Transportation initiative for mobility and economic development (TIMED)

Transportation initiative for mobility and economic development (TIMED)

Material Information

Transportation initiative for mobility and economic development (TIMED)
Winters, Philip L
Hendricks, Sara Jay
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Boca Raton (Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida College of Engineering
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Transportation demand management -- Florida -- Boca Raton ( lcsh )
Commuting -- Florida -- Boca Raton ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Florida -- Boca Raton ( lcsh )


General Note:
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for City of Boca Raton ; prepared by Phil Winters, Sara Hendricks.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
45253391 ( OCLC )
C01-00130 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.130 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Transportation initiative for mobility and economic development (TIMED) /
c prepared for City of Boca Raton ; prepared by Phil Winters, Sara Hendricks.
Tampa, Fla. :
b Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida College of Engineering,
Transportation demand management
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Boca Raton.
Boca Raton.
Boca Raton.
Hendricks, Sara Jay.
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University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Boca Raton (Fla.)
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4 856


Transportation Initiative for Mobility and Economic Development (TIMED) Prepared for: City of Boca Raton Prepared by: Phil Winters Sara Hendricks, AJCP Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida College of Engineering 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CUT 100 Tampa, Florida 33620-5375


Table of Contents Introduction Evolution o f Trip Reduction Ordinances Conceptual Framework I. Take a long-term outlook 2. Foster public-private partnerships 3. Build in flexibility and choices 4. Voluntary participation preferred 5. Seek continual improvement 6. E stablish tiered levels of participation 7. Select performance measures carefully 8. Make it easy 9 Coordinate with existing programs and services Other Trip Reduction Ordinances Ordinance Requirements-Appoint an Employee Transportation Coordinator Ordinance Requirements-Annual Survey Ordinance Requirements-Annually Write a o d Implement a T rip Reduction Plan Ordinance RequirementsDistribute Alternate Mode Information to Employees Ordinance Requirements-Goals Suitability of Performance Measures The Use ofVMT Reduction GoalsExample ofPAG The Use of AMU Goals Other Performance Measures Reporting of Results Next Steps I. Seek Assistance from South Florida Commuter Services 2. Establish Ongoing Working Relationship with the Private Sector 3. Match Private Sector Resources 4. Prioritize Potential Solutions 5. Pursue School Bus Service 6 Reduce Parking Availability 7 Ensure Program Compatibility References FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10/11/2000 3 3 4 4 5 5 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 II 12 12 12 13 15 16 20 21 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 27 2


City of Boca Raton Transportation Initiative for Mobility and Economic Development (TIMED) Introduction To meet the requirements of the Downtown Boca Raton DRI development order, the City of Boca Raton is required to prepare and imple ment a Transportation Demand Management (TOM) program before issuing certificates of occupancy for more than 1.5 m illion square feet of office equ ivalents. As part of this effort, the City held a Transportation Summit in February 2000 to engage the bus iness community in a dialogue to brainstorm potential solutions for improving mobility and reducing rush hour traffic. A Tr ansportation Problem Identification and Prioritization Process was used, which resulted in the selection of the top seven potential strategies for further study. The city employed David Plummer & Associates, Inc. to conduct a scan of existing conclitions, the results of which provided an initial evaluation of the potential strategies. These efforts have provided the groundwork for the development of a TDM program. Evolution of Trip Reduction Ordinances Based on the lessons learned from other cities, it is fair to say that trip reduction ordinances (TROs) have evolved from prescript ive, activity-based (i.e., employers are required to implement certain programs or take specific actions) to more performance-based approach (i.e., flexibility and end results are what matter most). One of the oldest such regulations n ow referred to as Rule 2202 in Los Angeles provides an example of how these regulations h ave evolved. The evolution has been led by the business community and the des ir e to remove "costly regulat ions" Until January I, 1997, work sites in the South Coast Air Quality Management District with 100 to 249 employees arriving in the 6 a.m. to 10 a.m. window were subject to Rul e 2202 -On-Road Motor Vehicle Mitigation Options. Work sites employing 250 or more employees continue to be subject to the ord inance intended to produce reductions in mobile-source emissions. Unlike the earlier version of the ordinance (Regulation XV), employers now have one of three choices on ho w to reach their average vehicle ridership (A VR) target goal. A VR is general ly the number of persons arriving at the worksite divided by the number of motorized vehi cles bringing them to the site. The first option is the development of an Employee Commuter Reduction Program (ECRP). The ECRP is an activity-based option i .. e., it requires the regulated employers to develop and implement a plan to foster employee commuting by modes other than th e single occupant vehicle to strive toward a partic ula( target. These plans include p romotional strategies, financial incentives and dis incentives (e. g., parking charge, transit subsidies) and nonfinancial incentives (e.g., preferential parking for carpools, compressed work week programs). The plans are FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Reseateb 10/1112000 3


reviewed every three years by the SCAQMD to assess progress toward their goal (most have an average vehicle ridership goal of 1.50). Employers must demonstrate good faith efforts but are not penalized for failing to reach the goal. Furthermore, there is no requirement to demonstrate a rate of progress toward that goal. The other compliance options are performance-based, i.e., these options mus t demonstrate emission reductions. The second option, the Air Quality Investm ent Program (AQIP), allows an employer to opt out of the requir ement by paying a per-employee fee on an annual or triennial basis (slightly discounted from annual rate). The fees are accumulated in the program and are awarded to groups and/or in dividuals to implement mobile source emission-reduction projects selected through a competitive bid process. This opt-out option may prov ide a model to the City for emp loy ers and developers that choose not to manage or operate the program. The Emission Reduction Strategies (ERS) is the third option. Under this option, a work site can provide emission reductions equivalent to those that would have been achieved if it had met its target AVR (usually 1.50). According to the literature, the most common means of implementing the ERS option has been for employers to purchase car-scrapping credits generated by the permanent scrapping of older polluting vehicles In the spirit of flexibility, some employers combine the ECRP option and the E RS option together. In effect, employers are only purchasing the emission reduction credits that make up the shortfall between the current and target A VR levels.' The lessons learned from the Rule 2202 experience and other TROs c ited throughout this document help form th e conceptual fram ework for a proposed City of Boca Raton Transportation Initiative for Mobility and Economic Developmen t (TIMED) program. Conceptual Framework It is recommended that the TIMED program design be guided by several principles. These include: J. Taking a long-term outlook. TDM programs attempt to change ingrained trave l behaviors In the absence of draco nian measures. or generous incentives, permanent changes in travel att itudes and behaviors will happen slowly (over a period of years) and in unison with appropriate infrastructure and services d eve lopment There should be some wording in the ordinance to the effect that there is no liability for failure to reach trip reduction goals, if a good faith effort has been demonstrated 1 Kneisel, Robert. Voluntary Ride$haring After Deregulation: Findings from Work Sites Exempted from the South Coast Air Quality Managemenl Districts Rule 2202-On Road Motor Vehicle Mitigation Options. Unpublished paper submined to Transportation Research Board. August 2000. FINAL-Ce.nter for Urban Transportalion Research 4 t0/11/2000


