Reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options

Reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options

Material Information

Reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options results of survey and conclusions
Cleland, Francis
Winters, Philip L
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
[Springfield, VA
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Available through the National Technical Information Service
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 online resource (ii, 43 leaves) : facsims. ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Traffic surveys -- Florida -- Tampa ( lcsh )
Trip generation -- Florida -- Tampa ( lcsh )
Commuting -- Florida -- Tampa ( lcsh )
Choice of transportation ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
technical report ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 31).
Performed in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration for the Florida Dept. of Transportation under contract no.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"June 1999."
General Note:
"Report no.: 0510-869."
General Note:
Final report.
Statement of Responsibility:
[principal investigators, Francis Cleland, Philip L. Winters]

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
029120229 ( ALEPH )
752597349 ( OCLC )
C01-00209 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.209 ( USFLDC Handle )

Postcard Information



This item has the following downloads:

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 2200433Ia 4500
controlfield tag 001 029120229
005 20110915171943.0
006 m o d
007 cr bn|||||||||
008 110915s1999 fluh obt 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a C01-00209
1 100
Cleland, Francis.
0 245
Reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options
h [electronic resource] :
b results of survey and conclusions /
[principal investigators, Francis Cleland, Philip L. Winters]
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research ;
[Springfield, VA :
Available through the National Technical Information Service,
1 online resource (ii, 43 leaves) :
Cover title.
Final report.
Performed in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration for the Florida Dept. of Transportation under contract no.
"June 1999."
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 31).
"Report no.: 0510-869."
Description based on print version record.
Traffic surveys
z Florida
Trip generation
Choice of transportation.
Winters, Philip L.
Dept. of Transportation.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
i Print version:
Cleland, Francis.
t Reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options.
d Tampa, Fla. : University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research ; [Springfield, VA : Available through the National Technical Information Service, 1999]
w (OCoLC)41879034
Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856


REDUCING VEHICLE TRIPS AND VEHICLE MILES OFTRA VEL THROUGH CUSTOMIZED TRAVEL OPTIONS Final Report Results of Survey and Conclusions Prepared for: D epartment of Transportation State of Florida By: Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida June 1999


Technical Report Documentation Page t. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Rteipi

Florida Department of Transportation 605 Suwannee Street Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450 (9 04) 488-7774 Fax (904) 922-4942 Project Manager: Elizabeth Stutts Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CUT 100 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120 Suncom 574-3120 Fax {813) 974-5168 Principal Investigators: Francis Cleland Philip L. Winters The opinions, findings and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the State of Florida Department of Transportation. Prepared in cooperation with the State of Florida Department of Transportation.


TABLE O F CONTENT S Executive Summary.......... ..... ..... .............. ............ .... .......................... ............... .... ....... . . ...... .... 1 Background . . . ........ ...... ..... ................ ................ .... ............ . . ...... . ............ . ......... ... .... ............. I Objectives .... ....... .. ...... ............ .......................... ...... .................. .. ....... ......... ............ .. .......... ....... .. ... 2 Review ofTraveVActivity Diary Design ....... . . .... .... . ... ...... . ..... .... ...... .. ... ........ . .... .......... . ...... .3 Sample Selection ..... ............... ......... ... ... ......... ....... ... ............. .... ....... ...... ............... . . ........... ........ ? Data Collection Plan .... ....... .. ........ ........... ......... .......... ............................ ....... ....... .... ....... ............. 9 Initial Data Coll ection and First Week of Diaries .... ....... ........... ....... ............. ... .. ... ........ .............. 9 Suggestio n Generation ..... ...... ... ... ..... .. .. . ......... ......... ... ...... .... ....... ........ ..... ............. .. ...... ...... .. 1 0 Alternate Location Suggestions . ...... ............ ... ................ ............ .............. ...... ..... ...... .... 1 0 Bicyc l e Suggestions ............................ ..... ................ : .... .......... . .... .. ......... . ................ . . !! Walk Suggestions ...... .... ...... .......... ..... . ............ ...... . .... ......... ....... . . . . .... ....... ..... ..... . .... !! Eliminate Trips through Technology Sugges tion s ............. ..... .......... . ...... .... ..... . . .... .... !! Transit Suggestions ..... ......................... ................. . ............ .... ........... . . .... .... .............. ... 12 Trip Cha i ning Suggest i ons . . .... . ................ ............ .. ......... ...... ......... ..... ........ ......... ..... ... !2 Combine Trips W i thin the Household Suggestions ..... . ......... ...... .............. . ....... .... .... ... .13 Com bine Trips Out side the Household Suggestions ..... . ...... .... .. ... ...... ... .. ... . . . ........ ... .13 Combine Trips Across Days Suggestions . . ..... .......... ............... ...................... ... ..... ..... \3 Suggestion Format . . ............. . ................... ............ ............ ..... .......... .... ..... ..... . . . . ....... 1 4 Second W cek Of Diaries ....... ..................... .. ......... ..... . .......... ... ..... . ...... . ........... ..... . . ...... ..... 18 Results ......................... ....... ... .......... ..... ........................................ ........... ....... ...... .......... .... .... ....... l8 Descriptive Statistics . .... .......... . . .......... ... ................. ....... ......... ...... . .... . ........... ..... .... l9 Analysis of Covariance: Contributed Vehicle Miles ofTravel ..... ... ........... ....... .... . ... .. .. 21 Analys i s of Covarianc e : Contrib uted Vehicle Trip s ... ... ..... ..................... ............ . ........... 2 4 A Re l ated Experimen t by Tertoolen, e t a l ....... ..... ........... . .... . .............. ........ ........... .... 25 Qualitative Follow-up with Survey Responden ts ..... ..... . ........... . ........ .............. ..... ........... .. .... 27 Impl ic a tions for Future Researc h .. .. . ........ .......... . ........................... ...... ...... .................... ......... 29 Bibliograph y ............ ... ... .... ............. .... .......... ....... ... ... ..... ......... ...... ................ .... ...... ... ......... . 31 Appendix A: Activity/Travel Diary Design ... ....... : .. .. .. .. ... ..... ....... ... ...... ...... .......... ......... ........ ... 32 Appendix B: Activity"lrrave l Diary Ins tructions .......... ..... ..... ....... .... .... . ...... o ..... 3 4 Appendi x C: Ini t ial Data Questionn a ire ............... ............ .......... .............. ...... . .... .... ...... ... .... .. .38 Appendi x D : Discuss i on Group Guide .......... ........... ... .. .. .. ... ...... ........ . ....... ...... .... . ................ .43 l


