History of Pinellas County, Florida

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History of Pinellas County, Florida

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History of Pinellas County, Florida narrative and biographical
Straub, William L., 1867-
Place of Publication:
St. Augustine, Fla
The Record Company
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
424 p. : ill., port. ;


Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Pinellas County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
letter ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by W. L. Straub.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
C54-00016 ( USFLDC DOI )
c54.16 ( USFLDC Handle )

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History of Pinellas County, Florida :
b narrative and biographical /
c by W. L. Straub.
St. Augustine, Fla. :
The Record Company,
424 p. :
ill., port.
Pinellas County (Fla.)
x History.
t City, County, and Regional Histories Collection
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?c54.16




Oowrtabtod "" ., TlfC RECORD OOIIIPAKT. A--Plortda.






History of Pinellas County, Flmda FOREWORD THI> author having been a resident of Pinellas Peninsula during more than a quarter of a century; having had its marvelous climate change the dis couragements of an apparently hopeless invalidism into the energies and ambitions of perfect health; having watched fondly the wonderful development of its lovely lands and islands and cities and towns; and having by reason of the opportunities and obligations of a chosen profession been brought into intimate touch with its people and interests in every part, and made an earnest and con-1 stant worker in and for that growth and development ; the w riting of this volume has been a labor of love, indeed, and it is his hope that it will form a contribution of worth to the permanent records of this part of Florida. If there be inaccuracies in this book the writer believes they are such as may be found in most if not all histories that seek the beginnings of things. In tht\ earliest days, of records there was none. The period was not of sufficient length for the forming of traditions, but nevertheless the earliest history of Pinellas comes down through stories that can be readily accepted but not proven. And the memories of the old est residents now here do not in all matters agree. This torian, therefore, like all others, including the greatest, has carefully studied all the material available, and has written as facts the conclusions arrived at from that study. Most grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance received from many sources and persons. The advisory board members have aided, officials at Wash ington, at Tallahassee, at Clearwater, and in all the cities and towns of the county, have been cordially helpful, as have the chambers of commerce and the newspaper fraternity. Especial appreciation is due to A. C. Turner, the county's patriarch, and H. H. Hamlin, of Clearwater; to 0. W. Booth, of Safety Harbor; to John Gar rison, of Dunedin; to E. D. Goethe, of Anclote, and to John J. McMullen, of Largo, among the older pioneers; and to Dr. Grace Whitford, of O.zona; Mrs. Joseph J. Gilchrist, of Tarpon Springs; N. B. McKinney, of Gulfport, and Mrs. John C. Leonard, W. F. Smith, Aloysius Coli, and Mrs. Francis M. Reed, of St. Petersburg, among those in the active life of the present time. w. L. STRAUB. St. Petersburg, Florida, Aprill, 1929.


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C(J11tents PART I. DEDICATION FoREwoRD MAP or Coumv 0 PHYSICAl. ASPCTS Of' PINELLAS COUN'I'Y CUMATS . 0 CHAPTER I. Prehistoric Inhabitants CHAPTER II. Primitive Races CHAPTER III. Non-American Florida CHAPTEil IV. Territory and State 0 0 CHAPTER V. "Old Tampa"-Meaning P i nellas Peninsula 0 0 CHAPTER VI. "West Hillsborougb"-Still Meaning Pinellas Peninsula CHAPTEl VII. "West Hillsborougb"-Continued 0 o CBAPTI!R VIII. Coming of "The Railroad" 0 0 CHAPTER IX. After the Railroad Came 0 CH AP'l'ER X. Pinellas County CHAPTER XI. Growing Pain s CHAPTER XII. Public Schools CHAP1'R XIII. Pinellas Roads CHAPTER XIV. Institutions 0 0 CHAPTAR XV. Miscellaneous CHAPTER XVI. Citrus Industry CHAPTER XVII. Sponge Industry CHAPTER XVIII. Financial CHAPTER XIX. Cities and Towns BJOORAPHICAJ.. Belleair Clearwater Dunedin Gulfport Largo Ozona Pas s-a-Grille Pinellas Park Safety Harbor St. Petersburg Tampashores Tarpon Springs PACE 4 5 10 11 1 9 21 23 24 28 30 38 45 48 50 52 61 64 67 72 78 82 86 89 90 90 90 104 106 109 111 112 115 116 119 161 162 0 167


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(') 0 II/J.L580ROIJf:iH I Ol.ll TAMPA .BAY COUNTY Scale o1Hiles 6 r a f % I Pinellas County TAMPA ./MY


Ht,story of Pinellas (ounty, Florida PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF PINELLAS COUNTY Pinellas county is a picture more than it is a patch of land on a map. If we in this Christian age could allow ourselves to believe that not one, but a hundred gods made the world, we would know all of the dynamic deities had conferred to make this spot of beauty the composite touchstone of their dreams. The god of the sun said: "She is mine." Over her fair breast of gentle biDs and the breast of her waters he laid his veil of sunbeams. "She is mine," swore the god of great waters, ''for out of the depths of my own heart have I cast her up on the rock of ages; day by day and night by night she bathes in the flood of my eternal fountains of the deep, and dries her velvet beauty in the flood of moon beams." "No, but she is mine," said the goddess of the trees and flowers. "Then will we all make Pinellas fair daughter of fair Florida," sang the gods of mystic wonder. And the wizardry of their dreams fell over the sands and the dunes of the little spike of land that had sprouted from the breast of the mother peninsula. The spike became a stem, and the stem took leaf in the oak and the lily, the maple and the waving palm The coral began to work in the bottom of the bordering seas. Their airy castles grew and grew. Shell and sand filled the watery battlements-tiny islands began to peep up from the rippled wafers. Birds began to drop tiny seeds in the moving sands. The mango and the palm had a new garden. And now, in the year 1929, there and here stands the work of the godly hands, the flowering peninsula of Pinellas, with her cluster of green islands and keys, like gorgeous strings of emerald and jade, sweeping over the master-pattern of divine dreams. As ENGINEERS FIND IT Engineers give us more definite description. Pinellas peninsula with its islands has an area of 260 square miles. It is at that another archipelago of the south seas, for no one has ever yet accurately counted the little islands and keys that dimple the blue waters with crests of green. Engineers have plotted many of them, but when airplane pictures were made for official geographical records, dozens of little islands were shown to have builded up from the waters, some of them not yet touched by the foot of man. Of these 260 square miles 234 are in the mainland. This mainland; however, is so indented and so rich in bayous, inlets, c:oves, that the county boasts 128 miles of water frontage, so that for each section of 640 acres Pinellas county has lUll average of a full half-mile of salt water frontage. When to this matchless attrac tion is added a sunshine known throughout the world, a natural rainfall of 52 inches a year and distributed over twelve months with the heavy precipitation through the summer when it is desired and withheld in the winter when it is not needed, one readily has gaind the foundation for the charm of the col)nty, the smallest in the state, and the richest per acre. Pinellas county is 34 miles long, extending from Tarpon Springs, on the north, almost due south to the tip of the peninsula, Pinellas Point, the extreme southern


12 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA end of the St. Petersburg boundaries, on the mainland, and to the famous littl e city, Pass-a-Grille, set like a diamond point at the extreme southern limits of Long Key, which extends north and south west of St. Petersburg and which forms part of that chain of major keys which extends all the way from Tarpon Springs to Tampa bay, and in the form of islands and keys borders the whole coast of Florida to Key West. Pinellas county is less than 1 5 miles across at its widest swell of the mainland formation. No point in the mainland is more than 5 miles from salt-water, and in a terrain such as that of the county, this means that no inhabitant of the county is more than a few minutes from a swim in the surf or bay, a beac h party or the finest fishing in the world. The county has a boundary of 84 miles unusually long for so small an area, but easily accounted for when the further fact is added that only 14 miles of this boundary is on land. This is the northern boundary adjoin ing Pasco county and that on the north east adjoining Hillsborough county. Clear as is the picture today, word s f ail utterly to describe the intricate mosaic of mainland and the tracery of islands and keys. There is no comparison. Venice has her Lido, but the picture ends there. The Riviera has her rocks and the wash of the Mediterranean, but beyond is the open sea. And no history of Pinellas county could brin g to the eye and the mind afar that did not write the rib and the heart of the county's popularity in terms of the charm that is all her own. Nor may one ignore the cosmic forces that worked here if he would carry a vision of that rare grace of oolor and form to the eye that has not seen and the brain that has not made personal visitation the only test of conviction or disillusi on. IN PlC1'tJU In terms of figures the picture of Pinellas oounty is simple enough. Only a close reading of the same figures can give any idea of their force and effect If generously they are studied we believe they will carry to every stranger from afar the same impression they have evoked from this writer. They will force the same question: Why Manhattan Island with its skyscrapers, the blasting of Hell Gate for an opening to the Atlantic-and Pinellas with her deep-water, her year of summer, her bounty in production only now coming to the mind s of men when this same beauty was first known and loved four hundred years ago? Why the millions of pilgrims to Italy, seeking roses in December-when here waited smiling Florida, and warmed by the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico as Italy never can be warmed by the Mediterranean and the Adriatic? Why the snow shovel and the ice-breaker on the drear waste of Cap e Cod-when here the green land of Pinellas peninsula reached out into waters warm with the southern sun, and ready to feed the snow bound cabins of Plymouth Rock with fruits all gold in the perfume and nectar of new blossoms, and berries that mock the aurora Borealis with the scar let blushes of their ripe sweetness? Not a little patch of this! Not a God's acre, boasting the ooncentrated power of'His will. But miles and miles of the beauty and the charm, rich and reviving, year by year, on the bounty of her birthright-that is Pindlas.


PART I-NARRATIVE 13 Man in his hunger for the beautiful will battle against all other forces to keep and preserve this charm. What shall of it is merely the guess of the pen tha t writes these lines. Greed, the neg l ect of beauty, the ravage of useless fire all these are to come and press down heavily upon the loveliness of this day. But there are wide spaces in this nation between the Atlantic and the Pacific, millions of acres that have not the wash of the seas for their borders, the everlasting foun tains of rare beauty that is the gift of this tiny nation of the birds and the butter flies, the merryrruikers of leisure and the young and old alike who come seeking one reserved spot of beauty and health. Happy of heart, we the historians of this day, the more happily can write this truth to the world : The ogres of destruction have not yet come into our garden. It stands here with open gates, an Eden guarded by no fearsome angel with flaming sword. Rather do we build to the perfected beauty of the place For this we set our lights to magnify the beams of the stars. For this we of our day build of marble and bronze and tinted tiles from the roofs of old temples in Meltico from the glory of old Spain, taking new life in the land she discovered. For this we build our churches and homes and schools, teaching our children that all wealth is not in the smoke of a furnace stack, all glory not in the crash of giant cypress nor in the crucible that changes the sap of the pine into a dose of cough medicine or the plaster on a back sick with lumbago. Rather do we make our philosophy: Come to this garden of health and you will need neither the cough medicine nor the plaster. NATURAL Small as is Pinellas county, it is marked by natural wonders. Its largest inland body of water is Lake Butler, known to be 80 feet deep in places. To the eye this lake has neither inlet nor outlet, but it is fed from underground springs, bubbling up from the l ime formation, and it is a world's wonder in that it siphons into the Gulf of Mexico by a channel that is not known, except from its operation and its effect. This makes the off-shore springs which may be encountered at many places along the Florida West Coas t among the most notable being those at Crystal Springs, plotted by a government survey as early as 1865. Within the corporate limits of St. Petersburg is the second conundrum of this class in Pinellas county. I t provides fine fishing and boating. Originally it was connected by Salt Creek with the waters in Tampa bay. Mullet spawned there, and as the waters gradually became fresher and fresher from springs in the neigh bothood and the upper course of Salt Creek filled in, the lake now presents the curious paradox of mullet in what is practically fresh water. A recent damming of the southern shore of this l ake converted it into a pure fresh-water lake, and many believe this a mistake. In the future planning of the city probably Salt Creek will be the outlet for this lake so that boats may pass from the homes of the people on its shores to Tampa bay. The Anclote river is another major attraction of the county. It flows into the Gulf of Mexico just north o f Tarpon Springs. Thousands of Florida tourists and visitors visit it every day in the winter season It is that picture of Florida rivers, clear, cool, teeming with fish which one comes across in practically every


14 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY. FLO:RIDA county of the state-giant trees, festoons of Spanish moss trailing down to the surface of the water s, a jungle of palms and vines and maples and hardwood trees on either shore; the flutter of wild birds, the splash of a shy alligator as he hides away in the deep. A few minutes' drive in a motor car from any point in the county a nd one is in the midst of this lovely scene. Of particular historic interest in Pinellas county are the Indian mounds. At Clearwate r there is the highest elevation of any city on the West Coast, and on this and other high elevatio n s ove r the peninsula early Indian tribes made their villages in great numbers. Pinellas count y is a rich field for the palreontologist. For researches of this cha racter science will turn to Florida and this coun ty save expense. In geological formation Pinellas county is part of the Vicksburg limestone which jutted far down into the southern seas from the coastal pla ins. Water has played fanciful tricks with the underground, eating out channels that grow and grow. Here one may drill down into a sunken river, an d then, not many feet distant, one may drill and drill in the limestone. From the hard-rock f orm a tion there are many springs bubbling up. The sulphur springs of the county are usually artesian in their A ow. They are varying in their volu me showing that the flow is controlled more by gasses than by the pressure of gravity. But the geology is nevertheless complic ated, as chemistry shows in analysis of the various waters, no two being exactly the same. Florida isnot a state of san d at all, but of limestone rock, and in relation to the solidity of foundations for skyscrapers, it presents far less difficulty to engineers than is encountered in Pittsburgh, where excavations encounter mixtures of gravel and quicksand, clays and boulders in spots here and there. If clean, or cleansed artificially the sands of Florida may be used in construc tion, though they are ordina rily consider ed too fine for this use. They have one fine quality-the angle of repose is so fast that when cast up from the bottom of the bayous and inlets or on the gulf shore to make causeways or bridges or the founda tions for structures of height, they are ready for building operations two weeks after the suction dredge pours them out with water as is done to make "land" all over Florida. The sand under a house in Florida is a far firmer foundation than a house built in the clays and conglomerates of Pennsylvania or M aryland. As NATURE's GARDEN But just what is this garden peninsula today, now in the year 1929? We have written its dimensions i ts lanes of water, its skel eton of land. What of the vest ment, the veil that God has thrown over it? If we divide the acreage into the littl e beds of flowers and trees, farms and groves, the natural land that is left and the zones that have been tended and cared f or by the plow and grazing kine, scratching chickens, the fruit grower and the man who makes a million flowers to give color and perfume to the mansions of the nation, we will find that we have in the 260 square miles a virg i n forest of 377 a cres; a bigger forest of 6,378 acres in trees that are bea uty but not for commerce. We have approxima tely 10 acres in what is called here improved pasture, that is, a


PART I-NARRATIVE IS pasture in crops which are not the coverage of nature; 3,006 acres in cut-over pasture, or the natural forage of Florida, green 12 months in the year; 13,069 recorded as in cultivation, a figure far too low, but being the government enumera tion, and paying practically no attention to the large areas, for instance, in the city of St. Petersburg, i t self a great garden producing everything from citrus fruits to strawberries and vegetables We have a total of 22,837 acres in farms out of the total of 147,760 acres in the county, the highest percentage of cultivated area in all the 67 counties of the state. In this farm area, 12,550 acres were recorded as actually in intensive culti vation in the season of 1923 24, and 13,069 acres in the season of 1926-27. To prove that Pinellas county is a picture, not a map, we may take a glance at what man has painted into the design of the ages and the will of God. The orange, the lemon the kumquat, the grapefruit and the tangerine are as much the beauty of the peninsula as the rarest natural growth of the semi-tropics, the palm, the live oak with its feathery mist of Spanish moss. And from Tarpon Springs on the north to the southern boundaries of St. Petersburg on the south the earliest people have planted and we have preserved the groves. We have multiplied them, perfected tree and fruit, until now the visiting motor car in the month of February speeds on through miles and miles of white bloom, green leaf, go l den fruit all in one blaze of magical fertility and wealth. The record of the government enumeration gives the figures: Oranges, 88,776 non-bearing trees, 6,575 nursery trees and 264,335 bearing trees, valued at $2,574,760; grapefruit, in which Pinellas county is second in pro duction in the 67 counties of the state, 49,723 non-bearing trees, 4,225 nursery trees and 307,173 bearing trees, valued at $3,034 ,150. In the miles and miles of groves all of them bordering the beautiful highways of the county, there are therefore 359,686 orange trees and 361,121. grapefruit trees, a total of 720,f!IJ7 orange and grapefruit trees, with a combined total value of $5,608,910 Since the government enumeration was made in. the season of 1926-27, the last official record put into the report of the United States department of agriculture, a very large percentage of the nursery trees are now in groves. If the 720,807 trees, grapefruit and oranges, be planted in the commercial ratio of 48 trees to the acre, it will thus be observed that in the groves alone in Pinellas county there are 15,018 acres in oranges and grapefruit, or about 2,000 acres more than the total recorded as the 13,069 acres "actually cultivated" in Pinellas county. No land is more inten sively cultivated than an orange or grapefruit grove; certainly none more than the beautiful commercial groves of this county. These figures and facts are given here because the physical aspects of Pinellas county are in its land and water, its trees and flowers, its birds and bees and its beautiful towns and cities. The groves planted by man rival the groves planted by nature. And this leads to a very definite conclusion that is the utmost verity, but which so seldom is taken into consideration by the investor and the visitor who counts the values behind the prices paid for properties This conclusion may be summed as follows : Any county of like area in the United States which has in one industry alone an value of $5,608,910 everywhere will be considered as rich. This would


16 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA be 50 in coal operation s copper mines, pottery, general farming, the textile industry or rubber manufacture. And for every dollar invested in citrus growing and pro duction, the income is relatively far greater than could be received for the operation of a great coal plant, a steel plant or any of the others. Orange groves of stand ard varieties and in bearing cannot be purchased in this county on the bare basis I> f income for less than $1,000 an acre. The 15,018 acres in oranges and grapefruit therefore represent a value of $15 018,000, and not $5,608,910 as r ecorded on the bare value of the trees It is the ground in the grove that produce s the revenue, the rain and sunshine and soil with the tree, and not the tree alone t hat gives the box of fruit sent into the market. The wealth of the county in citrus grove s is therefore very much closer to $1 5,000,000 than it is to $5,000,000. Anybody who comes into the county and goes out to purchase an orange grove can verify this statement in the physical wealth of th e county as written into this history today. The estimate of $1,000 an acre is the lowest limit. Commerc i al groves in this state just set out sell rapi dly at $1,500 an acre, and at 60 per cent of the price cash to guarantee ca r e and com plete payment for the purchase. Since the grapefruit of this county is o f the finest known quality, and since the peninsular formation of the county protects the groves against serious freezes, groveland s in this county are entitled to a higher value, and get it, than is paid for groves not so proven in lasting qualities. If I r ecord the truth in these physical aspe cts of the county I must make it plain that of all investm ents made in this coontry today, none ranks with money put into an orange or grapefruit grove with security in the future A gold mine quickly exhausts its chamber of wealth. Copper mines are more like orange groves than any other industry in this continent, but copper is usually deep and operation is expensive because of pumping of water and the immense trestling that is neces sary in the stopes. The orange tree is everlasting if any tree is. In Spain there are groves 400 years old and they are productive just according to the amount of care given them, the same as the measure of production for trees 60 years old. As a permanent investme nt, theref ore, the re is in this country today nothing so appar ently lasting as the ownership of a Florida citrus grove. Double value is given to the industry because the groves have natural rain fall; they are close to the great cities of the East and all points east of the Mississi ppi ; they can be transported to market center by rail or water or by both in combination routings. Eventually and soon, when citrus growers of Flo ri da learn the long lesson of cooperation and cen tralized marketing no citrus fruits grown in irrigated areas will ever compete snc oessfully w ith those grown under nature's conditions as provided in this state. The Californian will not give up the growing of citrus fruits, but more and more he will .move hi s investments from the irrigated areas of his state to the more profitable groves of Florida .. The groves of Pinellas county, therefore, are making the county on the basis of two factors: They provide a beauty that bas all the se rene attractions of leaf and flower, perfume and golden fruit They border the highways. They give their branches for the nest of the mocking bird, the gorgeous plumage of the jay Under their boughs the bob white is at home, and so is the golden pheasant, and his cousin


PART I-NARRATIVE 17 the jungle fowl that is the Pinellas pullet and rooster of today, than which there is no more perfect than the specimens exhibited annually at the Pinellas County Free Fair on the Largo fair grounds. As ONE PAssEs THROUGH. And as the motor car glides on, through these groves, the picture takes on a charm that is never understood except by one who has smelled the perfume, listened to the hum of the 400 stands of bees that work in the flowers, gathering honey that doubles the production of the average in this nation. Driving through the groves, one also skirts the most beautiful waters in this land. The picture is grove and sea, butterflies and bees, the flutter of mocking birds, larks, bob whites, the jay and the grackle; overhead the soaring man-of-war and the graceful speed of the pelican and gull. As one bobs in and out on the shore boulevards, here is a dainty inlet ; there a far reach of waters, ending only in the burning horizon, where tumbling cloud and setting sun flame up into the matchless glory of the Florida skies Here is beauty that is near and intimate and sweet For the first impression one may miss the mountains, but with its rich luxuriance of grove and forest, jungle of palms and misty vista of oak and waving moss, doubled and tinted in waters that are everywhere-one, any one may soon forget the far grandeur of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado or the purple and gold of Arizona as the beauty grows and grows with every step into its very heart. In the Great Southwest all is amethyst a hundred miles away, but walk into that far garden and all is dry dust with dry rock and mesquite scrub. But here obey the lure-go into that beauty of Monte Cristo Isle at St. Petersburg, or the horizon on Boca Ciega bay at the Jungle, or Clearwater, or Dunedin, or Ozona, or paddle up the Anclote river at Tarpon Springs-an enchanting vista of afar breaks and breaks again into a thousand beauties at your feet, a thousand beauties overhead, the flash of fish in the waters, the song of birds that are not afraid, the ripple of wild fowl on the waters, reflected loveliness, a treasure that is all jewel and all diamond and ruby, so near, so close that one may reach out and pluck in flowers and the pearl of a shell what an hour before was a casket closed, but overflowing now to the touch of the hand and the glance of the eye. This vista is so true and so easily described that the one wonder still is: Why Florida with her 30,000 lakes and her bordering waters,. her groves and het shining cities and-<>nly 1,400,000 people? Only the business rush of the age is responsible for that gap in the history of Pinellas county which is the heart of: this wonder. Came the Spaniards, with their orange seeds. They sprouted and grew-they grew wild; they crowded the pine forests with the trees whose roots is the root of the fancy fruit of today, natural, native everlasting. Strong and clean in the health of the vegetable kingdom as the men and women who have come 300 years later and more to find the same rainfall, the same balmy sea breeze, the same genial sunshine that made the historic groves of this land of flowers and birds. And these birds, what are they and what do they do here? One of the ures of Florida is the never-ending vision of the birds. The mocking birds nest in every back yard, in the orange trees, the vines, the shrubs which here grow more


18 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA in the form of young tre es Bob whites rac e across the front lawns. A t the edge of the salt waters, everywhere the pelicans, the gulls the sandpipers t he plover and egrets and cormorants gather and sun themselves in so l emn conven tion. Every sand bar has its long ranks of the cranes and herons and the rare ibis, unmindful of the visitor that pauses to admire them For here they are protected. In the countless tens of thousands they nest on Bird Key, set aside as a government bird sanct uary by the l ate Theo d ore Roosevelt when presiden t and located just off Pinellas Point, the southern limits of St. Peter sburg. The migratory wild fowl that nest in the reeds of Michigan and Minnesota, Canada and the far north, se ttl e down on Tampa bay, the lakes and rivers of this county and this state. By the hundreds they feed on the lakes in St. Peter sburg, Clearwater, Tarpon Springs, on the sedgy sho res of the whole county. In the immediate waters around the cities they are protected. It is no uncommon sight to see pelicans swimmi ng with the children at the beaches and in the bayous around all the other coast cities. They give life to the lakes and inl ets and streams. Tour ist parties aboard the boats rented take crowd s of delig hted visitors to the bars and islands where the bird s may be seen and studied in countle ss thousands. On the great recreation pier in .St. Petersburg, crowds of thousands gather the gulls and other birds by tossing the m food. Peli cans sit on the railings of the pier, mi11gling with the people and on the waters around the yachts in the yacht basins the w i ld ducks, coots and dive r s pl a y in the waters without any heed of man. In no other resort center in the world is there such a wealth of life in birds and ftowers, trees and boats, groves and bees, butterAies and children and babies, all alike in the merrime nt and joy of freedom. In its natural condition, all of P inellas coun ty is green. The lands of the county are rich. Tens of thousands of acres await the plow and the tractor. The cul t ure of citrus fruits, s trawberries, blackberries, every garden vegetable, ferns, bulbs and gladioli f or blooms shipped to every city in this country and Canada grows yea r by year. More than 200 acres red with ri pe strawberries will greet the visitor by next Christmas One florist an expert in gladioli, ships 8,000 gladioli spikes every day the year round So, the picture changes But it takes on more, not Jess color; more life and merriment and enchantment in the realm of beauty and wealth. It is history fore written, not proph ecy, to fix here and now that t h e chapte r of this book that is this will be ten years hence and twenty years hence what it paints as the picture of today, a gayer picture still, with a background of productive wealth and a fore gr9und of birds and ftowers, scarlet and gold in the hearts and in the faces o f the peop le who have come to know it and to love it as we do today.


PART I-NARRATIVE 19 CLIMATE Pinellas county has not a tropical climate, but one which varies enough tc> show plainly the change of seasons, and during the winter season, when there is unusually cold weather in the North, the winds from that direction chill the air of Pinellas, making light overcoats comfortable, althougli not necessary. During the summer months the ordinary summer clothing worn throughout the North may be worn comfortably. The weather records of the past show that the temperature reaches 90 or above on about 54 days of the year. Temperatures do not go much above 90 and 95 and above has been recorded only 27 times in 39 years and 96 or above only seven times since 1890. The absolute highest ever recorded was 97.5, June 3, 1918. The earliest oc currence of 85 or above was Feb. 18, 1891, and the latest, Nov. 22, 1894. Low minimum temperatures are unusual. The mean minimum for January, the coldest month, is 52 degrees, just 20 degrees above freezing. The individual month with the lowest mean minimum was December, 1903, with 44.7. There have been but 23 months in 37 winters with the mean minimum below 50 degrees. During the summer the minimum temperatures usually run low enough to make the nights comfortable. The hottest night on record was that of Aug. 18-19, 1909, with the minimum at 82.6. The average minimum for August, the hottest month, is 73.8. Referring to original weather bureau records, it is found that since April, 1890, a minimum of 32 or below has occurred 56 times, an average of less than twice a year. A temperature of 26 or lower has occurred on 11 dates and of 20 or lower only once. The absolute minimum was 18.9 degrees on Dec. 29, 1894. That the climate sometimes suffers reverses is shown in the record of cold waves. Historic cold waves occurred in 1835 and 1886, but the first serious freeze after the opening of the Tampa weather station was in the winter of 1894-1895, still called the winter of the big freeze. On the morning of Dec. 29, 1894, the tempera ture in this section was 18.9, and on the morning of Dec. 30 it went down to 23. Oranges were frozen, trees defoliated and the young growth destroyed. There was an abundance of new growth during the next few weeks of warin weather, but another freeze came in February, 1895, with a fall of 55 degrees in less than 24 hours. Due to the condition of the vegetation, in active growth, this freeze was the most disastrous and some trees were frozen to the ground, except in the many. favored locations afforded by the water-protected peninsula. The mercury reached 26 on the morning of Feb. 13, 1899. This was the only case on record where the temperature in Pinellas county continued below freezing for 24 hours. Light snow fell on the thirteenth to one-tenth of a.n inch, the greatest Florida snow on record.


20 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA The average annual rainfall for the Tampa bay district is just a little under 49 inches. This is all rainfall, snow and hail being too infrequent to differentiate. Snow has been recorded, however, on three occasions. Hail has been recorded 10 times, but on all occasions it was of small consequence. On the average, the months of July and August are the wettest of the year, with average totals of 8 and 8.05, respectively. April and November are the driest, with 1.92 and 1.86. The winter months have a little more rain than April and November, and the months of June and September are only slightly drier than July and August. The absolutely wettest month was September, 1912. The rainy season has no calendar dates, but it is possible to figure it beginning about June 2 and ending about Sept. 28, making an average duration of 119 days. Weather records from all parts of the United States show that no section has what might be regarded as perfect weather, but Pinellas peninsula comes as near it as any other locality in the world.


PREHISTORIC INHABI'l'ANTS GROPING as far back toward the beginning of things as American history reaches, there were discovered in Lake Monroe in 1849, in the cement-like stone beneath a shell-mound, human bones, '!Vhich authorities of that period assigned an enormous age; and a still more conclusive discovery was made in 1886 of completely fossilized human bones in a hard limestone exposed on the shore of Sarasota bay. These bones are concededly very ancient, possibly the oldest so far discovered Fossil man has not been reported in any other locality except the islands of Guadeloupe and Java. Mounds of different character built by prehistoric Indians, some of them con taining an abundance of pottery and other relics, were once well scattered over Florida, but have nearly all disappeared under the continued attacks of the spades, shovels and plows of the uncaring white men of these later days. Pinellas penin sula evidently was as popular as a plaoe of residence with those prehistoric peoples as with our moderns, for it was far more thickly dotted with these mound remains of Indian villages than any other like area in all the land. Such mounds have been variously opened and examined on Pinellas, but the most recent and thorough and officially recorded excavations were made on Weedon's Island, which lies partially within the corporate limits of St. Petersburg, during the winter of 1923-1924 by Professor J. Walter Fewkes, then chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Leslie M. Weedon, of Tampa, who has owned the property for many years, and whose home stead the island once was, fortunately having a strong interest in everything per taining to the earliest history of the region, has preserved these mounds with the hope that they may become a public heritage for all time; and had made a consid erable collection of objects from them before they were brought to the of the Smithsonian Institution. In the Smithsonian report of these explorations we find that: "The Indian Mounds in Florida should be studied as clusters composed of different kinds of mounds forming units, or in other words a unit a village that includes more than one type of mounds, each for different purposes. There were mounds where food was cooked and eaten, kitchen middens formed of refuse from feasts, also mounds that served as foundations for habitations, one of which was a temple or house of the chief, and there were burial mounds or cemeteries. Among the many mounds on Weedon Island these several types are evident." Of these mounds devoted to culinary purposes, some were found to be com posed wholly of "refuse mollusk shells, mainly oysters, clams and conchs * refuse h eaps Their contents are the unintentioned rejects of the cast-off hard parts of the food animals." Those of the domiciliary type, the number of which "was not determined as they are situated so close together that they merge


22 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA into each other ," were "used as the sites of houses, which were frail structures made of a framew or k o f upright logs to whi ch were ti ed sticks for the sides, th e roof being thatched w ith palm e t t o leaves, and the whole building raised a few feet above the surface of the gTOund." They contain "shells in profusion, organic matter, and a few artifacts ." The cemetery m ound contains "Indian bones mingled with pottery fragments in abundance." "The majority of human bur ia l s in the Weedon M ound were seco11dary, or those in which the skeletons had been st ripped of flesh, done up in bundles, and later interred in that condition. There w ere instances of extende d and flexed interments, but in the majority of cases the smaller bones were not pres ent; the l arger bones of arms legs, and sometimes vertebr

CHAPTER II. PRIMITIVE RACES WHATEVER the changes, and however they came about, from the Indians last living in these prehistoric mound villages to those inhabiting Florida when it was first seen by Europeans, the late Judge Benjamin Harrison, of Jacksonville, journalist, historian and profound student of Florida, tells us: "The Atlantic Coast from the mouth of the St. Mary's river to Cape Canaveral was occupied by a race that had been long in possession and may stand for the aborigines to the best of our knowledge. "Their possessions extended inland to an uncertain and varying boundary on the north but reached across the valley of the St. Johns and to Lake Okeechobee, being pushed back by the stronger invaders from the north. On the shores of Okeechobee they had a stronghold and on Drayton Island in Big Lake George they held their tribal ceremonies in what may be called the capital of the race. Divided into communities or clans they admitted a common name which has been handed down to us as Timagoa, or Timucua, Atimuca or Tomokan, as the sound appealed to the different hearers. They were agriculturists and hunters and fishermen, tall, vigorous, hospitable and kind. "South of Cape Canaveral the beach ridge was occupied by the Aises, speaking an unknown tongue of which we have preserved only a few words. "On the South Atlantic coast and extending up the Gulf coast to the neighbor hood of Tampa dwelt the Caribs, whose original home was on the Southern con tinent but who were the sailors of those seas, having great canoes in which they came to attack the islands, being feared by all their neighbors and reproached as cannibals. They had but lately made a lodgment on the Florida coast. They feared not to attack the ships of the Spaniards and met all comers without waiting for explanations. They sent Ponce de Leon back to die. "North of a line drawn east from Tampa bay, the adventurous invaders of the great Maskoki race had taken possession. These boasted of a progress from the far west across great plains and may have been the remnants of the great Mound builders who have left their marks so widely in our West and South. DeSoto was told that he went to his death at the hands of the invincible Apalachees of the same race-a people that held their empire till broken by settlers of the country who formed another great union of states and now call themselves Americans by pre eminence, if not by priority. "From the Tomokans we have no name for the whole peninsula, but the Mas kokis or Muscogees named it Ikan-faski or the Pointed Land. Savages are not geographers, save for limited areas, and in providing a name for the whole penin sula the Indians did more than other peoples in like conditions It was long before an island of great fame became known as England, and France took its present name from its invaders and conquerors, not from its original inhabitants or from the classic historians."


CHAPTER III. NON-AMERICAN FLORIDA P RESUMED by the earliest Bahamans of tradition to be an island, which they named Cautio; later called lkan-faski (Pointed Land) by the Maskoki Indian race from the north, who seemed to consider it a peninsula ; and still later described to the Spanish new-world discoverers as the island of Bimini ; t his great peninsula of ours received its name of Florida when Europeans first landed on its shores in 1513, and as 308 years elapsed after that event before it became a posses sion of the United States, or of America, as history and the world acknowledges this nation, the brief history outline of that period will be of a Non-American Florida. The events of these 308 years naturally fall into five periods, ranging in length of time from five to 198 years, as follows: First, explorations, 49 years-1513 to 1562-before any settlement was made. Second, settlement by the French-1562 to 1563, three years, when they were destroyed by the Spaniards. Third, the first Spanish rule-1565 to 1763, 198 years. Fourth, English rule-1763 to 1780, 17 years. Fifth, second Spanish rule-1780 to 1821, 41 years, when Florida passed into poSsession of the United States. ExPLORATIONS Of explorers who sailed up and down both coasts of Florida in those first dim days of recorded history there were not a few, and as to the Atlantic Coast not all were Spaniards; but among them all, three stand out as historic and heroic if cruel figures. PoNCE DE LEoN Juan Ponce de Leon, companion of Columbus and grand old warrior, having conquered Porto Rico for Spain and received his reward from his king in the form of dismissal from his command, began considering what to do next, and decrded upon an expedition of his own in quest of the island of Bimini, of which the Indians told and which was said to be a treasure land of gold and to possess something even much more precious-the famed fount ain of youth, whose waters would make young forever all mortals who should drink of them. Failing to find it among the Bahama islands he continued northwest, and on Easter Sunday, March 27, 1513, he disembarked on a land which he called Florida and of which he took possession for the Spanish crown The exact spot was somewhere between the mouth of the St. Johns river and the site of St. Augustine Having explored some of the country he cruised southward around the sup posed island and some distance up the west coast, but finding no trace of fountain or gold or silver but plenty of hostile Indians he became discouraged and returned to Porto Rico. In 1516 one Miruelo sailed up the west coast as far as Pensacola bay, and in 1519 Pineda also sailed up the coast and continued on around to Mexico, proving that Florida was a peninsula and not an island. Other expeditions sailed up and down the Atlantic coast without noteworthy results.


PART I-NARRATIVE 25 Spurred by the vast riches found by Pizarro in Peru and Cortez in Mexico, de Leon resolved to conquer and settle Florida, and in 1521 devoted bis entire fortune-and life as well, it proved-to fitting out an expedition that included domestic animals for colonizing and priests for the salvation of the Indians. Sail ing up the west coast, the expedition was and instantly attacked by the fierce and fearless Indians, and after heavy losses of life, continued defeats, and being himself fatally wounded, he gave up and returned to h i s ships and to Cuba where he soon after died. D.e NARVAEZ Seven years later came Panfilo de Narvaez, ambitious to match Cortez's record in Mexico and who had obtained from his emperor the title for life of Adelantado of all the lands he should discover and conquer. With a considerable force he landed on April 15, 1528, on Pinellas peninsula, either on the Clearwater bay or the Tampa bay side from which landing place he decided to march northward, to meet his ships at the bay described by Miruelo and which doub tless was Pensacola bay. But they never met for as they had done to those of de Leon, the IndianS' fell upon the men of Narvaez at every step, killing and killing, and when the Span iards' first destination was reached the ships had given them up and returned to Cuba, and the desperate adventur ers then built themselves boats in which to get away from the Indians. One boat was wrecked near Pensacola, two were lost at Santa Rosa, and the fourth, carrying Narvaez, after reaching the Perdido river was blown out into the gulf and never heard of again. Four of Narvaez's followers, one named Alvar Nunez, of the house of Cabeza de Vaca, after several years of terrific experiences, reached Mexico, and de Vaca returned to Spain, and wrote a history of his adventures. Also, one Juan Ortiz was left here on Pinellas peninsula with the Indians, and was here to welcome the next expedition of his adventurous countrymen. And this next expedition was the most notable of the three to which we have referred. DESOTO Hernando de Soto, a soldier in the West Indies and in Peru with Pizarro, and at this time governor of Cuba, brought to the task of conquering the thus-far invincible Indians of West Florida a military record and equipment of men and ships quite unmatched by any of his hapless predecessors. With a fleet of nine ships, 620 men, the flower of Spanish chivalry, 223 horses, and ample supplies, he arrived on Sunday, May 25, 1539, in Tampa bay, which he named Espiritu Santo, and on May 30 began disembarking men and horses at some point along what is now the famed waterfront of the city of St. Petersburg. The landing was made at different points, to lighten the ships so they could creep farther up the bay with the tides. The ships and land forces met at a deserted Indian village presumably the one described by Professor F ewkes as being on Weedon's Island; and from there both ships and land forces worked their way to the Indian village of Ucita, on the bluffs at the head of the bay, which was the site of the town of Safety Harbor, where headquarters were established. Describing this village, clearly located on what is now known as the Phillippe Hammock, we are told:


26 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA "The town was of se ven or eight houses, built of timber and covered with palm leaves. The Chief's house stood near the beach, on a very high mount made by hand for defence; at the other end of the town was a temple, on the top of which perched a wooden fowl with gilded eyes, and within were found some pearls of small value, injured by fire, such as the Indians pierce for beads, much esteeming them, and string to wear about the neck and wrists The Governor lodged in the house of the Chief, and with him Vasco Porcallo and Luis de Moscoso; in other houses, midway in the town, was the Chief Castellan, Baltasar de Gallegos, where were set apart the provisions brought in the vessels. The rest of the dwellings, with the temple, were thrown down, and every mess of three or four so ldiers made a cabin, wherein they lodge d The ground about was very fenny, and encumbered wiih dense thicket and high trees The Governor ordered the woods to be felled the distance of a crossbow-shot around the place; that the horses might run, and the Christians have the advantage, should the Indians make an attack at night." Here DeSoto remained for several weeks, endeavoring to treat with the Indians and to learn of the country and its weal th. A detachment sent out returned with Ortiz, the man left by Narvaez eleven years before and who had been living with the Indians. In July, having written back to Cuba an account of his voyage, and various instructions for affairs during his absence, DeSoto with his entire force of knights and soldiers of Spain, in glittering armor, with banners waving, marched away to the strains of martial music through the forests northward, on that long journey of exploration and adventure, which, marked at every stage by terrific hardships and fierce Indian warfare, ended with his death and burial in the Missis sippi river. And with the departure of DeSoto the nameless Indians of that time resumed their 1i fe of hunting, fishing and fighting on Pinellas peninsula, not to be disturbed by visitations from white men again for 300 years, there being no record of the further appearance of either explorers or colonizers in the Tampa bay region during that long period. FRENCH SETTLEMENT Florida's first actual settlement was made by the French in 1562, a band of Huguenots in command of Jean Ribault building Fort Caroline at a point on the St. Johns river near its mouth. Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, sent by Spain in 1565 to colonize Florida, learning of the French settlements, proceeded first to attack and destroy them, which he did in thorough fashion, slaughtering even the non combatants and women and children. FIRST SPANISH PSRIOD Returning from the Fort Caroline massacre Menendez landed on the site of St. Augustine, and on September 8, 1565, laid there the foundation of the oldest city in the United States. The Spanish, never successful as colonizers, made little progress with Florida during the next 200 years. Forts were built, and destroyed, and re-built, at various points in Florida, which at first was declared to include all of the Southland as far as the Mississippi but which was never really held as such. The period was largely accupied by attempts of the Spanish priests to christianize


PART I-NARRATIVE 27 the Indians, and by the sporadic efforts of the settlements at Pensacola bay and the mouth of the St. Johns river to grow into substantial towns. Sir Francis Drake burned St. Augustine in 1586. Work was begun on Fort San Marco (Marion) at St. Augustine in 1638 but it was not finished until more than 100 years later. Fort San Carlos near Pensacola was built in 1696. About that time the French claimed the Louisiana section because of the LaSalle voyages from 1680 to 1686, settled at Biloxi and Mobile, and more fighting followed, Pensacola changing hands several times. Fort San Marcos de Apalache (St. Marks) was built in 1718. The Span ish, French and English colonists being unable to know just when their mother countries were or were not at war seemed to deem it best over here to take no chances of missing any trouble and so fought somewhere all the time. ENGI.ISH OCCUPATION Some good luck-although it proved to be only passing, as it were-came Florida's way at last, and .on February 10, 1763, by the Treaty of Paris it was ceded to England, and things improved at once. The English province was divided into East and West Florida, the Apalachicola river being the dividing line, with St. Augustine the capital of East Florida and Pensacola of West Florida, which extended to the Mississippi river. Colonization and progress set in in earnest ; but was checked when England and Spain went to war again in 1779, and by the peace treaty of Versailles signed January 28, 1783, Florida, although it bad stayed with England during the Revolutionary War, was ceded back to Spain. S!lCOND SPANISH PtRIOD Trouble began again for the people of Florida. The Republic of West Florida, organized by Americans between the Pearl and Mississippi rivers, resulted in the annexation of that territory to Louisiana, bought by the United States in 1803 from Napoleon. Then the War of 1812 came between the United States and England, and some Georgians and Florid i ans formed the Republic of Florida along the St. Marys river; and the Spaniards permitted some British activities at Pensacola; and the Indians became troublesome on both sides of the vague boundary line. General Andrew Jackson was sent down to settle the Indians, and being Andrew Jackson he paid no attention to boundary lines but attacked the Indians where he found them, and not only. that but he captured Pensacola and its forts and batteries before leaving for New Orleans. following the treaty of peace all sorts of depredations along the Georgia and Alabama borders by runaway negroes and Indians continued until General Jackson again got into action, destroying Indian forts and towns in both East and West Florida, and again taking Pensacola from the Spanish. Although the United States in 1819 returned Pensacola and West Florida to the Spanish, in final settlement of all these troubles a treaty was ratified on February 19, 1821, by which all Florida was ceded to the United States in con sideration of the sum of $5,000,000 And so at last, 308 years after the landing of Ponce de Leon the country he named Florida became a part of the United States.


CHAPTER IV. TERRITORY AND STATE GENllRAL ANDRllW JACKSON, virtually the conqueror of Florida for the United States, was appointed military governor, but soon resigned and was suc ceeded by Governor William P. Duval, under whom the territory became fully organized The first legislative session was held at Pensacola in 1822 and the second at St. AuguStine in 1823, and in the latter year the capital of the territory was estab lished at Tallahassee. Settlers from the states to the northward came in rapidly, and moving from the upper part toward the south the development of Flori da, so long delayed, made steady progress. Schools and churches came with them. But always there were the threats and dangers of attack by the Indians warlike and never reconciled to the appropriation of their farming lands and hunting grounds by the white men, and in all directions forts were erected for the protection of the settlers. And on March 5, 1823, Fort Brooke was established where Tampa now is and became the first American settlement in the now populous Tampa bay region. These threats culminated in 1835 in the great Seminole war that lasted until 1842, and the most, appalling chapter of which was the Dade Massacre, when Major Dade and 107 men wh o had been ordered from Fort Brooke to the aid of Fort King, now Ocala, on December 28, 1835, were attacked and literally wiped out by the Indians at a point near the Withlacoochee river about 65 miles north and east of Fort Brooke. Osceola, famous Seminole chief, was captured in 1837 and the war finally ended in 1842, when most of the tribes agreed to removal to Arkansas, except some remnants that were to be permitted to remain south of the Peace river, but did not do so, and whose scions are now the familiar Seminoles of the Everglades. Florida was admitted to statehood on March 3, 1845, and William D. Moseley, elected on May 26, 1845, its first state governor. The new state progressed well until the Civil War came on, when it joined with the other Confederate states on January 10, 1861. While contributing its quota of men and supplies, Florida was not the scene of any considerable military operations. The early blockading of its ports brought to its people many privations, which, however, were greatly alleviated by its salubrious climatic conditions On July 4, 1868, Florida was restored to its place among the states of the Union, and the processes of settlement, development and growth were again resumed. MO'I'HER CoUNTY OF HILLSBOROUGH When the territory of Florida was organized in 1821 it consisted ot two counties, Escambia and St . Johns, which huge areas were divided into others as settlement and population increased On January 25, 1834, the territorial legisla ture created the county of Hillsborough, so named in honor of a British peer who


Upper Lt/t-Sylvan Abbt}' Cemetny, tlu first on tlu Upper Riglll-0. 11/. (((Kttur ") Booth, born .llugu sl j, 185], the First JII!Jite Child }JQrn on rlu Peninsula. Lower l,tft-Tomh of William Taylor, Who Ditcl July 7, 1856, His fJe in9 First Burial in Sylvan llbbty, and Wife, Lavittra Who Ditd March 1. 186o. Lowu Rig!tt-Homtsltatf of Capt Jamts P Ml'hfullcn, Ill Cnncflma11, Oldnl N 6uu on the Peninsula, Built in 1 856


PART I-NARRATIVE 29 had received a large gift of land during the English occupation The new county included what are now Hillsborough, Pasco, Polk, Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Char l otte, Highlands, Hardee and Pinellas counties with Tampa as the county seat, a community that had gathered on the Hillsborough river alongside of Fort Brooke. Beginning with a hand ul of settlers about 1823, the growth of the town of Tampa for a long time was very slow, it having no direct communication of any kind with the reSt of the world and so few people in the country tributary to it. Its noticeable growth began following thepclose of the Seminole war in 1842, and it was about this time that the settling of Pinellas peninsula, which until its creation into Pinellas county on January 1, 1912, was known as West Hillsborough, also began.


CHAPTER v . "OLD TAMPA"MEANING PINELLAS PENINSULA BECAUSE the first peopl e who came to Pinellas peninsula as this part of Florida was being slowly settled by white men did not file upon or acquire any title to any lands, but "squatted" wherever a spot looked good to them, and because there were practically no mails or other means of communication with the world at large, no positive records are now obtainable that fix any exact dates of their coming, or the order in which they came. There were Spanish people exploring the gulf coast, and some doubtless even lived at various points for varying periods, dur ing the years long preceding any actua l settlement, and these Spanish roamers gave Spanish names to many islands, passes and localities, from which the earliest uncertain maps were made, and many of which names, in more or less correc t form, still remain The name Pinellas itself comes to us in some such mann er. The name Punta Pinal, meaning Point of Pines, had been so given it, and the resulting musical contor tion is Pinellas Following the Seminole Indian war which ended in 1842 the government surveyed this coast and established officially the names of its features. The settlers, however for many years continued the use of some of the local names they were used to, Uncle Sam's changes to the contrary notwithstanding. Before the war, and even for sometime afterward, Pinellas peninsula was known by the first settlers as Old Tampa, and Tampa bay as Espiritu Santo bay. Hillsborough bay and Old Tampa bay seem to been known by those names from very early days, and presumably it was because of Old Tampa bay and the first settlement there that the whole peninsula was called "Old Tampa." In calling the bay proper, the main body exclusive of the Old Tampa and Hillsborough arms, Espiritu Santo, the people of course were quite correct the first white man who saw it, Hernando DeSoto, 300 years before, having so named it. Officially adopt ing the name Tampa was an error that had crept in somehow, probably without much thought or notice. As commercial fishing out of the Spanish town of Key West for the Cuban market was the first industry along this coast, the fishing smacks straying even farther north, it is not improbable that some of the Spaniards mentioned settled for at least brief periods along the Pinellas coast long before the coming of any of the families whose names and descendants are k nown to us now. And as perma nent settlers did come, they were mainly of two kinds and came from two dire c tions: Fishermen came from Key West and located at coastal points; and agricul turists, who came from Georgia and other Southern states, sometimes after periods spent in North Florida, and squatted on the choice lands of the peninsula, usually in its interior The history of Pinellas peninsula, as of larger and more important political units in all histories, almost automatically divides itself into periods, in this instance into four, which are best described by the expressions most used by the .''oldes t


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PART I-NARRATIVE 33 inhabitants" in discussing it. Listening to their recount of events, as they remember them or as told by their fathers and grandfathers, one will hear them fix the time of almost any event as "before the war," or "after the war," or "in the 'SO's" or "now." "Before the war" and "after the war" are self-explanatory; but "the '80's" refers to the period when Pinellas was "discovered' by dreamers and promoters rom other parts of the country who came in and began "doing thing!\," culminating with "the railroad" in '88; and everything since that time, 40 years, is "now." The fact that prior to the Civil War only one postoffice had been established here and that in 1859, the postoffice of Clearwater at what had been called Cl'ear Water Harbor, convincingly tells us how sparse must have been the population in that period FIRST SETTI.ERS The first permanent settler on Pinellas peninsula was Odet Phillippe; who was born at Lyons, France, and came to this country as a lad. He came south and to in the early '30's, conducting a sutler's store there, and in 1835 squatted on and began improving the high ground at the very head of Old Tampa bay, still known as Ph i llippe Hammock. So it transpired that the first white settler on Pinellas peninsula chose for his homestead, if not the very identical spot then one immediately adjacent to, the site of the Indian village where Hernando DeSoto established his first headquarters in 1539. Mr. Phillippe served through the Seminole Indian war and assisted in remov ing those Indians that would go to the then far west, a reservation in Arkansas Several se t tlers soon joined him on Pinellas, one of the earliest being Richard Booth, who married his daughter, the couple becoming the parents of the first white child born on Pinellas peninsula-Odet W Booth, better known as "Keeter" Booth, who was born on August 4, 1853, and still resides at his grove home at Safety Harbor. Another of the earliest families was that of Captain James P. McMullen, one of whose sons, John J ., now residing on his farm two miles south of Largo, was the second white child born on Pinellas October 15, 1853. Probably the next settler, though hardly a permanent one, was one Antonio Maximo Hernandez who settled on the tip of the peninsula very early in the '40 s and to which was given the present name of Maximo Point. He established a fish depot there, shipping to Cuba, and William Bunce a little later did likewise on Hospital Key of the Mullet Key group, both being put out of business by "the gale of '48." It may be said here that this part of Florida did have a real hurricane 80 years ago-in 1848-a West Indian storm that was headed across the gulf in the usual path but veered. and swooped inland along this coast The damage from the gale and the high water was heavy along the coast or would have been if there had been. much damageable property there, while inland it amounted to Jess. But for a generation or two thereafter "the gale" furnished a commonly used base for calculating local time. Spreading in a fan-like form from the beginning where Safety Harbor now is, the thin and slowly moving line of settlement spread north and west to the site of Ozona and south and west to Indian Rocks; and a few others came to The Point,


34 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA which is now St. Petersburg. The northern end, as well as the large area between Long Bayou and Tampa bay, made little or no showing until along toward the lively "eighties." Into this fan-shaped section of Pinellas, without any attempt here at chrono logical arrangement, there came through the '40's and 'SO's-"before the war" these first families among perhaps others whose names are not obtainable: William Taylor, who loca ted near Safety Harbor; "Bud" (Jesse) Crawford: Willoughby T i llis; Chedrick Sutton; Richard Booth; John Young. At Bayview, which was first known as Swimming Pen, having a pier and sufficient water for shipping cattle, Jesse Carlisle located; and "Haiti" Jackson; and Eli Hart. Parenthetically, this histor ian will remark here upon the extraordinary preva lence of nicknames among those old-timers of Pinellas peninsula. They are con fidently believed to have led the world in that line. In instances innumerable the quest for names resulted in nicknames, and sometimes it was impossible to obtain any other-"that was the only name he was known by," was a reply that was final. The arrival of the McMullens, seven brothers, added not a little to the settler population. These seven brothers from the eldest down were William, Thomas F., James P., Daniel, John, David and Malcomb. James P. came to the peninsula in 1850 to the Safety Harbor neighborhood, and in 1853 homesteaded what is now the Coachman place at Coachman station. The homestead house built by him in 1856 is still standing, and believed to be the oldest homestead building in Pinellas county. Coming later, John located at Anona, selling in '56 or '57 to Capt. John T. Lowe. William settled four miles south of Largo on the Ridge Road. Thomas one mile west of Safety Harbor, now the Davey place. Daniel a mile and a half northeast of Largo, a daughter, Mrs. Hardridge, still is living there. David located on what is now known as Morse Hill in Safety Harbor. Malcomb also located near Safety Harbor. A truly remarkable evidence of the sturdy stock of those pioneers and o f the healthfulness of Pinellas peninsula is the record of one of these McMullen brothers. Daniel McMullen passed away several years ago, being survived by seven sons and two daughters, by 46 grandchildren and five great-grandchildren, his own death being the first in this family of 62 members. Birds Baker, Allan Douglas, Bennett Whidden and Josiah Daniels were settlers in the "Middleground" neighborhood east of Clearwater. The Whitehursts, "Uncle Jack" and Daniel C., brothers, were the first of the later large Whitehurst family. James Stevens and Samuel Stevenson were two pioneers who acquired from the government the lands where Clearwater now is. Stevenson's improvements in the north end being wrecked by "the gale of '48" he sold to John C. White and removed to a new location on the Anclote river some miles up {rom Tarpon Springs. Stevens sold his holdings at the south end to John S. Taylor, II, a new arrival and a son of the William who had come into the Safety Harbor neighborhood. In 1851 David B. Turner settled at Indian Rocks, later removing to Clearwater, where his son, Arthur C. Turner, .now lives on the old home place. Mr. Arthur Turner is perhaps the oldest living resident of Pinellas peninsula and is acknowl edged the best living authority in its early history.


PART I-NARRATIVE 35 Richard L. Garrison settled on Curlew Creek, north of Dunedin, in 1852, and his son John W. still lives on the property. William Campbell and W. L. Mobley, W. T Collier, and the Youngbloods, were other early pioneers of this middle section. At Anona early settlers were Capt. John T. Lowe, Capt. Augustus A. Archer, W B. Meares, Richard Meares, and Robert J. Whitehurst All but Whitehurst having come from Key West the little shi p ping point bore the nickname of "Conch town," Key West people having come from the Bahamas being called Conchs. David Griner, head of the Griner family of St. Petersburg, also lived in the Seminole section prior to the war, as did Frank Girard. At the St. Petersburg end of the peninsula early settlers were Abel Miranda, who came in 1857, and William C. and John A. Bethell, brothers, who came in 1859, the three establishing a fish "ranche" on Maximo Point for business with the Cuban markets. Then there was William Booker, after whom Booker creek was named; and William Paul, of Paul's L anding, which was a pier and boat-landing where the Vinoy hotel now stands. Charles Papy had settled on Weedin's Island, Papy's bayou bearing his name. John Leveque, or Lavach, settled the Jungle, and Joseph Silva at Johns Pass just above. James R. Hay was a settler on Lakeview avenue, William T. Coons on Clam Bayou, and "Green" or H. G. Arnold at Lellman. INDIANS While the unconquered remnants of the Seminole Indians were supposed to be on a reservation south of the Peace river, they did not stay there, but roamed more or less at will, and in 1849 and again in 1859 they pulled off actual uprisings, which, however, were soon suppressed In the latter year a number of them were scattered over Pinellas, but were all run out-as the settlers supposed. It happened, however, as Mr. "Keeter" Booth tells it, that after the trouble was all over and everybody was sleeping well again, the little Safety Harbor settlement was surprised one morning to see a considerable bunch of Indians, men, women and children, emerge from the jungle at Alligator creek nearby, where they had been hidden out the whole time, subsisting on fish and oysters. They were promptly hustled out to join their own people down towards the Everglades. A fairly complete list of "before the war" families on Pinellas peninsula is furnished by the roll of an infantry company of men who responded to the state's call for troops immediately after Florida's secession, the official record at Talla hassee reading as follows: Captain, James McMullen; first lieutenant, G. W. Whitehurst; second lieuten ant, Levi S. Whitehurst; third lieutenant, A. J. Youngblood. Enlisted men: H. G. Arnold, M E Arnold, R. Boothe, second sergeant, B. T. Bowden, first corporal, John Branch, J. L. Branch B. E. Brownlow, sergeant, J. P. Brownlow, W. N. Campbell, J. S. Carlisle, Adam Clay, W. S Clay, W. T. Collier, sergeant, Jesse Crawford, D. B. Crum, G A. Garrison, J. N. Garrison, S. D. Garrison, corporal, Lewis Gaskins, Frank R. Girard, David Griner, corporal, M. P. Griner, Abram Hay, J R. Hay, H. B. Hern, R. Robert Hill, G. W. Holland, Law renee Kittles, James Leavett, Ferdinand McLead, M. Marsh, W. L. Mobley, J. M.


36 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Moody, N M. Moody, Charles Papy, W. P. Parker, Martin Patterson, J. D. Rogers, T. D. Ross, G. W. Smith, John Steven s, S. H. Stephenson, B. C. Swain, J. W. Tillman, Elijah Townsend, J. A. Tullis, A. C. Turner, D. B Turner G. P. Washington, W. B. White, B D Whitehurst J. S. Whitehurst, M. E. Whitehurst, Walton Whitehurst, D. N. Youngblood, S. S. Youngblood. Evidently a number of names were incorrectly given in this roll. For instance, Leavett doubtless should be Leverett, and McLead should be McLeod, both being old St. Petersl!urg families, and some given names and initials do not check up. But things probably were done hurriedly and perhaps crudely then. As probably every family on the peninsula having men or boys able to enlist was represented, and in some instances fathers and sons or brothers were of single families, the 43 family names on this roll may be fairly accept ed as evidence that the population of Pinellas peninsula in 1861 consisted of not more than SO families . This company of state troops was organized by Captain James P. McMullen and mustered in on July 20, 1861, by order of Brigadier General J. M. Taylor; and mustered out on October 20 of the same year, the men being expected to join commands in the regular Confederate armies. Service in the Confederate armies, however, appear s to have been considered quite different than in Florida state troops; for many of these men did not enter the former; some backslid altogether and joined the Union blockading forces stationed at Egm ont ; and others roamed more or Jess at large, making it as unpleasant as might be for the backsliders. The period of the war was an unhappy one on the little peninsula as elsewhere in the South, although there was none of the terrible ravages so generally exper ienced. The shooting up o f Abel Miranda's ranche at Big Bayou by the from Egrnont, using a converted Key West fishing smack, followi ng some more or less single-handed bushwacking operations by him, was the only action worthy of record. A number of families left the peninsula at the beginning of the war and never returned. IT WAs REAL PIONEERING While Pinellas peninsula, the healthiest spot in America if not in the whole world, w ith a perfect climate, a beautiful land and rich, readily furnishing most of the needs of Jiving with its fewest possible ills, demanded o f its fir st settlers none of the downright privations and hardships encountered by those of other parts of our country, their life was none the less one of genuine pioneering. It is true that in their way of living they would have been envied by some of the kings of history who left their thrones to seek a life not so good. They were raiser s of stock, of cattle in the main, and of hogs, all of which stoc k had plenty of room to roam at large and find feed for themselv es. As to shelter, none was needed. This manner of raising cost nothing, and it brought the owners their "money crop" according to the numbers ow ned; and with these and other domestic meats, and an unlimited supply of wild game at their doors, and all kinds of sea-foods nearby, and the yams and cane and fruits and vegetables of their gardens they were in that respect rather royal livers, indeed. But there pioneering handicaps. Until 1858 there was no railroad in the whole state of Florida, and the one then built ran from Fernandina to Cedar


PART I-NARRATIVE 37 Key. Not only was there no trading point, store or place of business whatever on the peninsula, other than a boat-landing here and there from which cattle or fish were shipped to Cuba, but there was none in the whole Tampa bay region except Tampa, which was a mere village, small and scraggly enough. So building supplies and tools were hard to get, and were pretty generally done without. Sawed lumber there was none, and few nails, so the houses were of logs, some hewn and some in the rough, chinked with mud and covered with hand-made clap boards or shingles. Furniture was sparse, simple and largely home-made. Home made clothing of plain material was the rule, so generally so that, as one old pioneer tells the historian, "nobody could point the finger of ridicule at anybody else." The roads were sand trails winding around through the forests wherever several vehicles had happened to go. There were no bridges, and all streams had to Ire forded. The money of circulation was mostly Spanish gold obtained for cattle sold in Cuba. Wages were commonly at 50 cents the day, but most settlers did their own work, and when paid the laborer generally took syrup or sweet potatoes. Until a postoffice was at Clearwater in 1859---and that was soon suspended until after the war-the only way to get mail was to go to Tampa after it. Church-going was a cardinal practice in the life of these pioneers and in the central part there was preaching once a month, and regularly on "church-day" it would be ascertained who was going to Tampa, and he would bring the mail for all When Sunday schools came with the young people later they meant weekly gatherings, and therefore weekly mail "service." Scattered miles apart in a totally undeveloped country, church and Sunday school were practically the only com munity meetings. As the trip to Tampa was usually made on foot or with oxen, and required two days each way, it was often a week or more before the mail was finally "distributed From the lower end the trip was more readily made by boats, but with varying winds and weather there was little difference ill1ltune{/:}'The churches and schools, the schools and churches, for which Pinellas County is so widely noted, have grown up together from the beginning. And on a high and swelling knoll, sun-flecked among the quiet trees, a couple of miles west of Safety Harbor and a little distance back from one of the highways into that town,' unknown to the tourist thousands, and to even most Pinellas county residents, a well-kept little cemetery marks the place of that beginning. There was built by those earliest pioneers the first church building; and as it was also used for school purposes it was the first school building as well. That first building is gone, as is the one that succeeded it. But the cemetery-Sylvan Abbey Cemetery-containing the graves of some of Pinellas' earliest settlers, is there, silently telling to those who may visit the pretty and peaceful spot i\s eloquent story of those earliest days. William Taylor, died July 7, 1856, and his wife, Lavinca, died March 4, 1860, and Catherine, wife of Daniel C. Whitehurst, December II, 1857, are the oldest inscriptions in this oldest cemetery in Pine \las County.


CHAPTER VI. "WEST HILLSBOROUGH"-STILL MEANING PINELL AS PENINSULA OJ' 'l'HE some 50 families living on Pinellas peninsula when the great Civil War burst upon the country, only a portion were to be found here when it was ended. Some who had gone over to the Union cause did not care to return, and some others driven away by the exigencies of war conditions did not return So in the late '60's, scarcely more than two generations ago, Pinellas was still a wild and undeleveloped little land, with only a handful of settlers scattered over it. Slowly, very slowly, their numbers increased until the '80's, when things began coming this way pretty fast. It was somewhere along among these years, as the Pinellas peninsula increased in population and importance, that the "before the war" designation of "Old Tampa" gave way to that of "West Hillsborough," and West Hillsborough it became and was until the county of Pinellas was born. The trends of settlement on the peninsula may be sensed with some clearness from a glance at the establishment and growth of the United States mails service. As has been stated, until 1859 the only way the settlers in any part had of getting mail was by somebody going to Tampa after it and distributing i t among the neighbors. And then, on August 20, 1859, the first postoffice was established at Clearwater ; which was also the first point to take on in any way the character of a "burg," or community. Clear Water Harbor was the mapped name of that beautiful little bay where Old de Narvaez probably landed in 1528, and the lo cality has been first in many ways. I t was Florida's first real health resort, the United States government having established there on April 2, 1841, Fort Har rison, which was a convalescent post for men from Fort Brooke at Tampa, a locality much afflicted by malaria and kindred ills. From two to seven companies of the Sixth United States infantry were sta t ioned there, under the command of Lieut. Col. Gustavus Loomis of that regiment. It was named for President Wil liam Henry Harrison, inaugurated that year, and while it was abandoned October 26, 1841, the name is perpetuated with that of the present city's principal thor oughfare. David B. Turner was the first postmaster, and Arthur Turner became the assistant. The office received its mail by steamer from Cedar Keys, to which Florida's first railroad had been built the year before. This first steamer was called the Madison Packet. When the postoffice was re-opened after the war, Robert J Whitehurst was made postmaster. Until 1875 Clearwater was Pinellas' only postoffice, serving all there were of settlers in the central and northern part. The St. Petersburg end, farthest away and having no regular connection by either roads or boats, was scarcely a neighbor to the rest of the peninsula until the development& of many years later, and its settlers continued to sail across the bay to Tampa for their mail.


PART I-NARRATIVE 39 On July 13, 1875, two more postoffices were established, one on the gulf and one on Old Tampa Bay. In the earliest days the fishermen sailing the gulf gave the name Yellow Bluff to the high and bright-colored shores which are now Ozona and made a landing place there which grew into a small settlement, and the postoffice was first named Yellow Bluff. James C. Craver was the postmaster. Three years later it was changed to Bay St. Joseph, and in 1889 to Qzona. -On the Old Tampa bay side, at a community built at Swimming Pen, a post office was established and called Bayview, with James R. McMullen postmaster. The office was discontinued in 1909, but the pretty little spot with its group of homes is still called Bayview. Then down on The Point there had been growth. The close of the war found but four families there-William T. Coons, Abel Miranda and William C. and John A. Bethell. Later the Leonardys Vincent and Alex, father and son, came, and Louis Bell, James Barnett, John L. Branch, George Hammock, Hop Wilder and Emmet Berry on Coffee Pot bayou Oliver Johnson, Dr. James S Hackney, who built on the site of the new Catholic church the first house where St. Peters burg now is, James A. Cox, Judge William Perry, Joseph and Beneventura Puig, brothers, Timothy Kimball, Richard Strada, D. W. Meeker, and others. For this scattered settlement a postoffice was established at Big Bayou on June 8, 1876, and named Pinellas, after the peninsula itself, with William H. Benton postmaster. Pinellas became a lively little community, but began falling back when St. Peters burg sprang up, and the office was discontinued in 1907. Next at Dunedin, a settlement almost as old as Clearwater, but so close by that its people got their mail at the latter place, a postoffice was established Febru ary 18, 1878, with James Somerville postmaster At Anclote, a pretty spot on the north shore of the Anclote river near the gulf, was another settlement of the early '70's. Anclote is a distortion of the Spanish word for "safety," and was given by Key West spongers to "the hole" inside the keys, and it later attached to the river. Edward Decatur Goethe, a great grand-nephew of the great Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, settled there in 1874, and resides there s till. Other early settlers were William W. Cobb, Frank and Fred Myer, brothers, James and John Craver, and Allen Hill; and later Captain Sam E. Hope bought large interests and settled, and pushed energetically some rather ambitious plans for a future town, and on September 10, 1878, the postoffice of Anclote was established, William W. Cobb postmaster. When the Disston agents were looking for a town site a little later the Anclote people failed to get together with them, land at Tarpon Springs was chosen instead, and Anclote dwindled down to the present mere fishing village, the postoffice being discontinued in 1915. The next year, July 21, 1879, the community on the Seminole peninsula around the southern end of Missouri avenue was given a postoffice called Johns Pass, Invin J. Adair, postmaster; always a rural office, it was discontinued in 1902. Then, on November 7, 1883, the newly platted town of Tarpon Springs re ceived its postoffice.


40 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA And on January 5, 1885, the ambitious layout of Disston City, the postoffice, however, being called Bona facio because there was already a Diston or Diston City somewhere in the state, Joseph R. Torres, postmaster. The name Disston City became available and was adopted in 1889, and was changed to Veteran City in 1906, and to Gulfport in 1910. This being a record of the development of the peninsula as indicated by the establishment of postoffices up to the coming of "the railroad," which changed the whole scheme of things almost like magic. Tampa having no railroad until 1884, while Cedar Keys was made the gulf terminus of one from Fernandina on the Atlantic in 1858, soon after the war connection by sailboats and steamers with Cedar Keys became of more importance to the people of Pinellas than with Tampa ; for it is to be remembered that St. Petersburg was not heard of until "the railroad" came and Pinellas settlements were along the gulf coast-Anclote, Ozona, Dunedin, Clearwater, Anona and In dian Rocks-with Safety Harbor-then Green Springs-only a few miles away although on Old Tampa bay. So as settlements and business increased there was a surprising number of boats going up and down along these shores, some direct between Cedar Keys and Dunedin, some direct between Cedar Keys and Cleanvater, and some between Cedar Keys and Tampa and making all ports-or perhaps land ings is a better word-along the way. And there were the fishing smacks from Key West working for the Cuban fish market, and the cattle boats carrying cattle to the Cuban cattle market. The list of boats reads as if almost every hustling pioneer on Pinellas peninsula must have owned and operated a steamer or a schooner or a sloop, awhile at least, at time. There was the "Madison Packet," which first brought the mail from Cedar Keys to Clearwater, receiving it at New Bay on the Suwannee river to which point it was carried by stagecoach from Alligator City, now more prettily known as Lake City. The "Madison Packet" was succeeded by the "Colonel Cottrell.'' Then there was the schooner "Falcon;" and the schooner "Clara," owned by A. C. Turner; and the schooner "Seagull;" and the sloop "Jeannette;" and the "Sunrise ;" and the steamer "Sadie;" and the steamer "Eva;'' and t h en the steamer !'Mary Disston," affectionately known to the coast people of that time as "Dirty Mary.'' And how many others there may have been local history does not record. Neither is it recorded that any of these were large enterprises, or that large wealth was created for any of the owners; but there is little doubt that they were quite large enough in their time, and none whatever that they helped greatly in the early de velopment of the peninsula. A most important consequence of this quicker and more frequent connection with the outside world and markets was its acceleration of mjlre diversifi ed activi ties. Cattle and hog raising ceased being the only industry. Cotton became an important product, one Major M. G. Anderson having in the early '70's erected a horse-power gin at Dunedin; growers from all parts of the peninsula carrying their cotton there, paying for the use of the machine and doing their own ginning, and shipping to New Orleans and Mobile commission merchants. Watermelons and sweet potatoes and other soil products became crops, going to Kew West.


PART I-NARRATIVE 41 And above and best of all, the great citrus industry was undertaken in earnest and became general. The establishment of sawmills helped, and with more people more products more business, better sources o supplies of all kinds, the standards of living improved. The first real, sure-enough store on Pinellas peninsula came in 1866 and was located a mile and a half south of the Belleview Biltmore hotel site Cobe Hamlin and Frank Eichelberger bought land there in 1865, and soon after John Vereen bought the Hamlin interest, Vareen and Eichelberger then erecting a sawmill, and the first general store. Vereen and Eichelberger were real operators of no small ideas, among their enterprises purchasing in New York City a 100 ton, three masted schooner which, in command of Captain "Gus" Archer, mentioned befor

42 HISTORY O F PINEL LAS COUNTY, FLORIDA W e have good schools, churches well attended, and the most ord erly popula tion I have ever knowri. One fact speaks decidedly! Within the past five years there has been but one grand jury case in this western section of HiUsborough County. "Within five years more the young orange groves which have b een planted, with other fruits that will be in bearing will make the re s idents of this section in dependently rich. Our lands are good and can be made rich. Our climate i s allnost unequalled Our population is industrious and moral These will insure prosperity. With the finest cott on, sugar cane ,' tropical fruits and rice we have only t o persevere for a few year s and become independent." I t i s evident that information and visio n must change with time, or this preacher-editor of 1873 would not have r efer r ed to our Pinellas climate as "almost" unequalled, and he would not have omitted all mention whatever of tourists. But he was pretty good nevertheless, for his day and time.


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CHAPTER VII. "WEST HILLSBO.ROUGH"-CONTINUED UNTIL 1880 Florida as a state stood stagnant with no relief in sight, and little hope of any. In the early days of statehood the legislature had created the Internal Improvement Fund, still very much in existence, at that time consisting of something over 13,000,000 acres of so-called "swamp or overfiowed" land, and prior to the Civil War it had been pledged to guarantee the interest on bonds issued for the building of railroads and canals. The close of the war found everybody and everything in the state "broke," and the unpaid interest accumulat ing. The United States courts took charge and the interest debt, amounting to $960,000 in 1880, tied up all the state's resources, and business and progress were impossible. And then, in that red-letter year 1880, Hamilton Disston and associates of Philadelphia, bought 4,000,000 acres of these lands, at 25 cents per acre, cash; and that $1,000,000 of cash cleaned up the interest debt, restored the fund to the state, and released it for business And business followed at once Investment money flowed in; and within four years Florida's resources had increased in value more than 100 per cent; more railroads were built than in any other state of equal popu lation; and its population increase exceeded that of any other state in the Union. A considerable bit of these so called "swamp and overflowed" acres, which of course were nothing of the kind, selected by the agents of Hamilton Disston, were here on Pinellas peninsula, at the northern end and the southern. And because of these facts, and at this time, things began doing in earnest here in West Hillsbor ough; and in particular two entirely new developments, one at the upper end and one at the lower, came into being, and began attracting far and wide attention. At the upper end, in 1876, one A. W Otmond and daughter Mary settled near some remarkable springs that flowed into the Anclote river several miles from the gulf. The next year Joshua C Boyer, now residing at Eau Callie on the east coast, came up the river on a fishing trip, married the daughter and built the second resi dence there. In 1880 Mrs. Boyer gave to the springs the name of Tarpon, because of the scltools of tarpon that frequented them; and so Tarpon Springs was born. In former Governor Anson P. K. Safford of the territory of Arizona one of the acti v e members of the Disston syndicate whose $1,000,000 of cash had pulled all Florida out of the slough of despond, with others, including Major W J. Marks, of Orlando made a tour of inspection of all the Disston lands and visited Pinellas peninsula with the intention of laying out on its Tampa bay shores a great future city The Point was the first objective; but there General Williams already owned such large and strategically located holdings that the prospectors moved northwarsl At Clearwater the requisite lands were not available, either, and they kept on. And when the high and rolling country along the Anclote river and Lake Butler was reached it was conceded that they had found the promised land, the site of the future city.


46 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY FLORIDA In 1883 Governor Safford brought his wife and a sister to Tarpon Springs and settled into the work of building that city. He was the right kind of man for the job. Born on a Vermont farm, reared on an Illinois farm, at 20 years of age he had gone by wagon to California to seek fortune He became active in affairs there and a noted mining engineer. Two years then spent abroad gave him the education he had missed as a boy, and upon his return he was appointed surveyor general of the territory of Nevada, and later surveyor general of Arizona territory, and still later President Grant appointed him territorial governor of Arizona. Dur ing his two terms as governor-"the Little Governor," he was called-he laid solidly the foundations of the present state and his name is there particularly revered as the father of its splendid public schools system. Fallowing this service he estab lished himself as a mining engineer in New York city in 1879, and there became associated in the Disston Florida land purchase, and until his death in 1891 he was the leading spirit and factor in the development of Tarpon Springs, which was the principal town on the peninsula when "the railroad" came. The Florida Land and Improvement company had been organized by the Disston syndicate, and the Lake Butler Villa company was another directly concerned with the Pinellas lands, and the official map of Tarpon Springs was filed on May 5, 1884. The Tarpon Springs Hotel, a 3 story structure pretentious for those days was built (it was destroyed by fire in 1906), and also the Tropical Hotel, a smaller building well known as The Ferns until torn down not many years since. Jacob Disston, younger brother of Hamilton Disston and still having large interests in Pinellas county, built a fine home, and others followed, making a considerable colony of beautiful homes around the springs. A pier was built in the gulf near Andote light island where small boats from the town connected with the passing Cedar Keys and Tampa steamers; and a hack-line connection was established with Tampa ; and Tarpon Springs became a live and growing town At the lower end of the settlement of Pinellas on Big Bayou had been making slow progress. John A. Bethell was selling his land there in small plots and Thomas Sterling had built the Hotel San Jose, and R. E. Neeld had opened a grocery store, and Vincent Leonardi had opened up with groceries and dry goods, and John T. Sloan with groceries and everything, and Simon Bell and E. R. Ward, and James W. Harris, and E. P. Grubb, and Bethell himself, all had engaged in business. Boats were running between there and Tampa regularly, and Big Bayou was a favorite place for Tampa excursionists. And then in 1884 Joseph R. Torres platted a townsite on his land across on the Boca Ciega side, and interested with him were William B. Miranda, super boomer of those days, Joseph C. G. Watt, and John R. Jones. They wanted to name it Disston City, possibly with some notion of inviting the financial interest of the Disstons, but there being a "Diston" postoffice over beyond Tampa bay, Uncle Sam named the office Bonafacio. In 1886 William Saunders and Mrs. Mary Barnes sold the land where Palm Harbor now is to the Sutherland Improvement Company, which made considerable developments which were named Sutherland. Two large hotels were built, one of which remains while the other was burned some years ago, as well as stores and


PART I-NARRATIVE 47 residences. The postoffice of Sutherland was established January 30, 1888, with James C. Craver, postmaster. Difference in time and conditions considered, our so-called boomers of recent years were pikers compared to "Qld Bill" Miranda, as this historian and others knew him in later years. His Greater Disston City was to be. a mighty metropolis, indeed, and to prepare for it he brought about a platting of practically the whole lower peninsula, except the lands of General Williams and several others where St. Petersburg now is. Railroads were projected, on paper; and even a real deep water port, for the. anticipated railroad was to have its terminal at no other place than Mullet Key. While the money held out Disston City was enormously adver tised in the north, 1or those days, and something very like a boom came on. A hotel, the Waldorf, was bw"tt, and several stores were established, and Wm. J. McPherson in 1886 started the inev.itable newspaper, "Sea Breeze," and other lands were platted. And then-a railroad really did come-and General Williams captured it for his location on Tampa bay-and Greater Disston City passed from the picture, being only a film anyway The postoffice was able to get its own name in 1889; was changed to Veteran in 1906; and in 1910 became Gulfport, by which name it is now St. Petersburg's finest and most important suburb.


CHAPTER VIII. COMING OF "THE RAILROAD" I N 1888 came "the railroad," so long and so eagerly expected to come some time from somewhere. It proved to be the Orange Belt narrow gauge rail road, building to the tip of Pinellas peninsula from Sanford ov e r on the St. Johns river, the head of river navigation from Jacksonville It was promoted and built by a rather distinguished and undeniably brilliant, able and energetic soldier of fortune from Russia, whose correct name is said to have been Petrovitch A. Demen scheff but who was known in this country as Peter A. Demens A political exile, a gentleman of education and say of the Russian nobility-be came to Florida in 1880 and engaged in the lumber-milling business at Longwood, near San ford. Later he engaged in railroad contracting, was successful, acquired some money, and in 1886 the idea of building a railroad from Sanford to the Pinellas peninsula; to which idea he thereafter devoted his entire fortune, time and talents until it was finished-and he himself finished, financially, in Florida Many are the stories told, some by those still in Pinellas county who knew and worked with him, of the personality, character, methods and achievements of Demens, some of which obviously were drawn from imagination or shaped by the mutations of time; but quite enough is of record to prove that he was a man of most exhuberant vision and extraordinary tenacity of purpose. His project was not a gigantic one, but the difficulties he met were almost insuperable, and would have thwarted any but a really remarkable character. Purchasing the charter of the Orange Belt railroad, incorporated in 1885 by T Arnold, H Miller and H. Hall, he immediately started work. And almost as immediately his own funds liad run out, and he began the "financing" which he was to continue for two long soul trying year s Through his lawyer, who was Andrew Johnson of Orlando, he persuaded one man to part with $20,000, from a Canadian in Florida seeking health he got $15,000, from someone else $2,000; and so on. Donations of land along the proposed route were sought and obtained. A half interest in 200 acres on Lake Apopka was given by Judge J G. Speer, and the land and investment department of Demens' company laid out as its headquarters the present town of Oakland. A story has it that Demens wanted to call that town "St. Petersburg" but the wise judge overruled him, and so "St. Petersburg" fell onto Pinellas peninsula A bond issue of $50,000 sold in New York got the rails to Oakland, and another one of $170,000 kept them going Land donations came in nicely-much easier than money-the Florida Land & Improvement Company, the Lake Butler Villa and the Disston Land Company, all controlled by the Disstons, agreeing to gtve one-fourth of all their lands within six miles of the railroad and one-half of all townsites.; and numerous other property owners all the way to Pinellas helped Many donat1ons however, were contingent upon the railroad being completed by


PART I-NARRATIVE 49 December 31, 1887. The final. land donation or deal, was made with General John C. Williams, under which Demens and Williams together later planned and platted and named the city of St. Petersburg. Dernens' financial difficulties mounted higher and higher, but he never gave up. "With chips and whetstones" he brought his railroad to Tarpon Springs, and there even they gave out. Through somebody or other he had been trying to get at H. 0. Armour of Chicago and A. J. Drexel of Philadelphia, and at thi s crucial moment they were expec t ed on a trip to give his project and its territory the "once over." L. B. Skinner of Dunedin tells of being sent for by Dernens and told his plan for imparting the right impression to the great Chicago and Philadelphia capitalists "Thees are beeg feesh," he said, "and we must catch them." Mr. Skinner was to arrange for carriages to meet Messrs. Armour and Drexel at Tarpon Springs and drive them through the fine lands to Dunedin, around that vicinity, and then to Clearwater-from whence they wou l d be taken around to St. Petersburg by boat to avoid the flat-woods areas north of the future Sunshine City. The plan was carried out with success in all respects. \lllith its last desperate drive through Tarpon Springs the Sutherland com munity, Dunedin, Clearwater, and the Largo neighborhood to Tampa bay, the Orange Belt railroad was finished, and on June 8, 1888, the first t rain arrived in St. Petersburg from Oakland. The railroad pier, at first 3,000 feet long and extending to 12 feet of water, with the track thereon was not completed until about a year later. Saddled with a back-breaking debt, the Orange Belt railroad lost money in operation until it was turned over to a creditor syndicate upon the payment of $25,250, which was all that Peter A. Demens and his associates got from their con siderable money investment and several years of courage-killing l abors The syn dicate named a staff of officers from the local t erritory of the road, as follows: William McLeod St. Petersburg, pres i dent; George A. Hiil, treasurer; Frank E. Bond, superintendent ; S. H. Dare, purchasing agent; Joseph W Taylor general freight agent; A. L. Hunt, chief engineer; and H H Richardson, St. Petersburg, secretary. The syndicate also acquired the Orang Belt Investment Company, which was the land department, later turning its lands over for disposal to the St. Peters burg Land & Improvement Company, with the St. Petersburg office in charge of Col. Y. Jenness, who was an important factor in land matters in St. Petersburg for some years. In 1906 C. Perry Snell, J. C. Hamlett and A. E. Hoxie bought all the hol di n gs the company had left in St. Petersburg. In 1895 the Orange Belt passed into the hands of the Plant Sys tem, which changed its name to the San ford & St. Petersburg railroad, and its track to a standard gauge in 1897; and in 1 902 it became a part of the great Atlantic Coast Line railway system


CHAPTER IX. AFTE:R THE RAILROAD CAME FROM and after the arrival of the railroad in 1888 the story of the progress of Pinellas is largely the story of the growth of its cities and towns, a more detailed account of which is given in the separate chapters devoted to the municipalities and communities The communities already begun and awaiting the railroad were Tarpon Springs, Sutherland (now Palm Harbor), Ozona, Dunedin, Clearwater Largo, and St. Petersburg. Largo was made a postoflice on September 4, 1888, with Malcomb J. McMullen postmaster. Safety Harbor, oldest community of all, but most isolated as to transportation, was made a postoflice on February 7, 1890, with Seymour S. Youngblood postmaster. And Seven O.aks, a nearby neighborhood, October 27, 1890, Robert D. Hoyt, postmaster; it was discontinued in 1907. The growth inevitably followed the railroad, and the towns reached by it immediately began to grow; and the others, Anclote, Safety Harbor, Bayv iew, Anona, Indian Rocks and Disston, for years remained stationary St. Petersburg, being the railroad ter minus and the end of all other tra ils, soon became the metropolis, and will so remain. Its growth even drew somewhat from some of the others, notably Tarpon Springs. That town on the Anclote had the first e lectric plant, which was moved to St. Petersburg, a number of very excellent citizens moving there with it. More settlers were attra cted to the fine farming and citrus lands. And the wonders of its health-giving climate became known. They had been discovered, however, some years before, when Dr. W. C. Van Bibber, of Baltimore, after an exhausitve investigation into the best location for a proposed "Health City," and in a paper read before the American Medical Society at its thirty-sixth annual meeting in New Orleans in April, 1885, said: "Where should such a Health City be built? Overlooking the deep Gulf of Mexico, with the broad waters of a beautiful bay nearly surrounding it; with but little now upon its soil but the primal forests, there is a large sub-peninsula, Point Pinellas, waiting the hand of improvement It lies in latitude 27 degrees and 42 minutes, and contains, with its adjoining keys, about 160,000 acres of land. "No marsh surrounds its shores or rests upon its surface ; the sweep of its beach is broad and graceful, stretching many miles and may be improved to an imposing extent. Its average winter temperature is 72 degrees; that its cl imate is peculiar, its natural products show; that its air is healthy, the ruddy appearance of its few inhabitants attest. Those who have carefully surveyed the entire state, and have personally investigated this sub-peninsula and its surroundings, think that it offers the best climate in Florida." And so the tourists began coming to Pinellas peninsula, and it has come to claim no less a title than that of the "Nation's Playground." And it developed and grew.


PART I-NARRATIVE 51 How ProNI!ERS LivED Through the '60's and '70's, as has been remarked of the before-the-war period, the life of the pioneers o! Pinellas was rough and rude enough, but in comparison with that of our pioneers in other parts of the nation it was not hard. Of com forts there were none; but of pleasures there were many. Clearing and planting lands with little more than their hands was hard enough work, but in such a genial and fruitful clime there were few downright hardships. A large number lived by and on and from the surrounding waters, and it was not a bad life at all. Raising cat tle and hogs on the land, and catching fish from the gulf and bay, were not par tkularly arduous occupations. Entertainments were unknown, other than such homely sports as would char acterize neighborhood gatherings. These gatherings, however, became larger and more frequent, and more "modern" as the population increased, and touch with the outer world improved. During all of these years Pinellas peninsula was a paradise for the sportsman. Game of every description, from bears to squirrels, was superabundant. Deer and turkeys were so common as to be sometimes nuisances to farmers. Many were the thrilling experiences with bears, panthers, wild cats and alligators that have come up in the memories of "old settlers" as this historian has visited with them. T he waters and islands and beaches added sports unexcelled in the world at that time for fishing, and turtling, and bird-hunting. Besides the bass and bream of the fresh-water lakes, gulf and bay teemed with every variety of fish known to this clime-shark, devil fish, jewfish, tarpon, kingfish, grouper, amber jack, bonito, sea trout, snapper, channel bass, and innumerable smaller and edible fish. OiYsters, stone crabs, scallops and coquina, in abundance in their respective habitats. The big sea-turtle was exported by boat-loads from Pinellas in those earlier days. Turtle-egg hunting on the beaches was a good sport. Myriads of sea-birds, too, swarmed over the coasts and is lands, the eggs of some of which were sought for food. Everybody who lived anywhere near the water-and nobody on Pinellas pen insula could live far from it-kept nets of some kind, and one cast or setting, as the case might be, was all that was needed for the family use for some time. An old-timer, John Garrison, Jiving north of Dunedin, told this historian that he once gathered in over 700 mullet with one swing of his cast-net, and that one setting of a net would catch more fish any day then than "a sein two miles long would now." And it is of record that David Griner, living alone in a cabin on the bank of Coffee Pot Bayou above St. Petersburg, abandoned the place in disgust because he was kept awake nights by the racket of the fish and went to the home of his son, George, over west of what is now Fourth street in the Sunshine City. Why the fish have so largely disappeared from Pinellas waters, as compared with those days, and even with later ones known to many now here, has been a mooted question; the best authorities attributing it mostly to the march of progress and development, bringing with it the dredge, the out-board motorboat, and various accompaniments of civilization that wild life has never stood for anywhere.


CHAPTER X. PINELLAS, COUNTY XD as it developed and grew, some of its people began to believe that its re moteness from the rest of vast Hillsborough County, whose capital and seat of political power was Tampa, was proving a serious handicap. With one county commissioner from West Hillsborough, and four from Tampa, it was quite naturally impossible, even with the best of intentions all round, for West Hillsborough, or Pinellas, to get from the county government anything like what some of its people thought was fair and just. The two greatest public needs, schools and roads, suffered. And even granting fair intentions upon the part of all-power ful Tampa, as a community claiming t o be a more ambitious neighborhood, Pinellas was unable to step out as it wished to do. County independence was, of course, the answer; and the wish for it finally grew largely under the leadership of a St. Petersburg newspaper, into a determination to have it. Away back in 1886, according to a little inside political tradi tion, a quiet little political deal had been planned, wherein and whereby W. A. Belcher, of Bayview, if elected representative, was to pass through the house a county division bill, and a certain Tampa politician, if elected to the senate, was to pass it there, then move over into the new county, and themselves and friends would be in charge of the ''politics" thereof. But the Tampa politician was not elected to the senate. Mr. Belcher was elected to the house, and introduced and passed such a bill there; and Judge Joseph B. Wall, of Tampa, who was elected senator, promptly killed it in the upper bouse. Being merely a politi cal gesture, and Pinellas a comparatively uninhabited land, nobody took the incident seriously, and it was forgotten By 1907, however, conditions had changed; and after a great deal of consid eration and political investigation, W L. Straub, editor of the St. Petersburg Times, formally opened the campaign with a signed appeal in that newspaper which became known as the "Pinellas Declaration of Independence." Because it set forth the grounds upon which the long political contest was waged, it is made a part of this history : ST. PETERSBURG TIMES February 23, 1907 PINELLAS COUNTY When the writer of this article first. visited Pinellas Peoinsula nine years ago, one of the first impressions was of surprise

' PART I-NARRATIVE 53 "Yes-it would be mighty nice to levy our own taxes and expend them for our own benefit; but guess it can't be done.'' The writer has never been convinced of the s.oundnes9 of these reasons. He has not been sure that Tampa. would try to suppress the rights of a sister community, if the cause were a righteous one. And he believes he knows that our pruent State Senator is a man and an official who will consider any question on its merits. So some months ago he beg:-n. a carefu.l and thorough investigation to ascertain what are the merits of the ease. The astontshingly favorable result of this investigation is submitted in condensed form below. All the figures are from official records, and are aecurate and the deduction s are conservat ive. Size and Population Pinellas County would be small in area. But the smaller the area the less the c:ost of maintenance, and therefore the better, if the population is here. And the population is here. The total population of the West Coast ( taking only one-half that of Townships 27 aod 28 of Range 17, because a dividing line might run through them), according to the State ceosua of !90S, was 7,171. That was more than any one of fifteen other counties had. It was 160 per cent more than Liberty County had; 144 per cent more than St. Lueie County; 103 per cent more than Osceola; 90 per cent more than Baker; 86 per cent more than Lee; 82 per cent more than Hernaodo; 59 per cent more than Franklin; 41 per c-ent more than Brevard ; 4Q per cent more tha n Wakulla; 14 per cent more than Clay; 33 per cent more than Sumter; 32. per cent mo-re than Taylor; 21 per cent more than Calhoun; 24 per cent more than Lafayette; and 20 per cent more than Pasco. But it is the white populat i on that counts for property, progre-ss and prosperity, and the population of on Pinellas Peninsula is notoriously small. The white population of the West Coast was 6,127. And that was more than any one of twentyfour other counties had. lt was 306 per cent more than Liberty County had ; 242 per cent more than Hernando County; ISO per cent more than St. Lucie; 146 per cent more tha n Franklin; 132 per cent more than Wakulla; 100 per cent more than Baker; 100 per cent mote than Brevard; 10() per cent more than jefferson; 9S per cent more than Osceola; 89 per cent more than Citrus; 88 per cent more than Clay; 74 per cent more than Sumter; 70 per cent more than Lee; S4 per cent more than Leon (with the State Capital City); S2 per cent more than Pasco; 46 per cent more than Taylor; 33 per cent more than Calhoun; 31 per cent more than Lake; 28 per cent more than Lafayette; 21 per ceot more than lS per cent more than Nassau i 8 per cent more t.han Gadsden; 7 per cent more than Hamilton; and lh per cent more than Putnam. The iocrease in population between the census of 1900 and that of !90S was 44 4-10 per cent-a rate of increaso equalled by only four other counties in the State-Citrus, Dade, DeSoto and Manatee. And with our extraordinary growth a census today would unquestionably place us ahead of still several other leading counties. The Cost The total assessed valuation of Hillsborough County for 1906 was $14,02S,l86. That of the West Coast (taking the exact official figures for the real estate and pro-raring the personal) was $2,260,070. Our proportion of the whole was, therefore, 16.11 per ""nt. The county bonds are $3S,OOO oourthouse bonds, which Hillsborough County would, of course, keep along with the courthouse; and $371,000 good roads bonds. and our share of these on the basis of the above assessed valuation would be $59,768, or $60,000. Is that a big burdeo for 7,SOO people and an assessed valuation of $2,260,0701 And-division or no division-we are paying that right now. One and seven---eighths mills of our taxes are for interest and sinkin.g fund for these and C<>urthous e bonds. And we have got it to pay in the end-There it no getting away from it. Organizing a new eounty would oot change that one particle. Taxea The West Coast's S'tate taxes (6 mills) last year amounted to ................... $U,S60 Its county taxes ( 18 mills-including 1 7-8 mills for bonds) amounted to .......... $40,681 Total (not including special ochool district taxes) ................. ............. $S4,241 Exclusive ll easily make a total of $37,000. s o, .that is what it cos.ts us now to be run by the rest of Hillsborough .County. Dou any body beheve that the runnmg expenses of a county of our own, a9 small 1n area a' this--ex clusive of these bond and special taxes-would be more than that-or even that much? Official statements of the runni o g expenses of other counties have been hard to obtain but of the lirn.ite d number secured thirteen are less that amount-ranging from and all wuh a great deal larger area, and some vnth a much larger population u well . And, as everybody knows, the worat of it is, we get too little of that $37,000 per year back agam I t all goes to Tampa, and most of it stays there. Even the compensat ion of practically


54 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA all officialdom is paid there and seals there. The expen se s of running our own county would be paid co our own people and all o it would benefit our own community . . Is it not apparent that if the taxes the West Coast has been for years paymg mto the Hdh borough County treasury had gone into a treasury of our own, the Wut Coast could now have the best system of roads in Florida I A Court House Pinellas County could afford to build one whenever it chose. But there would not need to be any burry about it. The writer knows large and immensely richer counties 20 years old still using leased or temporary quarters. Personally, he would rather see the money invested in some good roads and bridges. The "And So Forth" Mentioned above would include the cost of transcribing records and titles; which could not be large for so small an area of properties. The Legislature h understood to eoten-.in a not unnatural suspicion of new counties in general, because the absurd constitutional limitation of chat body to 100 would make necessary a pruning down in the representation somewhere if the number got to that mark and a new county were to be created, and, of course, no legialator could know where the pruning would strike, hence the caution. But even that condition could not affect our case. For Hillsborough County will never have len representation than now: and the West Coast, by agreement and IOng .. established custom, ia always conceded a representative, and hat one now; and Pine1las would remain in the same Senatorial District; to the change. would not disturb the legislative representation s ituation at all. Finally The writer rnpeecfully submits chat the above statiatics and statement-and they are crue -absolutely prove that the organization of Pinellas County would not cost ito people any more than they are paying now; and that it would immensely benefit them in government matters alone. And everyone knows chat even that is the smallest part. of the expense co West Coast people in being compelled for all county business to journey across a amaH ocean and cake perhaps two days to transact it. There is not an argument to be brought against division tbat a little study of the above facts and figures will noc entirely dispose of. The writer intends no criticism of Tampa and its people A11 good citizens of the West Coast are proud of Tampa as one of the South's greatest citie._ But it is a. simple face that the big city of Tamp- with all big cities-in many ways causes for the county very heavy expense,._notably through the criminal records of a big city-nine murder cases at one court union, for instance-that tuch a community as ours of the West Coast has Httlt or no part in, except to help pay the bills And it is another imple fact that Pinellas Peninsula is so entirely and everluttngly cut off from the rest of Hillsborough County chat it is and would be impossible-for its people to receive anything like a reasonablt or fair share of the common benefits of government. The laws of nature and of humao natur e prohibit it; Under these circumstances, co compel the people of the West Coast co continue pulling on the short end of the evener-as we farmers would say-would be genuine oppression. Tampa could not afford that, even if she were so disposed toward us. The Legislature, as an intelligent and fair .. minded body, would not turn us down if the true condition s were made clear to it. And that thls thall be done is now up to the people of the West Coast, and now is the time. Concerted, harmonious action ,viJl accomplish it. Let all pull together for the common good. Cut out polities, and let no local issues arise Let there be no dissension OV'tr the county eeat. Much as tome might locally prefer otherwise, under the present conditions Clearwater is the place for it. Clearwater it must be; The writer has given all pbateo of the situation a good deal of study and research and h.e that earnest, fair, open harmonious work will secure from this Legislature the 'crea lion of Ptnellas County; and from the start it would be one of the best richest and motr populous countiee of Florida. The response to this appeal was immediate and strong, although by no means unanimous. There were property and political affiliations, and a sentimental affec tion for "Grand Old Hillsborough" to be overcome; and then, too, dividing Flor ida counties was not being done. But Representative W. W. K. Decker, of Tarpon Springs, passed the bill through the house in the 1907 session. Senator James E. Crane, of Tampa, who formerly resided in Pinellas and was the first mayor of Clearwater, was expected, because of his Pinellas ties, to pass it in the senate; and he doubtless would have done so but for an unexpected uprising of great fierceness


PART I-NARRATIVE 55 in Tampa. The pressure was too great, and, yielding to it, Senator Crane killed the bill. Through the political campaign of 1908 and the legislature of 1909 the second campaign was waged ; and again lost. But it was a quiet and unusual campaign. Realizing that Tampa could always name the senator, and that "senatorial courtesy" in the upper house would always enable an unfriendly senator to kill a county division bill, the Pinellas "secessionists began considering ways and means of bringing about the election of a friendly senator. Such a man was Don C Mc Mullen, prominent Tampa lawyer, born and bred in Pinellas. He yielded to Pinellas friends and became a candidate. But prohibition was a flaming issue in Florida politics then, and McMullen was--and is today---

56 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY. FLORIDA between the St Petersburg paper and the Tampa n e w spa pers for nearly a and so the Tampa cohorts pouring i n t o Talla hassee found the mselves up against a too solid wall of understanding on the part of the legislators. A glance at a page statement kept standi.ng in the St. :rimes that year finds some com parisons that are mteresting and mformahve. would be the forty-eighth c ounty and a s to siz e it w ould be Numb e r 48, w1th 20.5 square miles, the othe rs tapering all the way down from Lee with 4 ,64 1 square miles. But, notwithstanding its tiny area, Pinell a s would be twenty-third in popu lation, 13,193, with Duval leading with 75,163. And as to property valuation i t would be the twelf th, $3,800, 236, Duval l eadi ng with $20,27 8,733. The bill was pas sed by the house over the obje cting vote of the Pinellas anti division representative ele cted by Tampa votes, was permitted by Senator Mc Mullen to pass the senate, and was signed by Governor Albert Gilchr i st on May 23, 1911. The bill creating Pinellas Cou n t y re ads as follows: CHA PTER 6247(No. 128) AN ACT, Providing for the Creation of Pintllat County, in the State of Flo rida and for the Organization and Govtroment Thereof: BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF' THE STATE OF FLORI D A: Section 1. That the County of Pinellas be, and the same io hereby created an d establithed. Such county shall compris e and include all that territory of the County of Hilltborough as her e tofore e x is.tiog ducribed as follow: Commencing on the Gulf of Mtxioo at the lint udividing township s twenty a lx {26) a nd tw enty-seven (27)" south, thence running eut along said line to the northea1t corn er of seeti on on e u(l) in township twent y-aeven (27) sou th range ixtcen (16) eut, thence South" to the shore of Old Tamp Bay, thence in a sout herly direction thro ugh the ntera of Old Tampa a nd T ampa Bay t o a poin t in Tampa Bay due east of the north a hore of Mullet Key, thene< fro m uid point in Tampa Bay, due Wet to the Gul f o Muico, thenet northward alon g the coast to th e point of beginnin g Soc. 2. That aaid county shall b e a part of the Fint Congr .. sional District, a part of the Eleventh Senatorial District, and a part of the Sixth Judicial Circuit, and said county ahall ha v e one member hi the House of Repres entat ives of the State of Florida. Sec. 3 The Town of Clearwater shall be the County Seat of sa id county. Sec. 4. The Gov e rnor o f tht State shall, on or before the IStb day of December 1911, appoint all of the officers to which said county may be entitled under the Conatitu t i on and Laws o f the State of Florida. Sec. S. It sha ll be the duty of the Board of County Com missione rs to h o ld their first meeting on t he lint Tueod ay in January 1912; and at oai d meeting t hey shall m ake arrangementt for t e mporarily carrying on the County Gover nment. S oc. 6. II h all be th e duty of the Board of Public lnotruction of Pintllu County to hold their lint m ee tin g on the first Tuuday in January, 1912. Sec. 1 The Court s of C::ounty shall have ci vil and criminal jurisdic tion th roughout county over c.auses of achon whJcb shaH h ave acc::rued, and ove r crimes and misdemeanors w,hoch aha!! have been committed within the territory em braced in said county, as hereby con t b.tuted, pnor to the li!st df:Y of January, 1912, in the same manner and to the sam e e xtent 11 if ta1d county had beef! an e:ratence when suc:b cauau of actioo acerutd or such crimes or rDisde tneanort were comm_ ttted. Sec. 8 All actions !>d and all procee di ngs in guardianship o r administrat i on, ond any .and all ?the! acuons, prosecu uons or procee dings that may be p e n dong in Hill s b o r o ugh County, o Cucuu Court, or the County; Court. or any other tourf, or before any officer or of Pmellu Coun.ty wou ld have had exclusive j uisdiction if said county had bte, o in suchboamon or procuding wu insdtut ed shall be transferred to th e correspond !"I court o......,rdord ard o f Pinellas County having juri sdiCiion of such matters and all pltad ana paper an oeument h ' s m any way pertaJmng to any sue action prose cution or proc eedin g


PART I-NARRATIVE 57 sball b delivered by the Clerk, or other officer of Hillsborough County having custody thereof, to the proper officer o f P inella s County. Stc. 9. The Clerk of the Circuit Court of Pinellas County, or his autboried agent1 or deputy, shall procure from the r ecords in che office of the Clerk of che Circuic Courc of Hells borough Co unty a transcnpc of all such deeds, transfnable compensatio n tO be paid to said asse ssor for preparing a transcript o f his assessment roll as herein/rovided. and for any a n d all other extraordinary oervlceo wh ich sai d ass essor may be requirt to perform and the C ounty of Hillsborough t hall no t be required to pay for any servicu performed by said assessor durin g the year io re l ation to property and persons embraced in the territory of Pinellas County as hereby created. Sec. 13. The Auessor of Taxes for Pioellat County shall r eceive no compensation for the aueumeot of ta. x es o f said cou nty for the year 1911, but he shaH receive for such services aa he may perform after the firs t day o f January, 1 912, such reaS<>nable compensation u may b e agrLed on by the County Commissioners. Stc. 14. The Collector of T axes of H illsborough County shall be allowtd o r credited in bit settlement for the amount of a ll the ta.xu due on property or from persona vr-ithio aaid eouol)' of Pinellas as hereby created, for the (y

58 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA borough County and also upon an equitable division of the surplus funds that said board may have on band o; that may be owing to said board on the first day of January, 1912. See. J9. The Spring Term of the Circuit Court of Pinellas County shall be held on the second Tuuday in February and the Fall Term of the Circuit Court of said County shall be held on the second Tuesday in September in each year. Sec. 20. The foregoing sections of this Act shall take effect upon their ratification by the affirmative vote of tbreefifths of the votes cast at an election ro be held in the territory hereina before set forth at the County of Pinellu. SeC. 21. The election provid e d for in Section 20 of this Act shalt be held on the Second Tuesday of November, A. D. 1911. The County Commissioners and the Supervisor of Registra tion of Hilloborougb County shall dioeharge ouch duties in connection with the calling and hold ing of said eJection as are now required of them by law for general elections, and the !aid election shall be governed in all rupert by the law for holding gen.ral el ections, except as otherwite provided herein or not inconoistent herewith. Na notice of said eleetion shall be ncceaury. Those who are duly qualified to vote within the territorial limits of said proposed County of Pinellae shall be qualified electors at said election. Approved May 23, 1911. A big celebration was held at Clearwater, and a Pinellas County Club was organized to go out after the necessary three-fifths majority vote in the referendum required by the bill. Hon. John S. Taylor, of Largo, was chosen president; A. C. Turner, of Clearwater, vice-president; and C. H Evans, of Clearwater, secretary The severe test of a three-fifths majority had been put in the bill to prove to the legislature the faith of the Pinellas people in the strength of their cause. Tampa influences put up a hard fight in Pinellas, but in the referendum of November 14 the vote stood 1 ,379 for and 505 against, or 248 more than the necessary three-fifths. Still determined to control, Tampa then attacked the bill itself carrying the fight to the supreme court. Several fatal defects were alleged, but the principal one was that the boundary lines were too indefinite, referring to that part of the eastern boundary which ran from a certain section line at the head of the bay "in a southerly direction through the waters of Old Tampa and Tampa bay," etc., Tampa claiming that that was no line at all . The contention probably was correct in an exact sense, but because it was all in the water the supreme court decided that it was a sufficiently good line for its purpose. Governor Gilchrist having requested a primary for the nomination of the county officers to be appointed by him, one was held on December 1 S, resulting as follows: County commissioners, L. D. Vinson, Tarpon Springs; S. S. Coachman, Clear water; J. T. Lowe, Anona; F. A. Wood and 0. T. Railsback, St. Petersburg. County school commissioners, A. P. Beckett Tarpon Springs; W. A. Allen, Largo; A. F. Bartlett, St. Petersburg. Superintendent of schools, Dixie M Hollins, Clear water. Clerk of circuit court, C. W. Weicking St. Petersburg. Sheriff ; Marvel Whitehurst, Ozona. County judge, Leroy Brandon, Clearwater. Tax assessor, T. ]. Northrup, St. Petersburg. Tax collector, Eli B. McMullen, Largo County treasurer, A. C. Turner, Clearwater. Supervisor of registration, Albert S Meares, Anona. County surveyor, W. A. Rosseau, Dunedi n. And so, at last, on January 1, 1912, Pinellas, Florida's. forty-eighth, and today riches t and most populous county area considered, became a reality.


