Exploring new frontiers

Exploring new frontiers

Material Information

Exploring new frontiers proceedings of Symposium II on African-American Mobility Issues : April 5-7, 1995, Tampa Marriott Westshore, Tampa, Florida
Portion of title:
Proceedings of Symposium II on African-American Mobility Issues
United States -- Federal Highway Administration
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Symposium on African-American Mobility Issues, 1995
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
[University of South Florida], Center for Urban Transportation Research
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
81 p. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
African Americans -- Transportation -- Congresses ( lcsh )
Poor -- Transportation -- Congresses -- United States ( lcsh )
Urban transportation policy -- Congresses -- United States ( lcsh )
Urban transportation -- Planning -- Congresses -- United States ( lcsh )
conference publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
"Sponsored by Center for Urban Transportation Research, Conference of Minority Transportation Officials, Federal Highway Administration, Florida Department of Transportation."
General Note:
"January 1996."

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
001931359 ( ALEPH )
34987807 ( OCLC )
C01-00400 ( USFLDC DOI )
c1.400 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Exploring new frontiers :
proceedings of Symposium II on African-American Mobility Issues : April 5-7, 1995, Tampa Marriott Westshore, Tampa, Florida.
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Proceedings of Symposium II on African-American Mobility Issues
Tampa, Fla. :
[University of South Florida], Center for Urban Transportation Research,
81 p. ;
28 cm.
"Sponsored by Center for Urban Transportation Research, Conference of Minority Transportation Officials, Federal Highway Administration, Florida Department of Transportation."
"January 1996."
Also available online.
African Americans
x Transportation
v Congresses.
z United States
Urban transportation policy
United States
Urban transportation
United States
United States.
Federal Highway Administration.
Dept. of Transportation.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
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Exploring New' Frontiers: . . . of Symposium 11 or . African-American . . . . M : obility Jssues . April .5-7, 1995 . Tampa . Tampa,. Flo.rida _L CUTR January .1996, .


CUTR Exploring New Frontiers Proceedings of Symposium II on African-American Mobility Issues April 5-7, 1995 Tampa Marriott Westshore Tampa, Florida January 1996 Sponsored by: Center for Urban Trans portation Research Conference of M i nority Tran sportation Officials Federa l Highway Administration Florida Department of Transportation


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P ROCEEDINGS OF S Y M POSIU M II ON AfRtCANAMERICAN MoBILITY IssuES Contents Acknowledgments ................... ..... ................... .. ........... .... .. ........... ... ..... ...... ....... . . ............. ..... 5 Summary .............................................................. ...... ...... ............................................................. 7 Agenda ............................................................................................ ........ ............ ...... ..................... 9 Speake r s .............................................................................................. ...... ............ ...... ................. 13 Welcome .............. ........ ........ ........ ................ .......... .......................... ............................................. 15 Gtmj L. Brosch, Center ft>r Ur!lan TTflllsportation Research Perspectives on African American Mobility Issues: Exploring New Frontiers ........ ...... 17 Charles A. Wright, Ph.D., P.E., Florida Agricultural and Mecl!anical University, Tallahassee The Continuing Evolution of Public Transportation Po li cy ................................................. 21 Wade Lawson, South Jersey Transporl4tion Authority, New Jersey Crea tin g An Equal Opportunity T r anspo r tation System ...... ...... ............ .................. .. ......... 25 Angela Fogle, Faiifax County Transportotion, Virginia T ransporta lion Redefined .. .... .... .. .. .... .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .... .. .. ...... .. .. .. ...... .. ...... .. .. .... ................ .... .. .. 31 Marianne 1'aylor Crate, Eost-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St Louis, Missouri A Broa d Human Factors Approach to Intelligent Transportati o n System (l1S) T ethnol ogies and Implications .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .... ............ ...... .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .... 37 Jose H Guerrier, Ph.D., Sltin Geronwlogicallnstitute and Sylvan C. Jolibois, Jr., Ph.D., Flonda Intemah'onal Universit1J, MiamJ' Suuunary of Keynote Address ........................................................................ ...... .......... ......... 43 Gordon f. Linton, Federal T ransit Administration Environmenta l Justice in Transportation .... .................... ...... .............. ...... .............................. 47 Lee Johnso n ATE Management and Servict Company, Inc., OhW Geo r gia T ransporta lion Allice .............................. .. ........ .. ........ ............ ................................ 51 Lucius McDowell, Georgia Tra115porlation Allumce, Atlanta Analysis of Trip Generation Characteristics in the T hird World ............ ...... ...... ........ ........ 55 Satyakala Jarugumilli,Rajappan & Meyer Consulting Engineers, San Jose U rban Transportation Model Evaluation for Small to Medium Size Transit Systems .... 71 Rol>ert M Martin, Jr., Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee Qosing Remarks ........... .... ................................................ ...... .......... ........ .................................. 75 Rodney E Slater Federal Highway Administration Afterword .............. ........ ............. .............................................................. .................. ................. 81 CoNTEms 0 3


