Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program

Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program

Material Information

Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program
University of South Florida -- Dept. of Electrical Engineering
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Florida Power Corporation
Place of Publication:
[Tampa, Fla
University of South Florida, College of Engineering
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iii, 44 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Electric automobiles ( lcsh )
local government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
General Note:
"A proposal submitted to the Department of Energy, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program."
General Note:
"In cooperation with the city of Tampa."
Statement of Responsibility:
by the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, and Florida Power Corporation.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
025511336 ( ALEPH )
666878100 ( OCLC )
C01-00269 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.269 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program /
by the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, and Florida Power Corporation.
[Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida, College of Engineering,
iii, 44 leaves :
ill., maps ;
28 cm.
"A proposal submitted to the Department of Energy, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program."
"In cooperation with the city of Tampa."
Also issued online.
Electric automobiles.
2 710
University of South Florida.
Dept. of Electrical Engineering.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Florida Power Corporation.
1 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?c1.269




I e . .. ,. . . .r . .. : .. : . :;; ., '


ELECI'RIC VEHICLE/PHOTOVOLTAIC TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM SUMMARY The main objective of this program is to test and evaluate the performance of electric vehicles (EV's) under actual operating conditions in (i) a "commuter" type (driving back and forth to work) and, (ii) a "fleet" type (delivery, service etc.) metropolitan environment. Even though the testing and evaluation of the EV's will be the primary objective (in response to this RFP), a wealth of important information will be derived from the use of photovoltaic (PV) system(s) to charge (fuel) the commuter Ev 's during daytime periods when t hey are not in use. Even though this add -on feature of the project is not required in the RFP, it is the strong conviction of the applicants that it will contribute substantially towards the enhanced development of EV's, as well as photovoltaics, as alternate transportation vehicles and energy sources, respectively. The use of EV's in the Tampa Bay region is very important for a number of reasons. First, Florida is one of the fastest growing states in the nation. The number of cars almost ex.ceeds the population. The Tampa Bay area has almost two million residents. The use o f gasoline is the largest l ocal contributor to air pollution. Because the ozone standard has been exceeded, Tampa Bay is classified as non-attainment for ozone by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of EV's and other non poll u ting transportation vehicles will greatly comribute to a reduction of air pollutants. Second, in add i tion to automobiles, but to a lesser extent, power utilities contribute to air pollution (ozone, nitrogen oxide s etc ). The abundance of sunlight facilitates the use of photovoltaics which will help reduce the demand for electricity during peak hours and reduce the size of new power plants i n the future. Third, the use of EV's and photovoltaics will reduce USA's dependence on foreign oil and out-flow of US dollars (deficit). The cost of solar PV cells has declined dramatically over the past ten years and additional cost reductions are expected. Combined with the added benefits of clean air, the development of EV /PV projects is certainly very important. The Tampa Bay area, located at a latitude of about 28, presents a special challe n ge to automobiles, particularly in the summer time (from June to November), because of the intense (>90%) humidity and high temperatures. The testing of the reliability and performance of EV's in a hot, humid environment such as this is very important. As a Jous term objective of this program, one can envision large numbers of EV's driven by commuters and parked in designated spaces under sun blocking roofs covered by PV panels. By the time the EV users are ready to return to their homes, the Ev's will have been recharged by photovoltaic systems. If additional use of the EV's is needed during the evening hours, the vehicles can be recharged by energy delivered by the local utility, possibly at reduced cost. This also will provide additional cost and power distnoution benefits to the power utility from selling energy during the night hours and levelling the production of power over a twenty four hour period. I




BACKGROUND ELECTRIC VEHICLE/PHOTOVOLTAIC TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM The transportation sector is almost totally dependent on, and consumes almost two t h irds of, the oil used i n the United S t ates. In addition, transportation accounts for almost 30% of the air poUution.l.l The use of electric vehicles (EV's) will certainly help reduce air pollution, sound noise in an urban environment and the US dependence on foreign oi1.3.<.s Electric vehicles also offer benefits to utilities, since each EV consumes almost the same amount of electricity as a single residential customer, and a considerable amount of the energy needed by the EV'S could be provided during off-peak hours, enabling the util i ties and their customers to gain substantially without investing in new generati n g capacity..S In 1982 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a cost-shared program (in collaboration with a group of active electric vehicle site operators) in order to test and evaluate improved EV's and vehicle components.6 As a result of this program, s u bstantial improvements have been made leading to better vehicle reliability. However, as more advanced EV's become available it is important to test them in actual operating field environments. A number of automobile manufacturers are presently pursuing the development of EV's for commuter as well as service types of cars and vans.'.S The electric utility industry, through its research arm, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is also actively supporting the development of the EV technology.5 7 When expected improvements in battery technology materialize, the operating range for e l ectric cars and vans could be extended to 120 miles or greater making the use of EV's more attractive.' However, even with the present operating range of EV's (50-60 miles), there are a number of applications where these vehicles can presently be used effectively to alleviate energy and poJiution related problems. Adequate testing of these vehicles at different geographic locations (different climatic and environmental conditions) is necessary.9 10 The metropolitan area containing Tampa, St. Petersburg and Clearwater represents a unique urban setting where the testing ofEV's could provide very valuable and visi ble (to the public) information and promote the use of EV's. Third, the Tampa Bay area has a mission to become and help lead the way to the next generation metropolis which is energy and environmentally responsible and responsive to the changing economic base of the US or the world stage. The joining of EV's and photovoltaics in this project will give rise to new options which will help reduce USA's dependence on foreign oil for transportation and thus reduce the out-flow of US dollars (deficit). The cost of solar PV cells has declined substantially over the past ten years and additional cost reductions are expected Combined with the added benefits of clean air the development of EV /PV projects is certainly very important. 1


A. PROGRAM PLAN The University of South Florida and Florida Power Corporation in collaboration with Tampa Electric Co. and the City of Tampa proposes to develop an Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program for the test and evaluation of BY's under actual operating conditions within the metropolitan area of Tampa, St. Petersburg, and Clearwater, Florida. An additional (no cost to DOE) feature of this program is the use of photovoltaic systems for charging the EV's. This program is organized to carry out the following specific objectives with a longer term goal being the wide-spread use of EV's in commuter and fleet type operational settings. Objectives (Year 1) 1. Gather a minimum of six months data (during the first year) relating to the performance of BY's under actual user operating conditions for both commuter and fleet type operations 2. Determine user acceptability through questionnaires and personal interviews. 3. Determine vehicle maintenance requirements through daily logs. 4. Evaluate battery performance as a function of vehicle range and pack life. 5. Determine typical vehicle ranges for both commuter and fleet type operations. 6. Evaluate the effect of an air conditioner on vehicle range and performance. 7. Determine best role for photovoltaics in charging BY's. 8. Determine technical feasibility and economic advantages of returning extra photovoltaic power to the power grid. 9. Determine best use of "off peak" rates in charging BY's. 10. Determine what economics are needed for BY's to compete with ICY's. 11. Determine, through communication with EV manufacturers, the best, worst, and most realistic scenarios for EV large scale production and marketing. l


The specific tasks to be carried out during the first year of this program are listed below and the time franie for completion of each is shown in the Milestones Chart which follows. Task 1-Selection and procurement of three additional EV's. 1. Evaluation of available EV's and prices. 2. Negotiation with EV manufacturer. 3. Procurement of EV's. Task IISelection and procurement of PV systems. 1. Design of PV system(s). 2. Construction of structure for PV system placement. 3. Installation and test of PV system. Task III-Development of microprocessor data acquisition system (MDAS). 1. Design MDAS. 2. Construction of MDAS. 3. Installation and testing of MDAS in 5 EV's. Task IV Development of EV and PV testing protocol. 1. Develop schedule for daily use of EV's. 2. Develop orientation program for users. 3. Develop data collection & maintenance schedule for EV's. Task V Data collection and Analysis. 1. Data Collection. 2. Data analysis for EV and PV technical performance. 3. Economic Analysis. 4. Analysis of Human Factors Task VI Reports 3


MILESTONES CHART FOR YEAR 1 TASK \ M ONnl 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 13 L Purchase cleclric .. hides u. Dcaip pbocOYOitaic .,_.. BuiJcl P V-EV Slnlctau IDSUII pbocOYOitaic system rn_ DC$ignMDAS MDAS coostructioo IOS!all aDd !cot MDAS' Soltwarc deYclopmeal IV. Dc..lop EV testillg pr v. Data collcctiOG ud aoalysis Economic 8Aalysis Analysis of human Cactocs VL R eports (AS REQUIRED) Fmal report 4