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UppuPintllnl County Ctwrl Ho11se, Cltar-u:aur. Lt>ttvtr-Millio nDollnr Cartslffl. 'tlf, C ltnr";;ater lo Buulr.


CHAPTER X I. GROWING PAI NS IT MUST be admitted that for a regrettab l e period entirely too much time and energy in the new county were given over to politics, and politics of the worst kind-county seat politic&-which was not at all helpful, but was perhaps inevitable under the classification of growing pains. Clearwater was named the county seat in the bill, but in St. Petersburg there was a small element that maintained that the designation was but temporary, and that only an election could determine the permanent location. C l earwater leaders not unnaturally suspected that this might be the general view in St. Petersburg, and as insurance against it the controlling three county commissioners, the "up-county" men, started right in to build a courthouse, even though a cheap and temporary structure, the intention being to take advantage of the Florida law prohibiting the holding of a county seat election within 20 years after t he building of a courthouse These commissioners built such a courthouse almost "over Sunday," and their tactics aroused the resentment of some St. Petersburg people who had not before shown any active int erest in the matter This increasing political antagonism between the "up-county" and St. Petersburg led to the defeat of a $300,000 good roads bond issue much favored by the latter, and then things got worse The "up-county" commission majority undertook to levy a 5-mill 5-year direct tax for a real court house but were stopped by the courts. On February 3, 1916, an election was held for $160,000 bonds for a courthouse and jail, and a solid "up-county" vote together with a considerable support in St. Petersburg carried them. And in March 1917 the supreme court got around to it and quieted everything with a decision confirming Clearwater's possession of the county sea t for at least 20 years. Mistaken zeal on the one hand and suspicion on the other had troubled the fair little county for five years, but the situation had worked out finally precisel y as planned in the beginning. With the bond issue of $160,000 for a courthouse and jail were built what was expected to be a structure adequate for those purposes for many years It proved however, to be only the first unit It included the main building as now seen from the eastern front, and a jail. The work was completed in 1917 during the admin istration of County Commissioners John S. Taylor, chairman, C. E. Jackson, Dr. Byrd McMullen, George Edwards and George W. Stahl; F. J. Kennard, of Tampa, being the architect, and the Bates, Hudnall & Jetton Company contractors From this well managed enterprise came to the new county the rather unique distinction of a fine courthouse completed on time and within the fund appropriated for it. But by 1924 the building had become quite inadequate, and $35,000 of time war rants were issued for the first addition, now comprising the office of clerk of the circuit court, with two stories and .a basement. F. J. Kennard was the architect, and B F. Walker & Sons the contractors.


62 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Only two years elapsed before the ever-increasing bus i ness deman ded still more room, and in 1926 Architect Kennard was called in to plan the second addition, which included a two-story commissioners office, an additional court room and basement, together with another story and other equipmen t to the jail. B. F. Walker & Sons were the contractors, the county commission being E H. Beckett W. L. Hackney, W. T. Harrison, R. H Sumner and John P. Lynch CouNTY BoARD oF TRADE During this unpleasant and unprofitable fussing an influen ce that went far towards maintaining a true county spirit that could not be dissipated by political squabbling was that of the Pinellas Coun t y Board of Trade. Again responding to appeals by the St. Petersburg Times a large number of citizens met for the purpose at Clearwater on November 25, 1913, and o rganized the County Board of Trade. W. L. Straub, editor of the St. Petersbu rg Tim es, was chosen its first president. And L. D. Vinson, of Tarpon Springs; J. E. Rebstock, Sutherland; Geo. W. Camp beli, Safety Harbor; R. H. Padgett, Clearwater; S. T. Johnson, Largo; A. W. Thomas, Pinellas Park; A. L. J ohnson, St. Peter s burg; vice-presidents. ]. C Beekm an, Tarpon Springs, secretary; H. W. Bivens, Clearwater, treasurer. A board of governors consisted of the above together with J. B Reed and G. E. Noblitt, Tarpon Springs ; J. C. Craver and J. F. Chamberlain, Sutherl and and Ozona; C. M. Smith and C. Roehlig, Safety Harbor ; J H. Davidson, Clearwater; M. G. Knight and J A. Walsingham, Largo; H F. Brennan and P. J. McDevitt, Pinella s Park; R. S. Hanna and A. L. Whitney, St. Petersburg. The objects, of course, were the promotion of all co unty-buildin g interests and activitie s. The organization met quarterly at the different towns, and the member ship reached the 1,000 mark. Its two principal undertakings were a county road system, and the enactment of a County Park Board law. The first it pushed through to complete success, and the latter resulted in the enactment of what was locally known as the "County Beauti ful Bill;" which, how ever, depended upon a referen dum election, which was never called. Like many simi lar organizations it was permitted t o fall back and out; but the system of roads it success ully sponsored is felt amply to have justified its too-brief existence It helped materially to foster the county -wide spirit that enabled the county to proce ed so notably with its two principal missions, the building of schools, and of roads; as to which Pinellas has no peer in Florida. TH SJ::COND RArLROAD The year 1914 saw the second railroad traversing Pinellas peninsula, this time between Tampa and St. Petersb urg. In 1911 Chas. H. Lutz, an energetic Florida lumberman and builder whose homes at various times were at various points, including Tarpon Springs and St. Petersburg, promoted a!ld built a line from the Tampa Northern some miles above Tampa to Tarpon Springs, called the Tampa and Gulf Coast railroad, and his in tention was to extend it to St. Petersburg. As the line would necessarily parallel


PART I-NARRATIVE 63 the Atlantic Coast Line rather closely, it did not arouse great public interest, and many property owner s refused to give any righ t-o f way, and although St. Peters burg voted it a city franchise, that route wa s abandoned. But Mr. Lutz persevered in true Demens f ashion and eventually built the road from a junction over in H illsborough county di rec t t o St. Petersburg by w ay of Safety Harbor, Clearwater a n d Largo. Several other stations were established al o ng the line, and later led to the building of the town of Tampash o r es, firs t cal led Oldsmar at the h ea d of the bay. The Tampa and Gulf Coast railroad had almost a s much trouble getting into St. Petersb urg as the Orange Belt did, althou g h of differen t kind. The people, what there were of t hem, were anxious enough for the Orange Belt, but Mr. Demens Jacked m oney; Mr. Lutz had the money but some St. Pe te r sburg people did not want hi s ra i droad. However, with the aid of a committee, consisti ng of John N Brown ]. S. Davis, Roy S. H anna, A. F. Bartlett, A. C Pheil, Noel A. Mitchell and J. F rank H arrison, the n ecessary right-of-way l a nds were procu r ed to enab le the roa d t o reach as far in as Eighth street and Seco nd avenue so uth, the site of the present station. A great cele bration greeted the arrival of t he first train on September 22, 1914, bringing in 1 ,500 enthusiastic excursionists from "up the county" and from Tampa. In due time the Tampa and Gulf Coast w as acquired by the Seaboar d Air L ine Railroad Company, and thereby Pinellas county and the city of St. Petersburg became one of the terminals of another of the nation's g reat ra ilroad systems. PttOBIBI'l'ION An early mov emen t in the new county w as by the prohibition people against the saloons. Upon petition, a county local option el ection was held on J uly 2, 1913, and the drys won, 778 to 668. But the wets con tested the election and s u ccee ded in having it set aside. The drys started all over again, and on February 3 1914, another election was held It was much more bitterly contested than the first one, and the insistent argwnent that going dry would only mean that Pinellas folks w ould s pen d thei r liquor and so me other money in Tampa instead o f at home, raised enough doubt i n the minds of the voters to r e v erse their fonner p:iecisio n 902 to 798. As the technical error on which the first election was annulled by the courts was strong ly sus pected of being an intentional one on the part o f cou nty officials, the drys only tightened their annor and renewed the attack The Davis packag e law enacted at Tallahassee in 1915 was of cons iderable effectiveness, and made it hard for the saloons. It closed them at 6 o'clock in the e v e ning, prohibited drinking on the premises, and permitted no sal es of less than one pint. It made some saloons so d iscouraged that they wen t out of bu siness. The dry forces still moved on, and petitioned f o r another county el ec t ion to have beut held on July 28, 1917, but a supreme court order stopped it on some legal Raw. And then, on November 5, 1918, the whole iss ue was finally disposed of when the prohibition amendment to the constitution of Florida was ratified b y a s weeping majority, of which Pinellas f u rn i shed a 557 to 146 vote.


CHAPTR XII. PUBLIC SCHOOLS AONG with good roads, the first thought and action of its people when the "baby" county of Florida was organized were to put every ounce of pur pose and effort behind the creation of a system of county schools the best in this state and not excelled in any state; and this ambition has been carried through to success The early history of schools on the peninsula could tell but little, even if all the facts could be established. During its first years, before the war, the settlers were too few and too far apart to make possible the building of school houses. When it is said "far apart" on a peninsula only from four to fifteen miles wide, it should be remembered that in addition to the forests the land generally was covered with densely growing bushes, shrubs and small trees, jammed with tall grass, that made a jungle difficult to penetrate, with streams of water everywhere, and that there were no roads, and little to use them with if there had been. So-a mile, or half a mile between neighbors was a long way. The first structure used for school purposes of which record can be obtained was built by the always enterprising "Captain Jim" McMullen near his homestead at early in the '50's, a little cabin that later was replaced by the church and school house receiving the name Sylvan Abbey, the name of the first cemetery which is still in well-kept use there. The first real school house undoubtedly was the Taylor school house, built in 1857 by the JohnS. Taylor of that day on a site about a quarter of a mile south of the eastern end of the Druid Road of today, extending out of Clearwater, and on what is now the Sevier place. This was a central point in its time, and children attended school there from considerable distances in all directions. As settlement slowly progressed after the war, schools were held in various neighborhoods, in various kinds of buildings, and from them in due time grew pioneer school bwldings here and there. The development impetus of the eighties and the railroad and the beginning of real villages and towns brought schools and school buildings commensurate with the growth. At Tarpon Springs, at Dunedin, Clearwater and St. Petersburg, school buildings of suitable pretensions for the time were built, as well as substantial rural school buildings at various points on the peninsula So that when Pinellas became a county in 1912 the records of its first school show the following: There were 25 school houses in the county, 21 for white children and four for colored. There was a total enrollment of 3,263 pupils, 2,741 of which were white and 522 colored. The total number of teachers was 89, of whom 77 were white and 12 colored. The operating cost was $114,294.86 The total value of


PART I-NARRATIVE 65 all school properties was $161,346. The assessed valuation for the county was $7,712,383. The progress of the schools from t hat time to the present is well tol d in the following tables: NUMBER NUMBER NUMBJ!R PERCENTAG!t YEAR oF ScHooLS OF TACHRS OF PUPILS OF INCREAS 13 25 89 3,263 1 8 34 133 4,781 46percent 23 38 215 7,693 60percent 24 44 273 9,293 21 percent 25 47 356 1 2,288 32percent 26 51 518 1 7 ,721 44percent 27 56 623 18 ,997 7 percent 28 60 511 15,192 *25 per cent 29 60 470 12,8 1 4 *19 per cent (estimated) *Decrease SALARIJ!S PUPII. PR VALUF OF 0PRATING CAPITACosr ScHOOL YI!AII TACHJ!RS CosTs (OPERATING) PROPRTY 13 $39134.13 $ 114,294 .86 White Colored $ 16 1 ,346 18 97,528 .00 125,750 .00 30.00 6.44 435,236 23 192,063 .38 229,303.00 34.00 7.00 976,028 24 254,515.00 302,562.00 36.70 9.56 1,429.668 25 344,450 .00 476,649.00 44.56 11.04 2,409,729 26 544123 .00 657,088.00 41.45 14.08 4,575,862 27 685,153 .00 1,041,700.00 62.47 16.12 6,487,7 1 8 28 595,476.28 869,814 .08 74.24 16.16 7,423,451 29 545,486.06 752,135.05 69.33 14.12 6,999,509 (estimated) (estimated) (estimated) (estimated) It will be noted from these tables that the year 1927 saw the highest pupil en rollment in the county's history, and that the figures have declined since. No tui tion for scholars from other states is charged in Pinellas county, and a large percentage i n that high figure of 18,997 that has since been reduced was from the thousands of families temporarily engaged in the real estate business here during "the boom," and others ind i rectly drawn here by it. The outstanding facts arc that in this present year of 1929 the estimated total enrollment in the schools of Pinellas county is in excess of that of 1925; and that from $2,409,729 of that year its school properties have been increased to the value of $7,000,000. The schools of Pinellas county, like all its other lines of business and en deavor, are back to the sound conditions of pre-boom days, and also have all the


66 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA magnificent plants and equipmcnt s brought about by them for present and future use. Dixie M. H ollins, then of Clea r water, was the first county superintenden t servin g from 1912 to 1920, when he declined to stand for reelection. H e was succeeded by R. S. Blanton, also of Clearw ater, who served until 1929, wh e n he was succeeded by Captain G eorge M. L ynch, of St. Pet e rsburg A F Bartlett, of St. Pe tersburg, chairman; W. A. Allen, of Largo, and A. P. Beckett, of Tarpon Springs, com posed the first county board of educa tion ]. C. Blocker of St. Petersb urg; A. M Lowe of Tarpo n Springs; C. C Carr, of St. Pet ersburg; J S. McMullen o f Largo; Dr. Grace Whitford, of Ozona; Dr. Geo. W. F itch, of St. Petersburg; Mrs. Ada Fernald, of Tarpon Sprin gs ; Arthur N o rwood, of St. Petersburg; H. H. Baskin, of Clearwater; Geor ge B. Merr e ll of Anona; Mrs. Esther F Bradley of St. Peters burg and George W. Kersey, of Tarpon Springs; also have served on the board for various terms. G eorge B. Mer rell, chairman ; Mrs. Esth er F Bradley, and George F. K e rsey, comprise the present board.


CHAPT:tR XIII. PINELLAS ROADS P INI.l.AS CouNTY possesses a highway system which is a source of pride to i t s citizens and of joy to its residents and visitors alike. I t is doubtful, indeed, if any county in the United States can claim so many miles of excellent paved roads in proportion to its area. Over this entire county, which is only 34 miles long and 15 miles wide in the widest section, is a network of well-paved hi ghways, linking together every hamlet, town and city, affording motor drives and the best of transportation advantages. What is more astoni s hing, moreove r, is the fact that all these highways have been developed within the past decade, and by far the greater part of them within the' past four years. The oldest settlers tell of something they called "roads" on Pinellas peninsula away back before the war and soon after, but this historian does not know just what they could have been like, for when he first knew the land in 1900 there were no signs of roads other tha n trails winding through the woods. Sometime along in the 'SO's t he commi ssioners of Hillsborough county caused a "road" to be opened from the Clear Wate r Harbor settlement to the head of the bay on the way to Tampa; and Tampa stockmen, who had cattle on the St. Petersburg end, had another one opened as an extensi on from what became known as the "Old Tampa Road." Presumably opening these roads meant cutting swaths or large paths through the woods and jungles, and they could not have stayed open for long for n one but the pioneers of that day ever knew afterwards where they had been. People going anywhere pretty generally just kept going until they got there, s ome way and somehow. This condition changed in degree but not very much in character with the passing of time and the increase of population and traffic until after the eampaign f o r county division opened up in earnest in 1906, one of the complaints of the would-be "seceders" being that the West Coa st-Pinellas get no r oads from a county government seated awa y across the bay in Tampa. Speeded up by this insurgent movement if not really caused by it, a real road for those days, a graded and shelled road, was constructed by Hillsbor ough county from Tampa to Ozona. Most of the people of Pinellas then as now lived in and around St. Petersburg, and that road came nowh e re near St. Petersburg, and im proved their situation almost none a t all; and the West Coast county commissioner obtaining it, Willard Whitehurst, lived in the Ozona section; arid he and the Tampa commissioners were roundly roasted. But perhaps unjustly, for any road to Pinellas must pass north of the bay and once pas t it was almost at Ozona and scarcely coul d have gone anywhere else . If that road had been extended on south t o St. Petersburg the creation of Pinellas county might have been delayed i ndefi nitely. But it was not. A bridge across Long Bayou at Seminole was indeed built


68 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA but as it fell down as soon as finished and was not rebuilt, that did not make the Pinellas insurgents any better humored. As soon as the county was organized the good roads boosters, especially in the St. Petersburg end, got. busy ; but the county seat wrangle got in the way and caused delay. A bond election for $300,000 was held on June 4, 1912, but lost because of that wrangle. Another one for $370,000 was held December 3, 1912, which the outstanding votes of St. Petersburg carried. It called for a system of rock or semi-hard surfaced roads; but as it provided for certain pieces of road here and there, after its completion the county did not have a paved road connecting up any of its principal cities or towns. Maintenance in those days was practically un known, and in a short time these rock roads were rough and fuU of holes. The need of a more substantial class of road, and of a county-wide connected system, became apparent to all ; but materials and locations were moot ed questions, and it looked very like the big job that it was; and the final solution came through the Pinellas County Board of Trade. By authority of this board, its president, W L. Straub, appointed a road committee of ten members, one representing each town and community, for the purpose of planning a county system of roads and having preliminary surveys and cost estimates made therefor. This committee was as follows: S. T. Johnson, chairman, Largo; P. J. McDevitt, secretary, Pinellas Park; G. E. Noblit, Tarpon Springs; Will Wood, Sutherland; L. B. Skinner, Dunedin; DeLisle Hagadorn, Clearwater; R. J. Knight, Safety Harbor; F. E. Grable, Semi nole; J. F. Harrison, St. Petersburg; N B. McKinney, Gulfport. Pass-a-Grille was the only point not included, but being on an island it was deemed out of reach at that time. In the meantime the first faction-split board of county commissioners had given way to one of a very different kind. Hon. John S. Taylor, of Largo, chairman, had yielded to the call for service, George Edwards and George W. Stahl were from St. Petersburg, D. Byrd McMullen, from the Clearwater district, and C. E. Jackson the Tarpon Springs district These officials sanctioned and supported the work of the County Board of Trade, whose committee spent a year working out plans for a county system of brick roads that all sections would agree to, and it was a year well spe nt for the new county, resulting in an election in August, 1915 for $715,000 of bonds for 75 miles of 9-foot vitrified brick roads, laid on a natural sand base with concrete curbing The bonds were bitterly fought by an element of voters, but carried, 808 to 629. The opposition attacked them in court and won on a legal technicality. Another election was immediately called for November, the bonds again carrying that time 827 to 754. The roads were completed in the early part of 1917, under the supervision of County Engineer Clement McMullen, and thus Pinellas County began to enjoy its first system of real paved roads. As a result of this system of roads property values increased, suburban property was developed and motor vehicle traffic in creased several hundred per cent. These roads were partially maintained until the traffic became very heavy and the maintenance cost prohibitive, and in 1922 the B011rd of County Commissioners working in connection with County Engineer C. E.


PART I-NARRATIVE Burleson, who had succeeded Mr. McMullen, began plans for the first modem system of standard type highways to serve each section of Pinellas County. The plans included the rebuilding of the old 9-foot brick roads and incorporat ing the brick in the new system and which were to be laid on a substantial base. The old bricks were salvaged after 8 years and relaid at a saving of $156,000 over new brick of no better quality. Practically a year was spent by the County Engineer in making surveys, physical valuations of materials in the old roads, com pleting plans and making estimates for the new system, and on June 5, 1923, a bond issue was practically unanimously voted approving the issuance of $2,863,000.00 to complete the new system including all bridges to be built or rebuilt of reinforced concrete to widths of from 20 to 40 feet. In December, 1923, contracts were awarded for the construction of the above system of roads which provided for approximately 100 miles of modern paved highways in widths of from 16 to 40 feet. After the construction work was well under way, the progressive citizens of the County seeing the advantage of modern paved highways began to ask for the creation of Special Road and Bridge Districts which would provide connecting systems with the Main County Highway roads The county commissioners at this time were W. T. Harrison, Clearwater, chairman, E. H. Beckett, Tarpon Springs, R. B. Sutton, Dunedin, and R. H. Sumner and ]. P. Lynch, St. Petersburg. During the period of 1924-25-26, twelve Special Road and Bridge Districts were created and bonds approved and sold in the amount of $6,251,000, which bond issues provided for approximately 167 miles of modern paved highways and including many large reinforced concrete bridge structures and three causeways con necting the mainland with the Gulf Beaches. During the years 1924-25-26-27-28, Pinellas County voted bonds and con structed a system of paved roads and bridges which is said by many to be the finest system of County Highways in the southern part of the United States, which system not only serves through traffic in and out of the county but serves every community, village, town or city within the limits of the county and forms numerous paved loops over which the tourists may ride, selecting any length of loop they desire. In order to show the vastness of the amount of work involved in building the above system of roads a few figures are shown herewith : The system includes the construction of 1,130,000 square yards of asphalt block, 324,000 square yards of vitrified brick, 8,700 square yards of reinforced concrete, 425,000 square yards of bituminous macadam, 440,000 square yards of bituminous surface treatment and 25,000 square yards of miscellaneous types of asphalt paving, making a total of 2,352,700 square yards of paving which does not include the surface over numerous bridges which constitute many thousand yards. The county system of roads also includes some 58 bridges constructed of reinforced concrete totalling 11,695 lineal feet of structure, the construction of which involved the use of hundreds of thousands of tons of sand, cement, rock and steel. The work of building Pinellas County's wonderful highway system was under the direction of the Board of County Commissioners and under the direct super vision of the County Engineer. Traffic census were taken at several different


70 HISTORY OF PIN ELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA points immediately after the road system was completed and figures obtained show that the traffic in Pinellas County increased during the period from 1923 to 1928 approximately 2,000 per cent and many of the main roads in the county during the height of the season, which is usually February and March, carry as many as 10,000 vehicles per day, some roads averaging 5 000 per day for a period of 60 to 75 days. The Board of County Commissioners were fully aware of the importance of maintaining a system of roads such as Pinellas county now enjoys and maintenance crews are kept constantly at work watching for even the smallest break that might appear in the pavement, and roads that were completed as far back as the latter part of 1924 have been maintained in an excellent condition and the system as a whole is intact and in fine condition at this time. Between the period of beginning and end of construction of the county's system of roads, property values throughout the county increased from the standpoint of taxable valuation from approximately $12,000,000.00 to $39,000,000.00. Pinellas county's complete road system today consists of approximately 600 miles of public roads There are 325 miles paved, approximately 150 miles opened and graded and now carry traffic and a good many miles which have received no improvement whatever but will be opened up and gra'cfed as conditions may require. This system not only consists of direct traffic routes between all cities, towns and sections of the county, but, in keeping with the tourist and "Nation's Play ground" fame of the peninsula, it includes several purely scenic pleasure routes of the highest charm in Florida. Chief of these is the "Scenic Highway" practically surrounding Boca Ciega bay, with the most beautiful bridge to Pass-a-Grille Key at the lower end and the Madeira Beach causeway and bridge at the upper end. Others are the famous causeway and bridge to Clearwater Beach, and the shore arives from Dunedin to Ozona, from Bayview to Safety Harbor, and from Safety Harbor to the Safety Harbor bridge. In addition to the mileage of roads paved in Pinellas county during the past four years, the cities and towns of the county have paved wide streets and boule vards in proportion to the county's work and there are no doubt 1200 or 1500 miles of paved roads and streets within the limits of Pinellas county, all of a high-class standard type, and no doubt the combined value of this work constitutes the greatest investment in a network of highways, streets, boulevards and causeways of any county within the limits of the United States. There are many interesting features in connection with highway work in the county. Being more or less fiat or of slightly rolling topography, one would think that drainage features were not important. However, when it is considered this is a semi-tropical climate and that we are subjected to almost tropical rains, it is necessary for drainage structures to carry off rainfall as high as 5 or 6 inches during a period of twenty-four hours This, of course, seldom occurs, but drainage struc tures must be provided to adequately handle maximum rainfall. As an example, showing the enormous amount of work that can be accomplished in this section on account of ideal weather conditions, Pinellas county awarded a contract for the construction of a causeway which required a period of nine months . to.completc. The contractors had a very efficient organization and adequa t e equipment and the work was prosecuted steadily from the commencement of the contract to the com-


PART I-NARRATIVE 71 pletion, and accurate records compiled by the contractor and engineer show that only 40 hours' working time was lost on account of inclement weather. This, perhaps, is a record for the United States. With reference to the method of how Pinellas county handles contracts and execution of the work, bids are invited and contracts awarded usually to the lowest competent and responsible bidder, and the successful contractor is required when signing the contract to furnish a surety bond in the amount of 100% of his contract, which bond must be executed by a reputable bonding company authorized to do business in the State of Florida. After the execution of the contract the work is turned over to the County Engineer, who handles the entire project through to completion and final estimates, and the work is accepted and paid for upon the recommendation of the County Engineer, and no final estimates are ever allowed on a contract until the contractors furnish the county a sworn affidavit to the effect that all their bills are paid and that no &uit& are pending against their firm in connection with the contract. In the construction of a $10,000,000.00 road and bridge program, Pinellas county can proudly boast of the fact that they have com pleted their work according to plans and specifications without a single case of litigation with either contractors or concerns furnishing materials for the work. GANtJY BR!!>G The story of Pinellas county roads cannot be properly closed without refer ence to a structure built through private enterprise which at the time of its com pletion was the most notable of its class--the longest over-water highway in the world-Gandy toll bridge, which spans old Tampa bay at a point six miles north of St. Petersburg and eight miles south of Tampa, bringing these two cities to within twenty miles of each other, and was formally opened on November 20, 1924. The bridge, which is six miles in length from shore to shore, was built through the efforts of George S. ("Dad") Gandy, who concentrated on the idea for years before he was able to realize his dream. The idea was first conceived in 1903, but nothing definite was done until 1915, when Mr. Gandy engaged a corps of engineers to survey both shores A company for the building was fonned in 1917. Through the efforts and inftue!lce of Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, Congressman Herbert ). Drane, Representative S D. Harris, State Senator John S. Taylor, and others, necessary legislation and pennits were granted on February II, 1918. The World War caused further delay, and financial conditions did not warrant going ahead with the bridge until late in 1920. Plans for financing the project were worked out, and in the autumn of 1922 Gandy bridge stock was offered on the market. The bridge cost approximately $3,000,000. The first sand was pumped for the long causeways on September 26, 1922, and pile-driving was begun in July, 1923. The opening of the bridge was cause for great celebration, at which guests of honor were the governors of many states of the Union who were holding conven tion in Florida at that time. Serving with George S. Gandy, Sr., on the board of directors of the Gandy Bridge Company were: A. L. Gandy, secretary and treasurer of the company and superintendent of construction; T. J. Heller, George S. Gandy, Jr., and C W. Greene, of Tampa.


CHAPTER XIV. INSTITUTIONS PINELLAS CouNTY FAIR P INLLAS has a county fair that is unique in Florida and has only one counter part in the entire United States, being owned and conducted by the county itself. Like so many things in the newer Florida, its beginning was marked by many difficulties, and its final success was due to the unflagging public spirit and labOr of a few citizens, these, in this instance being women. The first fair was held b y the Woman's Club of Largo, January 25-27, 1917. Early in the preceding year, at a meeting held at the home of Mrs. Mary Edget, the chief topic of discussion was the offer of a traveling amusement company to furnish a three-day program of a musical and litera r y character under the auspices of the club, who were to guarantee three hundred dollars. The president of the club, Mrs. Marcia Tritt, suggested that the club keep that amount of money at home by furnishing a three-day program themselves, in the form of a fair which would s how the resources of Pinellas county to the winter tourist and visitor. After an earnest discussion the club unanimou sly voted to hol d a fair during three days the coming January Various committees were appointed, and from that time till the close of the fair the member s of the club worked untiringly as a unit for the success of their venture. As so often happens, when the fair dates approached the expected help from the man-power, with a few notable exceptions, was found wanting; but the women and a few men helpers carried on, and the fa ir, though small, was splendidly sue cessful. I t was held at the Town Hall and the agricultural building for the first fair was made of slabs from a nearby lumber mill, which were donated to the club, the roof being made of palmetto leaves. Because of lack of funds, the only premiums offered at the first fair were ribbons. This fair was so successful that a group of business men, composed of Dr. Bob McMullen, JohnS. Taylor, J. A. Walsingham, M W. Ulmer, W. A. Allen, who was at that time editor of the Largo Sentinel, and Mr. F R. Francke, and others, became interested and organized the Pinellas County Fair Association, with F. R. Francke as its first president. At the end of that year J. A. Walsingham was elected president and served in that capacity until 1925, when the fair was taken over by the Board of County Commissioners of Pinellas county For the first five years of the fair an admission fee of fifty cents was charged, wh en in 1923 this was reduced to thirty-five cent s. In 1924, at the suggestion of Frank A. Bradbury who served long and faithfully as secretary to Pinellas County Fair Association, it was decided that more success would be obtained by cutting out admission fees altogether and making it a free county fair. During the early days of the fair the present site was purchased by the Fair Association, but there were no funds with which to erect suitable buildings. The Board of County Commissioners of Pinellas county became interest ed in the work


PART I-NARRATIVE 73 of the Fair Association and made a contribution annually towards its maintenance. The fair continued to grow, and in 1925 all stock of the County Fair Associa tion, including th e deed to the land owned in fee simple, was assigned and trans ferre d to the county of Pinellas free of charge with the under s tanding that the Boar d of County Commissioners would maintain a free fiur The board at that time was compo se d of E. H Beckett as chairman; ;R. H. Sumner, J. P. Lynch, W T. Harrison and W. L. Hackney. Realizing that Pinellas county's free fair was invaluable a s an advert is ing medium and that they were without authority of law to build and equ i p a f r ee county fa ir, the y had enacted a special law which authorized the s ale of bond s in the sum of $50,000 for this purpo s e As is always the rule with Pinellas county's securities, the bonds sold at a premium and the proceeds derived therefrom w e re used for building and equipping Pinellas count y 's free fair just as it s tands today Much credit i s due to th e Women' s C lub of Larg o as being the originator s of the fair, and als o to Dr. Bob McMullen, J. A. Walsingham, Bill Schooley, Frank A. Bradbury, A B Count s, F R. Fran c k e, Drew Lewis, M. W Ulmer and others who have st ood by and don e th e ir part i n making th e fair a success COUNTY RON Pinellas county operates o ne of the finest County Homes in the state, handling depen d ent and deli n quent juv e niles as well as indigent adults The home located on Misso uri avenue near Larg o, has been in use for two years and i s the materializa tion of a dream by R. H. Sumner, who was a member of the board of county com missioners and conceived the idea of building the home. Commissioner Sumner was supported by other members of the board and in 1926 bonds were sold totalling $200 000 which brought a premium of $6,200. Before these bond s were iss ued, howeve r Karl B. O'Quinn, clerk of the circuit court, prepared a law and which was enacted by the legislature authorizing the issuance of bonds for this p urpose The law was general, applying to all counties which could conf orm to its requirements This law was passed by the 1925 session of the legislatur e and was applicable in counties with a certain population and with an as s essed valua tion in 1924 of more than $32,500,000. Pinellas, of course, met these requirements. Another requirement was that the county must own the land in fee simple upon which the home would be built The $200 000 bond issu e covered the cost of the h o me, equipment and main tenance. The detention home for juveniles is maintained on the home grounds in order that these children may be separated from the hardened criminal atmos phere of the county jail, where they had been placed before that time M B. Welch and

74 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA is known as the "old folks' home." The large main building is used principally to house dependent j uveniles. The three smaller buildings are now used as quarters for negroes that had been used by the county for a year or so to handle! its dependent children and adults. Raymond R. Orcutt has been superintendent of the hom e s ince it was estab lished. He is directly responsible to the board of coun ty commissioners for hi8 work and makes a monthly report of all expenses and any other information con cerning the home's maintenance. There were 58 inmates at the Home on March 1, his last report shows, including 35 dependent children, three delinquent juveniles and 20 indigent adults. The home is modern in every respec t. A trained nurse is kept on hand at all times while the county physician handles any illness which arises among the inmates. The Home has a hospital ward, and school rooms where sessions are held each day. A certain amount of religious training is included in the daily routine of the children. A committee consisting of two county commissioners and the clerk of court, who is secretary to the board, oversees the operation of the Home One of the commissioners is in direct charge of the farm which is operated in connection with the Home. Much interest in the children and adults at the Home has been shown by citizens throughout the county and frequently the inmates are guests of some moving picture theatre owner at a movie show. Religious societies also have taken interest in the Hqme and there are services of some kind every Sunday under the auspices of various church organizations. MASONIC ROMJ:: OJ! Fl.OR.IDA The Masonic Grand Lodge of Florida voted in 1917 to establish a home for aged people and children in the state, and appointed a committee of prominent" Masons to select a site for the project. The committee visited in various parts of the state, offers having been re ceived from a number of cities, and alluring inducements made for the building of the institution. At length St. Petersburg was decided upon, and in 1918 suitable property was purchased north of Coffee Pot Bayou, on which Captain Mclrvin had built a girls' school several years previously. The school had proved unsuc cessful, and the large dormitories had been converted into a hotel by the St. Peters burg Investment Company and operated by this firm for a season or two. The finished buildings were a valuable asset in the founding of such a home as the Masons were contemplating, and added to this inducement was the fact that a citizens' committee composed of Lew B. Brown, A. P. Avery and Ed. T. Lewis, made a personal guarantee to the Grand Lodge for certain promises should the home be brought to St. Petersburg. The Masonic Home of Florida was dedicated in 1919 at the January session of the Grand Lodge. The first guest to arrive was Miss Wynella Helton, of Barrett Lodge, Live Oak, Florida, on April 21. In making plans for the establishment of the home, the Grand Lodge placed the project under control of a board of trustees who, in tum, would appoint an


PART I-NARRATIVE 7 5 executive conunittee to have direct charge. The officers of the board with one exception, have served ever since. They are: E. E. Haskell, Palatka, president; Marcu s Endel, Jacksonville, treasurer; Mrs. Corrie W Harris, Tampa; ex-Gover nor Albert W. Gilchrist, Punta Gorda; and Dr. A. S. York, St. Petersburg At the death of ex-Governor Gilchrist, Judge LeRoy Brandon, of Clearwater, was e lected to fill the vacancy. The board of trustees appointed the executive couunittee as follows : Judg e Brandon, chairman; E. C. Reed secretary, and Mrs. Mary C. Engli sh. I.n 1927, at the death of Mrs. English, Mrs. Emily E. Jefferies was appo inted. Also, tw o new members were added: F. B. Duryea, who was named vice-chairman, and Robert Walden. The admission and discharge committee, appointed in 1919, and still serving, were Dr. York, Mrs. Jefferies and Mr. Duryea. With the opening of the building early in 1919 a Mrs. Wether ington w as se lected as matron and caretaker After a short time she was succeeded by Mrs. Walter H. Johnson as matron, and Mr. Johnson was made superintendent of buildings and grounds. The Johnsons resigned after nearly four years, in the summer of 1924, and Mr. and Mrs. J. H Marvel were placed in charge. They served until January 16, 1928, when the office of matron was discontinued, and R. I. Matthews was engaged as s uperintend ent of the home Several Mason s and Eastern Stars of Pinellas county have served on the various committees functioning in the operation of the institution Accommodations having become inadequate after several years, a new build ing for the aged guests was planned in 1927 and the cornerstone laid on October 8 of that year. The building was completed and occupied in January, 1928. The Masonic Home of Florida is maintained as a real home for both children and aged people. In 1929 there are 115 children in the home as guests, the youngest being two years. The oldest guest is Mrs. Margaret Netf, aged 84, who, incidentally, was the sixth person to arrive after the home was opened. There are thirty -seven aged peop l e. Special attention is given the children, the object being to create a nonnal home life for them as nearly as possible, and to fit them for congenial vocations No child is discharged until be, or she, is capable of making a living. The chil dren are sent to the St. Petersburg public schools, and in various ways drawn into all phases of the city's community life giving them erery possibk advantage Of the o lder people, both Masons and Eastern Stars are admitted as guests.


CHAPTER XV. MISCELLANEOUS Woru.D WAR PINELLAS county did its share toward winning the World War by giving of men to the service, oversubscrib i ng Liberty Loan and War Savings drives, generously responding to calls of the Red Cross, and making other necessary sacrifices. The tragedy of the war was first felt in the county in 1916, when word came of the death of Tony Jannus, daring aviator who had been brought by Glenn Curtis, airplane builder, to St. Petersburg, and who through his aviation activities had become known throughout Pinellas. Mr. Jannus was killed in the Russian Aero Service on October 12, 1916. The first draft registration, on June 5, 1917, called many Pinellas county men. The Coast Artillery Company left St. Petersburg for Fort Dade on Sep tember 12, and after that men left to enter some branch of the service almost every month until the end of the war. John N. Brown, county clerk during the war and now mayor of St. Petersburg, was in charge of the registTation Every one of the four Liberty Loan drives was well oversubscribed by every community in the county, under the chairmanship of A. F. Thomasson. W. L. Straub was county chairman for the War Savings Stamps campaign throughout the war, the sales of which far exceeded the quota assigned. The Red Cross organizations were most active in the various Pinellas com munities, raising funds, furnishing supplies of various kinds and providing com forts and necessities for the enlisted men. There was an attempt to organize a county chapter, but the city organizations found that they could function better separately, so the county idea did not materialize. R. H. Thomas was chairman of the St. Petersburg chapter; J H. Davidson, of the Clearwater chapter; and there was also a chapter in Tarpon Springs. Some time after the war the Clear water and Tarpon Springs chapters were consolidated under the name of the Clearwater and P i nellas county chapter, with headquarters in Clearwater. Fol lowing Mr Davidson, Mr. J. C. Kingsbury became a war-time chairman of the Clearwater chapter, and Mrs. Kingsbury was also a leader in the work. Dr. D. A. Dunseith was next appointed chairman, and still serves, with Miss Lillian Russell Bigger as executive secretary. Pinellas county men who died in the service were: Clearwater-Leroy Ian Brandon, Charles I. Halley, Josiah W. Sutton, Edward C. Turner, William L. Curtis (colored), and Wharley Williams (colored) ; St. Petersburg-Clyde Cren shaw Caswell, James Abel Johnson, Lewis N Brantley, George Donaldson Grif fin;Edward Theodore Hall, George Harold Myers, James Clyde McCraven, Harry J. Newkumet, Wesley Noble, William Foster Newell, Seymour Andrew Prest wood, Stewart D. Ramsauer, Lawrence M. Tate, Paul Other Webb, Rufus M. Townsley, Ralph M. Baker, Carey Herriott (colored), and Charles Hargny, Jr. (colored); Dunedin-Sam Barney Butts, Thomas L. Hill and John D. Watkins;


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PART I-NARRATIVE 79 Tarpon Springs-Athenasias Millas and Valpo M. Stewart; Largo-Ralph E. Heisler and Joseph W. Young (colored); Safety Harbor-Carl W. Lawton and Ben M. B. Smallwood. CouNTY GuAaDS The Pinellas County Guards were organized in August, 1917, following a call by PresMent Wilson for Home Guard organizations to protect the states after the country had ente red the World War. St. Petersburg was the first city in the county to organize a company, more than three hundred men responding to a call issued by Lew B. Brown, owner and editor of The Evening Independent. One hundred of the men were accepted, and Compa ny A was formed with F. J. Mack as captain in command. A second or ganization, Company B, followed immediately, with J. S. Shallcross as captain. Tarpon Springs soon organized Company C, in command of Captain J. J. Loomis, and Clearwater followed sho rtly with Taver Bayly as commanding captain of Com pany D. The four companies of the county, each made up of one hundred men, formed a battalion requiring a major in command. Mr. Brown, who had first served as captain of Company A, was elected to this position, then commissioned by Govemo r Catts. The Guards were fully armed and equipped, Major Brown having made a special trip to Washington and New York to procure the equipment, and having financed the project himself until funds could be included in the next county budget. The companies were drilled regularly, and frequently the entire battalion would hold drill day in one of the towns represented. Besides affo r ding protection to the county, the Pinellas County Guards were instrumen tal in the arrest of twenty-two spies during the period of the war, in formation service having been establish ed among the several companies to w ork with the secret service depar tment in Washin gton. After the war the Home Guards were mustered out of the service and the companies disbanded. Cou NTY FeDERATION OF WoMEN"'s CLUBS The P inellas County Federation of Women's Clubs was organized in 1917 at a meeting of individual club leaders in Largo. The mee t ing, called by Miss Eliza beth Skinner, of Dunedin-now Mrs. J ackson, of Tampa......-elected the following officers : Miss Skinner, president; Mrs. Marcia Tritt, Largo, first vice-president; Mrs. N. A. Hamman, Clea rwater, second vice-president; Mrs. George Merrell, Anona, recording secretary; Mrs. Herman Merrell, St. Petersburg, corresponding secretary; Mrs. John Davis, Thrpon Springs, treasurer; Mrs. Charles Ester ley, St. Petersburg, auditor. The object of th e Federation was to combine the joint efforts of the various women's clubs in their work for schools, charities libraries, public institutions, good roads and other matters affecting the home. At this time there were but two women employed by the county for field work: the home demonstration agent and the county welfare worker or relief officer


80 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, F L ORIDA Miss Sarah Colton Smith had been appointed to the latter office a short time before when a group of club women of the county meeting with the county commissioners, pointed out the urgent need for such an officer. She served in that capacity for many years. The first meeting of the Pinellas County Fede r ation of Women's Clubs was held in St. Pe tersburg on November 24, 1917. The clubs previously enrQlled re sponded, there being present the Clearwater Woman's Club Cicadia Cemetery Association, Tarpon Springs Civic Club (later Woman's Clu b), Anona Club, Largo Woman's Club, Clearwat er W. C. T. U. and St. Petersburg Woman's Town Im provement Associati on. By February; 1918, thirteen clubs had enrolled. During the early years of the Federation woman's suffr age (frequently referred to in the minutes as "woman's rights"), prohibiti o n and a propo sed "no fence law" were constantly being considered under the direction of special department heads and committee chairmen, and f or months before the "no fence law" was finally passed in October, 1918, the county commissioners were urged by the organization to enforce such a law. From t h e very first meeting the Federation has contributed in bringing to Pinellas County speakers, writers, musician s and educators of local or national d i sti nction who have added to its cultural and educat ional life. Also, from the first year the organization has acted as agent for the annual Chri stmas seal sale, the proceeds being used for financing its extensive child welfare work. The amount raised that year was $2,400. War work occupied much of the Federation members' time during the early years; war relief, Red Cross, Council of National Defense, war savings stamps and Liberty Bond sales, tubercular work among civilians and soldiers, food con servatio n, intensive growing of foodstuffs, war gardens. A little later the Feder a tion paid the ind ebtedness of the Woman's D ivision, Council of Na tiona l Defense, fo r child welfare work in the county. The Federa tion was instrument al in having a co unty co mpulso ry education law passed some time before the state law became a reality, and Mrs. I da Dann, of St. Petersburg, an expe r ienced worker, was appointed as attendance officer in 1919 to enfo r ce this law. M r s. Dann still holds the posit ion. The county nursing sys tem was put into effec t after a Federation delegatio n had met with the coun t y commissioners on June 6, 1918. The Federation financed the work until October of that year, and has since had charge of it. Miss Ruth Barn um, of Dun edin, wa s se l ected as the first nurse and served for a number of years. From time to time more nurses hav e been adde d, both whit e and color ed, so that, in 1929, the nursing system is the best the county has ever had In 1922, as a result of the Fede r ation's work, Pinella s was one of the four counties of Flo r ida used by the United Public Health Service fo r demonstration. Early in its work the Federation started a movement for the establishment of a county hom e for dependents and delinquents. This resulted first in a Pinellas County Memor ial Vocat i onal Schoo l started in 1918, and subsequently a temporary, then the finely equi pped, county home at Largo.


PART I-NARRATIVE 81 In 1921 and 1922, when ID()ney shortage threatened the early closing of Pinellas county schools, the Federation sponsored drives for raising funds and the schools remained open About the same time the organization investigated reports from all schools in the county, urged the fonning of parent-teacher associations, establislunent of playgrounds, cafeterias where hot lunches could be served the school children, and school gardens. The Juvenile Court, provided by the county in 1921, was sponsored by the Federation, and the same year the organization, which has always had an active interest in the Pinellas County Fair, sponsored and raised funds for the Woman's Building. In 1925 the first Junior Woman's Club, the Beta Club, of St. Petersburg, was admitted to membership in the County Federation, the fonning of junior clubs having been urged since 1922. The Pinellas County Federation of Women's Clubs has worked for county beautification, urging uniform planting, uniform and adequate road markers, and removal of signs. It supports and encourages the institutions of the county: Faith Mission, Crystal Beach ; Florence Crittenton Home, St. Petersburg; County Detention Home, Largo; and the American Legion Crippled Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg. It has worked for the passage of all worthwhile national and state legiSlation. It is a member of the state and general federation. It has seen its clubs grow in number to thirty six, and its membership to nearly three thousand PINEJ.LAS CouNTY Y. W. C. A. The Pinellas County Young Women's Christian Association was organized December 13, 1919, and the charter received June 8, 1920. A very small organiza tion at first, it has grown with each year, until in 1928 the coontf aggregation of the Blue Triangle-the insignia of the Y. W. C. A.-had reached 9,150 persons through its influence . Included in the county association are Y. W. C. A. organizations in Clearwater, St. Petersburg, Largo, Tarpon Springs, Safety Harbor and Dunedin In the season of 1928-29 the Young Women's Christian Association had 2,500 contributors throughout the county, and five hundred club girls enrolled.


CHAPTER XVI. CITRUS INDUSTRY T BE production of citrus fruit is the principal industry of Pinellas county, and it is here that this great Florida industry is shown at its best. This peninsula county, protected by the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the warm breezes from these great waters, and on the east by Tampa bay, long ago proved that here the citrus grove is safer than in any other part of the state. Id the great freeze of 1894 and 1895, when the industry was about wiped out in Flor ida, it was the Pinellas groves that supplied the surviving stocks to rebuild the industry in other counties. It is said that in 1895 many Pinellas county trees showed practically no damage from the low temperatures, and had these then been properly marked and buds taken from them to rebuild the other groves, Flor ida might now have citrus trees which would resist any normal freeze of this state. Pinellas county trees are thus in general older than in most counties, and the production per tree is therefore high. Although so tiny in area, Pinellas stands fifth of all counties in the number of bearing citrus trees. Only three have more than 1,000,000, being Polk, with 4,917,466; Orange, with 1,638,487, and Lake, with 1,251,890. Hillsborough has 827,400, and then comes Pinellas, with 814,664. Shipments of citrus fruit from Pinellas county during the present season will go well over the 3,000-carload figure, it is estimated, about four-fifths of this being grapefruit. Pinellas county grapefruit is admittedly the finest in the world, while Pinellas county oranges rank with the best. The far-reaching benefits derived from the citrus industry in this county are realized by very few people. Not only does the grower find it a profitable industry, but the laborer on the groves, the men who clear the land for new plantings, the army of fruit pickers, truck drivers, the men and women employed in the packing houses, the clerks and bookkeepers and the labor necessary to produce and dis tribute the immense quantity of fertilizer used on the groves provide many chan nels for the circulation of money. A recent industry in connection with citrus growing is the new side-issue of preparing and canning grape ruit. Two plants are located in Clearwater which shipped in excess of 60,000 cases of canned grapefruit and juice last season and will probably exceed this figure this season. Carefully prepared tatistics show that the cost of preparing land and bringing citrus trees into bearing amounts to from $295 to $475 per acre for the first six years, according to the nature of the land. Trees should be producing fair crops in their seventh year. The packing and shipping of citrus fruits is in the hands of men skilled in this business. There are many shippers who do not operate great packing plants, preferring to pay the packers for this part of the work. However, they have their own customers and direct the shipments of their product.


PART I-NARRATIVE 83 There are some thirteen big packing plants in the county The largest perhaps are the West Coast Fruit company, Barnard Kilgore, president and general man ager, located at Clearwater; the Skinner Packing company, L B. Skinner, president, Dunedin; the Citrus Growers association, JohnS. Taylor, president, Largo; Gentille . Brothers, J.D. Grace, manager; the David Bilgore company, W. G. Blair, manager; Fugazzi Brothers; Clearwater Citrus company; Florida Citrus Exchange, Clear water. At Seminole, Milne and O'Berry have a large plant while at Ozona the American Fruit Growers and theW. H. Moser company operate units. At Palm Harbor is located the Manatee Fruit company and the Palm Harbor Citrus Growers association. First shipments of c i trus fruit from this county are made about OCtober 1 and continue until the middle of May. The industry covers about eight months, leaving four months for summer vacations. That the growing of citrus fruits in Pinellas county is profitable is shown by the fact that the men who have engaged in it over a long period of years taking the lean and the fat as they came, are today among the wealthy and substantial citizens of the county.


CHAP'l'U XVII. SPONGE INDUSTRY To TH county of Pinellas and to its most northern city belongs the unique distinction of an important industry, the largest of its kind in the world, for Tarpon Springs is the world's largest sponge market. Until SO years ago most of the sponges used in the United States were im ported chiefly from the Mediterranean waters, and such fisheries as America knew were centered in the Bahamas. In 1853 a Bahaman fisher discovered sponges in these waters, and a Key West firm quickly realized its possibilities and began in a crude way fitting out boats for sponging. The Civil War paralyzed the infant industry, however, and it was not until the middle of the 'OO's that the Key Westers got the business onto a thriving basis. Then a strange thing occurred, and within the short period of ten years this great harvest of the sea was transferred from Key West 200 miles northward to Tarpon Springs. Keener business determina tion and improved methods told the old story once more. A leaflet devoted to the Tarpon Springs sponge industry tells us that Key Westers bad made little or no improvement in their equipment or methods. Gen eration after generation of "Conch" spongers, as they are called, went out in glassbottomed boats from which they must spy the sponge. Then, with a long, clwnsy pole which has an iroo book on its end, loosen it from its bed of coral rock and bani it in. This is called and is a slow, awkward method. Superior spooge is taken from deep waters, and with this "hooking" only the most experienced of men could handle a pole at thirty feet. At first it was thought that the exclusive habitat of this plant-animal was among the southern keys, but soon it was learned that the richer banks went north ward, which took the boats on longer runs, keeping them from the home port for longer intervals. Thus it was that the gulf waters near Anclote lighthouse became the favorite haunt of the larger fleets. The Anclote beacon stands at the mouth of the Anclote inlet, into which the Tarpon Springs bayous empty. So it came about. A friendly port was Tarpon Springs to them, and soon they built "kraals,'' or waterpens, for their sponge in the "soaking stage." Docks were built, warehouses sprang up, ship chandleries, commissaries, ship's outfitters of all kinds. Then came capital and increased trade. Capital, large-visioned, saw the future of this industry and straightway started to make this the largest sponge market in the world. The first sponge diver was toolred upon with horror by the Key Westers. "A monstrous invention,'' they tel rued his diving outfit. But soon four-score of divers from Greece were working in the waters here instead of the Mediterranean. Within a year there were a hnndred here, wives and children soon came, and a1oog tbe dock was a settlement purely Greek. There are now about five hundred Greeks living here.


'' U'ltr-Tite u Bayou" at Tar1n Springs. LMCtr-S!JI"9' Pier at Tnrp.Dn Springs.


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PART I-NARRATIVE 87 The Sponge Exchange lies opposite the dock, a big, red brick structure, built in a hollow square with cemented court-the biggest sponge market in the world. Cells, with iron-grated doors to give air to the sponge run all the way around the bui l ding filled with the sea harvest which brings such rich returns. Every Tuesday and Friday a sale is held. Pile upon pile of sponge then fills the court and buyers make haste to get their share. The sponge vary in size, and range in quality from the fine silk to the raw yellow, the latter the cheapest grade of sponge. The boa t s, of which there are about 200, go out in fleets of four or five small boats, with a larger "mo t her" boat. They stay out three or four months unless storms drive them to the home port. These boats form one of the most picturesque sights in America Built as were the boats in which Christ sailed t h e Sea of Galilee, their design has never changed. Motors have been installed in the place of oars, but the same quaint boat is built year after year. Painted gaily in every bright color they bear melodious Creek names, and on the few days of the year when the entire fleet is in t he harbor present a never-to-be-forgotten sight Sponge is seen hanging from the rigging, piled upon the decks-the harvest of the i r three months at sea. Nearly a million dollars' worth of sponge was sold last year from Tarpon Springs. Sheeps wool sponge, declared to be the finest, and which is used in sur gery commands the highest prices at home and abroad. It is usuaJly to be found at a depth of 1 SO to I 70 feet. None but the most ski11ed divers can work at the latter depth, as the water pressure is so great. The hookers work in the shallow waters of the gulf, close in, while the divers go from SO to 100 miles out. Divers make a great deal of money, as most of the boats are handled on "shares," but the hazard is great, indeed. In deeper waters the captains work six divers an hour, giving each one fifty minutes' rest between. It is highly skilled labor, and only the Creeks have brought it to this height. The Greeks are a marit i me people. They love to live along the water front, and here may be found many coffee shops, where they gather to smoke their -long stemmed "narghilehs" as they sip their Greek coffee, which has been described as "black as midnight, hot as hades and strong as hate." It is very sweet, .and is made in an interesting copper or brass vessel called a "breek." The curio shops are intensetx interesting and contain every known ki.nd of The Creeks are a deeply religious and Jaw-abiding people, generous, polite, and devoted to their wives and children Family life among the Creeks is ex ceptionally happy. The church of St Nicholas is Creek Orthodox. This is not a Roman Catholic church, as many people think, but is practically l ike the Episcopal church. The priest may marry. They have many feast days and men, women and children


88 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA celebrate their "saint's" day as well as their birthdays and all important festival days. They revive the old-time custom of keeping open house and receive many callers on those days. While no better American citizens are to be found among immigrant peoples, the Greeks keep close to the traditions and customs of their beloved islands, which give a foreign atmosphere full of charm and interest to the visitor. The following figures show the value of Tarpon Springs sponge industry during the past ten years: 1918 ......... $575,000.00 1919. . . . . 707,282.00 1920 . . . . 672,209.00 1921. . . . . 531,300.00 1922. . . . . 678,153.00 1923......... 734,378.00 1924....... . 717,213.00 1925......... 715,197.00 1926. . . . . 660,645.00 1927....... . 886,216.00 1928... . . . 900,000.00


CHAP'r\l XVIII. FINANCIAL. PINELLAS is the most populous and highly developed of Florida's counties and size considered i s financiaUy the strongest. Its financial statement as of January I. 1929, showed an estimated actual valuation of $500,000,000 as against an asse ssed valuation of $38,437,674. Its assessment s for purposes of taxati on, showi ng the steady growth since its creation, have been as follows: TOTAL YEAR. VALUATION PERCENTAGE OI' I N CR&AS 1911 ........................ $ 3,546,130 1912 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,854,228 1913 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,712,383 1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,516,043 1915 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,977,930 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 916 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,880,582 0 t 917 . . .. 0 1918 ........................ 1919 ... .................... 1920 192 1 1922 1923 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1924 ........ ............... 1925 .................... .... 10,012,360 ..................... 1 0,504,()99 ........... ......... 10,599,238 ..................... 11 '428,298 ..................... 13,192,959 ..................... 15,237,10 2 ..................... 17,781,958 ..................... 26,223,6()6 ................ 0 34,361,716 ..................... 1926 . . . . . . . . . . . . 40,856,540 .......... 0 0 1927 0 0 41,032,374 ..... ................ 1928 . ................. 0 0 38,437,674 .......... 0 oeereaae 36.89 58.88 10.42 05.42 01.09 12.74 04.91 00.91 07.82 15.44 15.49 16.70 47.47 31.03 18.90 00.43 --o6.32 The total bonded indebtedness of the coun t y is $10 ,964,674.00, with sin king funds on hand o f $614,983.32. The tota!Tesources of its thirteen banks as this history was closed were $33,865,434.06. S. S. Coachman of Clear water, chairman; L. D. Vinson, of Tarpon Spring s ; J. T Lowe, of Anona, and F. A. Wood and 0 T. Railsback, of St. P etersburg, were the first commissioners of the county. C. E. Jack son, D. Byrd M c Mulle n, J ohn S. Taylor, George Edwards, George W. Stahl, B. C. Bas s, E. H Beckett, B B. Sutton, R H. Sumner, W. T Harrison, John P. Lynch, and W. L. Hackney served on the board at various times la ter, and the body is now composed of S. J. Corey, of St. Petersburg, chairman; E H Becket t of Tarpon Springs; J. R. Thomas Mor ris B. Thayer, of Clearwater, and W. B. Harris, of St. Petersbur g.


CHAPTliR XIX. CFTIES AND TOWNS BELLEAIR The magnificent Belleview Hotel, immediately south of Clearwater, with its spacious grounds and famous golf courses, naturally drew about it homes, stores and other developments of an urban character, and the people there coming to consider their's a sufficiently separate community, on May 20, 1923, organized the town of Belleair Heights. The first officials were Earle E. Carley, mayor-commissioner, and Ed. A. Haley and W. N. Barnes the other commissioners. Mrs. J. C. Smith was the town clerk. Under a reorganization of the town government in 1925 the Heights was dropped, giving it the name of Belleair. The town interests were promoted largely by the Bellair Development Com pany, of which Earle E. Carley was president and Roland R. Conklin, vice-pres ident, which company was later taken over by Belleair Estates, Incorporated. These people developed a large area of beautiful lands adjacent to the Belle view property with drives and splendid residences, and did much to make Belleair tlte live and attractive little municipality that it now is. The little town of Belleair has a municipally owne d water system, including an adequate pumping station and a 250 ,000-gallon tank. Belleair also operates the Becarri garbage disposal system, being the second of three towns in the United States to adopt that Italian method of garbage disposal. It operates there with entire satisfaction. The officals of Belleair are: J. I. Pavey, mayor-commissioner; C. A. Judkins and H. M. Turnburke, commissioners, and Mrs. J C. Smith, clerk. CLEARWATER Exactly 401 years ago, on April 15. 1528, the peop le of Clearwater like to believe, their beautiful bay was first visited by white men, who were none other than Panfilio de Narvae z and his men; and there is little room for reasonable doubt that their belief is well grounded in fact. Having been appointed governor of unexplored Florida by the King of Spain, he came up the coast with four hundred men and five ships. Whether the rather mythical Indian village of Ucita mentioned in the annals of both Narvaez and DeSoto writers was located at "the head" of Clearwater bay or Old Tampa bay is a matter for conjecture, but that it was Clearwater bay is as fair a conclusion as the other. Also the romantic stories connected with Ucita are rather traditions, but nevertheless interesting. They tell that Narvaez found it a village with a huge central wigwam, large enough to hold 300 persons. Ucita was the great chief and the wigwam was his council lodge, and that Indians known as Hirrihuguas claimed the section as their domain, which extended along the west coast and eastward probably as far as the valley of the Peace River, embracing the present site of Tampa. The Spaniards


PART I-NARRATIVE 91 were received kindly but indicated they did not wish to be molested and by told the newcomers that they wished them to go away. But Narvaez was in search of gold. He questioned the Indians and concluded to march northward in search of the precious metal. One vessel was sent to Cuba for supplies while the other four sailed northward where Narvaez felt certain he could communicate with them if necessary. He had treated the Indians cruelly and their enmity was incurred Chief Ucita did not forget and when Ortiz, a young officer, was sent ashore on the return of Narvaez's supply ship from Cuba, he was seized and ordered to be burned The torch was being applied when Ulelah, the chief's daughter, so the story goes pleaded with her father for the young man's life. Ucita granted the daughter's request and Ortiz was spared. Ulelah feared for his safety and sent him to her Indian lover Mucoso, a young chief of another tribe. Ulelah cut the thongs which bound Ortiz and led him into the forest, pointing eastward. She p laced a golden ornament in his hand, which she knew Mucoso would recognize and protect the young Spaniard. Chief Ucita, furious at Ortiz's escape and suspecting his daughter of complicity, would not allow her to marry Mucoso. Eleven years passed and Mucoso came to Tampa bay, visiting Hernando DeSoto, bringing Ortiz with him. Ortiz joined DeSoto and acted as an inter preter. Legend states that Ucita relented a:t this point and allowed Ulelah to marry her Indian lover. For many years after this, the Indians were undisturbed in this part of the state. A fort called Fort Harrison was established on Clear Water Harbor by the United States government on April 2, 1841. Because of the healthfulness of the site. sick and wounded soldiers were sent here to recuperate A large log building was built and this was situated on what is now Harbor Oaks, at the intersection of Druid Road and Orange Place. The officers' quarters were situated where the home of A C Turner, on Turner street, now stands. The fort was abandoned on October 26 of the same year. About this time, the United States offered 160 acres of land to anyone who would come to Florida to live. This was called the Armed Occupation Act. Under these conditions, James Stevens moved here with his family and his territory embraced all the land west of Fort Harrison avenue, from Drew street south to Jeffords street. In 1848 Stevens received his title to the land from the government. In the north end of Clearwater a man by the name of Samuel Stevenson had settled in the early forties, obtaining his title from the government in ;1849. A storrn, known as the "gale of '48," did much damage. Stevenson had set out a young orange grove in the northern part, near what is now the city park, and trees were washed out by this storm. Discouraged, he sold his property soon afterward to John C. White. A Mr. Hart, who lived on Tampa bay, bought the orange trees and planted them on his place. Some of them are still living John S. Taylor, Sr., came to Clearwater about this time from Brooksville on a visit. Although he did not consider the land as valuable as that near Brooksville, he was persuaded by his friend James Stevens to buy his property in the south end


9 2 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA of Clearwater. Mr Taylor traded his negro cook for the 160 acres of land The negress had att empted to polson the Taylor family and they were glad to get rid o f her. Thus it was that a negro slave o n ce was the price for the greater part of Clearw a ter. David B. Turner carne to Clearwater in 1854 wit h his family. He and Robert J Whitehurst bought the property acquired by John S. Taylor, paying $800 for it. They divided it betw een t hem the division line running between wh ere the South Ward school and Methodist ch urch are now located. Stevens had set out a few orange trees on the land acquire d by Whitehur st. Oranges were con sidered worth less, however, as no mark e t for them existed. All mail matter was brought from Tampa by anyon e who happened to go there The tri p usually was ma de by walking and frequently it was days before a letter was finally delivere d. In 1857 Rev C. D. Nicholso n carne to this section and purchased the land owned by J o hn C. White in the northern part o f the settlement. He had been sent here by the Methodi st church and prea c hed f o r many year s in th e churches throughout this vicinity Mrs. Nancy Campbell a few years later pur c hased the land of Robert J. White hur s t She built the first frame house here In 1 858, mail began coming from Cedar Keys to Clearwater by steamer. The trip was made on ce a week. Postage was paid at t he office of deliv ery. David Turner was the first postmaster and the city was officially known as "C l ea r Water Harbor. Se veral gun boats made raids on Clearwater during the Civil Wa r carrying away provisions and supp lies o f all kinds. The postoffice was suspended d uring the war but was re-establis h ed again afterwar d Robert J. Whitehur s t being made postmaster The postoffice building at that time was near the presen t s ite of Belleair. Rev. C. S. Reynold s came to this section early in the seventies. He wa s quite a young man when he emigrated from New York s tate and founded the Tampa H eraJd in 1854. H e also was engaged in the n ewspaper business in Ocala, Palatk a and Ke y West. He came to this section an invalid, on th e advice of his physician, who believed he migh t live a few years longer h ere. Inst ead, he lived f o r man y years, dying in 1901. In July, 18 73, Mr. Reynolds established the fir st newspape r printed in the sub-penin sula. It was known as the Clear Water Times. Oranges were sent to Cedar Keys by boat to be shipped north and were worth about $15 per thou s and. T h ey were carelessl y packed in barrels The first gra pe fruit to be shipped from Clearwate r wa s sent by Mrs. David Turner. Sent to Cincinnati, they di d no t b ring enough to pay the freight. About 1880 M. C. Dwight came to thi s section, bought some property and built a small hotel near where the Presbyterian church now stands. It w as called the Orang e Blu ff H ote l and se veral cottag es were built later in connection with it A few tourists came by way of Cedar Keys and spe nt the winters here. The hotel burned a few years later, a serious loss to the city at that time


PART I-NARRATIVE 93 In the early eightie$, Theod ore Kamensky, a famous sculptor o{ Russia, came to make his home here. He wa s a. favorite of the c .zar and sometimes received visits from the Russian leader The czar was displeased w ith a statue by Kamensky called "The Firs t Step," alluding to liberty and the sculpto r left Russia. He lived seve ral year s in Kansas and then came to Clearwater About eightee n families constitu ted the population of Clearwater when the Orange Belt railroad arrived in 1888 There were no paved streets or improve ments of any kind. There was, however, a public pier at the foot of Cleveland street, almost on the spot where the new causewa y now begins its winding journey across the harbor. Clearwater was incorporated in 1891 and received a special charter in 1897. James E. Crane was the town' s first mayor, serving for four years. Crane had been a school teacher here. T. J Sheridan, who still lives here was the town's first clerk, serving for many years. Milton May was Clearwater's second mayor, serving also f or four years Others who have held this position include John W Drew, Captain J F Bennett D N. Kidder, the city's only Republican mayor; E. J Annstrong, Sr., John R Jeffords, who se rved several tenns; Eugene Pearc e, R. K. Brandon, Frank J. Booth and the present official, Mayor H. H. Baskin. Am ong those who hav e served the city as clerk were T. J Sheridan, R T. Daniels Willi'am Gregory and J. R. Thomas This office is now a combination position known as city auditor and clerk. E ight years ago, the form of government was changed from the counc ilmanic to the present commissioner-manager fonn. Leaders in the movement to change the form of government were Guss Wilder, J L. Kelly, George Washburn, Edgar Roberts, and Professor J. W. Williamson. The city at present appears satisfied with its governmental condition and no change from the present form is being considered. I n 1895 the only paved streets were Cleveland street from the harbor to the l itt le Orange Belt station, and Fort Harrison avenue from Cleveland street to a point south of the Methodist church. These wer e paved with shell from an Indian mound near the harbor. The Bell evie w Bilunore hotel was built during the summer of 1896 in Belleair, two miles from Clearwater. It was opened for its first season in January, 1897. It was only a fraction of its present si z e, as additions have been made constantly to accommodate the ever-increasing n umber of winter visitors. It bad a small golf course, with six holes, with shell putting greens It now has two 18-hole courses, famous throughout the country, the No. I course being consider ed one of the sportiest in the state. In 1896, Cleveland street was widened from 40 t o BO feet. A clay road also was built in this year from the end of the shell paving on South Fort Harrison avenue to the entrance of the Belleview grounds. The bicycle craze n:acbed its height in Clearwater in 1898. Numerous bicycle paths were constructed in all directions. An asphalt bicycle race track was built


94 HISTORY OF P INELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA in 1897 in Belleair and races were held in November of that year. Some of the world's most noted riders competed in this event. In 1900, J. N. McClung built an ice factory here and in the spring of the fol lowing year a water main was run from the ice factory to the corner of Cleveland street and Fort Harrison avenue. This was the start of the present waterworks system, which today is municipally owned and making a substantial profit for the city each year. The city purchased the plant from Mr. McClung in f 910 and a year later, the city bonded for $40,000 for waterworks and sewer improvements. In 1902, a public pier and pavilion were built at the foot of Cleveland street. These, in March, 1912, were donated to the city by the Clearwater Pier company. Today, there are numerous piers stretching into the harbor and gulf, some city built and many owned by individuals. The telephone exchange was established in 1903, John R. Davey financing the enterprise. Two years later an electric light plant was established, a franchise being granted J. N McClung. Fort Harrison avenue was paved with phosphate rock at this time. The first board of trade predecessor of the present Chamber of Commerce, was organized in September, 1905. J. W. Williamson took the leading part in this work. The board of trade was formed principally to agitate for improvements in waterworks and sewers. An election was held on this question and the necessary bonds were voted, 90 per cent of the people favoring the proposition. The largest fire in the city's history occurred on the morning of June 24, 1910, when the entire business block on the north side of Cleveland street, between Fort Harrison and Osceola avenues, was razed. Soon after this, the fire department, then an organization of volunteers, was formed. In 1914, the city purchased adequate fire equipment which is still in service, although it has since been supple mented by additional equipment. Today, the fire department is a paid organization and has a beautiful new home on Garden avenue, completed only a few weeks ago. This building also houses the police department. On January I, 1912, Pinellas county became a reality, and in the same month the city donated a site for the courthouse. In 1914, M. F. Plant offered to endow a hospital here with $100,000, provided $20,000 would be raised by the citizens. This $20,000 was raised and the building was completed in 1915. The institution is considered one of the finest in the state The Tampa and Gulf Coast railroad was built through Clearwater in 1914. In 1915, the Clearwater Golf Club was organized. At that time, the course, with nine holes, was described as being "two and a half miles from the city." Today. this course has 18 holes and is patronized by thousands. It is a municipally-owned course but its care and operation is under the charge of the go! f club. In 1916, a mass meeting was called at which a charter board was named to revise the city charter. A special election was held and the new charter carried by a substantial majority. A feature of this charter was municipal suffrage for women. The women first made use of this privilege on October 23, 1916 when a bond issue of $10,000 was voted upon to aid in building a bridge across Clearwater harbor. Miss Sue Barco was the first woman to cast a ballot.


PART I-NARRATIVE 95 The city has seen its greatest improvement during the past five years. During that period, the new causeway costing nearly a million dollars and giving easy to Clearwater Island, was constructed. Funds were obtained by bond issues floated by a special road and bridge district and also by the city when the original funds became exhausted. It is the finest structure of its kind in Florida. The population is conse rvative ly estimated at 8,000 permanent residents, this number being nearly doubled in the winter season. Excellent roads radiate in all directions from the city and gradually Clearwater is becoming known throughout the country as the garden spot of the Florida west coast. ORGANIZATIONS The Clearwater group of organizations includes almost every type, so that all civic activities as carried out by means of club groups are well represented. In addition to larger clubs, Clearwater maintains: Masonic and Eastern Star groups, Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen, Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows and Rebekahs; Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts ; United Daughters of the Confederacy ; two parent-teacher associations ; and other organizations. CHAMBt:R OF Co!llMt:RCt: The Clearwater Chamber of Commerce was organi.;ed in June of 1923, the outgrowth of the old Clearwater Board of Trade. The new organization was fostered by the older one, the president and vice president of the latter being Mr. W. T. Harrison and Mr. R. B. Norton, respectively. Upon adoption of the charter of the new organization, Mr. Norton became its first president. The Clearwater Chamber of Commerce has been extremely active, not only in the.development of city improvements for the benefits of permanent residents, but in the big development of the tourist business, acting upon the theory that in bringing tourists to Clearwater, permanent residents were thus secured. The theory has worked out in practice as Clearwater has doubled its population since the reorganization for each year a good percentage of the winter visitors desire to remain as year 'round residents. The general operation of the Chamber of Commerce is financed through popular membership whereas the publicity program, including musical concerts, operation of radio station WFLA, booklets and newspaper and magazine advertising is financed through a publicity fund from a tax millage upon the city's assessed valuation. Mr. J. I. Pavey, President of the First National Bank, is president, Mr. Taver Bayly, Vice-President of the Peoples Bank, is vice-president, and Mr. C. 0. Fair cloth, cashier of the Bank of Clearwater, is treasurer. Mr. H. S. Ransom is sec retary, haVing served in this capacity for seven years with the exception of one year in which he entered business for himself' returning to the organization as secretary three years ago.


96 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY FLORIDA A 'I>!I!RlCAN LEGION Turner-Brandon P o st No.7, American Legion was organized in Clearwater in the fall of 1919 with L. E. Johnson as c o mmander, and J J. Wilson adjut a nt. There were forty charter members The post was named in honor of a son o f Judge Leroy Brandon who was killed in action at Chateau Thierry dur ing the World War, and of a son of A. C. Turner, one of Pinellas County's oldest residents, who died on a naval training s hip. The Clearwat e r American Legion post has alwa ys been one of th e city' s most active organizations, and within a short time a club house became a necessity In 1 927 a fine modern home was acquired in a suburban location just off the Bay-to Ba y Boulevard. Club rooms were also provided for the l arge auxiliary whi c h soon follo w ed the post in organiza tion. When the million dollar" causeway w a s built from Clearwater to Clearwate r Beach, i t was as a memorial t o the heroe s of the World War, and the American Legion' s contribution to the project was the placing of two statues, t hose of a so ldier and sailor, at the Clearwater foot of the causeway. The statues were dedicat ed to the men of Pinellas county who made the supreme sacrifice, and a feature of the dedication service was the firing of a salute after each name, was read. National American Legion officials assisted in the service. About a year after i ts organization Turner-Brandon Post installed the Amer ican Legion post at Tarpon S pr ings. WoMAN's CLu B The Woman's Club of Clearwater wa s organized on June 10, 1914, at which time it adopted as its motto, Not to be minist ered unto but to minister." Affiliating with the county, state and gene ral federation s of w ome n's clubs, the Woman's Club has lived up to this motto, broadening its ministrations to help in keeping the federa tion standards upraised, and contr ibu ting toward the aims and accomplishments of the General F ederation. Outstanding in th e his t ory of the club, and s howing to what inftue n ce it has attained as a force in the Florida Federa t ion of Women's Clubs wa s t he award of an honor score card received at the state convention in 1928, Clearwater being one of the on ly twelv e dubs in the Federation to be thus recognized. Mrs. George Manwarren was president of the club at this time. The Clearwater W oman's Club ma intains a club room at the com munity house, where the m eetings are held and programs pre sented. The club participates in the annual Christmas seal sale Red Cross driv e and other worthwhile activities It encourages stud y and a pp recia tion of the fine arts, engaging the be s t musical talent for its program s and arranging art exhibit s, as well as organizing classes i n literature. It sponsors the idea of "better homes" and it takes an active interest in the various philanthropic movements promoted in city county and state A. Junior Woman's Club was organ i zed in 1928.


PART 1....,--NARRATIVE 97 WoMAN's CHRISTIAN TtMPRANC UNION The pioneer woman's organization of Clearwater was the Woman s Christian Temperance Union, organized in 1885 Its object has been to wield an influence in the home social, religious, civic and political life of the town. Mrs. Sarah Woodruff organized the Union, assisted by Miss Clara Duncan and Mrs. Jennie R. Plum Mrs Woodruff was elected first president. In the early days of its existence, when it was not popular for women to work outside the home or take part in c i vic activities, the W. C. T. U. often met with severe discouragements but always it struggled on until its membership finally has grown sufficiently large to place it among the influential organizations of the town. ROTARY CLUB The principles of Rotary, as embodied in its "Service Above Self" motto, were first injected into the business life of Clearwater in an organized way in December, 1925, when a small group of leading citizens met and organized under the rules of Rotary International. Taver Bayly was elected first president and Alfred Marshall, secretary Mr. Marshall held this position until he became president in 1929 Since i t s organization the Clearwater Rotary Club has grown rapidly, and has become a very real factor in the upbuilding of the city. KIWANIS CLUB Organization of Kiwanis, Clearwater's second civic club, was effected oo March 16, 1926. M B. Thayer was chosen by the group of charter members as first president, and W. S. Sterrett became first secretary. The IGwanis Club has always been an alert organization, sponsoring all civic improvements, and in various respects living up to its slogan, "We Build." By the spring of 1929 membership in this group had grown to 55 members. CLtARWATER YACHT CLUB The Clearwater Yacht Club is one of the oldest organizations in the Springtime City, having been organized in 1903. Lowe Emerson was the first commodore. The Yacht Club has always been maintained only as an organization to sponsor boat races, and during the early days of its existence sail boats were most popular among the members. Later, however, sailing craf t lost favor almost entirely, the club members having transferred their interests to fast motorboats The club maintains a small club house conveniently located on the water ront, for the use of the members, and motorboat regattas are staged by the organization frequently throughout the year. The club also enters its fast racing craft in the Inter-city regattas of the Gulf Coast. TuESDAY MoRNING Mus1c Cx.uB A few Clearwater women who loved music met on Friday, October 29, 1926, at the home of Mrs. Lucian Lucas, to discuss the organization of a club. It was arranged to meet the following Tuesday morning at 10 o clock, with Mrs. Evan H. Jones, and here the organization was completed. It was called the Tuesday Morning


98 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Music Club. Mrs. Howard S. Howe was elected president; Mrs. J R. Hubbard, vice-president; Mrs. W. F. Rehbaum, secretary; Mrs. F. A. Kennedy, treasurer. A charter membership of twenty was enrolled, and this number grew in exactly two years to include 36 music lovers. The club is now affiliated with the American Federation of Music Clubs, and operates under Federation rules and regulations. Included in its work is the pre sentation of high class musical programs, the maintenance of a chorus which has competed creditably in state choral contests, and the sponsoring of young musicians in their studies. The Junior Music Club was organized as a branch of the Tuesday Morning Music Club on January 17, 1928, under the direction of Mrs. J. R. Hubbard, chairman of junior work. TounsT Ct.UliS Organized tourist activities in Clearwater are centered throughout the winter months in the Clearwater Tourist Club, which is made up of members from all states of the Union. Now and then an individual group maintains a small organ ization, the visitors from a county or a small section desiring to get together for outings and good times of their own in addition to those enjoyed in the larger organizatioo, but these are the exception rather than the rule. The Clearwater Tourist Club has been a factor in tourist life since about 1924, and the club has grown from a small organization with a handful of visitors to a forceful club of several thousand members. The meeting places available were out grown, one after another, until it became necessary, during the seasons of 1928 and 1929, to meet in the park. The tourist club is sponsored by, and finds cordial assistance in its various activities in, the Clearwater Chamber of Commerce. Tbe largest organization in Clearwater is the Shuffleboard Club, formed by visitors to the city who find many hours of pleasant recreation on the shufflleboard courts in the park. The membership of this club in the season of 1928-29 was more than four hundred. Lawn bowling and horseshoe-pitching are also favorite pastimes among the winter visitors, and clubs have been organized by devotees of both sports. NEWSPAPERS Tbe Cleorwater Sun, afternoon daily, was established on May 1, 1914, by Willis B. Powell, veteran newspaper man who founded the St. Petersburg lndeftndml in 1906 and later sold it. Many people looked doubtfully upon a full Sedged daily newspaper in a city no larger than the capital of Pinellas then was, but Tlte Stnt was a success from the beginning. Obeying his life-long impulse to keep moving Mr. Powell sold The Sun on January 28, 1916, to D. 0. Batchelor, of Indiana, who published it until November, 1924, when it was acquired by Paul Poynter, David B Lindsay and James R. Brumby, of St. Petersburg, Mr. Brumby becoming the manager. In August, 1927, the MO'I'Jfing Herold was purchased by Messrs. Poynter, Lindsay and Brumby, and

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PART I-NARRATIVE 99 merged with The Sun. The Herald had had a checkered career. Founded as the Clearwater News in 1893 by Rev. C. S. Reynolds, the same C. S. Reynolds who had published the Clear Water Times 20 years before, it was later owned and\ edited for a number of years by Leroy Brandon, and later by R. W. Q:mverse. Chas. H. Evans acquiring it formed a stock company in 1913, in 1921 making it a morning daily. In 1925 it became the Morning Herald, and continued as such until 1927, when the then owner, Frank F. Pulver, of St. Petersburg, sold it to the Sun Company. In June, 1928, The Sun was bought by Nelson P. Poynter, son of Paul Poynter, and was sold by him on October 1, 1928, to the present owner, Victor H. Morgan, who has maintained it as one of the state's outstanding daily newspapers. A second newspaper now published in the county capital is the Clearwater News, a publication of the tabloid type issued by W. S. Kellogg and Bud Miller. BANKS Clearwater, with bank deposits of about $&10 for each residenf, and all home folks' money at that, claims to be financially the solidest city in Florida, and being the capital of the solidest county, the claims would be reasonable even without the attesting figures. The Bank of Clearwater, its oldest and largest, was organized in 1906, with $18,000 capital stock and the following officers: D. F. Coneley, president; H. W. Bivins, cashier; L. E. Johnson, assistant cashier. The bank has had a most suc cessful career, and at this time has a capital stock of $250,000, surplus of $150,000, and undivided profits of $35,000. It occupies a splendid banking building, and its officers are: A. C. Clewis, chairman of the board; H. W. Bivins, president; J. N. McClung, vice-president; John S. Taylor, vice-president; H. D. Yerxa, vice-president; who together with J. K. Wilson and H. H. Constantine, Jr., are the board of directors. Its resources on March 27 were $2,311 ,781.05. The Peoples Bank of Clearwater was organized in 1911 with $120,000 capital stock and the following officers: T. C. Taliaferro, chairman of the board; L. B. Skinner, president; M. W. Ulmer, vice-president; J. M. Barco, cashier. The institution also occupies a fine home, has a $100,000 surplus, and resources of $1,601,903.75. Its officers are: E. P. Taliaferro, chairman of the board; J. C. Kings bury, president ; Taver Bayly, vice-president and cashier; L. B. Skinner, president; V. Johansen, assistant cashier; E. L. Rawls, assistant cashier. The Guaranty Title and Trust Company was organized in 1919, with a capital stock of $200,000. The officers were: H. W. Bivins, president; A. W. Gage, vice president; Frank J. Booth, vice-president, and L T. Gregory, secretary and treas urer. The directors were: Hon. John S. Taylor, H. W. Bivins, R. T. Markley, Frank J. Booth, B. L. McMullen, A. W. Gage and L. T. Gregory. With a surplus of $100,000 and housed in a substantial typical banking building, it has resources of $786,910.84. Its officers are Hon. John S. Taylor, president; F. L. Hendrix, vice-president; George R. Smoyer, vice-president; Julian Clayton, cashier and trust officer. The directors are: Hon. John S. Taylor, H. W. Bivins, George R. Smoyer,

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100 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA L. T. Gregory, Jr., A. W. Gage, Julian Clayton, F. L Hendrix, Alfred P. Marshall, W. P. Hays. The First National, youngest of them all, was organized in 1926. John S. Wyatt, Ed. Haley, vice-president; George W. Bean, vice-president; R. J Taylor, VIce-president and cashier; K. M. Brittain, assistant cashier, were the officers, and the capital stock was $200,000. Its fine home is on one of the three comers of Fort Harrison avenue and Cleveland street occupied by banks and with a surplus and undivided profits of $60,423.45 its resources are Its officers are Dr. A. Bize, chairman of the board; J. I. Pavey, pl'eSident; W. F. Rehbaum, VIcepresident; Chas. J. Van Gunten, vice-president; E. H. Coachman, vice-president, and R. G. Chalfant, cashier. CITY LIBRARY The Clearwater city library had its inception in 1911, when a very small library was started with Edward H. Jones as president of the association. Mrs. H. P. Aiken and Mrs. Clarence Wilcox were the first members of the board, and later Mr. Hagadorn and Taver Bayly were added. Mrs. Wilcox acted as librarian The first library, a subscription organization, was located in the second story of a wooden structure on Cleveland street, over the store, where the Peoples' Bank was later built. After a time it was moved into rooms over the Clearwater Bank, in a two-story brick building-
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PART I-NARRATIVE 101 CHURCHES CALVARY BAPTIST About one and one-half miles from the heart of the present town of Clearwater, in a section now known as old Belleair, a handful of early settlers of Pinellas peninsula met on March 25, 1866, in a one-room log cabin, and formed the Midway Baptist Church. The Rev. C. S. Reynolds, one of the early settlers, was appointed pastor, a capacity in which he served the church, either as regular or supply, for the next thirty years. The congregation continued to meet in the log cabin for five years, at the end of which time a small, plain wooden building was erected on the same site. After another period of years a lot was obtained on what is now North Fort Harrison avenue, near the center of the then small town of Clearwater, and,a very comfortable edifice was built. With the moving, the name was changed to Calvary Baptist. The church was almost entirely maintained under the Florida Mission Board until 1917, when it began to grow in membership and wealth and became self -supporting. Eventually the church outgrew its modest home, and need of a large, modern structure became apparent if Calvary Baptist were to forge ahead. The building campaign pmved a long, hard struggle, but in 1924 the first wing of the handsome buff brick building on West Cleveland street, which overlooks Clearwater bay from a high bluff, was opened, and gradually the entire building was completed and occupied. To Dr. A. J. Kroelinger, present pastor, who, by sheer persistency and hard work accomplished the task, much credit is due for the success of the campaign and the fact that the building was realized. The Baptist parsonage, a large, beauti ful residence, is next door to the church on the west. The building and equipment of the new church cost approximately $200,000, while the property on which it is located, with riparian rights, is valued at fully a million dollars. The Second Baptist Church was organized in South Clearwater in 1926 under the auspices of Calvary Church, and was the direct result of a tent meeting there On Thanksgiving Day of that year, men from both congregations gave of their services and erected a church building. The women helped by serving Thanks giving dinner on the ground. The Rev. Robert Mayfield, assistant pastor of Calvary, served the new con gregation for more than a year, then was succeeded by W. A. Davis, who has since supplied. Second Church is largely maintained as a mission of Calvary. FrasT METHODIST CHURCH The First Methodist Church of Clearwater is one of the oldest churches on Pinellas peninsula, having been organized about four miles out on the Tampa road as early as 1850. It was a part of the Tampa circuit, and the pastor was Rev George A. Frisbee. The church was abandoned in 1851 until the close of the Civil War, when it was re-opened as a part of the Brooksville Circuit, with the Rev. Charles D. Nicholson as pastor.

