Transportation costs of urban sprawl

Transportation costs of urban sprawl

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Transportation costs of urban sprawl a review of the literature
Running title:
State transportation policy initiative
Dzurik, Andrew Albert, 1940-
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
State Transportation Policy Initiative (Fla.)
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Tampa, FL
Center for Urban Transportation Research
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vi, 24 p. : ; 29 cm.


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Transportation -- United States ( lcsh )
Local transit -- Economic aspects -- United States ( lcsh )
Traffic congestion -- Economic aspects -- United States ( lcsh )
Urbanization -- Economic aspects -- United States ( lcsh )
Cities and towns -- Growth -- Economic aspects -- United States ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
survey of literature ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 17-23).
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Also issued online.
General Note:
"This report is one of a series of publications resulting from Phase I of the State Transportation Policy Initiative"--Preface.
General Note:
"November 1993."
Statement of Responsibility:
Andrew Dzurik.

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Dzurik, Andrew Albert,
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Transportation costs of urban sprawl :
a review of the literature /
Andrew Dzurik.
7 246
State transportation policy initiative
Tampa, FL :
Center for Urban Transportation Research,
vi, 24 p. ;
29 cm.
"This report is one of a series of publications resulting from Phase I of the State Transportation Policy Initiative"--Preface.
"November 1993."
Includes bibliographical references (p. 17-23).
Also issued online.
z United States.
Local transit
x Economic aspects
United States.
Traffic congestion
Economic aspects
United States.
Economic aspects
United States.
Cities and towns
Economic aspects
United States.
2 710
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
State Transportation Policy Initiative (Fla.)
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856


Transportation Costs of Urban Sprawl A Review of the Literature Andrew Dzurik, Ph.D. FAMU /FSU College of Engineering


TRANSPORTATION COSTS OF URBAN SPRAWL A Review of the Literature Andrew DzuriJc, Ph.D., P.E. FAMUIFSU College of Engineering CUTR 1993 Cenlar far Urban Ttanspartatlan R.,..rch November 1 9 9 3




STATB TIWISPORTATJUH POIJCY IH1TIA 'JTV1! iv T h e assistance of the following is gratefully ac knowledged fo r t h eir guidance and e xperti se on t his project: STPI Steering Committee C hester "E d Co lb y e TramiJ A gmcy Donald Crane Jr Floridians f o r Betttr T ramportation The Hono ra ble Mar io Diaz -Balar1 Flori'N Anhur Kennedy Florida Tranrportac ion CommisJion David Kerr Chairman, Flcrida Tranrportation Co mminion Gerhard Meisels Pr owst University of South Florida rhe H o n ora b l e Ver non Peeples Florid a o f Linda Loo mis Shelley Se("l'('ldrJ' f1Qrida DrparllfltTit o / CommqJ1il)' Affair s Ben \'(latts Secrtr.ary, Flor i da Departmem ofTranrporta.ti01l Virg i nia Bass W etherell Ftorida Departme-nt of En vi'l'(lnmenul Regulation Jack Wilson Wilson Comptmy STPI Technical Advisory Committee J ohn John sto n Florida Homt of Committee on 1Ta mp oruzr.ion J ane Mathi s flcrida TransporrAtion Commi.s.sion Patrick McCue FloriM l o/TrPmporur.ion Richard McElve en Floritk {)epdr:mtnt of En11ironmmtal ReguLtr.ion Da v i d Moh l er fttYrida S tate Se.rntu, Trampor!4.tion Committee J a mes Mu r l ey J DCO FriMds of Fforidt Ben Starret t Florida Depammnt of Community Affairs \Ves \X1atson Florid4 Transit A uocia ti ofl Randy Whitf i eld MPO Advisory Commituc S pecial thanks to the staff of 1ocal gove rnments, metropolitan planning organizations, region01l plann ing councils. an d the many other ag encies a nd ind iv iduals w ho p att icip:ued in this rcse.1r ch.


Contents STATE 'I'RAMli'ORTATIIIM POI.Il:Y IHlTIATM INTRODUCTION ....... -... .................................. ............... ........... -......... ----1 THE TRANSPORTATION COSTS OF SPRAWL ........ ............ ........... .......... .. ....... .. .. 3 Pre-1970 3 1970s ---..... ------3 1980s ----------..... 6 1990 ------.. .... .......................................... .......... 9 CONCLUSION ............ ....... ................................................ .......... --..................... .. ............ ....... ................ 1 ;J REFERENCES_ .......................... -...... -............ .......... .._ ........................ ......... ...... ....................................... 15 ANNm" ATED BIBLJOORAPHY ..................... -......... ......... ....................... -.......... -....... ................. 17




Introduction In recent years, the impact of urban sprawl on the costs of transportation services has become -an important t o pic of debate, especially as fiscal budgets have become tighter The prevailing view has been that sprawl is an inefficient urban f orrn and that high-density devel opment i s preferable. This view, however, runs counter' to Amer icas preference fo r densi ty li vin g which is exactly the type of development that continues to occur today. A l though the debate over spraw l and its possible impacts has been going on for a l most 30 years, the issue remains i n its infoncy in terms of sig.nificant and extensive research This is especially true concerning sp r awr s impact on the costs of transportation. The strong and com plex relationship that exists between spraw l and transportation has been reviewed from many differen t perspec tives but the question of how this rela tio nshi p affects t r ansportation costs remains to be answered. This report offers a glimpse of many of the views and theo ries o n sprawl over the past three decades. Much of the literature deals "'ith the costs of spraw l in general without n ecessarily focusi ng on transpor t ation costs In addition, the('e is a paucity of data and analysis on transporta cion costs associ a ted with urban form. The extreme comp l exity of the issue significantly com plica tes i t s analysis. Many factor s enter into any analysis of the costs of spraw l : the initial assump tions, the variables selected to measure costs, the sources of data, the type of analysis, etc T h ough many reports have studied the effects o f spraw l o n transportation, there has yet to be a comprehensive report that accuratel y differentiates the transporta tion costs or increases in costs tha t can be directly a t tribu t e d to low-densi ty devel op ment. The following are reviews of numerous reports addressing urban sprawl published since 1965, with nine of them bei n g identified as the more signifi cant studies (see Tab l e 1). Among them is the 1 97 4 landmark study by the Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC), The Costs a/Sprawl, w h ich r emains one of the most com p r ehensive studies on the subject. The Costs a/Sprawl was t he first extens ive study on the costs o f sprawl and established a benc hmark for future research. Further research has proved t hat the subject is difficu l t to study and has no simp l e answers. The complexity of existing the interrelationship between transportat i on and spraw l and the lack of a definitive descr i ptio n of sprawl are among the many reason s that account for the difficulty in discerning t he costs of sprawl. Numerous theories and studies have emerged that while seeming reasonable and valid by themselves, tend to COJJtra die t each other New travel patterns are being observed, such as the suburb to suburb commu te, as are rising levels of nonwork travel. Mass transi t continues t o be advocated despit e requiring huge subsidies and the debatable success of many recent projects. In fill develo pment and plan ned urban villages have been proposed as solutions to the "problem'" of urban sprawl. In addition to the n i ne more important studies a number of o t her studies are reviewed here, but their coverage i s relatively short because they are not deemed to be especially signiica11t in the argument with resp ect to transportation costs. Fina lly, an annotated bibliography STATE TRAHSPORTAnO!I POtlC'I' IHmA11VE I