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ACIrtation Commission Mr. Michael Blaylock, Diredor of Mass Transportation, JacksontJille Transportation Authority Dr. Frank E nty, Senior Staff Advisor, Mass Transit Administration of Maryland Mr. Marion Hart Public Transit Office Manager, Florida Department ofTransporlalion The Honorable Gloria Jeff, Associate Administrator for Policy, Federal Highway Administration Dr. Sylvan C. Jolibois, Jr., Florida International Ut1iversity Mr. Frank Martin, Deputy Director of Rail Operations, Metro-Dade Transit Agency Mr. Bill McCloud, General Manager & Senior Vice President, A rqv ANCOM Dr. Charles A. Wright, P.E., Professor of Engineering Technology, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Developing the symposium required significan tmchnicalassistance fro., CUT.R &to. members, a.nd local pnvo.te and public service providers, both during and afterwards. These individuals were: Gary Director, CUTR Steve Polzin, Deputy Director for Policy Analysi s CUTR Ejrain llreizaga, Student Research Assisumt, CUTR W.foseph Balderson, Senior Clerk, CUTR Patricia Baptiste, S1!11ior Secretary, CUTR Maria Berlin, Berlin Designs .. Cecil Bond, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) Slmron Dent and the Staff of tire Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HARTline) Muzi D/amini, Student Researcllllssistant, CUTR Yvette Fuller, Student Research Assistant, CUTR Nevine Georggi, Librarian, CUTR fuMe Green, Program Assist ant CUTR Joseph D. Hagge, Research Associate, CUTR Patrici a Henderson, Communicfl.tions Manager, CUTR Tonya Hepburn, Student Resem'ch Assistant, CUTR Gwen Hollis, Senior Secretary, CU T R Pamela LaPaugh, Clerk, CUTR The Staff of the Museum of African American Art Tampa, florida Susan Pearson, Tampa Marriott Hotels Sherry Perry, Student Research Assistant, CU T R


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Summary The Center fox Urban Txonsportation Research, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Transporta tion (CUTR}, convened its fitst national symposium on African-American mobility issues in Much 1994. Building on the dis cussions and e xperiences of the fust symposium, the seco:nd symposium, convened Apnl 5 through 7, 1995, continued the ob jective of inclusion of the transportation is sues relevant to the American commwtity. The second symposium held particula.r significance b ecause of the 1997 scheduled rea"thorization of the federal transportation bill. Although reauthori zation was not scheduled for anothe r two years, the tleed existed to strengthen the existil\g legislation a.nd fxame policies to address its shortcomings. The pia.nned top ics also seemed to hold significance fox policymakers with regard to other minor ity groups, protected cia.sses, and special popula.tions. As a multifaceted, multidisciplinazy industry, transportation commands the atten tion of a wide spectrum of professionals. The symposium topics had broad appeal and generated information partic"la.dy valuab l e -to transit operators, engineers, planners, equal opportwtity specialists, gove.nunent offic.jels, economists, and transportation policy-makers. Topics that addressed in the plenuy sessions incl"ded: 0 Equal acoess and mobility: the con tinuing evolution of policies related to high way and transit funding; [J Emexgins technologies and the im-plications of their :impact on the AfricanAmerican community; 0 Entrepreners and contracting op portu.nities within the transportation in dustry; 0 Applied research findings as related African American travel behavior. The symposium was attended by more than 80 pulicipantB from throughout the Uni tedStates. The administrators of the U. S. Deparbnent of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transportation Administrations puticipated in the program along with prof

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SYMPOSWM ll ON .AFRJCAN-AMERJCAN MOBILITY ISSUES April 5-7, 1995 Tampa Marriott Weslshore, Tampa, Florida Agenda Wednesday, AprilS, 1995 1 :00 p .m. .. .. .. ... ..... . ...... Reg;Btration 1:30 p.m.-2:00p.m ........ Welcome Eric T. Hill, Research Associate, CUTR Arthur W. Kennedy, Member, CUTR Advisory Board & Florida Transportation Commission Gary Brosch, Director, CUTR 2:00 p m.-3:15p.m. . ..... Opening Session AGI!NDA 0 Setting the Theme: Perspectives on African-American Mobility Issues Overview: A discussion on how past and cun:-entpolides and the cun:-entpoliticalenvironment impact the delivery of service and the transportation needs of the African-American community. 0 "Perspectives on African-American Mobility lss.,es;' Clrarles A INright, Ph.D., P.., ProfessorofEngineering Technology, Flmida Agricultural and Mechaniall University (FAJ\1U) 3:15 p .m.-3:30 p.m . ..... Break 3:30 p.m.-5:00p.m ........ The Continuing Evolution of Public Tr.t!Ulportation Policy Overview: TlUs session examines the significant policy changes at the federal level including the lntennodal StU:face Transportation Eftkiency Act (ISTEA) and other federalleg;s lation CtU:rently under consideration and the policy implications that planners and trans portation providers must address to eilStU:e the mobility o J>UnOrity communities Moderator: Lorenzo Alexander, Public Transit Office Manager, Flmida Department ofTranspor tation, District Two 0 "The Continuing Evolution of PubJ;c Ttansportation Policy," Wade Lawson, Director of Planning, South Jersey Transportation Authority 0 "Creating an Equ.al Opportunity Ttansportation System/' Angela Fogle, Transportation Planner III, Fairfax County Transportation, VA 0 Presentation appears in this volume