2. Foster public-private partners/tips. A citywide TDM program will not be successful without the buy-in and support from the private sector. The T ransportation Summit started t h e participative process in a way that encourages the business community to feel assured that the TOM program sprang from their ideas. This active engagement with local businesses should be maintained throughout program development and implementation Such invo l vement will provide the input needed to set realistic i mplementation measures that are responsive to the needs of business. It will also tap the resources that the private sector can bring to the program that otherwise might not be identified. One me ans of establishing and maintaining the dialogue between p u blic and private sectors is by creating a transportation management initiative (TMI). Another means is to borrow the approach used by King County Metro Commute Partnerships program.2 The Commute Partn e rship s program has transformed the government role in addressing traffic congestion from that of service provider and revenue collector to financial partn e r and en trep reneur. Under Commute Partnerships, King County's transit agency (Metro) di r ected a small portio n of its transit budget, authorized as part of the Six Year Transit Development Plan, to i ni tiatives that would attract private investment for both traditional transit and ot h er commuting alte rn atives This reduced the financial risk t o the public in introducing new services while providing seed money for employers to invest in their own employees' commutes by transit vanpool, carpool bicycling and wa l king. The state of Washington stepped in as well with tax credits for employers contributions. This public-private collaboration yielded expanded options for commuters that also solved transportation problems for employers, treated unused capacity in the transit system as a resource, involv e d the state as a funding partner and used regular transit operating funds to reduce the cost barrier for employers to subsidize commuting alternativ e s for employees. Similarly the City of Boca Raton might consider establishing a program to matc h private s ector contributions for developing alternative transportation ince n t i ves. In the case of the City s efforts to encourage telecommuting, such private sector co n tributions might come from telephone companies or other services who have something to gain from the increased use of telecommunications. 3. Build in flexibility and cltoices. All ow developers employers and other entities that are subject to the TDM program, to offer alternative ways to accomplish program objectives, so that the program is performance-based rather than activity-based. Each e n tity has unique strengths, opportunities and b us iness operation requirements that should figure into their manner of participation. For example, FAU might devise unique ways to reduce peak period trips by 2 King County, Washington was recently nationally honored as a for Ford Foundation' s Innovations in A merican Governmen t Awards Program. The purpose of the Innovations Awards is to bring public recognition to the quality and responsiveness of American government and to help foster the replication of programs that work. FINAL-Center for Urban Transportation Research 1011112000 5


alternative class scheduling, staggering class start times or by distance learning programs. The University of Central Flo rida has used these measures with success. Another approach is to provide a menu of actions that can meet the requirements of the program and at the same time respect the degree to which an entity can participate. For example, an employer, due to the nature of its business, may be limited in its ability to alter travel patterns of employees. In this case, there should be a fee in lieu of participation that meets program requirements. For example, as discussed earlier many employers in the regulated m arke t in Los Angeles not only use a combination of TOM efforts, but also pay a fee representing the remaining portion of trips that must be reduced to m eet program requirements. In the case of Boca Raton the proceeds from a f ee can be used to fund TOM program administration and alternative transportation services such as busing for schoo l children who reside within 2 miles of the school site. The Irvin e Spectrum Transportation Management Association (TMA) provides an example in which the City of Irvine, CA and The Irvine Company devised a transportation management strategy and monitoring system for the business park known as Irvine Spectrum. With trip reduction as the goal and the establishment of trip "ceilings" for certain areas, Irvine Spectrum property owners are required to financially support the operation of the TMA through fees assessed twic e yearly. The details ofthese arrangements are included in de ed restrictions known as Cove n ants Conditions and Restrictions (CC&R). This allows th e TMA to offer its services to employers free of charge. Clearly, the building in flexibility allows employers and developers to select the strategies that make the most sense in their environment. As the following table shows employers can reach nearly the same level of trip reduction by using different mixes of strategies. The table was devel oped by applying the CUTR A VR model, deve lo ped by CUTR for the Florida Department of Transportation. Users of the model simply input the data such as the number of employees, current mode split of employees, initi al average vehicle ridership, the number of vehicles per I 00 employees and the percentage of employees whose commute trips last 40 minutes or longer. The model computes cha nge in A VR based on effect of combi nations of incentives. The model is shareware and CUTR can provide free technical assistance for its use to the City While the literature does cite many examples of very successful TOM programs with vehicle trip reductio n rates of up to 40 percent, the average annual change is often much smaller though still significant. Applying CUTR AVR, the model that was built on nearly 7,000 employer trip reduction plans produced in response to trip reduction requirements in Los Angeles, Tucson, and Phoenix areas, CUTR predicts the City of Boca Raton could expect Vehicle Trip Reduction (VTR) in the order of 2 to 7 percent, depending on the mix of programs provided current mode split and size of employer. These reductions are single year estimates. An analysis of change i n VTR over multiple years was not conducted While the results shouldn't be considered cumulative, other research indicates that continual improvement is likely. FINALCenter for Urban T ransportatio n Research 10/11/2000 6