List of Tables Table I: Descriptive Statistics ofVMI' Project Results ........... ... ................ ...... .................... ........ 20 Table 2: Description of Observations Deleted from regression of Contributed VMT ....... ........... 21 Table 3: Descriptive Statistics ofVMT Project Results-Five Observations Deleted ....... .......... 22 Table 4: Regression of Contributed Vehicle Miles of Travel in second period ..... : .. ... ............ : .... 23 Table 5: Regression of Contributed Vehicle Trips in second period ......... ...... ........... ................... 24 Table 6: Transformation of Results from Tertool e n et al, article .... ..... ...... ... ............................... 26 List of Figures Figure I: Trip Reduction Suggestions ................ ......... ... ...... .......... ....... ....... ............................. ... 14 Figure 2: Commute Alternatives Suggestions ................................. ....... ... ........ ...... ... ..... .. ... ...... .. 16 Figure 3: Benefits of Commute Alternatives .... .......... ... ................... ............ .................. ..... ......... 17 11


Executive Summary This project was designed to implement a new application to help reduce total vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel by encourl!ging the use of trip-chaining and substitution for all types of trips. CUTR provided employees of a local YMCA with travel diaries and implemented a three-stage research design: 1. Collect baseline travel data 2. Provide experimental group with customized travel suggestions, while not providing this information to control group 3. Collect travel data after providing the suggestions A total of75 individuals in 39 households participated in the research. An analysis of covariance was conducted on the average contributed vehicle miles of travel and contributed vehicle trips, using the second week's results as the dependent variable. The prov ision of suggestions had a statistically significant effect on vehicle miles and trips contributed. Overall, this experiment showed that the provision of travel information will reduce vehicle miles of travel. Further research should be conducted to indicate the extent to which such information needs to be customized. Background Most efforts to mitiga te the impact of traffic congestion have focused on commuter traffic. Commuter traffic generally contributes the largest share of trip purposes in the morning peak period (estimated at 53 percent) but only 28 percent of all trips. Lessons learned from encouraging commuters to shift their mode of travel, time of day, frequency, and ro ute of travel should be applied to the non-commuter market. Focusing on noncommute trips may be particularly important in reducing vehicle miles of travel. Othenvise, the benefits of reducing vehicle use from commute-related changes may be negated by long distance noncommute trips. The genesis of this proj ect was a paper authored by Geoffrey Rose and Liz Ampt, entitled "Reducing Car Travel Through an Individual Action' Programme." In their experiment, I


Rose and Ampt followed a procedure of measuring travel behavior, providing suggestions for travel changes based on the contents of diaries, andre-measuring travel activity following provision of suggestions. This procedure was essentially the same as was followed in the curre n t project. The main difference was that the current project included a control group, the Rose & Ampt project did not. Objectives This project was designed to implement a new application to he lp reduce total vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel by encouraging the use of trip-chaining and substitution for all types of trips. The aim was to encourage individuals to occasionally choose a mix of travel choices over time to satisfy their travel needs rather than only choose the single occupant vehicle. The analysis of the data was intended to determine whther the provisi on of the customized travel options caused a change in the number of vehicle trips or vehicle miles genera ted for the period WJder study. In addition, the research was designed to: allow transit and TOM professionals to WJderstand how to apply TOM concepts t o noncomrnute trips to reduce vehicle miles of travel and vehicle trips. establish and implement a process for evaluating opportunities for reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel through customized travel options provide an evaluation of the potential for automating the process (artificial intelligence, neural networks)' and delivery mechanisms (surveys, Internet) for provid ing personalized trangportation "audits." provide material for integration into the TOM training courses offered by CUTR WJder contract to FOOT. 2


Review of Travel/ Activity Diary Design In the course of conducting this review, CUTR examined a number of project reports for travel studies, publications and conference summaries, and the content of Requests for Proposals related to travel studies. Of particular use was a recent NCHRP publication, "Methods for Househo ld Travel Surveys" (NCHRP Synthesis 236). The synthesis first reviews a number of related but not directly relevant survey approaches, including the decerurial census, the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, the American Travel Survey, and various other methodologies such as intercepts and on-board surveys. Typical travel surveys contain information about trips taken, including purpose, breakdown of stages, start and end times, number of passengers in the vehicle, costs involved (usually parking costs) and whether or not a household vehicle was used for the trip On the demographic side, gender, age, labor force status, profession, work hours, status of driving privileges, education level, ethnic origin, and relationships of people in the household are recorded. Fo r the household, information is collected regarding number of persons, income, number of vehicles, type of dwelling, length of tenure in household, prior residence, and number of workers in the home. Finally, the make, model, production year, and odometer readings for household vehicles are recorded. (NCHRP #236, p. 17) Usually, a travel or activity survey takes the form of a diary. The synthesis notes that while the intention is tha\ survey respondents will take the diary with them as they travel, it is "generally thought" that respondents do not do this-rather, they fill out the diary at the end of the day. There was no information cited for this position. (NCHRP #236, p. 19) In the mid-to late 1980's, travel diaries assumed a fairly standardized form. Typically the diary takes the form of a list, with columns arranged for trip start time, origin, 3


destination, arrival time, mode, and other related information as necessary (fare, parking cost, and so forth). The simplest form of this type of diary is demonstrated in the 1981 MTC survey conducted in the San Francisco area. A 1990 travel study did not show any significant changes to the survey form. Each form is personalized to ensure that the correct respondent data is merged with the travel data. Respondent data (age, occupation, gender, and so forth) is recorded on a separate form. (CTPS RFP Appendices) The 1985 Kitsap County survey (as published by the Puget Sound Council of Governments) also used the list approach, but provided categories for trip purposes and a category t

the same number of trips, since only 3-4 trips can be recorded on a single side of paper. (CATS report Appendix B) More recent advances i n travel analysis base reporting and modeling on activities performed rather than on mere origin-destination patterns. While this project does not have a modeling focus, there may be some advantages in the area of improved reporting by adopting a more activity-based survey form design. The NCHRP synthesis on travel survey s (#236) documents this trend: "The trip diary is already largely being replaced by an activity diary, and it seems probable that the activity diary may be replaced in the future by a form oftime-use diary ... "(p.37) In an activity diary, activities are record e d and the trave l to reach the site o f those activities is recorded separately. In a time-use diary, travel is treated as another type of activity and a response where time was used for travel results in a number of questions bein g asked to specify the details of the travel unde rtaken. (NCHRP #236, pp. 21-22) Many surveys utilize the concept of a "memory jogger, which provides a quick, shorthand way of recording activities or travel. These notes are then used to complete the larger instrument. Experience has shown that the details recorded in the memory jogger do not always match the results recorded in the larger, more detailed instrument. Other studies showed that i n some cases either the memory jogger or the instrument was filled out, b u t not both Some experiments have shown that improved data quality results from the use of a more complete diary instrument as compared to a memory-jogger style of survey form (NCHRP #236, pp. 22-23) CUTR's 1997 travel diary for telecommuting used a columnar-type form which was a more convenient size for the respondent (a 2 W' 7 W booklet). A single trip record was recorded on each page. Check-off categories were provided for each question (start and end points by category, trip purpose, mode) with the exception of time and distance. For a five or seven-day trip recording project, this booklet would probably have become rather bulkY and inefficient, particularly since more exact descriptions of origins and destinations were required. 5