10 0 PRoceroJNcs oF TH SYMJ>05MI O N Anuc .,.,-AMERI C A MoBILITY Issues Agenda (Continued) Participation in the Metropolitan Planning Process," A. Shawn Collins Executive Director, Volusia County Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO), Florida "African-Americans and the Americans with Disabilities A c t," Ro$11/y>J M Simon, Ph. D Directar Project ACTI ON 5 : 00 p.m. -7:00p.m .... . Reoeption Maniott Hotel Thursday, A pril 6, 1995 8 : 00 a.mA1:30 a.m. ....... Continental Breakfast 8 : 30 a m. -10: 00 a.m. ... .. Greeting Fredlzlyn M. Frasier, Research AssocUzte, CUTR Emerging Technol ogies and Innovative Prov-uns Overview: This session presents unique approaches to o.ddressing the transporto.tion needs of minority communities lhrough cultural ma.rketing, citizen outreach, o.nd o.pplied re search. Moderatar: Syl van C. folibois, Jr., Ph D Assistant Professor of Transporllltion Engineering Florida I ntern a tional University 0 ''Transporb!ltion Redefined," Marianne Taylor Crate, Citiren Participation Coordinator, East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Lauis, Missouri Cl "A Brood Human Fa c tors Approach to ITS Technologies and Imp lic ations for African-Ame ri cans/' Jose H. Guern'er, P h D Senior Research Scientist Stein Gerontological Institute, Miami Florida 10 : 00 a m.-10 : 1 5 a.m .... Break 10:!5 a.m.-11:45 a.m .... The Fare Equity lo.oue Ouerview: This session addteSses the pol>!ntial cuts in federal funding to local transi t sys tems and the impact of future fare restructuring strategies for transit systems and minor ity communities Moderator: Deborah Price, Chairperson, C onference on Minority T r a nsportation O fficials (COM TO) "Civil Rights and Fare Equity,' Paul Sonn, Esq NAACP Legal Defense F und A Transporto.tion Prov ider's Dilenuna," Sharon Dent, Executive Director, Hillsbarough Area Regional T ransit 0 P resentation appears in this volume


AGENDA 0 11 Agenda (Continued) 12:00 p.m.-2:00p .m. .... Luncheon lntr:odu.ctio" of the ke}'I'Ob! speaker, Frank Marlin, Assistant Director of Rail Operations, Metro-Dade Transit Agency, Florida 0 Keynote Address, Gordon J. Linton, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration 2 :00 p m.-3:15 p.m ....... Environmental J""tice in Transportation Overview: This session prese n ts perspectives on the growing awareness of environmentAl ju.stice in the transportation field and outlines activities designed to address the issue Moderator: Gloria Jeff, Associate Administrator for Policy, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) 0 "Environmental Justice in Ttansportation," Lee Johnson, Senior Regional Manager, ATE Management and Service Company, Inc. "Working in the Community," Mich/e DePass, Esq., Executive Direcwr, New York City Environmental Justice AIUance 0 "Georgia Transportation Alliance," Lucius McDowell, Community Coordinator, Georgia Transportation Alliance 3:15 p.m.-3:30p .m. ....... Break 3:30p.m .... ....... ....... ...... Student Paper Award Presented by Dr. Frank Enty Recipient Satyakala jarugumilli, Uni versity of Nevada, Las Vegas 3:45 p.m.-5:00p.m ....... Applied Research Findings Overview: 'This session is designed to shate findings on recent research in the orea of mi nority travel belulvior, ongoing research, and les&ons learned. Moderator: Frank Enty, Ph. D Set1ior Staff Advisor, Mass T ransit Administration of Maryland "Research Opportunities/' Stephanie Nellons Rohinson, Senior Program Officer, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board (TRB) 0 ''Analysis of Trip Generation Olaro.cb!ristic& in the Third-World: A Case Study of the City ofDo.r-e...salaam, Tanzania," Satyakala Jarugumilli, University ofNevada, Las Vegas 0 Ptesentation appears in this vol\UI\e


12 0 PRocEEDD\105 OF THE 5YM:fos.IUM ON Af1ucAN-Af..r.iUCAN MOBILITr Jssl!.es Agenda (Continued) 5:00 p.mAI:OO p.rn. ...... Reception Tampa Museum of African-American Art Transportation provided courtesy of Hillsbmough Azea Regional Transit Authmity (HAR1line) Friday, April 7, 1995 8:30 a.m.-9:00 a.rn. . ...... Continental Breakfast 9:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m. .. ... Greeting Beverly G. Ward, Deputy Director for Operations, CUTR State Persptives on the Reauthorization Agenda "ISTEA U/' Bill McCloud, Senior Viet President, A TC/11 ANCOM "The Slate Legislature and Transportation Policy," James T. Hargrett, Senator, State of Florida 10:15 a.m. -11:00 a. m ..... Clooing Session 0 "Closin g Rema.rl

SYMPOSIUM IT ON AfRICAN-AMERICAN MOBI.LITY ISSUES April 5 7, 1995 TampaMarriottWestshore, Tampa, Florida Speakers Lorenzo Alexander is Public Transit Office Manager, FloridaPepartmentofTransportlltion, District Two, Lake City, Florida. Gory Brosch is Director of the Center for U rban Transportation Resea.r:ch at the University of South Florida in Tampa. A. Shawn Cro ntologicalln stitute in Miami Jamt5 T. Hargrettis a member of the Florida State Senate representing District 21 o f Tampa. Eric T Hill is o R