Tabl e 1 Compa ris on of Trip Reduction By Company Size Using CUTR A VR -Comp a n y Size-1 00 Company Size= 1,000 Employees Employees TDM Program Scenar ios Veh icle Percent Vehicle Percent T rips (one -R ed u c tion Trips (oneReductio n way) in Vehicle way) in Vehicle T r i ps T r ips No program 89.0 ---890 Compressed work weeks 87.2 1 .9% 856 3 .4% only Guaranteed ride home; 86.7 2.4% 852 3 .9% ridematchi ng; and compressed work weeks Higher driving costs for 84.8 4.2% 833 5.7% SOV; guaranteed ride home; and ridematching Higher driving costs for 83. 9 5 .2% 824 6.6% SOV; guaranteed ride home; ridematching; compressed work week and very modest non-SOV mode subsidies . Source. Center for Urban T ransportatton Research s CUTR_A VR Software 4. Voluntary participation preferred. Mandatory provisions should be reserved for use when selected program activities are not accomplishin g program objectives. This lesson was learned from the Employee Commute Options program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that r equired all l arge(> 1 00 employees) in severe or extreme n onattainment areas to increase their A VR to a level 25% higher than the baseline for their region within 2 years. T o a large extent, ECO was an unfounded mandate with an overly ambitious goal. As a result, business and political backlash resulted in the r epeal of the mandatory measures in 1996, making trip reduction programs voluntary. Without having laid the original groundwork of employer b uy-in for achieving program goals, participation fell away. The removal of the regul at i ons doesn't entire l y erode interest by employers in these types of programs. After Rul e 2202 deregulated emplo y ers with I 00 to 249 employees, 40 perce n t of the employers still reported offering ridesharing programs These TOM programs such as van pooling, compressed work weeks, transit subsidies and telecommuting help provide solutions to business problems such as employee r ecruitment and retention, parking shortages, and efficient use of office space. fiNAL Center for U rban Transportation Research 1011112000 7


If the program requires mandatory activities, then the City must be prepared to provide technical assistance and a level of funding sufficient to provide alternative transportation services that constitute realistic commute choices. Other communities are also examining methods for incorp orating flexibility into their proposed TRO. The Travel Reduction I ncentive Ordinance, under final draft revisions for the City of Franklin, Tennessee by The TMA Group, is a model example of the development o f a voluntary program aimed at developers Referred to as the Travel Reduction Program, all major and non major developers and employers will be eligible for participat ion, beginning December 2000. An earlier draft of the ordinance offered four incentives for use by a developer in return for a Travel Reduction Plan that can be demonstrated to the City Engineering Dept. that a selected set of TDM measures will achieve a predetermined level of travel reduction. A later draft includes just two of the four original incenti ves. These remaining two incentives include a traffic impact fee reduction and a reduction in parking requirements. The traffic impact fee reduction is granted in return for implementing one or more actions included in a compilation of approved actions. Each action is assigned a percentage TIF reduction. These actions all relate either to the location design and construction of the new facility or to an agreement between tenant and developer. The i ncentive of the reduced parking requirement allows reductio ns up to 10 percent for office and light industria l uses. The other two incentives that were later de let ed from the draft ordinance included an expedited development review process and a density bonus for mixed use developme nt. 5. Seek continual improveme11t. Because travel behavior changes are difficult to achieve and maintain, the emphasis in measuring performance should be upon a trend of continual improvement. This can and should be measured in ways t hat capture the improvement. For example, if the performance measure is simply the percent of single occupant vehicles (SOV) from one year to the next then the City would miss changes in the frequency of use of non-SOV modes (i.e increases from trial use of non-SOV modes to three times per week). This approach also help s to maintain participant morale by recognizing incremental gains. Rather than set program objectives, a philosophy of demonstrating continual improvement will establish a more reasonable tone to the program. The annual report for the second year should show some measure of progress beyond the first year's baseline conditions, as measured and documented in the first annual report. 6. Establish tiered levels of participation. In the future, if particular objectives for trip reduction are required and established by DCA, then the program measures should be devised as tiered levels of participation. FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 1011 t/2000 8


As the first participatory "tier" or level the TDM program should provide attractive incentives to encourage early participation to meet easy requirements. If program objectives are not met by the first tier of participation, then the second tier describes more rigorous act i ons to achieve the desired outcome. Because DCA has not established any expected results, the t i ers are unnecessary to devise initially. 7. Select performance measures carefully. A common challenge associated with the development of a t rip reduction ordinance is the selection of suitable performance measures. It is important that they be selected with care because the performance measure will determine what actions are taken to accomplish program purposes. Typical problems that occur are that the performance measure is unrelated to program objectives or that performance measures are selected without clearly defined goals and objectives. It is recommended that the City carefully devise their goals for the program and provide assistance to property developers and their tenants in the development of objectives and performance measures that work toward the achievement of the goal. Program participants should have an easy grasp of the performance measures applied to their trip redu<;tion activities. Fo r example, an objective to increase average vehicle ridership (A VR) f ro m I .3 to 1.6 persons per vehicle might be Jess understandable to the desired end result than an objective to reduce the number of motor vehicle from 77 vehicles to 63 vehicles per I 00 employees. A more thorough discussion of performance measures is included later in this report. 8. Make it easy. Keep required paperwork to a minimum. Streamline reporting requirements Offer technical support. Tailor TOM services to maximize convenience. For example, the City of Phoenix processes the commute surveys of employees, leavin g only the survey distribution and collectio n tasks to the employers The State of Washington developed employer tools, including a template for employers to use. It can be found at www. wsdot. wa .go v/pubtran/ctr. 9. Coordi11ate with existing programs and services. TOM program objectives will enjoy greater success if it cooperates (and avoids conflicts) with other complementary programs. For example, the City currently has a traffic calming program with a goal to make d owntown walking a safer and more enjoyable experience Activities to calm traffi c will encourage motorists to walk. Other potential programs may include "sustainable" or "livable cities," "walkable communities," downtown revitalization programs "Mai n Street" programs, and chamber of commerce programs. Such alignment efforts improve both public relations and the constituency base for the TDM program. The TOM program should also take advantage of existing services such as those offered by South Flor id a Commuter Services. Services already ava ilabl e to City employees include a FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 9 1011112000