The current sW"Vey project had the following requirements in form design; Transportability it was most desirable that the form be carried with respondents during the survey period. This assumes, how ever, that respondents actually will fill it out as the day goes by, which has been questioned by the NCHRP report. Understandability -some of the respondents might have lllh or 121h grade leve l education so the form must be designed that is simple for them to understand and fill OUL Information about exact location of origins and destinationssince the purpose was to provide information on potential alternatives, an exact description of time and place was required, as well as distance estimates. Mode choice information for calculation of potential VMT and emission savings, and to ensure that suggested alternatives achieve the goal of trip & mileage reduction. The final form was designed to address all of these issues. It consisted of a cover page and subsequent identical s heets, to record up to ten activities in any given day. An example of these sheets is provided as Appendix A. Additional information was required in order to customize the diaries with home and work addresses. A form was developed to collect the information needed to prepare the diaries, including home and work (or school addresses), availability of alternatives (bus, bicycle, etc.) and so forth. The form that was used to collect this information is presented as Appendix B. 6


Sample Selection The most logical and procedurally so\Uld option would have been to recruit randomly from Tampa Bay area households via a Random-Digit-Dial approach. However, participation would probably have been very low based on the level of effort that would be required of the respondents and expensive incentives would have had to be provided. The project budget had been designed with the idea of using an existing group that would not require large incentives to participate, so this option was not feasible. Additionally, timely diary pick-up would have been difficult or extremely expensive (i.e., requiring overnight postage for each r espo ndent for each day they participated. See the section on Initial Data Collection for more details on this requirement.) The original plan was to conduct this project in conjllllction with the American LWlg Associations "Ainvise" project designed to educate 7th and 8th grade chi l dren on the benefits of environmentally friendly activities. Students would be recruited to complete the travel diaries as part of a class project. I n addition, the other members of their hou seholds would have to keep the travel diaries for successful completion of the project Attempts to contact teachers of science classes for that age range of students were completely unsuccessful. An incentive was offered to each class to defray costs of supplies an d other materials b ut no responses were received from any of the teachers. It was finally concluded that the educational curriculum was probably not flexible enough to include this activity The second group targeted to partic i pat e also came from within the school system. Instead of utilizing students, this approach targeted Paren t Teacher Associations (PTA), Booster clubs and other support groups. Again, CUTR offered to make a $500 cash incentive available to each group that was willing to participate. The hope was that these groups, typically focused on fundraising, would welcome an opportunity to receive funds for participating. In this particular instance, it became evident that these groups met too 7


infrequently to allow oversight and supervision, thus raising concerns about the amount and quality of information that could be collected. A third group was pursued from within both the public and private school systems. This attempt focused on student service organizations. The hope was that these student service groups could participate in exchange for community service hours/credits in addition to a $500 cash contribution to the organization. Although there was tentative interest from a number of the private school organizations, most would not be able to participate until the following school term, which in this case was too late into the project. The main obstacle in this particular instan ce was that the project would have to be reviewed and approved by an in-house committee at each of the schools. Even though these committees were expressing a willingness to approve the project, the current approved list of projects could not be added to or altered until the following school term. The project team then reviewed other options for recruiting households that would be less expensive than recruiting from the general public. It was determined that the best option would be to contact either special interest groups whose interests would coincide with the objectives of the project (for example, environmental groups) or to contact groups that had fundraising needs. In return for their participation, CUTR would provide some form of rumeneration. The YMCA ofTampa Bay was contacted as a potential participant. The plan would be to have YMCA employees participate in the experiment. The YMCA has six locations in Tampa, which are spread out over a wide area. Furthermore, the employees visit their work locations virtually every day, so arranging for pick-up and droJ>-off of the travel diaries would be greatly simplified. The YMCA did agree to participate in exchange for a fee of $50 per household that completed the surveys. 8


Data Collection Plan The plan was to: 1. collect initial data; 2. generate the trave l diaries for a one-week recording period; 3. collect a week's worth travel diary data; 4. generate and deliver suggestions for changes in travel behavior; 5. collect a second week's worth of travel diary data; and, 6. measure change from first week's travel to second week's travel. Initial Data Collection and First Week of Diaries An initial YMCA employee meeting was held in which the procedures were reviewed and initial questionnaires were distributed. The respondents were randomly separated into "experimental" and "control" groups, with about 40 total households in each group. Customized diaries were prepared for each household. Only household members who had drivers' licenses were asked to participate in the experiment. Both from the standpoint of validity of responses from younger participants and because trip reduction measures are generally aimed at vehicle drivers, it was determined that this approach woul d be optimal. The diaries were collected over a one-week period. Respondents were requested to turn the diaries in to their workplace each day. This was done to foster daily participation (rather than waiting until the last day of the survey period to fill out all the surveys) and to facilitate rapid processing of the travel diaries. The cooperation rate was about 50%. About 75% of the diaries that were turned i n were collected by CUTR employees the day that the diaries were turned in. The remaining diaries were collected at the end of the week. These were then entered into a Microsoft Access database for use described in the next section 9


Suggestion Generation The team provided the "experimental" group of households with customized information about travel options (e.g., inform them about transit service for the trip or suggest the use of biking or walking for short trips) Experimental households were encouraged to mix the use of modes and link trips. The "control" group of households were not given this customized information. The control group was used to measure changes in contributed vehicle miles of travel (VMT). Though statistical validity was desired, the primary purpose of this project was to test the concept of encouraging use of transit, rides haring biking, walking, and telecommuting for various trip purposes based on data col.lected at the individual level. The suggestiO?S were developed by implementing a query system in the relational database. These queries and the resulting suggestions were developed as follows: Alternate location suggestions: All trips that were over 10 miles long, were taken by one of the following modes: drive a vehicle passenger in a vehic l e motorcycle taxi were done for one of following purposes: shopping personal business eat out other and did not include destinations of home, school or work were identified. The days with trips meeting these criteria were analyzed individually to see if the alternate location suggestion was logical. 10


