith information obtained from t ravel behavior surveys and on -board transit surveys. The ridership forecasting models are used for determining future ridership in corridor improvement projects. Transit planning questions are also a d dressed using SANDAG's GIS. Network buffer analysis is a common request. Census data such as total population, minority population, and dwelling units are summarized for user-defined buffers Recent work inc ludes the development of transit flow maps, which provide users with a simplified visual representation of ridership volumes by route. Decisions regarding where to expand or reduce service can be ass isted by these maps and p lots. Desktop GIS Applications. The second approach focuses on decentralizing access to SANDAG maintained databases through the use of desktop GIS applications Specifically, SANDAG has developed View2Transit {V2T) a customized application using ArcView2's programming language, Avenue The main objective of View2Transit development was to allow transit operators and planners to use a GIS with minimal training and expense. A V2T development committee was established and several key needs were identified Table 18 details six base transit applications identified by the development committee. Prior to implementation of V2T, ma ny of these applications were performed by SANDAG GIS staff per operator request. Users of V2T can directly access commonly used SANDAG maintained information. Geographic analysis can be performed at scales ranging from less than one city block to entire service areas. A central feature of V2T is data integration. For example, transit operators can query a variety of spatial databases join databases with common geography, and display the ou tput as a map, tab le. or chart. I 00 Promtlinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Table18 BASE APPLICAT I ONS FOR DESKTOP GIS AT SANDAG Appllc.tion Description CategOf'Y Database Status Transit S.rviee USI!l9 Iii cset.mltaon or potential PlanningfOperations Census IQI)er81iO:Is.?AIWI< SANOAG popula1ion.. dorte witt'! af\1 relate tl)ese ehanOK to eting emplo'Jment.laf\11 use SANOAG' s G I S tran sit {eurreM and l)(an!Wd service) For exar....,ce, what ts the _..,. expected population orowtn within the service a rea Of a planned l ight r all lrte? Trtnsl t we by time fOUie peak P.assenger C o utl( ing NO! ve-1 CleveiOJ)ed vetsus non-peak nours, I
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GIS IMPLEMENTATION HRATEGIES The primary implementation strategy f or View 2 Transit was discussing the needs and requests of the transit operators before any programming or development began. Prior to any software development. a develo pment committee of SANDAG staff and trans" operators was formed and regular meetings were scheduled for several months. Discussion topics included applications, data needs and sources, agency responsibitn ies, development scheduling, testing and evaluation, and o ther project aspects. A second key success strategy was training of transi t operator personnel in ArcView and View2Transil. Lastly, establishing the user grou p to obtain regular progress reports from the operators helped ensure continued use and monitored ongoing problems/needs. lESSONS lEARNED A clear lesson leam ed by SANDAG staff during Vtew2Transn implementation was that good project management skills are needed by staff. particularly when dealing with a range of computer and technical expertise among transH operators. One challenge noted by SANDAG was keeping the staff members interested in GIS while attempting to keep their level of GIS understanding minimal. Not only was SANDAG staff responsible for developing a system for non-GIS users but they were seeking advice from nonGIS staff members for assistance in the design stage. Additionally, H was important to keep the transit operators informed as to project status, particularly while waiting for the software to arrive. Updates and reminders rega rding the scope of work were regularty sent to the development group after ArcView2 was received. I 0 2 friKeedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Dallas Area Rapid Transit OVERVIEW OF TRANSIT SYSTEM Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) was formed in 1984 and provides publ i c transit t o Dallas and 13 member communities. Service is provided by buses, vans, and a planned light rail system. A modified t ransit development plan was approved in 1989 which called for 65 m iles of light rail 35 miles of HOV lanes and 18 miles of commuter rail. Construction began in 1992 on a 20-mile long light rail starter segment serving the downtown area. The line con necting downtown Dallas to Par k La ne and Oak Cliff, is expected to open in mid-1996. By 201 0, population is expected to climb 25 percent, employment is expected to increase 44 percent, and total vehicle miles traveled is expected to increase 38 percent. DARTs GIS is a critical planning and management tool for anticipating network service needs, and, therefore for imp rov ing existing and Mure ridership. Table 19 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Service Area (sq. mi) 695 Service Area Population 1 ,771,150 Member Cities 14 Tota l Fleet 1 ,011 Maximum Number of Vehicles Operated 842 Annual Passenger Miles 179,752,804 Annual Vehicle Miles 26,538,006 Avera ge Riders per Day 175,000 189,000 Bus Routes 135 Bus Stops 10,612 Total Ann ual Operating Expenses 118,932 ,320 Sources. U S 0epal'lm81'1, of TransportatiOn. Oa.!& Tables Jofthe 1 993 Na11onal Transit Database, seeuon 1 s Report Year. Ciaybroot<, B (199S). Personal Cotresponcsenee. AugU9:t 31, 1995 Promtlings of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 03

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OVERVIEW OF AT DART GIS applications at DART a re used i n numerous division s of the a g e ncy including Para trans i t. Autom at i c Vehicle Location enhanced customer services (Trip Itin erary Plann ing System) Bus Stop In ventory M anagement, service planning, data collection service schedul ing, and federal report i ng efforts The genesis of DART's G I S began in 1986 when an existing CADD (computer aided design an d drafting/ CAES (computer aided engineering systems) was replaced with a GIS called Graphic Data Systems (GDS) Both systems were designed by Electronic Data Systems Corporation (EDS). Because the basemap and other construct ion drawings already exis ted in EOSs CADD system. tran s ition to GIS applications development req uired no additional capital outlay. Purpon and Structure The purpose of developing and imp lement ing a GIS at DART was to respond more quickly to customer requests, effectively track route changes, and to determine required additions and modi fications of tran sit lin es DART's GIS i s used primarily for service planning customer ass istance, and map and sched ule product ion. Project Management a l so r e lies on the base map for its AVL program DART's GIS divi sion acts as a service arm of the Inform atio n Systems Depa rtmen t an d responds t o various m apping and spatia l ana lysis r eques t s The staff consists of a man a ger, a design analyst two p r ogrammer analysts and a data collection/data entry specialist. The GIS division develops applications and eventually transfers the responsibility of daily operat ions and maintenance to end-user departments SPATIAL DATA RESOURCES B asemap DART's basemap consists o f cor rected and enhanced TIGER fi l es for the age ncy's five-county serv ice area A s i gn ifi cant amo unt of correct ions were needed to in crease the a ccuracy of these files f or geocoding and AVUGPS purposes The corrections were first made by a subcontracto r who produced a m ap that delivered appro xi mately 90 pe rcent accuracy. In-house enhancements increased the address accuracy to 94 percent. Spatially accurate and aesthetic considerations were a lso issues with the TIGER files Because DART's AVUGPS i ntegrated rad i o system delivers locational information o n over BOO vehicles to w ithin 30 feet the spatia l accuracy of the original TIGER files (60-200 It) was not accept able To Increase visual attractiveness and spatia l accuracy, the TIGER basemap was then lin k ed to a dumb", but aesthetically pleasing map provided by the Texas Department of Highways Scheduling information is stored in tables managed by an ORACLE database management system and l i nked to the basemap. Bus stop source and d esti nation information i s related to demo grap hi c informat ion and traffic survey zone data provided by the Bureau of the Census and the area Council of Governments. These t able s are geocoded to the street centerl in e database (enhanced TIGER) and form the core of DART's Trip Itinerary Planning System (TIPS ). TIPS i s the customer service component of DART s GIS I 04 froce{inrs of 2 !:Dnfmnce on GIS in Transi t

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Table 20 DATA LAYERS AND SOURCES Description Source S treet Centerl ine Database TIGER. Texas Department ol Highways, (Basemap) ETAK, GOT Bus Stop In ventory I nterna l So u rces Bus Route Database Interna l So u rces Route Ti m i n g/Sc h edu l ing Database Interna l Sources Origin/DestinatiOn ETAK, GOT Land Use Mappi n g North Cen t ral Texas Counci l ol Governments Consortiums General Demograph ic, Bur eau of Transportatio n Statistics employ m ent data, transportatio n (BOTS) COG or MPO U.S Census data samp l er Bureau (STF3A. STF1 B CTPP) Hazmat DB, Ae ria l DB Department of Information Resou r ces (DIR) D i gital Orthophotos. pa rcel data. Other pub lic entit i es (m un icipalities and D i gital E l evation Models appraisa l dist ri cts, co n sorti u ms ) Meteoro l ogic, biologi c geo logi c Texas Nat u ral Resources Information resource data, water data socio Sys t em (TNRIS) economic d ata Source. C&ay"lli'OOJI. B (1995) Personal Corre:spcna.ence. Aogus131, 1995. Bus Stop Inventory DART' s Bus Stop Inventory (BSI) contains 10,526 stops and all routes serving each stop. The BSI is a graphicsftabular dataset that describes the locations of all bus stops, amenities and maintenance items (benches, shelters, phones, trash cans). The BSI also includes the sequence of stops w ithin routes, associated t i mepoints, and schedul e information. Demographics Census Block Group d rawings for DART's service area were obtained from North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) datasets This data was loaded into the ORACLE RDBMS for analysis to be driven from within the mapping environment. Anal ysis is performed at three levels of aggregation: Census Block Group, T raffi c Survey Zones (TSZ), and Traffic Analysi s Patterns (TAP). The years include 1980, 1986, 1990. Projections f o r 2000 and 2010 are also included. ProceedintJOI a Conference on GIS in Transit I 05

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Curren t data and transfer standa r ds at DART i nclude the f o ll ow i ng: ASCII -fixed format or comma d elim i t ed TIFF 36 flavors g r aph i cs i mages DLG -vector exchange formats DXF -vect o r exchange formats TX State P l ane Coordina t e System NAD27 NAD83 lat/long UTM HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PLATFORM GDS i s a p r o p r i etary package that emp l oys an object-based data structure that embod i es objects for sto ring an d managing complex data relationsh i ps from numerous sources. For storage of attribute data, DART uses the ORACLE RDBMS system GDS has the ab ility t o make c a ll s t o the Oracle RDBMS App l ications developed us i ng the C programm i ng l anguage a r e use d for i nterfacing the system wijh ex t ema l programs Visua l Basic is als o used extens i ve l y for e nd-user applications where map disp l ay is not required The current hardwa r e driving DAR T' s GIS inclu d es a VMS cluster o f two Digija l Equipment C o rporation VAX6 0 00s and one VAX4000 Four VAXs tation 3100 workstations are l inked to the system an d 35 486 terminal s emulate a n X-Windows env i ronment through a D i gita l Pathwor k s n etwork. T ab l e 21, depicts DART's current hardwa r e configurat ion. T a ble 21 CURRENT H ARD W ARE DEV I CES AND P ERIPHERALS Dev ice Type N u m b e r Mini-compu ter VAX 60002 510 Hard Disk Drive HSC 70 2 (32Gb tota l ) X terminal PCS with X35 Window emu l ati o n Server AJphaServer 1 2100 (40Gb d i sk space) Workstat i on VAXstati o n 4 3100-76 AXP W o rkst a tion DEC 3000 5 400 Stu n : I ( lttJ). Jl, m S I 06 Proceedinrs of a Conference on G I S in T ransit

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DART plans to replace the VAXstations with Al pha stations while shifting the singular VMScluster currently in place to a two-cluster system, each consisting of three subsystems. One of the two VMSclusters will be dedicated to GIS/CADD/Development and the other will be dedicated to Paratransit, Customer Service and Rideshare applications. This system will use an ORACLE database to provide access to tabular datasets from all clusters. CURRENT G I S APPLICATIONS GIS applications at DART fall into five categories: Customer Service I Assistance DART's Customer Assistance Div i sion handles approximately 2 million telephone requests annually. Prior to GIS implementation, customer questions about schedules and routes were handled by perusing printed bus schedules, referring to notices reflecting schedule changes and using a variety of maps. Approx i mate l y 5,000 customer inquiries are received daily. High call volume at the Customer Assistance Division created a significant incentive automate the process as well as an internal willingness to change One objective is to reduce call durations from a pre GIS average of 1.5 minutes to one minute or less. In March 1993 DART began implementing TIPS, which allows information operators to access a trip s origin or destination by inputting an address intersection or landmar1<. The system geocodes the l ocatio n and searches for the closest bus stop to that location. TIPS reports all routes that stop at the location and displays the schedule inf o rmation. The final version of TIPS can calculate the customer's entire trip and provide alternatives. Sp&ialized Applications The GIS division at DART has developed an interact i ve graphic ma i ntenance application for updating spatial attributes on bus stop maps and associated tabular datasets This was done by develop ing c programs to read the schedule data from the PC-based Teleride-Sage run-cutting system used in the scheduling department. Two copies of the Bus Stop Inve ntory are maintained for both stops and routes : one that reflects current system configuration and a second set of tables that store changes that will take effect at the next markup. This allows for modeling of futu re changes without changing the production dataset. Route datasets are particularly useful in generat i ng graphic p l ots for the route revi s ion public meeting and t he markup processes. The creative services department als o uses the route and basemap files for generating public timetables A separate Operator's Route Guide is produced by the serv i ce planning department using these datasets. Service Planning DART's GIS service planning applications include a variety of analysis funct i ons: travel demand route optimization, rail alignment demographic analysis and "what ir' studies Frequent requests include transit route analys i s and demographic analys i s Polygon, linea r and po int buffer comman ds are used for demographic analysis. Promdinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 07

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An application was developed by DART's GIS staff that allows in teractive graphic demog raphic data analysis for the creation of study p o lyg on s and analysis of intersections of underly i ng Census polygons. Demographic reports are produced for the following fields: Age/ Sex Educational Levels E t hnicity and Popu l ation Mean Housing Value Median Income Persons per Household Mean Rental Value Vehicles per Household Population a n d Employment lntrazonal HBW Trips Mode of Travel to Work Number of Workers in 1989 Projected Ridership Origin I Destination "starbursts (TSZ leve l and study district level) List of street names and address ranges The applicatio n also allows the end-user to model proposed rou tes or extensions to existing routes and calculate projected ridership generate desired "starburst" plots depicting origins and des tinations of home-based work trips, and generate listings of street names and address ranges that fall within the study area. Four times each year DART evaluates route productivity and examines service needs in relation to operating budget. As a resutt of this analysis, new routes and schedules are generated and then presented to DART's board of directors and the general pub lic SYltem-Wide Analysis An extension of service planning applications includes the ability to see transit usage trends and modify network design accordingly. DART is in the process of redesign i ng its network from a radial, spoke-and-hub system (most buses traveling into the downtown corridor) to a more grid like system This system is des cribed as a "daisy chain that include multiple hubs that fan out over the service area GIS analys i s revealed a need fo r transit service to become more responsive to needs in outlying areas DART successfully implemented cross town routes in res ponse to an increasing trend of suburb-to-suburb t r avel. Conversely, DART uses GIS to plan for service reductions By examin i ng yearto-year ridership comparisons, trends based on passenger per-mile ratios are revea led Similar ana l ysis was performed when evaluating potentia l light r ai l corridors. GIS was used extensively to perform a series of studies examin i ng three different rail alignments in north Dallas Current and pro jected population and employment densities were overlaid and buffer analysis was performed (.25 mi). I 08 Procmfints of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Paratransit, Ridesharing, and AVL/GPS T hese app l i cations serve as GIS sources fo r route overlays, the basemap (street centerline), a n d the bus stop inven tory used in all app li cations including geocod i ng. Starburst orig i n/destination maps are used for ridesharing, car pooling, and van pooling strategies. GIS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES General Strategy DART's implementat ion of its GIS was a conscious decision based on recognized needs. However, the decision to go with a proprietary software vendor was the result of economic pragmatism The GDS software package currently used by DART's GIS staff was originally purchased by the Engineering Department as a design support too l for light rail implementation. In 1988, when a bon d refe rendum to obta in more funding for DART failed to pass the design and construction phase of the l ight rail project was subcontracted to area consultants. Many of these consultants used different CADD systems. Because thousands of engineering drawings were deve loped during the first two years of the project, translation to and from these olher systems was necessary. Light Rail Transit coordinators developed a set of scale and map project ion standards to facilitate data sharing so that the drawings could be used by DART during the operations and maintenance phases. Application-Specific Strategy Perhaps the most successful GIS application at DART is TIPS. The primary re ason for its success stems from early participation and management support from the end-user department. DART charges the customer service staff with updating and maintaining a ll landma rk data, and verification of all schedule changes for errors prio r to i n i t ia t ing a mark-up (service charge), Because the customer service department has the greatest vested interest in the data it is the mos t likely group to take respons ibility for data updates and maintenance. OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION The largest challenge in develo p ing a GIS at DART has been balancing data collection, enforcement of data standards, and data integrity, with the need to prov ide an accessible friendly gateway to spatial datasets that serve the needs of various end-user departments. Other GIS challenges at DART inc lude the following: Clean up and audit tasks Maintenance Data credibility Inefficient procedures or processes that have outgrown their usefulness and are only continued because, "that's the way we have always done it. Conflicting standards (feet versus meters, NAD27 versus NAD83) Not all standards are well developed or adh ered to Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 09

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Some issues are difficult to resolve and alternat ives need to be developed Production and Development datasets LESSONS LEARNED DART has established several rules of thumb based on their im p lementat i on experience: Avoid proprietary standards and protocols Proprietary standards and protocols limit flexibility and opportun ities to share data. Proprietary standards also eliminate competitive biddi ng and flexibility in terms of software solutions. Only imp lement what can be maintained Data maintenance is critical to GIS quality and subsequent decision making. Data may be incomp le te or incorrect, missing not applicable once obtained, and/or too costly to obtain. Useful information is a function of data quality. If data are not high quality decisions based on data are not going to be high quality. Maintain the integrity of your d ata source Develop a means of updating and passing enhanced data back to the originator, benefiting all parties This includes adding "key fields for relating to other sources and then back to the original source. Another advantage of this approach is that it disperses the data maintenance burden while enhancing the data for all users. Moral: the sum of the parts is greater than t he whole. Acquire data as close to the source as possible This increases the opportunity to acquire accurate data while decreasing errors. The primary user (one who has the greatest vested interest in the integrity of the data) should maintain the data Share data where poss ible -The benefits of data sharing include: --Concent rates maintenance among a few and benefits to many. --Eliminates or decreases disagreement over who has the correct data. -Focuses data maintenance on the proper "owner". This allows you to focus on your area of expertise rather than maintaining other parties' data. DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS Addressing the issue of developing standards may facilitate application of t he lessons learned by DART. Some suggestions outlined by DART regarding development standards include: Naming conventions-for all database objects (tables columns indexes, views etc. ) for all application objects (a pplica t ion names, forms reports, menus) Standard screen layout Standard report head ings, layouts and breaks Standard key functionality, i .e. F1 key= help Standard data modeling methodology SOL forms library Standard directory structure Productionrrest/History Systems Benefits can be realized by develo ping and maintaining datasets in one centralized location rather than multiple areas. This also dramatically improves data integrity and credibility. I I 0 Proceedings of a Confmnce on GIS in Transit