ridematch database that generates free carpooling and vanpooling match lists, a free emergency guaranteed ride home program for alternative transportation us ers and technical assistance to employers. South Flori da Commuter Services could also provide staff support for the creation of a transportation management initiative (TMI) in Boca Raton. A TMI provides dedicated staff to address transportation issues in a defined area. Other Trip Reduction Ordinances As an example of ordinance construction, the selection of appropriate performance measures, and the interpretation of results, this report takes a closer lo ok at the Trip Reduction Program (TRP) administered by the Pima Association of Governments (PAG) in Arizona Many of the components in this TRP are similar to other TROs in the country In Pima County all employers with !00 or more full time equivalent employees at a single or contiguous work site must participate.3 An employer with less than 100 e mployees may opt to participate in the TRP. Those employers involved in the program must: designate an employee transportation coordinator to administer the program annually conduct a survey of employees which includes questions on travel patterns annually write and implement a travel reduction plan annually distribute alternate mode information to employees The goals of the ordinance are t o increase alternate mode usage and to reduce employee vehicle miles traveled. Alternate Mode Use (AMU) has been defined as the use of an alternate mode at least once per week. The calculation takes the following form: [ 3 (for aU respondents}# of trips using alternate mode) [3 (all respondents) tota l number of trips) For alternate mode use (AMU), PAG expects that employers achieve an AMU rate of 15% in the first year, 20% in the second year, and 25% in the third year, with an annual percentage point increase expected for each year thereafter. PAG caps the AMU rate at 40%. I f an emp loyer has participated in the TRP every year since its inc eption, then the ex p ected AMU for 1997 would be 30%. Reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are calculated from a baseline established for each employer. In the first year of the program, emp loyers are expected to reduce VMT by 15 percent. In the second year the VMT reduction must be 20 percent from the baseline, and in the third year, VMT must be reduced by 25 percent. After the third year, an additional 1.5 percent reduction is expected each year, with a cap of 40 percent reduction over the base line year. If an employer has participa ted in the program since its inception, the VMT reduction goal for 1997 would be 32.5 percent from the baseline. 3 Winters, Philip L., Francis Cleland and Daniel Rudge. Pima Association Of Governments Travel Reduction Ordinance Validation Study. Center for Urban Transportation Research. University of South Florida. October 1997. FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10/ll/2000 10


E mployers who fail to achieve their TRP goals are not subject to legal action Inst ead, PAG asks that employers modify their trip reduction program to increase the likelihood the employer can meet the goals. This includes requiri n g that at least two spe cific travel reduction measures from a list of measures contained in the ordinance are included. In the following year, PAG requires that employers include three measures from the Jist in the trip reduction program During the I 996 program year 231 employment sites participated in the TRP. More than 48 percent of the sites could meet the AMU target, while only 4.9 percent met the VMT reduction goal. Ordinance Requirements -Appoint an Employee Transportation Coordinator Like many TROs the Pima County TRP requires that em ployer s designate an employee transportation coordinator (ETC) to administer the program. In a survey of 24 trip reduction ordinances in exis t ence at the time of the TRP adoption (Peat-Marwick, 1990) 23 TROs required that employers appoint an ETC. In the one TRO where the TRO did not require an ETC, they reviewed employer transportation plans If the emp loyer did not appoint an ETC, the plan received increased scrutiny to determine how the employer would administer it. All of the TROs currently in force require that an ETC be ap pointed. While the appointment of an ETC i s commonplace, success of an emp loyer trip reduc tion program docs not necessarily hinge on the ETC. According to Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures, (1993, ITE Press), the pre sence of an ETC has only a slight impact on mode choice. In cases where the ETC had moderate to sign ificant infl uence they attributed success to ETC managem ent style and physical location within the building (e.g., office near lobby). It appears that the more aggressive the ETC is in encouraging alternate mode use, the greater the success rate. It is also helpful to have the ETC's office stationed near the lobby or other high pedestrian traffic areas to serve as a visual reminder of the importance of the TRP program. In areas where ETCs are an important component of a trip reduction program, the regulating agency provides regular training opportunities. They hold these training opportunities as often as once a month though the most popular scheduling is once every two to three months. In Atlanta, where the Atlanta Regional Commission, training has included such diverse topics as vanpool leasing and pricing seminars to evaluation techniques and the use of focus groups. At these training sessions, ETCs are also presented awards for exemplary performance in meeting trip reduction goals, or in increasing inq uiry into program options Institute of Transporta tion Engineers also suggests that the following items be considered in administering an on-site TDM program: information materials should reflect the characteristics and attitudes of the target population 4 Institute ofTlansportation Engineers. Implementing EffectP;e Travel Demand Management Measures. Washington, DC June t993 FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research II 10/1112000


company policy TDM use and incentives should be clearly defmed and monitored to ensure compliance the TOM program should establish internal goals and progress should be monitored based on internal goals to ensure incentives and program elements are effective information centers (and ETCs) should be in easily accessible locations and staffed with trained commute professionals Ordinance Requirements -Annual Survey The Pima County TRP requires that employers annually conduct a survey of employee travel patterns and report the results of the survey to the Pima Association of Governments (PAG). Employers use a survey developed by PAG to collect the necessary data to decide whether the employer met the alternate mode use goal and/or the vehicle miles of travel reduction goal. Ordinance RequirementsAnnually Write and Implement a Trip Reduction Plan The Pima County TRP requires that employers annually develop and implement a trip reduction plan. As the cornerstone of the program, the ordinance lists 16 potential trip reduction strategies that could be selected by employers. The measures include such items as computerized ride matching, transit and vanpool support programs, bicycle and pedestrian measures, parking management strategies, flexible work arrangements, and relocation incentives. Unpublished reports completed on behalf of the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) (Cost-Effectiveness of TOM) suggest that employers are as concerned about the cost of implementing a TRP as they are about achieving ordinance goals. In fact, employers stated that guidance documents should focus on costs, not potential reduction benefits. From a public agency perspective, it is also important to note the lack of solid research in the areas of program costs and cost/benefit analysis. The often-cited study completed by Ernst and Young on Air Quality Management District TRO employer sites quoted a figure of $139 per employee per year to meet ordinance requirements. However, follow up studies with employers who participated in the Ernst and Young study found that many employers substantially overestimated their costs. Other cost studies conducted in Chicago and Los Angeles showed a wide range in employer spending to comply with a TRO. These studies also showed that there was no correlation between dollars spent and trip reduction. Finally, research conducted on behlllf of the Federal Highway Administration revealed that some employers actually saved money (through parking charges) by implementing a TOM program. Ordinance Requirements-Distribution of Alternate Mode Information to Employees One of the requirements of the Pima County TRP is that employers annually distribute alternate mode information to all employees and to provide information when new employees are hired. In an examination of 24 trip reduction ordinances, 22 of 24 required that employers routinely disseminate information regarding alternate modes. However, there is some variation on the frequency of information distribution. FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10/11/2000 12


