Report to President Betty Castor, University of South Florida

Report to President Betty Castor, University of South Florida

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Report to President Betty Castor, University of South Florida in re USFWISE relationship and related matters
Portion of title:
University of South Florida in re USF/WISE relationship and related matters
Portion of title:
USF/WISE relationship and related matters
Alternate Title:
University of South Florida/World and Islamic Studies Enterprises relationship and related matters
Alternate Title:
WISE report
Smith, William Reece, 1925-
Castor, Betty, 1941-
USF Faculty and University Publications
Place of Publication:
[Tampa, Fla
University of South Florida
Publication Date:
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[211] leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.


bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"May 1996."
Statement of Responsibility:
Wm. Reece Smith, Jr.

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Report to President Betty Castor, University of South Florida :
in re USF/WISE relationship and related matters /
Wm. Reece Smith, Jr.
3 246
University of South Florida in re USF/WISE relationship and related matters
USF/WISE relationship and related matters
University of South Florida/World and Islamic Studies Enterprises relationship and related matters
WISE report
[Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida,
[211] leaves :
ill. ;
28 cm.
Title from cover.
"May 1996."
Includes bibliographical references.
2 610
University of South Florida.
World & Islam Studies Enterprise.
University of South Florida.
Committee for Middle Eastern Studies.
Islamic Committee for Palestine.
Castor, Betty,
USF Faculty and University Publications.
t USF University Archives Collection
4 856


REPORT TO PRESIDENT BETTY CASTOR University of South Florida in re USF /WISE Relationship and Related Matters Wm. Reece Smith, Jr. May, 1996


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. THE ORIGIN OF THE COMMITTEE ON MIDDLE EAST STUDIES The Committee and University Mission and Purposes WISE AND ITS ASSOCIATES The Development of WISE Dr. Khalil Shikaki . Dr. Sami al Arian . Dr. al Arian and Recent University Action Dr. Mazen al Najjar . . Mr. Sameeh Taha Hammoudeh Dr. Ramadan Abdullah Shallah Dr. Basheer M. Nafi . THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA WISE RELATIONSHIP VARIOUS CONCERNS Religious Concerns on Campus University curriculum, course offerings and content . . . Teaching the Holocaust . . . Emphasis on Islamic Studies . . Faculty Bias . . . . . Conferences, Lecturers and Seminars The Joint Conferences of USF and WISE ADJUNCTS, GRADUATE STUDENTS AND EXTERNAL AGREEMENTS Adjuncts Graduate External Students Agreements THE UNIVERSITY REACTION Legal Concerns . CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS -i-1 7 12 13 13 15 21 26 27 29 31 36 40 64 64 65 66 66 66 70 71 78 78 80 82 84 94 98


APPENDICES 1. Work done on Assignment 2. Individuals Interviewed 3. Materials Reviewed 4. position Paper Recommending center for Middle East Studies 5. Memorandum authorizing committee on Middle East Studies and Appointing Original Members 6. Curriculum vita of Dr. Khalil Shikaki 7. Activities of Middle East Study Committee 8. certain books in USF Library 9. Grant Application to United States Information Agency 10. Brochure of the International Institute of Islamic Thought 11. The USF/WISE Agreement 12. Article by Mr. Arthur Lowrie 13. Scholars attending Round Table conferences 14. Proposed Policies and Procedures re Adjunct Faculty 15. Rules and Regulations re Graduate Students 16. Rules and Regulations re External Agreement 17. Statement of Acting Provost Michael Kovac 18. Memorandum of President castor to Provost and Others -ii-


INTRODUCTION Early in January 1996, I was asked by President Betty Castor of the University of South Florida (USF or the University) to conduct an independent, external investigation of events revealed by, and related to, certain media reports. Those reports alleged that a University professor was associated with Middle East terrorist activities and that a University entity was connected to an off-campus organization which was, in turn, also allegedly linked with Middle East terrorism. I advised President castor that I was willing to pursue the assignment but could not commence until sometime in February because of prior professional commitments. Initially, I thought the undertaking might be completed in a few weeks. That was my first mistake. While there may be other mistakes reflected herein, I have sought to avoid them. My goal throughout has been to be thorough, accurate, objective and fair. I was requested at the outset to (1) review documents pertaining to the appointment of the University's Middle East studies committee (the committee or COMES) and the Committee's association with an off-campus organization known as World and Islamic studies Enterprises, Inc. (WISE), (2) review a written agreement between USF and WISE and relevant records of joint transactions resulting from the agreement, and (3) develop information regarding the origin, charge, membership and meetings of the Committee. In addition, I was asked to interview all individuals involved in relevant activities and to assess the


appropriateness of action taken by the University regarding the USF/WISE relationship as well as to consider relevant legal issues. I was advised, however, that I was at liberty to expand upon or restrict my initial assignment as I saw fit without direction from, or interference by, the University and that I could expect the University's full cooperation. There has been no direction or interference by the University and I have received its full cooperation as promised. The following report reflects the manner in which I ultimately defined and pursued my mission. Following review of all relevant news reports available to me, as well as several videotapes, I commenced review of documents provided by University officials and began interviews with University personnel. As my work progressed, I requested and received other University documents I deemed relevant. I also interviewed all individuals who appeared to have knowledge of relevant matters and were available to me; all those who were recommended to me for interviews by interested parties both on and off campus; and all individuals who requested an interview. In addition, I caused an advertisement to be run on three separate occasions in the USF campus newspaper, The Oracle, indicating my desire to interview anyone who had knowledge of facts relevant to my inquiry. There was no response to the advertisements. At the time I commenced my work, I was uncertain whether my role would prove to be that of a consultant or a lawyer. This -2-


was relevant, in part, because the University would require the approval of the Florida Attorney General to employ outside counsel at the rate at which my services are normally billed by the law firm of which I am a member. After considering the matter, I advised Noreen Segrest, Esq., the USF General Counsel, that I would treat the request for my services as personal. I have proceeded accordingly. No member of my firm, and no individual elsewhere, joined me in my investigation. The findings and conclusions stated herein are solely my own and I alone am responsible for them. After evaluating the undertaking, I decided I should act in the capacity of a lawyer and I advised Ms. Segrest accordingly. We then agreed that compensation for my services would be fixed within the confines of her authority to employ counsel. Accompanying this report is a detailed statement regarding the manner in which I spent my time, the total number of hours devoted to the undertaking and the compensation I ask for my efforts. See, Appendix 1. However, I care far less at this stage of my career about compensation than I do about the integrity of my work product. Thus I will waive all compensation if there are responsible suggestions that this report is tainted by prejudice or profit motive. On the other hand, if critics find my work has simply gone wrong, I will take the abuse and the money. As Tennyson said (Alfred Lord, not Wright), "the jingling of the guinea heals the hurt that Honour feels." -3-


All individuals interviewed in the course of my inquiry spoke with me freely and voluntarily, and I am grateful for their cooperation. I had no authority to obtain search warrants, issue subpoenas or take depositions under oath. However, while my interviews were conducted without the force of law, I did use my experience as a trial lawyer in judging the candor and veracity of those with whom I spoke. That judgment is reflected in the findings and conclusions expressed herein. A complete list of those I interviewed is attached as Appendix 2. Appendix 3 reflects the written and recorded materials to which I referred during my work. I have pursued this undertaking at some disadvantage. Professor Sami al Arian and Dr. Mazen al Najjar were at all relevant times engaged in litigation with the United states government, and Professor Abdelwahab Hechiche was engaged in litigation with the University. All are represented by counsel. In each instance, I contacted counsel and advised that I was available for interview with the client. In each instance, counsel advised me that he would advise the client not to meet with me. I would have given the same advice to a client under similar circumstance, and I do not draw any inferences from the advice so given and taken. As a result of litigation, however, I have not interviewed the individuals mentioned above. Also, I did not have access to the records of two entities identified hereafter as WISE and the ICP. The federal government has seized those records, among others. -4-


In the course of my work, I also met separately with three representatives of the news media who have given close attention to the subject matter of my inquiry, Messrs. steven Emerson, Michael Fechter and James Harper. Each was helpful, while at the same time protecting his sources and waiving no right or obligation to comment upon and criticize both my work and this report. I am especially indebted to Mr. Fechter who saved me hours of work by directing my attention to relevant material, sometimes obscure but invariably in the public domain. I stress that he did so without compromising his duties as a journalist. Mr. Fechter and I are members of different professions and, to some extent, we are thus guided by different standards. Therefore we may very well disagree, and others may also, about the findings and conclusions stated herein. I acknowledge here, however, that Mr. Fechter's reporting, as well as that of others, has served to bring to the attention of the University and the public-at-Iarge matters of legitimate public concern. In the course of my interviews, I encountered both fact and opinion. Some concerns expressed during my interviews touched less upon matters of fact than upon religious, political and emotional holdings. Often, however, perception is as important as fact. For that reason, I have chosen to address a variety of perceptions and concerns expressed to me in the course of my interviews. I have great respect for the viewpoints so asserted, whether related to matters of fact or to religious or political -5-


belief, and I have sought to treat them accordingly as I bring them to the University's attention. Finally and importantly, I stress that my assignment placed me in the position of "second guessing" actions taken, and decisions made, several years ago. Like most human beings, I sometimes do better with "second guesses" than with decisions that must be made in point of time. I have sought in this report, however, to examine the facts as they existed at the time action was taken and decisions were made. The task is daunting but the judgments I have made, and the opinions I have expressed, are as objective as I am capable of achieving in retrospective examination. -6-


THE ORIGIN OF THE COMMITTEE ON MIDDLE EAST STUDIES One of my requested assignments was to review the origin and activities of the committee on Middle East Studies (COMES or the Committee) and to determine if the formation of the Committee was consistent with the purpose and mission of the University. After commencing my work, it became apparent that the origin of the Committee required special attention because of a sugges-tion that the formation of the Committee was influenced by the organization known as World & Islamic Studies Enterprise, Inc. (WISE) The suggestion arises from comments made when the second USF/WISE Round Table Conference was convened in May 1993. In the written transcript of the proceedings of that conference, Dr. Jamil Jreisat, a tenured professor of the University and an original member of the Committee, is reported to have stated at the opening of the Conference: "I would like to say a couple of words about the connection between the University of South Florida and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE). This is a very happy marriage indeed. It has so far produced some good results, one of which is the first monograph of last year's round table with Dr. Hasan Turabi of the Sudan. Here at the university, we have no Department of Islamic Studies or Department of Middle Eastern Studies per se. We really teach few courses on the Middle East. We, however, offer nine courses on Judaism, five courses on Christianity, and none on Islam. We have one course on the Middle East, thanks to Professors Arthur Lowrie and Abdelwahab Hechiche who, single-handedly, teach this course. Then comes WISE into the picture -an insti--7-


tution devoted to the research and study of Islamic thought and life. The institution approached us several years ago, and suggested that WISE and the University co-sponsor events on Islam and the Middle East. We, naturally, welcomed this opportunity, and we created The Committee on Middle Eastern Studies in order to facilitate future work with WISE and other similar institutes and scholars in the united States." While the latter part of this statement is somewhat ambiguous, it can be read to suggest that the committee was created at the instance of WISE to facilitate work with WISE and like organizations. I therefore sought further information from Dr. Jreisat. He stated his remarks were given without notes after being advised, shortly before the conference commenced, that Dr. Orr would be unable to attend to offer opening remarks and that he was to substitute for Orr. Dr. Jreisat believes his remarks are not correctly transcribed. But, assuming they are, he says he erred and he confirmed to me, as others have also done, that WISE had nothing to do with the creation of the committee. Other data also confirm this fact. In part, the Committee grew out of an initiative commenced by then USF President Francis T. Borkowski, who appointed a commission in 1989 known as the "USF Planning Commission: Shaping Our Future." The Commission was charged with providing leadership for the University community in planning strategically for its future. Among other things, the commission was asked to consider the need for greater emphasis at USF on international research and studies. The Commission's report, later published in september 1992, addresses the subject of internationalization -8-


at some length and includes the observation that "[i]nternational awareness necessitates bringing more of the world to the University and more of the University to the world." Following appointment of the Borkowski Commission, members of the University faculty representing various disciplines were encouraged to explore the development of programs with an international orientation. Informal discussions among faculty members suggested USF might focus on the Pacific Rim, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. It was observed, however, that institutions of higher learning in the southeast, and elsewhere throughout the country, had well-developed programs devoted to study of the first three regions mentioned above. While Middle Eastern study programs were also known to exist in a number of American universities, there was no known center for Middle East studies in a southeastern university. Moreover, USF had already established ties with the united states Central Command at MacDill Field and, with the Gulf War crisis developing, USF was receiving encouragement from MacDill officials, including General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, to develop scholarly interest in, and devote research and instructional effort to, the Middle East region. Several members of the faculty in the Department of Government and International Affairs gave independent thought to the matter which, in turn, became a subject of discussion within the Department. Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 and interest in the Middle East heightened. This interest culminated in two -9-


faculty members, Dr. Jamil Jreisat and Mr. Arthur Lowrie, undertaking to develop a position paper supporting creation at the University of a center on Middle East studies. The position paper reached its final form in October 1990, after being circulated among other faculty members in the Department and gaining their concurrence. A copy of the position paper is included herewith as Appendix 4. The proposal for the center then advanced from the Department to the administration of the College of Arts and Sciences, where it also gained approval. Thereafter the proposal was submitted to Provost Gerry Meisels for final consideration. It should be noted that the proposal suggested sources of funding for the project. The sources mentioned, however, are those often identified as possible sources of support for scholarly projects of this nature. No reference is made in the proposal to WISE or to the possibility of funding support from that organization. Provost Meisels regarded the project to be initially too ambitious, particularly because no funding was available for its support. Therefore he authorized, instead, the creation of a committee rather than a center and, upon the recommendation of proponents of the project, appointed the initial committee members. Dated January 29, 1991, the letter of authorization and appointment designated as initial committee members Dr. Mark Orr, Chair, International Affairs; Dr. Abdelwahab Hechiche, International Affairs; Dr. Jamil Jreisat, Public Administration; Mr. -10-


Arthur Lowrie, International Affairs; Dr. Mohsen Milani, Political Science; Dr. Ailon Shiloh, Anthropology; and Dr. James strange, Religious Studies. A copy of the appointment letter is attached as Appendix 5. All committee members deny any knowledge of the existence of WISE at the time the committee was appointed. This is confirmed by information provided by Dr. Khalil Shikaki. There is, however, a coincidental overlap in the development of the two organizations. As noted hereafter, those who developed the WISE concept approached Dr. Khalil Shikaki to serve as its initial Director and as a research associate in mid-1990 and he came to Tampa to do so in the early Fall of 1990. The Articles of Incorporation of WISE reflect that they were executed by the incorporators on January 1, 1991 and were filed as approved by the Florida secretary of State on February 21, 1991. Thus, ultimately, there appear to be only two facts which would suggest that WISE influenced or otherwise had anything to do with creation of the Committee. First, they were developing at approximately the same time. Second, Dr. Jreisat's transcribed remarks, somewhat ambiguously, suggest a connection. All those with relevant knowledge whom I interviewed, however, assert positively and consistently that WISE did not influence the creation of the Committee. Those assertions are consistent with other data reflecting the independent progression at USF from the Borkowski Commission, to Faculty consideration, to the proposed -11-


Middle East Center, to the University Committee. I believe the aforementioned assertions and accept them as true and correct. The existence of a program focused upon Middle East studies undoubtedly is consistent with the University's purpose and mission. such programs are a proper pursuit of higher education even without the adoption of specific objectives. The encouragement of international studies by the Borkowski Commission, the findings of which were adopted as a USF mission statement, give further support for the Committee's undertaking as a legitimate component of the University's purpose and mission. -12-


WISE AND ITS ASSOCIATES The Articles of Incorporation of World & Islamic Enterprise, Inc. (WISE) were executed by Dr. Sami al Arian, his wife, Nahla al Arian, and one Omar Ramahi of Champaign, Illinois. (I have been unable to contact Mr. Ramahi. I note, however, that he later became an associate editor of the magazine, Inquiry, published by the Islamic Concern project, Inc., of which Dr. al Arian was also an incorporator, which, in turn, was affiliated with the Islamic Committee for Palestine (ICP. As previously stated, the WISE Articles of Incorporation were recorded by the Secretary of State of the State of Florida on February 21, 1991. The idea for creation of an organization such as WISE appears to have developed much earlier. For reasons previously stated, I have not interviewed Dr. al Arian and Dr. al Najjar. However, Basheer Nafi stated to me in an interview that he attended a meeting in st. Louis, Mo. in mid-1988. He encountered Mazen al Najjar at that meeting. Nafi and al Najjar had been previously acquainted as students at the University of Cairo. (Dr. Nafi also stated to me that, while Nafi was later pursuing his Master's degree at the University of Cairo, he also became acquainted with Ramadan Abdullah Shallah with whom he met occasionally during that period of time.) At the 1988 st. Louis meeting, al Najjar introduced Nafi to sami al Arian who was also attending the meeting. According to Nafi, the three then discussed the possibility of creating a -13-


scholarly research center devoted to enhancing understanding of life and thought in the Muslim World. Originally, and for some time thereafter, the proponents envisioned development of a research center in the environs of Washington, D.C., with the expectation that funding for the project could be obtained from one or more wealthy Saudi Arabian supporters. The concept, however, was slow in its actual development. Meanwhile, Dr. al Arian formed the ICP, which began in December 1988 to present annual conferences to which Muslin scholars, politicians and other personages were invited to attend and speak. Apparently these invitations were extended by letters and notices circulated in this country and abroad. The first such conference was convened in December 1988 in st. Louis. Thereafter, ICP conferences were held annually each December in Chicago through 1992. 1988-1992 were the years when the Intifada, the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli government, occurred. Members of the public were invited to attend. A participation fee was charged and appeals for funds to support Palestinian and other causes were made. These fundraising efforts are further discussed hereafter. Dr. Nafi attended the ICP conferences in 1988 and 1989 but not thereafter. However, he stated that he and Dr. al Arian met from time to time when Dr. al Arian visited England, where Nafi was employed as a research fellow at a medical school after pursuing a doctoral degree at London University. On occasion -14-


during these visits, according to Dr. Nafi, there was further discussion of the proposed research center. According to Nafi, as time passed and political tension heightened in the Persian Gulf area, the Nafi -al Arian -al Najjar plan to establish a research center in the Washington, D.C. area was abandoned because the expense was too great and prospects for Saudi funding diminished. A decision was made, instead, to create a small center in Tampa, where al Arian and al Najjar resided, with initial funding to be provided by local Muslims and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in Herndon, Va., where Nafi had contacts. Meanwhile, Dr. Khalil Shikaki had come to the united states in 1989 as a visiting professor at the university of Wisconsin -Milwaukee after Shikaki's university, An-Najah National University, at Nablus in the West Bank, had been closed by the Israeli government during the Intifada. At Wisconsin, Shikaki was associated with Dr. Mark Tessler, Director of International Studies at University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee and a past president of the Association for Israel Studies. Tessler knew Shikaki as a result of Tessler's frequent visits to Israel. At that time, Tessler's university had an affiliation agreement with Shikaki's, funded by the United states Information Agency. While teaching and lecturing at Wisconsin in the Fall of 1989, Dr. Shikaki received a written invitation from Dr. al Arian to speak at the 1989 ICP Conference. Shikaki was not previously acquainted with al Arian. However, Shikaki accepted the -15-


invitation and spoke at the conference although he does not recall meeting Dr. al Arian then. He did meet Dr. Nafi at that time. Although Shikaki and Nafi were reared in the same Gaza village, Shikaki's family moved when he was quite young and Shikaki does not recall meeting Nafi at any time before the 1989 ICP Conference in Chicago. After coming to Tampa, Shikaki attended another ICP conference. He found the conferences informative and intellectually stimulating. They attracted Islamic figures from many parts of the world whose interests and views varied widely. They provided opportunity for social as well as intellectual exchange and were of much interest to a political scientist. Shikaki learned of the plans for a new research center from Nafi during the 1989 conference. According to Shikaki, the location of the center was not resolved at that time, but he received from Nafi overtures about joining the center as a research associate when it was established. When Shikaki's year of service at Wisconsin ended in mid-1990, An-Najah National University was still closed and he could not return to his teaching and research post there. He therefore went to New York City and taught at the United Nations during the summer of 1990. During the summer, he was contacted either by Nafi or al Arian and was invited to become a research associate and director of a new research center in Tampa, Florida. Tampa would have seemed to him an unusual place for a center but for the large state university located there. -16-


Shikaki arrived in Tampa in September or October of 1990. Nafi was then visiting in Tampa and Shikaki, to his recollection, then met Dr. al Arian for the first time. To his disappointment, Shikaki learned that the new center had yet to find a location and to open an office. uncertain of the future, Shikaki inquired at USF about a teaching position. The semester had already started, however, and no position was available. Soon thereafter the offices of the new center were established near the University. Shikaki commenced his work at WISE in the Fall of 1990, and prepared an article for publication in the inaugural issue of WISE's Arabic journal. In April 1991, he attended a program at USF, featuring William Quandt of the Brookings Institute, and learned for the first time of the committee on Middle East Studies. He believes Dr. Orr, and perhaps other committee members, then, in turn, first learned of WISE. Discussions ensued that led to an initial meeting with committee representatives in June. As described elsewhere herein, Dr. Shikaki, Dr. al Arian and Dr. Nafi met with representatives of the USF Middle East Studies committee in June 1991 to discuss the possibility of future cooperative efforts. Further discussions on that subject ensued after Dr. Shikaki was employed as an adjunct professor at USF for the Fall Semester of 1991. After subsequent inquiry by the Committee about WISE's structure and funding, the USF/WISE agreement was executed in March 1992. -17-


Dr. Shikaki stated to me that he not only personally prepared and edited articles for pUblication in WISE's Arabic journal but also joined with Dr. Nafi, who returned to London after the June 1991 meeting at a time I could not establish, and later with Mazen al Najjar and others, in soliciting articles for publication in the WISE journal. The articles addressed various matters believed to be of interest to the Muslim World including political issues. As Shikaki noted to me, he was primarily a political scientist. Shikaki stressed, however, that WISE did not "take sides" on political matters and did not espouse particular political views or causes. He asserted that he would have had no part in producing political propaganda and would not have worked at WISE if that had been the case. WISE appeared to him to be a small but serious, legitimate research center devoted to enhancing understanding within and about the World of Islam. It was funded by contributions from the local Muslim community and by the International Institute of Islamic Thought, with which Shikaki was familiar and which was well-regarded by him. Shikaki stated to me that there was not the slightest indication to him that WISE had a political agenda or was a "front" for terrorist sympathizers or activities. Had this been so at anytime, he said, he would have left the organization immediately. In mid-1991, one Ramadan Abdullah joined the WISE staff as a Middle East economist. Shikaki states he had not previously met Abdullah and, throughout Shikaki's tenure with WISE, Shikaki knew the economist only by the name Ramadan Abdullah. Abdullah held a -18-


doctoral degree and, by appearance and performance, was a quiet, competent academic type. Dr. Shikaki also stated that Mazen al Najjar was also a member of the WISE staff during Shikaki's tenure at WISE; that al Najjar did administrative work and assisted in soliciting and editing journal articles; and that Sami al Arian visited WISE from time to time, but took no part in its daily activities and work. While employed at WISE in mid-1991, Dr. Shikaki applied to USF for a teaching position in Political Science and International Affairs. Having received his undergraduate and master's degrees in Political Science from the American University of Beirut and a Ph.D. in the same field from Columbia University, and having taught, lectured and engaged in scholarly research while at An-Najah National University and the University of Wisconsin, Shikaki's academic credentials were strong. He was employed at USF in the Fall of 1991 to teach two sections of Political Introduction 3002 as an adjunct professor. At the same time, he continued his service as a research fellow and Director of WISE. By virtue of his work at WISE and USF, Shikaki became wellknown to members of the Middle East Studies committee and the faculty of the Department of Government and International Affairs. He gained their confidence and respect as a scholar and, as indicated elsewhere, it was Shikaki who was primarily -19-


perceived by the committee members as giving creditability to WISE as a legitimate, scholarly research center. The Israeli government allowed An-Najah National University to reopen in late 1991 and Shikaki wished to return home. He obtained an Israeli permit to do so but, upon attempting to enter Israel from Jordan in January 1992, he was denied entry and his papers were confiscated without explanation by Israeli authorities. He remained in Jordan for several weeks thereafter seeking to gain permission to return home. Unable to do so, he returned to Tampa. Subsequently, in early 1992, some members of the Committee, together with scholars of other American universities, protested Shikaki's exclusion from the West Bank in a joint letter addressed to the Israeli government. Similar protests were expressed in a column by Mark August published in the Tampa Tribune and in a Tribune editorial. Anthony Lewis of the New York Times also expressed interest in Dr. Shikaki's case and learned that Shikaki had been denied reentry solely because of his brother's connection with the Islamic Jihad. Lewis also protested. The protests had effect. The Israeli government reversed its position and Shikaki was allowed to return to the West Bank and his in June 1992. More recently, he took a leave of absence from his university in order to establish the Center for Palestinian Research and Studies at Nablus of which he became the director. Among other activities, that Center is known to conduct polls regarding the current Israeli-Palestinian Peace -20-


Negotiations and related matters. Those polls have been characterized in our national press as highly respected and reliable. It should be noted that while several individuals, employed at WISE or involved with its creation, have been alleged to have given support to terrorist activity, or to have violated federal law, no such accusations have been made against Dr. Khalil Shikaki at any time either by law enforcement officials or in any media report of which I am aware. The absence of such allegations bears particular emphasis given the additional undisputed facts that Dr. Shikaki was associated with WISE and is the brother of Fathi Shikaki, the first leader of the Islamic Jihad. A curriculum vita of Dr. Khalil Shikaki appears at Appendix 6. There are remarkable links between those who created WISE or were subsequently identified as members of the WISE staff. Hereafter, I mention the linkages briefly and provide summaries of information regarding these individuals that came to my attention during my inquiry. Dr. Sami al Arian was born in Kuwait of Palestinian parents. He received his primary and secondary education in Egypt and came to the united states in 1975 for further study. He received a baccalaureate degree in 1978 from Southern Illinois university in engineering, a master's degree in the same discipline from North Carolina State University in 1980, and a Ph.D. degree in engineering from North Carolina State in 1985. Thereafter, he -21-


applied to the university of South Florida for appointment in a tenure track position as an assistant professor in Computer Engineering. He was selected in the usual fashion for the position in 1986, after a nationally advertised, competitive search, and commenced his service at USF in the same year. He was promoted to the position of Associate Professor, and obtained tenure, in 1992. Dr. Al Arian's professional work in the College of Engineering at USF appears to have been outstanding. In 1987, he was designated in a non-university publication as one of the "outstanding Young Men of America." Thereafter he received several awards at USF, given for "Best Teacher" and as part of the State's "Teaching Incentive Program", and also attracted significant grants for University research activity. In the general community, Dr. al Arian has been a leader of his mosque. He was instrumental in establishing a school in Tampa for Muslim children. He is stoutly defended by Muslim friends as being falsely accused of terrorist sympathies. Dr. al Arian, however, is admittedly a Palestinian nationalist and undoubtedly is opposed to the occupation by Israel of territory which he and others of like view regard as Palestinian. An account of Dr. al Arian's activities must include reference to the ICP, in which he was a principal figure. In October 1988, Dr. al Arian was instrumental in forming a Florida corporation known as Islamic Concern Project, Inc., the -22-


stated purposes of which were "charitable, cultural, social, educational and religious." Under the auspices of an affiliate of the corporation, which affiliate was denominated the "Islamic committee for Palestine" (ICP), he was instrumental in convening a series of conferences, first in st. Louis and thereafter in Chicago. Those conferences, commencing in 1988 and continuing through 1992, were conducted during the years of the Intifada. Held each December, the conferences featured invited speakers from Muslim countries and territories throughout the world. Included among the invited speakers were members of the Muslim faith who have been variously identified by others as scholars, politicians, fundamentalists and, some say, persons associated with alleged terrorist activities. These conferences, at least in part, gave support to the Intifada. Funds were raised at the conferences. The use to which those funds were put is a matter of controversy that has not been resolved to my knowledge. Some claim the funds were used to support peaceful aspects of the Intifada and/or Palestinian and other humanitarian causes. others allege that at least part of the funds provided support for terrorist activity. To date, law enforcement authorities have made no public statement as to the use to which ICP funds were put. In September, 1991, the ICP sponsored jointly with a Chicago mosque a special celebration of the Intifada. Listed as speakers for that program were Abdul Aziz Odeh, the first individual to be deported by Israel during the Intifada and one who is identified -23-


in published materials as the spiritual leader of the Islamic Jihad; Ramadan Abdullah, believed to be the Ramadan Abdullah first affiliated with WISE in mid-1991; and Dr. Sami al Arian. A videotape of that program discloses that Ramadan Abdullah did not speak at the conference. Dr. al Arian did. The program was presented in Arabic, and there is controversy about the correct translation of statements made then by Dr. al Arian. There can be no doubt, however, Dr. al Arian spoke against the interests of Israel and in support of the Intifada and Palestinian claims. Near the conclusion of this conference, an unidentified Imam (religious leader) made an appeal for funds to support the Intifada. The Imam's appeal was also in Arabic and there is similar dispute as to whether he solicited funds for the purchase of weapons. It is clear, however, that contributions were received. Strident remarks made by al Arian at this conference in opposition to Israel were referred to in the PBS documentary, Jihad in America and, later, in Tampa Tribune articles. During the period 1992-1994, The Islamic Concern Project, Inc., periodically published a magazine called Inquiry. Dr. al Arian served as editor-in-chief. There were nine issues in all. Devoted to reports of activities and developments in the Islamic World, the magazine also contained political commentary as well as appeals for funds to assist Muslim interests in Palestine and other parts of the world. Overall, Inquiry can fairly be described as an Islamic political journal. -24-


Dr. al Arian's teaching and research on campus, in contrast, appears to have been entirely apolitical. His political activities and utterances took place off campus "on his own time." Nevertheless, those activities later became the subject of wide-spread media attention and are currently under scrutiny by law enforcement officials. In the November 1994, PBS documentary, Jihad in America, Dr. al Arian was identified as "president of Iep" which organization was said to serve "as the primary support group in the united States for Islamic Jihad," a terrorist organization. Dr. al Arian has consistently denied that charge and insists he has not supported, and does not support, terrorist activity. Reports published in mid 1995 by the Tampa Tribune linked Dr. al Arian and the Iep to the WISE organization. More recently, affidavits provided by federal law enforcement officers in a successful attempt to obtain search warrants for access to Dr. al Arian's residence and office, and to the WISE premises and a storage facility, contain allegations by a confidential informant that the Iep and WISE were "fronts" for "Palestinian political causes." The affiant also states that Dr. al Arian used WISE as a means to facilitate entry into this country of international terrorists. These and related matters are now under investigation by federal authorities. No arrests have been made and no indictments have been returned to date. Dr. al Arian continues to deny all allegations of terrorist support and violations of law. -25-


Dr. al Arian requested a sabbatical leave in early 1995 which was granted for the following academic year. That leave expires as of May 1996, and normally he would return to his professional duties by August 1996 at the latest. However, the University decided in late April 1996 to place Dr. al Arian on indefinite leave with full pay, pending further developments. The action taken by the University to place Dr. al Arian on indefinite leave tends to minimize that portion of my assignment which invited comment on legal issues. Dr. al Arian's off-campus activities and utterances are subject to claim as political speech protected by the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United states Constitution. They also implicate concepts of academic freedom. There are, however, limits to the application of the principles of free speech and academic freedom, and a faculty member whose conduct or utterances exceeds those limits is subject to the sanctions of a university and, possibly, the sanctions of law. It is by no means clear that Dr. al Arian is subject to University sanction as a result of his conduct and utterances as presently known. Based on that which is publicly known at this time, his discharge by the University would almost certainly invite litigation that could subject the University to sUbstantial legal liability. However, subsequent developments resulting from the current law enforcement investigations may ultimately place the matter in an entirely different perspective. -26-