This program will include tesling and evaluation of two cypes of BY's: (a) Two vans, which will be located at Florida Power Corporation, will be tested in a "fleet" cype environinent with an assigned schedule of regular service and/or deliveries. (b) Three electric cars to be purchased with funds received from DOE, with cost sharing from Florida Power the City of Tampa and the University of South Florida. These cars will be similar to those developed by Soleq Corp. Two of these EV's will be located at USF (to be operated by USF researchers) and one EV will be located in downtown Tampa (to be operated by the city of Tampa). These EV's will be tested in a "commuter" type driving environment, to determine reliability, range, best charging scheme for most likely vehicle uses, maintenance requirements of vehicle components, economics needed for EV's to compete with ICV's, and realistic scenarios by which utilities and manufacturers can help with the development of EV's. The location of the electric cars and the vans may vary to allow all participants to properly evaluate each vehicle. The map in figure 1 shows the approximate locations where EV's will be located. The artist's drawing of EV /PV arrangement presents the general idea of the concept. A unique feature of this program is the use of photovoltaies to charge the EV's, used for commuting, during daylight hours when the cars are not in use. The PV systems will be purchased and applied to the project at no cost to DOE. A very small portion of DOE funds will be used for the evaluation of the EV /PY system(s) interactive performance. As part of this program, an e

Societal Impacts Electric car operation will have significant positive impacts to society, including savings in energy consumption, reductions in emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter, and reductions in noise levels. The economics of the electric car, based on the factors discussed above, will be compared with those of an internal combustion vehicle. Data on iniernal combustion vehicles will be obtained from a variety of sources, such as Department of Transponation for vehicle operating and maintenance costs and fuel consumption, and emissions data from the Environmental Protection Agency. This comparison will illustrate the resultant net economic benefits of the electric car program. Additionally, it may also identify areas in which modifications in the technology and/or its application could produce greater economic returns. A!. part of this program, an evaluation of the human factors issues relating to the integration of electric vehicles into our society will be made. The successful accomplishment of significant changes in methods of transponation involving the introduction of alternative means of transponation requires a careful consideration of human factors or ergonomic aspects of the situation. In order to achieve a reasonable level of acceptance, any proposal for change must clearly have talcen into consideration cenain minimum requirements within the general area of human factors Operator and Passenger Comfort Ride characteristics must be acceptably comfonable; seating accommodations must be adequate and appropriate for the specific use envisioned. The range of control of temperature and humidity must be adequate to the geographic region and range of seasonal changes that will be encountered. Noise levels within the vehicle must be acceptable. It is anticipated that in electric vehicles the noise level will be significantly lower than those encountered in internal combustion vehicles. Relallve Ease of Operallon The requirements imposed on the driver for operation of the vehicle should be reasonable and similar to skills already mastered for the operation of more conventional vehicles. It is probable that this will pose no problem and that operation will be simpler than the operation of internal combustion vehicles. Starting. steering, speed control, braking, shutting down and securing the vehicle should be as nearly like those operations in more conventional vehicles as possible. Vehicle Performance The operators of electric cars will accept a lesser level of performance than that they have become accustomed to in the operation of internal combustion engines if acceleration and maximum speed are sufficient for them to maneuver safely and without becoming obstacles to normal traffic in urban transponation patterns. The handling of the vehicles, primarily involving the ease of steering, must be satisfactory. Maximum range of the vehicles without recharging 6


batteries must be adequate to fulfill the operator's requirements over a reasonable number of hours in the working day. Questions have been raised as to variations in the performance characteristics of electric vehicles as the battery bank is discharged. This issue will be investigated Vehicles should not be used for missions that will require distances greater than those that can be accommodated without significant falloff in performance. Vehicle Maintenance Routine maintenance requirements must be simplified and automated to the maximum possible extent consistent with reasonable economy of design. The specific actions necessary for recharging the battery banks, watering the batteries and general maintenance should not be a source of difficulty or ma jor inconvenience for the operator. Requirements for lubrication and periodic inspection should be clearly specified. The long term objectives of this program are the development of electric vehicles as a viable alternative to internal combustion vehicles and the use of photovoltaics as a primary method for charging EV's used in a commuter type environment. The participation in this program of utilities, the city of Tampa, and a university is seen as a first step in the development of a major effort in the Tampa, St. Petersburg and Clearwater tri-city bay area towards the wide scale use of EV's in this decade. In addition, the incorporation of photovoltaics will have a very beneficial impact in the sol ution of energy, pollution and transportation prob lems in Florida and across the nation. The development of a task force is presently being planned to address relevant problems, possib l e solutions, and short as well long range goals A long term objective of this program is to develop appropriate "off peak rates" for charging vehicles with utility produced power. PLANNED PROGRAM ACTIVITIES FOR YEARS 2-S. This applicant in collaboration with Florida Power Corporation plans to aggressively pursue additional funding from local, state and federal agencies for years 2-5. Additional funding from local sources can come from the cities of Tampa, St. Petersburg and Clearwater as well as from Tampa Electric and other smaller utilities such as Seminole Electric, etc. The Florida Power Corporation (FPC) will continue as a partner in this program with strong collaboration and interaction among personnel. FPC plans to add to the EV p r ogram 2-3 new Evans as soon as they become available (ie. TEVans, etc.). FPC is also heavily involved in PV activities, presently monitoring one of the largest PV projects (15 KW pbotovoltaic system made of amorphous silicon panels) with considerab l e information derived from the project concerning the performance of the PV panels and problems related to feeding the electrical PV power into the utility grid. 7


During years 2-5 the activities carried out in year 1 will continue and expanded. A summary (sketch of proposed activities is given below. Year 3 4 EV Activities Add new vehides. Extend city Oeet use. EV Ofl'-peak charging. Market research. Add new vehicles. Evaluate advanced charging Continue Market Research. Test new vehldes with extended range for more general purpose transportation. Develop a broad seale use master plan ror the area. PV Ac:livitles Add PV at FPC and other locations. Investigate interaction between PV power and utility power. Design advanced PV charge stations. Add extended use city Oeet charging. Add advanced PV to extended range sites. Decermlne the feasibility of broad scale charge stations. S Develop a plan and consortium to implement broad seale use. Provide support for implementation or the plan. Organize, In collaboration with the utilities and the local and state government, seJDinars for general education and training in EV and PV technology. & MANAGEMENTPLAN Dr. Elias Stefanakos, Chairman of Electrical Engineering at the University of South Florida will have overall management responsibiUty for this program. In this capacity, he will be responsible for the proper execution of all agreements and the completion of all tasks, the submission of timely reports as required, the coordination of all activities, and interaction with DOE and other program participants. Gary Brosch, Director of the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida, will be a consultant to the project for the evaluation of architectural, aesthetic:, ergonomic:, and transportation issues. Mr. Tony Padilla, Manager of New Technologies at Florida Power Corporation, and Mr. Edgar Holt, manager of New Products and Services at Florida Power Corporation, will coordinate all activities related to the testing and evaluation of EV's operated in the "ffeet type" environment at Florida Power in St. Petersburg. Florida. Dr. Paris Wiley, Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at USF, wil l be responsible for the design of EV fPV data acquisition systems and analysis of the data. He will also have major responsibility for the procurement and maintenanoe of EV's, and for testing and evaluation of the EV's operated in the "commuter type environment at USF. Dr. Don Morel, Professor of Electrical Engineering at USF (former Vioe President for Research, at ARCO Solar), will be responsible for the procurement, operation and testing of the PV systems. Dr. J. L. Brown, Regents Professor and Director Of Human Factors Engineering, a