Bicycle suggestions: All trips that were more than I mile and less than 3 miles in length, taken by one of the following modes: drive a vehicle with no passengers passenger in a vehicle motorcycle taxi and not taken for the purpose of picking up or droppin,g off someone, were identified. The days with trips meeting these criteria were analyzed individually to see if the bicycle suggestion was logical. Walk suggestions: All trips that were equal to or less than one mile in length, taken by one of the following modes: drive a vehicle passenger in a vehicle motorcycle taxi and not taken for the purpose of picking up or dropping off someone, were identified. The days with trips meeting these criteria were analyzed individually to see if the walk suggestion was logical. Eliminate trips through technology suggestions: Survey respondents who had internet access were identified. Their shopping trips, taken by one of the following modes: drive a car motorcycle taxi II


were identified. The days with these types of shopping trips and the destination locations were analyzed. If the shopp ing was done in a location where the items for sale could be purchased over the internet, then internet shopping was suggested. Transit suggestions: The household locations and the individuals' primary work or school locations were plotted on a map These locations were compared with direct bus routes and park 'n ride locations. Individuals with bus service Jess than six blocks from home and primary work or school locations or park 'n ride service less than 2 miles from home were identified. A query was implemented to identify all days when these in dividuals went directly from home to work, then directly back home again, using one of these modes: drive a car passenger in a car motorcycle taxi If, at least once during the week, they showed the above travel pattern and met the above criteria, the transit suggestion was given. Trip chaining suggestions: Days were identified for individuals who went to "home" at least three times or to any other location at least two times. These days were analyzed, paying particular attention to the modes taken, to identify whether the individual could have combined some of these trips into one long outing rather than multiple short outings 12


Combine trips outside the household suggestions: A query was implemen ted to compare individuals home zip codes and work locations If two individuals had the same zip code, the same work location, and the ir homes were l ess than 1.5 miles apart, their daily travel patterns were analyzed together, paying particular attention to their work hours usual mode taken, and usual stops on the way to or from work to determine whether they could reasonably carpool to work. Combine trips within the household suggestions: Hou seholds with members traveling to the same non-home, non-work location more than once on a single day, using one of the following modes: drive a car motorcycle taxi were identified. All trips on that particular day, taken by each household member were analyzed to see if it was logical to suggest that they could have traveled to that l ocation together, rather than traveling separately. Combine trips across days suggestion: Individuals traveling to duplicate non-home, non-work locations on separate days for the purpose ofshopping or personal business were identified. All of the individuals trips on those days were analyzed to identify whether it was logical to suggest that they could have gone to that location only once. 13


Suggestion Format As each experimental group survey respondent was identified for a certain type of suggestion, a specific suggestion was drafted. Most suggestions included the date and location of the trip, the mode used, and a suggestion on how travel behavior could be changed to reduce vehicle miles traveled and/or vehicle trips taken. For recurring suggestions, such as those regarding the mode taken to work, the date was omitted. The completed travel diaries were returned to the experimental group participants, enabling them to refer back to their travel behaviors on the day in which the suggestion was made. TRIP REDUCTION SUGGESTIONS Your previous travel diaries have been analyzed and some suggestions have been generated to help you reduce the nu.mber of trips you makeand/or the number of miles you drive. This would help cut dO\l'D on the wear and tear on your vehicle and be good for the environment as well. For your convenience, your previous activity diaries are enclosed in a separate envelope. You may want to refer to them as you review the trip reduction suggestions we've provided. Trip reduction suggestions for: Participant's Name On 1/22/99 you drove from work to Alalia Elementary school to home to Wal Mart to home again. Perhaps you could have stopped at Wal Mart on the way home rather than making a special trip. On 1/23/99, both you and your husband drove to Kash 'n' Karry at separate times. Perhaps you could have combined these trips. On 1/24/99, you drove to Wal Mart, which is only about 1 mile from your home. If you are not purchasing too much to carry, perhaps you could walk rather than drive. On 1/24/99 you drove to both Wal Mart and Target in separate trips. Perhaps you could have combined these trips into one outing. Figure 1: Trip Reduction Suggestions 14


A review of the suggestions indicated that over 80 percent of the suggestions generated had to do with reduction in non-work-commute travel. The size of the sample did not allow for a thorough analysis of the source of trip reductions, however. Included with the individual suggestions for each experimental group participant was the following list of commute alternatives and some ofthe benefits of reducing trips and miles traveled, drawn from direct mail materials developed by Bay Area Commuter Services of Tampa, Florida, and a new employee packet, also developed by Bay Area Commuter Services. 15


Figure 2 : Commute Alternatives Suggestions Bay Area Commuter Services 16


These suggestions were only provided to those household that had completed a full week or very close to a full wee k of travel diaries. This reduced the useable sample to about 50 households New diaries were prepared for these households and delivered together with the suggestions at the second YMCA emplo yee meeting At that meeting employees were requested to complete the second set of diaries. 17


Second week of Travel diaries A total of39 households that had completed the initial diaries also completed the sec()nd set of diaries. As previously, these diaries were collected at the YMCA locations and picked up at the end of the second week by CUTR employees. The second set of data was key-entered into the database to provide comparative data to that collected from the first week of diaries. Results Once the travel diary data was entered into the database, a query was implemented to sum the miles traveled and the trips taken per mode, per individual for both the frrst and second set of diaries. The modes included: Drive alone Drive with every combination of numbers ofhousehold members and non househo l d members Passenger with every combination of numbers of househ old members and non-household members Motorcycle City Bus Campus Bus/Shuttle Taxi Bicycle Other These totals were then divided by the number of completed diaries during each week. This was done to adjust for situations where not all respondents filled out diaries every day of either week. The difference in the weighted miles traveled and trips taken between the first week and the second week was then calculated 18


The original intent of this project was to provide quantitative proof that the provision of customized travel suggestions did impact vehicle trips and miles of travel. Due to lower than anticipated participation rates, this objective was not fully met, but the experiment did show statistically significant effects in several areas. A total of75 individuals in 39 households, drawn from the employees of the YMCA as described earlier, were recruited and participated in this project. Travel diaries were filled out in two non-consecutive, one-week periods, and suggestions for reductions in trips made were provided to forty individuals in twenty-one of the households (the "experimental" group). The other thirty-five individuals in eighteen households (the "control" group) did not receive any suggestions for reducing trips. The results represent contributed vehicle miles of travel and vehicle trips before and after application of the treatment (i.e., provision of the suggestion). Contributed vehicle miles and vehicle trips are calculated by dividing the trips and/or miles by the number of passengers in the vehicle. For use of non-Privately -O peratedVehicle (POV) modes, vehicle miles and vehicle trips were calculated as zero. The measure essentially describes the portion of the vehicle trip generated by the individual. Thus a person in a 4-person carpool is seen as contributing only V. as many trips as a person in a 2-person carpool, and V. as many trips as an SOV operator. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics of the results are summarized in the tab l e on the next page. There were some marked changes from the first period to th e second and examination ofthe table shows that the experimental group appeared to have a higher rate of trip making in the initial period (5.53 trips per day versus 4.30), which resulted in higher contributed vehicle trips per day (4.53 to 3.14). 19