STA11! 'IIWI5POI!TATIOM PO!JCY IIIITlATIVE which provides brief sununaries of all the l iterature uncovered on this topic is provided as an appendix The overall arrangement of thi s report is to reason ably f o llow a ch ronolo gical sequen ce. T h i s i s done by grouping th e l i terat u re Tabla 1 into decades starting w i t h pre 1 970 and concluding with the 1990s. The nine articles viewed as being more significant are given consi d e rabl y more attent io n in the text. SIGNIFICANT IJTERATURE ON SPRAWL, 1965 1992 DAT11 Alf71IDR(S} DATA BASE t:riSTS METHDIJOJ.DIIY COHH1!NTS ADDRI1SSBII 1965 Harvey and MIA' N/A' N/A' Transportation costs should not rise C1ari< significantly in sprawl-like areas. 'Rsa1 Estate Past studies on community Capl!aland Calcolatsd costs based .. Sp.aw1almoot double. ....._rlation 1974 Resolll

The Transportation Costs of Sprawl Pre-1970 In the 1960s, the President's Task Force on Suburban Pwblems reported that sprawl consumes more land than necessary and, with excessive public .costs, frustrates a rationa l transportatio n pohcy. During this time, the conven t ional wisdom on the subject believed that transportation costs would skyrocket if devel opme n t contributed to spraw l. In "The N at ure and Economics of Urban Sprawl," Harvey and C l ark (1965) analyze the costs of urban sprawl. The authors identify four problems in the literature of urban sprawl. First, there are several, sometimes co nflictin g views on the definition of u rban sprawl. I t seems an operational definition has not been found. Sprawl can describe m erely the of the urban periphery or the dispersmg of the urban pop ulace into t he rural lands cape. SecoJld, the many causes of urban sprawl have not been categorized and thus can n o t be discussed as a lrnit. Third, sprawl is i nfrequently viewed as a dynamic phenomeno n Fi nall y, the costs of urban sprawl have not b een quantified. The authors delineate three forms of urban sprawl. Low-density development is seen as the lowest order of sprawl and t s the least offe n s ive. Ribbo n development is seen as the second form of urban sprawl. This sprawl is composed of "segments compact with in themselves but which exte.o d axially and leave the interstices undeveloped." A third type of spraw l is l eapfrog development, which is the settlement of noncompact urban areas It is this type of sprawl that is often attacked and is the form of development t hat incurs the g r eatest cost in services to outlying areas. Transportao.on is seat as a catalyst t o urban sprawl. T h e automobi l e i s the primary mode of t ransportation tha t permits access to remote areas and allows sprawl to contin ue. The conclusion o f this rticle is tha t "sprawl occurs in fact, because i t is. economical in terms of the altemattves available to the occupants." Ha rvey and Clark do not show the aetna! transporta t ion costs of urban sprawl, but believe that these costs should not rise significant ly in sprawl l ike areas. In 1967, Kain pointed out in Urban Form and the Costs of Urban Services" t hat the prevailing belief 011 urban sprawl is complica t ed by idealogy and the vari ous definitions of was concluded that there is a weak dependen cy on the costs of urban services and land use pat terns. When urban service costs are measured, any savings in the develop ment of high densi t y areas are often negated by increasing cost of construe: tion. He indicates tha t "the constderatton of excess capacity of existing public services in specific development situations has confused th e relatio nship between residential density and costs of urban services.', 1970s Real Estate Research Corporation's (RERC) 1974 report, The Costs of Sprawl, is considered to be the bench mark study on sprawl. Thi s was the first intensive effort to identify and q u anufy che eco nomic impacts of sprawl. The r ep?rt analyzes six hypothet ical commum ty development forms: htgh-denslty planned development; low density sprawl; low density planned developmen t; mix; planned mix; a n d a combmatton of 50 percent planned mix with 50 percent spra" l mix. Oetrul ed cost esnmates are Sf ATE TRAHSI'OIITAnnH POLICY JJflTlAnvE 3


4 Sf AT tl\AHSPORTATIDM POUCY OOTlATIVE made for each community type for a wide variety of cost categories. The report's atalysis of transportation costs focuses on the capital costs a nd operating/ mainte nance costs for the streetS and roads required to serve each community type. Estimates of arterial> collector and minor street length are made for each communi ty type based on numerous community growth and developm ent studies. These estimated lengths are then multip lied by the cost per line! foot of roadway. Recognizing tha t rods in developments wit h higher densities would need to be wider and co ntain more amenities such as sidewalks, ligh t ing, and gutters, t h e report varies the cost per li ne-al foot for eac h category of roadway t o reflect the needs of each development patter n However, t h ese costs are not va ried to reflect any differentiation i n levels of signalizatio n o r overpass bridge structures. Except f or minor roads,. all pavements are assumed to be concrete. T h e report est.imates t hat a low-densi ty community would require more than six times the amomt of minor streets i n a p l anned high-density commu nity This difference in minor street l e ngth required by these two commun it y types accounts for the conclus i on by the report that the transp o rtation costs o f sprawl ore twice as high as those of planned high-densi ty development. N o other economlc costs othe r than those based on r oad lengt h ore considere d for transportauon. Tv.o indirect c o sts of sprawl associated with t ransport a tion arc also considered by the report. Both of these indir ect costs are based on the theory that tr ip l engths in a sprawl -like area are long e r than in compact. urban areas. First t r avel time is found to increase and is categorized as "personal costs" by the report. Second, the report concludes that sprawl g enerates about t wice as much alr pollution as a planned high-density commu n ity The significant d ifference between the air pollution levels was the amou nt generated by automobile travel. The report's assumption that vehicle miles traveled would be t w ice as h igh in a sprav.l commu n ity as i n a planned h igh-density community accounts for this difference. The report's calcul ations of transport tion com appear overly sim plified. Missing from all the these t ransportation costs are any costs associated v.ith alter nate forms of tra nsportation In "Review o f the Costs of Sprawl, Alt shuler (1977) examines the accuracy and applicability of t h e RERC landmark re p ort Results of the report are com p a red to the experiences of actual communities the omission of key cosrs are hi ghlighted, and the validity of th e rep ort's concl usions are q uestioned. T h e author comments that no expenditures for mass transit were included in the RER C report, despite its assumption t hat planned high-density development" would signifi cant l y mi l ize mass tran s i t. Alts h u l er s fir.-c assertio n i s that actua l high-density communities t end to demand more expensive packages of communi ty services and that the re port incorrectly assumes t h at density did not affect the demand level for community services. Next, he identi fies several o missions of key costS from t h e report s calculati ons> one of which is the lack of any mass trans it exp enditures W ith these m issing costs consider e d, t h e validity of the repo rt's r esults are seriously questioned. Altshuler also dlsputes the reduc tion in amo unt o f auto travel for hi gh-densi ty comm unities assumed by the report and that i f a more conservative estimate of the red uction i n au t o travel is used, the n the rep ort's stated claim that l ow dens ity sprawl used 44 percent more energy shrinks drastically, to only 14 percent. Expenditu res for mass transit are also left out of e nergy calcu l ations TntllSjlllrlalian CosiB at Utb1111 Sprowl