will be a consultant to the program in the evaluation o f h uman behavio r as related to EV's. MT. Frank Stead, Auto and Mari n e S u pe ri nte n dent at USFs Physical Plant, wi ll be responsible for the service and maintenance of the electric vehicles located at USF. Mr. Stead is p r esently supervising the operation and maintenance of USFs fleet of 342 vehicles (202 vans and cars and 140 electric vehicles of the golf cart" type). Ms. Renee' Faass, Energy Coordinator of the City Of Tampa, will coo r dina t e activities relating to the operation of EV's located at the munic i pal complex in down town Tampa. The organization of the project team, together wit h each mem ber's affil iation and primary responsib ility, is shown below JN:K.-LEE ER>SCH USF EIG'IoEO USF \ISF CliTR CXlNSU-TANT TEAM LEADER CON!5UL lANT I TON"( MDI LU CON t.lli1EI. Tc::a-4 W I LLER RENEE' FMSS PAR I S WIL'Y' SAM GAROETT FLORI OrA. POWER USF -EE USF CUTR C l TY OF TAAIPA USF EE usF -ee CCORDI No'. TOR fptorO'JOL T AI C S COORDINATOR DATA. ANAL o:!NSU.. TANT tO..T PAT GRIFPITH pAALOS t.IARTEZ FfW S TEAO TOM SoUTH FLORIDA POWER US! CVTR C llY OF TAMPA USF -PHY. PLANT USF e e P ROJ, MAHAG. ecoN:NICS FLEET SUP. MAINTENANCE ENGINEER The team members will meet at USF each Monday. Occasionally, the weekly meeting will be hel d at Florida Power or the City of Tampa so that all team members gain an appreciation of, and familiarity with, the e n tire project. The purpose of the weekly meetings will be to review progress of the past week, discuss any problems and formulate plans of action, and plan the tasks for the coming week. As the need arises during the week, the team members will confer either by telephone or i n person to insure that t h e tasks are completed with a minimum of delay The points of contact for each of the team members is as follows: Lee Stefanakos Gary Brosch J. L Brown Renee' Faass Sam Garrett Pat Griffith Edgar Holt USF EE USFCUTR USFIE City of Tampa USF EE USF -CUTR Florida Power 813-974-4742 813-974-3120 813-974-2440 813-223-8734 813-974-4773 813-866-4507


Tom Miller Carlos Martez Don Morel Tony Padilla Tom Smith Frank Stead Paris Wiley C. PERSONNEL USFCUTR City of Tampa USF BE Florida Power USFBE USF Phy Plant USF BE 813-974-3120 813-223-8734 813-974-2508 813-8664528 8139744781 813 2500 813-974-4742 Special attention bas been paid to forming a team of experts that can properly carry out not only the first year objectives, but, in addition, plan and promote the wide-scale development and utilization of electric vehicles and pbotovoltalc systems. The team members' experiences range from managing multimillion dollar projects and thousands of employees to operating and maintaining hundreds of fleet vehicles and sophisticated scientific equipment. A number of team members have many man-years experience in the operation and management of research and development activities ranging from microelectronic to transportation and human engineering issues. A list of all personnel that comprise the site operator team together with their present positions is given below. Table I summarizes in matrix form all relevant experience and highest degree team members possess. University of South F1orida E. K. Stefanakos, Professor and Chairman, Electrical Engineering G. Brosch, Director, Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUI'R) J. L. Brown, Regents Professor, Director of Human Factors Engineering P. Wiley, Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering D. Morel, Professor, Electrical Engineering S. Garrett, Professor, Electrical Engineering P. Griffith, Senior Research Associate, CUI'R T. Miller, Deputy Director for Training, CUI'R T. Smith, Electronic Engineer, Electrical Engineering Department F Stead, Auto and Marine Superintendent, Physical Plant F1orida Power Corporatioa T. Padilla, Manager, New Technologies B. Holt, Manager, New ProductS and Services City or Tampa R. T. Faass, Energy Coordinator, Department of Public Works C. Martez, City Of Tampa Fleet Superintendent 10


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D. FACILITIES The University of South Florida is well equipped and staffed for the operat ion and maintenance of a fleet of vehicles. The University fleet is procured and maintained by the Automotive and Marine Division of Physical Plant. The superintendent of this Division is an engineer with a BS degree in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University. Due to this educational background there is a tendency toward scientific rigor in the maintenance and operation of the fleet vehicles which would not otherwise be present. The current U niversity fleet consists of 342 vehicles of which 140 are electric. The electric vehicles are of the smaller "golf cart" type. There are 8 service bays which are used for preventive maintenance and repair and there are 5 technicians who maintain the fleet. All of these technicians are qualified for electric vehicle maintenance and repair. This service facility bas a total of 34 years of combined experience with electric vehicles. In addition to the University facilities, Florida Power has extensive experience in flee t operation and maintenance. Electric vehicles (2 Griffon vans) were added to the fleet of over 2400 vehicles in 1985. Florida Power has 8 maintenance facilities strategically l ocated within its service area. Each facility is capab l e of maintaining all the vehicles used by Florida Power, including FPC's electric vehicles. The facility that maintains the two Griffon electric vans is located in St. Petersburg. Selected mechanics were trained by Lucas Chl oride in the proper techniques for electric vehicle maintenance, problem analysis, and repair. Florida Power is very interested in the devel opment of electric vehicles and their acceptance by customers. The Electrical Engineering Department at the University of South Florida is housed in a brand new 72000 ft2 building and bas grown from 18 faculty members six years ago to 30 faculty at the present time. Funded research within the department i ncreased to over 3 million dollars for the past year. This research effort is supported by excellent computing facilities within the College of Engineering. The College operates three PRIME computers, a VAX, a SUN Ethernet and several open-use small computer laboratories. In addition, the Electrical Engineering Department faculty each have their own mM 386 PC's (with co-processors), 40MByte bard drives, and Hewlett-Packard laser printers. Available software includes WordPerfect 5.1, Lotus 123 release 2.2 and 3.0, Lotus Freelance release 3 .0, AutoCAD release 10, and SigmaPlot. 1l


E. LOCATION The Tampa Bay metropolitan area is located on the gulf coast of southern Florida at a latitude of Z7 58'N As a res ult the climate is very warm with a high relative humidity for most of the year. It is an excellent location for any kind of warm weather testing such as battery and air conditioner performance. The average temperatures, hu mi dities (daily min. and max.), and wind speeds by the month and for the year are shown below, Month Temperature Humidity Wind Jan. 59.8F 59-86% 8.6mph Feb. 60.8 56-86 9 2 Mar. 66.2 55-87 9.5 Apr. 726 51-87 9. 3 May 77.1 52 86 8.7 Jun. 80.9 6()..87 8.0 Jul. 82.2 63-88 7.3 Aug 82.2 64-91 7.0 Sep. 80.9 62-91 7.8 Oct. 74.5 57-89 8 5 Nov. 66 7 57-88 8.4 Dec. 61.3 59-87 8.5 Annual 72.0 58-88 8.4 F. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACf For the most part air quality standards in the Tampa Bay area are met with the exception of ozone. Tampa Bay bas been classified as non-attainment for ozone by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The maximum measured levels of the various gasses contained in ambient air together with corresponding allowed values are give n below: Maximum Measured Value Carbon Monoxide (CO) 1-bour maximum of 28.8ppm 8-bour Maximum of 9.3ppm Nitrogen Dioxide Annual Mean of 21.3ppb Ozone Maximum Value Exceeded at times. 13 Maximum Allowed Value 1 br. maximum of 35ppm 8-hour maxirnum .of 9ppm Annual Mean of 50ppb 1-hour value of 125ppb


The ratio of fO&Sil to non-fossil fuel used for electric power generation is high for the Tampa bay area. Florida Power Corporation has a total capacity of 6200MW of which 800MW is nuclear and the remainder is generated by fossil fuels. This represents about 13% non-fossil fue l usage or a ratio of fossil to non-fossil of about 7 to 1. G. EXTERNAL SUPPORT The management team for this site operator program will be primarily located at the of South Florida in the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Center for Urban Transportation Research. Considerable external support will be available both in the form of funding (cost-sharing) and in kind. One of the major contributors to the program will be the Florida Power Corporation (FPC) which is one of the largest utilities in the state with a total generating capacity of over 6200MW. FPC has the most extensive EV experience in the State of Florida and will provide experienced personnel to this program. For example, two electric vans that have been under test in the past three years at FPC will become part of the program for test and evaluation in a "fleet" type operating environment. All of the data and experience acquired, relative to the EV's, will be incorporate d and utilized in this program. In addition, even though USF has very good facilities (see section D) and well trained staff, FPC's equipment, personnel and facilities will also be available to this program. FPC will also provide $100,000 in-kind support and $50,000 for the purchase of an electric vehicle for "commute(' use as part of the cost sharing required by DOE. The City of Tampa (CI') will also participate and contribute to the program although, initially, to a lesser extend than FPC. CT will contribute $10,000 as a cost share with DOE for the purchase of an additional commuter car to be located for test and evaluation at the center of the city. CT will also provide in-kind support with personnel assigned to the program, to artend management meetings for planning, evaluation and scheduling operation of the commuter vehicles. H. SPECIAL INTEREST (not applicable) I. OTHER RESOURCES PHOTOVOLTAICS In addition to the test and evaluation of the electric vehicles, a very significant add-on benefit to this program is the incorporation of photovoltaic systems for the production of electrical power to be used for charging the electric vehicles. The benefits derived from the PV system(s) and an economic analysis are described below. 14


