1993 TDM summit

1993 TDM summit

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1993 TDM summit setting a strategic TDM agenda for Florida
Portion of title:
Setting a strategic TDM agenda for Florida
Portion of title:
TDM summit
Alternate Title:
1993 transportation demand management study summit
Alternate Title:
Transportation demand management study summit
Alternate Title:
Setting a strategic transportation demand management agenda for Florida
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[19] p. : ; 28 cm.


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Transportation -- Planning -- Florida ( lcsh )
local government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


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Also issued online.
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"Tampa Convention Center, December 10, 1993."

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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025513122 ( ALEPH )
666932237 ( OCLC )
C01-00283 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.283 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Setting a strategic transportation demand management agenda for Florida.
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1993 .TDM SUMMIT Setting a Strategic Agenda for TDM in Florida Introd uction In r ecent years, transportation professionals in F lorida have changed the way they l ook at our transportation network No longer is road construction the only solution to traffic congestion. As Florida Department of Transportation Secretary Ben Watts said, "More of the same simply v.ill not work in Flo rida." Because increasing capacity is not the only answer, decreasing demand must play a more important role. On the federal level the lnterm odal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) changed the way all metropolitan areas in the United States look at transportation issues. Congestion management systems must now examine all possible alternatives to increas ing capacity before new roads can be built. Even if new roads are built, they must incorpo rate alternative mode features into the design and planning of roadway s. As the ISTEA le g isl ation states ... a congestio n mana gement system shall be included that provides for effect ive management of ... transportation facilities through the use of travel demand management strategies ." Clearly, it is expected that transportation demand maruigement (TOM) will play an important role. On the state level, the Enviro nmental Land Management Study (ELMS) ill Committee bas completed its comprehensive analysis of the impacts of Florida's growth management initiative. The result has been a series of suggested modifications that will have a major impact on how Florida communities look at land development and the resulting changes that occur on local infrastructure, includi ng roads. Some unce rtainty remains as to the extent to which growth management institutions su c h as Developments of Regional Impact (ORis) will be affected by these modifications. In the p ast, DRl s were catalysts for th e use of TOM strategies and the development of transP orta tion manag emen t associations. Whatever the result, the changes will have a profound influence on the way IDM strategies are examined and used within Florida. The 1993 TOM Summit brought together IDM professionals from across the slate to discuss the changing role of TDM in Florida and t o set a strategic agenda for the future. The morning sessions of the Summit explored how recent legislative initiatives have enco uraged and discouraged the use of IDM as a traffic mitigat ion tool and introduced some importan t TDM s u pport programs and n e w TOM implementation agencies in Florida. The aftern oon session WM dedicated to developing a strategic TDM agenda for F l orida and relied on conference attendee participation to develo p that agenda. Fo ll owing are summaries of those sess ions. MORNING P ROGRAM Plenary Sessio n : National TDM Symposium To provide a national perspective on the future of Transportation Demand Management was the subject the first speaker. Mr. Gary Brosch, director of the Center for Urban Transportat ion Research (CUTR) at the University of Sou th Florida, attend ed the TDM Symposium in Washington, D.C. and recounted the proceedings and conc l usions at the TDM


