The Tampa Palms way of life

The Tampa Palms way of life

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The Tampa Palms way of life
Deltona Corporation. Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council
Place of Publication:
Miami, Fla
Deltona Corporation


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development--Florida--Tampa ( lcsh )
City planning--Environmental aspects--Florida--Tampa ( lcsh )
City planning--Florida--Tampa ( lcsh )
letter ( marcgt )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
C01-00078 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.78 ( USFLDC Handle )

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1HE TAMPA PALMS WAY OF UFE Tampa Palms, the city within the city, has earned a reputation as the premier community in the Tampa Bay area because of its foresight in planning for orderly growth. An important feature of the Tampa Palms lifestyle is ease of movement through a well planned trans portation system. Travel demand management (1DM) can be an important part of that plan. Tampa Palms can protect its investment by encou raging people in the community to participate in the transportation demand management program (1DM) as a means of improving their own property values and quality of life. Residen ts will want to know they can continue to drive downtown in 20 min u tes. Employers will want t heir employees to be refreshed whe n they arrive at work. The opportunity to develop a new and better kind of life is at hand. Since T ampa Palms is starting good planning from the beginning. the ease of getting around can be preserved by implement in g the 1DM strategies through a transportat ion management association (TMA). This opportunity to establish efficient travel and land use development patterns at the outset will contribute to a pleasant lifestyle. People and employers will participate for different reasons. USAA, which will be the development's first major employer, is already a national leader in vanpo oling. Company officials see this as a way to broaden its recruiting base and as an employee benefit. USAA plans to have 40 vanpools carrying employees from the tri county area to their new facility on opening day. In order for the 1DM program to be a success, we must assess what the incentives are for various groups to participate and the strategies that can be most effective in promoting Tampa Palms' image. A comprehensive analysis of all factors affecting mobility includes the management of the transportation supply, the demand, land use, and input into the institutional funding process. Managing the transportation supply means adding new highways and traffic engineering improvements, such as improved traffic signal timing, and will not be part of this 1DM program. The TMA's role in the institutional and funding process will be discussed in a subsequent organizational section of the TOM plan. 1


Demand manage ment focuses on reducing the demand for existing roadway facilities by developing a comprehensive program ofiDM strategies that provide alternatives to the automobile and make more efficient use of existing facilities. IDM techniques range from careful land use planning to alternative work hours to pedestrian systems. This portion of the IDM plan defines demand management strategies, discusses their positive and negative aspects, and suggests which ones are most appropriate to Tampa P alms. A comprehensive analysis of alliDM factors is vital to a cost effective and efficient system. The strategies link together, like building blocks Each reinforces and increases the effectiveness of the entire program. This program can help Tampa Palms build and preserve the good way of life 2




lAND USE DescriptiQn Commuters commonly say that they drive alone because they need to stop on the way to or from work to do errands. By providing every-day services, such as dry cleaning, video rental, pharmacies, grocery stores, and day care in close proximity to the work site, a major incentive to driving alone will be eliminated. Providing lunch facilities can significantly reduce traffic congestion during the lunch hour. Advantages Careful planning can eliminate the need for costly solutions by avoiding future traffic problems. Reduces the need for people to drive alone by providing services on s ite Centralizing services reduces wear and tear on residents and employees. This will make Tampa Palms a more pleasant place to live and work, an outstanding marketing tool. Considerations Developing such a community would take a solid commitment from Tampa Palms and its staff. Applicability to Tampa Palms The Tampa Palms Development Corporation could adopt a policy requiring its marketing and land development staff to encourage employers and developers to provide mixed-use facilities by educating buyers on the benefits of the TDM program Employers can be awarded credits toward accomplisbig TDM goals for developing mixed use facilities, such as providing lunch facilities on the work site. This mixed-use land development policy can be given to prospective builders and the Tampa Palms site plan review committee can promote it through the review process. 4