PV fEV Background Although EV's are important transportation options for a number of reasons, their potential for reducing environmental pollution has emerged as a key factor in promoting their development The basis for this assertion is the fact that the emissions from utility generated electricity for charging an EV is less than that from a conventional automobile engine for equa l driving loads. The pollution burden is thus lowered and is also shifted to the power plant site. In many cases the power plant is located in the metropolitan area in which the EV's are used, and thus although the overall levels are reduced, the emissions for the vehicles are still released in their use area. The amount by which pollution levels are reduced by substituting electric energy for conventional automotive energy is a complex function of many variables. Ideally the EV's should draw their power at night when electricity demand is low and the utility plants are operating at high efficiency and low emissions levels. In continuous applications, charging during the day i s desirable. This day charging might cause a demand problem to the utilities since additional generation may have to be built instead of using existing under-utilized generating plants at night. An attractive solution to the above problem is the use of photovoltaic solar energy(PV) for daytime charging. In ongoing studies by the utility industry PV has demonstrated an excellent match to the utility l oad demand12, and utilities are looking forward to its deployment at first for peak demand and ultimately for base load generation. It is thus proposed to include daytime charging with PV in this project. The charging cycle would include low emission night time charging from the utility grid, and zero emissions day time charging from a PV array. The specific requirements of EV's and the unique attnoutes of PV are an ideal team of emerging technologies which can contribute s ignificantly to the reduction of environmental pollution. EV Use. Base Case Scenario EV's can and should be considered for general purpose use and will achieve that objective as advances are made. However, it is necessary to recognize the present limitations of the technology and to select meaningful demonstration projects within that framework. One such case that will be Included in this project is that of a "typical" commuter. This commuter's daily itinerary Includes the following: Driving to the work site in the morning Leaving the vehicle parked outdoors while working Going o ut for lunch or other activities Driving home in the afternoon/evening Running errands in the evening Parking over night -1(}.20 miles -6-10 hours 5-15 miles -1(}.20 miles -1(}.20 miles -1(}.12 hours 15


On average this schedule requires daytime charging in addition to overnight charging to assure reliable vehicle availability. Dayt ime charging can easily be accomplished with a PV array at the work site as shown in the illustration. The following estimates of array outpu t and economics are based upon currently available PV technology. PV E n ergy Generation Array size: 10 ft x 20 ft( -1 parking space) PV peak output: 11 Watts/fil Average available sunlight/day at project site: 6 hours Total PV energy generated/day: 200 x 11 2.2KW x 6 : 13.2 KWhrs For a typical EV with an energy consumption of .S KWbrs/mile this adds 26 miles to the driving range for the day, a good fit to our commuter's schedule. This additional range provided by PV with zero emissions will help achieve feast'bility in many cases for EV's. PV Econo m ics At today's prices PV is not yet competitive with conventional energy, however, the circumstances of this application are a bit more favorable than might be imagined. The PV panels themselves cost $4-$5 /Watt : = = > -$10,000. The structure need only provide shade and can simply be a frame to which the modules are attached. Ordinarily the cost of the land for the array would be added into the balance of systems cost, but in this case the land is already captive as part of the vehicles infrastructure and is not an additional cost associated with use of PV. The power eonditionlng equipment would include a provision for feeding excess PV energy into the utility grid. In a typical situation there would be a row of these structures which would service a random presence of vehicles for charging. A t many times there would be excess energy available which could be fed into the grid for credit, and this would often occur during peaking hours when utility production costs( and emissions levels) are highest Coosidering these factors, a reasonable estimate for the structure and power conditioning would be $5000 Assuming a system lif e of 2S years( typical for PV ), the generation of 365 X 2S X 6hrs X 2.2KW 120,000 KWhrs for a capital investment of $15,000, results in an energy cost of $15,000.00/120,000 = $0.125/KWhr 16


Although this estimate does not include maintenance(which bas been found to be very low for prototype PV piantsll) and the cost of money, the resulting cost is nevertheless competitive with peaking costs for many utilities and illustrates the near feasibility of the economics with today's PV technology. The real factor of interes t for this project, reduced pollution, also bas a real value which can not be easily quantified at this time but certainly aids the economic feasib ility of PV. Also, using the PV array as a car port additional benefits accrue from extending the life of vehicle paint and upholstery and from substan t i a l reduction of the air-(:ondltioning load at the start of the journey home due to lower vehicle temperatures. PV Future Prospect s Today's PV panel cost of $4-SSfWatt is the result of a steady downward t rend from the $100/Watt "space cell' costs of the 1960' s F urther maturing of today's crystalline Si technology is expected to drive costs down to the $2-$3/Watt level, and the emerging ne w thin-film technologi es promise to lower the figure t o $1-$2/Watt which will make PV suit able for bulk power generation. These price reductions are expected to occu r in the 1990's if market demand can justify the capital investments which the PV manufacturing indust ry will have to make to ramp up production and effect economies of scale. The industry needs sizable intermedi ate markets with unique advantages for P V to make this transition, and EV's are a natural. The synergy between EV and PV technology is an opportunity to significantly hasten the deve lopment of each technology and thereby hasten their favorable environmental impact. Each can succeed on its own merits without the other, but together that success should come much soone r J. DATA COLLECI'ION AND REPORTS Each electric vehicle will be equipped with a microprocessor data acquisition system ( MDAS) similar to those developed by D r. Wiley for use on NASA contracts at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (see resume Wiley) Data will be stored in units called records Each reco r d will contain the date and time, the identity of the vehicle operator, and the =nt values of vehicle system variables. Therefore, each record will 'stand alone in the sense that, if a record is los t or damaged, the analysis of the other records will not be affected. There will be two types of records. T ype 1 will be for v ariables which require frequent sampling (ie. ve hicle s peed}, and type 2 will be for va r iable s which do not require frequent sampling ( ie. temperatures). The following vehicle syste m variables will be monitored and store d for later analysis: 1. Vehicle speed (type 1) 2 Battery voltage (type 1) 3. Battery current (type 1) 4. Battery temperatur e (type 2) 5. Outside temperature (type 2) 6. Vehicle interior temperature (type 2) 17


7. State of air conditioner (on-off) (type 2) 8. Charging current (type 2) Each MDAS will store data for up to six hours of vehicle operation and data from each MDAS will be downloaded on a daily basis to an IBM 386 PC (with co-processor) for entry into the project database. Analysis will be performed on the database to recover at least the following types of information: 1. Distance traveled; vehicle range 2. Speed statistics (time in various speed ranges, etc.) 3. Acceleration statistics (number, rate, final speed, etc.) 4. Average battecy statistics (voltage, current, energy supplied, etc.) 5. Peak battel)' statistics (number, peak current and power levels, etc.) 6. Peak versus average bauecy statistics 7. Charging statistics (voltage, current, energy delivered, number of cycles, etc.) I nformation retrieved from the database will be included in the project reports which will be submitted promptly as required in the resulting agreement. The fact that all the data will be stored digitally, downloaded daily, and processed by computer, will guarantee accurate and timely reports. Reports will be composed using WordPerfect 5.1 with imported tables, figures, and graphs made using SigmaPlot, Lotus 123, and Lotus Freelance. The design of the MDAS provides great flexibility for system reconfiguration and for adding additional sensors for other variables. This flexibility will allow for testing of new technologies both on the component and vehicle system levels, and will provide the capability to "fine tune" the project output in the first year as well as in succeeding years. Quality assurance will be achieved by calibrating the MDAS and all vehicle system sensors initially and verifying the calibration on a monthly basis. Capacity tests on all batteries will be performed on a monthly basis. Capacity t est data will be used with vehicle range data to determine pack life. Vehicle maintenance will be performed as required and regular preventive maintenance will be performed monthly in conjunction with the battery capacity tests. In addition battery water levels will be checked weekly. A maintenance log will be kept which will include the type of service performed, the frequency of each type, and the cost of each maintenance item. K. EXPERIENCE As discussed in the section entitled "Personnel" the proposed team has abundant experience in all areas relating to the proposed project. Frank Stead of the University of South Florida and Tony Padilla and Edgar Holt of Florida Power Corporation have extensive experience with fleet operations and with electric vehicles. Lee Stefanakos, Gary Brosch, Don Morel, and J. L Brown, have many years of experience in the management of government grants which is detailed in their individual resumes. Paris Wiley bas 20 years experience in the design and implementation of digital data acquisition systems. 18