Swrunit. The meeting, sponsored by National Academy of Sciences and the Transportation Research Board, was attended by I 00 TOM experts. The focus of the sym posium was to assist in the formulation of a strategic agenda for TOM deve lopment in the nex t five to ten years. Participants were divided into five workshop s groups and asked to discu ss th e following issues: what i s w o rking in TDM i n sev era l key factor areas?; what are the prob lems of c urrent TDM practice ?; what are current and future iss u es ? ; and what are the highest priori t y s trategies that address c urrent and future issues in TDM? From these a preliminary list of 272 potential strategy statements were developed Later, participants were again divided to examin e the full list of strategies The groups condensed the list into 42 strategy statements and ranked their level of importance on a scale from I Oow) to I OO(high). The high est rankin g strategies and thei r average ratings included: inco xporate TDM str ategies i n transportation, air quality, and land use planning (85); review existing tax poli c i es to support realignment of ta x programs (82); develop land use policie s e ncouraging TOM-friendl y markets (82); develop Nalistic TDM goals and objectives using market analysis (81); perform reasonable and defensible evaluation of TOM impacts (81 ); realign existing tax policies to enco urage effective TOM ( 8 1 ); develop a broad-based coalition of public and private interests to advocate implementation (80); develop an o utr each planning and program development strategy (79); develop g uide lines on TOM effect ivenes s applicability, impl ementation, funding, and mon itoring, includin g the developme nt of a comprehensive TDM manual (79); rese arch inventor y evaluate and disseminate information on programs, servi ces, and t e chniques that affect TOM r e sults (78); esta blish "level playing fields" for moving toward full-cos t pricing for SOV and subs idize travel behavior that improves the environment (78); educate public officials on the benefits of TOM (77); and expand the effectiveness of TDM by assessing available and potential technologies and market based strategies (77). I S T E A and Its Impact o n Florida Renee Hawkes, TOM P roject Manager for th e Ci ty of Tampa, discu ssed th e impacts t h e lntennodal Surfac e T ran spo rtation Efficiency Act will have on the future of TOM in F l o rida. A key factor o f ISTEA inc ludes the shift in transportatio n strategy from a system of modes to a multi-m oda l system. Transportation pol icy expands its focus to include a lt ernativ e modes of transportation To reduce the frequency of single occupant vehicles, greater use of high occupancy vehicles and transit is encowaged Additionally, the Act places greater importance on transportation demand management rather than transportation supply managemen t. Ms. Hawkes asked the au dience to describ e what ISTEA means in one or two words .. Some responses includ ed: flexibility, change unrealized potential, and new part nerships AU


of these responses, in some fottn or another, are included in or describe key components or concepts contained in ISTEA. She noted that key changes brought about by ISTEA include the changing rol e of transit in Florida; the development of private/public agreements by a local govemment and the private sector; and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) taking on more responsibilities in transportation planning. TDM and the ELMS III Act Kristine Williams, AICP, Center For Urban Transportation Research, and co author of STPI (Transportation and Growth Management: A Planning and Policy Agenda) discussed implications of the ELMS-III growth management amendments on the future of TOM. Issues discussed included elimination of the Development of Regional Impact (DRI) program, flexible alternatives to transportation concurrency, and a newly-reqUired transportation mobility element for communities within Metropolitan Plruming Organization boundaries. The DRI program will be phased out by 1995, although rural areas have an option to retain the program In the meantime, the program will be changed to eliminate the DRI appeal authority of Regional Planning CoWlcils (RPCs), a llo w higher thresholds, and provide for a more streamlined review process. In its place are stronger requirements for intergovernmental coordination on regional development issues. Concerns have been raised about the effect of this on TDM because many TMAs/TMOs were created as a result of the DRI program. Several amendments in ELMS III were aimed at increasing flexibility of transportatio n concurrency requirements. In some cases, strict interpretation of transportation concurrency requirements had promoted urban sprawl. To offset this, the act establishes three methods for local governments to permit activity in areas that would otherwise not meet concurrency requirements: First, lo cal governments can establish transportation concurrency exemption areas in those regions that promote urban infill, downtown development, or downtown redevelopment. Draft rules require these exemption areas to be identi fied in the comprehensive p l an, and to include programs and strategies for addressing transportation demand, such as parking control and pricing policies, TOM programs, and availability of public transportation. Second, transportation concmrency management areas (TCMAs) can create an areawide level -of-se rvice standard to promote alternative modes. In exchange for flexible standards, the TCMA must have progrruns and improvements to enhance mobility, such as TDM and transit. The l ocal government must demonstrate that these strategj.es will accomplish mobility with the TCMA. A TCMA must be geographically compact and should contain multiple alternative travel paths and modes. Finally, local governments can adopt a Jong-tenn transportation concurrency management system with a I 0-15 year plruming period for significantly backlogged corridors. These areas must be adopted as part of their comprehensive plan.