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102 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA After a time the congregation, desiring to move into town, worshiped in a little Baptist church which was borrowed for one Sunday each month. Later, in 1884, the Methodists erected a building of their own at what is now Fort Harrison avenue and Turner street. This was used until 1917 when a storm blew it down, and the present edifice was erected shortly afterwards. The Rev. Dr. Paul W. Ellis took charge of the church as pastor in 1928, at which time the congregation had a membership of 927, and the valuation of the church properties was placed at $170,0CX>, including $75,000 for the church building itself. Functioning under the management of the First Methodist Church are the Second and Central Methodist churches. The latter has recently completed a building at Sunset Point at an approximate cost of $10,000. PucE MEMOa.tAI. PusBYTl:JUAN Peace Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1922 and dedicated on March 28, 1926, as a memorial to the heroes of the World War, is known far and near as one of the most beautiful and artistic churches in the southland. Every part of the building was planned to carry out the memorial idea, and the windows were especially designed in a variety of pictorial subjects as tributes to those who made the supreme sacrifice in the cause of peace. Among the large Tiffany windows is one given by Mr. and Mrs. William T. Harrison in memory of their young son, William Harrison, whose volunteer gift of five dollars was the first donation toward the new church. Peace Memorial Chtut:h is the outgrowth of a small group of Clearwater pioneers of Presbyterian faith who erected a small frame building in 1895 on a site which is now the comer of South Fort Harrison avenue and Pierce street Here the congregation worshipped until the new church was planned. The old edifice was moved to the rear of the lot and another lot adjacent to the first was purchased, the double site being used as the location of the new church. At the same time a manse was purchased in the Harbor Oaks residential section. In 1928 the combined Presbyterian properties were valued at approximately $19S,OCX>. The new church building campaign was promoted under the pastorate of Dr. David Arthur Dunseith who took charge of the church in 1918. Associated with him in the church work are three paid helpers: Miss Lillian Russell Bigger, execu tive secretary; Mrs. Margaret Sands Hubbard, secretary of Sunday School work, and Miss Madelaine McNall Dunseith, secretary of Young Peoples' Work. J N. McClung is superintendent of the SIUlday School. In 1929 an enlargement program i s being carried out in the church, including a new educatiooal building and auditorium-gymnasium, costing in all over $50,0CX>. The educational depa1t1nent of this church is one of the foremost in the South, being selected as a model of efficiency and order. EPJSCOP .AI. The Church of the Ascension was originally built on the comer north of where the CoiDlty Court House now stands, about the year 1883. A small frame building at first, it was twice enlarged and once removed, and the church property was sold in 1924 for $45,0CX>.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 103 Tbe present building was begun in January, 1925 and was occupied in an unfini shed sta te in September of that year. The edifice is of poured stone, clo5ely resembling Bedford limestone. It was erected by brickmasons, and tbe nice adjustment of forty-five sizes of stone testifies to their skill. The dragons on the tower, symbolic of the protecting state, w e re each cast in one piece. The roof is of asbestos slate The hammerbeam timbering is excep tionally handsome, and the eagles' beads on the finals are hand -carved. So well matched is all the woodwork, including the furniture, that it might easily have been carved by on e man rom the same material. The six stained-glass win dows were made by six different firms, each witho ut any knowledg e of the other's work, and a very interesting effect has thus been achiev e d. The Rev. Arthur T. Cornwell i s rector of the Church of the Ascension. The church rectory is located in Hamilton Crescent CATHOUC The Church of St. Cecelia, at the co r ner o f Jasmine and Prospect streets was erected l ate in 1924. The church w as organized in 1920 by the Rev. Father Payne, of New York, who spent tw o w in t ers in Clearwater during which he said mass in a rented building. Following him, the Rev Father Barry also conducted services for two winters here. At that time there were only about twenty resident Catholics in the town, the congregation bein g made up mainly of visitors from the N ort h during the winter months. Fathers Payne and Barry collected most of the money necessary to the pur chase of the lot where the church was even tually built. A Mr. Brown, of the congregation, made up the difference and also donated a substantial sum t oward the building. It is estimated that the ch u rch as it now stands, represents an ou tlay of app r oximately $50,000. Father Barry, who had charge of the church through out the building campaign, is still the pastor. The membership has grown unt il there is now a large resident congregation. CHRISTIAN SeteNcE The First Christian Church Scientist, o f Clearwater had its beginning o n Sunday, January 2, 1916, when five p e r sons met to read the Christian Science Bible lesson of that day at the borne of Col. E. T. Byington, one of the earliest and best-known edito rs of the Clearwat er Sun. This meeting led to the formation of a socie ty and, in March, 1920 to th e purchase of a dwellin g and two lots on the corne r of Oak an d Turner streets, where services were held In 1925 the old residence was remov ed to the rear of the lot, and the present edifice erected o n the corner, This building is valued at $25 ,000. Early in 1925 the Society became the First Church of Christ, Scien tist, Clear water, 0rHI!R CHURCHES The olde r churches of-Clearwater, with their historic backgro unds which date back to the very beginning of a settleme n t o n Pinellas peninsula hav e grown t o be the larger churches of the city, but there are also other churches whi ch have large followings and do equally as good work in the commu nity. Among these

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104 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA are the Christian Church, which is located on North Fort Harrison avenue and of which the Rev. H. R. Allegood is pastor; the Church of Christ, South Fort Harrison at Pine street, with the Rev Robert E Wright, pastor ; and the Sal vation Army, on Northeast Cleveland street. In addition to these there are nwner ous religious societies and organizations which are affiliated with, or auxiliary to, the various churches. DUNEDIN Dunedin, one of the prettiest spots in Florida's most beautiful county, locattd just north of Clearwater, is claimtd by some of its most loyal citizens to be the oldest settlement on the Gulf coast between Cedar Keys and Key West. This claim, however, is challenged by some of the same kind of citizens of Clearwater, and this his torian believes that this friendly confusion of claims is quite explain ab l e That the earlier settlement was at Clearwater, but that in an early period Dunedin was so much the outstanding trading point that Dunedin people have come to look upon it as the first settlement. The first definite date roeordtd in connection with this cormnunity is May 31, 1868, when the Rev Joseph Brown and family, of Virginia, landed from a small coastwise schooner at this point, but there was evidently a settlement even then, for the record has it that the schooner landed at the public dock, and that the Rev. Mr. Brown gatherel together a small congregation in a near b y school house and preached on the first Sabbath after his arrival. About 1870 John L. Branch opened a genera l store on the coast where Dunedin was later to be built. But Mr. Branch evidently moved about, for several other 1oc:alities have records of him. He brought supplies in by sailing craft for which be built a dock out from his store. 'The dock was the. only one for miles in either directioo and became a regular port of call for tnding vessels 'The r e were so few inhabitants, though, that the store did no\ pay, and the owner clostd it up and left. 'The people who had settled here w ere homesteaders engaged in raising the farm crops they had produced in whatever state or section they had originally come from and cotton was a favorite crop. Major M.G. Anderson put up a small cotton gin. operated by horse power, to prepare the cotton for marketing. Sweet potatoes, watermelons and oranges were also raised. George L. Jones was the second man to venture the operation of a general store and trading post, and he gave to the settlement its first name, calling it Jooesboro. 'The name was short-lived, for only a few months after J 0 Douglass and James Somerville natives of Dunedin Scotland, arrivtd on the scene and they abo opened a store, then petitioned the government for a postoflioe to be called Dlmedin. Tbe petition was graottd and Dunedin-"Eden on the Gulf"-was ckfinitely started on its way. It was then that Dunedin became the principal trading point, as the Douglass and Somerville enterprise was a large one and drew business from the entire peninsula. Tbe history of Dunedin in the early '70's is the history of pioneering in Flor ida. The habits and customs of the settlers were necessarily primitive because of the isolation which robbed them of the conveniences afforded in older states of the

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PART I-NARRATIVE 105 Union. The men were required every so often to work on the sandy trails-called roads-for three days, or to pay a poll tax of one dollar. The wage for this work was fifty cents a day, and the pay for a day was in the form of a bushel of sweet potatoes or a gallon of cane syrup. By 1880 times had changed considerably for the pioneers. The community had grown in population and stores hotels, schools and churches had sprung into being. The Dunedin Yacht Club and Skating Rink, the name of which was later changed to Library Hall, was built in the very early '80's, being largely financed and patronized by the Scotchmen of whom there were quite a number in the com munity. While there had been a Iew scattering citrus growers in the Dunedin section ever since the homesteaders had begun to settle there, vegetables, sugar cane and cotton were the chief crops until about 1880, when there was a general change in favor of the citrus industry. This came about after the art of budding and grafting had been introduced by A. L. Duncan, of the Milwaukee Florida Orange Company, and Henry A. Smeltz had introduced the idea of spraying against insects and diseases. Hitherto the groves had been of seedlings which required about ten years for bearing and which were unprotected against the ravages of natural enemies. The ideas introduced by these two newcomers cut the bearing time in half and raised the citrus industry above all others in this section. During the early days little attention was paid to marketing the fruit It was loaded loose, or in sacks, into the holds of the trading vessels and sent to various Gulf ports. Later the grove owners found it more satisfactory to pack in barrels and ship by boat to Cedar Keys to be re-shipped by rail. The barrels gave way eventually to standardized fruit boxes which were made in local sawmills. No attention was paid at first to the grading of the fruit, but the growers soon learned that by washing polishing and packing according to size they received better prices. A hand-sizer was invented to lessen the work. L B. Skinner, one of Dunedin's foremost citrus growers, was the first to invent a power-driven washer, polisher and sizer. The first machine was built to take care of his own fruit and was a decidedly crude affair, but it was such an im provement over the hand method that he soon began to make them for his friends and neighbors, filling orders in a one-story shop 12 by 16 feet in size. From that meager beginning Mr. Skinner built up the largest packing house machinery plant in the world. His son B. C. Skinner, later became associated with him, and the firm was given the name of The Skinner Machinery Company. The transportation problem had thus far been rather unsatisfactory for Dunedin shippers, since they had to depend solely on small sailing craft. Then came the first steamboat to land at the dock-this, too, in 1880. This was a cause for great rejoicing since it was the beginning of a regular transportation line which operated for several years. Then, in 1888 Dunedin took another step forward. The Orange Belt Rail way came through the town. The first depot an empty box car set on the siding, to be sure, but they were cause for wild demonstration. Dunedin gradually grew and its people prospered The settlement formed about the places of business and the community centers became quite a little town.

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106 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA The free-range hogs were naturally a nui sance and to keep them out, steps were taken to incorporate the city of Dunedin. The charter was issued by special act of the state legislature in 1899. George W. Trask was elected first mayor; C S. Sushin, clerk and tax assessor; A. J. Grant, marshal and tax collector; Hugh Som_erviJie, treasurer; William Hunt, city attorney. Councilmen: George L. Jones, pres1dent; T D. Moore, L. B. Skinner, J. Wesley Douglas and William G. Douglas. The Dunedin Times was founded in 1924 by Frank E. Joy, who sold it to Donald Call in 1926. C. W. Cleary acquired it in 1928 and has made it a success ful paper and useful civic factor. The bank of Dunedin was organized in October, 1913, with $20,000 capital stoclc and the following officers: H. W. Bivins, president; J. M. M cClung, vice pl"esident; H B. Earthman, cashier. The directors were: H. W. Bivins, J. M. McClung, Walter Bull, E. P. Young, Sr., E. W. Nigels, P. 0. Knight, D F Cooeley. In 1925 the capital stock was increased to $60,000, and on March 27, 1929, its resources were $377,922.95 The officers are: H. W. Bivins, president ; A. J. Grant, vice-president; J. N. McClung, vice-president; A. H. Grant, cashier; C. H. Shaw, assistant cashier. The directors are: H. W. Bivins, A H. Grant, J N. McClung, A. C. Clewis, W. B Y Wilkie, W. H. Armston, C. H. Dingee, R. S. Grant, A. J. Grant. The little city has four churches, a Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Episcopal. Local organizations of the Woman's Club, Needlework Guild, and ParentTeachers Association are active and effective. The chamber of commerce does excellent work as a booster organization and there i s an active Young Women's Christian Association. A w ell-patronUed public library i s another community asset. E
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PART I-NARRATIVE 107 settler in what is now the city of Gulfport. Mr. Barnett had been in the Con federate service and was severely wounded at the capture of the Union gun boat, Water Witch, and finally died as a result of his wounds in 1887. Mrs. Barnett was the mother of several children by a former marriage, among lbem Henry: Stauter, Mrs. Frank Futch and Mrs. Aleck Leonardy. In 1876, Joseph R. Torres, who came from New Orleans, purchased the im provements made by Capt. James Barnett, and from the state of Florida, the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 33, which was platted in 1884 as the first part of Disston City, which name was abandoned for that of Bonafacio when Mr. Torres became its postmaster in 1885. Torres sold this property to a Mr. Locke, who kept the store and postoffice until he sold to William P Woodworth, a new settler from Maine, for $400 in 1887. Mr. Woodworth tells us that some days there were not any cancellations, as there were only about nine families in tha't whole section. Therefore his pay was very meager. He continued as postmaster for eight years, and finally sold the building, which was known as the Dis ston Hotel, to a Mr. Thomes, who built his home from the old lumber There were only nine families in this section, among them being the Rev. A. A. Hoyt, Mr. Ingersoll, Henry Stauter and Albert Schludecker About this time Mr. F. A. Davis, of Philadelphia, became interested in this section, and it was through the efforts of Mr Hoyt and Mr. Woodworth, who each gave ten acres of land, tha t the trolley was extended in 1905 from St. Peters burg to Veteran City, which name had been adopted as a part of a plan undertaken by Captain J. F. Chase, of St. Petersburg, a distinguished Grand Army veteran, to found here a city of homes of Civil War veterans. In 1910 the community had grown to 38 registered voters, and a meeting was called at the Gulf Casino Aug. 24th for the purpose of incorporat ing. This meeting was attended by 24 of the residents. A. A Hoyt was elected chairman and Wm. P. Woodworth, clerk. On October 12th another meeting was held and a vote was taken which resulted in 23 for incorporation and 7 against it. At this meeting it was also voted to name the town "Gulfport" and the Rev. A. A. Hoyt offered a drawing for the town seal, which was accepted. The first office rs elected were E. E. Wintersgill, mayor, with a board of aldermen as follows: A. L. Stevanski, L. M. Wintersgill, Joshua White, Henry Slauter, Henry Weathers, with Samuel J. Webb being appointed clerk and John C. White, marshal. December 22, 1910, the Post Office Department changed the name from Veteran City to Gulfport. In April, 1911, the town officers voted to pur chase 1Zlots for town purposes for $1,200, and in the following month they voted to issue bonds for $4,400 to built a town hall; however, this bond issu e was aban for one of $10,000, which was voted on February 4th, 1912, for improve ments as follows: $1,500 for town house and jail, $4.000 for road improvements, $1,500 for ditching and culverts, $500 for bridges, $500 for sidewalks and $500 for street crossings-balance for ge!)eral expenses. The vote on this was unanimous

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. 108 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY FLORIDA excepting two items, one of which had one oppo s ing vote. In 1912 Davis bou l evard was graded as far south as F i rst street. The assessed valuation this year was $100,760. The tax valuation in 1913 showed an i ncrease and amounted to $149,630, and the salaries of the aldermen were fixed at 25 cents per meeting, with a fine of 50 cents if absent. C. E. Burl eson (who is now coun t y engineer) was authorized to make a survey of the town for d itching and other work, at an estiinato:d cost of $300.00. The new town hall was built at a cost of $1,259. 75, and the supervisor was instructed to keep two men busy grubbing for the streets. January 20, 1914, first meeting of the councilmen was held in the new Town HaD, and in May .of this year electric light, gas and water franchises were gran t ed to F. J. Davenport who was building a new hotel, The Bayview. Many new settlers were coming in and building was very active. A Board of Trade was organized and 5,000 booklets wer e distributed. In 1916 the school facilities consisted of one building of fou r rooms and three teachers, while in 1928 it had increased as foll ows: A Jtmior High building with 16 teachers and 240 pupils. Cost of the building alone was $240 000 and being one of the best-equipped buildings in the county. There is also a grade school costing $120,000, with 160 pupils and 6 teachers. In 1920 a second bond issue, amounting to $13,000, was voted for public im provements, and a resolution was passed prohibiting any shooting within the cor porate limits and making it a bird sanctuary In }WJe, 1924 the first petition to pave with brick was presented to the council by Ex-Mayor McKinney, asking that Grant avenue and Davis boulevard, together with Shore boulevard be paved. This was unanimously passed, and from these three blocks have resulted over 16 miles of streets being laid with brick. The town has 16 miles of brick-paved streets, which have been laid since 1923. It is well lighted, having 123 large electric lights. There are three churches, one Methodist and two Presbyterian. There are three hotels, the largest one being the Rolyat Hotel in Pasadena section and considered one of the finest hotels in the state of Florida. The Boca Ceiga Inn, on the waterfront at foot of Grant avenue is a very popular place for the winte r tourist and will accommodate about 150 guests. The Bayview Hotel, built in 1914, is well patronized and will accommodate about 50 people. The tax valuations for 1928, $6,931, 595; the estimated population, 2 500, and the number of residences, 550. The town owns its own water improvements, although it gets its supply from St. Petersburg. It also has its own incinerator, which cost $21,000. Among those who have done much of the hard pioneer work to transfonn a tract of wild land into a city with well-paved streets and all the conveniences are Samuel J. Webb, who came from the state of Massachusetts in 1907, and for about ten years was clerk, tax collector assessor, and supervisor of public works. The first year as supervisor, working without any salary, and then increased 50 per day. Among others who helped in these days were E. E Wmtersgdl,

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PARTI-NARRATIVE 109 Bob Sjustrom and L M. Wintersgill, who put on a boat line between Gulfport and Pass-a-Grille, for years this being the only way to Pass-a-Grille. B F. Measey, brought here from Philad e lphia by F. A. Davi s as the directing head of a company which developed and owned Boca Ceiga Park, was an outstanding factor in the pio n ee r deve l op i n g of the t o wn. Among the olde r sett lers w h o are still li v ing that have alway s taken an active part in the devel opment o f Gulfport are J oseph B S t ei nwinder Alber't Schludecker James Richey, Walte r Roberts and N. B M c K inney. Among those who have passed on, but did much of the pioneer work to make Gulfport the beautiful little community it is; were Rev. A. A. Hoyt, E. E. Win t e rsgill, Benj. Sands, Jos hua White, John H. Parks, Henry Stauter, Alec Leonardy. Among industries i n G ulfport worthy of n o t e other than fishing are: The F l orida Playthings I nc. manufacturing nov el tie s i n toys for children, a very suc cess ful manufa ct uring c oncern, headed by Miss Leora Lewis. Y a tes Floral G arden, making a special ty o f growing roses and s weet peas M. d e F o r e st Yates prop rietor. A. L. Kimball gro wer of fine "glad's" f o r s hipping. McKinney's Banana and Glad Gardens The largest banana plantation in the county, where they can be seen blooming and in fruit every month of the year Als o grower of fine "glad s The T-ropical Nurs ery, grower of all vari eties of tropical and semi-tropical p l ants, Sam Lange propr i etor. The town has two ch urches a M e thodist Episco pal South, and a Presby t e rian their parochial w o rk being well augmented by a Ladies' Circle and a Ladies Aid r e spectively The r e i s a branch of the P a r en t Teachers Association A Com munity Club, organ i zed to bring home folks and winter visitors together in closer social relations,is an e x ce llent and effective local institution. Gulfport is connected by fine roads with all sections of the county, the drive to the Rolyat Hotel and the Pass--a-Grille bridge being one of especial beauty. E x c ellent schedule s by trolle y with St. Petersburg and regular boat service to Pass--a Grille add to the a t tract io n s and facilities f o r vi sit ors. The present oflkers selected in November 1928 a re as follows: M F Jones, mayor ; W. W Swift, clerk and tax collector ; H H Herndon, treasurer; Mrs. R. M Jenkins, assessor ; W D Berry, chairman of the council; A. C Roebuck, councilman; D. D. Hagelbarg e r councilman; C. R. Cole, council man; A. C. Potter, councilman ; Samuel Rainey marshal; A. N. Tilton officer. LARGO Located four miles to the south of Clearw ater, upon both the Atlantic Coast L in e and the Seaboar d Air Line railroad s, upon the main north and so uth c o unty h ig hwa y, and fro m which v arious other h i ghw a y s branch is Largo, with 2 500 po pul atioo-''The Citrus C i ty, S
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IlO HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY. FLORIDA For many years Clearwater was the only spot on the peninsula having any to a town and the trading point for the settlers of the middle section; but 1t gradually became so well settled that a nearer town grew up at Largo, the most suitable point for shipping. Daniel McMullen, of the seven McMullen brothers, who had visited the locality in 1853, settled near the site of Largo about 1866 or I867, as did "Uncle Jimmie" Kilgore and Dr. Gideon Powledge. Settlers and farms and groves increased until the railroad came in 1888, the postoffice of Largo being established in September of that year, and in 1889 Robert J. Whitehurst and George Hammock subdivided the land for the town. The town of Largo was incorporated by act of the State Legislature passed June 6, 1905. The town officials provided by the charter were: M. Joel McMulle n mayor; H. Roberts, clerk and tax assessor ; W. S. Dabbs, marshal and tax collector; R. A. Hendrix, treasurer. Councilmen: E. B. McMullen, J T. Jackson, J. J McMullen, M. W. Ulmer, John S. Taylor. The original charter included all of Section 34, Township 29 S., Range IS E., in the town lim i ts. Later the limits were revised to include only about three-quarters of this area A bill to abolish the government of the Town of Largo under the old system and establish a commission form of government, with a town manager appointed by the commission, was passed by the State Legislature on May 25, I913. John S. Taylor, M. W. Ulmer, P. C Keller, W A Cameron and M W. Knight were elected commissioners under the new charter on July "1;1913. On July 7, with Mr. Taylor acting as temporary chainnan, the new commissioners elected P. C. Keller as mayor and appointed J. M. Lisenby as temporary town manager. S. F Evans was appointed town manager on July 18. Thus, Largo became one of tbe first towns in Florida to operate wtder a city manager, and so far as could be learned it was the smallest town in the world to take this step, having an area ofonly .WOUt three-quarters of a square mile. Largo became a city by an act of the State Legislature on May 4, 1925 A new charter was adopted, and the city limits extended to include an area of six square miles. The beginning of the citrus fruit industry in the Largo section is not definitely known, but it dates back to long before the coming of a railroad to Pinellas. Prior to the building of the railroad fruit was shipped in sailing vessels, poured loose into the hold. When the railroad was built freight shipments began in almost anv kind of containers Commercial shipping on any scale began about 1900, and in,the winter of 1928-29 Largo shipped about 250,000 boxes of citrus fruit to northern markets. Poultry raising beearne a popular industry in vicinity of Largo about 1925, and the Pinellas Poultry Producers' Association was organized here in May, 1927 At that time, of the more than one hundred who were trying out the industry, only one man was making his entire living by it. By the spring of 1929 several of the farms had been built up to a highly paying basis. The average weekly output of eggs by the Association at that time was about 1,500 dozen.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 111 The bee industry was organized in Largo by K. Hansen in 1928, and this became another of the diversified farm interests here. The growth of the city has been steady and unvarying and at no time has there been a wild scramble of real estate speculation Here yearly is held the Pinellas County Fair which bears the distinction of having been an ever-increasing success since its incep tion and is the only free fair in the state. Functioning in the interests of Largo are several civic clubs among the women and a Chamber of Commerce and merchants' association among the men. The Largo Sentinel was established by A. R. Nason, its first issue appearing on March 14, 1912. It was sold in 1913 toW. A. Allen, who later associated with him 0. W. Alexander. Mr. Allen died in 1919 and his son Bernard assumed charge of the paper, later selling it to H. H. Hamlin, who in turn sold it to J. E. Dadswell. Sydney L. Angel came into control in 1922, and on April 26, 1923, the present ownership of A. J. Fuller began. Mr. Fuller has built the Smtinel into an excellent country weekly and solid business concern. Largo has five churches: the First Baptist, Primitive Baptist Church of Christ, Methodist Episcopal, and Church of God. It has all the fraternal organizations, and a successful Kiwanis Club. The Minnehaha Club is an unique organization, if, indeed it can be called that, which plays a prominent part in the community life of Largo. Anyone who may attend any meeting is then and there enrolled as a member without dues. It meets the last Thursday of each month for a picnic dinner for the purpose of gathering as many people as possible from: as much of the country as possible, to become better acquainted with each other and have a jolly good time. A dozen or more states frequently are represented. The town has five parks, and boasts of several industries, with more in prospect. City officials of Largo in 1929 were: W. F. Belcher, mayor-commissioner; W. W. Walling, T R. Duren, C. F Smith and George C. Findley, commissioners; W. M. Healy, city manager and clerk. OZONA Ozona: an old New England fishing village in a setting of blue sky, bluer Gulf of Mexico, orange trees, hybiscus, palms, mocking birds, red birds, balmy air. A colony of home-makers, some living there the year around, others corning from nearly all parts of the United States for the winter months. All loving their homes and groves enough so that there is little real estate for sa l e no "subdivisions," and one has to persuade the owner of property to sell. Yes, this is Florida! An old town, as towns go in South Florida In 1868, "Uncle Walton" White hurst "took up" state land in the country and government land in what was known to the spongers, fishermen and Cubans who came in for water as "Yaller Bluff," because of the bluff of yellow sand jutting out into the water and visible for miles from the Gulf. Mr. Whitehurst established a home in "Yaller Bluff," building the first house, now the Lawler home, in the main street. Salt was made on what is now the Bay property and the boats took on water from what is now the beautiful Hodge place, "Yaller Bluff."

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I 12 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA After the settlement by the Whitehurst family, W. V. Futrell bought forty acres and divided it into town lots. He opened a postoffice and store, one of the few on the coast, the only near ones being a smal l store in what is now C learwater, near the causeway, and one owned by Mr. Wall at "Seaside,'' now Crystal Beach. L. H Eavey of Hagerstown, Md., sold his grove "in the country" and established another store in 1881. Mr. and Mrs. Eavey are still residents of the village. Industries at this time were orange gro wing, and the trades men accepted oranges as cash, se11ing to the northern buyer who shipped the fruit north from Cedar Keys--all freighting being by water; and fishing-fish being so plentiful that schools one-quarter of a mile long were no uncommon sight. People drove in from Ocala and Orlando in those days, buying fish, cl eani ng and salting it and taking it back for the wholesale trade. All summer, campers from inland towns stayed along the water f ront and the place was really a busy frontier town! They came to be relieved of malaria, then a prevalent d isease in the inland, and to escape yellow fever, then unknown as to origin and cure. Each t own in those days maintai ned a shotgun quarantine on its borders and people from Tampa and other affected areas were warned off. Mail came from Keystone for this entire section, the postman riding over and selecting his OWil mail, stained with disinfectant to protect the receiver from yellow fever! With the advent of the Orange Belt railroad, now the Atlantic Coast Line, began to come northerners who established winter homes and brought others. Up to then, "tourists" came to Cedar Keys and thence south by boat These were the happy days of fishing bunting, picnicking community dances to the tune o f the fid die, mouth organ, and guitar No telephone, telegraph. roads or a utomobiles I Dr. H E Whitford of Chicago happened along with an asthmatic patient about 1890 was charmed with the place and insisted on hi s father Dr. H. K. Whitford o f Elgin, Ill. coming the next year with his wife, the late Dr. S usan K. Florida in those days was an anathema of "malaria and alligators" to the northerner Other Chicago and Elgin people followed and about this time the late Dr. Richardson of St. Louis brought his family to establish a year-around residence Dr. Whitford and Dr. Richardson changed the name of the town to "Ozona" -anything "yellow" in those days suggested yellow fever! Good roads, rail road, and water transportat. ion make Ozona easily aocessible, but it still remain s a little place of charm and re stful ne ss, peopled by busy folks running farms and groves, fishing, and employed in the neighboring larg e r towns; by those seeking a winter playground or health, retired business men, by profes s ional men and women writers, musicians arti s ts A charming oasis, set in a PASS-A-GRILLE Pass-a-Grille, famou s as the first Gulf resort on the West Coast of Florid a is l ocated on the southernmost tip of Pass-a.-Grille Island, across Boca Ceiga bay. Newcomers are always curious as to the meaning of P ass-a-Grille Some maintain that the word is S panish for "over the bar." But the name is generally attepted as being of French origin, meaning "La Pass-aux-Grillards", or "Pass of the Cnllers." This is said to refer to the fact that in the early days Florida's coast was f r equented by buccaneers, fishermen, smugg lers and who found

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PART I-NARRATIVE 113 the lower end of the island a convenient place to stop for cooking meals-hence the "grille" (broiling). Be that as it may, it is significant that feasting on the beach along this island had become so famous that as early as 1841, when a gov ernment survey of the Florida coast was made, the map-makers recor ded the pass as "Pass-aux-Grillard." Through use the name became shortened to its late r Americanized form. The island was formerly known as Long Key, and was first settled in 1884 by Captain Zephaniah Phillips and family, of Martha's Ferry, Ohio. Captain Phillips, a Union veteran of the Civil War, having come to Florida for his health, was directed by friends to Pinellas Peninsula. Arriving there, he visited Long Key and was so attracted by its beautiful loca tion and its healthful attributes that he immediately homesteaded the southern end of it from the United States government. Captain Phillips' first step was to pitch a tent among the palm trees, and here he and his family established their home. Two years later, in the fall of 1886, he erected a residence-the first building, so far as is known, ever to be on the isla nd. Materials for the house were brought from Pensacola by sailboat. In 1892 Captain Phillips sold to Dr. Gehring of Washington, the forty acres comprising the southern end of the key, to be used as a site for a sanitarium and hotel. Financial reverses at home spoiled the doctor's plan and he sold the property toR. S. Hanna, of St. Petersburg, who associated with himself Captain R. P. Miles, G. B Haines and S. R. Morey, the latter of Tampa. The tract was platted, and the place named Pass-a-Grille from the pass which separates it from the mainland. The plat was recorded as "Morey's Beach,'' but this name was never used. The first wedding on the island was that of a daughter of Captain and Mrs. Phillips, Julia Jeannette, who was married in 1887 toT. A. Whitted. The Whitteds moved afterwards to St. Petersburg to make their home. Another daughter, Mrs. Anna C. Heinkel, built the Plaza Hotel which was opened for its first season in 19()(H)7, and operated it for seven years. It was later burned. At first there was no means of approach to Pass-a-Grille except by water, and small sailboats afforded the usual means of travel, often requiring many hours to cover a few miles. People liked the place, nevertheless, and began to buy lots and build cottages. It was especially popular as a resort with people of St. Petersburg and Tampa. The first hotel was built at Pass-a-Grille in 1899 by George Lizotte, who had gone there a year before to make his home. Mr. Lizotte conceived the idea of remodelling his small cottage into a hotel which he called the "Bonhomie." A larger building was added, and in 1911 tourist trade warranted the building of a large and attractive hostelry to replace the old. The Hotel Lizotte was the result. It was burned, however, in 1918 As hotel propr ietor Mr. Lizotte specialized in sea food dinners, and his dining room became famous throughout the United States for this service. Too, his hotel was the center of the beach social life for many years. The postoffice of Pass-a-Grille was established August I 0, 1905, with Mrs. Bessie Lizotte as postmaster. The first casino designed especially to take care of the throngs of bathers fre quenting the Pass-a-Grille beach was opened in 1909 in connection with the Plaza

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114 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORID A Hotel which had been bui l t in 1907. The Plaza was a favorite rendezvous for tourists until it burned in 1915. Pass-a-Grille was incorporated in 1911. Judge F. M. Simonton, of Tampa, assisted in making the charter, a unique feature of which provides that any American citizen owning property in the town may vo t e at all elections without relinquishing his voting privilege elsewhere, thus affording a s e nse of protection to absentee prop. erty owners not had in many other communiti e s. Governor Albert W Gilchrist appointed J. J. D uffy mayo r with Judge Schwertfeger and E. C Allen as commissioners. The long, tediou s route to Pass a-Grille from St. Petersburg was shortened in 1905 when the trolley line was completed to Veteran City-later called Gulfport. Boat lines were inaugurated, making connections several times a day with the street railway schedule and cutting the time of the trip from the city to the island resort to approximately one hour Outstanding among the milestones which have marked Pass-a-Grille's progress as a town was the building of the first bridge which connected the island with the mainland. The toll bridge built by W G. McAdoo, owner of the northern part of the island, was opened on February 4, 1919. On May 11, 1920, it was sold to Frank F. Pulver, and a few days later the Pass-a-Grille Bridge Company was formed With the opening of the bridge Mr. McAdoo opened up his property, about five miles north of Pass-a-Grille, as a beach resort, naming it St. Petersburg Beach A brick road was built extending from Pass-a Grille, past St. Petersburg Beach, to the bridge, bringing the Pass town within a few minutes' drive of St. Petersburg and making it possible for people who earned their livings in the city to reside in Pass-a-Grille if they desired. The toll bridge remained in operation until the free county causeway was opened in 1927. Incidentally, it is of interest that the first car to cross this splendid causeway had as passengers Mrs. Zephaniah Phillips, wife of Pass-a-Grille's first settler, and her two daughters Mrs. Whitted and Mrs. Heinkel. Captain Phillips had died in 1903. The Pass-a Grille Board of Trade was organi zed on January 4, 1925, with T E Hallock as temporary chairman and R. E. Wyman as secretary-treasurer The organizatio n was completed on July 9, at which time Jonathan P. Smith was elected president of the board; Charles DuBois, vic e-presid ent; and Mr. Wyman, secretary-treasurer. Charter members of the Pass-a-Grille Board of Trade were : T. E. Hallock, H. 0. Newman, F. E. Smith, T J. Rowe, C. DuBois, L. Backer, J. P. Smith, T. Payne, J. A. Sharpe W. Mitchell,]. N. Patterson, G. Bartlett G. Harrod, E. Wil liams, R. E. Wyman and M M. Deaderick. While Pass a-Grille has been popular as a resort from the first years of its existence, the island experienced its most phenomenal growth in area of develop ment during 1925. Particularly notable in this year of expansion was the founding of Don Ce-Sar Place, just north of the town of Pass-a-Grille, by Thomas J Rowe. Mr. Rowe platted much of his property to be sold as sites for fine homes and developed the remainder into a picturesque tropical park as a setting for the

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PART I-NARRATIVE 115 $2,000,000 Don Ce-Sar Hotel which he erected there. This ten-story hotel, one of the finest in the country, was opened in the winter of 1927-28. Ideally located on the Gulf of Mexico, Don Ce-Sar Place immediately became a favorite with visitors to St. Petersburg and other nearby cities who were seeking a beach resort with luxurious hotel accommodations. As a resort, Pass-a-Grille became famous because of its natural advantages of gulf on one side and bay on the other, its equable climate, its gorgeous sunsets over the Gulf of Mexico, its miles of smooth beach which offer the safest of bathing facilities and a paradise for seashell collectors, and, by no means least, its lure for the fisherman Sportsmen were soon drawn here from all corners of the globe to try their skill at catching the tarpon in season, and other large game fish which abound throughout the year in both bay and gulf, and Pass-a-Grille fishing guides became famous for their efficiency. The Pass-a-Grille Casino, erected in 1921 and enlarged in 1925 to care for hundreds of bathers, was designed as the new social center of Pass-a Grille. In cluded in the building were club rooms, dance hall, restaurant, bath house, showers and lockers, as well as a pavilion and a board walk to the water's edge. PINELLAS PARK On the Atlantic Coast Line railroad eight miles northwest from downtown St. Petersburg but on a highway so well buil t up that there is no line of demarcation showing where the city ends and a village begins, lies the youngest but one of the municipalities of Pinellas county. Pinellas Park came into being in 1909, when the Florida Association a corpo ration organized by F. A. Davis, his son Dr. A. B. Davis, and P. J. McDevitt, was organized for the purchase and development of a large tract of land at that point. A townsite was surveyed and the surrounding lands were divided into five and ten acre farms. An extensive advertising campaign in the north, principally in Pennsyl vania, soon brought settlers from that state, and the postoffice of Pinellas Park was established in 1910, with Dr. W. R. Vogel postmaster. The first general store was built by 0. N. Byers, and other business followed. A town charter was granted by the legislature of 1913, the first town council consisting of P. J. McDevitt, mayor; James R. Shoecraft, J. A. Cooley, W. R. Robson, and D. D. Stine. Under charter changes obtained in 1923 the officials were designated as commissioners, five being elected at large and they choosing the mayor from their own members. The first couunissioners elected were P. J. McDevitt, Harold F. Brennan, James R. Shoecraft, David R. Link, and J. A. Cooley, the body choosing Mr. McDevitt mayor. The agricultural part of the project was not greatly successful, although fine dairies, chicken ranches, rabbitries, flower growing, and so forth, are well established industries of the neighborhood. The town owns its waterworks, and has made a considerable growth. Offering the best natural location on the lower peninsula for general industries, and for homes of workers, Pinellas Park already is a suburb important to St. Petersburg, and destined to be much more so as both communities grow.

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116 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA SAFETY HA;RBOR Where Hernando De Soto established his headquarters nearly 400 years ago, located on a high bluff overlooking Old Tampa bay, stands the little city of Safety Harbor, a city equidistant from the many points of interest in Pinellas county as well as the surrounding counties. To the south, only 20 miles away, lies St. Peters burg, the Sunshine City. To the east and only 23 miles d i stant is Tampa, the Cigar City. To the north and approximately 15 miles is Tarpon Springs, the Sponge City. Just a little to the southwest and but 7 miles away is Clearwater, the Springtime City, as well as the county seat of Pinellas county. There are many other points of interest both in this and other counties, that can be reached in an hour or two, making it easy to pay a visit at any time to any of them without the trouble of taking long rides. Safety Harbor, the Health Giving City, where the healing waters flow, is the recognized landing place of DeSoto, who with his brave crew and embued with the spirit of chivalry, the spirit of discovery and the hopes of all Spain sailed into the beautiful land-locked bay one bright Sunday morning away back in May, 1539. These adventurers were enchanted with the beauty seen all about them. But the greatest of all things was the great flowing spring of fine mineral water seen gushing out of the sand along the very shore of the bay, and in honor of the day of their landing they named it Espiritu Santo or Spring of the Holy Spirit. Up to the time of the arrival of De Soto the country had been oocupied by the early Indians and mound builders, several of the mounds still being in existence History shows that the American Indians knew the value of the great Espiritu Santo Spring and that they visited this spot that they might be cured of the various ailments with which they were afflicted. They told the good news to the first white settlers and these in tum passed the word along to others, until soon the fame of the springs had traveled far. The site where Safety Harbor is now located was a retreat for the swarthy Spanish pirate, Gomez It was he who described the site as "God s Resting Place," and it was he who sent the first white settlers to our shores. Odet Phillippe, Phillippe Hammock still bearing his name, was the first white settler o n Pinellas peninsula, coming here to Safety Harbor back in 1835. During the war period, Col. Wm. J. Bailey entered the country on Tampa bay for the United States government at Fort Brooke, now Tampa. He was told by Indians of the wonderful waters that were flowing forth from the sand that would cure all manner of ills. This sounded good and he investigated, with the result that he purchased the springs and the surrounding land. At his death the land passed into the hands of his relatives. The first developments at the springs were made by James F. Tucker, and through his efforts there was erected a bathing pavilion, bottling house, springs enclosed under a shelter, pumps placed in them as well as other improvements. He also erected a dock running out into Old Tampa bay some half-mile or more, and at this excursion boats as well as those bringing freight landed. The dock was maintained by the Tucker interests until the advent of the Seaboard Railway in 1914, after which the dock was abandoned as a commercial proposition. The Tucker interests kept control of the springs until very recent years

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PART I-NARRATIVE 117 For many years the town and postoffice were maintained at what is known as Old Safety Harbor.located about a mile to the north of the present town site. Here there was begun the erection of a commercial dock, the first in Safety Harbor, by Capt. George Washington. The work was finished by his son, C. S. Washing ton, now a resident of the city. About 1888 over this dock fruit was shipped out and supplies brought in until the moving of the site to the present location. The first postoffice was run by Sid Youngblood, who also conducted a grocery store. This was abandoned when by mutual consent the postoffice was moved some years later. The first settlers in the present town site were John D. Young and Wm. Mobley, who came along about 1853. For many years the town had several names, two of them being Safety Harbor and Green Springs, the latter being the popular name and was given the town on account of the remarkable cure of Dr. Green who was afflicted with paralysis and was cured by the spring water. Even to this day many know the city better by the name Green Springs, or Green's Spring. The first store building was erected in the present Safety Harbor by George B. Thomas, who came from Tampa to the springs to regain his health. He was the first postmaster also. Later he gave this work over to his wife, Emma D. Thomas, who handled the work until quite recent years. She was succeeded by their son, George B. Thomas, Jr., who served a year or so, then gave up the work to devote his entire time to the mercantile business. Close to follow on the heels of Mr. Thomas in the business life of the city was E. A. Boyd, who opened a grocery and feed store on what is now First Avenue North. He conducted this for many years, finally disposing of the business and devoting his time to farming The city has proven a mecca to thousands who have come to drink of and bathe" in the health-giving waters. Hotels were built to accommodate the crowds, among the first to enter into this line of work being R. T Youngblood, S. M. Hankins and J. B. Whitledge. The hotels all came to the same end-destroyed by fire. Fire also destroyed the old buildings of the springs in 1915 and for some time there was no bathing pool. However, about 1923 deals were closed whereby a company was formed to take over the springs for development purposes and the Espiritu Santo Springs Company was formed. Much money was spent in the work and as a result there is now a magnificent building in which are housed the springs they being neatly walled up and sanitary in all respects. The water is bottled in the modern bottling plant and shipped to all quarters of the United States and even to many foreign countries. A short distance to the north of the pavilion is the modem sanitarium. Here we find an institution that is rated high and is fully equipped to care for the many patients who come to use the mineral waters and for rest and quiet. Under the hands of capable attendants much good work is being done. Along with the developments at the springs came the erection of many fine buildings and among the finest is the St. James hotel erected by Mrs. James F. Tucker and W. E. Sinclair. In close touch with the St. James we find the Alden Building, another fine structure with store rooms and the Alden theatre on the first floor and apartments in the upper stories. The Washbum Building also has

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118 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA store rooms on the first floor and apartments on the second and third. Both were e rected by the Geo. F. Washburn interests. Safety Harbor is weU supplied with modem business institutions and we find grocery stores, garages, filling stations. dry goods store, barber sho?, plumbmg shop, drug stores, real estate offices, hardware store, hotels rooming houses, meat markets, dairies bath houses, newspa(>(r, etc. During summer of 1928 a new bathing establishment was O(>(ned by Dr Con F. Barth using the mineral waters of the Pipkin Mineral Wells. TM first newspaper, the T,.opical Breeze, was started by A. G. Waldron back in 1915. Mr. Waldron oontin ued his effortS for one year when he tired o{ the newspaper game in a smal l town and discontinued. Through the pleadings of the members of the Chamber of Conunerce and citizens of the city A. E. Shower was persuaded to take up the editorial duties for the city and began the publiation of the Herald in }Wie, 1916 Beginning with a small outfit the Herald has gradually enlarged until now there is a good equipment of modem machinery including late model linoty(>( as wel l as late model presses for job printing. In the city there are five churches--Ba?ti s t Episcopal, Nazarene, Methodist and All are w ell attended, s howi ng the people of Safety Harbor are as a wbole church-going people. Sa fy Harbor has a fine city !)ark where the visitors congregate to amuse themselves with tennis s huffleboard, croquet and other amusements. In the way of fraternal organitations the city is w ell there being the Masons, Eastern Star, Modem Woodm
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PART I-NARRATIVE 119 much praise for the institutions. Truly when the early discov erers were seeking for the Fountain of Y outh and found Safety Harbor and the wonderfu l springs they were at their journey's end, for here we have what they were look ing for and count l ess numbers who have come and drunk and ba thed in these wonderfu l wat ers have had many yea rs added to their lives To those looking for a place for winter or summer sojourn Safety Harbor offers splen did attractions, not the l east of which is the welcome of its ho sp itable people. ST. PETERSBURG Ever since 1843, when An t onio Maximo Hernandez is known to have estab lished a fishery on the point which now bea r s his name, settlemen t s had been made from time to time on lower Pinellas peninsula but it was not until Gener al John C. Will iams, of Detroit, Michigan visited the peninsula in 1 875 that the city o f St. Petersburg was co nc ei ved Two years prior to this time, however in 1873, Dr. Jame. s Sargent Hackney had purchased a tract of six hundred acres from the state in the localit y that was d estined to be included in the original p lat o f the city. He paid a sum amounting to twenty-five cents per acre fo r th e property and proceeded to make exte n si v e improvements. He reclaimed the sawgrass ponds, cleared the land f or fanning and groves, and built a home at what is now Fourth stree t and Fifth avenu e, sout h the site of the new St. Mary's Catholic Churc h In th e same year came J udge William H Perry and his brother, Oliver Perry, who built a home between Second and Third streets, according to the present m a p, just south of wh ere the Atlantic Coast Line tracks were eventually laid. Arriving l at e in 1873 W F Sperling purchased all the improve m ents that had been mad e by both Dr. Hackne y a nd the Perrys, and thus secured 640 acres with a mile f rontage on Tampa bay. He added a few more acres to the grov e and reclaimed the pond north of the H ackney h ome. It was at this stage o f the peninsula's development that General William s ar rived from D etroit. After looking over the res t of Florida and finding nothing which suited him, he was directed, quit e by chance, to the Pinellas section, w h ere he lost no time in acquiring property Of all the tracts here, he foresaw greatest possibilities in the Sperling lands and officia l records s how that on M arch 4 1876 two deeds w e r e executed in Alabama t o Genera l Williams from W F. Sperling, the purchaser having paid $3, 000 for th e tract. In March and April o f the same year h e a cq uired 712 acre s from the state of F lo rida to add to his holdings, paying on an average of one dollar per acre. Later he bou ght two hundred acres more, making a total of 1,600 acres in his en t ire Pinellas peninsula estate. General Williams an d family l e ft Detroit in 1879 to establish their new home in Florida Coming as far as Gainesville by t rain, from there the party proceeded in a covered wagon to the future St. Petersbu rg-distance of 250 miles through sparsely settled country and real w ilderness The trip required alm os t a month. At first General Williams tried farming on his Pinellas lands but his northern farming methods proved unsucce ss ful and after seve ral years, leaving a few em-

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120 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA ployes to look after his property, he and his family returned to Detroit. In 1886 however, they came again to this state and built a home in Hyde Park, Tampa, where they resided until the negotiations had been completed with the Orange Belt which resulted in bringing a rai l road to the Pinellas property. Following hts fallure as a farmer General Williams subsequent activities had been centered in the idea of making a town pos s ible here. The railroad was completed to Ninth street on April 1, 1888, and on June 8 the first train came in from Oakland, a small town near Orlando, which had become headquarters for the Orange Belt. As compensation for coming to his property, General Williams granted one half interest in five hundred acres, with a mile of water frontage, to the Orange Belt Company, who having failed in negotiations for property near the present site of Gut fport, considered this a splendid tenninus and towns i te President Peter A. Demens, of the Orange Belt Railway, became joi nt founder of the new town with General Williams. Both Demens and Williams wanted to name it, so the story goes, and to settle the dispute as to who should have the hon o r they drew straws. Demens won, and called it St. Petersburg in memory of his birthplac:e in Russia. General Williams was given the privilege of naming the first hotel. When it was built late in 1888, he called it the Detroit, after the city in Michigan from whence he had come. Another story which has been handed down is to the effect that earl y in 1887, when Mrs. Ella E. Ward had been appointed postmaster for the new town at the end of the road, and was faced with the problem of a name for it, she talked with General WiUiams, who suggested that it should be named for one of the four builders of the railroad-Demens, Henschen Sweetapple or Taylor. Her husband went to Oakland to consult the men and found only Henschen there, and to each of the names Henschen offered some objection. Knowing however, that Demens had wanted a town along the way named St. Petersburg, be suggested that the new tenninus be given this name. Accordingly a petition was sent to the postoffice department where it was approved-and St. Petersburg it became. Which of these versions, if either, is correct cannot now be known, but as the department records at Washington show that the postoffice was estab l ished on May 10, 1888, the latter must be considered the more doubtful. The former hac; been the general l y accepted one, anyway, and it is obviously the better story. I t is also of record that Demens referred to the place in 1887 as "St. Petersburg.' The townsite was surveyed and platted early in 1888 by A. L. Hunt, chief engineer for the Orange Belt Railway, under of General Williams. Very wide streets and a park the stze of a ctty block, whtch later was to bear the General's name, were allowed for in the plat. T. D. Pennington, who arrived in the early nineties with his family, did most of the surveying of St. Petersburg properties for a number of years following the making of the plat. Mr. Pennington and his son, Will i am J. Pennington, also es tablished the St. Petersburg Novelty Works at that time. Since the agreement had been that General Williams was to give posses sion of the property promised the Orange Belt when it had laid its tracks through the

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PART I-NARRATIVE 121 town and built a pier out to twelve feet of water, complications resulted between the General and Demens in 1888 when the latter insisted that the division be made. The tracks were not laid to Second street until December 1888, and the pier was not completed until more than a year later, but on February 28, 1889, General Williams deeded many blocks of property and the Detroit Hotel to the railroad During the interim between the coming of the first train in June, 1888, and the division of property the following February, neither Demens nor Williams could sell any lands without the other's consent, and only two lots were soldthe first real estate transactions in the town of St. Petersburg. One was pur chased by Hector McLeod on August 9, and on August 11 J. C Wifliams, Jr. bought the lot at the southwest corner of Central avenue and Second street, paying $700 for it. The town originally had been built in the Ninth street section, and had started booming even before the railroad reached it. The first settler there was Jacob Baum, who had built a home and started an orange grove in 1876 on the south side of Reservoir Lake, now Mirror Lake. Part of his grove extended across Central avenue from Ninth street, east to a point about half-way between Seventh and Sixth. The first house in the new town was built by Ed T. Lewis and Tracy Lewis, sons of Fred Lewis who had brought his family here from Pennsylvania, and T. A. Whitted, who came at this time from Disston City. The property on which the house was built was one acre in area and had been purchased from Mr. Baum for fifty dollars. The first general store was opened i n 1885 by E. R. Ward, who had come to the Ninth street section from Big Bayou. Later Mrs. Ward became the first postmaster of St. Petersburg. The first realty subdivision was known as the Ward and Baum addition of St. Petersburg. In April, 1888, Mr. Ward and Mr. Baum had entered into a partnership and platted five acres into lots, to which they gave clear titles. The lots sold from twenty to sixty dollars and the owners did a thriving bus iness. However, the subdivision did not conform to the plat of St. Petersburg as made by General Williams and the railroad, and it was many years before Central avenue was straightened and all the streets in that section widened. W. A. Sloan was the first purchaser of a lot in the Ward and Baum Addition. He later became postmaster Following the building of the Detroit Hotel at Central avenue and Second street, the completion of the depot and the division of property under General Williams' agreement, downtown St. Petersburg began to forge ahead. J. C. Wil Iiams, Jr., opened a general store just across the street from the hotel, and a building was erected on Central between Third and Fourth streets as the combined offices of the Orange Belt Investment Company, the land department of the rail road, and General Williams. D. S. Brantley, the contractor who furnished ties for the railroad, had previously opened a small restaurant for the road employees ; later he built a bath house at the waterfront. About this time, too, Ed T. Lewis and Ed Durant opened a general store near Third street south of the depot. Later they dissolved partnership and Mr. Lewis erected the Lewis building at Third street and Central avenue, where he built up one of the largest grocery stores in

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122 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA the state. Mr. D urant turned his interest to the founding of the Pinellas Cigar Company. Their property differences finally settled, both General Williams and the Orange Belt Investment Company, the latter with Col. L. Y. Jenness as manager, placed some of their lands on the market. Purchasers were allowed nine years to pay for their lots, and the only purchase restrictions were that all houses should be erected on brick or stone foundations and be painted. General Williams opened up Fourth street, south from Central avenue, in 1889. He had just built a new h ome on the site of the old Hackney residence, where St. Mary's Catholic Church has finally located. Finding that the new street would come within a few feet of his doorstep, he decided to move it over ten feet to the east. To do this, a new plat had to be made, and "The Revised Plat of St. Petersburg" was recorded on November 12, 1890. The agreement for such a plat, dated August 18, 1890, and signed by those who had bought lots up to that time, bore the names of J. C. Williams, Jr., D. D. Klinger, Mary T. Howard E. Powell, J. R. Barclift, J. Douglas Jagger, A. P. K. Safford, A. Maltry, Theodore Maltry, E. Ward, Sr., and the trustees of the Congregational Church. The federal census of 1890 placed the two-year-old St. Petersburg population at 273 inhabitants, and the greater number of these lived in the Ninth street section. EARLY GROWTH Although well located in many respects, St. Petersburg's early growth was due almost entirely to the fact that it could boast of a railroad, and was the ter minus of that road. Railroad employees, having to remain overnight, brought their families and built their homes here. The smaller communities nearby began to realize it as a shipping and trading center, and many merchants came to establish stores. Farmers and grove owners moved into town, and eventually summer ex cursions were run by the railroad as a convenience for residents of interior Florida who found a visit to the seashore an inexpensive, pleasant and healthful outing. The first excursions were run July 4, 1889. Visitors found the climate cool in summer and warm in winter, but the place was hard to reach, the narrow-gauge Orange Belt Railroad affording a very slow mode of travel and poor accommodations, and it was not until late in the nineties that St. Petersburg began to really thrive. Railroad service was improved, the tracks were made standard guage and better equipment was secured. The St. Petersburg Land and Investment Company, having succeeded the Orange Belt Investment Company, advertised the town throughout the country, and tourists began to come for the winter season The fact that this proved to be a fisherman's paradise, together with ideal climate, began to bring increasin g fame to the town as a winter resort. The firsf public improvement in St. Petersburg, so far as the records show, was the construction of a wooden sidewalk along Central avenue, which had been started at Ninth street in 1889 to extend to the bay. The walk was completed to the Detroit Hotel in 1891. Central avenue was not opened through to Ninth street until 1893, the thor oughfare having been jogged around Baum's grove between Sixth and Seventh

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PART I-NARRATIVE 123 streets to the alley on the north side of the railroad track s. The grove had been fenced to kee p out wande ring stock and stiles had been built over the fence for the convenience of pedestrians. The progress of lower Central av e nue was badly impeded by a swamp be tween Second and Third streets in which several feet o f water stood during the rainy season As yet the town was not prosperous enough to spend the necessary money for filling it in, and it was not until 1894 that the fill was finally made. H. W. Hibb s was mayor at this time, and the town council signing the notes nec essary to have the work done included T F McCall, C. Durant, J. C. Hoxie, T. M. Clark and T. A. Whitted Ernest Norwood did the work. This obstacle having been overcome, downtown St. Petersburg became the real business district and the Ninth street section the manufacturing center. George L. King's sawmill, the St. Petersburg Novelty Works and other business enterprises had sprung up, while a number of the merchants had moved their stores nearer the bay. The streets of St. Petersburg were still in their natural state of deep sand and the crossings at the intersections became so bad that the residents began to enter complaints. At last, in 1894, enough money having been raised to pay for the work, a contract was let to C. W Springstead, wh o agreed to repair the cross ings, and some of the sandy str e tches in the streets, with shell from the mounds in what is now Mound Park at a cost of 23 cents a lineal foot. On June 24, 1897, contracts were awarded for the paving of Central avenue with pebble phosphate and a drive was built around Mirror Lake and along Second and Ninth streets north. The first wooden sidewalks had been replaced with shell, and the shell replaced in 1900 with an asphalt preparation No streets were paved with brick, however, until 1903, when the little city had grown real l y prosperous and a general movement for streets and sidewalks had been started. G0Vl:RNK&N1' Out of the increasing population and the progress made by the town grew the necessity for government of some form. Due to opposition of a faction which did not wish to be burdened with taxes or to have any restriction placed upon personal privileges, though, no definite step was taken by the town boosters until 1892. An election held on Monday February 29, to vote on the incorporation of St. Petersburg, resulted in a count of fi teen votes for, and eleven against the project. This question having been settled, an election of town officials was held. Two tickets were presented in the field, the conservatives being !mown as the Anti-Saloon faction and the more radical group as the Open-Saloon faction. The Anti Saloon ticket won, electing David Moffett as mayor with a vote of 21. Councilmen were chosen as foUows: George L. King, 22 votes; Charles Durant, 18 ; Arthur Nor wood, 25; Frank Massie, 22; J. C Williams, Jr., 27. Wm. J. McPherson, w ith 26 votes, became clerk. Following the election William H. Benton, member of the defeated faction, secured an injunction to prevent the councilmen from taking office, but the legality of the election was sustained at the next session of the State Legislature and a

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124 HISTORY OF COUNTY, FLORIDA bill was passed legalizing the corporation. Less than two months after the election General Williams died. Mayor Moffett called the first meeting of the town council on March 1 in the office of The South Florida Home, a weekly newspaper that had been established by Young G Lee in December, 1890. George L. King was chosen president of the council. The term of office was determined by lot as a result of which King and Durant were to serve one year and the others two. On March 4 the council again held a meeting, this time passing nine ordinances. The first ordinance had as its purpose the preservation of the peace and morals of the town. The second prohibited the sale of merchandise on Sunday, except to persons in need of the necessities of life. Drug stores were the only exception . The fixing of license fees for the various occupations, prohibition of the firing of guns in the town limits, prohibition of gambling, and provision of punishment for "bad characters" were included in the various ordinances. Ordinance No. 10, passed at a meeting on March 8, stopped the practice of letting hogs wander over the town. At this time, too, the speed of trains within the corporate limits was set at not more than six miles per hour, and punishment of fine or imprisonment was decreed for the racing of hc>rses through the streets. In April the council voted to build a "calaboose" in which to confine law breakers. The building, constructed of two-inch plank walls, was eight by twelve feet, by ten feet high, and cost $37.68 Early in the summer of 1892, J. P. Pepper was appointed St. Petersburg's first tax assessor. On September 6 he submitted a report showing the total valua tion of all personal and real property to be $123,352.92, and the town council voted a tax levy of ten mills. The residents considered the amount of this assessment exhorbitant and protested loudly, even to the point of requesting a re-appraisal. The second election was held on March 8, 1893, and Judge Wm. H. Benton, who had been a close friend of General Williams, was elected mayor. He died suddenly a month later and David Murray was elected to fill the office. A bond election calling for $7,000 for the building of a school house was held on July 18 of the same year, and was passed by a vote of 39 to 1. The council had also considered another item of $7,000 in the same election for the grading and paving of streets, but decided to drop this for the present, knowing the resi dents would never approve two such large issues. Although events did not run altogether smoothly during the next few years, and the councilmen often had to give their personal notes in order to pay for nec essary improvements, St. Petersburg prospered and increased in population to the extent that it was possible on April 5, 1895, to defy the "cattle barons'' by passing an ordinance which prohibited cows wearing bells from wandering about within the town limits. On May 19, 1899, Mayor Edgar Harrison signed another ordi nance which prohibited any cattle from roaming the streets between "sundown and sunrise." On March 8, 1899, a proposed bond issue of $5,000 for the construction of sewers was defeated 10 to 9, and another bond issue of the same amount for build-

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PART I-NARRATIVE 12 5 ing a water plant was approved 17 to 5. The election was declared illegal, and another was held on May 23 calling for $10,000 for the waterworks. The issue was approved 31 to 9. Bond issues of $11,000 for schools, $3,000 for water and $5,000 for a channel were approved on August 27, 1901, by large majorities The town council, acting with Mayor George Edwards, took all necessary steps toward converting St. Petersburg into a city early in 1903; and the Legislature enacted the charter as written. The City of St. Petersburg became a reality on June 6, 1903. The council men who had helped to make it so were 0. T. Railsback, J. B. Wright, F. R. Chapman, F. E. Cole, J. C. Hoxie, F. P. Klutts and W. A. Coats The commission form of government was approved by the voters on April 26, 1912 and went into effect on July I, 1913. J. G. Bradshaw was chosen mayor and commissioner of public a fairs; T. J Northrup, commissioner of public safety, and C. D. Hammond, commissioner of public works On August 14, the usual dissatisfactions having arisen, a new charter committee was chosen at a special election Several months later this committee recommended a new charter pro viding for a mayor and seven commissioners. The recommendation having been approved by the voters, AI. F Lang was the first mayor elected under this new law taking office July 1, 1916. A new city charter, adopted on August 14, 1923, provided for the establish ment of eleven departments and divisions-department of finance, department of public works, department of public utilities, division of health, division of police, division of fire, division of law, division of taxes, board of public parks, library and city advertising board and hospital board. It also provided that the commissioner receiving the highest number of votes should hold the office of mayor for one year. CITV &XTJ!NSIONS St. Petersburg's original town plat, filed for record early in 1888, contained two square miles. In 1929 the city's area in land was 53.22 square miles The original town plat was adopted by city ordinance in 1903. The second extension came Oct. 3, 1912, when .28 square miles-the Bayboro subdivision-was added. The city charter of 1913 gave an added area of 2.28 square miles. Then followed other extensions as follows: In 1914, an area of .'l!J square miles east of Locust street; of .27 square miles between Locust and Second Street North; of 5 35 square miles from Six teenth Street West to Boca Ceiga Bay; of .11 square miles between Second and Fourth Street North. In 1915, .02 square miles east of Eighth Street South between Seventh and Ingleside avenue; .06 square miles in the same territory March 16, 1915; .22 square miles from Eighth to Sixteenth Street North of Ingleside Avenue. The charter of 1915 placed all of areas under one description, giving the city 8.60 square miles.

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126 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA In 1920 an area of 1.34 square miles was added east of Sixteenth Street and north of Lakeview Avenue; and 1.11 square miles in the same territory giving the city an area of 11.05 square miles. In 1923 all of the extensions were again com bined by charter amendment. The greatest extension came in 1925 when the voters at a special election added 38.47 square miles, giving the city an area of 49.52 square mil es. This took in all territory south of Central avenue except Gulfport and all te rri tory north to about a mile south of Pinellas Park. The next extension was by ordinance in 1926 when an area of 3.70 square miles in the Toytown addition on Fourth Street North was added, bringing the total land area to 53 22 square miles. TB WATERJ'IlONT St. Petersburg's municipally owned waterfront is rightly considered its one greatest property asset, and there is nothing oomparable to it elsewhere in Flor ida. But its acquisition by the city and its development for the public were a con tinuing problem of much difficulty for many years. Originally everything east of Beach Drive and First Street South was pri vately owned "water lots," and there was no thought whatever of any public im provement there. All was shoal water and beach bordered with the usual riffraff of waterfronts. The Orange Belt railroad made the first development in 1888-89 by construct ing a pier out to water twelve feet deep By taking sand from the north side to form the fill where the wooden structure began, a smal l channel was made, and this provided the only aa:essible route into the town for even the smalles t boats. The railroad's steamers connecting with Port Tampa, whence train s ran to Tampa, were the only boats of any size permitted to use the pier. The road wanted no competition and brought an injunction against George L. King in 1901 when he attempted to enlarge the small channel along the pier. This resulted in an indignation meeting of the residents, and on December 7 a contract was awarded B. E. Coe, of Tampa. to dredge a channel straight in from the bay t o the foot of First avenue north. A few days later a federal officer, arriving from Tampa, informed the contractor that t he city could not change its water front without permission from the War Department. The work was continued after this permission was granted on February 2, 1902. The waterfront was in an unsightly condition, and in 1902 the citizens began in real earnest to try to improve it. Government aid was sought but was not forthcoming so long as the waterfront property was privately owned. Accord ingly, on July 2, the Chamber of Commerce adopted dec:'aring that the waterfront between Second avenue North and the aty limtts, at Ftfth avenue North, should be a public park. On December 16 1903, Representative S. M. Sparlaoan introdnced a bill for a survey of St. Petersburg's harbor in Congress. The report was tmfavorable, and the waterfront question did not come up again until after the Board of Trade was organized in 1905.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 127 A group of waterfront boosters m e t at the home of Col. J. M Lewis on De cember 20, 1905 and launched the first organized campaign for a muni cipally o wn ed wat erfron t. They were Ed. T. Lewis, Roy S. Hanna, w L. Straub, W H. Eng li s h, A. H. Davis, C. Perry Snell and A. F. Bartlett. During the city polit ica l campaign in 1906 the waterfront prov ed a bitter i s sue. The booster elem ent won, h o w e v er, securing a majority on both the co uncil and the Board of Trade. On April 24 a committee of the Board of Trade announced that it had se c ur ed options on four key-properties whi ch it would buy and hold in trust for the city, w ith the approval of the c o uncil un til the city could take them ove.-. The counci l not only authorized the purchase of these properties, but urged the com mittee to secure as many options as possible o n the remainder of the waterfront. The city finally took over the property on J anuary 8, 1909 and the r emainde r o f the waterfront property with the e x ception of that owned by the railroad an d elect r ic light company, was secure d in December of the same year. W ork was started on the dredging and other waterfront impr ov em ents on M ay 12, 1910, and a contract for constructing the first sea-walls was awarded t o W B. Williams on July 20, 1911. An agreement was reached with the Atlantic Coast Line in 1911 wher eby the city secur ed a lease on its waterfront prope rties for ninety-nine years, and the sam e year the site of the power plant was purchased. Since 1906 C. A. Harvey had proposed reclaiming the swamp lands at the mouth o f Booker Creek and dredging a harbor there and he organized the Bay boro Investment Company for the purpose, but the project met w i th opposition from those who did not want their Tampa frei ght handled so far away. A s the wh o le waterfront took form, however, Baybor o became more and mor e the logical location; and gradually the present plan was evolved of confining all wate r oom mer ce t o Bayboro and devoting all th e rest o f the waterfront to park and rec r ea t ion p urposes. R eprese ntative Sparlanan worked hard to secure a government appropriation for the Bayboro project. Representativ es were sent by the government to look over the field and local men were sent to Washington, but all withou t results u n til the spring of 1912, when an appropriation of $38,(XX) was included for this work in the Rivers and Harbors bill. On May 24, 1913, plans for Bayboro Harbor, which had been drawn by H enry C. Long, of Boston, were approved by the Secretary of War. On October 7 th e city commission called an election for a bond issue which included items of $43 500 for the waterfront and $41,850 for Bayboro. A. C. Pheil was awarded the contract to carry out the city's part of the dredging in May, 1914, and the work was completed by the government in December The r equired pier was comp l eted in 1922 and the present tro lley connection in 1923 Waterfront Park was then created, the outer line of which para lleled Beach DK;ive and First south at a distance of 500 feet and the intervenin g space was filled except where yacht basins were planned. A sea-wall now extends the entire length of the city, and Waterfront Park has been deve loped and beautified from Fifth avenue north to Seventh avenue south,

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128 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA with recreation courts, a baseball field and a flying field included. Three yacht basins provide ample protection and facilities for small craft, while the Port of St. Petersburg, at the extension of Seventh avenue south, though as yet small, offers excellent harbor for sea"going vessels. The Port was opened in March, 1926. It has a depth of nineteen feet in the channel and twenty-one feet in the turning basin. That the harbor of St. Petersburg is now fully recognized as one of importance by the United States government is shown in the fact that it was selected for the establislunent in October, 1927, of Coast Guard Base No. 21, of the largest bases yet established. An outstanding result of the waterfront program was that a pier begun out from Second avenue north in 1913 as a freight pier was completed as a recreation pier; was followed by the establishment of the Spa at its base; and the loss of this pier by storm in 1921, the replacement of its successor, and later with St. Peters burg's famous "Million Dollar Recreation Pier,'' which was opened with a great celebration on November 11, 1926. PUBLIC PARKS WILLIAMS PARK Still commonly spoken of as "the park," Williams Park, named for the city's founder, who donated and dedicated it to the public, was once St. Petersburg's only public ground, and it has played a prominent part in the community's affairs. At first and for many years an untrimmed jungle, it was a convenient hiding place for truant boys and cows, and its few open spaces, covered with sandspurs instead of grass, offered sites for: itinerant show and revival tents, and the en semble early became a burning public issue with the women of the community who wanted it cleaned up, and even planted with grass and otherwise beautified. For a long time they received not even encouragement from the male population, but the Woman's Village Improvement Society, which later became the Woman's Town Improvement Association, eventually, and mostly with their own hands, made it a real park. Once cleared and planted with grass, the popularity and uses of Williams Park increased rapidly. Pleasure clubs of various kinds, at first of home folks and then of tourists, came into it; roque, horseshoe, chess, checker, and others. Band concerts were instituted as regular winter attractions, and organization meet ings followed; so that in time it became necessary to remove all the sports to other localities and leave Williams Park solely to the public and birds and squirrels for a meeting and loitering place, for which it is ideally located and formed Williams Park contains four and one-half acres of land. WATRI'RONT PARK The universal opinion, at home. and abroad, is that St. Petersburg's miles of municipally owned waterfront are its one greatest civic asset, and most of it con stitutes Waterfront Park. The story of the development of the whole waterfront is told elsewhere, but. in connection with the park are some details of importance.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 129 A fter the St. Pet e rsburg Times had hammered on the subject for years, the people finally decided to own the waterfront for public park purposes, and the work of securing the waterlots proceeded slowly. There were no funds, and public spiri ted citizens came to the rescue with their personal credit-as w as often done in those early days when the city needed somethi n g it could not at the time pay for. The first purchase was the north half of Water Lot No. 1, on Fifth avenue north, in 1907, for $650.00; and the last was of part of Water Lot No. 9 and all of Nos. 10, 11 and 12, from Mrs. David C. Cook in 1917, for $15,000 From the elapse of time, 10 year s, and the larger area, i t is seen that even the last water Jot owners to sell had not boosted prices on the city. The amount paid M ,rs. Cook did not cover her own original investment t oget her with the taxes and other costs. Mrs. Cook, with a wisdo m born of observation and experience in other parts of the country, determined to take no chances of city administrations changing their minds about park uses, and incorporated in her deed the following oondition: Subject, h owever, to the following covenants and agreem ents which shall be and remain fo r eve r binding upon the grantee her ein a nd upon it s assigns. Namely : No structure of any kind shall ever be constructed, erected o r main tained by the grantee or its assigns, on water lot Number Ten ( 10) hereby conveyed, and no structu res of any kind, except open pavi lions n ecessary for rest or protection from weather shall eve r be constructed, erected or maintained upon any part of the remaining premises hereby conveyed, and no structure of any kind upon any part of said remaining premises shall at any time be used for any commercial purposes what ever. These covenants shal l be c:onstrued as running with the land and i t is intended and agreed tha t said covenants and each of them shall be for the benefit of Marguerite Cook, her heirs, execu to rs, administrators, devisees or as signs; the present and future owner s o f Lots 13, 14, 15, and 16, in Block 78, and Lots 6, and 7 in Block 79, and Lots 3, 4 5, 10, 11, 12, 1 3, and 14, in Block 96 of the t own of St. Petersburg Florida, according to the reo vised Map of said town on file in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court for the County of Pinellas, State of Florida, TOGETHER WITH ALL and singular, the t enements, hereditaments and appurtenances there unto belonging or appertaining; and every right, title or interest, l egal or equitable of the said parties of the first part of, in and to the same. TO HAVE AND TO HOLD THE SAME unto the said party of th e second part and i ts s uccessors and assigns, to their own proper use, benefit and behoof forever, subject however, t o the covenants hereinbef ore men tioned. Twenty-two conveyances of various kinds obtained during a period o f ten years tells something of the work put forth by "the waterfront boosters." The total money cost was $56,587.64--end t h e present value is as many millions as anyone cares to name. There are about 90 acres i n Waterfront Park, which will be about 150 when all fillin g is completed. liDRO. LAlt! P.Ult In those first days a small but deep and pure Jake furnished water fo r the town and was known as Reservoir Lake, and around one side of it was s wampy

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130 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA ground, and in its various dickerings for water rights the city became the owner of all of it. And straightway the St. Petersburg Times always looking for public park opportunities, promptly began a campaign for the conversion of Reservoir Lake and surrounding lands into a public park. It was something of a fight, for some city councilmen wanted to plat the land and sell the lots and so "make money for the city," but it was not such a hard fight, and as the park movement gathered force the name was changed to Mirror Lake, and so there came into being Mirror Lake Park. This park con tains 30 acres of land. CRESCENT LAKE PARK The second largest of St. Petersburg's public parks is Crescent Lake Park, an enormously valuable asset to the city which lies almost wholly to the personal credit of W. F. Smith as president of the park board for some years. Once available for the city at the price of $3,300, the fathers, and even most other folks, except, of course, the St. Petersburg could not see it-it was so far out. But years later, when Mr. Smith became a member of the park board, he devoted every power he possessed, officially and as a citizen, to its acquisition, and finally succeeded at a cost to the city of $30,000. Mostly a muck pond and swamp, muck of great value was supplied from it to the other parks, a successful municipal nursery was established with its extraordinarily fertile soil, and the property was made a sure-enough money-maker for the city; added to which the dredging of the beautiful Crescent Lake created from the surrounding territory one of the city's' finest residential sections. Crescent Lake Park contains about 60 acres. SMAI.I.ER PARKS Other and smaller parks scattered about the city, some well improved and some still in the rough, are: Round Lake Park, three acres; Grandview Park, ten acres; Shell Mound Park, two acres ; Sunset Park, three and one-half acres; Roser Park, three and one-half acres; Seminole Park, two and one-half acres; Blanc Park, one acre; Grenada Terrace Parks, one acre ; Allendale Park; Wood Park ; and a number laid out in various subdivisions but as yet officially unknown. CHURCHES EPISCOPAl. St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, on Lakeview Avenue, completed late in 1887, was the first church built in lower Pinellas Peninsula. Organization of St. Bartholomew's was effected on April 20, 1887, at the home of Robert Stanton, and a site for the edifice was donated by Susan C. and Dr. John B. Abercrombie. Construction was started in the summer of the same year, funds for the building having been raised both in America and England, many of the members being from the latter country. Founders of the church were: H. Beck, Mrs. Jacob Baum, W. J. Godden, H. W. Gilbart, Mrs. Wm. B. l>firandi, Mrs. C. Jones Perry, R. W. Stanton, H. H. P. Seabrook, Josephus Singlehurst and G. White. The Rev. Gilbert Holt

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PART I-NARRATIVE 131 White was named rector; Robert Stanton, senior warden; Herbert Beck, junior warden ; W. J. Godden, treasurer. The first Episcopal Church established in the town of St. Petersburg was a mission of St. Bartholomew's named the Holy Spirit church. A small building was erected late in 1889 at Eleventh Street and Second Avenue North on a lot donated by Jacob Bawn. The rectors of St. Bartholomew's also conducted regular services there for several years In December, 1893, the Holy Spirit Church was moved to Fourth Street and Second Avenue North, and in March, 1894, necessary steps were taken to make it a mission separate from St. Bartholomew's Thus, the little church became St. Peter's with the Rev. George W. Southwell as pastor. Officers were: Robert W. Stanton, senior warden; Jacob Baum, junior warden; David Murray, secretary: Herbert Beck, trustee. St. Peter's Church and rectory were built by E. H. Tomlinson in 1899, and the edifice was enlarged in 1925-26, the original style of architecture being carried out in the remodeling. St. Bartholomew's Church was closed in 1895, and thereafter the grounds were used only as a cemetery until 1919, when, because greater accommodations were needed for the large E pisco palian congregation in the city, it was reopened with the Rev. J. H Leake of Canada, as pastor. The Rev. Mr. Tufft took charge in the season of 1926-27, and in May, 1927, the Rev. G. L G Thomas became rector. Under the Rev. Mr. Thomas the church grew in two years from 35 communicants to 165, with 270 members. In 1928 the church launched an extensive remodeling program, doubling the size of the edifice, enlarging altar and sanctuary, and adding new furnishings. CONGREGATIONAL The first church organized in St. Petersburg after the founding of the town was the Congregational, the organization of which was begun in a railroad car near the depot at Ninth Street on October 7, 1888. The Rev A. H. Missildine repre senting the Congregational Home Missionary Society, completed the organization on December 8, with the Rev D. G. Watt, of England, as moderator. There were twenty-five charter members, many of whom were Presbyterians who had joined with the Congregationalists to make the church possible. Services were first held in a small building between Ninth and Tenth Streets near the present Central Avenue, but in a short time a church building was erected at the corner of Fouth Street and First Avenue North, the lot having been donated by General John C. Williams. The building, which cost $2,260, was opened for worship on March 23, 1889, and was dedicated on January 13, 1890. In 1901 the Presbyterians withdrew to establsh a church of their own. The Congregationalists sold their property to the United States Government as a post office site in 1909 receiving for it $7,500. 'fhe building was sold to the Adventists, who moved i t to Sixth Street and Fifth Avenue South. A new Congregational Church was erected at Fourth Street and Third Avenue North, on a site purchased by the organization. The building, which cost $26,000, was opened on April 7, 1912, but as early as the next year some alterations had to

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132 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA be made. The gallery was built in 1920; the church was enlarged in 1922, the congregation having grown to be one of the largest in the city ; and the new Sunday School room was erected in 1923. F11ST KI!THODIST In 1889 the First Methodist Church was organized by the Rev. J. M. Diffen worth. Those present at the organization meeting were Mrs. Florida Curry, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Divine, Mr. and Mrs. Meadows, Mrs. Nettie Carr and Mr. Ball. Under the leadership of the Rev. J. Ira Patterson the congregation erected its first building in 1892 at Central Avenue and Seventh Street. In 1902 that property was sold, and a new church built at Second Avenue north and Third Street. Vari ous additions were made to care for the growing congregation, and in 1924-25 a handsome new church was erected on the same site at a cost of more than a quarter million dollars. FlllST A\'tNUE MI!THODIST A second Methodist organization was completed on February 17, 1891, under the name of First Methodist Church. A year before the Rev H. }. Walker, pre siding elder, had looked upon St. Petersburg as a favorable place for organizing a Methodist Episcopal Church, General Williams had offered a site for a church, and a body of trustees was incorporated. The Rev. George E. Skaft, pastor at Tarpon Springs, bad been appointed to found the church, if possible. Twenty members were enrolled at the organization meeting, and it was decided to hold services on alternate Sundays in the school house. A Sunday School was organized in May, 1891. The Rev. Mr. Skaft, having been reappointed the next year, succeeded in build ing a church edifice. A second building was erected later at the comer of Central Avenue and Fifth Street. In the winter of 1905-06, the Rev. A. E. Drew having been appointed regular pastor, was instrumental in the building of a shell-dash church at Fifth Street and First Avenue North, at a cost of $10,000. To distinguish it from the other Meth odist Church, the name was changed to First Avenue Methodist. A handsome buff brick building was constructed in 1913, and a Sunday School building shortly afterwards. The church had grown to a very large membership, and in 1921 it became necessary to expand again, so a third annex was built by the Business Men's Bible Class in that year. FIRST BAPTIST Under the leadership of the Rev. Mr. King, the First Baptist Church was organized in 1892, and services were held in a small building near Eighth Street and Central Avenue. A little later the services were moved to Cooper's Hall, where the Ainerican Bank and Trust Company building was afterwards erected. In 1893 some financial assistance having been received from the Florida Baptist State Board a site was purchased on Second Street North near Central Avenue and a small building erected. The building was moved in 1896 to Sixth Street and Central Avenue, and. this lot was sold in 1912, a new location having been purchased the year before on Fourth Street North opposite Williams Park, and the church was moved again.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 133 Within a few years the congregation outgrew the old building, and plans were made for a modern edifice of classic design, to be erected on the same site. This bui lding which cost $150,000, was completed in 1923 under the pastorate of the Rev. Edward T. Poulson. The church also established several outlying missions, in growing sections of the city. Under the leadership of Dr. Lincoln McConnell, who succeeded Dr Poulson as pastor, the First Baptist Church erected a large tabernacle on Second Street North between Second and Third avenues, to accommodate the crowds that the church auditorium was unable to hold during the winter months. NORTHSIDE BAPTIST The Northside Baptist Church was organized on Sunday, March 20, 1927, with eighty-five charter members. Immediately after the organization, it called as its pastor Dr. Edward T. Poulson, who had served the First Baptist Church for a period of nine years, during which time he led that congregation in the building of the $150,000 edifice on Fourth Street opposite Williams Park. The new Northside Baptist Church was located at Fourth Street North and Twenty-second A venue, in the rapidly growing north side section, and drew to its membership many residents from the fashionable North Shore suburban addition, as well as many of the city's leading business and professional men. By the spring of 1929 the membership of the young church had been increased to 175, a flourishing Sunday School, Woman's Auxiliary, Missionary Society and Young Peoples' Society organized, a Boy Scout troop sponsored, and a basketball team, which had become one of the strongest in the Sunday School League, main tained. The church pays particular attention to young people's work, under the direction of Ray Wilber. The Northside Baptist is but one of several of the larger churches of Florida that Dr. Poulson has led in building. FIFTH AVI!NUll BAPTIST The Fifth Avenue Baptist Church came into existence on October 2, 1927, formed by consolidati on of the Grace and Calvary Baptist Churches. Grace Baptist Church had been formed in 1902 by the Rev. J. W. Harris, who for a time had been supply pastor of the First Baptist. A building was erected at Fourt h Street and First Avenue south as the hoine of this congregation. Calvary Baptist had been organized in 1925 under the leadership of the Rev W. C. Foster, and a tabernacle built at Sixth Street and Fifth Avenue South. The new Fifth A venue Baptist congregation decided to worship in the taber nacle, and to retain Dr. George R. Stair, pastor of the erstwhile Calvary Church, as pastor. Dr. George H. Crutcher succeeded Dr. Stair in 1928. FIRST PI!ESBYTJ!RIAN The First Presbyterian Church was organized in November, 1894, with the Rev. I. M. Auld, as pastor. At first, services were held on certain Sundays of the month in the First. Methodist building at Central and Seventh. A little later the Presbyterians worshiped with the Congregationalists, the fo rmer supplying the

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134 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA pastor and the latter, the building. The arrangement continued for a number of years Later the Presbyterians called the Rev. W. W Powell, of Oakland, Florida, to serve as their pastor. Services were held in the Northern Methodist building at Fifth and Central twice a month, the pastor alternating with the Clearwater church. The Ladies' Aid Society of the Presbyterian Church purchased the lot at Third Street and Fourth Avenue North in 1899 for $300, and a small church w:as built in spite of the fact that the congregation was joked for building so far out in the country. In 1903, during the pastorate of the Rev. W. S. Milne, the church received as a gift from Mr. and Mrs. L. M. Dean the lot west of the edifice A manse was built a short time later. Although alterations had been made in the building in 1908, by 1912, a new church had become a necessity, and, led by Dr. G. E. Moorehouse as pastor, the large brick edifice was built, being completed in 1913. It was then the largest church in the city. A pipe organ, for which Andrew Carnegie helped defray the expenses, was installed. The Davidson Memorial SWJday School building, a large sum for which was contributed by Mrs. R. M. Davidson and her daughter in memory of the husband and father, was completed in January, 1922. Wl:STMINSTR PRSBYTRIAN Tbe Westminster Presbyterian was organized in St. Petersburg by Dr. G. W. Benn in January, 1924, with thirty-seven charter members. Plans were launched at once for the building of a church, with H. S. Chapman, formerly of Elmira, N. Y., as chairman of the building committee. The edifice, opened in February, 1926, was one of the most beautiful in the city, being of coral stucco in Spanish style outside and English Cathedral inside. By spring, 1929, the membership had been increased to three hWJdred, and all indebtedness of the church paid off with the exception of about $2,000. Joseph B. Robinson served the church as treasurer during its early years; Mrs. S. R. Love, chairman of woman's work; Mrs. Gertrude Cobb Miller, director of music. Westminster Presbyterian is sponsored by the great National Presbyterian Church of the United States which has a membership of over two million, and an annual budget of $75,000,000. l'lllST CHRISTIAN CHURCH Tbe Rev. A. Flower organized the First Christian Church of St. Petersburg in 1900, with eighteen charter members. Shortly afterwards a double lot was purchased at the southwest comer of Fifth Street and First Avenue North for $650. The corner site was sold for $500, and a church built on the inside lot. In 1909 another site was purchased, at Fourth Street and Second Avenue South, and a larger building erected, and dedicated in 1911. The first regular pastor was the Rev. J. F. Montgomery. He was followed by the Rev. W A. Harp, the Rev. Chester Sprague, and the Rev. E. L. Frazier.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 135 When the Rev. Mr. Frazier resigne d in July, -1911, a part o f the congregation formed the Central Christian Church, with the Rev. J. S. Howe as pastor. The First Christian congregation secured as pastor the Rev. J. E. Gorsuch, of Ten nessee. Later the churches were reunited under the leadership of the Rev. Mr. Gorsuch. He resigned in 1915 In 1925, Mr. Gorsuch having returned after ten years to again become pastor of the church, a fine new edifice was built on Third Avenue North, overlooking Mirror Lake. The Rev. G Hubert Steed succeeded Mr. Gorsuch who resigned shortly after the church was completed. CA'1'i!i0LIC Before St. Petersburg became a town, Jesuit priests, of Tampa, came to Pinellas Peninsula to officiate at religious worship for Catholics. The first cele bration of Mass was held in the San Jose Hotel, at Pinellas or Big Bayou, in September, 1892, by the Rev. Father Wideman, but because of the small congre gation the priests came only several times during a year. After 1895 the priests visited The Point more often, Father LeBlanc coming first, then Fathers O'Sullivan and Barry. The latter, in 1906, became interested in building a church, and property for this purpose was purchased on Sixth Street South, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. While plans were being made for the building, Father Brislan celebrated Mass in the Fair Bu ilding in February, 1908 Shortly afterwards the church was built, and priests came regularly from Tampa Within a short time the congregation, composed largely of tourists, grew so rapidly that a new church became necessary, and St. Mary's Church was built at the corner of Fourth Streetand Third Avenue South, in 1913. In December, 1920, Father J. J. O'Riordan, a secular priest, was assigned to the parish, and the Jesuits were relieved. During the winter months it became necessary to appoint assistants to help with the work of the parish. St. Paul's Church and school, at Nineteenth Avenue North and Twelfth Street, and St. Joseph's Church, 2001 Lakeview Avenue, have been built during Father O'Riordan's pastorate to take care of the large congregations in growing sections remote from the heart of the city. In 1928, the congregations of St. Mary's having outgrown the church building, plans were made to hold services in the Capitol Theater unt i l a new edifice could be made ready. The old site, being too small, was disposed of, and a new one pur chased at Fourth Street and Fifth Avenue South, where General Williams, founder of the city, built his home in 1889, and which, later, had been occupied by the Manhattan Hotel. Work on the building was begun early in 1929. LUTHERAN The Rev. A. N. Warner, D.D., orgartized Trinity Evangel ical Lutheran Church on March 26, 1911. A short time afterwards two lots were purchased at Fifth Street and Second Avenue South and a chapel erected. The first regular pastor was the Rev H J. Mathias. He was succeeded in 1913 by the Rev. John Hall who remained untill917 when he resigned to become a chaplain in the army. An eight room parsonage was built during his stay.

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136 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, F LORIDA In 1921 the old site was sol d to theY. M. C. A., and new property purchased at Fifth Street and Fourth Avenue North, where a new church was completed in 1924, under the pastorate of the Rev W. E. Pugh. A parsonage, on adjacent property, was purchased at the same time. The Rev. Mr. Pugh was succeeded in 1927 by the Rev. Theodore K. Finck. Grace Evangelical Lutheran (Missouri Synod) was established in 1927 by the Rev. R. S. Steinbach. For the first few months services were held in the Masonic Temple but later the place of worship was moved to Eighth Street and Twenty-eighth Avenue North. FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST As early as 1900 a Christian Science Society was organized in the old Strowger building, at the southeast comer of Central Avenue and Fourth Street, with about fifteen persons present. A short time later the society, which held regular meet ings, accepted from the G. A. R. an invitation to use its building on the waterfront. Not long afterwards the Society purchased a building at 318 Third Street South, which was later bought by the Salvation Army. While there the organization had grown to the required size for becoming a recognized church, so a charter wld obtained, and it became known as the First Church of Christ, Scientist. The church purchased the Fair building at 210 Second Avenue North in 1913, but within the next decade had outgrawn that, and purchased two lots at the comer of Third Street and Fifth Avenue North, where a large brick church was erected. The cornerstone was laid on Thanksgiving, 1925, and a year later the church had been opened for services. The Church maintains a reading room in The Times build i ng. OTHER CHURCHt:s In addition to the larger denominations, many smaller churches and religious organizations are maintained in St. Petersburg. Among them are: Baptist-Central, Russell Park and Pine City; Advent Christian; Methodist-Allendale, Central, Childs Park, Grace, Northside, Ninth Avenue, Trinity, Free, Pasadena Community, and Lealman; Pentecostal-Assembly of God; Presbyterian-Euclid, Pinellas Park, West Central; Spiritualistic-St. Petersburg Temple of Truth, First ; Church of Christ, Glenoak Community Chapel, Seventh Day Adventist, International Bible Students' Association, Jewish Reform Temple, Unity Truth Center, Theosophical Society, Church of God. Gospel Tabernacle, Society of Friends, Thomas Tourist Camp Community, Emanuel Tabernacle, Four-Square Gospel Hall, Oakhurst Com munity Church, United Liberal Church (Universal i st-Unitarian), North Side Tabernacle. The Salvation Army, on Third Street between Third and Fourth Avenues South, occupies the most beautiful Salvation Army building in the South, erected with contn"butions from the people of St. Petersburg.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 137 BANKS ST. PE'I'RSBURG STAT: BANK The first bank in St. Petersburg was the St. P etersburg State Bank, organized on January 20, 1893. John A. Bishop, a phosphate operator, was elected pres ident; Col. L. Y. Jenness, manager of the Orange Belt Investm ent Company, vice-president, and H. A. Baker, cashier. The bank was housed jn a small frame building at Fourth and Central where the Centra l Na ti on a l Bank now stands. The State Bank did not prosper greatly as the town was small and poor, and on August 9, 1902, having become involved with an unsu ccess ful phosphat e compa ny of Pasco County, the bank failed to open. Deposits at that time amounted to $51,000. John Trice, president of the Citizens' Bank, of Tampa, was named receiver, and proceedings were started immediately to repay the depositors. However, it was not until 1914 that the las t payments were made, and then th e bank patrons received only about twenty-five per c ent of t heir money. FIRST NATIONAL BANK The W est Coast Bank of Florida was organized on October 3 1902, with $25,000 capital. John Trice, of Tampa, was made president, and property at the southeast corner of Second stree t and Central avenue, owned by the first bank was purch ased and a t hrees t ory brick building cons tructed there. The new bank was opened on February 9, 1903, and the first day's deposits amounted to $23,600. John M. Clark, Jr., a nephew of Mr. Trice was made cashier, and the board of directors included; Mr. Trice, Mr. Clark, C. W. Springstead J C. Williams, De Lisle Hagadorn and Thomas P. Welch. J S. Norton and A. P. Avery completed the list of stockholders. Mr C lar k resigned at the end of the first yea.r, and T. A. Chancellor, assist ant cashier of the Citizens' Ba n k & Trust Company, of Tampa succeeded him. Mr. Chanc ellor served the hank as cashier unti l January 4 1911, when he was e l ected president, which office h e held until his death early in March 1927. The W est Coast Bank of Florida beeame th e First National Bank on Ju)y 5, 1905. In 1907, to meet the growi ng banking requirements of the community, the capital stock was increased t o $100,000. It became necessary to move into larger quarters in 1920, and the institution purchased the Florid a B ank & Trust Company which had opened in October, 1913 and also pu rchased the building which it occupie d at Fifth street and Central ave nue. The capital was again incr ease d, this time t o $200,000. The building was en larged in 1922. and in 1923 another increase in capital brought the total to $300,000. In 1925 the capital was doubled, becomin g $600,000, and the four-story building wa s increased to eight sto ries In December, 1926, the First National Bank abs orbed the Alexander National Bank wbjch ha d been fou nded in January, 1925, by J F. Alexander In 1927 it became nteessary for the F i rst Natiooal to enlarge banking quarters again and the entire first ftoor was remodelled and rearranged

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138 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA CENTRAL NATIONAL BANK Organization of the Cent r al National Bank, first called The National Bank, was completed at a meeting held April 16, 1905. F A. Wood was elected pres ident; A. F Bartlett, vice-president; Roy S. Hanna secretary. The directors were A. F Bartlett, Roy S. Hanna, F. A. Wood, Ed. T Lewis, Cyrus W. Butler, R. H Thomas, C. L. Howard, J. R. Williams and Andrew Jackson. The southwest comer at Fourth and Central, the city's first banking site, was purchased from George B Haines and the bank was opened in its new building on July 1, 1905, with T. K. Wilson as cas h ier a n d A. M. Lowe assistant cashier. A. F. Thomasson succeeded Mr. Wilson as cashier in 1909, and the name of the bank was changed to Central National a short time later In 1911 the Central National Bank started a new building at the same loca tion, moving i nto it in April, 1912. In 1922 an add i tional story was built, and in 1923-24 extensive alterations, providing almost double the amount of space and affording an entirely new arrangement of the interior were made Another ex tensive remodelling program was carried out in 1927 to take care of increasing business The thoroughly modernized building was formally opened on November 15, 1927. Mr. Thomasson was elected vice-president on January 14, 1923 and two years later succeeded F. A Wood as president. AMERICAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY The American State Bank was organized on February 15, 1910, with A P. Avery as president; Col. Walter Robertson Howard vice-president, and A C. Odom, Jr., cashier. Samuel Vickery, J A. Potter A. P Avery, A. C Odom, Jr., and W. R. Howard were chosen directors. A trust department was added on May 25, 1912 and the name changed to the American Bank & Trust Company. At that time, also, the capital stock was doubled, making it $100,000, and on March 6, 1913, it was doubled again. This bank was the first to e n gage i n the trust business in St. Petersburg, the department having been opened in charge of Attorney Wm. G. King, who was later succeeded by 0. G. Hiestand. A complete set of trust books and records were installed, the depar t ment to act as executor, administrator, guardian, trustee, receiver or assignee. In 1921 the trust department made provisions to take trustee mortgages and to sell first mortgage bonds. In 1924 the American Bank & Trust Company s building at 342 Central ave nue was completely remodelled and much enlarged. Mr. Avery, who organized the bank, has been continually its president. NINTH STREET BANK & TRUST COMPANY An organization meeting was held on December 22, 1921, for the purpose of founding the Ninth Street Bank & Trust Company John N. Brown was namea president of the new institution; E. G. Cunningham, vice-president; P V Cun ningham, cashier; William Crawford assistant cashier, and W. T. Baynard secre tary. A short time later Mr. Cunningham resigned and Mr. Crawford became cashier.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 139 The bank's capital stock at the time of organization was $50,000, but this increased in December, 1922, to $100,000. Soon after its founding the bank was moved into its new home at the northeast corner of Ninth street and Central ave nue, but this building was soon outgrown by the flourishing organization, and a much more spacious and beautiful building was erected on the same site, this being formally opened in the summer of 1927. FIDELITY BANK & TRUST COMPANY The Fidelity Bank & Trust Company, which came into existence under that name February 1, 1926, was the outgrowth of an organization founded in 1922 as the Fidelity Savings & Loan Company. In April, 1924, the stockho lders voted to change the name of the institution to Fidelity Savings Bank & Loan Company, and early in 1926, wishing to widen the scope of the bank's business to include general banking as well as commercial, check ing and savings, decided to change the name agam. H. C. Case was elected president of the new Fidelity Bank & Trust Company; Charles R. Carter, vice-president; W. A. Simco, cashier; George H. Wooley as sistant cashier, and W. W. Birchfield, chairman of the ooard of directors. The bank is located on the Central avenue side of the West Coast Title building, at Fourth and Central. PEOPLES' BANK & TRUST COMPANY The Peoples' Bank & Trust Company opened its doors on April 15, 1925, the bank building being temporarily located on the south side of Central avenue be tween Seventh and Eighth streets. A. T. Blocker was president of the new firm; N. B. McKinney, J. Kennedy Block, Fred A. Clawson and D. S. Pooser, vice presidents, and A M. Lamb, cashier. In April, 1927, the Peoples' Bank moved across the street into the building vacated by the Alexander National, the latter bank having been merged with the First National Bank. Due to general financial depression following a real estate boom, the Peoples' Bank was forced to close its doors late in June, 1926. By September, necessary steps had been taken to re-open the bank if it could be refinanced, but numeirous attempts proved unsuccessful, and a liquidation office was established to wind up the business The bank ceased to function entirely late in 1928. FIRST SECURITY BANK A banking institution named by its stockholders the Crosstown Bank was opened on April 17, 1926, at Ninth street and Seventh avenue north, with J. Harmon Green as president; E. W. Farrior, vice-president, and Maurice H. Kirby, cashier. In June, 1927, controlling interest in the Crosstown Bank was purchased by the First Securities Corporation, a company owned by stockholders of the First National Bank. They immediately changed the name of the Crosstown institution to First Security Bank of St. Petersburg. New officers were elected, as follows:

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140 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA C. W. Springstead, president; Max A. H. Fitz, vice-president; Maurice H. Kirby, cashier. The First Security Bank purchased the property at Ninth street and Seventh avenue north, where it had been located since its founding on November 15, 1928. MORRIS PI.AN BANK The Morris Plan Bank, with a capital of $250,000, opened for business on January 30, 1925, with banking quarters in the Mirror Lake Terminal building on First avenue north, between Sixth and Seventh streets. Frederick A. Clawson, organizer of the bank, was made active vice-president of the institution. Other officers chosen were: E. C. Reed, president; William G King and C. H. Neimyer, vice-presidents; 0. G Hiestand, secretary and treasurer. The plan of the Morris institution to make loans on character and earning capacity proved a popular one in St. Petersburg, and the bank prospered from the first. In September, 1927, the bank's headquarters were moved to the corner of Sixth street and Central avenue and again, in April, 1928, to 7 Sixth street south. ORGANIZATIONS ST. PETERSBURG WOMAN'S Ct.UB By MRS. E. G. LEWIS In the year 1912, Mrs. Benjamin A. Greene came from Evanston, Ill., where she had been the president of the Woman's Club, to St. Petersburg. Mrs. Greene scanned the periodicals for women's organizations in this city other than those of a purely social character, and finding none, conceived the idea of bringing together a group of women with similar tastes whenever the opportunity should offer. This opportunity came when, after Mrs. Greene had delivered a course of lectures on Mormonism, the women who had taken the course wished to continue their study, and she suggested that they organize a Woman's Club. Thus the St. Petersburg Woman's Club came into being Feb. 7, 1913, with 14 charter members. The following officers were chosen: Mrs. Benjamin A. Greene, president: Mrs. Hill, of Boston, recording secretary and treasurer; Mrs. S E. Barton, cor responding secretary. Mrs. Susan B. Foster was elected the second treasurer. She served throughout the entire terms of Mrs. Greene and of Mrs. Hawley as presidents. Their meetings were held for four years in the old First Baptist Church, By 1917 the membership had increased so much that a larger building was needed, and they went to the First Avenue Methodist Church. The initial program study was on Jane Addams' "Spirit of Youth in the From this beginnif!g the club has grown to be one of the best-known organizations in the South. In 1920 there were 250 members, representing 26 states and 118 cities. The club season then began in December and continued into April. The annual birthday banquet was held as near Feb. 7 as possible and was combined with the annual meeting.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 141 According to the first Constitution and By-Laws, one-tenth of all the income was given to charity or civic work, and this ruling still holds. The Child Welfare Health Survey was sponsored by the club under Mrs. (Greene) Esterley, and the St. Petersburg Woman's Club was the first club in the state to take up war work. The club started the "Girls' Patriotic League," which later formed the nucleus of the Y. W. C. A., which also the club fostered. In 1920, after seven years of devoted service to the club, Mrs. Esterley's health would not permit of her continuing longer as its president and in February 1920, Mrs. Charles H Hawley took up the work of president of the club. Mrs. Esterley, formerly Mrs Greene, died in November, 1928. During the firs t year of Mrs. Hawley's term of office the work was carried on along the same lines as it had been previously, with the exception of a revision of the Constitution and By -L aws limiting the term of president to two years at any one time. Under Mrs Hawley, the departmental work of the club was stressed much more, and two new offices were added : those of timekeeper and parliamen tarian. A club motto and collect were adopted and a dub seal designed and ac cepted. During the season of 1921-22, due to the inspiration and enthusiasm of Mrs. Harriet B. Weaver, a study class in English literature was formed. This proved so successful that other classes were organized the following year, and thus our present study class system was born. Interest in town and state development increased. At this time, 1921-22, a club house fund was started. The membership in creased from 250 to 350. Mrs. Hawley was succeeded as president by Mrs. William J. Carpenter, who served only one year, due to the fact that she moved away from St. Petersburg. Mrs. Carpenter carried on the club work with increasing interest and took up the matter of dub house activity. Mrs. Carpenter was followed by Mrs H R. Sackett. During her regime the membership was the largest it has been during the history of the club. We at tained a membership of nearly 1 ,000, making it the largest federated club in the state at that time. Summer sessions of the club were held and valuable and needed civic work done. The club was incorporated during the summer of 1924. In 1925 Mrs. Sackett was sent by the club as a delegate to the Sesquicentennial International Women's Congress at Washington. At the conclusion of Mrs. Sackett's two years of service, Mrs. M. M. Burton became president In club program work Mrs. Burton introduced the policy of having paid speakers at a number of meetings during the year. The Constitution and By-Laws were revised in 1926 and life membership added. During Mrs. Burton's term of office the club house building fund increased more rapidly than during previous years, and when Mrs. Burton retired in 1927, the finances of the club were in excellent condition. Mrs. Wendell P. Slayton then took up the reins in 1927. The Constitution and By-Laws were again revised in 1928 limiting the attendance at board meetings

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142 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA to officers and directo rs. Mrs. Slayton was sent by the dub as a delegat e to attend the biennial meeting of the National Federati on of Women's Clubs held in San Antonio, Texas, in 1928 Through Mrs. Slayton's able efforts the dub has come to have considerable prestige throughout the state, and at present its membership is approximately 350. In February 1 929, the dub voted t o a ccept the offer made by Mr. C. Perry Sndl-that of a club house site on Snell I sle so making a big stride towards at taining the goal for which the club has consistently striven for nearly ten years, that of a club bouse. YACH'l' CLUB The need among boat owners for protection of their property having become apparent, a meetin g was held in the store of the M arine Supply Company on October 29, 1909 which resulted in the fonning of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club. Dr. M. H Axline was elected commodore; W : H. Jones, vice-<:ommodore; W. L. Straub, secretary ; Tracy Lewis treasurer; Presstman, measure r The dirtttors chosen were : Dr M H. Axline, W. L Straub, Tracy Lewis, Ed. T. I.ewi s, Walter Robertson Howard, W eller and W. H. English Tbe club was not particularly active during its first years, due to l ack of a yacht basin, but interest was revived and later plans were made for a Yacht C lub building to cost about $15,000 Membersh ips were invited until there were more than 1 SO interested i n the club, and a reorganization meeting was held on J uoe 23, 1916. Frank C. Carley was chosen commodore; A G. Butler, D W Budd, rear commodo re; A. T. Roberts secretary; John D. Harris, treasurer. The site committee on July 12, recommended the location at the foot of Central aYenue, and a lease on this property w as secured from the city for thirty years, with an option for thirty years more. The club h ouse was formally opened on June 15, 1 9 17 and as a featur e of the ceremonies Commodore Carley presented to the club a si lver Commodore' s cup, on which wer e to be placed the names of the commo dores who should serve. The club soon outgre w its home, and on April 14, 1922, a $50,000 bond was authorized for the remodelling of the building. The enlarged club bouse was f ormally opened on December 21, 1922. AMEIUCAN LEGION St. Petersburg Post 14, American Legion, was organized on June 11, 1919, at a meeting called by Captain Horace William s, Captai n M Coslick and Captain Cramer B. Potte r. The meeting s were held at first in a buil ding on Second Street north between First and Second Avenue s, but afte r a few month s' permis sion was granted the organization to meet in the Chamber of Commerce rooms of the city baD. B y 1923 there were 1 40 members, and the Post decided to build a club house. A tease was secured on water.front property at the foot of Central Avenue for a tenn o f sixty-five years, and the corn erstone for a $12,000 building was laid on March 23, 1923. The first $1,00> of the bui lding fund was secured from national manufacturers for posters advertising their goods, to be painted by Captain J. J.