BUDGET ( ln 'lbonsands or Dollars) A. PERSONNEL: DOE USF FPC cr L Salaria E. Stefanakos(PI, USF,EE) s 10.00 $ 8.00 $ s J. Brown (USF,ENG/MED) 3.00 P Wiley (USF,E E ) 15.00 8.00 D. Morel (USF,EE) 7.00 3.00 T. Miller(USF,CUIR) 3.00 P. Gr iffith (USF ,CUIR) 3.00 T. P adilla (FPC) 715 E. Holt (FPC} 14.49 R Faass (CT) 3.65 C. Manez (CT) 3.65 Tech nical Personnel 5.00 41.00 19.00 21.74 7.3 2. Grad/Ungrad Students 2730 P ersoDDel cos t $ 68.30 s 24.00 SlL74 s 7.3 B FRI NGES (27% of Al) s 11.07 $ 6.48 $ 5.87 $ 1..7 Person n e l Cost + Fringes $ 79.37 s 30.48 Sl7.6t s 10.00 C. TRAVEL: $ 8.00 D. SUPP LIES; $ 15 .00 E. EQUIPMENT: 3 EV's 75.00 25.00 50.00 10.00 2 EVans 50.00 PV Systems 5MDAS 10.00 5.00 $ 85.00 $ 30.00 $100 .00 $ 10 .00 F. 0111E R (PV Panels & EV $100.00 Market Research} G INDIRECI' COST $48.63 s 14.48 $ l.Jf) (47.5% of A D) PROGRAM COST (Yr. 1) $236.00 $ 7""' $130.00 SlO.OO TOTAL PROGRAM COST YR. 1 ( DOE+ USF+FPC+CI') = $560.96K


REFER.ENCES 1. M. H. Cbiogioji, P J. Brown, Elect ric Vehicles in the 21st Centuiy" The Electrochemical Society Spring meeting. Los Angeles, CA Vol. 89-1, p. 489, 1989. 2. M. Hackleman, 'The Electric Vehicle: A Silent Revolution" Sunwcrld (USA), v.13:3, pp. 79, 1989. 3. N. Tanaka, "Important Role of Electric Vehicles in Reducing Air Pollution" 9th Electric Vehicle Symposium, Toronto, Canada, Nov. 13, 1988. Published in Electric Vehicle Developments (UK), pp. 17-18, Feb 1989. 4. L. G. O'Connell, "Electric Vehicles: The Adventure Has Begun" Proceedings of Electrotechnologies National Confe rence Calgary, Canada, April 2-3, 1990. 5. P. J. Brown, "Prospects for Electric Vehicles" Proceedings of the Fifth Win dso r Workshop Alternativ e Fuels, Windsor, Canada, pp. 128-132, Oct. 1989. 6. K. F. Barber, "US Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Pr oduct I mprovement Program Electric Vehicle Developments (UK), pp. April 1989. 7. L. G. O'Connell, "Building an Electric Vehicle Future Proceedings of the Alr and Waste Management Anabeim, CA, June 25-30, 1989. 8. J. Mader, "Electric Vehicle Commercialization" 16th Annual E nergy Technology Conferen ce, Wash. DC, pp 58().581, Feb. 1989. 9. A. F. Burke, R. K. Fink, R. A. Richardson and E. J. Dowgiallo, "Characterization of Electric vehicle Velocity and Power Profiles U sing Road Test Data" SAE Conference and Expo on Future Transportation Technology, 6-10 Aug. 1989. 10. M. DeLuchi, W. Quanlu, D. Sperling. "Electric Vehicles: Performance, Life-cycle costs, Emissions and Recharging Requirements" TI'QIISportation Research, Part A: General (UK), Vol. 23a:3, pp. 255-278, May 1989. 11. "A Manual on User Benefits Analysis of Highway and Bus-Transit Imp rovements", Published by the American Association of State Hi ghway and Transportation Officials, 19n. 12. E. A. DeMeo, F. R. Goodman, T. M. Peterson, and J C Schaefer, "Solar Photovo ltaic Power: A U.S. Electric Utility R&D Perspective Proceedings of the Twenty First IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Kissimmee, Fl, May 1990. 13. R. Lynette and K. Conover, Photovollaic Operali(>n and Maintenance Evaluation, P alo Alto: Electric Power Research Institute, Report Gs-6625, 1989.


MAP OF TAMPA, ST. PETER S ,BURG CLEARWATER AND v1<;INITY Arrows Designate Locations where Electric Vehicles will be P laced for Testing Zl




......... ....... ........... !! !te Florida Power CORPORATION November 9, 1990 Lee Stefanakos Chairman, Electrical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, F l orida Dea r Lee: Florida Power Corporation (FPC) is pleased to pledge its support to the USF-DOE Electric Vehicle P rogram. FPC has been involved in the Electric Vehicle (EV) testing for many years, and during the last five years we hava been an active participant in the national effort to test the Electric Vans l n 1984 we purchased two electric vans and have monitored, operate d and maintained them with great success since then We feel that, in F lorida, we are in a unique position to lend o u r EV expertise to this effort. Lee, I have summariz e d FPC's position on Electric Vehicles as follows: FPC strongly supports the use of electric vehicles as a means to lessen air emissions, and to lower the cost of transportation. To that and, FPC supports substantive efforts to further the deYelopment a n d commercia l i zation of reliable, durable and economically feasible e lectric vehicles. After reading the goals of the D O E program we feel that they are complementary to the needs of electric utilities in the area of EVs. Our FPC internal EV program goals and expectations should be well covered by this program Our goal s and expectations in the area of EV are: The raliability of the Battery Sys tem apd the Vehicle must be proven. This may only be obtained through the testing that will be obtained from a long term test such as the one you propose. FPC is both capable and willing to help wi t h this part of the effort. The vehicle(s) raoge(sl under different d riving conditions must b e determined. This can be accomplished by locating the vehicles in different settings where the usage patterns vary. FPC would like to use vehicles in our fleet requirements as well as to place vehicles with GENERAL OFFICE: 320 1 Thirty. fourth Street South P.O Box 14042 St. Petersbu rg, Florida 33733 { 8 1 3) 666 A Florida Progress Company


targeted customers so that this variability of operating patterns may be achieved. We must determine the dQsree of acceptability for EVs among the different drivers and among the various app lications -this will be key to make recommendations in the area of Ergonomics and to recommend to the manufac turers areas of impr o vements c o the cars. FPC has a lready gathered a lot of information applicable to this task. We need to determine the best charging schemes so that the electric utilities may determine the l:>Ut Qff-puk charsing rates for electric vehicles as well as determine their positive Environmental contributions. FPC will be a strong contributor to this task. Since part of USF' s proposal is to include Photovoltaics (P. V.) as an alternate charging mathod, we should determine the positive effects of P.V. charged electric Vehicles on the envi ronment. FPC has the capability of making a significant contribution to this part of the project. As one of the goals and results of this effort, we should be able co identify scenarios in which utilities -developers -researchers and car manufac turers may work together with a common goal of bringing reliable, durable, and inexpensive electric vehicles the market. Florida Power has the largest amount of experience in E V operation, testing and maintenance in the State of Florida. Our Mr. Edgar Holt, Manager of New Products and Services (see attached resume) has been in charge of our electric vans for the past three years, and will be part of the management team for the project. If the Department of Energy selects USF's proposal and awards the university a contract under D.O. E.'s Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operators Program, F lorida Power will contribute both monetarily ($50,000 will be budgeted by FPC for fiscal year 1991) and "in-kind" (our "in-kind" coneribution including our Marker Research is estimated at: $100,000) to this project: with the hop e chat its results will be useful to us and to the nation. Sincerely, Tony Padilla Manager New Technology Department AAP:mlb ce: G. C. Moore Dl3:LEESTEFA.EVS


COI.UGE OF ENGINEERING OFFICE OF THE DEAN November 14, 1990 Dr. E. K. Stefanakos, Chair Electrical Engineering Department University of South Florid 4202 E. Fowler Avenue Tampa, Florida 33620 Dear Dr. Stefanakos: TAMPA, FLORIDA !36:2.0-5350 PHONE (813) 974 li780 The College of Engineering strongly supports the Site Operation Program for Electric Vehicles Program that you have proposed. One of the main long-term research thrust areas in the college is photovoltaics and related materials and device research. This research emphasis, coupled with our highly regarded R&D program in transportation (the Center for Urban Transportation Research CUTR) provide a natural technological synergy within the College. The College of Engineering has strong ties to local companies and governmental units that can be used to ensure intensive cooperation in this project. We believe that all the necessary elements are in place in Tampa Bay to make it a "national prototype regionn for the evaluation of electric vehicles as a potentially significant alternative to gasoline. powered vehicles. The College is committed to assisting in all appropriate ways to make electric vehicle research meaningful, significant and timely in Tampa Bay. Sincerely, Michael G. Kovac Dean TAMPA ST. PETERSBURG SARASOTA FORT MYERS LAKELAND


