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Hodes, Debra L.
Implementing transportation demand management programs :
the Florida experience /
by Debra L. Hodes, Edward A. Mierzejewski, William A. Mustard.
[Tampa, Fla. :
Center for Urban Transportation Research,
14 p. ;
"Prepared for the ASCE/ITE Conference on Implementing Regional Mobility Solutions, The Meadowlands, Secaucus, New Jersey.
"May 6-8, 1991."
Also issued online.
Transportation demand management
Mierzejewski, Edward A.
Mustard, William A.
Dept. of Transportation.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
y USF ONLINE ACCESS
IMPLEMENTING TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT PROGRA.J.\IIS: TilE FLORIDA EXPERIENCE by Debra L Hodes Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida, Tampa Edward A. Mierzejewski, P.E., M.ASCE Center fo r Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida Tampa William A. Mustard Florida Department of Transportation Commuter Program Manager ' Prepared for the ASCE/ITE Conference on Implementing Regional Mobility Solutions The Meadowlands, Secaucus, New Jersey May 6-8, 1991
ABSTRACT Major transportation demand management initiatives were undertaken in the United States in the early and mid-1970s in response to the requirements ofthe Clean Air Act and as a result of the energy shortages of the seventies. In 1975, the U.S. Department of Transportation codified these programs by requiring the preparation and updating of regional transportation systems management plans. In recent years, widespread traffic congestion bas created a renewed interest in transportation dem.and management. Recently, IDM has received a great deal of attention in the state of Florida. Growth management laws and widespread traffic congestion are the impetus for a renewed interest in this burgeoning field. The Center for Urban Trans portation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida and the Florida Department of Transportation have become a leading resource for the promotion and implementation of transportation demand management programs in the southeastern United States and has embarked upon a major initiative to educate the public and private sectors on the benefit of transportation demand management thro1,1gh various projects in the IDM area. These project include the formation of tra nsportation management associations, the organization of a regional demand management agency in the Tampa Bay area, and the implementation o f a statewide program to promote TDM to the citizens of the state of Florida. This paper describes recent IDM programs undertaken by CUTR and the Florida DOT and addresses the role of a major state university being used as a catalyst for the implementation of innovative transportation solutions. It also emphasizes the importance of a cooperative approach to implementation, which encourages all elements of the public and private sectors to participate in the development of a shared vision of a program they can enthusiastically support 1
INTRODUCTION Major transportation demand management (TDM) initiatives were undertaken in the United States in the e arly and mid1970s in respons e to the req u irements of the Clean Air Act and as a result of the energy shortages of the 1970s. In 1 975, the U.S. Depar tment of Transportation codified these p ro grams by requiring the preparation and updating of regional transportation systems m anagement plans Now, as a result of the recently passed U S Clean Air Act, the world energy situat i on, a n d widespread traffic congestion, there is a renewed interest in TOM. F l orida i s in the process of implementing a far -reach i ng growth management initiative that will have m ajor implications for years to come An impor t ant component of thi s initiati v e deals with transportation Recent yea r s have seen the inability of investment in new t ransporta tion infrastrucmre to keep up with the demands of an in creas ing and activ e population. Florida bas embarked upon a compre hen sive approach t o growth management that will require a dedicated partnership betwee n all levels of goverrunent and the privat e sector in orde r to meet cur r en t and future t ransportation needs and enhance liveability in urban areas of our state. Florida has been identified as a high growth state The ma jori ty of th i s growth is occurring in l ow density subu r ban areas, resu l ting in a rate of land urbanization that i s far outracing ou r population growth (Governors Task Force on Urban Growth Patterns, 1989) Growth in transportation demand has been particu larly dramatic in Florida, where large in migration s have accelerated travel demand inc r eases beyond the national experience. 2