Local governments within the planning boundaries of an MPO are required to create a transportation mobility element as part of the ir comprehens ive p l an. The element integrates plans and analysis for traffic circulation, transit and ports and aviation. Ms. Williams explained that combining these transportation modes into one element will push local governments to for a total transportation solution. The elements must include policies for establishing TOM p rograms to modify peak hour demand and reduce the number of miles traveled per capita within the community and region Cash-Out-Presi d ent Clinton's Parking Subsidy Reform Proposal The Cash-Out proposal is President Clinton's parking subsidy reform program that could potentially reduce the amount o f single occupant vehicle trips. Philip Win t ers a senior Research Associate and T O M Program Manager at the Center for Urban Transportation Research, described the goals and policies of the proposal. The program would r e quire some employers to offer emp l oyees cash or a transit pass in lie u o f parking subsidies, thus giving them an incentive to leave their automobiles at home. The program wou l d not increase cost to businesses because parking would remain tax-free. The program would target urban areas and gives employers the flexibility to reduce parking costs. The Cash-Out provision would be applicable to employers who offer paid parking and mee t the following criteria: Company employs 25 or more p e rsons Company is loca ted in an urban area Parking lot is controlled Parking lot not owned by emp l oyer Employers that are not req u ired t o adopt the cash out provisions are allowed to participate. Free parking has historically had a ma jor impact on businesses the government, and the environment. Businesses spend between $40 $70 billion per year o n "free" parking spaces. Because parking is tax-exempt, the Treasury Department l oses a major source of funds, about $12-$25 billion per year. In addition the environment indirect ly s u ffers, because if parking is free, more commuters use their automobiles to get to work resulting in an increase in air pollution from vehicle emissions countering clean air act goals Despite efforts to reduce SOVs, little improvemen t has been seen More people drive to work than ever before. In 1990, approximately 76% of home-to-work travel was made by solo drivers. Only 24% chose alternatives modes the most popular being carpooling. One factor h as been U.S. tax policy. Currently, it is tax-smart for emp l oyers to offer free parking to emp l oyees because parking passes are tax-free to employers, while the cost to buy mass transit passes or their cash equivalent i s taxab l e. Cas hOut wou l d not remove the tax-deductible and tax-exempt status of parking. However, this tax status would remain in place only if parking were offered along with a "commuter allowance" equal to the cost of parking If the commute r allowance were taken by emp l oyees in the form of cash the amount would be taxab l e income to the employee If the commuter allowance were in the form of a transit pass, the amount would be tax exempt. A limit of $60 per month is tax-exempt. A study by the Environmental Protection Age n cy reveals that 95% of Americans who drive to work receive free parking from their employers. Of these, few are offered the cho i ce


of a cash allowance or other benefit instead of parking. The EPA study concluded that, by the year 2000, over four million commuters will choose to "cash out" i f offered the chance The projection is based on the assumption that I 0%-15% of employees offered CashOut will choose to give up their parking spaces. California is t)le first state to adopt a Cash-Out Jaw. Expected impacts from the program include reduCed trafiic congestion, increased transit ridership, increased carpooling and biking to work, improved air quality, and reduced fuel use. Mr. Winters cited several examples of co mpanies in California that have successfully implemented the Cash-Out option. The effects of the Cash-Out option will favorably affect downtown business. With Jess au tomob iles moving into downtown, vacated parking spaces will make downtown more attractive to shoppers and other commerce. Reduced demand for parking means less need for new garages thus creating more room for downtown development. Also, downtown .congestion will be reduced. Florida's Commuter Assistance Program Ms. Liz Stutts, the F l orida Department of Transportation's (FDOT) Commuter Programs Manager, gave a brief overview of how TDM funding works within FDOT. A resource allocation plan is created that details how m uch each district receives. Ms. Stutts gave tips on receiving funds for TMAs and TMOs Among others, she suggested making local leaders a vital part of a TMAJTMO program in their communities. Mr. Winters described the components of the TDM Certification Program that is being conducted by the Center for Urban Trangportation Research. The TDM course is grouped into five major modules. T he program's aim is to reach both newcomers and seasoned professionals in the TDM field The program will use interactive techniques that enable newcomers to learn from the experiences of other TOM professionals who are participating in the course Mr. Bill Mustard discussed the important role marketing plays in the expansion of TDM in Florida. Mr. Mustard, with the F lor ida Institute for Marketing of Alternative Transportatio n at Florida State University and formerly Commuter Programs Manager for FDOT, surveyed the importance of TDM and transportation to elected offic ia ls and commuters. Of the 100 responses received from elected officials in the southeast, most indicated an understanding of the significant role transportation plays. However, the majority did not relate the importance of zoning and land use to transportation. Responses from conunuters indicate that of those working full-time, most felt the effects of congestion are frequent. The survey indicated that 60% of commuters feel the creation of public transportation is important. Furthermore, 67% believed the quality of public transportation is important. Fifty percent were willing to pay niore for public transportation, mainly through gas and sales taxes. Mr. Mustard explained that, even with th ese high percentages, p u blic transportation ridership in Florida is only 2%. To promote TDM goals, Mr. Mustard concluded that TDM proponents must establish what they would like TDM to accomplish. The survey of commuter responses revealed a large portion of those telephoned either were retirees or part-time workers. Mr. Mustard stressed that this fact is often overlooked in transportation studies. Mr. Dan Rudge reviewed the TMA Clearinghouse proj ect conducted by the Center for Urban Transportation Research. The TMA Clearinghouse contains over 750 periodicals,