COlLtGE Of E:t4GIN(Rlt6G OniCE 01 TttE ASSOOATE DEAN fOA AfSEAitCH November 14, 1990 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. E. I<. Stefanakos tAMPA. flORJOA 13620-SJSO PMON E ( 8 13) 9 74-3716 Chairman, Department of Electrical Engineering FROM: Thomas E. Wade, Ph.D. Dean for Research SUBJECf: Institutional Matching Funds for DOE Proposal Lee, I have discussed your DOE proposal on the testing and evaluation of electric vehicles with Dr. Richard Streeter, Director of the Division of Sponsored Research We are both ve .ry excited about the prospects of the University of South Florida conducting meaningful research in cooperation with the Florida P ower Company, the Tampa Electric Company and the City of Tampa on electric vehicles. Since this is a high priority project for both the University and the College of Engineering, the following instituti onal cost sharing should be indicated in your proposal: Division of Sponso red Research College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Tollll Cost Sharing $15,000 7.500 7,500 $30,000 The use of a pbotovoltaic system to charge these electric vehicles in a commuter type environment should provide an added essential dimension to this proposed project. You are to be congratulated for your foresight in pursuing this important e ndeavor, especially during these times of potentially high fuel demands and cost. Best of luck in your pursuit. Perhaps the Department of Energy will allow your vision to become reality. TEWjjcb TAMPA sr PETER S B URG SARASOTA FORT M YERS LAKELAND THE VNIVEFI:SIJY OF ftnAIDA KAN AIJ"tA UATM AJ'Tft"'N /r,...IAJ ni>Cit"'OYttwtTV 1111\l'lft t1'tl\w


.. n COMM[TTE.E. '!f. O NEHUN6Rg0 Greater Thropa Chamb<:r o f Commerce P.O !lox 4'o nmpa. Florid a l)OOJ Telephone (lllJ ) llQlt)l Fax (8lj\ ) 7899 ... L

CITY OF' T AMPA Sandra w. Freedman. November 6, 1990 Elias K. Stefanakos, Ph.D., P.E. Professor and Chairman Department of Electrical Engineering University of South Florida 4202 Fowler Avenue Tampa, FL 33620 -5350 Dear Lee; . . water Resources and PubliC Works Mike Salmon Administrator This letter is an endorsement ,by ;the .City of Tampa of your proposed Departmen t of Energy, Bleotrio apd Hybrid Vehicles, Site Operator Program grant and a commitment to participate in such a prQ


RESUME Name: Gary L. Brosch lltgrees: MS., Economics, Florida Stale University B.S, Economics, University of South Florida Position: Director, University of South Florida, CUTR l'revlout Posltloll8 Vice Presidenl, Rice Center, Rice University AcljUDct Assistant Professor, Jones Graduate Rice University Special Economic Advisor, Urban Mass Transportation Adrninistration Staff Director, Florida House Commiltce on Tourism and Economic Development Senior Research Economist, Governor's Economic and Tax Research Unit, State of Florida Consulting Economist, RES, Inc., Tallabassee, Florida Research and Planning Program Administrator, Florida Department of Community Alfairs, Division of Technical Assistance Economic Research Assistanl, Institute for Social Research, Florida State University llfllior Areas ol Espertlse Urban Community Economic Analysis 'Innovative F'maneiug F'maneiug PrivatefPubUe Partnerships Urban Mobillty Research F'mance and Tax Reforms Transportation Innovations Representative ExperleDce Directed research on financing of economic and community development Directed transportation planning and eugineering programs De$igned and moderated public/private partnership confcrcncea Delivered speeches on financing and transportation innovatioos Provided technical assistance on innovative financing to pubUe and private agencies Developed economic analyses of alternative taxation, finance, and regulatory policies for state and local transportation systems Developed Jegislalioo to implement economic development innovatioos


RESUME Name: John LoU Brown Degrees: Ph .D, Psyclwlogy Columbia Univer$ity, 1952 M.A., Psychology, Temple University, 1949 B.S., E.E., Worcester Polytedulic lllslitute, 1945 Preseat Poollloa: Professor and President Emeritus, University of South Florida, 1988 Previous Poolli001: President, University of South Florida, 1978-1988 Director Center for Visual Science University of Rochester, 1971-1978 Professor of Psychology, Optics, University of Rochester, 1969-1978 VJCe Presidem for Academic Alfairs, Kaasas State University, 1966-1969 Dean of the Graduate Kansas State Univer$ity, 1%5-1966 Assl, Assoc. Professor and Director, Graduate Training Program in Physiology, University of PeDIISylvan.ia, 1959 Head, Psychology Division, Aviation Medical Laboratory Naval Air Development Center, 1954-1959 Technieal Director Air Foree Research Contract, Columbia University, 1952-1954 Researcll El)lerieuee: Dr. Brown has been a researcher in the areas of Visual Science and Human Factors for over 35 years He has held numerous academic and goYl:rnmcnt positions and serYl:d on over a dO

Name: Samuel J. Gam:tt Degrees: B.E.E, University of Florida, 1957 M.S.E.E, University ol Pittsburgh, 1960 Sc.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1963 Position: RESUME Professor, Department of Electrical University of South Florida, 1967. Previous PosiUoas: Staff Eaginccr, Honeywell, Inc, St. Peter$burg, Florida, 1963 1967. Research Engineer, Westinghouse Research Labs, Churchill Borough, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1961 1963. Engineer, WestingbotL"' Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1957. 1961. Government Grants and Contracts: Instruc:tional Scientific Equipment Grant, The National Science Foundation, 1 969 Computerized Power Supply Analysis; State-Equation Generation and ter m inal Models", NASA Grant No. NSG-3096. Publkatlons: O.er IS publlcatioos in circuit theory, power supply analysis and feedback control theory. Co-authored a book Al!pljed Differential BgyatioM, Spartan Books, Inc, Washinglon, D.C., 1965 with George Feineman and Allan Kraus. Resean:b Expene...e: Dr. Garrett has established himself in research at the U nivusity of South Florida by obtaining and seeing to a successful completioo several research grants. The moot significant research was done on a NASA grant for which he developed the PROSE computer program that Produced State Equations f o r electrical mechanical systems. Moot recent research grants that be obtained and dircaed include a grant io 1988 from Paradyne to develop a computer program that converted transmission liDe data to the mput da t e f o r the SPICE circuit analysis program. ln 1988/89 Dr. Garrett directed TASK 11nstallation of the Laser Restrncturing Facility for the Wafer Seale Integration grant from DARPA. PresentaUve Experleace: Dr. Garrett has had a loag record ol successful work iD both the academic and mdustrial scttmgs. Dr. Garrett began at the University of South Florida iD 1967 and was inslnlmental in developing the courses in digital scieaoe and He colllinued hy teaching courses io electronics and circuits. As the opportunity bcc:ame open he developed courses iD digital random process and the first p-aclwole control eoune in systems and controltbeory. At the prcKat time Dr. Garrett is the option supervisor for the Control Theory Option and the Circuit Theory OpdoD. In thls capacity he supervises the courses, degree requirements and student counselling for the Master's degree options in circ:uir theory and control theory Dr. Garrett has worked fun time for Westinghouse, Milletron and Honeywell. After joining tbe University of South Florida iD 1967 be has continued his contact with mdustry by working as a consultant. As a consultant for Honeywell Dr. Garrett helped analyze and develope power supplies for the Minuteman, Vmns and Space Shuttle projects. More recently be has worked for Unllens designing a digitaUy coa.trolled lathe to manufacture coataCI lenses. In thls position he helped design the digital control system including the desigl> and iD.