As part of Florida's growth man age ment initiative, local governments are now required to adhere to a new state policy known as concurrency. There is evidence that nearly every community in this fast-growing state is far behind i n expanding its road nerwo rk to meet the needs of the population. In the past, the lack of roads bas done little to dissuade local officials from approving development permits. The concurrency requir ement will prohibit local government from permitting new developments unless adeq uate infrastructure is in place to support growth. As a result, the development community is being forced to deal with i ssues such as adequate public facility ordinances, impact fees, concurrency and transportation demand management. The construction of new roadways is only part of the solution to the problem of burgeoning transportation demand. An often neglecte d tactic is transportation demand management (IDM). Developers, community planners, corporation management, and members of local governments have expressed a renewed interest in this area. To not only accommodate growth but to meet our future transportation needs as well, the Florida Department of Transportation has embarked upon a major initiative to educate the public and private sectors on the benefits of TDM. With the assistance of the Center for U rban Transportation Research (CUTR), a variety of State agencies, transportation management associations, and existing rideshare programs, the Florida DOT has undertaken a massive program that is designed to generate enthusiasm for TDM measures through the creation of public-private partnerships to meet the stat e 's transportation needs. 3
GOVERNOR'S TASK FORCE ON URBAN GROwrH PATTERNS To address Florida's rapid growth iiild its related problems, the Govemor's Task Force on Urban Growth Patterns was appointed. In June 1989, the Task Force issued its final report, which will form an important resource for the State's planning policy for years to come. As part of a rational policy toward development in urban areas, the Task Force report noted that: emphasis must be given to integrated transportation planning ... if Florida's urban areas are to preserve their urban mobility as they continue to grow. Non-structural approaches to increasing transportation capacity, especially programs that reduce peak traffic demand, should be encouraged. The following are specific recommendations of the Task Force: Transportation demand management should be incorporated into the metropolitan planning organization transportation planning process. TDM coordinators should be designated on the MPO professional staffs to coordinate the MPO's participation in local IDM act ivities such as transportation management associations. It was further recommended that Florida Statutes be amended to require IDM as part of the local transportation improvement plans. Transportation demand management should be a required component of every Development of Regional Impact, and Florida Statutes should be amended to require that planning for and funding of adequate IDM measures should be a part of applications for development approval. 4
A statewide clearinghouse should be established for information and tech nical support on transportation detnarid lllaiiagement and transportation management associations. The purpose of the Clearinghouse will be to provide support to local governments to e ncourage the formation of transportation management associations in Florida's urb a n areas and provide sup port to local governments in their efforts to include IDM measures in their transportation planning process. The Stare of Florida should provide seed monies for the start-up of transportation management associations. TMAs should be given Sta te authority to operate shuttle systems in their particular service area. Judicial principles res tricting use of impact fees to capital projects should be altered to allow their use for operating costs associated with IDM programs, including the funding of transportation management assoc iations. The costs of establishing TMAs should be allowable as a credit to impact fees. 5
TDM ACTIVITIES IN FLORIDA Gold Coast Commuter Services The Florida Department of Transportation is encouraging the deve lo pment of transportation demand management programs in Florida. Seve ral of these programs are currently operating, as described below. In southeast Florida the Florida DOT has established the Gold Coast Commuter Services office, which provides u ser friendly" commuter services in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and the West Palm Beach areas. This regiona l commuter assistance program was created t o assist in maintaining the mobility of southeast Florida in conjunction with the reconstruction of Interstate 95. Gold Coast's services include trans it information for th e area's three bus systems, for the Tri -R ail Commuter Service and for Metro Rail/Metromover in Miami. In addition, Gold Coast aggressively promotes ridesharing services throughout the r egi on and provides daily constructio n updates and emergency vehicle control on I-95. Bay Area Commuter Services In the Tampa Bay area, s evera l major IDM initiatives have been undertaken by the Florida DOT, Center for Urban Transportation Research and local agencies The Florida DOT contracted \vith CUTR for the planning and implementation of a regional commuter assistance program in the Tampa Bay area, known as Bay Area Commuter Services, Inc. This non-profit regional commuter assistance program is be in g created under the auspices of the Florida Department of Transportation to work with Bay area TMAs to provide 6