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Milwaukee County Transit System OVERVIEW OF TRANSIT AT MilWAUKEE COUHT'I The Milwaukee County Transit System (MCTS) is operated by Milwaukee Transport Services Inc. Table 22 highlights some characteristics of the MCTS. Table 22 MILWAULKEE COUNTY TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Service Area (sq. mi) 243 Serv i ce Area Populat ion 990,700 Total F leet 543 Maximum Number of Vehicl es Ope r ated 425 Annual Passenger Miles 150, 423 158 Annual Vehic l e Miles 17.445 622 Total Annual Ope r ating Expenses 60,263 936 SOI.JI'CeS. u.s oepanment 01 TraMportabon. oata Tabi8S tor tne 1993 Nation al TtSns!t Database. SectQQn 1s Report veal.' Vebt>er. MIChael E ( 1995), Pet$0t'lal Corresooi"KJ
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Know where the buses were at any given moment on-time performance Because GPS technology was just beginning to surface at that time, consideration was given to Signpost and Loran-e systems. In February, 1992, the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors approved the purchase, and MCTS contracted with Westinghouse Corporatio n and Motorola to provide a GPS t runked radio system At tha t time MCTS received $6 3 m i llion i n federal funds and $1. 6 m i llion from Milwaukee County for system implementation (total cost : $7 9 million). Because the rad i os share infrastructure other county agencies overall costs to the county were reduced. Some aspects of the system are not yet fully operational and final payment will be made upon completion of Implementation. The MCTS GIS Is comprised of three In terfaced subsystems : 800 MHZ Moto rol a trunked radio system Westinghouse Computer-Aided D i spatch Syste m (C AD) Westinghouse Automatic Veh icle Location System (AVL) Milwaukee County is currently beginning stage two of a three-phase acceptance program The Phase I acceptance test mandated Westinghouse t o demonstrate that the system would perform as specified for 15 vehicles The Phase If acceptance test expanded the mandate to i nclude the full fleet. Following the Phase II acceptance test. West inghouse is to demonstrate that the system will perform as specified for the full fleet and for a minimum of 30 days without any major problems or downtime Maintenance of the system is performed by Transportation Management Solutions who purchased the fleet communications business from Westinghouse Prior to the MCTS project Westing h ouse began installation of a radio/locator system for Denver's Regional Transportation District. As a result, MCTS was able to team from Denver's experience and made several changes and upgrades to improve the system. HARDWARE AIID SOFTWAlE PLATfORI1 Milwaukee County's AVL system runs Trimble and UMA Trapeze scheduling/mapping software and ORACLE databases on a Unix HP9000 platform Four stations are netw o rked for dispatching. The route map interface is passed daily to the Wes t inghouse system. Timepoints are checked by monitoring 380 unique locations with 525 logical checks I I 2 Proceedinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Table 23 HARDWARE DEVICES A N D PERIPHERA L S Device Number Persona l Computer (366/25) 1 Host m ini computer (HP9000, Model 62752 650) Xtermi na l 0 Workstation (HP-720) 2 Col o r Printer (HPPa intj e t XL) 1 P lotter inkjet 0 Plotte r electr o st atic 0 Digitiz i ng Tablet 0 source. VeDbet, MiCh&el E ( 1995) October 1 8,1995. SY$1etn: WI. Tab l e 24 SOFTWARE LICENSES A T M ILWAUKEE COUNTY Software L i censes Number H P U n i x 2 Sma rt T rac k 7 Tr imbl e I VLU 1 Tra peze MAP 1 T r apeze SCHEDUL E 1 2 Orac l e-ENG I NE 2 O r ac l e R EPORT S 2 O r ac l e FORMS 2 Orac l e SQL 2 S01me. Vetlbef M1Chaet E. ( 1 iiS 5) Octobct' 1 8 1 99 S M i lwa u kee Cou nty Tr1Mi l Sf$lem: Miwaukee Wt Proceedings of a Conference o n GIS i n Transi t I 1 3

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SPATIAl DATA RESOURCES The street network was derived from TIGER files then imported into the T rapeze mapping module. The basemap is maintained by transportation department personnel. Bus routes were digitized and are also maintained by transportation department personnel T hese maps are then exported into SmartT rack for modification. Table 25 DATA LAYERS AND SOURCES Description Source Update Schedule Basemap TIGER As needed Bus Routes Existing As needed Bus Stops (timepoints) Existing Maps As needed Source. Vebbef, Mleh&ef e. (1995) Corrs'Spondence. October 18. 1995. Mitflaukee Counr.Trat!Sil Sys1em : WI CURRENT GIS APPLICATIONS GIS applications at MCTS are currently limited to the CAO/AVL system. Information from SmartTrack helps drivers and dispatchers proactively manage fleet operations and maintain arrival/departure sch edu l es The AVL component of the system operates in a lo op fash ion. Schedule information gets tra nsfe r re d to the AVL system every eve ning. Every morning, bus operators enter batch route, and r un numbers into data term inals, and the AVL system downloads data necessary for scheduling buses. As the bus travels, the system checks route and time adherence every 45 seconds. This informat io n is then sent back to the AVL system for dispatchers to monitor The CAD component of the system is comprised of a numbe r of features. Communications equipment has been installed on all 543 buses as well as 61 route supervision/support vehicles. Locator equipment is currently installed in all buses and 59 support vehicles. Control units were ins talled in each bus near the driver's seat. Dispatchers at a central monitoring system track b us locati ons on CRT's. Icons representi ng buses move on route maps indicat in g bus locat ion s The icons also change colors, indicating the number of minutes a driver is behind or ahead of schedule. Dispatchers can ident i fy if bus stops are missed and if buses deviate from the route. This l ocator function also helps dispatchers provide pinpoint information to emergency services in cases of breakdown security problems, and medica l emergencies. When a bus operator requests security assistance, priority is automatically given, enabling immediate response from dispatchers. Additionally, each bus is equipped with a concealed microphone and an automatic police assistance feature. Operators can request police assistance without speaking to a dispatcher by activating the microphone. Dispatchers are able to hear events taking place on-board and can relay this informa tion to police. I I 4 Procmfinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Adminis tra t ive support for d i spatchers is a lso provided by the system. Dai l y such as bus operator reques ts for vehicle repairs and security assistance are tracked Summary reports are automa t ica lly generat e d and pri nted. Time point and route adherence information is a l so logged i nto a database so that the scheduling department can monitor trends in on-time pert or mance Reports a re a lso generated so segments and schedules can be adjusted if necessary Ultim at ely, the intent is to i ncrease o n t im e performance. At the time of this writing MCTS's AVLICAD system has not in p l ace long enough to det ermine whether im plementation re sulted in increased on-t i me pertormance. Future applications include the following: Installa t ion of Automatic Passenger Counters are planned for fifty buses by 1996 Investigat i ng options for the purchase of mapping/census software for the Planning Division. Schedule adherence in formation will be available to planners for review of schedule running time. BENEFITS AND OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION Two impl ementation obstacles were noted by Milwaukee County. Because vendors so m etimes use subcontractors for system installat ion, imple me ntati o n can be delayed. Second greater monit o ring capabilities have c o mplicated system operations. Bus operators need to in put more data into the system on a daily basis. O p e r at ors also need to request perm i ssio n to talk on the sy s tem. Prior to implementation r equests were not necessary. Some resistance t o change occurred Milwaukee County has been very sat isfie d w it h system p ertormance in terms of equ ip ment reliab i lity Although the system was origina ll y set as a 1 .5 year project, imp l ementat ion i s in its third year. Most of the delay was valid and re l ated to Westinghouse and MCTS working together t o design a system that me t the nee ds of MCTS Some d el ays were caused by third-party vendors not prov i ding hardwa re and software as quickly as ant i cipated. LESSON S LEARNED Advice f r om MCTS is limi ted to CAD/AVL system implementation. MCTS offers several tips for agencies considering implementation of th i s type of system: Make sure that needs are clearly specifie d in the contract language Bases need to be covered in the init i al stages of specificat i on ident i fication. Be sure to see a prototype of the p r oduct (if avai la ble ) befo re committing to buying it. If p ossible visit users o f equipment to see what p rob l ems may be avoided For exampl e Milwaukee County discovered that a control head was not readable i n sunlight. Had another agency/company been using the cont r o l head earl y discovery of the p r oblem m i ght have been p ossi b le. Addit i onal costs and time delays associated with replacing these items may have been avoided. Do not underestimate the complexity of a full CAD/AVL system. Numerous techn ica l componen t s must work toge ther before the system functions properly Choose a reliable company for t he main contractor This may help assure company cooperat ion if a problem arises Procmfinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit I IS

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Be prepared to devote a large amount of technical and dispatcher staff time to project implementation. Do not let the vendor create and install the system without the transit operators active participation. The Milwaukee County Transit System case study illustrates that the nature of GIS implementation is specific to individual agency/operator needs That is development of a GIS varies depending on the specific needs of the transit system. At Milwaukee County, the use of GIS as a p lann i ng too l was not the primary impetus for implementation Rather GIS development and implementat i on drive n by operations needs. SoJJn::es: Pauenger Transport ( 1995). Ml:fw141Jt.H Got.$ 0., Line wi:fl t.ouror. Pas&enger Transpott. Seplembtt 4. 1995 p 10. Vetlbcr. E ( 1995} October 18, 199$. MilWaukee CouMy TranSit Sys.tcm ; IM. I I 6 fromdtilts of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Capital District Transportation Authority, Albany, NY (CDTA) The District Transportation Authority's district consists of Albany Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties. The CDTA is considered a medium-size transit agency. OVERVIEW OF TRANSIT SYSTEM AT CDTA Table 26 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Service Area (sq. mi) 2,261 Service Area Population 779,718 Total Fleet 247 Maximum Number of Vehicles Operated 201 Annual Passenger Miles 55.120 ,601 Annual Vehicle Miles 6,380,014 Total Annual Operating Expenses 23 353,638 $OWC$. U S Oepasttneftt of 081tt Ttbl'e$101 tfle 1993 Tl4n.$1t D8.8W$e. $eCliOit 15Report Ye81. OVERVIEW OF GIS AT CDTA Within the Capital Region, several organizations have collaborated to form a regional GIS consortium as a forum for imple mentat ion Participants are listed in Table 26. Implementation is currently in the early stages and is using a GIS demonstration project as a development model. Because the majori1y of GIS development will be performed as part of ongoing regiona l and transportat ion activities, inter-agency coordination will act as a testing ground for demonstrating the use of GIS for a number of transit policy and planning applications. General applications include spatial data display and spatial analysis, with an emphasis on service standards. Inter-agency GIS coordination began the adoption of a GIS-T research demonstration project in January 1995. Members included the New York State Department of Transportation s Transit Division, the CDTA, and the District Transportation Committee. I n June, 1995 the Capital District Regional Planning Commission added a regional geographic information inventory. Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 17

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Although the CDTA's GIS i s relatively new, a sign ificant number of data layers have a lready been acquired The demonstrati on project is effectively functioning as a needs assessment. Although the CDTA already has a function ing GIS, f u ll implementa t ion is expected to be completed i n January, 1996. Table Z7 C A PITAL REG ION GIS CO NS ORT I UM Agency Abbreviation Description Capita l District CDTA Regional Trans it Operato r Transportation A u t h ority New York State NYSDOT State Transportation Agency Department of Transportation Capital Distric t CDTC Metropolitan Pla nn ing Transportati o n Comminee Organ i zation Cap it al D i s t rict Regiona l Planninq Commission CDR PC Reg i ona l Planning Agency SPATIAl DATA RESOURCES Multiple data sources and data sharing are significant advan tages to GIS cons o rtium development The CDRPC is the regiona l repository for demographi c and land use information. Other layers are provided by member agencies. Table 28 DATA SOURCES AT CDTA Data Type Source Transit Service Transi t Ope rat or Data _(CDTA) Road Network State Transportation Agency (NYSDOT) Travel Data Metropolitan Pla n ning Organization (CDTC) Census Regiona l Planning Agency (CDR PC) $Qufte: Re111y J ( t99S) tlmg Geograp/Nc lntormat/Oh SysttM?$ 101 TIJII$it Op#ntiOIIS AMiy:sis, PoJ.lcy Of'l'e,toprntm ffld Cai)MI District Trsn$f)Ol\atlorl A.uttlority: AJIny, N Y I I 8 Proem/inti o f a Conference on GIS in Transit

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COT A's basemap consists of State and l ocal highway maps supplied by NYSDOT and Mapinfo Streetlnfo files (ver.3.0). Bus routes were coded using NYSDOT State and local highway maps, whil e bus stops were geocoded using Mapinfo's Streetlnfo files and enhanced address layer files. CDTA intends to use raster image s primarily for map production. T raffic Analysis Zones will be used for travel related in format ion and ana lysis (travel times, origin and destination by mode) and census data will be used to provide add it iona l employment and income info rmation at the blockgroup level. Table 29 T RANSIT DATA SOURCES AT CDTA Layer Source Use Base Map NYSDOT Background la yer geocod ing Bus Routes NY SOOT Dynamic segmenta tio n (buffer analysis) Bus Stops CDT A Buffer analysis, data inventory, operations planning Political NYSDOT Backround laye r Boundaries Census Data NYSDOT, Marketing analys is. CDTC policy planning CDRPC Raster Images NY SOOT Map production Sovrot: GugSbc:tg, T (199$) 0C.ob4r 1&. 1995, O!Wlct TrM$portabon Authority: N .Y. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PLATFORM A decision was made for ArcView to be the standard GIS for DOT and MPO activities i n the State. An agreement was negotiated between the State Department of Transportation and ESRI, Inc. developer of Arclnfo and Arc View software. This agreement charged ESRI with staff training and software modifications to permit better visual display of transportation data. ESRI will also be responsible for transferring T-Model (transportation network analysis software) data into Arc View for display Mapinfo was a ls o acquired to supplement data layers. Promtlinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 19

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Table 30 HARDWARE DEVICES A N D PERIPHERALS Device Type Number Personal HP 5/90C 90 MHz Pen ti um, 16Mb 1 Comp ut e r RAM 1.2 G b Hard disk, 4 x CD ROM Mon i to r HP U lt ra VGA 1280 17" mon it o r 1 Tape Backup HP J ets t ore 200 1 P rinters HP Lase rjet 4 (cu rrent l y rev i ew i ng 1 color p l otters) OISbi n ; Source T ( 199S). Persooa!Cone-spondence Octoee 1 8 19'95. Capital et T SPOM1 onAuthOiity. AJbany, N.Y Curr e n t GIS Applications Tab l e 31 SOFTWARE PACKAGES Name Use Desktop GIS ArvcV iew 2.0 Desktop G I S T mode l data d isplay. La n tastic 6 0 N etwo r k softw a r e T Mode l Trave l model softwa r e GFI F arebox software G/Sched Sche d u l i n g softwa r e : G u i ' Sou ree s g T ( 99$). 1 8, 99$ CapUI Oi$triel Tranapor1a!ion AuttiOri!y: A ltlany, N Y : Gugisberg, T. ( 1995). USitlg Jh/ottNii:;ln Systems-lot Opet&tiOM PoA'cy a nti M1Jf1(etir1g. C3a 1 Transponation. AuthOrity: Alb;'llny, N Y. The COTA is currently i n the process of impl ement i ng its d em o nstrat ion project. Fu ll implementation will be based on the results o f the demons t rat i on project App l i cations are propose d t o u s e GIS for Opera t ions P l anning P o licy Planning, and M arket An a lysis Operations Planning T h e CDTA w ill be us i ng G I S t o d i splay operat i ons an al ys i s d ata such as l ink v o l umes on streets (taken f rom ridecheck data) bo a rdings per vehicle hour by link b oardin g s by stop performance measures by route and link transit s peeds The proposed p r o ject for operations p l ann ing incl udes the follow ing object i ves: I 2 0 fromdints o f a Conference on G I S i n Transi t

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Operations analysis Specifically this entails mapp ing operations analysis data such as passenger boardings and other business performance measures. Performance analysis -This inc lude s ride check data--show passenger flow on all links and route analysis--show routes with p r oductiv ity ( > 25 boardings/hour). Policy Planning Another proposed GIS application is to develop a number of system-wide measures for the region These measures includ e the following: Developing mobility performance measures, i e.. p roport ion of households without automobiles which can access a large grocery store within a 30 minute travel window. Understanding j oumey-to-work data to improve transit utilizat ion. This incl udes mapping the proport ion of th e population that could feasibly use t ransit for j ourney -to -work trips (transit travel time< some muUiple of highway t rave l time). Route-level demographics. Displaying population l i ving within x-miles of a part i cular transit route. Marketing Analysis Thi s task will involve two activities: Display and analysis of census journey-to-work data Modeling of transit demand to assess new services. Maps will be prepared to illustrate transit market share for 12 individual major employment sites based on traffic analys i s zones. For traffic zones with unusually low transit market shares, the GIS will be used to assess the quality of transit service in the neighborhood to determine if improvements are warranted. Pructtdings or a Conference on in Transit 121

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Figure 5 SERVICE ANALY S I S SYSTEM AT CDTA '::= I I ";:::;o;; .. I c::; I I -I I I - I T ., I I "" I -I '----1 ,; I I I I I I I :' I t::::l s-. ..... .... =I -:-" c==l ....._ .... ,. .. L I I etJ I Sovrt8: Redly J ( !99$). IJ$8 o! Jh/olm.lJVOn $)'$ttlm: fr Sin Tlarl$1f ApiJ'Ilcy, f l 1he G \ S i n T tiJI'I$11 C o nference Augu&.l 1 3 t 5 1995 Capital District l ransport:ation Autf'lority: Albany, N Y Future Work Overlay transit routes on air photos. By using a i r photos, b etter visua li z a tion of residential/commerc i al de n sities r e l ative to CDTA r outes and stops can be ach i eved Improve accessibi l ity to the telephone information unit. This will provide tel eph o ne information ag e nts w i th more info rmat i o n f o r answer i ng customer quest i ons related to schedules and r o u ting Deve l op a she lter and stop p h oto d a tabase Thi s will be usef u l fo r maintenance a nd management of bus stops and shel t ers. BENEFIT S AND OBSTACLES T O IMPLEMENTATION Major obstacles to d e velopment of GIS at CDTA i nclude s taff train in g, data availa b ility, a nd inter age n cy coordina t ion and cooperation Becau s e CDTA is i n the ear l y sta ges of G I S deve l opment they have yet to experience some of the software app l icat i on l i mitations tha t seem to be common In G I S i m p lementat i on. GIS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES The CDT A comb i ne d severa l elements that will fac ili tate implementa t ion of a comprehensive GIS T : t he consortium strategy, a demonstrati o n proj ect an d P CIevel imp l ementat i on. Th e work p lan developed by t h e CDTA he l ped e n su r e a successfu l G IS imp l ementat i o n by o utli n ing t h e p r oject i n two maj o r a r eas: d ata col lect i on a n d da t a ana lysi s I 2 2 fromdings o f a Confmnte on GIS in T ransit