Speakers (Continued) Sylvan C. Jolibois, Jr., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Transportation Engineering at Florida International University in Miami. Arthur W. Kennedy is a Commissioner with the Florida T ransportatio n Commission and a Jru!1nber of the Advisory Board of the Center for UrbM Transportation Research. Wade Lawson is Director of Planning at the So"th jersey Transportation Authority, Atlantic City, New Jersey. Gordmr J. Linton is Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration in Washing ton, D.C. Fratrk Martin is Assistant Director of Rail Operations at Metro-Dade Transit Agency in Miami Robert M. Martin, Jr;, is a Research Associ ate at Florida Agricultural and Mechani cal University in Tellahessee. Bill McCloud is Senior Vice of ATC/V ANCOM in Oakbrook Tenace, Illinois. Lucius McDowell is Community Coordina tor at the Georgia Tranaportation Alliance, Atlanta_ Georgia. Deborah Price is Chnirperson of the Confer ence on Minority Transportation Offi cials in Washington, D.C. Srephanie Nellons Robinson is a Senior Protr""' Officer for the T ronsit Coopera tive Research Progr8D\ of the Transportation Research Board in Washington, D.C. Rosalyn M. Simon, Ph. D ., is Director of ProjectACTION, Washington, D .C. Rodney E. Starer is Administrator of the Federal Administration in Wash ington_ D.C. Paul Sonn, Esq., is an attorney for N AACP Legal Defense Fund, York, New York Beuerly G. Ward is Deputy Director for Op erations at the Center for Urban Transportation Research at the Univer sity of South Florida Charles A. Wright, Ph.D., P.E., is Director and Professor of Engineering Techno logy at Florida Agricultural Md Mechanic;al University in Tollahassee.


WLCOMl! Aoo..,.. 0 15 Welcome Gary L. Brosch D/rr>ctor Center for Urban Tmnsporlation Reoarch Good afternoon. My nome is Gory Brosch. I am Direclx>r of the Cenlier for Urban Transpo:rtation Research (CUTR). On behalf of the Florida Department of Transportation and CUTR, I wel come yo'Q to the second symposium on African-American Mobility Issues. In March 1994, CUTR convened ib; rust symposium on African-American mobility issues. It established the rust forum in recent times to discuss the special tmnsporta tion problems and needs of African-Ameri cans. The agenda included: 0 presentations on how past and cur rentpolicies continue IX> define travel behav io:r: and transportAtion needs; 0 analyses of travel patliems and behavioral characteristics; 0 case studies of jitney services and theix roles in public tri!U'ISportAtion; 0 contracting opportunities and marketing services; and 0 an open panel discussion on ISTBA. The symposium was atliended by more than 60 participant!; horn throughout the UnitedStalies and the Caribbean. Representatives horn the Fede.ral Highway Admin istration (FHW A), Federal Transit Administration (FTA}, stalie and localgovemmenb;, and transit agencies, academia, and the pri vate sector were among the attendees. A survey of participants' impressions of the symposium showed that participants believed it either met or exceeded their ex pectations and gave it an overall good rating. Participants also foWl d the symposium IX> be "educational and inforrnet:ive" and that ;t should be repeated and expanded. This year's symposium builds on the experiences and issues provided in 1994 and serves to continue the discourse on the special transportation needs in the African American community. It also provides a forum to continue the exchange of ideas o.nd infol'D\(ltion, and discussion of transporta tion planning, programming, o.nd policY is sues as they relate IX> the African-American population. This year's symposium also is a collabo rative effort between CUTR Univeristy of South Florida (USF}, FHW A, and the Con ference on Black Public Ad!Itinistrators (COMTO) The keynote speaker during tomorrow's luncheon will be Gordon Linton, Administrator, Fr A On Friday, Rodney Slater, Administralx>r, FHW A will speak during the closing sess ion. The timeliness of this year's symposium is significant. Consider the following changes in society that will have a. beAring on mobility in the African-American community. The efforts by the new Republican Congress to reduce federal funding to local tran sit systems, which rnig:htinclude significant cuts in operating assistance; Fare hikes also are becoming an irnporbu\t topic in the b'ansit col:l'llrl.unity. The recent contr:oven;y involving the Los Ange les CoWlty Metropolitan Transportation Authority's (MTA) efforts to increase faxes mAY provide o.n indication of the irnportance of tltis issue; Several policy and program changes at the federal level will have irnportantirnpacts on the contin .. ed mobility of minority com munities Whateffectwillthe. proposed Na tional Highway Sysliem (NHS), which was approved by the House of Representatives by An IXUlXgU\ and is now


16 0 PROcEEOINCS O F THE SYMPOSIUM ON AFRJCAN -AM!RJCAN MontLrrv lssuts before the Senate, have on Black communi ties? Re.:ent analysis of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS) reveals that trip rates for Blacb have increased faster than for non-Blacks Tltis analysis also showed that the nwnber of Blacks becom ing licensed to drive increased by 7!7. 9 per cent from 1983 to 1990, supporting an increasing demand for travel using privately owned vehicles. The increasing growth in travel by Blacks suggests needed funding for transit, roadway, and infrastructure improvements serving Black couununities. Greater access to employment opportonitie$ and services within the Black COUUI'IU nity, or from these commun.ities to suburban locations, is needed in order for this oommunity to prosper e c onomicolly and sociolly. A requirement of thelntermodol Transportation Efficiency A c t of 199 1 (lSTEA) mandates increased community participa tion in developing transportation systems. Thus, policy-makers and planners at the smte and loco! levels and in metropoUmn planning organizations need to give greater atl>!ntion to travel demands of Blacks, sinc e they represent a changing and increasing market nus growing market olso supports the desire for increased diversity in the com position of decisionma.kers in the tra.nspo.rta tion arena How will Blacks and other minorities in the transporbltionindusay be affected by Congressional attempts to repeal Civil Rights legislation and affirmative action programs that prohibit discrimination? What should be the response from the mi nority community to these activities ? What aTe the impacts on minority com muni tie s f rom transportation facilities thalpollute and disrupt neighborhoods? For exAmple, mo.ny transit maintenance and operation facilities such as garages and ter minals, are found :in mino.rity nei ghbor hoods. These cause adverse effects on the environment and quality of life for residents Many Black communities also were dis Npted, economically and sodolly by the de velopment of the interstab! highway pro gram in the 1960s and 1970. Communication and technology im proveme n ts in society will have significant impacts on Blacb and minorities How will produc ts generated thro.,gh Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) improve or hinder chances for low i11come and minor i ty groups to prosper or be positioned in main&treAD:t America? The ISTEA legislation continues to offer opportunities for the inclusion of Afri. can America.ns in the transportation dedsioiii118king process In eoonomic terms, millions of jobs are still being created from transportation proj e cts and transit contin ues to serve as a potential empl oyer And a transportation service H owever, these opportunities are being threab!ned and will not last long. There fore, it becomes mo.re important to continue the discussion on the issues aHecting, mo bility in African-American communities and to develop an agenda that will address the associated problems for this gro1>p. We inv i te your input and coll"ll:rtents so that the most efficient and equitable transportation system possible can be implemented. Please notice the evaluation fonn in the package thAt you r eceived when you registered. At this time I would Uke for everyone to complete the first questio n : "Before the symposium begins, please write a few sentences on what you hope to gain from this symposium." Thank yo1>.