In my view, the action that the University has taken in placing Dr. al Arian on indefinite leave is appropriate and is in the best interests of both the University and Dr. al Arian. That action minimizes the University's potential exposure to any claim of wrongful discipline and limits the unjust harm that Dr. al Arian would suffer if the accusations against him ultimately fail to be substantiated. At the same time, it also limits the University's connection with Dr. al Arian. Like Dr. Shikaki, about whom I have already commented, Mazen al Najjar served at WISE in a research capacity although he performed other duties as well. He is Dr. al Arian's brother-inlaw. Mazen al Najjar was born in Gaza and received a B.S. degree in civil Engineering from the University of cairo in 1979. It was during this period that he allegedly came to know Basheer Nafi. After a period of employment in the United Arab Emirates, he entered North Carolina A & T University and there received a master's degree in engineering in 1984. After serving as a teaching assistant of North Carolina State University, he applied for and was admitted to USF as a Ph.D. candidate in the College of Engineering. He received that degree in 1994. While pursuing his doctorate, al Najjar taught Arabic at USF in the Division of Modern Languages and Linguistics as a graduate assistant. As previously related, Dr. al Najjar joined Drs. al Arian and Nafi in formulating the ideas that led ultimately to the creation of WISE. Dr. al Najjar states in his curriculum vita -27-


that he was a co-founder of WISE. He was first employed by that organization in 1991 and at various times thereafter served as Academic Relations Coordinator, Co-editor of WISE's Arabic Journal and as Executive Director of WISE. He was also an incorporator of the Islamic Concern Project, Inc. and a coorganizer of the first ICP conference held in st. Louis in December 1988. Several aspects of Dr. al Najjar's relationship with the University have been found to be unusual. He is one of the graduate students whom the University failed properly to supervise, a circumstance which became the subject of comment and inquiry in 1995. Also, during the course of his service as a USF teaching assistant in 1994, his visa was discovered to be out of compliance. Apparently instructors in Arabic are difficult to find, and, therefore, arrangements were made at a departmental level for al Najjar's compensation as an Arabic instructor to be paid by WISE for which the University would reimburse WISE. The arrangement was later found in an investigation by the Provost's Office to be improper and to violate University regulations. The University has taken action, discussed elsewhere herein, to assure such practices are not repeated. Dr. al Najjar is no longer associated either with the University or with WISE, as the latter is now defunct. He was not implicated in the search warrant affidavits recently unsealed, but he is currently involved in proceedings with the -28-


Immigration and Naturalization service regarding his immigration status. Sameeh Taha Hammoudeh was also employed at WISE. Mr. Hammoudeh was born in Jordan in 1960 and attended Bir Zeit University in the West Bank of Jordan, from which he received a baccalaureate degree in Political science in 1989. While pursuing his undergraduate studies, and thereafter, he was employed at the Arab studies Society, a research and documentation center in Jerusalem. Ultimately he became a director of the document center in which capacity he was charged with the collection and classification of documents related to historical and current events in parts of the Middle East. Desiring to pursue studies at the graduate level, Mr. Hammoudeh investigated the possibility of obtaining support from a United States government agency that facilitates the studies of Palestinian students in the United States. While doing so in 1992, he learned of USF and WISE through Dr. Khalil Shikaki who had recently returned to the West Bank from Tampa. About then, Hammoudeh also learned of a notice regarding the forthcoming ICP Conference which notice advised that speakers were sought on subjects about which Hammoudeh had knowledge. Dr. Shikaki is said to have suggested that Hammoudeh give a lecture at that conference and seek to make contact there with Dr. al Arian, Dr. al Najjar or Dr. Ramadan Abdullah (later known as Shallah), none of whom Hammoudeh knew at that time. -29-


Mr. Hammoudeh decided to follow the course of action recommended by Dr. Shikaki. He entered the United states in December 1992, spoke at the Fifth ICP Conference on the subject of "The Palestinian Issue and the Future of Self-Rule" and received encouragement from Drs. al Arian and Abdullah (Shallah) to proceed to Tampa and seek admission to USF. He did so and applied to USF for admission to pursue a master's degree in political science. Mr. Hammoudeh stated to me that he had independent means available, derived from his family and a Palestinian bookstore in which he had an interest, and so, while waiting to learn if he would be accepted at USF, he did odd jobs at WISE without compensation. Mr. Hammoudeh was admitted as a graduate student at USF in May 1993 to commence study in August of that year. He arranged for his wife and children to join him in Tampa and undertook his course of study. He also became gainfully employed by WISE doing editorial work and assisting in obtaining materials for publication in WISE's Arabic journal. He was not involved in administration at WISE and stated to me that he gained no knowledge of administrative details. However, he did received support from WISE as a graduate student for a two-year period pursuant to the terms of the USF/WISE agreement. Hammoudeh described WISE to me as a non-political, scholarly research center. Those whom he encountered at WISE were mainly Dr. Abdullah (Shallah) and Najjar and, occasionally, Dr. al Arian. Abdullah (Shallah), he said, was "scholarly and -30-


academic." Hammoudeh also observed to me that those at WISE had "differing ideas" and "were not politically cohesive." Mr. Hammoudeh completed his master's work and successfully defended his thesis in January 1996. Drs. Amen, Jreisat and Sonn composed the thesis committee. Hammoudeh thereafter desired to pursue a particular doctoral degree which the University was not authorized to confer but for which authorization was then being sought. Pending receipt of that authorization, he undertook study for a master's degree in Religious Studies under the supervision of Dr. Tamara Sonn. In August 1995, Mr. Hammoudeh also became a teaching assistant in Arabic. There have been no irregularities arising from that work but, like al Najjar, Hammoudeh is one of the graduate students whom, at one point in time, the University failed to supervise as a research assistant. Mr. Hammoudeh is currently continuing his religious studies at USF. He no longer works at WISE which has been closed. He is not known to be the subject of law enforcement scrutiny. Ramadan Abdullah Shallah, also known as Ramadan Abdullah, was born in Gaza in 1958. He pursued undergraduate studies at the University of Zagazig, Egypt, where, according to recent published reports, he came to know and was influenced by Dr. Fathi Shikaki, later the first leader of the Islamic Jihad. After receiving degrees in Economics at Zagazig University, Shallah served as a lecturer in Islamic and Middle Eastern Economics at the University of Gaza from 1982 to 1986. In 1986, -31-


he entered England on an Egyptian passport and commenced work for Ph.D. degree in Economics at the University of Durham. While pursuing that degree, he visited in London from time to time with Basheer Nafi. Shallah obtained the Ph.D. degree in 1990 and, after renewing his passport in May 1990, came to the United states. As previously stated, he learned of WISE through Dr. Nafi. He first appeared in Tampa in mid-1991 and became a research assistant at WISE. I have been unable to discover his location or activities between the time of his arrival in the united States in 1990 and his appearance in Tampa the Summer of 1991. In Tampa, he was first known as Ramadan Abdullah and his Florida driver's license, issued in September 1991, bears that name. He is reported to have worked at WISE under that name as an economist, an assistant to Dr. Shikaki and as Director of Administration for WISE. Dr. Shallah's vita discloses that he was a speaker at the 1990 ICP conference, although he is not listed as a speaker in the preconference notice. He is listed as a speaker in the notice of a conference celebrating the Intifada in Chicago in September 1991, but he did not speak at that conference. Together with Dr. Khalil Shikaki, however, he did speak in Chicago in December 1991 at the Fourth ICP Conference on the subject, "Palestine Cause and the International Conference and the Latest Phase of the Solution." -32-


Using the name Ramadan Abdullah, he became known to members of the University's Middle East studies Committee as an active member of the WISE organization. He is reported by all who knew him then to have been a quiet, scholarly, academic. As Director of Administration for WISE, Abdullah signed the letters addressed to the Committee in late 1991 providing information about WISE's structure and funding. He continued to serve at WISE after Dr. Khalil Shikaki returned to the West Bank in mid-1992 and remained there until his departure from Tampa in mid-1995. During his tenure at WISE, Abdullah became acquainted with members of the Middle East Studies Committee through his work at WISE and at USF conferences, including Arthur Lowrie. Because of a health problem, Lowrie decided in late 1993 not to teach his survey course on the Middle East during the 1994 spring Semester. He recommended Abdullah as a substitute. After circulation and review of his academic credentials within the department, including a curriculum vita bearing the name Ramadan Abdullah, Shallah was approved as an adjunct professor by Dr. Darrell Slider, then Chair of International Affairs. Thereafter, in completing the University's employment forms, Abdullah used the name Ramadan Abdullah Shallah for the first time on campus and, apparently, in Tampa. His use of the name Shallah, which first appears in a University record dated December 28, 1993, was not widely known at USF. Some Committee members stated they did not become aware of his use of the name Shallah until his leadership -33-


of the Islamic Jihad was announced in November 1995, although Shallah used that name in subsequent curriculum vitae. I have been unable to determine why he commenced using the name Shallah when he applied for the 1994 adjunct position. Shallah taught as an adjunct in the Spring terms of 1994 and 1995. I comment hereafter on his service in that capacity. In mid-1995, Shallah told acquaintances on the committee and others that he was returning to the Middle East to visit his ailing father and to write a book on Middle East banking. Shallah left Tampa soon thereafter. The Tampa Tribune reports regarding Dr. al Arian and linking the ICP and WISE appeared about the same time. Fathi Shikaki, then the acknowledged leader of the Islamic Jihad, was assassinated in Malta in October 1995. Shortly thereafter, Middle East news reports identified Shallah as Fathi's successor. Initially some members of COMES and others did not believe the new Jihad leader was the individual associated with USF and WISE. But soon there was no doubt about the matter. Shallah's emergence as leader of the Jihad, however, apparently caught many by surprise, including some who were by then exploring the USF/WISE relationship in Tampa and even, I am told, Israeli intelligence. Likewise, Ze'ev Schiff, a well-known Israeli reporter who is also one of the authors of a book referred to hereafter, commented on Shallah's new position in a news commentary published in Israel on November 17, 1995. The Schiff article was -34-


written in Hebrew. An English translation of the article reads in part as follows: "Ramadan Shallah does not have previous experience in terrorist actions. His background is predominately political and he attracted attention because of his ability to incite the masses with his speeches. Nor is he considered a religious fundamentalist. He left the Gaza Strip before the uprising (Intifada)." One of the law enforcement affidavits unsealed in April 1996 contains the "common sense" conclusion that Shallah could not have become the new Islamic Jihad leader without significant previous involvement with that group. That seems likely. Yet it is clear that Shallah's involvement with the Jihad before November 1995, whatever it was, was little known or publicized. I am aware of two English language publications, one published in 1990 and the other in 1994, that variously mention the names "Ramadan Shallah" and "Ramdan Shalah," with reference to the Islamic Jihad movement. The references are not prominent and, before the announcement in late 1995 of his leadership of the Jihad, it seems little note was taken of them. For example, Dr. Mark Tessler, who had earlier met Shallah at USF/WISE conferences in Tampa, and who edited the 1994 English language publication mentioned above, made no connection between the individual mentioned in the pUblication and the Abdullah/Shallah who served on the WISE staff. Likewise, neither the members of COMES, nor those who later studied the USF/WISE connection, were aware of Shallah's alleged Jihad connection before the public -35-


announcement of his leadership of that organization in the Fall of 1995. Basheer Nafi admittedly played a role in the development of the WISE concept. He is identified as a founder of WISE in his curriculum vita and was so known by some members of COMES. He participated in the June 1991 meeting at which the possibility of cooperation between COMES and WISE was discussed. Residing in London, he was characterized to committee members as a director of WISE who, although living abroad, assisted in obtaining authors for, and in editing, articles published in the WISE Arabic journal. He visited briefly at WISE from time to time and attended two USF/WISE conferences in April and May of 1992. Mainly, however, he was seen to be a non-resident participant in WISE activities. As mentioned elsewhere, Nafi was associated with Fathi Shikaki in the development of political theory said to have later influenced the Islamic Jihad movement and, while pursuing a doctoral degree in England, he was an editor of Middle East political journals. Nafi became acquainted with Mazen al Najjar and, at a different point in time, with Ramadan Abdullah Shallah at the University of Cairo. While in England during the late 1980's, Nafi and Shallah visited together in London. During that period, Nafi was also in contact with Dr. al Arian in this country and in England. -36-


Nafi stated to me that he moved to the United states in August 1994. Here, he continued work on a doctoral degree in history then being sought from the university of Reading. In doing so, he used the facilities of the International Institute of Islamic Thought (lIlT) in Herndon, Va., while continuing his employment as a non-resident member of the WISE staff. When WISE was closed in 1995, he became the Associate Editor of the American Journal of Islamic Social studies, which is published by the lIlT. The lIlT is the organization that is said to have provided the bulk of WISE funding. The affidavit of a federal law enforcement officer, supporting the issuance of search warrants pertaining to Dr. al Arian, the Iep and WISE, states that a confidential informant has identified Basheer Nafi as a "significant leading member of the Islamic Jihad." That affidavit was filed in the Fall of 1995 and was unsealed in mid-April 1996. At this writing, however, Nafi states he has not been interviewed by federal law enforcement authorities and he denies any participation in the terrorist activities of the Islamic Jihad. His work permit was most recently renewed by the united states government in February 1996 for a three-year period. Despite the allegations regarding Nafi and his association with the lIlT, that organization is not known either to be suspected of terrorist support or sympathies or to be accused by law enforcement authorities of terrorist ties or violations of -37-


law. It is said to be supported by endowment funds provided by wealthy Arab-American and Saudi Arabian donors. Clearly there are links between those who organized or were employed by WISE. Nafi knew al Najjar and, later, Ramadan Abdullah Shallah at the University of Cairo. al Najjar introduced al Arian to Nafi and thereafter al Arian visited with Nafi during trips to London. Nafi and Shallah visited together in London. Tampa. Shallah spoke at an ICP conference before coming to Shallah learned of WISE through Nafi. Khalil Shikaki came to know Nafi and al Arian. Shikaki recommended USF to Hammoudeh. Each of these individuals is Palestinian and their convergence in Tampa obviously is not coincidental. Clearly, Drs. al Arian, al Najjar and Nafi contributed to the establishment of WISE in Tampa. According to the information I have received, al Arian and Nafi figured prominently in its creation and continued their interest in WISE thereafter. Nafi was not only a founder of WISE but also a nonresident employee. al Arian was instrumental in incorporating WISE and was a corporate officer. It is of great importance to note that information such as the foregoing has been developed since 1995 after intense and protracted inquiry by several investigators who had special reason to focus upon the matter. In the light of that which is now known, and alleged to be known, suspicion is inevitable regarding the motives of certain individuals and the purposes of -38-


the Iep and WISE. But neither the allegations nor the information publicly known is conclusive of terrorist relationship or activity. Law enforcement officers are now actively exploring these matters and the outcome is yet to be determined. It is equally important to note that, even now, the purposes and activities of WISE that have been established are entirely legitimate and that those known to be working at WISE performed duties that were totally consistent with the work of a scholarly research center. This is a subject I address further herein. -39-


THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA WISE RELATIONSHIP My assignment prompts me, in part, to inquire into the relationship between the University's Middle East Studies Committee and the organization known as WISE. In this section I examine, in particular, the circumstances pursuant to which the March 11, 1992 agreement was entered into, the agreement itself and the joint activities of the Committee and WISE thereafter. The relationship between the Committee and WISE merits attention because of disclosures to the public which were made in late-1994 and mid-1995, some two and a half years after the USF/WISE agreement was executed. By the time of the disclosures, the Committee and WISE had cooperated in the presentation of four conferences on campus and had planned yet another which did not come to fruition. The first of those disclosures came in November 1994, when the PBS broadcast Jihad in America disclosed that Dr. Sami al Arian was the principal organizer during the years of the Intifada (1988 through 1992) of conferences of Islamic adherents. The conferences were formally sponsored by an entity called the Islamic Committee for Palestine (ICP). The broadcast alleged that the ICP was "the primary support group in the United States" for the terrorist organization known as the Islamic Jihad. Subsequently, in May 1995, the Tampa Tribune published a series of articles stating that Dr. al Arian was also the incorporator of WISE, which, by virtue of location, address and key officers, -4o


was tied to ICP. It was further stated in the series that the University not only had entered into a cooperative agreement with WISE but also had planned and/or presented, in conjunction with WISE, conferences at which "terrorists18 spoke or were invited to speak. Nearly a year later, federal law enforcement officers alleged in search warrant affidavits, inter u, that the ICP and WISE were "fronts*@ for "Palestine political causes"; that a former employee of WISE, Ramadan Abdullah Shallah, had become the leader of the Islamic Jihad and Basheer Nafi, a founder of WISE, was 'Ia significant leading member of the Islamic Jihad"; that the ICP and WISE were l'frontst' for providing support for the Jihad in the United States; and that Dr. al Arian had used WISE as a means to facilitate entry into this country of international terrorists. The Tampa Tribune series identified certain ties between the ICP and WISE, but the allegations of the PBS broadcast and the federal search warrant affidavits are based upon information from undisclosed sources and hearsay evidence. In fact, law enforcement authorities who have been giving attention to the matter for more than a year have yet to announce any findings of their own. No indictments have been issued and none of the allegations have been proven in a court of law. Thus, the ties disclosed in the Tribune between WISE and the ICP have yet to be shown to have resulted in or to have fostered terrorist or other illegal activity. -41


No claims have been made that the University or members of its Committee purposefully sought to provide support for, or engage in, terrorist activity. The media and law enforcement disclosures, however, have prompted members of the public and the press to charge the Committee with a lack of due care in entering into and pursuing its relationship with WISE. That charge will be baseless if the allegations of terrorist activity are not ultimately established. Moreover, even if some or all of the allegations of terrorist ties or activities are ultimately established, that fact would not, standing alone, establish that the University failed to exercise due care in entering into the relationship. Put another way, even those who exercise appropriate caution may sometimes be the victims of a clever scheme or illegal activity. Thus, I examine hereafter whether the University exercised appropriate caution in entering into arrangements with WISE. I find this to be a close question about which, surely, there will continue to be disagreement. Some critics of the Committee assert that it entered into the WISE relationship without appropriate caution because its members were pro Arab or pro Palestinian. I am inclined to discount that contention. Admittedly, most of the Committee members had interests in Middle East studies. Given that the Middle East includes significant areas of the Arab World, the Committee members, on the whole, also had substantial interest in Arab and Palestinian affairs. But their particular backgrounds, academic interests and scholarly pursuits varied widely. They -42


were brought together, more than anything else, by their shared desire to develop a center of expert knowledge on the Middle East and to develop for the University a scholarly reputation for Middle East studies. Those goals, I think, were the Committee's major motivation in pursuing the relationship with WISE. Moreover, the Committee included one Jewish member who, while expressing some initial reservations, eventually acceded to the USF-WISE relationship. Given the breadth of interests and viewpoints on the Committee, therefore, I do not believe the relationship with WISE can be attributed to some kind of fundamental bias in the Committee's composition. Critics also assert that the Committee overlooked significant warnings that WISE was other than it appeared to be. Charges that WISE was not a bona fide research institute have yet to be established, of course, but the relationship has nevertheless caused embarrassment to the University and created adverse publicity. Thus, whether significant warning signals existed does invite examination. One should start with the fact that a decision was made at the University, totally unrelated to WISE, that the pursuit of Middle East Studies was appropriate. That decision was fundamentally the product of a University-wide initiative introduced by USF's then-president. Once established, the Committee commenced its activities by convening discussion groups and presenting lectures from time to time. Lacking University funding, it was particularly interested in opportunities to -43


pursue programs that required little financial support and to present speakers who were otherwise available. As indicated by the schedule of its activities appearing at Appendix 7, one such speaker was William Quandt of the Brookings Institute. Quandt spoke at USF in April 1991, a few months after the Committee was created. Dr. Khalil Shikaki, the recently appointed Director of WISE, attended the Quandt lecture, although WISE had no role in sponsoring the lecture. While attending the lecture, he learned of the Committee's existence and met some of the Committee members. Those members, in turn, appeared to have learned then for the first time of WISE. In any event, Shikaki's attendance at the Quandt lecture led to a formal meeting between Committee representatives and individuals interested, and/or involved, in WISE. That meeting occurred on June 10, 1991. It was attended by Dr. Shikaki, then the director of WISE; by Dr. Nafi, who was introduced as a director of WISE who lived in London; and by Dr. al Arian, who expressed interest in and support of WISE as a member of the local Muslim community. Committee representatives present were Dr. Orr, Mr. Lowrie and, according to a news report, Dr. Hechiche. Relevant because of a matter mentioned hereafter, Dr. Milani was not present. Neither Dr. Jreisat, nor others in attendance with whom I spoke, recall whether Jreisat was in attendance. -44


Written materials reflect that, as of June 10, Committee members had only recently learned of WISE's existence. Thus, Dr. Orr stated in a notice to the Committee, dated June 4, 1991, that Drs. Shikaki, Nafi and al Arian would attend a meeting on June 10, 1991 for 'Ia general discussion" during which "(o)ur guest will tell us about the new research center, World Islamic Enterprise [sic] (WISE), which has its offices here in Tampa." Committee members attending the meeting knew Dr. al Arian and apparently some had also previously met Dr. Shikaki. None had met Dr. Nafi previously. Those attending the meeting discussed the plans and activities of the respective entities and the possibility of future cooperation between them. In evaluating the Committee's use of due diligence in entering into and pursuing the WISE agreement, it is worth noting that Dr. al Arian appeared at the June 10 meeting as an interested member of the local Muslim community. He is identified as such in relevant Committee records. In that capacity, he indicated to those present his personal interest, and that of the local Muslim community, in WISE. Some Committee members I interviewed stated they knew Dr. al Arian held pro-Palestinian views, but none were aware at the time of the meeting that he was an incorporator and an officer of WISE. Given the circumstances then existing, it seems unlikely such information would have made any difference if the Committee members had known. All present in the interests of WISE were obviously Muslim adherents who where supportive of the new -45


research center; thus, learning of al Arian's formal connection would not have changed the organization's apparent character. Dr. Nafi's association with WISE, and particularly his presence at the June 10, 1991 meeting, also merits attention for several reasons. First, as discussed above, there have been recent allegations by federal authorities that he is connected with the Islamic Jihad. Second, approximately two months before the June 1991 meeting, members of the USF Department of Government and International Affairs, including three members of the Committee, approved a Master's thesis in which Dr. Nafi was mentioned in that part of the thesis discussing development of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine. The Committee members approving the thesis were Drs. Hechiche, Jreisat and Milani. Dr. Harry Vanden, a Latin American specialist, was also on the thesis committee and approved the thesis. Third, The Tampa Tribune reported on April 17, 1996, that Basheer Nafi, "named as a founder of the Islamic Jihad in at least three publications on the USF Library shelves, helped forge a cooperative agreement between an Islamic think tank (WISE) and the university." These facts raise two issues. The first relates to the level of Dr. Nafi's influence with respect to creation of USF/WISE agreement. Dr. Nafi did attend the June 10, 1991 meeting. However, I have found no indication that he had any other part in the development and drafting of the USF/WISE -46


agreement. Thus, even if the "terrorism" allegations asserted against Nafi are eventually proven to have merit, it does not appear that Nafi could have substantially influenced the nature or scope of the WISE-USF relationship in order to further %errorist" objectives. The second issue raised is whether some Committee member should be expected to have known or considered the information revealed in the thesis or books and whether that information, if it should have been known, should have been cause for concern about WISE. The thesis in question is one of the three publications referred to in the Tribune article mentioned above. (Copies of all USF graduate dissertations literally hundreds are retained in the University's main library.) The other two publications are books which the USF library acquired in the normal course its business in 1990. The thesis, entitled "The Rise of Palestinian Islamic Groups", was approved by the thesis committee on April 17, 1991, approximately two months before the June 10 meeting. The thesis is some 211 typewritten pages in length, with an additional 64 pages of footnotes, and contains many references to Islamic organizations and personages. In a chapter entitled "The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine," the author of the thesis wrote the following: At page 186: "With these doubts about the Muslim Brotherhood, the circle of Palestinians, prominent among which were Fathi Shiqaqi and Basheer Nafi, tried to generate their -47


own ideas by 'bridging the gap between Muslim religious beliefs and modern secular thought."' At page 189: "Indeed, Fathi Shiqaqi and Basheer Nafi, who used the pen names Izz al-Din al-Paris and Ahmed Sadiq, respectively, and who were regular contributors to alMuikhtar al-Islami, the Egyptian Islamic journal and publishing house, devoted most of their writings between 1979 and 1981 to the political and ideological defense of Iran and to the celebration of the radical political ideas coming from there." At page 192: "The Egyptian magazine, al Mukhtar al-Islami, with whom Fathi Shiqaqi and other founders had professional ties and friendship with its editors, was adopted and used as a theoretical journal for the group, elaborating on their doctrine and fanning discontent with the Muslim Brotherhood, and was distributed in mosques' libraries, schools, and public places. In 1983, Basheer Nafi, who was studying in London, published and edited a journal, al-Taliah al-Islamiah (The Islamic Vanguard) specifically for the group, which was sent to the occupied territories for reproduction, in the same shape and form, and distribution." It should be noted that these references to Nafi relate to activities that predate the Intifada and any terrorist activity by the Islamic Jihad. The references refer to the development and dissemination of political theory and viewpoint. I am not aware that Dr. Nafi has recanted any views expressed in his writings, but the references do not say he was committed to, or engaged in, terrorist activity. The thesis also makes reference in footnotes to two books published in Israel about 1990 and maintained in the USF library. Both books, in turn, make brief reference to Nafi, although neither reference is quoted in the thesis. In one, one "Basheer Nafi" is identified as an "ideological friend" of Fathi Shikaki -48


(the first Islamic Jihad leader) to whom Nafi periodically provided copies of Iranian-influenced literature while Nafi was living in London. In the other, one "Basheer Moussa Naf'a" is described as the "venerable ideologue" of the Jihad movement from whom "essentially the movement took its orders" at times during the Intifada when other leaders were imprisoned or abroad. One "Ramdan Shalah" is also mentioned in the second publication as a "leading activist" of the Jihad "who was then abroad". (The rationale of this second text puzzles me because Nafi was also abroad during the Intifada. He lived and worked in England from 1983 to 1994.) The books are more fully identified in Appendix 8. The USF Library does not retain records of those who have "checked out" library books after the books are returned. Therefore, I was unable to determine from library records who might have referred to the books in question at USF. In any case, given the limited nature of the Nafi references contained in these books, I think it unlikely that anyone reading them, without reason to seek him out in particular, would reasonably be expected to have taken notice of Nafi's name or description. As to the thesis, those members of the thesis committee to whom I had access state they had no reason in their review to confirm every detail of the thesis and its references and they did not do so. Their review was focused, not upon the names of numerous individuals mentioned in the thesis, but upon the organization, development and scholarly presentation of the -49


author's theories. Thus, no member of the thesis committee with whom I spoke, whether present at the June 10 meeting or not, made any connection between the reference to the Basheer Nafi mentioned in the thesis and the individual who participated in the June 1991 meeting. While some may conclude this reflects unfavorably upon the depth of thesis review, I accept the accounts of the thesis committee members as reasonable and believe the explanation offered by those who formed the thesis committee. I now turn to other matters which appear to be relevant to an evaluation of the Committee's due diligence. Dr. Nafi returned to England after the June 10 meeting. He later participated in two USF/WISE conferences presented in 1992 but remained a nonresident WISE employee. Dr. Shikaki, however, became well known to the Committee and others in the USF Department of Government and International Affairs. Some nine months before the USF/WISE agreement was finally entered into, Shikaki became an adjunct professor in the Department. Department members learned more about his academic credentials and his reputation as a leading Middle East scholar. They also came to know that he held moderate political views. He made no secret of his brother's leadership of the Islamic Jihad, while also claiming to abhor violence and fanaticism, in disagreement with his brother's views and activity. He took an active interest in the development of the Middle East studies program. -5o


Among other things, Shikaki suggested and encouraged the development of a grant application to the United States Information Agency for an affiliation agreement and faculty exchange program between USF and An-Najah National University at Nablus in the West Bank, the institution where he held a faculty position. A copy of the grant application is attached as Appendix 9. My interviews revealed that the possibility of a formal relationship between the Committee and WISE was discussed periodically with Dr. Shikaki, and among Committee members, in the late Summer and Fall of 1991, following on the initial June 10 meeting. Dr. al Arian did not participate in those discussions and he was not known to be either an incorporator or an officer of WISE or to be involved in its daily activities. Committee members visited the WISE offices. They learned more about its publication work, viewed its library holdings and met Ramadan Abdullah, as he was then known, and Mazen al Najjar. In October 1991, three members of the Middle East Studies Committee Drs. Jreisat and Shiloh and Mr. Lowrie met at WISE's offices with Dr. Shikaki and others to further discuss possible cooperation between the Committee, the University and WISE and to consider plans for a proposed conference to be held in December 1991 on the Israeli-Palestine Peace Negotiations. Contemporaneous notes regarding the October 1991 meeting were made by Mr. Lowrie. They state that the Committee members -51


present "clearly explained" that the conference "would be an academic, not a propagandistic, conference." Nevertheless, Dr. Shiloh, the only Jewish member of the Committee, expressed concern to Mr. Lowrie later in October that the conference would become V'political.*@ That conference, which was the first one in which the Committee and WISE joined in sponsorship, was held on December 5, 1991. It featured an Islamic scholar who was then visiting in this country, Dr. Ziad Abu Amr, and Dr. Mark Tessler, the Director of the Center for International Studies of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a past president of the Association for Israel Studies. There is no indication that this conference proved to be propagandist in nature or was otherwise controversial. As the possibility of a formal agreement between USF and WISE was developing in October 1991, the Committee sought to learn more about WISE's legal structure and sources of financing. Information was requested of Dr. Shikaki who agreed to provide it in whatever format was desired. The Committee asked for a letter. On November 12, 1991, Dr. Orr received a letter over the signature of Ramadan Abdullah, as Director of Administration of WISE, advising that WISE was incorporated in early 1991 as a "non-profit research organization incorporated in the state [sic] of Florida" whose research activities were funded by "several non-profit organizations as well as private individuals" residing within the United States and abroad. -52


Dr. Shikaki was advised that the letter was not sufficiently detailed and the Committee asked that the major sources of W ISE S funding be identified. Shikaki responded orally that the International Institute of Islamic Thought in Herndon, Va., provided the bulk of the WISE financing. This was confirmed in writing to Dr. Orr by another letter from Ramadan Abdullah dated December 11, 1991. That letter stated that WISE was incorporated in Florida on February 21, 1991 and its largest contributor was the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). A 32-page brochure regarding IIIT was enclosed with the December 11 letter. The brochure described the formation, mission and activities of the organization and reflected a broad array of national and international scholarly activities. The brochure disclosed that IIIT was founded in 1981 and maintained offices in Herndon, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D-C., and it characterized IIIT as an independent forum for promotion of Islamic scholarship in various disciplines of contemporary social science. It also stated that IIIT had outreach affiliations with a number of organizations including The Catholic University of America, Virginia Commonwealth University, the University of Chicago Teacher Workshop Program, the University of Michigan, the Foreign Policy Association, the National Council of Arab-American Relations, the University of Wisconsin, Hartford Seminary and the Center for Islamic Studies at Oxford University, England. Appendix 10 contains a copy of the brochure provided with the December 11, 1991 letter. -53


Several members of the Committee knew IIIT by its reputation as a scholarly Islamic organization respected by American scholars, and WISE's affiliation with, and funding by, IIIT satisfied most Committee members that there was no reason the Committee should not develop a professional relationship with WISE. One member, Dr. Shiloh, continued to have reservations for a period of time thereafter. At a Committee meeting on December 12, 1991, Dr. Shiloh objected that the December 5 conference had been held without first obtaining information about WISE. He was advised that the requested information had been previously provided orally. Later in January 1992, Dr. Shiloh advised Dr. Orr and Mr. Lowrie that he had heard 1Vumors@8 about WISE and the Committee should be 8Vcareful.V' He also requested a copy of the December 11 letter regarding WISE's structure and financing. A copy of the letter was provided to him together with a copy of the IIIT brochure. Dr. Shiloh did not elaborate on the l*rumorsl' and, despite a suggestion by Mr. Lowrie, declined to state them in writing. In my telephone interview with Dr. Shiloh in April 1996, Dr. Shiloh advised me he no longer recalled the subject matter of the rumors but they were insubstantial and unworthy of repetition at the time. He also stated that before execution of the USF/WISE agreement, he had a long conversation with Ramadan Abdullah about WISE's funding. Thereafter, the funding issue does not appear to have been raised again either by Dr. Shiloh or other Committee members. -54