even though the a5$umed reduction i n .aut omobile travel was taken into account. The report does state that it is difficu lt to differentiate the transportation costs related to different types of urban form Alts hul er c on cludes that th e report exaggerates the costs of sprawl. F urther more, he concludes that the r eport"s c redibility is weakened by its use of exaggerated figures, the o.rtUssion of key costs, and t h e inadeq uate calibration of assumptions with actual existing conunu nities. He proposes that the report's methodology and analysis be refine d but he believes, however, that this is a l and rnar. k report that would s erve a.s a good starting point for futur e research on u rban form. Despite t h e shortcomings that cast doubt o n the validity o f the report's conclusions the RERC report cannot be underestimated and continues to be a benchmark for future research on the costs of sprawl In The Urbfln TrampoTtation System, Altshule r (197 9 ) exa.rtUnes the American transportatlon sys tem and its related politics and policies. It reviews the problems of th e cur rent automobile dominated transportation system a nd considers future policy innovation. In exa.rtUning the development of the American tran sportatio n system, Altshuler cons i ders several factors. the American public ha.s two st ron g preferences: the automobi le and low density development. Second, on e of the most powerful lobbies in American policies in the 1950s and 1960s wa.s highway interests. T hus, a.s a result of pressure f rom the publi c and industry, sprawl and the do.rtUnance of the Ameri can transportation system by the a utomo bile have both been facilitated by a complex and exten s ive series of govern mcnt actions since World War II. The public is now served by a transportation system that p r ovides excellent mobility at a c ost t hat the pub li c willingly accepts Altshuler reviews the issue of sprawl and presents arguments from both sides of the spraw l debat e He agrees that sprawl may cause some of the problems claimed by its critics, but states, however, that these claims are exaggerated and that it rc.mains unclear whether or not sprawl is more costly than other f orms of development. He also concludes that Americans, with thei r preference for low density development, wiU refuse to live io densities of sufficient magnitude to bring about any n oticeab le changes to the problems associated with sprawl. Bowler, in The St

tion Hanks and Lomax (1991} shows that these periods are no longer only at the t raditional peak periods of the day but now las t through out most of the day. ln an analysis of 39 ur-ban congestion was estimated to have cost the public $34 billion In "The Costs of Urb an Sprawl Gordon and Wong (1985) analyze t h e 1977 Na tionwide Personal Transportation Study and assessed the costs of a polycentric urban form versus a monocent r i c one (monocentric meaning one urban center that the majorit y o f the pop ulace uses on a daily basis). They cite a study by Morrison and Abrahamse which i ndica ted t hat the distance to the work place became sh orte r when t h e inhabitants Jived in suburban areas rather than in urban ones and conclude that this finding is relevant t o the debat e of urban sprawl, because m:my of the arguments showing the adverse affect of urban sprawl assumed that a s the ci t y becom e s decentraliz e d the infrastruc ture costs e x plode T h e conven tio nal wisdom on u rban sprawl, seeing i t as cos tly models the environment search Corporation and numerous othe .rs, who contend that growth assumes a mo nocentric model and trip costs increase with d istance from the cent er. ln "Beyond the Journey to Work Gordon eta!. (1988} use the same 1977 Nati onwide Personal T ransportatio n Stud y a n d disp e l the myth th a t, in the monocentr ic mod el, accessibilit y to the workplace is of para mount importance in the c hoice o f land uses for the pop u lace. They find in the St\1dy that non work trips are becoming increasing l y important over t im e This fin d ing could have a major effect in the debate over the attributes of urban Many current mod els assessing the negative effecc of urban sprawl use increased travel time to wor k as the primary factor i n the costs of urban sprawl. The most attractiv e expla nation of t his growth i n non-work t ravel is tltat the tri p cost savings experienced b ecause of more efficient spatial patt erns give peopl e the impetus to cake more t n ps. Tahle 3 TRANSIT PASSENGER TRIPS (as percent of total number of person trips) STAre 'I'RANSPORTAnON I'OlJCY INITIATIVE as a monocentric on e This means that as sprawl occurs away from an urb a n center, t he tri p costs increase dramatically. Gordon and Wo n g postulate that "wor k trip s become more dispersed as cities grow." They summed up perso n trips by citysize class by t rip purpose, a nd b y time o f day and found that there was no tren d in the resu lts (see Table 3}. Metropolitan Woric Tripi Nan-WD'l"k TrQJs If t h e monocentric view of s prawl i s adhered to one might expect t o find costlier and lengthier trips to th e dominant centers This was not the case in their research. Gordon and W ong find no evidence of costlier and lengt hie r trips to the dominan t centers as cities get more populous." T his typ e of reasoning has been critic ized by the Re al Estate ReTranspol'faliml C<>sto of Url>an Sprawl Area 6-9am PDpulaliDll PNk 3 000k 8 .05 So'"""' Oonlon, I 985 4-7pm Poak 5.39 5 .60 4. 93 5.6 1 5.7 0 6 06 SSom 4 7pm OlfPuk Olf-Poak P H k Pak 6.47 7 .2 7 1 9.27 5 4.58 7.35 7.67 16.70 55.90 7.25 6 94 18.21 56.11 7 .2 3 6.60 16 .24 57.24 7 .41 6 .9 2 16.06 55.45 7.27 7.38 16.23 55.02 7


8 STATB TRAHSPORTAnoN POUCY IHI'ftATTVB Gordon and Richardson (1989) wro t e a counterpoint article to Con sumption in Cities'" by Nev.rman and Kenworthy (NK). The original article compared gasoline consumption in U.S. cities with other i nd ustrlali7..ed areas a rou nd the world and concluded th at the average consumption of gasolin e by Amer icans i.s far greater than t heir glob a l counterpa rts. NK argue that this con sump t i o n ''mainly reflects land use patterns and t he transporta tio n system,"' and t h eir recommendations ore that growth return to a m ore compact form and cities invest in mass transit Gordon and Richardson are proponents of decentra lization of citi es and contend, b ased on their previous researc h tha t ''decentraliza tion reduces pressures on the central business district relieves congestion, and avoids 'grid lock'." They find no relation shi p between city size and trip l engths. With regard to rail t ransit, Los Angeles p lans t o spend $43.7 billion on new transit inve stme nts pl u s $2.96 billion for annual ope rati ons and maintenance, so each work trip would cost approximately $14.75 if the target ridership of 19 p e r cent of total trips co ul d be a ttained. This w o uld not be a n attrac t ive alternat ive to th e private vehicle in t erms o f cost. P ho eni x Arizona, reject ed an $8.5 b i ll i on mass t ransit plan on Mareb 28, 1989, because of the belief t hat it wou l d rtot be cost effective (Bingham, 1989). The argument o n whet h e r this system s h ou ld be i nstalled is still in debate. Urban villages were supposed to be built around the rai l lines, and wheth e r this increases or decreases urban sprawl i s st.ill unclear. In former P resident Carter's Commission for a Natio nal Agenda for the Eight ies, the value of low-density development v.ras reappraised, and spraw l was destigmatized by point i ng to its social and economic adv a n tag es Another curren t development in urban growth i s the idea of (urban villages" that replace sprawl with higher resid ential densities. Audirac et a L (1990) maintai n that these v illages generate their own sprawl and will not reduce cortgestton. There are strong feelings that rail mass transit i s the supe rior form of t rans porta tion. Broosly (1981) exam i ned t h e BART system i n San Francisco. Constructed in an idea l environment to succeed, Brodsly considers t h e BART system a failu re. Enormously e xpensive, the BART system failed to re place the auto m obile as t h e transpor tation cho ice for commutin g Instead, i t has merely complemented c a r travel an d g e n er at e d a multitude of trip s over w hat it had replaced. With its ene rgy costs, Brodsly states th at th e system will take many decades to repay its costs. The heavy subsidies necessary for rapid transit to exist are a testament to the mode,s e xp ense. As an a lternative to the costly heavy rail system s light rail tran sit S}'stems are b e ing promo ted. This systern's costs are closer t o t hose o f a bus system, yet offer many of the more attractive features o f heavy raiL However, a study looking at the i n itia l experiences of new l ight rail s y>"tems in San Diego Calgary and Edmont.on indicates that these systems may not be the an Ea c h city exper-i enced small gains in ridership (over bus systems) and significant cost increases. In San Diego for instance, t h e cost per passenger on the light rail was $3 versus $1 f or the bus system and the cost of a nf'w rider on ligh t rail was between S6 and SIO. This is very significant, c o nsid ering that the rail routes replaced the most po p ula r bus ro utes T h e experie nce of all th ree c i t ies suggests that improvements in the respective bus systems probably w ould have been muc h wiser (GomezIbanez, 1985). Lowdensity sprawl pre sents a most difficult challenge for public transit systems. In a setting of disp ersed rcsi-