rideshare matching services and marketing services, to develop TOM actions such as v anpooling, carpooling, and pedestrian aild 15icycle improvements, and to implement other TOM strategies The initi al efforts to establish this regional commuter assistance p rogr am c onsis ted of substantial analysis of various institutional models, resulting in a recommended organizational structure. Local governments were involved, primarily in an advisory role with CUTR staff actively guiding the project. The evolution of Bay Area Commuter Services has taken longer than expected. It is important to realize that a project of t his magnitude might not be operational overnight and will require the consensus of all players, public and private. Based on this experie n ce it has become apparent that implementation of TOM organizations proceeds much more smoothly when local public and private organizations play an active role in all organizational decisions. This approach is fully described later in this paper under the Tallahassee TMA discussion. Westshore TMA The Tampa Bay area has also witnessed the evolution of one of Florida's three operational transportation managemen t associations. The West Shore TMA operates in a h ighly concentrated urban area comprising over 40,000 employees. Presently, there are limited opportunities for expanding existing roadways in the Westshore area, and, as a result, local businesses working through the Westshore Alli ance have recognized the need to get the most out of existing transportation infr astructure. In addition to traditional ridesharing, the TMA is promoting pedestrian improvements t hroughout the area and is promoting noon-time shuttle services connecting employment centers with shopping/restaurant areas. 7
The Westshore TMA recently played a very important role in preserving Sunday bus service for service workers employed by numerous in the district. Because of budgetary shortfalls, the local transit authority has been curtailing service, particularly Sunday service. Faced with the prospect of elimination of Sunday service on which numerous hotels were dependent to enable t heir employees to get to work, the TMA organized the hotel industry convincing them to adopt uniform work shift hours. This grass root s solution enab l e d the transit authority to meet the work trip needs of these workers with a single run, rather than the several runs that were previously required to serve the varied work shifts in the area. Central Florida TMA I Downtown Orlando TMA The Orlando area has seen the evolution of two area TMAs. A TMA was recently organized in the vicinity of the University of Central Florida and the Central Florida Research Park. Formally created in December 1989, the University Activity Center Transportation Authority (UACTA) is performing detailed market research studies to identify tbe specific commuting needs of the area. This TMA has convinced the University to shift class hours by twenty minutes, thus shifting vehicles off the roads during the peak congestion period. Florida's newest operational TMA is in the downtown Orlando area. The Downtown Orlando TMA was created under t he auspices of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce and is working with businesses in the downtown Orlando area to identify the specific needs of the commuting public. A key element of all of these successful programs has been the active involvement and participation of all elements of the community in the total development of the 8
organization. It has become apparent that successful implementation reQJlires the inclusion of all in terest groups from the very outset of j)r()gtam planning. Tallahassee T r ansportation Management AssOciation Recently, the Florida DOT and the Governor's Energy Office contracted with CUTR for the planning and implementation of a transportation management association in Tallahassee. CUTR has joined forces with Florida State Univ ersity to implement this TMA as recommended by the comprehensive plan for the city of Tallahassee. The evolution of the Tallahassee TMA is based upon the steering committee approach, which was utilized by one of the authors while at the New Jersey Department of Transportation during the initial formation of the Cross County Connection Transportation Management Association in a five-county area in Southern New Jersey. It reflects the deeply-held conviction that the implementation of IDM programs can be successful if local ownership and advocacy are nurtured. To initiate the Tallahassee TMA, CUTR with the Florida Department of Transportation, the Tallahassee-Leon County Metropolitan Planning Orga nization, Florida State University and the Governor's Energy Office organized a one-day transportation conference that included presentations from TMA experts from throughout the country. Attendees included developers, area business owners, leg islative representatives, government officials, neighborhood association repres entatives, and others. The purpose of the conference was to expose the public and private sectors in Tallahassee to the benefits of a transportation management association and to encourage them to support the TMA concept 9
The conference generate,d substantial enthusiasm and resulted in the formation of a grass roots steering committee comptised oi