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PART 1-NARRATIVE 143 Snell, an ardent worker for the post. E. H. Tomlinson, one of the city's most beloved philanthropists, donated $10,000, half of which was to be applied on the building, and the remaining $5,000 deposited as a fund to accrue interest until only five men remained of the post members, then the entire amount is to be divided equally among them The Legion began immediately to develop its part of the waterfront into a park. An ornamental fountain was installed in 1924, and the same year a coast gun, which had been donated by the government to the City of St. Petersburg, was turned over to the Legion and placed on the club house lawn. Captain Potter was in charge of erecting the building, and also of installing the fountain and trans ferring the gun. By 1925 the Legion membership had grown to 1,000. In 1926 the Orange Band was organized and the American Legion Crippled Children's Hospital estab lished. The hospital, a local organization at first, was soon recognized and patron ized by the entire state. The band, in bright orange uniforms, did much to adver tise Florida at the 1926 convention in Philadelphia, and in Paris in 1927. Tlie first officers of Post 14 were: D. B. Cunningham, post commander, and Ernest Davis, adjutant. Charter members were: George M. Coslick, Robert Joseph Dew, Cramer B. Potter, Thomas A. McRae, Oscar P. Backus, Robert T. Northrup, B. Edward Feersh, Dana C. Caswell, Davis B. Cunningham, Ralph C. Bennett, Thomas R. West, J. Edgar Harrison, C. C. Cunningham, Edward 0. Noel, W. B. D. Haw, Rev. John Hall, George H. Belcher, Da Costa Brown, Grady W. Clark, Horace Williams, William B. DeHon, William S. Hughes, D. D. DeButts, Daniel M. Stahl, Darro Howell, L. L. Russ, J. J. Wood, Andrew J. Roberts, A J. Cashwell, Garrett Boyd, E. F. D avis, William C. Neet, Ralph P. Reed, R. E. Lea1man, James A. Rogers, J B. Harris, Francis T. Weihman, Victor Bradford, John B. Stranskey. ST. PTllRSBURG Looce No. 1224, B. P. 0. E VE.NON G. STJ!PP, HISTOIUAN St. Petersburg Lodge No. 1224 of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks was instituted on February 18th, 1911, with thirty-nine charter members. These pioneers of Elkdom in St. Petersburg were Brothers A. T. Blocker, F. W. Wilcox, J. E. Bevill, F. A. Lathrop, B. M. Latham, G. B. Hayward, M. L. Stoner, W T. Mathers, C. M. Gray, Jr., J. G. Foley, D. W. Budd, A. P Avery, F. A. Wood, T. A. Chancellor, W. B. Carpenter, Fred Carpenter, J. C. Whitford, W. c. Burton, R. J. W. Taylor, H. C Dent, Noel A. Mitchell, Carl Brown, W. F. Baker, J. S. Davis, L. J. Waters, W. H. Jones, W. L Straub, Roy S. Hanna, Lew B. Brown, W. J. Overman, Robt. H. Thomas, A. E. Davis, L. C. Heffner, Geo. L. Brown, J. D. Peabody, Geo. Weller, Ed T. Lewis, Tracy Lewis and R. W. S. Latham. Since that memorable night the lodge has never missed convening in the regular weekly business session. To date there have been held 937 consecutive meetings. Ed. T. Lewis was elected first Exalted Ruler

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144 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Paralleling the growth of the Sunshine City, the lodge today numbers ap proximately 1600 members and is conceded to include the largest membership of any Elks Lodge in the state. For the first three and one half months after the lodg e was instituted, meet ings were held in the "Armistead Opera House." On account of sharing the Fraternity Hall with other organizations, social activities of the lodge were re stricted to meeting nights, which proved to be an unsatisfactory arrangement. Therefore, on May 1st 1911, a building and grounds on Second street, north, were purchased from Brothers A. P Avery and Dr. John D. Peabody. Within t hese quarters the lodge was able to expand its activities to provide clubrooms for the entertainment of the Brothers and visiting Elks at all times. By 1923 the membership had increased to over 500 and need was felt for more commodious quarters. After careful consideration based on the future needs of the lodge, the property located on Fourth street and Third avenue, south, was selected and purchased from the owner, Mr. William E. Heathcote At the time of the purchase the site was occupied by the fine old mansion of the owner, and this was removed and the home occupied by the lodge at present was erected. This home stands out as one of the most comfortable and best-equipped Elks Homes in the South. The upper floor of the home is occupied by the lodge room, which measures 68x72 feet, and by the adjoining ante-rooms. Here also are located a number of bedrooms. The second floor houses the club, the secretary s office, the social manager's office, the reception parlors and the business offices of the lodge The club is completely equipped for social entertainment of the Brothers and visiting Elks. Features of the club are a large and completely equipped library and reading room, billiard room, card room and restaurant. This sanctum is presided over by Brother Chas. Teaff. The entire lower floor of the building is devoted to public social activities, the outstanding feature of which is the auditorium. This area has a splendid dance floor and also a stage large enough to accommodate vaudeville and other theatrical productions. The walls of the auditorium are decorated by large hand paintings typifying the fraternal and social spirit of the lodge. Notable among these decorations are two large original cartoons by Brothers Cliff Sterret and Billy De Beck, originators of "Polly and Her Pals" and the renowned "Barney Google." Throughout the vicissitudes of the passing years the lodge has achieved a notable success both in the consistent increase of its membership and in the wider scope and effectiveness of its fraternaland civic activities. The destiny of the lodge has been carefully and effectively directed by its exalted rulers, whose names form a fair cross section of "Who's Who" in Pinellas county. Past exalted rulers in the order of their succession are Brothers Ed. T. Lewis, A. T. Blocker, John D. Peabody, B. M. Latham, M. L. Stoner, Will H. Jones, W. J Longman, Roy V. Sellers, Chas. R. Carter, Jas. S. Shallsross, Will Ramm, F. J. Mack, E. A. Donavan, Frank P. Moshier, T. H. Ferris and Chas. Du Bois All these brothers are in the active work of the lodge except Brother

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PART I-NARRATIVE 145 Albert T. Blocker, who passed on in 1927. Brother J. A. B. Madden occupies this important position at this time. By strict adherence to the basic principles of the order, Charity, Justice, Brotherly L>ve and Fidelity, and with a picked membership which includes the entire Jurat of St. Petersburg and Pinellas county as well as the leaders in the professions and in business, the lodge has established its right to stand in the forefront of the civic and fraternal organizations which are striving for the upbuilding of the community. Among the outstanding activities of the past year along these lines are: Spon soring of the first Florence Crittenden Home to be established in the state; enter tainment of Governor John W. Martin and his official party at luncheon; publicity for St. Petersburg at the Elks National Convention at Miami and entertainment of convention delegates in the city; organization of a 48-piece band which took first honors at the Miami convention; participation in the Fourth of July and other patriotic programs; balls and card parties for the benefit of public charity funds; organization and sponsoring of athletic teams in the city amateur sports; annual kiddies' picnic ; aid given to East Coast flood sufferers, both in service and in funds; distribution of Christmas baskets to the poor of the city; establishment of a Seaman's Mission. The latest welfare activity was the active participation, as an organization, in the chamber of commerce drive for membership and funds. The lodge feels justly proud of its enviable record in the past and promises that each succeeding year will see a more determined effort to be a real factor in the upbuilding of the Sunshine City and in the relief of suffering and distress within the full meaning of its obligations. Following is a list of the officers of the St. Petersburg Wge of Elks for the year from April 5th, 1929, to March 31st, 1930: A. L. Cusson, Jr., exalted ruler; Jay E. Koning, esteemed leading knight; Chas. F. Cummings, esteemed loyal knight; Roy D. Styers, esteemed lecturing knight; V. N. Ridgely, secretary; E. N. Kelsey, treasurer; Herbert H. Whitney, tiler; Walter H. Donovan, esquire; S. Henry Harris, chaplain; Geo. N. Bickner, inner guard; Jim Baley, organist; Frank P. Moshier, delegate to Grand Lodge; T. H. Ferris, trustee; Chas. DuBois, trustee; Roy V. Sellers, trustee. CAUNO CX.UB The Carreno Club, St. Petersburg's first organization designed exclusively to foster the fine arts, was organized on February 6, 1913, its purpose being for the musical, literary and social culture of its members. Mrs. Sidway was elected first president; Miss Winifred Bedell, vice-president; Mrs. Grace B. Hume, secretary. There were ten charter members: Mrs. E. A. Jefferies, Mrs. Grace B. Hume, Mrs. Sidway, Miss Winifred Bedell, Mrs. Augusta Germain, Mrs. A. T. Blocker, Mrs. Alice Buhner, Mrs. L. D. Childs, Mrs. L. C. Patterson and Mrs. J. B. Robin The club was federated in 1917. The Junior Carreno Club, of which the first vice-president of the senior club is always president, was organized in 1920. The Carreno Club, as a part of its work each season-from October to June not only presents elaborate musical entertainments by its talented members, but brings world-famous artists to St. Petersburg.

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146 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA ST. P&TSRSB URG ART CLUB The St. Petersburg Art Club was the result of a meeting called by Mrs. J Liberty Tadd, widow of the eminent art educator, Dr. Tadd, who had been head o! Arts School, of Philadelphia, and who had spent the last years of his hfe 1n St. Petersburg where he established the Florida Art School. At his death Mrs. Tadd took up his work. Her idea in fonning an art club had been to stimulate a wider appreciation of cultural things in the city The first officers elected were: George F. Bartlett, presi dent; Mrs. A. F. Thomasson, first vice-president ; M. Lynch, second vice-president; Mrs L. J. Gunn, third vice-president; Mrs. F. W Kingsley, secretary ; Mrs. R. J. Dew, treasurer. Mrs. Tadd and her daughter, Mrs. Edith Tadd Little, who had a wide ac quaintance in art circles of the North, both being well-known artists, we re able to seaue exhibitions of famous paintings such as had seldom been brought south of Atlanta, until that time. The meetings were held fortnightly in the Florida Art School building at Beach Drive and Second Avenu e north, and a series of ten exhibitioos was shown during each season. Many famous people of various professiOIIS were secured for the dub programs. In the season of 1925-26 Mrs. Tadd retired from the Art School work, and a year or two later the school was closed entirely. The building was remodelled and called the Art Club bW.lding, the club retaining i t as a meeting place. WONAN1S TOWN IMPROV"MNT A SSOCIATION The Woman's Town Improvement Association was organized early in May, 1901, with twenty-eight members. Mrs. A. P. Weller was elected president ; Mrs W L. Straub, first vice-president; Mrs. F. E. Cole, second vice-president; Miss A A. Michael secretary; Mrs. G B. Harris, treasurer Charter members of the Association were: Mrs. Frank E Cole Mrs Charles A. Weimer, Mrs. Frank Harrison, Mrs. P B. Stoner, Mrs. Charles A. R oot, Mrs. Mamie Henry, Mrs. A P. Avery Mrs. J. Frank Chase, Miss Lena Chase, Mrs. Windsor Smith, Mrs. J P. Hoyt, Mrs. C N Crawford, Mrs. C W. Springstead, Mrs. C. M Williams, Mrs. W. E. Allison Mrs. A P. Weller Mrs. Grady Mrs. C. C. Wilder, Mrs. Shellenberger, Mrs. W L. Ainslee, Mrs. W. L. Straub, Mrs. F A Wood, Mrs. G. B. Haines, Mrs. S. S. Stults, Miss Ellen Davis Mi ss A. A. MichaeJ Mrs. P. A. Goff and Mrs. Mary S Fisher The Association immediately started a beautificati o n program in William s Park, and discontinued its efforts only when the park was turned over to the city in 1910. In 1909 theW. T. I. A. launched a campaign for the purpose of raising funds to provide a home of its own, but becau se of various delays, the building was not c.ompleted uotil 1913 For several years it was used as Association headquarters, and the Board of Trade was also located there, but in 1916, the financial burden of payiag for the building, having become too heavy, the members decided to turn Oftt their interest iu i t to the newly-organized Young Women's Christian Associa tion if that body would assume the mortgage. The proposition was accepted, and

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PART I-NARRATIVE 147 the building has been occupied by theY. W C. A ever since. The location is 336 First Avenue North. The Association now interests itself in all matters of civic improvement and beautification. One of its outstanding activities is the annual flower show held during the Festival of States' week each spring. NE!dOitiAL RISTOIUCI\L In July, 1920, Mrs. W. T. Eaton published a call for a meeting of those inter ested in forming a historical society Thirty-five persons attended the meeting held July 20th in the City Hall. The organization was completed and the following were electe d officers : Mr s. W. T. Eaton, president; Capt. Geo. M. Lynch, 1st vice president; Miss Jessie Morgan, 2nd vice-presid ent; Mrs. H. B. Smitz, secretary; Mrs. Annie McRa e, treasurer. Charte r was obtained December 27, 1920, with a membership of 140 The object as charter states: ''To disco ver, secure, and preserve data and ar articles relating to all matters of historical int erest, particularly of the state of Florida, and to maintain a museum, art gallery, and library; and cultivate and dif fuse knowledge of the subjects aforesaid. To procure by lease or purchase suitable buildings, which shall include a room for the D. A. R., to be maintained by them, and to do any and all things consistent with the objects herein stated." Mr. R. W. Main had secured a lease of a si te on the North Mole and had erected a building there. In January, 1922, he made a sale of the buildings t o the Historical Society for $6,500.00, taking notes o f the organization for all but the five hundred paid down. The city gave to the society a lease for ninety-nine years condition ed upon it s being properly maintained by the association. At a meeting of the City Commission August 20, 1923, it was decided to take over the propert y of the Memorial Historical Society, and in doing this, the city to assume the $6,500.00 indebtedness on the building, the society to continue with the maintenance and operation of the building. In February, 1926, the Memorial Historical Society entertained the members of the State Historical Society at their annual meeting, and the work of the St. Petersburg organization was highly commended by the visitors from other similar societies. January 1, 1929, the following officers were elected: Mrs. W. T. Eaton, pres ident; Capt. John C. Leonard, 1st vice-president; Mrs. Mary Apple, 2nd vice-pres ident; Mrs. H. B. Smitz, recording secretary ; Miss Susan Hallowell, treasurer; Mrs. Herman Merrell, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Frances Lambert, curator; Mrs. John C. Leonard histor ian; Capt. John C Leonard, librarian; Rev. N. B. Wil liams, chainnan Board of Management. AUDUBON SOCfeTY The first officer s o f the St. Petersburg Audubon Society were Mrs Katherine B. Tippetts as president who has since se..Ved in that capacity. Dr. John E. Ennis was chosen first vice-pr esident; Mrs S. E. Barton, secre tary; Mrs W. R. Trow bridge, treasurer

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148 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA The Audubon Society, from time to time, has he l ped to secure state legislation for bird protection, one of the most notable instances being that for state-wide protection of the robin i n May, 1913. In 1915 the club helped to organize the St. Petersburg Humane Society. This society was active for a short time but soon ceased to function In 1917, when fishermen in the bay wanted the pe l ican exter minated declaring they destroyed many edible fish, the Audubon Society, proving that this was not true, succeeded in keeping the bird on the protected list. Probably the most effective work done by the society has been in the establish ing of Junior Audubon societies in the schools, through which the children are taught the value of birds and the necessity for protecting them. In 1923 a bill was passed making the study of birds in the schools compulsory. PARK IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION The Park Improvement Association, the first women's organization in St. Petersburg, was fonned in 1893, its foremost purpose at that time being to improve Williams Park, then called City Park. Mrs. L. King was elected president; Mrs. Anderson, vice-president; Mrs Jeannette Baum, secretary and treasurer. The first real park improvement efforts were on "Park Day", established by proclamation of Mayor David Murray, and at this time the park was formally taken over by the town. The women had walks constructed and a fence built to keep out livestock, and in 1895 raised money for a bandstand. Soon, however, the Park Association dropped out of existence. TOURIST PLEASURE CLUBS St. Petersburg's supremacy in all the South in the art and business of enter taining tourists is unchallenged, and one demonstration of the fact to even the most casual visitor from anywhere is furnished by a stroll among its many tourist pleas ure clubs The most desirable locations for these sports in the city are made avail able, and courts and buildings of pennanent construction and attractive designs are provided for them. National tournamen t s are held costly trophies and pri z es are awarded, and experts are drawn to them from all parts of the United States from Canada, and even from Europe. The Sunshine Pleasure Club is the oldest, having had its beginning in 1902 when horseshoes were pitched under the trees along Central Avenue where the First National Bank, Poinsettia Hotel, the Kress Building, and other business struc tures now stand. Being moved from time to time by new bu i ldings the horseshoe pitchers finally reached "the park," and there other sports were gathered-croquet, chess, checkets, dominoes, roque--and in 1909 all of them united in forming the Sunshine Pleasure Club The membership became so large that Williams Park would no longer suffice, and they were compelled to move elsewhere, and in doing that scattered so that only the horseshoe-pitchers now remain as the owners of that name.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 1 49 An offshoot of the Sunshine Pleasure Club is the Roque Club. Another IS the Chess, Checker and Domino Club. And another is the Quoit Club. The St. Peter sburg Tennis Club, organized in 1911, is the one of all that in cludes largely St. Pete r sburg young people, and is well supplied with courts in several localities. The Bowling Club, born of Canadian parentage, is one of the finest sport organizatio ns in this or any other city. It has a commodious club house and many courts. The Shuffleboard Club of St. Petersbur g is the largest in the world, with a membership of more than 2,500, a splen did clubhouse and 47 courts. Then there is an Archery Club, and Sunshine Card Club, and a Sunshine Dancing Club, all for the especial delectation of the strangers within the gates. And finally, the Open Forum held in Williams Park, which is all that the name implies. TOURIST SOCIETIES The first tourist society organized in St. Petersburg was that of Illinois, a meeting of visitors from that state having been called on January 1, 1902, by Capt. J. F. Chase, the Rev. J. P. Hoyt and M. Arter Mr. Arter was elected president of the society. The organization proved so successful, and provided such an ideal means for the tourists to mingle together for recreation and to become acquainted, that just two weeks later the tourists from the New England States were organized by the Rev. Mr. Hoyt. No more such organizations were effected until the Michigan Society was formed in 1907, but since that time a large number of the states have organize d besides a number of cities with large aggregations here, and Canada and Scandinavia. By 1914 the tourists had become so thoroughly organized by states that need of a central organization made up of repre sen t atives from each state group became apparent. As a result, the Presidents' Union came into existence on February z, 1914, with the presidents of all the ten state societies then functioning as charter members. From the very first, the tourist societies proved a most valuable means of advertising for St. Petersburg, as all the members do their share to boost the city when they return home, and a number of the societies hold at least one big summer meeting in their own states. ROTARY Cl.UB The first of the ci vi c luncheon clubs to be founded in St. Petersburg was Rotary, which was organized in 1920, with twenty-five charter members. W. L. Straub was elected president ; A. F. Thomasson, vice-president; G B. Shepard, secretary-treasurer; J. G. Foley, sergeant-at-arms. Besides teaching the idea of service in business as embodied in the club's code of ethics, "Service above self," the St. Petersburg Rotary Club has become notable for its work amon g the boys of the city. The organization also sponsors various worthwhile movements for civic improvement

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150 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA CIVI'l'AN CLUB Organization of C i vitan was effected in St. Petersburg in November 1921. Bob C. Smalley was named president; John B Sims, vice-pre s ident; 0. 0. Feaster, 'rice-president; William Crawford, secretary; Karl B. O'Quinn, treasurer. The dub bas as its object the building of good citizenship KIWANIS CLUB The Kiwanis Club was organized in March, 1922, and the charter officially presented at a banquet held at the Poinsettia Hotel on April 18. There were sixty charter members of whom Dr. Kerrison Juniper was chosen president; J. B. Green, vice-president; Robert E. Lea, secretary; Wayne Blackburn, treasurer; and AI Sharp, district trustee .Kiwanians apply their motto, "We Build", to character as well as to civic improvements. Their special work is for under-privileged children, and to provide vocational guidance for the young people of the city OPTIMIST CLUB The St. Petersburg Optimist Club was organized in 1924, with a charter mem bership of sixty-two business and professional men. James Booth was elected president and J. A Walker, secretary. This club, which has as its motto, "Friend of the boy", speciali:res in work among the boys of the city, though it sponsors all worthwhile civic movements. LIONS CLUB The Lions Club was originally organized in 1925, but died out from lack of interest and was reorganized in 1927. The officers were: W. F. Herrick, presi dent; Herbert Davis, vice-president; J. I. Elston, secretary-treasurer. Civic improvement and closer fellowship among the various businesses and professions was the purpose for which this organization came into being O'l'HR PATRIOTIC ORGANIZATIONS Besides the American Legion, patriotic organizations in St. Petersburg include: American War Mothers, Boy Scouts of America, Daughters of American Colonists Daughters of American Revolution, Daughters of the Union, Girl Scouts, Grand Army of the Republic, Overseas Service Club, Sons of Confederate Veterans, United Daughters of the Confederacy, Children of the Confederacy, Daughters of 1812, United Spanish War Veterans, Veterans of Foreign Wars--and their auxiliaries. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE St. Petersburg's first chamber of commerce was organized in 1899, with Col. L. Y. Jenness, manager of the St. Petersburg Land and Improvement Company, as president. The first organization having proved ineffectual, the chamber was reorganized June 2, 1902. A. P Avery was elected president and J. W. Wright, secretary On July 21, the members pledged $125 to pay for 10,000 booklets to advertise the town, the F. A. Davis Publishing Company of Philadelphia having agreed to print the booklets at cost.

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PART I-NARRAT I VE !51 W. A. Holshouser was elected president at the annual meeting held June 1, 1903, but after the council had voted down a proposed appropriation of $500 for municipal advertising the organization again became inactive. As a result, on February 14, 1905 a. group of business men met in the office of Mayor R. H. Thomas and organized the Board of Trade. The officers elected were F. A. Wood, president; A. F. Bartlett vice president; R. H. Thomas, secretary; J. F. Ridlon, assistant secretary ; J. Frank Harrison, treasurer. The board of directors included F. A. Wood, A F. Bartlett, R. H. Thomas, J. Frank Harrison Roy S. Hanna, Charles Weimer, David Moffett, A P. Avery and Arthur Norwood. After a meeting or two, the enthusiasm of the new organization died down, and it was not until after the annual election March 15, 1906 when Judge J D. Bell was named president, that it became active again and launched a campaign for $2,500, to be raised by popular subscription, for an advertising fund. This cam paign had been prompted by the expenditure in February of $35 for advertising space in newspapers throughout the s tate to co n tradict reports tha t there was a smallpox e pidemic in St. Petersburg. The result had been so far-reaching that the peop l e of St. Petersb u rg realized, for the first time, the value of advertising and the $2,500 was ov e rsubscribed in less than a month. Noel A. Mitchell was elected president of the Board of Trade in 1907 and Roy S. Hanna in 1908. In March, 1909, the board was r e organized and incor porated, and annual dues were fixed at $10 A. F. Bartlett was elected president; S. D. Harris, first vice-president; W. L Straub, second vice-president. The board of gover n ors were elected to serve in thre e divis i ons: thre e -year term, L C. Heffner, Lew B. Brown, Ralph Veillard, Roy S. Hanna; two-year term, Arthur Norwood, Noel A. Mitchell, Dr. H. A Murphy, W. G. Howard; one-year term, T. A Chan cellor T. J. Northrup, J. D Bell and A. W Fisher. A. P. Avery was elected president of the Board of Trade in 1910; S. D. Harris, in 1911, and Lew B Brown i n 1912. The organization was now the life of St. Petersburg, and through its various forms of advertising the town had become recognized as a resort. The first mid-winter festival was held March 17-22, 1912, when Arthur L. Johnson was chairman of the advertising committee The same year the Board o f Trade provided for the registration of winter visitors. W. L. Straub became president of the board in February, 1913, and it was during his regime that the organization asked the Atlantic Coast Line railway for a new depot. The request was granted and the depot built the fo1lowing year. In 1913, too, the first big order of advertis i ng booklets was made, thi s being for 50,000 copies of a sixteen-page illustrated folder, at a cost of $4,000. Arthur Norwood was elected to the presidency of the Board of Trade in 1915 ; Paul R Boardman, in 1916; J. W. Coburn; in 1917, to be succeeded on his resigna tion two months later by Fred T. Lowe; Charles R. Carter, 1918-19. I n the fall of 1919 Mr. Carter resigned and was succeeded by B. A. Lawrence. At the next election, in 1920, the reins w e re turned over to an en t ire l y new group of young business men, although a few of the were retained on the board as advisers W L. Watson was elected president and L. C. Brown, vice

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152 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA president. By formal action of the board on June 29, 1920 the Board of Trade became the Chamber of Commerce. The same officers were retain e d, but L. A. Whitney, secretary, resigned in August and B. A. Lawrence, Jr., wa s named to succeed him. The board of directors of the first Chamber of Commerce included: E. C. Reed, T. A. Chancellor, J ohn N. Brown, J. G Rutland, Henry Harris, C. C. Carr, Herman A. Dann, W. L. Tillinghast AI Gandy B. A. Lawrence, Jr., C. R. Carter, R. H Sumner, Noe l A. Mitchell, H L Ermatinger and A. F. Ba rtlett. L. C. Brown became president in 1921; Herman A. Dann, 1922; J. W. Co burn, 1923; B. A. Lawrence, Jr., 1924; EdT. Lewis, 1925; John N. Brown, 1926; B. M. Latham, 1927; W. L. Tillinghast, 1928, and R. J. McCutcheon, Jr., 1929. P UBLIC LIBRARY Early in July, 1905 the St. Petersburg Reading Room and Library Associa tion was formed with Arthur Norwood as chairman and Miss Pauline Barr, secre tary pro-tem. The organization was effected with 122 members, and officers were elected as follows: Judge J. D. Bell, president; J. A. Sims, vice-president; Mrs. Annie McRae secretary; Fred M. Allen treasurer. In September the association leased for its use a room in the Bussey building, on the south side of Central avenue between Third and Fourth streets. During the first year twelve women and twelve men were appointed to act as each to serve once every two we eks without pay-the women keeping the library in the afternoons and the men at nigh t The next year Mrs. Bellona Havens was engaged as librarian. I n the year 1907 the library was moved to the St rowger building at Fourth and Central. A short time later it became necessary to vacate this room and as none other was available the books and furniture were stored for a time. The library was reopened in the Mitchell block, Fourth street and Central avenue in 1909 and remained there until the new Carnegie Library was completed late in 1915 on Fifth street North in Mirror Lake Park. Although negotiations had been started in 1908 for the Carnegie Library noth ing was accomplished until 1912. and not uniil late in 1913 did the Library and Municipal Advertising commission take the matter up. At this time W. L Straub president of the Library board, went to New York to confer with officers of the Carnegie organization and s ucceeded in securing an appropriation of $17,500. After much discussion as to the site for the new library, the Mirror Lak e park location was agreed upon by the library board and city commission and contrac t for the building was awarded to W. C. Henry. The cornerstone was laid December 19, 1914, with full Masonic ceremonies conducted by J. E. Crane of Tampa, deputy grand master. Governor Park Trammell was the principal speaker. The library was completed September 11, 1915, and the books were moved and the building opened to the public Decembe. r 1. There were 2 fiX) volumes at that time. W. L. Straub, J N. Brown and Mrs. Annie McRae composed the library board. Miss Emma Moore Williams was named librarian and Miss Margaret Jenkins, assistant In 1924 the basement of the building wa s fitted up as a chil dren's department.

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PART I-NARRATIVE. PUBLIC HOSPITAL By MRS. ]OHN c. LEO!IARD 153 The far-famed healthfulness of our Pinellas Peninsula led some of our citizens to consider a hospital unnecessary. But we have accidents and sick who need hos pital care; and when early in 1910 a sick stranger, mistaken for a drunk, died without care in our city jail, most of our people thought it was time to provide for such cases On April 1st, 1910, the following men met to complete their organization: Rev. J. W. Harris, N.H. Longly, G. W. Blodgett, J D. Bell, J. F. Harrison, Dr. J. E. Ennis, R. W. Miller, and Lew B. Brown. Rev Harris was elected chairman and Mr. Brown, sec retary. The following afternoon a number of women met at the Congregational church, then on the site of our present post office, and an Auxiliary Committee was elected-Mrs. W. A. Coats chairman; Mrs. C. W Springstead secretary, and Mrs. W. E. Heathcote, Mrs. A. T. Blocker and Mrs. J. C. McNabb. Plans were made by both committees for raising money. Vole were told of the gift of Mr E. H. Tomlinson of two hundred and fifty dollars as a starter for the fund to provide for emergency cases. A few days later Mrs. Coats was asked to accompany a committee of three from the men's committee to select a site. They were to consult with Mr. Tom linson as to use of the two hundred and fifty dollars as a first payment. After looking at various sites, the one in Block 93, Lots 1, 2, and 3 of the revised map of St. Petersburg was the unanimous choice of the commit tee. The Shell Mound park occupies the east half of the block An initial payment of two hundred and fifty dollars was made that evening i n the office of R. H. Thomas, agent for the property. The price of the three Jots was twelve hundred and fifty dollars. At that time only a few scattered houses were in that part of the city. The Women's Auxiliary Committee undertook the raising of the one thousand needed to complete payment on the lots. Mayor A. T. Blocker and Dr. J. E. Ennis came to a meeting of the auxiliary with a proposition concerning the purchase of lots 4, 5, and 6 on the southwes t corner of Block 93. On the lots was a small cottage, very dilapidated. The price was only thirteen hundre d fifty dollars for the entire property. Mayor Blocker thought the city might purchase it, as Dr. Ennis had promised to put it in good shape at his own expense provided our auxiliary fur nished the building and maintained it. The auxiliary agreed to do its part Dr. Ennis carried out his promise, new roof, new and general repairs and im provements. Generous friends helped in the furnishing of the little five-room house, with bath and having wide screened verandas on two sides o{ the house. The build ing was set in among beautiful trees and vines. The site is now occupied by ou r Nurses' Home. There was quite a celebration when the "Samaritan Emergency Hospital" was ready for use, August 20th, 1910. The auxiliary found they had assumed a good deal in keeping up payments on the lots I, 2, 3, and also expenses of the Samaritan Emergency. Mrs. made an appeal to Hon. Joseph Sibley, then in his summer home in Pennsylvania. His reply to Mrs. Coats, dated July 23, 1910, promised to send us twenty-five hun-

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154 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA dred dollars upon his return home. Shortly after his check came, and one hundred of it was used for the final payment on Lots 1, 2, and 3. Then we began to plan for the building. Many delays and changes retarded the work. Bonds for nine thousand dollars were voted by the city to complete the building. It was May 2, 1913, when this, the first public hospital in county, was formally opened. The ceremonies were impressive. Music by the City band, hundreds in attendance, singing by pupils of our public schools, speeches by Mayor Pheil, Rev. J. W. Harris and others. Young ladies of the Hospital Guild served refreshments. Many generous gifts were presented and all were proud of our fine new hospital. Following is a list of those furnishing rooms in the hospital : Mr. E. H. Tomlinson (operating room), Mrs. David C. Cook, Mr. and Mrs. H. K. Herritage, Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Roser, B. P. 0. E. No. 1224, Women's Relief Corps, New England Society, New York and New Jersey Society, Kentucky Society, Tennessee Society, Michigan Society, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Shipley, Local Chapter D. A. R. E. A. Bernard, Mr. and Mrs. Lund and the Huntington guests (the reception room), Wisconsin Society. Early in 1912 the City Council had appointed Mrs. W. A. Coats president of the Hospital Board. On February 13, 1913, the City Council adopted the name "Augusta Memorial Hospital," thus honoring Mr. E. H Tomlinson, whose mother's given name was Augusta. The council at that time named the following officers: Executive Board: Mrs. W. A. Coats, president; R. Veillard, vice-president; Mrs. C. M. Roser, secretary; Mrs. C. W. Springstead treasurer; J. A. Potter, chairman; George N. Sarven. Medical and Surgical Staff: Franklin W. Wilcox, M.D., chief of staff; Gus tavus Adolphus, M.D.; Morton H. Axline, M.D.; William M. Davis, M.D.; Charles D. Hulbert, M.D.; Joseph T. Hume, M.D.; Edwin A. Mallette, M.D.; John D. Peabody, M.D.; William 0. Rouse, M.D.; James T. Roan, M.D.; Harry C Welch, M.D. Auxiliary Committee: Mrs. W. A. Coats, Mrs. C. M. Roser, Mrs. C. W. Springstead, Mrs. A. T. Blocker, Mrs. J. C. McNabb. Young Woman's Hospital Guild: Miss Alice Alfred, president; Miss Nell Conn, vice-president; Miss Helen Loehr, secretary; Miss Clara Fisher, treasurer. Membership of thirty. A few months after the opening of the hospital, Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Roser began the building of a commodious and beautiful home for nurses as a gift to St. Petersburg. The cottage used as Samaritan Hospital was removed to a Jot purchased by Mr. Roser and deeded to the city. He also at his own expense moved the building to the new location, rebuilding part of it and repainting it inside and out. The auxiliary, aided by their friends and also by some of the colored people, furnislred and equipped and made it very neat and comfortable. A colored super intendent from New York was engaged, and for several years it served as hos pital for the colored population until a larger building in better location was pro vided The beautiful home for nurses was opened in February, 1914. Mr. and

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PART I-NARRATIVE 155 Mrs. Roser had furnished and equipped the building in a comfortable and artistic manner, and it was pronounced the finest nurses' home in Florida. July 1st brought changes in the personnel of the board and were as follows: Mrs W. A. Coats, president; Mr. C. D. Hammond, vice-president; Mrs. C. M. Roser, secretary; Mrs. C. W. Springstead, Mr. J. G. Bradshaw, Mr. T. J. Northrup. In 1916, at the request of Mr. E. H. Tomlinson, the name of Augusta Me morial Hospital was changed to City Hospital and soon after that was changed to Mound Park Hospital. PUBLICATIONS The first "newspaper" published on The Point, or lower Pinellas peninsula, was The Sea Breeze established at Disston City in 1886 by W. J McPherson, then a hopeful young pioneer with plenty of "vision." The Sea Breeze lasted a part of a year. The first newspaper in or at St. Petersburg was called South Florida Home, and its first issue appeared on December 21, 1890. The paper was published by Young G. Lee, who had come from New Orleans in 1888 to settle at Charlotte Harbor, at a time when that village was thriving from a railroad boom. He had started a month ly paper there which he called Our Florida Home, but moved to St. Petersburg in October, 1890. The South Florida Home was published as a weekly until 1893, when it was changed into a monthly and the size of the page reduced. In 1896 it was discon tinued, Mr. Lee's health having failed. He moved to Glen Oak, outside the town, and died in 1902. The Rev. R J. Morgan established the St. Petersburg Times late in 1892, having purchased the West Hillsboro11gh Times from A. C. Turner, of Clearwater, and moved the entire plant to this town. Mr. Turner had purchased the paper in December, 1884, from Dr. T J Edgar and M. Joel McMullen who, in September of that year, had begun the publication of the weekly in Dunedin. After a few years Mr. Morgan sold the paper to J. Ira Gore, of Cedar Keys, then started a new publication under the name of Sub-Peninsula Sun, which he con tinued in existence until 1906. It was finally sold to The Times and The Times was published by Mr. Gore until his death, which occurred in 1900. A year later his son, J. Ira Gore, Jr.,. sold the paper to a company composed of W. L. Straub, A. P. Avery and A. H. Lindelie, but within a short time Mr. Straub took over the interests of his partners. The publication was changed to a semi weekly in 1907, and to a daily on January 12, 1912. At that time The Times Pub lishing Coinpany consisted of W. L. Straub and Charles Emerson. In September, 191'2, it Wl!S reorganized with Paul Poynter of Sullivan, Indiana, president; W L. Straub; vice-president and editor, and C. C. Carr, secretary and treasurer. In 1923 }.fr Carr sold hi s interest in the paper to establish the C. C. Carr Advertising Agency, D. B. Lindsay succeeding him. In 1928 Mr. Carr purchased back the Lindsay interest and became general manager. F. R. Francke was later added to the company as a stockholder and business manager.

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156 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA The Times was first published in a buildin g where the Pheil Hote l now stands, then on the site of the American Bank, and later in a two-story fram e bui l ding at Third street and First avenue south, but in 1920 the company erected a th r ee-s tory building at Fifth street and First avenue south and installed a large n e w plant Soon this building was outgrow n and an eight-story plant and office building was erected just east of it on the First avenue side. The St. Peurslmrg Independent was established as a weekly newspaper by Willis B. Powell in 1906. R. H. Thomas, F. A. Wood and Noel A. MitChell helped to finance the publication, and the first issue appeared on March 3, 1906. A year later The brdepe11dent was changed into a daily, being published every day except Sunday, in the aftern oon. On December 15, 1 908, The Evenin g Ind e pendent was purchased by Lew B. Brown, editor and publisher of the H arrodsburg (Ky.) DemocraJ. A little less than two years late r on Septembe r 1, 1910 Mr. B r own made his famous s u nshin e olier which has since proved one of the greatest factors in advertising the city the offer to give away the entire home edition of his pape r on every day that the sun does not shine before going to press. This promise has had to be fulfilled o n an average of only about six days each year. When Mr. Brown purchased the paper, the building at the southwest corner of Fourth street and First avenue south, which was the Independent's plant, was a one-stor y structure 40 by 80 feet in size. Severa.! additions were made from time to time, and in 1913 a new building was erected on the same site. In 1924, a large fireproof addition was built along the First avenue side of the property. The firs t i ssue of The T01lri.st News, a magazine devoted to the inte r ests and entertainment of visitors, came out on December 4, 1920, and was founded by J Harold Sommers. The Tourist News PubH shing company was reorganized on June 1, 1921, and a plant esta blished at 176 Central avenue, where the magaz ine was printed and commercial printing done J. Harold Sommers wa s editor and Karl H. Grismer, managing editor. The Tot1rist News became a weekly in winter and a monthly during the summe r season. In 1923 a modern building, with one of the finest printing plants in Florida, was erected at E i ghteenth street and Second avenue south. The compa n y was again reorganized early in 1928 under the name of the L a ssing Publishing Company, and while this firm retained its prin t ing p.lant, The Tourist News was sold on January 5, 1929, to Jack E. Dadsw ell, who had been one of its two ori ginators and its first editor. The magazine was moved to Thir teenth street and Second avenue north. The Pinellas County Reid Estate lornaJ, a11d Record was another publicat ion of the Tourist News Publishing Company. It was started jn 1924, bUt was continued only a short time. The Pinellas Post, a labor publication having t he endorsement of the Build ing T rades Council and Central Trades Union, was established by E. J. Foster, who also edited it. The paper was published in i t s own plant under the ownership of The Pinellas P ost, Inc., the first issue appearing on Novembe r 6, 1921. Publica tion was suspended after a time.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 157 Early in 1924 a small newspaper called The Spectator was established by Clifford McDonald who, after publishing it for a few months, sold out to Frank F. Pulver, a former mayor of the city. Mr. Pulver, having changed the name of his paper to The Daily News, installed a plant on Second street north between First and Second avenues, and continued publication for about three years. Major Alfred Birdsall was the editor. The Fimuacial Journal was established on February 4, 1924, by Jack E. Dads well, at Thirteenth street and Second avenue north. During the first three years it was published as a local paper, after which it was converted into one of national scope, featuring financial conditions, including agriculture, the markets and ship ping, of the southern United States and Latin-American countries. The Labor Advocate was established in September, 1927, by J W. Hendrix, owner and publisher, and printed at the plant of the Franklin Press, 611 First avenue south. V. S. Herring was the editor. Other small newspapers have sprung up at several times, usually during elec tion years, but the ir objects have been mainly to further political campaigns, and they have been short-lived and unimportant. FLORIDA POWER CORPORATION St. Petersburg is the headquarters of one of the largest public utilities corpo rations in the South the Florida Power Corporation and, like every other big concern in Florida built up by men, it had a very small beginning. The original company, organized in February, 1897, was a very modest affair, indeed, as such things go now, the entire capital stock consisting of two hundred and sixty shares at the par value of $50 each, a total capitalization of $13,000; but it was a big undertaking for the St. Pe tersb urg of thirty-two years ago, and nobody less than an inspired optimist could have disposed of that stock. But that is precisely what F. A. Davis, of Philadelphia, was, and he and other Philadelphians associated with him secured a franchise from the little city and put the project thro u gh. The company was first called the St. Petersburg Light and Power Com pany, and the first twenty years of the franchise were to be "exclu sive," a pro vision which did not seem to cause any public alarm at the time. At the time this company was formed Mr. Davis was operating an electric plant in Tarpon Springs, and as it was proving so unsuccessful financially it was de cided to move the entire plant to St. Petersburg. This was done, and the first elec tric service in St. Petersburg was secured, leaving Tarpon Springs without service for a time. The plant was in St. Petersburg, where the Yacht Club now stands, with a small office where the Ponce de Leon hotel was later erected. For sometime it was doubtful whether or not St. Petersburg would continue to have electric service; as the customers were few and revenue was limited. The plant was found 'to be expensive to maintain on account of its condition. Lights were furnished only from sundown to midnight, and the balance of the time the crews were busy making repairs and securing wood for the next day's run.

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158 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Being a prince of optimists and a dynamo for work, F. A. Davis in 1902 obtained a franchise for the St. Petersburg and Gulf Electric Railway, and in September, 1904, had a trolley in operation to Ninth street and Booker Creek, and in 1905 to Disston City, now Gulfport, being run, of course, in connection with the electric company. Land companies were added to his enterprise, but in 1917 war conditions brought their troubles, and the trolley and land interests were un loaded, the former to the city for $175,000; and the St. Petersburg Light and Power Company was left to its own business of producing and selling electricity St. Petersburg, however, began to grow in earnest in the nineties, and addi tional northern capital was attracted. The St. Petersburg Investment Company, an F. A Davis concern of which H. Walter Fuller had become president and the controlling spirit, had acquired considerable real estate holdings and in order to insure electric service to protect its holdings purchased the electric plant in July, 1907. After a few additions had been made to the first plant, the demand for service reached such a stage that in 1914 it was decided to erect a new plant. A site at Sixteenth street and First avenue north was selected and the plant was completed in 1915, consisting of two 250 HP Lentz engines. It was thought that this plant would be sufficient to serve the city for a period of at least ten years. However, long before the ten years expired the capacity of the plant had been increased many times to keep up with the growth of the town, and in 1924 construction of another plant was begun in St. Petersburg, which was completed in July, 1925, with a capacity of 18,500 KW. During the course of construction of the plant at Sixteenth street and First avenue north, Mr. Fuller and associates sold their interests in the electric property to the General Utilities and Operating Company of Baltimore, J. C. M. Lucas, president. The name of the local company was changed in May, 1915, to St. Peters burg Lighting Company, and the capital stock increased from $13,000.00 to $550,000.00. Mr. Lucas and associates operated the property for several years, during which time they secured ownership of the Clearwater Lighting Company and the plant at Tarpon Springs, which later had been erected. The plants in these three towns were connected by transmission lines, insuring them and the other smaller com munities more dependable service. In September, 1922, A. E. Fitkin and Company of New York purchased these three properties and shortly thereafter chose the name of Pinellas County Power Company as being more applicable to the entire property. The years following the purchase of the property by Mr. Fitkin proved to be the years of greatest growth of the section served by the Pinellas County Power Company, and in 1924 work was started on the new plant mentioned above at Third street and Thirteenth ave nue south, now known as the Third street or Bayboro Plant. About the same time Mr. Fitkin realized the demand for good office buildings in St. Petersburg as well as the necessity of providing suitable accommodations for the handling of the com pany's business, and the Power and Light Building, eight stories, was built and first occupied in October, 1925.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 159 After purchasing the Pinellas County Power Company, Mr. Fitkin soon real ized that the Florida West Coast was fast becoming a great tourist center, and that the next few years were going to be a period of great growth and expansion for this section. He therefore began further expansion by purchasing the Florida Power Company from the Camp Interests in Ocala, which property consisted of a hydro plant on the Withlacoochee river near Dunnellon from which service was furnished to Ocala and several other towns in Marion and Sumter counties. Numerous other individual plants were purchased, in many cases from munici palities, until at this time the Florida Power Corporation is serving a total of fifty nine towns extending from St. Petersburg to the Georgia State line. To keep up with this expansion program a large steam plant was at Inglis in 1926 and 1927, and at this time another hydro plant is being erected on the Ocklocknee river near Tallahassee. The entire system is connected by means of transmission lines and continuous service is assured from the three main plants now located at St. Petersburg, Inglis and the present hydro plant near Dunnellon. Connections are also maintained with the Tampa Electric Company and the Florida Public Service Company for the inter-change of power. In March of 1927 all the Florida properties of Mr. Fitkin were grouped under the name of the Florida Power Corporation, and the small company with a capital stock of $13,000.00, whlch had its origin in St. Petersburg in 1897, has now become a mammoth concern with a capital investment of some $24,000,000.00. During the years of 1922 to 1926, the Florida West Coast experienced considerable growth, and the Florida Power Corporation has kept pace with that growth and has an electric system consisting of the most modern equipment and renders efficient, dependable service to its many customers. As time elapsed the attention of a nationally known utility engineering and operating firm was drawn to the potential value of the properties represented by the Florida Power Corporation and others in the Fitkin holdings and in February, 1927, the firm of Day & Zimmermann of Philadelphia obtained control from the Fitkin interests. Under the new ownership the Florida Power Corporation con tinued to expand and better its service until January, 1928. Following a carefully thought-out plan of expansion and improvement, the Insult Interests became attracted to these properties and in January, 1928, purchased, among other great holdings, the Florida Power Corporation. This phase in the history of the Florida Power Corporation constitutes perhaps the greatest step forward these properties have enjoyed, for the interests represented by the Insults are primarily concerned in the purchase of utility properties for their development and operation. Their ramifications extend over the eastern seaboard and the more desirable sections of the Middle West and each instance of purchase is marked by a subsequent development and improvement, not only in the physical property of the company acquired, but in the class of service extended to its customers. This is all made possible by the benefits accruing and obtainable to the operating prop erties as a result of resources at the command of highly trained and efficient owners. The policy of rendering the highest class service and maintaining modem,

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160 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA up-to-date ope r ating practices speaks well for the future of the Florida Power Corporation, whose headquarters have always been maintained in its own structure, the Power and Light Building at St. Petersburg. STATISTICAL In 1890, two years after the founding of St. Petersburg, the federal census showed the town to have a population of 273. Ten years later in 1900, the federal count placed the figlire at 1,575. The first city directory was compiled by the St. Petersburg Times in 1904, s howin g a population of 2,227. The 1907 directory showed 3,233, whi l e that of 1908gave 4,071 and in 1909 a count of 4,626. The federal cen sus of 1910 placed the population at 4,127 but the city directory the same year compiled by The Times placed t h e figure at 5,162. Every year has meant rapid growth in St. Petersburg and the federal census of 1920 placed the population at 14,237. A special federal census made in 1 927 showed a popu l ation of 47,629 and in 1928 federal estimates were made placing the population at 53, 300 The win ter population was estimated in 1929 at about 100,000. The city's building permits since 1920 have maintained an annual average of $8,090,973.88. In that year, fro m January to January, the permits amounted to $2 ,801,120. The banner year for building permits came during the period of increased realty activity of 1925, when the total amounted to $24,081,700. The city schools in 1912 had an enrollment of 815, with three buildings and property valued at $60,000. In January, 1928 the enrollment had reached 6 ,280, and included in the school sys t em were twenty-five bui l dings, wit h property valued at $3,905,000. Postal receipts from June 30, 1910, to July 1, 1911, amounted to $22,185, whi l e for the year 1927-28 the receipts were officially placed at $276,259 Combined bank deposits in the St. Pe t ersburg ins t itutions amounted t o $2,240,637 in 1916. In 1928 the total deposits were given as $27,310,713. All properties in the cit y were assessed in 1916 at $15,959,435. In 1928 the assessed valuation had reached a total of $148,895,215. In 1923 the city gas plant made 174,201,720 cubic feet of gas, had in use 9,446 meters, and recorded receipts amounting to $203,598.66. In 1927 there were 15,620 meters in use, the p lant turned out 339,850,000 cubic feet o f gas, and re ceipts were $376,883. 87. The waterworks record for the same years showed: 658,538,980 gallons pumped; 6,503 meters in use; and receipts, $87,897.89. In 1927: 1,339,308,700 gallons pumped; 10,864 meters in lise; receipts, $177,358.91. The street railway carried 3 912,948 passengers in 1923, and receipts amounted to $193,808.50. The greatest year of activity for street cars was 1926 when pas sengers carried totaled 6,989,393, and receipts were $358,823.97. Municipal bus service was inaugurated in 1926, and that year showed the number of passengers carried to be 257,593, with receipts amounting to $25,277 45. In 1928 the total number of bus passengers was shown to be 408,670 and receipts, $35,710.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 161 There were 5,062 telephones in service in St. Petersburg on January 1, 1924, and 9,500 on January 1, 1929. In January, 1923, there were 7,033 electric meters in force, and in 1928 there were 18,106. Other statistics compiled in 1928 show that St. Petersburg had: 15,000 homes; 350 apartment houses; 5,950 hotel rooms; an area of 53.22 square miles; 33 miles of shore line; 6 miles of municipally owned waterfront; 300 acres in parks; 286.25 miles of paved streets ; 160 miles of sanitary sewers. TAMP ASH ORES Tampashores, newest town in Pinellas, had its beginning in 1916, when Ran som E. Olds, pioneer automobile manufacturer of Lansing, Michigan, came into possession of 37,500 acres of land situated on Old Tampa bay, partly in Hills borough and partly in Pinellas counties. Mr. Olds decided to establish a town on the Pinellas side, fifteen miles from the heart of Tampa, an ideal location having been selected at a point where highway, leading to Pinellas county cities, met the Seaboard Air Line railroad conveniently near the bay. The plat was laid out in the shape of a fan, the main streets coming to a point at the bay shore. Later a dock, yacht harbor, casino and children's playground were built a t this point. The town was given the name Oldsmar, in honor of its founder. Large sums of money were spent by Mr. Olds in clearing and developing the virgin pine land, and in establishing substantial improvements, post office, bank, rail way station, electric light plant, hotels, streets, homes. His idea had b-een to promote agriculture in Florida and to establish farms on the property not used in the town. This work was carried on by a corporation named the Reolds Farms Company, composed of Mr. Olds, Fred L. Cook, Charles E. Ecker, Smith G. Young; and others. Included in the organization were E. M. Brogden, T. E. Dressler and William E. Bolles, the latter being manager of sales, publicity and advertising. A large demonstration farm was put into operation and a number of ex perienced Florida farmers were added to the staff to assist the new arrivals from the north in becoming established here. The timber cut from the farms that were being cleared was sawed into lumber at a mill established by J. Bornstein, and a little later at another established by the Reolds firm. Within a short time many settlers had moved in. A school and community church were established, the Oldsmar Board of Trade was organized, and there came into existence the Woman's Club, Farmer's Club, and the Odd Fellows and Rebekah lodges. Among the pioneer developers and settlers of Oldsmar were : Fred L. Cook, T. E. Dressler, William E. Bolles, Ernest M. Brogden, James H. Thompson, Irving Trask, Clarence Conklin, A. R. Felch, G. A. McNally, John Gaunt, J. H. Swadling, W. F. Allen, J. H. Gambel, Eli House, Rev. L. H. Shumate, C. L. An derson, C. D. Tyree, George B. Selby, G. W. Selby, R. E. L.'Pryor, Ernest Eitner, A. ]. Pechin, Oscar Andrews, David S. Welch, H. K. Shortt, 0. C. Harris, R. E. Preston, E. H. Ladd, W. E. A. Wyman, F. J. Zimmerman, H. A. Kardell, H. J. Keller, Louis Keller, Otto Schawacha, J. Bornstein, Herman D. Bornstein, L. Liberman, C. C. Maxfield, Mrs. M. B. Tinker, Miss Carolyn Stayde, Mark Ardis,

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162 HISTORY OF PINEL LAS COUNTY, FLORIDA H. A. Vaughn, John Hamilton, Otto Ruegg, Paul K. Bolles, Eugene Hayward, Henry L. Taylor, Albert Haworth, H. C Ricketts, L. R. Senesac, E. R. Holbrook, George Abel, D. J. Byrnes, Burnham Tinker, Albert Laycock Henry Oellien, P. W Gary, Frank H. Coleman, Herbert Rippingale Lawrence Swanson, George W. Bishop, Rex B. Hudson, Preston Bishop, D. T. Wall, Leslie Wall, E. H . Mitchell, Hector Hatfield, Mrs. Harriet Byrnes, G. K. Chandler, John E. Carr, M. A. Bowerma n John Howard, Albert W. McAlpin, C. F Nutting, Frederick Poock, J J. Newman, William Rasmussen, Paul S<:humann, Joseph Trayheam, Miss M. B. Weakley and sister, Mrs. McCullough, Osa L Walker E. E. White hurst, C. W. Ward. Although Oldsmar was just getting started in its growth when the United States entered the Wor l d War in 1917, the little community, along with the rest of the country, put the business of winning the war first, and gained nation-wide fame by being the first town to subscribe, and over-subscribe, its quota i n the first Lib erty Loan campaign. After the war came the financial stringency of 1921, and although Oldsmar had its set-backs and quiet per i ods, it nevertheless continued to grow. Mr. Olds, eventually wishing to retire from his numerous business connec tions, disposed of his Oldsmar hol dings during 1920 and 1923; and during the period of unusual realty activity in 1924-25 the new owners launched an aggressive selling campaign and many of the Oldsmar properties were sold. Later some of these were taken over by Henry Duncan, of New York and Miami, and still later some of them came into the possession of the B. L. M. Corporation, composed of Messrs Bland, Leeper, A. B McMullen and others, with J. A. B. Broadwater as general manager The new owners changed t he name of the town from Oldsmar to Tampashores, and it was incorporated in 1926, with E. W. Lehman as the first mayor. He was succeeded by J A. B. Broadwater in 1928. Under its new regime the town of Tampashores made many changes and improvements during the first two y ears The tractor factory and machine shop, opened by Mr. Olds soon after he had started operations, was taken over by the Gould Rubber Company as a rubber goods factory. Streets were paved, sidewalks constructed and many residences built. An excellent one-mile horse race-track was built here by the Tampa Jockey Club early in 1926. At the close of 1928 the First State Bank of Tampashores showed total re sources of $89,686 .66; capital stock, $30,000; deposits, $38,063.27; loans and dis counts, $35,604.95; the surplus amounted to $15,000. Officers of the bank at this time were: James H. Thompson, president; J. A. Griffin, vice-president; Irving Trask, cashier Directors: T C. Hammond, James H Thompson, J A. Griffin and Irving Trask. TARPON SPRINGS Widely known as "the Venice of the South,'' the beautiful city of Tarpon Springs, spreading over the hills surrounding the springs and bordering the Anclote r i ver, had its beginning in 1875 when A. W. Ormond and his daughter, Mary, wandering from North Carolina in quest of a far southern home, arrived at this spot and established their there In the next year Joshua Boyer, adven -

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PART I-NARRATIVE 163 turing a l ong the coast, came up the ri ver, r emained, and that same year ma r ried the daughter. The land was covered with a den se oak and pine thicket d own to the water' s edge, and abounded in game such as deer squ irrel and wild turkey The bayo u s w ere filled with fish and alligators. In 18&), when som e people were standing on th e banks of the bayou, Mrs. Mary Ormond Boyer exclaimed, ''See the tarpon spring I" It was a breeding place of the tarpon and this incident is said t o have given the place its name, and it was thereafter known as Tarpon Springs. In 1882 Ham i lton Dis s ton and par ty arriving from Cedar Keys lan ded at the historical old Spanish well on the Anclote r iver, and meeting Captain Sam E. Hope, asked to be directed to a place called T arpon Sprin gs The Ca ptain sen t his son, James, to guide the party. As a reward fo r his service, M r. Disston gave the lad a gold piece, w ith which he f elt himself rich, as it was the first gold piece he ever possessed. Mr. Disston formed a land company known as the Lake Butler Villa Company, and it was a question as to where to lay out the town, Lake Butler being the most beautiful part, b ut as all transportation was by water the b a you site was finally selected. The new town was laid out by Major W J. Marks, an Orlando attorney rep r esenting the Disston interests and his family arrived, bringing with t hem a s urveyor Capt. John B. Walton; a bookkeeper, W. N. Connely, and an attorney, J ohn C. J ones All stayed at th e home o f J osh ua Boyer In 1883, A. P. K Safford, ex-governor of Arizona Territory, but now associated with the Disston Lan d Company, and his siter, Mary Safford, a practicing physician, came. These newcomers all s tayed at the home o f the Boyers, who ran an open house. A hotel w as no w being built to house the workmen, called the Tropical ; next year another hotel, t h e Tarpo n Springs H otel was b uilt. All lumber for this building was cut, marked and shipped from Atlantic City, N. J., where Mr. Disston bad sawmill in t erests. T his hotel, a large t hree-story building, was burned in 1906 Up to tha t date the nearest post office was Clearwa ter, an d anyone going over t h e tra'il w ould al w ays bring the mail for the whole town Ormon d Knowles operated the s tage for Joshua Boyer between T arpon Springs and Tampa it being a two-day trip. Foodstuffs were either br ought by boat from Cedar Keys or Tampa by stage. Tarpon Springs Post office was established in 1883, with Edwa r d Blum as postmaster. The town was incorporated in 1887, with Mr. D eGo lier, mayor, the council men being Ed Blum, C. D. Webster, A. P. K. Safford, Joshua Boyer, W E. D. Scott; the city clerk, M errick Whitcomb ; city marshall, J. H Platt; Justice of the peace, Judge M urphy. The popula tio n was 5 2 persons. ln 1884, G. E Noblit, a surveyor, under the direction of Capt. C. D. Webster for the Orange Belt Company, surveyed that railroad from E hren 20 miles north, through to. St. Pet ers burg the city givi n g the ground and b u ilding the depot Wi t h the railroa d s came different lines of business. Samuel Payne gathered Spanish moss, dried and cured it and made mattresses for this section. Daniel Buchannan started a dairy and truck farm. Capt. Topliff ran schoone rs to Ceda r Keys. A city dock was built at the foot of the main street, at the same site the

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164 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA present one occupies. A light draught stern-wheel steamboat, Mary Disston, was built and ran regularly between the city dock and Anclote, where all goods and passengers were landed from Cedar Keys. Along the beautiful bayou, known then as now as the Spring Bayou on ac count of the large bubbling spring in its centre, charming homes were built, the Knapp house, DeGolier home, Thornton Hall and the Safford home and the Ma ssy cottage. A dozen more houses and stores w e re built on T a rpon avenue between Bayou and Pinellas avenues, then known as Citron street. A public school was built, Miss Laura Dier and Miss Mary Johnston, now Mrs. Mary Fowler being the first teachers, all their pupils being boys and girls who came here with th ei r parents. The Presbyterian and Universalist churches were established, and people of note and wealth now began to come to the new town for the winter season. The famous landscape painter, George Inness, and a few years later his son, the world renowned artist, George Inness, Jr., made this city their home. Social activities now centered around the bayou wher e many beautiful homes were located. This little town kept on increasing in homes until in 1900 there was a population between 500 and 600. Clubs and different organizations were formed, Mrs. A. P. K. Safford being the first president of tlie Woman's Town Improvement Association, which later was known as the Civic Club, and now as the Woman's Club, and in those days its members could be found with rake and shove l planting shrubs and palms along the new streets. A bank was started with Mr. Patton as president and Mr. Safford as cashier. The sponge industry was established largely by the enterprise of Mr. John K. Cheney, who financed ana outfitted a fteet, and in 1905 the greater part o f the sponge industry moved from Key West to Tarpon Springs. The second railroad, the Tampa and Gulf Coast, from Tampa, was built to Tarpon Springs in 1 911, but because of difficulties in obtaining rights-of-way it stopped there instead of going on to St. Petersburg as planned. Tarpon Springs is rich in Indian lore. Here several prehistoric Indian mounds, when opened, proved to be vastly old. More than 100 skeletons w ere taken out by Mr. Cushing of the Smithsonian Institute, and also numerous sto n es from the West Indies, shells from the Gulf of Campeche, rock crystal from Georgia and the Carolinas, and copper from Lake Superior, which showed that these In dians were traders. The Tarpon Springs Leader, founded in 1907 by George Matthews a veteran newspaperman of the old-time migratory type, has had a career even more checkered than new newspapers in new towns usually have. It was sold by Mr. Matthews in 1909 to Geo. N. Truax, who in turn sold it in 1911 to E. L. Zimmerman. E. J. Byington was in charge from 1913 to 1914, W. T. Pierson from 1914 to 1915, Walter J. Johnson from 1915 to 1916, Earl Stumph for a time during 1916, L. L. Lucas from 1916 to 1919, Milto n Tiddy from 1919 to 1920, W. E. Mann from 1920 to 1921, and Harry Shaw from 1921 to 1 922. And then the Leader became the property of a real newspaper man, the kinJ that knows every angle of the business, Jay H. Hennig, who still owns and publishes

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PART I-NARRATIVE 165 it. Mr Hennig has made the Leader, published twice a week, one of the livest and most successful papers of the state's smaller cities, and a permanent and helpful factor in the civic life of Tarpon Springs. The Tarpon Springs News was established in 1927 by Eugene M Smith, who is still owner and editor. Mr. Smith publishes an exceptionally aggressive weekly newspaper, and keeps it constantly in the middle of all civic situations. Tarpon Springs has an exceptionally Jive and energetic Chamber of Com merce that is a strong factor in the city's progress. It is somewhat unique in that it holds weekly luncheon m e etings at which visitors are always welcome. Mr. Arc hie Clements is its president. The Tarpon Springs Rotary Club, Rev. Lewis Richards, president, is all that a Rotary C lub should be. The Woman's Club is an active and influential element in civic affairs. Tarpon Springs has seven churches, the First Presbyterian, Methodist, Bap tist, Trinity Methodist, All Saints Episcopal, Church of the Good Shepherd Uni versalist, and the Saint Nicholas-Greek Orthodox. The l ast-named church, like the people from whom its membership comes, is of unusual interest t o people of o t her cities, and espec i ally to the winter tourists, because of t h e ceremonies peculiar to it. Greek Cross Day, or the blessing of the waters, in particular attracts thousands of visitors each year. Its ceremonies are of significance because the entire Greek population of the city is engaged in sponging which keeps them much of their time upon the waters of the gulf where they constantly risk their lives in their deep-sea diving for sponges It is a splen did spectacle, with the high priests in resplendent raiment marching to the bayou, where, after an impressive invocation, a gold cross is tossed into the water and young Greeks eagerly dive for it. The dove of peace is then freed; and from the next day on the spongers go forth to their hazardous work with renewed spirit and confidence. Tarpon Springs has grown in size and population until it now has 5,000 people, 32 miles of paved streets, a fine city hall, a half-million dollar. municipal waterworks plant with a daily capacity of 2,500,000 gallons, taken from Lake Butler. The First National Bank of Commerce serves its financial needs amply, with a capital stock of $75,000, surplus, $40,000, undivided profits, $21,339.66 and total resources of $1 ,135,814.69. Its officers are: J. C. McCrocklin, president; N. A. Van Winkle, chairman of the board; E. D. Bullock, vice-president; W. D. Fletcher cashier; G R. Clarke and H. W. Craig, assistant cashiers. The directors are ]. C. McCrocklin N. A. Van Winkle, E. D. Bullock, W. D. Fletcher, Dr. A. Mc Allister, H. G. Arnold, E. S Purdy, E H. Beckett. The city has an assessed valua t ion of $14,000 000, and its officials are : J. N. Craig, mayor-commissioner; ]. M Young, 0. F Baynard, John S. Davis, J. C. McCrocklin, commissioners; Harry McCreary, city manager; G. E. Noblit, Jr. assessor; H Joe Smith, city clerk and collector; H H. Morgan, city judge; Archie Clements, city attorney; Archie McCallister, M.D., health officer; F. W Hill, chief of police; Edgar Knowles, chief of the fire department

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Biographi cal Sf<.!tches of ljeading (4/izens of Pinellas County, Florida WILLIAM H. ADAMS Wrt.t.IAM H tax a ssesso r of St. Petersburg for the past fourteen was born in West Chester County, New York, August 24, 1862, the son of Samuel and Mary A Adams. He attended the schools of South Salem and West Chester, starting his business career in the First National Bank of Ossining, New York, where he remained for thirteen years. The remainder of his time in the East was spent in New York City, where he took charge of his father's catering business. In 1905 Mr. Adams came to St. Petersburg for his health, which was soon entirely restored. He first owned and operated the Manhattan Hotel, which he conducted for several years. For the past fourteen years he has been tax assessor of th e city, the only official holding one position in St. Petersburg for such a long period of time. He was married in New York to Miss Lauretta Williamson, daughter of James Williamson, a prominent poHtician of West Chester County, New YorK. Mr. and Mrs. Adams have one son, Samuel, first lieutenant in the United States Army s ta tioned at the present time in China. ARCHIBALD AITCHISON ARCHil! AITCHISON, for many years a prominent contractor and builder of St. Petersburg, and now president of the A. A. Builders' Supply Co., is a native of Canada, born in Ontario, Perth County. Mr. Aitchison, upon coming to the United States, first settled in Buffalo, where he remained fo r several years engaged in the building business. He became a citizen of St. Petersburg in November, 1905, and for several years followed his profession as a builder, some of the main contracts handled by him in St. Petersburg being the main large addition to the Detroit Hotel the Car negie Library and the Spa Swimming Pool. Desiring t o engage in the builders' supply business, Mr. Aitchison established the A A. Builders Supply Co one of the leading concerns of the k ind in the county. The firm began business with one truck and now 28 are necess ary in caring for the largely increased busines s. The compa 0 y handles building supplies of all kinds, including cement, lime, sand, e t c. Mr. Aitchison is president of the company. Mr. Aitchison is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and frat ernally is a Mason and a Shriner-a member of the Masonic Lodge, Chapter, Consistory.

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170 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA FRANK RAY ANDERSON FRANK RAY ANDERSON, member of the law firm of Anderson and Lewis, is a native of West Virginia, born at Wheeling, August 4, 1882, the son of Wm. H. and Martha Carle Anderson. His ancestors settled at an early date in Virginia and Maryland, several of whom engaged in the Revolutionary War. He is of Scotch Irish descent. After attending Wheeling High School, Mr. Anderson graduated in law from Illinois Wesleyan University. He also was graduated from West Virginia Univer sity. He was admitted to the bar in 1908 and practiced in West Virginia from 1909 tultil 1922. Mr. Anderson, who has lived in St. Petersburg for the past seven years, has met with marked success in the practice of his profession. He i s associated in business with John H. Lewis, the firm operating under the name of Anderson and Lewis with offices at 215-216 Snell Arcade Mr. Anderson is a member of the optimist Club of St. Petersburg, the St. Petersburg Bar Association, and belongs to the First Christian church. Fraternally, he is a member of Wellsburg Lodge No. 2, F. & A. M.; West Virginia Consistory No. 1, Scottish Rite; Osiris Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., and the Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Delta Phi coliege fraternities. Mr. Anderson and Miss Flora M. Bergen, of Indiana, were married at Lafa yette, and their children are Mary Blair, James Bergen and Anne Warren. J. W. APPLEY ]. W. APPLEY, president and owner of the Marine Ways Machine Company, the largest business of any kind in Pine llas County, and one of the largest in t he State, came to St. Petersburg twelve y ears ago, since which time he has made a most remarkable success, his firm doing a business of over a quarter. of a million dollars annually. Mr. Appley, who is a New Englander, born at Hartford, Connecticut, was manager for the Liberty Manufacturing Company at BroCkton, Mass., before com ing to St. Petersburg. This was a munition plant fiUl by the government during the World War. On coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Appley felt that there was a splendid field there for a firm that would handle auto replacement parts, heavy hardware, and run in connection therewith a general, up-to-date machine shop. He therefore estab lished the Marine Ways Machine Company, which besides turning out ornamental wrought iron and steel work, carries hardware of all kinds, also 16,000 items just for automobiles-parts, etc. In addition to his plant at St. Petersburg, Mr. Appley has machine shops at Venice and Pass-a-Grille. . Mr. Appley i s a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and fraternally is a Mason, a Shriner, an Elk and a Knight of Pythias. He was formerly a member of the Society of Automobile Engineers, a very ex clusive organization. Mr. Appley was former head of the Sultan Motor Company, of Springfield, Massachusetts, and it was while in this position that he so thoroughly learned the automobile business.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 173 STEVEN B. AYRES STJ;:VJ!N B. AYRES, ex-Congressman, and noted author and lecturer of New York City, who winters each year at Clearwater, was born at Fort Dodge, Iowa October 27 1861, the son of Steven B. and Artemisia (Dunlap) Ayres. His ancestors were from Northumberland, England, and came to this country in 1635, settling at that time in Massachusetts They were Revolutionary veterans. Mr. Ayres graduated from Syracuse University in 1882 with A.B. and A M. degrees When a young man he was engaged in newspaper work, having owned and managed six newspapers. He occupied the chair of History in New York Univer sity, and in 1910 was elected to Congress from New York City. Mr. Ayres is the author of six books, .dealing with History and Government, one being a series of thirty lectures on New York State History, a booklet about the postal service of the United States, another on the Merchant Marine, a book on Bridge, and also a book on t he Genealogy of the Ayres' family. In addition to the books he has written Mr. Ayr e s has done much notewo r thy writing for leading newspapers and magazines, having been with Scribner's Maga zine for some time, taking Editor Bok's p l ace, and has also contributed historical articles of nation-wide interest to the New York Times. Mr. Ayres winters at Clea r water and has his summer home at Woodstock, New York. H i s busy literary life has made him a notable figure in New York State, and now that he is retired from active work giving him time for recreation, the people of Pinellas county are proud to claim him as a winter resident. He has been coming to Clearwater for the past thirteen years, and is one of Florida's ardent admirers. Mr. Ayres is a member of the New York Historical Society, the City Club, the Andiron Club, Knickerbocker Whist Club, New York Yacht Club and Psi Upsi lon society. He was married October 7, 1905 to Miss Helen Thompson. Mr. and Mrs. Ayres have two children, Malcolm, and Janet t e Perkins, of Woodstock New York. ELSIE BARGE El.SIE BARGE, gifted musician of St. Petersburg, who has been widely acclaimed as an artist of superior talents, is a Georgian by birth, born in Cor dele, October 12, 1898, the daughter of Thomas C. and Laura (Wilkins) Barge Miss Barge had every musical advantage, having graduated from Witworth College and later from the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music She also took post graduate work at the Chicago Musical College. By the time she was fiftten years of age, Miss Barge had won all the medals offered in the State of Mississippi-five gold medals. These were the forerunner of many other medals and honors heaped upon the artist, including piano scholarships with Rudolph Ganz, Alexander Raab Moissaye Boguslawski, Harold von Mickwitz and Theodore Bohlmann. Harmony and Composition were studied with Edgar S t illman Kelley, Lewis Victor Saar, Felix Borowski and Harold Beckett Gibbs. Miss Barge has made for herself an enviable reputation as a musical authority, and one whom it is always a treat to hear, her name on a program being heralded with delight by music lovers.

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174 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Miss Barge is organist and choir director of the Fifth Avenue Bapti st church. She is beginning her third season as organ ist for the Eureka Chapter of the Eastern Star, and has arranged many concert s for the tourist societies and the hotels of St. Petersburg. Her concert career has included engagements in every State in the Union, and she has appeared with world famous soloists. She was for one season coach accom pani st with the Chicago Grand Opera Company. She was a member of the faculty of the Chicago Musical College previous to coming to St. Pe tersburg, and has been returne d as a member of the Summ er Musical School faculty. Miss Barge has a school of music in St. Petersburg in which piano, theory, harmony and history of music, voice, violin, expression and dramatic art are taught Two music clubs have been establi shed in connecti on with the schoo l-<>ne for younger pupils, the Crescendo Club, and one for older students, the Elsie Barge Music Study Club. The school is located in the Alhambra Arcade, corner of Sixth and First Avenue North. Two of her pupils won first prizes in the State Higli School contes t held in Tampa. Mi ss Barge gives an hour's radio p r ogram each Thursday night over WSUN, St. Petersburg. Miss Barge is a charter member and the first president of Delta Chapter, Phi Beta sorority, a national oratorical and musical sorority and an average of 95 per cent i s necessary to become a member. Miss Barge, who i s Mrs. Gardner F. Wilson in private life, was married to Mr. Wilson in Chicago on January 2, 1924. They have a charmin g little daughter, Patrycla Barge Wilson. FRANK N. BARHYDT FMNK N. BARHYDT, genial proprietor of the Palais Royal Dance Pavilion of St. Petersburg, for many years engaged in the amusement business, was born in Schenectady, New York, October 30, 1877, the son of Charles and Jeanette Barhydt After attending the schools of his home city Mr. Barhydt was a student at Union College. For four years thereafter he was with the General Electric Co., and then entered the amusement business. H e owned nine theaters at one time, and was one of the first operators of moving pictu re s in the country. Mr. Barhydt came to St. Petersburg in 1920 and for some time was engaged in house building at Pasadena. He was the pioneer radio dealer of St. Petersburg, having had a store on Centra l Avenue. Mr. Barhydt now gives his attention to his dance pavilion and also devotes considerable of his time to Boy Scout activities, being Scout Commissioner of Pinellas County. He is President of the Motion Picture Machine Operators and Theater Employees Association of St. Peter sburg, a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and a Director of theY. M C. A. Summer Camp. Mr. Barhydt is a member of the Congregational church and a teacher in the Sunday School. He is a 32nd degree Mason and a Shriner H e has two children, Esther Mary and Frank, Jr.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 175 J. LEE BARNES J. LEE BARNES, a native of the Southland, was born November 27, 1871, in Morgan county, Alabama, the son of John W. and Margaret M. (Morris) Barnes. It was in Alabama where he received his early education and during his boyhood his time was divided between attending school and working on the farm. To the stern discipline and the hard work that filled his early life he today gives credit to the habits of thrift and perseverance which are largely responsible for the success that has come to him in later life. In 1895 Mr. Barnes, then a young man, moved to Atlanta where he entered the hotel business, beginning as an employe, from which humble position he rapidly worked his way upward until opportunity came to himself become an owner and employer. During the more than a quarter of a century that he remained in the metropolis of the south, he operated the Ballard, the Aragon and the Majestic hotels, disposing of the latter hostelry in 1920 to move to St. Petersburg. Active and unusually successful in business, Mr. Barnes was also prominent in social, civic and philanthropic activities in Atlanta during his long residence there. For a number of years he was actively interested in the Home for the Friendless of that city and it was through his efforts that much was done in behalf of orphans and other unfortunate children of that community. He also served Atlanta as a member of the City Council and was police commissioner for a term of four years. During the World War he served the government as U. S. Fuel Administrator for the state of Georgia; was Hotel Chairman of the Fifth District of the United States Food Administration under Herbert Hoover; was in charge of supplying cooks for the army and was chairman of conservation of fuel in Fulton county, occupying all of these positions at the same time in addition to his personal business. For years Mr. Barnes was prominent in social and fraternal circles of Atlanta, being a member of the Piedmont Driving Club and the Capitol City Club, a charter member of the Palestine Lodge No. 486, Masonic, of Atlanta, and he is a Shriner, 32nd degree Mason, a Knight Templar and was a charter member of the Atlanta Rotary Club. He served as president of the Atlanta and also of the Georgia Hotel Men's Association He was also one of the organizers of the Atlanta Convention Bureau and was one of the original group of citizens who were instrumental in first bringing grand opera to that city. In 1918 Mr. Barnes first visited St. Petersburg and was so impressed with the city and with all of Florida that he determined to eventually make his home here. Two years later he disposed of his business interests in Atlanta and in 1920 came to this city where he purchased the Huntington Hotel which he and his ron Paul Barnes, to whom he gave a half interest, continue to own and operate. His activities in St. Petersburg have been almost as great as those in Atlanta. From the time of his arrival until the present, Mr. Barnes has been an active member of the Chamber of Commerce and has given liberally of his time and money to all movements calculated to help the city. As a member of the Hotel Greeters Asso ciation of America, he was largely instrumental in bringing the national convention of that association to St. Petersburg in the spring of 1927. He is a member of

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176 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA the American Hotel Men's Association, vice-president of the Hotel Men's Mutual Benefit Association of the United States and Canada, and is serving his second term as president of the Florida State Hotel Association and also organizer and president of the St. Petersburg Hotel Men's Association for the past eight years He is a member of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club and has been active in many civic and charitable movements here during the nine years he has been a resident of St. Petersburg. Mr. Barnes was married March 23, 1893, to Miss Mollie M. Couch, of Decatur, Alabama. They have one son, Paul Barnett Barnes. PAUL BARNETT BARNES PAUL BARNETT BARNES, successful hotel operator, has for the last nine years been engaged in the hotel business in St. Petersburg, owning, with his father, J. Lee Barnes, the Huntington Hotel, one of the most popular, exclusive and best conducted hostelries in the city. Mr. Barnes was born in Decatur, Alabama, March 21, 1895, the son of J. Lee and Mollie (Couch) Barnes. He attended the Peacock School for Boys in Atlanta, and later the Georgia Military Academy at College Park, Georgia, from which he was graduated in 1912 Four years later on the eve of his graduation from the University of Georgia, he enlisted for the World War. Closely connected with the hotel business from infancy, Mr. Barnes was associated in business with his father in Atlanta, being assistant manager of the Majestic for several years after leaving school. He was assistant manager of the Georgian Terrace, Atlanta, and also served as assistant manager of the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. Later he was in business with his uncle, Jesse Couch, of the Couch Operating Company. At the time when the United States entered the World War, Mr. Barnes enlisted in the 82nd Division and a short time later went overseas. En route to Europe he was made platoon sergeant and was first in line at Mont Sec. Later he was commissioned and sent to the Second Division. As a reward for bravery and special service, Mr. Barnes received the Verdun medal and later was decorated with the Croix de Guerre, the latter being awarded for conspicuous service and bravery at Mont Blanc. He was in active service in France for more than eighteen months and later was with the Army of Occupation in Germany. In 1920 Mr. Barnes and his father came to St. Petersburg from Atlanta and here purchased the Huntington Hotel. The hotel was both renovated and remod eled throughout -and was opened in the fall, at that time being the largest as well' as most modern hostelry in the city. Then as now the hotel catered to private parties, banquets, luncheons, conventions and other social functions and it has always been known as one of the social centers of the city throughout the winter season, and a resort hotel of merit. It has 150 rooms, most of them with bath, and is surrounded by an orange and grape ruit grove, the gardens being the most.._ beautiful and typically Floridian in the city. Mr. Barnes is secretary of the Business Men's League of St. Petersburg, is a member of the Capitol City Club of Atlanta; the University Club of $t. Petersburg;

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 177 the Rotary Club; the local and the American Hotel Men's Association; Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion and the 40 and 8. He is second vice president of the Hotel Greeters of America, is past grand Chef de Care of the 40 and 8 for the State of Florida and was the organizer and charter president of the Sunshine chapter of Hotel Greeters of America. He is a 32nd degree Mason, a Shriner, and a member of the Phi Delta Theta college fraternity. Mr. Barnes was married January 21, 1925, to Miss Anne Carline Alexander, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. R. J. Alexander, of Waco, Texas. ROBERT HENRY BARTELLS RoBERT HENRY BAII.TEI.I.S, for many years a jewelry merchant of Somerset, Kentucky, but who spent his last years enjoying the Florida outdoor life, in which he found his greatest happiness, was born in Germany in 1861. He came to this country at the age of seventeen, and for some time thereafter lived in Brooklyn and Cincinnati, finally becoming a resident of Somerset, Kentucky. Mr. Bartells was a citizen of Somerset until 1911, when he came to St. Peters burg for his health His death, which occurred in Hendersonville, N C., in 1923, brought deepest sorrow to his many F l orida friends and those who knew and loved him so well in Kentucky. At Somerset a bronze memorial tablet was erected to his memory, and in sending a contribution toward this tablet, Hon. Edwin P. Morrow, governor of Kentucky, enclosed the following splendid eulogy to this beloved man : "Bob Bartells conceived, inspired and made possible the park in Somerset's Public: Square. To him it was a work of love for the town and county, and the people that he loved. "From his sweet and beautiful soul there came the thought of an ugly, sun-baked public square made attractive by a fountain of flowing water, surrounded by grati fying shade trees, and fresh with a green sward around it. "His cunning hand drew the plans and diagram. He made a city council, a fiscal court and public-spirited citizens see with his eyes a thing of beauty and use fulness. "Bob Bartells was fisherman, hunter-gentleman of God's great out-of-doors. He knew and loved every beautiful stream in Pulaski County. Day in and day out for years be followed their winding courses, their shaded pools and sunlit ripples. The towering cliffs above them were his friends, old and tried and true. He knew the hills and valleys and fields of old Pulaski, aye, he knew the homes of our people. Every door opened to his knock; every hand went out in friendship to him. There were no 'Posted' signs where the feet of this gentle hunter wandered. Nature called always to him. "He was thrilled by the resurrection of Spring ; gladdened by Golden Summer, and touched to tears by Autumn's melancholy days. "He knew the wild flowers of Spring, the trees that crowned the hills, the cool springs of shaded glen and dusty roadside. The love of nature formed and made his character, until in his life there was the gladness of the wind that shakes the com, the gentleness of the rain that loves all leaves, the charity of the snow that

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178 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA hides all scars-the loving kindness of the wayside well. He gave the best of his head and heart and all of his splendid talents to the service of his city and county. Circumstances for a while took him from us to a distant State, but death brought him back, and now in the land he loved best 'the hunter is home from the hills, the sailor home from the seas.' "The citizens of Somerset will honor themselves when in honor of Bob Bartells they erect a tablet to his memory on the fountain that he made possible.'' Such was the life of Robert Henry Bartells. Beloved by those who knew him best, he had the respect and esteem of all with whom he came in contact. His hotel, the Deermont, at St. Petersburg, bears this name because of his great love for his fleet-footed friends of the great open spaces He continued his out-of-door life on coming to the Sunshine City, organizing the St. Petersburg Gun Club, and doing much for the advancement of sports. The fine fishing of this favored section provided him much happy recreation. The Sir Isaak Walton League established th e Bartells Chapter at Danville Ky., named for him because of his far-famed love for fishing. Mr. Bartells was an Elk and an Odd Fellow. He was married at Somerset, Ky., to Miss Hattie B Pinnell. Mrs. Bartells still makes her home in St. Peters burg, where her husband acquired considerable valuable property before his death, which she still retains. ROBERT A. BARY RoBERT A. BARY, popular hotel manager of St. Petersburg, was born in Taylorville, Ill., November 22, 1880, the son of J. M. and Elizabeth (Chapman) Bary. His father's family had lived in lllinois for several generations; his moth er's family were early settlers of Indiana. He had four uncles in the Civil War who were brothers, two of whom belonged to the Union Army and two to the Confederate Army. After attending the public schools of his home town, Mr. Bary graduated from Brown's Business College at Decatur, Ill., and for some time thereafter was connected with Marshall-Field & Co., of Chicago, as stenographer, subsequently going with the Illinois Central & Missouri Pacific R'y. in the same capacity. For eighteen years he was in the Government Posta l service as assistant postmaster at Taylorville, Ill., which was his birthplace. Mr. Bary first visited St. Petersburg as a tourist in 1914, but returned to make it his permanent home Oct. I, 1919. He was for six years clerk at the Flor ont on H o tel during the winter seasons, and during the summers was with the Hotel Baldwin at Beach Haven, N. J. The past three years he has been manager of the Hotel Floronton, which is located at the corner of First Avenue North and Second Mr. Bary is a Mason, a member of the Salamo Grotto, an Elk, and a Knight of Pythias, and attends the Baptist church. He was married May 9, 1911, at Springfield, Ill., to Miss Floss I. Sharp, of Taylorville, Ill. Their children are Robert Sharp, Eliutbeth Ineta, and Thomas Lee.

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180 HISTORY OF PINE LLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Baskin is a member of the Kiwanis Club and American Legion. In church affiliation, he is a Methodist. Fraternally, he is a Knight of Pythias, and is a member of the Sigma Nu and Phi Alpha Delta fraternities, a charter member of the latter. He was married December 31, 1921, to Miss Wilna Stone Tucker, of Memphis, Tenn. Their children are Wilna Marie Hamden Holloway, Jr., and Annie Elizabeth, deceased. !. D. BASKIN J.D. BASKIN,large property owner of Pinellas County, and a prominent citizen of Clearwater since 1913, was born near Perry, Georgia. Mr. Baskin attended the schools of Georgia, coming to Florida in 1880, settling first in Marion County, near Ocala, where he engaged in farming on a considerable scale. Having visited the West Coast, liked it and bought an orange grove near Clearwater, he moved to that place where for several years he was engaged it!' orange growing. For the past ten years he has been largely interested in real estate, and has developed much valuable property. He built the Baskin building and the Baskin Arcade at Clearwater, and also has other buildings there and at St. Petersburg he has considerable property including the Baskin Apartments. Mr. Baskin is the "Daddy" of Bay-to-Bay Boulevard, one of Pinellas County's marvelous highways, the pride of every citizen, the delight of all who traverse it. Mr. Baskin has two children, a son and a daughter, H. H. Baskin, Mayor of Clearwater, and Mrs. Irene Jones, wife of Clearwater's City Attorney. W. T. BAYNARD W. T. BAYNARD, one of the largest builders and realty developers of St. Petersburg, who has been prominently identified with the banking interests of the ... city, having been one of the organizers of the Ninth Street Bank, and Trust Officer of the American Bank & Trust Company for eight years, was born at Mill Springs, N. C., June 8, 1894, the son of 0. E. and E. K. Baynard. Mr. Baynard entered upon his banking career in South Carolina at the age of 14, and continued in this line of work for thirteen years. Coming to St. Peters burg in 1912, he was for eight years with the American Bank & Trust Company, and in 1918 entered the real estate and insurance business with J M. Thorn, the firm being operated under the name of Baynard & Thorn. Mr. Baynard built and promoted a number of large buildings in St. Petersburg among the number being the Kress building, erected on property on which Mr. Baynard and his brother hold a leaSe. Mr. Baynard developed Fruitland Heights and Grove Heights, both of which have been well built up. During his construction work in St. Petersburg Mr. Baynard built between 400 and 500 houses, being one of the largest building oper ators in the city. Mr. Baynard is one of the original directors of the Y1 M. C. A., and to promote the new building now occupied by this organization. Fraternally, he is a Mason. He was married to Miss Bessie Hendry and they have four children, Henry Thomas, William Thorn, James Wilson and Mary Elizabeth.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 183 CARLTON W. BEARD CARLTON W. B!lARD was born at Indianapo lis Ind., May 16, 1891, the son of Alvin G. and Lucy (Witt) Beard. His family tree dates back to 1300 on his maternal side. One of the first Governors of Virginia, Sir Francis Wyatt, was an ancestor as was Chas. De Witt, who came from England to Virginia early in the 18th century. Four ancestors, Caleb Witt, Thomas Wyatt, Nathan Carpenter and George Case were in the Revolutionary war. The Beard family were Pennsylvania Dutch, who early settled in Westerville, Ohio. His father moved to Indianapolis, and there engaged in the contracting and building business, soon after he attained his majority. Mr. Beard came to Florida in 1913, and was for over a year at Bradenton, locating in St. Petersburg in April, 1914 at which time he engaged in the con tracting business with his father. In 1918 he went to Washington, D. C., to work on government buildings, and later was with the government at Indianapolis, where he was in charge of the fusilage department of an airplane factory. He continued in work of this character until the close of the war, when the St. Petersburg urge brought him back to the city, where he has since engaged in a general contracting and building business. Mr. Beard's greatest achievement in the building line is the Don-Ce-Sar Hotel at Pass-a-Grille, a magnificent s tructure, one of the finest hotel buildings on the West Coast. He built many of the city's loveliest homes, and also built a number of fine residences to sell, specializing i n high-grade Spanish-type homes. Mr. Beard is a member of the Civitan Club, is a steward in the Methodist church, and is a Mason. He was married in April, 1913, to Miss Mollie Kennedy McGregor, of Indianapolis. Their children are Alice Gertrude and Carlton Witt, Jr., the latter deceased. GLADSTONE R. BEATTIE GLADSTON: R BEAT'I'J:, of St. Petersburg, newly elected Sheriff of Pinellas county, is the first Republi ca n to be elected to this important office in any county of the State since reconstruction days. That the majority of the people felt he was the best qualified for the position is shown by their approval expressed at the polls in November, 1928, and already his office is functioning effectively and well, dem onstrating that the voters made no mistake in his selection. Mr. Beattie was born in Van Buren County, Michigan, November 4, 1879, the son of Robert and Ann Beattie. His father was born in England, a graduate of Edinburgh University. His experience in law enforcement dates back many years when he served as deputy and later as sheriff of Van Buren County, Michigan, holding the latter office for two terms. He opened his first detective office in Detroit. Other interests have also claimed Mr. Beattie's attention, having been vice-president of the State Bank of Paw Michigan, and an ex-director of the First National Bank of Lawton, Michigan He was also the largest pickle grower in the United States at one time, his operations in Van Buren County having been on a tremendous scale. He was president of the Beattie-Decker Pickle Company, of Paw Paw, Michigan, and was vice-president of two other large canning companies. In addi-

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184 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA tion to these interests he was also vicepresiden t of the Secor-Silo Company at Coldwater, M ichigan. Mr. Beattie came to St. Petersburg in N o v ember, 1924, establishing the Beattie National Detective Agency, in which he wa s remarkably successful. He came to this section because of his child's health, which has been completely restored Mr. Beattie is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the World Detective Association, and is a Mason, Shriner, Eastern Star, Odd Fellow, Order of Re becca and an Elk. He was married in Michigan to Miss Elizabeth McCatt es. Their children are Gladstone, Watson and H elen Elizabeth. E H BECKETT E. H BtcKETT, President of the E. H Beckett Real Estate and Insurance Company, and County Commissioner of District No. 5, is a native of Pinellas County, born at Clearwater, September 30, 1882, the son of J. D and Ellen Beckett His father, who was born in Mar ion County, Florida, came to Clearwater in 1867. After he had grown to young manhood, Mr. Beckett was for six years connected with the mercantile finn of S. S. Coa chma n at C learwater. In 1901 he moved to Tarpon Springs, and for thirtee n years was with the L. D. Vinson department store. He then entered business for himsel, having a clothing store for severa l years, with branches at various points in the State . Mr. Beckett now confines his business activities to his real estate and insurance business and to a 53-acre orange grove and an eight-acre truck farm near Tarpon Springs. A man of Mr. Becke tt's rare business and executive ability is always sought when p laces of responsibility are to be filled, and he has served the public in various official capacities, including Chief of Police and Tax Collector of Clearwater; has been a member of the Board of County Commissioners since 1917, and with one exception he is the oldest county commissioner in point of service in the State. For six years he was chainnan of the Board, and during this period all the main rOads of the County were built, and th e road s in the special road and bridge dis t ricts, as well as most of the public buildings. He was one of the active workers for the separation of the Pinellas Peninsula from Hillsborough County, and he was a meinber of the City Council of Tarpon Springs in 1911-12, and is ex-Presi dent of the (:hamber of Comrnerce of that place: He is a director of th e First National Bank of Commerce of Tarpon Springs. Always active in civic affairs of all kinds Mr. Beckett has been a real leader in his community, a valuable and an esteemed citizen. He is an Elk, an Odd Fellow and a Knightof Pythias. He was married at Tarpon Springs in 1912 to Miss Budd Mrs Beckett is well known for her benevolent work in taking into her home orphan child ren and educating them for useful careers. IRVING JAMES BELCHER, M.D. Da. IRVING JAMES BSLCHI!R, who has built up a large general practice of medtcine at Tarpon Springs, is a member of one of Pinellas County's pioneer families,. the son of William .A Sally (McMul\en) Belche r He was at Largo, Florida, -JuM 8; 1883. His ance stors were from Scotland and Ire tand, and his . immediate family was.. amoog the earliest settlers of Florida, the MeMull ens set, . .

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 187 tling in what is now Pinellas county before the Civil war. His father was very active in county affairs, having served as County Commissioner, member of the Legislature, and as a member of the School Board. He settled in Largo during the Civil war Dr. Belcher graduated in 1906 from the University of Florida with a B.S. degree and in 1910 graduated in medicine from Vanderbilt University He has taken post-graduate work at the Nashville City Hospital and the Mercy Hospital at Chicago. Dr. Belcher located in Tarpon Springs in 191 I, since which time he has become recognized as one of the most skillful physicians of the county. Aside from his professional duties, Dr. Belcher owns much real estate a n d has several fine orange groves. He is also interested in the sponge business. Dr. Belcher is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Country Golf Club, and the Christian church. He is an Elk and a Mason, and is a member of the Kappa Alpha and Alpha Kappa Kappa college fraternities. He is affiliated wit h the Florida and County Medical Associations. Dr. Belcher and Miss May Srygley, of Nashville, Tenn., were married in 1909. They have one daughter, Mary. W. F BELCHER W. F. BELCHER, who has the distinction of being a native Floridian, a matter of which he is justly proud, was born at Largo, Apri l 11, 1875, the son of W. B. and Mary K. Belcher. His father was a Virg i nian, an early settler of the West Coast of Florida, coming to that section when it was sparsely settled, neighbors being many miles apart, and when living conditions were a far cry from those of today. Mr. Belcher has seen great development in all lines, the forests giving way to thriving, hustling towns the outlying sections becoming a beautiful panorama of splendid orange groves and fields of growing crops, their owners reap i ng large sums therefrom annually. In this development Mr. Belcher has had a large share himself, particularly in the citrus industry. Mr. Belcher has been in the citrus business all of his life. He has been a packing house manager for the past twenty-five years, and for several years has managed the affairs of the Citrus City Groves Assn., formerly John S. Taylor & Co. The company handles about 150,000 boxes of fruit annually. Mr. Belcher is Mayor of Largo at the present time, and served his city in the same capacity six years ago. He is a member of the Kiwanis Club, and is a Mason. Mr. Belcher was married at Largo to Miss Lillian Taylor, who is a member of a prominent Largo family, her distinguished brothe r Hon. John S. Taylor, having been recently a candidate for governor with a large and influential following. Mr. and Mrs. Belcher have two chi l dren, Clairine, who is a teacher in the State College of Louisiana, and one son, Gordon. REV. GEORGE FRANCIS WESLEY BENN, D.D. Rl!v. GEORGE FRANCIS WF.SLEY Bl!NN, scholarly minister of St. Petersburg pastor of Westminster Presbyterian church and ex-Moderator of the Florida Synod was born February 11, 1876, at Philadelphia, Pa., the son of George and Ann Jane (Steele). He is of ScotchIrish descent.