dences, workplaces, and facilities, it is extremely expens ive and difficult to provide an adequate level of public transit service to the outer fringes of this area. Webster and Bly show that when a trip originates and ends in the outer fringes, the automobile p rovi des a much faster and convenient mode of transportation (\Vallis, 1991). Thus, the problems facing public transit in the United States, a country of sprawling communi ties and extremely high levels of aut omobil e ownership, are not only obvious they arc enormous. This difficulty to compete wit h the private automobile is reflected in the level of demand for public transit. As shown by Webster and Bly, with a drop in demand, public transit receives revenues and must cut its level of services which, in turn, result s in further reduc tions of demand To avoid lowering service levels, subsidies are needed t o offset red u ctions in demand. It is felt by some that subsides merely act to further lower the cost of all forms of transporta tion, w hich are underpriced anyway, which, in turn, facili tate s more sprnwl. 1990 T h e debate over sp raw l has led many to believe that compact development is the m ost prefera b le urban form Some, however, are not so qu. ick to attack spra wl. Some believe tha t the ideal compact f orm tha t is being promoted is not realistic a n d 1nerely the latest urban utopia to try to solve society's ills. Audirac et. al. (1990) point out that the pursui t o f compact development nm.s counter to America's preference for low density and suburban l ifestyles, espe<:ially in Florida. The perceived amenities of rural areas induce many Florida residents to accept longer commu ting times to live in such areas. This concurs with public opi nion studies for the l ast 50 years. Despite this overw h elming prefe rence of the public, u rban utopias of mixed-use developments and urban villages have been gaining endorsement by local governments. Even in Florida, Audirac notes that pol icies to limit sprawl and promote compact development were recom mended by the Governor's Task Force on Urban Growt h Patterns. The task force's report calls for incentives to be provided for compact urban develop ment and the promotion of public transit and in fill development (Florida Depart ment of Community Affairs, 1989). Iofill development occurs when develop ment takes place on vacant prope rty within an existing u rban area. Infill developmen t seeks to avoid the capital costs of infnstructure by assuming that all the i nfrastructure necessary to support the development is already in place. A st udy of this t heory was conducte d by Falconer and Frank (1990) i n Orlando, Florida, who reveal that spare infrastruc ture (..-a,pacity, c:,.-pecially in transponation, does not always exist and varies by location. This now leaves open the question again of which type of development, io fiU or fringe, will be more expensive to accommodate. T h e decline of the central business district is well documented. Edwards (1991) shows that to serve downtown, the City o f Atlanta has spent $1.4 billion in freeway improve ments and $2.5 billion i n transit improvements to serve downtown, yet the largest retail establishment in down town Atlanta is closing, and the space does no t have a prospective tenant. Infrastruc t u r e is being built in suburbia at tremendously inflated costs, while t her e is surplus infrastructure in the centra l business distr ict In a typic:d suburban retail center, traosponation access can only be supplied by private vehic l e (Edwards, 1991). Edwards also maintains that the l'vlAR T A system in Atlant.1, a lth ough it serves on ly a limited part of a growing met ropolitan region, is considered a success by the city. Atlanta, STATE TRAMSPOl\TATlOH PIIIJCY llfJTIA TMl 9


ID STA, 'I"RAHSPORTATUIM POutY OOTIATIVE having a large financial base, rnay not feel the effects of increased infrastructure costs, but many smal l towns may see a weakening of the urban centers as subu_r.. ban retail facilities become more nant. The implementation of stricter air qu ality regulations found in the Clean Air Act will affect land use and urban deve lop ment. Epstein (1992) indicates that seeking a better integrated mass transit system may constrict lhe deve lopment of far flung housing or isolated commercial development. Zupan (1992), in a study o f transportation demand management, concludes that a population density of at least 3000 people per square mil e was the minimum necessary to provide a suffi cient level of demand for publi c transit H e further concluded that an economic activity clustering of 5 m illion square feet is needed t o support a minimum bus service and at l east 20 million square feet to support an express bus service. Wallis (1991 } examined Avalon, a new urban village in central F lorida, and found several diff e rent arguments for and against these villages. Since Orlan do has adopted a "pay as you grow" ph i l osophy, a service boundary has been defined where urban services will be provided by lite City. Developers that build outside these boundar i es must accept the burden of infrastructure costs. Tom Pelham, a former Secretary o f Florida's Department of Community Affairs, suggests that "the new towns should be l o cated well beyond existing urbanized, whe .re there is littl e chance that they will contribute to sprawl." On the other side, Peter Kanovos, presid ent of the group deve lop i ng Avalon, says that t hes e urban villages are part of the solution lO urban sprav.rl, not the problem He mainta i ns that Avalon's design will have high internal trip capture (more tri ps within the community) (Wa ll i s, !991}. In the United State:;:, the automobile has been subsidized directly through hig hway funding policies. Hanson (1992) quantifies these subsidies and consi dered their significance for transportation and land use policy. He calculates these subs idies base d on Wisconsin Department of Transportation data and finds that "if transportation costs become low enough, there ls li ttle advantage -to being near an urban center." This automobile subsidy is any direct cost in prov id ing for the automob i l e system that is not paid for privately. In Wisconsin, all unitS of government spend approximately $1.4 billion per ycor on roads, half of which are paid directly by State and federal user fees. The re main ing half are paid w ith loca l revenue s such as property taxes. \"(/isconsin assumes greater financial responsibility for roads s erving a travel mobility function than a property access one. Hanson considered expenditures and prop erty taxes, the primary source of loca l revenue, for varying sizes of communities In lvlilwau kee, highway expenditures amounted to S107 million in 1987, with $81 million remaining as the lo cal bu r den. The loco! burden of highway costs is very substan t ial, representing 59 percent of the l o ca l levy. Hanson's data demonstra te that across rural and urban areas, there is consider able subsidy provided to highway users." In the long run user fees end up paying for the majority of cost of t rave llin g by automobile T hi s subsidized transporta tion cost, primarily for the automobile, has produced a pattern of sprawl that would not have otherwise occurred. The logic and methodology of the study are correct, but actual additional transporta tio n cost s for sprawl development are lack i ng. The perception of u rban sprawl in F lorida is that it i s costly and ugly and