In addition to the information received regarding WISE's funding, the Committee was also advised in December 1991 that WISE was a Florida corporation which intended to seek tax-exempt status. That information was deemed sufficient for its purposes and the Committee did not seek further details regarding WISE's legal structure. A proposed agreement of cooperation with WISE had been drafted in October, 1991 by Dr. Mark Amen, then-Director of the University's International Affairs program, working in conjunction with Dr. Orr and Dr. Shikaki. The draft was later submitted to the then-General Counsel of the University who made some editorial changes in the language of the agreement. The revised draft was then returned to Dr. Orr's assistant, Dr. Eugene Scruggs. After further review, it was executed on March 11, 1992 by the Dean of the College of Arts and Science and others on behalf of the University and by Ramadan Abdullah on behalf of WISE. A copy of the agreement appears at Appendix 11. The USF/WISE agreement, as executed in March 1992, had five main provisions: (1) to provide mutual access to library facilities; (2) to cooperate in presenting conferences, seminars and lectures on issues of mutual interest; (3) to make appointments of scholars and staff to temporary teaching or research positions in the respective institutions; (4) to permit the employment by one another of teaching and research assistants; and (5) to facilitate the admission of qualified graduate students to USF. -55


The question arises whether the Committee, in the exercise of due diligence, had reason to make further inquiry about either WISE's legal structure or about its funding before entering into this agreement. In addressing that issue attention is directed to a variety of facts known and circumstances existing at the time. The Committee's focus was on the development of a Middle East Studies program. That was its major motivating force in reaching an understanding with WISE. The preliminary discussions had disclosed that WISE was interested in joining the Committee in jointly sponsoring scholarly conferences and could provide some funding support for such conferences from its own resources and, perhaps, from members of the local Islamic community. (Local support, in fact, was provided for a joint conference in April, 1992.) The prospect of funding assistance was attractive to the Committee which had no funds available to it other than those which it might raise on its own. Moreover, there was no reason at the time for the Committee to be concerned about the possibility of terrorist ties. No suggestion of that possibility was advanced by the circumstances or by assertions from any quarter. Dr. Nafi's alleged connection with the Islamic Jihad was not known (and, in fact, has yet to be proven). Dr. al Arian had manifested an interest in WISE as a member of the Tampa's Islamic community, and was already known by Committee members to be pro-Palestinian, but no Committee members knew of his ICP activities and al Arian was not known, or -56


represented, to be involved in WISE's daily operations. WISE was engaged in publishing a scholarly Arabic journal and in planning conferences under the leadership of Dr. Shikaki, an able Middle East scholar. Shallah, then known as Abdullah, was seen by the Committee members and others as a quiet, scholarly type. al Najjar was a graduate student. Also of some relevance to the question of due diligence at the time is the fact that Dr. Shikaki, believed by all to be a tVmoderatell and opposed to terrorism, accepted employment at WISE and worked as its Director although he had attended ICP conferences and was a co-employee at WISE with Dr. Nafi. Shikaki convincingly stated to me that he would not have joined WISE, or remained in association with it, if he had believed that WISE or anyone connected with it was sympathetic to or engaged in terrorist activity. Clearly, Shikaki did not detect any evidence that WISE was other than that which it purported to be, a small Islamic research center. Neither did any member of the Committee. Furthermore, the question of due diligence should also be considered in the light of the effect of the agreement itself. While other provisions of the agreement promised benefits to USF, the agreement to join in conferences was of special interest to the Committee and conferences became the focus of its joint activity with WISE. It is significant to note that the agreement was a formality in its most significant parts. In a legalistic sense, this tends to lower the level of scrutiny that might -57


otherwise have been expected of the Committee. Unlike business transactions, there was no legal reason for the Committee to explore corporate details, and there was no suggestion at that time of terrorism lurking in the background. Moreover, the Committee had obtained information that WISE was a corporation seeking tax exemption, which is consistent with the activities of a legitimate research center. It had learned that a reputable institution provided support for WISE and that WISE also enjoyed support from the local Muslim community. It knew that WISE was led by a reputable scholar, Dr.Shikaki, who had become well-known to the Committee members as one who held sound academic credentials and moderate political views. Its most cautious member, Dr. Shiloh, apparently had been satisfied by the Committee's inquiries and his own. Nevertheless, should the Committee have done more before entering into the agreement? Given the circumstances then existing, and that which the Committee had learned through its inquiries about WISE, I do not think it failed to use due diligence in proceeding without seeking further verification regarding the funding sources of WISE. Neither do I think the Committee should have sought at that point to obtain documentation regarding the legal structure of WISE. I do find it unusual that Committee members did not ask, out of curiosity if nothing else, some rather basic questions which would have identified the officers of WISE. There, I think, it failed to act as one might reasonably expect. Had such questions been -58


asked, the Committee would have learned then that Dr. al Arian not only took interest in the undertaking but also was the principal corporate officer of WISE. Because his interest in WISE had already been manifested, I am unsure, however, that al Arian's corporate identity would have made any difference to Committee members, even those who knew of his pro-Palestinian leanings. And I think it unlikely that the additional information would have led the Committee to have learned about Dr. al Arian's involvement with the ICP. Even if it had, that involvement would only have confirmed that which at least some Committee members already knew that he was strongly proPalestinian. But what of the events that followed execution of the agreement? Two jointly-sponsored conferences were presented in 1992, one featuring Dr. John Esposito was presented in April and the other, featuring Dr. Hasan Turabi, occurred in May. As suggested earlier to the Committee that it would do on occasion, the local Muslim community gave financial support to the Esposito conference. Following the Turabi conference, Dr. Shikaki renewed the commitment sought first by the Committee in 1991 that the joint conferences would be scholarly and not political. Thus, in a letter of thanks addressed to Mr. Lowrie shortly after the Turabi conference, Dr. Shikaki stated in part: "We (WISE) would like to take this opportunity to reaffirm our commitment to scholarly -59


exchange and open debate; as a research center, WISE does not take sides, embrace or advocate political positions." Despite his initial reservations, Dr. Shiloh continued to take interest in the activities of the Committee after execution of the agreement. In May 1992, he was upset when, through oversight, he was not provided a place at the table during the conference of scholars with Dr. Hasan Turabi. He registered a complaint with the Provost but continued his service with the Committee. He was a speaker at a Committee conference (not jointly sponsored with WISE) in March 1993, at which Dr. Ibrehim Abu-Rabi of Hartford Seminary made the principal address on "Islam, Secularization and the Future of the Arab World", and he participated in the Ahmad Round Table in May, 1993. Dr. Shiloh left the University later in 1993 and did not return thereafter because of ill health. Dr. Jacob Neusner now serves in his place on the Committee. The first joint conference of 1992, the Esposito conference, was presented at a time the University was seeking to attract Dr. Esposito to the USF faculty. That conference was presented by the Committee in conjunction with WISE, The Islamic Society of Tampa Bay, the University Lecture Series and the Tampa Bay Area Committee on Foreign Relations. It was successful and noncontroversial. Meanwhile, Dr. Shikaki had been actively engaged with others at WISE in the arrangements for the first jointly-sponsored Round Table Conference. Having become aware through Dr. Nafi that -6O


Hasan Turabi was coming to the United States for interviews with government officials and others, and that Turabi would welcome an opportunity to speak with American Middle East scholars, WISE invited Turabi to speak at USF after conferring with the Committee. Upon his acceptance, WISE and the Committee invited a number of leading scholars to participate and examine the speaker's views. As previously stated, the Turabi conference was presented in May 1992 with the Committee joining as a sponsor. It was regarded then as a success by the sponsors and the participants. The second Round Table conference, featuring Dr. Khurshed Ahmad and employing a format similar to the first, followed a year later. A third Round Table, planned in 1994, failed to materialize when the featured speaker, Rashid el-Ghannoushi, was unable to obtain entry into the United States. The University suspended and, later, terminated the WISE relationship in 1995. Thus, the 1993 Ahmad conference was the last program jointly presented with WISE. In essence, the main product of the USF/WISE agreement over a three year period was two Round Table conferences and the planning of a third. Those programs gave no reason for the Committee to be suspect of WISE. WISE clearly had the ability to contact potential speakers and I find nothing in that activity that should have been cause for concern and, in turn, demonstrated a lack of care on the part of the Committee and the University. WISE obviously had contacts with the Islamic World. -61


It was actively engaged in soliciting and publishing the materials of Muslim scholars and intellectuals. Dr. Shikaki was a well-known Middle East political scientist and scholar with broad contacts among Islamic figures. Dr. Nafi worked for WISE from the international vantage point of London. Given all this, WISE's ability to attract speakers would rightly have seemed unremarkable. Moreover, no adverse comment was registered at the time Turabi and Ahmen spoke in Tampa. The Tampa Tribune's news commentator, Mark August, expressed disagreement with Turabi's views in a column the day after Turabi spoke, but no objection was raised in any quarter to Turabi's participation in that Round Table until the May 1995 Tribune series. Turabi and Ghannoushi were characterized as 88terrorists*@ in that series. The use of the term there seemingly gives a different, and somewhat broader, meaning to the word than its usage in connection with the Islamic Jihaad. In any event, the invitations extended by WISE to prominent Muslim intellectuals does not, in my view, tend to establish that the Committee knew, or should have known, WISE was engaged in terrorist activity. As the Committee noted with respect to Turabi's appearance, Turabi had been granted an entry visa by our government and was in this country to confer with government officials, public policy organizations and members of the news media. It would seem unreasonable to expect the Committee to suspect WISE was involved -62


with terrorist activity because of a speaker to whom our government had granted a visa. As to Ghannoushi, he was unable to obtain an entry visa for reasons of diplomacy related to objections raised by Tunisia and Jewish interests. Those objections pertained to his political action in leading a revolt against the Tunisian government and his political views regarding Israel and the United States. In fact, although Ghannoushi's visa application was held in suspension, it was never denied by our government. Based upon what I have learned about the matter, and my reflections upon the issue of due diligence, I reach the following conclusions. Could the Committee have done more to learn about WISE before entering into the March, 1992 agreement? Clearly so. Should the Committee have done more? I think so, although I believe it unreasonable to suggest that the Committee should have engaged in intensive independent inquiry and research. But it should have asked a bit more about the WISE corporate structure. Perhaps it relied too much upon the credibility that Dr. Shikaki gave to WISE and moved too quickly because, to use a term attributed to Dr. Orr by the media, it was "enamoredV' of the potential of a relationship with WISE. Would any further inquiry on the part of the Committee that was reasonably prompted by the circumstances have led to discovery that WISE was connected, at least indirectly, to terrorist activities? My answer is no. That crucial matter, if true, remains to be proven to this day. -63


VARIOUS CONCERNS News reports regarding Dr. al Arian and the University's ties with WISE and members of its staff have brought to the fore various concerns regarding the University's educational and social environment, its course offerings and their content, its faculty and their instructional approaches and its extracurricular programming. Many of these concerns are closely related to the historic strife in the Middle East and to the current Israeli-Palestinian conflict. I seek here to address a variety of concerns raised by others in the course of my interviews. One allegation was that the University community is generally anti-Semitic and many Jewish students are made to feel uncomfortable on campus. The University, of course, is a microcosm of the community at large. No doubt there are those among the faculty, staff and student body who have varying degrees of social, political, racial, religious and gender bias. I found no evidence, however, of general or widespread antiSemitism within the University among its faculty, staff, student body or otherwise. If no better, USF certainly is no worse in this regard than similar institutions or society generally. Indeed, the University and its administration stress and urge diversity and tolerance. The recent anonymous bomb threat at USF has provoked like concern in Tampa's Muslim community and among USF Muslim stu-64


dents. They resent and fear the stereotypical treatment by some members of the public and elements of the news media suggesting that members of the Muslim faith approve and support violence. They fear that Muslim students on campus will be subject to intolerance and unfair treatment. Particularly because of these concerns and the recent adverse publicity to which USF has been subject, the administration undoubtedly will wish to reemphasize its efforts to encourage diversity and tolerance for and understanding of cultural, racial, religious and like differences. The administration, I suggest, should cause these concerns to be monitored and take appropriate corrective action as necessary. The University will be well served if these measure are widely publicized as they are taken. Concern was also expressed about the University's curriculum, and its course offerings and their content, by some members of the Jewish community. Those members would like to see greater emphasis placed on Judaic studies and the Israeli perspective of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Concerns of this nature implicate various aspects of University administrative and academic activity, including the availability of funds and course demand by students. The University cannot satisfy every expressed desire. Those interested in this issue, however, will be reassured if the administration publicly requests its Provost, deans and department chairs to periodically review the University curriculum, course offerings and course -65


content to assure a rich, balanced and objective educational experience. Another complaint heard from several sources is that a course on the Holocaust was discontinued at USF some years ago and that, although later reinstituted, it is only taught by VVvolunteers" and is not taught with deserved prominence and regularity. I suggest this concern be brought to the attention of appropriate University officials for review and consideration. The emphasis of certain courses pertaining to the Islamic World in International and Religious Studies also evoked comment. Here the main concern was about a need to assure that there is a proper balance in course offerings, content and classroom instruction. Given the growth of the Islamic faith and its influence on national and international developments, however, those commenting on this matter unanimously acknowledged there is a need for instruction and programming in order to provide better understanding of the Muslim World by the public and University students. They ask only that the instruction and programming are suitably balanced. Particularly regarding the Department of Government and International Affairs, but also to some lesser degree as to Religious Studies, there is a perception in the Jewish community of a pro-Islamic and/or pro-Palestinian faculty bias. Of much concern to some interviewees is the presence in International and Religious Studies of faculty believed to hold pro-Arab or pro-66


Palestinian views which, inter alia -, are thought to be detrimental to Jewish tradition and to the welfare of Israel. In pursuing this concern, I did not think it appropriate for me to examine faculty members about their personal political views. Rather, proceeding on the premise that the allegations could be true, I sought to determine in my interviews if the personal bias of faculty has been manifest either in the selection and use of instructional materials or in classroom instruction. With one exception, I found no evidence of academic impropriety after considerable inquiry among faculty leaders and members. Standard textual materials, widely used in the American academic community, are said to be consistently employed and classroom lectures and instruction are characterized as reasonably well-balanced and objective. The one exception pertains to the course in Middle East Studies taught in the Spring terms of 1994 and 1995 by Ramadan Abdullah Shallah as an adjunct professor. Dr. Shallah was initially employed after departmental review of his academic credentials, which included an earned doctorate, to substitute for Mr. Lowrie. Upon employment, Dr. Shallah was advised within the Department to use the standard text in the course and he did so, employing a textbook written by an American Jewish academic. Shallah's student evaluations for the 1994 semester were duly reviewed by appropriate departmental officials and found satisfactory. However, in the 1995 Spring Semester, a student complained to Dr. Michael Gibbons, Chair of the Department of -67


Government and International Affairs, that Shallah's instruction offered a decided pro-Palestinian bias and that Shallah consistently referred in political and geographical terms to Palestine rather than Israel. That complaint was discussed by the Chair with Shallah. He, in turn, complained of harassment in class by several students. Dr. Shallah was counseled to avoid classroom bias and confrontation. Later, at term's end in 1995, student evaluations disclosed that Shallah was often late to class and, on occasion, was absent without prior notice. There is no documentation of the matter, but I was advised by Dr. Gibbons that a decision was made not to reemploy Shallah as an adjunct. In any event, the matter became moot when Shallah returned to the Middle East shortly after the semester ended. A subsequent announcement of his succession to the leadership of the Islamic Jihad is reported in the media as a surprise to his students as well as others. Two members of the Committee on Middle East Studies Committee, Dr. Mark Orr and Mr. Arthur Lowrie, were specifically criticized as biased by several interviewees. Each is thought by those critics to hold pro-Arab or pro-Palestinian views that unduly influenced the implementation of the USF/WISE agreement and the agenda of COMES. The assertion was made that both should be sanctioned by the University because of their views and activities. Dr. Orr has served the University for many years, primarily as the Director of the Center for International Affairs. He is -68


widely known in the Tampa, as well as the University, community. I have known him casually for some twenty years. At all times relevant to this report, Dr. Orr performed no classroom duties but, in addition to his responsibilities as Director of the Center for International Affairs, served as Chair of the Committee. His major role in the latter capacity was to convene and conduct Committee meetings and to help develop and facilitate its program plans. Mr. Lowrie is a former U.S. foreign service officer who during his career served extensively in Middle Eastern and North African posts. Completing his service at MacDill Field as political advisor to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Central Command, he retired in 1986. Thereafter in mid-1987, Mr. Lowrie was employed as an adjunct professor in International Studies upon the recommendation of former U.S. Ambassador Jack Bell. The department at that time was seeking to add a V1practitionerV' to its teaching staff. Following his employment as an adjunct, Mr. Lowrie taught a course in Middle East Studies, as did Dr. Hechiche. Having the time, and an active interest in Middle East affairs, Mr. Lowrie also was an instigator of the idea of a Center in Middle East Studies at USF and was highly active in the work of the Committee that subsequently ensued. From time to time, he also published articles in American journals and newspapers on Middle East subjects and shared published materials on the Middle East with members of WISE. He was an early critic of the PBS broadcast, -69


Jihad in America, and initially rejected the validity of the announcement in the Fall of 1995 that the Ramadan Abdullah he knew at WISE, and had recommended as an adjunct professor in 1994, was the same Ramadan Abdullah Shallah who had become the new leader of the Islamic Jihad. Through his writings on the Middle East, Mr. Lowrie is known as proponent of the view that the United States government should actively promote dialogue with Islamic intellectuals about Muslim thought and developments in the Muslim world. A copy of one of his articles, much criticized by some interviewees, is attached as Appendix 12. There is no evidence, however, that Mr. Lowrie's personal views on Islam, Israel, Palestine or Middle East politics, whatever they may be, were imposed on his students in any way. Dr. Orr and Mr. Lowrie did take active parts in the development of the USF/WISE agreement. Other faculty members did likewise. Orr and Lowrie were also leaders in the implementation of Committee's program, including the joint activities with WISE. However, whatever the personal biases of Dr. Orr and Mr. Lowrie may be, I discovered nothing in the expression and conduct of these individuals that would prompt or sustain the imposition of sanctions upon either of them by the University. Extracurricular conferences, lectures and seminars presented on campus under University auspices were also targets of critical comment. Once again, the main issue is maintaining a proper balance in the expression of thought. This is particularly true -7o


as to radical expression. Conferences featuring speakers such as Hasan Turabi, Leonard Jefferies and the proposed conference with Rashid el-Ghannoushi invariably invite public and media criticism. Yet even severe critics of speakers of such ilk acknowledged to me that one primary mission of a university is to accommodate and encourage the free expression of thought and ideas, including controversial expression. All agreed that, just as free speech is the bulwark of democracy, so also the concepts of academic freedom are essential ingredients of formal education. USF and WISE joined in five conferences over a four-year period. One planned conference, at which Dr. Rashid el-Ghannoushi was to be the featured speaker, did not materialize because Ghannoushi failed to obtain from the United States government the required visa for entry into the United States. Ghannoushi is an Islamic intellectual of Tunisian origin. Politically, he is associated as a leader in an Islamic movement seeking to overthrow the government of Tunisia. He was sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment by a Tunisian court for this activity, thereafter was granted political asylum by the British government and was residing in England at the time he was invited to speak at USF. Despite repeated efforts by representatives of the Committee and others, permission to enter the United States was not granted. Some reports of this episode allege that Ghannoushi was denied an American visa because of terrorist activity. I did not -71


pursue the visa matter through official government channels. I did receive information from unofficial sources, however, that a visa was originally issued to Ghannoushi by the American Embassy in London in order to facilitate his visit to the United States but was withdrawn when our government received protests from the Tunisian government and Jewish interests. Those protests, however, were not based upon allegations that Ghannoushi was a terrorist. They related to objections regarding political activity and expression. Apparently the visa was not formally denied but, rather, the application was placed in suspension and was not acted upon. The Ghannoushi invitation is the only joint conference invitation that was the subject of criticism at the time the invitation was extended. Four of five planned joint conferences were held. Three of the four were essentially non-controversial and received no public criticism either at the time of their presentations or thereafter. Those three are the December 5, 1991 joint conference featuring Drs. Ziad Abu Amr and Mark Tessler; the April 9, 1992 conference jointly sponsored by the Committee, WISE, the Islamic Society of Tampa Bay, the University Lecture Series and the Tampa Bay Area Committee on Foreign Relations which featured Dr. John Esposito, and the May 15, 1993 Round Table conference featuring Dr. Khurshid Ahmad. The fourth, the May 10, 1992 Round Table conference featuring Dr. Hasan Turabi, was not criticized initially. However, a Tampa Tribune political commentator, Mark August, observed in a -72


column written the next day that the views expressed by Turabi at the conference 18stink.'8 Later in mid-1995 and thereafter, the Turabi conference was severely criticized publicly as presenting the views of a terrorist. Members of the Middle East Studies Committee responded that Turabi was granted an entry visa by our government and on that visit to the United States also met with officials of the federal government, the Counsel on Foreign Relations, the Brookings Institute and the Washington, D.C. news media. The transcript of Turabi's remarks at the conference contains no reference to terrorism. The remarks related to his views of the Islamic World as a Muslim fundamentalist. Of the four conferences jointly presented by USF and WISE, only the April 9, 1992 conference involved a significant expenditure of funds derived from University sources. The University Lecture Series contributed $500 to this conference. The costs of all other joint programs were essentially defrayed either by WISE, the speakers themselves and/or local contributions. The conferences presented by the Middle East Studies Committee, jointly and otherwise, as well as other Committee activity provoked a variety of criticism after the May 1995 Tampa Tribune series, although there was little public criticism prior to that time. One criticism was that the conferences and other activities of the Committee on Middle East Studies lacked overall balance in presenting conflicting points of view. The Committee was accused -73


by some of those I interviewed of having a pro-Palestinian bias and of promoting pro-Palestinian interests. Attached hereto as Appendix 7 is a listing of the Committee's activities from its inception to date. These activities were reported to the Provost's office on an annual basis. Readers will conclude for themselves whether the list of activities reflects a particular bias or a lack of balance in overall Committee effort. Considering the activities in totality, I do not find that to be the case and I note parenthetically that the first Committee activity after the Turabi appearance was a lecture by Irwin Frenkel, former editor of the Jerusalem Post. The assertion about bias finds some support, however, in the case of the first joint conference. Held in December 1991, that conference presented the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations from a Palestinian perspective. The Committee was sensitive at the time, however, to the need for a counter program. Lacking Committee resources, Committee members Shiloh and Strange were asked to seek funding and support for a conference offering the Israeli perspective on the Peace Negotiations. I was told that this funding was sought unsuccessfully. Controversy about, and criticism of, the Committee conferences has primarily centered upon those jointly sponsored with WISE. Yet, as previously stated, those joint conferences that were presented provoked little or no criticism at or about the time of presentation. Instead the criticism mainly came -74


after the news disclosure in mid-1995 that Dr. al Arian, then accused of supporting terrorist activities, had ties with the WISE organization. Nevertheless, the question recurs whether it was appropriate at the time for the University to permit controversial figures to speak on campus. Each of the speakers at the USFfWISE conferences was an acknowledged Middle East or Islamic scholar whose views were relevant to Islamic thought and/or American opinion thereof. The foreign speakers were Muslim intellectuals. The speakers appeared before audiences primarily composed of other scholars, some of whom are recognized as America's leading Middle East scholars. The speakers' views were subject to examination and inquiry by the participating scholars. The experience enhanced scholarly knowledge and understanding of Islamic World. The public, I believe, could only have been benefited by their appearance. It was left to form opinion about the views expressed, assisted by media commentaries such as the one presented in the Mark August column with respect to the Turabi conference. Transcripts of the proceedings of the two Round Table conferences were reported in full at the expense of WISE and were made available to American scholars, nationwide. A list of the scholars participating in the Round Table conferences appears at Appendix 13. The USF/WISE conferences reflected favorably on the fledgling Committee at USF in the eyes of American scholars. -75


Dr. Richard Bulleit, Director of Middle East Studies at Columbia University, is reported to have remarked after attending a Round Table conference that USF's rapid development as a prominent Middle East Studies program was remarkable. Later, however, the conference also generated damning criticism based on allegations that USF was giving succor to terrorists. Clearly that was not USF's purpose at any time and, at the time of the conferences, no one to my knowledge attributed that purpose to the University. I believe that conferences of the sort mentioned even the controversial ones are appropriate to the University's mission. Obviously, however, the public relations' cost to the University can be high. The University should seek therefore to assure that, overall, its conferences and programs will provide balanced presentation of controversial matters. I do not intend to suggest by this observation, however, that the Middle East Studies program was, or is, now inappropriate. Quite the contrary. Our proximity to and association with the United States Central Command at MacDill Field provides special opportunity for service. Moreover, the importance of the Middle East to our national interests, and the rapid national and international growth of the Islamic religion, warrant scholarly attention to, and greater public understanding of, these developments. Universities in other regions of the United States have well developed Middle East programs and it is noteworthy that the University of Florida has chosen recently to develop a Middle East program. There is no reason why the -76


University should not be at liberty to do so if it chooses, and can afford to pursue that objective. -77-77-


ADJUNCTS, GRADUATE STUDENTS AND EXTERNAL AGREEMENTS News reports revealing that several individuals affiliated with WISE, who also taught at USF as graduate assistants, caused questions to be raised in 1995 about the process employed at the University in screening, selecting and employing adjunct faculty. The issue received considerable attention. I believe it deserves even more. State educational policy and funding limitations have necessitated the use for classroom instruction of a surprisingly large number of adjunct faculty not only at USF but also at other state-supported universities in Florida. I was advised that in some USF departments about 70% of the classroom teachers are part-time instructors and that adjuncts compose nearly 40% of the faculty in the College of Arts and Sciences at USF. The need at any point in time for adjunct instructional assistance is determined at the department level with college approval. Those charged with employing adjunct faculty are allocated lump sum funding, or portions of approved faculty lines, for payment of adjuncts. Most adjuncts appear regularly at the University to teach an assigned class but usually have little to do otherwise with academic or other university activity. Often their compensation is relatively modest, about $2,000.00 per course. Adjuncts are currently identified and employed at USF by informal means. Some apply for positions. Some are known to -78


college, department or division officials or to members of the tenured faculty. Many hold graduate or professional degrees and have had prior teaching experience. Sometimes this is not the case. At times, because of unexpected student demand for a course that materializes shortly before a semester or term commences, adjuncts must be employed on short notice. Review of an adjunct's qualifications at USF varies among colleges and their subdivisions. Generally, those qualifications do not receive the close scrutiny given to faculty being employed full-time in tenure-track positions. Adjunct applicants are required to complete standard University forms that provide personal data, academic training and degrees, past work experience, social security information, immigration status, if applicable, and like information. The forms are usually accompanied by curriculum vitae. Promising candidates are then interviewed by the relevant academic leader and sometimes by tenured faculty in the relevant discipline. Often information regarding a candidate is circulated among appropriate full-time faculty. If the candidate is a foreign national, information regarding his/her immigration status is provided for review and is processed by an experienced staff member. The individuals affiliated with WISE who became USF adjunct faculty at various times are Dr. Khalil Shikaki, Dr. Ramadan Abdullah Shallah, Dr. Mazen al Najjar and Mr. Sameeh Hammoudeh. Dr. Shikaki taught a Political Science course in 1991. Dr. Shallah taught a course in Middle East Studies during the Spring -79


Semesters of 1994 and 1995. Neither was otherwise affiliated with the University. Dr. al Najjar and Mr. Hammoudeh at different times taught Arabic in the Division of Modern Languages and Linguistics while they were enrolled in the University as graduate students in other disciplines. The issue of graduate students, teaching assistants and adjuncts gained attention when the relationship between WISE and the University was disclosed in media reports in May 1995 and thereafter. It was further spotlighted by the discovery that, when Mazen al Najjar's visa was out of status, arrangements were made by a Center director to provide al Najjar's teaching compensation through WISE. Among other things, the University was criticized for failure to make a thorough background check of its adjuncts and for failing otherwise properly to supervise its graduate students and teaching assistants. Critics demanded closer scrutiny. I think it unreasonable to ask that the University make inquiry approaching the level of a security check in the admission of its students and the employment of its faculty. students, including graduate students, must complete standard admission forms prescribed for all state universities by the Board of Regents which require, inter alia, disclosure of the applicant's citizenship and residency and, if applicable, immigration status. Falsification of the requested information renders the applicant subject to disciplinary sanctions and/or -8O


criminal penalties. Sheer volume generally dictates that the information provided be accepted as true until the contrary appears. Applications for admission to graduate study, and employment of faculty in tenure-track positions, are usually accompanied by letters of recommendation from responsible citizens speaking to the qualifications, character and ability of applicants. Little more can be expected or asked in a democratic society. More, however, can and should be done in the selection and employment of adjunct faculty. Indeed, given the importance of adjunct instruction at the University, it would seem imperative for its colleges and their subdivisions to develop and maintain a current list of qualified adjuncts who are available for employment. Development of such a list in advance of need would afford the opportunity to obtain and study both relevant academic credentials and letters of recommendation as to character and fitness as well as to consider eligibility for employment. This practice should serve salutary ends without adding unreasonably to administrative duties. Since the commencement of my assignment, the University Provost has caused revised policies and regulations to be developed regarding the employment of adjunct faculty. In draft form presently, those policies and regulations exceed in scope and detail the recommendations mentioned immediately above. A copy of the proposed revised provisions is set forth in Appendix 14. When adopted, the proposed revisions should well serve the -81


need to assure the employment of reputable, qualified adjunct faculty. The USF/WISE agreement of March 1992 included a provision that from time to time WISE would recommend qualified graduate students for admission to the University who would receive financial support from WISE but were to be eligible for tuition waivers in return for providing research assistance. News reports in 1995 indicated that one or more graduate students associated with, and supported by, WISE were not eligible for graduate admission but nevertheless were admitted to graduate study and subsequently received tuition waivers. Moreover, the reports indicated that those so admitted were not properly supervised by appropriate University personnel and had not provided the assistance expected in return for tuition waivers. The University administration promptly caused these matters to be investigated and irregularities were found. Written reports were submitted to President Castor and Provost Tighe and the Provost was directed to take all steps necessary to assure proper admission and supervision of all graduate students. The Provost has now developed and promulgated revised rules and regulations regarding graduate student admission and supervision which appear to me to be appropriate and to insure against future irregularities. A copy is attached as Appendix 15. Criticism regarding the USF/WISE agreement also directed attention to agreements between the University and external organizations. How are such agreements conceived and formulated? -82


At what level in the University may they be agreed upon and executed? Are they subject to the supervision of accountable authority? Following the media publicity of mid-1995, the administration caused a survey to be made of all such agreements. One hundred forty-two were identified, covering a wide range of relationships. Since then, the administration has also caused new rules and regulations regarding such agreements to be developed and adopted. External agreements are now subject to review and evaluation before being executed, and their implementation is now subject to periodic examination, at the university level. I think the steps taken as to such agreements are satisfactory and will insure against future complications. A copy of these provisions is attached as Appendix 16. -83


THE UNIVERSITY REACTION The University has been sharply criticized for its alleged failure to respond appropriately to media assertions that a tenured professor led an organization that provided support for terrorist activity and a University entity had entered into an agreement with an external organization similarly engaged. I discuss elsewhere the adequacy of the University's actions before publication of the media reports. I now turn to its reaction after the reports, beginning with a summarization of the nature and timing of those reports and other information made available to the University. As already noted, the November 1994 PBS television broadcast Jihad in America identified University professor Sami al Arian as the organizer of the Islamic Committee for Palestine which was alleged to serve as the "primary support group in the United States for Islamic Jihad." Tampa Tribune reporters Tim Collie and Michael Fechter brought the matter further to public attention in an article published on November 23, 1994. Acting Provost Michael Kovac was advised of that article shortly after its publication but was not particularly concerned at the time because the allegations of the broadcast as reported appeared to be unconfirmed and speculative. Shortly after the initial broadcast, a local television station presented a program in which the Jihad broadcast was discussed pro and con by Dr. al Arian, Dr. Gross, Mr. Lowrie and Dr. Sonn. Dr. al Arian again -84


denied his alleged support of terrorist activity on that occasion. On or about February 23, 1995, two agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation contacted University police, seeking information about Sami al Arian, Mazen al Najjar and Ramadan Abdullah. The focus of the agents' inquiry was on Dr. al Arian. The agents were pursuing the possibility that University computers had been used to communicate with the Middle East and Islamic fundamentalists. The agents sought access to Dr. al Arian's office but agreed with campus police this could not be done without appropriate legal authority. The agents advised they might be in further contact with the campus police. There was no further contact or inquiry. According to the campus police, the discussion was "low key" and they made no report of the matter to higher University authority. The Jihad in America allegations apparently received no further attention on campus until April 17, 1995. On that day, Tampa Tribune reporter Michael Fechter made a written public records request for information regarding Ramadan Abdullah, Mazen al Najjar and the financial records of the USF Foundation regarding the receipts and expenditures of COMES. Mr. Fechter also requested an interview with President Castor. When these two matters were brought to the President's attention, she promptly convened a meeting of Acting Provost Kovac, Vice President Albert Hartley, General Counsel Noreen Segrest, and Chief Uravich and Captain Johnson of the USF police force. The -85


administration was then advised for the first time by the campus police of the FBI contact in February. President Castor immediately directed the campus officers to inquire of appropriate federal and state law enforcement authorities whether they were aware of any threat to the University's security or any illegal activities by University personnel. Shortly thereafter she was advised there was none. The meeting also brought to light the possibility of irregularities in the employment of Mazen al Najjar as a graduate teaching assistant. This matter was promptly pursued by Dr. Kovac and Ms. Segrest. On April 20, 1995, Mr. Fechter met with President Castor, Dr. Kovac and Ms. Segrest. He produced a copy of the USF/WISE agreement, noted ties between WISE and the Islamic Committee for Palestine, inquired if the administration was aware of allegations regarding al Arian and the ICP in the November 1994 PBS broadcast, and discussed the participation of an alleged terrorist, Hasan Turabi, in a USF/WISE Round Table conference. He sought the administration's reaction regarding these and related matters. Apparently the meeting was tense. The administration responded that it would review the situation but did not wish to react immediately. Following this meeting, the campus police were again directed to ask outside law enforcement authorities if they had knowledge of any threat to University security or of any violations of law by University personnel. Again, the response -86


was no. In addition, USF Inspector General J. Michael Peppers was asked to obtain information regarding WISE and its joint activity with COMES and USF, and to review all University financial records regarding USF/WISE transactions. Assistant Provost Tennyson Wright was directed to follow up as to graduate students, recommended and funded by WISE, who had been admitted to the University. Mr. Peppers reported on the financial transactions by memorandum dated May 23, 1995. He submitted a second report on June 3, 1995 regarding the establishment and direction of WISE and all joint USF/WISE activities. Dr. Wright submitted his report on June 13, 1995. Shortly after President Castor departed for an international conference in China, the Tampa Tribune published a two-part series of articles written by Mr. Fechter. Among other matters, the articles stated that WISE andthe ICP were connected through Dr. al Arian as an incorporator of each entity; that the entities shared key officers and the same post office box and office facilities; that the ICP had been identified in the PBS broadcast as the primary US-support group for the Islamic Jihad; that an agreement existed between the University and WISE pursuant to which alleged terrorists had been invited to speak at jointly sponsored conferences; and that the University defended the WISE agreement and the conferences as a proper exercise of academic freedom. -8?