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188 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Superior educational advantages were his, and that he was a brilliant student is evidenced by the fact that he received his A.B. degree from Cooper College, Ster ling, Kansas, when but eighteen years of age. Two years later he received his A.M. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1899 graduated from the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Allegheny, Pa., as a minister of the gospel. He took post-graduate work in 1902-03 at the Biblical Seminary in New York City, and in 1906-07 at Harvard University. His life has been one filled with accomplishment, wide activities and unusual attainment. His first pastorate was at Staunton, Ill., where he remained five years, the three years following being pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian church at Cambridge, Mass. He went from there to become Student Secretary of the State Y. M. C. A. of Texas. From 1911 until 1914 he was Secretary of the Dallas Council of Churches, and from 1915-18 was State Superintendent of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in Michigan. He later served as pastor of the Indianola Presbyterian church at Columbus, Ohio, a church of 1200 members. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Sterling College in 1926. Dr. Benn came to St. Petersburg in January, 1925, at which time he organized the Westminster Presbyterian church. The first services were held in the Phiel Theater, later in the City Hall. In 1926 the congregation's handsome new church was completed. It is of Spanish design without, English cathedral within, and is located at Eleventh Ave. and First St., in the beautiful North Shore. Dr. Benn and Miss Jessie Binney, of Binney, Ill., were married in 1904. They have three children, Mary Christine, Donald George and Gordon Blair, all gradu ates of the High School of St. Petersburg. Dr. Benn was a Delegate to the Pan-Presbyterian Alliance of the World at Cardiff, Wales, in 1925, and Moderator of the Presbyterian Synod of Florida in 1926. He has served as President of the Advertising Club of St. Petersburg. RALPH C. BENNETT A resident of St. Petersburg for almost 22 years, RALPH C. BENNETT, one of the city's leading druggists, owner of Bennett's Pharmacy, was first induced to come to this section on account of his health. The climate benefited him so greatly he decided to become a permanent fixture, and with the passing of the years he has been one of the city's leading business men. Mr. Bennett was born in Powder Springs, Georgia, June 17, 1888, the son of John B. and Ida (Matthews) Bennett. Educated in the public schools of his home town and also in the Atlanta schools, Mr. Bennett decided to become a druggist, and when 19 years of age graduated as a pharmacist from the Atlanta College of Pharmacy. Being troubled with rheuma tism he sought the balmy Florida climate as a place of recuperation, locating at St. Petersburg where he arrived on August 7, 1907. For nearly five years he was con nected with W. A. Houltshouser & Co. as druggist, severing his connection with the firm on February 1, 1912, to engage in business for himself. He bought the Poinsettia Pharmacy at 440 Central Avenue, changing the name immediately to Bennett's Pharmacy, where he has built up a magnificent business, dealing in phy sicians' office supplies and prescriptions, carrying also a full line of drugs and toilet articles.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 189 Mr. Bennett served in the medical corps for two years during the war, being stationed at Camp Wheeler, and at Fort Bayard, New Mexico. He is a member of the Methodist church and fraternally is an Elk. He was married June 30, 1926, at Lakela n d, Florida, to Miss Evelyn Bowie of Thurmont, Maryland. W. D. BERRY W D. BERRY was born at Witt Illinois, December 31, 1882, the son of William T and Mary (Wood) Berry. His mo t her's family was directly descended from the Stuarts of England, and first settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Before coming to Florida, Mr. Berry was in the manufacturing business in Chicago for twenty years, manufacturing stoves, ranges and heating systems. His firm was the Cole Manufacturing Co., of which he was manager and a stockholder. During the World War Mr. Berry volunteered at Washington, D. C and was assigned to the Special Officers' Training School at Camp Alexander Va., where he received a commission as Second Lieutenant. He was assigned as Detail Officer at Newport News, Va., afterwards being t ransferred to various camps along the Seaboard. At close of the war, Mr. Berry returned t o Chicago, where for three years he was president of the Tucker, Robison Co., handling investment bonds. Having visited St. Petersburg frequently as a winte r resident, Mr. Berry de cided to make the city his permanent home, coming there to reside in 1924. He engaged in the building and contracting business, special i zing in fine residentia l work, many of his homes gracing Pasadena Estates His organization also handles expert interior decorating and furnishing Mr. Berry is a member of the State, St. Petersburg and Gulfport Chambers of Commerce; is president of the Town Council of Gulfport and is a member of the Kiwanis Club, St. Peters Episcopal church, the Union League Club of Chicago, and is an Elk. He was married June 10, 1909, to Miss Ellena Williams, of Litch field, Ill. MILTON S. BICKLEY MILTON S. BICKLEY, vice-president and general manager of the Crescent Tile Company, of St. Petersburg, the largest concern of the kind in the State was born in Bridgeport, N.J., in 1890, the son of W. S. Bickley For many years Mr. Bickley was in the s teel casting business with his father at Chester, Pa., having started in this work when but twelve years of age. In 1920 he and his father came to St. Petersburg and purchased the business of the Crescent Tile Co., which they have built up to large proportions, being tile manufacturers as well as handling tile from practically every country in the world, including Spain, Tunis, Holland, France, Germany, Belgium, England, Italy, Egypt, and other countries. Mr. Bickley, his father and bro t her, C M. Bickley, are interested in this business, which represents an investme n t of about a quarter of a million dollars Among the contracts for tile which they have handled are theY. M. C A. building, Princess Martha Hotel, Vinoy Park Hotel, C. Perry Snell residence, the E. J Brock residence and others.

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190 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Bickley's concern does business all over Florida and in other States. Part of the products which they manufacture are of clay and part of cement. Mr. Bickley's father, W. S. Bickley is president of the firm, C. M. Bickley is secretary and treasurer, and the subject of this sketch is vice-president and general manager. GEORGE M. BILGER GEORGE M. BILGER, able. lawyer and well-known and gifted author, having published much poetry both in magazine and book form, is a native of Pennsylvania, born at Curwenville, September IS, 1861, the son of Jacob and Hannah (Gray) Bilger. After graduating from Dickenson College, in Pennsylvania in 1883, from which institution he received his A.M. degree, Judge Bilger studied Jaw for three years in Carlisle and Clearfield, Pa., beginning the practice of his profession in Clearfield County in 1886. He was admitted to the Florida Bar in 19 15, and for five years thereafter lived a part of the time here, but did not come to live permanently until 1920, when he opened law offices in St. Petersburg. Five years later he and Allen C. Grazier, also an able attorney, formed a partnership, known as Bilger and Grazier, and have built up a large and lucrative clientele in Pinellas County, doing a general practice, but handling no criminal work. While in Pennsylvania, Judge Bilger was a staunch Democrat, and was very active in political affairs. Since coming to St. Petersburg he ably served as M uni cipal Judge for one year. He is a member of the American Bar Association, and fraternally is a Mason, Shriner and an Elk. He was married in Pennsylvania to Annella Ferguson, who died in 1920. His only son died in the military service of the U.S. during the World War. W. W. BIRCHFIELD W. W. BIRCHFIELD, a citizen of St. Petersburg since 1900, was for many years in the drug business, starting in as manager of the City Drug Store. He later went to Atlanta for a time, but returned to live permanently in the Sunshine City in 1904, and for twenty years thereafter was associated with the Poinsettia Pharmacy, later Bennett's Pharmacy, as manager. Mr. Birchfield was born in Madison County, Indiana, on July 9th, 1859, and after attending Wabash College he graduated in pharmacy from the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy at Boston. After his graduation he was for several years in charge of the Pharmaceutical laboratory of I. L. Lyon & Company, at New Orleans. later being located in Chicago. Mr. Birchfield now gives all of his time to his banking business, the Fidelity Bank and Trust Company, which he heads, and which is one of the successful financial institutions of St. Petersburg, due in large part to his able management and direction. Mr. Birchfield now serves the institution as chairman of the Board of Directors, being one of the bank's largest stockholders. Mr. Birchfield is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Kiwanis Club, and the St. Petersburg Yacht Club. He has been very prominen t in f rat erna l circles

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 193 of the city, being a 32nd degree Mason, a Past Master, a Past High Priest, Past T. I. Master and Past Commander of Sunshine Commandery of St. Petersburg. He is also a Shriner and a Past ChanceJior Commander of the Knights of Pythias Mr. Birchfield was marr i ed in Cleveland to.Miss Florence Rose Yetto. He has one son, W. LeRoy. JOHN ULMER BIRD JOHN ULMER BIRD, distinguished jurist of Pinellas County, Judge of the Sixth Judicial Circuit, is one whose capabilities and strength on the bench are noteworthy; whose fair mindedness and ability are recognized by friend and foe; whose admin istration of justice wins the approval of law-abiding citizens and whose deep and comprehensive knowledge of the law has enabled him to become one of the out standing members of the Florida Bar. Judge Bird was born at Monticello Florida, September 12, 1888, the son of Preston Brooks and Maria (Ulmer) Bird His father and grandfather were native Floridians, the former still living at Monticello where he has a large plantation. Judge Bird secured his education in the schools of Monticello, later studying Jaw in the office of Clark & Clark of that city After being admitted to the bar in Oct 1910, Judge Bird came to Clearwater in 1 912 and opened law offices. Soon began a politica l career that has been marked by one elevation after another at the hands of his fellow-citizens, a merited tribute to one who rich l y deserves the confidence that has been reposed in him. Judge Bird was first elected Prosecuting Attorney for Pinellas County, which office he held for four years He was elected County Judge in 1920 and four years later was re-elected to the office. While serving as County Judge he was appointed Circuit Judge of the Sixth Judiciat Circuit in 1926, and re-nominated to this high office in 1928. Judge Bird is a member of the Chamber of Commerce of Clearwater and is always ready and willing to render that organization any assistance that the duties of his official position wilJ permit. He is public-spirited, and always interested in anything looking to the moral welfare of his community and the county as a whole. Judge Bird is a member of the American, State and County Bar Associations. His fraternal affiliations are with the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He worsh ips at the Methodist church. The marriage of Judge Bird and Miss Katherine Dillard was solemnized at Clearwater on Oct. 28, 1913. HENRY WRIGHT BIVINS HeNRY WRXCHT BxviNS, prominent banker of Pinellas County, was born in Beach Grove, Tenn., March 24, 1875, the son of Henry Wright and Susan D (Robertson) Bivins His maternal ancestors were from Holland, his paternal from Ireland, and were early settlers of Virginia who in 1880 migrated to Tennes see His grandfather was a cotton planter and a slave owner; his father was a large plantation owner, and served in the Confederate army as a gallant defender of the South, his term of service covering the entire four years Early in life Mr. Bivins went West, and for one and a half years lived in Mexico City. Returning to Tennessee, he entered Jennings' Business College at

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194 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Nashville, after which he s ecured a position as janitor of the bank of South Pitts burgh, Tenn. Two years later he took a position as bookkeeper in the bank of Mount Pleasant, Tenn., remaining there four years. His next position was as cashier of a bank in Paragould, Arkansas, where he remained until 1904, when he came to Florida, accepting a position with the First National Bank of Tampa as bookkeeper. In 1906 he caine to Clearwater, where he organized the Bank of Clearwater, the officers of which were D. F. Conley, president; J. J. Eldridge, vice president, Mr. Bivins taking the position of cashier. The bank opened with a capital stoc k of $18,000, and paid a six per cent. dividend the first year. In 1911 the capital stock was increased to $75,000, at which time an annual dividend of ten per cent. was paid. The bank today is one of the strongest institutions in Ute county, having a capital s tock of $250,000, surplus, $150,000, and undivided profits, $35,000. The capital stock w as increased the last time in 1916. Since the or ganization of the bank the stockholders have been paid $280,000 in cash and $150,000 in stock. In addition to his banking interests at Clearwater, Mr. Bivins heads other im portant financial institutions of the county, being president of the Bank of Dunedin, wh ich has been a success since the day of its organization. It has a capital stock of $60 ,000; surplus, $60,000, and undivided profits, $3,000. He is also president of the Guarantee Title and Trust Company, of Clearwater, organized in 1911, with a capital stock of $200,000; surplus, $200,000, and undivided profits, $35,000. Mr. Bivin s is a financier of unusual ability, his experience embracing every department of banking, and the financial institutions which he heads are extremely prosperous and in fine condition, due to his able direction and management. Mr. Bivins gives much tim e to Chamber of Commerce work, having twice served the organization as president. He is a .Rotarian, a 32nd degree Mason, a Shriner, and a Knight of Pythias. He is a prominent member of the Methodist chur ch being one of the Board of Stewards. Mr. Bivins married in September, 1901, his bride bei ng Miss Emma Elizabeth Jones, of Mt. Pleasant, Tennessee. They have two c hildren, Mrs. Theodore Roberts, of Tampa, and Henry W., Jr., and one grandchild, Richard Lansdale Roberts. MARSHALL LEONARD BIZE MARSHALL LJ!ONARD BrzE was born at Columbus, Georgia, June 6, 1882, the son of Daniel Rand Ma ry (Harris) Bize. His paternal ancestors came from France and located in South Carolina in the latte r part of the 18th century; his maternal ancestors came from England and settled in Virginia, being among the early settlers of that State. Mr. Bize attended Georgia Tech, and later graduated from the Auburn (Ala.) Polytechnical Institute with a B.S. degree, and also specialized in pharmacy. For nine years after his graduation, Mr. Bize was with the oldest and largest whole sale drug jobbing h ouse in Birmingham as pharmaceutical chemist. On account of his health he had to come to Florida, and settled in Tampa, where he was in the retail drug business for eight years. During this period he was presid ent of the Florida State Pharmaceutical Association for one term. He later sold his retail

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 195 business and engaged in the wholesale drug business as secretary of the Tampa Drug Co., in which he st ill retai ns a financial interest. In 1924 Mr. Bize moved to St. Petersburg and took the agency for the Ford cars, in which busine ss he is still engaged. H e was one of the organizers of the St. Petersburg Automobile Dealers' Association, and served as its president. H e is now president of the St. Pet ersburg branch of the A. A. A. He is a director of the Y. M. C. A., past secretary of the Rotary Club, and now one of its directors. Mr. Bize was appointed by Mayor Brown as a member of the committee of 25 citizens who are making ,Plans to secure a better water supply for St. Petersbu rg. Mr. Bize is a member of the Methodist church and one of its Trustees, i s a Mason, Shriner, a member of the Y. M. C. A., Rotary and Chamber of Commerce He was married at Greenfield, Ind., November 25, 1908, to Miss Elsie Leon a Knight. Mr. and Mrs. Bize have two children, Mary Harriett and Marshall Leon ard, Jr. FRED VANDYKE BLAIR FRED VANDYKE BLAIR, graduate of Harvard University, and a citizen whose versatile abilities have won for him success in various lines of endeav or, wa s born in Georg etown, Ohio February 4 1890, the son of Frank Dunham and Florence VanDyke Blair. His father's ances t ors were from Scotland and I reland, settling in Williamstown, Va., in the 18th century; his mother's family was from Holland, and were early settlers of New Jersey His maternal grandfather was a very renowned minister of the Middle West. After graduating from Georgetown High School, Mr. Blair was prepared for college by a private tutor, and in 1913 graduated f r om Harvard University w ith a B .S. degree. He later took a year and a half post-graduate course a t th e uni vers ity, preparatory to taking up educational work, his superior mental attainments fitting him admirably for this lin e of endeavor. He was for some time principal of the Georgetown Ohio, High School, later super intendent of the Batavia High School, and was also assistant Head Master of the Lake Forest Academy;at Lake Forest, Ill. His health necessitating a complete change in climate, Mr. Blair gave up edu cational work and came to Florida, locating in St. Petersburg in 1 916. Due to the very serious condition of his health, it was several years before he was able .to engage in any active work He has had various business enterprises since, how ever, and has done well with all, at the present time being president of the Tropical Medicine Co., which he organized and also president of Blair & Company, invest ment brokers. His first busin ess venture was t he purchase of the shop in the Grand Theater building, known as the "Buttercup." He later purchased two other shops, one of which "La Fleur,'' was the first florist shop in St. Petersburg. In 1920 he became connected with the Gandy Bridge Company with which enterprise he remained throughout their entire building aCtivities, having previously disposed o f his several spops. Later he became interested in real estate investments, and began the construc tion of Better Type Homes, on the North Shore, among the hands ome residences

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196 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUN-TY, FLORIDA built being that of T. A. Chancellor and others As president of the Keystone Se curities Company he financed the Vinoy Park Hotel project, which occupied a period of two years, and also obtained grants from the United States government, and the approval of the city commissioners, for a plan to fill the entire North Shore, together with the North Shore )!'acht Basin . Mr. Blair is a Presbyterian, a member of the Harvard Club, and the University Club, and is a Mason. H e is one of St. Petersburg's most progressive citizensone whose accomp l ishments are to his credit, and whose ambitious undertakings are of the highest order. He is fond of all outdoor sports, being an enthusiastic fisherman and having many tarpon to his credit. He is also very much interested in the culture of flowers and shrubs. While in Harvard he studied landscape architecture under Professor Prey and detail study under Olmstead Brothers During the summe r of 1925 Mr Blair traveled t hrough the major portion of Europe, visiting many of the famous cathedrals palaces and gardens He has also visited the g r eater part of North America, including Canada and Mexico. His health and present ambitious undertakings are due to the climate of Pinellas Peninsula, the outdoor life and activities it affords and his inherited family traits of energy and perseverance MARCUS L. BLANCHARD MARCU S L. BLANCHARD, of St. Petersburg, one of the ablest criminal lawyers of South Florida, whose force and resourcefulness are widely known, and whose logical manner of presenting a case to the jury has won for him many laurels, was born in Albany, New York, July l st, 1876, the son of Marcus L. and Josephine (Woleman) Blanchard. His ancestors were among the early pioneers of New York State who immi grated to this country from Scotland, France and England. The foundation for his successful Jaw career was obtained in the offices of McCa11 & Dyer, in Albany New York. In addition to his study of law while a resident of that city, Mr. Blanchard was a real estate operator on a large scale, having established the Blanchard-Lansing Real Estate Company of which he was president. This company put on several large subdivisions, and were among Al bany's largest develope r s. Mr. Blanchard first came to Florida in 1913 on account of his health but returned in 1921 to make the State his permanent home choosing St. Petersburg as a place of residence. He established a law office, conducting a general practice but specializing on criminal law, and from t he first his professional ability has drawn to him a large and lucrative clientele His ability to quickly locate the weak poin t s of an antagonist and whose eloquence o word and gesture l eave his hearers spellbound, have contributed in large measure to gain for him financial independ ence and high professional standing. Among the outstanding cases of his career was. the Frank McDowell case, of which he was chief counsel. Mr. Blanchard's law firm is one of the strongest and most influential in Pinellas County The firm is known as Cook, Blanchard and Hoffman, each of Mr Blanchard's partners being attorneys Qf the highest standing and ability.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 201 Mr. Blanchard is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, which organization ... He is a ::E*.. He .to the Dutch of New in 1913 to Miss Lilliar\; Fo.,vieh of Albany/N. Y. one y<:>ung son, Marcus L. ru; who is :now eleven years of :ige. : . .. . . . : JOHN C. BLOCKER, SR . < . BLoCKER, SR., whose death on October 14, J928, remov ed most prominent pioneer citizens, was borri in TarbOro, the son of Charles and Sallie (Cromwell) Blocker. l;tis father of Pinellas County, and a Captain in the Confederate ar,aiy. came to St. Peter sburg in 1888, at which time he assisted 'in ; the :Construction of the Detroit Hotel and the old Atlantic Coast Line dock He later an' engineer on the Orange Belt Railway, being thus engaged for a nuniber of years. For some time he was in the dairying business, but in 1906 dispo sed .of this interest and engaged in real estate, in which he continued until shortly before his death. He laid out several sub-divisions, among the number being J. C. Blocker's first and second sub-divisions, and Cromwell Heights Sub-Division. He was a member of the city council; he served for several terms on the school board of Pinellas county and during the World War was a memberof the Home Guards. He belonged .the Masonic and Odd Fellows organizations. He was married to Miss N ina M utelle Hill, a South Carolinian by birth. Two m.rmsti!lion: Marguerite (Mrs. T. C . Holmes),and rJi;IS a man ke.enly interested in the welfare of St. ;lnd movenients .to promote its wdfate. . He' atall times lent a ietlc' p _e JoHN C. BLOCKEI.I, }R. was born in St. Petersburg, December the son of John C. and Nina (Hill) Blocker. . ... Mr. Blocker w'as among those who attended St. Petersburg's first primary school. He completed his High School education, begun in that city, at tl\.e'Ce6r_gta Military Academy, and later graduated t rom Washington and Lee an A. B. degree. He also attended the. University of Montpelier in -France... arid graduated in law from Cumberland Univet::sity: : . ;,: 'ReturningJo St. Petersourg in July, l925, Mr. opened lawoinces, time he has had a lucrative -business, made possible by the combination v ,.,,,._ engaging and legal ability of a superior quality. .He is attorney of Courtly of Pinellas County, and in addition to his Mr. Blocker has .large re:il estate interests. . :. 11:>!" .''5' World .War Mr.. BJo%er VIas a Lieutenant jn the ;sZnd in the St. Mihiel, the Meuse and Argonne Drive5> a member of the Presbyterian church, the Sons of .the Confederacy, Sons of the American Revolution, belongs to the State and local Bar Associations, and is a member of the Phi Delta Theta college fraternity, and is an Elk Mr. Blocker was married Sept. 1926! to Miss Ruby Harris, of Mississippi. They have one daughter,Margaret Ann. .

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202 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA FRANK BOOTH FRANK BooTH, a citizen of Clearwater whos e aggressive methods and versatile abilities have enabled him to carve a business career that is one well worthy of emulation, is one whose integrity and substantiality have gained for him an enviable place in his community and throughout Pinellas County. Mr. Booth is public spirited and constructive, and has had a large part in the development o f Clear water, the city of his birth. Mr. Booth is the Son of R. J and Susan J Booth, born at Clearwater, March 25, 1883. His father was born in Hillsborough County, Florida, and his mother was a Georgian They first came to the West Coast of Florida in the early fifties, locating at Sawfly Harbor. Mr. Booth entered the insurance business in Clearwater in 1912, and has built up the largest insurance business in the northern end of the county. His firm, which is known as the F. J Booth Ins urance Co., absorbed the firm of H A. Kil gore & Co. hi 1915, and their large and lucrative business has grown from year to year until it has become one of the leading insurance firms of Pinellas county. Their success has been founded upon service, protection and courtesy, three ele ments that are the basis of all concerns of magnitude In addition to various lines of insurance, Mr Booth's firm has handled real esta te extensively, and with success, many large deals having been consummated by this finn, resulting in hundreds of new settlers being drawn to that lovely section. In all matters of civic development, Mr. Booth's constructive views have been helpful. His conspicuous public service as Mayor and member of the City Com mission is a matter of gratification to his friends, a source of satisfaction to his constituents. He is now serving his second term as representative from Pine llas county in the State Legislature. Mr. Booth is a 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason, is a Shriner, a Knight of Pythias and a charter member of the Rotary Club. He was married March 25, 1916, to Miss Janie Scranton. JAMES BOOTH ]Alll:t:s BOOTH, successful St. Petersburg attorney, is a New Englander, who for the past eighteen years has been a resident of the Sunshine City, and active in many affa irs of a business and civic nature. Mr. Booth was hom in Goshen, New Hampshire, December 25, 1883, the son of Charles A. and Celestia Booth. After acquiring his common school education in his home town and also at Worcestel", Mass., he attende d Clark College and Brown University. He graduated in law from the Univer sity of Maine. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1911, Mr. Booth opened law offices, practicing independen t ly, and he has built up a large and profitable business, being very suc cessful in his profes sion He was appointed by Governor Martin as a member of the State Examining B oar d, which position he held until he became a member of the State Legislature, at which time he resigned In addition to having served his constituents in the legislative halls, Mr. Booth was city attorney of St. Petersburg for five years; Second Lieutenant in the National Guard; and during World War on legal examination board. ,j-' ..

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 205 Mr. Booth has the distinction of being the first member of the Optimist CJub in the State of Florida He was for four years District Governor of the South eastern par t of the United Stat es, his territory embracing North Carolina, South Carolina Georgia and Florida. He has a l so served as president of the Optimist Club Fraternally, Mr. Booth is a K. of P an Odd Fellow and a member of the A. '1'. 0. College fraternity and P A. D. legal fraternity. He was tnarried at St. Petersburg to Miss Laura Taylor. They have four children: Gordon, James N., !della Elaine and Oleta Mae. RICHARD !. BOO .TH The final chapter in a long and useful life has been written RICHARD J. BOOTH, honored and beloved pioneer of the county, is no more. His death i n Clearwater on .March 6, 1929, marked the passing of one of Pinellas County's leaders than whom few did more effective work for the upbuilding of the county. He had lived long among his friends and neighbors; he had their respect and their esteem, and after nearly 80 years of association his death removed one whose place can never be filled. Mr. Booth was born August 14, 1849, at Safety Harbor, and was therefore 79 years of age. His father, Richard J. Booth, a farmer and fruit grower, came from England, homesteaded, and married Malina A. Phillippii, who was born in South Carolina, and who came to Hillsborough County when a child, with her father about 1815. Mr. Booth's grandfather Phillippii homesteaded near Safety Harbor the place now being known as Phillippii Hammock, which is on Old Tampa Bay He was the first white homesteader in the territory which now comprises Pinellas County He was a physician, and served in Napoleon's army in France, and after coming to Florida doctored the Indians throughout this section in thoSe early days. The marvelous transformation of the years, brought about by the influx of new settlers, the coming of good roads, improved living conditions, and other ele ments of progress and prosperity, were ever aided and enocuraged by Mr. Booth. He was always interested !n the welfare of the county, and of Clearwater in par ticular, and the citizenship sustained a great loss in his passing. Mr. Booth was a large property owner and a citrus developer, who owned a number of fine groves in which he took a great interest. He never held public office, though he was many times urged to allow his name to be used He pre ferred to work as a private citizen, which he did effectively and constructively. Mr. Booth is survived by one son, Frank J. Booth, prominent Clearwater Citizen, and a daughter, Mrs. Millie B. Lewis, also of Clearwater. He also leaves three brothers, 0. W. and D J Booth, of Safety Harbor, and J. W. Booth, of St. Petersburg His wife preceded him to the grave several years ago. ROY BOOTH RoY BooTH was born at Safety Harbor, January 13, 1883, the son of 0. W. and Ada F. Booth Mr. Booth not only has the distinction of being a native Flor-

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206 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA idian, but his forebears were among the State's first settlers, his great-grandfather coming to the State in 1834, settling at Safety Harbor. Mr. Booth was born at the home of his grandfather, which he bought after reaching maturity, living thereon for a number of years. Mr. Booth received his education at Southern College, from which institution he graduated in 1907 with a B. S. degree. He went to California soon thereafter and was engaged in the real estate business for two years. Upon his return he became the owner of his birthplace, which consisted of an orange grove and other lands, and Jived at Safety Harbor for several years In 1924 Mr. Booth was elected sheriff of Pinellas County, serving for four years. He now lives at Dunedin, where he owns valuable property. He also has large property interests at Clearwater. Mr. Booth is a Mason, Shriner, K. of P.; and an Elk. He is a member of the Methodist church. He was married at Largo to Miss Rosa McMullen They have three children, Margaret, Richard Leroy and Miriam F. P. BOUTON F. P. BouToN, president of Bouton and Cermak, Inc was born in Dunbarton, New Hampshire, the son of Tilton C lark Hall and Annie S. (Whitehouse) Bouton. Mr. Bouton attended the public schools of Henniker, New Hampshire, and in 1908 graduated from Cushing Academy at Ashburnham, Massachusetts. He attended Leland Powers' School of Spoken Word in Boston, and the Empire Dra matic School, Carnegie Hall, New York City. Although he had wintered at Dunedin as a lad, Mr. Bouton did not take up his residence in Pinellas county until 1916, when he became a citizen of St. Peters burg, engaging in the real estate business under the firm name of Smitz and Bouton. In 1921 he formed a partnership with Wm. J. Cermak, operating under the finn name of Bouton and Cermak, and they are selling agents for many subdivisions, in addition to which they do a general brokerage business Mr. Bouton was the first person to bring Seminole Indians into Pinellas County under Southern Exhibitions, Inc., of which concern he is president. A Seminole village is now establ i shed at Blind Pass, where the Indians carry on their tribal life. Mr. Bouton's two uncles, Christopher and Sherman Bouton and grandfather, Fletcher Bouton, were the first northern people to settle in Dunedin They opened both hotels in the village, and at that time had one of the largest orange and grape ruit groves in Florida, known as the Castang grove. Mr. Bouton is a member of the Jungle Country Club, theY. M. C. A., and the Chamber of Commerce. He was married to Miss Elizabeth McKeon, of Hyde Park, Massachusetts. They have one daughter, Annie Jean. A. S. BRADLEY A S. BRADI..I!Y, well known St. Petersburg lawyer and former city attorney, was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, November 28, 1886, the son of Jack W. and Jessie S.,BradJey. His great Aunt Jemima Suggett was the heroine of the Bryan Station Indian battle. His grandfather, Benj. F. Bradley, was a major in the

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 207 Mexican war, a colonel in the Confederate Army, and a member of the Confederate Congress. Mr. Bradley's father was a lawyer and county clerk of Scott County, Ky., until the time of his death. His grandparents on both sides were members of the Great Crossings church one of the most famous churches in Kentucky, and owned large estates between Frankfort Lexington and Georgetown. The Bradley family settled the old Patrick Henry grant and lived on it un til the past few years. Mr. Bradley's uncle was prosecuting attorney at Georgetown for many years and prosecuted the famous Goebel murder trials which involved the death of Governor Goebel of Kentucky. Mr. Bradley graduated from Georgetown College in 1907 with a B.A. degree, and graduated in 1910 from the University of Michigan with a J.D. degree. He was admitted to the bar in Georgia in 1910 and practiced in Columbus, first with the firm of Foley & Bradley, and then became associate to the general counsel of the Columbus Electric and Power Co., remaining in Columbus until 1925 In July, 1925, Mr. Bradley came to St. Petersburg and for six months was associated with George W. Wylie, then City Attorney. Mr ..Bradley became City Attorney in November, 1925, serving in this capacity un t il July, 1928. While he held this office the municipal pier was constructed, also the port of St. Petersburg. The major waterfront improvements were installed, and the city built 365 miles of str e ets ; its enlarged storm and sewerage system was put in use, and the Planning Board created. The picture shows were closed on Sundays and another election held, which opened them; First Avenue North was opened, and many other inter esting legal questions settled while he was in office. Since July, 1928 Mr. Bradley has engaged in private practice, his firm being that of Bradley & Wehle. Mr. Bradley was the first president of the St. Petersburg Aero Club. During his administration the PiperFuller Flying Field was secured and the distribution of air mail was started from St. Petersburg to Atlanta by plane via Tampa and Jacksonville. During the world War, Mr. Bradley was in the Naval Aviation Pilot Service, stationed during his entire service at Minneapolis. Mr. Bradley is a member of the Pinellas County Bar and State Bar Associa tions, is an Elk of Columbus Ga., and a member of the Jungle Country Club and the American Legion and 40 and 8, and is a Presbyterian in religious faith. He is a member of the Kappa Alpha and Phi Delta Phi fraternities. He was married December 11, 1912, at Columbus, Ga., to Miss Elizabeth Jones. Mr. and Mrs. Bradley have one daughter, Mary Elizabeth. THOMAS A. BRICE A. BRICE, prominent contractor and builder of St. Petersburg, was born in Chicago, Ill., February 22, 1885, the son of Thomas and Mar ria (Brown) Brice. His ancestors, who were from England, settled in Montreal, Canada, in 1880. Mr. Brice acquired his education in the schools of Chicago and St. Louis, Mo., and for many years thereafter traveled over the United States and Canada engaged

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208 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA in the building line. He came to Florida in 1 910 for his health locating first at Largo, where h e bought an orange grov e and where he lived for two years. In 19 12, Mr. B rice removed t o St. Petersburg and established a business as mason, contractor an d builder, in which he met with success from the beginning. Among the buildings he erected in St. Peter sburg are the Bouchdman Apartments ; the Y. W. C. A.; Congregational Church; Faith and Mercy Hospitals and the new wing of the City Hospital. Mr. Brice is a large property owner of St. Pete rsburg, and in his development w ork he opened up and improved several s tre ets. He was one of the most per sistent workers on behalf o f the formation of Pinellas County, giving th e cause much va lua ble aid Mr. Brice was a Governor of the Chamber of Comme rce for four years, was pre sident of the Bricklaye rs' Union for five years, and is a member of the St. Pete r s burg Yacht Club, attends the Methodist church, and fraternally is affiliate d with the Knigh ts of Pythias. Mr. Brice wa s married to Miss Dora Poole, of N e w York City, in April 1910. Mr. and Mrs. Brice have one daughter, Dora. MISS MARY BRIGHT Mrss MARY BRIGHT, who for the past five years has been the accomplished and accommodating librarian of the St. P etersburg Public Library is a native o f Nash ville, Tennessee, the daughter of Dr. Willis Collins and Anna B l and (Bra mlitt) Bright. Her grandfather John Morgan Bright, prominent Tennessee lawyer, was for sixteen years a member of Congress. Her grandmo ther Bright was a daughter of Governor James Clark, of Kentucky Her maternal grandfather Lunsford Bramlitt, was a Chancellor in Tennessee for the whole State. Miss Bright attended private school s of Fayetteville, Tenn. and also graduated from Dick White College, located in the same city. She came to St. Petersburg the first time in 1896 and spent the winter, returning in 1900 for another s t ay of seve ral months. She returne d to reside permanen tl y in 1903. In 1916, Miss Bright f ormed a co nnection with the St. Peter sburg Library, assisting in fu rnishing reading material for the sold iers, being engag ed in Lib rary War. Work. In 1924, the position of librarian becoming v acant by the resignation o f Miss Williams Miss Bright was appoint ed to the position, which she has since filled ably and well. Miss Bright organized the Chapter of Daughters of the Confed e r ac y in St. Petersburg and w as its president for the first seven years of its existenc e. She is also a charter member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and h as papers which e ntitle her t o membership in the Colonial Dames but there is no Chapter in S t P etersburg Miss Bright is a member of the Presbyterian church, the Southern Literature Club, and is a former member o f the Carreno Club and the St. Petersburg Woman's Club.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 211 CYPRIAN CARROLL BRINSON .CYPRIAN CARROLL BRINSON, successful business man o f St. Petersburg, whose establishment, the B rinson & Carpente r S hoe Co m pany, is one of the most popular concerns of the kind in the city, has been a resident of the Sunshine City since: January, 1911, durin g which tim e h e has been iden tified with the mer cantile business of the city, and has given that gra de of servi ce in hi s various connections which pleases the public and assure s satisfa ction. Mr. Bri nson was first connected with the shoe department of the Arthur Nor wood establi s hment, and about twe lv e y ears ago went with the Ladies Emporium, with which concern he remained until in August, 1926, at which time h e assisted in the establi shment of the Brinson & Carpenter Shoe Co., loca ted in the Phiel B ui l ding at 418 Centr al Avenue. He is half -o wn e r of this bu s in ess, which has enjoyed a splendid patronage since the opening day. Mr. Brinson is a native Floridian, born in Suwanee County, Florida, September 6 1889 the son of J. W. a n d Mary E. (Carroll) Brinson. He is a direct descend ant of C ha rles Carroll, of Mary l and, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence His father's family were from Burke County, Georgia. After atten ding the publi c sc hools of Suwa nee County, Mr. Brinson graduated from Draughan's Business Coll ege at Jackson ville, Florida, thereby la y ing an excel l ent busine ss foundatio n for the succes s that has b ee n his For many years Mr. Brinson has been a m ember of t he Cham ber of Commerce, and is a liberal cont ribut o r t o all charitabl e organizations. He is a member of the First Avenu e Methodist church, is a Woodman of the World and a mem be r o f the C ivitan Club Mr. Bri nson and Mis s T essa Evans, of Greencastle, Ind., w ere marr ied O!l August 14 1919 They have two sons, William E v ans and Thoma s Samu e l JOHN N. BROWN J oHN N. BROWN, prominent banker and a leading financier of Pinellas o wner of one of St. Petersburg's million-dollar hotels, and who for many years filled impo rtant county offices ably and well, is one whose record reflects honor and dignity upo n the institutions he represents who se achievem ents -have placed him in the front rank of F lorida builder s and who posse sses those element s of character that make f or the highest type of citizenship. Mr. Brown i s a Flori dian, born at Webster, Sumter County, October 9, 1876, the s-on of J ohn L. and Minerva ( Wells) Brown. H is education was completed at the Georgia Business College, at Senoia, n ear Atlanta, and his first business training and experience was gained with the Southern Express Company with which concern he remained thi rteen years. During his connection with the Southern Express Company, Mr. Brow n was appointed express agent at St. Petersburg, and from 1902 until 1911 he held that position Always interested in city and public affairs public-spirited t o the highest degree, and popular with all classes, Mr. Brown for twel ve years was an efficient county official having twice been elected Tax A ssessor of the coun ty, servin g from 1912 until 19 16, and in the latter year was elect ed Clerk of the Circui t Court, serving

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212 HISTORY OF PINELL AS COUNTY, FLORIDA in that capacity to the utmost satisfaction of his constituents, for eight years, not offering for re-election. Mr. Brown's business and financial ability required new and larger fields of endeavor, and in December, 1922, he established the Ninth Street Bank and Trust Company, one of St. Petersburg's strongest financial institutions, of which he has served as president since its organization He is also owner of the Suwanee Hotel, magnificent eight-story hostelry, erected at a cost of over one million dollars, modern throughout, handsomely furnished, and located in the heart of the city at First Avenue North and Fifth Street. Mr. Brown is president of the West Coast Title Company and West Coast Holding Company, and for eleven years was a director of the Chamber of Com merce, wh i ch organization has always had his heartiest co-operation and active support. He was a member of the City Libra r y Board during the time the Car negie Library was being built, and in other civic matters he has taken a leading part whenever his business in t erests would permit. Mr. Brown possesses the qua l ifications and the ability which admirably fit him to hold important public office, and in 1928 he was elected Mayor of St. Petersburg, and is giving the city one of the most progressive and satisfactory administrations in its history. There is no man in Pinellas county who claims more friends, no man more deserving of the high esteem in which he is held, or one who enjoys to a higher de gree the confidence of the peop le. Mr. Brown is a Mason, Shriner, Knight of Pythias and an Elk. He was mar ried April 3, 1904, to Miss Sarah Celeste White, of St. Petersburg. They have three children, Dorothy, Paul, and Mercer. LLEWELLYN BUFOJW BROWN No class of citizenship stamps its impress more strongly upon the life of a community than do those who represent its newspaper interests. St. Petersburg has been very fortunat e in the character of her newspaper men, and has profited accordingly Through the efforts of L B. Brown, the city has received world wide advertising as the Sunshine City, and that is but an incident of a record of civic service on the part of Mr. Brown, extending over more than a score of years Llewellyn Buford B r own is a native of Arkansas, having been born at Madison, in that State, June 13, 1861. His father, George L. Brown, was a Tennessean by birth, his mother Amelia (Young) Brown having been born at Bardstown, Ky. On the death of the father, the widowed mother, with her only son, Lew, removed to Louisville, Ky., where the boy entered the employ of Henry Watterson s Courier ] ournal, first as a printer and later a reporter. He se r ved in nearly every capacity of the Courier -Joumal. and its afternoon associate, the Louisville Times. In 1895, Mr. Brown bought the Spencer Courier, at Taylorsville, Ky., and while editing this paper studied law, and became a member of the Kentucky bar. He served as police judge, county and city attorney. In 19_05, having sold his newspaper property at Tayl orsville, he moved to Harrodsburg Ky., where he acquired the Harrodsburg Democrat, which he successfully conducted for several years.

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.... . PART }l.-;. , . . . . ...... :.:. : .. . -. .. . . :': : . : Mr_-Brown to St. Petersburg in 1908, and on De=nber 15th of *at purclia,sed the St. Petersburg Evening buiependent, which was at that time by Willis B. Powell. Since that time he has been an active and potent factor iit". the' advancement of his chosen city and county Perhaps his most valuable service to his community was that touched upon in the beginning of this the appellation "Sunshine City" as applied to St. Petersburg, and so impressing this title upon the public consciousness that the city is thus known throughout the couritry and even in foreign lands. In carrying out this idea, Mr. Brow n adopted the. unique plan of distributing the entire circulation of the EvenitJg Independent free to everybody every day the sun failed to shine--the only newspaper. in the world making such an offer The resulting advertising for St. Petersburg has been valuable beyond computation. While steadfastly declining to accept any municipal office, Mr. Brown has at all titnes interested himself in civic affairs. He was chairman of the Charter Board which drafted the charter approved by the voters on August 14, 1923. He has also served as president of the Board of Trade, Commodore of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, president of the Art Club, president of the Echo Club, and chairman of the City Library and Advertising Board. He was instrumental in establishing the first City Hospital in St. Petersburg, and also originated and carired to com: pletion the plan for establishing the Florida Masonic Home for widows and orphans in St. Petersburg. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masonic Order, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias Red Men and Elks He is a member of the Baptist church. He served as president of the Kentucky Press . As5ociation, and after leaving tlie State was eleCted Honorary Past President.-for. life. He also served as President of the Associated Dailies of Fiorida. He found : time :hi._a very busy life to become the author of two white in Ken:: tucky; being a compilation of the advertising laws of the State; the 'other a volume of pOems written during his residence in St. Petersburg. DUring the World War, Mr. Brown, under a commission as Major from the Goveni..oc of Florida organized, equipped and commanded four companies (a battalion) of Pinellas County Guards. Mr: Brown was married in 188S to Miss Emma Struby. children were born to this' union the mother and two of the children dying, leaving only the son, Llewellyi{Chaimcey. In 1898 he marr i ed Miss Anna Struby and they have one Louise, oow Mrs. W. Orville Ray. : . JOHN HERBERT BULL JoHN HERBERT But.t., an architect and civil engineer, designer of many impor tant buildings in New York and the New England States but since 1925 a resident of St. Petersburg, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of .Elijah and Mary E. (Moops) Bull. His father's family were from England, his mother's from Scot land. They settled in Govenstown, Maryland, which is now part of Baltimore. Mr. Bull was first engaged in construction work i n Philadelphia as designer and supervisor. During the World War he. was in complete charge of organizing the Union Park Gardens at Wilmington, Delaware, for the United States Shipping

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216 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, F LORIDA Board, which was a $6,0Xl,OOO job. He was also in charge of the construction of all buildings in New York where gas masks were made. Among the imjlQrtant buildings which he designed and constructed in New Jersey and Pennsylvania w ere the International Motor Truck building; the New York Pie Baking building; the Pennsylvania buildings ; the American Viscose building and the Ex ide Battery plant these being located throughout New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Buildings he had charge of design and erection in N ew York include those of the American Chicoe Company; S. Karpen Bros. ; Anchor Cap and Clothier Company; Patterson-Sargen Company ; American Barloe Company; National Casket Company; Stewart-Warner; New York Consolidated building; Port Morris building; and the Bond Bread Bakery. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Bull has been associated in the construction of the Pennsylvania Hotel; the Dennis Hotel; the E. C. T. building; West Central and Lake View schools; the Ninth Street Bank; the Masonic Home for Aged and an addition to the Vinoy Park Hotel. Mr. Bull is a member of the Chamber of Commerce of Queens County, New York, also the Democratic Club of Queens. He is a member of the Presbyterian church; a member of all branches of the Masonic order and is a Shriner. He is also an Elk. During the Spanish-American war Mr. Bull served in the First Maryland regi ment as a non-commissioned officer. He was married in 1904 to Miss Elizabeth Smith, of Philadelphia They have one daughter, Gloria Elizabeth WALTER S. BURGESS WALTI!R S. BuRGESS was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, December 18, 1873, the son of George and Mary Burgess. He is of English descent, a member of an old American family. Mr. Burgess came to St. Petersburg in 1919, at which time he formed a con nection with the Blocker Transfer Company, the largest business of the kind in Pinellas county. He is at present half owner of the business and its general man ager and treasurer. Mr. Burgess was educated in the schoo l s of Vermont, later going to San Fran cisco where he graduated from the German Hospital in that city as a trained nurse. He spent nine years there as a nurse, later going to Boston where he followed his chosen profession for seven years. While in that city he also served as Fire Commissioner. Si n ce coming to St. Petersburg in October, 1919, Mr. Burgess has made a splendid success in the transfer business His firm owns a fleet of trucks and busses, and handles a large volume of business annually. Mr. Burgess is a member of the Rotary Club, and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in Boston to Miss Minnie Phillips. CARL E. BURLESON CARL E. BuaUSON, who, as county engineer, built and planned Pinellas county's magnificent system of highways, involving an expenditure of $10,000,000,

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 221 is a leader in his profession, whose wide experience has been of. inestimable value to Pinellas county. Mr. Burleson is a native of Tennessee, born at Erwin, July 15, 1887, the son of George Washington and Jane (Bell) Burleson. His father, who is a retired building contractor, now makes his home at St. Petersburg. After attending Milligan college, where he studied engineering, Mr. Burleson was with the Norfolk and Western railroad for some time, later being with the C. C. & 0. Railway on location and construction work. His ability as an engi neer was soon recognized, the company placing him on tunnel work, through the Blue Ridge mountains He also established the check levels through the tunnel section of the Blue Ridge mountains, a work which required much technical knowledge. Mr. Burleson's engineering activities next brought him to Pinellas county in 1910, at which time he surveyed Pinellas Grove, a large subdivision, which required about eight months to complete. He then returned to Tennessee where he made a survey for an electric line from Johnson City to Eliza bethtown Returning to Florida he engaged in engineering work at Sarasota for a time, subsequently becoming Chief Engineer of the St. Pet ersburg Investment Company, a position of importance and respons i bility which he held for nearly five years. It was while he was thus engaged that he was loaned by the company to Mr. Gandy to make the location for the Gandy Bridge-ano ther undertaking which required the maximum of engineering skill and knowledge. In 1917 Mr. Burleson was appointed County Engineer, and the county's splendid system of highways and bridges was planne d and built under his supervision Many declare Pinellas county's roads the best of any in Florida. Mr. Burleson is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers; charter member of the Florida Engineering Society, and a director in same; a member of the American Society of Military Engineers; director of the Coun t y Highway Officials Division of the American Roadbuilders' Association; is a member of the Rotary Club of Clearwater, the Clearwater Chamber of Commerce, a member of the Board of Governors of the Clearwater Country Club, and a 32 Mason. Mr. Burleson was married in Johnson City, Tennessee, to Miss Stella Lee Sutton They have two sons, Gordon and Edward. MRS. MARIETTE M. BURTON MRs. MARIE'tT:t: M. BuRTON, widow of Spencer S. Burton, long prominent : in public affairs, was born in North East, Pa., the daughter of Robert N. and Laura Cordelia Edgerton Marshall. Her paternal ancestors were from Ireland. Her mother's family were early settlers of Vermont and through them she is eligible to membership in the Colonial Dames. Her paternal grandparents came to this country from Ireland in a sailing vessel, settling in Pennsylvania. They reared seven children. Mrs. Burton, before her marriage, taught school in North East Township, Pa., ._ for. two years, and later held a position in an abstract office in Erie. Her attention to ousiness and her capability attracted the attention of those at the head of affairs in her community, and she was made Deputy Register and Recorder of the county,

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222 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA which position she held for thirteen years. She was the only woman ever to hold this office. !\Irs. Burton was married in 1904 to Spencer S. Burton, Treasurer of Erie County, and on account of his ill health Mrs. Burton assisted him in the conduct of his office, later taking back her position as Deputy Register and Recorder. After the death of her husband, which occurred in 1913, Mrs. Burton spent one winter in Oklahoma, coming to St. Petersburg in 1914, since which time she has been active in Club work, and has accumulated considerable property, having built several apartment houses, in which she has installed every comfort and con vemence. Mrs. Burton is a member of the Echo Club and was secretary of the club for three years. She was president of the St. Petersburg Woman's Club for two years and ex-member of the Board o f Directors. For twelve years she has served on various committees, including the building committee She was a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, is a member of the Ladies' Auxiliary, and for five years was a member of its Board of Directors. She is a member of Congregational church. J. R. BUSSEY J. R. BussEY, distinguished lawyer of St. Petersburg, senior member of the firm of Bussey, Mann and Barton, is a citizen who has not only achieved an enviable success in his chosen profession, but has branched out in other lines of endeavor, being financially interested in various business concerns, which render him an outstanding figure in the affai r s of the city. In the practice of his profession, Mr. Bussey is recognized as a master of its principles, his keen faculties of perception and analysis gaining for him distinctive precedence as a learned exponent of the law. Mr Bussey has been of invaluable assistance to the city government, having served on two of the charter boards, his counsel and judgment having been of inestimable value. Mr. Bussey is a director of the American Bank, the West Coast Title Company, vice-president of the West Coast Bond and Mortgage Company, is secretary and treasurer of the Princess Martha Hotel, and has other large interests, including much valuable real estate. Mr. Bussey is a native of Kentucky, Clinton being his birthplace. He attended Vanderbilt University and graduated in law from the University of Kentucky. Before coming to St. Petersburg he had an extensive law practice at Forrest City, Arkansas. Mr. Bussey carne to St. Petersb urg in 1921 on account of his children's health. He was at first associated in the practice of law with Judge l,ane, the firm being known at that time as Lane and Bussey. This partnership was later dissolved and the present firm of Bussey, Mann and Barton established, which has a large and lucrative clientele. Their exte nsive library is said to be the largest in St. Petersburg. Mr. Bussey has always been interested in Y. M. C. A. activities, is a Mason, a Shriner and a member of the Methodist church. He was married to Miss Frances Mann They have five children, James, Jr., Samuel, William, Martha and Robert.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 223 WM. B. "BILL" CARPENTER WM. B. "BILL" CARPENTR, prominent realtor of St. Petersburg and a citizen of the Sunshine City for the past thirty-five years, was born in Lexington, Nebraska, August Z, 1881, the son of Edwin 0. and Mary A. (Hook) Carpenter. His mother's family came from England and settled near Chicago ; the Carpenters were also English people who settled in Boston, Mass Mr. Carpenter's father and brother preceded him a short time on their Florida trip, reaching Tampa in 1894, taking a sailboat from that city to Disston City (now Gulfport), it requiring five or six days to make the trip. They brought a camping outfit, and camped on the beach for his father's health, which was soon greatly improved. They hired a darkey, mule and wagon to move their camping outfit to St. Petersburg, pitching their tent in the woods at Ninth Avenue North and Seventh Street-then an unbroken forest. About this time the subject of this sketch, then a lad of thirteen years, made the trip from Nebraska to St. Petersburg alone, his main ambition then being to come down and go bear hunting. Mr. Carpenter began his business career cultivating strawberries at 25 cents per day, later working in a fiber factory for Capt. Jenness. For six years he was with Ed T. Lewis, grocerman, and this job would have lasted longer had not Bill's enthusiasm gotten the better of his good judgment. Horse racing was the chief sport in St. Petersburg in those days, and as he used horses in delivering groceries, and was an amateur jockey, he made a race horse out of one of the delivery horses. He was next with Mr. Tranley in the jewelry and souvenir business. About that time St. Petersburg was beginning to have a few tourists, and they sold them everything from baby alligators to Salt Lake diamonds. He accompanied Mr. : Tranley to Virginia Beach, Va., where they conducted a similar business. He inherited the business at Mr. Tranley's death, and moved the stock back to St. Petersburg, and opened a small souvenir store on lower Central Avenue, near where the Old Beach Hotel now stands. Several months later he .went north again, in the same line of business, operating at the Jamestown Exposition at Norfolk, Va. While there he became imbued with the idea of going into the moving picture busi ness and upon his return to St. Petersburg opened the first moving picture show and operated it for ten years. In 1916, Mr. Carpenter outfitted a car with camping equipment, and with a friend, a westerner, accustomed to camping and living out of doors, drove to Spo kane, Washington, and back through Canada, distributing Florida literature and otherwise widely advertising the State. They were gone for five months, making the trip at their own expense. Upon his return to St. Petersburg in 1917, Mr. Carpenter engaged in the real l'State, mortgage, loan and insurance business, in which he has since continued with much success. Mr. Carpenter built a pusiness block at Fourth Street North and Eleventh Avenue North, containing eleven stores, and a business building at Ninth Street North and Third Avenue, in which the Carpenter Bakery is located. Mr. Carpenter is a member of the St. Petersburg Insurance Exchange, past member of the Yacht Club, and assisted in the organization of the Realtors. He is a life member of the Elks, is a 3Znd degree Mason, and a member of all branches

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224 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA of Masonry Mr. Carpenter was married Septemb er 22, 1923, to Miss Winifred Denslow Scott, o f Clevelan d, Ohio-CHARLES CARL CARR Descend ed from good old pioneer stock, his father's family comi ng from Maryland to participate in the ea rly settlement of Indiana and his mother's family being among the first resident s of N icholas County Ken tucky, CHARLES CARL CARR brought to Florida, and to St. Petersburg, whi ch he chose for his residence, those qualities of person a lity and characte r which make fo r i deal cit ize nship. Mr Carr was born at Lebanon, I ndi ana January 11, 1884, the son of Finley T. and Anni e (Quett) Carr, of Carlisle, Ky. He was educated in the schoo ls of Lebanon, Ind., from which he graduated in 190 2, then attended Ind ian a College from which h e grad uated in 1909 For four years subseq uent to the completion of his college cours e, he was in c harge of the system of high school s in the Panama Canal Zone. Returning t o h is native Stat e he became part owner and manager of th e S ullivan (Ind.) Times and DBlr>crat. This however was not his first ex perience in journa lism as during his student days he acted as reporter f or several newspapers, and was employed for a time in the same capacity on the staff of the Chicago Inter -Ocean. The lure of Flori da drew him to the State in August, 1914, and he became part owner and general manager of the St. Peter sburg Times, re maining in this capac ity for about nine years. In May, 1923, he sold his newspaper interests for the purpose of establishing a national advertising agency to handle Florida community advertising in nort hern magazines and newspapers. This con cern was known as the C C. Carr Advertising Agency, later becomin g the Lesan Carr Adverti sing Agency, with offices in St. Petersb urg and other Florida cities, and also in New York and Ch icago. He sold the agency in July, 1927, to become again part owner and general manager of the St. P eter sburg Times. He has also been active ly conn ected with various other enterprises, and is a s t oc kholder in sev eral companies From 1920 until 1924 he was Chairman of the Pinellas County School Board, and has been active in the Democratic politics of th e county. He is a Rotarian, and in 1922 was Presiden t of the St. Petersburg R otary Club . He i s a member of the Delta Tau Delta college frat e rnity, a 32nd degree Mason Scottish Rite, and is a Shriner For se veral years h e was a member of the Board of Governors o f the Chamber of Comme rce. Mr. Carr was married in. New York City on Septembe r 1 7 1912, to Miss Marian S. Sukeforth They have one daughter Marjorie Louise. While in So uth America, Mr. Carr wrote "The Story of Panama," which was publish ed in 1912 in book form. He is also the autho r of a survey on news paper compo sing room costs, which was published in trade journal s the country. EDWARD BRANNON CASLER JR. EDWARD BRANNON CASLER, Ja., member of the l aw finn of Casler and Thomp, son, of Clearwater, was born in Louisville Ky., Decem ber 17, 1898, the son of -

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 227 Edward Brannon and Jean (Terry) Casler. His ancestors were from Scotland and Ireland, his great-grandfather settling in Berkley, Va in 1763. Mr. Casler's father, who is a citizen of Pinellas county and a grove owner, first located in the State at Jacksonville, where he was vice-president of the Hutchinson Shoe Company. Mr. Casler was educated at the University of Florida, studying mechanical engineering for three years until the Wor l d War intervened and he enlisted in the Navy. During his period of service he was aboard a mine sweeper, U. S S. Mon tauk, which sank on September 1, 191 8, at which time he receiv e d injuries which necessitated him going to a Government Hospital. \Vhen he recovered the govern ment rehabilitated him by a law course at the University of Florida Coming to Clearwater, Mr. Casler first entered partnership with Kelley and Williams, the firm subsequently being known as Kelley, Williams and Casler. It was later operated unde r the name of Kelley, Rievs and Casler, then as Kelley and Casler and now as Kelly, Casler and Thompson. Mr. Thompson is a former in structor of law at the University of Florida, and also taught law at Mercer. Mr. Casler was admitted to practice in the State Courts in October, 1924, and in the Federal District Court and the Supreme Court of the United States on May 21, 1928. This firm specializes in trial work, having handled the Gilfoi l e-Kloss case of national fame, also the McDowell case of Pinellas county. Mr. Casler is a member of the Alpha Tau Omega college fraternity; the Rotary Club; is a member of the Board of Governors of the Chamber of Com merce; is District Treasurer of the Boy Scouts and a member of the Advisory Board of the Salvation Army. He is a Mason and a Knight of Pythias. He was married on December 20, 1924, to Miss Grace Harman, of Atlanta, Ga GEORGE A. CASSATT GEORGE A. CASSAT'!', prominently ident ified with large interests, and who is one of the most expert accountants in the State of Florida is a native of Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, born September 29, 1887, the son of Edwin and Cora ley) Cassatt. His paternal ancestors were descendants of St. John Baker, of Eng land. His father, who was a distant relative of A. J. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania railroad, was killed in a railway accident. Mr. Cassatt graduated from Girard College, Philadelphia in 1905, and im. me9iately thereafter accepted a position with the Pennsylvania railroad, which he held fo r seven years. He then went into the accounting business for himself, putting the cost system into sundry works including the Thropp Iron Company's plant at Everett, Pa. In 1917 he went with the accounting firm of Nau, Rusk and Swearingen at Cleveland, and the following year became purchasing agent and assistant general manager of the Victor Rubber Company at Spri ngfield, Ohio In 1920 he returned to Everett as general manager of the Thropp Iron Company. Mr. Cassatt came to St Petersburg in 1924, at which time he became asso ciated in business with Lee Sheppard. Three years later, on January 1 1927, he began operating independently Mr Cassatt handles all the accounting and audit ing business of the Gandy Bridge Company, and r ecently handled their case before the State Railroad Commission when an increase of rates was granted them. Mr. ..

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228 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Cassatt made an audit of the books of the city of St. Petersburg in 1928, and also audited the books of the Chamber of Commer ce for the past four years. Mr. Cassatt is a member of the Florida Institute of Accountants, the American Society of Certified Public Accountants, the Chamber of Commerce, and is a Mason, a Knight of Pythias a member of the Independ ent Order of Odd Fellows and the Independent Order of Foresters. In 1907 Mr. Cassatt was married at Columbus, Ohio, to Miss Frances F. Etter. They have three children, Ruth, Alice, and George A. Jr. His elder daughter, Miss Ruth Cassatt, is a talented artist, her splendid paintings having won for her the approval of those best qualified to judge real works of art. MisS' Cassatt is a direct descendant of Mary E. Cassatt, world-famous child portrait painter, and that a great future is in store for her as an artist is the opinion of those who are familiar with her work. WILLIAM J. CERMAK WILI.IA?of J. CERMAK was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Matthew and Teresa Dostal Cermak. The latter came to the United States from Czecho-Slo vakia, and became naturalized American citizen as soon thereafter as possible. Mr. Cermak secured his education in the public schools of Cleveland, and the W estern Reserve University. For some time prior to coming to Florida Mr Cermak was in the retail shoe business with his father. In the fall of 1919 he came to St. Petersburg and was for two years a salesman, later forming the real estate firm of Bouton and Cermak, being associated in business with F P. Bouton. This firm were the original developers of the Isle of Palms and also developed Bridgeway Acres, Tampa Bay Highlands Sycamore Park and various other proj ects. They also operate Southern Tours, Inc. throughout the South. Mr. Cermak is a member of the Jungle Country Club, the Chamber of Commerce, the Y. M. C. A. an d the Civitan Club. He was one of the leading amateur golfers of St. Peter sburg in 1928. Fraternally he is affiliated with the Masons. Mr. Cermak was married in Cleveland, Ohio, to Nettie L. Liska. He has three children, Robert, Elizabeth and Margaret BRUCE B. CHESNEY BRUCE B. CHESNEY, chief of police of St. Petersburg, was born in Knox County, Tennessee, December 7, 1885, the son of Pryor L. and Margaret L. (Tarver) Chesney His ancestors, who were from Ireland and Germany, were early settlers of Tenn essee. After acquiring his education in schools of Chesney Station and Luttrell, Tennessee, Mr. Chesney was employed by the Knoxville Traction Company, later known as the Knoxville Railway and Light Company. He also was for some time with the Chattanooga Railway and Light Company. His law enforcement experience was gained as a member of the Knoxville Police Department for fifteen years, later engaging in business in Knoxville Mr. Chesney carne to St. Petersburg in November 1925, at which time he became con nected with the police department as a detective later being promoted to the position

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 229 of desk sergeant. He became Chief of Police in January, 1929, an office which he is in every way ably fitted to handle. Mr. Chesney is a staunch Democrat, and during his residence in Tennessee served on the Democratic Executive Committee of Knox County for several years. He is a Mason Grotto, and a member of the Order of Eastern Star. In his church affiliation, he is a Methodist. Mr. Chesney was married to Miss Mary Dozier, of Richmond, Kentucky, at Newport, Kentucky in 1906. They have three children, Margaret, Pryor L., and Ruth. JOHN K. CHEYNEY JoHN K. CH&YN&Y, a citizen whose large affairs have embraced various lines of endeavor, in all of which he has been signally success ul, has been a resident of Tarpon Springs for the past forty years, during which time he has devoted his efforts to the upbuilding of the county industrially and agriculturally, and has ac complished much-in fact, he has been instrumental in bringing about a vast change in conditions in the status of the industries mentioned. Mr Cheyney, who was born in Philadelphia, was a bank clerk in that city until he came to Florida in 1889, at which time he located at Tarpon Springs. He was influenced to come to the State by Hamilton Disston, a friend of his father's, who owned a greater part of what is now Pinellas county. Mr. Cheyney at first pros pected for phosphate, but soon became interested in the sponge business, and was the first sponge operator in Tarpon Springs, his firm being known as the Anclote and Rock Island Sponge Company. Subsequently the company was liquidated and he operated the business independently and with great success. Soon after the Spanish-American war other sponge operators began business at Tampa, but until this time Mr. Cheyney had the field to himself. In 1905 he conceived the idea of bringing over a number of Greeks to work for him, and this led to many others coming. Mr. Cheyney eventually sold his sponge business and engaged in the saw mill business on a large scale, and for twenty years was an important turpentine pro ducer. He is President of the Lake Butler Villa Company, owners of 30,000 acres of land in Pinellas county at one time, which was gradually sold off. He has dealt extensively in lands in Pinellas county, and owned several subdivisions at Tarpon Springs. In his real estate transactions, as in his other undertakings Mr Cheyney has been very successful. Ever a leader in civic affairs, Mr. Cheyney has been a tireless and effective worker for the betterment of conditions in his own community and in the county at large. He has had the means, the interest and the ability to be of great service, and he has wrought well in various lines of endeavor, his public-spiritedness and progressive ideas being a constant inspiration to all with whom he comes in contact. Mr Cheyney has held Various offices in the city government of Tarpon Springs. He was married in Rockford, Ill., in 1897, to Mabel Starr Engebretson. He has tw o daughters, Alma C. Wimsatt and Starr Cheyney Kibbee.

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230 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA MISS MABEL CILLEY Miss MABEL CILLF.Y, founder, and co-principal with her sister, Lucia Cilley Pettet, of the Cilley Foundational School of St. Petersburg, whose life has been spent in an atmosphere of music, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Janu ary 19, 1870, the daughter of Jonathan Longfellow and Mary Peacock (Hubbard) Cilley. Her great-great-grandfather, Gen. Joseph Cilley, was an officer on the staff of George Washington, and there has been a commissioned officer in every war of the United States and in the French and Indian wars as well who bore the name of Cilley. Ancestors on both sides of Miss Cilley's family have been graduates of Harvard and Yale. Miss Cilley's father, Dr. Jonathan Longfe llow Cilley, was a famous pro fessor of anatomy in various medical colleges and art schools of the country, teaching that science until the time of his death in 1903, and was a descendant of the poet Longfellow, an ancestor whom any person would feel honored to claim. Miss Cilley received her splendid musical foundation in Cincinnati, matricu lating from the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, where she had two full years, and from the Cincinnati College of Music, where she studied four years, taking the full certificate course. Her teachers, the best to be had, both foreign and American, were personal pupils of Liszt, Lechetizky Moszkowski, Bendel and others, and were themselves great masters. They included Otto Singer, ensemble and theory; Armin w. Doerner, technic; Thomas Tapper, counterpoint and melody building; Waldo Pratt, history of music. She also graduated from the Institute of Normal Methods in Boston; and took courses at the Damrosch School, New York City, the Virgil Piano School of New York, the Perfietd Pedagogical Course in Chicago and the Fletcher-Copp Course in Boston. In 1900, Miss Cilley went to New York to live, in order that she might avail herself of the greater opportunities there. In 1907 she went to Porto Rico where she spent four splendid years teaching music in missionary and state schools and universities. Returning to New York she spent several years conducting a most unique and successful school in Brooklyn, the Cilley Foundational School of New York, which has, since October, 1923, been operated with marvelous success in St. Petersburg. The school occupies the Estes mansion on Sixth Avenue South, the building and grounds being admirably adapted to the needs of the institution. A unique feature of the school is a daily lesson in music and a daily lesson in French combined with all the courses in academic work prescribed by the State. The school has attracted widespread attention among prominent educators and professional men and women throughout the United States. The Cilley Foundation School began its career with pupils in the primary grades that came for their daily music Jesson, and stayed in Miss Cilley's studios for their kindergarten and first grade school work, and the French lesson. The school grew steadily, and after being transplanted to St. Petersburg, the junior high grades were included in the curriculum. The fall of 1929 saw the school broadened to include the high school grades, and the name of the school was changed to "St. Petersburg Preparatory School," and the music department under

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PART IIB I OGRAPHICAL 2 33 the general di r ection of Miss Cilley was changed to "The Mabel Cilley Conservatory f M ... 0 USIC. Miss Cilley's pupils have been widely complimented for their artistic work, al\d have appeared at various times in entertainments and recitals. Particularl y impres sive have been the four Music Festival s put on by the school, the Haydn F esti val in 1924, the Moza rt, Beethoven and Bach Festivals in succeeding y ears, all of which w ere long-to-be-remembered musical events in the musical annals of St. Petersburg. Miss Cilley is an artist member of the Carreno Club, is a charter member of the Cincinnati Chapter, Daught ers of the American Revolution, and attends the First Presbyterian church. WILLIAM WASHINGTON CLARK W n .I.IAM WASHINGTON CLAilK was one o{ t he builders of Florida whose name will live long after him, whose activities brought him the acclaim of those who admire honesty, fair dealing and sincerity of purpose, and whose long and useful life was spent in the pursuit of undertakings which had for their object the general betterment of conditions and civic affairs. Mr. Clark was born in Loui sville, Kentucky, Novembe r 8, 1853, the son of William and Rosa Stephens Clark. His grea t uncle, Ab raham Clark, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. At the time of Mr. C l ark's death, w hich occurred June 11, 1922, he was 69 years of age. Mr Clark came to Florida in 1873, and settled at Live Oak, where be engaged in business as a contractor and builder. He remained there until 1887, when, with the advent of the railr oad into Polk County, be sought his fortunes in that section, locating at Bar tow, wh ere he was prominently identified with the community for twenty-three years. While there he engaged in phosphate mining and development, in which he was financially successful. Coming to Pinellas county in 1910, Mr. Clark located at Wall Springs, where he engaged in farming and citrus growing on a large scale. He was always vitally interested in anything pertaining to the welfare of the community in which he lived, and particularly was he interested in the establis hment of good schools. He wa s instrumenta l in the organization of the sc hool at Wall Springs, and was a School Trustee until the time of his death. Good roads wa s another of his chief interests, and at the time of his death h e was a member of the State :.Road Department of the First Congre ssional District. Public -sp irited to the highest degree, he was a forceful influence in the betterment of conditions, and it was through his efforts that Pinellas County secured two of its most important highway bridges-<>ne at Seminole and the other a cross Old Tampa Bay between Oldsmar and Safety Harbor. Both of these structures bear plates of dedication to his memory. A cont ri butor in many ways to t he S t ate's progress and to its betterment, Mr. Clark also left behind him a long record of noble deeds, which will serve to keep his memory green through all the years to come. He reared an estimable family of sons and daughters, who, like their honored father, are among the county's best and foremost citizens

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234 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Clark was a faithful member of the Presbyterian church, and fraternally was a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk He was married at Live Oak, June 17, to Miss Lucinda Barbara Hamby. Six children were born to this union : John Dexter, Lawrence Phillip, Mary Beatrice (Mrs. D. E. Purcell), Frances Sarah, William H. and :Robert Wilson. S. S. COACHMAN S. S. CoACHMAN, long identified with the development of the Clearwater sec tion, whose large affairs have embraced projects of considerable magnitude, in all of which he has been eminently successful, was born in Lownes County, Georgia, April 4, 1862, the son of Hugh McAully and Frances (Mizell) Coachman. Mr. Coachman came to Florida in 1881, at which time he located in Polk County, teaching school at Foxtown, a small village north of the present town of Lakeland. He later moved to Webster, in Sumter County, where he planted an orange grove. Returning to Polk County in 1883 he located at Lakeland, building one of the first houses there and for two years was engaged in the sawmill business. In 1886 Mr. Coachman came to what is now Pinellas County, and engaged in the sawmill business, his plant being near where the Belleview Hotel now stands at Belleaire. He soon added a contracting business to the concern, and much of the building around Clearwater in the early days was done by him. His next large enterprise was a general store which he ran for twenty years at Clearwater, this establishment being the largest of the kind in the town. That his name will be perpetuated for future generations is assured by the fact that a town has been named for him. In 1901 he bought 240 acres of land at what is now Coachman, where he now has 140 acres planted to citrus fruit, in addition to which he owns 50() acres of raw land. Mr. Coachman's grove is one of the largest in Pinellas county. Mr. Coachman, in 1894, built one of the first brick buildings in the county, on the site of the present First National Bank of Clearwater. The Coachman Building, erected by him in 1916, is one of the largest buildings in the county and the largest in North Pinellas. Mr. Coachman now devotes all of his time to his grove interests at Coachman. He influenced the Seaboard railroad to cut their road through his property, which increased its value immeasurably. Three paved roads give easy access to all sec tions of Mr. Coachman's large holdings, and the brick road, connecting Tampa and Clearwater, also goes through Coachman. Mr. Coachman was one of the leading forces in the fight to form a county of the Pinellas Peninsula, and with Pinellas an assured fact he then set about the harder taSk of getting Clearwater made the county seat, both of which accomplishments are due in large part to his effort and influence. The northern end of the county and the town of Clearwater owe much to Mr. Coachman. He was Chairman of the first Board of County Commissioners of Pinellas County, serving for three years. In the early days he was a Councilman of Clearwater, and was instrumental in having the streets widened, much paving done, and generally aided materially in getting the town on its feet financially. ..

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PART n...:...BIOGRAPHICAL 237 Mr. Coachman has been twice married His first wife, Miss Ella Tucker, of Richland, is deceased. He later married Miss Jessie C, Candler. Their children are: Mrs. Hattie C. Daniels, by his first marriage; Sam Candler, Hugh McCauley, James W., Francis, Jessie and S. S., Jr. DR. ERNEST IRVING COLE Dl!. ERNI!ST IRVING CoLE, for fourteen years a successful chiropractor and naturopath of St. Petersburg, was born at Lovell, Maine, July 16, 1864, the son of Robert B. and Ruth B. (Heald) Cole. Dr. Cole was a descendant of Major Robert Pike, Hannah Dustin, Rev. John Wheelwright, and many other early settlers of New England, including the noted Bradbury family, which traces its ancestry back to the Norman Conquest. He was also descended from Sir Thomas More, lord chancellor of England and author of "Utopia," who was beheaded in 1535 by Henry VIII for refusing to recognize that monarch's marriage to Anne Boleyn. Dr. Cole was graduated in 1888 from Fryeburg Academy, where Daniel Web ster once taught and which Peary attended. For a time he was a student at Bowdoin College, but poor eyesight compelled him to leave before graduation, though later he continued his studies in Boston. In this city he became editor and part owner of the "Beaco n Hill News," and contributed articles to the "Youth's and other papers For five years he owned and operated a fruit ranch at Corning, California. He raised seventeen varieties of fruits and nuts, and had the only bearing apple orchard in the county. Returning to the east, he entered the New York Bible Teachers' Training SchOol, now the Biblical Seminary of New York. Upon his graduation from this in 1909 he'wa:S appointed a and New Hampshire. He was a profound Bible student arid :an; earnest;.Cfftisf!31)., no t a long-faced one, his happy disposition gaining for him the friendship of hundreds who became interested in his work through his engaging personality and fine Christian charac ter He would fearlessly champion any cause that he believed to be right, regard less of its unpopularity or the cost to himself. Dr. Cole was a graduate and post-graduate of the New Jersey College of Chiropractic, and took other post-graduate courses. In 1913 he came to St. Peters burg, where he. practiced chiropractic and naturopathy until a year before his death, which occurred in St. Petersburg, August 6, 1928. He was at one time an officer of the Florida Naturopathic Association He was a vegetarian for forty-two years, and an authority and lecturer on food subjects: Dr. Cole was the founder and president of the St. Petersburg Archery Club, and won numbers of trophies at the National Archery tournaments with tackle of his own make. He was an expert with both the rifle and the bow and arrow. Dr. Cole was a deacon in the St. Petersburg Congregational Church, and taught the Men's Bible Class there during the winter seasons, having a similar class sum mers in Ossining, New York, where he had a summer home. He was married Sept. 6, 1900, to Miss Edgarda Williams, of Ossining, New York. Two children were born to this union, Louis Hulet and Ruth Hazelton.

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238 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA BAYARD S. COOK BAYARD S. Coox, prominent member of the legal fratern ity of St. Petersburg, was born in Eas t on, Mary lan d, May 22, 1880, the son of Peter an d Augusta (Pippin) Cook. He is of English ancestry his forebears being among the early se ttlers of Del aware and Marylan d. His father was born in the form e r state his mother in th e latter. After gra duating from t h e Eas ton High School, Mr. Cook attended Templ e University of Phil adelphia f r om which in stitution he graduated in law in 1907. For eight years t hereafter he practiced la w independently in Philadelphia. Mr. Cook came to Florida in 1915, l ocating a t S t Petersburg, where he opened law offices, his firm, Harris an d Coo k specializin g on corporation and civil cases giving mu ch att ent ion to land titles, their large clientele representing many of the most impo rtant bu si ness firms of the co unty Mr. Cook has been an activ e civi c worker since co ming to St. Petersburg He is a member of the Boa r d of Governors of the Chamber o f Comm erce; a Director o f the eentral National Bank and General Counsel for the institution; i s D irector, Secretary and Treasurer of the Vinoy Park Hotel ; is President of the St. Petersb urg Bar As socia t ion and former C i ty Attorney of St. Petersburg Mr. Cook is affiliated w ith th e local, state and Ame rican Ba r A ssociati ons, is a Rotarian and forme r Presid e nt of the club, and atte nds the M ethodist Church. He is a Democrat in pOlitics. He was married in Philad elphia in 1907 to M is s S. Jane Barryman. M r and Mrs." Cook have three sons, Bayard S ., Jr., Dougla s and James. MR. AND MRS. DAVI.D C. COOK AND GEO .RGE E. COO K It was th e background of exper ience, rich and vari ed, which prompted Mrs. Marguerit e Cook to purchase and reser ve intact, f. or over twenty years, the favor ed beauty spot Pinel las P oint. This re markable w om an also retained for the City of St. Peter sburg a group of waterfront l ots which have been recently transformed into a city park. Without her keen foresigh t this natural city park might have been sold for commercial purp oses and forever marred the glorious waterfront of St. Petersburg Mrs. Marguerite Cook was the wife of David C. Cook, founder of the David C. Cook Publi s hing Compan y, one o f the largest p ublishers of Sunda y School periodical s in the world. She is the mother of George E. Cook, President o f the Murok Rea lty Corporation, St. Pete r sburg, Florida, and the mother of David C. Coo k Jr., of E lgin, Ill. The Cooks have been a family o f publisher s, known for nea rly fifty years. Their seco nd commercial consideration ha s been that of purc hasing out standing real estate in minois, Ca lifornia and Florida. It wa s but natu ral that George E. Cook, after selling his large publi shing interests in New York City, should come to Florida to cooperate with h is mother in the developmen t of her ex tensive h oldings in P inellas County. Pin ellas Co unty has well felt the influential and constr uctive touch of the per sonalities of David C. Cook, Marguerite Cook and t heir son, Georg e E. Cook.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 243 David C. Cook was born in East Worcester, New York, August 28, 1850, the son of Reverend Ezra S. Cook and Parmelia (Mills) Cook. Ezra Cook and his family left New York when David was a small child and settled on a farm near Wheaton, Ill. From Wheaton the family moved to Chicago, where David's father opened a small printing office. This was the beginning of the "Cook's" printing experience which was destined to carry on for years. Here little David learned to set type and worked as a printer's devil. At seventeen David taught Sunday School and became interested in religious work. He was fascinated with what was theit the new sewing machine and started out for himself building up for himself a considerable business. The Chicago fire of 1871 swept everything from him. This did not daunt the young man's courage and he immediately set up business again and took on his religious work more strenuously. In 1874 he married Marguerite Murat, who was born in Chicago in 1854, the daughter of Thomas Murat and Petience Jane (Evans) Murat. Mrs. Cook's father was born in Tallahassee, Florida. This marriage was a fortunate undertaking for David C. Cook. In Mr. Cook's religious work he saw the need of a Sunday School quarterly and therefore, with the aid of his wife, he launched his first publication caiJed "Our Sunday School Quarterly." It was a success. In 1875,.again with the help of his wife, he started his first paper, ".Our Sunday School Gem,': consistirtg of sixteen pages. Business g'rew steadily and the David C. Cook" Publishing Company was es tablished at Lakeview, Illinois, with David Cook as President and General Man ager, and Marguerite C
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244 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA California and purchased the Calmulos Rancho, the scene of Helen Hunt Jackson's "Ramona," Mrs. Cook encouraged her husband to visit Florida Here they es tablished their winter home. In Pinellas County, Florida, at the foot of Maximo Road, on the shores of beautiful Boca Ceiga Bay they found the famous Maximo Estate. They purchased it immediately for their winter home. Here among the semi-tropical flowers and plants they found peace and quiet. The home stands on the pre-historic serpentine shell mound which overlooks the glorious Gulf of Mexico. The ground slopes to the bay where a harbor graces the waterfront large enough to accommodate the Cook yachts The tropical and semi-tropical vegetation on the Cook Estate has been the study of many scientists. The serpentine shell mounds crossing the property have been explored by the Smithsonian Institute. Two pre-historic skeletons were un earthed in this mound and found perfectly preserved in mud plaster and fabric. Nowhere can one find a more beautiful semi-tropical setting, and again, in the purchase of this estate, one finds reflected the vision and love of beauty held by Mrs. Cook. With her own earnings Mrs. Cook made wise investments in Pinellas County real estate. In November 1906, she purchased Pinellas Point. She reserved this property for twenty years until her son, George E. Cook, came to St. Petersburg to cooperate with her in its development. The fact that today it is an exclusive residential park, dotted with beautiful homes, testifies to the practical foresight of this remarkable woman. Many years ago Mrs. Cook quietly acquired from time to time a group of close in waterfront lots in St. Petersburg, in the hope that the City Fathers would see the wisdom of making this beautiful shore line a great public park. She declined all offers for these lots for commercial purposes, determined that this lovely waterfront section should be made into a beautiful park for the benefit of the people of St. Petersburg. After years of unsatisfactory negotiations she finally decided to deed the park to the city for $15,000, which amount represented but a part of the original cost to her, plus taxes and assessments On February 17, 1911, at St. Petersburg, Florida, a paper was executed by G. W. Blodget, President of the City Council, and W. B. Pope, Chairman of the Waterfront Committee, of St. Petersburg. Both men signed the following agree ment regarding this park property Mrs. Cook had been holding for the city for many years. The document is as follows : "We, the City Counci l for the City of St. Petersburg, Florida, do hereby agree to pay to Mrs. Marguerite Cook for water lots 10, 11, 12, and the south half of 13, Revised Map of said City, the original cost to said Mrs. Cook, and interest at the rate of eight per cent rom date of purchase to this date. "And we further agree that said lots shall remain the property of the City of St. Petersburg forevermore, and shall be used for Public Park purposes only. Provided, that in case said lands are ever used for other purposes than Park pur poses for the said City of St. Petersburg, then said property shall revert back to the grantors."

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 247 With the property finally deeded, and her plans for beautification outlined to the City Fathers, Mrs. Cook trustfully believed that her vision would soon material ize. Yet, year after year, she has been forced to keep her watchful eyes on this park for fear some selfish faction would try to force through a scheme to com mercialize this beautiful waterfront and rob the people of their right. While carrying on her many interests in Florida, and developing her proper ties with her son, George E. Cook, she has remained active as Secretary of the David C. Cook Publi s hing Company and continues her work of editing its Begin ners, Primary and Junior publications David C. Cook, Sr., died on July 30, 1927. When the news of Mr. Cook's death flashed over the wires, responses came from all parts of the world There were scores of telegrams of condolence to Mrs. Cook and her two sons, George E., and David C., Jr. All stressed his work as a leader in Sunday School work; many emphasized traits of character which made hiin the great man that he was. George E. Cook, President of the M urok Realty Corporation of St. Peters burg, owners and developers of Pinellas Point Addition, is the elder son of David C. and Marguerit e Cook. His college education was followed by more than twenty-five years' activity in business, literary and inventive work, before he became head of the Murok Cor poration. George E. Cook devoted years to the scientific study and practical opera tion of oil wells and gold mines in California His experience as an engineer and superintendent of vast1nining ; Mr. Cook entered his father's employ as V:i& PreSident of the David C. Cook Publishing Company 'at Elgin, Illinois wher e be remained for more than seventeen years. He originated and did a vast amount of editorial work, devised arid ; e'stablishean'ced,:: merchandising methods and han dled much of the business detail of the concern. . One of his publications, "The Mother's reached a circulation of over 700,000 subscribers, and in this connection Mr. Cook developed one of the largest subscription sales organiza tions in the w orld. In 1917 Mr. Cook purchased "The Mother's Magazine" from the David C. Cook Publishing Company and moved to New York. In 1919 he sold the magazine, to become President of the Periodical Publishers' Service Bureau I nc., under which corporation he retained the sales organization of "The Mother's Mapzine,'' continuing to the magazine publishers of New York, Boston and Chicago. : In May of 19Uhe soid tlie liusiness to Hearst interests. During his year s of residence in York City, George E. Cook was a Na tional Counselor of the United States Chamber of Commerce, also a member of the Board of'Trade and Transportation of N ew York City. Since coming to Florida Mr. Cook has been a man of many interests. His main work has been in the development of Pinellas Point Addition which was called by Dr. Van Bibber, in his report before the American Medical Association, "the healthiest spot on earth." Mr. Cook has gone forward through all periods of business condition s and developed his property with forceful and constructive deli!M.-ration. He has not swerved from his course, and at Pinellas Point one finds now a residential park alive with home-building activity.

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24S HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, F L ORIDA George E Cook is a member of the Illinois Athletic C lub of Chicago; the Lawyers Club, Lotos Club Manhattan Club, all of New York City, and a member of various clubs in other parts of the country devoted to sports, politics, art and music, in all of which he takes a keen interest. Besides his active Presidency and General Management of the Murok Cor poration, which takes a considerable amount of his time, Mr. Cook is a Director in the American Bank and Trust Company, President of the Florida Mutual Build ing and Loan Association and interested in several other forms of business. He is a member of the Yacht Club and the University Club of St. Petersburg, and associated with many civic organizations The personalities of David C. Cook, Jr., Marguerite Cook and George E. Cook have touched deeply into the history of Pinellas County. S. f. COREY S. J. CoREY, of St. Petersburg, Chairman of the Board of County Commis sioners of Pinellas County, and President of the Foley-Corey Insurance Company one of the largest concerns of the k i nd in the county was born near Greenville, North Caro l ina, June 10, 1893, the son of J. H. and Sudie (Tucker) Corey. Both of his grandfathers were Confederate Veterans, serving their country gallantly and well Mr. Corey has won merited success in business and civic undertak i ngs since coming to St. Petersburg. He began his business career with the Seaboard .1\.ir Line Railway, being in the Traffic Department from 1914 until 1920, coming to St. Petersburg in 1916 as Commercial Agent for the road. He was the youngest man ever to hold this position, being on l y 23 years of age at the time He re signed this position in 1920, and the following year joined the Foley-Carter In surance Company as collector. He later bought an interest in the business, of which he is now President. This concern, it is claimed, is the l argest and oldest insurance agency in St. Petersburg Mr, Corey's personality, coupled with rare executive ability, and the desire to be helpful in all matters of a civic nature, have enabled him to forge to the front in a manner seldom equalled by one of his years. Aside from his duties as Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, he is Chairman of the Tax Revision Com mittee of the West Coast Association of County Commissioners, and is Chairman of the Committee of the State Association which is proposing to extend the term of office of county commissioners from two to four years Mr. Cor.ey was ;re elected County Commissioner in November, 1928, by the largest majority of any candidate, and the same was the case when he was nrst a candidate in 1926. He is an active member of the Chamber of Commerce, is Chairman of the Finance Board of the Methodist Church, is a Director of the Kiwanis Club and President of the St. Petersburg Motor Club belongs to the Y. M C. A the Izaak Walton League, and fraternally is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk. Mr. Corey was married at Braden t on to Miss Emma Anderson. They have three children: Norman, Jean and Dorothy Marie.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 2S1 ARTHUR TEMPLE CORNWELL ARTHUR TEMPLE CoRNWELL, Rector of the Church of the Asoension (Epis copal) at Clearwater, and extensive property owner and developer, was born at Bayonne, N ]., October 27, 1873, the son of Arthur Temple and Catherine De Coudress (Allaire) Cornwell. He is a descendant of Wm. Cornwell, who came to Middletown, Conn with Thomas Hooker about 1630. His mother was a descend ant of Pierre Allai r e the Huguenot, who came to New Rochelle, N. Y., from Rochelle France, after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Mr. Cornwell accompanied his parents to Florida when a lad of eleven years, his father coming to the State for his health. They first located at Tarpon Springs in 1884, later going to Bradenton, where his father was the city's first Mayor and also served as County Commissioner, member of the Board of Public Instruction and Judge of the County Court Judge Cornwell, who died June 30 1928, was responsible for the establishment of Manatee County's first schools, and the orig inal development of Bradenton was largely due to him. Mr. Cornwell, before entering the min i stry of the Episcopal Church, was for nineteen years in the newspaper business. In 1891 his father purchased the Manatee River Journal, a twenty-four-column week l y newspaper of 300 circulation, and for nine years he was Editor and General Manager of the publication. He continued in the newspaper business for nineteen years, and then entered the Episcopal ministry. Since July 1, 1920, Mr. Cornwell has been Rector of the Church of the Ascen sion, planning and building the present white-stone, Gothic edifice He has seen the West Coast section of Florida emerge from its crude state of forty years ago; has seen the building of its modem cities and towns and miles of paved highways connecting them with each other and with every metropolis of the North. Mr. Cornwell is fraternally affiliated with the Masons, having served the Bradenton lodge as Master. He was married in Bradenton in 1898 to Miss Holly Murphy, daughter of G. Mlll'phy, widely known cattle owner. Mr. and Mrs. Cornwell have three daughters : Mrs. Ellene Stanley Chestnut, whose husband is teller in the Guarantee Abstract and Trust Co., at Clearwater; Mrs. Emma Brumby, wife of]. R. Brumby, General Manager of the Greensbpro (N.C.) Evening Record and Mrs. Elizabeth Ficht, of Clearwater. CALVIN COUNTRYMAN CALVIN CouNTRYMAN was born March 11, 1844, in Herkimer County, New York, the son of Daniel and Sally (Phillips) Countryman. His ancestors, who lived in Germany, were driven out of that country because of their religious belief, and went to Holland. From there they immigrated to the United States, and it was in this country his parents were born Mr. Countryman, who was long a prominent citizen of Illinois, where he was a farmer on a large scale and also conducted a wholesale fruit and vegetable busi ness, spent eighteen winters in St. Petersburg, where he was a property owner, buying a home on Beach Drive when, that thoroughfare was but a sand track. He had a flower and vegetable garden, which was a real show place, devoting much of

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252 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA his time to his gardening operations. He took great deligh t in seeing things grow, and was a l so an ardent fisherman. In these diversions he spent his winters most happily, enjoying also the comradeship of many friends from his o l d home in Rock ford, Illinois, his home being the meeting place of sixty or seventy of his former neighbors who spent the winter seasons in St. Petersburg. Not being able to divorce himself entirely from active business, Mr. Country man bought citrus fruit in carload lots, shipping same to Rockford where his whole sale house, conducted by his sons, distributed it to the retailers When Mr. Coun tryman first came to St Petersburg he bought two lots on Tenth Avenue North and Beach Drive, on one of which he erected a residence. Another real estate in vestment was the purchase of the Arcade Hotel, which he owned for nine years, selling later to the Harrison-Powell Company to be used as an addition to their hardware business. Mr. Countryman was a regular attendant of the Methodist Church of Rock ford, Ill. He was twice married, his first wife, Miss Abbie S lafter, dying in 1887. They had four children: Cora Almeda (Mrs. Walter Boyle), Charles Millard, Della Viola (Mrs. 0. L. Shaw) and Howard D. On April 24, 1895, he was mar ried to Miss Anna R. Slafter of Dedham, Mass. Mr. Coun t ryman died April 22, 1927 at Rockford, Ill., after spending the prev i ous winter in St. Petersburg. His widow still resides in Rockford, Ill JAMES BREWER CRANE }AMES BREWER CRANE, wellknown and progressive business man of St. Peters burg, agent for the Packard and Hupmobile automobiles, was born in Westfield Mass. December 13, 1886, the son of James Arthur and Clara (Kittredge) Crane He is related to t he Cranes, of Dalton, Mass., who established the first paper mill in Western Massachusetts, furnishing the Government with paper for United States currency, and second cousin to Winthrop Murray Crane Governor and U. S. Senator from Massachusetts After attending the public schools of Westfield, Mr. Crane graduated in 1906 from St. Paul's School at Concord, N H., and later studied engineering at Yale. Prior to locating in St. Petersburg in 1921, Mr. Crane spent eleven years at Sussex and St. John, New Brunswick, Canada with the McL aughlin-Buick Co. Mr. Crane was a salesman for the Warner Cary Co., selling Packard cars for the first two years he was in St. Petersburg, at the end of which time Mr Crane became a member of the firm, which operated under the name of the Cary Crane Co. In 1926 Mr. Crane sold his interest in the business and formed a partnership with Harold Miller, incorporating as the P ackard-St Petersburg Co. handling only Packard cars until August, 1928, when they a l so became agents for t h e Hupmobile. Mr. Crane saw active service overseas during the World War with the 301st Engin e ers. He is a member of the American Legion, attends St. Peters Episcopal Church and fraternally is a Shriner and an Elk He was married November 18, 1909, in New York City, to Miss Georgia Mildr.ed Walters, of New H aven Conn. Mr. and Mrs. Crane have two sons, Nathan James and Donald Brewer

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 253 WILLIAM CRAWFORD WILLIAM CRA Wl'ORD, successful banker of St. Petersburg, was born in Hen derson, Kentucky, September 2, 1892. Though yet a young man, he has had a remarkable career, an engaging personality coupled with unusual aggressive ability, having enabled him to forge rapidly to the front in the financial world. Educated in the schools of his native State, he held various positions before entering upon his banking career in his home city, where he was connected with the Henderson County Savings Bank. He came to St. Petersburg in 1918, and although he knew no one, he landed a job in twenty minutes after his arrival. He was first with the Central National Bank, later going with the "Florida Bank of St. Petersburg," as cashier. '!'his institution was later bought by the First Na tional Bank, and Mr. Crawford was with that concern for some time. He next became Assistant Cashier of the American Bank and Trust Company. When the Ninth Street Bank was organized he was made Assistant Cashier, and after seven months was elected Cashier. In January, 1928, he was elected Vice-President. When Mr. Crawford became first identified with the Ninth Street Bank it had deposits of $53,000. At the close of that year it had $219,000 on deposit, and at the end of the past year, 1928, it had deposits of $2,250,000 and to Mr Crawford goes a large share of the credit for its wonderful growth A fine new building was erected by the bank in 1927, which is one of the finest of the kind in St. Petersburg. Mr. Crawford is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and one of its Board of Governors, belongs to the Kiwanis Club and is a Mason and a Shriner. HERMAN ANSON DANN HERMAN ANsON DANN, whose large business enterprises have been signally successful, and who has wielded an influence which has resulted in a Greater St. Petersburg and a Greater Florida, can well be proud of his achievements of the past seventeen years as a citizen of St. Petersburg. His financial success has en abled him to be of great value to the State, his progressive ideas and tireless ener gies always being exerted on behalf of any forward movement, and particularly has he been an effective force in the development of the city As a Director of the Seaboard Air. Line Railway he is in a position to be of valuable service to all Florida, and he has demonstrated his ability to serve on many occasions, to the satisfaction of all concerned. Mr. Dann is a native of Pennsylvania, born at Titusville, September 18, 1889 the son of Phillip and Ida (Meeks) Dann. His parents are now residents of St. Petersburg, having resided there for many years. Mr. Dann was educated in the schools of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1912 from LaFayette College with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. He came to St. Petersburg in that year, since which time he has been largely interested in the building supply business, being at the present time President of Dann-Gerow & Co., which is the largest concern handling building supplies in St. Petersburg. Mr. Dann's first business connection in St. Petersburg was with the St. Petersburg Investment Company. He severed his connection therewith in 1914 to become owner of the controlling interest in the Southern Construction Company,

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254 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA of which he was made President. Extending his holdings as a result of increased business, due to excellent management and superior service, he bought the building supply business of W. S. McCrea & Son in 1916, which he incorporated under the firm name of Dann-Gerow Co., Inc. A tremendous retail business in all kinds of building supplies is handled by this firm, which is one of the big enterprises of Pinellas County. Mr. Dann, while a man of large affairs, has a deep and abiding interest in civic matters, and has given unstinted l y of his time and means to the betterment of conditions. Always a worker to be depended upon in St. Petersburg, his scope of usefulness was increased when he served for four years as President of the State Chamber of Commerce. He still occupies an official position with the State or ganization, being a member of its Executive Committee and Board of Directors. Mr. Dann is a member of the National Counci l of State Legislatures, being one of four men from Florida in the body. He is Director for Florida of the Na tional Rivers and Harbors Congress, an organization largely responsible for the passage of the bill giving Federal aid for flood control and navigation in the Okee chobee basin, which was passed during the 1929 short session of Congress. Mr. Dann has served as President of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, and is now one of its Board of Directors. He is exPresident of the St. Petersburg Tarpon Club; ex-President of the Rotary Club; is a Director of the Central National Bank of St. Petersburg, and, as stated above, is a Director of the Seaboard Air Line Railway. He is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk. Mr. Dann and Miss Helen Thomasson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Thomasson, prominent residents of St. Petersburg, were united in marriage in 1916. They have three children, Phoebe, Phillip and Nancy. ERNEST F. DAVIS ERNEST F. DAVIS, one of the ablest attorneys of St. Petersburg, whose comprehensive knowledge of the Ia w has gained for him widespread recognition was born in Brockton Massachusetts, July ao, 1892, the son of Frank H. and Abbie H. (Peterson) Davis. Mr. Davis received his education in the schools of Massachusetts, Clark Uni versity and the Boston University Law School. His ability, coupled a genial personality, won him signal honors early in life, being elected to the Massachusetts Legislature when but twenty-two years of age This was indeed a vote of confi dence and an expression of the high esteem in which Mr. Davis was held, as he was a Democrat from a Republican district. In 19 15; Mr. Davis removed to Oklahoma, where he resumed his professional studies in the University of Oklahoma, and the Oklahoma City University Law School, where he graduated with an LL.B. degree, being admitted to the Oklahoma bar in June, 1916. In October of the same year he returned to his former home in Massachusetts, where he began the practice of his profession. In May, 1917 Mr. Davis enlisted in the national army at Fort Slocum, and was soon transferred to the Officers' Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison . Indiana. Later he was a non-commissioned officer at Camp Custer, Battle Creeli:;

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 255 Michigan and received his honorable di sch arge December 24, 1917, on account of disability received in the line of duty. He came to Florida in search of health, and located at St. Petersburg in February, 1918. Here he has built up a splendid practice and has affiliated himself with all movemen t s of a progressive nature, being one of the city's most highly esteemed and valued citizens, and one who ranks in the forefront of his profession. Mr. Davis is a member of the Pinellas County Bar Association, belongs to the Commercia l Law League of America, the St. Petersburg Chamber of Com merce, and fraternally is an Elk, a Mason, Royal Arch, Knight Templar, Shriner and has serve d on the legal committee of Selama Grotto. He is also a member of the Woodmen of the World, and the American Legion, having se rved as adjutant of the St. Petersburg P ost. Mr. Davis is a member of the Y. M. C. A. and the First Avenue Methodis t Church. He was married July 6, 1920, to Miss Alice L. Higgs, of Trivoli, Illinois. JOSEPHS. DAVIS } OSEPH S. DAvis oldest practicing attorney in point of practice in St. Peters burg, and one who had an important part in the formation of Pinella s County, was born in Pendleton, Madison County, Indiana, December 16, 1867, the son of Gideon C. and Martha A. Davis. Mr. Davis was reared in Nebraska attending the schools of that State, and studied law in the office of Nellis E. Corthell, at Laramie, Wyoming, and later with B. S. Baker, U. S. District Attorney of Fairbury and Omaha, He was admitted to the bar in Nebraska in 1893. After qualifying as a lawyer, he was for several years connected with the Unio n Pacinc Railroad as a stenographer in the Ma ste r Mechanic's and Superintendent s offices. He was also in the typeWTiter business, being manager for the Smith Premier Typewriter Company at Mil waukee. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1906 Mr. Davis opened law offices, specializing on chancery, titles and probate work. He has had a leading part in county affairs, having been attorney for the Board of County Commissioners for fourteen years, during which period all the roads and bridges of importance were built, the present Court House, County Home, County Fair A ssoci ation and other important under takings consummated. He was respon sible in large measure, for the passage of the No-Fence Law in Florida; and has in many ways been a constructive upbuilder oi not only St. Petersburg and Pinellas County but the State as a whole. In a ddition to his Jaw practice Mr. Davis has been prominently identified with other business interests of St. Peter s burg, having been director f o r some years of the Citizens Ice & Cold Storage Co., and the West Coast Title Company. Mr. Davis is a Mason, a member of the First Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, the Young Men's Christian A ssocia tion, and has also served as a member o f the Board of Direct ors of the Young Men's Christian Association, and Trustee of the Young Women's Christian Association

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256 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Davis and Miss Nellie M Vanderbeck of Pocatello, Idaho, were married in June, 1894, and their children are Loren V., Joseph W., Harold G., Vivian L and Carl M. J. W. DAVIS J W. DAvrs, County Supervisor of Registration, whose genial manner and efficient management of his office have gained him the hearty support of both po litical parties in Pinellas County, being one of the few Democrats to win out in the 1928 election is a native Floridian, born in Madison County, April 22, 1879, the son of Robert T and Emeline Davis. His father was an Alabamian, his mother a Floridian After engaging in farming and in the mercantile business for many years in Madison County, Mr. Davis moved to Pinellas County in 1919, settling at Largo, where he engaged in the hotel business. The following year he moved to Clear water where he has since conducted a very successful boarding house Mr Davis became Supervisor of Registration in July 1924, at which time he was appoi nted by Governor Hardee to fill an unexpired term. He has since been twice elected to this important office. When he first entered upon his duties, in 1924, there were 26 Districts, and there are now 54 Districts. There are about 25,000 voters registered now-about double the number there was when he took office. At that time the books contained merely the names of the voters, without their addresses Mr. Davis has installed a very complete card filing system with both names and addresses of the voters, thus being able to give all information neces sary on a moment's notice. Before coming to Pinellas County, Mr Davis served for two years as Treas urer of Madison County. He was married in Alachua County to Miss Lizzie E Hamilton. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have three daughters, Gladys Myrna and Marjorie JUDGE ORVIL L. DAYTON j uDGJ> 0RVILL. DAYTON was born in Cook County, Texas, July 29, 1 878, the son of Aaron 0 and Mary (Shepard) Dayton. His artcestors were from England and early settled at Elizabe t h, New Jersey. He had three uncles who figured promi nently in their day, one being a rector of Trinity Church in New York City for forty years ; another a general in the Revolutionary War and a signer of the Con stitution, while the third was Secretary of State Judge Dayton, who was appointed Circuit Judge of the district comprised by Pinellas and Pasco counties, was a pioneer settler of the latter county, coming to Dade City in 1893 where he has since been a prominent and leading figure, having been mayor of Dade City for five different terms Judge Dayton was admitted to the bar in 1899. Before he was of age he was nominated County Judge of Pasco County, taking office january 1, 1900, holding same for four years. In 190:4 he was elected clerk of the Circuit Court, holding this office for four years and from 1908 until 1916 he was prosecuting attorney of the county and for eleven years thereafter County Judge As this term expired he was appointed Circuit Judge, and thus has his busy legal career been filled with honor after honor heaped upon him by his constituents--a triumphal advancement, whi c h has been more than merited, his ability placing him in the front ranks of his profession.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL . . 259'. . . : During the World War he was Captain and Major of the O>unty Guards; was chairman of the Speakers' Bureau; Chairman of Draft Registration, and other." wise active. Judge Dayton is a member of the Baptist Church and a member of the Board of Deacons. He is a Mason, being past Worshipful Master at Dade City, and is Worthy Patron of the Eastern Star. He is a Modern Woodman of the World, a Shriner Knight of Pythias, Elk, a Moose and a Redman. Judge Dayton was married to Miss Ella M. Goshorn, of Dade City, on june 22, 1902. They have two sons, 0. L., Jr., and George C. Both young men are stu dents at Mercer University. Mrs. Dayton is very active in club work, being a leading member of the Woman's and Sorosis clubs of Dade City." ELBRIDGE GERRY DEANE ELBRIDGE GERRY DF.ANE, who has a long record of brilliant achievement as a mining engineer, but who is now engaged in business at St. Petersburg as repre sentative of the New York Life Insurance Company, was born in Buffalo, New York, August 7 1879, the son of Elisha C. and Sarah Phoebe (Dakin) Deane. Mr. Deane is a direct descendant of Col. James Barrett, commander of the Minute Men at Concord, Massachusetts, during the Revolutionary War. After attendi ng the schools of Buffalo, Mr Deane graduated from the Michi gan College of Mines in 1901, with the degree of E.M. His first position was with the Oliver Iron Mining Co., of Ely, Minnesota, as assistant engineer. He was later chief engineer of the Chandler Iron Co. of Ely, and held a similar position with the Newport and Anvil Mines, of Ironwood, Minnesota. Subsequently, Mr. Deane became chief mining engineer of the Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation, of Peru, and upon his return to the States held the same pos ition with the Inspirati on Consolidated Copper Co. at Miami, Arizona. Other mining corporations with which Mr. Deane was associated was the Miami Copper Co., of Miami, Arizona, and the Superior and Boston Copper Co., of Cop per Hill, Arizona, of which he was manager. Mr. Deane's thorough technical knowledge and years of experience placed him in the forefront of his profession; his public spirited interest in community affairs wherever he has lived has made -him a valuable citizen, and though a resi dent oi St. Petersburg but little more than a year, he has demonstrated his int erest in the city and his desire to be helpful by assisting in Y. M. C A. and other welfare work. While a resident of Arizona, Mr. Deane was prominently identified with the municipal affairs of Miami, having serve d as Mayor of the city and was a member of the city council. He was also school trustee of O>pper Hill, Arizona, for a number of years, and has always been an active and leading force in all ch arit y and community welfare work, holding office in various organizations of the kind before coming to St. Petersburg. Mr. Deane is a member of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, is an honorary member of the Rotary Club, of Globe, Arizona, and is a Tau Beta Pi, an honorary college fraternity, membership in which is limited to those of very high scholarship.