Descriptive StatistiCs of Projec t Res u l ts Total (N""75) Control (N =35) Experimental (N=40) Statistic Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std Dev. Mean Std Dev. Average miles per 37.6 24.3 36.2 23.5 38.8 25 2 day -period I Average miles per 50.5 93. 7 45.4 55.6 54 9 118. 0 day period 2 Average trips per 4.95 1.77 4.30 1.52 5.53 1.78 day period I Average trips per 4.28 !.53 4.14 1.51 4.40 1.55 day period 2 Average vehicle 27.2 19. 7 26.2 17. 5 28.2 21.6 mi les contributed per day period 1 Average vehicle 29 6 23.1 29 9 20 5 29.4 25.4 miles contributed per day period 2 Average vehicle 3 .88 1.58 3.14 1.46 4.53 1 .40 trips contributed per day period I Average vehicle 3.31 1.32 3.20 1.44 3.40 1.21 trips contributed per day-period 2 T a ble 1. Descriptive Statistics of Project Results Due to large differences betw e en the groups on initial measures, particularl y i n the area of co n tributed vehic l e trips the results are best analyzed using an anal ysis of covariance to pred i ct vehicle miles of travel (or vehicle trips) in the second period from the first, including a term for membership in the group which received the suggestions. An ana l ysis limited to testing differences in mean changes might lead to erroneous conclusions as described in Lord (pp.37 -9). Briefly Lord expl ains, this occurs because "the analysis of observed gains results in a built-in b ias in favor of whatever treatment s 20


happen to be assigned to initially low-scor ing groups." This can be a significant issue when group sizes are small, as was the case ih this experiment. Analysis of Covariance: Contributed Vehicle Miles ojTravel In the course of the analysis five observations were found to be unduly influential in the regression and were removed. This analysis was done through the process of calculating and examining the deleted studentized residuals, where essentially the effect that the observation has on the resulting regression equation is calculating by removing it and re estimating the equation. A value of3 was used a cutoff, although commonly values as low as 2 are used for this decision rul e. A summary of the observations del eted is presented below: Description of Observations Deleted from Contributed VMT Regression Daily Vehicle Miles contributed Daily Vehicle M iles contributed Group Period I Period 2 Experimental 27.9 110.8 Contro l 52.5 13.2 Control 67.8 40 9 Control 32.9 72.9 Control 38.9 71.4 Table 2-Description of Observations Deleted from Contributed VMT Regression 21


The descriptive statistics for the remainitlg households are presented in Table 3 below : Descriptive Statistics of Project ResultsFive Observations Deleted Total (N=<70) Control (N=31) Experimental (N = 39) Statistic Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Average miles per 36.2 23.3 32.5 20.1 39.1 25.5 day period 1 Average miles per 49.2 96.6 43.8 58.6 53.4 119.1 day period 2 Average trips per 4 99 1.80 4.30 !.57 5.54 1.80 day period I Average trips per 4.31 !.54 4.20 \.53 4.39 !.56 day period 2 Average vehicle 26.0 19.4 23.4 15.9 28.2 21.8 miles contributed per day period I Average vehicle 27.3 20.3 27.3 18.4 27. 3 22.0 miles contributed per day period 2 Average vehicle 3.90 1.60 3.11 1.48 4.54 1.41 trips contributed per day period I Average vehicle 3 .33 1.31 3.26 1.42 3.38 1.23 trips contributed per day period 2 Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Project Results -Five Observations Deleted The analysis of covariance using second-period vehicle miles of travel as the dependent variable was done using as predictors contributed vehicle mi l es in the initial period, as well as a term for control/experimental group membership and interactions between that term and the covariate. 22


The F test for the significance of the interaction had a value of 0.83, which is not significant at 2 and 67 degrees of freedom. The analysis continued without the interaction term and obtained the following results: Regress ion of Contributed Vehicl e Miles ofTravel in second period Parameter Standardized Standard Error Tvalue estimate Intercept 0.0 !.53 0 Vehicle Miles Contributed Period 1 0.94 0.05 20.5 Experimental Group Term -2.36 0.93 -2.54 N=70 R-squared = .858 Table 4. Regression of Contribution of Vehicle Miles of Travel in second period When the deleted observations are included, particularly the observation where the experimental group member increased their travel by 82 miles per day, the significance of the group term disappears (t=-.67, p >.50) However, this is clearly an outlying observation. The deletion of the that single observation results in at value of 1.7,p < .I 0 The deletio n of the four other observations from the control group observations does not substantially change the value of the group term coefficient, but does reduce the variability of the parameter estimate. The t value for the provision of suggestions coefficient to the group of 70 observations is significant at p<.O l, indicating that the suggestions did have significant impact on vehicle miles of travel. This means that households in the experimental group (i.e those that were provided with suggestions) did in fact contribute less vehicle miles after being provided suggestions than did the group which did not receive the suggestions. 23


Analysis of Covariance: Contributed Vehicle Trij;s The same analys i s was conducted using vehicle trips taken in 1he second period as 1he dependent v ariable. In this case no observations were found to be overly influential. The F test for 1he interactions had a value of !.51, whic h is not significant at 2 and 71 degrees of freedom The analysis conti nu ed without 1he interaction terms and obt ained 1he following resu l ts: Regression of Contribu t ed Vehicle Trips in second p e riod Parameter Standardized Standard Error T value estimate Intercept 0.0 0.28 0.0 Vehicle Tr ips Contributed Period I 0.72 0.07 10.40 Experimental Group Term -0.40 0.11 -3.68 N 75 R-squared = .592 Table 5. Regression of Vehicle Tri ps in second period The tests for significance of 1he treatment (providing customized sugg e stions) were conclusive for reduction in contributed vehicle miles of travel and contributed vehicle trips. In order to more fully test 1he efficacy of the program and particularly to more close l y estimate 1he actual parameter value for the purposes of estimating cost-effectiveness, it will be neces s ary to budg et for a l arger sampl e size and to make data entry more aut omated to ensure ability to respond with rapid, timely suggestions. 24


A Related Experiment by Tertoolen, eta/ In an experiment related to the current project, Tertoolen, van Kreveld and Verstraten provided varying levels of information to different groups of commuters, including a control group. In the experiment, 350 ddvers in the Gouda, Netherlands area were chosen at random for participation Respondents were assigned to one of four condit ions -control, receiving information about environmental impacts of car use, receiving information about financial impacts of car use, receiving both types of information and receiving neither. Each of these groups was asked to record their travel over an eight week period. A control group was also established where no monitoring of travel was done. On a pre-test questionnaire, the subjects responded to a question about whether they would be prepared to reduce their mileage for a period of eight weeks. The response to this question was used as a controlling factor in subsequent analyse&. In general, the findings were t hat mileage was lowest in the initial two-week period following the pre-test questionnaire. Mileage in subseq uent periods was consistently higher. The analysis makes several questionable points. First, there is a clear within-subjects difference b e tween period I mileage and subsequent periods. This is attributed to "seasonal differences." A preferred experimental design would not have asked respondents about reducing car use immediately prior to baseline measurements, since that suggestion may have influenced initial travel choices. 25