Perspectives on Afri can-American Mobi lity Issues : Exploring New Frontiers Charles A. Wright, Ph.D., P E ., Deparlment of Engineering TechnOlogy Florida AgricuMural and Mechanical in Talla hassee bttroducticm To those who represent the state of Florida, Gary Brosch, Director of CUTR, the AfricanAmerican Mobil ity Symposium Steering Committee, we thank you for being here and bringing those wa.nn words of welcome. Brie, Beverly, and Fredslyn, I appreciab! thls fine opporbuUty that I have to work witb Mr. Kermeciy and the other p....,nters; particularl y sin"" Mr. Kennedy is involved in so many transporM tation activities and is also a renowned sun .. day School superintendent The superinmndent's superintendent It is a pleasur e to serve all of you at thls important second symposium dealing with these important issues. Your theme is velj' challenpng; it allows for strengthening of partnerships and networking. The theme is very diverse, fu. turistic $lld will meet the need& of the 21st century -the next 100 years. I am very pleased to see the diversity of individuols present You represent the best that the transportotion professiOn hes to offer. You represent the commitment to African .. American mobility issu. es. You ore talented and committed. We also have other administrators,like Mr. Rodney Slater, Mr. Gordon Linton and many others, such as Dr. Sylvan Johbois, Mr. Frank Martin, Mr. Bill McCloud, and !-.1s. Sheron Bellamy, here who perform collo.t eralmobility responsibilities within the community. All of us working in collAboration. networking, and partnering to make it happen. Past Activities It is true thetwe have had many accom plishments relo.ted to transportation and mobility of African-Americans, but it is also true that we have much work to do! To paraphrase Robert Frost, "We have traveled a long wo.y, but we have miles to go ... Please allow me to mention some conditions that place us here today and to talk about transportation in a different way. Clearly, we can to1k about the lmportanC

18 0 OF THt SYMPOSIUM ON MOBO..I'N IssUES It is i mportan t that lhe v.ord be sen t for1h tha t Afri can Americans not only v.tsh to be a partoflhe rewards o f work, but that lhey also v.tsh to be a part of lhe work itse l f." than 375 yeam ago to Jamestown, Virginia. (There are theories of even before that time). Others came for freedoiii beco.US

from these communities to subwban locat::io:ns, Is needed in order Cor this co:aunu ruty to prosper economically 8lld sodally 0 Requiremenb of 1M Intermodol SUJ'o face Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) mancl.ate incre ased. community par ticipation in cl.eveloping transportation )'Stems. 0 Impact on Blacl many Afd<:anAme ricAiw are on jobs where they are re work during these periods. 0 Florida' s need for t:lUl National Hlgh wo.y System and. Its impact 0 Florida's Travel and Tourism Indus try 8lld Its impact on o.nd potantial beN! fita for African-American. W e Must Woric to Set the A get ula The only liDiito.tions we have are the liDiito.tions we place on ourselves. Our key Is not to set the priorities o f what Is on oar agenda, but to place on the agenda our priorities. The Book of james 1:2, NMy brethren count it all joy when you foll inlx> divers temptation ." We develop foi th and wisdom. We have to ask ourselves the fu.ncl.amental qu.eslio11, Are we going to stand on the sidelines and pexhaps tell the transportation sto y asahJsmry?" If w e only discu.ss what w e hear or read, w e will be discussing !Us tory. Look about you, this is the first time we oll hove been together. We need to network and build Are we going to be a part of making uignificantcont:ributi.on? The choice is ours. I invite you, if you w oulcl, to redecl.icatll RededicAte yourselves to this important task to keep America moving, be.. ,.. it does DU>re than that. 1\s noted belore, transportation is about more thAn just steel, concrete, 81\d asphalt. Our effort helps to keep America free helps to give oll d>e opportunity IX> be o.ll we con be as Ameri<:o moves to the next century, o.nd let us, together explore new frontiem "'f "WB only discuss vmat we hear or rea d we will be discussing history."