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Data Collecti o n Bus s top database -Inc l u d es 4,00 0 s t o p s 50 routes 600 t im epoint seg m ents and 450 patterns Data attribu t es i nclude locat i on r outes serving stop, pos i t i on (nearside, farsi d e m i d b l ock) mun i cip a lity/co unty and sheller Plot routes (70) Census dat abase Travel t im e database Route characteris t ics d ata base Data Analysis Thematic m a ps Route as s essment maps Buffer ana l ys i s Traffic flow maps Imp l e m entation was eased by fo ll owing the same metho d o l ogy for each a p pl i cation A cons i stent l y reliab l e data clear i nghouse and t he abil ity to choose from two softwa r e packages furt h e r eased impl ementati o n. Lessons Learned The most i mportant l esson at CDTA was the needs ass e ssment. A f orma l eval ua t ion o f an o rganizat ions needs shoul d i n cl u d e : A genera l review o f the organizat i o n's spat ia l i ssues A functi ona l review of t he type of ana l ysis and out put that a GIS can p rovide. An assessme n t of the data sources and da t abase des i gn. Ana l ysis of personnel, hardwa r e and software costs. A formal impl ementat ion p l an fo r short/long term GIS needs. Proceedinp o f a Conference o n G I S i n Tran s i t 123

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Bloomington Public Transportation Corporation Overview ofT ran sit System Located in south central In diana, the of Bloomington is a fas t growing service hub that operates two types of transit service a fixed route bus service (Bloomington Transit) and a demand response service for people with disabilities (BT Access) Bloomington Transit operates 20 buses and carries just over 1 million passengers per year. BT Access operates four vans and provides approximately 18,000 t rips per year to 500 users. The Bloomington Public Transportation Corporation (BPTC) is managed by McDonald Transit Associates Inc., headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. Table 32 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Service Area (sq. mi) 12 Service Area Population 60, 633 Total Fleet 24 Maximum Number of Vehicles Operated 19 Annual Passenger Miles 2,845,503 Annual Vehicle Miles 668,043 Total Annual Operating Expenses 2,100,000 Tota l GIS Implementatio n Costs 12 ,000 (111193-12131193) U S 0eJ)attment of Ttanspon;atioo, Ds.Ja TIOitS fOr lht National TratlsJI Section 15 Repott Haley, L 1995 PutJN; TrahSIJOffaNon Col'pO(ation: Geographic In/ormatiOn UnpiA:>IiShed synopsis: City of 81oomingi!On, IM!ana; Gionet o. { 1995). Comt$poi'IOMce. Odober 2 1 995 The Bloomington area is serviced by two addit iona l transit systems. Ind iana University operates a bus system that serves campus locations and Monroe and Owen counties operate a third network that provides city access to outlying areas. Passenger trips provided by these three systems outnumber all othe r Indiana cities. except Indianapolis. I 2 4 Proceedings of a Conferen
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OVERVIEW OF GIS A T BLOOMINGTON PUBLIC TRANSIT CORPORATION History of GIS Implementation This cas e study is an exampl e of how inter-agency cooperation and interoperability can facilit ate a small transit system in acquiring and implementing a G I S syste m Beginning several y ears a go the City of Bloomington. in cooperation with the City of Bloomington Utilities. began developing a GIS databas e The City of Bloomington Utilities is a public corporation that manages wate r and sani tary sewer services for t he City of Bloomington Currently, t h e City i s wor king wit h M onroe County t hrough a s h a ring agreement t o expand the database to include pa rcel information The city also contr acts with Ind iana Uni versity to obtain GIS I nterns Cooperat i on efforts l ed t o the development of a detailed spat i a l database tha t coul d be expanded. GenaMap was chosen for spatial database development. Layers produced by C i ty and Utilities G I S staff included streets, parks, utilities and z oning Basemap development was completed by digitizing aerial photographs over a two year period. Acces s to these GIS databases w ere made availabl e to the BPTC. Beginning in 1994 an effort began to implement a G I S at the BPTC for data/map display purposes The BPTC added a GIS de velopment element to the pass through ag r eement with the lo cal MPO for Section 8 p l a nn i ng f unds Approx i matel y 80 percent of GIS i mpl ementa t i on f und ing was suppo rted by Section 8 funding It was felt th a t custo mers could obta i n more accurate schedul e i nformat ion if the y could point at a bus stop on a computerized map rather than est i m ating e lapsed t ime from a key time po i nts in a timetab le Mor eover. training time for new staff who give customers sche du l e informat i on over the phone would be greatly reduced. Thi s is crit i cal in an organizat ion wher e job sharing is common. because anyone cou l d qui c kly and accurately answ er sc heduling questions. Development and implementation of BPTC's GIS was concurrent w it h the City of Bloomington's GIS Theref ore system software compatibility was cri t ical to future develo p ment. A stan d alone system was purchased and software modifi cat ions were developed to ease user i nterfac i ng H-.ROWARE AND SOFTWAAE PLATfORM Bec a use data compat ibi lity is a key issue in G I S development the BPTC acqu ire d Gena M ap Cos t s and local const raints dictated the purchase of a used UNIX stand-alone work station Future applicat ions may ne cessitate the need for conne ction to the City of Bloomin gton's GIS network of a Confmnce on GIS i n Tran1it 115

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Table 33 GIS Platform at BPTC Hardware HP 715 UNIX Workstation Memory and Drives 64MB RAM, 1GB hard drive, 2GB OAT tape drive Operating System HP-UX ( release 9.0) Software GenaMap (release 6.1) ' ..lft: lblf7,L IHt #\:'IN
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Table 34 SAMPLE EXCEL SPREADSHEET HEADINGS USED FOR GENAMAP GUI Fields Description Tag GenaMap unique i dentifie r Route Route number Day WeeKday, Saturday or Special route Bus Direction Inbo u n d Only, Outbound Only or Both Stop Loca tion Stop Attributes Streett East!West in tersec ting street Stteet2 North/South i ntersect ing street Transfer Points Intersecting bus routes Sign/She l te r Presence of s ign of shelter BusfTrip Time Data time po in ts . SOUrce. Haley. L. lV$$ B/I;IOmN'Iglt:llt PubliC Tt'8/IJ.POft8tiOfl C'Ofproi"SJM. Geogra{JI'NC IIIICmlili'Ofl Sy.stqm Tmtf/t App.Vc:atiarls. Unpublished synopsis: City of 8100t'l'ingtotl.lndi3tla. CURRENT GIS APPLICATIONS A GUI in terface was developed to painless access of data for everyday users. GenaMap's internal GUI b uilder, Genius II was employed for this task. Users can look up locations using a number of different query methods: intersection, address, subdivision, major building name, or by point and click. A box can be drawn with the mouse and users can zoom in and out. By clicking on an intersection node, bus route direction is indicated and a to-the-minute lis t of all scheduled times for that route is displayed. A bus schedule printout can also be generated for individua l customers. Furthermore the user can tell customers how far bus stops are from their homes. The GUI developed by the BPTC (Genius II) was consistent in look and layout with the City of Bloomington's GUI interface Various views of map layers and ancillary data are possible using a combination of mouse clicks and keyboard entry. Pull-down menus a Text Entry line Text Scroll window, and a Graphics Window were standardized with the City's GUI. The applicatio n was customized to access and view specific bus routes and schedule information. Other applications include the ability to query by address. This allows the user to ins tantly determine if that address is within the city limits and, therefore, within the BPTC's service area. The query-by-address funct ion is critical to system operations. because BT Access trips must be limited to BPTC's service area. Pro(m/incs of a on GIS in Transit 127

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BENEFITS AND OBSTAClES TO IMPlEMENTATION Software/Hardware Although cooperation between BPTC and the City ultimately resulted in a functioning and expandable GIS, considerable effort on th e part of BPTC was necessary to ove rcome dependency pitfalls. After the BPTC committed significant resources to collecting and digitizing d ata as well as administrative approval, delays in the City's GIS implementation process mandated a different approach by BPTC. The following d iscussion details changes in BPTC's implementation process dicta ted by changes in the City's implementation decisions. Originally, the BPTC planned to invest in software simply to map/display bus schedule informa t ion. Full-blown GIS imp leme ntation was not planned. The intent was to obta in a relatively low-cost means to display and query digital data on an existing PC network. Implementation depended on the City of Bloomington's plans to purchase a similar PC based system. However, the City de laye d its purchasing plans indefinitely. This left the BPTC with the need to find a new solution for GIS implementation. A decision was made to fund and acquire software and hardware compatible with the City of Bloomington (GenaMap on a Unix system). By abandoning the original system design, some negative effects resulted. Significant system implementation de l ay and larger capital outlay resulted. Because the original design was based on simple query and display software. database and tag identifiers had to be reworked for integration with the new system. Furthermore, rather than purchasing a system with an integrated user interface and database viewer. customized GUI scripts had t o be written. Because the learn ing curve was steep labor costs resulted in BPTC successfully using a comprehensive and expandable "true GIS GIS IMPlEMENTATION STRATEGIES The success of the BPTCs GIS implementation was the result of both strategy and serendipity By combining savings strateg ies (purchasing used hardware, utilizing student interns, free data and updates) with good timing and inter-governmen tal cooperation the BPTC was able develop and implement a GIS with minimal funding. Furthermore strategic planning facilitated low cost data updates, intero perability and system expansion potential. Total implementation costs were approximately $12,000 This includ ed hardware. software licensing ($6,500), software maintenance fee and labor for system development. Significant savings were realized by using student resources. Future applications i nc lude using the GIS for an inventory of bus stop signs, shelters, furniture, and passenger count data by bus stop. Also in development is an application using scheduling data for the three bus systems for a centralized telephone i nformation service. Transit route p l anning applications are also planned for development using already encoded census and zoning data. The addition of an AVL system is also being considered for the future to further improve customer information accuracy I 28 frocmli'nts of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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LESSONS LEARNED Development Process More planning at the beginning stages of system implemen t ation may have been beneficial. System development, planning, organizing and document ing might have increased implementation effic iency and possibly enhanced the fit of the end p rod uct with BPTC operations. Specifically, these in itial efforts may have included conducting a more formalized procedure for assessing requirements, examining work flow, defining the scope and timetable of work, determ ining core functions and additional features of the produc t and setting a method for evaluating performance Although these is sues were discussed thr oughout the cou rse of project implementation a detailed analysis was not conducted. Because the BPTC is a t ransportat ion organiza tion rather than a software devel opmen t firm, was difficult to translate its needs into usable software without losing something in the t r ans lation. At first, a detailed needs assessments did not seem necessary because the project was limi ted to producing, viewing, and querying digi t ized routes and spreadsheets of bus timetables However, when the project scope was shifted to imp lementation of a GIS and GUI customization, i ncreased t ime spent on these issues would have been beneficial. Smoother system transition could have been enhanced by reducing differences between conceptual models and reality. Project Coordination Because BPTC is not a l arge organization, expertise from a few full-time staff members is necessary. Work is supplemented with student interns. A significant amount of operational management of the project was left to the and initiative of in terns This is because BPTC's staff members had either insufficient knowledge or other pressing duties. The use of student resources may be mutually beneficial to transit agencies. providing low-cost labor pools while enhancing practical application skills for students. Other small organizations that wish to implement an infor mation system may experience similar difficulties. Transit staff can contribute valuable knowledge to technical staff regarding organization and information needs. Formalizing procedures for updating progress scheduling meetings, articulating concerns, and gathering feedback, may significantly enhance performance without the need to dedicate management staff for daily supervision. Procetdinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 129

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Johnson City Transit Johnson City, Tennessee OVERVIEW OF JOHNSON CITY TRANSIT SYSTEM The Johnson City Transit system is the smallest system examined in this report Two types of public transit exist in Johnson City: a fiXed route bus system, and a small paratransit fleet. T h e fixed route bus system consists of six buses operating on a pulse schedule system a"emating every 30 minutes The paratransit fleet consists of four vehicles operat i ng at maximum service' A contingency van supplements the paratransit service when necessary. Table 35 Johnson City Transit System Characteristics Service Area {sq. mi) 40 Serv ice Area Population 52, 810 Total Fleet 16 Maximum Number of Vehicles Operated 11 Annual Passenger Miles 1 963,186 Annual Vehicle Miles 471,187 Total Annual Operating Expenses 1 ,026,576 OVERVIEW OF GIS AT JOHNSON CITY Johnson Ci ty was one of the earliest small clUes to imp l ement a comprehensive GIS. Implementation began in 1g84, and expansion continued steadily. Currently Johnson City's GIS is particular1y advanced when compared to other systems in cities of similar size The purpose of the G IS Division at Johnson City is to respond to the mapping and spat i a l analysis needs of City departments and to offer l ow-cost GIS services to other public and private e ntities. I 3 0 ffO(ttt/inrs of a Conference on GIS i n Transi t

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Three principal GIS activities occur at Johnson City's GIS D i vision: Managing and enhanc i ng a spatial database of geographic features and t heir attributes Creating maps and statist i ca l data from the database Performing geographic analysis through the deve l opment of special-purpose spat i al models. Although the Johnson City GIS is essentially cent r alized some GIS equipment and users are found in other departments and d i visions. All transit requests are funneled through the GIS D i v i s i on. H istory of Implementation The inception of Johnson City's GIS began wilh a federal grant from the Urban Mass T ransit Administrat i on (UMTA).This grant prov i ded funding for procurement of hardware and software training to help estab l ish a city-wide GIS. The i n tent of UMTA as the sponsoring agency was that GIS app l ications ult i mately be transit integrated for all Johnson C ity departments Three p r imary departments were involved i n the i n i t i al i mplementation: Transit, (including the local MPO), Plann i ng, and the Water and Sewer Division. Origina ll y the Johnson City G I S was decentralized in terms of hardware software locations, and users. Although this arrangement exh i bited many benefits it became ev i dent that increased central coordination was needed. Subsequently GIS Database Manager GIS Director positions were established. In addit i on, Johnson City establ i shed a symbiot i c re l ationship between the City and East Tennessee State University (ETSU) that provided a source of l ow-cos t GIS technic i ans and contractual r evenue Studen t labor pools were effectively uti l i zed as a means for students to acquire skill s whi l e augmenting departments' limited personnel for indivi dual project deve l opment. The first maj or project was build ing a digital transportation or street network Because of the lack of easily accessib l e and accurate digita l data during the 1980s Johnson City created its st r eet network almost entirely in-house. Thi s project entailed mapping school bus r outes and fixed gui deway routes. Section 15 ridership data was also digitally mapped and some data analysis was performed Table 36 details some important hallma r ks in the development of Johnson City's GIS Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit I 3 I

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Table 36 JOHNSON CITY GIS HIS TORY 0 exislr>g minl-<:011\puter with lexidat a 2400 tenninal s and AllloGIS Purchased digitizing table _ o f tax block layer complete 0 0 14-pen Houslon Instruments ploner purchased by Transit Department D igitizing tablet purchased by Trans i t Department GIS coordinator appointed Water lines complete d GIS Master Plan Center established 354mb har d disk purchased by Transit Department First GIS contract wOO< epproved ,,., 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Compilation of U S Census and Teme ssee tax dala Digitization of propeJty parcels Transit route anatysls and map preparation Naw Data General m ini computer acquired (dedicated to GIS) Implemented Arclnfo software Completed conversion of existing maps and databases Completion of revised zoning maps Compl eted conversio n and updating of all state tax parcel database/maps Procurement of cowr e lectrostatic p lotter of 1990 land use Changed hardware to Data General stand-alone worllemenled a GIS model to detennine prospective sites 101 a new Johnson Ubrasy Produced snow removal route maps Oev6loped methodo1ogy for construction of meaningful de.mographk: meps end Building spatial database o f Johnson City Power Board electrica l system : 1 .500 maps d igitized Enhanced address ranges coded for automated mapping Design of ci1y and coun\y map of transportation and places o f interest I 3 2 frocM!inrs of a Conference on GIS i n Transi t

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Organizational Structure The GIS Division at Johnson City is currently adm i nistered under the P l anning Department and functions as a centralized spatial data fac ility. The GIS Division also serves as a service bureau fo r all City departments and divisions, inc luding Johnson City Transit. These departments also have GIS equipment and users. The GIS Division creates, processes, and maintains an extensive collect i on of geograph i c map and data features includ ing property pa rcels transportation features, utilities, City li mits land use, zoning, topographic contours, soils hydrography and other regional lay ers. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PlATFORM Early Development The first GIS software package used by Johnson City was called AUTOGIS (Autometric Inc. Fort Collins, Colorado). Developed in the early 1980s and used by several large federal resource management agencies AUTOGIS was an early, yet sophisticated modular package that ran on a Data General MV1 0000 mini computer. AUTOGIS used a Map Overlay and Stat i stical System (MOSS) configuration for map manipulation and database creation/updating. Johnson City was the first "sman Autometric client. Several departments within the City accessed and used AUTOGIS using peripheral hardware devices. In 1990, the MV10000 was replaced by a new Data General mini computer. The system used Lex idata "d umb" terminals simultaneously accessing the mini for processing data. In 1991 it was realized that significant cost savings and speed improvement could be realized if the GIS was operating in a workstationllocal area network environment. In 1992, five Data General Aviion workstations were purchased to rep lace the mini. Each of these stand-alone units is linked with Ethernet cable on a LAN Two personal computers are also linked to the system and are used for interfacing with the engineering divisions. Current Platforms Three Data General 310 workstations and two 530 workstations run Arclnfo v.7.0 1 on a Unix platform. Additional software and h ardware summaries are listed in the tab les below. Promdints of a Conference on GIS in Transit 133