SllEDESIGN Description Careful site design can create an environment that will encourage people to walk, bicycle, and use the bus. These IDM strategies are tied together. In order to encourage people to use mass transit, they must be able to walk safely to bus stops. Some also may be encouraged to bicycle, the n take their bicycles on the bus for longer trips, if a safe and pleasant systems is developed. Bicycle and pedestrian environme n ts will be further discussed in subsequent sections. The ability to encourage transit is directly related to densities and the type of land use in the development. Ri dership usually increases significantly as employment densities rise above 50 employees per acre or if they are located in a center with more than 10,000 employees Residential densities of seven or more dwelling units per acre are usually necessary to establish service with 30 minute schedules. Site design can specifically promote transit by incorporat i ng transit access. These design criteria include: Constructing office$ in close proximity to the street to encourage employees to walk to the bus stop. Constructing sidewalks on both sides of each street. Providing bus shelters. Managing parking. Minimizing walking distances between home, and businesses, and transit stops. Ensuring streets are designed to accommodate buses. In Ottawa-Carleton, Ontario, planning for transit is required for new development. Formal guidelines require certain densities and site design be constructed to accommodate transit. 5


Mvantages Transit ridership should increase with densities. Planning for transit service prior to development will ensure that sidewalks and other facilities feed into bus stops. Limiting the distance potential bus riders must walk can significantly increase the ridership. Trans it planners normally expect passengers to walk no more than a quarter mile. Reduced demand for roadways and the funds needed to build them. Lowered demand for expensive parking facilities. Could expand the employee recruiting base by providing transportation to employees not living in Tampa Palms. Continuing to plan for a environment friendly to pedestrians and cyclists would continue to promote the marketing goals of Tampa Palms. Considerations income residents of Tampa Palms may be unlikely to use transit semce. Res idents may not wish to see transit buses running through t heir neighborhoods. Applicability to Tampa Palms Tampa Palms is already designing its neighborhoods to promote bicycling and walking. This policy should be continued in the residential areas and promoted in the office/industrial complexes. Several residential areas are already planned at high densities, which can encourage transit use. Street designs in the residential areas also are already capable of handling buses. Employers and devel op ers should be educated by the TMA on the benefits of transit for their employees and encouraged to provide sidewalks and bus stops at their sites. Employers can be awarded credits toward accomplishig IDM goals for developing mixed use facilities, such as providing lunch facilities on the work site. This mixe d-use land development policy can be given to prospective builders and the Tampa Palms site plan review committee can promote it through the review process. 6


EMPLOYER IDM PROGRAMS Description Private firms have been developing Transportation Demand Managemen t programs over the past several decades as employee benefits. Many programs began during the 1974 oil crisis when commuting costs skyrocketed. A particularly successful program was implemented by USAA, which began its national vanpooling program at that time as an employee benefit, lowering commuting costs, employee insurance costs, and promoting a social atmosphere between the vanpoolers. In Tampa, USAA currently owns 25, IS-passenger vans that it leases to employees who reimburse the company for the cost. USAA has 1200 emp loyees in its Tampa office and 863 parking spaces. The company recently built 140 spaces for Sl million at its Westshore office. Since the 25 vanpools have eliminated the need for 350 spaces, they have saved the company a significant amount of money. The company p lans to be running 40 vanpools when it opens its Tampa Palms office by late 1991 or early 1992. Since there will be ample parking, the company sees this program as a means of expanding its employee recruiting base for many of those who will be commuting lo ng distances. Several other national corporations have implemented similar programs on their own initiative, including 3M, Hughes Aircraft, and McDonnell Douglas Employer TDM program also can be required through development order agreements, local ordinances, and TMA agreements. N egotiating traffic mitigation agreeme nts with employers and developers is becoming a common practice in high growth areas, such as Los Angeles, the Washington D.C area, Tampa, San Francisco and Seattle. The agreements usually set a traffic r eduction goal, which can be expressed in terms of minimum l eve ls of ridesbaring or number of vehicle trips. These agreements require employers to develop TDM plans and mandate specific actions. These actions often vary according to the size of the employer. 7