Public and media reaction to the Tribune series, and the University's initial response thereto, was highly critical of the University. In sum, critics said the issue was not academic freedom but academic responsibility and accountability. In the absence of President Castor, the situation was again reviewed by Acting Provost Kovac, General Counsel Segrest, and other ranking University officials. There was disagreement among the participants. Some urged immediate termination of the WISE agreement and admission of any error made in implementation of the WISE relationship. Others, protective of the concept of academic freedom, believed all activity with WISE should be suspended but faculty must be reassured that agreements with external entities, and joint conferences, of a scholarly nature were appropriate academic activities. on June 5, 1995, Acting Provost Kovac publicly issued a statement to the University community and the media denouncing terrorism, indefinitely suspending all USF transactions with WISE and defending the WISE agreement and the joint conferences on grounds of academic freedom. "No idea", he said, "should be subject to prior censorship, but no idea should go unchallenged" in a University setting. See, Appendix 17. Dr. Kovac sought no official explanation from Dr. al Arian, who was then on sabbatical leave. However, he did informally consult Dr. al Arian regarding the media reports of al Arian's ties with terrorist activity and was told the allegations were false. -aa


On June 7, 1995, Dr. Kovac also met with a number of representatives of the Tampa Jewish community to discuss the University's position regarding the media reports and the al Arian-ICP-WISE-USF situation. Some attending the meeting were dissatisfied with the Universityfs seemingly defensive reaction, which they characterized as reflecting a "bunker mentality." Others were sympathetic of the University's problem and adopted a "wait and see" attitude. Subsequent reports regarding the June 7,meeting contained suggestions from some participants in that meeting that, lacking the resources internally, the University should employ a professional entity experienced in terrorist investigations to pursue the allegations that had been made and that, while adhering to established principles of free speech and academic freedom, the University ought not allow those principles to serve as a curtain for impropriety and error. During the period June 11-20, the Associate Vice President for Governmental Relations made contact with the Intelligence Committee of the United States Senate (chaired by U. S. Senator Bob Graham), the Florida Department of Law Enforcement and the United States Marshal Service seeking information regarding the allegations associating the University with terrorist activity. These inquiries produced no relevant information. Upon her return from China, President Castor met on June 19, 1995, with the leadership of the University Faculty Senate, -89


members of COMES and other interested faculty to discuss the overall situation. On June 23, 1995, President Castor addressed a memorandum to Dr. Thomas Tighe, recently appointed to the position of Provost, and to Dr. Kovac and Ms. Segrest. Copies of this memorandum were forwarded to all participants in the June 7 meeting. President Castor expressed concern in her memorandum about the perception that USF should investigate, or cause the investigation of, WISE and members of the faculty in order to determine possible support of terrorism or illegal activity. That responsibility, she said, rested with law enforcement officials. The President, however, then directed the continued suspension of University activities pursuant to the USF/WISE agreement, a review of graduate school practices and procedures, a review of all University agreements with external entities, the development of recommendations for improved supervision of such procedures and agreements and the submission of recommendations for disciplinary action in the event of any violation of University regulations regarding the employment of graduate teaching assistants. A copy of that memorandum is attached as Appendix 18. As previously stated, new procedures for admission and oversight of graduate students and supervision of external agreements were subsequently adopted and are now in force. Elsewhere I express the opinion that the new procedures are satisfactory and should serve to obviate the problems encountered -9o


both as to graduate student admission and supervision and as to agreements with external entities. I found no record, however, of recommendations regarding either the appropriateness of discipline, or action thereupon, for violation of University regulations. Fathi Shikaki, the acknowledged leader of the Islamic Jihad, was assassinated at Malta on October 26, 1995. Shortly thereafter Ramadan Abdullah Shallah was reported to be Shikaki's successor. The University expressed its dismay regarding Shallah's appearance as the new Jihad leader, again denounced terrorism and officially terminated the WISE agreement. Later, however, representatives of the Jewish faculty at USF urged President Castor to take further action regarding the events that had transpired in 1995. Soon thereafter, I was asked to undertake an inquiry into those events and related matters. Since commencing my work, there have been further developments, most notably the unsealing of law enforcement affidavits in which the ICP and WISE are alleged to be "fronts" providing support for political activity, Basheer Nafi is alleged to be a Jihad leader, and Sami al Arian is alleged to have violated federal and/or state laws. The ICP and WISE are now defunct and their records have been obtained through search warrants and are now held by federal authorities. Dr. al Arian has been placed upon indefinite leave by the University. The University continues, however, to be the subject of media reports. My hasty count reflects that, since the Tampa Tribune's May 1995 series, -91


at least 80 separate articles, editorials and letters to the editor have been published locally in the Tribune and Times, in addition to other state and national sources. In assessing the propriety of the University's response to the revelations regarding Sami al Arian, the ICP and WISE, I am again called upon to l'second-guessll the action taken. Perhaps the most serious claim is that the University ignored the issues presented by the allegations pertaining to Dr. al Arian's off-campus activity and the ICP/WISE/USF relationship. The foregoing factual recitation demonstrates the University promptly responded to many issues raised in the media and by others. Action was promptly taken to suspend all activity with WISE and to explore alleged irregularities in the admission and supervision of graduate students and in the payment of graduate assistants as adjunct professors. In addition, steps were taken regarding the employment of adjunct faculty and the administration caused Inspector General Peppers to develop information regarding the establishment of WISE, the identity of its officials, and the COMES programs jointly sponsored with WISE. President Castor also caused prompt inquiry to be made of outside law enforcement authorities by University police to determine if University security was at risk and whether there had been violations of law by University personnel. The University offered its full cooperation to law enforcement officials. -92


The alleged ties of Dr. al Arian, the ICP and WISE to terrorist activity, however, were not exhaustively pursued and that which was done was not well publicized. Informal inquiry was made of Dr. al Arian. Federal and state authorities were contacted to determine if they had relevant information. The University, however, made no independent inquiry to confirm the media allegations that ICP and WISE were closely connected and shared key officers. Rather, the University took the public position that it was not equipped to investigate either alleged ties with terrorism or violations of law, and it defended the WISE agreement and the joint conferences as a proper exercise of academic freedom. Acting Provost Xovac also expressed the view publicly that a University should not inquire into the off-campus activities of faculty members. And a University spokesperson made an unfortunate reference to alleged charitable activities of terrorist groups. I believe the University's response was entirely appropriate, but stopped short of doing all that might otherwise reasonably have been done under the circumstances. I also believe that it failed in its public statements to state clearly and fully what it had done and to explain to the public, along with its position on academic freedom, the limitations to which it was subject as a matter of law. However, its shortcomings, if they were such, in my opinion were not substantive but were primarily a matter of public relations. I explain these views more fully below. -93


The University, I believe, was correct in its assertions that the establishment of external agreements with scholarly organizations and joint sponsorship of conference programs, even those featuring highly controversial speakers, are appropriate activities of a university. It was on sound ground, in my opinion, in asserting the academic prerogative of scholarly inquiry regarding the views of individuals who are legally present in this country. If government officials, private organizations and media representatives can interview such individuals, why not scholars, even scholars participating in a fledgling public university program? The University, I think, was also correct in its assertion that it does not have either the resources or the primary responsibility for investigating and establishing allegations of terrorist ties. Well over a year after the initial inquiries on campus, highly trained and skilled law enforcement officials have yet to announce publicly, much less to prove in court, any findings of their own of ties between University personnel, and/or University-connected organizations, and terrorist activity. However, the University was also faced with concerns about the constitutional principles of free speech. State-supported institutions are subject to greater constitutional restraints than private ones because their action is state action. State action brings into play the free speech protections of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. -94


Those protections are very broad. They make it extremely difficult for state universities to sanction conduct and utterances of faculty in off-campus activity. That was exactly the situation with which the University was faced regarding the allegations pertaining to Dr. al Arian and his ICP activity. The constitutional restraints to which the University was subject, however, were not noted and explained to the public. There are limits to free speech, as well as academic freedom, and despite that said above, I disagree with Dr. Kovac's assertion that a state university can do nothing about the offcampus conduct and utterances of a faculty member. Reasonable inquiry is appropriate if off-campus activity threatens to disrupt a university's primary mission. Thus, when the al Arian/ICP/WISE allegations were made in 1995, with strong adverse public reaction, reasonable University inquiry would not have been inappropriate. I do not believe USF could have, or should have, instituted an exhaustive investigation of the alleged terrorist ties and activities, either then or thereafter. In my view, however, it would have been in the University's interest to have made it known publicly that Dr. al Arian had been officially interviewed by University officials, that the University had sought to confirm or deny the alleged ties between the ICP and WISE, and that inquiry had been made of the members of the Middle East Studies Committee about the USF relationship with WISE. Having devoted much attention to the matter, I gravely doubt that those -95


inquiries would have established the involvement of Dr. al Arian, the ICP and/or WISE either in direct terrorist activity or in providing support therefor. The effort, however, should have given greater reassurance to a concerned public and would have spoken more clearly to the issue of academic responsibility. (In suggesting official inquiry, I am well aware that faculty understandably resent administrative interference in academic matters. If necessary, however, inquiry such as I suggest can be initially placed in the hands of faculty leadership to pursue. That approach has been successfully employed elsewhere in comparable cases.) In sum, as a matter of public relations if nothing more, the University administration should have gone beyond its announcement that it was examining the absence, or violation of, University regulations and beyond its clear rejection of terrorism. It should have acknowledged the limits of free speech and academic freedom and made clear to the public that it had acted and done all it could reasonably do internally at that time to inquire about the allegations of terrorism. I fully~agree, however, that it would not have been appropriate to employ experts in terrorism to pursue the matter. Expert investigation of such nature is indeed the business of law enforcement officials. I trust it will be understood that the views I express here are, at most, mild criticism offered long after the crisis has -96

PAGE 100

passed. I am truly "second guessing." I do not know what I would have done at the time had the responsibility been mine. -97-97-

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CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS Members of the public and the media are probably most interested today in developments that await the results of law enforcement investigation. There is little the University can currently do about that activity, other than to continue to cooperate with the authorities upon request. In the event Dr. al Arian is prosecuted for violation of law, or in the event the law enforcement investigation continues without public disclosure for a protracted period of time, the University will be faced with a decision regarding institutional sanctions. That decision may be difficult to take. Much depends on future developments and cannot be prescribed now. Currently, with one possible exception, I find no reason for the University to take disciplinary action against any University employee. The exception relates to the circumstances under which an arrangement was made with WISE to compensate Dr. al Najjar while serving as an instructor in Arabic at the University. That matter should be acted upon and concluded if that has not occurred before receipt of this report. The University has already taken responsible, and in my view, satisfactory steps regarding the admission of graduate students, the procedures used in supervising graduate students and the oversight of agreements entered into by academic units. Likewise, pending regulations regarding the employment of adjunct faculty should prove to be satisfactory upon adoption. The -98

PAGE 102

latter is a matter of considerable import, I believe, and should be brought to conclusion soon. In that portion of my report entitled "Various Concerns," I note a number of matters that in my opinion merit the University's attention. With reference particularly to controversial subjects and speakers, consistent emphasis should be placed upon assuring a balance in course material, instruction and expression of opinion. Programs should not be instituted that cannot assure this balance. Faculty should also be encouraged to be mindful of the need for balance. Finally, I stress again that the findings and conclusions set forth herein are my own. I acknowledge, as life has taught me, that I can be wrong. In any event, my assignment has been an interesting and challenging one, and I can only hope this report proves to be of some value to the University and the public it serves. Wm. Reece Smith, Jr. May 27, 1996 -99

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1/15/96 1/23/96 1/31/96 2/04/96 2/07/96 2/08/96 2/09/96 2/12/96 2/13/96 2/14/96 2/15/96 WORK PERFORMED Initial meeting with President B. Castor, Provost T. Tighe, Assistant Provost T. Wright and General Counsel N. Segrest Review news articles and identify individuals to interview Review of additional news articles provided by USF; call General Counsel N. Segrest Develop chronological outline of developments Conference with General Counsel Segrest re scope of assignment. On campus review of PBS documentary, "Jihad in America" and video of Journalists Forum. Interview with Chief Uravich and Captain Johnson of university police; interviews with Professors Gil Kushner and Mitchell Silverman Review of notes re videos; identify areas of additional inquiry and individuals to interview; arrangements with USF for subsequent interviews Attend Suncoast Tiger Bay Club presentation by Steven Emerson; telephone calls to attorneys for Drs. Sami al Arian and Mazen al Najjar re possible interviews Review of USF documents and records; legal research re First Amendment issues Prepare outlines for subsequent interviews Meeting with Mr. M. Fechter; On campus interviews with Dean S. Permuth and Professors A. Lowrie, C. Nelson, M. Orr and C. Arnade; review of documents obtained from various sources and summarize factual information On campus conference with General Counsel Segrest; interviews with Professors M. Gibbons and M. Amen and Mr. D. Berman

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2/16/96 2/19/96 2/20/96 2/25/96 2/26/96 2/27/96 2/28/96 2/29/96 3/05/96 3/06/96 3/07/96 3/08/96 Confer with Ms. C. Matthews re scheduling interviews. On campus interviews with Professors R. Cole and J. Neusner and Mr. S. Bragin Review file and notes re interviews and records review. Further legal research on First Amendment and Academic Freedom Calls from General Counsel Segrest and to Mr. A. Teitelbaum; call to U. S. Attorney Wilson; correspondence acknowledging receipt of materials from various sources Collate, study and develop chronological outline of information from documents and records On campus interviews with Dean M. Kovac, USF librarian S. Fustukjian, Professors H. Nelsen, J. Jreisat and D. Slider and Ms. J. Newcomb On campus interviews with Professors D. Fasching and T. Sonn Visit to WISE premises; on campus interviews with Professors G. Meisels, N. Milani, J. Strange and T. Sonn; review of USF records Calls to Attorney B. Rush and Assistant Attorney General Bock re interview of Professor Hechiche; correspondence re same; call to Mr. H. Schwarzman; review of file Interview with Mr. H. Schwarzman Review of pertinent files and interview notes Call to Ms. C. Matthews re further interviews and records review; calls to offices of General N. Schwarzkopf, Dr. M. Tessler and WEDU; review of collected materials re First Amendment rights and limitations Telephone interview with Dr. M. Tessler -2-

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3/11/96 3/12/96 3/13/96 3/16/96 3/18/96 3/20/96 3/21/96 3/25/96 3/26/96 3/27/96 3/28/96 3/29/96 3/31/96 4/01/96 4/02/96 Review of materials produced by Dr. Orr to newspaper; on campus interview with President Castor and Assistant Provost T. Wright On campus interviews with General Counsel N. Segrest, Inspector General M. Peppers and Professor R. Brinkman Call from Attorney R. Cannella re client Dr. S. al Arian; telephone conference with Mr. S. Rosenkranz Further review and collation of materials produced by Dr. Orr in response to document production request Review of materials produced by search. Call to Chief Uravich. with Ms. R. Blumner Conference with Mr. J. Harper Lexis/Nexis Conference Interviews in Washington, D.C. area with Dr. B. Nafi and Mr. S. Emerson Telephone interview with Dr. A. shiloh Review of accumulated materials and interview notes Further review of materials and interview notes Telephone calls to Professors M. Milani, T. Sonn, Mrs. H. Abrams and Mr. A. Robinson of FBI. Further review of materials and interview notes Preliminary organization of data and initial outline for report Complete review of information developed; second review of "Jihad in America"; arrangements for further interviews Interview with Ms. H. Abrams Conference with Mr. B. Carmody of FBI and Mr. J. Canfield of U. S. customs; call from Dr. B. Nafi; further review of files -3-

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4/03/96 4/04/96 4/06/96 4/07/96 4/08/96 4/09/96 4/10/96 4/11/96 4/16/96 4/17/96 4/18/96 4/19/96 4/20/96 4/21/96 Review outline of all materials produced by USF re document request; review of videotape of September, 1991 joint ICP/Mosque Conference; telephone interview with Dr. J. Hodgson; arrangements for further interviews Calls re further interviews; telephone interview with Professor H. Vanden; further review of September, 1991 joint conference Study of additional materials produced by USF; review of biographical data Review of Channel 16 videotape of March 1992 program; preparation for further interviews and reinterviews Call to office of Dr. H. Nagamia; call from Mr. M. Fechter; discussion with General N. Schwarzkopf; interview with Mr. S. Hammoudeh Further interviews with Dr. M. Orr and Mr. A. Lowrie Interviews with Dr. N. Gross, Mr. J. Roth, Mrs. H. Davis, Drs. H. Nagamia and M. Kahn and Mr. and Mrs. M. Saad Review of portions of books re Muslim Fundamentalist movements Attend meeting with representatives of Muslim community Review of Channel 28 video re "Jihad in America" Conference with Attorney R. Cannella Review notes and materials; outline report Commence drafting portions of proposed report and checking details Review of partial drafts of report and further drafting -4-

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4/24/96 4/28/96 4/30/96 5/01/96 5/02/96 5/04/96 5/07/96 5/08/96 5/09/96 5/13/96 5/16/96 5/17/96 5/20-24/96 Interview with Mr. H. Borer; attempts to contact USF student; review of draft of portions of report Revising and further drafting of report Further drafting of report and confirming details thereof Drafting final portions of report and review of preceding portions Drafting final portions of report and revising report re recent developments Revising, reviewing detail and correcting draft of report Preparation of Table of contents, List of Interviews, Materials Reviewed, Appendices and statement of Work done for Report Assemble exhibits for Report appendices. Telephone calls from media, Attorney R. Cannella, Dr. B. Nafi Editing Report Further editing of report Telephone interview with Dr. Khalil shikiki Revision and editing of report; preparation of Appendix Further revision and editing of report and arrangements for binding Total Hours . . . . * * * * * * * * * -5-265.7

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Paralegal assistance in collating and organizing written materials Miscellaneous calls from media and others, miscellaneous correspondence and reading of books Total Hours -W. R. Smith, Jr. Total Paralegal Time -6-Not yet reported Unrecorded 265.7 (?)

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statement of Legal Services and Costs To Services of Wm. Reece smith, Jr. To Costs As Requested by Mr. smith . . . Telephone calls, fax costs, Xerox copies, lodging and car rental for one day and night, translator services, preparation and binding of report, paralegal time and $19,927.50 miscellaneous costs . Not yet available -7-

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INTERVIEWS Harriett Abrams, Regional Director, American Jewish committee Mark Amen, Associate Dean and Associate Professor, College of Arts and Sciences, USF Charles Arnade, Professor, Government and International Affairs, USF Daniel Berman, Director, Hillel Foundation, Campus Ministry Howard Borer, Executive Director, Tampa Jewish Federation Steven Bragin, Coordinator, Advancement/Alumni Affairs, USF Robert Brinkmann, Associate Professor of Geography, USF and Current Member of Committee on Middle Eastern Studies Robyn E. Brumner, Executive Director, ACLU of Florida John Canfield, U. S. Customs Inspector, Department of the Treasury Robert Cannella, Esq., Attorney for Sami al Arian Barry carmody, special Agent, Federal Bureau of Investigation Betty Castor, President, University of South Florida Roger Cole, Program Director and Professor, Division of Languages, USF Helen Gordon Davis, former State Senator Stephen Emerson, Producer, Jihad In America Darrell Fasching, Chairperson and Professor, Religious Studies, USF Michael Fechter, News Reporter, The Tampa Tribune Sam Fustukjian, Library Director, USF Michael Gibbons, Chairperson and Associate Professor, Government and International Affairs, USF Norman Gross, Ph.D., Primer, Inc. Sameeh T. Haromoudeh, Graduate Student, USF

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James Harper, News Reporter, St. Petersburg Times John Hodgson (by telephone), Professor in Economics, USF Pat Johnson, captain, USF Police Jamil Jreisat, Professor, Government and International Affairs, USF Z.A. Khan, M.D., Member of Tampa Islamic Community Michael Kovac, Dean, College of Engineering, USF Gilbert Kushner, Professor of Anthropology, USF Arthur Lowrie, Adjunct Professor, Department of Government and International Studies, USF Gerry Meisels, Director and Professor, USF Mohsen Milani, Associate Professor, Department of Government and International Studies, USF Basheer Nafi, Editor, International Institute of Islamic Thought H. F. Nagamia, M.D., Member of the Tampa Islamic Community Harvey Nelsen, Professor, International Affairs, USF Carnot Nelson, Associate Chairperson and professor, Psychology Department, USF Jacob Neusner, Graduate Research professor, Religious Studies, USF Joan Newcomb, Secretary, International Studies, USF Mark Orr, Director of Center for International Affairs, USF J. Michael Peppers, Inspector General, USF Steven Permuth, Dean, College of Education, USF stanley Rosenkranz, Tampa lawyer and President of the Southeast Region Union of American Hebrew Congregation Jack Roth, Primer, Inc. Mr. Mahieodine Saad, Member of the Tampa Islamic Community Ms. Pilar saad, Member of the Tampa Islamic Community -2-

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H. Norman Schwarzkopf, General, united States Army (Ret.) Herbert Schwarzman, Chair, Florida Israel Institute Dr. Khalil Shikiki (by telephone), Professor of political Science, AI-Najah National University, west Bank Noreen Segrest, General Counsel, University of South Florida Ailon Shiloh (by telephone), Professor of Anthropology, USF (Retired) Mitchell Silverman, Professor of Criminology, USF Darrell Slider, Coordinator and Associate Professor, International Affairs, USF Tamara Sonn, Associate Professor, Religious Studies, USF James Strange, Professor, Religious Studies, USF Arthur N. Teitelbaum, Southern Area Director, Anti Defamation League, B'nai B'rith, Miami, FL Mark Tessler, Professor and Director of International Studies, University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee Thomas Tighe, Provost and Executive Vice President, USF Paul Uravich, Chief of Police, USF Harry Vanden (by telephone), Professor in Government and International Affairs, USF Tennyson Wright, Associate Provost, University of South Florida -3-

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MATERIALS REVIEWED 1. Relevant documents provided by the University 2. University documents, records and forms provided upon my request by the University 3. University records and documents produced by the University pursuant to public records requests of Michael Fechter 4. Printed matter provided by interviewees 5. All relevant news reports of the Tampa Tribune and the st. Petersburg Times 6. other news reports of Florida and national media 7. Materials produced by Lexis-Nexis search 8. Articles of Incorporation and annual reports of Islamic Concern projects, Inc. and World and Islamic studies Enterprises, Inc. 9. Available copies of Inquiry published by Islamic Concern Project, Inc. 10. Published transcripts of USF/WISE Round Table Conferences 11. written summaries of USF/WISE joint conferences 12. Occasional Papers of the Committee on Middle East Studies 13. Translated tables of contents of Arabic language journal published by World and Islamic Studies Enterprise, Inc. 14. copies of The American Journal of Islamic social Sciences published jointly by The Association of Muslim Social Sciences and The International Institute of Islamic Thought 15. Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1994, published by the U.s. Department of State 16. 1993 Report of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith entitled Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the Muslim Brotherhood: Islamic Extremists and The Terror Threat to America 17. Report of the USF Planning Commission entitled Shaping Our Future (1992) 18. Master's Thesis entitled The Rise of Palestinian Islamic Groups by Abdulaziz I. Zamel (1991)

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19. Allor relevant portions of the following books and pamphlets: (a) Thomas Mayer, Pro-Iranian Fundamentalists in Gaza in Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East, eds. Emmanuel Sivan and Menecham Friedman, Jerusalem: Hebrew University's Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace (1990); (b) Intifada, Ze'ev Schiff and Ehud Ya'ari, Simon & Schuster, English Ed. by Ina Friedman, Jerusalem: Hebrew University's Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace (1990); (c) Islam & Democracy, Timothy D. Sisk, United States Institute of Peace Press (1992) (d) Target America: Terrorism in the U.S. Today, Yossef Bodansky, S.P.I. Books (1993) (e) Islamic Fundamentalism in the west Bank and Gaza, Ziad Aba-Amr, English Version (1994) (f) The Islam Threat: Myth or Reality, John L. Esposito, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press (1995) 20. The following videotapes: (a) Joint Conference of the Islamic Committee for Palestine and Al Qassam Mosque, Chicago, September, 1991 (in Arabic) (b) World Forum, Jamil Jreisat and Arthur Lowrie, WUSF Channel 16, March 1992 (c) Jihad in America. PBS Documentary produced by Steven Emerson, November, 1994 (d) Dialogue #109, Response to Jihad in America, Channel 28, 1994 (e) Journalism Forum, recorded at USF, January, 1995 -2-

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for tne at Center for Middle Eastern Studies the University of South Florida S"MMARY: Thts i; to propose I,he establishment of a Cen(er for Middle Eastern Stucles at tne UnIversity of South Florida. The Justification for thIS Center 1s based on several factors: no such exists in the U. S.; USF is large urban university in a expanding of this region; the HQ of the U. S. Central is located in Tampa; Middle East is a vital Which the American public must become more knowledgeable; and existing USF faculty and courses already prOVIde the foundation for a center. A. BACKGROUND 1. The of Center has been the"subJect of informal discussions among USF faculty for several months. The current crisis caused by Iraq's of Kuwait gives the proposal a new urgency. 2. USF 3erVes a community of 15 counties and is centered in the rapidly growing Tampa Bay 3. L'SF President Borkowski has pledged to make USF one of the top 25 public universities in the United by the year 2001. A four-year to raise 5116 million from the sector reached of its goal in the first three USF has a special relationship with the Middle East due to its colocation with the Headquarters of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) in Tampa.
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-2-.s. [n academic year 1989-90 there were 837 foreign students studying at USF, 115 of whom were from Middle Eastern countries. 7. USF currently has more than ten faculty members teaching courses related to Middle Eastern affairs. The following courses were offered during the 1983-90 academic years: ArabiC 1120 & 1121 Hebrew 1120 & 1121 Religion 3600, 3611, 3612, 3613 & 4670 (HistorY' of Judaism) CLA 3000 -Ancient Civillzations CLA 4160 -Egyptian Civllization CLA 4171 Mesopotamian Civilization ART 4100 -Ancient Art AST 3044C -Archaeoastronomy Anthropology 4367 The Cultures of the Middle East GEA 3703 -Geography of Asia GEO 4530 -Geography of Energy EUH 2011 & -Ancient History EUH 3300 -Byzantine History ASN 3030 -The Middle East CPO 4930 -Comparative Politics of the Middle East [NT -Islam POLSCI -Comparative Revolutionary Movements POLSCI -Iran's Islamic Revolution 3. Plans are currently underway for the holding of an academic conference at USF on a specific topiC related to the Middle East. If funds are forthcoming and the timing is right, this conference might serve as the [naugural event for the Center. 8. JUSTIFICATION: Why a center and why USF'? 1. The Middle East will be an area of vital importance in the 21st century since it possesses approximately 707. of the world's known 011 reserves. rt is also a region rich in culture, history and art. These countries are the cradles of Christianity and Judaism as well as significant markets for the industrialized world. Knowledge about these countries is essential for an enlightened American policy. 2. The principal Centers for Middle Eastern studies are located in Harvard, Princeton, Penn, Chicago, New York, Arizona, Michigan, California and Texas. There is no center for Middle Eastern studies in the southeastern U. S., the country's fastest growing region. The presence of the U. S. Central Command HQ in Tampa makes USF the logical choice for such a center.

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-3-3. The Center could aerve as the focal point for Middle Eastern studies for tne state unlversity system through of faculty, lor v:sltlng faculty from abroad, participation in the Fulbright Exchange Program, organizing seminars various campuses, sponsoring exhibitions of culture, and enhancing the quality of library holdings on :02 Middle East. 4. The Center would enable USF and CENTCOM to expand and strengthen their existing relationship. (It ia reasonable to assume that when the current Middle Eastern criSiS is over, the bulk of USCENTCOM HQ will return to MacDil1 AFB.) The Center could organize seminars or conferences of particular interest to something that has been done previously in "aahington by Washington University. A particularly valuable crossfert1ilZdtl,on of can result from expanding the contact between American and Middle Eastern visit0rs to CENTCOM and USF faculty and s t uden t s. 5. The Center would contribute to expanding USF ties with the non-CENTCOM personnel of MacDill Air Force Base, one of Tampa Bay's largest employers. 6. All activities of the Center would be open to the public and the University and the Center would maintain full control over faculty appOintments and all Center activities. 7. The Center could play an important role in expanding economic relations between the Tampa Bay area and the countries of the Middle East in cooperation with the Tampa Bay International Trade Council and other organlzat iuns. C. FIRST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT I. A Director of the Center should be appointed as soon as together with an Advisory Council to assist the Director in what should be the priority activities of the Center: e.g. undergraduate major; graduate program; research projects; relatlonship with eXChange programs; community iunding. possible determining estabiishing an expanding the act i vit i es and 2. The University should immediately urge the Florida Legislature to designate the USF Center for Middle Eastern Studies as the Center for the state university system. 3. Funds should be found as soon as possible to enhance the USF Library's holdings on Middle Eastern affairs, particularly periodicals.