journals, and book s With funding from FOOT, the Clearinghouse's services are available to TMAs/TMOs free of charge. The Clearinghouse can provide both formation assistance to emerging TMAsffMOs and technical assistance to existing TMAsffMOs. The TMA Clearinghouse Quarterly newsletter serves as a reference for information on current happenings in the TOM field. Currently, the publication is distributed to over 2 000 nationally and internationally. Spotlight on New TMAs A segment of the 1994 TOM Summit included "progress reports" from three TMAs/TMOs in Florida. The representatives from the groups swnmarized the beginnings of their TMArrMO, current projects in progress, and projects that have been completed. Downtown Ft. Lauderdale TMA. The Downtown Ft. Lauderdale TMA began operation in February 1993. Ms. Kim English, Director of the TMA, spoke about the TMA's establishment and recent projects that have been undertaken. The TMA was started by Commissioner John Hart, who envisioned an association with a grass-roots orientation. Many attribute part of the TMA's success to the involvement of private organizations. The TMA is currently working on several projects in the downtown area. An ETC workshop was held, an employer survey was conducted in the TMA area, and plans to open a commuter store are being developed. The commuter store will serve as a central place to purchase transit passes and to receive information on commuting a nd bicycling. The TMA has been active in the following areas: pursuing funding for guaranteed ride hom e programs, encouraging the establishment of a trolley service, supporting art in bus shelters, and promoting a subsidized mass transit program. Downtown Gainesville TMO. Ms. Jeanne Snurkowski gave a brief description of recent projects of the Gainesville TMO. It has become active in planning transportation projects in the Gainesville area. The TMO has worked closely with the Gainesville MPO and contributed to the MPO's 2015 plan by setting up multi-modal corridors. In the future, the TMO expects to have greater participation in MPO policies to fulfill the requirements of the ISTEA legislation. Ms. Snurkowski emphasized the importance of the TMO in the Gainesville area. The University of Florida, which supplies over II ,000 full-time jobs and two m ajor hospitals have made the TMO essential to the area's transportation system. Recent TMO activities include the promotion of van pooling and ride-sharing programs. Bicycling will become a part of their program because of its wide acceptance as a form of transportation. The TMO also has conducted an occupancy study of trips made into the university. Downtown Tampa TMO. The Downtown Tampa TMO was established in 1992. Ms. Karen Simon, Director of the organization, reported on the progress the TMO has made in the last year. The TMO is part of the Tampa Downtown Partnership and has over 100 members. One of the most successful projects the TMO has initiated is the guaranteed ride home program, which ensures that carpoolers or transit riders will have a ride home in a case of emergency. Over 450 commuters in the area are registered in the program. In March, the


TMO held an "Awesome Alternatives" symposiwn in downtown Tampa. Sponsored by the TMO and a nwnber of companies in the area, it encouraged commuters to abandon their cars and trY alternative modes of transportation. Currently, the TMA is in the process of organizing a downtown commuter center that would provide a variety of services and facilities to commuters, as showers for commuters who choose to bike to work and information on altemative modes. AftemGGn Session TDM Town Meeting: Setting a Strategic TDM Agenda for Florida Objective The afternoon session focused identifying issues and opportunities for TOM in Florida. Because many summit participants are responsible for implementing TOM programs in Florida, their opinions on these matters were solicited. Participants were asked to respond to the follov,ing question: "What must be done to enhance TOM's role in Florida's transportation future?" Their answers will help develop a strategic agenda for TOM in Florida. Methodology The participants were divided into four major groups to discuss and debate the question. To facilitate discussion and debate, the Summit organizers used the noioi nal group technique, which is characterized by limited initial interaction within a group. Evidence suggests the nominal group technique extracts principal facets of an issue better than small interacting group techniques. Many reasons support this conclusion. First, interacting groups limit the participant's ability to identifY all dimension of an issue. By minimizing verbal interactio n, forceful individuals are not as likely to dominate the discussion. Second, interacting groups tend to evaluate and clarifY primary ideas. As this occurs, important face ts of the issue are unreported. Finally, interacting groups tend to concentrate on one train of thought rather than identifying all sides of an issue. The nominal technique discourages participan ts to react to points offered by others in the group. Therefore, the nominal group techniques minimizes problems that occur in interacting groups so that participants can effectively react to the subject. The four groups were designed to solicit unique perspectives 1\vo groups comprised of TOM professionals and funders, one group comprised relative newco mers to the TOM field, and one group comprised persons familiar with TOM but who do not consider it their main job function Groups were assigned a preselected facilitator, who recorded respo nses and helped shape discussions. Phil Winters and Dan Rudge of the Center for Urban Transportation Research served as monitors and were charged with ensuring the groups remained focused on the subject.