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Table 37 Hardware Dev i ces and Pe r ipherals Dev i ce T 8 Nu mbe r Per so n a l Ga t eway 2000 (486 ) 2 Computer Wo r ksta t ion Dat a Ge n era l Avi a t ion 5 Plotte r i nkie t HP650C 1 Plotter Prec i sion Image 636 1 (obso l ete) e l ectrostat i c D i g it iz i ng Tab let Ca l com p 5 Numonlcs ( 2 T a b l e 38 Softwa r e Licenses at Johnson City G I S Softwa re Licenses Numbe r Arc/Info noat in g seat license 2 Arc/Info Nodel ocked l i cense 2 ArcVi ew license 1 Arc/ I nfo Tin l i ce n se 1 A r c/ I nfo Grid li cense 0 Arc/ I nfo Netwo rk li ce n se 1 X-e m u l ation pac k ages(PC Xware) 2 SPATIAL DAT A RESOURCES The G I S D ivision owns and mai nta ins approx i mate l y 90 point line, and p olygo n coverages f rom a variety of sources Sources i nclude State t a x maps d i g it ized f rom hard copies USGS Digita l L ine Graph (DLG) fi les, TIGER l ine files. and 1990 U S Census data. Much of the data is digitized from aeri al photos and existing infrastructure maps using i n house personne l and ETSU student i nterns. I 3 4 fro
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A partial list of Johnson City GIS cove r ages includes: Alleys Aspec t Cemeteries City Limits Flood Zones Hospitals Neighborhoods Restaurants Signals Snow Routes Zoning Historic Sites Hydrography Soils Zip Codes Annexations Block Grants Collectors De-annexations Growth Plan Hotels One-way Streets School Zones Sinkholes Subdivisions Detours Historic D i stricts Powerlines Tax Indexes Roads Arterials Bus Routes Contours (20' 1 00') Fire Stations I ndustry Libra ries Parks Shopping Centers Slope Water (lines, points and tanks) Free Roads Blocks, Blockgroups, Tracts Railroads TAZs National Forests While the GIS Division maintains all spatial laye rs, the Department maintains relat io nal databases (i e ., paratransit. special students). Principal transit layers include bus routes. paratrans i t r outes, school bus r outes, student street addresses and T AZs. CURRENT GIS APPLICATIONS Although the Johnson City GIS was established in 1 984. transit app l icat i ons were limited to map production. Only during the past three years has the Transit department used the analyt ica l capabilities of the GIS, primari l y due to more readily available data The increased use of GIS analysis has allowed for more accurate transit service evaluations. Currently, the principle transit applications at Johnson City Transit are: Digital cartography (address-range mapping. pin mapping. bus route mapping) Demographic mapping and analysis (population and housing statistics, distan ce buffering optimal routing of paratransit and schoo l buses) Mapping and route modelling of citizens and schoo l buses Route modeling was also developed for city street sweeping and trash collection. One unusual aspect of Johnson City's GIS is tha t the boundar i es of the Johnson City School District and Johnson City are the same Johnson City s GIS is therefore is used for school bus route selection Student address locations were geocoded and used for mapping student patterns and analysis Requests for GIS maps and analysis are made by the Transit department and submitted to the G IS D ivision. Requests typically con sist of hard copy maps and digita l tabular data based on spatial queries. Map requests may be as s i mple as route maps and student address locations, or may require more sophisticated spatial ana l ysis Fo r example, a recent route eva l uation r equest by Johnson C ity Transit required data by census t ract (or smaller unit) that i ncluded the following information : Proaedinp of a Conference o n GIS in Transit 135

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Total population Percent of population with no auto availability Age brea kdown Income breakdown Total households Typical map requests at Johnson City Transit include City maps wilh updated street names and school zones, routing maps of special education children, address range maps (1"=500'), thematic maps portraying selected census variables and revised maps of mini-bus student loca tions Recent emphasis at Johnson City Transit focuses on streamlining r oute structures based on census data analysis to reveal changes in demog raphic variables over time Future Applications Future transit GIS applications may include additional optimal routing as well as transit planning. Although optimal routing models have been developed for trash collection and street sweeping bus route models are still i n deve lopment. Impleme n tation of ArcView in the trans it office is also being considered, which will allow for basic queries to be performed without the need for requests. Objectives 1995/96 of the Johnson City GIS division for 1995196 includes: Acquire digital orthophotographs and detailed topographic and planimetric data from Atlantic Technologies Add speed limits and intersection characteristics to the street laye r (route modelling as a function of time rather than strictly distance ) Adjust locations of census boundaries Promote GIS products and services to the public Reduce maintenance and operating costs of map production (less expensive technologies than electrostatic ploner) Continue formalization and data updating procedures BENEFITS AND OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION Generally. obstacles encountered at Johnson City can be classified as historical and current. Historical obstacles faced during the early stages of implementation include: Poor hardware and software connectivity and deve lopment Th is was primarily due to the lack of software and hardware flexibility. Therefore imple mentat ion was extremely difficult as well as time and labor intensive. Organizational obstacles During the early days expansion was difficult due to lack of personnel and lack of organization. In terms of transit related obstacles. Johnson City reported no particular historical obstacles. Genera lly the GIS Division ma intai ned a good working relationship with the Transit division. This may be partially because the GIS and transit divisions and located in the same building. When the GIS Divis io n became headquarte red in the Transit center prob lems were encountered with wide area linkages to other departments such as City Hall and Engineering. I 3 6 Promlfings of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Current obstacles encountered by the Johnson City GIS Division are primarily related to d atabase maintenance. These include : Creating a quality address ranging database Creating a place-name alias file for address connectivity Updating and addfess-matching the pafatfansit customef database GIS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Because the Johnson City GIS was established with financial assistance through a federal grant, local contributions were minimal in comparison. Implementation was easier because several financial barriers were removed during the beginning stages. Because the city was l ess financially burdened w ith hardware and software acquisition costs. City departments could better alford to allocate personne l resources t o the project. Moreover. the initial cost savings promoted the recruitment of low-cost student techn i cians for data entry and digitizing. In the beginning, cost allocation was relatively simple. Each department using a GIS workstation was billed according to their use of computer time. Because tne system was new, tess emphasis was placed on equipment replacement and more emphasis was p l aced on supplementing the original GIS hardware. As the system developed, the need for additional personnel surfaced. This raised the question of which departments should pay for the additional staf1. Fair cost allocation was a concern particularly if the departments did not have GIS facil it ies. A system of billing indivi dua l departments and divisions was established based on hours devoted to GIS requests. AHhough implementation of the Johnson City GIS began in 1984, it was not until February, 1988 that a five-year development plan was initi ated. The early stages of development operated informally Between 1984 and 1986, the GIS was being used without an officially sanctioned work p r ogram I n 1966 the GIS Coordination 1'eam did adopt a work prog ram as an unofficial guide, but it was still not management-endorsed. lt was not until 1 987 tha t a formal GIS division was established. The lack of a clearly defined plan was primarily due to the decentralized nature of GIS personnel, hardware, and wor1< stations. In 1g88, the production of a five year development p lan called for a formalized GIS work program that addressed the decentralization prob le m Because some City departments had access to GIS equipment and had followed their own wor1< program. and other City departments were without access to GIS equipmen t. a comprehensive method for incorporation of these i ssues was needed. The solu tion cons i sted of two elements : Indi vidual departments with GIS capabilities carrying out their own work programs, subject to how that wor1< related to overall GIS objectives. A method for potential GIS users no GIS equipment to request schedule, and have GIS work performed. Paramount to this development plan was an agreed method of updating and maintaining GIS maps and databases. Finally, methods to allow GIS users to monitor costs and keep time and progress records for GIS work projects needed to be obtained. To ensure GIS data and maps are updated and accurate, the plan called for a G I S Database Manager and a method to fund a student coPromdintsof a Conference on GIS in Transit 137

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oplintem. Funher, an update schedule was defined for each GIS layer. The plan also called for a centralized GIS division to be created t o streamline p roduction analysis, GIS development and billing issues. Johnson City also significantly increased its productivity through the continued use of student interns from East Tennessee State University (ETSU). Both panies benefi t f rom this arrangement. Student intern tasks included : Address geocoding and matching Urban transponation network analysis using Network module of Arclnfo (paratransit routing ) Data automation and database design Interface design of Arc Macro Language (AML) applications Cartographic map design and production using Arclnfo LESSONS LEARNED Johnson City GIS lessons were primarily related to early development. These include: Make organizational changes in the early stages of project impl ementation Address im plementation design and formal development plans early Delegate enough responsibility for system operations in the formative stages of development Start with modest, achievable goals and build from these. I 3 8 frocettfinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Other Cases The following section contains brief summaries of preliminary phone interv iews conducted with the GIS departments of several transit agencies throughou t the nation. These agencies were not selected for a full case study, h owever, the inclusion of informal survey infonnation in t h is document may be of in terest to readers. NEW YORK CITY METROPOLITAN TRANSIT AUTHORITY Overview of GIS at NYC-MTA Currently, NYC-MTA uses three systems TRANSCAD,INTERGRAPH, and OTIS. GIS needs were originally established by personnel w it h modeling backgrounds who realized the value of visualization. It began with a single crude subway network. Currently NYC-MTA uses TRANSCAD as a sophisticated GIS based travel demand modeling system. The system combines bus routes, subway network, and a walk network, and connects these to census t r acts GIS Plus is also used. The application of I NTERGRAPH evolved somewhat separately from the TRANSCAD application and for different reasons. An initiative began ten years ago to d raw stat ions, t racts sta i rways, exits, etc. The intent was to provide s imu ltaneous visualization for the fire department and transit app l ica t ions Mutual improvement was envisioned. The INTERGRAPH system essentially evolved as a CAD based system and is not considered a true GIS. A third system currently in use is OTIS (Online Travel Information System). O TIS is a GIS which utilizes l andmarks, add r esses, etc for routing algorithms. OTIS a l so evolved separately from the othe r systems, primari ly because it targets a separate application best and alternate routing. Benefits and Obstacles to Implementation The biggest obstacle was the immense size and detail required for implementation of the system(s} With TRANSCAD, database manipulation was clumsy and time consuming The Windows version of TRA NSCAD has a much better DBMS than the non-Windows version With the Windows version, dBASE format is used and is directly linked to the graphic attributes. NYC MTA is beta t est ing the Windows version of TRANSCAD. Lessons learned Implementation does not happen casually The full support of the parent organ i zatio n(s} is necessary Separate applications typically move ahead, separate f rom an overall comprehensive vision. Furthennore, large scale organiZational problems occur in larg e systems The coordination of different applications requi res significant effort. Proceerlings of a Conferenc e on GIS in Transit 139

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SUBURBAN MOBILITY AUTHORITY FOR REGIONAl TRANSPORTATION (SMART--Detroit) Overview ofT ransit System at SMART Table 39 TRANSIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Service Area (sq. mi) 891 Service Area Population 4,246,712 Total Fleet 453 Maximum Number of Vehicles Operated 359 Annual Passenger Miles 78,208,262 Annual Vehicle Miles 12,628,278 T otat Annual Operating Expenses 46,278 900 $outQtr. U S Department oflraf\&pottat:ion, Om Tablts fof't/1$ Tlansit, Sectioti15Repon Overview of GIS at SMART Beginning in 1988, the SMART planning department established a need for visually displaying passenger board ing and de-boarding data. To this end, a consultant was hired to build a software package that would display bus routes bus stops, and their associated attributes. These layers were then overlaid on a digitized street network of the tri-county service area (Wayne, Oakland and Macomb} Pinnacle Graphics Software (UMA Engineering) was commissioned to develop the SMART GIS system. The software package, called T ransit Master, originally ran on DOS but now runs on the Microsoft Windows platform Transit Master included three mapping programs and two utility programs 140 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Table 40 GIS HISTORY AT SMART 1988 Needs established for GIS development 1989 Proprietary GIS software developed (Transit Master) 1991 Updated to TIGE R base map 1992 TIGER updated for 1990 census display 1993 Updated to ETAK basemap 1995 Implemented Windows based system Quovad i s AVL software i ntegrated 1996 with Transit Master Source. Suburban Mobility AulhOM)> fa' Reg,onal T tan sportatiOn, 1993. SMART GJ. S., p .2. fpatiilf Dilfil Resources Current data sources are R.L. Polk Employment Data (business list ing) and 1990 census data (STF1 tape). Hilftfware and foftware Plztform Currently, SMART's GIS runs on Pentium P90 computers, each with 16 megs of RAM. The system upgraded to Windows in January, 1995. Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 141

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Table 41 HARDWARE DEVICES AND PERIPHERALS Device Number Persona l Computer 10 X-tenninal 0 Workstation 0 Plotter i nkje t 6 Plotter electrostat i c 0 D i gitizing Tab let Table 42 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS OF TRANSIT MASTER Type. Program Name Function Mapping Geographic Maintenance Defines and mainta i ns geographic e l ements of Program (GMP) fixed route transit (routes and stops) Mapping Geographic Data Disp l ay Queries and displays ridersh i p information Program (GDDP) Mapping Corridor Analys i s Performs census tabulation and display P rogram (CAP) Developed for ADA requirement compliance Also used for poin t loca tion query and display Utility TMCONFIG (Transit Analyzes current and allows user to Master Configuratio n interactively configure Transit Master Program) Utility MATCHER (Address Assigns XN coordinates to addresses for display Matchi n g Program) on base map . "Quovadis" is also used. Quovadis is a PC-based paratransit bus scheduler that uses AVL technology (UMA Engineering Developed). Currently, the GIS and Quovadis do not interface. Some potential is seen by SMART for integ ration of the two systems. I 4 2 frO(eet/ings of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Current GIS Applications Currently, the SMART GIS system is used for ridership analys i s and mapping. Specific applications include analys i s or determinat i on of the following: R i dership patterns Optimum passenger shelter l ocations Bus stop locat i ons Bus route locations Mod i fy rout ing a li gnments through heavily populated areas Ridership in various communities Corridor demographics (total population racial distribut i on/population male/female distribut i on/populat i on. tota l fam i l i es) Standees per trip Trip generation (number of households) Peak load locations Buffer applications are used for determination of bus i ness types, number of businesses population, and other variables. With the implementat i on of the Windows system tri-county employment data was geocoded. Obstacles to Implementation Proprietary foftwzre Benefits: Because the software was developed from a private vendor for user-specific appl i cation, greater flex i bility was realized. Software updates are easier because the use r can request the developer to write code based on user-specific needs. Obstac l es: Develop i ng and updating the software was t i me i ntensive. Also, because the end user was also the beta tester, the user had to go through an arduous process of evaluation and change However since the initial versions the software has i mproved. Othe r drawbacks include incompatib i l ity with other systems l i ke Arclnfo and requests for graphic data may not be facilitated easi l y Lessons Learned Because SMART purchased a proprietary software package, source code modification must be performed by the o r ig i nal consul t ant. Software rev i sions or updates are limited to fund i ng availability. F urthermore, data exchange/sharing is not easily accomp li shed Collect ion of updated r aw data is currently extremely t i me and l abor intens i ve. It takes approximately one year to fully update passenger count information. Automation of the process would be benefic i al. However l ogistics m ay be difficult. Some possib l e methods include Aut omated fare box and pas s enger counting. Survey fo rms completed by dr i vers (union approval for wage increases may s low implementation). Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 14 3

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INDIANAPOLIS PUBLIC TRANSIT CORPORATION Overview of GIS at Indianapolis Public Transit Corporation The Indianapol i s Public Transportation Corporation ( I PTC) is considered a small transit system (<200 vehicles). One planner is currently working on GIS implementation. As of June 1994 ArcView 1 was in place. This program did not meet existing or foreseen demands. Therefore, a needs assessment was conducted for GIS software acquisition. A number of criteria drove the needs assessment. The software needed to be: PC-based Capable of transportation-specific data structures and calculations Able to read and write Arclnfo files Compat i ble with FTA TRANSCAD standard It was detennined that ArcView 2 also was an inadeq ua te application tool. In January, 1995 TRANSCAD for DOS was purchased and is install ed on a single PC. Plans exist for acquiring ArcView 2 as well. The IPTC sees TRANSCAD as a heavy duty creation and maintenance tool and ArcView 2 as a presentation application ArcView 2 may also be used for less demanding applications such as correlation of databases and for public infonnation but generally not as a generative tool. Currently, implementation is three to six months away from completion. Future tasks will include: Data input (bus stops, routes shelters), census tracts Generating maps for Title 6 compliance Ridership surveys and pattem analysis Correlate destinations wHh trip sources to evaluate performa nce efficiency. Spatial Data Resources The JPTC is currently part of a GIS consortium called the I ndiana Mapping and GIS project (!MAGIS). Th is consortium includes cHy, county, and university members. IMAGJS uses Arclnfo, and is currently in the process of producing a unifonn GIS system so that data can be easily shared. Approximately 30 GIS coverages are currently available. The IPTC bus route map is currently being digi t ized by the City of Indianapolis. Benefits and Obstacles to Implementation The primary obstacles enco untere d so far have been funding. Route data input is not proceeding quickly because personnel resources were not available. Furthennore, because only one person ha s been implementing the system, the process is slow AddHional funding cuts w ill further delay implementa t ion. Funding reductions from $25 million/yr to $16 million/yr are expected This will reduce bus route from 39 to 19. I 44 Procmlinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit

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Lessons Learned The evolutionary imperative t hat drives software development does not work well. Prop r ietary software data formats are a problem For example the manufacturer of the fa ir box does not make its da ta compatible with any othe r database formats. Great potential exists for data coord i nat i on. WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA TRANSIT AUTHORITY (WMATA) Overview of GIS at Washington M e tro Lamin Jeng a planning analyst at Washington Metro, was solely r es pons ib le for in itiation, and implementation of Washington Metro s G IS. Jeng introduced the idea of GIS through a series of in-house seminars. These seminars demonstrated the capabilities of a GIS system specific to applications in transit. Next Jeng wrote a needs assessment/analysis for implementation. Interviews were conducted to find out what geographic data tasks wou ld end users want to perform. Thirty potential end users were identified and the results were presented to management. A pro p osal was approved for implementation, after which the MTA advertised for in-house work Software was purchased (Caliper's TRANSCAO 3.0 for Windows). The end result included thirty users on a Novell network. Benefits and Obstacles to Implementation Probably the biggest obstacle encountered by Jeng was r esistance to change. People were generally happy the status quo Some obstacles included: Hesitance to release dat a Lack of willingness to be trained Desire for individual applications, a challenge was to show people that their needs relate to the big picture. ''Termorialit y---pe ople did not like the ooncept of hav ing a GIS imposed upon them. Unfamiliarity with concepts of spatial data queries and manipulation. The biggest benefit noted by Washington Metro was that people are beginning to realize alternatives to tradit iona l task completion approaches. Lessons Learned Jeng highlighted several important lessons that may be app li ed to agencies of various sizes: Implementation is t i me intens i ve, even w ith management support. Moreover it is difficult for one person to tackle unless the imp lementat ion entails only a few applications. It is probably necessary to educate users on basic GIS and geographic concepts, i.e. spatial data representation locational data m an i pulation, etc. Proceedinp of a Conference on GIS in Transit 145