About half{IO) of the TROs required that information be provided to employees annually. Two ordinances required that information be provided annually and that all new hires receive the information when hired. Seven ordio ances required that employees be provided information continuously by posting in high traffic areas of the building and through periodic updates when changes occur t o transit schedules or program offerings. Two ordinances required that information be provided quarterly, and one TRO that it be provided twice a year and that the company conduct a promotional campaign for alternate mode use once each quarter. Research conducted for the Federal Highway Administration (Implementing Effective T ravel Demand Management Measures} found that information dissemination is most useful when: materials reflect the characteristics and attitudes of the t arget population (e.g. cos t s savings v. trip reduction) information campaigns are appropriately scaled to the ta rget population (e.g. provide bicycling information to commuters with travel distances less than five miles) information materials are located in highly visible locations and be updated continuously to reach new employees and employees whose residentia l locations have changed and/or those whose travel needs have changed If an employer guide is developed, this information would be a usefu l supplement for employers. Ordinance Requirements Goals The performance goals are generally designed to help the area enhance their transportation and air quality througb focus on one or more of the following purposes: {I) increasing the percentage of commuters who use alternatives to the single occupant vehicle (2) decreasing the number of miles driven by those commuters; and (3) decreasing the number of vehicle trips. The following tables outline the goals for the performance measures used by PAG. PAG's goals recognize the need for continual improvement by employers with significant or breakthrough improvements in the first three years and incremental progress after the third compliance year. Generally, the nonpre scriptive, results-oriented ordinance focuses on what needs to be achieved rather than stipulating how employers choose to reach one or both of those goals. Employers may achieve these improvements through several methods: (I) enhancing the value of alternatives to the single occupant vehicle (SOV) through the provision of incentives (e.g., transit pass discounts) for AMU users and/or disincentives for driving to work (e.g., parking charges); (2) targeting strategies to longer distance commuters (e.g., vanpool programs); (3) providing opportunities to not make the trip (e.g. telecommuting) and (4) increasing the frequency and duration of alternate mode use (e.g., frequent rider benefits). FINAL-Cen ter for Urban Transportation Research 10/1112000 13


Table2 Pima Association of Governments TRP Goals for VMT Reductio n Compliance year Target Decrease in VMT Baseline 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th nth None Baseline measurement 15.0% from baseline 20.0% from baseline 25.0% from baseline 26.5% from baseline 28. 0% from baseline 29.5% from baseline 31.0% from baseline 1.5% further reduction from baseline annually Table3 Pima Association of Governments TRP Goals for AMU Achievement Levels Compliance year Target AMU Level Baseline 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th lOth II th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th None Baseline measurement 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 26.0% 27.0% 28.0% 29.0% 30.0% 31.0% 32.0% 33.0% 34.0% 35.0% 36.0% 37.0% 38.0% 39.0% 40.0% FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10/11/2000 14


Suitability of Performance Measures Trip reduct ion programs (TRP) may serve a variety of purposes such as to mit igate traffic due to a development, reduce air pollut i on, decrease congestion, etc. According to Glazer (J 993) several measures of effectiveness (lv!OE) are used for TRP efforts: mode share, vehicle occupancy rate, vehicle trip reduction vehicle miles of travel reduction and level of service. The selection of MOE depends on the objectives of the effort and the environment in which the TRP program applies it (e.g., an employer site versus a corridor program). Mode share measures the change of travel behavior -a primary objective of most TRP programs. Similar to market share, a mode share represents the percent of people who use each means of commuting. Average vehicle ridership (AVR) is the performance measure used in Los Angeles. A VR also was the measure sele cted by EPA for the now suspended Employee Commute Options requirement in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Other areas of the country, such as the State of Washington a n d Maricopa County, usc changes to the single occupant vehicle (SOY) rate to set goals and gauge the effectiveness of emp loyer-based efforts (Winters 1996). Whatever the primary measure selected, none complet ely capture the transportation and air quality impacts alone. The current PAG performance measures (AMU and VMT) only partially measure the impact of the ordinance for achieving the goal of reduced air pollution and traffic congestion. The use of VMT ignores the number of vehicle trips and emissions generated by these trips. Also, companies with the same AMU but different composition of the AMU (carpool and tr ansit shares) can have significantly different impacts on the transportation system. A reduction in vehicle miles of travel (VMT) is directly related to benefits such as air pollution reduction However, VMT reduction is not directly proportional to pollution reduction because "co l d start" emissions generate much of the pollution. For example, all other things being equal, more air pollution benefits are received by reduc ing two I 0-mile trips than one 20-mile trip even though the total VMT reduced i s the same. The use of AMU also masks some of the impacts. The same Alternate Mode Usage rate with different mode splits among the alternatives (e.g. carpool and transit) can yield different transportation and air quality impacts. For example, an AMU share of 18 percent consisting of a carpoo l share of 16 percent and a transit share of 2 percent (AVR=l.IO) represents 2 2 percent more vehicle trips than the equivalent AMU share with a carpool share of 12 percent and a transit share of 6 percent (AVR=I.l3) Thus, the la tter option reduces more trips and VMT although the AMU rates are the same. Vehicle occupancy measures are anothe r commo nly used MOE of the transportation system. However, the relationship between AVR and trip reduction is nonlinear. For the same percentage reduction, an e mplo yer with a low current A VR would need to reduce m ore vehicle trips than for an employer with a high current A VR. For example, a I 0 percent increase in A VR from 1.10 to FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research IS 10/11/2000