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-4-o. I. The would require office space and some expense funds to get. off ground. ru!\ds would be solicited openly from a wide variety of Sources wItn '-he under,tanding that the Center would maintain its academic dnd be fully responsible for a.ll of its activities. likely sources of funds . State funds as an important project and enhancement of international educatior.; b. Government and institutions interested in expanding American understanding of the region and strengthening U.S. relations with the Middle Eastern countries. c. Federal funds due to political, .conomic and military benefits to the U. S. (e. g. Dept of Area Studies grants); d. Regular USF budget. 1012190 "arvey Nelsen Orr A. Hechiche MOhsen Milani Mike Gibbons Ron Sherman

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ACAOEMIC AFFAIRS OFFICE OF.THE PROVOST l/8E lit ,i'l! flu",'" .,c1,iJurhl./ Ii,) TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620,6100 PHONE (813) 974-21S4 l1EMORANDUH January 29, 1991 TO: Dr. Harvey Nelsen Dr. Abdelwahab Hechiche Dr. Jamil Jreisat Dr. Mohsen Milani Dr. Ai10n Shiloh Mr. Arthur Lowrie Dr. Mark T. Orr James F. Strange Provost FROM: SUBJECT: G. G. Meisels t:Y committee on M ddle East Studies Thank you Committee Committee 1. very much for agreeing to serve as a member of the on Middle East Studies. The major tasks of this are as follows: Leadership in planning and conducting educational and cultural programs related to the area. For example: -Conducting regular forums about the area -Encouraging recruitment of students from the area -Encouraging linkages, exchanges and affiliations with universities in the area -Serving as a bridge between USF and members of the local community who have ties with and continuing interests in the area Promoting student interest in, and public awareness of, USF programs in the area 2. Conducting a feasibility study for establishing a permanent center or institute on Middle East Studies at USF, with particular attention to the mission Of the center, specific tasks to be performed, and cost. Dr. Hodgson has,advised me that Dr. Orr has agreed to serve as the chair. This is an important area for USF in whiCh we should establish a leadership position. Thank you again. xc: R. Richmond E. Scruggs 235-9101. 06 fi\ r"IP)\ 5 T PETER5fll)RG SAHASOT' FORT MYUi5 lAKElAND :1'1 IHd!!"',,", (ll ,,()lllllfl(l"'I',",r.r,fJ/'I,fIF.\',\II,.'\ ,',I i:IIN '1(111.\1

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vita KHALIL IBRAHIM SHIKAKI World & Islam Studies Enteiprise (WISE) P. O. Box 16648 Tampa, Fl 33687 Tel. (Office) (813) 985-4343, 6022 (Home) (813) 988-0089 EDUCATION Columbia University, Ph. D. in Political Science, 1985 Columbia University, Middle East Institute Certificate, 1983 American University of Beirut, M. A. in Political Science, 1977 American University of Beirut, B. A. in Political Science, 1975 ACADEMIC POSITIONS World & Studies Enteiprise; Visiting Research Fellow, 1990-present University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Visiting Professor of Political Science and International Relations, 1989-90 Al-Najah National University, Nablus-West Bank:; Assistant Professor of Political Science, 1986-89 Columbia University; Visiting Scholar in the Middle East Institute, 1985-86 AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Political Science and International Relations: '" Introduction to Political Science '" Introduction to International Relations '" Theories and Methodologies in International Relations '" International Organization and International Regimes Security Studies: '" The Politics of Nuclear Weapons '" International Conflict and Arms Control '" American and Soviet National Security Policies '" Nuclear, Chemical and Missile Proliferation Middle East Politics: '" The Middle East in International Politics '" Arab-Israeli Conflict '" Middle East Military Security '" Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East '" Palestinian Politics

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PUBLICA TIONS Books The Strategic Implications of Israeli Nue/ear Monopoly on the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Research in Progress. Israeli Political System. Research in Progress, in Arabic. Monographs Confrontation In the Gulf: War Options and Consequences (Tampa: World & Islam Studies Enterprise, December 1990), in Arabic. "Intifada and the Transformation of Palestinian Politics," Field Staff Reports, Universities Field Staff International, Africa/Middle East1989-90/ No. 18. Nue/ear Deterrence in the Middle East (Beirut: AI-Nasher Publishing Co., 1990), in Arabic. Articles "The Nuclearization Debates: The Cases ofIsrael and Egypt," Journal of Palestine Studies, 56 (Summer, 1985),77-91. "The Structure of the Political System and the Decision-Making Process in Israel," Arab Political Science Journal, (January, 1987), in Arabic. "Technical Requirements for Nuclear Deterrence in the Middle East," AI-Fikr AI-Istrategi AI Arabi (Arab Strategic Thought, Beirut), 6 (23-24) (January-April, 1988), in Arabic. "The Turkish Security Policy," AI-Siassa AI-Dawlya (International Politics, Cairo), 94 (October, 1988), in Arabic. "Nuclear Deterrence in the Middle East: Its Inevitability and Suitability Part One: the Inevitability," AI-Fikr AI-Istrategi AI-Arabi, 8 (34) (October, 1990), in Arabic. "Nuclear Deterrence in the Middle East: Its Inevitability and Suitability Part Two: the Suitability," AI-Fikr AI-Istrategi AI-Arabi, 9 (35) (January, 1991), in Arabic. "Confrontation In the Gulf: War Options and Consequences," Qira'at Siyasiyyah (Political Readings, Tampa, Fl.), I (I) (Winter, 1991), in Arabic. "Palestinian Security Requirements and the Political Settlement" Background Memo to the Middle East Study Group of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, April 1991. "The Arab World and the Palestinians After the Gulf War," Qira'at Siyasiyyah. 1(2-3) (Spring Summer 1991), Forthcoming. in Arabic. "The Islamic Government an Analytical Framework," Research in Progress. "The Middle East and the New International System," Research in Progress, in Arabic.

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"Nuclear Deterrence Theory: A Critical Assessment," Al-Siassa Al-Dawlya, Forthcoming, in Arabic. Book Reviews "A Review of Egypt and the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Hasan Nafi'a, Journal of Palestine Studies, 58 (Winter, 1986). "A Review of Nuclear Warfare in the Middle East: Dimensions and Responsibilities by Taysir Nashif," Journal of Palestine Studies, 60 (Summer, 1986). A Review of Palestinians in the Arab World by Laurie Brand," International Journal of Middle East Studies, Forthcoming. A Review of Militarization and Security in the Middle East by Amin Hewedy," International Journal of Middle East Studies, Forthcoming. Interviews "Interview with Hanna Siniora and Fayez Abu Rahmeh: The Palestinian-Jordanian Delegation," Journal of Palestine Studies, 57 (Autumn, 1985). Lectures and Conferences "Intifada: the Role of Islamic Groups." Lecture at the Islamic Center, Milwaukee, WI, September 22, 1989. "Palestinian Universities and the Intifacta." Lecture at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, October 20, 1989. "Israeli Politics and Palestinian Politics: Parallels and Divergence." Lecture at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, October 24, 1989. "The Arab World: the Prospects for Pluralism and Integration." Lecture at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, October 28, 1989. "Intifada and the Peace Process: the Nationalist and Islamic Positions." Presented at the Second Conference of the Islamic Committee for Palestine, Chicago, Ill., December 22-25, 1989. "Palestinian-Israeli Conflict A Way Toward Resolution." Lecture at the Village Church, It Is Possible Program, Milwaukee, WI, January 14,1990. "The Palestine Question: Is There a Solution." Lecture at Institute of World AffairS, Great Decisions Lecture Series, Sheboygan, WI, March 19, 1990. "The Transformation of Palestinian Politics: Intifada, PLO and the US." Lecture and Panel Discussion, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, March 26, 1990. "The Impact of the Intifada on PLO Attitude," Lecture at the Middle East Center, University of Chicago, May 9, 1990. "History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict," Lecture and Panel Discussion, World Affairs Seminar, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, June 13, 1990.

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, "Simulation of Palestinian-Israeli Peace Negotiations." Workshop, Seminar on International Conflict, CMES Middle East Seminar, Harvard University, April 24-28, 1991. "Palestinian Security Concerns and the Prospects for Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations in the Wake of the Gulf War." Lecture at the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, April 25, 1991.

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1994 January 20 Luncheon with USCENTCOM officers planning for CENTCOM symposium on Southwest Asia in May. March 15 -Luncheon with USCENTCOM officers planning CENTCOM symposium. May 17/18 Asia. Participation in USCENTCOM Symposium on Southwest June 28 Luncheon discussion with Political Adviser to the Commander in Chief of USCENTCOM. SEPTEMBER 21 PANEL DISCUSSION on the Yemen civil war and its aftermath". Presentations by BRINKMANN, JREISAT, LOWRIE and DR. ABDUL NABI ESSTEIF FROM UNIVERSITY OF DAMASCUS (Fulbright at USF Sarasota). October 7 Participation (Orr, Milani, Lowrie, Jreisat) in visit to Tampa of former National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane. NOVEMBER 8-10 -DR. RICHARD COTTAM, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH. LUNCHEON DISCUSSION AND UNIVERSITY LECTURE SERIES lecture in afternoon. Live radio interview with WMNF. NOVEMBER 19-22 Dr. Abdul Wahab Hechiche represents USF Committee for Middle Eastern Studies at the anuual conference of the Middle East Studies Association in Phoenix, Arizona.

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1995 JANUARY 11 AMBASSADOR HERMANN EILTS (rel.). LUNCHEON DISCUSSION AND RECEPTION-DISCUSSION AT FACULTY CLUB. STATUS OF ARAB-ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS (25 persons). Edited text published and distributed to mailing list as "Occasional Paper". Live interview with WMNF. January 12 Provided escort (Lowrie) for Major General Shlomo G a zit, former Director of Israeli Military Intelligence, who spoke at Tampa Bay Area Committee on Foreign Affairs. January 19 Met with members of USCENTCOM planning for May CENTCOM symposium. February 8 Luncheon discussion with Dr. David Menashri, Senior Research Fellow, Tel Aviv University. April 8 Members Sonn, Jreisat, & Lowrie conducted, with W.I.S.E. Director Ramadan Abdullah and Dr. Sami al-Arian, a 4 hour seminar on Islamic Fundamentalism for Dr. Hodgson's MBA executives class. April 11 Luncheon discussion with Aharon Yar, Counselor for Middle Eastern Affairs, Embassy of Israel, Washington, D.C. May 3 Political Command. Luncheon-discussion scheduled with Edward Fugit, Advisor to the Commander in Chief of the U.S. Central May 16-17 Participation in the USCENTCOM Third Symposium on "Looking Forward in Southwest Asia: New Opportunities New Challenges." May 28 Attack by The Tampa Tribune linking Sami AI-Arian to "terrorist" organizations, Hizbollah and Islamic Jihad, and by extension WISE and the Committee for Middle Eastern Studies. June 23 President Castor instructed Provost to "review agreements entered into by units within Academic Affairs" and report recommendations by September 1, 1995; and "continue the suspension of transactions with WISE pending the recommendations

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due September 1." Transactions with WISE origninally suspended by Provost on June 5, 1995. Sept 21 Committee members (minus Milani & Fustukjian) meet with Provost Tighe. He expresses full confidence in the Committee and its work. The Committee should use its own judgement in continuing its activities. The "agreement" with WISE will have to be re-signed in accordance with the new forthcoming guidelines. October 3 Lecture by Dr. Oaphna Sharfman, Israeli Political Scientest and Chair of the Labor Party's Civil Rights Commission. October 16 Lecture by H.G. Bishop United States Coptic Orthodox Church. Around the World." Youssef, Diocese of Southern Topic: "Copts in Egypt and October 30 Luncheon discussion and lecture by Ambassador Rolf Ekeus, Chair of UN Special Commission for Disarming Iraq. MC Ballroom. 100 plus. "Occasional paper" issued summarizing presentation. October 24 Luncheon discussion with Mr. Vladimir Matic, former Assistant Federal Minister for Foreign Affaris of Yugoslavia. Topic: "Continuing Crisis in the Balkans" October 31 News that Ramadan Abdullah has become leader of Islamic Jihad in Damascus in press. November 1-4 front page press articles about Ramadan Abdullah, USF, etc. USF severs all relations with WISE. November 15 Luncheon-discussion with Dr. Michael B. Bishku, Adjunct Professor of History, University of North Florida on "Turkey and Her Neighbors".

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1996 January 10 Society of Professional Journalists sponsors panel discussion of Tribune reporting on WISE-USF "links to terrorists articles. Session entitled "Jihad University?" Participating were Michael Fechter and a woman copy editor from the Tribune, Steven Emerson, James Harper of St. Pete Times, Darryl Fasching, Chair of Religious Studies, Jay Black, journalism professor from St. Pete campus, Art Lowrie, and Vincent Cannistraro, ex-CIA anti-terrorism chief. About 150 people attended. January 18 Luncheon-discussion with Jason F. Isaacoson, Director of Government and International Affairs of the American Jewish Committee, Washington, DC. Mohsen Milani substitutes because Mr. Isaacoson unable to get out of Washington DC due to weather. April 10 Passage, Operations Luncheon-discussion with Ambassador Political Advisor to the Commander-in-Chief, Command, MacDili AFB, FL. David Special

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1. 2 Thomas Mayer, "Pro-Iranian Fundamentalists in Gaza" in Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East, eds. Emmanuel Sivan & Menachem Friedman (Jerusalem: Hebrew University's Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, 1990) Ze'ev Schiff and Yehuda Ya'ari, Infitada: The Palestinian Uprising -Israel's Third Front, trans. and ed. Ina Friedman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)

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U.S. INFORMATION AGENCY 1992 UNIVERSITY AFFILIATIONS PROGRAM PROPOSAL FOR AN AFFILIATION BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA AND AN-NAJAH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY WEST BANK Submitted by: Mark Amen International Studies Program SOC 107, University of South Florida 4202 East Fowler Avenue Tampa, FL 33620-8100 (813) 974-3509 FAX: (813) 974-2668 AND Adib Khatib Vice President for Cultural Affairs and University Relations An-Najah National university Nablus, West Bank 011-972-53-76584 FAX: 011-972-53-77982 Academic Field(s) of Project: Social Sciences, English Language, Library sciences, Public Health Funding Amount Requested: $97,947

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PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA, AND AN-NAJAR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY A Proposal. from the COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Project Director: M. Mark Amen Submitted to the University Affiliations Program United States Information Agency 301 4th Street, NW Washington, DC 20547 Amount Requested: $97,947 Proposed Starting Date: August 1992 Proposed Duration: 3 Years ENDORSEMENTS Principal Investigator Name: Mark Amen Title: Director, International Studies Program Phone #: 813-974-3509 Date University Official Gerhard G. Meisels Provost University of South Florida (813) 974-2154 Date

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ...................................................... 1 1. INSTITUTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS ................................. 2 2. THE PROPOSED AFFILIATION PROGRAM .......................... 5 3 NEEDS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 4. ACTIVITIES AND BENEFITS ................................... 7 5. PERSONNEL ................................................. 11 5.1 Qualifications of Project Directors .................. 11 5.2 Exchange-Program Participants ........................ 12 6. EVALUATION ................................................ 19 7. BUDGET .................................................... 20 7.1 Three Year Project Budget ............................ 20 7.2 Budget Justification ................................. 21 APPENDICES A. Curriculum Vitae B. Documentation of Institutional support

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ABSTRACT The University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida and An-Najah National University, Nablus, the West Bank, propose to establish an institutional partnership during 1992-1995. The broad goals of the partnership are based on two realities we face at the end of the twentieth century. First, we live in a world that is now so globally interrelated that we can no longer afford to isolate ourselves from teaching and research that occurs in parts of the world other than our own. Secondly, this global context is infused with many diverse cultures, races, ethnic backgrounds, and values. Students and faculty must be provided academic settings in which to understand and respect these diversities. University education can incorporate these realities into the learning process through exchange programs such as that proposed between the university of South Florida and An-Najah National University. Such a program will promote two goals: (1) improved and expanded educational programs for both universities with regard to each's ability to consider the diverse and global nature of the world in which we live, and (2) a better respect for the differences between the American people and the Palestinian people of the West Bank. USF and An-Najah propose to accomplish these goals through the exchange of faculty and staff to teach, lecture, consult, and conduct research. Teaching and research exchanges will be for one semester. Consul tations will be for fourteen days. Students at each university will also be able to attend the other university and receive credit towards their degrees for course work completed there. 1

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1. INSTITUTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS The University of South Florida was founded in 1956 as the first comprehensive university of the Florida state system located in a metropolitan area (Tampa Bay with a current population of approximately 2 million). Over 32,000 undergraduate and graduate students are enrolled at the main Tampa campus and the branch campuses at Fort Myers, Sarasota, St. Petersburg and Lakeland. USF graduate students may enroll in two specialist, 80 master's and 21 doctoral programs. The University's goal for the next decade is "to achieve preeminence as a comprehensive university dedicated to the pursuit of academic excellence." Immediately related to this goal, the University has undertaken a reform of its undergraduate General Education Requirements. It plans to begin offering a new set of requirements, beginning with academic year 1993-1994, that will better prepare students for their lives by helping them to understand, among other things, the global and multicultural nature of the world in which they live. USF has a strong commitment to the study of international studies and foreign areas. It offers an undergraduate major in international studies (over 300 in 1991/92) and encourages graduate study of foreign areas through most of its social science and humanities departments. USF has 18 exchange agreements with foreign institutions dating back to 1974 and undergraduate study programs in 20 foreign universities. Most agreements have been concluded since 1987. In addition, USF hosts between 80 and 90 international research scholars annually. 2

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The University's international dimension is further strengthened by the 970 degree seeking international students from 89 countries (1990-91) and by the International Language Institute (ILI) which offers intensive English courses for over 100 foreign students each semester. The Middle East has not figured large in the above programs. In its institutional efforts to address the diverse realities of global life, the University has not established a program that would allow the presence of this diversity in the Middle East to be a subject of ongoing academic consideration. Only recently (January 1991) the university established a committee for Middle Eastern Studies. The relationship with An-Najah University will help this committee develop academic programs at USF about the Middle East. The departments and faculty at USF who will participate in the exchange program are highly qualified to implement the goals underlying the exchange program. The departments involved are American Studies (5 faculty and an M.A. program), Anthropology (15 faculty and a Ph.D. program), English (42 faculty and a Ph.D. program), Geography (11 faculty and an M.A. program), Government and International Affairs (29 faculty and undergraduates in political Science and International studies as well as M.A. programs in political Science and Public Administration), History (19 faculty and an M.A. program), and Psychology (38 and a Ph.D. program). These departments are all wi thin the college of Arts and Science. In addition, short-term visits will be undertaken by faculty and administrators from other units of the University: 3

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Public Health, Educational Administration, and Library Sciences. These participants will advance the second goal underlying the exchange program by advising their counterparts at An-Najah on possible solutions to problems that are unique to a university located in a developing part of the world where resources and technology related to education are not yet as advanced as in the industrialized world. An-Najah National University was established in 1918 as one of the first Palestinian institutions to offer post-primary education. It was transformed in 1965 into a teaching training institute, and in 1977 it became a university and was admitted to the Union of Arab Universities. It joined the International Union of Universities in 1981. In 1977, An-Najah had 700 students and 33 academic staff members .. Today, it has some 4500 students and over 250 faculty members. It is located in the Palestinian city of Nablus in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. An-Najah's rapid growth has made it the largest Palestinian university and the one with the most extensive curriculum. Nevertheless, its administration and faculty recognize a need for assistance in expanding and improving the uni versi ty' s liberal arts curriculum, in upgrading its faculty and staff, and in integrating the university into an international network of scholarship and research. An-Najah has thus sought to combine its internal development with a vigorous program of cooperation with foreign universities. An-Najah has been affected by the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians concerning .the West Bank. It was closed by the 4

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Israeli government in December 1987, but was permitted to reopen in october 1991. An-Najah believes it can best serve the cause of the Palestinian people through the development and maintenance of quality educational programs. It seeks foreign assistance for its educational goals. The departments and faculty at An-Najah who will participate in the exchange program are highly qualified to implement the goals underlying the exchange program. The participants in the exchange program will come from Psychology, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, History, Public Relations, and Biology. Short-term consultants represent the following fields: Urban Studies, Library science, Education, civil Engineering, and Mathematics. 2. THE PROPOSED AFFILIATION PROGRAM Planning of the partnership began at the initiative of Dr. Khalil Shikaki who is a member of the faculty at An-Najah and was a visiting adjunct professor at USF during the Fall of 1991. Professor Shikaki quickly won support for the partnership from many members of the faculty and administrators at USF. Faculty within the International Studies Program of the Department of Government and International Affairs, with the support of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, decided to submit a proposal to USIA to implement the partnership. In early December 1991, Dr. Mark Tessler was invited to USF as a consultant for the project. Professor Tessler is the project director for the partnership which currently exists between An-Najah and the University of WisconsinMilwaukee. Both Professors Shikaki and Tessler have been actively 5

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involved in advising USF on the partnership and the grant application. This inter-university consultation will continue during the implementation of the partnership. This program will consist of: One-semester visits to teach and engage in consulting and research. The University of South Florida and An-Najah will each send faculty or staff to the other for a total of six semesters during the period of the grant. This process was begun informally when a faculty member from An-Najah taught one semester (Fall, 1991) at USF as a visiting professor. Short-term visits in order to give lectures, consult on curricular and academic administrative matters and conduct some research. Each university will send three faculty or staff members to the other for approximately two weeks during the partnership. Student visits. An-Najah will be open to one and two semester visits from students at the University of South Florida who are prepared to take full advantage of the specific curriculum and have the necessary linguistic ability. USF will provide three assistantships for graduate students (or junior faculty member without a Ph.D.) from An-Najah. Each assistantship will continue for a minimum of one additional year's study at USF. In exchange, USF students will be given the same access to assistantships at AnNajah. The two universities intend to maintain faculty and student exchange programs following the initial three-year partnership. Each university will provide institutional resources for this purpose and the two will cooperate to secure sources of support 6

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outside of those provided by the United states Information Agency. 3. NEEDS Given the changing reality in the Middle East, it is imperative that students and faculty from both the West Bank and the united states maximize their mutual understanding. In keeping with their widening international dimensions, both USF and An-Najah seek to increase their contacts with foreign universities. USF is motivated principally by the desire to expand its international exchanges to include Middle Eastern countries and to deepen its involvement in foreign area studies. An-Najah is concerned primarily with improving its curriculum and the qualifications of its faculty and staff through such foreign contacts. In January 1991 USF established a committee for Middle Eastern Studies. The Provost's memorandum of January 29, 1991 listed a major task of the committee as "encouraging linkages, exchanges and affiliations with universities in the area." The memorandum also called for a feasibility study for "establishing a permanent center or institute on Middle East Studies at USF," and said this "is an important area for USF in which we should establish a leadership position." The justification for such a center is based on the fact that there is no Center for Middle Eastern Studies in the southeastern United states and that USF is co-located with the Headquarters of the us Central Command. 4. ACTIVITIES AND BENEFITS In order to gain a better understanding of Palestine and the Middle East, USF will seek from An-Najah visiting faculty who can 7

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offer social science courses relating to the Arab World and Islam, strengthen the activities of the committee for Middle Eastern Studies, buttress the teaching of Arabic, contribute to student and faculty research on the region and establish collaborative ties that will endure. The presence of An-Najah faculty and students will enable USF to meet the objective of the 1991 Report of the USF Task Force on Future Academic Frontiers to incorporate "regional and global dimensions into the teaching, research, and public service function of the University." The presence of faculty from An-Najah will greatly increase student and faculty awareness of the region and enable USF to respond more adequately to a steadily increasing demand for courses on the Middle East. American students will benefit from the different perspectives that An-Najah faculty and students will present on a wide range of subjects, not the least of which will be how America and Americans are viewed from the Middle East and the West Bank. This aspect of the exchange will be of great value in furthering USF's goal to encourage serious debate about our own cultural diversity. The faculty members from An-Najah can also contribute significantly to USF's program to enhance student and community understanding of the Middle East. They will have an opportunity to speak before civic associations arid lecture at USF's four regional campuses. The Committee for Middle Eastern Studies. An-Najah is badly in need of visiting faculty and staff who can broaden the university's curriculum and academic programs, particularly in political science, social science research and 8

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American studies. By providing specialized courses in such fields, advanced students and junior faculty members would benefit greatly. Academic staff and administration, particularly those responsible for library facilities, would have the opportunity to tap the expertise of USF staff in similar positions. AnNajah will also have the opportunity for some of its students and junior faculty members to pursue graduate studies at USF. USF faculty visiting An-Najah will have the opportunity to observe the functioning of a Palestinian university first-hand. They will devote much of their time to teaching, research, and consulting on curriculum and academic programming. In addition, they will help the university identify and fill gaps in existing programs and to plan new offerings, including the establishment of a master's degree program in political science. The provision of specialized training to advanced students and faculty members in the West Bank is of great importance for the development of the area. An-Najah students wishing to pursue graduate studies in the united states or Europe do not always have the necessary guidance, nor can An-Najah fully prepare students for graduate work in all areas. These functions could be provided by visiting USF faculty members who would help to provide the required guidance and training. Their expertise would also be most helpful to the faculty as well. only one third of the university's 250 faculty members have completed a Ph.D. The university is encouraging others to continue their graduate studies, and visitors from USF will assist An-Najah in preparing them to do so. 9

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In order to foster advanced training for An-Najah students and faculty, USF will establish three new assistantships for those wishing to do graduate work at USF. A second year of support will be provided to those who remain in good standing. Those wishing to stay for additional study will be eligible for continuing support through the regular graduate assistantship program of the USF graduate school. An-Najah is a developing university that is constantly in need of more sophisticated library and administrative services. Faculty and staff from USF will be able to greatly assist in the expansion and modernization of An-Najah's library and some administrative units. USF faculty and staff will also be able to advise on the administration of these units and provide special guidance in the social sciences and American studies. There is at times little appreciation for the subtleties of American culture among Palestinian stUdents. In addition to enhancing the academic capabilities of An-Najah, the presence of faculty and staff from USF will help students at An-Najah gain a better understanding of the united states and American perceptions of Islam and the Arab World. This is particularly important for the mostly rural student body. Three representatives from USF are native Arabic speakers. Other faculty members visiting An-Najah will carry out their activities in English. Translators and jointly taught courses will enhance communication between English speaking faculty and students. The exchange of information will be further facilitated by the fact that many advanced courses are given in English and most of the An-Najah faculty speak English fluently. 10

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5. PERSONNEL 5.1 Qualifications of Project Directors: USF's partnership with An-Najah will be administered by Professor Mark Amen, Associate Professor of International studies. Professor Amen is the Director of the International Studies Program within the Department of Government and International Affairs of the College of Arts and Sciences. He was born and raised in Illinois. He has extensive experience in working and living in other cultures. From 1970 through 1978 he lived in France, Germany, and Switzerland. During that period he worked with the united Nations Human Rights commission, the World Council of Churches, and UNESCO. He received his Ph.D. in Political Science from the Institut universitaire de hautes etudes internationales in Geneva, Switzerland and spent one year in the German Federal Republic as a research grant recipient of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Since coming to the University of South Florida in 1982, Professor Amen has been actively involved in internationalizing USF's curriculum. He has recently been appointed by the Provost to oversee the establishment of new General Education Requirements at USF. He is also a member of the Provost's Committee on International Education. Professor Amen will be fully supported by the International Affairs Center and the committee for Middle Eastern studies, the membership of which includes Middle Eastern specialists from the Anthropology, Political Science, International Studies, Public Administration and Religion Departments. The Dean of the College participates in the activities of the 11

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committee for Middle Eastern Studies and fully supports the establishment of this partnership. An-Najah's partnership with USF will be administered by Professor Adib Fawzi Khatib, the Vice President for Cultural Affairs and University Relations. He was born and raised in Deir Nitham-Rammallah. He also has extensive experience in working and living in other cultures. Vice President Khatib has lived in the united states and various Middle Eastern countries. He received his M.A. degree in Geographic, Environmental and Urban Studies from Montclair State College in 1978. In 1985 he received his Ph.D. in Urban Studies from the City University of New York. Before assuming his current position, Vice President Khatib was a lecturer, assistant professor, and then general director of the academic research center at An-Najah. He has extensive background in the administrative, research, and teaching dimensions of the University. Vice President Khatib has the full support of the departments and faculty involved in the proposed exchange program. He will also benefit from the invaluable assistance of Professor Khalil Shikaki, who is a regular member of faculty of An-Najah and has also taught at the University of South Florida. 5.2 Exchange-program Participants The table below lists the individuals from USF and An-Najah who will participate in one-semester exchanges and short-term visits. Following the table are brief biographies of the participants. All participants have had considerable crosscultural experience and most. from USF have previously worked in the Middle East or other Third World settings. 12

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Year Name University Field 92-93 Vanden USF Political Science 92-93 Ruffin USF Political Science 93-94 Hewitt USF History 93-94 Brinkman USF Geography 93-94 Banes (alt. ) USF American Studies 94-95 Garcia USF Psychology/Law 94-95 Cargill USF English/2nd Language 94-95 Shiloh (alt. ) USF Anthropology 92-93 Saleem Najah Psychology 92-93 Abu-Kaff Najah Mathematics 93-94 Abdelrazig Najah Physics 93-94 Amleh Najah Chemistry 94-95 Jbara Najah History 94-95 Baidas Najah Public Relations 94-95 Abu-Hasan (a1t)Najah Biology Short-Term Faculty Consultants Amen Banoof Jreisat El-Hadidy Fustukjian crane Shipiro Khatib Sabbobeh AI-Qadi Helou Hakawati USF USF USF USF USF USF USF Najah Najah Najah Najah Najah Political Science Public Health Public Administration Library Sciences Library Sciences Urban Design Educational Administration Urban studies Library Science Education civil Engineering Mathematics Duration 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester 1 semester Dr. Harry Vanden, Professor of Political Science and International Studies will visit An-Najah for one semester in 1992-93. Since coming to USF in 1975, he helped to develop a Masters Program in Public Administration and was the Coordinator of Graduate Studies in Political Science until recently. He received his M.A. from the Maxwell School of Syracuse University and his Ph.D. from the New School for Social Research. A Fulbright Scholar in Peru in 1973 he stayed on to work in the National Institute of Public Administration in 1974 and 1975. He has published four books and more than 20 articles. Vanden specializes in Comparative Politics, focusing on Latin America and the Third World. His forthcoming book compares U.S. and Third World conceptions of democracy. He is interested in teaching a course on this subject and working with the Political Science Department at An-Najah to develop an M.A. Program in Political Science. 13

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Dr. Patricia Ruffin, is Assistant Professor of International Studies in the Department of Government and International Affairs at USF. She has been a member of the faculty since August 1989. She received her Ph.D. in 1986 from the Graduate Faculty, New School for Social Research. Prior to coming to USF Professor Ruffin was Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science at Howard University in washington, DC. Ruffin will be visiting An-Najah for one semester. She specializes in the political economy of Latin America and the Horn of Africa. She completed her first book on Capitalism and Socialism in Cuba, in 1990, and is currently writing on women refugees in the developing world. Dr. Nancy A. Hewitt is Associate Professor of History at USF. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1981 and has published one monograph, an edited collection, and over a dozen articles in leading history and women's studies journals and in collections of essays by major university presses. Her research focuses primarily on the ways that women of different races, regions, and classes and in different periods of history mobilize for economic survival and political change. She is currently completing a book on Anglo, Black and Latin women in Tampa, Florida, 1885-1945, and has written on comparative women's history for the Women's Studies Quarterly and Feminist studies. Professor Hewitt has also served since 1987 as the American editor for the international journal Gender & History and since 1990 as president of the Conference Group on Women's History. Dr. Robert Brinkman, Assistant Professor of Geography, will visit An-Najah for one semester in 1993. Brinkman received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1989. He has conducted two field sessions in Yemen (then the Yemen Arab Republic) examining ancient agricultural soils. His area of expertise is human modification of the physical landscape. Dr. Brinkman's research interests focus on geoarchaeology of soils and modern lead pollution in urban regions (i.e., Jerusalem). Dr. Sandra Garcia is Professor of Psychology at USF. She received her Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Southern California in 1971, and her J.D. degree from Stetson University College of Law in 1985. She has published in diverse journals on topics such as minority student problems and survival, reproductive technology, and perinatal drug abuse. She lived in Israel as a fellow of the Ford Foundation and taught a course on minority/majority relations at Haifa University, Israel. She is studying the positive and negative effects of "affirmative action" and the push for "cultural diversity" and "political correctness" in America. Areas of possible consultation are sociolegal and sociopolitical issues such as majority/minority relations, maternal and child welfare, women's rights, and the etiology, nature, and reduction of prejudice and discrimination. 14