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Tiu! CONTlNU!NG EvoLUTION o F PuBLIC TMNSJ>OittA'!'lo>l PoLICY 0 21 The Continuing Evolution of Public Transportation Policy wade Lawson Director of Planning and Dawlopment South Jersey Transportation Authority Atlantic City, New Jersey I would like to thonl< the Center for Ur ban Transportation Research (CUTR), Federal Highway Administration (FHW A), Federal Transportation Adminis tration (FT A), Conference of Minority Transportation Officials (COMTO), and the National Forum for Black Public Adminis b'ators (NFBPA) for extending m e the invi tation to speak with you this afternoon regarding the continuing evolution of public transportation policy and its impact on the minority community. I bring you. greetings from the Governor of the State of Ne\o.' Jersey, the South Jen;ey Transportation Authority and its Boa.rd of Comm:issione:JS, and the staff of the Authority. I would be extremely remiss in my duties as a member of the Board of Directon; of the Greater Atlantic City Ownher of Commerce, if I did pot extoll the vir tues of Atlantic City, one of the premier gaming resorts o the world, home of the famous AtlaPtic City Boardwolk, host of the Miss America pageant, and one of the extourist vacation spots on the Bast Coast I invite all of you and your families tQ visit us whet\ you can to enjoy our tality, firte bea.ches, and various attractions in the region. Tire Role of tire Soutlt Jersey Tmnsportation Aut1toritlj (SJTA) The SJT A is responsible for the following transportation sorvices: 0 Operation and development of the Atlantic City international Airport; 0 OperationaPdmaintenance of the Atlantic City Expressway, a 44-mlle toll road between Atlantic City and Philadelphia; 0 Management of more than 334,000 annual casino charter buses bringing approximately 8.5 million annual visitors to Atlantic City; 0 Regulation of the c .. ino bus charter services as i t relams to the designation of bus routes, bus parking and bus operations in the casinos, and othet non-casino desti nations; 0 Operation o several automobile Md bus su.tory automobile parking facility (825 spaces) with xetailspace; 0 Coordination of the development of various b'ansportation management gi.es to facilitate traffic movement in the re gion; 0 Board member of the South jen;ey Transportation Planning Organi.zo.tion, the metropolitan planning organization (Ml'O). Problem Smtemntt What effect does minority representa tion or lack of representation have on the transportation decisioru:naking process? How do these policy decisions influence the development and implementation of transportation policies in the minority community? Backgrou11d The transporll\tionindustry, as you may know, is a multi-billion dollar industry.


22 0 PRoceeolNG5 or nt:e SYMPOSIUM oN ABle AN AMnlcAN Mosn. rrv ISsUES 'Tran&pui tation isoneoflhe most important aspects in our community in that it provides access to employment opportunities that are available at the various employment .. Based on information for the calendar year 1991, total governmental expenditures for transportation services and facilities equaled $105 4 billion. I have included the financial profile of the transportation industry, shown in Table 1, to provide a perspective of the magni tude of the transportation industry on our national ec:::onomy. Table 1 1991 Transport afton Sc:rvtcc:.ilnd Fac.:hll c:.. Dollars Spenl Mode (Billions) Highwoyo $76. 0 Aiways/Airports 14.0 Public Transit 9.6 RNersiPorts 3 5 Rairoads 2.4 TOTAL $106 .4 Some of you may ask what does this mean with respect to jobs? Based on na. tional statistics, it is fair to say that for every $100 million capital investment in trtll1Sportation, 5,800 new jobs are created, approximately 600,000 jobs were created nationally as the direct result of capital invest ment in transportation services and facili ties in 1991. (This number does not include the employees that are currently employed in the transportation industry. The public transportation industry alone, based on 1994-95 statistics, employs approximately 302,000 people alone ) TrAriSportation is one of the most iJ:n. portant aspects in ow community in that it provides access to employment opportuni ties that are available atthe various employ ment centers. It is directly responsible for stimulating economic moving goods, services and people within our re spective communities, and provides a. means of travel for residents. This point is particularly significant as we discuss economic development and the impact of trans-porta.tion on our community because through xny experience in the industry. All too often the minority commwtil:y is not fa miliar with the comprehensive nature of the transportation industry not its overall im pact on our day-to-day lives. The minority community traditionally has focused on issues such as: housin&employment, education, civil rights, and crime, and justifiably so. However, I would submit that transportation is equally important and should be considered on issue that affects the overall mobility and vitaU .ty of the minority commwtil:y. The ability of the community to access employment opportunities, housing, education, medical and so cial services are directly related to the avail ability of transportation services that pro vide mobility options to the commwtil:y as well as providing the necessary inhastrucIW'e to support regional growth and devel opment During the1970s and 1980s, black may-03 in metropolitan urban cities such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Washington, D C., and New Orletll1S were elected to offic:::e. Because of their appointive powers as mayors, we began to see minority board members in the transit industry. These mi nority board members began to influence the decisions of their agencies as related to the appointment of senior executive staff, awarding of contracts, location of facilities bus routes, rail lines, pricing, marhting, purchases of equipment, and the overall development of transportation policies. it appeaJS that over the lAst five years the number of appointed or elected boa.J:d members aild senior executive staff positions, such as Executive Director, Gen era! Manager, Deputy General Manager, Assistant General Manager, in the public transit industry stabilized. In m y opinion, this trend has occurred for the following re:asons: CJ continued regionalization of trans portation agencies or authorities ; CJ appointive authority expanded from one municipality to several that usually in volved suburban or rural communities; 0 boards approaching issues regionally as opposed to the impact on an urban community (The ability of the local mayor or