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Maximize cost savings This can be done by uti li zing existing hardware where applicable and by using existing data sources rather than digitizing. Washington D.C. MTA used existing PCS, so hardware purchases were lim ited to upgrades. Most GIS implementation costs are associated with developing data. Washington D.C. MTA did not dig itize anything during the course of implementation. They used TIGER files and ARTS (Automated Routing and Transportation Systems) files for data sources. Existing geocoded routes in the non-graphic ARTS environment were generated into TRANSCAD. Bus stops were converted into TRANSCAD using a TRANSCAD macro. CHICAGO METROPOLITAN RAIL Overview of GIS at Chicago Metro Rail Because routes are fixed, Metro Rail's focus is on operations rather than plann in g. A justification for full GIS system implementa t ion i s hopefully forthcoming. Currently, ATLAS GIS is being used on a single stand-alone PC workstation. Applicat ions include the use of census data with TIGER files to examine demographics re l ated t o the network. Future plans include a the acquisition of a SUN workstation equipped w ith ArcV iew. This acquisition will be a narrow scope demonstrat io n project aimed at selling the merits of GIS to decis ion makers (estimated cost: sgo,OOO). If it wor!
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of a highly accurate base map. An improved street network would facilitate enhanced analysis. A decision i s anticipated by the end of 1995 Data sharing and cooperation between the c i ty/county project would be mutually beneficia l. Bus networks and stops could be used by other agencies and the Transit Authority would receive an accurate street network. NEW JERSEY TRANSIT CORPORATION Overview of GIS at New jmey Transit Coverages at New Je rsey Transit are very extensive. Spatial data exist for la rge areas of New Jersey New York City, Philadelphia, and some New York counties. These include over 1800 bus routes, major railways subway systems, and street networks. New Jersey Transit currently uses TRANSCAD and TIGER files on personal computers Because the large datasets are exceeding the limits of the existing personal computer software NJTC is in the process of purchasing INTERGRAPH MGE They feel this environment would better handle the huge data files. Upgrading to Pentiums would also improve performance. One of lhe most important anticipated improvements would be updating the TIGER street fi l es. NJTC feels these files are currently inadequate. A strong street centerline will be obtained using an existing vectorized and orthorectified aeria l photo street layer. In the bus stop inv entory will be merged Benefits and Obstacles to Implementation The biggest obstacle encountered was trying to convince data owners of the benefits of GIS implementation. Because a very large initial up-front effort is needed for GIS implementation, funding obstacles are significant. Difficulty arises from trying to convince funding sources that a GIS would make stronger use of inherently spatial data. Further i mpedance comes from the large init ial cost outlays. Some benefits of G I S implementation are that anticipated appl i cation needs are better met a GIS makes stronger use of the data in terms of maps and analys i s. lessons learned Draw from the best sources and create a large master file The shortcomings of TRANSCAD and Tiger data quickly exceeded the hardware and software capabilities. Consider antic i pating end user applications of digital data Ease people into the GIS menta lity by creating public workstations within the agency Duplication of effort. Promdings ol a Conference on GIS in Transit 147

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Summary and Conclusion Predictably, comprehensive implementation of a GIS system was primarily to large t ransit agencies. Large transit agencies with a well-developed GIS typically favor interoperability and enterprise-wide implementation. Typically, cost benefit justification is more difficult in small to mid size agencies A common theme in small-agency implementation is the use of student resources and inter-agency cooperation COMMON THREADS One of the most common trends in large-agency GIS implementation found in these case studies is the shift toward a combination centralized/decentralized GIS. Because most large agencies have existing centralized GIS data distribution regimes, implementation was limited to decentralization of their systems. SANDAG LACMTA, and King County Metro have or are implementing, the Arclnfo-ArcView software married to a network of personal computers. This approach allows end users (planners} to access core spatial data for a variety of common analysis queries using desktop GIS software that is compatible with the large system. Typically, the desktop GIS software (usually ArcView) is modified for specific applications using the software's macro language (ArcView-Avenue, Mapinfo MapBasic, GenaMap-Geniusll). Additional benefits from the desktop approach include reduction of workload requests for core GIS personnel, related cost savings, and immediate access to GIS databases. The decentralization theme is carried a step further through enterprise-wide implementation. This approach facilitates data across department and/or agency boundaries. For example, a transit agency could share route and schedule information with an MPO while using the MPO's land use data for ridership forecasting. Typically, implementation of such enterprise-wide GISs currently requires significant effort in data conversion (LACMTA). At least one agency (Orange County Transportation Authority) has commissioned vendors to provide data import and export utilities between GIS and scheduling packages (UMA and ESRI). Development of common spatial data standards is critical to maximizing GIS potential in the transit industry Factors contributing to slow adoption of GIS by transit operators/agencies include: Lack of resources High costs of maintaining accurate spatial databases Software incompatibility between the GIS and existing agency software Convincing decision makers of the value of GIS. Size-Spe
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as the dominant GIS software package has a direct influence on software considerations at the PC l eve l, i.e .. ArcView compat i b i lity In lieu of the development and implementation of data exchange standards, desktop GIS software vendors (Mapinfo, TRANSCAD, INTERGRAPH) usually include some provision for compatibility with Arclnfo. Custom modification of desktop GIS programs to fit user needs was also found in mid-size agencies ArcView's Avenue, Genamap s Genius II, and Mapinfo's MapBasic, are some examples. Service planning continues to dominate GIS applications in this size category. Motivating factors may include increasing catchment area efficiency, Title VI compliance, ADA requirements, shrinking subsidy levels and the lack of GIS-specific personnel. Cost effective GIS implementation is more difficult in small agencies. However, small agencies may implement a cost-effective GIS by using student resources, sharing maintenance of spatial data w ith other city/county agencies, and using existing hardware and datasets (if available). Data sharing consortiums also appear to be significant factors bolstering cost-effective imp lementat ion. Small agencies are perhaps more likely to adopt imp lementation strategies specific to local constraints and opportunities. Johnson City for example, established its GIS based on a federal grant making subsequent development easier Agencies may also be opportunistic and selective with regard to implementation as with the Bloomington example (acquiring used equipment, utilizing student resources for software development). A number of agencies chose to implement their GIS using a proprietary software package. Advantages and disadvantages were noted for this method of GIS implementation. Cost cons ide rations were weighed against data compatibil ity and operations issues. Data exchange/sharing limitations were significant when weighed against the trend towards enterpr ise wide implementat ion interoperability and data exchange consortiums This trend illustrates how GIS implementation strategies are shifting to confonm to budget constrained environments, decreasing hardware/software costs, and rapidly increasing network infrastructures. Promdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 149

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This annotated b ibliogr a phy was p r epa r ed to serve as a reference f o r o rgani zati ons and indiv i duals i n tereste d i n t he use and application of GIS i n t r ansit p l ann i ng operations ma r keting, and ana l ysis Nea rly 100 b i b li o grap h i c r eferences are prov i ded mos t of wh ich focus on the specifi c use of GIS in various aspects of public trans portation. Many of t h ese ref e rences do not re l ate spec ifically to t ransit but should be useful for any GIS app li cat i o n t o t ransportat i on i n g e n e r a l. Re f e r ences that relate specifically to t r a ns it are l i sted in ita lics. The re feren c es include d in this draft were i dent i fied through severa l mecha nisms, including ( 1) a TRIS search, ( 2 ) a un iv ersity lib rary search, (3) a review of recent con f erence proceedings and {4) word of mouth. For additio na l i nformation on t h i s b i b li ogr a phy con tact the Cente r for Urban T rans p ortation Research, (813) 974-312 0 Author William L. Ball Co-Author Forrest Cotten )> ::J ::J 0 r-t m a. OJ CT 0 ()Q J ""0 ::::r '< frocmlinp of a Conference o n GIS in Transit lSI

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: Geographic I nformation Systems in Publ i c Transportatio n (References in italics relate specifically to transit.) AbdeiAty, M ohamed A., Ryuichl K itamura, and Paul P. Jovanis, "Route Choice Models Using G I S Based Alternative Routes and Hypothetical T ravel Time Information Input," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeti n g of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 950244 (Jan uary 1995). Th i s paper utilizes statistical analys i s t o explai n t h e route c h oice of comm uters. The ana lysi s i s based on mail out/mail-back s urvey questionnaires which were cus tom ize d us i ng route s generated by a G I S The results i n dicat e the sig nifica nce of th e fo llowing variables on route choice : traveltime t rave l time reliability traffic safety and roadway characteristics. Abkowllz, Mark, Paul Der-Ming Cheng, and Mark Lepofsky, "Use of Geographic I nformation Sys tems in Managing Hazardous Materials Shipments," Transportation Research Recorrl 1261 (1990). This pape r discusses the r e l evancy of GIS in prov i d i n g for Improved decision support in manag i n g safe transport of h azardous materia l s shipments GIS a p p l ic ations a r e d efi ned for haza rdous materials trans port prob l ems a nd th e be nefits that can be ach iev ed through t he adapta t ion of GIS to thi s subjec t area are demo ns trated. The fo llo w i ng to p i cal areas are exam ined: (1) the decis ion envi ronme n t for managi n g haz ardo u s ma teria l s shi pments (2) GIS d at a availability to suppo rt anal ysis n eeds, (3) appl i cat ion of a firstgeneratio n GIS model to i dentify p referre d hazardous materia l s shipment routes (4) comprehe n sive ap proac hes using G I S for emergency preparedness and evacuat i o n p l anning a n d (5) prob l ems encou n te re d i n using GIS t echno l ogy for hazardo us materials trans port applica t ions. Allen, Jr., William G., and Srinivasan Mukundan, "Use of GIS in Transit Alternatives Analysis," Pre sented at the Fourth National Conference on Trans portation Planning Methods Applications (May 1993). This paper presents a process for using GIS in the Tra nsit Anematives Analysis. Studies of major tran sff capital investments often rely on regional travel fore casting models and larg e-s cale computerized transit networks GIS can be used to modify network coding reflect various transit alfematives and then analy ze the impact of these alternatives Examples of a/lema live investments include a new fixed guideway facilffy, significant i mprovements in local or express bus fre quency, new park-and-ride lots, and improved feeder bus service. The authors build upon earlier work by others to develop a way to systematically display servic e level differences between any two tran sit a/lema lives or between an alternative and some base condi tion. L D "Applying Geographic Informa tion Systems to Transportation Planning," Trans portation Research Recorr/ 1305, Finance, Planning, Programming, Economic Analysis, and Land Development, pp. 1 13-117 (1991).Atech n o logycru cia l to better coup l i ng of l and use a nd tra nsport atio n planning is Geographic Informat ion Systems (G I S) Because f ew documented p ra ctica l applications of this tech n o l ogy have been developed, the Planning Sup port Branch of FHWA' s Office o f E nvir onment a n d Plan n ing with t h e Transp ortation P l anning Divis ion of the Marylan d -Na tio nal CapftaJ Pari< and Plan n i n g Commis sio n (M NCPPC) in Montgomery Cou n ty, Mary l and. conducted a threemonth case study examining M .. NC PPC s app li cation o f the GIS Spatia l Ana l ysis Sys te m (SPA NS) software to i ts t r ansportat ion p l ann i ng activ it ies. Thi s case study comprises o n e module w ith in F HWA's G ISNideo Imagery Demon stration P r ojec t 85. SPANS was used to disaggrega te the county's t raffic analysis zones (TAZs) into smal ler subzone components to p r oduce fi ne r -grai n ed m odel ing data. The p ri mary goal was t o compare current and p l a n n ed ho us i ng and emplo yment w ith pres cri bed development ceilings This activity perm i ts creation of future scenarios based on the amount of remaining legally developable land, as well as the future deman d for tra ns portat i on by mode (a u t omob ile, bus. r ai l walk ing bicycle, etc.) Th e r esults ind icat e that usi ng G I S p roduced disaggregate socioeconomic data w i th trave l d ema nd mode l ing techn i ques improves t h e planner's abi l ity t o m ode l both tri p ge n eration an d modal choice Further work by planne r s a n d GIS software developers alike will expand the application of t he GIS well i nto th e futu r e. Proctedingsof a Conference o n GIS in Transit I 53

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Anton/sse, R. W.E .. GIS T Applications in Transit: Recent Experience in Seattle and Boston, (Ameri can association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, 1991). GIS-T has many potential app l ica tions i n the transit context which may hav e quite dif ferent character i stics from establi shed uses in for instance, state DOTs o r munic ipal government On e possible area of transit operations where implementa t i on of GIS T may be of benefit is in the developm ent of customer information systems To date lillie re search has focused on GIS-T applications in transit compared with other, more highway.oriented contexts. This paper compares case stud ies of the Seattle and Boston transit authorities in order to discuss the pos sibl e benefits and difficulties of implementing GIS-T in transit agenci es. Azar, Kamal T., and Joseph Ferreira, Jr., "GIS for Transit Pass en !}fir Information Systems," Proceed ings of the 1991 Geographic Information Systems Symposium, Orlando, Florida (1991) A Passenger Informat ion System { PIS) answers passenger inquir ies about how to get from address A to address B GIS software of!en includes address matching and rout ing capabilities but the raw tools are not enough to make a PIS v i ab le. Thi s paper (a) explores the fea sibilitY of replicating the basic functions of a PIS in a GIS {b) identifies the conceptual and practical differ ences between a custom-designed PIS and a G/S based system and (c) explains the advantages and d i sadvantages of each approach as the development and sharing of maintainable databases for road net works. routes and demographic i nformation become more and more common Azar, Kamal T., and Joseph Ferreira, Jr., uusing GIS Tools to Improve Transit Ridership on Routes Serving Large Employment Centers: The Boston South End Medical Area Case Study," Comput., Environ. and Urban Systems, Vol. 18, No.3, pp. 205-231 (1994). This paper dis cusses how planning transit routes can be transformed into a more proac tive process and how GIS technologies can be used to reach that goal. The authors' methodology uses the address-matching capabilities of GIS to pinpoint the residences of the employees of large employers and to map these locations with respect to existing transit lines and employment sources. A statistical analysis of current accessibility is then completed. The au thors apply their methodology to practice by utiliz ing data from three large medical institutions in the South End Medical Area of Boston. I 54 fr()(m/ingsol a Conferen
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In addrtion 1o PA-DOT management and staff the plan ning process includes other Commonwealth agencies whi ch would l ike ly be users and/or benefactors ofPADOT's GIS. The process involved: (1) ident i fy i ng and prioritizing potential transportation GIS applications; (2) assessing exi sting computer systems and identi fy i ng data linkage oplions: (3) developing a modular strategic plan which addresses priorities and incre mentally enhances PA-DOT's GIS technology. Beck, S., and T. Andriola, "The Use of GIS In the Study of the Location and Feasibility of a Mag netic Levitation Transit System Within the Baltimore-Washington Corridor," Compendium of Ps pers, Volume II, 4th National Conference on Trans portation Planning Methods Applications (1993). The lntermodal Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) provides for the development of a domestic prototype Maglev system in six years While Maglev technOlogy is generally regarded as feasible in this time frame, site .. specific route and alignment studies are needed to assess economic viabt!ily, rights of-way compatibility, and environmentalimpacts. Se lection of a suffable corridor for implementation of fhe IS TEA prototype is essential to the assessment and success of a domestic Maglev system. KCI Technolo gies . in association with Martin Marietta Corporation and a number of ofher firms, is conducting a location and feasibility study to evaluate the 10-mile-wide Bal timore-Washington corridonvith respect to the Prototype Development Program authorized under ISTEA. This location and feasibility study is being conducted in three phases The initial and iterative phases char acterize potent i al corridors in terms of: Maglev tech nologies, alignment geametries environmental im pacts, operaOons scenarios. ridership revenues, life cycle costs. and cost-effectiveness measures. The evaluaUon phase consists of a disciplined analysis and assessment of viable corridors with respect to ISTEA factors This paper discusses the use of a GIS as a tool for collecting, organizing. evaluating, and displaying environmental data for this project. Emphasis is placed upon the design and implementa tion of databases and digital maps and the ment of project-specific applications Also discussed is the interface between the GIS and Martin Marietta's Ground Transportation Analysis System. a modelling toOl for collecting and evaluating route alignment in formation along transportation corridors at the plan ning scale. Bennion, M. Wayne, and Wende A. O'Neill, "Build ing Transportation Analysis Zones Using GIS," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting altho Trans-portation Research Board, Paper No. 940476 (January 1994). This paper describes t he develop ment of a model which is used to aggregate tra nspor tation analysis zones us i ng fuzzy set theory and spa liar analysis tools found i n GIS The p u rpose of th i s model is to provide analysts with standardized mat h ematica l and computerized approac hes fo r netwo r k design. A comparison is made of approaches for mod eling zona l homogenerty. A model for evaluating zone shape is presented. Impleme ntation of these models is d i scussed for Arc/Info and Atlas GIS. The foc u s of the work described here Is on aggregating T AZs but the model appl ies equally well to creating T AZs from smaller un its like Census b l ocks Butler, Jack A ., "An Enterprise GIS-T Design," unpublished (April1995). This paper proposes an enterprise. or agency-wide, design for a GIS serv i ng a state department of transportation. The author bases h i s approach on two primary strategies : (1) the provi sian of an overall GIS-T design proposal, and (2) in creasing the leve l of i nteract ion and cooperation be tween the seven management and monitoring systems being developed in accordan<:ewith federal regulations The autho r attempts to p rovi de a c lear understanding of the integrated system design developed by the GIS T/ISTEA Pooled-fund Study and state laws gove rn i ng the Florida Department ofTransportation s (FOOT) in vestment decisions. Casavant, Kenneth L., William R. Gillis, and Amy Amls, "Modeling Washington State Truck Freight Flows Using GIS-T: Data Collection a n d Design," Presented atthe 74th Annual Meeting of the Trans portation Research Board, Paper No. 950444 (January 1995). This paper addresses a specific need that State Departments of Transportation and Metro politan Planning Organizations have. which is to in clude a focus o n fre i ght and gOOds movements as one e l ement of their p lann i ng p ro cess. The paper provides an overview of research p rocedures utilized in a study conducted by the Washington State Department of Transportation on statewide freight tru ck origins and destinations The authors fo cus on a particular case study to u n derscore the practical uses of GIS-T as a means to thoroughly document and assess the char acteristics of freight truck movements. Center for Urban Transportation Research, "The Use of GIS in Public Transportation," Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, Research Center(June 1995). This report was prepared to iden tify the various uses of GIS in public transportation. to document example uses of GIS in transit through Promdints of a Conferen
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literature review and personal inteNiews, and to com pile an inventory of transportation related GIS systems. databases and applications in Florida. A general over view of GIS i n transportation is provided followed by an overview of the use of GIS in transit. Four major categories of GIS uses in trans i t are identified. in cluding information dissemination trans i t planning, facilities and real estate management, and transit op erations and control. Choi, Keechoo, Paul F. Hanl ey, and Tschangho John Kim, "GIS Based Traffic Analysis Zone Design," Presented at the 1995 Geographic I n for mation Systems for Transportation Sympos i um, Sparks, Nevad a Thi s pape r desc r ibes a GIS based Traffic Analysis Zone (T AZ) design method. A spat i a l indexing method is developed to clus t er homogeneou s spat i al units that can serve as t raffic ana lysis zones. The paper exp l ains a twostep procedure using GIS : (1) to provide the t opological re l ationship among basic spatia l units and (2) to integrate databases The au thors illustrate how, o n ce t he de l ineation is complete GIS generates a revised matrix of attribute data for further analysis, such as trip generations. Clpollo n i M J., "Using G I S to Bette r Manage Ex Isting Transportat i o n Facilities," Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Trans p ortation E n gineers, 63rd Annual Meeting (1993). Many decades of underspending on main te n ance has left the i nfra str u cture of many countries in need of repair, espe c i ally i n the U .S. However the lntermoda l Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) provides some re l i effo r transportation needs. Section 1034 re qui res that all 50 states i mplement six management systems by fiscal year 1996o rface a poss i b l e l oss of ledera l funds. These inc lude Highway Pavement Bridges, Highway Safety Traffic Congestion Publ ic Transportation Facilities and lntermodal Transporta tion This pape r d i scusses the many uses of GIS to better manage exis t ing transportation facili ties and covers in some deta i l an example of h ow New Jersey has emp l oyed this techno l ogy to ma nage their traffic cont r ol s i gns Cook e Donald, "Updating TIGERT h e Census Perspective," GIS World, pp. 1 24-125 (February 1991 ). T h i s article discusses the h istorical background of the U .S. Census Bureau 's TIGER a computerized map of the States depicting virtua ll y all streets, bOundaries, railroads and water features to serve as the master geographic base for the 1990 census In addition the article touches upon current issues l ike what Is being done to keep TIGER updated. Concerns I 56 Prmlints of a C onference on GIS in Transit s u ch as lack ol cooperatio n amo n g agencies (public and private) and duplication o f effort are addressed. Corbin, Lisa, "Maps Go On-Line,,. Government Executive, pp. 28-34 (March 1993) T his art i c l e d i s cusses the ever increasing ro l e bei n g played by GIS in federa l government. It discusses briefly how GIS works and how it is used to help governmental agen cies accomplish their missions (especially those agen cies which manage natural resources or ronmental impacts) F inally, the article emphas i zes the i mportance of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SOTS) which is necessary to expensive data conversion and i ncrease data-sharing activ i ties Craig, William J "The Rising Tide of GIS," CURA Reporter, Cente r for U r ba n and Regi o n al Affairs, University of Minnesota (May 1993) This art i cle dis cusses the rap i dly i ncreas ing use ol G I S in the State of Minnesota. I t emphasizes the need for the academi c community to take an act ive role in ass isting govern mental agencies harness the technology It summa rizes brieHy the various areas in which GIS can be used (i .e., urban issues, environmental issues. forest stand man agement) and d iscu sses the financial as pects of util i z ing ttl is tectlnology Culp, Linda, "Short Range Transit Planning and Marketing Using Desktop Geographic Information Systems," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting ofthe Transporflltion Research Board, Paper No. 950467 (January 1995). This paper summarizes a cooperative arrangement between the san Diego As sociation of Governments and the region s transit op erators to design a desktop GIS application that staff from each individual operator can access directly to enhsnCil reg i onaltransd planning and marketing The primary objective was to develop a system at a rela tively low cost and that requ i red min i mal training The peper identifies several applications that can be ac complished by the system. including trans i t service potential socio-economic profiles of areas surround ing transit. route analysis Tille VI evaluation and fu ture growth areas among others. Dowling, Unda A., "Technology Transfer-High Tech Department of Energy to High Tech Transit" Presented at the 1995 Geographic Information Sys tems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Ne vada. This paper summarizes a project being con ducted by the City of Albuquerque Transit and Park ing Deparfmeflf and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) that involves the use of SNL's hazardous ma terial tracking GIS software as the basis for a full -