Advantages Requiring businesses to take a substantial r ole in IDM planning will greatly increase the chances of a successful1DM program. If IDM plans are required for members of the TMA, businesses may just accept this as part of doing business. Such agreements and plans will specifically outline what measures are being taken to avoid traffic problems. Businesses and residents locating in Tampa Palms will have the security of knowing they will be able to continue to move freely through tbe development through the turn of the century if they participate in the IDM program. Significant long-term savings can be achieved by preventing traffic problems before they occur instead of paying for costly solutions after congestion becomes unbearable. Considerations Successful implementation will depend upon having dedicated TMA staff to monitor the program. Applicability to Tampa Palms Tampa Palms can require m ajo r employers to develop and follow IDM plans by requiring aU businesses to join the TMA as conditions of purchase and lease agreements. TMA bylaws can, in turn, mandate employers of certain sizes to develop TMA plans. This measure bas the potential to ensure that employers implement IDM measures and the overall program will be effective The Tampa Palms Development Corporation and CUTR need to further assess this requirement's potential impact on the marketability of office and industrial land. 8


RIDESHARING The two basic modes of ridesharing are carpooling and vanpooling. Commuters are the most likely candidates for these programs because they have regular schedules, make a low number of trips per day, and they have the lowest occupancy rate per auto at 1.2. Carpoolers may choose to take turns using their cars or only one person may drive, splitting the costs among everyone. Vanpools carry from eight to fifteen passengers who usually commute over 20 miles daily. Each passenger pays a certain amount each week to the vanpool driver who usually rides free and has use of the van at night and during the weekend. The driver, in turn, reimburses either the employer or the private company, depending on who is sponsoring the pool. Ridesbaring programs that encompass incentives, such as preferential parking, parking management, and matching services through employers, are becoming increasingly effective in reducing traffic around the country. Denver, Colorado, officials estimate that ridesharing activities have reduced the number of vehicle miles traveled (vmt), especially in low density urban settings not well served by transit. Firms with more than 250 employees have reduced their vmt by an estimated 3.8 percent through vanpool programs. As one of the nation's leaders in vanpooling, USAA plans to open its doors operating 40 vanpools. At an occupancy rate of at least 12 passengers per van, this means 440 cars will be kept off of the road. Though USAA will have ample parking space, the vanpool program will allow the company to expand its employment base by transporting employees living long distances from the site. The Tampa Palms TMA will be able to have employees matched t hrough the Hillsborough County Save A Vehicle Each day program. FDOT and the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) are currently establishing a regional ridesharing program that will match commuters from Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando counties in one data base. This will increase the program's efficiency and the ability to successfully match ridesharers. One means of encouraging ridesharing is the construction and enforcement of high occupancy vehicle (HOY) lanes, which are reserved exclusively for transit, carpools, and vanpools. An HOY lane is currently planned for the 1-75 corridor from the Howard Frankland Bridge and will run north to Livingston Avenue. 9


Advantages Employers can benefit from better employee morale, reduced absenteeism and tardiness. This can mean significant savings for businesses. Expands labor market. Reduces parking construction costs. Each vanpool can save a company up to $20,000 and each carpool can save $7,000 in parking spaces. An employee who rideshares can save at least $100 a month in commuting costs. The cost of implementing a ridesbaring program is low. Considerations Some employees are suspicious of having their name and address put into a computer. Applicability to Tampa Palms The low cost of encouraging employees to rideshare is insignificant when compared to the po tential benefit to the Tampa Palms community. With a small amount of capital, an active ridesharing program can significantly reduce traffic coming to Tampa Palms. Upon inception, the TMA should begin to educate employers and encourage them to participate. As development contin ues ridesharing should become a way of life and be accepted as a serious alternative to driving alone. 10