causes mass environmental damage. The Florida Dep artm ent of Communit y Affairs and other State agencies call for containing u rban s praw l and promoting compact development. Audirnc (1990 ) poi n ts out that close scrutiny of the assumptions based o n a pejorative view of sprawl reveal that t hey can be biased. Although a compact form, j n a utopia, reduces transportat ion and infrastructure costs, in modern times people s prefer ence a nd tastes s ho w a propensity to settl e in low density are a s. Audirac ci t es a Bureau of Economic an d Business Research Survey in which it was rep o rted that Flor id ians believe that, w ith their experience with urban congestion a nd crime, t hey would rather live in suburban an d cxurban ;treas. The Stat e s policies on compact developmen t will be difficu lt to im p l ement given F loridians' p references !n another survey of F l o ri di ans' residential preferences, amon g peopl e w ho commut ed to work, th e ma j ority of individua l s with a grea t er t han 20min utc fransporfalion CoolS ol Uri>azt Sprawl commu te were wil lin g to drive a comm u t ing time e q ual or l onger than their presen t irork t ripends t o reside in their preferred area. It i s concluded that, a lth ough Florida s new urban growth policy is cente red on compac t devel opment, the pop u lace's preference i ndicates that they woul d be willin g to commute farthe r to work i f t hey could live outside the city. Although the article i s based on a limited number of studies, the strength of their findings cann o t be underrated The weakness o f Audirac (1990) is the failure t o quantify ac t ual tr ansporta tion costs o f urban sprawl. This issue is s till i n heated debat e and an ecumenical answer seems remote. Audirac finds sprawl as a n emerging urban p attern of post industrial society and an interdependent u rb a n structure orgWzed around advanced transportation and commun i cations technologies on a time cost basis. STAT 'IRANSPDRTAnDN POJJCY 1H111AT1VE It


12 TraD.opar!a1iau Coots ol Url1an Sprawl


Conclusion A lthough the literature on the nature and impacts of urban sprawl has been expan s ive t.ransport'ation costs of sprawl have no t been quantified substantially. It is clear that extensive research focused specifically on sprawl's impact upon t ransportation costs needs to be conduct ed. Additionally, the emergence of new travel behavior patterns and the develop ment of the po l ycentric urban form make many past studies and theories obso l e t e Wit h out further study, it will be difficult to judge the performance of recent local govern ment po licies su c h as growth management plans and infiU develop ment. Answers to the question of how sprawl impaCts t r ansportation costs cou l d hel p decide how future transpon:ation do.Uars are spe n t especiall y in cases of mass transit ptojects Pub lic transportation ha s not solved all the p r oblems of urban sprawl, and the literature ind icates that it is used sparingly; t he aut omobile remains the desired mode of transportation in the Uni ted States. A l t hough mass transit is promoted as a cure for many t ransport t ion prob lems, t he r elative l y unimpressive record of recent cosdy mass transit projects has not been promising Future studies on sprawl's im pacts on transportation costs should consider that no one clear definitio n of spraw l has been established and that this introd uces subjectivity and ambiguity to the issue. Since spraw l is so dif f icult to define, it Tabla 4 UNFAVOIIABLE VIEW S OF SPRAWL s ...... Rcma.rb Bowler ( 1973) Suburban existence Ulilize9 h1gtla::r l evels ol energy and land re:eoQJQIS far th8 transponation fwtdio.ns. Bu .... (1977 ) To relieve tNaltic: problem$, transportation poUciol should support public tnaNit and re:bict auto:mobilc wage, STATE TIIAHSPOJITAnDH POIJC't' 1Hl11A11VB Cervera (198 4 ) Subwbat\ office traffic could cause Rll"tous COI\geatlims llf'Oblems on road networkt that WeJe not de!dgned to carry the dCftW>o!. eo ..... ( 1989) Build.iag road nctwo:rks the 1m oul of citicG covcn1 the counvysSde wtth spr:o,wL D:uti.els W Wames 1ntnasod automobile UIJaV* J"8SUlts: in reduced J)Oiilic hrlsit ridership and womcns the financ:1.21 sltu..tion of public lr:Ul!dl ( 19 80) Florida Deputm.e:nt ci Communlly Sprawl in tnaffident and must be restrieted. lDcentives sh ould be ascd to ttnCOUl'Q(IC compa.d and Will dcvdgpmcnt Aflalls (1989) Knack ( 1 991) Wi.lh application of dos;lgn prinQplu s:prawl con be avolded. JIERC (197 4 ) Sprawlb\creaSe!l the e conomic eosts ol transportation. Urban Land Economic devetapmot can result in mare crowded roads and OV8fWOl'ked facilitias. b1stitu1>(1969) Wallis ( 1991) Urban villaQ$6 may Cf'(latJ.l' their own 5Jil'8WL Wcibc'l07 and my Tho dispersion of jobs and homes laads 10 a declin.e in public transi.t. ( 1985 ) Zupan (1992) Minimwn densities are needed to support public transit. 13


STA111 l"RAXSPORT A noM POLICY IMT!At!VE s,..,.. AllshW.. {IS79) AllshW.. ( IS77) Asher (1990) AUAilro< et aL (]990) a..dslr (19 81 ) D.CO.IAS.... ( ISS2 ) Faloonn(l990) Frank (1989) Galls .. a). (1982) Gordan .. a). ( 19 89) llanlon and ft;o:lw-doon (1989) makes differentiating costs o f the trans portation function from the total infra structure costs a difficull tas _k, as suggested by Tables 4 and 5 which indicate various views on sprawl. Also, the public's preference for lowdensity development should be acknowledged. Many s tudies compare spraw l with an ideal compact urban form. Since an ide a l compact urban form does not exlst and is un1ikely to he accepted in the near future by the Tabla 5 American public the usc of t h i s ideal form may not be realistic and might be of little value. Currently, an adequ ate and comprehen sive report anaJyzing t h e transportation coSts of sprawl has not been conducted. Perhaps one will never be completed Until one is conducted, however, the debate on the tra n>-port ation costs of spraw l is unlikely to b e settle d NDT UNFAVORABLE VIEWS OF SPRAWL R.,....b Ooas not find any 8Vidancle that sprawl dtvelopmmt must be mote 03Stl.y than tugh density development. Critlcruas d\8 sbortr:Gmizlgs of "Ths Costs of Sprawl." ShOW& thai the J"CCIC)rt's mthaai.oru; migh t be U\valid. Pr..,... oxwl>an V"QWWh by N o enough evidsnce on costs ol sprawl Compact form contr'adictl; public pndueucq ;md in certain may bt! worse lhan lowdensity de'Velopm enl Rapid WnsillS not a suparior farm ol transportation. Highways rvpresent tbe Amtrican we,y of lih. Macro Level land use &tnuegies have tiUl impact o n highway demand. Exc ess roadway tal)8city doc6 not always exist for infill capadty. Tbe 8Vidsace to s;upport the con.ccpt of costly sprawl is less ltwt adequal8. No evidence exist& that \hat clewlopment acruaDy raises b'atlsportalion cost&. Polyoantric dcvclgpmtrtt shortau commu.Ung time. Decmtral.U.ation relieves c:ongediCih aNI avoids "gridloc:k. .. Gordon and Woog (198 5) Since there i5 no evidence of cosllJn-ud trips with excess development, sprawl is not n.eccss:uily uneconomic:al. Hanson (1992) With law enough costs ttwe is no advantBIJ8 in livin9 close to an wban center Harvey and Oark (1965) Sprawl in ec:on01'tliCQl Kain (1967) Savings 1n urban service costs for hiQhdcnsity offset by higher constnaetion costs. Logan and Schneider Dislance ud density have no dircc:t effect on OJIO" expenditures. (1981) Mullu {IS75) ScriQII.I$ exist ill melhodology used to study sprew1. seo.. (1972) ThC' mast effide1ltlllban form Is 11\.e small-car.orimted city with medium tD 1ow den&Uy. Wisconsi.n Dept. of Sua: transit will not solve urban ,......tion (1989) 14