1.21 would require a reduction of 8.3 vehicle trips per 1 00 employees. However, a 10 percent increase in A VR from 1.50 to 1.65 would require a reduction of only 6.1 vehicle trips per I 00 employees. The Bay Area Air Quality Management District in San Francisco opted to use the inverse of A VR or the vehicles-per-employee ratio (VER) as i ts performance measure. VER is a useful way of identifying how many vehicles are removed from the road and communicating with employers and policy makers The Netherlands also has adopted this measure. Level of Service (LOS} is another measure of effectiveness used to assess the impact of transportation improvements. LOS describes the quality of traffic flow at spec ifi c times and locations. However LOS is subject to a wide range of exogenous factors such as non-commuter traffic, incidents, and through traffic. The complexity and cost associated with evaluating the impact of the TDM efforts based on LOS is considerable. Vehicle trip reduction (VTR) is another MOE used by the transportation community. VTR correlates closely with the goals ofTDM -reduce tdps, decrease air pollution, decrease the need for parking -and is generally proportional to the desired result. This measure also can be calculated from existing data. Therefore CUTR recommends that the City of Boca Raton consider the use of vehicle tdp reduction as one of its goals. To help answer the question whether or not compliance goals are attainable a nd reasonable the data should demonstrate progress (trend data) and achievement (performance levels). The evaluation of the goals is based on three factors: (I) the performa nce l evel has been achieved, (2} the current results show a favorable trend, and (3) the performance leve l compares favorably with the results from o ther appropdate ordinances At the t ime the PAG report was prepared by CUTR, the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) law in the state of Washington had conducted two surveys of employers participating in the program. The first survey (in 1993) established a baseline from which red uctio n s in SOV use and VMT would be calculated. The second survey, completed in 1995, showed that the SOV rate had declined from 72 percent to 68 percent, a 5.5 percent reduction. VMT reduced by six percent. About 31 percent of the work sites met their SOV reduction goal of IS percent, and only 18 percent met their VMT reduction goal of 15 percent. For Madcopa County Arizona (Phoenix), the SOV rate in the first year was 75 percent, while in the most recent year the SOV rate was 70 percent. About 27 percent of employers meet their SOV target rate of 60 percent. The second goal is to reduce the SOV VMT rate. For the most recent year the SOV VMT rate was 81.64 percent that is a reduction from the 84.4 percent SOV VMT rate in the baseline year The Use of VMT Reduction Goals-Example of P AG An examination of the data provided to CUTR by PAG shows few employers are reaching the VMT goal. When the data is examined by compliance year rat h er than calendar year, only 18 FINALCenter for Urban T ranspol1lltion Research 16 10/11/2000


percent (38 of the 209) employers met the 15 percent decrease in VMT goal by th e I st Complian c e Year. Also, only 8.4 percent of the 1,183 plans filed by employers since 1 989 have reached any of the VMT goals. Slightly mor e than one in four (56 of the 209) employers have met at least one of their VMT targets during this period. The trend in the percent of employers decreasing VMT from one compliance year to the next is more favorable than the trend of emp l oyers reaching th e c urr ent goal. More than 56 percent of the compliance plans submitted by employers had decreases in VMT from the prior comp li ance plan year. Table 4 Pima Associatio n o f Governments Number of Employers Who Met the VMT Reduction Goal VMT Reduction Year t Yeor 2 Year3 Year4 5 Year6 Year 7 Total 15% 20"/o 25% 26.5% 28% 29.5% 31% VMT Red uction Goal Total Number of Empl oyers Percent of Employers Meeting VMT Goal Pere

Table 6 Pima Assoc ia t ion of Governments Changes in VMT by Compl iance Year Compliance Year to Basetine Year I Year2 Year 3 Year4 Year 5 Year6 Year? Maximum Reduction -47.0 -34.8 -49.3 -35.0 .6 -53.1 -41.5 in VMT (miles) Maximum tnc.rease in 43.4 51.5 41.7 27.8 51. 5 40.6 VMT (miles) A veragc Change in -2.49 -2.36 -4.22 -5.00 -5.37 .23 1.36 VMT(milcs) Standard Deviation 13.19 13.86 15.73 14.10 14.32 16.90 15.93 The VMT reduction goal is, technically attainable as evide nced by the 18 percent of employers reac hing the 15 percen t reduct ion goal in the first year. However, the percent of employers complying quickly diverges from the rising goal after the ftrst year. Less than nine perce n t of all p lans submitted have r eached the goals as currently s t ructured. Failure to reach the goa l s should not be interpreted as a failure to show progress Sixty employers showed only reduc t ions in VMT from one p l an year to the n ext. In fact thirty employers have ftled seve n consecutive plans with annual decreases in VMT. More than half of the employers have reduced their average VMT from the prior year. N early 60 percent of all p l ans submitted showed any reduction in VMT from the baseline year. The data sugge sts employers are strivi n g to meet the goals but the majority are failing to r e ach the progressiv e goals contained in the ord i nance CUTR recommended that PAG adjust the VMT goa l to foster contin u al improvement by employers. The following table shows the number and percent of plans s ubmi tted under different scenarios that would reach the scenario's goa l s. FINAL.Center for Urban Transportation Research 10/11/2000 18


Table 7 Pima Association o f Governments Employer Achievement of Goals under various Goal Scenarios Scenario Current A. B. C. D. !So/o-20%-25% in first 3 years and 1.5 percent annual reduction increment 2 percent reduction from baseline and 2 pereent annual reduction increment 3 percent reduction from baseline and 3 percent annual reduction increment I 0 percent reduction in Year I and I percent annual reduction increment 15 percent red uction in Year I and I percent annual reduction increment Number of Plans Reaching Goal Under This Scenario 99 472 377 299 191 Percent of All Plans Reaching Goal Under This Scenario 8.4 39.9 31.9 25.3 16.1 The ordinance's goals, as currently written, set very similar goals for AMU and VMT. Assuming there are no changes in the AMU goals, it would be reasonable to set goals with a comparable compliance rate. In other words, the VMT goal would need to be r evised along the lines of Scenario A to achieve a high compliance rate. Scenario A would require employers to reduce VMT by 2 percent over the baseline in the first year and achieve additional 2 percent reductions in subsequent years (e.g 2%-4%-6%). This approach would allow the regulating body to also provide employers with information on "where they stand" (i.e., benchmark) relative to other employers. Providi ng employers with benchmarks can serve to stimulate employer actions to reduce VMT. The identification of the employers who are very successful in reducing VMT could cause some employers to take actions that could result in major reductions in VMT rather than only incremental improvements. FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10111/2000 19