SHU1TLE SYSTEMS Descrip t io n Vans and small buses are used for a variety of shuttle services. They are often operated as internal circu l ators in large suburban centers to relieve mid-day congestion when people go to lunch. Shuttles to alleviate the lunch-time congestion in Tampa's Westshore area are now under consideration by the Westshore Alliance. In Brevard County, planners are looking into the poss i bility of ru nnin g shuttles between two retail malls, which are located within a mile of each other in the City of Plantation. Two California TMAs, Bishop Ranch in San Ramon, and the Hacienda Business Park in Pleasanton, both provide free shuttle services to mass transit stops. Advantages Shuttles ca n serve as feeders to bus systems, opening transit service to a much larger population than the transit agency can serve. Shuttles can relieve specific pockets of congestion at a much lower cost tha n large buses. Can relieve congestion dur ing certain periods of the day while the van or small bus can be used for other purposes at uncongested times. A Tampa Palms shuttle van could create more of the atmosphere of exclusiveness the development wants to maintain than a transit bus. Consid e ratio n s A shuttle system would require capital outlay by the TMA or employers. An internal circulator may require special legal authority. Applicability to Tampa Palms Van shuttles could be valuable and cost effective to Tampa Palins. Approximately 20 percent of those respondi n g to the res i dential survey conducted by CUTR said they would be i n terested in shuttling their children to school. Almost 50 percent of those responding to this question said they would use a shutt l e to go to work or downtown, 38.3 percent said they would ride it to pick up a few groceries 39.7 percent to go to recreational areas, and 12.8 percent for other reasons. Only 21 percent said they would not use a shuttle Tampa Palms residents also showed a preference for a private service provided specifically for them over a public bus. The same company or shuttle system also could serve Tampa Palms' employment centers. A co n venient, upscale shuttle could be extremely attractive to these short-distance commuters. 11


PARK-AND-RIDE SERVICES Description Park-and-ride lots are central gathering points for people who need to meet a bus, carpool or vanpool. These lots can be peripheral or remote to a destination. Peripheral lots are usually located on the fringe of a central business district (CBD) or major destination and transit service is often provided from the park and ride to the CBD. A similar system is currently operated under the "Meter Eater" parking garage on the northwest fringe of Orlando's CBD. Close to 624 people park their cars and take one of the five shuttles to and from the downtown daily. The city already has a waiting list for an adjacent $8.3-rnillion "Meter Eater" garage to be built with a day care center. A remote lot is usually lies on a major route between a suburban community and a major employment center. The lot recently opened at the Tampa Palms shopping center will serve this purpose once it is publicized and development intensifies. Making the location of a lot convenient to commuters by locating them adjacent to services, such as day care, grocery stores, dry cleaners, and service stations, will increase the incentive for people to rideshare or take the bus. Traditionally, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has built park and-rides lots in publicly owned land but has recently changed its policy to make them more convenient and secure. FDOT also is contracting to use church lots during the week. The state will build and maintain the lots in exchange for free use of the land over, usually over a 10-year period. The churches then have parking spaces for Sunday service. 12


Advantages Increases transit use by centralizing outlying pick up point, thereby expanding the area buses can serve. Encourages car and van pooling by providing a safe and convenient place for ridesharers to meet. Opens new job markets for residents who would otherwise not have transportation to employment centers. Decreases the cost of provicling employee parking in dense business districts where t he cost of land is high. Less stress and cost to commuters and shoppers who often must compete for parking. Opening these parking spaces can make a more positive and inviting environment for shoppers and business clients. Local churches or shopping centers are often willing to lend space in their lots for commuters, significantly reducing the costs. Considerations Park-and-ride lot construction can require large capital outlay if it is located in an area of high land values. H not properly located and secured, the lot may go unused. The transit system must be able to provide convenient and frequent service so that the park and ride lot will be used to its maximum potential. Applicability to Tampa Palms Several park-and-ride lots are planned for the Tampa Palms area and one is currently open at the Tampa Palms shopping center. Tampa Palms also is committed to building a park-and-ride near the powerline and County Road 581. A remote parking lot also is planned for State Road 54, north of Tampa Palms. One long-term strategy that could save businesses significant money would be for the TMA to consider contacting Hartline or the FDOT to buy property for reomote lots that would serve Tampa Palms employees. H parking management is enacted and the cost and competition for parking increases, the TMA also should work with these agencies to develop peripheral lots outs ide of the commercial/light industrial areas where employers could build lots. This should be done when development has begun to intensify and specific high density areas can be identified. But the process should begin well before land costs become so high that governmental agencies may not agree to participate. Shuttles should be put into service if people can not walk to their offices from the lots. 13