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function, client-sensitive tool for the city's paratransit services. In addition to supporting the paratransit ser vices. the project was also designed to meet the g eo graphic and travel information needs of an emergency re sponse center capable of supporting both the rural and urban aspects of New Mexico. Dueker, Kenneth J., Ric Vrana, and Gary Bishop, "GIS Applications In Urban Public Transportation: Pilot Projects and Implementation Strategies for Tri-Met Portland, Oregon" (Portland: Center for Urban Studies and Transportation Northwest Oc Iober 1991 ). This report summarizes the i ncramental experience of the Tri-County Metropolftan Transporta tion District of Oregon (T ri-Met), as ft implements a strategy of database integration around a mod if ted ver sion of the TIGER line files. The functional GIS appli cation araas in transit are identified and discussed, including facl7ities management, facilities engineering, service planning, operations and control, and customer service The use of TIGER as a base network also is reviewed as a potential integrating framework. Four pilot projects demonstrate the usefulness of GIS for transit applications. Projects were selected to provide proof of concept and to illustrate GIS applicalions to issues of concern for TriMet. The four projects in elude : (1) incorporating transit routes into a GIS, wfth relation to an enhanced TIGER, (2) analysis of aged and disabled paratransit clients and trips to determine the proportion served by fixed route transit service, (3) use of GIS for analysis of land use adjacent and near bus shelters. (4) use of GIS to relate bus stop loca tions to traffic zones Dueker, Kenneth J "Access to Data: National Spatia l Data Infrastructure," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (January 1995). Th i s paper details the signifi cance of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). It briefly describes the program and explains its ap p licability to the transportation planning profes sion. It outlines the unique needs of transportation in the NSDI and specifically d iscusses which data are sharable i n this program. F i nally. the paper addresses the l i near data transfer problem un der the NSDI and i dentifies weaknesses of the current program that could be strengthened to more successful. Eberlein, X.J., and J.N. Brown, "Combining Land Use and Transit Planning Using GIS," Proceedings of the 1991 Geographic Information Systems Sym posium, Orlando, Florida (1991). GIS software can help policymakers analyze the rela tionsh i p between land use and transportation, and thus serve as a useful tool in developing policies that alleviate traffic con gestion. This paper presents a basic GIS methodol ogy to integrate and analyze transft and land use data at the regional level. For this study, rail transit use patterns are ralated to the siting of federal facilit ies in the Wash i ngton, D. C. region. The GIS analysis rec ommends that some of the region's new federal site developments be concentrated or relocated. so tore duce the site developments' negative impact on traf fic congestion and to improve their pos;five impact on transit use. This simple example provides the basic structure with wh ich to develop similar GIS analyses of higher complexity or for other regions Federal Transit Administration, "National Transit Geographic Information System: A Component of the National Transponation System," (Office of Technical Assistance and Safety, 1994). This bro chure is intended to inform the transportation commu nffy and the general public that the FTA is developing a national transit GIS incorp orating user-friendly, per sonal computer sol!ware technology. The GIS will have the capability to display inventory and other selected data of fixed public transit facl1ities in the United States, as well as to display information of other transporta tion facilities including highways, airports marine ports. fraightand passenger rail systems The Transit GIS will facimate the exchange of information among the modal administrations and the transit industry It will also enable managers at all levels to analyze and ra trieve existing transit inventory data, and project and program information. The Transit GIS will be a com ponent of the National Transportation System and will enhance the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. Gallimore, W Paul, David T. Hartgen, and Yuanjun Li, "Applications of Geographic Information Sys tem-Transportation Analysis Packages in Superregional Transportation Modeling," Trans portation Research Record 1364 (1992). This paper illustrates the merits of using GIS (TransCAD) to con duct a transporta tio n a na lysis for the Charlotte. North Carol i na. area. This study was undertaken in an at tempt to address some of the concerns associated with a proposal lor a 150-mile (or more) road around th is region, called the Carolina Parkway. The software develops a sketch netwo rk where traffic can be simu lated using a doubly constrained gravity model tech nique. P r oblems and opportunities presented by su per-regional modeling also a r e discussed. Gan, ChengTin, "A GIS-Aided Procedure for Con verting Census Data for Transportation Plan ning," ITE Journal, pp. 34-30 (Novemb
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ticle presents a GISAided procedure designed to over come the major problems that exist in the current prac tice of the census-to-T AZ data conversion process. The three problems that the author addresses are: (1) the manual method of developi n g equivalency tables by matching census and TAZ har d copy maps, (2) the problem which arises from the unnecessary non-cote rminous census and T AZ area boundaries. and (3) the use of a single equivalency table, which can be ex tremely inefficient. Goodwin, Cecil W. H., and Stephen R. Gordan, "Reinterpreting the Location Referencing Prob lem: A Protocol Solution," Compendium, GIST 95 (1995 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). This paper critiques the assumptions behind the 'common method' approach to location referencing, and reevalu ates its necessity and practicality A prototype protocol for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) appli cations, the Location Reference Message Protocol (LRMP) is presented The paper concludes that the protocol is flexible enough to accommodate different referencing methods and 111us to facilrtate market and product development for ITS, and can be extended for use within distributed GIS-T networks. Groff, Jonathan, "Dynamic Segmental/on as an Implementation Path to an Evolved Transit Data Model" (Presented at the 1995 Geographic Infor mation Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks Nevada). This paper describes the neces sity of constructing an implementation path to ease the transition to an integrated environment. Specifically, the paperdetafls the experiences of the Tri-County Metropolffan Transportation District of Oregon (Tri-Mel) in which a linear referancing system was adopted uti lizing the Arc/Info Dynamic Segmentation model for the purposes of i ntegrating core operations at Tri-MeL The author explains that this evolved system was nec essary due to the impending acquisition of spatial data intensive applications such as Automated Trip Plan ning, Paratransit, and Bus Dispatch. Guo, Bo, and Allen Poling, "A GISIGPS System Design for Network Travel Time Study," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportat i on Research Board, Paper No 950332 (January 1995) This paper is based on a study conducted by 111e Maricopa Asscx:iation of Governments (MAG) for the purposes of examining travel speed and delay in the Metropolita n Phoenix area Specifically, the paper fo cuses on a GISIOatabase systems approach to pro cessing the data collected by GPS units and portable I 58 ftl)(etdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit computers A brief discussion of trave l route selec tion, preparation and comparison of several diffe r ent travel time survey techniques using the test veh icle method is included. The authors emphasize the effec tiveness of GPS technology and its ability to serve as a valuable resource in the context of GIS Hakkert, A.S., A. Peled, and B. Haj-Yehia, "A Geo graphical Information System for Urban Road Safety Management," Presented at the 74th An nual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No 950829 (January 1995). This pa per describes t h e Implementation of a newly devel oped Arc/Info-based road safety analysis (GIS) sys tem in the municipality of Haifa, Israel. The software package was tested with accident-data during a three yea r period and was adopted as the primary tool for road safety analysis. and improvement. The authors argue that the three primary components of road safety (the road system the human factor and the vehicle element) form the basis of road safety analysis and im provement when interlaced t h rough geore!erencing traffic events. The refore, GIS seems to be 111e most appropriate mell1odology by wh i ch to ana lyz e different traffic events. Hancock Kathle&n, and Marl< Abkowitz, "The Use of Information Systems for Customer S8iVice in Urban Public Ttansportatlon." Presented at the 71 st Annual Meeling of the Transportal/on Research Board PaperNo. 920896 (January 1992). This paper describes the development and implemen tation of a GIS-T application in customer service for the Metropolitan Transit Authority in Nashville, Tennessee. It includes a discussion of design consider ations. system capability, necessary data to support the system, limitations and problems identified during development, future enhancements, and portability of this system to other transff authorities. Customer ser vice in tranSit is indicated as being a productive appli cation of GIS-T since user needs require spatial jnfor .. mation about trip origins. destinations, and bus stops, as well as routing and scheduling at various locations. The rasulting G/5T for customer service provides a fast, flexible. and easily Interpreted method for as sisting customers wffh routing and scheduling ques tions. Harman, Lawrence J., "Inventory of GIS Users in Transit in Support of the Development of the FT A Bus Route GIS" (February 1994). This memorandum details the construction of a database from TIGER fifes used to provide necessary information on transit agencies and their own adoption of GIS databases.

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The obj e ctiv e of the dat abase was to dete rmine: (1) whi c h agencies may have a bus route GIS database completed (2) which agencies may complete a bus route GIS database within the next two years and (3) which agencies will not be developing a GIS database w ithin the next two years The memorandum summa rizes the results of the research, provides some tec/1nical documentation of t he database of GIS i n Transit use, discusses the implementat io n of the database during the out r each phase of the Federal Transit Ad ministration (FTA) GIS development, and d i scusses some problems and opportunffies arising from the conduct of the research Hartgen, David T., and Y uanjun Li, "Geograph i c I n formation Systems Applications to T ransportation Corrido r Plann i ng," Transportation Research R ecord 1429 pp. 57-66. Thi s pape r describes two case stud ies i n which G I S procedu res h ave bee n ap plied to transportat i on corrido r plann ing. T he two s tu d ies are purposefully different from one an o ther in an aHemp t to demons t rate t h e w i de ra n ge of capabi l i ties a n d appt icabmty o f TransCAD. a transportation-
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relates to GIS The authors attempt to provide a "b i g pict ure" perspective on the subject area and its ef fects on the planning profession They conclude that planners must understand GIS not onl y as a dynamic, socially constructed tec hn ology, but also as a tool that brings with it a lot of responsibil ity and a plethora of issues that must be cons i dered before its imple mentation (i.e. legal is s ues, organizat i ona l issues, etc ) The article recommends a strategic approach to the utilization of GIS i nvolving a delicate bal ance be tween human and technica l sys tems. Iqbal, Muhammed Shahid, Carolyn S. Konheim, and Brian T. Ketcham, "The Development of a Regional GISTransportation ITSIIVHS Network," Presented at the 74th Annual Meetlng of the Trans portation Research Board, Paper No. 950499 (January 1995) This paper deta i ls the deve l opment of a GIS-T for an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) network for the 23-oounty metropolitan regio n of New York New Jersey, and Connecticut. The goal of tile study was to design a regional ITS which would serve as a framework for an integrated and multi-modal transportation netw0<1<. The GIS network was used as a tool for i dentifying critical transportation corridors with i n the regional area that could benefit from ITS technologies. In addition the GIS network could as s i st decision-makers i n defining and prioritizing projects for imp l ementation and expansion of ITS i n these cor ridors. Javld, Massoud, Prianks N. Seneviratne, and Prabhakar Arraluri, "Applications of GIS In Plan ning Transit Services for People With Disabilities," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Trans portation Resean::h Board, Paper No. 940266 (January 1994). This paper describes the application of GIS to the es6mation of demand for transit services by people with disabiliUes and the scheduling of demand responsive transit vehicles The paper shows that in formation, such as block group population, the pro portion of people with disabilities, and general travel characteristics of people with disabilities, can be used to estimate demand for transit services. The use of a GIS for scheduling demand responsive service where fixed-route services are unavailable also is demon strated Johnson, Brad H., and Michael J. Demetsky, "A GIS Decision Support System for Pavement Man agement," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meet ing of the Transportation Resean:h Board, Paper No. 940674 (January 1994). This paper describes the development of an attribute database for pavement management purposes. The authors conside r two pri I 60 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS in Transit mary types of roadway data in their study : ( 1) inven tory data describi n g the physica l characteristics of the traveled way, and (2) pavement management data de scribing the actual surface condition of the roadway. The difficulty inherent in tying two databases together i s discussed. The resulting database was appl ied to demonstrate how the i nforma tion can be used to sup port pavement ma intenance decisions. Johnson, Brad H., and Michael J. Demetsky, "A Geographic Information System Environment for Transportation Management Systems" (University of V irginia, Department of Civil Engineering, January 1993). This report, utilizing a case-study ap proach, exam i nes the mer it s of applying GIS technol ogy to the area of transportation management sys tems. These systems inc l ude bridge management, i nterrnodal transportation. pavement management public transportat io n safety, and traffic conges ti on. The authors use Albemarle and Gree ns Counties in Central Virgin i a as th e focus of their research The report develops a pavement management decis ion support GIS environment. The authors demonstrate that GIS i s an appropriate tool for the decision-making process and therefore it i s likely to be applicable to other types of transportation management systems. Kinsey, Ken, and UriAvin, 4'GfS in Action," Urban Land, pp.18 (March 1992). T his art icle provides three differen t examples of cost-effect ive applications of GIS techno logy. Each example presents own unique problems but they all require the coo r d i nation and synthesis of diverse sources of information The three examp l es discussed are: ( 1) producing and co ordinating an intr icate development plan for a golf course/resort community, (2) developing a county wide ho l ding capacity/land condilion analysis for l ong-term utility planning and routing, and (3) perform ing regional planning analysis for a metropolitan a rea. Koncz, Nicholas, and Joshua Greenfeld, "GIS Based Transit Information Bolsters Travel Opinions," GIS World, pp. 6264 (July 1995). This article stresses the necessity of user-friendly, geographically based information systems to encourage citizen use of public transportation Specifically, the article dis cusses the use of GIS in tandem with a Transit Ad vanced Traveler Information System (TATIS) to achieve this goal. A GIS forms an excellent backbone for TATIS by combining the abilities to spatially locate the transportation routes, bus/other stops and origin/ destination addresses anribute information such as schedules and faras. The authors d i scuss the key components of a TA TIS, the data needed to design a