Next, the following result can be obtained through transfonnation of the data reported in the experiment: Condition Mileage in Period 2 Mileage in Period 3 Mileage in Period 4 -mileage in Period 1 mileage in Period 1 mileage in Period 1 E c EC N 45 50 12 63 36 26 18 73 Table 6: Transformation of results from Tertoolen, eta!, article E = envirorunental information provided, C = cost infonnation provided, 42 60 1 4 68 EC = environmcmtal and cost information provided, N = no information provided This data is interpreted by the authors as showing that the distribution of information had no effect on respondents. We dis8gree with this analysis. As noted earlier, analysis of mean changes can be misleading. However, it seems highly unlik ely that this would be the case. Re-analysis of the authors' data may provide different conclusions than those reached in the publication. It certainly seems as i f the information distribution caused some reduction in the differences between Period 1 (the "baseline" period) and subsequent periods. Our conclusion is that this experiment in all likelihood replicates the findings of our own experiment in that travel suggestions appeared to caused some change in behavior in the desired direction (i.e. reduction of vehicle miles of travel) compared to a group of commuters that were not provided with the travel suggestions. 26


Qualitative follow-up with survey respondents Following the completion of the project, a "debriefing" meeting was held with twelve (12) of the staff participants. The meeting was structured to provide responses in the specific areas of general emotional response to the project (loved it, hated it, etc.), positives and negatives about the project, and suggestions for improvements. A discussion guide is included as Appendix C. The following items represent comments made by those attending the meeting and reflect their thoughts, comments and ideas about the project and their househol ds' experiences while participating. General comments about the project included: Knowing the purpose of the study up front may have encouraged better participation. CUTR purposely did not provide this information to avoid h aving that information affect respondent behaviors. Collection of diaries only once or twice during the week might have resulted in employees who forgot to return diaries not quitting or dropping o ut It was difficult to convince family members to participate, and, in most cases, the staff member had to serve as a recorder for the household. Many participants fowtd it easier to fill out the diary all at once at the end of the day rather than throughout the day during each trip. Alternating starting dates would have made it easier for more part-time and traveling part icipants to complete a full set of diaries (i.e. seven days of consecutive collection over a I 0-14 day period). A website capable of receiving diary information might have been easier to use than a written instrument. Comments related specifically to the d iary instrument or the use of it included: There was no way to indicate out -of-town travel. There was confusion over how to record travel between adjacent facilities. Did .I or .2 miles constitute just one destination or separate destinations? 27


Some participants ran out of entry pages. Make the diary sturdier i.e. use a heavier stock paper for the backing. Have more destinations available for check-off in the second set of diaries Other comments related to the actual procedure included: Some of the suggestions seemed odd and did not take into account specific circumstances such as neighborhood trave l conditions, time of day, etc. A disclaimer before suggestions might indicate that suggestions do not take into account individual and farrilly circumstances that were affecting the situ ation." Some suggestions seemed too personal. Individuallhousehold incentives were nic e, but did not necessarily influence participation. Some participants expressed initial concern over safety and privacy. Completing diaries for such a long, set period of time was perceived as possibly making it too easy to detennine patterns of the households Most participants stayed involved due to loyalty to YMCA and because of the established relationship between some CUTR staff members and the YMCA organization Participants felt that similar projects could be done on a broader regional scale if a good relationship and trust are established with the participating entity (such as homeowners association, civic club, etc.). Clearly one of the resoWlding sentiments from the group was that targeting groups wherein members had a high affinity for one another would be most likely to lead to the successful implementation of a similar project. Some of the positive results that participants reported as a direct result of participating in the project included: Participation helped them realize exactly how many miles they actually drive. Some quotes were: "Now I can honestly report to my insurance carrier how much I actually drive," I am really glad that gas is cheap," "I realized that I had just 28


driven 10.2 miles, one way, for lunch," "It really made us think about our travel patterns as a family." Discussing the project became a regular family event each night and brought the family together around the table for more that just eating. It created family time together. One participant shared that their h ousehold had three vehicles, one for each licensed driver. Prior to participating in the project, each of the drivers took their own vehicle to the same church, at the same time, three or four times a week. During the study they followed the suggestion to all share a ride in one vehicle. Following that experience they have been riding together on a regular basis and have committed to doing so for the long term. Implications for Future Research There is the first research conducted that demonstrates a statistically significant difference between the travel behavior of people who receive travel reduction suggestionS and those who do not receive such suggestions However, it has yet to be determined if the provision of"generic" suggestions (such as "share a ride", "ride the bus," etc.) has less impact on travel patterns than provision of customized suggestions based on household or indi vidual travel behavior. Efficient methods of collecting such data and providing travel suggestions have not been developed. This will be necessary before a large-scale implementation of this procedure can be attempted. The success of the relational database and query system in providing the suggestions is, however, very encouraging in this regard. As the use of GPS-based locational systems increases and the prices and sizes of units designed to tap into GPS systems falls, the possibility of using such devices to record travel patterns is becoming a reality. This would enable time and location to be recorded without any effort on the part of the respondent Travel mode, however, would still have to be recorded. This might be possible with the touch of a single button, indicating mode 29


and perhaps number of passengers. However; a more automated system would be preferable. On the whole, the provision of travel suggestions achieved the desired result, namely, the reduction of vehicle miles of travel among those who received the suggestions compared to those who did not. The results for the impact on vehicle trips were directional, and sample size was not sufficient to allow for the conclusion that this result would be replicable in the general population. However, results are very encouraging. It is possible that a GPS-based system, in conjunction with or in addition to an Internet based system of recording travel modes and providing feedback, would be implementable on a much large r scale. CUTR reconunends that thorough testing of such a system be completed on a sample large enough to allow for statistical validity and for projections to larger populations. The cUJTent study provides reasonable confidence that a system of this nature would produce positive results. It is impossible to say a t the present time whether the system would produce enough reduction in travel to merit the cost of implementation. Further research of the type described above is needed in order to draw tha t conclusion. 30