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260 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Fraternally, Mr. Deane is affiliated with the Elks and Masons, being a mem ber of Arizona Consistory No. 1, Scottish Rite, Tucson, Arizona. He was the first Mason to be rnised in Doric Lodge in Miami, Arizona. He is a member of El Zaribah Temple, Order of the Mystic Shrine, Phoenix, Arizona . Mr. Deane was married at Elk River, Minnesota, on June 11, 190'7, to Miss Camille Henton. They have one daughter, Flora Lee. A. N. DILLARD A. N. DILLARD, large and successful grower and shipper of citrus fruits, has 150 acres of bearing groves i n Pinellas County, one grove being at Dunedin and five in the Largo section. During his eleven years on the West Coast he has made an outstanding success, being the fourth largest grower in Pinellas County. Mr. Dillard is a native Floridian, born at Ocala, December '7, 1888, the son of Simon and Elizabeth Dillard. His father, who was originally from South Caro lina, was a merchant at Summerfield, in Marion County. Mr. Dillard was always attracted to the fruit business, having, in early man hood, spent three years at For t Myers where he packed fruit. Later he was an Atlantic Coast Line conductor, but he finally left the road and for seven years was in the vegetable business at Fort Lauderdale, where he a lso handled peaches on a large scale. In 1909-10 Mr. Dillard was employed by the U. S. Government to instruct growers of Maryland in the packing of peaches, working under the direction of the Department of Agriculture. His wide experience in the fruit business has given him an inside knowledge of the business from every standpoint and particularly is he versed in the shipping end. He markets all of his own fruit, shipping '75 per cent of his output to the northwest Pacific coast. Mr. Dillard is a director of the Tavares & Gulf Railroad; is a member of the City Commission of Clearwater; President of the Clearwater Motor Club; a mem ber of the Kiwanis Club, and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married at Clear water to Miss Elsie Hast, a native of that city. They have two daughters, Eliza beth and Isabel. HAMILTON DISSTON HAMILTON DISSTON, Philadelphia capitalist, one of the outstanding figures in Florida hist ory and in the history of Pinellas County, whose initial investment of one million dollars in Florida lands in May, 1881, placed the State on a sound financial footing, is a citizen whose name will ever be inscribed on the pages of Florida's history as one of the State's first and greatest developers Mr. Disston who was a saw manufacturer of Philadelphia, made a proposition to the State of Florida in 1881 to undertake the drainage of lands from the upper Kissimmee River to the Everglades, and from Lake Okeechobee westward to the Gulf, and to receive as compensation half the reclaimed lands. Negotiations with the Governor and his cabinet resulted in an agreement to sell Mr. Disston and his associates four million acres of swamp and overflowed lands at 25 cents per acre. Mr. Disston and his associates made a first payment to the State in 1881 of $500, -

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 261 000, practically all of which was in currency and the remainder oJ the million dol lars was paid into the public treasury by the close of 1882. Mr, Disston, through his Florida representative, Col. Isaac Coreyell, put steam dredges to work in the region of Lake Okeechobee in December, 1882, and thus was the initial work of draining the Everglades begun. On the 4,000,000 acres of land bought by Mr. Disston, many settlers had squat ted, planted orange groves, and in his magnamimous spirit, which characterized his actions at all times, he allowed the settlers to remain, authorizing the State to issue them deeds, and thus the settlers came into good titles, without the necessity of paying for their homes. Mr. Disston, with his brother, Jacob Disston, became interested in the west coast of Florida, and founded Disston City, now known as Gulfport. Forty thou sand acres of land were bought which included Disston City. The early develop ment work of Mr. Disston and associates in Pinellas County formed the solid foun dation on which has been reared the Greater City of St. Petersburg and its en virons. Mr. Disston, who died some years ago, goes down in history as the pioneer who blazed the way, the Saviour of the State, a man who did much for Florida, and for Pinellas County in particular, where his name will ever be linked with the early history of St. Petersburg, Disston City, Tarpon Springs and other adjacent communities. E. ALFORD DO NOV AN E. ALFORD DoNOVAN, head of the firm of Donovan & Sons, who have been among St . Petersburg's largest and most prominent real estate developers, among the originators of the causeway and the active men who made it possible, have in their Lake Passadena sub-division given to St. Petersburg one of its most attrac tive and most beautiful residential developments. In these large undertakings, Mr. Donovan has been the moving spirit, the directing head being ably assisted by his two sons, who are among the city's best-posted and public-spirited realtors, of marked business ability Mr. Donovan was born in Philadelphia, March 1, 1867, the son of Thomas Valentine and Mary Elizabeth (Buckwalter) Donovan. His maternal ancestors came from Holland, and his paternal ancestors came over with Lord Baltimore. During the Civil War his father was a member of the 68th Pennsylvania Volun teers. He was a consulting mechanical engineer with the Baltimore Locomotive Railroad, and took the original equipment for the first railroad in Cuba to that country, operating there as a master mechanic for ten years. Mr. Donovan came to St. Petersburg in 1916, and was at first connected with the St. Petersburg Investment Company, later establishing his own firm, operating as Donovan & Divine. Three years later he bought the interests of Mr. Divine, and the firm became Donovan & Son. Later another son came into the firm and it is now known as Donovan & Sons. Their two main developments have been Interbay and Lake Passadena, the latter a large area of 160 acres, 75 of which was swamp, was dredged, filled in, and is now a place of marvelous beauty with lovely homes.

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. 262 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Donovan is a member of the Realtors' Association, and fraternally is an Elk, being Past Exalted Ruler of the St. Petersburg lodge. He is also a Mason, and worships at the Methodist Church. Mr. Donovan was married in November, 1889, to Miss Salley E. Unruch, of Philadelphia. Their children are Thomas Val entine, Edna May (Mrs. A. C. Beers), Elsie J. (Mrs. Hanwell), Walter H. K., besides which he has sixteen grandchildren, all of whom live in St. Petersburg. WALTER H. DONOVAN WALTER H. DoNOVAN, prominent in civic affairs of St. Petersburg, and in terested in the subdivisions of Inter Bay and Lake Passadena, which are among the city's outstanding developments, has been a citizen of St. Petersburg for twelve years, and during that time has shown his faith in the community by his works. Mr. Donovan was born in Philadelphia, July 9, 1896, the son of Alford and Elizabeth (Unruch) Donovan. His mother's family were from Germany, and were among the first settlers of Germantown, Pa. His father's ancestors carne from . Wales and Holland. His great-grandfather and also his grandfather were both connected with the Baldwin Locomotive Works. The latter was traveling erector for the company, and was Master Mechanic in charge of the manufacture and in stallment of equipment used to build the first railroad in Cuba. Both of his grand parents were volunteers in the Civil War. From 1915 until 1917, Mr. Donovan engaged in farming in New Jersey, corn ing to St. Petersburg in the winter of the latter year. So pleased was he with the etty's possibilities and opportunities offered that he returned the following year, and has since been among the city's leading developers. He has confined his operations to the west-central section of St. Petersburg, believing firmly in the future of the beaches. He was very active in securing the causeway to the keys. Mr. Donovan is chairman of the Associated Charities of St. Petersburg; a member of the American Legion; Jungle Country Club; the Civitan Club; the Chamber of Commerce, and is president of the Business Men's League of the Chamber of Commerce. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masons and Elks. Mr. Donovan was married January 1, 1920, to Miss Susie W. Smith. Mrs. Dono van is a member of the Ladies' Civitan Club, and the Passadena Woman's Club. Mr. and Mrs. Donovan have two sons, John Smith and Walter H. Enlisted in World War, stationed at Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania, unattached, discharged December 10, 1918. CHARLES DUBOIS CHARLES DuBots, president of the St. Petersburg Association of General Contractors, and prominent builder of St. Petersburg, was born at Jamaica, Long Island, New York, in 1854, the son of Louis and Marie (Tugnott) DuBois. His ancestors came to this country about three hundred and fifty years ago from Hol land, where they had gone from France during the Reign of Terror. Mr. DuBois was reared in Duval County, Florida, and educated in the public schools of the state. He engaged in the building business in 1884, and built many large and pretentious structures throughout the South. He was superintendent for

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265 PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL the Seldon-Breck Co. of St. Louis and the buildings which he has erected in various ci t ies include the Sterward Dry Good s Co., Louisvill e Kentucky, and the Paul Jones Building in the same city, the L. & N. freight depot at Birmingham, the Commercial Appeal Building in Memphis, and the Oliver-Finney Building in the same city. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. DuBois has built the Northern Ho tel, the Vogel Apartments, Jennie Barf Apartments, the DeVoe Apartment s, Ferris Apartments, the Elks Club, the Sunset Hotel, the Municipal Power plant, the Jungbluth residence, the Kierumsted residence, and a number of others. While president of the Mutual Company he constructed the seawall at Bay boro harbor, also the seawall along the north water front, the Municipal gas plant and Incinerator. Since com ing to St. Petersburg in 191 0, Mr. DuBois has given l ibera.lly of his time, energies and means to the development o f the city. He has served as a mem ber o f the Board of Governors of the Chamber of Commerce, during which time he was Chairman of the Port Committee, and was instrumental in getting the port establi s hed in St. Petersburg. Mr. DuBois is prominent in Elkdom, having served as Exalted Ruler in 1928. He is also affiliated with the Odd Fellows. Mr. DuBois and Mrs. Nellie Holloway of Steuben ville, Ohio, were married in 1911. They have three daughters, Mary, Georgia, and Iris. EDGAR HART DUNN EDGAR HART DuNN, engaged in the practice of law in St. Petersburg for the past ten years, was born in Murray, Kentucky November 15, 1888, the son of Clinton and D. Ellen (Hart) Dunn. Through his maternal ancestors he was connected with the colony of Harts who at one time owned large sections of east ern Kentucky. His paternal ancest o rs were from Ireland migrating later to Eng land, thence to the United States, where they settled in Virginia and the Caro lina s, later moving to Tennessee and Kentucky. After receiving his high school education Mr. Dunn later attended Valparaiso University for two years and also the Oklahoma State School. In 1913 he gradu ated in law from the University of Kentucky, and for some time practiced his pro fession at Haza rd, Kentucky, coming to F l orida in July, 1919, at which time he located at St. Petersburg, being associated in the practice of law with Judge Wil lia1p King. Later he established the firm of Dunn, Agee and Byron, which firm was in existence for three years. For the past two years Mr. Dunn has operated independent .ly, specializing in land titles, land liquidations and corporation work, in which he is a recognized authority. In 1924 he was City Judge and he is an ex-president of the Civitan Qub. During the war he was Chairman of the Draft Board in Kentucky. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, the Cham be r of Commerce and is a Mason and an Odd Fellow. Mr. Dunn was married June 6, 1912, t o Miss Mary F. Rollins of Glenrock, Wyoming. They have five children, Kathleen Lee, Marjorie Ellen, Carolyn Edna, Edgar H., Jr., and Hunter R.

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266 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA MRS. LOIS DUNNING MRS. LoiS DuNNING, world-famous painter, whose artistic skill in portrait and landscape work has gained for her the plaudits of art critics both in the United States and in Europe, and whose paintings grace the walls of many homes in this country whose owners are financial leaders of the nation, was born in Belfast, Maine, July 29, 1847 the daughter of Isaac Thompson and Mary Anna (Brown) Morrison. Her great-grandfather Mills was killed at the Ba ttle of Bunker Hill, and was the last white man killed with General Warren. Her grandmother, Lois Brown, was the first child born in Wayside Inn, Sudbury, Massachusetts. Her father was an artist of Medford, Massachusetts. Mrs. Dunning, who has been a resident of St. Petersburg for the past twelve years, was educated in the schools of Medford, Massachusetts, where, as a child, she showed remarkable artistic ability. Her first painting, after she became a pro fessional, was of Governor King, the first Governor of Maine, for the Soler Lodge of Mas0 ns, and she also painted Governor Dunlap for the Commandery, both of Bath, Maine. She also painted many other life-size portraits while in Maine. Aniong the portraits she painted in New York City were those of Hon. John D. Townsend, noted criminal lawyer; two portraits of May Robson, well-known actress; Henry Renard, owner of a large departm ent store; Richard Croker, leader of Tanunany, and while abroad painted the portrait of Miss Dorothy Culver, daughter of the American Consul, Queenstown, Ireland, and also the portrait of H. Gordon Selfridge, world-renowned department store owner of London She was manager and designer for the Singer Sewing Machine Company, 929 Broadway, New York City, in 1892, designing their World's Fair exhib it in Chicago. She designed lace m aking on a sewing machine without any attachment or pressure, foot or feed. On account qf her ability as an artist and designer, she was selected as manager of Louise & Co., then the greatest millinery establishment in the world, at a good salary, in which capacity she served for a short time, and then returned to her first love--painting. After a successful career as a portrait and l andscape painter of New York, Mrs. Dunning went to Chicago in 1895 where for many years she was prominent in art and literary circles, being a mem ber of the Culture Club, the National Society of Associated Arts, 11 leading mem ber for many years of the Chicago-Shakespeare Club, a member of the Arkay Club and of the Lois Dunning Arts Club, which was named for her. She had her studio in the old "Tree Building" in Chicago, the home of noted artists, and also in the Badger Building, where she entertained the above named clubs. She has done much painting for many of the leading business concerns of America, having painted three beautiful screens for the windows of Marshall Field & Co. of Chicago, on the occasion of the ir first great opening; also painted the decorations for the opening of Chas. A. Stevens & Co., Chicago, and the open ing decorations for the stores of Mandell & Co., and Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., of Chicago. In 1906, Mrs. :Marguerita Warren Springer, of Chicago, sent her to Irel'and to paint a landscape, whi-ch required four months. After completing this picture, she made a tour of eleven countries of Europe, painting and studying the famous

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 271 works of art in the various countries visited, traveling over England and Ireland on a bicycle. While at Stratford-on-Avon, she painted the picture of Marie Cor relli which now hangs in the stUdio of Mrs. 517 Third Street, South, St. Petersburg, the only painting of this famous writer in existence. While in London she designed the decorations used by the famous Selfridge Department Store at their opening, and among her paintings made while abroad, and which are in her St. Petersburg home, are the Entrance to Monk's Castle, opposite Queenstown, Ireland the boyhood home of Bernard Shaw; Mount Etna; Blarney Castle; 'War wick Castle and the church at Stratford-on-Avon where Shakespeare is buried. Mrs. Dunning is a member of the Echo Club, of St. Petersburg, one of the first members of the Booster Club, and a director. Also a member of the Woman's Club. She was married July 29, 1864, to Cyrus Woodman Dunning, deceased. Their children are Emma Mabel (Mrs. John Wm. Page), Daisy DeweY (Mrs. W. C. Thompson), and Harold Raphael. Since coming to St. Pet ersburg, Mrs. Dunning has done much Jandscal(lwer Tract Society", whiCh land is now in the city limits o( St. Petersburg. Mr. Durant followed various occupations after coming to St. Petersburg, finally starting a bakery, the first in the village He eventually became the owner ' .

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272 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA of the St. Pet ersburg Novelty Work s in which his widow still owns a large in t erest (his heirs hav ing the controlling interest in the concern), which is one of the county's largest busine s s enterprises. Mr. Durant engaged in the citrus business in the early days and was the first to plant a grov e on thdlat w oods land in P inella s County. He erected the first building on the present site of t he handsome new Snell A r cade, where his bakery business was located for many years. He was in the bakery, candy, and cracker busine ss in the North before coming to Florida. Mr. Durant also conducted a gen eral insurance business. M r Durant was a member of the City Council in the early days. He was married in England to Miss Jennie Ruffle, five children were born to this union, three o f which are li v ing, Fred of Jacksonville, Mrs. Eva A. Shirah of Tampa, and Edward of St. Petersburg. Mrs Durant was a member of the Woman's Town Im provement Society which was responsible for the first board sidewalks which were placed on Centra l Avenue from Ninth Street to Fourth Street-a great re lief to pedestrians who, until t hen, had to traverse deep sand stretches in going from one p la ce of business to another. Mrs. Dura nt who is 83 years of age, is wonderfully preserved for her age, being active of body and alert of m ind. She r eca ll s many interesting incident s of the early pioneer days, and s tates that she supplied bread to people then who cou l d not get it elsewhere. Mr. Durant, who lived to be 83 years of age, died in St. Peter sburg July 13, 1926. KITTY-CLYDE EAST KIT1'Y-CLYD EAsT, who has conducted a School of Classical Dancing in St. Petersburg sinc e 1922, and whose a rtistic ability as a performer and as an origi nator and composer of dances and ballets has won -her fame throughout the coun try, is a Tennessean by birth, born in Knoxville, the daughter of James Dickson and Lelia Lee (Tinsley) East She was named for a Civil War song, "Sweet Kitt y-Clyde". She is descended from the Lee family of Virginia on her maternal side, and inherits her arti s ti c talent s from her mother, who wa s herself a very talented artist. Miss East attended Interm on t College at Bristol, Virginia, four years, and graduated from the Musical Department of that institution Before coming t o St. Petersburg she filled dancing engagements in moving pictures, at the Fox and other studios. Miss East has had a l arge following in St. Petersbur g since the establishment of her School of Classica l Dancing her national reputation and h e r artistic work, gained through her wide study of dancing in the best schools of th e United States and E urope, rend e ring her an accomplished aut hority in her profession. All o f her work is origin al. During the World War she was an enterta i ner for the soldiers on warships, being in active service for several months. She is a membe r of the Daughters of the Confede racy, the Carreno Club, the Art Club, S nell Isle Golf C lu b, Three Arts Club, of New Ylprk City, Sunshine City Players, Three Arts Club, London, British-American Y. W. C. A. and Episcopal Church.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 275 GEORGE EDWARDS GEORGE Eow ARos, beloved pioneer citizen of St. Petersburg, was born in Wales in 1853, coming to the United States w i th his parents when nearly five years of age. Until he was thirty he lived in Winchendon, Massachusetts, Worcester Academy, Worcester, Massachusetts, and largely through his own efforts he se cured an education, being doubly orphaned when a lad of nine years. Mr. Edwards was a painter and decorator in his younger days, following this trade for a number of years. In 1883, the health of his wife demanding a change to a milder climate, they came to Florida and Mr. Edwards took up a homestead in Hernando County In 1889, having traveled over the State on an inspection tour, Mr. Edwards decided that St. Petersburg offered more than any other point in the State as a place in which to rear and educate a family, and he moved there in order to give h i s children better school advantages. At the time he located in St. Petersburg Mr. Edwards bought the lot on which the Phiet Hotel now stands, w h ere he operated a harness and repair shop for ten years, later opening a grocery which h e ran for a year and a half. He sold these inte r ests when his health failed, and moved to where he now lives on Ninth Avenue, North, where he developed a small orange grove. He has bought and sold much. property in St. Petersburg, making wise investments, and has been quite successful. Mr. Edwards was a County Commissioner for three tenns, is an ex-Mayor of St. Petersburg, has served .. as City Councilman and a s a member of the local school board. He is a Mason;"a Shriner and a Knight Teniplar. . He was married on November 27 1876, in Springfield, Vermont, to Miss All. bie: J New Hampshi:re. They have four children :-Marcu s, Grace, : Mrs; Irma Brow n and Mrs. Bernice LOrd. . WILLIAM THOMAS EATON WILLIAM THOMAS EATON, wealthy retired manufacturer, was borri in Roches r er, New York, June 8, 1850, the son of Thomas Wright and Manda (Noble) .. Eaton. His family were early settlers of New York State ; coming over on the Mayflower in 1620. After acquiring his education at Friendship Academy, New York, Col. Eaton was at the head of many large interests principally manufacturing, accumulating a large fortune which he used to admirable advantage in giving assistance to many worthy undertakings, his philanthropic work being of wide scope and of enduring permanence For fifteen years he was associated in business with the Stoddard Manufac turing Co., of Chicago, and for ten years was in the warehouse business in the same city. Ten years ago he retired from active participation in business, dispos ing of his large holdings, and coming to St. Petersburg to spend the remainder of his days at his beautiful home, Eaton Lodge, famed for the hospitality and gracious ness of its host and hostess Col. Eaton, whose long lilled with important financial interests, was unable to be without some business connection after his retitement, and was elected to the directorate of the First National Bank of St. Petersburg, and hel d the same

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276 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA position with the St. Petersburg Mortgage Company, in both of whi ch financial institutions he had large holdings. Col. Eaton also had consider able rea lt y in St. Petersburg, having some years ago developed a twent y-acre tract he owned, subdividing it, installing modern im provement s and as Eaton Subdivision it has been one of the most popular in the city, many investing in this valuable property. Col. Eaton was a member of th e Union League of Chicago; the Yacht Club, of St. Petersburg, and was a Mason and a member of the Methodist Church. He was married August 21, 1888, to Miss Mary Wheeler, of New York State, a lady of rare attainments and wide acco mpli s hme nts, who se interesting biogr aphy appears elsewhere in this v olume. To the sorrow of his many friends Col. Eaton died on April 17th of this year. MRS. W. T. EATON MRs. W. T .EATON, nee Mary E. Wheeler, president and founder of the Me morial Histo rical Society, was born and reared among the grand old hills of the Empire State. She was a descendant, on the maternal side, of the Mar and Max tons, of Scotland, in the third century, and the Maxsons of England in the eleventh century. On the paternal side, Ensign Lieut. and Capt. Thomas Wheeler, born in Cranfield, Bedfor dshire, England, came with the Rev. John Jones' ship "Defiance'', landing in New England in 1635. A grandfather in the fifth generation, John Locke; was Sheriff o f London in 1461. Capta i n Wheeler owned the fir st mill in Concord, Massachusetts, and stored the colony flour, saving it from the red coats during the war. A descendant of this stu rdy, thrifty, American ancestry, who fough t in the ) Indian, King Phillip, Colonial and Revoluti onary wars for liberty and peace, Mrs. Eaton was reared in a home-loving atmosphere by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Cal vin Wheeler. She wa s educated at Friend ship Academy Baxter's School of Music and Alfred University, all in New York State. She was married to Col. W. T. Ea t on, son cif Rev T. W. Eaton, whose ancestors came over on the Mayflower in 1620. In their New York home Mrs. Eaton was with H ome and Foreign Missionary activities, church and charity wor k and in their Chicago home she was president of a hospital auxiliary for eight years and was active in club and church work. Mrs. Eaton was a life member of the Daughters of the American Revolution; an honorary ex-regent, and National Vice-Pre siden t General of the National So ciety of the Colonial Daughters of America. She was a member of the of Daughters of Colonial Wars, the National Society of the Colony of New England Women; the Scott Key Memorial Association; Sulgrave Manor Endow ment Fund of England; U. S. C. D. A.; the 1\lary Washington Memorial Room, \\tashington, D : C.;' associate member of the Warren G. Harding and Theodore Roosevel t Memorial Associations; life member of the American Red Cross; Chair man of a Canteen Committee during the war; suppo rted a French orphan and raised and collected $36,000 for the American Liberty Loan and War Savings

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 283 Stamps for St. Peter sburg; was a member of the Thousand Dollar Club, of St. Petersbur g, as a saver for the gove r nment, and a member of t h e Savings Committee of the U. S. for Cook County, Illinois, her service, devotion and valuable assistance in the sale of war savings stamps during the patriotic enrollment campaign in Chicago, gaining for her this recognition. The American Forestry Association, of Washington, D. C., confe rred an educational membership on Mrs. Eaton for the planting of trees along Life's Path way. Among her many philanthropbies was a scholars hip valued at one thousand doJ'Jars to Alfred Un iversity, Ne w Y ork, in honor of her parents, Calvin and' Phoebe Arabella Maxson Wheeler, and her grandparents George and Phoe be Wells Maxson. She contr ibuted to the fund to liquidate the indebtedne ss of Con tinental Ha ll, D. A. R., Washi ngton, D. C.; she assisted in the organization and sponsorin g of the Eaton Newsboys' Savings Club, of St. Petersburg, the first of its kind in the United States, by donating $100 a year for five years. In April, 1 929, the money is to be divided among the fifty newsboys. Among her many other meritorious undertakings was the origination of the vlan to plant mem orial trees on Flag Day under the auspices of the D. A. R. in Memoria l Park, St. Petersb urg, in memory of the Presidents of the United States. $he planted the Geor ge Washingto n tree on Flag Day, 1920, when she was regent of the chapter. Mrs. Eaton was vice-president of the Woman's Town Improvement Associa tion, and the organizer of the Memorial Historical Society, which came in t o being in July, 1920. She was a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce; Woman's Club; Carreno Club; Women Voters' League; Yacht Club Auxiliary; Y. W. C. A., serving on its board for five years; the Audibon Society ; S. P. C. A.; the Liberty Bell Bird Club, of Philadelphia; Boy Scouts of America; the Repub lican Club; Tarpo n C lub She also served as a United States postmaster for five years, and maintained a beautiful home with Colonel Eaton, at Eaton Lodge, St. Petersburg, where the latch string was alway s out to their many friend s. Following an illness of sever al weeks' duration, Mrs. Eaton died at St. Pe tersburg on April 4 1929, much to the sor r o w of the whole community. JOSEPH /. ELDRIDGE }osJ:;PH J. ELDRIDGE was a highly esteeme d and honored citizen of Clearwate r, whose fine busine ss judgment, superior executive ability and general capabilities won for him financial success in the vari ous important undertakings of a long and useful life He came to Florida in 1893, and was in the real e state business for a time, it being through his agency that H B. Plant bought the property on which the Belleview Hotel was built. -Mr. Plant, soon after beginning his developmen t wor k at Clearwater, engaged Mr. Eldridge to assist him in his undertaking, first as paymaster and later as Su perintendent. For a period of twenty years every dollar that was spent in this de velopment passed through Mr. Eldridge's hands. At the end of fourteen years the first audit of the company's books was made, and the audito r stated that every cent of the firm's money was accurately accounted for-a magnifi c ent record, indeed.

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284 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Eldridge constructed the first nine-hole golf course for the Belleview-the first in the State to have turf putting greens. Later another nine holes were added, and this course served for several years until the present courses, designed by a golf professional, were laid out. Mr. Eldridge also conducted a successful insurance business in Clearwater, and owned two fine dtrus groves. Mr. Eldridge was a member of the City Coun cil, a member of the Charter Board, and served on the local and County School Boards. He was Vice-President of the Bank of Clearwater. Mr. Eldridge was born in Plainfield, near Jo liet, Illinois, May 23, 1860. When twelve years of age he accompanied his parents to Mexico, Missouri, in which place he received his public school education, later attending the State Uni versity at Columbia, Missouri. For several years Mr. Eldridge was engaged in the hardware business in Mexico, Missouri, later going to Nevada, Missouri, where he was in the sheet metal business until 1893, when he came to Florida locating at Clearwater. He was married in Mexico, Missouri, in 1883, to Miss Ella Smith, of that city. Mr. Eldridge was a citizen whose advice in business and personal matters was frequently sought, much of his time being given to helping others. He was tem perate in habits, never using liquor or tobacco in any form. He was active in church work, having been, for years, Treasurer of the Board of Stewards of the Methodist Church. He was a Mason, having served the Clear water Lodge and also Osage Lodge, Nevada, Missouri, Worshipful Master. He was also a Knight Templar His death, which occurred at Clearwater, October 10, 1924, removed from the community one of its best-loved citizens, one whose place is hard to fill, and whose passing brought sadness to many hearts. He is survived by his devoted wife, who continues to maintain her home in Clearwater. and by two sons, Leland and Joseph. ROBERT LEE ELY RoBER'!' LEE ELY, far-famed cafeteria owner and manager, whose business abilities have placed him in the front-ranks as a financial success, and one of St. Petersburg's most progressive citizens, is a native of Tennessee, born at Chatta nooga, July 4 1890, the son of James J. and Elizabeth (Mardis) Ely. His paternal ancestors came from England and settled in James County, Tennessee. They were a well-known and noted family, his paternal grandfather being a major in the army. His mother's family were early settlers of Clarksville, Tennessee, and were very wealthy, owning the town site and the largest lime kiln in the country. Mr. Ely was educated in. the Chattanooga schools and at Chattanooga Uni versity. Before coming to St. Petersburg he manufactured express trucks for the Southern Express Company, being founder and owner of the business. On October 4, 1915, he came to St. Petersburg, and with a capital of only '$420 started the first cafeteria there, making his own counters, equipping the place, however, attractively and with taste, and as a result of the excellent service given the business prospered and grew until the demand for larger quarters became so apparent that Mr. Ely and J. F. Alexander built the Alexander Hotel. Mr. Ely

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 285 took a ten-year lease on the hotel, and equipped and installed Cafeteria No. 2, which at that time w as one of the finest in the United States. Mr. Ely supervised the building the beauty of which is well known When the new Snell Arcade was built, Mr. Ely planned with the architect the most beautiful cafeteria in the entire South, "Bob's Cafeteria", which occupies the entire first floor of this magnificent building, while on the roof, "Bob's Spanish Roof Garden", is one of the most popular dining places in St. Petersburg Many artistic and rare objects of art, secured by Mr Snell while abroad, lend color and atmosphere to both the Cafeteria and Roof Garden-each of which would be a credit to a city many times larger than St Petersburg. Mr. Ely in addition to his other realty holdings, built the Central Arcade, which he owned. He has owned his own business since early manhood, never hav ing worked for another man, and his success has been phenomenal. Mr. Ely, who works in season and out for the upbuilding of his home city, has for his motto a "Bigger, Better and Broader St. Petersburg", and he has done his full share in bringing about such a condition He is an Ex-Governor of the Chamber of Commerce a member of the Fellowship Committee and Sergeant-at Arms of Rotary and fraternally is a Mason, Kn ight Templar, Shriner, Grotto, and is an Elk. Mr. Ely and Miss E l izabeth Newton, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, were mar ried April 14, 1913, and they have one son, Robert Lee, Jr. GEORGE M. EMMANUEL GEORGi;: M. EMMANU:tL, for nearly a quarter of a century identified with the sponge business at Tarpon Springs, and a citizen highly regarded, not only in his own community, but throughout the State, was born on the Island of Aegina, Greece, in 1887, the son of Michel and Elpis Emmanuel; Since 1906, the year when Mr. Emmanuel located at Tarpon Springs, the name Emmanuel and Tarpon Springs have been closely associated in the public mind, the large interests of the former contributing in large part to the fame and progress of the latter Mr. Emmanuel, before coming to this country attended the National Uni versity at Athens subsequently attending Southern College, located then at Suther land, this State, where he received his A. B. degree. Mr. Emmanuel and his father engaged in the sponge business for fourteen years under the firm name of Michel D. Emmanuel & Son, and at the death of the latter in 1913 the name of the firm was changed, and has since that time operated under the name of George M. Emmanuel & Co. Mr. Emmanuel's firm handles, with N G. Arfaras, half of the sponges brought to the docks at Tarpon Springs, a tremendous business of nation wide importance Mr. Emmanuel organized the Real Estate Board of Tarpon Springs, and for some time was quite active in the real estate field. He was a member of the City Commission of Tarpon Springs for two years, from 1923 untill925. Mr. Emmanuel has always been a leading force in civic matters. For eight years he was a member of the Board of Governors of the Chamber of Commerce

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286 HISTORY OF PINELL AS COUNTY, FLORIDA in which he did lasting and effective work. He is a charter member of the Tarpon Springs Rotary Club, and one of its organizers. Mr. Emmanuel and Miss Alex a nder Damianakes, of Oakland, Californ i a were married October 25, 1916. They have two children, Michel and Helen, both born in Pinellas County. T. C. ERVIN T. C. ERVIN was born in Ocala, Florida, April 14 1895, the son of Thomas P and Mary Ella (Carlton) Ervin His father was originally from South Caro lina ; his mother is a Floridian. When Mr. Ervi n entered u p on his business career he was for some time with the Ocala National Bank. He came to St. Petersburg in November, 19 19, at which time he was the office manager for the Florida Power & Light Corporation. He was next made assistant district manager, and he now holds the office of district manager at St. Petersburg, a very r esponsible position, and one seldom held by one as young as Mr. Ervin. In 1919 the company had 3,500 customers, at which time Mr. Ervin formed a COnnection with the firm and they now have 18,000. St. Petersburg is the State headquarters for the Florida Power Corporation, and in his official capacity as D i strict Manager of the firm's large affairs Mr. Ervin has made for himself an enviable record. During the World War Mr. Ervin was with the 305th Field Remount Squad ron, serving in France for thirteen months. He is a member of the American Le gion, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the Jungle Country Club and the Rotary Club. He is a Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge and the Scottish Rite. GEORGE FELTHAM GEORGE FELTHAM, whose architectural ability was of the highest order, an artist who took great pride in his work was born in Eng l and, Shropshire, Shefuel, the son of George and Mary Feltham. He c ame of a long line of architects and naturally inherited an ardent love for his profession, which enabled him to rank among the most skilled, and one whose services were in much demand. Mr. Feltham came to the United States when a young lad, and studied archi tecture in Atlanta, Georgia, under DeWitt Bruen, an internationally famous archi tect. He commenced the practice of his profession at Savannah, and built some magnificent homes for winter residents at Thomasville, Georgia Coming to Florida in 1895, he located first at Ocala, where h e was for many years associated in business with Mciver & Kevin McKay In St. Petersburg, where he located in 1913, are many handsome homes and buildings which he designed, among the number being the Ponce DeLeon Hotel, Lantern L ane Apart ments, Palais Royal, New Hunt Apartments, besides which he remodeled the Har rison Hardware Co.'s building Arber Mark Dundee Hotel, Hun6ngton Hotel, Sunset Hotel, and also designed the plans for other buildings, including many residences of the city, Vagal Apartments, Lake View Apartments, Paulson Apart ments, Hotel Miller, Elks Club.

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. 'i PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 289 ., Mr. Fe l tham was a member of the American Society of Archit e cture, and fraternally was an Elk and a Knight of Py t hias. He was a fine citizen, a good man, and one devoted to his family His work will stand throughout the years as a monument to his skill, knowledge and ability. His death, caused largely by over work, occurred i n St Petersburg, May 9 1927. Mr Feltham and Miss Julia E. Hubbard were married at Savannah, Georgia, on October 7, 1885 Three children were born to this union: George, Jr., Hazel and Erma. MAX A. H. FITZ MAx A. H. FITZ, well-known banker of St Petersburg, was born in Altona, Germany, December 12, 1880, the son of Peter and Margaret (Hammerich) Fi tz. His long banking career began when a lad of six teen years of age he secured a position in a bank in his home town, five years later going with the D e utsche Bank of Hamburg. Three years later, on January 5, 1904, he took passage for the United States, and two months after his arrival in this country he had secured a position with the American Express Company in their financial department On October 13, 1911, Mr. Fitz came to St. Petersburg as cashier of the First National B ank, of which institution he is now the Vice-President and is also Vice Ciiairman of the Board o f Directors. His connection with this bank has resulted in it becoming one of the strongest financial institutions in the State. Mr. Fitz is also Vice President of the First Security Bank of St. Petersburg at the corner of Ninth Street North, and Seventh Avenue. In addition to his financ ial interests, Mr. Fitz gives the St. Petersburg Cham ber of Commerce his wholehearted support in its various undertakings. He is a musician of ability being a pianist, violinist and a singer whose splendid voice is heard at the United Liberal Church, where he is often soloist Mr. Fitz is a member of the United Liberal Church, was its former Presi dent, but now Vice-President; is a member of the Yacht C l ub Rotary Club, Shrine C l ub, and the Chamber of Commerce He is a Royal Arch Mason a Knight Temp Jar Shriner and P ast Grand Patron of the Eastern Star. Mr. Fi t z and Mis s Ivy M. Van Dusen, of Chicago, were married in that city on September 18, 1907. They have four children: Ar thur 0., Margarethe, Dorothy and Max A. H., Jr. J. G FOLEY J G. FoLEY, for nearly thirty years in the insurance business i n St. Petersburg, was born in Greensburg, Indiana, the son of Alexander and Victoria Foley. The latter who are now deceased, lived for a number of years in St. Petersburg. Mr. Foley was educated in the schools of Indiana and Cincinnati His first business experience was gained in the latter city when he accepted a position with the Southern Railway Company, later being a clerk in a hotel in that city. He sub sequently went into the clothing business with his b r other-in-law i n I ndiana to St. Petersburg in 1902, he established the Foley-Carter Insurance Company, which is the largest concern of the k ind in the city. He recently sold c his interest in the firm, which was built up to its present large proportions by giving

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290 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA its clientele service par excellence, and its success is largely due to the efficient and courteous treatment accorded each patron by the directing head Mr. Foley is a charter member of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club. He also organized the St. Petersburg Building and Loan Association, and was its Secretary for several years. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the St. Peters burg Yacht Club, is a Mason, a Knigh t Templar and an Elk. Mr. Foley was married at St. Petersburg to Miss Bettie Smi th, of Kentucky. FREDERICK R. FRANCKE FREDERICK R. FRANCKE, secre t ary and treasurer of the Times Publishing Co., of St. Petersburg, and one of the owners of this splendid property, was born in Indianapolis, Ind. May 3, 1884, the son of Frederick and Caroline (Lieber) Francke His mother, who was the first white child born at New U l m, Minn., was rescued during a massacre of that town by an Indian brave, whom her mother had befriended. His grandfather was a Captain of Artillery, Minnesota Battery during the Civil war His father was a leader of civic enterprises and park devel opments in Indiana for many years, and was engaged in the wholesale and retail hardware business at Indianapolis. Mr. Francke who is a graduate of Princeton University, a business man of wide experience, first came to Florida in 1912, at which time he located at Largo, where he developed a farm on Ulm e rton Road. He remained there for five years. He was one of the organizers of the Pinellas County Fair Association and its first President. He was President of the Lake Largo Cross Bayou Drainage District during the construction of the system of canals and bridges, one of the former being a sea level canal from Old Tampa Bay to the mouth of Four Mile Bayou. Selling his farm at Largo, Mr. Franck e moved to St. Petersburg, where he was connected with the New Business and Advertising Departments of the Central National Bank, of which institution he was also a director. After several years in this work, Mr. Francke returned to Indianapolis, returning to St. Petersburg four years ago, becoming interested in the Times as Real Estate Editor. He has since acquired an interest in the business, and is secretary and treasurer of the concern. Mr. Francke is public-spirited to the highest degree, and no civic matter but is given his support if he feels it will redound to the public good. He has for three years served on the Library and City Advertising Board, and is now its Chairman; is vice-Chairman of the City Airport Committee, and is Scout Commissioner of Pinellas County. During the World War, Mr. Francke served as chairman and vice-Chairman of County Liberty Loan Drives; was a member of the Governor's Staff, a member of the County Home Guards and the National Council of Defense. Mr. Francke is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and fraternally is a Mason. He was married in 1910 to Miss Margaret Wheeler, of Indianapolis.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 295 H. W. FRAZIER H W. FRAZIER, owner of the largest produce company in Pinellas county, and a citizen of the highest type, was born in Seville, Ohio in July, 1885, the son of M. E. and Myra Frazier. After comp l eting his education, which he received in the schools of Ohio, Mr. Frazier immediately went into the wholesale produce business in Cleveland, Ohio. Since that time he has been in the same line, meeting with marked success. In 1904 he began to make winter pilgrimages to Florida, coming down each winter until 1923 when he decided to remain permanently. In that year, with his father and brother as partners, he formed the firm of Frazier Bros., a wholesale produce company, which handles fruits and vegetables exclusively Their business extends to all parts of the county, supplying all of the large hotels. For the past five years their business has averaged from $75,000 to $100,000 monthly. Mr. Frazier is vice-president and general manager of the company, his father, M. E. Frazier, is president and his brother F. A. Frazier, is secretary and t reasurer. Mr. Frazier is one of St. Petersburg's most substantial citizens, and enjoys the highest esteem of all with whom he comes in contact. He is a member of the Rotary Club, the Methodist church and is a Mason. CHAS. S. FUGAZZI Among the leading citrus growers, shippers and packers of Florida, who for years was a large factor in the industry of the State, was CHAS. S. FuGAZZI, member of the firm of Fugazzi Bros., of Clearwater, whose death on December 14, 1928, removed one who had long been active in the fruit business, in which he had made a marked success. Mr. Fugazzi was a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Andrew and Mary Lanone Fugazzi. Early in life he formed a partnership with his brother, John F. Fugazzi, and they conducted a successful fruit business in Cincinnati for a number of years under the firm name of Fugazzi Bros. Eventually they became interested in the citrus fruit business, and after handling much Florida fruit in their Cincinnati headquarters, Mr. Fugazzi and his brother decided to come to Florida and engage in the business of growing the fruit as well as carrying on a general packing, shipping and brokerage business. They came to Clearwater and with John S Taylor and others formed the Peninsula Packing Company, which successfully operated for a number of years. About fifteen years ago Mr. Fugazzi and his brother built the Fugazzi Packing House at Belleair, which has every modern and up-to-date equipment This house runs to capacity annually, caring for the fruit from the 200 acres of bearing groves owned by Fugazzi Bros., and for the fruit of other growers, which is handled on a regular brokerage basis. He also developed "Marymont," a fine residential district of Clearwater, well built up with attractive homes. Mr. Fugazzi lead a busy life, one filled with accomplishment. He was married at Cincinnati, Ohio, to Miss Maxy Bacigalupo, of that city, who, with his brother John Fugazz i survives him.

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296 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA WALTER P. FULLER WALTER P FuLLU, hotel owner and real estate developer of St. Petersburg, was born in Bradenton, Florida, April 6, 1894, the son of H. Walter and Julia P. Fuller His father, born in Atlanta, was for thirty years one of the most prominent factors in the growth and development of the Tampa Bay section of Florida, having owned and operated the first ocean steamboat line out of Tampa Bay (later the Favorite Line steamers), the St. Petersburg Railway, various hotels and large rea l estate dev elopments He caused the extension of the city limits of St. Petersburg from 9th street west to Boca Ciega Bay and was the original developer of what is now !mown as Pasadena and the Jungle. Walter P. Fuller graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1915 with an A. B. degree and in that year returned to St. Petersburg where he has since been engaged in real estate development, except for a year and a half when he was an editor of the St. Petersburg Times. He managed the local street car line for three years and is manager of the companies owning the Jungle Hotel, the Jungle and other real estate developmen ts. Mr. Fuller has been active in various civic affairs and is Vice-President of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and Vice-Chairman of the St. Petersburg Planning Board. Mr. Fuller and Miss Eve Alsman were marri.ed in St. Petersburg June 15, 1923, Miss Alsman previous to her marriage having been feature writer for the St. Petersburg Dauy Times. WILLIAM G. FOX WILLIAM G. Fox was born at Summit, Schoharie County, New York, June 11, 1866, the son of Peter W. and Eliza Maria (Cook) Fox. He is of Scotch-Irish descent, his great-grandfather Fox being the first settler of Schoharie County. His mother was a descendant of Robert Morris, a signer of the Declaration of Inde pendence When he was 17 years of age Mr. Fox went into telegraph and railroad con struction work with Haines Bros. at N. Y. City, later becoming Inspector for the Gold & Stock Telegraph Co. of Boston In 1886 Mr. Fox engaged in business for himself at Coxsackie, N Y., for twelve years being in the monumental stone business. He later was in the coal and trucking business for three years, following which he handled mineral spring water at Saratoga Springs. For several years he was in the highway and street contract ing business, and was for ten years Treasurer of the New York State Road Build ers' Assn., and still holds that office. In 1909-10, with a partner, he patented and developed a distributor for applying hot asphalt and oils to roads, thereby pre serving the top. This patent is now used universally, and is called the "Asphalt Penetration Method." In 1912 he sold the patent and his business to the American Road & Machinery Co., of Kennett Square, Pa. Mr. Fox came to St. Petersburg in Febntary, 1922, and the third day after his arrival bought a number of lots and the following week a grove. He has done ; an extensive real estate busines s since that time under the firm name of the Empire Realty & Development Co., of which he is President. Mr. Fox isone of the five

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 299 owners of the Princess Martha Hotel. His principal developments have been Tan gerine Terrace and Lakewood Estates. His firm, first composed of himself, Chas. S. Powell, Walte r S. Ross and AI Werly, and they now have their offices at 417 First Ave. North. During the World War Mr. Fox was Superintendent of Distribution of ma tei:ial and men in construction work at Newark, N. J., for one year, and of housing construction for Sun Shipyards Co., building houses for the government at Chester, Pa., for one year. Mr. Fox is a life member of the Southern Good Roads Association, and a life member of the Holstein-Friesian Assn. of Brattlesboro, Vt. He is a M a son, a member of the Blue Lodge and Chapter, a Knight Templar, Modern Woodman, and an Elk. He was married June 3, 1890, to Miss May Virena Gibbs, of Saratoga Springs, N, Y. They have two children, Virena May (Mrs. G. H Davis) and Harrison Edgar, a contractor of Cambridge, N. Y. ALFRED LEWIS GANDY ALFRED LEWIS CANDY, in charge of the operation of the Gandy Bridge Com pany, one of the greatest enterprises of the kind in the country, and a progressive, far-seeing business man, is a Pennsylvanian born in Philadelphia in 1892, the son of George S. and Frances (Miller) Gandy. His maternal ancestors came from England, and his grandfather was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Mr. Gandy attended the schools of Philadelphia, later graduating from Swarth : more College. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1911, he erected the Plaza theater, of :.-which he and his brother, George S Gandy, Jr., were owners. Mr. Gandy managed :tli'is. theater until 1919; when he had to give all of his time and attention to the Gaiidy Bridge project. He was first in the engineering and finance department, later having charge of the cons truction work. He now looks after the many details of the operation of the Gandy Bridge Company. Mr. Gandy is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and for four years was a member of the Board of Directors. He is an ex-Commodore of the St. Peters burg Yacht Club. Mr. Gandy is a member of the Episcopal Church and the Kappa Sigma college fraternity. He was married in St. Petersburg in 1913 to Miss Marian N. Kleinz. Mr. and Mrs. Gandy have four children: Elizabeth, Eleanor, Dorothy and Alfred L., Jr. GEORGES. GANDY GEORGE S. GANDY visioned one of the greatest engineering feats in the country -Gandy Bridge-and his means and influence are responsible for the great struc ture of stone and cement which spans the waters of Tampa Bay connecting the cities of Tam pa and St. Petersburg-its completion the culmination of a long-cher ished dream, which today is one of Florida's stellar attractions-a lasting monu ment to him whose name it bears Thousands journey from every state to view this triumph of engineering skill-the longest bridge for highway traffic in the United States, the span, including causeways and approaches, covering a distance of just a few feet short of 6 miles.

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300 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Gandy conceived the idea of Gandy Bridge 26 years ago, but was delayed in getting started until 1911 by various forms of opposition, including politics and War Department red tape. The World War occasioned another serious delay, but the bridge was finally completed and opened to traffic on November 20, 1924, with ceremonies which attracted nation-wide attention. Mr. Gandy has long been at the head of various large interests and enterprises, in all of which he has achieved that success craved by many, attained by so few. Born in Tuckahoe, New Jersey, Oi:tober 20, 1851, the son of Lewis and Jane A. (Reeves) Gandy, his first business venture was as an office boy for Henry Disston & Sons, saw manufacturers of Philadelphia. For eleven years he was with this concern, his interest and energy resulting in his elevation to a position of trust and responsibility. He early entered business for himself, becoming in 1882 Secretary and Treas u rer of the Frankford and Southwark Railway Company, later becoming Vice President of the road. Other corporations which he headed were the Omnibus Company General and the Fairmount Park Transportation Company, of which concerns he was President. He subsequently went in to the construction business and built several important roads in and around Philadelphia, and also built the Peoples' Theater and Textile Hall in Philadelphia, as well as many residences. Mr. Gandy was influenced to come to St. Petersburg by F. A Davis, Phila delphia publisher, who was the founder of the electric light plant in St. Petersburg and interested in the esta b lishment of a street railway. Mr Gandy became asso ciated in business with Mr. Davis, being President of the St. Petersburg Investment Company, St. Petersburg & Gulf Railway Company, and the St. Petersburg Electric Light & Power Company. He later severed his connection with the Davis enter prises, not being in harmony with the methods of financing employed. Mr. Gandy has been one of St. Petersburg's largest and most successful realty operators and builders. He has lived to see the fulfillment of many achievements, the greatest of which, Gandy Bridge will serve as a constant reminder in years to come of a man who knew no such word as fail, whose grit, determination and high standing enabled him to surmount countless difficulties and bring to culmination this magnificent asset, the greatest Pinellas County possesses, and one of Florida's strongest drawing cards. Mr. Gandy was united in marriage in 1887 to Miss Clare Frances Miller, of Philadelphia. They have five children; George S., Jr., Alfred L Mrs. Clara Frances Wilkinson, Mrs. Ruth Sarven and Marion. Mr. Gandy is a former Commodore of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the Yacht Club of Sea Side Park, New Jersey, and the Yachtsmen's Club of Phila delphia. He is a Mason, a Shriner, an Elk and a member of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club. HAROLD WILLIAM GILBART HAROLD WILLIAM GILBART, a prominent resident of St. Petersburg for 40 years until his death in 1926, was born in London February 4, 1865, the son of Frederick Hughes and Mary Ann (Robinson) Gilbart. When eighteen years of age he decided to emigrate to the Unit ed States, and chose Pinellas Point as his

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 301 destination, coming to this decision by a close study of the map of Florida, its location striking his fancy. He came and he conquered-the Land of Opportunity rewarding him handsomely for long years of well-directed effort . Mr. Gilbart engaged in citrus and pineapple culture on a large scale in the early days, and all of his accumulations went into real estate. At the time of his death he was connected with various enterprises in St. Petersburg. He was the originator of the handsome West Coast Title building, one of the finest office struc tures in the State, and at the t ime of his death was President of the company. He was one of the founders of St. Bartholomew's Church, and was a member of the Yacht Club. Fraternally, he was affiliated with the Woodmen of the World. Mr. Gilbart was married at St. Petersburg on May 15, 1895, to Miss Emma Andrews. They had five sons, 0. W., Russell, Kenneth, Gordon and Dudley. 0. W. GILBART 0. W GtLSART, Secretary and Treasurer of the West Coas t Title Company, is a native of St. Petersburg, born November 16, 1897, the son of H. W. and Emma (Andrews) Gilbart. The former settled at St. Petersburg 40 years ago, coming there direct from London, England. Mr. Gilbart, after completing his high school education in St. Petersburg, attended the University of Michigan. During the World War he was with the Field Artillery as Second Lieutenant, stationed at Camp Taylor, Louisville, Ky. After the war he returned to St. Petersburg, since which time he has been with the West Coast Title Company, of which his late lamented father was for several years President. Mr. Gilbart is a member of the Park Board, the Civitan Club, and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in Kentucky to Miss Finnette Williams. They have two children: Finnette and Miriam. DAVID R. GRACE DAVID R. GRACE, leader of the Republican party in Pinellas County, a member of the Republican State Central Committee, and one of the best-known workers for the party in Florida, came to St. Peters b urg in 1918. He selected this city for his future home after touring the entire state-his estimations of the prospects of the many cities he visited deciding him to choose St. Petersburg as having the most promising indications of expansion and prosperity. He became one of the city's largest developers, with heavy interests in Pinellas Park, where he has done much development work-having for that section some elaborate plans he expects to put into execution. The subject of agriculture occupies a great deal of his time ancl attention. Mr. Grace is one of the leaders in the new movement for the ascendency of the Republican party in Florida, and prophesied in 1926 that the party would carry the state in 1928. He was one of the pioneer Republican organization builders in Pinellas County, and it is due chiefly to his unremitting labors and unobscured vision that Pinellas has become the banner Republican county in the state. In 1928, Mr. Grace was urged by friends in all parts of the state to become a candidate for

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302 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA governor, but he declined to Jet his name be put forward, having avoided through a11 of his political activities any seeking after high political preferment. The Cleveland Club of St. Petersburg, was organized with the assistance of Mr. Grace, who served the club as President for three years-1920-1923--during which time it became one of the leading clubs of the city. He also served as Pres ident of the Ohio Society for the season 1923-24. David R. Grace wa s born in Topeka, Kansas, Jan. 28, 1875, the son o f Edward A. and Mary Jane Grace. His boyhood was spent at Hudson, Michigan. His first business venture, at the age of 20, was at Geneva, Ohio, as Secretary and Treasurer for three years of a large concern dealing in vehicles. He was also heavily inter ested in the hide and wool business, From this concern he retired to head his own business of the same kind in Cleveland. Subsequently, Mr. Grace disposed of his business at Cleveland, and ope r ated the Hotel Grace at Lake Stafford in Portage County, Ohio. Under h is personal management this hotel became the resort of a very select clientele, and popu lar for years with business men and their families from Cleveland, Akron and Pittsburgh. On August 1, 1898, David R. Grace was married to a young lady of Geneva, Ohio, Miss Cora Maude Watkins, who died in 1917. On December 6, 1924, he married a member of an old and .socia11y eminent family of Ohio, Mrs. Clara Cheney Dickinson, of Ashtabula. Mrs. Grace, like her distingui shed husband, is promi nent politically as Republican National Committeewoman for Florida. She did much effective work for the success of the party in the national elections in 1928. Mr. Grace is a member of the St. Peter sbu rg Yacht Club, besides other St. Pete r sburg civic and social organizations, and his religious affiliation is with the Methodist Church. Mr. and Mrs. Grace reside at 325 Fourth Street North, St. Petersburg. REV. CHARLES M. GRAY Rev. CHARL!ls M. GRAY, beloved Rector of St. Peter's Episcopal Church at St. Petersburg from 1900 until his death in 1911, was born in Waverly Tennessee, October 2 1847. He rece ived his common school education in the schools of Tennessee, later graduating from the University of the South, at Sewanee, Tenn., being one o f the first to graduate from this institution. Having studied theology in order to ent er the ministry, he was first placed in charge of the Episcopa l Church at Cleveland, Tennesse e, later being Rector of St. Paul's Church at Franklin, Tennessee. Coming to Ocala, Florida, in 1890, he was rector of the Episcopal Church there for ten years. It was during this period that his brother, William Crane Gray, was made Bishop of South Florida. Bishop Gray was the first white man to do missionary work among the Indians of Florida. Rev. Gray came to St. Petersburg in 1900, and for eleven years was Rector of St. Peter's Church and also conducted services at St. Bartholomew's Church. The former church is historical in that it was one of the first, if not the first, brick buildings to be erected in St. Petersburg. Rev. Gray was married early in life to Miss Clara Polk. They had six chi!-

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PART II-BI OGRAPHICA L 303 dren, Horace Chas. Quintald, Arthur R., Mrs. J. Hilton Ho l mes, of Jacksonville, C. M., Jr., and Mrs. Louie W. Strum whose husband is a Judge of the Florida Su preme Court C. M. GRAY JR. C M. GRAY, JR., wa s born in Frank lin, Tenn., February 5, 1889 the son of C. M and Clara ( Polk) Gray Having come to Florida with his parents w h en a young lad, Mr G r ay received his grammar and high school education in the schools of Ocala and St. Petersb urg. He later attended th e University of the South at Sewanee, Tenn. Following his college days, Mr. Gray was connected with the Central National Bank of St. Peters burg from 1907 until 1918, when he entered the United States Navy, at the time of the World War. For the last seven years he was with the bank he ser ved the institution as Cashier At the close of the war Mr. Gray wen t to Youngstown Ohio, wher e he was in charge of the Central Savings and Loan Company and the Central Bank and Trust Company In November, 1921, he r eturned to S t Petersburg and estab lished his own busine ss, handling investm ents, secu rities and all branche s of in s urance except 1i fe. H e represents the loan department of the Metropolitan Life Ins Company, and al so places short securities for the Commercial Credit Corpora tion of Ne w York. Mr. Gray is a member of the Episcopal Church and a vestryman of St Peter's Church. He is a member of the Chamber o f Commerce, a Mason and a Shriner. He was marri ed in Atlanta in 1921 to Mi ss Mary Stoney. They have two cllildren, Charles M cGehee and Mary Stoney, both born in St. Petersburg. ALLEN C. GRAZIER ALLEN C. GRAZIER, ri sing young attorney of St. Petersburg, a member of the firm of Bilg e r & Grazier, was born i n Tyrone, Pa., Novembe r 11, 1900 the son of John H and Olive M (Grammer) Grazi e r His maternal anc estors were in the Revolutionary War, and his mother is a prominent member of the D. A. R The Graziers settled in Central Pennsylvania in th e 18th century, and were of German descent. His maternal ancestors were f r om H olland. His father was a Sp anish American war veteran a leader of the Democra t ic party in Penn sylvania and served several terms as May o r of Tyrone, Pa. After attending the public schools of Tyrone, Mr. Grazier graduated from Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., with a B. A. degree, and from th e University of Pennsylvania in 1925 with an L L.B. degree. H e was admit t ed to prac tice before the Supreme Court o f Pennsylvani a in October, 1926. Mr. Grazier, who c ame to St. Peter sburg in August, 1925, was admitted to practice before the Sup r eme Court of Florida on Janu ary 1, 1926, and was admitted t o practice in the U. S. Di strict Court November 10, 1927 Mr. Grazier is a M ason, Shr iner Kni ght T emp lar, a member of the Sigma Nu and Phi Delta Phi f ra t ernit ies, and is a Pre sbyte rian in religious faith He was married October 8, 1 927, to Miss Dolly Erwin Posey, of Henders onville, N. C. They one daught er, Cat herine Jean born February 20, 1929, in St. Petersburg.

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304 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA J B. GREEN J. B. GR!N, one of the leading real estat e brokers of St. Peter sburg, a great believer in the Sunshine City, being parti cu l arly impressed with the beaches a s a drawin g card for tourists t he world over, has firml y established himself i n the community life of St. Petersb urg as one of the city's su bstan tial developers. The Pass -a-Grille islands will some day be the "Miami Beach" of the Florida West Coast, is Mr. Green's firm belief, and looking to that end he bas r ecently dosed a deal with Thomas J Rowe, ow ner to complete and sell t he subdivision adjacent t o the DonCe Sar Hotel, at Pass-a-Grill e, and a large developm ent work is planned there du ring the coming months Mr. Green i s a North Carolinian, born in C h ero kee County, May 2 4, 1978, the s on of Joseph L. and Mary Jane (McNabb) G reen. His anc es t ors w e re from Scotland, early settlers of North Carolina His pate rnal gran dfather co nducted a furnitu re factor y near Murphy, wh i l e his maternal g ran dfather, Edmund Me Nabb, an early settler of McNabb Ferry, owned several hundred acres o f land in that section before the Civil War. Mr. Green has had a varied career of accomplishme nt, his first business ven t ure being as a member of the firm of the Frick Music Co., which operated through ou t Tennessee, North and South Carolin a, and who were at that tim e the largest firm in the country handling pianos and organs. He sold his intere s t in this con cern in 1906, and became a traveling salesman throug hout the We s t for an oil burner concern For a year he was with the Qregon Short Line Railroad in Idaho, and in the fall of 1911 he spen t several months in Ca l ifornia. In May, 1912, he went to Minneapo lis and f or ove r a year was engaged on his o w n patents--domes tic utilit ies-later selling his patents and going wit h Edward S. Murphy Co., New York City, autom obile dealers, having char ge of locating dealers for the No rwalk Unde rslung autom obile aU ove r New England The World War interfered with the c o mpany's opera tion s, and Mr. Gr een formed a connec tion in 1915 with Dodge Bros. a t Chattanooga, Tenn., org anizing the Citizens' Autom obile Co., handling Dodg e cars until 1920. His health failed, and he decided to come t o Florid a and today he declares there is no place in the Uni ted States the equal of Pinell as County as a year-roun d place of r esidence. Mr. G reen o pen ed a rea l estate office i n the Owl Block in the f all of 1920. and the fo llowi ng spring bought twenty acres on Euclid A venue, running back t o Twelfth Street North and Fourteenth and Fifteenth Avenues. This property was su bdivided and is now "Euclid P lace ," one of the finest subdivisions in St. Peters bu rg Mr. Green head s t h e J. B. Green Realty Co., Inc. and has rec entl y taken into his corpora tion W P Hunnicutt, Vice-Presid ent; Ray Shelmerdine 0. F. Tiffany, Thomas Provence, Rex Cole, C. J Brownell, J. R. Williams, Gray Ge n try and G. Ra y Walker. Mr. Green is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, is a Kiwanian, a mem ber of the Baptist Church, and fraternally is a 32n d degr ee Mason a Shriner and a member of the Eastern Star. He was mar ried N ove mber 22 1904 to Mi ss Lady Noveni a Crox of Charleston Tenn They have two children Carl Roger and Nena Belle.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 307 JOHN B GREEN JoHN B. GREEN, successful realtor and developer of St. Petersburg, youngest . man ever elected to the Presidency of the St. Petersburg Realty Board, and de scribed by a citizen, who himself has done more for St. Petersburg than any other one man, as "one of the most valuable men in the commiUlity ," has made an en viable place for himself in the Sunshine City during his residence of eight years. Mr. Green is an expert on business property values, having made a scientific study of them, and his advice and opinion is freely sought by leading citizens of St. Petersburg and men of large affairs interested in high-class propositions. Having made a specialty of business properties, he has probably handled more deals involving this character of property in the past few years than any other one man in St. Petersburg. He has also built a number of business buildings, including the GreenRichman Arcade and others, and his operations have extended to the suburbs, where he has developed several high-class business properties. In addition to his realty operations, Mr. Green is exclusive agent for the United Cigar Stores Company of America at St. Petersburg, having charge and control of all of their property in the city. Mr. Green is a Pennsylvanian, horn at North East, October 12, 1896, the son of Charles A. and Hattie S. Green. He is of English and German descent a member of an old American family. He was educated in the schools of his home city. and for some time thereafter was an Industrial Accountant with headquarters in Niagara Falls, N. Y., and Cleveland Ohio A progressive, optimistic citizen, Mr. Green gives of his best to the city of his !ldoption, and the high regard in which he is held by those who have :borne the heat and burden of the day, augitrs well for his future value to the community, increasing, as it is bound to do, with years of well-directed, effective work, so well begun and so comprehensive in its scope. Mr. Green is a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married January 12, 1918, at North East, Pa .. to Miss Lillian Mae Williams, of that city. H L. GRIDE.R H. L. GRIDER, one of the leading citrus growers of Pinellas County, who has accumulated much property not only in the county in which he lives but throughout the State, was born in Troy Alabama, January 18, 1880, the son of W. B. and Susan V. Grider. Mr. Grider was agent for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad at St. Petersburg twenty-five years ago, and was also Relief Agent for the road from Palatka to St. Petersburg. He was also Agent at Ozona for eight years. Twenty years ago Mr. Grider started in the citrus business in the Ozona sec tion He now has 65 acres of fine bearing groves. He has a wide knowledge of the citrus business, basing his success on the fact that he has worked hard and had unlimited faith in the passibilities of the industry. He has been a resident of the Ozona section since 1902, and has seen vast changes in the citrus industry during that time. Mr. Grider, in addition to his citrus groves, has engaged in the real

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308 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA estate business, and has bought and so l d mu ch prope rty, and at th e p r esen t tim e owns much valuabl e r eal estate in variou s part s o f the State. Mr. Grider is a M aso n He was marri ed at Ozo na to Miss Minni e 0. John son. Mr. and Mrs. Grider have one son, Harol d. Mr. Grider now owns and lives on the estate owned by his f ath e r in-law, William L. John son. C. T GUNN C. T. GuNN, successful growe r and shipper of citrus fruit, with a large pack ing house at Largo ships his fruit under the label "Largo's B est Brand." Mr. Gunn has solved the proble m of citrus distribution to his com plete satis fa ctio n, doing a mail-o rder business and shipping his fruit by the c a rloa d He also ha s a large retail trade, cared for by a well-equipp ed store o n the L argo-St. Peters burg highway. He grows very fine fruit specializing on quality. He owns a fine forty acre grov e and i s now planting an add itional fifteen acres. Mr. Gunn is a native of Scotland. He came to the United S t a tes in 1888, and for a number of years lived at Lake Forest, Ill., where he conducted a retail grocery store. He disposed of this co ncern and has spent the past eighteen winters in Florida, having owned his property at Largo since 1911. Mr. Gunn d e rives much pleasu re an d profit from his Florida enterprise He has succeeded in getting satis factory price s By producing superior fruit and marketing it hims elf he makes a. larger profit and sayes for hims elf the money paid by the aver age grower to commission men, brokers, and others necessary to the handling of fruit through the average packing house. !AMES H. HACKNEY ]AMES H. HAcKNEY, expert Cert ified Public Accountant and Attorney at Law of St. Petersbur g, and the oldes t accountant in the cou nty in point of service, is a member of one of the pioneer families of Pinellas County His fath er w as born in the county, and his g reat-grandfather, Dr. James S Hackney was the first sett ler in St. Peter sburg. Mr. Hackn ey was born in St. Peter sburg Apri l 26, 1894, the son of L. D. and Callie T. Hackney His pa. rents a re residents o f the county, liv ing near Largo. Mr. Hackney attended the schools of Largo and Clearwate r and graduated from Cumber l and University Law School w i th an L L .B. degree Mr. Hackney head s the fir m of James H Hackney & Co., P ublic Ac count ants, and is the audi tor for many of the mun icipalities of the county, and has built up a large and successful business . During the Worl d War he was Chief Yeoman in the U. S. Navy aboar d the battleship Oklahom a. He serv ed in Bant ry Bay, Ireland, and in the North Sea. His ship escorted President Wilson when he went to Paris. Mr . Hackney is a member of the American Association of Cert ified Public Accountants, St. Petersburg Bar Association, the American Legion, and fraternally is an Elk and a Knight of Pythias. He is a member of the Sigma Nu Phi ( l egal) f rate rnit y. He was married in Miami to Miss Eleanor Alice Thompson, o f Or lando, Florida. Their chi l dren are Helen M ae, Jean Louise Marie Esther and James H., Jr., all born in St. Petersburg.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 309 R. M. HALL R. M. HALL, Postmaster of St. Petersburg, and one of the city's most suc cessful business men, is a citizen whose long residence in the city has been marked by years of efficient effort in all matters that would upbuild the community, and whose conduct of the postal affairs of the city has been highly gratifying to lhe government and to the patrons of the office. Mr. Hall was born in Enfield, Ill. the son of G. W. and Elizabeth Hall. He first came to Florida in 1904 locating at St. Petersburg, at which time he en gaged in the hardware business being one of the founders of the St. Petersburg Hardware Company, now Harrison Bros: He sold his interest in this concern in 1916, and organized the Hall Hardware Company, which he sold in 1923. He late r built the Hall Building at St. Petersburg, which he has also sold. Mr. Hall, after retiring from the hardware business, became a realtor until he was appointed Postmaster in September, 1926. This position is one of much responsibility, the St. Petersburg Postoffice embracing five contract stations and five classified stations, 125 employees being required to care for the large incoming and outgoing mails. Mr. Hall was a charter member of the Kiwanis Club, and one of its most active members. Fraternally he is a Mason. He was married in Illinois to Miss Pet L Surguy. They have one daughter, Virginia Elizabeth (Mrs. C. A. Ney mann), of Chicago. I. E. HAMILTON ]. E. Hum,TON, a successful contractor and builder of St. Petersburg for many years, and the owner of much valuable property, was born in Hancock County, West Virginia, in January, 1862, t he son of Joseph R. and Emily Hamilton. Mr. Hamilton attended the schools of his home State and of Ohio, after which he held various positions later entering the mercantile business, in which he was successfully engaged for seventeen years. He also was a contractor and builder hef ore coming to Florida. Mr. Hamilton came to this State in 1906, at which time he visited St. Peters burg, liked the town, visualized its possibilities, and at once became a busy, active c1tJzen. He pursued the contracting and building business for thirteen years, during which time he built many business bui l dings, residences and apartment houses in the city. He built and owned one of the first apartment houses to be erected in St. Petersburg, since which time he has built the Hamilton Apartments, modern and up to date in every particular, one of the best apartment houses in St. Petersburg Mr. Hamilton retired from active business about ten years ago, and now gives all of his time and attention to his large property holdings in and around St. Peters burg. Mr. Hamilton is a member of the Masonic Order and is a Shriner.

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310 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA C. D. HAMMOND CHAS. D. HAMMOND, prominent resident of St. Petersburg for twenty -five years, with forty years of service with various railroads of the country to his c.redit, is today hale and hearty at the age of 84 years, and thoroughly enjoying life in the Sunshine City, where he came in 1904 upon his retirement from active railroad work. Mr. Hammond was born March I, 1844, at Rushford, N. Y., the son of S. Y. and Martha Hammond. His father was a prominent Methodist minister of that State. Finishing school at seventeen years of age, Mr. Hammond entered the employ of the Erie Railway as Telegraph Operator, which position he held for ten years. He was next with the Delaware & Hudson Railway, beginning as Train D ispatcher, advancing to Division Superintendent, and finally was made General Superintendent of the road. He was for thirty years with this road. Mr. Hammond retired from active service in 1904, at which time, to avoid the cold winters of the North, he came to St. Petersburg to live permanently. He bought a tenacre grove which at that time was outside of the city limits, which he later sold to C. M. Roser, and it is now a part of Roser Park. From 1913 until 1916 Mr. Hammond served as Commissioner of Public Works of St. Petersburg, and it was during his administration that the first gas plant was built in St. Petersburg, which was of great importance in the develop ment of the city Twenty miles of brick pavement was laid at this time, and West Central Avenue was opened and paved. While he was in office, Bayboro Harbor was dredged to ten feet of water, and 300 feet of concrete dock constructed . Mr. Hammond is a member of the American Railway Guild, and served as its first Master. He is a Master Mason, a Royal Arch Mason, Knight Templar and a Shriner. He served during the Civil War as a member of the 136th New York Regiment Mr. Hammond is a member of the Methodist Church He was married Janu ary 29, 1866, to Miss Eleonora Babcock, of Friendship, N. Y. They had been married nearly 57-years at the time of her death, which occurred November 12, 1922. Mr. Hammond has one daughter, Josephine. ROY S.HANNA In chronicling the important events of St. Petersburg's history, no name stands out more prominently than that of Rov S. HANNA, honored citizen and in defatigable upbuilder of the city for the past 38 years, a leader in all matters of progress, a civic worker without a peer. Mr. Hanna is a native of Indiana, born at Rochester June 10, 1861, the son of Joseph T. and Philora (True) Hanna. His father was a woolen mill operator, having had extensive plants at Rochester, Kankakee City, Ill., and Maryville, Tenn., establishing at the latter place the first woolen mill in the South. Educated at Maryville College, where he graduated with an A.B. degree, Mr. Hanna taught school for five years in Indiana. He subsequently studied law in Knoxville, Tenn., but had to come to Florida for his health, spending several winters in Sanford and at Punta Gorda. From the latter place he migrated to

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 313 St. Petersburg in 1892, when the town's population was but 350-a far cry from the progressive city of today, in the upbuilding of which no citizen can claim a greater part than Roy S. Hanna. From the first Mr. Hanna was attracted to St. Petersburg by the fine spirit of its people, who were even at that early day inspired with a desire to better their condition and to lay the foundation for a modern, up-to-date city, a playground of the nation-a dream that has become a realization beyond their fondest hopes. From 1900 until 1927 Mr. Hanna was the Postmaster of St. Petersburg, with the exception of a four-year period, and the excellent service, large and commo dious open-air postoffice building, the first of the kind in the United States, and superior delivery service have been the results of Mr. Hanna's constant and tire less efforts to give St. Petersburg a postal system that is unexcelled. Mr. Hanna was a leading member of the committee which bent its efforts for years, and finally with success, to place the city's waterfront under city ownership -a lasting monument to those who today are responsible for this wonderfu l im provement. For fourteen years Mr. Hanna served as a Director of the Chamber of Com merce, also serving as its President ; he was a member of the first Park Board of St. Petersburg, and was its Chairman for six years. He was active in getting the first kindergarten established at St. Petersburg, and helped in the organization of other schools of the city. Mr. Hanna is Vice President of the Central National Bank, and one of its organizers, being the only charter member of the institution now living. He was one of the organizers of the West Coast Abstract Company, St. Petersburg's first title and abstract company. In the early days Mr. Hanna owned the island of Pass-a-Grille, and laid out the town, then known as Morey Beach. Mr. Hanna organized the Republican party in Pinellas County many years ago, and during a long period worked unceasingly for its supremacy. He served as Chairman of the Republican County Committee from its organization for a period of twenty years. He is a member of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club, and is an Elk. Mr. Hanna was married on September 4, 1905, to Mrs. Charles Ridgeley, the ceremony taking place in St. Petersburg. PRANK MAURICE HARRIS FRANK MAURICE HARRIS, a native son of St. Petersburg, was born October 16, 1902, the son of W B. and Mamie (McMullen) Harris. His ancestors were from Scotland and were early settlers of South Carolina, Virginia and Geo rgia. After graduating from the public schools of St. Petersburg, Mr. Harris at tended the Unive rsity of Florida, graduating therefrom in 1925 with an LL.B. degree He returned to St: Petersburg and began the practice of law, being at first associated with C. J. Maurer, but is at the present time practicing independ ently.

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314 HISTORY OF PINELL AS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Harris has been an active Democratic worker, being much inte r ested in political affairs. He is an active fo r ce in civic matters. He is a member of the local and St ate Bar Associations, the Civitan Club, the Yach t Club, and frat erna lly is identified with the Masons, Elks and Knights o f Pythias. He is a m ember of the Delta Phi college fraternity and the Phi Pi l ega l fraternity. He i s a m ember of t h e Presgyterian Church. Mr. Harris was married August 16, 1 92 7 to Miss Frances Coryell of Lin coln, Nebraska. S.D. HARRIS S D. HARRIS, highly honored and esteemed citizen of St. Petersburg prom inent c hurc hman, successful business man and f or ten years a member of the Leg islature from Pinellas County was born in Sumpter County, Florida April 6 1866, the son of Thomas H and Permelia C. (Gr iffin) Harris. His paternal an cestors came f r om England and Wales duri n g the Revolutionary period and were act i v e in the War of 1812. His maternal ancestors were also from England, and were ear ly settlers of South Carolina. When war was declared betwe e n the States in 1861, all of the older half brother s in the family enlisted in the Southern army and remained in the service during the entire period of the war. His father, Thomas H. Harris, being too old to join the regular army, served with conspicuous a bility as blacksmith and wheel wri ght in the home guards and servin g th e units of the regular army whenever opportunity presen ted itself. A s a boy, Mr. Harris assisted his f ather i n the black s mith shop, which was the firs t of its kind to be established in what is now Pinellas County. With his parents, Mr Harri s came to Clearwa ter in 1867. In the ear l y days in Clearwate r he was engaged in shi p ping, being m aste r of vessels for several y ears. H e also own ed and operated several ci t rus groves and farms, an d for three yea rs was engaged in the mercantil e business at Belleaair. Mr. Harris received his early education in the common schools of the county, there being no institutions of higher l earning at that time in this part of the State. In 1905 Mr. Harris removed to St. Petersburg, and the first three year s was engaged in the mercantile busine ss at the corner of Seventh Street South and Central Avenue. In 1908 he attended a College of Funeral Directing and Embalm ing, graduating therefrom, and in October of that year opened a funeral parlor in St. Pete rsburg, con tinuing in that bu siness, with success, for fourteen years. For the past seven years Mr. Harris has bee-n engaged in the real estat e busi ness, sell ing improved and unimproved prope rty, principally in St. Petersburg and i s still in that business. Mr. Harris has been a l oyal and helpful membe r of the Chamber of Com merce of St. Petersburg has served as a member of its Board of Directors for several years, and was twice Presi dent o f the organiz ation. He is a charter mem ber of the Rotary Club and still retains membership therein. H e is a Ma son, Knight Tem plar, Shriner, Odd Fellow, K. of P. and a Woodman of the W o rl d Mr Harris has been active in politics s ince becoming of age. He assisted mate rially in the creation of Pinella s County from Hillsborough at the session of

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 317 the Legislature in 1911. He represented Pinellas County in the Legislature from 1917 until 1929, besides attending three special sessions. He has always been a:o ardent prohibitionist, assisting in the ratification of the Prohibition Amendment, an
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s18 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Harrison came to Florida in 1875, locating at Paola, near Sanford, where for twenty years he engaged in citrus culture. After the freeze of 1895, Mr. Har rison removed his family to St. Petersburg, and, with his sons as partners, entered the mercantile business, their establishment, the Harrison Hardware & Furniture Co., being the oldest concern of the kind in the city. Mr. Harrison lived to a ripe old age honored and beloved by all with whom he came in contact. He was long active in business and civic affairs, and in his passing, in June, 1924, St. Petersburg lost a splendid citizen, one held in affec tionate regard by a wide circle of friends. Mr. Harrison was a devout member of the Presbyterian Church. He was united in marriage in 1857 to Miss Eliza M. Patton, of Uniontown, Pa., and two sons were born to this union, E P and J. F Mrs. Harrison died in 1907. E. P. HARRISON E. P. HARRISON, one of the pioneer citizens of St. Petersburg, Secretary of the Harrison Hardware & Furniture Company, the oldest concern of the kind in the city, was born in Iowa City, Iowa, December 29, 1860, the son of Edgar and Eliza Melvina Harrison. His parents came to Florida in 1875, settling at Paola, near Sanford, remaining there until the freeze of 1895 when they removed to St. Petersburg. With his father and brother, Mr. Harrison established a mercantile business known as the St. Petersburg Cash Store. Their first store was small, being 25xSO feet in area. In 1907 they built a fine new building at the corner of Central Ave nue and Third Street the first large brick building to be erected in St. Petersburg. The name of their firm was subsequently changed to the St. Petersburg Hardware Co., and is now operated as the Harrison Hardware & Furniture Co. For twelve years Mr. Harrison was a member of the St. Petersburg School Board, always being interested in the betterment of school conditions. Mr. Harrison is a charter member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, is a. Presbyterian in religious faith, and fraternally is a Woodman of the World. Mr. Harrison was married in 1894 to Miss Ada M. Shepherd, of West Vir ginia. They have two sons, John Edgar and C. Frank. 1. F. HARRISON J. F. HARRISON, President of the Harrison Hardware & Furniture Co., Inc., the oldest business concern in St. Petersburg, was born in Iowa City July Jt, 1859, the son of Edgar and Eliza M. (Patten) Harrison, who were pioneer resi dents of Iowa City. Mr. Harrison's father was a native of Morgantown, West Virginia, his mother having been born at Uniontown, Pa. The former was an early resident of St. Petersburg and served the city as Mayor for two terms in the early days. Mr. Harrison came to St. Petersburg in the expectation of making it his per manent home, being enamored of the natural setting of the then small fishing village, having located there in 1895, 34 years ago, when accommodations were crude and improvements were unknown ; when neighbors were few and far between and

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 321 when it took a man of vision to picture the improvements, the progress and the great general development that he felt was bound to come with the passing of the years. That his faith in St. Petersburg was not misplaced has long since been proven and that he has conducted the same business over such a long pe. riod of years, expan din g and k eepi ng step with the progress of the city, stamps him as one who had all the qualities that make for sucoess used these to the best ad vantage, and as a result his concern is one of the most prosperous and firmly es tablished in St. Petersb urg. Mr. Harrison's store was first conducted under the name of Harrison Bros., later changed to the St. Petersburg Hardw are Company, and at the present is operated as the Harrison Hardware & Furniture Co., Inc., with J. F. Harrison as President and E. P Harrison, Secretary and Treasurer. Mr. Harrison has been a loyal civic w o rker, and has been in position to do much effective work fo r the advancement of St. Peter sburg, having served for five years on the City Commission, withou t pay, under Mayor AI Lang. He served on several Charter Boards, and was Secretary of St. Petersburg's first Board of Trade, and for many years one of its most energetic, worth-while, con structive members. Mr. Harrison is a Director of the First National Bank of St. Petersburg, and also a Director of the St. Petersburg Bond & Mortgage Company He is a Knight of Pythias, a member of the Woodm en of the World, and member of Fraternal Union a form e r member of the Lions, and belongs to the Presbyterian Church of which denomination he is a faithful and devout member . Mr. Harrison and Miss Mattie H. Johnson were married in Jacksonville in 1878. They have an adopted daughter, Margaret. BAINBRIDGE HAYWARD BAINBRJ:DCP: HAYWARD, manager and half-owner of the Detroit Hotel, whose years of experience in h o tel operation have rewarded him with countless friends and enviable success, w as born in Brooklyn N Y., November 1 1889 the son of William and Amalia (Kloman) Hayward Mr. Hayward came to St. Petersburg in 1 907, and for a number of years was connected with the Detroit Hotel while it was under the operation of the late Curtis Crawford At the latte r's death Mrs. Crawford assumed the management of the hotel and Mr. Hayward remained as her assi stant until the outbreak of the World War, when he enlisted in the Navy, doing convoy work, a member of the Armed Guard Division. At the close of the war Mr. Hayward returned to St. Petersburg and as s umed the management of the Detroit of which popular hostelry he is now joint owner with Frank F. Pulver. Mr. Hayward h as other important business inter ests, being Secretary and T r easurer of Roy Dew, Inc., St. Pete rsburg agents fo r the Cadillac and LaSalle automobiles. He is also Secretary of the Soft Water Laundry Company, of St. Petersburg, and is a Director of the American Bank and Trust Company.

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322 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA In addition to his hotel in terests in St. Petersburg, Mr. Hayward is Manager of the Glenbumie Club, a summer resort hotel at Lake George, N. Y. Mr Hayward is a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, the St. Petersburg Hotel Men's Association, and an executive officer of the Florida State Hotel Men's Association He is a member of the American Legion, and fraternally is an Elk and a Mason, affiliated with the Blue Lodge, Chapter, Commandery and Shrine. Mr. Hayward was married August 30, 1924, to Miss Thelma Warren, of St Peters burg. WESLEY A. HENDRY WESLEY A. HtNDRY, prominent lumber dealer, successful educator for a num ber of years, an d one who owns much valuable real estate, was born at Perry, Taylor County Florida, March 3, 1872, the son of Robert Wesley and Anna (Delk) Hendry, who were long residents of this State. Mr. Hendry received his education at the Jasper Normal School, and for a number of years taught school it:t Taylor County, being also for two terms County Superintendent. While a citizen of that county he became the owne r of the Gulf Telephone Company, which he managed for a number of years. He was also ln the abstract business, and in all of his varied undertakings, before becoming a citizen of Pinellas County and since, Mr. Hendry has been highly successful, pos sessing as he does fine business ability, untiring energy and keen judgment. Mr. Hendry removed to St. Petersburg in 1922 to head the Pinellas Lumber Company, which he later sold and then became the owner of the Carter Lumber Yard, changing the name of the firm to the Hendry Lumber Co. In addition to his large lumber interests, Mr. Hendry owns much real estate of value in St. Petersburg, and still retains his old home in Perry. He is a member of the Optimist Club, a Knight of Pythias and an Elk. He is a prominent and devout member of the Methodist Church holds the office of Steward and Trustee and attends Sunday School. Mr. Hendry and Miss Mae Weaver were married in Taylor County, and they have three children, Anna Mae, Robert W. and James E. JAY H. HENNIG ]AY H. HENNIG, owner and Editor of the Tarpon Springs Leader, was born in Buffalo, New York, September 11, 1879, the son of Herman and Mattie (Olin ) Hennig. After graduating from the Buffalo High School, Mr Hennig studied law, but was never admitted to th e bar, his career being compfetely altered by the out break of the Spanish-American War, which was the beginning of many years oi military service and achievement. He remained in the Army for a number of years after the war as an officer. The years that followed have been devoted to his various military duties and to newspaper work, in which he is particularly gifted, having served as reporter ano in many other capacities on newspapers at various points throughout the country. Mr. Hennig first came to Pinellas County from Brooksville in February, 1922,

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 323 where he had for two years managed the Brooksville Star. He purchased the Tarpon Springs Leader, which he has since conducted with marked success, giving to Tarpon Springs one of the brightest, newsiest and up-to-date papers, for the size of the field, in the State During the World War Mr. Hennig served as Captain of a Machine Gun Com pany in the U. S. Army. He came south to recuperate from burns h e received in action. Since coming to Florida Mr. Hennig has been prominently identified with military affairs, having organized the first machine gun company for the Florida National Guard, and was commissioned a Major and given command of the first battalion of infantry organized serving as Senio r Major of the Florida National Guard until resigning from the service in 1926. During that time he was a membe r of the Federal Examining Board for Officers. I n his long military career of achievement Mr. Hennig served first as a Sergeant with the New York Infantry in Cuba du r ing the Spanish-American War; served as part of the Army of Occupation in Cuba in 1899; was Second Lieut. of Company H, 26th Infantry in the Philippine Insurrection from 1899 until 1901 ; was First Lieutenant, unattached, on the Mexican border patrol ; was Captain of the 320th Machine Gun Battalion in the World War; Major of the Florida National Guard, 1919-1926, and is at present Major in the Army Reserve. Mr. Hennig is a member of the Rotary Club of Tarpon Spdngs, and one of its directors; member of the American Legion; United Spanish War Veterans; Order of the World War; National, Florida and South Florida Press Associations; Florida PaRAGraphers' League, is an Odd Fellow, and is a member of the Advisory Board of the School of Journalism Unive r sity of Florida. Mr. Hennig and Mi ss Helen Anderson, of Saginaw, Michigan, were married on August 1, 1922, at Clearwater. HARRY R. HEWITT HARRY R. HtwiTT, prominent lawy e r of St. Petersburg, has the distinction of being the first Republican to be elected to the office of County Judge in the State of Florida, his victory at the polls in November, 1928, being a real testimonial to the high sta nding he enjoys throughout the county. Judge Hewitt was born in Clearfi eld County, Pennsylvania, in 1875, the son of Ezekiel and Caroline (Scofield) H e witt. After acquiring his common school education in the schools of Pennsylvania he attended the University of Wiscon sin, from which institution he graduated in 1902 with an LL.B. degree. He gained his education through his own efforts-working his way through, teaching school, and by acting as Secretary to Judge J B. Cassoday, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. After graduating he was for three years with the lega l department of the Wisconsin Central Railroad, now part of the Southern Ry. Co. In 1905 he opened law offices in Minneapolis, and during the two years following took a night course at the University of Minnesota thereby gaining the degree of Master of Law s from that institution.

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324 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Coming to St. Petersburg in 1925, Judge Hewitt was for six months with the finn of Bussey and Mann, since which time he has practiced alone. He is an Elk and a member of the Delta Tau Delta college fraternity, of which he was a national officer for fourteen years. Since taking office as County Judge he maintains an office in St. Petersburg at his own expense, where attorneys may transact their business without having to make a trip to the county seat, a great convenience, indeed. H. W. HIBBS H. W. HIBBS, President of the Hibbs Fish Company, the largest concern of its kind in St. Petersburg and the largest fish company in South Florida, has long been i dentified with the civic life of St. Petersburg as well as its industrial, having served the city as Mayor in its early days, and was at that time instrumental in making several important improvements--notably the filling in of the swale across Central Avenue at Third Street, building the first school and laying the city's first sidewalks. At that time-in 1894-95-the walks were only of boards and pebble, but these were notable improvements over the sand streaks, and served well for a number of years until popu lation increased and funds were available for the splendid paving sy stem the Sunshine City enjoys today. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1889, Mr. Hibbs has seen a vast change in con ditions, and he has done his share in bringing about this change. While aiding in matters of a civic nature, starting in 1889 in St. Petersburg, he has built up for himself one of the largest concerns of the kind in the country-the Hibbs Fish Company-which owns and operates a fleet of nine boats in the Gulf of Mexico, fishing for red snapper and gro uper. This concern ships fish to all parts of the United States, and also to Cuba. Mr. Hibbs is a Director of the Firs t Nat ional Bank of St. Petersburg, and is also a stockholder in a large number of other concerns. A native of North Carolina, Mr. Hibbs was born at Newport, that State, February 12, 1862, the son of Hawkins W. and Eunice Hibbs. He was married in Newport, North Carolina, to Miss Nannie S. Rowe. Mr. and Mrs. Hibbs have six children: Charles B., Walter M., Blanche (Mrs. James L. Edwards), Olivia (Mrs. A. F. Garner), Henry W., Jr., and Mabel (Mrs. C. W. Oglesby). J. S. HILL J. S. HILL, S ecret ary and Manager of the Clearwater Growers' Association. which he helped to organize five years ago, has been a resident of Indian Rocks since 1920, and he is so pleased with that section he proudly boasts it is the best of Pinellas County, which marks him as a loyal, well-pleased booster of that far famed gulf resort. Mr. Hill was born March 1, 1885, in Bibb County, Alabama, the son of J. L. and Nancy Rebecca Hill. Mr. Hill has been interested in Florida since 1910, when he bought land in this State, purchasing his present citrus land at Indian Rocks in 1915 He came to live pennanently in the county in 1920, taking up his residence at Indian Rocks, where he has a bearing grove. Mr. Hill states that the

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 329 average grower in Pinellas County has only a small acreage in groves, and he believes that the greater opportunit y for profit is to be reaped by the grower with fo rty acre s or more. The cost of production f or the gro wer with ten to twenty acres is too great, the solution being cooperation with the use of the same grove machinery, etc., which, however, would not be practical unless the groves adjoined. Mr. Hill has made a clos e s tudy of citru s conditions, and is a valuable man at the head of the Clearwater Growers Association This association has 74 mem bers and will ship 130,000 boxes of fruit this year. WILLIAM H. HILL WILLIAM H HILL, whose philanthropic undertakings are of such magnitude as to attract nation-wide attention, and who for years headed one of the leading manufacturing concerns of th e United States, is now a year-round citizen of St. Petersburg, having retired from active particip ation in business affairs five years ago in order that he might have more time for philanthropic work and to enjoy the delights of his Southern home. A self -made man his career of achievement has enabled him to es t ablish a Scholarship Foundation of one million dollars for the ben efit of young men and women who desire a college education but ar. e financially unable to avail themselves of the opportunity. One-quarter of this fund is used in educating young men for the ministry at the Chicago Theological Seminary and seven stud ents will this year graduate from the institution as a result of Mr Hill's benefaction. Mr. Hill bad to work his way through school, and therefore has a deep interest in young people who desir e an education. 'During the past thirty years he has made it possible for many young men and women to secure a college educat ion. Mr. Hill was president and princi pal owner of the W. H Hill Company, man ufacturing chemists, of Detroit, for many years, which concern had an annual volume of one million dollars' worth of business, ranking as one of the largest concerns of the k ind in the United States. He won initial financial success and high standing in his youth by es ta blishing himself with older men, who recognized in him a young man of sterling cha racter, possessed of a high sense of honor, and one who attended strictly to business. As he proceeded in his business affairs, and needed assistance, his friend s gave him the necessary financial help, and he has in tum aided hundreds of other worthy young men and women who have been ambitious and in need of financial assistance. Mr. Hill's benefactions have extended to the members of the colored race, the Mercy Hospital for negroes at St. Petersburg having been equ ipped seve ral years ago by this generous, ever-helpful citizen. Mr. Hill was born in Cohoc t on, Steuben County, New York, but his home was for many years in Detroit, where the headqua rters o f his large manufacturing business was located. He had been coming to Florida as a winter resident for many years, but in 1924 decided to sell his holdings in o r der that he might be relieved of the cares of business, and have time for othe r interests. For two years past he has made St. Petersburg his permanent home, and has been the means of attracting other men of large affairs to the Sunshine City. Since coming to St.