T h e Use of AMU Goal s An e x amina ti on o f th e data prov i ded t o CUTR b y P AG found th at the majori ty of emp l oyers are reac hing the AMU go a l s se t forth in the ordinanc e. Wh en t h e data is exam i ned b y co mpliance y ea r rather than calendar y ear 6 7 p e rcent (140 of th e 2 0 9) e mployers met the 15 p erce nt AMU go al by the 1 st Complian ce Year. Also, 86 percent of e mployers have reached at l eas t one of th e i r AMU goals The tre nd in th e perce n t of employers inc re asing AMU from o n e co mp l ian ce year t o the n ext is nearly t he same as the percent of employers reaching the current goal. M ore than 61 percen t of the compliance plans subm i tted by employers bad increases in AMU from the prior compliance plan year. T h e AM U goal has prov e n t o be a tt a inable as e v iden ced by the 6 7 percent o f emp l oyers r e a c hing th e 15 percent level in th e ftrs t year. U nlike the VM T re ducti on goal, many employ e r s are a bl e to i nc rease and sustain higher AMU levels Over hal f o f th e employers are able t o m eet the 25 pe rc e nt goal by the thi r d comp liance year even thou g h on l y II percent of th e e m p l oyers s t art at that le vel in th eir b as eli ne year. C UTR did not recommend any change s b e m ade t o th e AMU goal Tabl e 8 Pima Associati o n o f Gov ernments Numbe r of Employers Who Met the AMU Goal Compli a n ce Year AMU Basehne Year I Year2 Year 3 Y ear4 Reduction (Yca rO ) Goal 15% 90 140 20% 48 8 4 25% 24 53 26% 23 45 27% 2 0 4 0 28% 1 8 37 29% 1 6 35 FINAL-Center for Urban Tr a nsportat ion Research 1 0/11/2 000 160 16 4 157 119 14 126 69 98 89 60 8 2 8 7 51 71 8 1 44 61 75 36 50 71 Year 5 145 131 101 92 85 78 70 Year 6 Year7 126 1 1 2 109 95 8 2 74 70 74 62 69 59 62 52 20


Tab le 9 P i ma As s ociat i o n of Governments Percent of Employ e rs R e aching AMU Target b y Com pli a n ce Year Base Year I Ycar2 Year3 Ycar4 YearS line AMU Goal 15% 20% 2$% 26% 27% Number of Employers 209 209 209 189 171 157 Percent of Employers 67.0% 56.9% 51.9% 50.9% 54.1% Meeting AMU Goal Percent of Employers 69.9% 60.8% 70.9% 56.1% 58.0% with an increase in AMU (from prior year) Other Perfo rman ce Measures Year6 Year7 28% 29% 129 119 53.5% 43.7% 58.9% 43.7% Two additional measures using e xisting daJa can be used to help assess the per f ormance of the TRP: Average Weekly Veh i cle Trip s (AWVT) and Vehicle-Emp l oyee Ra tio (VER). AWVT addresses t h e i ssue of vehicle trips that VMT and AMU do not. A WVT can a lso be used to estimate impacts on parking. n1 5 AWVT= I ( :E :!: No.ofdaysformodem+(n: d.,)) ( n1+ m) i = I m =I foetor for modem We

To calculate VER: AWVT (l'ofal Number of Employees at Site) d .. dn"'" Average number of days worked for employees at this worksite. VER formula assumes A \VVT is calculated using two-way trips A WV T also can be used to estimate the number of vehicle trips reduced (VTR) and the resulting benefits (e.g., reduced cold start emissions and decreased demand for parking). This method provides an estimate of tota l trips reduced from the total trips generated if everyone drove alone to work VTR = Total Number of Employees d.,AWVT d, ; Average number of days worked for employees at this worksite. Though A VR has been used in California and by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Vehicle per Employee Ratio (the inverse of AVR) explains in plainer terms what the TRP is trying to do. The same goal stated in two different ways may be interpreted quite differently. A 15 percent increase in A VR from, for example, the current 1.10 persons per vehicle appears to be a very modest change to everyone but a transportation professional. When the same goal is restated as reducing the ratio of vehicles to the worksitc from 90 vehicles per 100 people to 79 vehicles per I 00 people, the goal becomes much clearer. In this example, if the net reduction of II vehicles was to be achieved by forming new 2-person carpools then 22 new carpoolers would have to be found per I 00 employees a significant accomplishment that would likely require both the use of incentives to share the ride and disincentives to driving alone. If Boca Raton adopts A WVT and VER goa l s, the City should take a continual improvement approach as discussed earlier. The current baseline levels should be established and improvement sought from that point. Assuming a current a v erage vehicle ridership of 1.1 0, the current VER would be 0.91 vehicles per employee. A five percent reduction goal would convert to a goal of 0.86 vehicles per employee or 86 vehicles per I 00 employees. FINAL-Center for Urban Transportation Research 10/11/2000 22


Reporting of Rtsults Many of the TROs analyze the employer survey results and develop a series of reports to track progress of the TRO program. Some TROs generate reports for each employer and collective ly for the entire TRP. These r e sults are distributed to participating employers local transportation agencies, municipal governments, and the media. In the State of Washin gt on, wher e the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Law is in effect, reporting requirements vary o n ly slightly by community. All administering agencies disseminate results to participating employers, municipal governments, and the state Department of Transportation. Others include local transportation agencies and the media. According to documentation received from Maricopa County, results are reported to al l participating employers local jurisdictions, and anyone requesting add i t io nal information about the results. These TRO programs also recognize out st anding ach iev ement by emp loyers at an awards ceremony. Outstanding achievement is based on how well the company has done in meeting t he goals of the ordinance as well as their good faith efforts in implementing a trip reduction program. The CTR program in the state of Washington provides different types of recognition depending on the loc ality. Most communities take out full-page advertisements in the local newspaper and list those companies that have met both targets. Some hold annual luncheons and present Super Achiever Commuter Challenge Awards to employers meeting the targets. However, as was stated earlier, businesses are also concerned about program costs and potential program savings. In fact evaluations conducted on CTR legislation {Lagerberg, 1997) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District TRO (Young and Luo, 1994 ), examined the ordinances impact from the busin ess perspective. Included in their evaluation are items such a s parking spaces saved, e mp loyee costs saved, pollution reduced, etc. The reports prepared by the City of Boca Raton that would be given to individual companies detail responses to survey questions as well as progress made towards achieving program goals. These reports should provide information that shows cost savings and other business benefits to participating companies. This inforroation should be inc l uded in future reports and should include: parking spaces saved employee commute costs saved pollutants reduced gallons of gasoline saved FINAL-Center for Urban Transportation Researeh 10/1112000 23