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TA TIS prototype how it is analyzed, and the best way to present the information it has been processed Kutz, Scott A. "GIS Inventory Data Preparation: Assigning Spatial Properties to Highway Feature Files Using Independent Data Sources," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting ofthe Transportation Research Boand, PaperNo. 95037S(January 1995). The paper addresses the concern that. i n many cases, transportation orga n izalions have great d i ffic u l ty i n in tegrating infrastructure data into t h e GIS environment because data sets developed and maintained over long periods of time may lac;l( spatial properties which are v i tal to GIS. It discusses the procedures used to assign spatial properties to o n e data set of h i g h way features usi n g a n i n dependent data set as its source The difficutties of matc h ing between these two sources of data also are discussed Kwan, Mei.Po, and Reginald G. Goltedge, "Inte gration of GIS with Activity-Based Model in A TIS Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Trans portation Research Board, Paper No. 950419 (January 1995). This paper addresses th e method ologica l weaknesses of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (A TIS), a primary component of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS). Specifically, the authors note the fact that travel is a derived demand and is generated by the decision of i n dividuals to par t ici pate in var ious activities Th i s con cept (known as activity-model i ng ) is i gnored i n the context of A TIS and therefore travele(s choices i n response to unexpected traffic delays a re largely confined to alternative routes The authors argue that a broader perspective built upon the activity-based approach and the activity schedul ing framework would allow othe r a lterna tives to be con sidered The paper attempts to address this i ssue based on the activ i ty-based approach and the use of GIS. Lebeaux, P., "Helping Area Planners With GIS" (Metropolitan Washington Council of Govern ments, 1993). This paper expla ins how a GIS will en able transporta tio n planners t o better analyze travel patterns and trave l be h avior in the Washington metro polita n area. Using the GIS. Council o f Governments staff will be able to pull togethe r the transportation, la n d use, and a i r quality data fi les necessary for these analyses. The GIS will be used both for inte rnal ana lyt ica l projects and to create reports and maps that can be i n dividually tailored to prov ide i nformat i on to po l icy makers and the public. Eventually, l ocal plan ners will be able to call up the system and obtain data on-li n e i n fo rmats determin ed by t he use r Lepofsky, Mark, Mark Abkowltz, and Paul Cheng, Transportation Hazard Analysis in Integrated GIS Environment," Journal of Transportation Engineer Ing, pp. 239-254 (March/April1993). Th i s paper de scribes methods employi n g GIS-T tha t can prov i de the capability to perform transporta ti on hazard a n alysis and incident management. The methods d iscussed are practically applied in seve ral case studies involv i ng highway operations in California to i ll ustrate their usefu l ness The paper concl udes with a d i scuss i on of how the GIS-T approach to i ncident management may be extended t o address dynam i c manageme n t in a n IVHS environment. Ll, Yuanjun, "GIS-Based Spatial Representation and Trip Pattern Analysis for The 1985 Charlotte Household Travel Survey" (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Center for lntendisciplinary Transportation Studies, 1993). This paper studies the u rban househo l d travel patterns of Charlotte North Carolina, in an Arc/Info GIS e n v i ronment i n an attempt to ill ustrat e how GIS can be used in the area of trans portation planning i n order to ass ist in activity-based u rban transportation planning. The use of GIS and the concept of decision support systems (DSS) for trans portation also are discussed Lycan, Richard, and James D Orrell, "An Analy sis of Bus Ridership Potential to Oregon Helllth Sci ences University Using a Geographic lrrformation Systems Approach" (Center for Urban Studies and Transportation Northwest, February 1990). This report shows that GIS address-matching and over lay techniques can be used in the analysis of special ized transportaUon problems. These techniques allow planners to evaluate accessibility issues for various market segments in the population. As a result, this information enables improved decisionmaking regard ing the feasibility of adjusting routes or schedules. or providing new services to potential users. A case study is presented that focuses on the commuters of the Oregon Health Sciences University and /he potential for altering existing bus routes to better serve these commuters or the possibility of establishing direct service vans to serve the commuters May, James W .,and Teri Kutch, "Automated Map p ing and GIS for Smaller Communities," Homer Hoy1 Center for Land Economics and Real Estate, Florida State University (January 1993). This mono graph was desi gned as a GIS information reso u rce fo r loca l governments. It offers advice from differing per spectives on how GIS can be i mplemented i n a l ocal PtO(ttdings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 161

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government setting. This section is followed by the i nclusion of edited speeches of city and county offi cials who are active i n GIS Eleve n case studies are presented that were written by experienced tocalgov emment officials who have either implemented or have considered adopting a GIS for thei r commu ni ty The document concludes w i lh suggestions for those con sidering a GIS for their particu l ar community Mclellan, J.F., E.J Krakiwsky, and J.B Schleppe "Application of GPS PosHioning to Management of Mobile Operation Journal of Surveying Engineering, Volume 119, Number 2, pp. 71-83 (1993). This paper addresses the p roblem of fleet manage ment and the appl i cation of g l obal positioning sys tem (GPS) to locate mobile vehic l es, thereby assist ing fleet managers to perform their operations. The special requirements of thi s class of users are reviewed, and the NavTrax system currently being developed is described i n terms of system compon ents hardware. and software. It ls shown that continuous and eco nomical positioning can be achieved by integrating GPS with dead -reckon ing devices. and that this integration is required in areas of GPS signal blockage. The tech nology is needed tor an anay of users includ ing police and fire-fighting operations. as well as mobile GIS ap plications. Trials i n Calgary, Canada showed that dis patch ing of police vehicle is s ignificantly enhanced through the use of a GPS-based positioning system, NavTrax. Medina Isabel Canete, and Karen B. Kahl, "GIS Applications to the Heart of 111inois H i ghway Fea sibility Study," Presented at the 74th Annual Meet Ing of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 951087 (January 1995) This paper utilizes a case study approach to illustrate the use of GIS in h ig hw ay planning and route location studies II describes how GIS was used to help determine the feas i bility of aHer native corridors being considered for a proposed high way linking Chicago and Peoria Illinois. The study area encompassed a ten county 3 .000 square mile area. The use of GIS was etitical i n the alternatives evaluation and impacts assessment of the proposed corridors. METRO, Muni cipality of Metropolitan Seattle, "GIS Project Phase I Feasibility Study" (July 1992) The purpose of this papenvas to : (1) provide a foundation for understanding Geograph i c Information Systems (GIS) technology (2) provide justification for the adop tion of GIS technology by identifying potential appli cations ofthe technology to current and future Metro business needs and (3) identify the core d ata ele-I 6 2 Procttdints of a Conference on GIS in Transit ments tor GIS applications. In addit ion. this document provides perspective by examinin g current GIS usage at Metro and highlights key issues related to meeting user needs METRO, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle "GIS ProjectAlternatives Analysis and Recommendation" (March 1993) This document is the final report of the Phase I -GIS Project Feasibility Study for the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle It describes the rationale used for anematives analysis, prasents a com parison of GIS alternatives ouUining the pros and cons of each, and recommends an alternative for imple mentation i n Phase II of the GIS project. Meyer, Michael 0., and Wayne Sarasua, uGeo graphic lnfonnation System-Based Tra n sportation Program Management System for County Trans portation Agency, Transportation Research Record 1364 (1992). This paper describes a proto type GIS-T that was developed for a suburban county transportation agency in metropolitan Atlanta. Thera tionale for developing the prototype was to des ign a system which would assist the agency i n bette r man aging its transportation program. An organizationa l as sessment was conducted and applications that would most benefit the agency were detailed The paper con cludes that GIS-T provides a strong decision support capability for agency officials. It also provides a more efficient way of conducting different types of analysis. Moore, Allsoun K and Martha Stauss "Coopera tive Approach Towards an Integrated Geograph ic lnfonnation System (GIS) at the Maryland State Highway Administration (MSHA)," Presented at the 1995 Geographic lnfonnatlon Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). This paper outlines the approach Mary land is tak ing in de veloping hs GIS tor Transportation. MSHA has adopted a strategic us er -based approach to development and imp lementation of GIS. Thi s approach has two major tenets: ( 1 ) development of a coordinated and stable i nformation archrtecture and techno logy, and (2) tech nical support for the development of usefu l and well engineered applications des ired by various user groups. The paper also d i scusses the linkage between organizational goa ls and GIS, specific o r ganizational mechanisms used, i nformation architecture desetip tion and development database management aP proach application development techniques and user involVement. Neuerburg, Nancy, and Wayne Watanabe, "Imple menting a Successful Transit GIS," Presented at

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the 1995 Geographic Information Syst&ms for Trans porlation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada In the last few years. King County Metro Transit (Metro) success fully completed the business analysis. requirements definiti on, alternatives analysis. and impl ementation of an agency-wide GIS. This paper discusses the implementation process The GIS was required not only to provide new functionality but to also meet ex i sting needs for automated geographic information from systems such as the Automatic Passenger Counters, AVUAVM, BUSTIME (automated next bus time i nformation), and others The paper also describes the extensive educational process and teamwork throughout the agency that was mqui!Sd, and successfully provided, to ensure successful implementation. Newcombe, Tod, uG IS : Beyond Pipes and Plats," Governing, pp. 25-26 (December1993). This article prov ide s a n overview and examp les of what G IS tech n o l ogy can do. Spec ifi cally, it disc u sses factors l ike cost, user -friend liness. and accessibility which all con tribute to a greater use of this technology The article also discusses the beginnings of the Defense Departmenfs Global Positioni ng System (GPS) and its important contributions to the success of GIS. Nichols, Woodrow W., Jr. "GIS T in Transit Plan ning and Management," (Raleigh, NC: Southeast em Transporlation Center, The UnlvetSity of North Carolina Institute for Transporlation Research and Education, May 1994). The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of the potential uses of GIS-T for transit planning and management by: (1) reviewing the current GIS concepts affecting transit; (2) identifying transit planning and management appli cations that could benefit from the adoption of a GIS; and (3) demonstrating how the different flow-control rules can be simulated within a G/S environment for transit planning and management. O'Neill, Wende A., R. Douglas Ramsey, and JaChlng Chou, "Analysis of Transit Service Ar eas Using Geographic Information Systems" Transporlstion Research Record 1364 (1992). This paper discusses a procedure fo r performing service area a n alysis on transit routes using a GIS as op posed to the more common techn iq ue of buffering It desc ri bes the imp le mentation strategies fo r three GIS software packages: ARC/INFO, T ransCAD. and SPANS. A case study is utilized to compare the method being discussed wrth t hat of two other ap p roach es. The effects of the data source a n d the ac curacy of all of these approaches i s discussed. O'Neill, Wende A., and Balakrishna Akundi, tomated Conversion of Milepoint Data to Inter section/Link Network Structure: An Application of GIS In Transportation," Transporlafion Research Record 1261 (1990). Th i s paper add r esses t he need to i mplement effective da ta restructu ring mode l s in th e GIS environment. Specifica ll y the authors emp h asize the i mportance of milepoint r efe ren ced data i n road i nventory files for transportation research However to utilize road inventory data in any analysis model net .. work i nformation has to be converted from mllepointto an intersectio n /l ink fo rmat. In addition, data conver sion efforts are needed to produce intersection/link net worl< represen tations from mi lepoi nt data. A microcom puter model for data conversion i s developed and ap plication issues and model sensitivi ties are addressed O'Packi, Paul, and Eric Sabina, uThe l mplemen tation and Use of GIS-T Technology in Metropoli tan Planning Organizations," Compendium, GIS T 95 (Geographic Information Systems for Trans portation Symposium). This paper examines orga nizational. technical, and political issues i n volved in implementing GIS-T in MPOs drawing on experience with MPOs of varying sizes. GIS. T tools and tech niques important to i mplementation in MPOs a lso are reviewed; these include network conflation, dynamic segmentation and the use of linear r eferencing sys tems (LRSs) The challenges associated with upgrad ing from an existing GIS to a more robust environment with full GIS T capabilities also are reviewed. Panchanathan, Sriram and Ardeshir Faghri, uA Knowledge-Based Geographic Information Sys tem for Safety Analysis at Rail/Highway Grade Crossings," Presented at the 74th Annual MeetIng of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 950717 (January 1995). This paper discusses thedeve t opment of an i ntegrated, user-friendly, knowl edge-based GIS for evaluation of safety at ra i l -hi gh way cross i ngs. The authors underscore the im portance of this u ndertak i ng by emphasiz i ng that the allocation of federal funding for safety improvements at public. at-grade rail-highway c r oss i ngs is made based on the pertormance of states wijh respect to accident reduc ti ons The authors wal k the reader through the infor mation management process by descr ibing the con version of existing railh ighway crossings attribute data into a GIS acceptab l e format. the loc ation referencing of the crossings attribute data to thei r l ocation i n t he graphic database i nterfac ing with USDOT model. and interlaci n g with a knowledge-based expert system for considering the qual it a t ive and heuris tic i nformation. Promdinrs of a Conference on GIS in Transit 163

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Paredes, Miguel, Emmanuel Fernando, and T Scullion, "Pavement Management Applications of GIS: A Case Study," Transportation Research Record 1261 (1990). This paper illustrates how GIS technOlogy can be implemented within a MICRO-PES (a of computer programs developed to assist state district engineers with the i r network level pavement management activities) environment to satisfy the need of the various districts for graphics output capabi lity. The authors developed a a prototype GIS module that provides the capability for graphically d i splaying the output from the MICRO-PES analys i s sub systems. Using a case study approach. t he authors were able to effectively demonstrate the applicability o f GIS as a tool for pavement management. Peng, Zhongren, Jonathan N. Groff, and Kenneth J Dueker, "Dynamic Segmentation In Database Design for Transit Planning," Compendium, G/5T 95 (1995 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparl
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sign inventory conducted in /he Washington D. C. area. GPS was util i zed where possible However, i n sec lions of /he study /hal were located near downtown, taller buildings blocked satellite signals The refore, GPS collection was infeasible and a more manual method was chosen using a measudng wheel These two distinctly different data collection methods are compared using time to c ollect and time to process the data as standards for comparison. Finally, the authors detail the development of a GIS program to display the collected data Raj, Phanl K., David Chia, and Walter Kulyk, "Ap plication of GIS to Emergency Response In Tran sit Systems," Compendium, GIS-T 95 (1995 Geo graphic Information Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada) Thispaparpresents the features and potential future modifiCations of an emergency response system software for bus transit operators. Designed by Technology & Management Sys t ems, Inc. to run on GIS type applicat i ons, the system d i splays the location of the bus on a map and provides the dispatche r wflh sequential and prioritized action prompts which are situation and accident de pendent. Addftional featurBs i nclude automatic record ing of actions initiated and accidentltnciden/ report fil ing functions. R i es, Tom, "Integrating Governments tor Trans portation Purposes Using Geospatial Framework," Compendium, GIS T 95 (1995 Geographic Infor mation Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). This paper provides suggestions for addressing the issue of data s h aring for transporta tio n needs and correspond i ng geospatia l lrameworks. Sugges tions include: ( 1 ) detennini n g what and where o u r needs are in the b i g picture of a transportation facility s life cycle (2) defini n g and composing w hat geospat i al frameworks are in terms of th i s life cycle, (3) ident i fying and resolv i ng the confl i c ti ng views of spatial data broug h t on by consumers versus produc ers. and (4) describing a n a p proach for how sharing can occur based on appreciating various busi ness re qu i rements and how they are inter-related. Case s tu dy examples are used to support these s u ggestions Schweiger, Carol L, "Cu"ent Use of Geographic Information Systems in Transit Planning" (USDOT, Federal Transit Administration, Office of Grants Management, August 1991); "Current Use of Geo graphic Information Systems in Transit Planning'' Transportation Research Record 1349. This report and paper summarize th& use of GIS technology i n public transit systems and metropolitan planning or-ganizations (MPOs) for transportation planning analy sis. The data were collected through a 1991 survey that resulled i n 7 4telephone interviews with 67 zations across 30 states. This included 46transit sys tems and 21 MPOs. The survey instrument was designed to identify the range of GIS applies dons i n trans i t plann ing, GIS products used and why, spatial data fBsources, GIS implementation plans and factors in and obstacles to GIS implementation, among oth ers. Simkowitz, Howard J., "GIS Applications Benefit from Census Transportation Planning Data," GIS World, pp. 38-40 (April1993). This article describes a special tabu l ation produced by the U.S. Census Bu reau called the Census Transportation Planni n g Pack age (CTPP). It describes the direct relevancy of the data set to transportation planning and how GIS will play a central ro l e in its use. The data included in t h e CTPP are reported by T AZs. GIS tech n ology allows fo r quick and effic ient bui l di n g of T AZ.s righ t on the user's computer screen. The article further expla ins the s i gnifica nce ofthe TAZ.-G I S relat i onsh i p, and then provides more examples of areas in which G I S is use ful (i e accident analysis. network model ing and logisti cs impact studies, etc.). Simkowitz, Howard J., "GIS Supports Transpor tation System P lanning," 1993/ntemationsl GIS Sourcebook, pp. 234-236, (1993) This article describes the relevancy of GIS to the transportation community. It explains the role of spatially inte grated data in tra n sporta ti on and uses examples to illustrate how GIS is applicable to this field ( I.e. accident analys i s transportation demand model i ng, pavement managemen t systems ) It discusses the role otTAZs and TIGER/Line files in GIS, describes how trad i tional GIS applications can be enhanced and expla ins how GIS can serve as a platform for Integrating un r elated transportation models. Simkowitz, Howard J., "Using Geographic Infor mation System Technology to Enhance the Pave ment Management Process, Transportation Re search Record 1261 (1990). A pavement management system ( PMS) should provide fo r a ll o f the important aspects of the pavement management process: plan ni ng, p r ogramming project and imple mentation. GIS technology can be used to expand and en h ance each of these PMS compone n ts. The PMS can be built and operated o n a GIS-based plat tonn. Thi s design whe n p u t I n to practice i s desi gnated as a PMS/GIS. Thi s paper discusses th e importance of a vari ety of spatial ly integrated data to pavement Prffliings of a Conference on GIS in Transit 165