coaununity to a.ffec.t policy decisions ls reduced.); D lack o! minority political control on tho appointive process; 0 appointments made by other govern mental bodies outside the ju.risd.lction of the local community; Totele mployeea 8 8 mlllbn Block 1 .193 million Executlve/Admlniotratlve 1 .065 million Block 85, 000 Bll<:k Males Fe 1985 Bilek ManagetS Fomal e Managers 14. 4% a reductions in the number o( poiroted positions available to local elected offidals C traditional institutional C the insensttivity o f the majority community to the needs of the minority 0011'1-munity; D executive level employment opportunities exclude quolil:ied minority candidates (perpetuating the #Good Old Boy" system). Wltnt HnppetiS when Mi11orltles Rftl Uruler Represented or Not Represe,ted m the DecisiDIOIUJkillg Proass? 0 Traditionally, lnll&portalion aervioes and fac:illlies ore oriented to the urbM area tho.t oJso serves as the plaoe of residence of d>e minoriiy community. These service's slsnJficantly influence the of life, such os a.iT quality, noise poUution, conges-lion. However, these policy decisions s,re ma acce .. lx> job opportunities, medical, social services, and so on. Mmority m the TmnsportRtton Dectsionmnkmg Process m Athutttc City 0 During tho toonure of the City's first minority mayor, the Mayors offke partid pated in the selection of the first and only minority executiv e director of the county transporta.tion a .uthority 0 A representative of the Mayors office the execu.tive dtrectoJ:', was selected to serve as a member of the Authority's Board of Directors 0 Commllllit:y concerns regarding bus routings and tra.ffi c congestion were forwarded directly IX> the Board. 0 Senior sto.fi included minorities and women ln d ecisionmo.king positions. C Minority employees who were pri marily concentrared ln entry level positions had their salaries upgraded by 15 percent during the fir&t ytlll' of the minority execu tive directors tcnun. "Changes in fare structures and service availability algnlflcanlly influence the banait dependent minority community ...


24 0 1'1\oceeD!NOS OF THe SYWOSJUM oN Anucm-AMERlcAN MosJLJTY Iss uES Minority representation in the transportation decisionmaking process is essential for the dellelopment and implementation of various policles . ..and the future growth of a total community. 0 lvtinority vendors were awa.rd.ed contract opportunities 0 Atlantic City owned the airport and requ.ired that the contract opera.tDr hire and promo!!! qualified minority candidates 0 To solicit inp"t on developing trans portation policies or initiatives, outreach meetings were held within the minority COU\DI=ity. These meetings were attl!nded by agency board members, senior staff, and representatives of the minority community. What Can the Minority Community Do to GRin Representation in the Tmnspqrtatimt Decisionmltking Process? 0 Identify and prioritize the transpor tation issues in your community 0 Develop sho.rtand long-range strate gies; 0 Understand the transportstion pro cess and the length of I:Jrne req,.;..,d to implement new initiatives; 0 Develop staying power; 0 Fazniliarize community representa tives with the transportation decisionmak ing process; 0 Identify commu.ni ty residents to monitor the status of various trAI\Sportati.on iss"es and attl!nd transportation a"thority o r MPO meetings; 0 Develop coalitions with other minor ity communities as well as the minority b..si ness community; 0 Support ele c ted officials who appoint minorities to transportation policy boards and senior executive staff positions 0 Sensitize individuals appointed to policy board and exe c utive manageme11t positions to the existing and projected """ds of the minority constituents as well as the total community. CJ Maintain regul ar meetings with elected officials poucy boo:rd member.; =d senior staff to fazniliarize the agency with the various issues affecting transportation in the minority community Minority representation in the transpor tation dedsionmaking pro

Creating An Equal Opportunity Transportatio n System Ange l a Fog l e Transpcrlation Planner Ill Fairfax County Transportation VIrginia Last year while examining the tmvel and commuting trends identified in the 1990 Nat>onwide Personal T rMS portat>on Survey, I noted that despite the currenttransportat>onand a' quality prob lelll8 experienced in this country, the use of single occupant vehicles continues to rise, and there is a decline in the usage of other modes. However, studies such as these seern to neglect to explore the impact of such trends on the people without vehicles In reflecting on what originally sparked my intere s t in the transportation planning field, I recalled that during my original investi gation of transportation related issues, I dis covered that very little information existed that explored or researched at a national level how to design transportat>on systelll8 that serve the needs of the transportation disadvantaged, specifically women and mi norities From that point on, I was on a mission. This paper e xamines the impact the passage of Intermod.al Surface Transportation Effic:iency Act (JSTEA) has had over the past three and one-half years, historic appoint ments to the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) by the Clinton Administration, and the potential for in creased opportunitie s for transit. In discussing the future I will discuss the impact of Republican Congress on transportation, specifi c ally public transportation. I will bmfly provide my perspective on the impac t the information superhighway will have on the minority community and prov ide recommendations for improving the current trMSportation picture The automobile has been touted as a means of freedom and flexibiliiy ln people's lives, but many peopl e do not have safe, convenient access to a. car ox other reliable means of to:ansportation Transportation access is crucial to decisions such as where an individual will live ox work and it can have a profound impact on the quality of life. Most of the captive riders using mass transportation systems are the economically disadvantaged, the physically challenged, women. the elderly, and minoxs. Over the past 30 years, transportation and land use plannlng have closely followed two major events that occurred in major metropolitan areas: the relocation of whites to the suburbs and the construction of the interstate system. Since 1950, mor e than 85 percent of national population growth has occurred in suburban areas Currently 44 percent of America lives in suburbs surrounding the central cities of large metro politan regions (Pisarski, 25) Transporta tion systems within majo r metropolitan areas over this 30-year period were designed tx> meet the commuting needs of thos e fleeing the central cities For example, in Baltimore, Chicago, Cleveland, and Detroit, white s made up as much as twothirds of the central city population in 1960. Census population datasuggesl!)d that while whites made up 82.2 percent of the cento:al city population ln urban areas in 1960, by 1 990 whi tes mede up less than 15 percent of many central city populations in urban areas. During that same period, the nonwhite population in many central cities of major metropolitan areas more than doubled. Women and nunoritiesmake up a small per:centage of englneers and planners in this country, although they represent most of the transportation users A 1 991 AmeriC