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330 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Petersburg he has made investments from time to time, and has been much inter ested in the development and general upbuilding of the city. Mr. Hill has always taken a great interest in political affairs, and was delegate at-large from Michigan to the Convention of the Progressive Party in August, 1912. He was a great admirer of the late President Theodore Roosevelt, and supported him financially and by personal effort in his campaign in 1912 for cleaner and better politics. Mr. Hill is a member of the National Board of Near East Relief, and takes a great interest in the wonderful work that is being done for the children in those far countries. He is a member and a great worker in the First Congregational church ; is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club and the local chapter of Sons of the American Revolution, which he helped to organize He was married in March, 1882, to Miss Alice Dwelle, of Jackson County, Michigan. ERNEST A. HINDS ERNEST A HINDS, whose large enterprises have embraced many undertakings of importance, in all of which he has combined a rare business ability with excel lent judgment, resulting in material achievements, and a high standing in the com-. munities in which he has lived, is a native of New York, born at Wilmington, January 19, 1863, the son of Henry L. and Fanny (McLeod) Hinds. Mr. Hinds is of Scotch-Irish descent, his ancestors being early settlers of New York State. After acquiring his education, Mr. Hinds learned telegraphy, and t>ecame an operator at the age of seventeen. At 21 years of age he was made siation agent at Alburgh, Vt., and in 1885 went to Minnesota, where for six years he was with the Great Northern Railroad. Owing to the ill health of his foster parents, he returned to his former home in New York, and was acting agent for the New York Central railway at Chateau gay, continuing .in this position for six years when he was transferred to the General Division offices. He severed his connection with the railroad company to become Assistant General Ma11ager of the High Falls Paper & Pulp Company, in which position he continued for eight years, resigning on account of ill health He was for several years in the wholesale and retail feed and flour business, also had an exclusive coal business, butter factory and was a potato shipper until 1912, when he removed to St. Petersburg on account of the health of a member of his family, which demanded a warmer climate. Mr. Hinds engaged in the real estate business on his arrival in St Petersburg, buying considerable real estate, developing Central Avenue Heights therefrom. He was prominently identified with the opening and paving of Central Avenue west of Ninth Street to the Bay. For four years Mr. Hinds served ably and efficiently as Tax Assessor of St. Petersburg. In 1919 he bought the Wm. A. Mahon Confectionary store, disposing of this to engage in the lumber business in 1920, forming a connection with the Squire Lumber Co., which was sold to the H B. Carter interests, and known there after as the Carter Lumber Co. Mr. Hinds was appointed manager of the concern,

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 333 and served in this capacity until 1925, when the business was sold to the Headt:y Lumber Co. Mr. Hinds then retired from active business, thQugh he has s.ince given much. time and attention to the affairs of the Peoples bank, becoming a stockhoider 9. the institution in 1926 just previous to its close, and 'one of the active men to reorganize and reopen the bank, serving as director and later as Vice-president . until Feb. 25, 1929. : Mr. Hinds is a prominent churchman, a leader in the Methodist Church; South, being a member of the Board of Stewards and a Trustee, and during the buiiding of the church was a member of the building committee. He is general se. cretary of the Sunday School and Assistant Superintendent. He was one of the organizers of the Y. M. C. A. and trustee during the construction of. the building . Mr. Hinds is a Mason, and served as Worshipful Master in lSSS. He married to Miss C. Addie Barnes September 20, 1893, and they have three. chlldreni Clarence S Bertha A. (Mrs. C. S. Smith) and Blanch I. T. FRANK HOBSON T. FRANK HOBSON, who has the distinction of being the youngest Circuit)udge in the State of Florida, and one of the youngest to achieve this high office in the United States, is a native Floridian, having been born August 1, 190Q,. the : soii of Dr. W. A. and Lou Alma Hobson. His father is a distinguished Baptist ; m!qisier:. of the State, a resident of St. Petersburg. ... ; .. . : .: . . Judge Hobson was given every educational advantage, havjng atten4e4 Hill College in North Carolina, the Mari .?n ,.Institute in A . B. degree from Wake Forest College, North Carolma, ;a!ld h1s from Stetson University. . .' . .. . < : He began the practice of law. in Jacksonvlile but St. where he has high1y successful in his ... first practiced with James Booth for years the firm name of .Booth & Hobson. He was appointed County Judge of Pineilas coun(y in August, 1927: and six months later was appointed Judge of the Sixth Judicial . . Judge Hobson is an eXmember of the State Board of Law a trustee of the First Baptist church of St. Petersburg, a member of the st. Petei:s burg Yacht Club, the Belleair-Biltmore Country Club, Lakewoo d Estates Club, the Lions Club, the Phi Alpha Delta legal fraternity. and the Nu college fraternity. Fraternally, he is affiliated .with the Elks. . .. Successful to a degree that would be envied by. many men of inore years and experience, Judge Hobson has so earved his career as to enjoy the and esteem o. his constituents, and .. ail are his ,r'ecoi-
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334 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA DR. EDWARD C. HOFFMAN Da. EDWARD C. HOPI'MAN, a leading developer of St. Petersburg, and a prominent civic worker, chairman of the Zoning Committee of the City Planning Board and President of the Southside Improvement and Protective Association, for many years, a practicing physician and dentist of Illinois, but since coming to St. Petersburg has been engaged in real estate development. Dr. Hoffman was born at Danville, Mich., August 22, 1866, the son of James and Mary Hoffman. His father was born in 1800, and was one of the early settlers of the northwest territory of Michigan. He was very prominent in Baptist church circles in Michigan and was one of the founders of Kalamazoo College. Dr. Hoffman attended schools in Michigan and Illinois. He is an alwnnus of the Northwestern University. He practiced in and about Chicago for twenty years; the study of bacteria was his hobby. In 1915 he was a delegate to the Pan-American Medical and Dental Congress in San Francisco. The Doctor has been interested in the development of several conunercial enterprises, among them the H. L. Hoffman Motor Company, Chicago, of which comPanY he was vice-president. They claim to have manufactured the first four-cylinder auto motor to be put on the market and sold as an assembled pan Dr. Hoffman retired from the active practice of his profession in 1916, coming to St. Petersburg, where he engaged in the real estate business, and has bought and sold much property. As chairman of the Zoning Committee of the City Planning Board he personally went over every street in St. Petersburg, at his own expense, locating stores, filling stations, and other structures in order that no mistakes might be made. He gave this work much careful attention. Dr. Hoffman is ex-president of the Illinois State Society of St. Petersburg, and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married to Miss Mamie Imogene Woodley of North Carolina, and two children were born to this union : Edward C. and Shirley Ann. H. W. HOLLAND H. W. HoLI..AND, successfu l and popular attorney of St. Petersburg, w:u born in Milton Florida, June 13, 1897, the son of John W. and El izabeth Elliott Holland. His parents were native Floridians, and his father for many years was engaged in the contracting business. After attending the schools of Milton, Mr. Holland was a student at Sorbonnc University, Paris, and in 1922 graduated in law from the t:niversity of Florida. In that year he came to St. Petersburg, starting the practice of law with the fim1 of Cook and Harris. He remained with them two and entered partnership with Judge Joseph Higgins. He is now practicing alone. and has a large and growing practice. Mr. Holland is secretary and treasurer of a number of corporations. He has a keen legal mind, a genial personality and possesses all the qualities that make for success. During the World War he was with the !18th Machine Gun Battalion, 31st Division, serving for 2,0 years, I year overseas.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 337 Mr. Holland is a member of the American, State and local Bar Associations; a member of theY. M. C. A.; the Elks; University Club and both golf clubs. He belongs to the Pi Kappa Alpha college fraternity. He was married on January 1, 1927, to Miss Mailande Weems of Meridian, Mississippi. DIXIE M HOLLINS DIXIE M. HoLLINS, for many years prominent in school affairs of Pinellas County, and for the past eight years president of Dixie M. Hollins, Incorporated, a St. Petersburg Bond and Investment House, was born in Pattonville Texas November 2, 1887, the son of Wm. E. and Nannie E Hollins. When quite a lad he moved with his parents to Kentucky and received his education in the schools of that State, graduating from the State Normal School at Bowling Green in 1908. Coming to Florida in 1908, he located at Clearwater, where he was for four years Principal of the schools of that city. At the creation of Pinellas County in 1912, he was a p pointed by Governor Gilchrist to be County School Superintendent of Pinellas County, and was later elected for two full terms of four years each During his term of office he was instrumental in putting over 35 bond issues for the improvement of schools, and his administration was markedly successful. Scholarly and able, Mr. Hollins gained for himself and Pinellas County State-wide recognition, the county's schools, under his regime, being wonderfully improved and the standards raised until they equalled any in the country. Mr. Hollins served as Chairman of the Text Book Commission of Florida for four years and represented the State at a meeting of State Superintendents held in Washington, D C at which time the introduction of vocational education in the schools of Florida was made possible through the cooperation of the Federal Gov ernment. Mr. Hollins' administration was not only characterized by business methods, but by the selection of a high type of assistants with which he surrounded himself in the administration of the schools, notably among these was Capt. George M. Lynch, whom he appointed Principal of the St. Petersburg schools, and who is now County School Superintendent, and Mr. G. V. Fuguitt, whom he appointed Principal of the Tarpon Springs Schools, and who is now Assistant County School Superintendent. It is seldom that a scholarly man succeeds in business; however, Mr .Hollins combines certain qualifications which make for success, whatever the undertaking may be, and his business career has been marked with achievement, his firm handling county, city and State bonds, having a large volume of business. Mr. Holiins is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and is fraternally affiliated with the Masons, Shriners, Elks and Woodmen, and is a golf enthusiast. Mr. Hollins has been married twice-in 1906 to Miss Allie Cole, of Bowling Green, Kentucky, and in 1928 to Miss Clara Bohn, of South Bend, Indiana. He has two sons by his first marriage, Dixie M., Jr. who is a radio operator in the United States Navy, and Maurice, who is a student at Staunton Military Academy.

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338 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA DR. THERON CLARK HOLMES DR. THERON CLARK HoLMES, a success ful osteopath of St. Petersburg for the past seven years, was born in Mar shall, Mo., July 23, 1891, the son of W S. and Nancy (Clark) Holmes. His ancestors, who were from Norfolk, Va., and who came to Missouri in the early days, were Civil War veterans. Dr. Holmes graduated from the Missouri Valley College in 1914 with an A. B. degree, and from the American School of Osteopathy, at Kirksville, Mo., with a D.O. degree in 1919. He has taken post-graduate work in Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago, and is one of the leaders of his profession. Dr. Holmes practiced his profes sion at Marshall, Mo., until August, !922, when he came to Florida, locating at St. Pete rsburg. Since coming there he has built up a large practice, and is ident ified with various civic bodies, being a Rotarian, a member of the University C lu b, Atlas Club, and in religious belief is a Methodis t He saw service during the World War and has been an active Legionnaire since tha t organization was formed. Dr. Holmes is a membyr of all of the Masonic bodies, and is a Shriner. He is a member of the 0. D fraternity. He was married to Marguerite Blocker Johnson, of St. Petersburg, on July 2, 1923. JOSEPH N. HORNBAKER JosEPH N. HORNBAKER, Chief of Sanitation of St. Petersburg, whose years of experience in this line of work make him invaluable in this important position, was born at Manassas, Virginia, October 4, 1876, the son of Jacob W. and Augusta A. Hornbaker. Dr. Hornbaker traces his ancestors back to the Revolutionary days. His father, who was a dent ist, moved from New Jersey to Virginia i n 1848. Dr. Hornbaker attended William and Mary College and George Washington U niver s ity, receiving the degree o f D. V. M. from the latter institution Through appointment by the U. S. Civil Service Commission he was employed in the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington, D. C., for eleven years. He served as an officer in the Medical department of the U. S. Regular Army from 1913 to 1924, serving in the different grades from Second Lieut enant to Major. A portion of this time he spent in the Philippines as assistant to the Department Surgeon, with headquart ers at Manila. The Department also extended their operations to China, and he spent some time there, with headquart ers at Tsingtau He was the only American officer there. Since coming to St. Petersburg h e has had an important dairy ordinance passed by the City Commission based on the standa rds adopted by the U. S. Public Health Service, which is a very stric t law. He is much interested in the dairy industry in Pinellas County, and the ordin ance provides that no milk shall be sold in St. Petersburg except that produced in Pinella s County, except by special permit. He has applied economy of opera.tion to his office, which is functioning with efficiency and with the least possible expense to insure good service. Dr. Hornbaker is a member of the Kiwanis Club, the American Legion, a 32nd degree Mason, a Shriner and is a member of the Kappa Sigma college fra ternity. He was married in Washington, D. C., to Miss Mary W. Price. They

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 339 have one daughter, Elizabeth, who is attendin g the Florida State College for Women. !. F. HOUGHTON J. F. HouGHTON, Municipal Judge of St. Petersburg for the past two years, and one of the city's ablest young lawyers, was born at Table Grove, Illinois, October 24, 1893, the son of C. W and Ada Houghton . Mr. Houghton graduated from James Millikin Unive rsi ty, Decatur, Illinois, in 1915 with an A.B. degree, and in 1920 received his LL.B degree fro m the University of Mich igan. Alter graduatin g in law, Mr. Houghton began the practice of his prof ession in South Dakota, subsequentl y returning to Illinois to accept a position as law clerk in the Secretary of State's office. Mr. Houghton came to St. Petersburg in 1924, being influ enced to come to that city by his charming wife, who bad v i sited Florida before and after her mar riage, forming lasting ties that made her wish to return to the State to live per manently. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Houghton has been associated in the practice of law with W. G. King, the firm being one of the oldest and best establis hed in Pinellas County. Possessed of an e ngaging pers o nali ty, thorough knowledge of the law in its various branches, and high professional honor and abilit y, he at once impre sse d himself upon the commu nity and for the past four years has been connectec.l with the office of Municipar Judge. From 1925-27 he was Associate Judge, and for the past two years has ably filled the office of Munici pal Judge, having a r ecord on the bench of which he can well be proud. During the World War, Judge Hought on was Second Lieutenant with t he 349th Infantry, a member o f the 88th Division He is a member of the St. Peters burg Bar Association, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club and the Phi Al pha Delta law fraternity. He was married in Illinois to Miss Virginia Sidway. PAUL A. HOXIE PAUL A. Hoxn:, a resident of St. Petersburg for 34 years, and one who has had a lar g e share in developing the village of ISO inhabitants-as he found it in 1895-to the modem metropolitan city of today, gives largely of his time and efforts to public spirited movements and charity, his main hobby being the Crippled Children's Home of which he has been a rMI benefactor and friend. Mr. Hoxie is a native of Wisconsin, born at New London, May 31, 1887, the son of Albert E. and Augusta ( Scabel) Hoxie. His father was a native of New York State ; his mother was born in Germany. His parents came to S t Peters burg in the early days, his father being in the citrus business on il considerable sca l e, and also b o u ght many acres in the vicinity of Ninth Street North and Four teenth Avenue North which he: held for nearly 25 'years, realizing large p r ofits thereby. Mr. H oxie was f or five years a bookkeepe r for the Exchange National B a nk, of Tampa, and for fifteen y ears was an Atlantic Coast Line railway conductor He now gives his entire time and atten tion to looking after his inve stments, bonds, mortgages, stocks and securi ties.

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340 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA During the World War, Mr. H oxie enlisted at Fort Ben j amin Harrison, Ind . with 1he !18th Engineers, and over seas he was attached to the Third French Army under Gi:n. Petain, at Verdun, where he saw actual servic e on the b attlef ront. Mr. Hoxie is past Post Command e r of the American Legion of St. Petersburg, and is now Senior Vice-Commander of the State American Legion. He is vicepresident of the American Legion Hospital for Crippled Children, and is at prese nt making an effort to secure State aid for th e Home in St. Petersburg, and i s also trying to influence the State to bui ld t h ree other Homes in order t o a:de quately care for the needs of all localities. In all branches of Legion work, Mr. Hoxie is a leader giving untiringly of his time and means to further any of its man y worthy undertakings. M r H oxie is a Mason and a Shriner and was one of the first class, in 1911, t o be initiated into the Elks Lodge of St. Petersburg. He is a member of t he Chamber of Commer ce and the Lutheran church. Mr. Hoxie and Miss Laura Edith Doks, of New Londo n, Wis., were married on September 30, 1909. They have one daughter, Augusta Louise who is a studen t in the St. Petersburg High School. WARREN PAUL HUNNICUTT WARREN PAUL HuNNICUTT, prominent realtor of St. Petersburg, was born in G ain esville, Ga., November 13, 1894 the son o f Dr. W. T. and Beulah (Wat kins) H unnicutt. His pate rnal ancestors were from Ireland, early settlers of Vir ginia. Hi s paternal grandfather was an officer in the Confederate Arm y and was kil led during the Civil war. His maternal grandfather was also a Veteran o f the Civil war. His father is a minister in t he North Georgia Conference of the M. E. Church, South, and has served both as Missionary Secretary of the Confe r ence and as Presidi ng Elder of t he Atlanta District. H e is a graduate of Emory and h o ld s the h onorary degree of D D from the University of Georgia. Mr. Hunnicutt received his education at Randolph-Macon colleg e and also took law at Georgetown University Washington, D C. W hile at the latter insti tution he won the prize for the be st d ebater and at Randolph-Macon w on the medal for the best debater and for the best orator. From 1917 through 1920, Mr. Hunnicutt served as secretary to Hon. Hoke Smith, at that time senior United State s Senator from the State of Georgia, and as campaign manager and secretary to Hon. Chas. Hillyer Brand, memb er of Con gre ss from t he Eighth Gi:orgia District. During this three-year period however, Mr. Hunnicutt s pent about eight month s ove r seas as a soldier in the World War. D uring his service in France he served unde r Brig. General Linco ln C. Andrews. who was later in charg e of prohibition enforcement in the United States, and wit h B rig General R I Reese w ho had cha r ge of the Army Occupational Schools. In 1 9 19 Senator Smith cabled General Pershing to return Mr. Hunnicutt to the United S tate s on the first tran sport, for service with him and he return ed to New York in March of that year. He later resigned his position in W ashing ton to enter the investment banking business He was a salesman in Wa s hin gto n for a large New York house; l ater

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PART II-BIOGRAPH ICAL 341 district manager at Harrisburg, Pa., subsequently becoming vice-presi dent and in charge of publicity. Mr. Hunnicutt entere d the real estate business as sales manager and publicity director for the Lak e Lure development at Hendersonville, N. C., going with the firm at the i ncep tion of the development and remaining until October, 1923, when he came to St. Petersburg to locate permanently. H e was salesman in the real estate office of Pasadena Estates and later was sales manager with the Randle Realty Co. H e is now a member of the real esta te firm of J B. Green Realty Co., of which he is vice-p r e sident and sales man ager. He also represents th e Bessrich Investm ent Gompany, of Birmingham Ala., and handles all of the properties owned by this company in St. Petersbur g. He also represents the Merbank Corporation, of New York, which owns muc h property in and near Clearwat e r Mr. Hunn icutt since becoming a citizen of St. Petersburg has been affiliated with all progressive movements, and is a valu able citizen in the community. Since comin g to St. P etersburg he has served as secretary to Mayor John N. Brown, and has been of great a ssist ance to th e chief executive in the conduct o f his impor tant office. Mr. Hunnicutt is a member of the St. Petersburg Realt y Board, is a Methodist in religiou s belief, a member of th e Elks, and belongs to the S igma Phi Epsilon and Tau Kapp a Alpha fraternities. He was married on October 8, 1920, to Miss Louise Scarborough, of Columbus Georg ia. Her father was very prom inent in public affair s in Geo rgia. Mr. and Mrs. Hunnicutt have two children, Louise Warren, born in Harrisburg Pa., a nd Warren, III, born a t Columbus, Ga. CHARLES STORMER HYNES CHARLES STORMER HYNES was born in Oneonta, N. Y., October 7, 1901, the son of John Franci s and Maude Mann Hyn es. His father is one of St. Peters burg's prominent hotel ope rators, in the con duct of which business he is his val uable assistant. Mr. Hyne s attended the public schools of New York City, graduating from To wnsend-Harris Hall a New Yo rk High Schoo l and was later a studen t at Col u mbia University from which i nstitu t ion he graduated in 1924 with a B .S. degree. Mr. Hynes, since his college d a ys, has followed in the footste ps of his father, having been connected with some of the m ost popula r resort hotels in the cou ntry, including the R exmere Club Hotel at Stamf ord, N. Y.; "The Greenbriar" at White Sulphur Springs, W est Va., and the F l eetwood Hotel at Miami Bea c h He was manager of the Gangplank in St. Petersburg for two season s, and is at the presen t time assistant manager of the Jungle Hotel in St. Petersburg. Durin g the su mmer seaso n he is as sis tant manage r of the New Windsor H ote l at Belmar, N. J. owned by his f ather, and is manager of the Belmar Tennis Club. Dur ing his college days be was steward of the Theta Delta Chi fraternity house in New York City. Mr. Hynes' genial manner wins for any hostelry, with which he is connected, countless friends and he cont ributes much to the pop ularity of the Jungle Hotel of St. Petersburg by his court eous atten tion to all matters, no matter how trifling.

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342 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA During the World War, Mr. Hynes was not old enough to enlist, but was Captain of the Students Reserve Officers' Training Corps at Columbia University. He is a member of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and the Theta Delta Chi college fraternity. He was married April 14, 1927, to Miss Jess Erlene Alsman of Sullivan, Ind. JOHN F. HYNES JoHN F. HYNES, popular manager of the Jungle Hotel, was born in Oneonta, New York, October 14, 1874, the son of Patrick and Mary (Mahon) Hynes. His education was in the schools of his home city. Mr. Hynes was for 23 years with the United States Postal service, starting in as clerk at Oneonta at the age of fifteen years At eighteen years of age he was assistant postmaster, serving in this capacity for six years. His long hotel experience began at Stamford, N. Y., where he was for several years assistant manager of the Rexmere Hotel. His operating activities next found their outlet in New York City, where for two years he was connected with the banquet department of the Hotel Astor. He subsequently bought and operated the Windsor Restaurant at 88th Street and Broadway, which he owned for two years. Mr. Hynes last hotel purchase in the North was the New Windsor at Belmar, N.J., which he has successfully operated for the past ten years, and whiCh he still conducts each summer, going north annually at the close of the V;riilter season in St. Petersburg. --::;' : : Mr. Hynes first came to St. Petersburg in 1924, at which time the city's possibilities as a resort center impressed him most favorably, and he bought the Sunshine Inn at 440 Fourth Street South which he still owns and operates He was appointed manager of the Jungle Hotel for its second season, and has con tinued to manage this popular hostelry ever since. Though he spends the summers in the North, Mr. Hynes claims St. Petersburg as his permanent place of residence. He is one of the city's most enthusiastic boosters, and has, through his hotels, made many friends of the Northern visitors, who think there is no place like St. Petersburg. Mr. Hynes is a member of the New Jersey State Hotel Men's Association, in which he holds office; belongs to the St. Petersburg, the Florida and the National Hotel Men's Associations. He is an Elk and a Knight of Columbus. Mr. Hynes was married June 15, 1895, to Miss Maude Mann, of Oneonta, N Y. They have two sons, Charles Stormer and John Francis. ARTHUR L. JOHNSON ARTHUR L. JoHNSON, one of St. Petersburg's leading merchants, and a citizen who has accomplished much in a material way for the Sunshine City, is a New Jerseyan by birth, born at Camden, April 29 1875, the son of Rev. Chas. H. and Olive A. (Scott) Johnson. His father '"'as a Baptist minister, and the latter's great-grandfather originally owned nearly all of the land on which Norwich, New York, is now situated His family were engaged in the dairying business, also handling produce, finding a ready market for their products in New York City.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 345 Mr. Johnson was educated in the schools of Norwich, New York, and later attended Colgate University After leaving school he was with his brother in-law in the clothing business for seven years, subsequently going with Frederick Loeser owner of the largest department store in Brooklyn I n November, 1906 Mr. Johnson came to St. Petersburg, at which time he opened a small clothing store for men in the Wood block on Central Avenue near Fourth Street. Business was good and his service was better, and as a result his concern has enjoyed phenomenal success, a series of moves and enlargements of both quarters and stock having been found necessary to care for the continual increase of business From his first location he moved to Central Avenue below Third Street, where for fourteen years he had the largest floor space of any men's store in Florida. In 1922 he moved to his present location at 428 A venue, where he has one of the most up-to-date haberdasheries to be found anywhere, his boys' department being particularly large For eight years he conducted a branch store at Tarpon Springs, but he sold this business and opened a branch store in St. Petersburg at 842 Central A venue which he conducted for three years, selling same in 1925. Mr. Johnson has buil t his business up to the point where he can leave it for four months out of the year, and during the heated term he spends the time at his summer home on Lake Erie in N ortheast Pennsylvania. He has been a very active force in civic affairs of St. Petersburg being one of the first members of the Library and Advert i sing Commission of that city, and was one of the members of the board who succeeded in getting the Carnegie Library located there. In 1912 he originated and put on a contest for increasing the membership of the Chamber of Commerce from 127 members to 850 members in two weeks' time. In 1913 he originated the first season-end entertainment, then called the St. Petersburg Fair and .Tourist Week. In 1917 he originated and put on the first Festival of the States, and in 1920 organized the Summer Booster Club with an enthusiaStic membership of 700 which organizat i on accomplished much, St. Petersburg for two summers thereafter having the best summer business in its history. Mr. Johnson has served as chairman of the Advertising Committee of the Board of Trade and as Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce for three terms. For over twelve years Mr. Johnson has been a Trustee of the Congregational church, and he was one of the organizers of theY. M C A. and the first president of its board of trustees. He is also deeply interested in the Boy Scouts. He is a charter member of the St. P etersburg Yacht Club, and held office therein as Vice Commodore and later as Commodore. He increased the membership of the Club from 350 to 650. Mr. Johnson was married in July, 1901, to Miss Jessie Nash, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Nash, of North East Pa. They have one son, Arthur N. M. H. JONES M. H. JoNES, city attorney of Clearwater, and one of the successful l awyers of PineJ.las County, was born in Santa Rosa County, Florida, February 4, 1891. Mr. JoiJeS graduated in law from the University of Florida, and since 1920

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346 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA has been practicing his profession in Clearwater. He was first in partnership with T . H. Getzen, this partnership being dissolved in December, 1920, at which time he became associated in business with Judge John U. Bird This 'Partnership existed until 1927, when Judge Bird was appointed to the bench. Mr. Jones now has as his partner, Jack F White, formerly of Jackson, Tenn the firm which was formerly Bird and Jones now doing business under the name of Jones and White. They have a large clientele and are legal advisers of the Pinellas CC(unty School Board a majority of the members of which are Republi cans. Messrs. Jones and White, being Democrats, their appointment as attorneys of the Board is a well deserved tribute to their legal ability, and to the esteem in which they are held by the citizens of the county generally, regardless of their political affiliation. Mr. Jones was a member of the Quartermasters Corps in the World War, and served for two years overseas He is a member of the Kiwanis Club of Clearwater, the Clearwater Bar Associat i on, and f ratemally is a Knight of Pythias. D. 0. K. K., and Elk. Mr Jones and Miss Irene Baskin were married at Clearwater, and their chil dren are Mary Ann, Milton Davis and Howard Bird, all born in Clearwater. -JOHN GARFIELD KEHLER JoHN GARFIELD KEHLER, whose widespread charities stand as a beautiful monument to his memory; whose word was as good as his bond, and who was known as "Honest John" in business, was born at Locustdale, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, December 13, 1881, the son of Augustus and Matilda Kehler. His father died when he was but nine months of age, and he educated himself, attending the schools of his home town, and later taking a business course at .the Pottsville (Pa.) Business College. When seventeen years old, he started his business career as a salesman in a department store, and finally became half-owner of a large wholesale grocery business at Shamokin, Pa. Business success enabled him to do a great amount of welfare work, in which he was deeply interested. He instigated and helped finance three churches in St. Petersburg-the Allendale Methodist, the Eleventh Avenue South M E. Church and Ninth Avenue Methodist Church. He donated considerable property to the church for an Old People's Home, gave liberally to all chari t y appeals and was much interested in the work of the Y. M C A and the Salvation Army. Mr. Kehler, after retiring from active business, came to St Petersburg in June, 1920, and developed Woodstock and Ridgeway subdivisions, being a large property owner of the city. He also dealt in close-in properties, and built a number of homes in the city, the majority of which were l ocated in Woodstock. Mr. Kehler's death, which occurred in Orlando Florida, June 16, 1928, re moved from St. Petersburg's religious life one of its most worth-while and effective workers, a man who did much good whose greatest happiness came in doing for others, particularly those in need. He amassed much of this world's goods, and donated liberally of his means to schools, universities and churches throughout the

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 351 country. He was devoted to travel, and on a European trip in 1925 mide a fine collection of art, of which he was a connoisseur. Mr Kehler was a member of the First Avenue Methoctist Church, chairman of the Finance Committee and chief usher; was Secretary of the Finance Board of St. John's Evangelical Church, of Shamok in, Pa., and a prominent Sunday School worker. He married Miss Lucy Reed, of Shamokin, Pa., June 19, 1907. Their children are John Wesley, Reed Samuel, Beth Marie and Claude Bernard W. McKEE KELLEY W. McKEE KELLEY, head of one of the largest brokerage businesses in St. Petersburg, and president of ten other corporations, is a citizen active in the business and civic affairs of St. Peter sburg a leader in all that he undertakes, and one who accomplishes much. M r Kelley has devoted his life to the r eal estate business, in which there is perhaps no man in Florida better versed. For years he was connected with some of the largest real estate firms in Pittsburgh, Pa., among the number being the Real Estate Trust Company ; the Samuel W. Black Company ; the Samuel Kelley Company; the W. L. Scott Company and the firm of A. B. Hay, Jr. He also conducted a real estate firm of his own in Pittsburgh under the name of Frazer and Kell ey, and later as theW. McKee Kelley Company. Since coming to St. Petersburg in 1909 Mr. Kelley has conducted a real e sta t e, loan, rental and insurance business, operating under the firm name of theW. McKee Kelley Company, a large concern which has met with success from the start. Mr. Kelley has wide and varied business interests, and is still conducting a successful real estate business at 659 Central Avenue. Mr. Kelley has served as a ctirector of the Chamber of Commerce of St. Peters burg, and on various civic committees. He was president of the Booster Club, which later was merged with the Chamber of Commerce. He is former vice pre sident of the Florida Realtors' Association, and has served as president of the St. Petersburg Realty Board. He wa s also a member of the Peoples' Charter Committee of St. Petersburg in 1927. At present he is a very active member of the Industrial Committ ee, appointed by Mayor John N. Brown. Mr. Kelley i s a member of the Masonic Lodge, selama Grotto, is a Knight Templar and a member of th e Shrine Club. He is a member of the First Avenue Methodist Church, and a member of the official board of Stewards. Mr. Kelley was married December 24, 1903, to Miss Annie Lee Dishman, of Pineville Kentucky. They have one son, W. McKee, Jr., who is now attending the Wharton School of Commerc e and Finance of the University of Pennsylvania. f. L. KELLY J. L. K!!I.LY, successful lawyer of Clearwater, and prominently identified with the city's municipal affairs, having been a member of the City Commission and City Charter Board, was born in Westville, Holmes County, Florida, the son o f James T. and Sarah MoRae Kelly. His father was originally from Georgia, but is now a Floridian by adoption, making his home at West Palm Beach The date

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352 HISTORY OF PINELL AS COUNTY, FLORIDA of Mr. Kelly's birth, October 25, 1887, marked the beginning of a career that has been filled with accomplishment, and with a brilliant future ahead. After attending. the schools of Jackson County, Mr. Kelly graduated from Georgetown University in 1916 with an LL.B. degree. His first grasp of public affairs was gained from 1911 unti11917, during which time he served as the
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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 355 FRANK ROBERTS KENNEDY FAANK RoBERTS KENNEDY, for nearly a quarter of a century a large property owner and developer of St. Petersburg, was a native of New England born in Nichols, Conn. His death, which occurred in St. Petersburg, July 31, 1928, ended a long and active life, one filled with various succes sful undertakings. Mr. Kennedy, before coming t o St. Petersburg in 1904, spent considerable time in Haiti as a representative of the Boston Fruit Company. He later pur chased 7,()(X) acres of land in Cuba, incorporating the Cuba Fruit Company, plant ing 6,()(X) acres to bananas. Seeing the need for transporta tion, he built several miles of railroad through his plantations, and a wharf at Tanamo Bay, where the fruit was loaded direct to the ships. He later sold his large holdings to the United Fruit Company, who converted the plantations into a large sugar estate. Coming to Pinellas county in 1903, Mr. Kennedy purchased a large tract of land at Gulfport, and also bought the south half of the block in which the Man hattan Hotel stood for many years. This property he subdivided and sold, subse quently purchasing a tract at Big Bayou which he developed into Grand View Park. In order to properly develop this property, Mr. Kennedy conceived the idea of building a troll ey line to the development, and he was large ly responsible for the establishment of the road. As a part of the Grand V iew subdivision, Mr. Kennedy donated the land lying between Fourth Street and the Bayou for a city park, which property has been taken over by the city for park purposes. Mr. Kennedy was married in the early seventies to M iss O ttalie Peck, of Bridgeport, Conn., who died at the age of 48, leaving one daughter, Mabel E. In 1913 he married Mrs. Mabel G. Simmons, of Portland, who with one daughter, Elizabeth Gray, survive him. JOSEPH HOMET KERRICK Josi!P H HOMET KERRICK was born in Towando, Pennsylvania, the son of Emery J. and Augusta (Hornet) Kerrick. The Hornet family were members of a group who escaped from France during the French Revolu ti on, and came to Bradford County, Pa., and established an exile home for Marie Antoinett e. The regal party, however were intercepted in France, and thus were plans frustrated for setting up a French colony in P ennsy lvania. Mr. Kerrick received his education at Germa ntown Academy, Philadelphia and at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., fromwhich institution he graduated in electrica l engineering in 1915. He was first employed by the Pennsylvania Rail road in thei r signal department. At his father's death he took over his business, being engaged in highway construction, and was later resident engineer with the Penn sylvania State Highway Department In November, 1921, Mr. Kerrick came to St. Petersburg as general manager of the West Coast Telephone Company, which position he held until October, 1923. The following four years he was associated with the C. Buck Turner Company. In April, I 928, Mr. Kerrick organized the Kerrick Sales Corporation, which concern represents northern manufacturers in Florida. Mr. Kerrick has been activ e in Chamber of Commerc e work, being

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356 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA vice-president for one year; was a member of its board of governors, and served on many Chamber of Commerce committees. He was a member of the committee of three who represented Pinellas county in the AllFlorida Show at Madison Square Gardens in 1924. He was instrumental in securing for St. Petersburg its radio broadcasting station, and in 1926 was general chairman of the Festival of the States. Fraternally, Mr. Kerrick is a Mason, a Shriner and an Elk. He belongs to the Chi Phi college fraternity. He was married February 17, 1917, to Miss Mabel Z. Ashton, of Easton, Pa. They have two children Ann Ashton and Josephine Hornet. B. KILGORE B. KILGORE, one of the largest growers of citrus fruit in Pinellas county, and owner and president of the West Coast Fruit Company, is a recognized authority on the culture of citrus, and his success both as a grower and a shipper is the result of a combination of energy and ability of the highest type. Mr. Kilgore is a pioneer of Pinellas County, born near Largo in August, 1877, the son of S. H. and Mittie (Hart) Kilgore. His father, who died in May, 1926, was for over fifty years an honored citizen of the Largo section. His mother, who is 80 years of age, still lives at the old home place near Largo. She is the oldest native born white woman in Pinellas county. Mr. Kilgore has been in the orange business all of his life, his father having been a grower on a large scale before him. He owns 350 acres of grove, and has leased 300 acres more. About sixteen years ago he established the West Coast Fruit Company near Clearwater The company was organized on borrowed capital entirely, with forty stockholders. There are now but three interested in the con cern, Mr. Kilgore, R. M. Brumby and Robert Leach These gentlemen have a plant erected at a cost of $175,000, which has every modern equipment. The firm buys fruit, in addition to which they this year shipped over 300 cars from their own groves. The business of the West Coast Fruit Company has grown by leaps and bounds, and is one of the largest concerns of the kind in South Florida. In connection therewith a grapefruit canning plant is operated, which handles a large amount of fruit annually. Mr. Kilgore was first married to Miss Gussie Belcher, daughter of W. A Belcher, an old pioneer of the county. They have three children: Fred, Elsie and Chester. Mrs. Gussie (Belcher) Kilgore died in 1919, and Mr. Kilgore later married Mabel Arnold, his present wife. WILLIAM G. KING WILLIAM G. KING, whose long professional career of achievement and ability as a lawyer has gained for him both fame and affluence, is a native of Ohio, born at Chardon, February 1, 1863, the son of L. G and Nancy L (Merrill) King. He began the practice of his profession in his home town in December, 1886, continuing there until 1911, when he came to St. Petersburg. For eighteen years Mr. King has been engaged in the legal profession in St. Petersburg, and his firm is one of the largest and beSt established in the city.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 357 His associates in business are J. F. Houghton, Merle Rudy, L. D. Martin and William K. King, the latter his son, who is following in the footsteps of his illus frious father. Mr. King was active in civic affairs in his old home in Ohio having served as Mayor of Chardon and was also Pos t Master of the city. For several years he was Prosecuting Attorney of Geauga County. The day he reached St. was an important one in the county's his tory, being the date the citizens were voting on the formation of the county. Mr. King is a member of the St. Pet ersburg Chamber of Commerce, the Florida State Bar Association, and fraternally i s affiliated with the Elks. He was married in Ohio to Mi ss Kate Hovey. They have two children, Merrill L., of Chardon, Ohio and William K., of St. Petersburg. J. C. KINGSBURY J. C. KINGSBURY, President of the Peoples Bank o f Clearwater and active head of the institution since 1912 is one o f the best info rmed men in banki ng matters in the State of Flori da. Mr. Kingsbury, who is from New York State, had his early banking training in the Detroit National Bank of Detroit, Mich. The Peoples' Bank of Clearwater was organized in 1911 and in 1912 Mr. Kingsbury was elected vice-president and cashier of the institution, which posit ion he held until three years ago when he was elec t ed president. In 1912 the bank had deposits of $50 ,000, capital stock, $36,000 and the surplus was $10,000. There is now $1 400 000 on deposit a capital stock of $ 120,000, a surplus o f $120,000, and undivided profits of $13,000, a marve lous growth, largely due to the splendid man of the directing head. The banking quarters were rebuilt in 1926, and its handsome vaults and equipment make of this one of the most beautiful banking houses in the State. EDITH KIRTLAND EDITH KIRTLAND, o f the Studio of Edith Kirtland's Junior Follies Sc hool of Dancing, of St. P etersburg, is a talented artist whose s ta ge career began when a wee maiden of five years. At that time she appeared in a vaudeville act, later p laying juvenile leads with the Morris Thurston S tock Co. Following her graduation from high school in New York City, Mrs. Kirt land was on the vaudeville stage for five years playing Keith's Circuit throughout the West, and was with other leading companies. She was for so m e time with one of Schubert's "Passing S hows" in New York, having played with Willie and Eugene Howard, stars in George White's Scandals; George Bancro ft, Martha Mansfield and other movie stars. In her vaudeville work she was associated with Willis Maxell famous German dancer. She studied under some of th e best in structors, notably Ned Waybum, Creo, Herman and Michael School of Acrobatics, also the A lviene Drama tic School. While playing w ith the Schubert Company she, then Miss Edith Manfred, met George Kirtland, manager of the "Passing Show," and six months lat e r they were married in York, Pa. Mrs Kirtland continued on the stage for severa l years,

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358 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA bU!; after the arrival of her first son, George, Jr., she and Mr. Kirtland decided to se1:k G location to live permanen tly, and they chose St. Petersburg. She opened a dancing studio, and later produced the Junior Follies, which production met with such success that she and her husband decid ed to devote their time to producing vaudeville sketches. It was during their third production that Mr. Kirtland, stand ing in the wings, was seized with acute indi gestion and died before the end o f the Mrs. Kirtland continued the sho w, and the aud ience was not aware of the tragedy that had been enacted behind the scenes; thus did she live up to the tradition of -the stage that the "show must go on." Mrs Kirtland has built up a large dancing school, which she conducts on the roof gll!.den of the Florida Theater building. She produces entertainments for the 'various civic organizations, lodges and hotels of St. Petersburg, notably among these being the charity ball at the Vinoy Hotel, the Junior Service holiday ball and t he New Y eai's celebration at the Soreno Hotel. This year she also was in charge of'all the big events in Tampa, including the Gasparilla Coronation Ball, the Grotto and Elks ball. s. Edith Kirtland conducts health classes, and has established such a reputation fOt' co rrective upbuilding of the body that leading physicians of St. Petersburg send patients to her for building up purposes, and through the daily exercises, lead up to dancing, they again become well and healthy. She went to New York City the past summer to see just how the new stage dances had progressed in order to bring back the latest ideas to St. Petersburg. She was acrompanied by four of her most talented pupils two of whom were placed by Schubert with Mcintyre & Heath in Heading South," giving them specialty parts, the other two with Lew Fields show "Present Arms." From time to time J.Jrs: Kirtland intends to place her pupils on Broadway, having the promise of several leading producers to place any she would recommend. Mrs. Kirtland is a member of the National Vaudeville Artists' Associati on, and the Dancing Masters' Association of America S he also is affiliated with the and Professional Women's Club of St. Petersburg. She has two sons, George, Jr., and Jack Pittman. R. !. KNIGHT, R. J. KNICH't for sixteen years a leading citizen of Pinellas County, and one of the county's largest citrus growers, was born in Lyon County, Georgia, May 5, 1860, the' son of William Jackson and Nancy Knight. His father was a Civil War veteran, a member ol the Georgia Regiment. : .. MT. Knight came to Florida in 1896, at which time he located in Alachua Cow!ty, he engaged in the turpentine and lumber business subsequently mo-ftng" to atrus County where he continued in the same line of busines$, in which be was eminently successful. Disposing of his largeand lumber interests, Mr. Knight came to Safety Harbor in 1908, buying 200 acres 'tt'hich had been planted to citrus, and which were embraced in two splendid groves of 100 acres each. One of the groves was at Safety Harbor, the other at Clearwater Mr. Knight, who died at Safety

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 361 Harbor December 6, 1924, spent the last years of his life developing these fine groves, which were among the largest in Pinellas County, and which Mr. Knight's widow still owns. Mr. Knight was a fine citizen whom Pinellas County could ill afford to lose. By wise investment, excellent judgment and energetic effort he won financial in dependence; by honorable dealing s and noble traits of character he won friends, and many there are who mourned his passing. Mr. Knight was married at Crystal River, Florida, in 1899 to Miss May Bennett. Six children were born to this union: R. J ., of Safety Harbor; Eloise ( Mrs. W. T. Jones), of Richmond, Virginia; Mary Evelyn, of Georgia; Nancy (Mrs. P. B. Narmore), of Atlanta; and Ada and Genevieve, both of Safety Har bor. Before his death Mr. Knight built for his family a beautiful home at Safety Harbor which overlooks the hay, and which has f or a background a fine 100-acre. orange grove, one o f the show p laces of Pinellas County. Here Mrs. Knight and her family reside, having continued to maintain their home at Safety Harbor since Mr. Knight's death. WILLIAM ROBERT LANCASTER WILLIAM ROBERT LANCASTER was born in Edgecomb County, North Caro tina, April 25, 1874, the son of Joseph B. and Johanna (Daughtridge) Lancaster. His ancestors were from England, early settlers of North Carolina. Mr. Lancaster received his education in the public schools of his native State, and early formed a connection with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. He ad vanced to the position of Conductor, which he held until 1904, having been with the road for eleven years. Before coming to St. Petersburg in 1920 Mr. Lan caster was in the furniture business at Rocky Mount North Carolina, having at one time a chain of si x furniture stores in that State, novo of which he still owns. While in Rocky Mount, Mr. Lancaster wa s prominent in civic affairs, having served as Alderman for twelve years, and also as Treasurer of the city and Mayor pro-tem. Since coming to St. Petersburg he has been engaged in the bicycle business. Mr. Lancaster is a member of the Baptist Church. He was married at Wake forest, North Carolina, on May 22, 1900, to Miss May Holding. They have two children, William Robert and Lewis Allen. William Robert is a partner in the present business with his father, and is a Ma s on and a Shriner. Lewis Allen is a graduate of Florida University, 1928 B.S., B.A. ALBERT F. LANG ALBERT F. LANC, whose confidence in St. Petersburg's future was so great whe n he first saw the city that he bough t p r operty within four and a half days after his arrival, and whose faith has been hand somely rewarded by the passing years, is a citizen who has had his shoul d e r to the wheel constantly in the upbuild mg of the city, and whose enthusiastic e ffort s have aided largely in the magnificent growth and development of not only St. Petersburg but the county as a whole. Mr. Lang served the city of St. Peter s burg as Mayor for four years and

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362 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA during his able administration much effective work was accomplished, particularly in cleaning up the town, the hundreds of benches, which have made the city famous, being painted green at his direction, and ha v e remained this attractive color since that time Unsightly signs were removed from the streets, and a general air of neatness was noted throughout the entire city during his incumbency. Mr. Lang has long been prominent in baseball circles of the city and of the State, being popularly known as the "Daddy of Baseball in Florida." The first year he spent in St. Petersburg he conceived the idea of bringing major league teams to the city for their winter training He secured the St. Louis Browns the first year, but in 1914 he went north and induced the Philadelphia National League Club, Pat Moran, manager, to come to St. Petersburg and this dub won the national pennant the following summer, thus bringing much favorable publicity to St. Petersburg. Mr. Lang blazed the trail that resulted in seventeen big league teams coming to the Stat e for winter training, and with several hundred newspaper men covering the games, the State has derived much valuable advertising as a result. Mr. Lang was President of the State League for three years. Mr. Lang was for 25 years connected with the laundry business, the last four teen years being in business for himself in Pittsburgh. His health failed and he sold out and came to Florida, going first to Fort Myers and later to St. Peters burg, where he arrived in 1910 Mr. Lang's large property interests take up much of his time, but he always finds the time and the means to aid in any matter of civic importance. He was awarded two silver loving cups since coming to St. for being the most useful, constructive citizen of the city, and the other was given him by a group of citizens when he co n ducted a successful Chamber of Conunerce drive, which went over beyond all expectations, just after the collapse of the boom. Mr. Lang was for three years President of the West Coast Telephone Com pany, and was elected President of the first golf club in St. Petersburg. now the Jungle Club, of which he has been President ever since Mr. Lang was born in Pittsburgh, Pa, November 16, 1870, the son of James Taylor and Harriett Becket Lang His father's people were from New Hamp shire and Vermont. His paternal great-grandfather came from New Engl and in a Conestoga wagon over the mountains and settled in Shippensville, Pa., and the succeeding generations have maintained their homes there. Mr. Lang is a member of the Methodist Church, the Jungle Club. and is a Mason and a Shriner. He was mar ried November IS, 1910, in Philadelphia. to Miss Katherine Marie Fagen. They have no children. AYMER VINOY LAUGHNER Ann:R VINOY LAUGHNER, President of the Vinoy Park Hotel Company, who is credited with having been personally responsible for much of the progress and the almost miraculous development that has come to St. Petersburg and Pinellas County in the last few years, was born at Oil City, Pennsylvania, May 13, 1883 the son of Perry 0. and Emma C. (Finley) Laughner. He was educated in the schools of Pittsburgh.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 363 Mr. Laughner entered the oil well supply business when his school days came t o a close, his father being one of the largest oil pro ducers of the count r y. He; entered t his b u siness not as the son of a wealthy father, but as a youth ambitious to learn and master things for himself. In an incredibly short time he became a producer of oil and gas, not only in his native State, but in the oil fields of the great Southwest. H e is now President of the C r escent Oil and Gas Company and the Ma-Lou Oil Company, both of Pittsburgh. In December, 1919, Mr. Laughner became a citizen of St. Petersburg, since which time he has become known as one of the foremost real estate operators and developers in South Florida. The Laughner Enterprises own more than 2,000 acres of valuable property within the city limits of St. Petersb urg. Mr. Laughn er's crowning achievement is the Vinoy Park Hotel of St. Peters burg, a palace of luxury set in the midst of a tropical garden of coconut and roya l palms, overlooking the waters of beautiful Tampa Bay. Shortly after his arrival in St. Petersburg Mr. Laughner saw the need of a great hotel and dete r mined that he would be the builder. He has achieved his goal, and when the history of Florida is read in the years to come his name will be link ed with such leaders as Plant Disston and others who visioned the G reate r Florid a and built to meet its need s The Vinoy Park Hote l is the largest, most complete and up-to date fireproof hotel in the South, and the l argest hostelry on the west coast o f Florida. As a citizen of St. Petersbu rg Mr. Laughner has built for himself an en viable reputation as being always on the side of progress and civic advancement. His efforts and cooperation have assisted materially in the many projects of a progressive nature which have transformed St. Petersburg into the city it is today. Mr. Laughner is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club; is a Mason, a Shriner, Knight Templar, a member of the Consistory and the Grotto, is also a membe r of the Royal Order o f Jestors and is an Elk. He was marri ed June 3, 1908, to Miss Stella V. Watson, of Cora opolis, Pa., and they have two chi l dren, Paul and Mada lyn. B. A. LAWRENCE, JR. B. A. LAWRENCE, J!t., who has given able supervision to the activities of the S t Petersburg Chamber of Comme rce for many years, and otherwise prominently identified with t he civic life of the Sunshine City, was born in Chicago, Ill., May 7, 1887, the son of B. A. and Julia (Lane) Lawrence. Mr. Lawrence's ancestors were veteran s of the Revolution, his paternal an cestors coming to the United States in 1640 settling in New York State, and his mother's ancest ors, who were among the fir st sett l ers of Mass achusetts, landing there in 1650. After atten ding the public schools of Chicago and Milwaukee, Mr. Lawrence attended Lawrence College at Appleton, Wis., afterwards engaging in the bond and investment business at Milwaukee for a period of three years. He was sub sequently appointed Superintendent of Agencies in Wisconsin for the New Eng land Mutual Life Insurance Company, holding this position until he came to St. Petersburg in 1912.

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364 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Lawrence built the "Spa S t Petersburg's first modern bath house, in 1919, adjoining the municipal pier, and this has been o n e of the city's greatest drawing cards, having been a popular resort for thousands of pleasure seekers from the North as well as for residents of the city. Mr. Lawrence has to his credit a long record of achievement in Chamber of Commerce activities He was Chairman of the first drive for members and at this time was elected President of the organization. Five years of effective work was accomplished by Mr. Lawrence, who served the Chamber as Secretary, Vice President and President during that period When he entered upon his duties as President in 1919 the Chamber had two empl oyees, and when he retired from office five years later, 23 employees were required to handle the affairs of the Chamber. Mr Lawrence was called back in the early part of 1928 to supervise the organization's activities, and in 1929 was elected First Vice-President, in which capacity he is now serving. Mr. Lawrence has been Presiden t of the Rotary Club of St. Petersburg; was President and organizer of the Men's Civic Glee Club, and is organizer and Chair man o f the Civic Club's Underprivileged Child Committee. Mr Lawrence is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the Jungle Country Club, and i s a Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge. He was married April 6, 1916, to Miss Virginia Wagner, of Kentucky the wedding taking place in St. Petersburg. !"lr and Mrs Lawrence have one daughter, Julia Ann. ROBERT LEACH RoBERT L:tACH, long a distinguished citizen of Pinellas County, identified with the citrus industry for many year s, and one of the last of the English colonists who settled in the Pinellas Peninsula in the early eighties, is one who has seen great changes wrought in the development of a land to which he came full of hope and aspiration and which has rewarded him abundantly, his various un dertakings having been very successful. Mr. Leach was born in Somerset, England and came from that coun t ry to the United States in 1887. After reaching New York he continued on his journey until he reached the Southland locating first at Clearwater. The following year, 1888, he settled at Oakhurst, where he has since made his home. Mr. Leach owns large grove interests, being one of the real citrus developers of the country but his Boca Ceiga grove of fifty acres, one of the first to be planted in the county, is a real show place and a magnificent property The freeze of '95 caused many to become disheartened, but Mr Leach possessed those qualities of tenacity persistency a n d determination which are undaunted in the face of adversity, and he has long since been repaid for his faith in Florida. In the early days Mr. Leach owned a one-half interest in a boat line from Clearwater to Mobile which was successfully operated for fifteen years. The line was established in 1889, and in 1904 Mr. Leach disposed of his interests in the company. Mr Leach is one of the owners of the West Coast Fruit Company, one of t he largest packers and shippers of citrus fruit in the State This company

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 367 handles a large portion of the fruit crop of the West Coast section. He is now a Director, and has been for many years, of the Peoples Bank of Clearwater. Mr. Leach was in Marietta, Georgia, to Miss Calher Brumby. Mr. and Mrs. Leach have one son, Robert, Jr. MRS. JOHN C. LEONARD Mas. JoHN C. LEONARD, formerly Mrs. Wm. A. Coats, whose maiden name was Miss Elizabeth Officer, was born in Belfontaine, Ohio, the daughter of Rev. Morris and Susan (Smith) Officer. Her father was a minister and twice a mis sionary to Africa, establishing the Muhlenburg Mission on the West Coast of Africa. He was afterward Superin t enden t of Missions for the Lutheran Church, and helped in the organization of many churches in different parts of the country. H e later became a Congregational minister. He died i n 1874, in Topeka where the family were making their home. Mrs. Leonard was educated in Bethany College, Topeka, Kansas, and was for three years at the head of the kindergarten connected with the college. She wa s interested in church and civic affairs; was a member of the Hospital Board and also theY. W. C. A., serving the latter as President and was active in musical circles. For twelve years she was Treasurer of th e Woman's Board of Missions for the Congregational churches of Kansas. In 1887 she became the bride of Wm. A Coats, of Topeka, Kansas. They took an extended European trip in 1888, and in 1901 they came to St. Petersburg for the benefit of the health of Mr. Coa ts. Always an active worker wherever she might be, Mrs. Coats a t once became interested in civic matters, the need of a hospital being the first ma tter to a tt ract her attention. She was elected Chairman o f the first hospital committee meeting held, and was later appointed President of the first hospital board, holding that position se ven years This hospital was first known as Augusta Memorial, now the M ound Park Hospital. Mrs. Leonard was an early member of the Town Improvement Society of St. Petersburg, and helped t o plant the grass in Willi am s Park. She was Pres ident of the League of Women Voters for five years, and a charter member of the Echo Club, and its President for thr ee years. She is a charter member of the Memorial Historical Society o f St. Petersburg, and is its Historian. She organized the Council of Soc ial Workers, and was its President for six years She was the first woman member of the Pinellas Republican Club. Mrs. Leonard presided at the first meeting called to consider t q e organization of a Young Woman's Chris t ian Association in St. Petersburg, and was a cha r ter member of t hat Board and later was elected President of the A ssoc iation She has been an active member of the Cong rega tional Church since coming to St. Petersburg. Mrs Leonard assisted in organizing the first Visi t ing Nurses' Association and was President of the Association for two years. In all of these activities she never received one cent of salary, and in many instances used her own means to fut:ther the w or k. During the World War M rs. Leonard spent seven months in Washington, helping in furnish ing ent ertainment and ho spital ity for the soldiers in camp, w ork

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368 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA ing in connection with the Y W. C A and Church of the Covenant as a war worker. Returning to St. Petersburg sbe carried on for the soldiers at Fort Dade and Arcadia, having in previous years helped in providing a library for them, and for fifteen years had provided entertainments and variou s social affairs for the officers and enlisted men Through her effor t s the War Camp Community s ervice was enabled to es tablish a club house in St. Petersburg. She was appointed to represent the women of the city in the St. Petersburg Council of Defense. She was a Red Cross worker and was called for nursing service at Fort Dade during the influenza epidemic, and has received letters of commendation from the government at Washington and a l so treasures scores of appreciative communications from service m e n in the camps and also from those overseas. Mrs. Leonard was first married in 1887 to W m. A. Coats who died March 8. 1907, in St Petersburg On June 7, 1922, she was married to Capt. John C. Leonard, a retired United States Navy Captain, of New York, who likes St. Petersburg better than any other place in the world as a place of residence. Mrs. Leonard has one son, by her first marriage, W m Morris Coats. EDSON T. LEWIS EosoN T. LEwis, for forty-one years an honored citizen of St. Petersburg, whose sound judgment and wise investments have enabled him to amass a vast fortune, has been a vital, constructive force behind every movement looking to the progress and development of St. Petersburg. No improvements of a civic nature but have had his wholehearted support, and his opinion has been sought and hls advice acted upon by those in authority who desired to give the community a wise, constructive and progressive administration When any forward step was to be taken, E. T. Lewis could always be found among the leaders, and to rum, as much as any citizen in St. Petersburg, is due the credit for building one of Florida's greatest cities, one of the nation's most popular playgrounds. Mr. Lewis came to St. Petersburg with his parents on March 7, 1888, a young man of sixteen years of age. His father had the distinction of building the first house in St. Petersburg, at Ninth Street and Central Avenue which was sur rounded by an acre of land which he had bought from Jacob Baum for the large sum of $50 The family came to St. Petersburg from Pennsy l vania. Mr. Lewis was born at N ew Milford, that State, January 19, 1872, the son of Fred W. and Alice (Denison) Lewis. Starting to work-a habit he early formed, and one which in all of his large undertakings has been the foundation of his success-he chose the first opportunity that offered, which was employment in a sawmill operated by George L. King Several years' experience thereafter in Ward's general store and the store of J. C Williams, Jr. fitted him to enter the mercantile business for himself. His first venture was a soft drink establishment, conducted by him and Edward Durant, which he bought in 1891, and of which he took active charge the following year. Like many another business, started in a modest way, it grew, and as a result Mr. Lewis two years later bought a lot on the northeast corner of Central Avenue

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 373 and Third Street, where he established the firm of E. T. Lewis. handling groceries and general merchandise. His store was a model of neatness, arrangement and attractiveness, and a show place in those early days With the coming of hundreds of pleasure s eekers, home builders and in vestors, the city grew and the various concerns in which Mr Lewis was interested developed and grew bringing him handsome returns, and with his enlarged re sources, long experience and knowledge of affairs and conditions, he has been of inestimable value to the community and to those who sought it for investment health and recreation Many ma y claim cred i t for a share in St. Petersburg' s magnificent growth but when the history of the city is scanned, the printed page will reveal the name of E T. Lewis as many times as that of any citizen, and more than any other with perhaps one except i on. That in itself tells a story of long years of service to a community that values E T. Lewis as one of its most useful citizens, one whose progressive ideas and aggressive spir i t have aided in many projects vita l to the city's future. Thes e i nclude the long and successful fight for municipal ownership of the waterfront, r e sult ing in St. Petersburg's shore line being one of the most beautiful in the country ; municipal ownership of all public utilities; the use of brick for the cit y s streets, and the widening of the sidewalks to ten feet, making them famed the country over. Mr. Lewis has served the city in official capacity as member of the City Council and as an officer of the Chamber of Commerce. He is a Mason, an Elk, a member of the Tarpon Club, Country Club, Yacht Club and the Art Club. He was married on November 29 1894, at Englewood, N.J., to Miss Nellie Demarset They have one son, Leon D., himself a successful citizen of St. Peters burg. Mr and Mrs. Lewis own a magnificent estate in the southern part of the city, their lovely home and grounds being o'!e of St. Petersburg's real show places. LEON D LEWIS LEON D. LEWIS, a member of one of St. Petersburg's most prominent and influential families, was born in that city July 23 1896, the son of E. T. and Nellie (Demarset) Lewis. His father and grandfather came to St. Petersburg in 1888, and the latter had the distinction of building the first home in the cor porate limits. Afte r graduating from the schools of St. Petersburg Mr. Lewis a t tended Rollins College, receiving his A.B. degree from that i nstitution in 1917. His ousiness career reads like a fairy tale On graduating from college he returned to St. Petersburg and established the Citizens Ice & Cold S t orage Company which increased to twelve p l ants in the county by 1925. He had charge of all of these plants when but 28 years of age. In 1926 he sold his holdings for $3,000,000 His phenomenal success however, is no more than was to be expected of a son of E. T Lewis one of St. Petersburg's most successful and highly esteemed citi zens; whose energies and foresight have aided materially in the development and upbuilding of not only St. Petersburg but the county as a whole.

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374 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA During the World War Mr. Lewis served in the Navy, being stationed at Hampton Roads Naval Base. He is a Director of the American Red Cross, Pres ident of the Red Cross Life Saving Corps, is a member of the American Legion, the Chamber of Commerce, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the Rotary Club and the various country clubs. He was married November 29, 1920, at St. Peters burg to Miss Eva Endicott. MARIE LOUISE LILES Miss MARIE LouisE LILES, who was appointed Postmaster of Tarpon Springs on July 2, 1926, is a native Floridian, born at Port Richey December 8, 1894, the daughter of Edward Boyle and Frances Sofia (Clark) Liles. For the past three generations her ancestors were born in the United States, and she being the fourth generation claims to be a full-blooded Amer ican. Her father was a native of Saint Louis, Missouri, and came to Florida at the age of sixteen years, he was a business man of Tarpon Springs for a number of years and very active in local politics, being Tax Assessor for over ten years. Her grandfather, Colonel E. G. Liles, was a native of Tennessee and a gallant defender of the South during the Civif War. His ancestors were English, Irish and French. Her grandmother, Char lotte Louise (Boyle) Liles, was a native of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and a fine musician. Her ancestors were Irish and English. The Boyle family were all musicians, being fine pianists and violinists. Her grandfather, James W. Clark, was a native of Charleston, South Carolina, and ran away from college at the age of 15 years to join the Army during the Civil War. He was an ardent defender of the South. His ancestors were English and Scotch. Her grandmother, Frances Louise (Hope) Clark, was a native of Brooksville, Florida. Her ancestors were English and Dutch. Miss Liles was educated in the public schools of Pasco and Pinellas counties until 14 years of age, when she completed her education at Holy Name Academy at Lake Jovita, Florida, after which she took examination for teacher in the public sehools of Florida, and attended the Teachers' Normal Training Course at Gaines ville,. Florida, the following summer. Miss Liles taught in Pasco and Hillsborough counties for several years, taking the Civil Service examination at Tarpon Springs, and commenced working in the posi:office December 16, 1917, as a clerk. In 1923 she was appointed money order clerk, which position she held until her appointment as Acting Postmaster July 16, 1925, receiving her appointment as Postmaster July 2, 1926. Miss Liles is a member of the Catholic religion and belongs to the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, the Woodmen Circle, the National and Florida Association of Postmasters and the National Association of Postal Clerks. RAY H. LINDSEY RAY H. LINDSEY, who holds the important and responsible position of Deputy of each of the county offices at St. Petersburg, enabling the to transact their business through him without making a visit to the county seat, was born in Kokomo, Ind., April 3, 1884, the sori of Samuel and Martha A. Lindsey.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 377 After acquiring his edocation in the public schools of his home State, Mr. Lind sey became a printer and a pressman. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1918, he was connected with the Times for five years as head pressman He contracted for the first carload of paper ever shipped to that newspaper. Mr. Lindsey organ ized the Pressman's Union at St. Petersburg and served as its President. At the present time Mr. Lindsey gives all of his time and attention to his work as County Deputy, being the St. Petersburg representative of the office of the sheriff, tax collector, county judge and registration officer. Mr. Lindsey was .for some time City Collector of St. Petersburg H e is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, a member of the Executive Board of the Red Cross, and fraternally is a Mason Shriner, an Elk Past Monarch of the Grotto, and is a Knight Templar Mr. Lindsey attends the Christian Science Church. He was married in Otta wa, Kansas, in 1910 to Miss Fay Vail. W. S LINDSEY W. S. LINDSEY, former Sheriff of Pinellas County, was born at Monticello, Florida, August 21, 1875, the son of William A. and Margaret C. Lindsey. Mr. Lindsey, after securing his educat ion in the schools of Monticello, en gaged in farming and was also a mer chant of Monticello. He came to St. Peters burg in 1904, and for several years thereafter conducted a barber shop in that city. For eight years he was a member of the St. Petersburg police force, being Chief of the Department the last six months he was in service. From 1921 untill925 Mr. Lindsey w as the efficient Sheriff of Pinellas Coun ty. Si nee re tiring from active political life Mr. Lindsey has been engaged in the real estate business. He has built a large number o f houses in St. Petersburg and o wn s much valuable real estate. Mr. Lindsey is a member of the Woodmen of the World. He was married in Georgia to Miss Phena Pearl D.rew. Mr. and Mrs. Lindsey have three children, Margaret (Mrs. A. E. Heald) Ardell and Sheldon, all born at St. Petersburg JOHN H. LODWICK JoHN H. LoDWICK, able newspaper man and Publicity Director of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, is a native of Ohio, born in Cleveland December 16, 1890, the son of John Reese and Bessie (Harris) Lodwick. His ancestors came to this country from Wales. His father was a steel mill worker and a teacher of vocal music. A gifted newspaper man and publici ty expert, Mr. Lodwick began his career as a copy boy for the Associated Press. He knows the newspaper game so thor o ughly that he can and has served in every capacity, even to illustrator. H e came to Florida in 1918 with the idea of popularizing some parti cular city thr ough the medium of publicity in the Northern press, and St. Petersbu rg was the for tunate city to secure his services. It would be impossible to estimate the value Mr. Lodwick has been to St. Petersburg through his news stories and news photos, published in newspapers of the North, resulting in thousands of families being attracted to this favored and delightful city.

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378 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA M r. Lodwick was one of the organizers of the first amateur baseball associa tion, which later grew into a national organizat i on. In the spring and summer of 1919 he was National Organizer for the American Industrial Ath l etic Associa tion that resulted in the building of recreation halls and welfare buildings by large industries for the use of their employees . Mr. Lodwick was in the advertising and publici t y business for himself for two years after coming to St. Petersburg but in 1926 resumed his duties as Pub licity Director of the Chamber of Commerce. He originated the National Horse shoe Pitching Tournaments for St. Petersburg, later followed by National Roque Lawn Bowling and Shuffle Board Meets From 1910 to 1912 Mr. Lodwick was Recreation Director of the City of Cleveland. Mr. Lodwick is a member of the Rotary Club the Motor Club, Chamber of Commerce and the Baptist Church. He is a 32nd degree Mason and an Elk He was married June 28, 1919, to Miss Margaret Roberts Guinter, of Akron, Ohio. C. LOWERY C LowERY, an honored and esteemed citizen of Clearwater for thirty-three years, an upbuilder of his community whose wide range of activities embraced many undertakings of importance, was born in Pennsylvania in 1838, and his death at Clearwater in January, 1920, removed one who had wrought well and had accomplished much. The greater part of his life he spent in the jewelry business Colr\ing to Florida, he settled at Leesburg, two years later coming to Clearwater, where he was happy and satisfied to spend his remaining days Previous to 1885 he had spen t several winters in the State, and formed a desire then to make it his per manent home. Mr. Lowery was in the jewelry business for many years at Clearwater, and also conducted a v ery large and complete curio store-said to be the finest of the kind in the State. He owned much valuable real estate at Clearwater and Tampa, among his holdings being a brick business block, which he built in the former city, and also his lovely home there, which is one of the show places of Clearwater. Mr. Lowe r y was for nineteen years Postmaster at Clearwater and served several terms as President of the City Council. He was a Civil War veteran, a member of the Ohio Regiment. Fraternally he was affiliated with the Masons Mr. Lowery was married at Fort Madison, Iowa, in 1866 to Miss Laura May Preston Three children were born to this union: Mrs. Melvin Moss, Boston Mass.; Mrs. R. T Culler, Tampa Florida, and one son C. P. Lowery, .who lives at Live Oak, Florida. SOREN LUND SoRI!N LUND, owner of the Soreno Hote l St . Petersburg's million-dollar hostelry, which is one of the most beautiful and popular hotels in the South is a native of Rander Denmark, born in that country April 1, 1873, the son of Soren and J obanna Lund. Coming to this country when a lad of fourteen years, his climb to success has been phenomenal-his ability to finance large propositions enabling him to take

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 381 advantage of many opportunities which have brought him fame and fortune as a hotel owner and operator. As soon as he came to the United States he secured employment in a hotel, and until 1902 served in every capacity, from bell boy to manager.. In the latter year he bought his first hotel, the Oaks, at Daytona, this State. In the following eight years he owned the New Grand Hotel, Stamford-in-the-Catskills, New York; the Sunset Park Inn, North Conway, N. H.; the Hotel Clinton, East Orange, N.J., and the Hotel Munnatawket, Fishers Island, N. Y. He owned and operated the Hotel Huntington at St. Petersburg for ten years, and in 1923 completed his greatest effort-the palatial Soreno Hotel, wh ich has been one of the most popular hotels in Florida since its opening day. Mr. Lund spends his summers in travel, going frequently abroad. He is a leader in civic work, always responding to requests for assistance in all worth-while undertakings. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Kiwanis Club, the St. Petersburg Hotel Association, the Florida Hotel Association, is a Mason and a member of the Congregational Church. He was married March 27, 1899, to Miss Bertha Nickse, of Hartford, Conn. They have one son, Soreno GEORGE M. LYNCH G!IORG!I M. LYNCH, one of Florida's leading educators, and who, as County Superintendent of Schools of Pinellas County, has done a fasting work in better ing conditions, raising standards and otherwise putting the schools of the county to the forefront, has made a record of. splendid accomplishment during his long residence in the county: Mr . ; Lynch was born in Washington, D. C. His father, Alexander Lynch, was Federal Judge in the Court of Claims, Tennessee but at the time of his death held the office of Registrar U. S. Land Office at Gainesville for a number of years. Many important positions have been held'by Mr. Lynch From 1896->190S he was Professor of Mathematics, East Florida Seminary (State Military College). He was State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, Supervisor of High Schools and Professor of Secondary Education, University of Florida, for seven years; was a member of the National Committee of Nine chosen to write the Constitution for the National Educational Association; was President of the Joint Educational Con ference of the Southern Educational Association, of the Florida Educational As sociation, and was Secretary of the Southern Rural Commission that made the formula for rural school supervision. Immediately after the World War, in which he served with credit as Trans port Officer on S. S. Mt . Vernon in 1918-19, he came to St. Petersburg as Super intendent of the city schools. He was since elected to the office of County Superin tendent without opposition-a remarkable tribute to his high standing and scholar ly ability. He is also Presid!!nt of the Junior College of St. Petersburg, which institution he established. While Superintendent of the St. P etersburg schools Mr. Lynch reorganrzed the eight grade schools and the four high schools on the 6-6-3 standard, the range of the schools thus being extended from the kindergarten course through second

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382 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA year college. He has favored the building of modern schools on four to twenty-acre plots. He is now organizing an educational program which will place the schools of the county on a city basis, the plan being to d ivide the county into districts ana to place a supervising principal in charge of each district. Prof. Lynch i s a member of the Rotary Club and is a Presbyterian in church affiliation. He is a Mason and an Elk, and pa s t Gra nd Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. 1. A. B. MADDEN J. A. B. MADDN, who for the past nine years has been an active and worth while citizen of St. Petersburg, was born December 24, 1893, at Port Huron, Michigan, the son of M. J. and Catherine (Beale) Madden. His paternal an cestors were among the early settlers of Mich igan, his father having been a pioneer ship captain on the Great Lakes. Befor e his retir e ment he commanded the largest and newest ships on the Lakes, taking them out on their maiden voyages. His mother was a teacher in the schools of Michigan After completing his education at the University of Michigan, Mr. Madden was a trave ling salesman for a number of years later establishing the J A. B. Madden Sales Corporation, which had for its main object the sale of automobiles and motor trucks. He also established a 200-car garage in Detroit, in addition to which he maintained a hauling and transpor tat i on business known as the Madden Cartage Company, which had a Aeet of five-ton trucks for carrying on the busi ness. In the conduct of these three large concerns he was quite successful. At the outbreak of the war he turned over his business to a manager and enlisted in the United States Marines and upon his return he disposed of his holdings and came to St. Petersburg, arriving there in November, 1920. On his arrival in the Sunshine City, Mr. Madden engaged in the building and construction business, erecting the Ponce de Leon Hotel and constructin g the huge Deisel motor foundati on for the Municipal Power Plant. He then formed a con nection with the city, assisting in the construction of the storm and sanitary sewer system. In 1925 he entered the real estate business, forming the Bushnell Devel opment Company, which owned large tracts of land in Sumter county, which were sold in five and ten-acre t racts. In addition to this Mr. Madden operated a general brokerage business in St. Petersburg, selling close in business and residential prop erty. At the present time he is giving all his attention to his duties as Exalted Ruler of the Elks Lodge of St. Petersburg. During the World War Mr. Madden joined the United States Marine Corps, and was la ter one of thirteen men who formed the nucleus of the Marine Aviation forces. Shortly after coming to St. Petersburg he was elected Adjutant of the American Legion Post No. 14, and was also a charter member and Conducteur of the 40 and 8. He was instrumental in the establishment of boxing at Waterfront Park at the time he was adjutant, and thus has the means been provided f or the care of the inmates of the Crippled Children's Home. Children's playgrounds throughout the cit y have been among his chief interests, having, during his term as a:djutant, called together the various civic organizations, whose endeavors resulted in the establishment of playgro unds at South Mole and Crescent Lake Parks.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 38.3 Mr. Madden is a member of the Executive Committee of the Democratic Club of St. Petersburg, a leading Elk, a Knight of Columbus and his chief hobbies are baseball, football and tarpon fishing. He was married November 15, 1920, to Miss Marguerite Harriet Meiser, of Crosse Point Park, Detroit, Mich. J. MAJOR ALFlt J. MAJOR, w ho, through the mortgage and inves t ment company which he heads, has loaned $1,500,000 in St. Petersburg in the past two years, and who has been a regular winter visitor to the city for over a quarter of a century, owning valuable real estate in St. Petersburg and in other portions of the State is a real f r iend to Florida and a great believer in the future of the State. Mr. Majo r who is a native of Penn s ylvania, born at Norristown, that State April 10, 1861, came to Florida first in 1881, settling at Gainesville, where he was for four years connected with the U. S Land Office. In 1885 he returned t o Pennsylvania and was with the Pencryd Iron Works, with headquarters in Phila delphia. While with t his firm he was engaged in bridge building until 1900, when he was elected President of the American Bridge Company, a large concern, a subsidiary of the U. S Steel Corporation. Mr. Major a t the present time is president of Alfred J Major, Inc., an invest ment company, which ha ndles investments, mortgages and bonds. A l arge business is done by this company, and St. Petersburg has vastly benefited as a result of the large sum that has been brought to the city through Mr. Major's influence during the past year and a half. Mr. Major has the distinction of building the first bungalow in St. Petersburg which he erected in 1905 at the corner of Seoond Street and Fourth South, and which he has continued to occupy each winter since that time. Mr. Major owns several fine orange groves at Lake Wales. His Lake Wales' property is in the Highland Park development, one of the premier developments of Florida. Mr. Major is a member of the Union League Club and the Philson Country Club of Philadelphia; Highland Park Club, of Lake Wales; Engineers Club, of New York; and the Yacht Club of St. Petersburg. He is Treasurer of Seaboard Construction Company in Phi ladelphia, who do special railro a d erection. Winter home, 6 month s i n St. Petersburg; summer home, Pocono Mountains, Pennsylvania, near the w ater gap. Mr. Major has one son, Charles W., of St. Petersburg. ROBERT TOMLINSON MARKLEY RonRT ToMLINSON MARXLY, whose death on March 17, 1929, cast a shadow of deepest sorrow not only over Clearwater, where he had been a leading citizen for 25 years, but over the entire county of Pinellas, where he was widely known and highly esteemed for his many admirable traits of character and for his high sense of business honor and ability. Mr. Markley was one of the county's most successful citrus growers and shippers, and his extensive operations placed him among the ranks of the fore most citrus developers of Florida. He had been coming to Clearwater for the

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384 HISTORY OF P INELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA winter seasons for over forty years, but in 1904 became a permanent resident, and since that time had been a vital factor in the general upbuilding of Clearwater. For twenty years Mr. Markley had been associated in the citrus business wit h Hen. John S. Taylor, being half-owner in the various large enterprises in which Mr. Taylor was interested. At the time of his death Mr. Markley was an officer in th e Citrus City Groves Association of Largo. He was a Director of the Guar anty Title & Trust Co., of Clearwater, and prominently identified with other im portant business concerns of the county. Mr. Markley owned a number of fine g roves in Pinellas County, which are veritable show places, and which stand as monuments to his life-work, which had for its object the improvement and enlargemen t of the citrus industry th roughout the county. Mr. Markley was keenly interested in civic affairs, and had served Clearwater as City Commissioner. He was Chairman of the various Liberty Loan drive s throughout the World Vlar and always supported any movement looking to the upbuilding of Clearwater and to its general betterment. Mr. Markley was a Georgian, born in Atlanta April 18 1 874, the son of James and Mary (Tomlinson) Markley. His ancestors, who were Revolutionary War veterans, were early settlers of South Caro lina and Georgia He receiv e d his education in the schools of Atlanta. His marriage to Jessie Barco Pa tt ersort in North Carolina occurred in 1918. RANEY H MARTIN RANl!Y H. MAII.'l'IN is a member of th e legal fraternity of St. Petersburg who is following in the f ootsteps of his illustrious father, George C. Martin, who has for years been a leading lawyer o f Brooksville, this State. Mr. Martin studied la w in his f a ther's office, and after being admitted to the bar practiced for a tim e in Brooksville with his father, coming to St. Petersburg in November 1923 to be associated in business 'vith the law firm of Lane & Bussey. For two years Mr. Martin remained with this firm, but since 1925 has been in partnership with L. P. Hardee. Mr. Martin was born in Brooksville September 23, 1898, the son of George C. and Carolyn A. Martin. His parent s were natives of Tennessee and wer e among the early settlers of Brook sville. During the W orld War Mr Martin was stationed at Fort Sill Oklahoma. Mr. Martin has met with success in the practice of his profession since coming to St. Petersburg and during 1928 was City Attorney. He is a member of tht American, State and St. Petersburg Bar associations is an Elk and a member of the American Legion. He was marri ed at Lakeland, Florida, April 21, 1923, to Miss Betty Merle Park, of that city. Mr. and Mrs Martin have one daughter, Betty Ruth, born at St. Petersburg HARRY I. MART!NDELL HAIUtY J. MA;RTINDLL, head of the St. Pete rsburg .. Adjustment Bureau, which has eonnections in every State in the Union, was born in Binghampton, N. 'Y./

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 385 January 26, 1885; the son of Crawford Coates and May E. (Carl) Martindell. Mr. Martindell's paternal ancestors were from England, pioneer settlers of Bucks County, Pennsylvania His grandfather Martindell was the first American manu facturer to sell American artillery, wheels and spokes in Australia and New Zea land. His maternal grandfather, who wa s from Scotland, was Police Commis sioner of Bingham pton, N. and Publisher of the Binghamplon R1publican. His ancestors were vet erans of variollS wars including the Re volutionary, Civil and Spanish-American Mr. Martindell completed his high school education at Binghampton and later attended Rider College at Trenton, N. J., the University of Penns ylvania and the Wharton School of Business. After leaving Rider College he was associated with Senator Briggs, of New Jersey, as Political Secretary for the Republican State Committee, later taking a position with the Vawter Company, at Benton Harbor, Mich., as salesman becoming Manager of the St. Louis District. In September, 1923, Mr. Martindell came to St Petersburg and established a rea.! estate business under the firm name of H. J Martindell & Co., Genera.! Brokers. His firm conducted a general real estate business and were developers of Marlen Park. In 1927 Mr. Martindell took over the St. Petersburg Adju!tment Bureau, which ha s a large clientele, having built up a business which is natio n wide in scope. Mr. Martindell is a member of the Civitan Club, the Realty Board, and frater nally is affiliated with the Masons and the Patriotic Sons of America. He was married in June, 1916, to Miss Ha rriett E. Waddell They have one SOl), Carl McGill. CHAS. 1. CHARLES J MAUR!IR, prominent lawyer of St. Petersburg since 1913, was boni in St. Louis, Missouri, August 8, 1868, the son of Henry Maurer and Kath erine Maurer, who came to the United States from Germany. Their surviving children, besides Charles, are Fred W., Henry, Jr., and a married daughter, Mrs. George Luedde, residing in Illinois and Missouri. Judge Maurer was educated in the schools of Illinois, just over the Missis sippi River from St. Louis, later graduating in law from McKendree College, at Lebanon, Illinois. He practiced his profession in St. Louis until 1913, when he decided to make F.lorida his permanent home H e came to St. Petersburg, where he had visited in 1906 as a tourist, at which tim e he became very much interested in t he city and its environs. As expressed by himself, he is in love with life living in St. Petersburg He became the owner of a tract of land developed it into an orange an
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386 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA GEORGE W. MEARES GEORG W. MARS honored pioneer citiz e n a resident of St. Pet e r s burg for fifty years, was born February 25, 1853, at Key West, the son of Rich ard T. and Emma (Prest on) M eares. His father, who was born in Nassau, moved to Key West when a lad, r emaining there until 1861, when h e moved t o Clearwa t er, a r riving at Anona o n October 16th of that year. A t t ha t time there were only twelv e or fourteen families living i n what is now Pinellas County, and lan d could be bought from the State fo r one dollar per acre H e l oc ated at his present h ome on Lakeview Av enue in 1878, when there were but seven other families in the lower peninsula section. Mr Meares has devoted himself to farmin g and cattle rai s ing making an extensive study of the soil, being aided by the thorough study of books o n the subject, common sense and practical exper ience. With the information t hu s se cured, Mr. M eares has been very successful i n f r uit raising and f arming generally. Mr. Meare s, who is now 76 years o f age, declares th a t one of hi s secrets of longevity is the fact tha t h e has lived temperately an d eaten only f ood prepared by his wife during the past fifty years. Mr. Meares has se en all of St. Petersbu rg's various steps of development. from the beginning until the present time. He secured from the Commi ssio ners o f Hillsborough C o unty the establishment of the firs t four avenues of the future city-Tangerine, Lakev iew, Disston and Ninth Street, and has seen t h e unde vel oped wood land give wa y to the present wonderful city filled with fine homes, magnificent b usiness structures, splendid streets and eve r y modern comfort and convenience. Mr. Meares and Miss Ellen Louisa L eonardy, o f Tampa w ere married Feb ruary 26, 1878 T heir children are: Annie Louisa, William Murry, Ellen Mel venia, Mabel Virginia Beulah Uzora, Charlott e Leigh, Leonard Preston, Ches ter Milton, Georg e Le s ley, Agnes Myrtle and Florida Venancia. RICHARD MAURICE MEARES R ICHARD MAUIIIC MEARES, who has made a remarkable success of the nur sery business at I ndian R ocks, one of the real pioneer citizens of P inellas County, born at I ndian Rock s, Florida, the so n of -Richard T. and Nancy J. (Harris) Meares. His father who was a native of Key West, came to what is now Indian Rocks in the early 60's, accompanying his parents, and it was ten years later that he and Miss Harris w ere married They reared a family of five girls and two boys, the subject of this s ketch being the young er of the sons. In 1913 Mr M eares establ ished the Ind ian Rock Nurseries, and due to his s plendid personal supervision the busines s ha s met with wonderful success. Des pite the unfavorabl e conditions which have arisen from t im e to time, and without outside financia l assistance, Mr. Meares has carried on, and by sheer ene rgy and intelligent effort has made the business pay handsomely. Mr. Meares i s a devout churchman, a m ember of the Church of God. He is a leader in this church, being a Deacon, Sec retar.y and Treasurer and a teacher in the Sunday School.

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PART II -BIOGRAPHICAL 387 Mr. Meares was married April 13, 1910, at Pleasant Grove, Hillsborough County, Florida, to Miss Sylvia C. Shennan. Their children are Mary Bernice, Paul Shennan, Maurice Richard, Virgil Harris, Velma Neonelle and John Leven. DR. EDMOND J. MELVILLE DR. EDMOND J. M:tLVILL, successful physician of St. Petersburg, and a talented writer, was born in Canada, at Howe Island, Ontario, December 8, 1867. He received his education in the schools of Canada and graduated from Queens University with an M.D. degree and from the University with a C.M. degree. He began the practice of his profession at St. Albans, Vermont, in 1892, rema ining there for 24 years, building up a large clientele, and also maintained a large farm there, Mellville's Landing, which he still owns. Dr. Melville came to St. Petersburg in 1920, since which time he has con ducted a large general practice He is Attending Surgeon at Mound Park and Mercy Hospitals, and is a medical authority whose ability has won for him not only a large following but a high stan ding in the community. Dr. Melville takes time from his medical duties to pursue literary work, being a regular contributor to the Boston Post, his column in that paper being entitled "The Adventures of Napoleon Gomo." He is now publishing a book of short stories under the title, "The Doctor from Hypo Town." Dr. Melville has seen active service on the Mexican border and in the World War, serving as Surgeon in the Medical Corps with the rank of Major. He is a member of the State, County and American Medical Associations, is an Elk, Knight of Columbus and a member of the St: Petersburg Yacht Club. Dr. Melville and Miss Mary Donevan, of Kingston, Ontario, were married in 1893. Mrs. Melville is a graduate of Queens University. She has made an ex haustive study of Celtic literature, and lectures most interestingly on this subject. ALBERT STEPHEN MERES ALBERT ST:tPHEN MERES was one of a number of hardy Englishmen who settled at John's Pass, now Oakhurst, in 1872 when hardship and privation were prevalent conditions and when strong hearts and valiant determination were re quired if success and prosperity were finally to be gained. He came and he con quered, and for fifty-one years was an honored and respected citizen of the county, his death occurring in 1923. Mr. Meres, who was born in Wales in 1845, came to Clearwater from Eng land, accompanied by his brother, Stewart, the two making the trip aboard a sailing vessel which came direct from England to the Florida coast. Their experiences on that long journey which required 100 days at sea, were filled with trying hard ships, but they were undaunted in their determination to reach the Land of Oppor tunity, and finally they reached their journey's end. The end was but the begin ning of a life of endeavor and achievement, in a land far removed and far different from his beloved England, but Mr. Meres saw the golden opportunities of Florida, visioned the progress he knew was bound to come, and set about to do his share of development. He purchased large tracts of lands which he planted in orange

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388 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA groves. His finest grove, a magnificent property, was his home-place, and here he spent over fifty years in happiness and contentment. Mr. Meres was married to Miss Nancy Adela Crowsan, and their children were Maurice A., of Oakhurst; H. A., of St. Petersburg ; Harry E., of Tampa; C. B., of Oakhurst; Eric, of North Carolina; Mary Louise (Mrs. J. M. Davis), Daphany (Mrs. J. M. Patton) and Grace (Mrs. H. H. Willet). E. R. MERES E. R. MERES, who has been in the sponge business in Tarpon Springs for the past 35 years, was born in New York State in 1869, the son of W. F. and Amelia Meres. Mr. Meres came to Tarpon Springs with his parents in 1883, his father conducting a hotel there in the early days. Mr. Meres worked in various capacities on ships and boats when a young man, being Second Mate on the Governor Sanford, which plied the West Coast. In 1895 he went north, remaining only a short time, and on hi s return he began work with John K. Cheney, founder of the sponge business, with whom he was later a partner for many years. He is one of the largest sponge operators in Tarpon Springs, although he began in a very small way. He owns his own sponge packing house, and erected the Meres building in Tarpon Springs in 1914. Mr. Meres is largely responsible for the magnitude of the sponge business in Tarpon Springs, and is the only American left in the business there. Mr. Meres has long been prominent in civic affairs. He was a member of the City Council for many years, and at one time was one of the owners of the Tarpon Springs Powe r Corporation. He established the Meres Insurance Agency at Tarpon Springs, which he still owns but does not operate. He is an Elk and an Odd Fellow. He was married at Lexington, Kentucky, to Miss Emma Drake They have two children: Emily and Ernestine. Mr. Meres has the distinction ol being the second oldest resident of Tarpon Springs. M.A. MERES M. A. MERES, large land owner and successful orange grower of Pinellas Coonty, was born at Oakhurst this county, in January, 1875, the son of A. S. and Nancy A. Meres, the former an early English settler of Oakhurst, whose long life was completed in this favored section, whither he had come from far-off Wales. Mr. Meres received his education in the O!lkhurst school, and later attended the Ocala High School. He early entered the citrus business and developed three fine groves. His home at Oakhurst is a splendid es tate ol 47 acres, embracing one of the most valuable groves in the county. Mr. Meres owns much other prop erty, and through intelligent and well-directed effort has attained financial inde pendence. Harking back to the early days of his section. Mr. Meres recalls that he had the distinction of own ing the first safety bicycle ever brought to Pinellas County. He had the fourth automobile in the county and the first Fordson tractor soid in the county. He has seen vast changes wrought by the hand of progress, and has always kept abreast of the times-oftimes ahead of the procession. He is today

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 389 enjoying the fruits of his labors, surrounded by the comforts of life which were undreamed of in the earlier days. Mr. Meres was married at Clearwater to Miss Emma Maude Brown. They have one son, Vance B. ALBERT F. MILLER, JR. Al.BERT F. Mrx.I.ER, ]R., Cashier of the First National Bank of St. Petersburg, was born at Micanopy, Florida, May 10, 1892, the son of Albert F. and Alice H. Miller. His maternal grandparents came to Florida froin South Carolina in 1840. His father was a native of Frederick County, Maryland. The Miller family were early settlers of Virginia. His maternal grandfather was killed in the Civil War. The latter's brother, Johnson Hagood, was a General in the war, the family being gallant defenders of their beloved Southland. Mr Miller came to St. Petersburg with his parents in 1900 when a lad of eight years of age. He attended the local school>, graduating from the St. Peters burg High School in 1911. In that year he entered the First National Bank as a clerk, working his way up to the position of Cashier, and in the latter position he has been, in a considerable measure, responsible for the growth of this leading financial institution. Mr. Miller is Secretary of the St. Petersburg Bond and Mortgage Company, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. He is an ex-member of the Civitan Club, having had to give up his affiliation therewith in order to give his entire time and attention to his banking duties. During the World War Mr. Miller was with the 534th Engineers, but was later detached from them and given special assignment work, being in charge of various undertakings of importance. He spent eleven months in France His rank was that of Battalion Sergeant. Mr. Miller is Treasurer of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and is a Mason. He was married October 6, 1926, in Sullivan, Indiana, to Miss Lois Stewart, of that city. GLENN GIFFORD MILLER GI.ENN GIFFORD Mrx.u:R, engaged in the practice of law in St. Petersburg for the past six years, is a native of Ohio, born at Columbus, March 21, 1893, the son of Alva S and Sarah (Gifford) Miller. Mr. Miller attended the public schools of Ashland, Ohio, and later was a stu dent at Adelbert College and Western Reserve University, graduating with the degree of B.A. in 1915 and LL.B. in 1917. Mr. Miller enlisted in the Army on May 11, 1917, and the following August was made 2nd Lieut. of Cavalry at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. He was sent to France in September, 1917, where he remained for 22 months, where .he was attached to the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces. While in service he was awarded a citation for service by General Pershing. : At the close of the war Mr. Miller was legal advisor to the Red Cross at Cleveland for one and a half years, and for nearly three years thereafter he was Assistant Director of Law of the City of Cleveland.

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390 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Miller came to St. Petersburg in 1923, and for two years practiced law in the office of Judg e Wm. G. King. In December, 1925, the law firm of Van Fleet-Collins & Miller was organized, a general civil practice being conducted. Mr Miller has given considerable time to matters outside of his profession, being a member of the Board of Governors of the St. Peter sburg Chambe r bf Commerce, and assisted in the of the Florence Crittenden Home and served as its first President. Mr. Miller is a member of the Optimist Club, and served the organ ization as President in 1926; is a member of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars. He was married at Akron, Ohio, on Ma y 3, 1922, to Miss Leno re Baum gardn er. Mr. and Mrs Miller have three children Mary, Patricia Anne and Ric hard Allen. HARRY E. MITCHELL HAIRY E MITCHEl.!., for many years identified with the newspaper and printing business of St. Petersburg, was born in Boonesboro Iowa, November 13, the son of I. J. and Amanda ( Denton) Mitch e ll. H is father was a lawyer and Judge of the Thirteenth Judicial District of Iowa. Mr. Mitchell attended the public schools of Boone, Iowa, and the University of Valparaiso, He started the first daily newspaper at Boone, the Daily News, now the News-Republican. Later he spent about twelve years traveling over the coun-try in different lines o f the show business. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1906, Mr. Mit chell first work ed for the Sub Peninsula Sun, a newspaper located at the comer of Second Street South and Central Avenue, which was afterward absorbed by th e St. Petersburg Times. For several years Mr. M itchell was with The Times and also The Independent, but in 1910 branched ou t i nto business for himself, establishing the Advance Art Printery, the first exclusive job printing plant in Pinellas County. He sold the business in 1920, and then built the Mi tchell building on First Avenue South, wher e he established the Mit c hell Printery, which he conducted for five years, when he sold the building to the St. Petersburg Times and the bus iness to th e Royal Printin g Co He has since been enjoying a wel l -earned r est, devoting himself to his real estate business. Mr. Mitchell is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and has always sup ported any forward movement looking to the growth of the city. He is a member of the Methodist Church; was a charter member of the Yacht Club, but is not now a member; is a Woodman and a Veteran of the Spanish-American War. He is a Mason, member of the Blue Lodge Royal Arch, Chap ter, Knights Templa r Eureka Chapt er, Order Eastern Star, Selam a Grotto, is a Shrine r and a Knigh t of Pythias. Mr. Mitchell was married May 21, 1907, to Miss Alliene Garner, of Darling ton, S. C Mrs. Mit chell has been a resident of St. Petersburg since 1899, and is an accomplished newspaper woman having been the first City Editor of the St. Peter sburg Indep endent, and for a long time was a member of the reportorial staff of the St. Petersburg Times.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 393 NOEL A. MITCHELL NoEL A. MITcHELL, for the past twenty-five years in the real estate and auctioneering business in St. Petersburg, originator and manufacturer of Mitchell's Original Atlantic City Salt Water Taffy; amusement park operator, and a citi:zen who has been actively identified with St. Petersburg in a civic way, was born at Block Island, Rhode Island, January 9 1874, the son of Edward and Mary Jane (Smith) Mitchell. His paternal ancestors were from England, settling in Massachusetts in the 17th century migrating to Rhode Island and settling on Block Island a few years later. His mother's family were descendan t s of John Smith, being among the early settlers of Massachusetts, coming there from England In 1892 Mr. Mitchell began the manufacture of Mitchell's Salt Water Taffy, which found ready sale at the amusement resorts of the Atlantic Coast, particular l y in Atlantic City, and was later sold in all parts of the country. For several years Mr. Mitchell was in the hotel business in Florida, operating hotels at Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Eau Gallie and the amusement park business in Connecticut. He came to St. Petersburg on December 21, 1903, when the town was but a small fishing village. He liked it so well that he advertised St. Petersburg in h i s amusement parks, which he operated at Savin Rock and Lighthouse Point, Conn., visited daily by 100,000 people Mr. Mitchell has always worked tirelessly to gain publicity for St. Petersburg. In 1925 he raised a subscrip t ion fund of $8,500 to place a full-page advertisement of St. Petersburg in the Saturday Evening Post. He assisted in the formation of the present Chamber of Commerce and served both as President and Secretary He issued thousands of booklets advertising the city, and placed millions of cards in his candy boxes advertising the Sunshine City. Mr Mitchell is best known as the man who first placed the green benches and is called the "Da_!idy of the Green Benches He was one of three promoters who put Central Avenue f rom bay to bay, and also built a resort hotel at Mitchell's Beach, John's Pass, in 1912, and operated it about eight years. Mr. Mitchell served as Mayor of St. Petersburg for two years, for 1920 22 He is a member of the Episcopal Church, is a 32nd degree Mason and a life member of the Elks He also belongs to the Moose and Woodmen of the World. Mr. Mitchell and Miss Adelaide B. Sheffield were married at Brunswick, Ga., on October 15, 1900. They have one daughter Gladys DAVID MOFFETT DAVID MoFFETT, St. Petersburg's first Mayor a devout churchman and an ardent prohibitionist, was born in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1842, the son of John and Lettiha Moffett Mr. Moffett came to Pinellas Peninsula in 1881, and was among the hardy pioneers of those early days who laid the foundation for the straggling village, which later developed into a growing community finally emerg i ng as one of the country's far-famed winter resorts-the metropo l itan city of St. Petersburg To him, who is no more, goes the distinction of being the first Mayor of St. Peters burg which office he held in 1 892

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394 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Moffett also served as a member of the City Council in 1896-97, and for a number of years w as a member of the School Board. He wa s active in all matters of moral welfare, and was known far and wide as a leading prohibitionist of the county. His inAuencc was far-reaching and was always exerted in behalf of those things that make for the betterment of mankind. Mr. Moffett was a member of the Congregat iona l Church, and a life Deacon. He was twice married, his first wife being Miss Mattie L. Strong, of Tennessee. Six children were born to this union, two of whom are deceased. Mr. Moffet's second wife Miss Janie Mitchell, of Lafayette, Alabama, survives him, his death having occurred in St. Petersburg on January 25 1921. He is also mourned by two daughters and two sons, Mrs. W. J. M cPherson, Reese, Pearl and Wade. Mr. Moffett had large property inter ests and engaged in the nursery business for many years He was a good man in his home, an exemplary citizen and his l ife was an inspiration t o all with whom he came in contact. SELWYN R. MOREY SEI.WYN R. MOREY, one of the greatest developers of the West Coast of Flor ida, and at one time owner of the entire island of Pass-a-Grille, was the first man to see the possibilit y of the beaches, and his name will go down in hist ory as one who blazed the way for the greater developm ent that has transformed the county of Pinellas into one of the most popular resort centers of the nation. Mr. Morey's father was a pioneer department store owner of Flat Rock, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit and when a young man, Mr. Morey learned the business and eventually was its Manager. In 1892 he and his father came to Florida looking for a location, and spent a year in Fort Myers, locating in Tampa in 1893, where they engaged in the cigar business under the firm name of Morey & Co. At his fath er's death Mr. Morey became sole owner of the busine ss, which he retained until 1915, when he disposed of the concern Mr. Morey's development operations date back to 1895, when he bought and subdivided Pass-a-Grille, the first developer of that now popular winter and sum mer resort. The bathing beach at Pass-a'Grille is still known as Morey's Beach Later he bought practicall y all of I ndian Rocks and subd ivided and developed that portion of Indian Rocks known as South Shore. He had the first road built into Indian Rocks and like Pass-a-Grille, he brought that resort to the attention of others who have aided in the work of development until to4ay these r eso rts are known from one end of the country to the other. Mr. Morey now makes his home at Safety -Harbor, where he went in 1922 for the benefits of the mineral waters. There he bought property on which was located the first Jog cabin built in Pinellas County-erected in 1861-and this he remodeled adding additional rpoms built of virgin logs hewn in the same manner as the original logs. Here he lives in absolut e comfort in a home both unique and attractive. The old chimney in the large living-room bears a plate dated November. i876. One of the oldest grapefruit trees in the State, known as the "Duncan" tr.ee, stands in the yard, and the first b;ored well in this section, put down in 1860, is still in use on the property.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 397 Mr. Morey owns many groves iii Pinellas and Hillsborough counties, and has a summer home in Detroit, Michigan, where he also has large property holdings. For eighteen years Mr. Morey was a Director of the Citizens Bank of Tampa, and had the honor of making the first deposit in that institution. His main recreation is found in hunting big game and in fishing, in both of which sports he has a repu tation second to none. Mr. Morey was a member of the Michigan Athletic Club for years, is a 32nd degree Mason and a Shriner. He was married April 20, 1892, to Miss Mary M. Chapin, of Flat Rock, Michigan, daughter of Dr. Chapin one of the founders o f Detroit. Mr. Chapin went to Detroit in 181 4 as a physician to fight cholera which was then epidemic there. He was Mayor of Detroit in 1824. Mr. and Mrs. Morey have one daughter, Mrs. Grace C. Morey Hall, who lives in Detroit. Mr. Morey is a native of Michigan, born at Detroit December 24, 1861, the son of WillettS. and Ellan R. Ransome. His paternal ancestors were from Scot land and Ireland, his maternal from the south of France. Both sides of the family were early settlers of New York State. VICTOR H. MORGAN VICTOR H MoRGAN, owner and Editor of the Clearwater Sun, was born in Massillon, Ohio, December 25, 1879, the son of John Morgan and Anna Jemima (Davis) Morgan. His father was a mining engineer, and for many years was Superintendent of coal mines in Ohio. After completing his public school education in the Massillon schools, Mr. Morgan attended the Cleveland Law School, took a special course at Columbia University, New York City, and attended lectures in internationallaw .at Marseilles University, Marseilles, France. Mr. Morgan's career as a newspaper man began in 1898; when he was for five years City Editor of the Massillon (Ohio) Independent, and Publisher of the Canal Fulton (Ohio) Sigt1al. From 1903 until 1905 he served as United States Vice Consul General at Marseilles, France, and Consular Agent at Cadiz, Spain. Returning to the United States in 1906, he entered the service of the Scripps.Howard League of News papers and was successively Editor of the Akron Press, Cincinnati Post, Clevelan,i Poit, Cleveland Press, and finally became Editor-in-Chief of all the Scripps-How ard papers in Ohio, published in Cleveland, Cincinnati, Akron, Youngstown, To ledo and Columbus. He was with the Scripps-Howard League for seventeen years Mr. Morgan severed his connection with the above organization in 1923 and purchased a weekly magazine devoted to. finance and industry. He sold this in 1928 and purchased the Clearwater and has since been one of Pinellas Coun ty's members of the Fourth Estate, whose excellent newspaper is a credit to a city many times the size of Clearwater. . . . During his residence in Cleveland, Ohio, Mr. Morgan was chosen as the city's representative in arbitration to fix the rate of fare and profit of the Cleveland Street Railway Company, and was chosen by the City of Cleveland as one of two citizens whose duty it was to prepare for making the city manager form of gov ernment effective.