RESUME Name< Patrick J. Grlflilh M.S, TraDsportation &giueering. Villanova University B.S., Economics, lbe Wharton School of the University of Pelli!S)'Ivania Present Position: Senior Research AsSociate, University of South Florida, CUTR Previous Posllloas: Maoagcr of F"mancial Analysis Depart!Dcnt, GreiDer, Inc. Management Consultant, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. Director of Special Projects, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Manager of Systems D=lopment, New York City Transit Authority Consultant, Dynatrend, Inc. Areas ol Expertise: Transportation Economics Public F"mance Transportalloo Operations Analysis F"tnancial Planniug and ADalysis Transpo

RESUME Name: Joseph Edgar Holt Degrees: B.S., Electrical Engineering. Mississippi State University, 1974 M.BA., Florida Institute of Technology, 1.984 Preoeat Posilloo : MaDager New Products & Services, Florida Power Corporation, October 1987. Previous Posllloas: Senior Generation Technology Eagineer, Florida Power Corporation, December 1985October 1987. Fossil Staff Eagineer, Florida Power Corporation, July 1982 December 1985. Ele<:trical and Conttol.s Engineer, Florida Power Corporation, November 1978 -July 1982. Maiatenance Snpervisor, Westinghouse Corporation, September 1977 November 1978. Works Electrical Engineer, Westinghouse Corporation, May 1974 September 1977,. CooperatiYe Education Program, South Central Bell Telephone Company, June 1971 August 1973. Represeotallve Experience: Manage the direction and activities of an eagineering group responsible for the iavestigation, development and implementation of programs to provide additional customer service or promote the inttoduetion of new technologies to improve energy efficiency. Projects under investigation includ!> pbotovoltaics, beat pipes, electric vehicles, thermal storage systems, and advanced heat pump systems. Successfully expanded the lea.scd lighting program to include decorative fixtures to meet customer needs. Responsible for planning and controlling the department's budget. Provide technological and economic analyses to develop studies and reports to support recommendations to upper management for facility enhancement, fuel alternatives and generation options for future units. Serve as project manager for plant eohaneement studies by coordinating the efforts of internal departments with an architectural engineer. Responsible for project budget and schedule. Gather and maintain teclmical and economic data pertinent to new and developing generation technologies. Provide tecbnkal and eagineering support iD developing and implementiDg uniform operation, maintenance, and administration procedures for fossil generating plants and systems fuels.


RESUME Name: Thomas L. liC.illu Dqpces: Ph.D. HJslrny Traflic Safety and Criminal Justice Admi.Distration, Miebigan Slace Uolvenicy M.E.D, Tr affic a.ad Transportatioo Safecy, Miami (Ohio) Uolvenity B.S.E.D., Soclal Studies, llowlina Gucn S cace Univenity PrcMat Poe ltloa: Deputy Director for Training, UniYCrsity of South F1orida, CUTR 1'1-evloua Positio ns: Director, Safety and Training, Smalley Transportation Company Dircc:cor, Research Office, UoiYCrsity of Arkansas at Uttle Rod Assistan t Director, Program Development, Ohio Scac e UniYCrsity Research Speci alist, Vocational Education, Ohio Stale UoiYCrsity AsslstaDI Professor, Traffic Safety, Mankalo State University Commissioned Offioer, Hueston Woods St .ate Park, State of Ohio Aftat ol Expertise: Tra.aoportation Safety Trii>Sportatlon MaiDteaance Huarclous Materials Safety Program Development Program Director Drug Abuse loterdictioo Eoperleuce: Developed trnining Cor lwardous material billing Directed transportation lwardous mat erial research Developed training for right to know Developed training Cor safe tractor trailer driving Developed drug abuse interdk:tion program Conducted proposal developmCIII workshops Edited research fwldiug DeWSiet1cr Prepared 1IDMrsity n:scarch program bud&ets Coaduct ed bi&bwaJ user safety "M)rbhops Dei'Cloped a.ad conducted m aiotma n ce tra i ning program for providers of transportal ion semces in Florida Dei'Cloped a.ad eoaducled drug abuse training program Cor F1orida traliSit S)"Siems and T .D. providen Prepared muuals Oil maintenance manaacmcnt a.nd d.rus abuse


ltESUME Na.aat: DoD L. Morel EducaJlM: B.S. TIIJaDe uam,rsity, Physics, 1966 Ph .D, Thlane uam,rsity, Physics. 1.971 MBA, Rutgers uam,rsity, 1979 l'Hseot Posllloo: Professor of Electrical Eogineering. Univcnity of South Florida, 1989. Ptevlous Posltloos: Vice Prc&ident of Research, Atlantic Richfield Solar Division (ARCO Solar), 1987-1939. Director of Research, ARCO Solar, 1985-1937. Director of Adva.oc:cd Research, ARCO Solar, 1931-1935. Group Head, Exxon Research and Eusjnee.ring, 1977-193L Senior Researcil Scientist, Bxxo Research aad Eugiceriug, 1971-1977. AdjUDct Professor, DMsion of EagineeriQg aad Applied Scic:occ, Boston Uam,rsity, 1984-1987. Go...,._.t Gnats ud CoalracU: Pateats: Prillcipallt!VO$Iigator on two major sources of go.crnmcnt coatract fuudiug: DOE/SERI: $4,SOO,!XXJ, for the three-year period from rt1 /'KI 06jro. California EllCrg)' Com,i$sioa: $925,000, for OllC ycar ( codlug 12/M). Eight U.S. patents aod llUIDcrous foreip ftlillp. Over SO publications whicb include leading referred joumals and sigoificaat invited presentations at U.S. aod international ooaferences. Researcb Experience: Over 20 years experience in the f>Cid of semioonduc:tor materials aod device physics. Materials classes have included organic semiconductors, polymers, compound semkonductors, amorphous materials, CJ')'&Ialline silkon, and transparent oonducton. Primary emphasis bas been with photO\'Oitaic devices; additioaal experience with pbotodetcctors, thin film trans.istors ud active matrix addressing for liquid crystal displays. CoDiribulioos to the field have raaged &om atccnie SltliCIIIrC to the perf()nllll!l<:e of hybrid tandem pbotOYOilai.e modala Early ill the devdopmeDc of amorphous silicon, llll atomic model was proposed aad SCP-X-alpha calcu1adoaa wae used to ptedkt cacrgy levels aad baod structure for that emerging semiconductOr material. Hybrid tandem pbotovoltaic modules are a culmination of the entire spectrum of research activities which iDclude all materials aDd device aspect$ of two devices, amorphous silicon aDd copper iodium diselco.idc, aDd bow they interact to efficiently generate power &om somlighl. Hlllld&oa experience with all aspects of materials ud devic:c fabrication aDd analysis. Areas of spccia liutioa have illcluded development of glow discharge deposition nnits for amorphous siliooa and app6cation of tlmc-of-fligbl techniquca to the fundamental properties of scmiooaductors


Responsible for the management of a fundamental research group consisting of PhD's and technicians in a colpOI"ate re&earite training of European and JapaDeSC scientisls and engineers. Din:cted the development of the prototype which resulted in commercialization of the world's first thin film photovolfak power module with amorphous silicon (product introduced 10/84, Kobe, Japan). Managed the research team which leads the world in thin-film photovoltaic development having achieved the highest efficiency in both laboratory devices and prototype moduksAnnouneed in 1988 development of a new thin-film module technology based on I m -VI semicooductors which h.S been termed a 'breakthrougll' by government officials.


RESUME Name: Antonio A. Padilla Degrees: B.S, Mechanical Engineering, University of CeDtral Florida, 1975 ...._.,t Posldoa: Manager, New Technology Department, Florida Power Corporation Pre>ious Posilloos: Coordinator Energy Development, Florida Power Corporation Fuels Development Manager, Florida Power Corporation Project Engineer, Florida Power Corporation Representative Experience: Responsible for Florida Power's Research & Dev elopment activities. As chairman of the R&D Committee, managing the Corporate efforts relating to the research and development of systems, equipment, materials and methods of operation which have the poteotial of improving the perfonoance, reliability and quality of service of Florida Power Corporation. In charge of various special projects including assignments as engineering and construction manager of 5000 barrels per day oil desalioiution plant and a 1000 barrels per day eoal-oil mixture plant. In charge of the Company's alternative fuel research, including the design, ooostruetion and startup of a 2SMM BTU/fiR bio-gasilier coupled to one of FPC's steam boilers. 1n charge of the Company's alternative energy sources program, including the installation of a 40 KW fuel cell at Walt Disney World and a complete study of the potential of FPC plants for conversion to Ouid bed.