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management decisionmaking. In addition. each com pon ent of the PMS process is addressed. Thi s pro cess, i n tum results in the iden t ification of a co re set of functions required for an effective PMSIGIS. These include: thematic mapping, flex i ble data base edi ti ng, formula editing, statistics, chart ing, matrix manip u l a tions, network generation, and inte grated model s and algorithms. Strazewski, Len, "Try GIS Off the Rack : Inexpe n sive, Efficient," City & State, p. 20 (February 15, 1993). This article discusses the recent affordabilily of GIS and how a new category of users have gained access to this technology The author uses an ex ample of a small municipality having to redistrict itself to ensure m i nority representat i on within its commu nity. In this case. GIS allowed the community tore district computer (with three alternative plans) and then show those plans at a public hear ing before making a final decision. Vonderohe A.P. L. Travis, R.L. Smith, and V. Tsai "Adaptation of Geographic lnfonmation Systems lor Transportation," National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 359 (1993). Th is report addresses the need for GIS in transportation The pri mary factors considered are ( 1) current and future needs lor information analysis to support transporta tion agency m issions, (2) the need for information sys tems integration within transportation agencies and across governmental l i nes, (3) t rends in technology, and (4) organizational constraints The report provides a conceptual framework and implementation plan for GIS.T. Von Essen, Jan, Caro l Hanchette, and Gerald Dildine, "Evaluation of GIS Workstation Perlor mance within a Distributed Network Environment," Transportation Research Record 1261 (1990). This paperoutllnes the methods used loevalu ate graphics worl
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formation Systems for Transportation Symposium Sparks, Nevada. This paper uses three rail corridor projects to illustrate how GIS ca n be used in rail cor ridor siting and planning and the development of En vi ronmentallmpact Statements The major appl ications necessary for these analyses include the use of a G/S as (1) a cartograph i c too l to generate both working and presentation maps, (2) a database with analysis and reporting capabilities and (3) a data storage fa cility that allows quick input and analysis of transpor tation data. The three projects include "High Speed Ground Transportation Project Commercial Feasibil ity Study "Northeast Corridor Improvement Project Electrification New Haven. CT to Boston MA, and "Third Rail Project Rhode Island Departme nt of Transportation. Yang, Xlnnong "The Implementation of Optimi zation of Dynamic Vehicle Routing With GIS," p,. sented at the 1995 Geographic lnfonnstlon Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks Nevada. Dynamic Vehicle Rout i ng Problems (DVRP) can of ten be found in the case of technician dispatch. truck delivery, dial-a-ride services, and emergency vehicle dispatch, among others. DVRP deals with real time events and requires special consideration of temporal constraints. This paper investigates DVRPs andre views a number of technical approaches to address ing these problems through the use of GIS By pro cessing and storing geograph i cal and tabular data GIS provides a powerful tool for developing a com put erized dynamic routing system. The paper also intro duces a prototype of a GIS Dynamic Routing System. Young, David, "Getting the Gist of GIS Tin Fleet Management and Routing," Presented at the 1995 Geographic Information Systems for Transports tion Symposium, Sparks, Nevada This paper dis cusses the application and use of GIS to the routing and scheduling of vehicles in various fleet operations. In particular, the software needs for the routing and scheduling needs of paratransit services are idenll tied and discussed. In order for software to adequately address routing and scheduling problems it must "know" three key i tems of information when are the trips to take place where does it originate, and where does it terminate With this informat ion, the paper if /us/rates hoiV GIS can improve the routing and scheduling by reducing vehicle miles traveled by as much as 20 to 30 percent. Young, J. Jeffrey, Wei-N ing Xiang and Owen J. Furuseth, "Unlver.City Partnership Brings People, Technology Together," GIS World, pp. 52-54, (March 1993). Th i s artic l e add r esses the need for co operation across organization s to meet the needs o f urban planni n g in the 1990's. Spec ifi cally, the article d i sc u sses the coopera ti ve effort of the city o f Con cord, NC, and the University ol Nort h Carol i na Char lotte (UNCC) to assist Concord in in t egrat i ng GIS in t o city opera ti ons. T he artic l e stresses the benefi l s that ean be derived from sharing resources. I n this case. graduate students gai ned valuable expe ri ence, whi le Concord gai n ed a GIS and learned how to use it. Zhang,Zhanmin, Terry Dossey,Jose Weissmann, and W Ronald Hudson, "GIS Integrated Pavement and Infrastructure Management in Urban Areas," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Trans portation Research Board, Paper No. 940781 (January 1994). Th i s paper summarizes the efforts to apply GIS to urban roadway and i nfrastructure man agement. It emphasizes how the l i nkage between a GIS a n d the effective management of pavement and olhe r infraslruct ure i n the urba n a rea can g r eatly i n crease the service l ife of these facilities and reduce user costs The pape r im p lements and desc ri bes GIS URMS, which is a u ser-friendly app l ication program. Zheng, Jilong, Dr. Kyriacos C. Mouskos, and Dr. Joshua Greenfeld, "A GIS Based Rldesharlng In formatlon System," Compendium, GIST95(1995 Geographic Information Systems for Transporta tion Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). A major goa t of Intellige n t Transportation Systems ( I TS) i s to increase the average vehicle occupancy as a means for reduc .. ing congestion on the nation's roadways Ridesharing is one of the means to achieve thi s goal where drivers are matched with passengers having similar trip char acteristics. This paper describes a Ridesha ri ng I nfor mation System (RIS) that can fu n ctio n i n dependently or as a module o f a Multimodal Advanced Travele r I n format i on System (MATIS) Components o f the RIS incl ude the determina t io n of user trip profiles and ridesharing pre f erences, passenge r /drive r mat chi n g and confirmation/cancellation proced u res Exa mp le ap pl i cat i ons of the RIS are presented for Union Counly in New Jersey. Promdinp of a Conference o n GIS in Transit 16 7

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I 68 Proceedings of a Conference on GIS i n Transit

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The Caliper Corporation Contact: Jim Lam 1172 Beacon Street Newton, MA 02161 Center for Urban Transportation Research Contact: Ron Sheck University of South Florida College of Engineering 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620-5350 ESRt Contact: Ern i e Ott 380 New York St. Redlands, CA 92373 Federal Transit Administration Contact: William Wiggins 400 7th Street Washington DC 20590 lntergraph Corporation Contact: Bill Schuman Mails top IW17 -B5 Huntsvillle, Al 35895-0001 International Computer Works Contact: Ken Toz ie r In ternat ional Computer Works P.O. Box 16232 Tampa, Fl 33687-6232

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170 Proceedings of a Conference on G I S in Transit

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Aangeenbrug Robert Charr Dept. of Geography University of Sou t h F l o ri da 4202 E. Fow ler Avenue Tampa, Fl 33620-5350 (813 ) 974-4292 Adda n te Evelyn Y Ground Access Projec t Manager Logan lntemat'l. Airpo rt Old Tower-3 East Boston, MA 02 1 28 (617)561-1646 Mnert. David R. GIS Specialist Rocking ham Plann i ng Commission 121 Water St. Exeter, NH 03833 (603) 778-0855 Anton i sse. Robert W.E. Principa l Analyst GIS!Trans. Ltd. 8555 Sixteenth St. S uite 320 Sliver Spri n g, MD 209 1 0 (301) 495-0217 ext 124 Areizaga Efrain S t udent Research Assistant CUTR 4202 E Fow ler Ave. ENB 118 T ampa FL 33620-5350 (813)974-3 120 Aro. Michael R. Servi ce Development Ma n ager Santa Clara Co u nty Transportation Author i ty 3331 North F irst St. San Jose CA 95134-1906 (408)321-7057 Arsenau l t Peter T ransportation Engineer 2 Con n ect i cut DOT 2800 Berlin Turnpi k e P.O. Box 317546 Newington. CT 06131-7546 (203 ) 594 2876 Attanu eci. John P. President Mul!lsystems. Inc. 10 Fawcett St. Camb ri dge MA 02138-11 1 0 ( 617) 864-5810 Baier. Edward Transportation Dema n d Manager Hillsborough County 601 E Ke n nedy Blvd., 20t h Floo r Tampa, FL 33601 (813) 272-5849 Ball William Tindale-O iiver & Associates 1000 N Ash l ey Drive, S uite 316 Tampa. FL 33602 ( 813)224 8862 Beef<, Sandra K. Systems Analyst P i nellas Suncoast Authority 14840 49th St.. N CleaiWater, FL 34622 (81 3) 530-9921 B l ac k s h ea r Ronn i e Sen ior Planner MPO of Palm Beac h Cou n ty P O. Box 21229 West Palm Beach, FL 33416 1229 (407 ) 684-4 1 70 B l ai n e, Edwi n 0. GISIT echn i cal Services Supervisor St. L u c ie C o u n ty Comm u nity Development 2300 Virginia Ave. Ft. Pierce FL 34982 (4 0 7 ) 462 2 7 56 Bourne. Vickie s. Pub lic Transportation Manage r Ken t ucky DOT Kentucky Transportat i on Cab i ne t 125 Hol mes Street New State Off ice B ui l d in g F ra n fort KY 40622 (502) 584-2433

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Bowers, Jennifer M. Quality Assurance & Program Evaluation Supervisor Commission for the Tra nsportat io n Disadvantaged 605 Suwann"" Street. MS-49 Tallahassee. FL 32399-0450 (904)488-6036 Braun Melanie Min nes ota Guidestar Project 117 University Ave., Mail Stop 320 St. Paul. MN 55515 Brisset, Elizabeth Transit Marketing Manager Broward County T ranslt 3201 W. Copans Rd. Pompano Beach, F l 33609 Brosch, Gary Director CUTR 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB 1 18 Tampa FL 33620-5350 (813)974-3120 Brown, Michael B. President Transportation Planning Svcs. Inc. 9195 Collins Avenue. Suite 7C Miami Beach, Fl 33154-3103 (305) 861-6523 Burrie Jack Chief Urban Transit Plann i ng Broward County 115 S. Andrews Avenue. Ste. 329H Fort Lauderdale FL 33301 (305) 357-6649 Carsey, Diana A. Director of Planning HARTline 201 E. Kennedy Blvd .. #1600 Tampa, Fl 33602 (813)223-6831 Carter, William S. Administrative Spec ia l ist Ill TALTRAN 555 Appleyard Drive Ta ll ahassee. FL 32304 (904) 891-5200 Catala, Martjn Student Research Assistant CUTR 4202 E. Fowler Ave .. ENB 118 Tampa, Fl 33620 (813)974-3120 Ceballos. Vilma Systems Analyst 2 Metro Dade County 5680 SW 87th Ave. Miami. FL 33173 (305) 596-6807 Chambers David Director of Management Information Systems Sun line Transit Agency 32-505 Harry Oliver Trail Thousand Palms. CA 92276 (619) 343-3456 Claybrook Brenda Manager GIS Applications DART P.O. Box 660163 MS724 3 Dallas, TX 75266 (214) 749-3020 Crockett, Jeannett Asst Manager. Tra nsij Route & Support WMATA 600 5th Street, NW Washington. DC 20001 (202) 962 -1253 Crunican. Grace Deputy Administrator Federa l Transit Administration 400 Seve nih St., SW Washington, DC 20590 (202) 366-4991 Culp, linda S Se n ior Research Analyst San Diego Assoc. of Govts. 401 B. Street Suite 800 San Diego, CA 92101 (619) 595-5357 I 7 2 Procmlings of a Conference on GIS in Transit Daggett Joh n Transportation Planner City of Fort Collins Transporta tion Services 6570 Portner Rd Fort Collins, CO 80525 (303)224-6190 Daniels, David Planner Tri..County Commuter Rail Auth. 305 S. Andrews Avenue Ste. 200 Fort lauderdale. FL 33301 (305) 728 del Tufo, Michael A Transportatio n Planner Delaware DOT P .O Box 778 Dover, DE 19 903 (302) 739-2552 Dent, Sharon E xecutive Director HARTline 201 E. Kennedy BlVd .. #1600 Tampa FL 33602 (813) 223-6831 Dieringer, Suzi Student Research Assistant CUTR 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB 118 Tampa. Fl 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120 Dixon, Dene B Assistant Executive Director Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged 605 Suwannee Streel, MS-49 Tallahass.,.., FL 32399-0450 (904) 488-6036 Dlamini, Muzi X Student Research Assistant C UTR 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB 118 Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (813)974-9767 Dobson, M ich ae l Vice President Rand McNally & Company 8255 N. Lentral Park Ave. Skokie, IL 60076 (847) 329-6267

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Dowling, Linda Gomes. l uiz Henry Victor W. lnfonmation Systems Manager Di r ecto r GIS Coord i nator/T ransportati on Albuquerque Transit & ParXing Set Consultoria P l annet 601 Yale S.E Rua Do Canmo 7 15 Andar Battimore Metropolftan Council Alb uque r que, NM 87106 Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20001. BRA21L 601 N Howard St. (505) 764-6 1 45 (521) 220 Balt i more, MD 21201 Greene William L (410) 3531950, ext. 257 Drake, Ke ith Director, Reg Info. Services Ctr. P lanner Oeteware Valley Regional Plann ing Hi n ebaugh Denn i s Sarasota/Manatee MPO Commission T r ansit Research Prog Mgr. 7632 BGI Blvd. 111 South Independence Mall E CUTR Sarasota, FL 34243 Philadelphia. PA 19106 4202 E. Fowler Ave. ENB 118 (941)357-5772 (215)592 Tampa, F L 33620 -5350 (813)974 9833 E dwards, David C. Hagge Joe Ass i stant Director of ITS Student Research Assistant Hyslop Davis C L A. Counly Met. Tr ansp Auth. CUTR Senior Transportation Planner 818 W. 7th St. 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB 1 18 Po l k Tra nsp P lanning Org. Los Angeles. CA 90017 T ampa FL 33620-5350 P.O Box 1969 (213)244 7148 (813)974 6804 Bartow FL 33831 ( 941) 534-6486 Eublong, Marga ret E. Han Gregory C Transportation Disadvantaged G r aduate Research Ass i stant Jackso n, Davi d E. Specialist Unive r sity ofT exas at Austin Systems Eng i neer Commission for the Transportat i on Dept. of Civil Engineering Rockwell CACD Disadvantaged Austin, TX 78712 350 Collins Rd. 605 Suwannee Street MS-49 (512 ) 471 Cedar Rap i ds, lA 53498 Tallahassee, FL 32399 (319) 395 (904)488-6036 Harman. L awrence J. Principa l Jamarta J u lie A Fossa, Robert L.J. Hanman C
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Leary Andrea L. Director Spec i al Operation Cape Ann Transportat i on Authority 28 Brook Rd. Ma rb le h ead. MA (508) 283-3994 Lee. Young Kyun Ass i stant Professor F l orida Internat io n al Unive r s i ty Civil Engineering VH 160 U ni versity Perl< Miami, FL 33199 (305)348-3116 Lenz Sarah Broch Project Manager Office ofTranslt M i nnesota DOT 395 John Ireland Blvd. Sl Pa u l, MN 55113 (612)296-3441 Ma ccalous. Sara h A. Operat i ons Research Analys t USDOTfThe Volpe Center 42 Broadway Camb ridge, MA 02142 (617)494-2678 Martin, Elizabeth B. Community Planner US DOT/FTA-Region IV, Atlanta 1720 Peachtree Rd., NW Suite 40 0 Atlanta. GA 30309 (404)347-0228 Math ias, Rosemary G Program Ma n age r CUTR 4202 E. Fowler Ave. ENS 118 Tampa FL 33620 (813)974-9787 McGin nis Raymond E. Research Assistant University of Memphis Memp h is, TN 38152 (90 1)678-2746 McQuade Bruce Tra nsit Planner Sarasota County A rea Transit 5303 P i nkne y Avenue Sarasota FL 34233-2421 (941) 316-1007 Milla n Lou i s Manager Transportation GIS New Jersey 1 Penn Plaza East Newark NJ 0710 5 (201 )491-7760 M o ore Keith R. Transportation Planner Tidewater Reg i onal Tra nsit Auth. 1500 Mo nti cello Ave. Norfolk, VA 23510 (804) 640-6227 Morandini Mary Jo Deputy Genera l Manage r Beaver County Authority 200 W Was hi ngton Street Rocheste r. PA 1 507 4 (412)728-4255 Mo rris, William Project Manager LYNX 1200 W So u th St. Orlando. FL 32805 (407) 841-2279 Moscovich, Jose L. Director o f Congestion MgmL San Francisco Cty. Transp Auth 1000 Van Ness Avenue 25th F l oor San Fran c isco, CA 94102 Neuerburg, Nancy Manager Researc h & Marl
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Racca, David P. Urban Affairs College University of Delaware 2845 Graham Hall Newark. DE 19716 (302)831 Radow, Laurel J Senior Pol i cy Analyst American Publi c Transit Assoc. 1201 New York Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20009 (202) 898-4105 Reilly. Jack M. Director of Planning Capitai.District Transp. Authority 110 Watervliet Ave. Albany NY 12206 (518)482 12 5 Rizzieri, Bruce A Transit Manager Albuquerque & Parking 601 Yale S.E. Albuquerque, NM 87106 (505) 764-6123 Robe. Jamie Automation Group Manage r Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission 601 E. Kennedy Blvd. 18th F loor Tampa. FL 33602 (813)272-5940 Roberts, Steven R. GIS Manager HARTline 201 E. Kennedy Blvd #160() Tampa, FL 33602 (813)223 Roehrig Steve Manager Advanced Transportat ion Dev. Sandia National Laboratories P O Box 5800 Albuquerque. NM 87123 (505)844-1180 Ross Lee ESRt 380 New York St. Redlands,CA 92373 Royal, Jackson W. E ng i neering Psychologist USDOTfThe Volpe Center 42 Broadway Cambridge MA 02142 (617)494-3407 Saras ua Wayne A Assistant Professor Georgia Tech School of Civil & Env ironmental Engineering Atlanta GA 30332.0355 (404)894-6768 Scarborough Andrea M. Transit Pla n ner P i n e llas Suncoast Transit Authority 14640 49th St., N Clearwater, FL 34622 (813) 530 1 Scarlett Edward L. Transportation D irector Community Tra nsit St. Luc i e County 435 N 7th St. Fort Pierce FL 34950 (407)465 Schuman. William G. Transportat i on Marl
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Spear Bruce D. Assistant Director for GIS Bureau of Transportation Statistics 400 Seventh St. SW Washington. DC 20580 (202) 366-8870 Tabor, Dave Systems Manager Plan ning Commission 601 E Kennedy Blvd. 18th Floor Tam pa FL 33612 (813)272-5940 Tata, S ofia M. Research Planner Carter Goble Asssociates 1201 Ma i n Street, Suite 2080 Columbia. SC 29201 (303) 765-2833 Thomps on, Brad J. Research Planner II Pace Suburban Bus Service 550 W. Algonquen Rd. Arlington Heights. JL 60005 (708) 228-2393 Thompson Boyd ARC Transit, Inc. 1209 Westover Drive Palatka, FL 32177 T hompson, Scot Sales Manager Andrew Sensor Products 10901 Roosevelt Blvd . N., Suite C1200 St. Petersburg, FL 33716-2305 (813)577-7873 Toliver. Paul Director of Transportation Seatt1e Metro 821 Second Ave. Exchange Building Seattle, WA 98104 (202) 684-21 00 Townes Michael Executive Director Peninsula Transportation District 3400 Victoria Boulevard Hampton, VA 23661 Tozier, Ken I nte rn atio nal Computer Works P.O Box 16232 Tampa, FL 33687.0232 (813)988-0434 Tuc ker, James Graphic Data Systems Corp. 6200 S Syracuse Way, Suite 250 Engelwood, CO 8011 1 Volinski. Joel Senior Research Associate CUTR 111 NW First St., Su ite 910 Miami, FL 33128-1999 (305)375-5674 Walker, Rick GIS Division Manager Post. Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan 5300 W. Cypress St. Tampa, FL 33607 (813)877-7205 Ward, Beverly Deputy Director CUTR 4202 E Fow ler Ave ENB 118 Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (813) 974-9773 Wensley, James Associate Muultisystems, Inc. 10 Fawcett St. Cambridge MA 02138-1110 (617)864-5810 Wiggins William E. Transportation Specialist Federal Transit Administration 400 7th Street Washington, DC 20590 Wiggins Lyna Center for Urban Policy Rutgers University 33 Livingston Avenue. Suite 400 New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1982 ( 908) 932-3133, ext 568 I 7 6 froaedint! of a Conference on GIS in Transit Wi l son. John 0. Jr. N.I.S. Administrator Tri-County Commuter Rail Auth. 3 05 s Andrews Ave n ue F t. Lauderdale, F L 3330 1 -1845 (305) 728-8512 Wise, James J. Planner Post Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan 5300 W. Cypress St .. Suite 300 Tampa FL 33607 (813)877-7275 Wright, Rodney A. Project Engineer Florida Overlan


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