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    26 0 PYtoct!PlNCS or THE SVM:POSWM o N AF'RlcAN-AM!IUCAN MoBILITY IssUES "The Nationwide Personal Transportation Stney (NPTS) results suggested that Am can Americans and Hispanics repreaent the largest group of those who walk or use transit for work trips." Pltuuting Association survey dete>=ined that only 5 percent of those in the civil engineering profession are women and 7 percent are minorities. In addition, women te$ent 26 percent of professional planners, while minorities represent only 3 pettentof all planners (Lewis, 13}. An examination of the existing transportation systems in many major metropolitan areas in America as they relAte to population, housing, and employment b'ends, infers thet ethnic and gender d:isporities within engineering and plAnning fields have had a negative impact on transportation dedsionmaking in tlUs country. Millions of research dollars have been spent analyzing t:ta.nspoxtation trends in America. Historically, transportation mod els used to forecost travel trends have represented the travel patterns of white males. Therefore, despite the drama.tic shift in the demography of major metropolitan areas, when reports on COII\II\Uter travel trends are u .pdated to determine futu.re transportation needs, the data continues to represent the travel patterns of white males. Transporta tion data, and more specifically, mass transportation data should be designed to consider the travel behavior of a broader spec trum of the general P"blic. Many consider the pAS$&ge of ISTEA to represent the beginning of a new era in transportation decisionmalting, due to the Ad! s provision of greamr opportunities for public involvement The Federal Transit Adminiotration (FT A} and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) jointly developed metropolitan and statewide plAnning rules and regulations to gllide the development of transportation plans and programs un der ISTEA. The regulations require greater opportunities for non-traditional partici pants to provide meaningful input during the transpo.rtation dedsionmalting process. Non-traditional participants include such groups as the railroad and trucking industry, environmental groups, businesses, m:i norities, and the elderly. In order for tlUs new legislation to influene
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    growth, preserve existin g in!rutruct.ues, and make jobs more accessible to people; 0 Make careers in planning and engi neering fields """"' more reward.lug to our youth, such as school dU!drenand inner city programs; 0 Teach children about planning. The LouisiAna. AP A Chapller has one week camp for teeus. 0 A short-term bandage is to increase "'wrse commuting opportwutla that will link inner-city workers to suburban jobs. Meanwhile, land use and growth control measures must be examined. (In the current political climate, realisticAlly I do not <>nticipate a great deal of support for thls option.) ; 0 Mino riti es must increase theirkllowl edge of what is at s take with the informa tion superhighway. Under lhe Clinton Administration, reverse commuting is being promoted again. Southwestern Metro Tr&>Si t Commission (SMTC), Eden Prairie, Minnesota, is on examp l e of a transit agency committed to reverse commuting opportunities. 1M agency coven three subutban <:ommu.ni.ties in the Minneapo!Js.St Paulaxeo. With a siMllser vit: e areo, population of 70, 000, SMTC operates 15 expr:ess trips with a 10-ve hit:le demand-responsive paratronsitsystemand a fo ur-bus shuttle system that connects to the regional transit system. Tite system wide ridership of 275, 000 is anticipated to double. The systom has had a ridership in crease between 20 and 25 peicent each yeax with no maxketing necessary. In 1992, 200 one-wAy reverse commute route & were pro .. vided;nine months laler 5,578 one-way trips provided. Reverse aoo:nDnmmtule funds come directly from o &moll tax assessed to homeowners and businesses in each community and go to the regional transit au.thority Ninety percent of funds collected goes back to SMTC. 1M transit ageJlcy """'lves no state or federal funds SMTC sponsored a job fair at a su.blU'bon mall Initially 50 companies paxtid pab!d. Out oflhe 400 people there approxi mately 150 people Wen! hired for Nll-time permanent p06itions with full benefit packages. SMTC has already dralm inllerest from 100 employers for the next job fair. C.:.ATING AN EQuAL .. o 27 lim INFORMATION SUPilRHIGHWAY Accordint; to the May 1994 issue of Black Enterprise, the FC C announoed plans to auction ._000 personal comm11I1icat!on service licenses (PCSs ). PCS s repreaent wireless non-allular syslems designed for computets, cordless telephones, Iaxe$, and pagers According to the ju.n e 1994 iosu e of jet znagazme, the Information Superhighway is Blled with rood blocks for minorities and women. And...w Barn!tt Commissioner of the FCC feels that taking advantage of the information superhighway may be too expensive for minority-owned firms. It is dlf.6cult for minority businesses to get bank loans to develop propertla, such as dividing the airwaves for wiNles s commu.nica lion services. Of the approximately $800 m.illion in bids received by minority companies, many defaulted on their payn>ents due to finaltciold.i.Eiicultioo. Mr. Barn!ttlhere minorities were locked out The Granite Broadcasting Group i1> an example of how the program could work positiv ely Granite sale s ore skyrocketing and shares are very The company continues to acquire new etations. According to an article entitled "Tech nological Bypass: Getting Around the Information Superhighway Roadblocks" by .. many large players i n the tixar11 uication induqy IMII bid on fie spectrum to block any participation by women and minorities on the infonnatlon superhighway."

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    28 Cl J')ooeeo!NOS or nil! SY>Il'OSrtJM oN Amcm-Al.BOJ CAN MoaJtJTY IssUES "'Black Americalll risk being roacl

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