Next Steps l. Seek Assistance from South Florida Commuter Services It is recommended that the City contract with South Florida Commuter Services for the establishment of a staffed office in Boca Raton that would provide technical support to the City in admin istering the TIMED program. This office would constitute the establishment of the Boca Raton Transportation Management Initiative (BRTMI). South Florida Commuter Services already provides ridematching and guaranteed ride home services to Boca Raton commuters as well as technical assistance to tenants of affected developers who request aid in developing and implementing TDM measures at work sites. It is recommended that SFLCS provide assistance to employers by identifyi ng tailored "packages of commuter benefits that would provide effective incentives to employees at particular work sites to take alternative transportation This effort would constitute the development of individual TIMED programs by each participating property owner/developer. Such assistance would require direct communications with tenants and with affected developers. These packages could be provided partly by the employer with a match from the City, as described by the Commute Partnership concept below. SFLCS would also educate employers about the tax advantages provided by the Commuter Choice Initiative as well as easy instructions on implementation and reporting requirements for Commuter Choice benefits. 2. Establish Ongoing Working Relationship with the Private Sector It is recommended that the City invite key private sector representatives, especially developer representatives, back for a follow-up meeting to discuss the draft TIMED ordinance and mechanisms for tenant participation and to establish a private sector advisory committee to the Boca Raton TMI. The City can look to Franklin, TN as an example Over the past two years, the City of Franklin, which is located io one of the ten fastest growing counties in the United States, embarked on a study process for the development of a TRO program. The first of three study phases was the development of a I7-member Advisory Group, for the purpose of building stakeholder involvement and developing consensus. The result was the drafting of a Travel Reduction Incentive Ordinance with a Developer Element that was tailored to provide motivatio n to the private sector to participate voluntarily. 3. Match Private Sector Resources It is recommendecl that the City establish a program, using the King County Metro Commute Partnerships program as a model, to match private sector contributions for developing alternative fiNALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 24 1011112000


transportation ince ntives for employees. Such incentives might include an augmented number of emergency guaranteed rides home, vanpool subs idie s, merchant vouchers, unlimited transit ride passes, telecommunications equipment and technical support for telecommuting. 4. Prioritiz e Potential Solutions As a result of the review of the seven potential solutions studied by David Plummer & Associates, Inc . it is recommended that a les ser prio rity be p laced by the TIMED program upo n the development of the intelligent real-time actuated signal system (option #I) and upon the construction of the 1-95 interchange with FAU at Spanish River Boulevard (op tion #4). The results of the Existing Conditions Scan Report suggest that the City has already invested significant resources and labor i n developing both these options. There is a good chance that both these options will proceed regard less of their inclusion in a TOM program. \Vhile these options are worthwhile to pursue for improving the efficiency of the road system, neither option encourages us e of alternative transportation or alteration of travel time to reduce peak period congestion, which is the original intent of a TOM program. However, as the ATMS gets underway, it is r ecommended that the TIMED program can participate by p rov iding on-line, real-time traffic condition information to the public and by conducting an advertising campaign to publicize the availability of the on-line commute information. The Existing Conditions Scan Report documents that staggered work hours, telecommuting flextime and compressed work week are already used to some degree by many employers in the City This would suggest that these options may have potential to be expanded to other employment sites. It is recommended that these options (options #3, 4, 6, a nd 7 in the E xist ing Conditions Scan Report) be emphasized in the TIMED program. 5. Pursue School Bus Service It is recommended that the City pursue funding options to provide the school busing for elementary children who Jive within two miles of sc hool. 6 Reduce Parking Availability It is recommended that the infrastructure and commercial development of the City be coordinated with a long term p lan to gradually reduce parking availability within the City, in conjunction with the development of alternative transportation services. Lac k of parking availability has been shown in other cities to be a key disincentive to driving alone to work. Constraining parking supply as a travel reduction strategy has been used successfully in Bellevue, W A; Atlanta, GA and Portland, OR. FINAL.Center for Urban Transportation Research 10/1112000 25


The City should review d evelo pment requirements to determine how parking prov i sions can be revised. This might include a reduction of the minimum required parking to be provided and establishment of parking caps or maximums 7. Ensure Program Compatibility The TIMED program needs to be reviewed for compatibility against any other parking costs, impact fees, local taxes or other requirements that office tenants are already responsible for. FINAL-Center for Urban Transportation Research 10 / 1112000 26


Refe rences Burch, David. Vehic l e Employee Ratio A Better Trip Reduction Performance Measure. TDM Review, January 1994 Demen t, Donald L Certificate of C l erk Ordinance No. 6914. Pima Co., A Z, 1988 Employe r Trip reduction Staff. Guide to Empl oyer Trip Reduction Programs. San Francisco, CA: Bay Area Air Quality Management District, November 1993. Glazer, Lawrence J. Measures of Effectiveness for Transportation Demand Management. Transportati on Research Board Paper 931144. 1993. Institute ofTransportation Engineers. Implementing Effective Travel Demand M anagement Measures Washin g t on, D. C., 1993. Kades h Eileen and William T. Roach. Commute Trip Reduction Mandated in the Northwes t Style. TDM Rev iew, Autumn 1996, pp 12-16 Kickse y, William C ., and Tom Maglio. Employer Trip reduction Programs: Three Case Studies. TDM Review Winter 1996, pp 12-14. Lagerberg, Brian Washington State's Commute Trip Reduction Program. Transportation Research Board preprint paper no. 97 1443. 1997. Maricopa County Board of Superviso rs. Maricop a County Trip Reduction Ordinan ce No. P-7. Phoenix AZ: Env i ronmental Service s Department 1996. South Coas t Air Quality Management District. Rule 1501: Work Trip Redu ction Plans and R ul e l 501 1 : Alternative Emissions Reduction P rogram Guidelines SCAQMD, I 995. Transportation Research Board. Public Transportation 1995: Current Research in Planning, Management Technology, and Ridesharing. Transportation Research Board No. 1496. Washingto n, D. C .: National Academic Pr e ss, 1995. United Sta tes Department of Transp ortation Statu s of Traffic Mitigation Ordi nan ces. Washingto n, D. C.: U.S. Departme nt of Tran s p ortation 1989. West Group Marketing Research 1996 Clean Air Campaign and Trip Reduction Program Survey. Phoenix AZ: Regional Public Transportation Authority, Spring I 996. Winters, Philip L. Regional Trip Reduction Databases A Technical Memorandum produced for the Florida Department of Transportation. March, 1996. FINALCenter for Urban Transportation Research 10/lt/2000 27


References cont'd. Young, Roy and Rongsheng Luo. Five-Year Results of Employee Commute Options in Southern California. Transportation Research Board no. 1496. Washington, D. C.: National Academic Press, 1995. FINAL-Center for Urban Transportation Research 10/1 112000 28


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