RESUME Name: Thomas Smith Educalloa: Radio Shade TRS 80 Modell and m, January 1982 Various military $Chools, includillg bwc through digital olectrorucs, missile systems maintenance and repair, supply procedures and personnel management, 1957 1977 Georgia Institute of Technology, Schoo l of Mechanical Engineering, C

RESUME Name: Frank A. Stead Degree: B.S. Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, 1969 Present Pootloo: Auto and Marine Superintendent, Physical Plant, University of South Aorida, 1988 Previous Teebnidan, Physical Plant, University of South Florida, 1.984-1988 Technician, Honda and Yamaha of Brandon, J.980.1884 Electrical Engineer, Self-employed, 1975-1980 Field Trainer, VW & Audi of America, 197ll-1975 Experience with Eledrical Vehicles: As Auto and Marine Superin t endent for Physical Plant, responsible for the procurement, operation, and maintcnanoe of the University's fleet of 342 vehicles. Of these, 140 are electric vehicles of rbe 'golf cart' type which are used on a daily basis by the University Police, Buildings and Grounds, the University Post Office, and by the majority of the other departments on campus. Also responsible for the training and supel"Yision of five technicians who perform the actual maintenance and repair of the electric vehicles. Supervision olbattery m.aintenanoe and replacement and re&ponsiblity for procurement of aU new batterie& for aU campus electric vehicles. All batteries are of the standard lead-acid type. Train users of the electric vehicles in the proper procedures for battery maintenance, including safety, watering, and charging. Previously as technician for Physical Plant, performed the actual service and maintenance work on tbe University's electric vehicles includiog battery testing and replacement and the in.Uallation of gauge to indicate relative charge on the vehicle's batteries. More than nine years eJ

RESUME Name: Elias K. Stefanalcos Tel. {813) 974-2369; FAX. (813) 974-5250 DegJ"eeS: B.S.E.E.; Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 1964 M.S.E.E., WashiJlgton Sta le University, Pullman, WA, 1965 Ph.D, Engineering Science, WSU, Pullman, Washington, 1969 Preseot Position: Professor and Chairman, Electrical Engineering Deparunent, University of South Florida, 1987 Pre>ious Positions: Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, University of South Florida, 1985-87 Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, N.CA&T State University, Greensboro N.C., 1978-85 Viee President, Solar Engineering Associates, Greensboro, N.C 1980-84 Researeh Director, Rockwell Solid State Electronics Lab, N.CA&T State Universiry, 1978-1985 Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 1972-85 Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Id aho, 1969-72 Government Grallts and Contracts: NSF, PI, Gran! GK-27854, 1971-72, $30K, Tech. Monitor Dr. Beo Wdson (presently with DARPA). NSF, PI, Grant DMR-77-19210, 1977-1979, $65K, Tech. Monitor-Dr. Ben Wilson (presently with DARPA). DOE, PI, Grant EU 78-005-5891, 1978, $3K. Symposium on "Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States. DOE, Co-PI, 1978, $lOOK, Contract on "Solar Radiation Handbook and Solar Collector Test Facility for North Carolina". NASA, PI, Grant NSG-1390, 1977-1985, $125M, on "Material Growth and Characteri7.ation for Semiconductor devices" Tech. Monitor Dr. Jim Hutehby (presently with Researeh Triangle Institute, Durham, N.C.). DOE, PI, Contract EG 1978-79, S288K, on "Development of High Efficiency Polyccystalline Solar Cells", Teeh. Monitor Or. Don F eucht (presently with SERI, Golden, CO.). SERI, PI, Contract XS-9-8032-1, 1980, $43K, on "Development of Thin Film Solar Cells". Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, Co-PI, 1980-1981, $112K, on "Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study". U.S. Army Researeh Office, P I, 1984-86, $221K, Contract on "CCLPE Growth of lll V Compounds", Teeh. Monitor Dr. John Hurt (presently with NSF). DARPA, Grant MDAm-88-J-1006, 1988-91, $2.83M, PI, USF Optoelectronics Part, on "Advanced Microelectronics and Materials Program", Tech. Monitor Dr. SYen Roosild, DARPA/DSO. Hoaors and Awards: Faculty Reooarch Fellowahip, University of idaho, 1970 Sigma Xi Award for Researeh paper Uofl Chapter, 1970 NSF lnternational Travel Gran! to anend International Solar energy Congress, New Delhi, India, 1978 Publlcalloas: Over 50 publications and/or presentations in international journals and conferenees in the areas of solar energy (primarily photovoltaics) and optoelectronic materials and devices. Editor of two books: (a) Symposium oo "Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States" NASA Conferenee Publication 2042, 142 pages, March 31, 1978; and (b) Conferenee Pra<:eedings on "Energy Alternatives for Greece, 1980 KRIKOS Publication, New York, 243 pages, Oct. 11, 1980.


Researeb Experie-Sinoo 1m I have cfuccted a large number of Government contracts and grants in the areas of optoeledronk: materials and devices and solar energy. A!; Research Director of the Rockwell Solid State Electroaics Lab. at N. C. A&T State University, 1 responsible for the timely execution of the contractual agreements from a technical as weU as fiscal accountability point of view. The Rodcwell lab contained equipment and facilities for the development of optoelectronic materials and devices and supported four professors and about ten graduated students. AI the University of South Florida I have managed the Department of Electrical Engineering composed of about 30 professors, 7 staff members, 450 undergraduate students and 200 graduate students. Since 1988, impressive facilities have been put in place in the department for the development of photovolt:Uc devices. A new graduate M.S.E.E.option in "EEectric Power Systems' will be offered Jan. 1991. My experience includes management of both basie and applied research and development, including the design and installation of energy systems as well as the timely reporting of the results.


RESUME Name: P aris H. Wiley Dopou: B.E.S, I!JisjDeerillg Science, M at1hall UniYcr$iry, 1968 M .S.E.E, B.E., Vuginia Polytechnic ltWkutc & S.U., 197() Ph.D., E.B., Virginia Pol)'tedmlc ID$hiUIC & S .U, 1973 Present PosiUou: AJsoclate ProCessor, Electrical Engiuccring Department, Universiry of South Florida, 1982 Prevt o u e PoslUoliS: Associate Professo r Electrical Engineering Department, Vu-gi.nia Polytechnic Institu t e and Stale Un!vtniry, 1977 Assistant ProCessor, Electrical Engineering Department, Vuginia Polyteclmk I nstitute and Stat e Uoiversity, 1973-1977 Gooeramm t Grute ud Colltnm: Patoata: "''be Inllueo<:e of P olarizatioo oo MiDimCier Wave Propagation Through Rain", NASA, Grant NGR47..(X)4.0}1, 1911-n "A 200Hz Depolari:z.alioo Experitn ent Using the ATS-6 SatcUitc", NASA, CoGilaa NASS-21984, 1972r 74 "A Depol.arization Experitnent Using the Cl'S Satellite' NASA, Coctract NASS-22577, 1974-76 "A Depolarizatio n Experim ent Using the COMSTAR 111d Cl'S Satellite&', NASA, Coctraet NA$5-22577, 1976-82 Patent #4091329, Logarithm ic Circuit with Wide Dyuami<: Rang.,. P aten t #4200152, 'Object Ind.ieator for Moving V c hi<:lu" Patent #4576179, 'Respirat ioa and Heart Rate Moaitoring Apparatus' Hoaort aad aW1U'da: of Recogaitioo from NASA, Nov. 4, 1977 Certificate of Reeogoitioa from NASA, Dec. S, 1977 Certi6eale oC Reeogoitioa from NASA, San. 31, 1978 Ccrtlficate oC R eeogoitioa from NASA, Mar 23, 1979 PIJblieatiOIIS: Over 25 pubtia1ioas nsllltiDs from data coUectioo aDd aulyois in the area oC microwave propagation aDd ...,tteria&-Addiliooal publical ioas in Pbysia aad EaviaamcnW EDgjnecriDg. Research Expodeoa: Iooc rJ. four faculty members forming the SatcUile Commuaicatloos Group within the D epartment ol Electrical I!IJaineering at Vtrgin.ia Polytechaie 1mtilute and Stare Uai.er$ity. We were funded contiDIIOII&Iy from 1971 by NASA to d o rcocarc:b relating to attenuation and depolarization of &ateiUte-eartb signals in the 10 to 30 GHz range. I n addition, we had eootraets with the Army, t h e DCA, COMSA T, and INTELSA T. Our tota l fuoding le.el for these pro:iects was in ClCOCSS of $1,000,

projecl, and was responsible for lhe deterministic model developed by lis for NASA. In addition to lhe work in theoretical ele<:tromagnetits, I bad primary responsibility for the design, troubleaboodng, aDd maintenance of all project hardwar e including RF front enda, IF signal processors, and cljgital data acquisition syslems as detailed below. RF Froat Ellda I designed, built, and tested RF front eoda in the 10 to 30 GHz raoge which were used in three separate systems. Tbe design included the construction of our own local oscillators and employed vara


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