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Dr. Carol Cargill, Professor of Linguistics and Russian, Director of Graduate Program in Applied Linguistics and Director of the International Language Institute. Dr. Cargill received her Ph.D. from Georgetown University. Upon joining the USF staff 15 years ago, Dr. Cargill established the Graduate Program in Applied Linguistics/TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) and established the International Language Institute (ILl). Professor Cargill has published 5 books and numerous articles in international journals. Dr. Cargill sits on several national boards and has been Project Director for research and development grants in English as a Second Language. Among the many projects Professor Cargill has established are: Middle East/North Africa Task Force of the Tampa Bay International Trade Council; an English program for refugees at USF/St. Petersburg; English classes for Russian immigrants; English classes for the Armenian earthquake victims; Cincinnati Reds Baseball Team for development of a language training program for Hispanic players. Dr. Samir N. Banoob, Professor of Health Policy and Management and International Health has taught at USF since 1983. He obtained his M.D. in 1960, received the Diplomat of Internal Medicine, Master's Degree of Public Health majoring in Health Planning and Management, from the University of Alexandria, Egypt. Professor Banoob has held senior level clinical, administrative and teaching positions in hospitals and health systems in the Middle East and has served as a consultant on major assignments in more than 46 countries. Dr. Jamil Jreisat, Professor of Public Administration, Department of Government and International Affairs, University of South Florida. His Ph.D. is from Graduate School of Public and InternationaL Affairs, University of pittsburgh, 1968. Jreisat's teaching and research interests include public budgeting, organization theory and process, and comparative public administration, with focus on the Arab World. Professor Jreisat has published numerous articles in professional journals and chapters in books. He published a reference on Administration and Development in the Arab World, and has a forthcoming book on Managing Public Organizations, Paragon House, New York. Dr. Jreisat has consulted to many national and international organizations and done field research in many Arab countries. Dr. Bahaa El-Hadidy is Associate Professor of Library and Information Science at USF. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1974. El-Hadidy is an international expert on library and international services in developing countries, including the Middle East. He participated in the design and development of the National Information System of Egypt, from 1979 to 1984 and was director of the training of the Egyptian librarians and information specialists for the project. From 1984 to 1987, he served as Assistant Executive VicePresident of the Islamic International Bank in Egypt, was a 15

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visiting professor at Cairo University Department of Librarianship and was an advisor to the President of the Egyptian Academy of Science and Technology on library/ information services. He published books, articles and technical reports, including articles in leading Arabic journals. He served as chairman and member of several international and national conferences and committees, including US National FID Committee, UNESCO/PGI, American Association for the Advancement of Science International consortium, and the International Relations Committee of the American Society for Information Science. Dr. Samuel Y. Fustukjian, is presently Director of the Tampa Campus Library at the University of South Florida. He received an M.A. in Educational and AUdiovisual Communications Technology from the State University of New York at Oswego and an M.S. in Library and Information Sciences from Syracuse University. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Higher Education at USF. Mr. Fustukjian also has served as Dean and Library Director of the USF-St. Petersburg Campus and Dean and Director of Libraries at the American University in Beruit. He will be available for short-term consultancy visits to An-Najah. Arthur Shapiro, Professor of Education and former Chairman of Dept. of Educational Leadership at USF. With three degrees from the University of Chicago, Dr. Shapiro has been a practicing administrator in rural, urban and suburban areas. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including the first theory of supervision in Sociology of Supervision and a large number of simulations in administration, supervision, and instruction. Professor Shapiro consults widely with several types of organizations such as hospitals and schools and conducts participatory workshops on administrative organization and effectiveness, supervision, effective teaching, establishing missions, long range planning, changing strategies, etc. Dr. David A. Crane, Professor of Architecture, founding Director of the Florida Center for Urban Design & Research at USF. Professor crane holds a Bachelor of Science and a Bachelor of Architecture degrees from Georgia Institute of Technology and the Master in city Planning from Harvard Graduate School of Design. Crane is widely recognized for his seminal contributions to professional education in the modern field of urban design, especially in graduate degree programs at the universities of Pennsylvania, Harvard, MIT, and Rice. He has also won distinction in the international practice of urban design and planning, particularly in large-scale community renewal, new towns, and affordable housing projects. His former firm, David A. Crane and Partners, served as master planners of Sadat city in Egypt. Mr. crane will offer advice for the organization of interdisciplinary faculty and graduate student groups to engage in research and public service pertaining to the improvement of economic, social, and physical conditions in the West Bank 16

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community. During his short-term consulting visits Mr. Crane will deliver lectures and seminars relating to his international experience in dealing with problems of rapid urbanization and growth management, community renewal, affordable housing, and urban environment design and technology. He will also advise faculty and student concerning their plans for advanced education and training in the U.S. Nimer Sabbobeh is currently Assistant Dean of the Community College at An-Najah and also a lecturer for librarianship at AnNajah National University. Mr. Sabbobeh received the M.S. Degree in Librarianship in 1979 and is currently a Ph.D. candidate at Loughborough university. He is also the author of numerous articles and scientific papers dealing with library science. Wael AI-Qadi is currently Assistant Professor i the School of Education at Na-Najah University. He received his Ph.D in 1985 from the University of pittsburgh, department of International and Development Education. Dr. AI-Qadi is author of several research papers and received an award from the Jordanian council of Scientific Research in 1979 for his stUdy entitled "Education in Israel". His primary professional interests include International Education, Comparative Education, and Middle East Studies. Rasmyyah Said Abdel Qadar Saleem is Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology. He received his Ph.D. in 1983 from Ein Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Alabama in Birmingham from 1989 to 1990, and is the author of numerous professional articles and papers. Dr. Saleem is a member of the American Psychological Association (USA), Association of Mental Hygiene (West Bank), Arab Federation of Psychiatrists (Jordan), International council of Psychologists, and the World Federation for Mental Health. He is also the author of the text (in Arabic), Clinical Psychology and the student workbooks (in Arabic) Abnormal Psychology and Field studies in Abnormal Psychology Abeer Mamduh Baidas is Assistant to the Vice-President for Cultural Affairs and University Relations at An-Najah National university. He received a B.A. in Business Administration and Economics from Birzeit University in Ramalla. From 1984 until 1986 he was with Personnel Administration at Northern Illinois University. He has previous experience as an accountant at the Public Health Department at Ramall iri the West Bank. Taha M. Abu-Kaff is Assistant Professor in Applied Mathematics. He received his Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in Applied Mathematics from Iowa state university in Ames, Iowa and a B.A. from the University of Jordan. He has published in the Journal of Mathematics and Application and Forum Math. 17

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Nael Sudgi Haj Mohammad Abu-Hasan has been Chairman of the Department of Biology from 1986 to present. He received his Ph.D. in Biochemical Genetics from Glasgow University, U.K. in 1984; M.S. in Biology from Eastern New Mexico University; and a B.S. degree in Biology from Damascus University. He has taught a wide variety of courses in the biological sciences, and is widely published in the field of genetics and embryology. He is a frequent participant in international scientific meetings. Abdallah A. Hakawati is Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics. He received his Ph.D. and M.A. in mathematics from Lehigh University and a B.A. in Mathematics form the University of Jordan. His areas of teaching competence include: topology, real and complex analysis, set theory, abstract algebra, linear algebra, and calculus. Amin Habib Helou was Assistant Professor in the Department of civil Engineering from 1981 through 1988. He received his Ph.D. in structural Engineering from North Carolina state University, M.S. from Oregon State University in Structural Engineering and a B.S. in civil Engineering from American Roberts College, Istanbul Turkey. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in Industrial Engineering for McKim and Creed Engineers in wilmington, North Carolina. Issam Rashid Abdelrazig is Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics. He received his Ph.D. from Ohio university, M.S. from the University of Jordan, and B.S. from Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan. His areas of teaching competence include: statistic mechanics, classical mechanics, nuclear physics, thermodynamics, and general physics and labs. He is familiar with various ,softwares by MacIntosh, IBM mainframe running ems., and sonar transducer characters. Mohammad S. Amleh is currently teaching in Science Education in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction Department at An-Najah National University. He received his Ph.D. in 1985 from Florida State University and specialized in Science Education. From 1986 to the present he has been with the faculty at An-Najah. Taysir Jbara is Associate Professor of History. He received his Ph.D. from New York University in 1982, an M.A. in International Relations from Farleigh Dickinson University, and a B.A. in History from Damascus University, syria. Teaching interests include: Modern Middle East History,--History of the Ottoman Empire, and Arabic Language. He is also the author of several books and numerous journal articles. Dr. Jbara is fluent in Arabic and English and has a working knowledge of Spanish, Turkish and Hebrew. Dr. Jbara previously served as Chairman of the History Department at Hebron University, West Bank; Professor of History at Constantine University in Algeria and Bir Zeit University in the West Bank. He has served also as advisor and translator for the Saudi Arabian Educational Mission in New York. 18

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6. EVALUATION The partnership program will be evaluated on an annual basis and at the end of the program. Each exchange faculty member will submit an evaluation of his or her activities to the coordinators at both universities and to the chair of the department or program where the activities were preformed. Said chair will also provide an evaluation of the same activities for the coordinators and give a copy to the faculty member. A committee composed of the coordinator and at-least two faculty members involved in the program will then evaluate the functioning of the program on an annual basis and suggest any necessary changes. This evaluation will be shared with the deans of the colleges involved. No changes will be made without proper consultation with these academic officers. A final report will be prepared at the end of the three year period by the respective committees in each university. It will be sent to the coordinator of the other university and to all deans and academic officers involved on their own campus. 19

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7. BWGET 7.1 THREE YEAR BWGET USF AN-NAJAH USIA TOTAL lliL1 Semester Visits International Travel 7,300 7,300 Salary Supplements 15,000 15,000 salaries and Benefits 50,352 14,500 64,852 Short Term Visits International Travel 7,300 7,300 Local Travel 473 473 Per Diem 3,192 1,834 5,026 salaries and Benefits 5,624 744 6,368 Other Program Administration 6,646 6,646 Graduate Assistantships 18,000 7,000 25,000 Indirect Costs 51,314 51,314 Total Year 1 Costs 131,936 25,436 31,907 189,279 Year 2 Semester Visits International Travel 7,665 7,665 Salary Supplements 15,000 15,000 salaries and Benefits 52,267 15,225 67,492 Short Term Visits International Travel 7,665 7,665 local Travel 473 473 Per Diem 3,192 1,834 5,026 Sa l ari eS and Benefits 4,917 781 5,698 Other Program Administration 8,709 8,709 Graduate Assistantships 27,000 10,000 37,000 Indirect Costs 55,209 55,209 Total Year 2 Costs 148,102 29,198 3.2,637 209.937 Semester Visits International Travel 8,048 8,048 Salary Supplements 15,000 15,000 Salaries and Benefits 96,383 15,986 112,369 Short Term visits International Travel 8,048 8,048 local Travel 473 473 Per Diem 3,192 1,834 5,026 Salaries and Benefits 6,628 820 7,448 Other Program Administration 6,383 6,383 Graduate Assistantships 9,000 4,000 13,000 Indirect Costs 69,220 69,220 Total Tear 3 Costs 118,394 23,_ 33,403 175.795 TOTAL PROJECT COSTS S398,412 S78,632 S97,947 $575,011 20

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7.2 Budget Justification $97,947 is requested from USIA to support the proposed partnership in the following ways: -to fund participants' international travel -to provide modest salary supplements to faculty and staff participating in one-semester exchanges, and -to pay a portion of the per diem for individuals making short-term vists Budgetary calculations are described below: Semester Visits: Two faculty from each university will spend one semester at the other each year. International travel is estimated at $1825 round trip. salary supplements per professor will vary by university due to differences in salary level and local cost of living. The supplement will be $6,000 at USF and $1,500 at An-Najah. Both USF and An-Najah will provide full salary and benefits for their own faculty and staff members who visit the other university. In order to facilitate the timely acculturation of USF faculty at An-Najah, the university will provide housing for visitors from USF. Based on faculty currently identified as participating in the exchange, salaries and benefits were determined at one-half of each academic year contract for USF faculty, plus fringe benefits at 27% plus $228 per month for health insurance. Salary, benefits, per diem, and travel are estimated at a 5% increase for the two succeeding years. Short Term Visits: Each year, two faculty or staff members from each university will participate in 14 day visits. For USF, the Partnership Coordinator will be one of the visitors each year. 21

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While USF faculty are at An-Najah, per diem costs will be partially assumed by An-Najah. While in the US, costs are based on hotel plus $21 per day for meals. Salaries and benefits are determined in the same manner as described above. Local travel to and from An-Najah is estimated at $100 round trip. Local travel in the US between USF branch campuses and other universities in the Florida State University System is estimated at $.21/mile for 1300 miles. Salary, benefits, per diem, and travel are estimated at a 5% increase for the two succeeding years. Other: It is expected that the partnership Coordinator and secretary will be contributing 10% of the academic year to this project. Salary and total fringes were figured as described in semester Visits. Graduate Assistantships will be provided at USF for two graduate students at $9,000 each during the first year. The second year, .one new student will be added, and the third year the first two students will have completed their studies and only the third student will continue. An-Najah will provide $3,000 for two graduate students and $1,000 for an undergraduate student the first year; the second year, funds for three graduate students and one undergraduate; and the third year, for one graduate and one undergraduate. USF is contributing to this project with indirect costs as well. Costs for this project have been figured at 45.6% on the USF direct costs and the USIA unrecovered costs. 22

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APPENDIX A CURRICULUM VITAE Amen, Mark Banes, Ruth Banoob, Samir N. Brinkman, Robert Cargill, Carol Crane, David A. El-Hadidy, Bahaa Festukjian, Samuel Y. Garcia, Sandra Hewitt, Nancy Jreisat, Jamil Ruffin, Patricia shapiro, Arthur Shiloh, A. Vanden,' Harry Abdelrazig, Issam Rashic Abu Kaf, Taha Jbara, Taysir Baidas, Abeer Al-Helou, Amin Hakawati, Abdallah Amleh, Mohamad Abu-Hasan, Nael Khatib, Adib Fawzi Sabbobeh, Nimer Qadi, Wael Saleem, Rasmyyah

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APPENDIX B DOCUMENTATION OF INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT Letter: Dean Rollin C. Richmond Letter: Provost Gerhard G. Meisels Letter: President siba

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1401 /\H-1981 AC THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC THOUGHT 555 Grove Street, Herndon, Virginia 22070 U.S.A. Telephone: (703) 471-1133 Telex: 901153 IIIT WASH Facsimile: (703) 471-3922 Jumadfl al Akhirah 1409 A.H./January 1989 A.C.

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F)I -,"I r-'"' J -;':L..:JI J --:-J.J..:i.l .:.-;L yJI J < 4'11 /" rhe /lame of Allah, lhe Merciful. fhe Compassionate. Praise be to Allah. Lord of the Universe. Introduction The International Institute of Islamic Thought (lIn) is an independent cultural and educational institution devoted to scholarly research. It represents the sincere and genuine objectives and plans envisaged by a number of Muslim thinkers at the turn of the 14th Hijrah century_ Even now, the consensus among leading thinkers within the Muslim Ummah is that we are facing an intellectual crisis reflected by a deficient perfonnance at all levels, a collapse of institutions, and a disequilibrium of relations within the Ummah. The Institute is a private organization com mitted to participation in the resolution of the intellectual crisis of the Muslim Ummah. Founded and officially incorporated in the United States of America at the beginning of the fifteenth Hijrah century (l40l A.H.l198l A.C.), the Institute strives to realize its mission through the following precepts and guidelines: 1. Fostering the awareness of the Ummah of its importance and potential, of the real causes of its civilizational crisis and of the intellec lual ways and means to tackle it.

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2. Reconstruction of contemporary Muslim thought and methodology and regaining Muslim intellectual originality and initiative. 3. Facilitating access to the Islamic cultural and intellectual legacy by classifying and catalog ing it in accordance with the needs of con temporary specialized research; making it available to Islamic researchers, while free ing it of that which contravenes the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the Prophet's tradition), and as a whole, the general objectives of Islam. 4. Assimilating and comprehending the best aspects of contemporary disciplines, with the objective of enriching Islamic thought. This is achieved, in shaa Allah (God willing), by studying and summarizing the essentials of Western thought in the humanities and social sciences. 5. Translating works that promote the Institute's objectives both into and from Arabic. 6. Reformulating contemporary Muslim thought and methodology to guide human civilization and connect it to the eternal ideals and purposes of Islam. 2 Implementation of the Program The Institute seeks to achieve its goals through the following means: l. Mobilizing Islamic scholars and facilitating their research efforts to contribute to the realization of the preceeding objectives. 2. Convening scholarly meetings, specialized panels and international conferences to address the issues of Islamization of knowledge and the reconstruction of Muslim thought. 3. Organizing expert working groups in every discipline to prepare projects in line with the action plan for the Islamization of knowledge and the reconstruction of Muslim thought. 4. Utilizing computers to catalog Islamic legacy in accordance with the needs of con temporary specialized research. 5. Addressing leaders and scholars through individual and public media; messages, 3

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information bulletins, communication panels, and through attendance at cultural, academic, and media events. 6. Establishing a graduate level Institute for the study of Islamic social sciences. 7. Mobilizing Islamic scholars to supervise Muslim students and to direct their aca demic efforts toward issues that concern the Ummah. '8. Offering financial support to outstanding students specializing in areas considered vital to the achievement of the goals of the Institute. 9. Producing and disseminating books and research monographs on the reconstruction of Muslim thought. 10. Publishing international Islamic journals and supporting similar periodicals already in existence. II. Publishing bulletins to promote cooperation among those engaged in the reconstruction of Muslim thought. 4 Progress Al ljamdu Lillah (Praise be to Allah), the In stitute has steadily progressed toward the achievement of its goals. The following outlines some of the milestones in its endeavours: l. New Location The Institute has secured new premises which houses its administration and its specialized library. fl. Regional Offices The Institute has established offices in a number of important cities throughout the world. These branches serve as a link between the Institute and other organizations and in dividuals concerned with the Islamization of knowledge and with the reconstruction of Muslim thought. The offices also disseminate information to promote the programs of the Institute and engage in specialized activities suited to their host countries. 5 -.', .: ", ,/ ," ,,:' -;., ;/ .: ..

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III. International Conferences on Islamic Thought (Islamization of Knowledge) The Institute was conceived and launched at the First International Conference on Islamic Thought in Switzerland (1397 A.H.lI977 A.C.). From then onwards, further conferences have been convened to extend and develop the idea of the Islamization of knowledge: 1. Second International Conference on Islamic Thought. Theme: Islamization of Knowledge. Held in Islamabad, Pakistan, in cooperation with the International Islamic University, Rabi' al AWIVaI9, 1402 A.H.lJanuary 5-8, 1982 A.C. 2. Third International Conference on Islamic Thought. Theme: Islamization of the Disciplines. Held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in cooperation with the Malaysian Ministry of Youth and Culture from Shawwiil Tl to Dhu ill Qi'dah 3,1404 A.H.lJuly 26-31,1984 A.C. 3. FOllrth Illlernatiollal Conference on Islamic 17umglu. Theme: Methodology and Behavioral Sciences. Held in Khartoum. Sudan, in 6 cooperation with the _University of Khartoum, Jumilda 01 Via 14-20, 1407 A.H'!January 1521, 1987 A.C. 4. Lunar Calendar Conference. Held at the In stitute, Rnjob 27-28, 1407 A.H'!June 6-7, 1987 A.C. 5. Conference on the Contribution of Islamic Thought to Contemporary Economics. Held in Cairo, Egypt, in Cooperation with Salih Abdullah Kamil Center for Islamic Research and Business Studies, Al Azhar University, MulJnrmm 25-28, 1409 A.H.lSeptember 6-9, 1988 A.C. IV. Seminars and Panels The Institute has convened a number of seminars and panels, and participated in seminars organized by other institutions and research centers throughout the Muslim world: 1. Seminar on Islamic Civilization. Organized by the Berita Harian Society of Malaysia in cooperation with the Malaysian Ministry of Youth and Culture in Kuala Lumpur, Sho'him 17-21, 1404 A.H./May 18-22. 1984 A.C. 7

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2. Seminar on the Islamization of Educational Sciences. Held at the Institute, !jaJar 8-9, 1405 A.H.lNovember 3-4, 1984 A.C. 3. First Seminar on Islamic Economics. Held at the Institu[e, in cooperation with the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS), Rnjab 27-28, 1407 A.H.lMarch 28-29, 1987 A.C. 4. Seminar on the Islamization of Political Science. Held at the Institute, lumiidii al Viii 17-19, 1405 A.H.lFebruary 8-10, 1985 A.C. 5. Seminar on the Islamization of Behavioral Sciences. Held at the Institute, Dhu al Hijjah 3-7, 1405 A.H.lAugust 20-24, 1985 A.C. 6. Seminar on the Methodology oj Islamic Thought. Held at the Institute, SaJar 10-12, 1405 A.H.lOctober 25-27, 1985 A.C. 7. Panel on tlie Advancement of Higher &Jucatioll H'ithin the Islamic Context. Held in Cairo, Egypt, Jumii.d(l al VIii 24, 1407 A. H.lJanuary 24. 1987 A.C. 8. Panel Series on the Islamization of Knowledge. Held in Malaysia, Jumiidii al Akhirah 1407 A.H.lFebruary 1987 A.C. 9. Workshop on the Islamization of Practices and Altitudes in Science and Technology. Held at the Institute, in cooperation with the Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers (AMSE), lumiidii al Akhirah, 27-29, 1407 A.H. February 27 to March 1, 1987 A.C. 10. Seminar on the Islamization of Knowledge for Graduate Students. Held at the Institute, Shawwiil 14-16, 1407 A.H.lJune 12-14, 1987 A.C. n. Seminar on Teaching Arabic Language. Held at the Institute, Dhu al flijjah 23, 1407 A.H.iAugust 19, 1987 A.C. 12. Panel on the Islamization of the Mass Media of Communications. Held in Cairo, Egypt, lumiidii al Viii 6, 1408 A.H.lDecember 27, 1987 A.C. 13. Seminar on Islamic Perspective of the Social Sciences. Held ill the Institute, in cooperation with 9 ... -

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'-. the Muslim Arab Youth Association (MAYA), Dhu al Qi'dah 2-4, 1408 A.H.lJune 17-19, 1988 A.C. 14. Seminar on the Islamization of &onomics and Social Sciences. Held at Strassbourg University. Strass bourg. France, in cooperation with the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Economie Is1amigue of ?-dris, France, Dhu al Qi'dah 24, through Dhu al Hijjah 6, 1408 A.H.I July 9-21, 1988 A.C. 15. Seminar on Islamic Principles of Organizational Behavior. Held jointly with the Islamic Business Administration Council of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS), Herndon, Va. fiafar 11-13, 1409 A.H.lSeptember 23-25, 1988 A.C. 16. The Second Seminar on Islamic Economics. Held at the Institute, in cooperation with the Economics Discipline Council of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS), RaM' al Akhir 8-10, 1409 A.H.lNovember 18-20, 1988 A.C. 10 j V. Lecture Series Since Ramadan 1407 A.H.lMay, 1987 A.C., the Institute has held periodic lectures at its headquarters addressing both theoretical and practical issues in the Islamization of knowledge. To date, the following lectures have been presented: 1. Reorganization of Islamic Banking. by Dr. Muhammad Anwar (University of New Hampshire), Ramal/an 24, 1407 A.H.lMay 2, 1987 A.C. 2. Islamization of Anrhropology, by Dr. Abdelghani A. Khalafallah (AI Azhar University, Cairo), Shawwal 29, 1407 A.H.lJune 27, 1987 A.C. 3. Human Nature and Human values: An Islamic Point of View, by Dr. Ja'far Sheik Idris (Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh), Dhu al Qi'dnh 14, 1407 A.H.lJuly II, 1987 A.C. 4. The Architectonics o/Cultural Trans/ormation by Dr. Muna Abul-Fadl (Research Fellow, lilT), Mu!zarram 18, 1408 A.H.lAugust 29, 1987 A.C. II ,-.

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5. Some Contemporary Issues in Islamic Thought, by H'mida Enneifer (University of Tunis), Mul;arram 18, 1408 A.HJSeptember 12, 1987 A.C. tl. Islamization of Knowledge: Its Meaning and Feasibility, by the late Dr. Fazlur Rahman (University of Chicago), Mul;arram 25, 1408 A.HJSeptember 19, 1987 A.C. 7. Islamization of Knowledge: %at Does It Mean? Can It Be Ar'complished? by Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (George Washington University, Washington, D.C.), $afar 9, 1408 A.HJOctober 3, 1987 A.C. 8. The Theory and Practice of Community Development Planning: An Approach from Islamic Anthropology, by Dr. Muhammad Ma'ruf (Cheyney University, Cheyney, Pa.), Rob/' al Awwal 29, 1408 A.H.lNovember 21, 1987 A.C. 9. Unity with Diversity from the SharI Vision of Islam, by Dr. Abdulaziz A. Sachedina (Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.). Rabi' al Akhir20, 1408 A.HJDecember 12, 1987 A.C. 12 10. Sarakhsi's Doctrine of Juristic Preference (Istihsiin) in Relation to Religious and Workt Affairs and its Implications in Islamic Law, by Dr. Husain Kassim (University of Central Florida, OrlandO, Fla.), Sha'biin 7, 1408 A.HJMarch 26, 1988 A.C II. Islamic Revival in the Soviet Union, by Dr. Sayyid Muhammad Syeed (Director of Academic Outreach, lllT), RamQ(jiin 6, 1408 A.H./April 23, 1988 A.C. 12. Islamic Education of Nonh American Parents and Children: Implication for a Possible Action Plan for the Islamization of Knowledge, by Dr. Nimat Hafez Barazanji (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), Shawwiil 7, 1408 A.HJMay 24, 1988 A.C 13. Women in Jihad: Past, Present and Future, by Dr. Zahirah Abdin (Qasr al 'Ayni Medical College, Cairo, Egypt), Shawwiil 17, 1408 A.HJJune 3, 1988 A.C 14. Islamization of History: The Renewal of an AJilhellfic Field of Knowledge by Dr. Khalid Yahya Blankenship (University of Washington, Seattle, 'Mlsh.J. Shmvwiil28, 1408 A.HJJune 14, 1988 A.C 13

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. IS. Emergence of UmQ)YQs: Causes, Consequences and Implications, by Dr. Khalid Yahya Blankenship (University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.), Shawwiil29, 1408 AH!June 15, 1988 AC. 16. Political Thought in Islam (Dle Case' of Muhammad Itbduh) by Dr. Huriyah Mujahid (Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt), Dhu al Qi(fah 6, 1408 A.H.lJune 21, 1988 A.C. 17. Islam in Africa, by D. Huriyah Mujahid (Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt), Dhu al Qi(fah 8, 1408 A.H.!June 23, 1988 A.C. 18. Muslim Situation and Da'wah in Africa. by Maj. Gen. Abdel Rahman Sawar al Dahab (Chairman of the Board, the Islamic Can Organization, Khartoum, Sudan), Dhu al Qi(fah 13, 1408 A.H.lJune 28, 1988 A.C. 19. The Transformation of an Historical Tradirion, from Khabar 10 Ta'rikh, by Dr. f\bd .1 Qadir .1 Tayyib (Temple University, Philadelphia. Pa.), Dhulli f:lijjah 12, 1408 A.H.lJuly 27, 1988 A.C. 20. 771e Role of file Gulf Cooperation Council Bureau of fjlucatio1l in Islamization oj 14 Knowledge, by Dr. Ahmad Muhammad AI Rashid (King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), !iafar 17, 1409 A.H.lSeptember 29, 1988 A.C. 21. Reconstruction of Islamic Thought in the Discipline of Sociology. by Dr. Hasan Abdul-Qadir al Yahya, (Michigan State University, Lansing, Mich.), Rab'i' al Awwal7, 1409 A.H.lOctober 17, 1988 A.C. 22. International Law & Muslim Minon"ties. by Dr. Y. N. Kly. Executive Director, Inter national Human Rights Association of American Minorities [IHRAAMJ, Rnbl' al Awwa19, 1409 A.H.lOctober 20, 1988 A.C. 23. Analysis of Social Problems Related 10 al AlIdalus Society during the Period of Muluk al [awfl'if, by Dr. Muhammad Benaboud, (University Institute of Scientific Research, Muhammad V University, Rabat, Morocco), Rnbi' al Awwal 15, 1409 A.H.lOctober 25, 1988 A.C. 24. Toward a New Methodology for the Humnnities and Social Sciences in dealillg with Islamic Civilization. by Dr. AbdeljaliI Temimi (University of Tunis), Rnbt at Awwal22, 1409 A.H.lNovember 2, 1988 A.C. 15 ,-,

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25. Arabic & Islamic Studies in Africa, by Muhammad Haroon. (University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa). Rabi' al Akhir I, 1409 A.H.lNovember 10, 1988 A.C 26. Methodological Limitations of J#>stem Hadi,h Criticism, by Dr. Eric (Sikander) Winkel, (University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C), lumMa al Akhirah 6, 1409 A.H./January 13, 1989 AC TI. New Directions for Sources & Methodology in Islamic by Dr. Muhammad Fathi M. Osman. (University of Southern Cal ifornia. Los Angeles, California), Jumiidii al Akhirah 21, 1409 A.H.lJanuary 28. 1989 A.C VI: PlIblicariol1s The Institute has published a number of books and studies in various languages. In Arabic A. Islamization of Knowledge Series I. /s/amiya{ a/ Mahfah [Islamization of 16 Knowledgej, 2nd Edition (1406 A.H.l1986 A.C). 2. Nai)wa Na;am Naqtli Mil [Toward A Just Monetary Systemj, 2nd edition, (1409 A.H.l1989 A.C). By Dr. Muhammad Umer Chapta. 3. Al flbjizji Islamiyat al [Synop sis of Islamization of Knowledgej. 1st Edi tion (1408 A.H.l1987 A.C). B. Issues in Contemporary Islamic Thought Series L ljujjiyat al Sunnah [Legal Authorita tiveness of the Sunnahf, 1st Edition (1407 A.H.l1986 A.C.). By Dr. )\bd al Ghani )\bd al Khaliq. 2. Mab al Ihkitlaf ji al Islam [Ethics of Disagreement in Islam}. 3rd Edition (1407 A. H .11987 A.C.). By Dr. Taha Jabif al 'Aiwani. Published by permission of the Shari'ah Courts and Religious Affairs Adminisrration of the State of Qatar. Also translated into Urdu, Bengali, and Malay; English and French translations forthcoming. 17 ,. -

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C. Islamization of Culture Series I. Dalil Maktabat al Usrah al Muslimah [(Guide for Muslim Family Book Collec tion)]. 1st Edition (1405 A.H.l1985 A.C). Planned and supervised by Dr. ,d AbuSulayman. 2. Al al Islamiyah bayna al JulJ.ud wa al Ta[arruf (Islamic Awakening Between Rejection and Extremism. (1408 A.H.l1984 A.C). By Dr. Yusuf al Qara
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them). The Institute plans to translate this valuable work into the various languages of the Muslim peoples, beginning in the near future with Arabic, in shZ/a Allah. In English 1. Islamization of Knowledge: General Principles and Work Plan. 3rd Edition (1409 A.H'/1989 A.C). 2. Tn"alogue of AbraiuJmic Faiths. 2nd Edition (1406 A.H'/1986 A.C). Papers presented to the Islamic Studies Group of the American Academy of Religion. By Dr. Isma'il al Fariiqr. 3. Its Implications for Thought and Life" 1st Edition (1406 A.H.l1986 A.C). By Dr. IsmaD al Faruqf. 4. Toward Islamic English, 1st Edition (1406 A.H'/1986 A.C). By Dr. Isma'il al Fariiqf. 5. Toumrd Islamic Anthropology: Definitions, Dogma. and Directions 1st Edition (1406 A.H.l1986 AC). By Dr. Akbar S. Ahmad. 6. 77,C b'lamic Theory of International Rela,ions: New Directions for Islamic 20 Methodology and Thought. 1st Edition (1407 A.H./1987 A.C). By Dr. Abdult/amid AbuSulayman. 7. Modeling Interest-Free Economy: A Study in Micro-economics and Development. 1st Edition (1407 A.H.l1987 A.C.). By Dr. Muhammad Anwar. 8. Islamic Awakening: Between Rejection and Extremism. 1st Edition (1408 A.H'/1987 A.C). By Dr. Yusuf al Qaradawf. Published jointly with American Trust Publications. 9. The Organization of the Islamic Con ference: An Introduction to an Islamic Political Institution. 1st Edition (1408 A.H.l1988 A.C). By Dr. Abdullah al 10. Proceedings of the Lunar Calendar Con ference. Papers presented at (he Conference of the Lunar Calendar. Edited by Dr. Imad ad-Dean Ahmad (1408 A.H.l1988 A.C). Forthcoming in English 1. Islam: Source and Purpose of Knowledge. P"dpers presented at the Second International 21 ".' ., -.; f.