References Altshuler, Alan. The U rba?! Transporla tio n System: Pol itics a .nd Policy Innovation. C a mbridge !VlA: MIT P ress, 1979. A ltshu ler Alan. "Review of The Costs of Sprawl." Journal of the American Institute of PU.nners (April1977): 207-209. Audir ac, lv o nne, Anne H Shermyen and Marc T. Smith. "I deal Urban F o rm and Visions of the Good Life: F l o rida' s Gro"'th Management Dileroma. Journal of the American Planning Association (Autu m n 1990): 470.481. Bingham, Maren S. "Ph oenix Kisses Trans it Goo d bye." Planning Oune 1989): 6-10. Bowler, Kevin f "Transpo rta tion : The Overall Choices." The Economic Network ( 1973): 90. 107. Brodsly, David. L.A. Fteewq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981. Button, K.J. The Economic s of Urban Transport. Hampshire, GB: Saxon House, 1977. Edwards, John D. "Traffic and Land Use Planning and the Decline o f the Central Business Districts." lTEjournal (1991). Epstein, LeeR. "T r ansportation Planoilg O n e Mor e i n to the B r eacll." Urban Land Oanuary 1992): 38-41. Falco ner, Mary Kay, and james E. F ran k "Sufficiency o f Infrastruc ture Capac ity for Infill Development. journal of Urban Planning and Development (December 1990) : 137-148. Florida Departmen t of Commu n it y Affairs. Task Force on Urban Growth Pauems. Tallahassee, F L, 1989. Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A "A Dark Side to L i ght Rail ? J o urnal of the American Planning Association {Summer 1985): 337-351. G o rdo n Peter, and Harry W. Richardson. "Gasoli n e Consumptio n and Cities: A Repl y." Journal of tbe Amer ican Planning Association (Summer 1989). Gordon P eter, and H. L. Wong. "1be Costs ofUrbao Sprawl: Some New Evid e n ce." Environment and Planning A 1 7 (1985): 661-666. Gordon, Peter, Kumar A jay and Harry W. Richardson "Beyond the Journey to Work." Transportation Research A 22A (1988): 4 19-426. Hanks James W., J r., and Timothy]. Lomax "Roadway C ongestion i n Major U rban Areas: 1982 t o 1988." TransporlllltionResearch Recordl305 (1991): 177-189. Hanso n M ark E. Autom obile Subsidies and Land Use: Estimates and Policy Responses. journal of the American P&nning Association (Winter 1992): 60-69. Harvey, Robert 0., and W A V C l ar k "The Na t ure and Economics o f U r ban Spra wl." Land Economics 41 (1) {1965): 1-9. Transparlation Costs of U.rb .. Sprawl &rATE TRAHSPORTAnnH POLICY lHlnAnVE 1 5


STATE TliAHSPORTATIDH POJJCY lNiliATIVE IS Kain, J oh n F "Urba n Form and the Costs of U rban Services." Discussion Paper N o.6. Cambridge: MIT-Harvar d Joint Center for Ur ban S tud ies, 1967. R at h i, Ajay K., eta!. "Highway Needs for the Year 2005." Transpor tation Research Record 1305 (1991): 177-189. Real Estate R esearch Corporation. The Costs of Sprawl. Washington D .C.: U.S. Gov ernm e n t P rinting Office, 1974. Wachs, Martin. "Pricing Ur ban T ransporution." journaL of tbe America n Pl anni n g Association Quly 1981): 243-2 51. Wallis, Allan. "Florida's Urb an V illages: S alv:ttiorl o r Sprawl?" Plarming (December 1991): 1617. Webster F.V., and P.H B ly. "Changing Pattern of U rban Travel and Impli c ations for Land Use and Transpo rt S tmtegy Transportation Research Record 112 5 (1987). Zupan, Jeffrey M. "Tr ansportation Demand Management: A C autious Loo k." Trans port.ation Research Record 1 346 (1992).


Annotated Bibliography Alt;shul e r Alan. The Urban Transpor tallon Systom: Politics and Policy Inno v ati on. Cambridge M A: MIT Press, 1979. annlysis o f the American t ranspol' tatJon syste m S prawl has b een facilitated b y go vernment a ctions industry, on d public preference WWU. The public hu been quite willing to bear the costs of the Ameri can transpo rtation system si nce i t all o w s the low-density de v e lopm e n t that they pre fer T h e auto mobile will r emain the dominant tr.w.spon:.ation mode for the for=eoble future. Except for pe a k hours, the re is an e xtraordinary amo u n t of road capaci ty i n the U.S. It is unclear wheth e r low-density dev el opment is more costly than high-ere would doubtful hold in pnctice. Similar prob l ems exi s t with energy c alculat i ons an d pollu tion assumpti o ns. T h e report' s meth odo logy an d analysis ne ed refinement but i< provides a benehm,-k for future research. Asher J. Rail Solution s for Seattle?" Railway A,ge ( December 1 990): 83-86. In t he 1980s, the Seattle area was tbe fastest growing metr opolitan area in the country. The result was a rise in traffic jams a declin e in air quality, and a good s tart on urb1111 co ngest ion. Railway system s are proposed as a way t o fan o u t ur-ba n areas and enco urage e xurban growt h. Au dira c, I vonne, An ne H. Shennyen, an d Mare T Smith. "'deal Urban Fonn and Vis io n s of the G ood Lif e : Florida 's Growth Management Dil e mma." Jo urnal o f th e American Pl a n n i n g Association (Autumn 1990): 470. Questi ons the view thot low-density development is un desirable. P o ints out that the view th at sprawl i s ba d and that an ef ficient, compac t urban for m is desirable contradicts p u blic preference for low-density living. Not enough evidence exists t o prove claims that compac.t form is s uperior. Co m pact d ev elop m ent policies som etimes may creat e more p r o b lems in individual areas. B aldassa re, Mark. Trouble in P ara dise. New York : Co lumbia Press, 1986. An in -depth anal y si s of subur b ia. S uburb-to-suburb commuting is t he current trend, with 2 solo driver in 2 p rivate vehicle as the predominant mode. T nnsporto tion system.s have not k ept u p w ith the s u bur bs, and there is general dissat isfaction with the existing transpon:ation systems. While support is voiced for improve ments in tr.msporution systems from the s ub urbs people d o not want to vote the tox do llars necessary t o actuall y improve conditions. Subu.... ban space is being used more inten sively and transformation tow ard h igher d ensi ty is takin g place Barat, J. "Rio De Janeiro Mass Trans portation Syste m. T r ansport and R oad Research lAboratory ( 1 990). P r ovides backgro u n d inform atio n on the m etro'' with its im plica tions in the st ructur e o f the tronsport system SrATB 111ANSPORTAnDN .. PmJC'( IHinA TIYB 1 7