TAXI SERVICE Description Taxis could be used as a IDM strategy in two ways. They could function either as a feeder system, taking passengers to bus stops or as a shared-ride service where people with similar origins and destinations take the same taxi. TAXIS AS A FEEDER SYSTEM A feeder system would work by the TMA contracting with a private taxi company to pick up passengers and drive them to the transit stops under a fixed-price schedule for passengers. This would function much like an internal circulator, serving only a specific development or area. The transit system would then carry passengers to destinations outside of Tampa Palms. A legal agreement would have to be worked out with the transit authority before the system could operate. Advantazes Taxi companies are familiar with the area and know the market. A private firm may be very responsive to demand Considerations To function as a feeder system, a company would have to seek permission from the local transit agency. These agencies often prefer to provide all such services themselves. 14


SHARED-RIDE TAXIS Shared-ride taxi systems also have been successful in dense urban areas where people split the fare and are picked up or dropped off along the trip. This is a matter of the dispatcher determining the origins and destinations of several people and matching them for a ride. Yellow Cab has experimented with this concept in Tampa but found passengers either wanted to ride alone or that their destinations were too diverse to make the system work. Hillsborough County currently allows one taxicab permit per 1,000 residents to companies that can operate at least 15 taxis. The company, in turn, leases the permit and car to a driver who operates it as their own business. The company also coordinates the dispatching. Advantages Shared taxi services could be implemented at a low cost because the structure is already in place. Taxi companies already have the legal authority to operate. Considerations Many taxi riders prefer to ride alone. In order for a share-ride service to work the service area must be densely populated so that enough people with similar destinations can be paired. Demand for taxi services is us ually high in low income areas in the Tampa Bay area. Therefore, the Tampa Palms market should be tested for feasibility if taxi systems are considered in the future. Applicability to Tampa Palms Taxi service is currently provided to Tampa Palms upon demand Establishing a taxi stand or shared-ride service would probably not be warranted by demand in the near future. If taxi companies show interest once development is highly concentrated, a stand could be set up at a hotel to take business people to the airport and industrial/office buildings. Operating taxis to feed into the transit system wou ld not be feasi ble in the short run since the demand for transit has not developed. Yellow Cab also rece ntly approached Hartline about operating a feeder system but the agency was not interested. H the TMA does decide to implement a taxi feeder system in the future, CUTR thinks this hesitancy by the transit agency could be overcome by further discussions with its management A shared-ride taxis service would not appear to be feasible to Tampa Palms unless such a system were initiated for the Tampa area in the long-term future. Further study would be necessary to determine whether peop le have a significant number of similar origins and destinations to their trips. 15


PEDESTRIAN SYSTEMS Description A pedestrian system of sidewalks, pedestrian street crossings, auto-free zones, and locating parking behind businesses can culminate in making walking a pleasant experience as well as reducing traffic. Careful land use and site planning is paramount in encouraging this measure. Locating lunchtime facilities and other services within walking distance from offices and residential areas are obviously crucial to walking, as an alternative to driving. Once an auto-dependent bedroom community for Seattle, Washington, the City of Bellevue has become a major employment center where 23 percent of all midday trips are made on foot This is a significant accomplishment for a suburban activity center, which was achieved through efforts by the Bellevue TMA and state Environmental Policy Act, which requires all new developments to submit IDM plans. Florida has the highest number of pedestrian accidents per capita in the country. Many areas lack sidewalks and pedestrian signals, resulting in poor access to mass transit. FDOT is currently funding pedestrian coordinators at local Metropolitan Planning Organizations to monitor compliance to the state's new "Pedestrian Transportation Plan" that mandates full consideration of pedestrians in all transportation facilities. Advantages Florida's climate offers significant potential to promote walking. Tampa Palms is well on its way to creating a safe and pedestrian friendly environment. A safe pedestrian environment will promote marketing of Tampa Palms. Walking promotes healthy residents and employees. Healthy employees can reduce the cost of health benefits. Considerations Building sidewalks requires additional capital outlay to construction projects. Feasibility to Tampa Palms The Tampa Palms residential neighborhoods are being built to create a positive atmosphere for pedestrians. The benefits, in terms of marketability, from this development practice far outweigh the costs. The benefit of reducing congestion in the industrial and office areas by encouraging people to walk to lunch or meetings could be significant. 16