The following nominal grouping tedmique procedure was used : I. The groups, which consisted of 8-10 members each, responded to the following question: "What must be done to enhance TOM's ro le in Florida's transportation future?". No verbal interaction was permitted among group members and answers were written on 4" x 6" cards. Approximately 15 minu t es was allotted for this task. 2 With large sheets of paper and a marker, the recorder asked each grou p member to state one action from their list. If others had the same answer, a checkmark was placed by the item. This process continued on a round-robin basis w1til all actions were recorded. Discussion was discouraged until all answers were compiled. 3. After the list was completed, discussion was allowed in order to synthesize, clarify or add items. These groups' lists are included in Appendix A. 4. Next group members were asked to vote for the five actions they believed were m ost significant and should receive highest priority 5. After the votes were ta llied the recorder reported the group's top five strategies to all Summit participants. The strategies are classified and listed in the following section. The Florida Department of Transportation and other inte rest ed parties can use these strategies to develop TDM policies, procedures and action plans. Results The process was designed to identify strategies or activities of primary importance to enhance TOM's ro l e in Florida. The most frequent answers to the question were similar in all groups Common themes included a need for: ( 1) increasing awareness and educating elected officials, employers transportation professionals, and the general public on TDM; (2) providing funding stability for commuter assistance programs and financial incentives for TDM; (3) integrating TDM in the land use and tra nsportation planning process; and (4) conducting reasonable and defensible evaluations. The following are the strategies developed by the 1993 TDM Summit participants and la ter condensed by CUTR. The strategies are grouped for the sake of convenience and edited to provide a consistent manner of presentation. The unedited version of the strategic lists is provided in Appendix B. I. CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EDUCATION AND OUTREACH a T he pdvate sector should be educated on the benefits of supporting TDM programs. b. Materials should be developed to educate elected officials and transportation professionals on TDM' s role in transportation projects. Videos of successful TOM programs also should be used to provide participants with real-life experiences. The education program should be conducted by universities and


2. funding should be provided by FDOT and the federal government To increase up interest in the program, universities and TDM professionals should research and market the true cost of single occupant vehicle travel; cost-benefit analysis of TDM; and TDM's role in transportation planning. c. Public awareness of TDM should be introduced into public school curriculum A course should be offered to stress the important role alternative transportation plays in assuring future mobility. d. Tools that increase community and Private sector involvement in TDM programs and organizations should be provided. Outreach activities oould serve as one method to encourage partnerships. Prese n tations explaining the benefit of TOM should be made as frequently as possible, especially to the Florida Department of Transporta tion and commuter assistance programs. e. A state wide public awareness program should be created. Market research should be conducted to understand the pub lic's attitude and needs A public relations firm can develop a campaign to improve awareness and tout the success of Florida TDM programs. The firm would be guided by a TDM steering committee. Funding would be obtained from the Florida Department of Transportation. FUNDING STABILITY a. Economic incentives for TOM should be developed. The federal government should adopt the parking Cash Out program and should use Internal Revenue Service tax breaks as incentives for private sector investment in TOM. The State of Florida should revise parking policies and initiate and support congestion pricing programs. Local governments should develop parking programs that provide incentives for TDM and disincentives for SOV use. Additionally, local governments s hould support TDM initiatives. . Employers should offer subsidies for multiple occupant vehicles and initiate policies that encourage and reward TDM b. A dedicated funding source for TOM should be developed. The federal government should to fully fund ISTEA legislation and earmark gas tax revenue for TOM programs. The state should deposit a portion of gas tax revenues into a TOM program fund. The fund would finance TDM project grants. .