work plan for the TMA and will create the enthusiasm for the TMA among employees in the area. The Marketing subcommittee is developing promotional material for t he TMA and a detailed program to attract members to the association. Committee members will work with University representatives to design letterhead, a membership brochure and a newsletter for the organization. The steering committee structure will allow the public and private sectors to be involved in the formation of the Tallahassee TMA from the very beginning and creates the impetus for a true public-private partnership. This grass roots support will be instrumental in the success of the TMA. Development of the TMA has also created a partnership between by Florida State University located in Tallahassee, and the University of South Florida, located in Tampa that will allow these two major academic ins titut ions the opportunity to work together to educate the public and private sectors I ntee;ration of Commute Alternatives into the Growth Management Process As a result of the recently passed U.S. Clean Air Act, six areas of non-attainment have been identified in Florida. To address this problem, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation has embarked on a program that includes transportation management measures such as roadway improvements, new mass transit routes, car and vanpooling, bus shel t ers, bus turnout la nes, transporta tion management plans for developers for VMT reduction, and other measures to limit or restrict vehicle use during periods of 11
peak use, such as road use charges, tolls, parking surcharges, or vehicle registration programs. If the full benefits of these TDM measures are to be realized, it is important that impl ementation be made as easy as possible. The Florida DOT recently contracted with CUTR to promote the benefits of t ransportation demand management and to ease in its implementation. The project, entitled '1ntegration of Commute Alternatives into the Growth Management Process," will assist the State in meeting concurrency requirements and air quality objectives. As part of this project, CUTR has written two handbooks and will be presenting a series of workshops, producing a TDM video, and producing a statewide TDM conference. The handbooks will be the basis of a series of 40, one-day workshops to be held throughou t the state to educate the public and private sectors on the benefits of TDM. The workshops will be taught by CUTR staff with the assistance of staff from cooperating Florida universities. A 1DM video will also be produced that will target employees of businesses and other participants in 1DM programs. Also, a statewide 1DM conference will be held as a forum for the exchange of expe riences to generate innovative ideas for implemen ting and promoting 1DM and developing innovative solutions to Florida mobility problems. It is anticipated that the resu lts of this program will be the widespread application of 1DM techniques on a statewide basis. IMA Clearinehol!'i\ 12
Through funding from the Florida DOT and the Governor's Energy Office, CUTR is establishing a TMA Clearinghouse. The Clearinghouse will assist the Florida DOT in the establishment, promotion and efficiency of area TMAs and commuter assistance programs. It will complement, foster the development of, and assure the existence of one central resource to area TMAs and commuter assistance program. In the state of Florida, there is currently no central source of information on TMAs that can readily provide a wide variety of resources to the large number of professionals, businesses, and government entities that have expressed an interest in this field CUTR, through the Clearinghouse, will implement a coordinated approach to provide up-to-date information to TMAs, commuter assistance programs, developers, and citizens of the state of Florida. Other IDM Projects A variety of other IDM projects are planned or have been held throughout the state, including a Suburban Mobility Initiatives conference in Jacksonville and a TMA co'nference in Key West. Related activities are planned for Miami and Pensacola. CONCLUSIONS The Florida DOT has developed a comprehensive approach to addressing its mobility and congestion problems through implementation of a variety of IDM programs. Its approach is unique in that it utilizes the University of South Florida's Center for Urban Transportation Research as a catalyst for the promotion of new programs. The expertise and objectivity offered by a research center housed at a major state u niversity have made 13
it possible to bring p u blic and private decisionmakers to the table where traditional government may not have succeeded. Other states may want to explore using educational and research centers for the imp l ementation of innovative transportation solutions. Florida's and CUTR's experience with IDM programs in the state have emphasized the importance of grass roots involvement of all interested parties from the earliest stages of deve l opment Local ownership and advocacy are instrumental to the success of these programs. Through a substantial educational and marketing approach, the Florida DOT, CUTR, and other Florida u n i versities are making every effort to build IDM into the consciousness of the community. 14