BICYCI.JNG Description Cycling can be appealing to short-distance commuters because it practically eliminates travel costs. In order to make cycling attractive, it must be made safe. People can be encouraged to use their bikes if bicycle lockers and shower facilities are available at their destination, especially for commuters. Cycling also can be promoted in conjunction with transit if space is provided for bicycles on buses. Key West and Gainesville are two Florida cities where bicycling is commonly used as a serious mode of transportation. Despite its fla t terrain and temperate weather,bicycling in Florida shares the same hazardous impediments as pedestrian traffic. The Sunshine State has led the nation as the most at risk place to ride a bicycle for seven out of the past nine years. Major strides are now being taken by FOOT to tum this around. A state bicycle office has been established and supports local metropolitan planning organization programs. FOOT now requires that room be p rovided on all state roads during construction, reconstruction or resurfacing. Hillsborough County also mandates that all the outside lanes be widened for bicycles during construction and reconstruction of urban collectors and arterial$ unless the cost is greater than six percen t of the project cost. A 1987 county zoning ordinance also allows up to a five percent reduction in vehicle parking space in exchange for bicycle spaces. The 1-75 corridor, which skirts Tampa Palms, has been designated a "bicycle friendly corridor" where bicycle parking and showers facilities are required fo r hig h density developments. 17


Advantages Tampa Palms' well planned bicycle network opens the opportunity to lead F1orida as a bicycle community, promoting the natural environment. A safe bicycling environment can be a significant marketing tool. Exercise helps keep residents and employees healthy. Bicycling is the least expensive, good weather alternative for commuting to work. Considerations Bicycling to Tampa Palms from other areas can be hazardous until state and county efforts to improve safety begin to take effect. Switching to cycling would require some change in lifestyle. Weather can limit bicycling during the summer rainy season. Feasibility to Tampa Palms For the immediate future, the safety of bicycling within Tampa Palms can be capitalized on to encourage residents to use their bikes. This special Florida environment also could be a strong incentive for Tampa Palms residents to cycle to work within the development from the time office and industrial development begins. A more long-term effort would be required before residents outside of Tampa Palms can be convinced to commute on bicycles. Before people living outside of the development but working there could be ensured a safe bicycle journey, the Tampa Palms TMA must first work with the state and county to improve safety conditions in the area. 18


EMPLOYER TRANSPORTATION SUBSIDIES Description Many employers around the country subsidize their employees bus ride to work. Some give employees cash outright to buy transit passes, while others offer travel allowances that can be used to purchase transi t passes or pay for parking or for other commuting purposes. Companies also subsidize special bus services, vanpools, and regular bus routes. Ches apeake life Insurance Company in Baltimore, Maryland, gives each salari ed employee $18 and hourly employees $9, a m onth as commuting subsidies. Those who choose to ride transit are supplied passes at work, paying for the remainder of their pass through payro ll deductions. Several downtown Tampa employers have joined the Hillsborough Area Regio nal Transit Authority's {HAR11ine) program, which will discount monthly transit passes by 10 p ercent if the employer contributes at least five percent (cur ren tly $1.15) of the cost. Advantages Provid es an economic incentive for employees to use transit or rideshare. Displays support and encouragement of t ransportation alternatives from the top of the company. Starts employees thinking about using alternative forms of transportation Costs are significantly less than building additional parking spaces. Better emplo yee relations they see the company is doing something to make their life better, which creates a pleasant environment. Employees who rideshare are more punctual and take less sick leave. Conside r ations Employees could use the subsidy for parking costs and ignore the alternatives. Companies may resist expending funds for what they may see as an add itional employee benefit. ApplicabHiiY to Tampa Palms Considering the potential return of reduced parking construction, transit subs i dies could be cost/beneficial to Tampa Palms employers. The TMA should encourage this from co nception in order to set a precedence and get company officials to begin thinking of t hese types of programs from the beginning. 19