Bibliography Bay Area Conunuter Services of Tampa, FL. Direct roail registration fonn Bay Area Commuter Services o f Tampa, FL. New employee packet materials. Central Transportation Planning Staff (Boston, MA) Request For Proposal, December 21, 1989 Chicago Area Transportation Study, CATS Household Travel Survey Volume One, (Chicago Area Transportation Study: Chicago, I L 1989) Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission Request For Proposals for Home Interview Travel Survey, May, 1988 Lord, Frederic M. "Elementary Models of Change, in Problems in Measuring Change, edited by Chester M. Harris (University of Wisconsin press, Madison, WI, 1967), pp. 2139 Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency Request For Proposal for Home Interview Travel Survey, December, 1986 Puget Sound Council of Governments, Household Travel Surveys 1985-1988Puget Sound Region (Puget Sound Council of Governments: Seattle, W A 1990) Rodenbom Shirley A. and Charles L. Purvis, 1990 Bay Area Travel Surveys: data Collection and Analysis. A presentation to the Transportation research Board 70.n Annual meeting, January 14-18 1991\ Rose, Geoffrey, and Liz Aropt. "Reducing Car Travel Through an 'Individual Action' Programme." 1997 TRB Preprints #970384. Stopher, Peter R., and Helen M. A. Metcalf, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis of Highway practice 236Methods for Household Travel Surveys (National Academy Press: Washington, D. C. 1996) Tertoolen, Gerard, Dik van .Kreveld and Ben Verstraten. ''Psychological Resistance Against Attempts to Reduce Private Car Use." Transportation Research, Volume 32, No. 3, 1998,pp. 171-181. 31


Appendix A: Activity!fravel D iary Design 32


Person #: 0000000 I Name: Francis was the next thing you did? 0 Home ) were you doing this acti v ity? a Work/School 0 14608 &t-vodir..e #2 T-4202 E. Fowler ,......, TCI"'f>Cl a Other (Please fill out below.) Business/Store/Place Nome 0 0\ec-k here if you hove ptevlously rorded this oddi"Ut, Y<1u don"1 need to record It Address or Nearest Cross-streets City I ;::;,;;;; I How many Miks HOW did you get t here? other peop l e Trovd&d (Check all that apply) were in the Automobile I I dtO\'t 0 rnunbers: Truck I Minivan: Non-househol d mllc.t I was a 0 piAtrl(tr '""" '"'' '""" X _mllu "'' _mila -'""" .. il .. WHEN dld you AAAIVE here? Person #: 00000001 Name: Francis A_ WHAT was the next thing you did? 1 ONE only) II AIWOfk I Pid< 'I' 0< 4o"'J off a...,_ {s) AI SchooUChiW C.e I I OOct I 11 !-Child dii<( ) I I I Oo..,ttoeat 11 l I iVIsTt/ :/ Co to: I 1 / I I i'i\id.' [ WHERE were you doing t his activ i ty? 0 Home 0 Work/School 4202 E fowler,...,..,. TCI"'f>Cl 0 Other (Please fill out below : ) Business/Store/Place Nome CJ Oleck here if you p reviousl y recorde.d thft addren. Yo11 don t nc.ed t o r ecord it ogctin. Address or Nearest Cross-streets How many Mllu HOW did you get thue? other people Trowl (Chock o.ll that apply) were in the .L A utornobllc I l drove 0 'fn&Ck I Minivan: membcrJ: rnU IWti a Non-housc:hokJ pa$$tl'lgtr CJ mil Ill 'PSTA ) "'"' I 'Bus X 'TiXf mile I Olller mit. WHEN did you ARRIVE here? ro ..... And WHEN dut '"'"I FA IfF>


Appendix B: Activity/Travel Diary Instructions 34


ACTIVITY DIARY INSTRUCTIONS Thanks for helping us with our project! Enclosed are diaries for each member of the household (who has a driver's license) to fill out for the next week. Each diary has room for recording up to ten activities each day. This will be simplest to complete if you take the diary with you and record your activities as you do them. Remember-don't think of driv ing or traveling somewhere as an activity, but rather as a means to get to your next activity. For instance, going to the store to buy groceries is one activitynot three, as in 1. Driving to the store 2. Doing the shopping, and 3. Drivi n g back from the store. Each of the books you are provided w i th is intended to be an activity record for one full day. Start recording your activities as of3 a .m each day. P resumably, your first activity for any given day will be "sleeping" which is an "at-home" activity. Record subsequent activities as they take place. For each activity you will be asked to indicate: What you were doing Where you were How you got there How far you had to go What time you got to that place and what time you left it More details on each of these categories: What you were doing We just need a ganeral idea of what type of activity you were performing were you at wor k, going to school, shopping, at church, or whatever. Pre-set categories are provided for you. Most activities should fit into one of those categories. Where you were Provide the name of the facility (such as Westshore Mall), major cross streets (Such as Kennedy and Westshore) and any other infonnation that will be useful in locating where you were, such as the name of the town (Tampa or Saint Petersburg, or Oldsmar, for example). We have included your home and work locations as check boxes so you don't have to fill in the address each time. This should make keeping the diary a bit simpler. If there are any locations you will be going to frequently, please record the full address the first time you go there, and then check the box indicating "address recorded previously" on subsequent trips to that location.


How you got there How did you get from the place you were before (say, at home) to where you are performing the activity? Did you ride in a car (or drive), take a bus, ride a bike? Also, we'd like to know how many people were in the car if you drove or were driven somewhere both the number of people who are in your household that were in the vehicle and the number of people who aren't in your household. How far did you have to go to get there Give us a guess as to how far you had to go -to the nearest mile. If you can, use your car's odometer readings at the beginning and end of the trip to keep track of it. What time did you arrive and leave Tell us when you got to the place where you did the activity and when you left it. At the beginning of the day Pick up the diary for that day and take it with you wherever you are going Also, remember to take the previous day's diaries with you to work each day. At the end ofthe day ... Collect everybody's diaries to take with you tomorrow morning. Other to think about Don't count traveling from one place to another (by car, bicycle, bus, or walking) as an activity. Think about it instead as how you got from one activity to the next. Also, if you walk around one place (say, work, or a mall or a school) going from one store or classroom to another but not leaving the facility, don't count all of those a separate activities. Count all of that as one activity. Problems or questions? If you have any problems or questions please call us! Dial974-8395 and ask for Dawn. If you are asked to leave a message, leave your name, a number where you can be reached, what this is about (just say "This is about the travel diary") and a general idea of what the problem or question is.


Thanks again! Your participation in this project is extremely helpful! We will be conducting a short presentation at school on the results of this project. We'll also be happy to provide you with a copy of our report on the project if you'd like one. Just call us at 974-8395 and we'll give you the report as soon as it's ready! Remember: Every morning, bring the books completed for the prior day daybooks (for yourself and each household member) to work and drop them off with your designated activity diary coordinator FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What counts as an activity? Essentially everything you do in or around a single location is one activity. If you 're at work, attending meetings, working on projects typing, filing, taking a coffee break, all of this counts as one activity"Work or work-related." If you go out to lunch, that's another activity. If yo u're at home and you mow the lawn, cook dinner, wash the dishes, put the kids to bed, and watch 1V, that's all one activity-an "At-home" activity. But if you go to the store, that's another activity. If you're at the mall, that's one activity. But i f you then go to another mall, that would be a second activity. And so forth. What if I go running or roller-blading or walk my dog? This is the main exception to the definition given above. Running or walking the dog is an activity in itself-recreational. If you had to travel somewhere to go do this activity (such as to a p ar k or out to Bayshore) record the travel to that place as "how you got there." If you start from home, just record the activity as recreational, but that you did it at or around your home. Don't record running a three mile-circuit as traveling from one place back to the same place-the running is an activity in itself. What if l run out of sheets for a day that I'm recording activities? Fill out all the sheets available in the book for that day and then stop. We want a record of your first ten activities, but we aren't asking for any more than that.