Local govenunents need to develop local option taxes to fund TDM and provide grants for TOM projects. TMAsffMOs should create a fee/dues structure that would fund their services. TDM professionals should develop an evaluation system that can be incorporated into transportation modeling systems or that can be used to create models that allow TDM to receive its fair share. c. FDOT should increase and/or extend funding to TDM programs/projects and TMAsffMOs. FOOT should encourage MPOs and local govenunents to extend funds to TOM projects. Increased emphasis should be placed on demonstration projects. FOOT should also lobby for a change in funding time, which can often make program implementation difficult. d. Governments should make alternative mode programs a top funding priority. These programs should be given preferential treatment over road construction. The additional revenue could be drawn from: earmarked funds from gas tax increases; congestion pricing projects; and private sector funding initiatives. 3. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND PUBLIC POLICY a. TDM should be integrated into the local planning and development process. TO M professionals need to participate in MPO technical committees and in all local transportation groups. b. Local governments should actively participa t e in TOM programs, not rely on the public sector to do the majority of work. c. Transportation modeling systems and processes should take into accou n t commuter behavior and alternative modes. Most current mode ls do not account for the impacts and benefits of TOM. d. Land use, urban design and TOM should be integrated i nto one system. Planners, DOT, DCA, RPCs and MPOs should institute strong development regulations and site planning standards that require strong parking and access controls. Zoning r equirements should realize the need for mixed u se developments and density corridors that support transit. Politicians should uphold their regulations and strongly enforce their plans and standards


e. Governments should lead by example and develop their own comprehensive T OM and T OM support programs. Education through workshops for policymakers should be provided. On-going assistance to for government adopted TOM policies and programs should be provided. f. Policymakers must ensure that rules and regulations act as incentives for TOM. Strict req u irements often tend to inhibit the initiation of TOM programs g TOM should become part of tb.e plarming process by requiring interagency and interdisciplinary communication and cooperation. h Local and state governments should use every opportunity to encourage and/or require TOM implementatio n This co uld be accomplished through higher gas taxes enforced HOY lanes, building permit cond i tions and corporate tax credits. Everyone must recognize the role of TOM in managing our roadways. 4. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION a. All TOM projects should be analyzed objectively to determine what factors lead to a successful or WlSuccessful project. Transportation centers at major state universities or a comparable agency would conduct the analysis and funding would be prov i ded by FDOT. b. An objective means to evaluate TOM effect i veness should be developed. The ratings shou l d be on a project-by_.project basis and should focus on cost effectiveness. TDM prov i ders and their funders should develop the program and a third party should conduct tb.e evaluation c. A process to evaluate the measurable objectives in TOM programs shou l d be deve l oped. It should be required that organizatio n s that deal with TOM programs clar i fy their missions. Monitoring criteria shou l d then be developed that are tailored to these missions. Peer evaluations sho u ld also be considered with an emphasis on the tailored criteria.


Appendix A Group I I Ec onomic incentives: public and private in cluding parking 2. Education True Cost TOM Other ofSOV benefits Public X X Professional X X X Elected Officials X X X 3. Marketing Crea te a Tout TOM's Behavior TOM Sexy Name Success Change El ements Public X X X Professional X Elected Official X X 4. Evaluation/ for e casting. 5. Integration of planniJ!g, transportation, land use and TD11;1 6. Strengthen land use transportation link 7 Stable funding source. TOM tools 8. Forecasting. 4 day week. Bulletin board. Improve mass transit. Flextime. Van pools. Telecommute


Other: Institutional uniformity. Institutional d i versity. Get quick Results. Brh1g TDM into p lanning/transportatio n circle. Stop whining. Evaluation. I ntegration. Forecasting models. Marketing behavior. Hook. Funding. Sharing technology bulletin board. TOM certificates. Enlarge e l ements and market elements/ strategies. Evaluation and grant writing training. Program understanding. Organize PR-more valuable accomplishments. More vanpools. Get a "sexy" name. Develop and sell incentives. Change parkilig rules. Free at work. 4 day week. Telecommute. Educate about the true cost of SOV. Provide TMOs Increase quality. Tax mcentive to private sector. Discover, promote, implement change. Public education Marketing. Strengthen land use/ transportation link. Dedicated sponsors. Define multiple fronts. Bring TOM to Practicing Engmeer, take Practicmg Engineer to TOM. Group II I. Government should lead by example and provide comprehensive support for TOM. 2. Communication and cooperation across government agency, private sector, c i tizen and interdisciplme lines. More money should be spent on alternative modes rather than roads. 3. Public awareness of the role TOM plays in assuring future mobility shou l d be increased through TMAsiTMOs. P u blic school curriculum. Educate state and local officials regarding TOM's ro les and goals in their municipalities.