AL1ERNATIVE WORK HOURS Description Alternative work hour programs can be effective in an area that does not already have a long peak period These programs can be implemented through staggered wor k hours, flextime and compressed work weeks. Staggered work hours encompasses assigning varied starting and stopping times to employees within a company. Varying these times for a few companies within a complex, instead of all businesses, may achieve the same result. Flexible work days means employees can begin, for e x ample, anytime between 6:30 a.m and 9:00 a m. and leave eight hours later. A flexible work week simply requires emp l oyees to work 40 hours but they can vary the length of each day. Employees participating in compressed work weeks work 40 h ou r s in fewer than five days Tel ecommuting is a new concep t whe r e emp l oyees are working at home one or more days a week. This reduces the number of trips made each week but does not necessarily shift trips on the other days from the peak period. The Port Authority of New York a n d New Jer sey implemented a voluntary alternative work hours program in several central business d i stricts, immediate l y r e ducing congest ion on three major subway lines by 26 percent during the morning peak per iod. Flextime in Seattle, Washington, decreased the percentage o f peop l e driving to work alone from 24 to 14 percent while transit use climbed from 56 to 62 percent. Ridesharing rose f r om 19 to 23 percent. An alt ernative wor k hours program implemented by Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG&E) rece i ved a 100 percent approval rating from supervisors and 98 percent from employees three months into the program. The BG&E workday was divided into flextim e and co r e periods. All employees are required to be at work during the core hours, between 9:30 a .m. and 3:15 p.m. but can arr ive as early as 6:30 a.m. and leave as late a 6:15 p.m 20


Advantages Alternative work hours can significantly reduce peak period congestion at virtually no cost. An American Management Association survey of 200 companies found flexible work hours increased productivity and reduced turnover by SO percent, improved recruiting by 65 percent, eased commuting and reduced absenteeism by 75 percent, reduced tardiness by 84 percent and raised morale by 100 percent. Allows scheduling flexibility to arrange car and van pools and to meet a bus. Considerations Some companies want close supervision of their employees and do not want them in the office or plant when supervisors are not there. Some companies have strict security and cannot operate alternative work hours. Employees have abused flextime in certain circumstances when supervisors are not present. Applicabiljty to Tampa Palms An alternative work hours program could be a highly successful, cost-effective way to keep traffic flowing freely at Tampa Palms. If encouraged and implemented from the start, the industrial/office districts could avoid peak period congestion until heavy development occurs. This program could continue to contribute to reducing congestion at that time when other TOM measures would take effect. 21


PARKING MANAGEMENT Description Parking management is any action that alters the supply, demand, or operation of a parking system. Parking management can be a singularly powerful tool in encouraging employees to use alternative transportation. A survey of people with access to mass transit in 17 U.S. urban areas showed the largest reasons for not driving to work alone were due to limited or expensive parking The survey, conducted by CUTR for the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, found 71.5 percent did not drive alone because of parking considerations. Parking management can limit on-street and off-street parking, change the demand by increasing the price, reduce the required number of spaces in exchange fo r promoting ridesharing, and require parking permits. Employers can reduce the demand for parking by making employees pay for parking and by providing transportation allowances. Adequate parking should always be provided for customers and bJ.lsiness patrons. Through the TMA i n Bellevue, Washington, officials have found that a highly successful parking management prog ram based on controlling the cost and availability of parking is critical in determining how employees choose to commute. Preferential parking is set aside for car and van poolers, and developers have agreed to charge for parking at a rate no less than the cost of a monthly transit pass. As a result of an agreement with the city the new 500,000 square feet Be llevu e Place office-retail-conference complex adopted strict standards on employee parking and the number of allowable outbound trips at peak hour. Due to the TMA's and the city's efforts, 25 percent of all employees share in the parking costs. This bas helped increase transit ridership to 6 percent, high when compared in a study to five other similar suburban activity centers where transit has captured only a 1 percent share. 22