Appendix C: Initial Data Qnestionna i re 38


CUTRIYMCA Household Travel Survey 1. What is your home address? Number & Street City Zip 2. How many working vehicles do you have in your household? 3 Does yo u r household have: a) a working telephone? b) a working computer? c) Internet access? d) cable telev i sion service? DYes DYes DYes DYes DNo DNo DNo DNo 4. Please list the following information for each person that lives in your household, beginning with yourself and then continuing with oldest person in household, then next oldest, and so forth : Yourself: Name'---=:,-.,(First) Age: D Under 18 D2544 D 18-24 D45-64 Do you have: a drive r's license? DYes D N o A bicyc l e? DYes D N o Do you: Work full time? Address of worksite (include city) DYes DNo Go to school? DYes DNo Address/name of school (include city) Is there direct bus service from home to work? Is there school or transit bus service to school? DYes DNo I 065+ DDon't Know D School Bus D Transit Bus D None D Don' t Kno w If yes is there a bus stop within Y. mile of your home for the bus to: work? DYes D No 0 Don t Know school? D Yes ONo DDon' t Know


CUTRIYMCA Household Travel Survey Person 112: Name:---=::-.,(First) Age: D <6 D 6-17 D 18-24 0 25-44 0 45-64 0 65+ Does thi s person have: adriver'slicense? DYes DNo Abicycle? DYes DNo Does this person: Work full time? 0 Yes ONo Go to schooi?O Yes ONo Address of work s it e (include city) Is ther e direct bus service from home to work? DYes DNo Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? 2 DDon't Know OSchool Bus 0 Transit 0 None D Don't Bus Know If yes, is there a bus stop within'!. mile of your home for the bus to: work? DYes ONo ODon't Know Per son 113: Name: school ? 0 Yes DNo DDon't Know ---=:--:c-(First) Age: 0<6 D6-17 018-24 --(La-:::-st--:-)-D 25-44 D 45-64 D 65+ Does this person have: a driver s license? DYes D No A bicycle? DYes D No Does this person : Work full time? DYes D No Go to school? 0 Yes D No Address of worksite (include city) Is there direct bus service from home to work? DYes DNo DDon't Know Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? D School D Transit Bus Bus D None D Don't Know If yes, is there a bus stop within V. mile of your home for the bus to: work?DYesDNo D Don't Know school? D Yes DNo O Don't Know


CUTRIYMCA Household Travel Survey Person 114: (First) Age: D<6 D6-17 D 18-24 ---:(L:-.a-st.,-) --D 25-44 D 45-64 D 65+ Does this person have: adriver'slicense? DYes ONo Abicycle? DYes DNo Does this person: Workfulltime? DYes ONo Ootoschool?DYes DNo Address of worksite (include city) ls there direct bus service from home to work? DYes DNo Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? 3 DDon't Know D School Bus 0 Transit Bus D None D Don t Know If yes, is there a bus stop within Y. mile of your home for the. bus to : work? DYes ONo DDon't Know Person 115: school? D yes DNo DDon't Know Name: -:=:--:-(First) Age: 0 <6 D 6-17 D 18-24 --(-=L-as-.t)D 25-44 D 45-64 D 65+ Does this person have: a driver's license? DYes D No A bicycle? DYes D No Does this person: Work full time? 0 Yes 0 No Go to school? 0 Yes 0 No Address ofworksite (include city) Is there direct bus service from home to work? DYes ONo 0 Don't Know Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? 0 School Bus OTransit Bus ONoneODon't Know If yes, is there a bus stop within Y. mile of your home for the bus to: work? DYes ONo DDon't Know school? DYes DNo DDon't Know


CUTRIYMCA Household Travel Survey 4 Person #6: Name: Age: D <6 D 6-17 D 18-24 -D 25-44 D 45-64 D 65+ Does this person have: adriver'sliccnse? DYes DNo Abicycle? DYes DNo Does this person: Work full time? 0 Yes ONo Go to school?O Yes DNo Address of worksite (include city) Is there direct bus service from home to work? DYes ONo ODon't Know Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? D School Bus D Transi t Bus D N one D Don't Know If yes, is there a bus stop within Y. mile of your home for the bus to: work? DYes DNo ODon't Know Person #7: school? D Yes DNo DDon't Know Name : ----;;;:::--,-(First) Age: D<6 D6-17 D 18-24 ---::(1.ast-::)-D 25-44 D 45 64 D 65+ Does this person have: adriver's li cense? DYes DNo Abicycle? DYes DNo Does this person: Work full time? DYes DNo Go to school?O Yes ONo Address of worksite (include city) Is there direct bus serv i ce from home to work? DYesONo DDon't Know Address/name of school (include city) Is there school or transit bus service to school? DSchool Bus D Transit Bus D None D Don't Know If yes, is there a bus stop within \l.i mile of your home for the bus to: work? OYes ONo DDon't Know school? 0 Yes ONo DDon't Know


Appendix D : Discussion GI:'Oup Guide 43


m Transportation Research VMT Redu c tion Study Dis c ussion Guide. ts Pwposc of Group tion of session r projectffravel diaries e may have received suggestions :espondent reactions to the whole project diaries ncentives >ther household member reactions :Uggestions .econd week of diaries differences iit reactions >f this discussion March 20 1999 Draft! hats" conceptwe'll wear different hats as we go through the discussion :" Explanation of process (what's being done now) i te" Basic data what we know Emotional Reaction :k" Negatives ow" Positives m" Creative solutions/sugge stions ats -Introductions as necessary Jt on your white bats" ation u live in Tampa get to worlr. 1f people in your household 1f people that kept diaries 1Reactions to the project to focus on simp le, emotional reactions" or "Now let's put on our get an idea of what your general r eaction to this whole project yo u were in was There's no need for justification or explanation. So take a d think about it and then let me get your reactions in ten words or less. words or less, what was your emotional reaction to participating in the t? ;ary) Let's focus just on reactions to the process of keeping diaries and ggestioos not on what the YMCA was getting for participating or on Y have .nd the getting theY ? urblack ju like es and g or on iyhave 'hat were ions? uryeUow u like cesand goron IY have Vhat were ions? ?oices on our le?What the : r scale -


Download Options

Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close


Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.


Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.


Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.


Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.