4. Provide improved regulations allowing incentive re: commuter and mass transit rather than government policies limiting pote n t ial possibilities relative to public and private participation. Provide additional funds for attainment area programs to prevent non attainment status. Long range goals for growth and development of areas already affected by the Federal guidelines; for example : land-use and water quality. Develop ways of documenting results of TDM on transportation capacity Land use strategies that make TOM and transit possible. More realistic tax on fuels. Coordinate TOM with future technologies.(i.e. lVHS, ICS, telecommunications, etc.) Focus on behavior change vs. telling people about the benefits of TOM; what will it take? Improve parking management. Institutionalization of TDM in the planning process. Provide enough funding for "real transit service". Look at information and research transit service optimization in areas with/out an urban core. Private sector involvement. Land use strategies that make TOM and transit possible. More realistic tax on fuels Group 01 I. Educationgovernment, general public. General public needs to understand benefits of TOM. 2. Emphasize population growth. 3. L arger gas tax. 4. Assurance that there will be continuous funding. 5 Accountability of the programs. 6. Develop objective means of evaluating programs effectiveness 7. TDM strategies need to be marketed as an acceptable trade-off to road improvements. 8. Define TDM markets and make funding flexible to meet needs of these markets 9. Growth plan that includes transportation that meets the demand. I 0. Realizing that after a point increasing highway capacity no longer increases quality of life. II. "Walk the talk" implementation. 12. Local and state government need to support TDM activities more actively and push program regulation. 13. Understanding that there is no "cookie cutter" approach to implementation of programs and strategies.


Group IV I. More emphas i s on those concerned (MPO, transit, etc.) on i dentifying federal grant opportunities for TOM programslprojects and subsidies. 2. Educate officials and private sector to the benefits of s uppor ting TOM programs. 3. Create a state-wid e public awareness program. 4. Mandates for employee subsidies, programs, and increasing deve lopment thre sho lds. 5. Increase andfor extend fundi ng to TDM programslprojects and TMAs. 6 Develop a process of evaluating measurable objectives in TOM pro g rams 7. Integrate TOM in local planning/development proce sse s. 8. Coordina t e program implementation by district offices to create program consistency. 9. Population i s growing so fast that we are ruWling out of room Oth er: Convince e ngi neers and plawers that TOM is real S tat e mandates for employee subsidies. State-wide p u bl i c awareness program.Educate elected officials. More forward thinking in Tallahassee. Obtai n more funding. Grea te r accountability De ve lop a syst em to predict commuter behavior More federal g rants opportunities for programs and subs i dies E d ucate private sector. Develop a training program for TMAITMO directors. Include TOM and TMAs in l ocal plawing/development processes. More TMAs/IMOs. Evaluation of "real" objective s. Individua lize TOM entities Eli minate duplication of services. Coordinate district offices to create program consistency


APPENDIX B 1. Group One (Individuals who are familiar TDM but who do not consider it their mai n job function). a. Develop economic incentives for TDM. federal government CASH OUT Program utilizing I.R.S. tax breaks/incentives and a gas tax state government Parking policies and congestion pricing programs local government Parking programs and TOM ini tiatives employer Subsidies of multiple occupant ve hicles, poli ci es to encourage and reward TDM b.. Education of general public, transportation professionals, and elected officials. U n ive r s i t ies and TDM professionals should first research, then market such things as: The true cost of sing le occupant vehicle travel Cost-Benefit analysis of TDM TOM's role in transportation planning The possibility of developing a TDM E-Mail system should be explored c. Develop a dedica ted funding source federa l government gas tax state and local governments grants for TOM projects TDM Professionals Develop an evaluation syste m that can be inco rporated in transportation modeling systems or that can be used to crea te models that allow TOM to receive its fair" share. TMAs/TMOs dues structure and fees for services d. Integrate land use urban design, and TDM int o one system. Plan ners, DOT, DCA, RPCs and MPOs need to institute strong development r egulations and site p lanning standards that require strong p arking and access