Advantages Parking management can be extremely effective in encouraging people to use alternative transportation Cost savings on building additional parking can be significant to developers and employers. The money saved can be expended to manage existing par king facilit ies Money saved from parking expendiTUres can be invested into profitable venTUres. A company providing free e m ployee parking usually bears 100 percent of the cost But the cost per worker to subsidized ridesharing is usually much Jess. Reduced congestion may attract employees and businesses. Qmsjderations Altering the cost or availability of parking can be extremely controversial. Careful planning and public participation must be undertaken. Lenders maybe wary about funding projects without a certain amount of parking. Builders and businesses may feel they are put at a competitive disadvantage unless significant transit a ltern atives are available. Highe r parking costs may increase difficulty in attracting employees. feasibility to Tampa Pal m s Preferential parking for ridesharers could be an effective means of encouraging alternative transportation in Tampa Palms. The TMA should follow a program to co nvin ce employer of this benefit. Once development reaches high levels, the TMA may consider establishing a maximum number of allowable parking spaces or encourage employers to charge for part of the costs. 23


RECOM'MENDATIONS The more com p rehensive a IDM program Tampa Palms implements, the more significantly it will affect traffic. CUTR is recommending that the Tampa Palms Development Corporation seriously consider the following: The Tampa Palms Development Corporation require all employers to join the TMA through lease and purchase agreements. The T ampa Palms TMA should adopt goals. These goals could establish a percentage of employees that should use alternative transportation or commute during the off-peak period. Employers could meet this goal by implementing IDM plans. The Tampa Palms TMA require TMA members with over 100 emp loyees to develop IDM plans. These plans would help employer meet the established goals. The plans would outline how the IDM strategies, discussed in this report, will be implemented. Not all of these strategies will be relevant to every employer The Tampa Palms TMA should require all employers with over 100 emp loyees to designate a "commute coo rdinator" who would develop the IDM plan and promote IDM activities. One primary duty would be to give employee information to the TMA coordinator for those who wished to be matched for ridesharing. The TMA staff should assist employers in developing these plans as well as review them annually for consistency to the goals. The staff also would assess complia nce to these plans based on annual review of the plans and day to day contact with employers. The TMA should encourage compliance to the goals and participation in the TMA by developing a strong promotional campaign of those employers. This might include honorary membership in a club, advertisements with their names published as a positive community employer, and honoring them with a dinner attended by notable politicians and business people. Once development becomes dense, the TMA should consider implementing an in ternal circulator for Tampa Palms. This could be funded through pub lic funds, TMA funds, or a combination of both. The TMA should establish and promote activities for a Tampa Palms Bicycle/Pedestrian Cl ub for employers and residents. Promoting a camaraderie among cyclists and pedestrians could significantly increase their effectiveness. 24


RECOMMENDATIONS The TMA should promote all 1D M activities. As development begins to become dense in the office/industrial area, the TMA should consider encouraging employers to begin parking management as a means of promoting alternatives to driving alone The Tampa Palms Development Corporation shoul d adopt a policy that will encourage employers and developers to build mixed-use develo pments and design sites that promote 1DM activities. The Tampa Palms Development Corporation should encourage key businesses to locate n ear major employment centers to achieve a mixed-use environment. The ultimate success of this program will depend on a strong commitment from the Tampa Palms Development Corporation, TMA staff, the employers locating in the development as well as residents. Developing strong community support could make a tremendous difference in maintaining good traffic flow. 25


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