STATE 'I'RAMSPORTAnDN -PDIJCY IHITIATIV! 18 of the area and its urban develop ment. Concl udes that t h e "metro" is moderately used, but the automobile is still t h e preferred method o f transportation. Beimbom, Edward, and Harvey Rabinowitz. "Transit-Based Approach to Land Use Design.'' Transportation Research Record 1349 (1992): 107-113 Examines the nature of land use patterns that are se n sitive to the needs of public transit. Envisioned is a concept of high-accessibil ity corridors that would integrate highway, transit, and land use development. Bingham, Maren S. "Phoenix Kisses Transit Goodbye.'' Plamzi11g Oune 1989): 6-10. Phoenix turned down an $8.5 billion mass transit p l an. The argument a bout whether t h i s system shou ld be installed is still in debate. U rban villages were supposed to be built around the rail li nes, and whether this increases or decreases t h e transporta tion costs of urban sprawl is still unclear. Bowle r, Kevin F. "Transportatioo: Tbe Oveull Choices." In The Suburban Economic Network (1973): 90-107. Describes the cost of the different mode s of transportation; automobiles, rapid rail, and buses. Finds that suburban existence results in a h igher uti lizatio n of energy and land resourc es i n the perfo rmance o f the t r ansportation function. Brodsly, David. L.A. Freeway. Berke ley, CA: University of California Press, 1981. Study and history of the L.A. freeway network. T he hig h w ay system represents the American way of life and arc a product of the long-

pricing would move numbers of cars and congest ion around rather than driving them to the suburbs. He supports that a mocorway system r ather than con necting ci ti es to each other has the effect of draining life out of the cities a nd redistrib util!g it at low densities along the outer beltways a.nd other high-capacity roads. The consequences of trying to build a road n e twork to fit the forecasts will be to cover the cou n try with low-density sprawl. Daniels, P.W., and A.M. Warnes. Moveme11t i11 Cicies. New York: Methuen and Co., 1980 Study of the mechanics of transporta tion in -a metropolis. Rising car usage reduces riders h ip and worsens the financial situation of public transit. Additio n ally the increased congestion caused by automobiles te nds to slow buses '9.'hich, in turn, results in a lower quality of urban transport. DeCorlaSouza, Patrick. "The Impacts of Alternative Urban Development Patterns on Highway System Perfor mance." Public R011ds (September 1992): 72-78. Macro levelland use strategies that simp l y relocate future growth appear to have relative l y little impa ct on highway trav el demand. Edwa rds, Joh n D. "Traffic and Land Use Planning, and the Decline of the Central Business Districts." ITE]our11al (1991). Atlanta has spent $VI b i llion in f reeway improvements and $2.5 billio n in transit i1nprovements to serve downtown, yet their largest retail establishment in downtown is closing, and the space does not have a prosp ective tenant. Infrastructure is being built in suburbia at tremendous ly inflated costs, while surplus infra structure in the central business Transportation Costs of Urlian Sprawl district exists. In a typical suburban retail <::enter transportation access can be supplied only by private vehicle. Epstcin, LeeR. "Transportation Plan ning Redux: One More into the Breach Urban Ltt11d (January 1992): 38-41. The implementa t ion of stricter air q uality regulat ions laid out in the Clean Air Act wil l affect land use and urban development. Seeking a better inrcgrated mass transit system may constrict the development of far-flung housing or isolated commercial development. Falconer, Mary Kay, and James E. Frank. "Su ffici e ncy of Infrastructure Capacity for Infill Development.' Jor

STAlE TRAHSPDRTAnOH POIJl:Y IN!TtATIVE 20 building of "met r os" will not be a panacea f or traffi c congestlon I ems. Frank, James E. The Costs of Alterna live Development Patterns. Urban Land Institute, 1989. Development spread out a t l ow densities in c reases the costs of p ub lic fac i lities. The evidence to support t h e concept of costly sprawl is less t han adequate to support its presence in growth management plans Gans, Herbert J., John D. Kosarda, and Harvey Molotch. "Symposium: The State of the Nation's C ities." Urban Affairs Quarterly 18(2) (1982): 163-186. There is no evidence that leapfrog dev elopment is act ual ly going to raise transportation costs. The preference of the consumer i s st i ll a low-d e ns ity de velopm ent. Giloth, Robert, and John Betancur. "Where Downtown M eets Neighbor hood: Industrial Displacement in Chicago, 1978-1987." Journal of the American Planning Association (Sum mer 1988): 279-289. Explores one of t he co nfli cts that transformation of central business districts has generated, namely the struggle for space. lt also recognizes t h e pere nnial movement of b usinesses to the urban fringe in the search for m or e space, lowe r costs, and social peac e. Therefore because the urbon econom i es are changing, so shou l d their s p atial arrangemen ts; this is not a nat\ral process. Gomezlbane:r., J ose A. "A Dark Side to Light Rail?" Journal of the American Planning Association (Summer 1985): 337-351. A study of t hree cities' experiences with light rail systems. Light rai l trans i t systems, the modem equiva lents of streetcars,. are l ess expensive to build than heavy rail or su bway. 1bough the systems w e re thought t o cost about t he same to operate as 3 bus system (with increased perfor mance), some early systems hav e experienced high costs per added r ider when compare d to bus systems. Gordon, Peter, Ajay Kumar, and Harry W. Richardson. "The Influence of Metropolitan Spatial Structure on Commuting Time." Journal of Urban Economics 26 (1984): 138-151. CBDs are plagued by congestion as urban growth continues> contributing to t he bre akdo w n of the CBD and the formation of polycentric and dis persed metropolitan areas. Polycen t r i c -areas facilitate shorter commuting umes Gordon, Peter, and Harry W. Richardson. "Gasoline Consumption and Cities: A Reply. Journal of the American Pla1ming Association (Sum mer 198 9). Contends tha t d ecent rali z ati o n r educes pressures on the CBD, relieves cong estion> and avoids "gr i dlock." Finds that there is no r elationship between c ity size and trip lengths. With regard to rail transit, points out that Los Angeles plan s to spe nd S43.7 b illio n on new transi t inves tments, plus $2.96 bill ion for annual operations and maintenance, so e ach work t rip would cost S 14.75 if the tar get ridership of 19 percent o f total trips coul d be attai n e d. Con eludes that this would not be an attractive alternativ e to pr ivate vehicle. A l so. minimizing gas usage as a goal does necessarily result in an "efficient.,. system. Ignores significant research ond demo nstrat es l ack of awareness unav.rare of th e transit experiences in the U.S


Gordon, Peter, and H. L. Wong. "Tbc Costs of Urban Sprawl: Some New Evidence. Environment and Planning A 17 (1985): 661 N o evidence is found of costlier and lengthie r trips to the dominant center as cities get more popu l ous Believes that transportation costs will not explode if suburban areas sec cxc:c.s development. Hence, sprawl is not nectSSarily uneconomical. Gordon, Peter Kumar A jay and Harry W. Richardson. "Beyond the Journey to W ork." Trans portation Research A 22 (1988): 419-426. Ana lyzes a NationwidcP ersona l TrJnspo rtation Study (NPTS) that reveals a remarkable i n work troavel, especi<>lly in the suburbs. This growth cente r s on "pe nonal and recreational" trips and is common 10 all income groups. The growth may be e>Cplained by more efficient spati l settlement patterns whi ch have provided trip cost savings Qess time a nd distance). In the monocentl'ic model, accessibility to the workplace is the primary determinant of rcsidcn tial bnd rents and JOC3tion p.ucrns. Discovered nonwork trips arc not only important, but will become more important in the future. The journey to work, especially to the CBD, has been overemphasized in urban models and transpormion po licies . Hank s, James W., Jr. and Timothy J Lomax. Roadway Congestion in Major U rban Areas: 1982 to 1988." 1'ranspor tation Research Record 1305 (1991): 1 77 189. Study of urban traffic congestion. Rush-hour traffic increasingly occurs throug hout the day, not just at peak hours. The resulting congestion results in travel delay and increased fuel co nsumption The tota l annual con of congestion exceeded S34 billion in 1988 Hanson, Mark E "Automobile Subsi dies and Land Use: Estim ates and Poliey Resp onses. J o11rnal of the Ameri can Planning Association (Winter 1992): 60 Postulate s that long term s ubsidies along with other factors have encour aged a pattern of urban and regional land use by sprawl Pro ved that if transportation costs become low enough, the r e is no advantage to livin g in dose proximity to an urban center. Harrison, David. Transportation Technology and Urban Land Use Patterns. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, Department of City and Regional Planning 19 76. Study of the reltionship between t ransp ortation and urban land use. Public transpon:o.tion availability plays a very minor ro le in influencing u rb an land use potterns Land use exerts a major influence on automo bile ownersltip. Decreases in trans portation costs result e d in an in creased effec, tive supply of residential land a vailable. Hangen, David T ., and William J. McCoy. "Uncharted W a ters: The super regional Transp ortation Agency-. Transportation Quartorly Only 1990): 363. Prope ll ed by a h e althy economic environment l o wer land values at the fringe, and increasing interstate transportation access, many ctt tes nperience widespread growth at their boundaries. Harvey, Robert 0., and W. A. V. Clark "The Nature and Economics of Urban Sprawl. Land Economics 41(1): 1 I dentifie s causes and costs of sprawl; concludes that it i s eco n o mical. 21