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Conference on Islamic thought and Islamiza tion of knowledge. 2. Toward the Islamization of Disciplines. Papers presented at the Third International Conference on Islamic thought and the Islamization of knowledge. 3. The Madinan Society at the Time of the Prophet. An attempt to apply the rules of the in the criticism of hislOrical reports. (2 volumes). By Dr. Akram Qiya' al 'Umari", translated by Huda Khanab. 4. Science: Attitudes and Practices. Papers presented at the workshop on the Islamiza tion of practices and attitudes in Science and Technology, VII: Dissemination of Islamic Literature The Institute occasionally sponsors titles from its own and other publications and distributes them to selected libraries. scholars and organizations. VIII: Educational Projects In pursuance of its goals. the Institute 22 established a department of education at the beginning of MulJarram (1408 A.H.lSeptember 1987 A.C.). This department, in sha'a Allah, will contribute to the resolution of the theoretical and practical problems facing Muslim educational institutions. The primary objectives of this department include: 1. Mobilizing Muslim educators and utilizing their expertise to develop theories of education based on an understanding of the Islamic vision and of the best of modern pedagogy. 2. Reviewing, classifying and summarizing studies completed in this field. 3. Assigning Muslim experts to compile suitable curricula for different educational levels. 4. Commissioning authors to produce books and other materials within the framework of Islamic educational theories and curricula. 5. Establishing pilot programs and assisting ex isting ones, with the object of establishing innovative, integrated Islamic educational institutions. The department has adopted a policy of 23

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cooperation with similar educational organiza tions in order to integrate efforts. During the brief period of its existence the department has accomplished the following: I. Provided assistance in establishing Islamic schools in Muslim communities in Africa, Middle East and Asia. 2. Supervised an experimental program in Virginia (Herndon and Reston), supplement ing public school education with courses in Islam and Arabic. 3. Established cooperation with the Middle Eastern Studies Center, at the University of Chicago's outreach program, which makes available corrective seminars on Islamic culture and civilization to American secondary school teachers. 4. Awarded a research scholarship to an American Muslim expert for writing books on Islamic civilization and lega<:.j' that would be suitable for incorporation into the social sciences curricula of American primary and secondary schools. 5. Initiated the process of collecting various studies and educational materials from 24 Islamic sources for evaluation and utilization. IX: Scholarships and Educational Loans Since its establishment, the Institute has given approximately 150 educational loans to Muslim graduate students in various disciplines and a limited number to undergraduate students. X: Library Collections At present the Institute's library contains over 20,000 titles and subscribes to a number of scholarly journals and periodicals. The library is available to Muslim scholars in their research on Islamic studies. XI: Journals A. The American Journal 0/ Islamic Social Sciences IAJISS). The Institute has cooperated in the joint publication of (AlISS) with the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) in the United Stales and Canada since 1406 A.H.l1985 A.C. This specialized scholarly journal is designed to serve as a forum for advancing Islamic contributions to 25 r I

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knowledge in general and to the humanities and social sciences in particular. B. AI Muslim al and AI Fikr al Islami The Institute has extended its support to another two leading Islamic journals: AI Fikr al Islami (islamic Thought) published in the Sudan, and AI Muslim al (The Contemporary Muslim) published in Lebanon. Both these journals provide Muslim thinkers and researchers a forum for debate and discussion. Projects in Progress I: Project for (he Revival of the islamic Legacy. The object of this project is to provide the re quisite materials for the Islamization of Knowledge and the reconstruction of Muslim thought by making available the sources of Islam and its valuable legacy to Muslim thinkers and researchers. The materials to be cataloged and facilitated fall into three categories: l. The major sources of Islam, viz . the Qur'an and the Sunnah. 26 2. Biographies and other texts of the teachings and practices of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad ($AAS). 3. The various disciplines of knowledge developed by Muslim intellectuals and reformers throughout the ages. Using standards of cataloging and terminology developed by the Institute, the work is designed to produce an encyclopedia that will make the Islamic legacy accessible. II. Project for the Snldy and Critique of Hkstern Thought The aim of this project is to put the Muslim intellectual in command of Western culture and modern knowledge by presenting these to him in a thorough, critical format which will give him a grasp of their origins, objectives, methods of analysis, and achievements. The project is being executed in stages, begin ning with macro surveys by scholars of each subject and discipline. Six disciplines have been chosen to launch this project: psychology. sociology, anthropology, political science. economics, and philosophy. The resuh of the surveys will be classified in lexicons and later condensed into volumes providing the central ideas of each discipline. Then, a group of Tl .,-' 1<' -,'" .. .,". ". i

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scholars will be commissioned to produce a comparative work on Western culture in its totality, its historical roots, philosophical foun dations, perspectives, objectives, and spacio temporal characteristics. The work will also of fer critiques of the accomplishments and methodology of Western civilization from both Islamic and Western points of view. III: Project for the Study of International Relations ill Islam This project aims at an exposition of Islamic international relations from an Islamic perspec tive. It aspires to a critical, comparative presen tation of writings published by Muslims and others from various perspectives on the major aspects of this topic. The project consists of three interrelated, analytical levels. 1. The compilation of basic Islamic references in international relations covering the basic Islamic sources through contemporary Western thought. 2. Dimensions and implications of the historical evolution of Islamic international relations, from [he State of Madinah to the abolition of the Khiliij(lh (Caliphate). 3. Critical appraisal of contemporary interna tional problems of the Muslim world. Islamic Endowment for the lIlT The Institute is an independent educational foundation. It is not affiliated with any govern ment nor private interest group. To secure its future and freedom, an Islamic endowment, flbqf Khayr;, was established in 1404 A.H.l1984 A.C. so that the Institute might enjoy the special protection and privileges provided to private charities by American law. According to the lat ter, charitable foundations are regarded as non profit organizations which are exempt from taxes but subject to accountability regulations. The Institute's endowment has many advantages: I. In Islamic terms, it is a jiiriyah ongoing charity, the agent of which receives merit and recompense as time passes. 2. It inspires confidence in and secures stabili ty for the Institute's work. 3. It releases employees and researchers from having to secure donations. 29

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4. It enables the Institute to achieve its goals by providing resources that make long-term planning possible. Donations to the Islamic endowment of the Institute are requested from well-to-do Muslims so that they may participate in the revitalization of the Muslim Ummah. As the Prophet ($AAS) has said, "Death closes all deeds of the human being, except three: jariyah; useful knowledge, and righteous offspring who prays for him [her]." Donation to the Institute's endowment is cer tainly jariyah, the merit of which we hope will be attained by every benefactor. "Whatever good you give shall be rendered back to you, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly." (Qur'an, 2:m). General Policy Guidelines In its constant efforts to achieve its objectives, the Institute abides by the directives of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the principal guidelines for all aspects of its work. In par ticular, the guidelines for the Institute are: 1. To emphasize substance over form. 30 2. To safeguard unity and to avoid division among the ranks_ 3. To encourage dialogues between the dif ferent Muslim groups within the framework of Islamic ethics of disagreement. 4. To call upon all people to refrain from con fusing the priorities with less significant and immediate issues. 5. To avoid political or sectarian conflicts and to emphasize Islam's fundamental values. 7_ To promote the spirit of integration, balance and moderation in all fields. In the final analysis. however, Islamization of knowledge is but one of the aspects of "Islamiza tion" which is a comprehensive moral and cultural framework for the individual and soci ety. for thought and action, for theory and ap plication, and for this life and the Hereafter. OUf conviction, therefore, is that the priority of the reconstruction of Muslim thought is consistent with the need to strive in the various aspects of life. 31

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Conclusion The work of the Institute is, in shah Allah. a sincere and humble effort directed to the im mediate needs of the Muslim Ummah. It has identified a particular problem in (he whole Ummah and seeks to resolve that problem by pooling all the resources at its disposal. Ultimately, however, the most resource the Ummah has is the totality of Muslims all over the World. The moral, intellectual and financial capabilities of the Ummah, granted by Allah, will realize the goals of this institute, in shila Allah. 32 All Praise and Gratitude is due to Allah, the Lord and Sustainer of the Worlds

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THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC THOUGHT The International Institute of Islamic Thought was founded in 140I AH/1981 AC to revive and promote Islamic thought and the Islamization of knowledge in comemporary disciplines. The Institute publishes scholarly works from its own research programs as well as contributions from scholars around the world. The Institute co-publishes The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences (AIISS) with the Associa tion of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS). The Institute welcomes all kinds of academic cooperation and contributions from all sources con cerned with the progress of Islamic thought and knowledge.

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WORLD AND ISLAM STUDIES ENTERPRISE (WISE) AND UNIVERSI'l'Y OF SOUTH FLORIDA (USF) COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES MARCH 11, 1992 1. Use of Libraries: WISE and USF agree to permit staff and students from each aLher's j.nstitution to borrow books from their respective libraries in accordance with existing regulations and fees. 2. Conferences, seminars and lectures: The two sides agree to cooperate in holding conferences, seminars and lectures pertainil'g to issues of mutual interest such as Islam, the Muslim World and the Middle East. All events will be open to USF students and the general public. The two sides may publish the proceedings of such events. 3. Exchange of adjuncts and fellows: WISE and USF may seek to take advantage of the presence of faculty or staff members who have special knowledge or experience by appointing them to temporary teaching or research positions in the respective institutions. Exchange professors and researchers may also receive financial assistance from the two institutions to fund their research. 4. Work study: WISE and USF agree to allow their students and researchers to be employed by the other side as research or teaching assistants in accordance with their respective rules and policies. 5. Research, publications, graduate students and research assistants: WISE proposes to recommend highly motivated and qualified students to seek graduate studies at USF in different disciplines in the social sciences. These students must satisfy all USF Graduate School and departmental admission's requirements. WISE would offer 1 to 3 annual grants to support qualified students for stipend support based on availability of funds. Each grant may range between $7,000 to 11,000 annually. The total amount of the grant will be paid as a graduate student stipend. The student will be appointed to this grant as a 50% research assistant and hence be eligible for tuition waiver in his or her respective department. specifics of administering each grant will be decided by the university department and WISE. 6. Future: the two sides may agree at a later stage to expand their cooperation to other areas. This agreement may be terminated by either party giving written notice to the other party. Dr ... Ramadan Abdalla Director of Administration WISE Director International Affairs Center Dr. Mark Amen Director International Studies Program Richmond Dean College of Arts & Sciences

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DOUBLE ISSUE A.:'!E SEGAL, ET AL. Israel and Syria:'The Search for a Risk-Free Peace ALaN BEN-I>!EIR The Palestinians and Zionism, 1897-1948 DONALD NEFF Economic Roots of Instability in the Middle East Middle East Nuclear Issues in Global Perspective American Foreign Policy and the Campaign against Islam BOOK REVIEWS DOCUML'iTATION: Restrlicruring U.S. Aid ALAN RICHARDS PAUL F. POWER ARTHUR L. LOWRIE

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THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Arthur L. Lowrie.. Mr. Lowrie is adjunct professor of International Studies at the University of South Florida. The end of the Cold War has changed the nature of American foreign policy. As the sole super power, we are free to intervene wherever and whenever we decide, con strained only by domestic considerations. New international forces have risen to the top of policy makers' concerns. Our European allies, no longer in need of a nu clear umbrella. do not follow America's lead as they once did. Trade is now as cru cial to American ambassadors as it has been for our allies for years. In one of the most dramatic changes, the American approach toward Islam is reversing itself. During most of the Cold War, islam was our ally. Islamic regimes were, by defini tion, enemies of "godless communism," and the United States exploited it, most no tably in Afghanistan, where the mujahidin received an estimated $3 billion from the CIA in the battle to expel the Russians.' These "freedom fi!!hters" also became American media The informal ai-, Mary Anne We.ver. "Children of the Jihld." 71" N ... York,,, June 12. 1995. liance with the mujahidin even weathered the wave of anti-Iranian sentiment that resulted from the overthrow of the shah and the taking of American hostages. How has it happened, then, that much of the media now portrays Islam as fanatical, antidemoc ratic and hostile to the West? Logic suggests that, because Muslims comprise one-fifth of the world's popula tion, Americans would wish to establish friendly relations with Muslim countries from Indonesia Morocco. Instead, what we see is a campaign directed at Islamic resurgence movements throughout the Middle East Most commentators ignore the distinctions among the many Isla.nic move ments and assume that conflict between a resurgent Islam and the West is inevitablea classic self-fulfilling propheCy. Law enforcement agencies should and do deal with violence against innocent peo p Ie as criminal acts. There is no sound ba sis for making the religion of the perpetrators an issue. Christianity as a whole did not become the issue in the fiery disaster at Waco, Texas, nor in the Oklahoma City bomhing. Judaism did not become the issue when Bernard Goldstein 210

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LOWRIE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY murdered 29 Palestinians at prayer in the Hebron mosque. Islam should not be the issue when an act of violence is committed by Muslims. Individual beliefs may. of course. in all cases. be relevant as regards motive. .,. As the Cold War disappeared. the view of some Cold Warriors toward Islam changed. Samuel Huntington of Harvard. in his often-cited "Clash of Civilizations" anie1e. accepted that we in the West will "have to accommodate" civilizations "whose val ues and diffe; ::;;::fflr:antly" from ours. His "accommodation:' however, was to prepare for conflict by maintaining "American military superiority. particularly in East and Southwest Asia" (the heanland of Islam)' The Huntington world view is in marked contrast to that of one of modem Islam's leading intellectuals. Hasan Turabi. who said around the same time: "Those who enjoy an advantage under the present world order. in economic relations. in the United Nations. in technology. and in armaments. will see that Islam constitutes a chal lenge because it seeks justice .... Muslims will not allow the world to be molded in one pattern. one form of democracy. one form of economic system. ... In the interest of humanity we should allow more plurality. freedom and diversity and through dia logue and inleraction seek as much coherence and coexistence as possible.'" THE CRIGINS OF THE AN"iI-ISLAlVi CAMPAIGN Those leaders in the Middle East who feel threatened by indigenous Islamic movements. notably in Algeria. Tunisia. Egypt and Israel. energetically promote the Samuel P. Huntington. "The Clash of Civiliwions." Affair<. vol. 73. no. 3. 1993 Isl4m. Democracy. ,he S,ate and ,he West: Round Table wi,h Dr. Hasan Turabi. eel. Arthur L Lowrie. . World'" Isl:un Studi .. Enterprise. 1993. new Western concern with the "Islamic threat." The regime facing the starkest threat is Algeria because it canceled the country'S first free elections in 1anuary 1992 to prevent the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) from coming to power. The Western democracies tacitly accepted this blatantly antidemocratic action. The result has been the bloodiest civil war. in modem Arab his tory with over 30.000 killed as of May 1995. The common fear of radical Islamic movements has resulted in unprecedented ,:oci'Ulltion. In 1U1uary 1995. 18 Arab League interior ministers met and. at the urging of Egypt-with strong back ing from Algeria. Tunisia and Saudi Arabia-agreed to draw up a "code of con duct for combating terrorism." Israeli leaders. threatened by the violent acts of Hezbollah. Hamas and Islamic 1ihad, have sought to enlist the United States and Europe in the banle against Islamic fundamentalism in general. Haim Baram. writing from 1erusalem. described the position of Israeli leaders in late 1994 as follows: 211 The feared and respected enemy now is Islam: the demonization of Muslims is pan of the same propagandist strategy reserved until recently for Palestinian nationalism. The Likud leader. Bibi Netanyahu. is currently touring the globe and spreading the new gospel. According to Netanya"u. Arafat has completely unimportant. since he canno't possibly stem the tide of Islamic radicalism generated by Iran. It is an almost risible tactic. since the Likud leader himself described Arafat. until recently. u the principal threat not only to Israel. but also to the entire Western world. Netanyahu hu found I new line of reasoning for his ancient rejectionist stanCe. Araf3t does not m3uer. the IslamislS are going tn uke over from him and rule the Palestini3ll people, and therefore any

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MIDDLE EAST POLlCY territorial concessions are absolutely pointless. Iran. ironically. is portrayed as the Great Satan. capable of threatening the West with nuclear bombs. Lebanon and even Syria will undergo an Islamic revo lution pretty soon. their uneasy flirtation wi th the Americans will end. and Israel will regain its status as a main strategic asset of the WesL Therefore. the pressure on Israel to make territorial concessions will also cease. The number of Israelis who are ready to inhale this nonsense is unbelievable._ .. Unfonunately, Rabin him self has adopted a similar Ii lie of reason ing, especially in his frequent visits to Washington. The "Islamic peril" is one of Rabin's most tiresome themes, and the aim of his campaign is obvious. An ardent Cold War anticommunist all his adult life. he hopes to convince the Americans that Iran is posing the same threat as Moscow in the good old days.' THE CAMPAIGN IN AMERICA The momentum of the anti-Islam cam paign in the United States suggests that the purported views of Israeli leaders have been increasingly adopted by their supporters and others. The campaign appears aimed at both public opinion and policy makers. Mortimer Zuckerman. editor-in-chief of U.S. News & World Reporr. enthusiastically adopted the main theme: "Islam's militant strain is on the verge of replacing communism ZlS the principal opponent {J; liberal democracy and the values it en shrines.'" Fergus M. Bordewich, in a sensa tionalist article in the -Reader's Digest entitled "A Holy War Heads Our Way," uses the violent excesses of Muslim extremists in the civil war in Algeria to make the case against Islamic fundamentalism. In doing so, he relies on two of Israel's most prom(:. !tIiddl" Enst itut!nt(JIionai. 199..1, U.S. NC'Wl & \\Cu,''' Report. March 21. 1993. nent American supporters; Robert Satloff, the executive director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and Daniel Pipes, former director of the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia. He quotes Pipes as saying: Fundamentalists are in no sense just "traditional" Muslims-and are not just "criminals." They are fervent believers. Whenthtradicals hear they are acceptable as long as they're not violent. they will simply split up their political and military Thaf way thev can licly disclaim responsibility for the vio lence committed by their underground forces. Amos Perlmutter. a professor of political science at American University and editor of the Journal o/Strategic Studies, wrote in 1995: The post-Cold-War era does not amount to a new world order, but rather a world full of radical and secessionist na tionalists. The ideology of fascism and Nazism of the 19305 has its counterpart in some places in Isl:unic radicalism, a total itarian. anti-Western and popular move ment hoping to teach the modem-style Christian "crusaders" some lessons in ul !raviolence. It is !lo coincidence that the principal and consistently violent crisis areas in the world today are instigated by fundamentalists and radical and pan Islamic nationalists .... 11te Western world ... cannot permit the replacement of one. form of totalitarianism with another; the Soviet model with an Islamic one.' Steven Emerson. an author well-known for his pro-Israeli views. produced the PBS program Jihad in America, aired on November 21, 1994. The World Trade Center bombing was its centerpiece. :lJld R,adtrs Dig.:,. January 1995. 1 hnu:uy l7. 1995. 212

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LOWRIE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY while disclaimers were made that Islamic extremists are only a small minority of Muslims, the import of the program was, in the words of Walter Goodman, TV critic for The New York TImes, "that seemingly respectable Muslim organizations have ties to militants who preach violence .... Muslims and others throughout the countty protested this portrayal of Islam. and the program is the subject of lawsuits. In a particularly egregious case, Emerson used an answer given by an interviewee (Dr. Sami aI-Arlan of Tampa, FL) to one question as the answer to another question, thereby changing its meaning to suit the anti-Islam theme.' Emerson's two main themes were that an "Islamic Internationale" exists and is directing an anti-Western terror campaign and that a network of Islamic terrorist cells exists throu2hout the United States. He failed to provide any hard evidence for either allegation. Philip C. Wilcox, Jr., State Department coordinator for counterterrorism, stated in 1995: "While there are informal contacts among Islamists-especially abroad, where their leaders often find safe havens and fund-raising opporrunities there is little hard evidence of a coordinated international network or command and control apparatus among these groups."" Likewise, domestic law enforcement agencies have given no public credence to Emerson's allegations about an Islamic terrorist network in the United States. In a long artide in The Ntw Republic (June 12, 1995), Emerson reiterates his allegations that radical Islimist groups "have established elaborate political, financial and, in some cases, operational infrastruc tures in the United States" and that "the FBI has made this network a top priority." However, he relies on Israeli sources and The New York Tun .. (NY1). November 21.1994 AUlhor inlerview with Dr. alAri:m. April 8. 1995. .. n .. Los Angei .. Times. Februory 7. 1995. anonymous or "former" officials. He does not cite a single active U.S. federal or state law-enforcement official to substantiate his charges. Many journalists adopt uncriti cally the official U.S. view that the ''rogue states" (a new cate gory of nation) are "exporting revolution" (never defined) and usually ignore why the Israeli government and certain Arab regimes have provoked such widespread popular discontent. Emerson revealed his determination to spread these allegations in the immediate aftennath of the tragic Oklahoma City bombing of Apri119,199S. On April 19 and 20, he appeared frequently on nationwide TV implying Islamic terrorists were the perpetrators with such statements as these: 213 The bombing in Oklahoma had all the hallmarlcs of the bombing in Buenos Aires or in the World Trade Center._lt was a car bomb, and it was designed to explode and kiIJ as many people as possible. That is not a type of activity that has been seen on American soil prior to the Islamic terrorist activity period .... The fact is that certain Muslim groups are trying to hide under the politically :onect label that they're being goaded into concealnlion camps." Such irresponsible statements:which The Progressive called "vicious, bigoted rumor-mongering" certainly contributed to the rash of harassment incidents Muslim Americans faced in the following days." "CNN C",ssji,... Transaipt '1335, Air Date: April 20.1995. "n .. P",gressive. June 1995, p 8

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MIDDLE EAST pOLICY On a more elevated level, Leslie Gelb, writing in The New York TImes, shared the views of his Israeli interlocutors, Rabbi David Hartman and Yehoshafat Harkabi, that "Islam doesn't recognize coexistence as a basic doctrine. Coexistence goes against Islam's sense of world order."" Other writers, who seem to rely primarily on Middle Eastern governments, consis tently go after Iran and the Sudan. Steven A. Holmes, writing from Washington on how "fundamentalism is altering the power relationships" in the MIddle East, the allegations of Iranian-manned training bases in the Sudan and close Iranian-Sudanese military and economic ties, but offered neither specific evidence nor any reason why two like-minded Muslim states should not have close relations." Many journalists adopt uncritically the official U.S. view that the "rogue states" (a new category of nation) are "exporting revolution" (never defined) and usually ignore why the Israeli government and certain Arab regimes have provoked such widespread popular discontent. In addition, they rarely interview the leaders of the Islamic movements, most of whom are easily accessible and often Western educated. A notable exception is Robin Wright of The Los Angles TImes. who has traveled widely and interviewed many Muslim leaders. Her writings attest to the diversity of their views. Judith Miller, a writer for The New York Times on leave of absence, has interviewed Hasan Turabi and others. She has nevertheless written the mother of all generalizations in Foreign Affairs: ..... virtually all militant Islamists oppose both [democracy and pluralism]. They are, and are likely to remain. anti-Western. anti-American and anti-Israeli." A scholar of Islam, H. R. 1) NYI'. June: 21. 1992. NIT. August 22. 1993. Dekmejian, has on the other hand identified and categorized over 175 "Islamist" soci eties in the Arab world in terms of gradual ist pragmatic, revolutionary Shiite, messianic-puritanical and revolutionary SunnL" In an expression of cultural superi ority at its most arrogant, Ms. Miller wrote: "An Islamic state as espoused by most of its proponents is simply.incompatible with values and truths that Americans and most Westerners today hold to be self-evident." She concludes that an American dialogue with such Is;a.nic forces is a waste of time." Prominent among the think tanks con tributing to the debate on the Islamic threat is the conservative Heritage Foundation in Washington, which on-July 21, 1994, dis cussed the "Islamic threat to North Africa." Speakers included Khalid Duran, a colleague of Daniel Pipes, and Steven Emerson (whom Duran assisted in producing Jihad in America). Pipes, who opposes a dialogue with "good" or "bad" fundamentalists, made four recommendations for U.S. policy to combat the new "red menace": (a) confront the fundamentalists; (b) pressure Iran and Sudan to moderate their policies; (c) assist those Muslims who stand up to the fundamentalists; and (d) back governments in the region who are combating fundamentalism. .like Algeria. Pipes also likened the struggle to the Cold War, saying it was the American Right who won the Cold War by standing up to the USSR. and it can do the same against Islam.'1 Pipes apparently did not elucidate on how the total itarian Soviet regime equated with the Islamic movements thaC are opposing authoritarian regimes. In any case, his position is indistinguishable from that of Martin 214 Ii Islam in Rn'Olulion: Fundamentalism in the Arab World by H.R. Dekmejion. New York: Syn>CUsc University Press,I995. S"" Michael DuM'S review in this issue. "ludith Miller. "The Challenge or RadiCllI Islam" Fo,.isn Affain. Spring 1993, vol. 72. no. 2.

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LOWRIE: TIlE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Sherman. an Israeli political scientist who has written about "the global battle of cul tures taking place between Islam and Western liberalism, a struggle as powerful as the one against .. communism and Nazism."" There are interesting coincidences that tie some of these individuals and groups to gether. Steven Emerson told The Washington Post that he had received a large share of the $325.000 financing for Jihad in America from the Bradley Foundation of Milwaukee." Robert D. Kaplan. the Author of Tile "rahim. a proIsraeli account of Slate Department Middle East specialists. notes in his preface that the "book could not have been written without the financial assistance of The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation in Milwaukee. whose funds were administered by the [Daniel Pipes's] Foreign Policy Research Institute."" And as if to make official the link between the anti-Islamic message of Israeli leaders and their American friends. Daniel Pipes's new publication. Middle East Quczrterly. is being distributed free of charge by Israeli consulates in the United States. The most convincing voices countering the generalizations and over-simplifications about modem Islamic movements belong to academics who themselves have criticized many aspects of Islam over the years. They include the French scholar. Dr. Burgat. who has said: "Islamists are nothing more than peopie who connect Isiam to po litical dialogue; so they include the entire range from neo-fascists to ultra-liberals." American scholars who have written and "Washingron R.porr on Middle East Affairs. September/October 1994 .. The J.TWDl.m January II. 1995. Th.WasiJington Post (WP). Noyember 17. 1994. Roben D. K3plan. The Arlbists. New York: Free Press.1993. spoken widely on the subject include John Voll (University of New Hampshire). 'John Esposito (Georgetown). James Bill (William and Mary). John Entelis (Fordham). Richard Bulliet (Columbia). Charles Butterworth (University of Maryland) and Augustus Richard Norton (Boston University). They assert that the failure to mak!, distinctions among the many Islamic movemeRS5 and the stereo typing of Muslims as violence-prone radi cals will strengthen the extremists at the expense of the vast majority of moderate and responsible MliSlims. FuMe-rmore. dis tortions and misrepresentations of the true nature of the Islamic movements compli cate the ability of the country to carry out a constructive foreign policy. This is evi denced by the recent statements of such prominent leaders as House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-GA). who has urged that the United States adopt a "coherent U.S. strat egy for fighting Islamic totalitarianism."" and Secretary General of NATO Willie Claes. who claimed, "Islamic fundamental ism now poses as great a threat to the West as communism once did."" IMPACT ON U.s. FOREIGN POLICY The ferocity and pervasiveness of the anti-Islam campaign are taking a toll on the U.S. government's ability to pursue a flexi ble and constructive policy toward Islamic movements. Policy statements by U.S. offi cials have derided the idea of a monolithic Islam confronting the West, but have left little doubt that the United StalCS will op pose Islaniic movements coming t.o power. even through the ballot box. In the words of former Assistant Secretary of Swe Edward Djerejian: "We do not support one person, 215 Inter Press Service. WlShingtoa DC. february 21 1995. 71 .. Scotsman, february 27. 1995.

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MIDDLE EAST POLICY one vote, one time" (as if the eXlstmg regimes permitted free elections)." The pol icy of dual containment of Iraq and Iran has recently been reinforced with the extension of sanctions against Iraq and the cancella tion of the Conoco deal with Iran. The com plete trade embargo on Iran that President Clinton announced on April 30, 1995, was imposed following a vigorous campaign by the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)." The United States is fully backing Egypt Md in struggle against indigenous Islamic move ments, overlooking significant human rights violations in the process. Only in Algeria. where the United States tacitly ac cepted the Algerian military's cancellation of elections and where we are a marginal player, is the United States belatedly engaged in a behind-the-scenes effort to seek common ground between the government and non-violent Islamic leaders. President Clinton found it useful when visiting Indonesia last year to make his major public appearance at the main mosque in Jakarta and to declare that "even though we have had problems with terrorism coming out of the Middle East, it is not inherently related to Islam-not to the religion, not to the culture." In visiting Jordan shortly be fore, he had said "America refuses to accept that our civilizations must collide. We respect Islam."" The administration also mac: laudable fl.any of the Islam bashers,to scrupulously avoid impll eating Muslims' in the Oklahoma City bombing. Despite the fine sentiments expressed by the Clinton administration, its actions and its search for mutual comprehension leave much to be desired. The intimidation of the :::I Nl!w QtUJrtl!rly. Center for the: Study of DemOLT.1nc Inslitutions. June 22. 1993.-:. Nr=:::d M. Shc:r. U.S. Sanctions Against Imn: A. Plan for Action. American tsrJcl Public AlTai" Committe<. April 2. 1995. Department of State by the incessant anti Islamic voices has reached the point that even such mundane matiers as issuing visas is affected. Shaikh Rashid Ghanoushi, the exiled leader of the Tunisian An-Nahda (Renaissance) party and one of the leading moderates of the Islamic resurgence, was invited in January 1994 to attend the third annual roundtatire'on modem Islam spon sored by the University of South Rorida's Committee on Middle Eastern Studies and the World a.n,J Enterprise, a Tampa-based research center. These round tables, the first with Hasan Turabi of the Sudan in 1992 and the second with Khurshid Ahmad of Pakistan in 1993, give American scholars an-opportunity to en gage Islamic intellectuals in debate, and in both cases there were vigorous differences of opinion. The roundtables received very high marks from the participants, who included many leading American academics. The full texts of the day-long discussions were published and made available to the public." Rashid Ghanoushi was an obvious choice for the May 1994 roundtable in view of events in North Africa. Although Tunisia sentenced him to life imprisonment in absentia in 1992 (in a trial even the State Department's Human Rights Report viewed with great skepticism), the British govern ment granted Ghanoushi political asylum in 1993. The Sta:e Department failed to act en his request for a visa, and the May 1994 roundtable was postponed_ It also failed to take action in time for the coriference to be held in December 1994. And, despite repeated requests, it has not acted on the visa as of June 1995. Why the hesitancy? The Tunisian government has reportedly ob-216 lippmon. IV/! December 28. 1994. Avail.ble from The World and Isl.m Studies Enterprise. PO Box 16648 . Tamp FL 33687. ille Turabi roundtable w:IS published in Middl. East Policy. \'01. I. no. 3. 1992.

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LOWRIE: THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY jected, as it did to South Africa. where Ghanoushi was invited in the summer of 1994. The Mandela government rejected the Tunisian objection in the name o( free speech and Ghanoushi attended an acade mic conference there in the summer of 1994. Muslims in America are con cerned that they are being singled out as disloyal and potential enemies of America, especially since the issuance of President Clinton's executive order of January 24, 1995, "Prohibiting Transactions with Terrorists who threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process." in their staunch hatred of America, the West and Israel. "11 On 1une 24, 1994, Representative (now Senator) Olympia Snowe (R-ME), a member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, issued a press release urging Secretary of State Christopher to refuse a visa to Ghanoushi because of his "extensive record of terrorist activity." . The most serious opposition to Ghanoushi, however, came on 1une 29, 1994, when the powerful A1PAC-spawned Washington Institute for Near East Policy issued a "Policywatch" written by Manin Kramer, associate director of the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Tel Aviv University and a visiting professor at Georgetown. Kramer dropped the "ter rorist" allegations against Ghanoushi (ap parently recognizing that they had no substance since the British had granted him political asylum) and concentrated on Ghanoushi's anti-Saudi and anti-American If only Tunisia had objected to the State position on the Gulf War as well as his opDepanrnent, Ghanoushi might have reposition to the Israel-PLO accord, which he ceived his visa, as had Sinn Fein leader reponedly called "a 1ewish-American plan Gerry Adams over the objection of the encompassing the entire region, which British government. However, opposition would cleanse it of all resistance and open to Ghanoushi surfaced publicly in May it to 1ewish economic and cultural activity, 1994 in the New York 1ewish paper culminating in complete 1ewish hegemony Forward. Lucette Lagnado's front page ar-from Marrakesh to Kazakhstan." Kramer ticle was headlined "Tunisian Terror Sheikh concluded that "a visa for Ghanoushi would Sparks Furor on Hill. Would-Be Ayatollah signal that the United States has become so Seeks Entry to U.S." The paper alleged that confused by lslamisl 8ltifice that it can no Ghanoushi "has sponsored and supponed longer tell friend from foe-and not just in violent action against Americans, American' Tunisia."" An Israeli professor is thus in the allies and wholesale disruption of the anomalous position of telling the U.S. govMiddle East peace process." The article ernmen!' on behalf of one of the most powquotes the ubiquitous Daniel Pipes, saying erful institutions in Washington, that it that Ghanoushi had attended conferences in should not grant visas to foreigners who do Iran and the Sudan that were "also attended not agree with American and Israeli foreign by other radical clerics." Pipes likened policies. these conferences to "a son of 'Islamic Intemationale' where the leaders are united v Fon"am. M,y 13, 1994. 217 Martin Kr:lmer. 'Po/icywa,ch: A U.S. Vua/or an Islamic E:ctl?mis,?" The W..runllon Institute for NoJ/' wt Policy.lune 29, 1994.