controls. Zoning should reflect the need for more mixed use development and the development of d ensity corridors which support tran s it. Politicians Stand behind above regulations and enforce p l ans and standards. e Marketing of alternatives : Hire Madison Avenue types to develop a "sexy" nam e for TDM TMA Directors, Boards and TDM profess iona ls Tout the success of their TOM programs Universities Needs assessment to uncover commuter needs and wants 2. Group Two (Individuals who are newcomers to the TOM profession) . a. Government should l ead by example and develop their own comprehensive TOM and TDM support programs Education through workshops for policy-makers Provide on-going assistance to policy-makers for government adopted TOM policies and programs b. Governments should provide additional dollars for improved alternative modes over roads (More money should be given to TDM than to increasing capacity.) Increase gas tax and earmark proceeds to alternative modes Congestion pricing Private sector funding initiatives c. Increase public awareness of the role TDM plays in assuring future mobility through: Education of elected and public officials Inclusion of alternative transp'ortation in public school curriculum Development of TMAs/TMOs Private sector involv ement Community outrea c h activities d. Ensure that rules and regulations act as incentives for TOM versus limiting possibilities.


e. Institutionalize TDM in the planning process through requiring inter -agency and inter-disciplinary communica tion and cooperation. 3. Group Three. (Individuals who are TDM professiona l s and funders). a. Education. Everybody (schools, TDM providers FOOT, government agencies, general public, and elected offic i als) needs to be educated on how it works. In addition, e le cted officials need to understand the role of TDM in transportation projects. Universi ties, with funding provided by FDOT and the federal government, should develop and conduct the education program. A video tape of success stories would also help. b. Local and state governments need to use every means at their disposal to encourage and/or require TDM imp l ementation This could be accomplished through higher gas taxes, enforced HOV lan es building permit conditions and corporate tax credits. Everyone m ust recognize the role of TDM in managing our roadways. c. Develop a dedicated funding source. Local governments need to develop local option taxes to fund TDM. The state needs to create a TDM program fund from a gas tax. The federal government needs to fully fund the ISTEA legislation. d. Successful and unsuccessful TDM projects need to be analyzed to determine what factors lead to success or lack of success. The analysis would be conducted by transportation centers at major state univers i ties or a comparable agency with FDOT funding the analysis. e. Develop an objective means to evaluate TDM effectiveness (on a project by project basis) and focus on those that demonstrate cost effective results. This would require the joint efforts of TDM providers and their funders to develop an acceptab l e evaluation mechanism. A third party should conduct the evaluation for quality control purposes. 4. Group Four (Individuals who are TDM professionals and funders). a. Educate elected officials and the private sector on the benefits of supporting TDM programs. TDM professionals should meet privately with these leaders to talk about the benefits. In addition, presen ta tions on TDM benefits should be made whenever the opportunity arises. When TDM functions take place, elected officials and private sector l e aders should be invited and encouraged to attend. b. Create a state-wide public awareness program. Considerable market research should be done to understand the attitudes and needs of the public. A public


relations firm shou l d develop a campaign to improve awareness with a TDM steering committee guiding the process The program should be funded by the Florida Department of Transportation. c. Increase and/or extend fund i ng to TDM programs/projects and TMAs/TMOs. FOOT should work with MPOs and l ocal governments to promote extending funds to TDM projects. This should include an increased emphasis on demonstration projects. FOOT also should lobby for a change in funding time which can often make program imp l ementation difficult. d Develop a pro c ess of evaluating measurable objectives in TOM programs. This should inc l ude the requ irem en t that organiza t ions d e aling with T D M programs clarify their missions. Monit(\ring criteria should then be deve l oped t hat are tailor-made to these missions Peer evaluations a l so should be considered with an emphasis on the tailor-made c.riteria. e. Integ{ate TOM into the local planning and development process. TOM pr o fessionals should participate on MPO technical committees. Loca l governments should actively participate in TOM programs, not just ask the private sector to do everything. TOM professionals sho u ld participate in all local transportation groups. Finally, transportation modelling systems and processes sho u ld be changed to take into account commuter behavior and alternative modes. The impacts and benefits of TOM are not even cons i dered in some models.


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