22 SrATE tRAHSPORTATIOM POUCY INITIATIVE Isard, Walter, and Robert E Coughlin. Municipal Costs of Revenues Resulting from Community Growth. Chandler Davis, 1957. Identifies individual act i vities and functi o ns chat generate revenues. Quant ifies development costs of these functions. James, N. "Trouble in Store." Tntns port and Road Research Laboratory Oune 1989): 4-9. Traces t he trends io shopping devel opme.nts and cites cases from abroad. The development of out oftown s h opping centers is shown to lead to an increase in the number and dis tance of trips made by car in order to obtain all shopping required. Kain, John F. "Urban Form and the Costs of Urban Services." Discussion Paper No.6. MIT-Harvard Joint Center for Urban Studies, 1967. Shows that any savings in urban service costs for high -d ensity struc cures are offset by higher costs. Kain, John F., and Gary R. Fauth. The Effects of Urban Structure on Household Auto Ownership Decisions and journey to Work Mode Choice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Department of City and Regional Planning, 1976. Levels of automobile ownersh i p are a f fected by many different including work location, transportation services available, and resldence. Kelly, John R. "Planned and Un planned New Town Impacts : Applying a Method." Environment and Behavior 7(3) (1975): 330-357. Evaluates the effectiveness o f the Reston, Virginia, Commuter Bu s program. Determines that t his program did not alleviate commut er traffic congestion. King, Leslie, and Glenn Harris. "Local Responses to Rapid Rural Growth: New York and Vermont Cases." joumal of the American Planning Association (Spring 1989): 181-190. Concluded that rural areas experience similar planning responses to develop ment, and should be viewed as small cities rather than little towns. Klooster, J.P. "Transport Costs for the Inhabitants of Planned Residential Areas." Transport and Road Research Laboratory (1989): 231-250. Purports that the variable residential area has a n influence on the mobility of residents This implies higher expenditure for recreational t ravel as a trnde-off to lower e xpenditures for the journey t o work. Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Tony Nelessen's Do-It-Yourself Neotraditionalism." Planning(December 199 1): 16-22. Chronic als Nelessen's plan to pro mote traditional small town design princ i ples into new suburban develop ment. Nelessen believes h i s "visual pre-ference survey, .. which h e uses to gauge local reaction to deve lopmen t should be in universal use. He believes that the virtue of the survey is that it shows w the populace that sprawl and strip development that they thought was inevitable can be avoided. Logan, John R., and Mark Schneider. "Suburban Municipal Expenditures: The Effeets of Business Activity, Func tiona! Responsibility and Regional Context." Policy Studies Journa/9 (1981): 1039-1050. Concludes that s u burbs with a substantia l employment base have higher expenditures than residential suburbs. It was also discovered that neither distance from the central city nor population density has a direct effect on operating expenditures.


Meyer, Mich..e l 0., and Peter Bel ol>aba. "Contingency Planning for Response to U rlno Transportation Sys tem Disruptions. Journal of the American Planning Association (Autumn 19 82 ): 454-465. Points out that, historically, when interruptions to urban mass transit services occur, tt2nsporration costs due to the disrupt ion can exp l ode. Muller, Thomas. Fiscal Impacts o f Land Developmem: A C ritique of Methods and Revi ew of Issues. Washington, D .C.: The Url>an Institute, 1975. Reviem studies that show the fis.:al impact of alternative development patterns. Concludes that the r e are serious shortcomings in the methods to reach conclusions al>out the nature of urban sprawl. Nelsen, Arthur C., Jane H. Lillydahl, James E. Frank, and James C. Nicholas. "Price Effects of Road and Other Impact F ees on Urban Lan.d." Trans portation Research Record 1305 (1991): 36. Analyz es the imposit ion of develop ment impact fees o n the price of urban l and. Dcwrmi nes that the urban land prices will increase io response to increased impac t fees. This COst will force the developen to either find ways to reduce development costs or take fewer profits Rathi, A j a y K., et al. "Highwa y Needs for the Year 2005." Transporuaion Research Record 1305 ( 1 991): 177 89. Report to estimate futu r e r oad requirements. In most cases, the suburban highway networks are not well suited for s u burb-to su burb commuting. In 1987,nearly 80 pucent of all urban traffic occurred in the suburbs and fringe area's This percentage is expecte d to i n crease. In an 1991 economic analysis, the Federal Highway Administration concluded that additional expendi rures could be justified on all func tional highway synems. Real Estate Research Corponti.on. The Costs of SprawL Wasltin. gton D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974. Landmark compre hensive report on the impact of spraw l. Transportation costs were based on street and r o a d costs, whi c h were c a l c ulated by the estimated :unount road le ngth s (arteria l collector, minor) neC<'ssary to serve eac h community type Six community types were examined Planned high-density development required less road length than low density sprawl, especially minor road length, which accounted for the majority of the difference in transpor tation costs. Roughton, Bert, Jr. MARTA; So Good So Far. Platming (April 1989): 14 8. Describes the MART A in Atlanta and notes that, altho u gh t he t rans i t system serves only a limited part o f a growing metropolitan region, it is considered a success. Tltis rail system promotes growth around its sta t ions and, os it extends into the suburbs, it will become an altemotive for thou sands of commuters. Schuler, Richard E. "Transportation and Telecommunications Networks: Planning Urban Infrnstructure for the 21st Century. Urban Studies 29 (2) {1992): 297-310. On the locollevel, telecommunica tions may be o su b stitute for trans p o r tation. This xnay facilitate more sprawl of the d ec reas e d dependency upon transportation sysu:ms. 23


2 4 "Transportation Costs of Urban Sprawl : A Review of the Literature" Project Directo r : A ndre w Dz u rik P h .D !' .., FAMU/FSU College of Engineering Proj ect Staff: M a ur ice Baker Timot h y Kelly FAMUIFSU Collage of Engineering Florida State U n iversi ty 214 H erb Morgan B uilding T a llahassee, F L 32306 {904) 487-6124 CUTR Canter for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering Un iversity of South F lorida 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 1 1 8 Tamp a, FL 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120, fax {813) 974-5168 Gary L Brosch, Dirertor Transpcutalion CGsts o/ Ur6an Sprawl


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