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MIDDLE EAST POLICY The anti-Islam campaign has succeeded in preventing a dialogue between one lead ing Islamic intellectual and American scholars, but there are much larger issues at stake. Muslims in America are concerned that they are being singled out as disloyal and potential enemies of America, espe cially since the issuance of President Clinton's executive order of January 24, 1995, "Prohibiting Transactions with Terrorists who threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process." This fear was proven valid in the immediate of the Oklahoma City bombing, as noted above. In a more recent example, on May 28 and 29, 1995, The Tampa Tribune ran front page articles by a young journalist, Michael Fechter, the first entitled "TIes to Terrorists." It pictured the above-mentioned Dr. Sami al-Arian with a photo of the Ocrober 19, 1994, Tel Aviv bus bombing that killed 23 Israelis, under the heading: "A Tampa-based group sympathizes withand some say financially supports-the (Islamic Jihad and Hamas) militants. It is led by University of South Florida (USF) professor Sami AI-Arian." The "investiga tive" articles were for the most part a rehash of the unsubstantiated allegations of Jihad in America and contained numerous factual errors and innuendoes in an effort to impli cate USE The principal sources quoted were Steven Emerson, Israeli journalist Ronni Shaked, an anonymous Simon Wiesenthal Center researcher, nd Mmin Kramer. The .most irresponsible charge was that there was a connection between a local mosque (which houses an elementary school) and Harnas because the mosque was named after Izzedine al-Qassam (a revered Muslim leader killed by the British in Palestine in 1935). The paper printed a picture of the mosque with its address, which engendered fear in the children and teachers and forced the Islamic community to hire security guards. The articles also stirred up local Jewish activists. After a thorough examination of the allegations, USF President Betty Castor stated that "no illegal activities were taking place" on cam pus, and in response to the concerns of the Jewish community, "We need to make peo ple understand that the university welcomes them, but at the same time we welcome others.''D On an intema4Pnal scale, the United States is being seen' around the world as an enemy of Islam_ Israel, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia and other governments justifiably fear the "f rc;urgerl( move ments. These governments are friends of the United States, and we have to take ac count of their legitimate concerns. One highly respected former American ambas sador believes we should overlook Egypt's harsh measures against Egyptians in Upper Egypt-documented in graphic detail by Robert Fisk "'-because it is the only way to deal with zealots." However much one might agree with that view in a particular country, the policy of the world's only superpower toward one fifth of the world's population should not be determined by the threats other govern ments face from their own disgruntled or oppressed citizens, any more than our pol icy should be affected by the actions of ter rorists. The seeming indifference of the U.S_ government to the killing of 200,000 Muslims in Bosnia, the assault on Chechnya, events in Kashmir, India, the W:st B?nk and Gaza, z.nd the unprece dented economic measures against Iran, have convinced many Muslims that the United States is anti-Islam. Professor James B ill has added: '1"he situation is exacer bated when Muslims incredulously fmd 218 St. p.,enbu'! Tunes. June 24.1995. pIS. TI,e London. Febru:uy 9 and 10. 1995. Amb .... dor Hermann Fr. Elts. Occasion:u Paper. Univeraity of South Florida. Commiuee on Middle Eo"em Studies. Febru:uy 1995.

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THE CAMPA!GN AGAINST ISLAM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY themselves labeled as terrorists and when Western governments encourage their secu lar Middle Eastern allies to confront Muslim populist movements with brute force."" President Clinton has insisted that the United States is not anti-Islam, but our actions or inactions and the reluctance to al low serious dialogue with Islamic intellec tuals indicate otherwise. At a minimum, the U.S. government should energetically pro mote dialogue with Islamic intellectuals throughout the entire Mn
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Turabi Round Table May 10, 1992 PARTICIPANTS Dr. Abdel Aziz Mustafa University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Abdelwahab Hechiche University of South Florida (USF). Mr. Art Lowrie (USF). Dr. Basheer Nafi World & Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE) Dr. Carolyn Lobban -Rhode Island College. Dr. Emile Sahliyeh University of Texas. Dr. Hanna Freij University of Pittsburg. Dr. Jamil Jreisat (USF). Dr. John Esposito College of the Holy Cross Dr. John Voll University of New Hampshire. Dr. Karl Magyar Air University. Dr. Khalil Shikaki (WISE-USn Dr. Louis Cantori University of Maryland. Dr. Mark Orr (USF). Dr. Mark Tessler University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Dr. Mohammad Muslih Long Island University. Dr. Mohsen Milani ( USF). Dr. Peter Bechtold Foreign Service Institute. Dr. Ramadan Abdullah (WISE) Tampa. Dr. Richard Bulliet Columbia University. Dr. Richard Cottam University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Richard Hermann Ohio State University. Dr. Robert Kramer -51. Norbert College. 8

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Participants Mr. el-Sadig 'Abdullah University of Missouri Dr. Ramadan 'Abdallah Ahmad Round Table May 15, 1993 World and Islam Studies Enterprise and University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Ibrahim AbuRab;' Hartford Seminary Dr. Khurshid Ahmad Islamabad, Pakistan Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad University of Hampton Dr. Sami alArian University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Charles Butterworth Univeristy of Maryland at College Park Dr. Louis Cantori US Airforce Academy Dr. Vincent Cornell Duke University Dr. John Entelis Fordham University Dr. Darrell Fasching University of South Flordia at Tampa Dr. Cliff Green Hartford Seminary Dr. Iliya Harik Indiana University Dr. Abdelwahab Hechiche University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Michale Hudson Georgetown University Dr. Jamil Jreisat University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Charles Kennedy Wake Forest University Dr. Renu Khator University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Arthur Lowrie University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Seyyed Va Ii Nasr University of San Diego Dr. Ailon Shiloh University of South Florida at Tampa Dr. Tamara Sonn SI. John Fisher College Dr. John Voll University of New Hampshire Dr. Sarah Voll University of New Hampshire

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MEMORANDUM DATE: May 8,1996 TO: Council of Deans FROM: Thomas J. Tighe Provost and Execuhve Vice President SUBJECT: Draft Policy on Adjunct Faculty . University-wide we continue to use high numbers of adjunct faculty to deliver instruction to our students at all levels, in core courses and electives alike. Over reliance on adjuncts is not a desirable practice; however, budget constraints combined with increased enrollments in some programs has made the continued use of adjuncts inevitable. another side to this issue. Adjunct faculty can enrich and improve our course offerings and provide excellent experiences for our students if selected, utilized and evaluated well. Over the years all our colleges and campuses have developed associations with individuals who have served us well in the adjunct role. We have also developed methods for recruiting adjuncts, evaluating their credentials, making assignments and evaluating their performance.! am aware that many of these methods work Nonetheless, I believe we have reached a pOint where the institution would be served by more formal establishment of policy and procedure to guide this process. To that end please find attached a draft document that I would like to discuss with you at our Council meeting on Monday.

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DRAFT University of South Florida Adjunct Faculty Policies May 8,1996 The University of South Florida (USF) currently employs many adjunct faculty to assist in the delivery of its academic programs. Adjunct faculty are utilized to deliver core courses as well as to enlarge the range and number of course offerings. It is of1en the case that adjunct faculty members bring a special expertise to the classroom that might not be available from the roster of permanent full-time faculty. Continued fiscal stringencies coupled with growing enrollment and increased demand for course offerings will require USF to continue its reliance on adjunct faculty to accomplish its teaching mission. The University therefore has the obligation to engage the highest quality adjunct faculty, to counsel and assist them in their duties, and to carefully supervise and evaluate their performance. The achievement of these objectives requires the fuJI cooperation of the deans, chairs, and both regular and adjunct faculty. The following subsections definej(he expected roles of these parties. Role of the Department Chairs and Faculty The academic departments are responsible for ensuring quality by certifying the 055-9604.17 1

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expertise of the adjunct in the discipline. The faculty and chair of each department should: 1. Identify a pool of adjunct candidates in each academic area. In order to be considered for the adjunct pool, a candidate must submit a written request, a recent resume, an application for employment and a copy of professional credentials from the awarding institution or agency. Once this information is received, it will be forwarded to a committee of regular faculty to determine if the applicant is qualified, and, if so, what courses the applicant will be considered qualified to teach. Initial recommendations from the faculty committee regarding academic qualification will be forwarded to the department chair. In the event that the applicant has previous teaching experience with the University, the academic qualification process may also include a review of the applicant's previous teaching performance. Also, teaching performance at other institutions will be consi ered as appropriate. When adjuncts are selected, a range of courses f which they are authorized to teach should be specified. The certification of academic qualification or the lack thereof will not be understood to hold in perpetuity, but will be subject to further review as the qualifications of the applicant evolve, a record of performance develops, and the requirements of the position are modified. A qualified candidate will be informed of the specific courses for which he or she is considered qualified. The qualified candidate will be informed in the same 055.17 2

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letter that his or her application will be considered active for the current academic year, including the fall and spring semesters and both summer sessions. If an applicant for an adjunct position does not teach any courses during the academic year in which his or her request was received and does not actively request in writing a teaching assignment for the next three (3) academic years and summers, the application will be reclassified as inactive. If a person teaches a course at USF during an academic year, he or she will automatically be placed in the active pool for the next academic year, assuming he or she is still considered qualified and interested in a position. 2. Identify the courses to be staffed with adjunct faculty. This is part of the scheduling process and will be done by the department chair in consultation with regular faculty, and will be subject to the many factors determining course offerings and assignments of faculty at the University. These include budgetary constraints, the level of fUll-time faculty involvement in the teaching mission, and the determination of courses appropriate to the curriculum. 3. Certify adjuncts who will be offered teaching. In consultation with appropriate regular faculty the department chair will identify those candidates for adjunct positions who will be offered one or more of the courses determined in the previous step. These offers of appointment will be made only to members of the pool of qualified active candidates. 4. Process paperwork for hiring and rehiring. This includes forwarding a letter of 055-9604.17 3

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offer to the candidate in which he or she is informed that the appointment has an end date beyond which the University has no legal commitment to the candidate for further employment. It is critical that all current adjunct faculty are made aware of this aspect of their terms of employment. Adjunct faculty will have no legal commitment to the University following the end date of their appointment with the exception of completing all necessary work for students who received incompletes or delayed grades in the courses they taught. The processing of paperwork is initiated at the department level with oversight provided at the college level including issuance of a letter of offer co-signed by the Dean. If the pool of qualified active candidates is larger than the number of courses available, some decisions must be made about which members of the qualified active candidate pool will be hired or rehired. The University is not legally required to rehire any current adjunct faculty member for a future position solely because of prior service. Each adjunct faculty member has an end date to his or her contract beyond which the University has no legal commitment for employment. However, if an active, qualified adjunct faculty member is not to be hired for a course identical or similar to one taught by that person previously, there must be a defensible reason(s). This requires that an evaluation of the candidate pool be made, and a reason(s) for choosing the final adjunct faculty. These reasons must fall within the University's affirmative action and fair labor practice regulations. Defensible criteria for hiring/rehiring must also involve only those points that have supporting evidence. These can include: 055-9604.17 4

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055-9604.17 Evaluations of current resume. Documentation of citizenship or proper visa status. Personal interviews with date, time and general comments recorded. Personal recommendations, where available or requested. Written student evaluations and statements, where available from previous teaching experience. Copies of graded student papers and examinations, where available from previous service. These must be obtained in collaboration with the adjunct faculty member. In-class observations with date, time and general comments, where possible. These must be scheduled with the adjunct faculty member in advance. Video tapes of classroom performance, where available. These must be obtained only with the consent or at the request of the adjunct faculty member. Video-taping must be scheduled with the adjunct faculty member in advance. 5

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An identified need for continuity of quality instruction in the maintenance of the pool of qualified active candidates. An identified need to engage a new adjunct faculty member, in lieu of a previous veteran adjuncts, in a particular area for the purpose of keeping the pool of qualified active candidates suffiCiently large and diverse to ensure the scheduling process. Evaluate instruction delivered by adjuncts. 5. Adjuncts should be evaluated regularty by students, the faculty and department chair. Adjunct instructors can be appointed to teach any course within their authorized range, provided that their teaching conforms to the University's quality standards and a need exists for their services. The detenmination of the mechanism for evaluation lies with the participating administrators and should be consistent with prevailing evaluation procedures. 6. Establish diversity in the adjunct pool. The department chair working in conSUltation with the faculty should strive to ensure that the pool of qualified active adjunct candidates represents the greatest feasible level of diversity. The Role of the College Dean 055.' 7 6

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The primary role of the college dean is to provide appropriate administrative oversight to the process of building a pool of qualified active candidates at the department level. The dean shares responsibility for ensuring certification of the adjunct's credentials. Further responsibilities include: 1. Development of a mechanism at the college level to ensure the annual process of updating the adjunct pools every three years. 2. Development of a standard letter of offer, in conjunction with the office of the Provost, which covers the requisites of these guidelines (letter of offer to adjuncts on Tampa Campus will be signed by the department chair and the college dean). 3. Development of a common method of evaluation for adjuncts college-wide. -4. Resolution of any problems arising between departments and regional campuses regarding the certification, selection or evaluation of adjunct faculty. The Role of the Regional Campus Faculty and Dean During the period established for the building or update of pools of qualified active candidates at the department level, the regional campus dean would work directly with the department chairs on the Tampa Campus to facilitate the inclusion of individuals in 055-9604.17 7

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. -the pools from the general area of the regional campus in those academic program areas represented on the regional campus or in which the regional campus wished to offer courses. The regional campus might solicit candidates for the pool and assist the department in obtaining information pertinent to the candidate's request for consideration. The regional campus faculty should be represented on the faculty committee of the department charged with the responsibility of evaluating candidates and recommending their status. These faculty members should also be involved in the solicitation of potential candidates. Adjunct candidates should ordinarily interview with both the department chair and the regional campus dean (or their delegates) and the faculty of the department. Both units must approve the candidate. The regional campus dean and the department chair need to work together in the identification of qualified candidates, the certification of the candidate's expertise, and in the final selection process and assignment. Letters of offer to adjuncts on a regional campus will be signed by the department chair and the regional campus dean. Both parties must agree on assignment. In the event of disagreement the college dean will have responsibility to assist in resolution. The regional campus dean and the college dean should coordinate the development of mechanisms to employ and evaluate adjuncts on the regional campus. 055-9604.17 B

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The Role of the Adjunct Faculty Member In addition to conforming to the University's high standards for instruction, each adjunct faculty member must assist the campus in determining his or her academic qualifications as well as expediting the evaluation of his or her performance. The adjunct faculty member will be responsible for the following: Providing the requested documentation for the purpose of determining academic qualifications. Meeting with the assigned faculty liaison regarding relevant instructional issues. Cooperating with both student and faculty evaluation procedures. Meeting with the department chair as requested to discuss instructional issues. Assistance to the Adjunct Faculty Member In addition to the legal aspects of hiring and evaluation, a successful adjunct faculty policy will define the assistance and services the campus will provide to help the adjunct faculty in their teaching mission. These fall into two areas: the services and support provided by the department chair or regional campus dean and those provided by regular faculty. The responsibility for specifying these services fall to chairs and 055-9604.17 9

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-, -deans under oversight of the dean. The Department Chair or Regional Campus Dean The department chair or regional campus dean, as appropriate, will be responsible for providing the fo!lowing support to all adjunct faculty members: An open meeting with all adjunct faculty regarding administration, student services, and University regulations. Providing a previous syllabus for any course for which the adjunct faculty member is responsible when requested or deemed appropriate. Providing ongoing advice regarding classroom or student management procedures. Providing general administrative support for photocopying, course evaluations, grading, etc. Processing payroll authorizations and other paperwork as needed. Arranging evaluations, in-class observations by the faculty evaluation committee as the chair. 055-9604.' 7 10

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."' -- Assigning an academic liaison from the regular faculty. Providing assistance to faculty seeking improvement of their teaching skills. The Regular Faculty The department chair will assign each adjunct faculty member, where possible, a regular faculty member as an academic liaison. The academic liaison will serve as an advisor and first point of contact for problems or requests. The functions of the academic liaison will include: Review of syllabus, verification of course content requirements, and a discussion of adjunct faculty policy at the beginning of the semester of employment. . Assistance in resolution of teaching issues. Assistance and advice, when requested, regarding teaching methods. 055.11 11

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I TO: FROM: RE: ( UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA September I, 1995 MEMORANDUM Betty Castor, President Donna Dickerson, Interim Dean, Graduate Kathleen Moore, Director, Program Planping & Review, Academic Affairs K Noreen Segrest, General COWlSel \...(\r a Review of procedures utilized by the Graduate School in appointing and supervising graduate assistants. Attached is a proposed procedure governing Graduate Assistant Appointment and Tuition Waiver Allocation by the Graduate School In our review of existing procedures we identified the following issues which the procedure has been developed to address: 1. Communication of the procedures to Deans, Graduate Coordinators, Program Directors and Department Chairs should be accomplished annually to ensure knowledge of the procedures and to improve compliance. 2. The Graduate Assistant Appointment Form will be revised to include information regarding the location at which the student's work will be performed Only work performed at USF or a USF Affiliate will qualify a student for a tuition waiver. Students working for Outside Entities will not be eligible for appointment as a graduate assistants or for receipt of tuition waivers. This will ensure that tuition waivers are received by students working for the benefit of USF and that students are not paid by USF for work which benefits an Outside Entity. 3. The Graduate School will not appoint graduate assistants unless the student actually works for and is supervised by the Graduate School. This will ensure that certification of payroll occurs only by an individual with knowledge that the student has indeed performed services for USF. This shall not prohibit the appointment of recipients offellowships as graduate assistants. We believe these procedures address the issues raised in Dr. Tennyson Wright's report of June 13, 1995. Please let us know if you accept these recommendations so that the Procedures may be implemented for all new appointments. cc: Provost Tighe

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( GRADUATE ASSISTANT APPOINTMENT AND TillTlON W AlVER ALLOCATION: POLICY AND PROCEDURES The Graduate School University of South Florida These policies and procedures shall govern both the appointment of teaching assistants/associates, research assistants/associates, and graduate assistants as well as the allocation of tuition waivers. Any questions regarding this process should be directed to the Graduate School. I. Definitions Fellowship, external: an award based on need andlor merit meant to support the living expenses while a recipient is conducting research or taking advanced courses. Generally, external fellowships are administered through the Division of Sponsored Research (examples: NSF, NASA, NIH). Fellowship, university: an award administered by the Graduate School that is based on need andlor merit that is equal, at minimum, to a 9month, .50 FTE graduate assistant appointment and does not require the student to work for the university (examples: University Graduate Fellowship, Graduate Educational Opportunity Grant--GEOG). Graduate Assistant: any student employed under class codes 918 1,9182,9183,9184, or 9185 for a minimum .25 FTE (or 150 hours per semester) pursuant to the terms established by the Graduate Assistants UnionlUnited Faculty of Florida (GAU/UFF) Collective Bargaining Agreement. Internship: Supervised work experience, usually otT-campus, that is directly related to a student's academic major and for which the student receives a grade and credit that are countable toward the degree. Outside Entity: Any non-University of South Florida entity (business, institution, entity, etc.) Sponsoring Entity: Any outside entity that hosts internships for students from the University of South Florida. USF Affiliate: Outside entities with which the University has established formal affiliation agreements for the purpose of student training and associated purposes. (example: Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa General Hospital). II. Procedures on Graduate Assistant Appointments and Tuition Waivers Appointment of graduate assistants and allocation of tuition waivers are guided by the GAUIUFF Collective Bargaining Agreement, policies and procedures of the Offices of Student Employment and Financial Aid, and policies and procedures of the Graduate School.

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( A. The Collective Bargaining Agreement specifically addresses the conditions under which graduate assistants may receive a partial tuition waiver for up to 9 credit hours. Those conditions are: I. The student must be employed as a teaching assistant, teaching associate, research assistant, research associate, or graduate assistant (class codes 9181, 9182, 9183, 9184, or 9185). 2. The student must be employed for a minimum .25 FTE appointment and work a minimum of 150 hours during a semester. 3. The student must be paid at or above the minimum bi-weekly rate established by the Collective Bargaining Agreement. 4. In addition, students who receive a university fellowship for at least the same minimum as a graduate assistant with a .50 FTE appointment are also eligible to receive a partial tuition waiver for up to 9 credit hours. B. The Office of Student Employment addresses the actual appointment process. The Office of Financial Aid addresses tuition waiver processing. The process is as follows: I. The Graduate Assistant Appointment form is filled out completely in the hiring unit. 2. The appointment form is sent by the hiring unit to the Office of Student Employment, where it is entered into the student pa}TolI database. 3. The Tuition Waiver information for each eligible student is entered by the student's academic department into the RAMIS Graduate School Tuition Waiver database. When all of the waiver information is entered, the Office of Financial Aid generates a Fee Waiver form 4. The Fee Waiver form states how many hours of tuition (in-state and out-of-state) are being waived and what balance the student owes after the waiver. By signing the fonn, the student agrees that if he/she drops below the number of hours waived, the student will have to re-pay the university for the hours dropped. 5. The Tuition Waiver database is extracted to the Financial Aid database, which in tum updates the Cashier's fee billing system. The end product is the student's bill and a complete database of all students receiving tuition waivers. C. The Graduate School monitors graduate assistantships and tuition waivers throughout the semester. I. During the first week of the semester, the Graduate School checks the database to ensure that the waiver actually was extracted to the Financial Aid system and the Cashier's fee billing system and to ensure that departments input information correctly. 2. Every Monday of the semester, the Graduate School runs Exception Reports that flag all tuition waivers that are not correct. The Gradate School works directly with the hiring unit and the academic departments to resolve problems raised by the Exception Reports. 3. The Graduate School is responsible for informing students when they no longer meet eligibility and when they must re-pay all or a portion of the tuition waived.

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, ., ( ( 4. Six weeks into the semester, a complete report of tuition waivers and appointments is generated. 5. Final reports are run six weeks after the end of the semester. In July, a fmal annual report on tuition waivers is generated and sent to the BOR Ill, Additional Requirements regarding Graduate Assistant Appointments and Tuition Waivers A. No student shall be appointed as a graduate assistant and paid from a University account (General Revenue, Sponsored Research, Foundation, Auxiliary, etc.) unless the student is working directly for the university or is on an approved external fellowship. B. Tuition waivers shall be awarded only to students A. who are receiving a university fellowship, or B. who are appointed as Graduate Assistants (class codes 9181, 9182, 9183, 9184, or 9185) pursuant to the terms of the Collective Bargaining Agreement, and I) are working directly for the university; or 2) are working for a USF Affiliate institution. C. A student participating in a paid internship nonnally will be paid directly by the sponsoring entity. The sponsoring entity is encouraged also to pay, at minimum, the tuition for the credit earned through the internship. D. The Graduate School will not appoint graduate assistants unless the student is working for and supervised by the Graduate School. E. All exceptions must be approved by the Provost and the Graduate School. IV. Procedures for Ensuring that Policy and Procedures are Followed The Graduate School assumes all responsibility for monitoring the appointment of graduate assistants and the awarding of tuition waivers. A. Following approval by the Provost, the Graduate School will co=unicate policies in writing to all Deans, Graduate Coordinators, Program Directors and Department chairs. B. The Graduate School will perfonn a review of all student appointments and tuition waivers at the beginning of every semester and throughout the semester will perform "spot checks" to ensure that departments are in compliance with the policies. C. The Graduate School will work with the Office of Student Employment to make changes on the Graduate Assistant Appointment Form that will indicate the location at which the student's work is being performed. D9508.34P August 19,1995

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December 5, 1995 MEMORANDUM TO: Provost's Council Academic Affairs Office of the Provost Universny of South Flor;;. 4202 East Fowler Ave"ue, ADM 225 Tampa, Flor;;a 33620 lal3) FAX:813) 974C93 FROM: Thomas J Tighe V 784.. Provost and Executive Vice President SUBJECT: Procedures for Approval of Agreements with Outside Entities As you know, at President Castor's request, the Offices of the Provost and the General Counsel conducted a review of agreements between Academic Affairs units and outside entities and proposed a set of procedures for review and approval of such agreements. Briefly, levels of review and approval were established for agreements with outside entities in the categories listed below. The specific procedures for the Provost's review and approval of agreements are contained in the attachment. Type of Agreement Student internship or practicum agreement Fellowship agreement Continuing education agreement or contract F acuity support agreement Memorandum of Understanding, Cooperation, or Affiliation Level of Review and Approval Dean (may delegate to chair or director, provided standard form is used) Dean of the Graduate School Dean of Continuing Education Provost or VP/Health Sciences, as appropriate Provost ... continued

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Provost's Council December 5, 1995 Page 2 Foreign Exchange Agreement Provost The proposed procedures for review and approval of agreements by the Provost were discussed in Provost's Council on September 12, 1995, and subsequently transmitted to President Castor for review. The President has approved the procedures, which will go into effect immediately. A copy of the procedures is attached. Attachment cc: President Castor

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University of South Florida Office of the Provost Procedures for Provost's review and approval of agreements with outside entities initiated within units of Academic Affairs 1. These procedures are effective December 1, 1995, and apply to the following types of agreements: Faculty Support Agreements Memoranda of Understanding, Cooperation, or Affiliation Foreign Exchange Agreements 2. Exempt from these procedures are: Business-related agreements whose review and signature are governed by existing University policies and procedures Agreements approved and signed at the BOR level Contract and grant agreements for which signature authority has been delegated to the Vice President for Research or designee Student intemship/practicum agreements: may be signed by a dean, who may delegate signature authority to a chair or director, provided a standard form is used Fellowship agreements: may be signed by the Dean of the Graduate School Continuing Education agreements or contracts: may be signed by the Dean of Continuing Education 3. Any proposed agreement of the types listed in paragraph 1 will be submitted to the Provost by the initiating academic unit. 4. The Provost will review the agreement with respect to: a. consistency with University mission, priorities, and objectives; b. educational and research benefits; c. anticipated resource commitments by college or department, or by Academic Affairs; d. appropriate Signatures; and e. length or term of agreement. 5. Every agreement will include:

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The name and description of the outside entity or entities with whom the agreement is made. The names of USF academic units involved in the agreement. A full description of the activities covered by the agreement. Resources committed by either or both parties in fulfillment of the agreement. The length or term of the agreement, which must not exceed five years but may be renewable. The designation of an individual in the initiating academic unit who will be responsible for administration of the agreement. This individual mayor may not be a signatory. Appropriate signature blocks. While the Provost will sign all agreements on behalf of the University, it may be appropriate also to include the signatures of representatives of the initiating academic unit. The Provost's signature block should read as follows: Final approval for the University of South Florida, acting for and on behalf of the Board of Regents, a public corporation of the State of Florida, by: Thomas J. Tighe Date Provost and Executive Vice President 6. Pursuant to University of South Florida Policy and Procedure 0-100, no agreement shaH be binding on the University unless executed by an individual with authority delegated by the President.

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June 5, 1995 Dear Members of the USF Community: Academic AttaJre OWe. of the P"'IIO&I Univellily of SoUlh Florida 4202 East Fowler Av"nue, ADM 228 Tampa, Florida 33620-8100 (813) 974-21 Sol Fr.:t. (813)97405093 There has been a recent series of articles in the Tampa Tn"hune on terrorism. Unfortunately, the inferences scattered throughout these articles have created an impression in the minds of some that the University of South Aorida is sympathetic to terrorism or supports terrorists. This is not true. This community of scholars denounces terrorism in the strongest terms. As a result of our concerns, which arose during a recent review of transactions conducted under the University's agreement with W.I.S.E., we have suspended all transactions while undertaking a complete review. Our university administration will continue to scrutinize our policies relative to affiliations and agreements. The faculty Bnd students of the University pursue knowledge and understanding of issues spanning a spectrum of ideas from basic to to political systems. A number of faculty are interested iii promotins-li: of issues confronting the Middle East. One of the ways that this has been done is throush hosting conferences and seminars at which individual experts on Middle East issues speak. These activities are never intended by the University to support terrorism in any way. We regret any misunderstandinss that may have been created by the Tnoune articles. The University is committed to the ideals of an open, free university. We recognize the importance of preserving our institution as a disciplined forum for scho\arly debate. we recogniu the obligation we, 8.! memben of a scholarly community, have to subject all ideas to rigorous and critical scrutiny. The defining principle of a democracy and a university is: No idea should be subjected to prior censorahip, but no idea should go unchallenged. SincerelYt --..... -=.,,-< J, "< __ Michael O. Kovac Interim Provost TAMPA ST_ PETERSBURG SARASOTA FORTuYERS

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June 23.. 1995 MEMORANDUM: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT TO: Dr. Thomas Tighe, Provost and Executive Vice President Dr. Michael Kovac, Dean of Engineering Ms. Noreen Segrest, General Counsel FROM: Betty Castor President SUBJECT: Briefing Regarding Agreement with World & Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE) Since my return from China. I have received a comprehensive briefing regarding the reaction to the Tampa Tribune articll;s on terrorism and to the report on the transac.tions between USF and WISE. Lappreciatethe'leadershipoftheProvost's Office, and especially the time and commitment of Interim Provost Mike Kovac,who met personally with those interested in this subject.' As you know, r also met on Monday, June 19 with the leadership of the Faculty Senate, members of the Committee for Middle Eastern Studies, and interested faculty. The perspectives of all who attended were helpful. The earlier June 5 statement to the USF Community by Interim Provost Kovac (see attachment) appropriately addresses the responsible position of the University. A primary role of any credible higher education institution should be to promote understanding and tolerance among people, powever different their views may be. Having just returned from a country where a few short years ago students were killed in the pursuit offree expression of ideas and the role of universities is severely limited, I have renewed respect for the unique and important role of academic institutions in the United States. My hope is that USF will continue to be a center of discourse and discussion, where faculty and students can articulate their opinions and differences in an educational setting. There is a perception, primarily resulting from the articles in the media, that we should "investigate" WISE andlor members of our faculty. I am deeply concerned by implications that the University should "investigate" entities or people and be the arbiter of what political, social or religious ideology is "good" or "evil." Investigation and enforcement of the laws of the State of Florida and the United States is the province of law enforcement.

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When the Questions about WISE and our faculty were initially raised in a meeting with Michael Fechter of the Tampa Tribune (with Michael Kovac, Noreen Segrest and me) on April 20, we made immediate, responsible inquiries to appropriate law enforcement authorities to determine whether anyone had knowledge of any illegal activities on our campus and whether any threat to safety existed. We were advised that no illegal activities were taking place and no threat to safety existed. We must rely on law enforcement officials in making these determinations. Of course, the university will not enter into or continue an agreement or contract with any individual or entity that has violated local, state, federal or international laws or which poses a threat to safety on our campus. At my direction, a careful review of all transactions between USF and WISE was conducted to provide on what activities had been carried out and whether or not our resources had been inappropriately expended. This resulted in a finding that appropriate procedures were not followed in the hiring of an adjunct professor and in the admission and appointment of i1 graduate student. In addition, serious questions arise because the agreement was not promulgated or approved by the Office of the Provost. As a result of the report, I request that the Office of the Provost and the Office of General Counsel take the following actions: 1. Review agreements entered i:!to by units within Academic Affairs and recommend steps to ensure that they are consistent with university policies and have appropriate oversight. In particular, clarify the Ie.vel of approval (departmental, collese. or universit)!) type of services, and resovrae' utilization'al'lfiClpated by such agreements. Ensure-thaI me" poficies goveming such agreer.-tents are clearly formulated and 'fully communicated to al! units on an annual basis. r expeci these reconunendations to be available by September I. 2. Continue the suspension of transactions with WISE pending the recommendations due September 1. 3. Recommend disciplinary action, as for those res?onsible for improper action(s) in hiring of the adjunct professor and admission and appointment ofa graduate student. 4. Review university wide procedures utilized by Graduate School in appointing and supervising graduate assistants to ensure that regulations are not violated. Attachment


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