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398 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA During the World War Mr. Morgan represented the Scripps-Howard news papers for a time as War Correspondent at the American front. He is a member of the Clifton Club, of Cleveland the Cleveland Athletic Club, is a Mason and a member of the Clearwater Rotary Club. Mr. Morgan was married November 8, 1916, at Cle v eland, Ohio, to Miss Beatrice Burton, herself an author of note. Mr. and Mrs. have three children, Victoria, Virginia and John. DANIEL MORRIS DANII!L MollRis was born in Northhampton, Massachusetts August 20, 1885, the son of Charles and Exdina (Carpentier) Morris. His ancestors, on his maternal side, came to this country from Alsace Lorraine, France, and were early settlers of Massachusetts, in which State his mother was born. His father was born at Three Rivers, Canada. Mr. Morris received his education at St. Joseph's School, Northampton, and for a number of years thereafter was a railroad man, making Salem, Mass., his headquarters. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1915, Mr. Morris was for six years with the Man hattan Market, was a city employee for a time, served in the St. Petersburg Fire Department under Chief McNulty, and is now giving all of his time and attention to the real estate business. During the World War Mr. Morris was engaged in electrical work for the government at Lynn, Mass., being connected with the General Electric Company. Mr. Morris is an Elk and is a Catholic in religious belief He was married September 30, 1906, in Peoples' Temple, Boston, Mass to Miss Carrie Blake Woodberry. Mr. and Mrs. Morris have two daughters, Hazel (Mrs. Edward Presselly), of Biltmore, North Carolina, and Viola, who makes her home with her parents. WILLIAM MUIR WILI.IAM M uiR, retired oil magnate whose large operations in his native State of Pennsylvania covered many busy years, is a St. Petersburg citizen who still keeps in touch with various financial affairs, meantime enjoying the balmy climate of his beloved adopted city. Eleven years ago-in 1918-Mr. Muir sold all of his oil interests and sought comfort and ease in St. Petersburg buying one of the city's finest homes at the corner of North Shore Drive and Eighteenth Avenue, where he has since enjoyed the fruits of his labors. He cannot be entirely in active being a Director of the American Bank and Trust Company, of St. Peters burg; is President of the Princess Martha Hotel Company; President of the First National Bank of Warren, Pennsylvania, and is also President of the Warren Tank Car Company, of Warren, Pa. Mr. Muir was born in Carbondale, Pennsylvania April 10, 1851, the son of John and Caroline (Smith) Muir. His paternal grandfather came to the United States from Scotland in 1823 and settled near Syracuse, N. Y. His maternal grandmother was a poet of note in her day.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 399 In the early days Mr. Muir learned the marble-cutting trade, later becoming a carpenter and join er. Subsequent l y he engaged in the contracting business at Carbondale. He constructed an oil refinery for the E. Hendricks Manufacturing Company of Carbondale and later built one for the firm of Clark & Warren, of Corry, Pa. In 1887 he built his own property-the Muir Oil Works-at Warren, an oil refinery which he operated. He also built and operated the Glade O i l Works at Warren built the Pennsylvania Paraffine W orks a t Titusville, Pa., and the Bessemer Refinin g Works in the same city. In 1890 he disposed of these four plants to the Crew Levick Company, of Philad elp hia, Pa., becoming General Man ager, having complete charge of the affairs of the corporation. On the death of Mr. Lewis J. Levick in 1914, Mr. Muir became President of the Crew Levick Company, two years later se lling the company's properties to the Cities Service Company, of New York. In 1918 he retired from the presidency and all active work. Mr. Muir came to St. Petersburg in 1918, since which time he has been one of its most worthwhile citizens. His philanthropy has been widespread, being a liberal subscriber to all driv es for charity both in St. Petersburg and in his former home of Warren, Pa. During the war he was a member of the National Oil Board, which regulated the oil industry at that time. Mr. Muir is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club the Rotary Club, the Conewango Club, of Warren, Pa., and is a Methodist Fraternally he is a Mason-32nd degree-and an Odd Fellow. He was married March 14, 1872, to Miss Martha Fuller, of Carbondale, Pa., and they have four children: George E Caroline Elizabeth (Mrs. Mark Cowden) Edward K., of Warren, Pa., and Marian ( Mrs. Edward Von Takey), of Titusville Pa. DR. ARCHIE McCALLTSTER DR. ARCHIE McCALLISTER, successful physicia n and city health officer of Tarpon Springs, and a leader in his communit y, was born at Tallahassee, Florida, July 9, 1889, the son of T. H. and Mary M McCallister. His parents were native Floridians, his father having been a farmer and l arge cattle dealer of the 'State. Dr. McCallister graduated in 1916 with the degree o{ M .D. from Emory Unive r sity, and was with the Health Department of the Indian Se r vice for some time, later being in charge of a Government Tubercu .lar Hospital in South Dakota During the World War he was a Captain in the Medical Corps in France for two years, and was at the front from July, 1918, until January, 1919. He was a member of the 79th Division during the war, and after the Armis tice h e was with the First Division, Army of Occupation, in Germany. Dr. McCallister first came to Tarpon Springs in 1925, since which time he has built up a fine general practice, being also a skilled surgeon. He established the Health Department of Tarpon Springs, since which time, as City Health officer, he has done a work in protecting the school children from communicable diseases, having been instrumental in getting certain ordinances passed looking to this end. Dr. McCallister is a Mason, a Shriner, member of the Rotary Club and American Legion, and a l so belongs to the American, State and County Medical

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400 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Associations. He was married at Tallahassee in 1920 to Miss Nina Rhodes daughter of G. W. Rhodes, prominent citizen of that section. Dr. and Mrs. McCallister have two children, Archie, Jr., and Louis Ray. S. V. McCLEARY S. V. McCLEARY, Director of Sales of Norbay Shores, St. Petersburg and who is also President of the St. Petersburg Progressive Club, which has a membership of 12, 000, was born in Colter Pa., March 15, 1876, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth ( Mitchell ) McCleary Mr. McCleary s father was a nativ e o f Glasgow Scotland coming to this country when a lad of thirteen years H e was in politics all of his life and wa s an alderman of Pittsburgh for many year s He belonged to several fraternal organ izations, holding important offices in each. His mother, a native of England, was one of the leading club women of Colter, and was one of the organizers of the W. C. T. U. of that place. Mr. McCleary has been in the selling end of many leading enterprises and con cerns throughout the country. His first position was as sales manager of the Pittsburg and Westmoreland Coal Company the second largest coal company in the United States. He held this position for five years when he was transferred to the Buffalo district, which included New Ybrk State, Western Pennsylvania, Ohio and the province of Ontario. He was lat e r in the real estate business wit h his brother until the latter's death when he was southern representative for the United States Steel Corporation, subsequently taking a position with the National Galvan i:ting Works at Versailles, Pa. He resigned this position in 1920 to come to Florida. Deciding on St. Petersburg as a place of residence, Mr. McCleary was for some time Sales Director for the Shore Acres development. In August, 1924, he became Sales Manager for Snell Isle, and on the opening day, October 15, 1925, the sales amounted to $2,000,000. Mr. McCleary is a great believer in outdoor sports for young people. In McK eesport, Pa., he contributed land for a baseball park, and equipped it with a bicycle track, tennis courts, croquet courts, swings, etc., and this wonderful play ground was electrically illuminated by the donor to provide for night playing. Mr. McCleary was a member of the City Council of McKeesport, and a mem ber of the State Republican Committee He is a member of the Royal Arcanum, Scotti s h Clan Knights of Malta, Junior O r der of American Mechanics Knights of H onor, Pennsylvania Temperance Societ y McKeesport Athletic Assn., and the Pennsylvania Republican Club. He i s an Elk and an O.dd Fellow. Mr. McCleary was married May 4, 1909, to Miss Daisy R. Whiteman, of McKeesport, Pa. They have one son, George Mitchell, salesman for the Lincoln shire Country Club Estates, of Chicago.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 401 GEORGE A. McCREA Among St. Petersburg's citizens who have made an outstanding business suc cess is GEORGE A. McCREA, who establi shed the first Buick Aut omobile Agen cy in St. Petersburg, a nd who is still in exclusive possession of the field, being the only Bui c k dealer in the city. Mr. McCrea is a native of Pennsylvania, born at Butler, January 11, 1882, the son of W. S. and Malessia (Burns) McCrea. His father was in the grain, flour, feed and builders' supply business until he came to St. Petersburg as a tourist, fell in love with the t own and located there about 19 years ago. Mr. McCrea joined hi s father in 1911, and engaged in business with the latter under the finn name of W. S. McCrea & Sons. At his father's death, Mr. McCrea went into the automobile business, estab lished the first Buick agency and has been very successful, his progressive ideas, fine personality and honorable dealings having won for him an enviable place in the business circles of St. Petersburg. Mr. McCr ea owns cons iderable valuable real estate, includ ing the McCrea building at Third Street and Second Avenue South which he built, and in which is situated the Prince Georg e Hotel and seven storerooms. Mr. McCrea is an Elk and a member of St. Paul's Catholic church H e was married at Butler, Pa., June 7, 1907, to Miss Nellie Toomey. They have one so n, William "Bing" McCrea, who is a student at the pre sen t time at the University of Florida. William was born at Butler, Pa., March 15, 1910. I. C. M cCROCKLIN J C. McCROCKLIN, president of the First Nati onal Bank of Commerce, of Tarpon Springs, has foll owed the banking business all of his life. Being wetl posted on all matters of a financial nature he has been in a position to develop various banking institutions, having organized two banks and put two others on a sound financial basis. Mr. McCr ocklin is a Kentuckian, born at Beav e r Dam in 1882, the son of T. J. and Chest er McCrocklin. He was educated in the Bowling Green schools, t,aking a busines s cou rse at the Bowliqg Green Unive r sity. His first banking experience was in a bank at Honaker, Virginia. Later he w ent to Beach Grove Tenn., where he organized the Bank of Beach Grove. He was its cashier and active head for five years. He w e nt from there to Fairmont, Georgia, where he t ook charge of the Bank of Fairmont, which was in financial difficulties, and put it on its feet. Comi ng to F lorida in 1914 he was made cashier of the State Bank of Palatka. Coming to Tarpon Springs in 1922 he and Charles Brown organized the First Nat iona l Bank of Tarpon Spri ngs of which he was Presid ent. In August, 1928, this bank was consolidated with the Bank of Comm erce and is now known as the First National Bank of Commerce. It has deposits of $1,000,000, and a reserve of $1,250,000. Mr. McCrocklin is a member of the City Commi ssion of Tarpon Springs the Chamber of Commerce and the Country Club. He is a Mason and a Shriner. He was married in Tennessee to Miss Kate Newell, now deceased. He has one son, J. C., Jr.

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402 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA ROBERT JAMES McCUTCHEON, JR. RoBERT }AMES McCuTCHON, Ja., was born in Campbell, Missouri, February, 11, 1892, the son of Robert James and Fannie (Roberts) McCutcheon. His father's people were originally from Pennsylvania, his mother's from the eastern part of North Carolina. With his parents he came to Florida in 1898, locating at D ade City in Pasco County. H e attended the High School there, graduating in 1910. Subsequently he graduated from Weaver College, Weaverville, North Carolina. In t he latter institution he distinguished himself by winning the Debaters' medal in May, 1911. He had previously won a similar medal in the Dade City school for an essay on Stonewall Jackson While in Dade City Mr. McCutcheon worked in the Post Office for a time and was also agent for the A. C. L. Railway at Homo sass a for a short time in 1909. He has also had e..""tperience in abstract work. Coming to St. Petersburg in December 1911, Mr. McCutcheon was engaged in the selling of poultry and farm products f or a time, but on April 3, 191 2, formed a connection with the First National Bank, with which institution he ha. s been ever since. In 1909 he served as Committee Clerk in the Senate of the State Legislature. He is a prominent member of the Fifth Avenue Baptist church of St. Petersburg, being treasurer and a deacon. He is a director of the Kiwanis Club and served the Chamber of Commerce as President and Director. Mr McCutcheon was married August 5, 1914, to Miss Beatrice Farmer, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ben J. Farmer, residents of St. Petersburg for many years. They have two daughters, Mary Lorraine and Martha Anne. STEPHEN ROY MciNTOSH STEPHN Rov MciNTOSH, prominent St. Petersburg business man, whose energies are ever devoted to the advancement of his adopted city, was born at Hagerstown, Illinois, February I, 1889, the son of Stephen A. Douglas and Laura E. (Hicks) Mcintosh. His ancestors were from McClan, Inverness county, Scotland, three of whom coming over at the close of the Revolutionary war settled in different sections of the country-one in the south, one in the west and the other in Canada. Mr. Mcintosh attended IIIinois Wesleyan University and in 1916 graduated in law from the John Marshall Law school in Chicago. He practiced in that city for two years, being associated in business with his brother. Later he went to Rockford, IIIin ois, where he engaged in the manufactu re of canvas goods, his main business being the supp lying of officers' training camps with tents and other paraphernalia. After the war Mr Mcintosh, like many others, turned to Florida and was so pleased with St. Petersburg he located there in 1920, at which time he established his present business at that time specializing in awnings only, later adding draperies, lawn and terrace furniture. He now has one of th e largest gift shops in F l orida. Recently. a miiJinery business has been added, which is located in the So rena Hotel and is known as the Sorena Hat Shop. The firm manufactures beach coats, pajama suits, and ladies' bags.

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PART IIBIOG:RAPHICAL 405 Mr. Mcintosh, while making a marked success of his own personal affairs, has found time for many matters of a civic nature, being former president of the St. Petersburg Civitan Club; ex-president of the State Civitan Club; member of the Board of Governors of the Chamber of Commerce for three years and ex president of the St. Petersburg Art Club. He is one of nine men on the Board of Directors of the Canvas Goods Manu factors Association of America embracing the United States, Canada and Mexico. Mr. Mcintosh is a Mason and an Elk. He was married September 1, 1918, at Rockford, Ill., to Miss Sara Louisa Blake. They have two sons, Stephen Blake and Edward Roy. NATHAN B. McKINNEY NATHAN B. McKINNEY, who has retired from active participation in business affairs, but who has been successful in real estate and insurance, which lines he has followed for many years, was born in Albion, Orleans County, New York, October 23, 1860, the son of Arthur S. and Sarah L McKinney. Mr. McKinney, always a leader in civic affairs, was for six years Secretary of the Board of Trade of Greenwich, Conn., a position he was particularly fitted to fill. He was for many years in the real estate and insurance business there Interested in Florida, he came to St. Petersburg to reside permanently on April 20, 1914, and was resident agent for Pinellas Estates, Inc., at Gulfport, until the property was all sold and its affairs dosed. Then he engaged in the real estate business until he retired from active work. Mr. McKinney was one of the Governors of the County Board of Trade; and also a member of the committee of citizens from each in the county, who made recommendations to the county commissioners relative to the laying of the nine-foot brick roads from 1915-17, and afterwards acted in the same capacity to get the roads widened. Mr. McKinney was mayor of Gulfport for two years, from November, 1921'23. He was secretary of the Committee which drafted the city charter for Gulfport in 1914, and one of the organizers of the first Board of Trade there. He is a director of the Union Mortgage Co., of St. Petersburg. Mr. McKinney is an Elk and a member of the Gulfport Methodist church. He was married in Jersey City on May 15, 1888, to Miss Claudine L. Soule. Mr. and Mrs. McKinney have one daughter, Ethel C. H. A. McKINNON H. A McKINNON, owner of three of St. Petersburg's leading drug stores, was born in Muskegon, Michigan, May 3, 1900, the son of Archie and Hattie (Yarrington) McKinnon. His ancestors were from Scotland. His education was acquired in various institutions of learning in Michigan, including the public schools of Coopersville, the Junior College at Grand Rapids, Ferris Institute of the same city, later graduating in pharmacy and business admin istration from the University of Chicago In the fall of 1925 Mr. McKinnon carne to St. Petersburg, purchasing the Jungle Pharmacy, which he sold three years later. He opened another store in

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406 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 1925 at the corner of Central avenue and Twenty-Sixth street South, and in 1927 bought the White Way Pharmacy at 2307 Central avenue. In 1927 he bought out the interests of his partners in both institutions and incorporated under the firm name of the McKinnon Drug Company, Inc handling retail drugs, prescriptions and toilet articles In December, 1928, the firm purchased the Fairfax Pharmacy at 700 Fourth Street North, which is known as Store Number Three. Mr. McKinnon is much interested in the work of the Boy Scouts and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. He is affiliated with the Elks and is a member of the Sigma Nu fraternity. He was married February 4, 1926, to Miss Virginia Rogers, of Grand Rapids, Michigan. They have one son, Thomas Archibald, and one daughter, Marilyn Virginia. BIRTEN L. McMULLEN BrRTE:N L McMULLEN, life time resident of the county of Pinellas, born at Bayview, on Old Tampa Bay, March 25, 1866, the son of James P. and Elizabeth (Campbell) McMullen, is a citizen who enjoys the high esteem of his friends and neighbors, among whom he has spent a useful life. His great-grandfather was a drummer boy at Bunker Hill, his father was born in Brooks County, Georgia. and his mother, a native Floridian, was born at Monticello His parents came to what is now Pinellas County, in 1850, settl i ng about half way between Clearwater and Safety Harbor. His father was an officer in the Confederate Army, serving during the entire war. No man did more for the general good of the section in which he lived than he. He served as County Com missioner before the Civil war and served two terms in the 80's. Mr. McMullen was educated in the public schools of Hillsborough County, and also attended Emory University for two years. He has devoted his life to the raising of cattle and fruit growing, which he has done on a large scale and with much success. Mr. McMullen has never aspired to public office, content to be a private in the ranks; however, he has for over twenty years been a member of the Democratic Executive Committee. Mr. McMullen is a Mason, a. member of the A T. 0. fraternity, and is a member of the Methodist church. He was married at Clearwater, November 16, 1887, to Miss V. May Mitchell. Mr. and Mrs. McMullen have eight children: Aubrey, Perry, Virgie, Henry L., Attigus, Lee, Hugh S. and Blanche E Three of his sons, Aubrey, Lee and Hugh S., served during the World War, Lee see i ng two years of service in Haiti. E. B. McMULLEN E. B. McMuLLEN, for seventeen years the efficient Tax Collector of Pinellas County, and one of its most popular citizens-a resident of the Largo section for 63 years-was born in Brooks County, Georgia, June 19, 1862, the son of Daniel and Margaret (Campbell) McMullen. Mr. McMullen's grandfather, James McMullen, was a South Georgia farmer; his great-grandfather, James McMullen, was born in Scotland, and his maternal grandfather, John Campbell, was of Scotch descent, his parents coming to this country from Scotland. His maternal grandmother, Nancy Taylor, was a great aunt of Senator JohnS. Taylor, of Largo.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 407 Mr. McMullen came to the Largo section when an infant of three years--in 1865-and has assuredly earned the right to be called a Floridian. In 1889 he formed a connection with the Farmers' Alliance Exchange Store at Largo, with which concern he was associated for fourteen years After that he conducted a mercantile business for himself in Largo for 9 years. In December, 1911, Mr. McMullen was elected Tax Collector of the county, taking office Jan. 1, 1912, and he so ably filled this im por tant position that he retained for seventeen years, being re-elected each successive term, holding the office until January 8, 1929. Mr. McMullen, who is a large proper ty owner of the county, is now engaged in the real estate business, having opened offices in Largo, where he will handle his own property and that of others. Mr. McMullen is a devout churchman of the Methodist church of Largo and has sung in its choir for 35 years. Mr. McMullen has been twice married, his first wife, Miss Emma Cox, of St. Petersburg, to whom he was married March 4, 1885, having died in 1923. Eight children were born to this union: M A., G. C., Clara (1\Irs. 0. J. Strickland), Mabel (Mrs. F. A Jones), Winifred (Mrs. H. D. Ulmer), D. Newton, Chester B., and Margaret (Mrs. M. L. Harn). He was married a second time Aug 26, 1925, to Miss Florida Dewar, born at Anona, Fla. JOHN JAMES McMULLEN JoHN ]AMES McMULLEN was born at what is now Coachman, but at that time Hillsborough County, Florida, on October 15, 1853, the son of Daniel and Margaret Ann (Campbell) McMullen. His father was born in Tellefore County, Georgia, his mother in Madison County, Florida. His ancestors on his paternal side came from the Highlands of Scotland, and settled in Virginia in the early Colonial period. His great-grandfather, William McMullen, went from there to Georgia, and was in the Revoluntionary War. Mr. McMullen secured his education in the log cabin schools of Hillsborough County, but though in humble surroundings, his teachers were thorough, and he was studious, and as a result he was able to qualify as an instructor and for fifteen years taught school in Hillsborough and what is now Pinellas County. He was a member of the Florida Legislature in 1883. Mr. McMullen has eighteen acres of bearing grove now, but in the early days was a large land owner, owning property for one and a quarter miles adjacent to the Seminole road. He now confines his activities to a number of fine cows he has for dairy purposes, and also raises hogs and chickens on a considerable scale. Mr. McMullen was married July 18, 1880, to Miss Josephine Drayton Ramage, at Clearwater. Their children are Mary Ella (Mrs. W. B. Harris) of St. Pe tersburg, John Ramage, Lillian Elvira (Mrs. Brooks Bullock) of Belleair, Drayton D., Josephine C. (Mrs. Benjamin Pyatt) of St. Petersburg, R. Louise, Daphne May (Mrs. Chas. C. Anderson) of La rgo, and Margaret Eugenia (Mrs. Heber Wooten).

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408 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA M. A. McMULLEN M A. McMm.LEN, of Clearwater, whose seventee n years' legal practice in Pinellas county has gained for him professional achievem ent and high pos iti on, is a native of the county, born near Largo, December 16, 1885, the son of E. B. and Emma (Cox) McMullen His father was for many years a merchant of Largo, and was also .Tax Collector of the county. His maternal grandfather James A. Cox, at one time owned all the land which now co mprises the city of St. Petersburg. Judge McMullen secured his education at Washington and Lee University and at the University of Florida, graduating in 1912 from the latter institution w ith an LL.B. degree. He began the practice of his professio n at Clearwater shortly thereafter, and thus began a brilliant polit ical career which was marked by one advancement after another. H e was fir s t prosecuting attorney, then state's attor ney, and in 1921 was appointed Circuit Judge, and in this position he dispensed justice in such a manner as to win the plaudits of thos e favoring an honest, con scien t ious and dignified admil!lstration of the law. Judge M cMull en does not at this time hold public office, his large practice re quiring all of his time and attention. H e gives matters of civic import his heartiest co-ope ration and .suppor t, having an intense interest in the w elfare of hi s community and the county. The M c Mull en family has long been connected with the county's history, and its members h ave contributed largely to its upbuild ing, progress and general development Judge McMullen is a 32nd degree, Scottish Rite Mason, is a Shriner, an Elk and a Knight of Pythias. He w as married in 1906 to Miss Nellie Stanton, o f St. P etersburg, and thei r children are Nancy and Rena. JOHN T. McNULTY JoHN T. McNm.TY, whose ability as a F i re Chief has gained for him State w i d e fame, has for the pas t sixteen years given St. Petersburg a Fire Department that is the pride of every citizen, the boast of the populace, and one so well equipped a n d trained that in any emer gency, no matter how great the conAagration, the situation is always handled with speed, disj>atch and in such a thoroughly efficient manner as to keep St. Petersburg' s fire losses at a minimum. Since early childhood John McNulty has been a Fire Chief at heart At the age of twelve he held his first position w ith a fire company, being hors e-ho lder for the fir e fighters of Meridian Miss. His parents later sent him to college, attending A & M. colle g e for one year and he tried to direct his career in o ther channels, but no other occupation so inter ested him, and he spent several years as a member of the M eridian, Miss., compan y and the Ensley, Alabama, Fire Depa rtment. He was captain of the latter company until it was merged with the Birmingham department, o f which he was a member when h e left there in 1913 to become Chief of. the St. Petersburg Fire Department. At the t ime Chief M cNulty came to St. Petersbu rg the department was equipped with one horse-drawn wagon, one motor truck and seven men. Today the department has 46 men, six fir e stations, six pumping engines, one chemical engine one fire truck, one 75-foot Yale l adder truck and one Winton G ras s truck.

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t .... . ; >' ) @.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 411 Si xteen years ago the department protect ed six square miles ; it now covers 53 squa re miles an d serves it well and efficiently Mr. McNu lty is the third oldest Fire Chief in Florida, and is president of the South East F ire Chiefs Association, serving his second year in this office. He is a native of Missouri born at Mineral Point, March 24, 1881, the son of Joseph and Fannie (Ferguson) M cNulty. Mr. McNulty is a member of the Presbyterian church, is a Mason, a Moose and an Elk He was married a t Ensley, Alabama, to Miss Olive Keenan. They haye two children : Thomas McDowell and Gertrude. ARCHIE G. McQUAGGE ARcH! G. McQuACC, of Clearwat er, chairman of the Democrati c County Committee, of Pinella s County, and one poli t ically prominent for many years in his former home in Washington County, this State, was born September 6, 1884, the son of Murdock G. and Minerva A. McQuagge. His father was also a native Floridian, born in Walton County in 1843. His a ncestors wer e fr om Scotland, and w e re am ong the first settlers of North Carolina, coming to Florida in the p i o neer days when the State was sparsely settled, locating in Walton and Washingt on counties. Mr. McQ uagge wa s educated in the schools of his native county Was hing ton-later takin g a business course at a conunercial college in Nashvill e, Tennessee. His life, until he reached young manhood, was spent upon his ather's farm but be ing he sought a business career and entered the mercantile 'Qusiness at .: Chipley. In th is, like other of his ventu r es since, he betall!e .': and general manager of the Dunn-Coleinan Hardware.CompartY,i: ofthat place. >-::, ":J ,.. ,J : : Having a large following thrpughout Washin gton County, who desird him in public office, Mr McQuagge was prevailed upo n to become a candidate .. Clerk of the Circuit Court of Washington County. He w.as twic e e l ected to .diis ) important office, serving unti l January 1 1925, wlien: he came to Clearwater to;,'. : ; become assistant chief clerk of the Circuit Court of Pinellas County. ,.; .,. Since coming to Pinellas County M r McQuagge has studied law in an d out : :: of office hours, being admitted to the bar in 1928--a demonstration of will power . ; not encountered often, as few would undertake t o mas ter a profession by studying alone. With such determination and his keen intellect, Mr. McQ uagge is bound to achieve su ccess in l arge measure. Mr. McQu agge is a member of the Kiw anis Club, and fratern ally i s a Mason, Shriner, Knight Templar, Knight of Pyth ias, an O.dd Fellow and a Modern Wood man. H e was married in Washington Count y to Miss Laura Russ They hav e three children, Madge, Nell and Archie Gillis. . HOWARD 0. NEWMAN HowARD 0. NEWMAN, Mayor of Pass-a-Grille, to which office he has three times been electe d, a former city commissioner, and one of the largest property owners of the island was born in N. Y., October 22, 1868, the son of .

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412 HISTORY OF PINELLA S COUNTY, FLORIDA Capt. Wm. B. and Elizabeth G ( Bogar d us) Newman. His paternal ancestors landed in Salem, Mass., in 1631. His grandfather, Wm. Day Newman, was a Commodore in the U. S. Navy and wa s in the War of 1812 His father wa s a Captain in the Navy, and his uncle, Howard L Newman, was also a Naval officer. Everardus Bogardus, of Trinity Church, N Y was an ancestor of his mother His mother's uncle, Cornelius Bogardu s, wa s Port Officer of the city of New York at one time Mr. Newman was in the wholesale drug and perfumery business in New York City for ten years, and the followin g five years was with the New York Edison Co. in the engine ering department. F or a qua r ter of a century Mr. Newman wa s con nected with the Warren Webster Co., o f Camden, N. J. in their New York offices a s Sales Engineer. Afte r retiring from a ctive business, Mr. Newman traveled all over the United States and parts of Cana da for two years in searc h of an i dea l p l ace in which to make his home. His search was finally rewarded when he visited Pas sa-Grill e, which he declares is the most desirable pla ce for a permanent home in the c o untry He became a resident of Pass-a -G rill e in 1922, and two years later he wa s elected city commissioner for a three year term. In 1925 he was elected Mayor. He donated his salary to the city, refu sing same and only accepting $1 p e r year for his services. He is still Mayor of Pass-a-Grille, and will doubtless continue to head the city government indefinit ely, a s his constituents are highly pleased with his management of affairs Mr. Newman is a member of the Kiwanis Cluh, the Pass-a-Grill e and St. Petersburg Chambers of Commerce a Director of St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and is a Mason member of the Blue Lodge an d Chapte r of Hackensa c k N. J Mr. Newman was judge of the Boat and Foo t Races a t the Fourth o f July cele b rations in 192 7-28 and is active in a ll matters of a civic nature having started the movement to have the city busses run from St. Petersburg to Pass-a-Grille. Mr. Newman and Miss Alma T. Burger of Washington, D C were married March II, 1891, at Kingston, N. Y. They hav e no children. It was a fortunate day for Pass a -G rill e when it acquired Howard 0. Newman as a citizen. He demonstrated his unbound ed faith in the future of the island by inve s ting heavily in real estate-being th e seco nd or third highe st taxpayer in the:: municipality. He has further proven his worth as a citize n of the highe s t type by serving tirelessly and unselfishly for the community's uplluilding, in both his official capacity and as a private citizen, and h e enjoys the highest esteem of his f e llow citiz en. They are proud of Howard 0. Newman, and he is proud of Pass -aGrille. THOMAS f NORTHRUP THOMAS J. NoRTHRUP, promine nt pioneer citi zen of St. P etersburg, h! a record of achievement which any might well emulate, having atta ined business and political success to a marked degr ee and at the same time enjoyed the and esteem of many friends and the pub lic a s a wh ole. Born at Lower Peach Tree, Alabama May 28, 1862, the son of Thomas and (Davis) Northrup, he grew to manhood in the State of his birth, coming to

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PART II-B IOGRAPHICAL 415 Florida in 1880 at which time he located at DeLand. Here he engaged in the fruit business, subsequently going to Sumpterville, where he bought an orange grove, which, however, was destroyed by the freeze of 1894-95, With undaunted energy, he sought work in Inverness whe r e h e clerked in a store for six years, learn ing the business thoroughly. With t hi s foundation, he came to St. Petersburg, and with an investment of only $600 bought a s mall grocery, from which his l arge holding s of today have grown Mr. Northrup for many years conducted the largest drygoods store in St. Petersburg, but some years ago he so l d a cohtrolling interest in the business to Rutland Bros. but he still owns an interest in the business and owns the property wh ere the business is located. Mr. Northrup's long career a s a city official began in 1903 whe n he was ap pointe d a member of the City Council. The f ollowing yea r he was elected f o r a term of two years, during which tim e he served as chairman o f the counc i l. I n 1906 he wa s e lec ted Mayor, declining the re-nomin a tion when his term expired. After the commiss i o n form of government ca m e into effect, J.V[r. Northrup wa s elected commissi oner of public safety, heading the ticket with the largest numbe r of votes given any candidate. While occupying this important position Mr. Northrup was instrumental in having the city acquire the waterfront, the gas plant and first incin e rator wa s built, and West Central Avenue was extende d to Boc a Ceiga Bay. After Pinellas County was severed from Hills b orough, Mr. Northrup serv ed as its first Tax Assessor. Mr. Northrup has now retired from active business, but that he has wrought well in every line of endeavor is the verdict of h is friends and the g eneral public H e is a charter met)lber of the Chamber of Commerce and the Kiwani s Club, a nd served f o r many years as one of th e g o v erno r s .of the former. He is a devout member of the Congregational church H e was married February 1895, t o Mi s s Nettie S mith They have four children: R obert, Benjamin, Marie and Marjorie. W H. O'BBRRY W. H. O'BERRY, large packer and s hipper of citrus fruit, came t o St. Peters burg in 1900 with his parents at that time being a small lad A native of Pasco County, Florida, he was born August 29, 1894, the son of John J and E. M cYBerry. H is parents were Georgian s. Graduating from the St. Petersburg Hig h Schoo l in 1915, Mr. O Berry later attended the University of Florida f o r one yea r. Being much interested in the fruit business, he returned to St. Petersburg at the close of the World War, and be<::ame a grower, packer and shi p per, in business he has met with success. He has the only large packing house in S t. Petersburg his firm, the M i lne O'Berry Company of which he is president, having recently completed a fine new packing house with all modern eq uipment a t Sem inole B ridge. Mr. O'Berry was a sergeant in the air service during the World War, being with the 508th Aero Squadron H e is a member of the Rotary Club and is an Elk. He was married at Jacksonvill e to Miss Elsie Turner. They have o n e son, W H., )r.

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416 HISTORY OF PIN ELLAS COUN T Y, F LORIDA THOS. D. ORR THOMAS D. ORR, owner of the St. Petersburg Welding and Machine Company, one of the largest concerns of the kind in Pinellas County was born in Glasgow, Scotland, July 29, 1887, the son of John and Margaret Orr. He received his edu cation in the schools of Scotland an d England, attending Rutherford College at Newcastle, England. Mr. Orr came to the United States in 1906, and for two years was located at Baltimore, later moving to Savannah In 1913 he came to St. Petersburg as First Engineer with the Hillsborough Dredging Company. Nine years later, in 1922, he established his present busines, the St. Petersburg Welding and Machine Co. which he has built up to large proportions. The concern is housed in a building erected by Mr. Orr on South Fourth Street, the whole representing an investment of about $80,000. Mr Orr is also financially interested in the St. Petersburg Auto Body Company, of which concern he is vice-president. Mr. Orr is a public spirited citizen whose progressive ideas and inclinations which have enabled him to make a success of his various business undertakings, have also made him helpful in civic matters. Mr. Orr is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Rotary Club, and in religious affiliations is a Presbyterian. Mr. Orr is a 32nd degree Mason and a Shriner. He was married at Savannah Georgia, to Miss Mary McGrath Mr. and Mrs. Orr have one son, Thomas D., Jr., born at St Petersburg and who is now nine years of age. ..!. C. OTTMAN J. C OTTMAN was born in Hamburg, Germany, December 10, 1875, the son of Karl and Catherine ( Chirra) Ottman. His father, who was in the early German wars, came to the United States 4( years ago. Mr. Ottman received his education in the schools of Bunker Hill .Russell County, Kansas, and for ten years thereafter was connected with the Arizona Copper Company, in Arizona, handling the affairs of their various stores which sold all kinds of supplies to the miners. For seven years he was in charge of the store of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad at Madrid, New Mexico, which handled supplies for both miners and railroad men. Coming to Florida in 1911, he settled at Tampa where for six and a half years he was a salesman for Armour & Co., selling meats from a horse-driven wagon. In 1918 he came to St. Petersburg and established the "Split Nickle" store, a grocery at 157 Central Avenue. After five years he bought out the interest of his partner and changed the name to the J. C. Ottman Grocery .. In 1925 he opened his present store at 149 Central A venue, handling meats and produce under the l.irm name of Annan & Ottman. He has a branch store, "Ottman Grocery Market," at 30 Ninth Street South, which he opened four years ago Mr. Ottman has always been deeply interested in the work of the Boy Scouts, and has been connected with the organization since he first came to St. Petersburg, first being Scout Master and is at the present time President of the Pinellas Boy Scouts.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 417 . .. . ., . .. .. 1\' ("!'J ... . ,, ..... : > :: .. '' '. :;, Mr. Otti;iwr ts a member : of the Kiwams Club;.Y,' ; ,!4: ;G;:.: A ., .Ur :C._: . ... . .. .-, .. .....,. ... .-: . .... . Sdoiits, .. and i s a 'Mason. He attends th.e .;.. ., .. .. married Augu$t' 5, 1899, iri 'Madii&.New Eiljei. Thorpe of Santa Fe County, that State. They have one daughter, ( Mrs C. M. Hall), who is a resident of St. Petersburg : : : ;<_; . . . : . . . KARL B. O'QUINN . < :'; / KARL B. O' QuiNN, Cl erk of the Circuit Court and one of the : popular citizens, is a native Fl o ridian born at Kis s immee, June of. B J. and Eliza O Quinn. ..Hi s father was a }o. Florida when but tw o years of age His maternal grandfather, W. A. was a pione e r in Orange and Osceola. countie s and conducted the fii'st store Kissimmee . _. -..: The responsibilities of lif e were thrown upon him at the ag e of s ixtee!l,' W.}Jen he had .his mother and two younger brother s to support. In tha t year h e came)o. St. Petersburg and entered a career of activity, which b egan with -a job as sentative of the Tampa Tribun e, later go ing with Strum's Bicycle shop. F : rom this he stepp e d into clerical w o rk a s assistant to J. N Brown, count y tax later being chi e f clerk und er Guy B. Sheph erd at the city hall in St Petersb11rg . For three years he was County Finance and State Bank Examiner under Coit).f :: tro .Uer_ P:tnest at!d for West ritle In a ddition to these of trust Mr O'Qumn .. was for live years w1th the stree t-'rai!W:!jf'and' othe'i allied inte res ts . . .. . _... . _.;.. {....-; c :orrlpany ..' . -....... ... . drcuit Court and re-elected tq : : without opp(>sition either pdmary or the gener-al Hisr:satiii!itctllfy !C ;. . JAMES H. PAINE retired owner and banker, a larg e property owner and of the city's mo s t h o no red and 9iJtingui s hed r esideQts; a long and career, filled with accomplis ltmen t;. and at 90 y !!ars of f age reads w : ithout glasses his mind arid hearing keen and h'is' : ot\ilook on 'Iii& an inspiration to all with whoin he conies in contact. . : . Paine born in Elrtlira, New York, :22) 1838:; son of _... . . ... . Brlriton and M ary (Minton) Paine. His paternal grea t-grandf atlier was a Lieut: Colonel in the Revoluntionary war, a f .e1low prisoner with Col. Ethan Allen in the British pro vost jai l in New York City . He.:haq himself by h i s brave ry, e s pecially in the battle in which h e'wast.iken: H e was confine d in prison for a year, an account of which appears in a book written in 1807 by Col. Allen, a copy o f which is in the posses ison of Mr. Pai ne.

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418 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA When sixtee n years of age, M r Paine began his newspaper career when he conducted The You. ng American, a wee k ly newspaper which he owned and pub lished at Elmi ra. He printed the pape r on a Fran klin and later a W ashington hand press, made by Hoe & Co. Tw o years lat e r, during the Freemont-Buchanan presidential campaign he printed a Democratic n e wspaper in Michigan. He w as later a proof-reader on the New York World, subs equently returning t o Elmira where he established the Daily Press, which he conducted during the Civil War. This paper was later merged with the Elmira Gazette, which has recently celebrated its !DOth anniversa ry, and of which publication Mr. Paine's father was one o f the founders in 1835. Mr. P aine deserted the newspaper field and became a wholesale druggis t in New Y ork City for several years, operating under the firm name o f Paine Bros. From there he came to Florida settling in J acksonville in 1 873 coming down to get relief from a bronchial affection . Mr. Paine became engaged in th e banking business in Jack sonville, and was pre s ident of the Florida Savings Ba nk of that ci t y. He was a member and treas urer o f the Florida Democratic Committee f rom 1876 to 1884, during the cele brat ed presidential campaign of Tild e n and Hayes, which resulted in Tild en being counted out, but giving Florida State government under Governor Georg e F Drew, o f Suwanee. He redeemed the State from political and financial troubles, bringing all Florida securities from 20 to 40 cent s on the dollar up to par imm ediately after h i s inaugu r ation. In 1888 Mr. Paine was Dir ector-General o f the Sub-Tropical Exposition held for th ree months in Jack sonville, a nd which was visited by President Grover Cle v e l a nd and hi s bride, who were escorted by a large number of officials from Wash ington. Mr. Paine was president in 1898 of the Cuban-American League, which assisted Cuba in gaining her freedom from Spain. A Cuban Junta w as organized to furni sh money and arms to help the fight, and the schooner "Three Friends", co mmanded by Captain Napoleon B Broward, made many clandestin e trips from t h e St. Johns River with arms, ammun ition and supplies. Mr Paine made severa l trips to St. Pete r s burg, first in 1898 coming down to enjoy the excellent fishing. He cam e to r eside permanently in 1916, and h e and Mrs. Paine were among the first guests of the Huntington Hotel. This estimable couple celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary in St. Petersburg in 1921 and brought happiness to thousands on that day b y the installation of an ice water drinking fountain in Williams Park, presenting i t to the city with a perpetual en dowment f or its upkeep. Each s u cceeding anniversary they ha v e given and endowed other fountains one on the plaza at Lake Chautauqua, N Y., called "The Florida Fountain", on e at Jacksonville one at Cleveland, Ohio, and the last one i n Mirror Lake Park, St. Peters burg, a ver y elabo rate fountain, the site for which wa s selected by Wilbur F. Smith, chairman of the Park Board, Georg e M Lync h Superinte ndent of Schools and U. S. Senator Duncan U. Fletcher all actin g in conjunction with Mr. Paine, the donor

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 419 Sinc e coming to St. Peter sburg, Mr. Paine has erected alxlut fifty buildingsnainly middle-<:lass homes on lon g-term small payments, to encourage home wners. Mr. Paine ha s been a member o f the Chamb e r of Commerce ever since coming o St. Petersburg and is a lif e m e mber of the Jackso nville Chamber. He is a :barter memb er of the Sons of th e American Revolution, and a member of the J nitarian church. He was married Ma y 31, !861, to M iss Mary Eliz abe th Mark tam, of Whi t e Pigeon, Mich who passed away October I 1927. I n 1 921, Mr .n d Mrs. Pai ne celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary at the home of Senator )uncan U. F letc her, whose wife is Mr. Paine's niece. Mr. and M rs. Paine had hree childr en, all of whom are deceased. His dau g hter, Dorothy, wa s the authress of three books, "The Littl e F lorida Lady whi c h had large circulation; "The 4aid of the Mountains and "Hilda of the Hippod r om e," the prin cipa l character f which was Madame Schu mann -Heink. Mr. Paine's imm ediat e family consists of J ames Paine Winch, a grandson, his 1ife and three child ren, wh o live in St. Peter sburg and o ne granddaughter, the rife of Rev F. B. Bishop, formerly of Miami but now of Rocky Mount, N. C nd a great-gran ds on, John B i shop. DR J D. PEABODY DR.]. D. PeABODY, successful and beloved pioneer physician of St. Pet ersburg as born i n Washingt on, D C., April 24, 1860 the son of James H and M .ary irginia Peabody His father was a docto r and a C ivil War veteran, a Lieutenant in the medical departm ent of the Washington Regiment. He spent his inters in Florida from 1886 until 1892. Dr. Peabody attended school in Omaha, Nebr as ka, receiving his degrees in tedicine from the Long Island Co lle g e Hospital a n d the Universi ty of Pennsyl ania. H e began the prac tice of medici ne in Omaha, later going to O z ona, Fla ., 'in ellas County, for several years. H e came to St. P ete r sburg in 1 900 and is the ld est practicing physician in the city and one of t h e oldest in the county. He served in the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army during the t e rm of the panish-Am erican War. St. Peter sb urg's first h ospital was made pos sible by Dr. Peabod y when he and ;sociates built the St. Pet e r sburg Sanitarium in 1 906. The hospital which had teen beds, con t inue d to operate as a priv a te enterprise unti l April 28 1911, and Jring that time it was of great value to th e city. It was sold in September 1911, the Elks and used by them as a club house for twelve years. Dr. Peabody is exChief of Staff of the City Hospital; ex-Justice of the eace, is a member of the County, State, Southern and Amer i can M ed ical Asso ations, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, and is an Elk, K. of P ., a M aso n and a ember of the Episcopal Church He was married in Omaha Nebraska, in 1 882 Miss V irginia Flore nce Kennard. They have a son, John Marshall, wh o holds splendid po sition with the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City, and te daughter Mary Virginia (Mrs. Frank Barber), o f Asheville, North Carolin a.

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420 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA GEORGE B. PETTIT AND LUCIA HUBBARD CILLEY PETTIT (MRS. GEORGE B.) GEORC BNJAMIN Business Manager of the Cilley Foundational School of St. Petersburg, whose training and e"perience admirab ly fit him for the position, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., October 8, 1880, the son of Thomas Henry and Ellen E. (Laurence) Pettit. Mr. Pettit attended public and private schools of Brooklyn, graduating in law from the New York Law School in 1903. He practiced law in New York Ci ty and was active in other worth-while endeavors, being prominently identifi ed with the activities of the Presbyterian Church. He was Financial Secretary of the Brooklyn Sunday School Union and took a leading part in Sunday School and church organizations of Kings Coun t y and New York State. H e was also a moving spirit in Christian Endeavor work throughout the State. Other of Mr. P ettit's activities included his work as Field Representative for the Bureau of Standards of New York City and he also served as field representative for the Moody Bible Institute, of Chicago, Ill. During the World War Mr. Pettit was Field Executive for the National Council of Boy Scouts of America Mr. Pettit came to St. Petersburg in August, 1923, since which time he has been Business Manager and co-owner with Mrs Pettit and Miss Cilley of the Cilley Foundational School of St. Petersburg, the various departments of which include instructio n from kinderg arten through all the grades. This school was founded in Brooklyn by Miss Mabel Cilley, a sister of Mrs. Pettit, and was trans ferred to St. Petersburg in 1922. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Pettit has been an active worker in the Pinellas County Council of the Boy Scouts o f America. Mr. Pettit was married first in 1913 to Miss Irene Susan Ladd, now deceased, and in 1917 he was married to Miss L ucia Hubbard Cilley, of Brooklyn, N. Y. He has three children, Helen Frances by the first marriage, and George Benjamin, Jr., and Mary Caroline by the second marriage. LuerA Hu!IBAIU> Cn .. LEY PETTIT (Mrs. George B.), sister of Mabel Cilley, and co-Principal with her sister of the Cilley Foundatio nal School, had two years in Oberlin College and graduated from Teachers' College, Columbia University, specializing in psychology and elementary education She was for two years a Librarian in Cincinnati, and was a critic teacher in the Minnesota State Normal School. Her facility with the French and German languages was developed from early childhood, her Spanish coming wh e n she was a member of the faculty of the University of Porto Rico where she was also a Missionary under the Congre gational Board. Before coming to St. Pete r sburg, Mrs Pettit was with her sister in the Cilley Foundational School of Brooklyn, N. Y., and taught music among her C}(clusive patrons of the Hill and Heights sections of t he city Mrs. Pettit also studied the Fletcher and Perfield method s of music pedagogy, and had directed large choruses. She is a recoguized Bible teacher and a developer of pageantry as a method of teaching. Mrs. Pettit is in charge of the academic department of the Cilley Foundational School of St. Petersburg, and also teaches in the music department.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 423 ABRAM C. PHETL ABRAM C. PaerL, a beloved and highly esteemed citizen of S t Petersburg for many years, and a leader in all good works was one whose influence was always exerted in b ehalf of those things that make for better ci tizenship, and his death on November 1 1922, removed from that city one of its most worth while c itizens and one who had been a build er and a developer in every sense of the word. Mr. Pheil first came to Florida in I 884, locating i n Citrus County. Ten years later he came to St. Petersburg, where, starting to work in a sawmill as a day laborer at $6 per week, he began through industry thrift, to' lay the founda tion for a fortune which mad e it possible for him to leave a lasting monumen t to his mem ory in the erection of St. Pet ersb urg's first sky-scraper-the magn ificent, eleven-story Pheil Buil d ing. Mr. Pheil's climb !lP the ladder of success was the result of foresightedness, coupled with good judgment and energetic endeavor The sawmill, whe r e he first worked, later became his own property, its purchase made possible by buying it on credit, working hard and making it pay for itself. He invested in real estate. his splendid reputation giving him a line of credit which aided him materially in forging ahead. He founded the St. Petersburg Novelty Works, which he sold thirteen years later for a small fortune. Mr. Pheil's final contribution to St. Peter sburg was the Pheil Hotel Building, one of the fir st eleven-story buildings to be erected in Southwest Florida. Various matters hindered its completion until after his death, since which time it has been completed by his son, and used for hotel purposes. Mr. Phei l was Mayor of St. Petersburg in 1912, and had served as City Councilman for two terms. He was always much interested in all matters of civi c development, was one of the pionee r s in the advocacy of stree t paving, and did the first actual work on Central Avenue--filling the deep sand ruts with saw dust from his sawmill in 1897. Yea r s later he headed t he movement to widen and straighten Central Avenue from Sixth to Ninth Streets. Municipal ownership of all public utilities was stressed by hi m at every oppo rtunity. Mr. Pheil was a member of the Kni ghts of Pythias and the Episcopal Church. He was married in St. Pet ersburg on December 6, 1896, to lvi'iss Lottie Close, of Baltimore, Maryland. They had four children : Abram, Harvey, Clarence' and Bertha (Mrs. W Pierson Bobbitt). PAUL POYNTER PAUL PoYNTER, President of the Times Publishing Company of St. Peters burg, was born in E minenc e, Mor ga n County, Indiana, March 29, 1875, the son of Jesse A. and Leti tia (Bennett) Poyn ter. He attended the public schools of Indiana, and in 1897 graduated with a B.A. degree from the DePauw University. Immediately after his graduation Mr. Poynter entered upon his career a s a newspaper publishe r, locating at Sullivan, Indiana, where he was owner and publisher of the Daily His other news paper holdin gs in that State include the D i sp atch at Kokomo.

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424 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Poynter came to St. Petersburg in September, 1912, since which time he has been identified with the St. PeteYsburg TinUis as President of the company, and active in its publication. He has brought to the business wide experience in news paper work and has aided materially in making the Times one of the big, metro politan paper s oHhe States. Mr. Poynter has been a leading factor in the development of the Sunshine City, giving freely of his time and means to matters of civic importance, and through his newspaper has wielded a great influence for those things that make for a bigger and a better city. Mr. Poynter is a Mason and an Elk, and a member of the Delta Upsilon college fraternity He was married to Miss Alice Wilkey, and they have two children, Eleanor Allen and Nelson P NOBLE T PRAIGG NoBLE T. PRAIGG, Vice-President of the Lesan Praigg Adver t ising Agency Inc., of St. Petersburg and Jacksonville, national advertising agency, is one of the leading authorities of the South on advertising and publicity work his wide ex perience extending over nearly twenty years Mr. Praigg was born in Indianapolis, Ind., September 25, 1885, the son of David T. and Agnes (Noble) Praigg. His ancestors, who were from England and Scotland, were among the pioneers of New England, Kentucky and Indiana, his great-grandfather, Governor Noah Noble, having been one of the early execu tives of Indiana. After securing his education in the public schools of Indianapolis and the Indianapolis University, Mr. Praigg was, by turns, Reporter, Feature Writer, and City and Managing Editor, with the Indianapolis Sun, the Ohio State Journal, the Ohio Sun, the Columbus Press-Post. In 1908 he bought the Portland (Indiana) Commercial Review which he conducted for a number of years with success. Mr. Praigg entered the advertising agency field in 1915, later becoming Editor of Associated a magazine issued by the International Advertising Association then in Indianapolis. Three years later he was Director of Advertis ing for the United Typothetae of America Chicago. While thus engaged Mr. Praigg wrote the advertising course used by the educat i onal department of that organization, which had a membership of 15,000 During that period he also lec tured for two years on advertising and business correspondence, as Instructor in the Chicago School of Commerce, and taught a night school in salesmanship for the Chicago Franklin Association. From 1920 until 1925 Mr. Praigg edited the annual advertising Year-Books published by the Doubleday-Doran Company. Dur ing the same years he was also senior member of the advertising firm of Praigg Kiser & Co., Chicago, advertising agency specializing in technical accounts, and the national mail-order advertising field. Mr. Praigg came to St. Petersburg in 1925 as Manager of the Lesan -Carr Advertising Company, which position he held until July, 1 928, when he became Vice-President of the present Lesan-Praigg Advertising Agency, which is the only organization with headquarters in Florida which has national credit and

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 427 placing recognition with every medium, and associatio n representing mediums, of advertising. More than three -fourth s of the advertising accounts a c tive in the State are handled through the two offices of the Lesan-Praigg Agency. Theirs is one of the locally ope r ated divisions o f the only agency chain in the United States with active affiliated a gencies in New York Chicago, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, Spokane, Seattle and Salt Lake C i ty. Mr. Praigg is a member of the I nternational Advertisin g A ssociation and the National Association o f Teachers of Advertising and Marketing. He is a Mason, a R ota rian, a member of the Chamber of Commerce, St. Petersburg Advertising Club, and is a Presbyt eria n. Mr. Praigg was married at Bloomingt on, Ind., in 1907, to Mis s Katherine Blakely. Two children were born to this union, Margaret, deceased and Katharine. FRANK FORTUNE PULVER FRANK FoiiTVN P u i.VR, editor of one o f t he cleverest pieces of literature eve r published in St. Petersburg, "How I t Feels to Be Mayor," gained for St. Petersburg nation-w ide attentio n while Mayor of the Sunshine City from Decem ber 21, 1921 until M ay, 1924. Those wer e stormy days for the municipality's gallant head, who, d espite the opposition. did his duty as he saw it, gave the city an administration filled with action, answer ed hi s critics to the sati sfact i o n of his friends, and when he relinquished the reins of go vernment no man could say the cit y had not gained wide publicity as a resu lt of h is administration. Mr. Pulver, who before coming to St. Petersburg was a chewing gum manu facturer, and interes ted various large concerns, including the J. R White J ewelry Co., the F. F. Pulve r Celluloid Nov elty Works, both of Roches ter, N. Y.; the Toothill McBeen Silverware Co., of Oswego, N. Y ; and the Harry Hall Wreck ing Co. of Buffalo ha s had a career in St. P etersburg that has mad e his name known throughout the nation. His administ ration as Mayor put the city on the map, his u se o f newspaper space in full-page advertisements, at hi s own expense, explaining his a i ms and am bitions for the city of his adoptio n, drawing wide attention to St. Petersburg, his lavish use of prin t er s ink for such a purpose being without a pas tim e which only a man of large means could afford. He served St. Petersburg in an official capacity a t a t ime when the recall privilege was the preva iling sty le, at first filling out the unexpired term of Noel A. Mitchell, who had been recalled, the following April being re-elected to the office over Mr. Mitchell and George W Fi t c h. In the year follo wing two attempt s were made by the oppo s iti on to oust Mr. Pulver by th e same route as his pred ecesso r, but the first r ecall movement failed by order of the courts, the second by the will o f the people. A year later h is opponents won out, but no t before Mr. Pulver had accomplished much toward the improvement of the city from a sanitary standpoint, gained for it much valu able publicity, and did much to bring abou t a pro s perity which resulted in attra cting thousands of new citizens of the nation to the Sunshine City. One o f his ac complishments whil e Mayor was the inauguration of a movement to provide milk to poor children, donatin g his entire salary while Mayor to this .Fund.

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428 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Pulver was born in Rochester, N. Y ., November 12, 1871, the son of N. B. a11d Susan (Bennett) Pulver. He first cam e to St. Petersburg in 19ll, but did not take up his permanen t residence unti l 1 9 17 Two y ears later he purchased tbe H otel Detroit, which he still s uccessfully operates; bought the Pass -a-Grille Bridge, the Hollenbeck Hotel th e Elks Club proper ty in addition to whic h he has had other large realty holding s. Mr. Pulver is President of Pulver Islands, Inc., a Direetor of the Florida Bond and Mortgage Company, and is intere s ted in other business concer ns. Mr. Pulver is a 32nd degree Mason, an Elk, Shriner, a member of the St. Pet ersbur g Rotary C lub, the Yacht Cl ub and the St. Petersburg Golf Club. He is also a member of the Florida Hotel Men's A ssocia tion and has served the or ganization as a Director. R. C. (BOB) PURVIS R. C. "BoB" PURVIS, owner of the Home Service Laundry, and a citizen who has a fine record of civic achievement to his cr e dit was born in Williston, S. C., August 7 1 895, the son of R. S. and Bridg e ( K aney) Purvi s. His mat ernal grandfather came to the Uni ted States from Ireland and was among the early settlers of South Carolina; his paternal ancestors early settled in Virginia. Mr. Purvis first came to St. Petersburg in 1914, at which time he was con nected with the dry-deaning plant of Purvis & F reese, his brother being half owner. During the World War he enlisted in the Navy and did convoy work aboard a d estroy er off the coast of Ireland and la ter was on the s t eams hips J en kins and Dixie. He was discharged from service in November, 1 919. Upon his return to St. Petersburg Mr. Purvi s was with the same firm as before the war, until 1922 when he established the Purvis & Smil ey Wet Wash Laundry In July, 1925, he bought out the interest of his partner, and now owns and conduct s the business as the Home Service Laundry. Mr. Purvis was for two year s, from 1926 until July, 1928, a City Commis sioner of St. P e tersburg, and wh ile h o lding that office sta rted leg islation to secure a Juvenile Court f or P inellas County, and a bill providing for same was passed by the Legislature, and a Judge appoin t ed for that Court. He conduct ed a drive for funds for the Salvati on Army in 1927, and was a member of the B oar d of Trus tees of the Y. M. C. A. durin g the period it s new building was being erected. He is an active Chamber of Commerce worker, and a former Commander of tlie St. Petersburg American Legion Post. Mr. Purvi s i s a member of the North S ide Baptist Church, i s a member of the Rotary Club, Ame rican Legion, t he J ungle Country Clu b the Yacht Club and the Shrine Club. He is an Elk a Mason and a Shriner He was marri ed October 20, 1921, to Mis s Vi rginia Leete, of A s hland, Ky. They have one daughter Betty Jane CAPTAIN F. W. RAMM CAPTAIN F W. RAMM wa s born in Thuringen, Germany February 22 : 1853 the son o f R e v W. G and Emilie {Gros se ) Ramm. His fat her was a Lutheran minister and a Captain in the Reserves of the Prussian Army. Capta i n Ramm's career has been most int erest ing. Educated in the Latin schools of hi s native country he prepared to attend Goettingen Univers ity, but.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 429 instead decided to go to sea, coming to the United States in 1868, when a lad of fifteen years. After six years at sea, plying the waters of the West Indies and visiting many South American ports, Captain Ramm settled in Texas, homesteading 160 acres of land near Fredericksburg, where he raised cattle, corn and horses. He later moved to Corpus Christi, going from there to Galveston, where he took ship for New Orleans. For a number of years he followed the sea again, New York City being his home port. In 1876 he returned to Germany, returning to the States in a year and a half accompanied by his bride. Coming to St. Petersburg in 1.892 he found a land more to his liking than any other, and has lived there in perfect contentment ever since. He first bought a schooner in which he carried passengers to Tampa and other points. During the Spanish-American War he was a stevedore on trans ports. Later he engaged in the fish and oyster business, taking up oyster claims, in which he is yet interested, owning 27 acres of oyster beds in Big Bayou. He also at one time engaged in the growing and canning of pineapples. In 1906 Capt. Ramm established Ramm's Machine and Boiler Repair Works, two years later opening St. Petersburg's first garage on Second Street and Second Avenue South. He retained this garage until 1924, when he leased it for 99 years. From 1920 until 1925 he was in the real estate business, in which he was quite successful. Capt. Ramm was the instigator and organizer of the first congre gation in St. Petersburg, a church being built in 1911 at the corner of Fifth Street and Second A venue South. This property was Tater sold and a new location . bought on Mirror Lake. Captain Ramm was quite active in working for the division of Pinellas County from Hillsborough, though he never aspired to public office. He was Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of Pinellas County for ten years, during which time no Republican was elected to office. Fraternall y, Captain Ramm is an Elk and for four consecutive years was Chaplain of the State Elks' Association. He is a leading member of die Lutheran Church. He was married in 1878 to Miss Ida L. Busch, of Dukedom of Golba, Germany, and three children were born to this union: Edgar W., Will and Paula L. Mrs. Ramm died at St. Petersburg in 1910. PAUL FITZ RANDOLPH PAUL FITZ RANDOLPH, one of the largest property owners of Clearwater, and one whose successful operations in real estate have made him an outstanding figure in Pinellas County, has made a marvelous transformation in the sections of the city graced by his two subdivisions, Virginia Park and Shore Crest. In all of his holdings improvements are in evidence, and his progressive ideas, coupled with an engaging personality, have aided him in gaining not only financial success but an enviable standing in the community of which he has been a leading citizen for the past ten years. Mr. Randolph came to Clearwater in 1919, where he engaged in the citrus business on a large scale, operating 200 acres of land between Clearwater and

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430 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Dunedin, one-half of which was planted to grove This property was later divided into Virginia Park and Shore Crest subdivisions, the former being complete l y sold out. Mr. Randolph operates a general real estate, insurance and bond business in Clearwater under the name of Paul F. Randolph, Inc and his concern enjoys a large and lucrative business. Mr. Randolph was born at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 7, 1900, the son of Richard Fitz and Elizabeth (Bender) Randolph. His ancestors were from England and were among the early settlers of Pennsylvania. He is a direct descend ant of Captain Edward Fitz Randolph, an officer in the Revolutionary Army, a member of Washington's Cabinet and founder of the Philadelphia branch of the Fitz Randolph family. Another member of the same family gave the ground for the original Prince ton College. The Fitz Randolph Gateway, built in his honor, stands upon the original "four acres and a half of land." During the World War Mr. Randolph enlisted in the Navy at Pelham Bay, but was never called into active service. He is President of the Clearwater Country Club, Secretary of the Harbor Oaks Association, Secretary of the Real Estate Board, Exalted Ruler of the Elks Lodge No. 1525, and a former member of the Rotary Club. Since becoming a citizen of Clearwater Mr. Randolph has contributed in large measure to the city's great development program, and his progressiveness and farsightedness have been an inspiration to those who have for their aim the general betterment of conditions. ELEANOR C REED EU:ANOR C REED, writer of note and hotel owner of St. Petersburg, was born at Marathon, Courtland County, New York, October 25, 1858, the daughter of John C Gross and Caroline (Hyde) Gross. Mrs. Reed had every educational advantage, having studied literature and language in Illinois ; spent two years i n study in France, and one year in London at the British Museum, and also took a Chautauq u a course Being widely traveled. having visited Australia, Tasamania, New Zealand, India and Java she was admir ably fitted by both talent and experience to wr ite interestingly of all she .had seen and the Chicago Tribune engaged her to write of her travels, which she did for a considerable period, to the d e light of its readers. She also wrote a book of short stories, "The Battle Invisible," which was a great success Coming to Florida in 1908, Mrs. Reed engaged in the hotel business in St. Petersburg, where she conducted the Twin Palms for one season, and then bought the corner of First Street North and Third Avenue, where the Wigwam Hotel now stands which she built. This hostelry has been enlarged from time to time, and now contains sixty rooms. Mrs. Reed has owned other property and has me t with success in all of her undertakings. She is a life member of the Woman's Club; belongs to the Methodist Church, and has been a member of the Illinois Woman s Press Association sin c e 1901.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 431 She was married in 1878 to Isaac N. Reed, of Galva, III. They had one son, Clarence, who was killed in 1890, when a lad of ten years, by a steam boiler ex plosion. JOHNS. RHODES JoHN S. RHODES, one of the leading undertakers of St. Petersburg, was born in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, July 24, 1896, the son of Frank M. and Ida J. Rhodes. Mr. Rhodes received his common school education in the schools of his home town and later graduated from the Eccles College of Embalming at Philadelphia. His first establishment was opened in Pittsburgh, where he was in business for some time, selling out to come to Florida in 1922. In 1925 he established his own busi ness at St. Petersburg, known as John S. Rhodes, Inc., and with elaborate, modern equipment, large and commodious chapel and excellent service, he has been very successful. Mr. Rhodes is a member of the Chamber of Commerce the Rotary Club, the National Funeral Directors' Association and the Florida Funeral Directors' As sociation. He is a 32nd degree Mason, a Shriner an Elk and a member of the Knights of Pythias AUSTIN L. RICHARDSON AusTIN L. RICHARDSON, prominent St. Petersburg attorney, was born in Westminster, Vermont, May 23, 1880, the son of Lucius C. and Hannah L. Rich ardson. Five of his paternal ancestors were in the American Revolution. After completing his high school education, Mr. Richardson graduated in law from the University of Michigan. He began the practice of law in the office of the general counsel of the Pere Marquette Railway, later practicing independently in Detroit Mr. Richardson visited St. Petersburg in 1907, liked the city and determined that some day it would be his home. He came to reside permanently in 1924, imd that he won friends from the start is evidenced by the fact that he was President of the St. Petersburg Bar Association in 1925. He is at present Vice President of the State Bar Association, and is a member of the committee on citi zenship of the American Bar Association. Mr. Richardson is financially interested in the Fidelity Bank and Trust Com pany of St. Petersburg, of which lie is a Director, being also Attorney for the bank. During the World War Mr. Richardson was a member of the United States War Trade Board, and after the war was a member of the War Claims Board, with headquarters in Washington, D. C. The Board settled over 30,000 claims. Until July, 1924, he was with the United States Government as Special Repre sentative of the Judge Advocate General's office, and at the same time was also Special Assistant to the U. S. Attorney General. Mr. Richardson is affiliated with St. Petersburg's main civic and fraternal organizations. He is a member of the Kiwanis Club, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, the Shrine Club, Chamber of Commerce, Chapter Sons of the American Revolution, and is a Mason and a Shriner. Mr. Richardson and Miss Zetta V. Wiley, of Howell, Michigan, were married May 13, 1912. They have no children.

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432 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA H. S. RIDDLE H. S. R!DDL!>, City Manager of Clearwater, whose years of experience have made him an authority in his profession, was born at Columbus, Ohio, the son of Henry C. and Alice L. Riddle. After completing his high school education in the schools of Ohio, Mr. Riddle graduated from the Ohio State University as a mechanical engineer. For twenty years after his graduation Mr. Riddle was with the Jeffery Manu facturing Company, and was also Consulting Engineer for the State of Ohio. He was also a member of the State Board of Administration of the State of Ohio, and as such was in charge of all public institutions of the State with the exception of the educational institutions. This was a position of much responsibility, there being 50,000 inmates of the 23 institutions over which he had control. Mr. Riddle came to Clearwater in 1921, and is now entering upon his second year as City Manager. His superior qualifications broad experience and high professional standing have gained for him deserved recogni tion, and Clearwater is indeed fortunate in having a man of his capabilities in charge of their engineer ing problems. Mr. Riddle is a member of the Society of American Engineers and the Amer7 ican Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the Clear water Chamber of Commerce, a Mason and a Shriner, and a member of the Sigma Xi, an honorary scientific fraternity. Mr. Riddle was married in 1900 to Miss Estella C. Conklin, of Columbus, Ohio. They have one son, Howard S., now with the Columbia Gas & Electric Co. THOMAS HARRY RIPLEY THOMAS HARRY RIFu:v was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania, the son of John and Mary (Lyon) Riftey. His father was a native of Switzerland, and his maternal ancestors came from Scotland and Ireland. Reared on a farm, Mr. Riftey, at the age of eighteen years, went t o the oil fields, where he remained for five years, and upon his return was with the West inghouse Airbrake Company at Pittsburgh. Coming to Florida in 1915, he settled at St. Petersburg, opening an ice cream and dairy business in which he has been markedly success ul. He has made changes and enlargements in the business to care for the increased trade, and has one of the largest concerns of the kind in South Florida, operating under the firm name of the Pinellas Dairy Company. At the time Mr. Riftey entered business in St. Petersburg in 1915 his daily output of cream was 40 to 60 gallons and about fifty gallons of milk. At the present, an average day's business amounts t o 1,000 gallons of ice cream and 2,000 gallons of milk. Mr. Riftey is a member of the Presbyterian Church, is a Kiwanian, an Elk and a member of the Woodmen of the World. He was married in 1915 at Pittsburgh to Miss Minnie Dovard. They have one son, Wallace.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 433 E. B. RING E. B. RING, successful builder and contractor, has been a resident of St. Petersburg but three years; however, he has had numbers of large contracts and is recognized as a leader in his line. M r Ring is a native of New England, born in Richmond, Vermont, March 6, 1888, the son of D. L. and Hannah M. Ring. He is a member of an old pioneer family of that section, tracing their ancestry back over a period of more than one hundred years. Having recei ved his common school education in the schools of his native State, Mr. Ring later attended the Burlington Business College. After leaving college he entered the bu il ding business, being with the Lynch Construction Com pany of New York City for some years. Seven years ago he engaged in business for himself and for about four years made his headquarters at Charleston, West Virginia. In 1926 Mr. Ring came to St. Petersburg, and among large contracts he has handled are the Sanitary Public Market on Fourth Street, and on May I, 1928, he started the Snell Arcade, a building erected a t a cost of half a million dollars. This building, one of the most beautiful in the State, contains 52 offices and 32 stores, and is one of the best constructed buildings in Florida. Mr. Ring is fraternally affiliated with the Elks. He was married to Miss Anna M. Grabell, of Woodstock, Virginia, Oct. 19, 1923. Mrs. Ring is a member of an old Virginia family of English descent. THEODORE W. (TED) ROBERTS T. W. RoBERTS was born in Auburn, New York, Oct. 14, 1884, the son of Chas. A. and Lillian (Cobb) Roberts. Both sides of the Roberts family, who are Scotch and Welsh descent, came to this country along about 1816, first settling in Boston and later moving to the cent ral part of New York State. His grandfather on the Roberts' side was a Methodist minister. The family on both sides were quite prominent in social as well as political affairs of the day. Although he was born in the State of New York, Mr. Roberts was reared in Detroit, Michigan, and it was there that he received his education, completing; same with a business course in the Detroit Business College. For a number of years Mr. Rober ts was engaged in the manufacturing of paints and putty in Detroit, later engaging in the laundry business at Chicago, Ill. Several years were spent in the Dental Supply business at Detroit, Mich. In 1915, being desirous of getting into the automobile business, he secured a connection with the Ford Motor Co., starting in at the bottom, repairing the old model T Ford cars. From this work he was advanced to the position of Assistant Foreman, and within the first year at the Ford Motor Co. he had advanced to the position of General Foreman. This position was held for seve ral months, when he was p laced on special efficiency work, which took him through the entire workings of the plant and fitted him for the position of Branch Superintendent at Detroit, later being transferred to the Memphis, Tenn., branch, where he remained five years before being transferred to Jacksonville to supervise the building of the new assembly plant of the Ford Motor Co. that is now located there.

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434 HISTORY .OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Shortly after his arrival in Florida Mr. Roberts visited St. Petersburg, and was so impressed with the city that he requested his release from the Ford Co. to take a Ford dealership here. This request was granted, and in 1924 he formed the now present Roberts-Bize Motor Co. This Ford dealership is now the oldest authorized Ford dealer in Pinellas County. This business from the start has been one of the leaders in its line. Mr. Roberts is an active civic worker. He is a member of the Rotary Club, the Elks, a Mason and a Shriner. He was one of the first life members of the Mazda Grotto at Memphis, Tenn. Mr. Roberts was married on Feb. 11, 1911, to Miss Jule Prang, of Detroit, Michigan. Mrs. Roberts was born in Germany, having come to this country when very young. She passed away in St. Petersburg on Nov. 7, 1928. F. N. ROBINSON F. N. RoBINSON, Chairman of the St. Petersburg School Board, and one who gives much careful study to school problems, was born in Kenton, Ohio, March 11. 1883, the son of Daniel N. and Sarah Robinson. His father was a veteran of the Civil War, a member of the 40th Ohio Regiment. After attending Wooster College in Wooster, Ohio, Mr. Robinson traveled out of Pittsburgh as a salesman for a wholesale house of that city. He was in fluenced to come to St. Petersburg by C. M. Roser and became a citizen of the Sunshine City in 1911. Since coming to St. Petersburg Mr. Robinson has condu cted a real estate and insurance business, at the present time being a member of the firm of Robinson & Pahmeyer, who handle ins urance exclusively. Besides being Chairman of the local School Board, Mr Robinson is a Director of the American Bank & Trust Company of St. Petersburg. He is a member of the Rotary Club and worships at the First Presbyte rian Church. Mr. Robinson and Miss Lucy Connell were married at Tampa, June 10, 1911. They have two daughters, Lois and Anne, ooth born at St. Petersburg. ALVAH CURTIS ROEBUCK St. Petersburg numbers among her most distinguished citizens AI,VAH CORTIS RoEBUCK, known throughout the country for many years as a member of the well known firm of Sears & Roebuck, of Chicago. Mr. Roebuck was born in Lafayette, Indiana, January 9, 1864, the son of Samuel and Mary Jane (Wolf) Roebuck, both of English ancestry. His paternal great-grandfather served in the Colonial Army, moving from Virginia to Mercer County, Ohio, where he was one of the first two white settlers Mr. Roebuck's father died when he was but a lad of thirteen years, and with that pluck and determination which later brought him fame and fortune, Mr. Roe buck, at an early age, learned the watch-making and engraving trade. When he graduated from school he served as a watch maker and engraver at Hammond, Indiana, for one year and then became associated with R. W. Sears, of Chicago, as head of the watch assembling, timing and repair department of the R. W. Sears Watch Company. At the time Mr. Sears disposed of his Chicago business in 1889

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 437 he sold Mr. Roebuck a one-half interest in a branch of the business, and the name was changed to A. C. Roebuck Co., with Mr. Roebuck as Manager. Subsequently, Mr. Roebuck became owner of the entire business, and with Mr. Sears he organized the A. C. Roebuck Co., a corporation of Minneapolis, Minn., for the sale of watches and jewelry by mail. Two years later the corporate name was changed to Sears, Roebuck & Co. Other lines of merchandise were added in 1895 and the company moved to Chicago. Later Mr. Roebuck disposed of his interest in the Sears, Roebuck & Co. and took charge of the Enterprise Optical Manufacturing Co., organized by him for the manufacture of moving picture ma chines for theaters. In 1912 Mr. Roebuck again became associated with Mr. Sears, manufacturing the Emerson typewriter. Later, Mr. Roebuck designed the "Woodstock" type writer, and the company name was changed to the Woodstock Typewriter Co., with Mr. Roebuck as President, Treasurer and Manager. After getting the ma chine well established, Mr. Roebuck resigned in 1917 and turned his attention to rede signing the "Motiograph" moving picture projecting machine and to the sale of same. This company was soon making nearly half of the projecting machines sold to theaters in the United States. In December, 1924, Mr. Roebuck disposed of his business interests and came . to St. Petersburg January 15, 1925, and is now making that city his permanent home He has been particularly attracted to Gulfport, his subdivision, Roebuck Park, in that popular suburb, being one of the beauty spots of St. Petersburg'. Roebuck Park fronts on Boca Ceiga Bay, with clean, sandy beach, and its attractive homes with their well-kept grounds, beautiful with flowers; shrubs an abundance of trees, giving a home-like atmosphere that makes for. and slX:iability. Mr. Roebuck has served as a member of the Town Council of Gulfport and also as President of that body. He was married fn 1900 to Miss Blanche Lett, of Chicago. They have two children, Lucile May and Alva Curtis, Jr. WALTER SCOTT ROSS WALTER ScoTT Ross was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., September 6, 1871, the son." of James Hugh and Sarah (Hazelton) Ross. After acquiring his education in the schools of Brook lyn, Mr. Ross entered the service of the Bay Ridge and Fort Hamilton Railway in Brooklyn, first as Fireman and later becoming Train Dispatcher. After ten years in this work he entered the grocery business for himself. He also sold millions of dollars' worth of real estate in Brooklyn, and proudly states that not one investor lost a nickel. In 1908 he came to Florida for his health, spending five years at Daytona. l"n 1913 he visited St. Petersburg, and, seeing its possibilities, drove down his stakes, becoming a permanent resident. In 1920 he entered the real estate business, han dling business property mainly. He sold the ten acres to the city on Fifth Avenue North on which the Senior High School now stands. From the very beginning Mr. Ross has taken a lively interest in upbuilding St. Petersburg. Matters claiming his attention were the widening of Ninth Street north from Central Avenue to Ninth Avenue North, also the installation of the .'

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438 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA white way in the same locality. With two others he was instrumental in the in stallation of the Municipal Power House in St. Petersburg. He built the first store buildings on Ninth Street North and Seventh Avenue. He built several houses in the West Central section of Central Avenue. Mr. Ross is a member of the Dutch Reformed Church and is an Elk. He was married on October 15, 1896, to Miss Maude L. Guernsey, of Schorarie, New York. THOMAS!. ROWE THOMAS J. Row!!, owner of the magnificent Don Ce-Sar Hotel at Pass-a Griile, a two million-dollar hostelry, and one of Florida's finest resort hotels, has wrought a miraculous transformation at Pass-a-Grille and has, through his great development work, advanced that popular resort 1,111til its fame as both a summer and winter playground has spread to all parts of the United States. Mr. Rowe came to St. Petersburg ten years ago, in 1919, and bought a large amount of close-in acreage, which greatly increased in value . Having many years of experience in real estate, his keen knowledge of values has enabled him to buy intelligently, and as a result he has never bought a piece of real estate on which he has not made a profit. His long years of successful operation in this business disclose the fact that he foreclosed a piece of property-he has always made adjustments all concerned. Mr. Rowe bought realty holdings in Pass-a-Grille in 1924, at which time he bought 80 acres; . which is adjacent tq the Don Ce-Sar Hotel and which is now subdivided and knowri as Don Ce-Sar Place, considered to be the most valuable and desirable property on the island. Because of the proximity of the lots to the hotel, which is one of the most elaborate on the west coast of Florida, they are in great demand and offer great possibilities for residence, hotel and apartment build ings. This property has recently been placed on the market, and those who are informed believe that another year will witness the greatest growth in the history of Pass-a-Grille, largely brought about by the development work that has been done and is continuing under the able direction of the island's greatest developerThomas J. Rowe. Mr. Rowe was born in 1874 at Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, the son of Patrick and Katherine Rowe. Mr. Rowe was for twenty years in business at Norfolk, Virginia, before coming to Pinellas County in 1919. His crowning achievement of a successful business career is his palatial hotel, the Don Ce-Sar, which he named for a wonder ful character in the Opera Maritana. The hotel contains 312 large rooms and is one of the finest built structures in the world, its architectural beauty making it one of the show places of the South. J. H. RUTLAND One of the most successful business men in St. Petersburg, J. H. RUTLAND, President of the Rutland Bros. Company, has made a large place for himself not only in the business and civic life of the community but in the esteem of its citi zenry.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 441 Mr. Rutland was born April 19, 1892, in Evergreen, Alabama, the son of Duke G and Tampie Rutland. After acquiring his education, Mr. Rutland entered the mercantile business. In November, 1918, he came to St. Petersburg and formed a connection with the s t ore of T. J. Northrup, buying an interest in the business, w h ich then took the firm name of the Northrup-Rutland Company. About four years ago Mr. Rutland bought a majority of the stock of the company, and it is now operated under the name of Rutland Bros: it is recognized as one of the most complete and up-to-date department stores in South Florida They have just taken a 25-year lease on 40 feet north of presen t store and will erect a 4-story building. Mr. Rutland is a Director of the Central National Bank, and for six years served as Governor of the Chamber of Commerce. He is ex-President of the Merchants' Association, and also served as a Director of the Association for six years. Mr. Rutland is a Rotarian. He was married at St. Petersburg to Miss Dorothy Turner. They have one daughter, Helen. DR. HARRY R. SACKETT DR. HARRY R. SACKETT, prominent physician of St. Petersburg and who has been a leader of the Republican party since coming to Pinellas county, was born in Springfield, Mas.s., June 25, 1871, the son of George I. and Sarah E l izabeth (Harvey) Sackett. The Sackett family have figured prominently in history, a history, "The Sacketts of America" having been published by Chas H. Weygant, of Newburgh, New Yprk, in 1907. Dr. Sackett's immediate line dates back to S imon Sackett, who built the first permanent houses erected in Massachusetts at the first permanent settlement, which is now Cambridge ; Dr. Sackett is directly descended from the first male child born in Massachusetts outside of Plymouth, who was John Sackett, hom in 1632. The family was instrumental in settling Cambridge, Northampton and Westfield, Mass., and Hartford, Conn. Dr. Sackett attended the public schools of Holyoke, Mass., and graduated from the Homeopathic Medical College of New York in 1893. He took a post graduate course in medicine in Berlin in 1900. For 27 years Dr. Sackett practiced his profession in Holyoke, coming to St. Petersburg in 1920. While a citizen of Holyoke Dr. Sackett was honored by twice being elected Alderman-at-Large-a Republican in a Democratic city-and served one term in the Massachusetts Legislature a fine tribute to his standing in the community. Since coming to St. Petersburg Dr. Sackett has had an excellent practice, specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disease. He has taken time from his professional duties to take the lead in many worth-while civic undertakings, being Executive of the Boy Scouts organization of St. Petersburg; is President of the Pinellas County Council; a member of the Board of Directors of the Y. M. C. A. during and after their building campaign; President of the Coolidge Club four years ago, carrying the county Republican for the first time in its history; was

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442 HISTORY O F PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA President of the Hoov e r Club the past year wh en the entire county t icket was won by the Republicans. Dr. Sackett was also elected a member of the Charter Boar d chose n for the purpo se of revising the City Charter. Dr. Sackett i s a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a Red Man, and an Elk. He was married in 1896 t o Miss Edith Parson s Hayes, of H olyoke, Mass They have two sons, George Leslie and Frederick Noble. GEO RGE N. SARVEN GEORG N. SAltvEN, a lead ing build er and con tractor of St. Petersburg for many years promin ent in civic affairs and a devout c hurchman, wa s born in Co lumbia, Tennes s e e May 10, 1860, the son of John Harvey and Sarah Elizab eth Sarve n. He was of FrenchH olland descent his ancestors coming t o this country in the early days. His fa t her and uncle owned a carriage factory in Tennessee, a large and necessary business in those days. Mr. Sarven attended the schools of Tennessee, and l ater studied architecture in Chicago. He was a merchant in Tennessee for several years When a young man h e came to Florid a and planted a grove at Brooksvill e, and r emai ned for severa l years, finally returning to Tennes see. He returned to Flo rida in i90S to live permanently and se ttled at St. Peter sburg, where he engaged in the building b u s iness, building f our apartment house s and many residences, the majority of his buildi n g operations being for himself, being a large property owner of the dty. Mr Sarven also built the Presbyte r i an Church and Sunday School building Mr. Sarven was a tin e citizen, whose sterli ng t r aits of character gained for him a high standing in the community and a wide circle o f friends. H e was dis tinctly a home-loving man, was prominent in the w ork of the Presbyt erian Churc h havin g served as an Elder, and was the type of cit izen a community could ill afford to lose. His death at Asheville, North Car ol ina, on July 19, 1923, brought deep sorrow to many heart s. Mr. Sarven was al ways helpful in civic matters, and had served a s a member of the City Commission. He was affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, and was a Presbyterian in religious faith. He was married in Tennessee to Miss Alice Williams, a native o f that Mr. and Mrs Sarven reared a tine family of t hree sons and one daughter: D r James D., George N ., Jr., Edward William and Mrs. J. Arthur Wuest, of Cin ci nnati, Ohio. G. RICHARD SHAFTO G RICHARD SHAPTO, a progressive youn g citize n of St. Peter sb urg, manager of the St. Petersbu rg Radio Corporation, w as born April 22 1904 at Cliffwo od N J., the son of W esley K. H. and F l orence A V. (Simes) Shafto. His ancesto r s were from England and came to New Jersey abou t 1730. A town in New Jersey was named for hi s ancestors. M r Shafto attended the Radio I nstitute in New Orleans in 1924, and later a student at Columbia University. He came to St. Petersburg in 1926, and became connected with the St. Petersburg Radio Corporatio n, in charge of servic e becoming a member of the firm in 1927, and its manager.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 445 Before locating in St. Peters b urg, Mr. Shafto was a radio operator aboard the steamer Atlantida, and it was through the assistance of himself and the crew that a rescue at sea was made on October 18, 1924; the crew of the motor ship James Timpson having issued a call for help. In 1921 Mr. Shafto was radio operator on the steamer Anthricite Bridge, which made the African Coast, taking supplies to the Greeks during the Siege of Smyrna. He holds a first-class commercial oper ator's license. Mr. Shafto is a member of the Lions Club of St. Petersburg and a director; is a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, Chairman of the South Florida Radio Trade Association and is an Episcopalian. He was married at Tampa in St. And r ews church on October 5, 1927, to Miss Treva Hanson, of that city. R. SHOECRAFT ]. R. SBO!lCRAFT, of Pinellas Park, has demonstrated that by intelligent and well-directed effort, a barren spot may be made not only to bloom but to also pay, and to pay handsomely In 1911 Mr Shoecraft bought ten acres of l and at Pinellas Par k for $350 On this spot he has created one of the most beautiful, productive and remunerative flower gardens in Florida. He produces annually from $8,000 to $10,000 worth of flowers from these gardens, specializing on gladiolas, sweet peas, snap dragons, palms and other plants. He gives much credit for his phenomenal success in this business to the invaluable assistance rendered him by his wife and deceased daughter His flowers find a ready market in the c enters of population, and he has every reason to be proud of the splendid business he has built up, starting with absolutely nothing. His business as a florist takes much of his time, but of a civic nature have been given more than ordinary attention by Mr. Shoecraft, who has served for several terms as Mayor of Pinellas Park. He is a lso vice-president of the Pinellas Park Building & Loan Association. With P. ] McDevitt he established the Pinellas Park Drainage District, of which he is now president During the Spanish American war he was a member of the 32nd Michigan regiment. He is an Elk and a Mason. He was married at Toledo, Ohio, to Miss Elva Badger. They had one daughter, Flora E., who died in 1925. ALVA ERNEST SHOWER ALVA ERNEST SHOWER, the versatile editor of the Safety S Herald was born in Black Earth, Wisconsin, October 30, 1876, the son of William and Mary Shower. His father was born in Pennsylvania, his mother in Indiana They went to Wisconsin and settled in the early pioneer days, and it was in that State that Mr. Shower received his education, graduating from the Black Earth High School in 1896 Mr. Shower is a self-made man, having started at the age of twelve to help support his mother and their family His first position was in a printing office in his home town, and later he went to East Troy where he worked at a sim i lar position for five years His next work was with the State a daily news-

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446 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA paper, where he remained for seven years, as compos itor and ad man, and for eight years thereafter was mechanical superint e nd e nt of the composing room and f o reman of the daily which positio n he finally relinquished owing to failing health. Shower came to Pine llas County in October, 1913, locating first at Palm Harbor, later moving to Safety Harbor. His health was com pletely restored b y th e use o f the Espiritu Santo Springs water and in June, 1916, he purchased the Trofrical Breeze, changing the name t o The Herald. The si ze o f the paper has been increased from a five-column fou r-page paper to a six column paper, running from 10 to 16 pages weekly. Mr. Shower has serve d Safety Harbor a s Secretary of the Chamb e r of Com merce for the past seven years. He also served as City Clerk from 1917 until 1925, and was a member of the County Board o f Trade. He has been a membe r of the M etho dist church since t w elve years of age and is now a member of the Board of T rustees. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Beaver Fraternity, Modern Woodmen of America, and is clerk of the local camp. He was married at East Troy, Wisconsin, August 2 1 1901, to Miss Edith D. -Rector. They have two c h ildren, Dwight W. and Franklin B. JAMES F. SIKES ].AMES F. SIKES, who has served as Pros ec uting Attorney and later as County Judge of Pinellas County was born in Invern ess, Citrus County, Florida, November 1, 1894, the son of J N. and Loula B Sikes. His parents were both of Florid a. Judge Sikes was educate d in the public schools o f Lee, Hillsborough a n d Charlotte Counti es, later attending the University of Florida for five years, where h e graduated in law. He began the practic e of his professio n at Tarpon Springs in 1916, but the World War interrupted its continuation for a period o f nearly two years during which time he was a member of Company F 6th Engineers, 3rd Division, and had 21 m on ths overseas duty. He part icipated in six major engagements, and had the rank of corporal. At the clo se of the war, he entered the firm o f Brandon & Gage at Clearwater, the firm being known as Brandon, Gage & Sikes. In 1921 he returned to Tarpon Springs, and again resumed his practic e there. From 1925 until 1928 he was Pros ecuting Att orney of P inellas County, rec eiving a majority in ever y precinct-a high compliment indeed and a fine tribut e to hi s standing throughout th e county. He se rved the county as County Judge from the beginning of 1928 until January, 1929. For a few month s before the war he was City Attorney of Tarpon Springs, and se rved in that capacit y from 1921 until 1927 Judge Sikes is a Mason, Shriner, Elk and Odd Fellow and belo ngs to the Pi Kappa Alpha college fraternity. He is a Rotarian, and had t h e honor of serving as the first president of the Tarpon Springs club. He has served as vice-president and a cting president of the Chambe r of Commerce; is ex-commander of the American Legion, and a fo r mer directo r of the First National Bank of Tarpon Springs. He was married on March 28, 1923, to Miss Alma Juanita Gibson, of Tarpon Spri ngs They have o n e daughter, Louise.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 447 L. B SKINNER L. B. SKINNER, the largest citrus grower in Pinell as County, and a citizen who for 46 years has been a builder and a developer of not only his home town of Dunedin, whe re he settled in 1883, but of all South Florida, is one who may well point with pride to his achiev ement s in various lines of business and civic endeavor. Mr. Skinner was born at Watertown, Wis., January 27, 1861. He gradu ated from Northwestern University at Watertown and attended the Union College of Law in Chicago, and immediately thereafter came to Florida, locating at Dun edin, where he has since been largely interested in the citrus business, having at the present time over 500 acres of bearing groves in that section. Mr. Skin ner, in addition to his grov e inter est s, is the owner of one of South Florida's finest hotels, the Hillsboro, in Tampa, which he built in 1910. Mr. Skinne r has been largely interested in real esta t e, and has the distinction of selling the first land ever to be sub-divided in Dun edin, in 1887, when much o f Florida was but a wilderness. In Mr. Ski nne r Dunedin has had a re al, worth while friend, a developer who has brought the community nation-wide attention, a citizen whose real worth can not be estimated in dollars and cents, and one whose business foresight has brought him success in all of his undertakings. He was first P resident of the West Coast Steamboat Co. of St. Petersburg. Mr. Skinner was, in additio n to his othe r activities, one of the builders of West Tampa. He built the Fortune Street bridge in Tampa and later gave it to the city. He has been long prominent in bankin g circles, having been one of the organ izers of the Peoples' Bank of Clea rwa ter, former president of the con cern and at the present time is vice-president. He is a director of. the !l'irst Natiqnal Bank, of Tampa; vice-president of the First National Corporation, of Tampa, and is president of the West Coast Hospita l Association. For many yj:ars he was Mayor of Dunedi n. Mr. Skinner was pre sident of the Florida State Horticultural Society for six years until April 1929. He is a 32nd degree Mason. Mr. Skinner was married October 22, 1885, to Miss Mary Bruce . They have four children: Mrs. C. J Jackson, of Tampa, B. C., R. E. and F. L BOB C. SMALLEY BoB C. SMALLEY, av iator, automobile dealer and all-round p r ogressive citizen, was born in Hoopeston, Ill April 29th, 1896, the son of Robert C. and Sarah (Hickman) Smalley. Mr. Smalley's education was secured, after his graduation from St. Petersburg High School, at the University of Illinois and University of Florida after which he took a course at Soule Commercial College, New Orleans, La., having been a resident of St. Petersburg since a l ad of four years, he natura lly engaged in business th ere, following his g rad uation from college. After three years' associ ation with C. Perry Snell and C. Buck Turner in real esta te and development work, he -estab lished t he Bob C. Smalley Co., which still handles motor cars. On account of his interest in aviation, having been a flier in the war, he also added to his autom obile

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448 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA business, the first established airplane agency, with a sales room and headquarters for Travel-Air airplanes In connection with this, he conductS the Sunshine City Flying School which has ships in operation both at the Piper-Fuller Field and the Water Front landing field, which he helped plan and develop. Mr. Smalley is also inte rested in State-wide aviation matters and through the means of the State Legis l ature and State Chamber of Commerce and the various directors of aviation in the various cities of Florida, he is planning on aiding an intensive development program for Florida Aviation activities. Mr. Smalley is president of the St. Petersburg Aero Club ; chairman of the aviation committee of the Chamber of Commerce, a member of the City Aviation Board, and for two years was president of the Civitan Club, which he organized. Fraternal ly Mr. Smalley is a life member of the Blue Lodge, F. & A. M., is a Knight Templar and a Scottish Rite Mason, also a Shriner; he is also an active member of the American Legion and the Elks and was the organizer and past president of the St. Petersburg Automobile Dealer's Association He belongs to the University Club and attends the Episcopal Church. Mr. Smalley has one daughter, Cornelia Juanita Smalley, who is now attending Aiken Open Air Schoo l P. K. SMILEY P K. SMII.EY was born in Catlettsburg, Ky., January 4, 1884, the son of William and Annie E. (Powell) Smiley His mother's father was a Captain in the Confederate Army; his paternal grandfather had charge of all boats on the Big Sandy River during the Civil War, and often changed coats with General Gar field, both taking turns piloting the boats The P owells were old settlers of Ken tucky, as were the Smileys, both coming originally from the north ern part of Virginia. Mr. Smiley graduated from the University of Kentucky in 1908 with a B.M.E. degree, and graduated in 1917 from the University of Minnesota with a B.A. degree, having attended during the summers and also taken a correspondence course. He taught school in Minnesota from 1910 until 1917, previous to which time he was in the sand and gravel business in Portsmouth, Ohio, as manag er of the Smiley Tow Boat Company. Mr. Smiley, during the World War, was Inspector of Shells in the Ensign Car Works at Huntington, W. Va. He came to St. Petersburg first in 1917, spending the winter season, and returned to live permanently in August, 1919. He was a real estate salesman for Smitz & Bouton for a short time, and l a t er taught school at Largo for one year, physics and manual training be ing subjects taught by him. He subsequently opened "Smiley's Filling Station" at the comer of First Street South and Central Avenue, which he now o wns and operat es. He bought and sold real estate duri11g the boom. He was elected Justice of the Peace in November 1928, on the Republican ticket, one of the first group of Republicans to be elected t o in the county. Mr. Smiley is a member of the Chamber of is a Mason and a Shriner, and is a member of the Methodist Church He was married in 1918 to Mrs. Anna F. Leete a widow of Batavia, Ohio. She was formerly Miss Anna Schwnp, of Ashland, Ky.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 449 ADDYMAN SMITH, D.D. ADDYIIIAN Sli!ITH, D.D., pastor of Grace Methodist Church, St. Petersburg, 1as born in Keighley, Yorkshire County, England, October 28, 1863, the son of lddyman and Violetta (Hudson) Smith. He was the only member of his family ) leave his native land, his family on both sides having always lived in England. lis father was a Methodist preacher of Yorkshire County. On coming to this country, Dr. Smith was for five years with the Associated :harities in Cincinnati, Ohio. He then entered the ministry at Rossburg, Ohio, nd in 1901 came to Florida, being in charge of the Methodist church at Orange :ity, Volusia County, for a short time. He later served Methodist churches at >eLand and Daytona Beach, coming to St. Petersburg the first time in 1908 when e was pastor of the "Shell Dash Church", now a part of the First Avenue M. E. :hurch. He was the second Methodist Episcopal minister in St. Petersburg. After three years' service in St. Petersburg, Dr. Smith was transferred to the Vest Ohio and served the following charges: Milford, Ada, Mt. Vic>ry, Toledo, and then came back to Florida and served at Lake Worth, Jacksonville Iastings, and now at Grace Methodist Church, Thirteenth Avenue South, St. etersburg. Dr. Smith has been a powerful force for good in the community, one of his utstanding achievements occurring in 1909 when he led the fight in the local option l ection, which resulted in a victory for the dry forces, it being the decision of the 1ajority that saloons should not operate in Pinellas County. While a citizen of Daytona Beach, Dr. Smith was a member of the Town : ouncil and Chairman of the Board. During the World War he was one of the peakers for the Liberty Loan Drives, serving as a member of the Public Speaking : ureau and on Liberty Loan committees. Dr. Smith is a 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason. He has been twice married, is first wife, Miss Margaret Ackroyd, of Keighley, England, being deceased, aving died in Toledo, Ohio, in 1892. On June 24, 1924, he was married at Lake Vorth, Florida, to Miss Orrilla F. Washburn, organizer and principal of the Lake Vorth High School, who had served previously as a missionary to the Philippines. >r. Smith has five children, Frederick D Harold, Annie E. and Frank, by his first ife, and Orilla Elizabeth by his second wife. HAROLD SMITH HAROLD SMITH, prominent realty developer of St. Petersburg, a member of 1e firm of Smith Bros., was born in Keighley, Yorkshire County, England, Novemer 3, 1888, the son of Addyman and Margaret (Ackroyd) Smith. All of his 1ther's people are in England, but his mother's immediate family left that country nd have settled in the United States and Canada. He comes from a long line of reachers on his father's side. Mr. Smith, who first came to Canada with his parents when an infant of two ears, moved with them to Cincinnati when six years of age. He was educated in te public schools of that city, and later, after becoming a resident of Florida, raduated from Stetson University, at DeLand. During his first years in Florida

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450 HISTORY O F PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA he had various occupation s, having for two seasons been clerk at the Seaside Inn at Daytona Beach ; taught school at Fort Meade in 1909-10, and later wa s connected with the St. Petersbur g Hardware Co., the St. Petersburg Novelty Work s, and the Ideal Lumber Company He enlisted in December, 1917, in the service of his country, being a member of the Forestry Engineers thi rty days thereafter being en r oute to France. He remained there for eig h teen months driving a truck hauling ammunition, lumber, men and supplies. H e was discharged in June, 1 9 1 9. Returning to St. Petersburg after the war, Mr Smith engaged in the real estate business with C. B. Allen under the name of C. Allen & Smith. In Janu ary, i 927, the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Smith's brother ta king over Mr. Allen's interest, and the finn's name wa s c hanged to Smith Bro s., which concern is still in business. Mr. Smith was halfowner of Allendale Subdivision of 134 acres on Ninth Street North from 34th Av enue to 42nd Avenue There, with Mr. Allen he financed and built many bea utiful homes of Spanish type. Mr. Smith is a member of the Chamber of Comme rce, and until recently has given much of his time toY. M. C. A. work. He is a member of the First Avenue Methodist church is a Mason, a Shriner and a Knight Templar. He was married in June, 1921, to Mi ss Gladys E. Pemble, of Stillwater, N.Y., the w edding talcing place in St. Petersbur g. They have one daught er, Nancy Endora, born March (), 1929, in St. Petersbur g. H. JOE SMITH H. Joe SMITH, City Cler k and Tax Collector of Tarpon S prings, which offic e he has held for the past seven years, was born in Sum t e r County, South Carolina, in 1878. the son of S. D. and Adelaide Smith. He came to Florida with his parents at the age of seven years, living first at Palatka and later in Marion County. At the age of sixteen, Mr. Smith, wh o had learned to be a telegrapher, was sent to Largo as the agent for the old Sanford and St. Petersburg Railroad. He was there for a few months, and then wet:tt to LeRoy, in Marion County, where he was agent for the Silver Sp rings, Ocala & Gulf Railroad. In 1899 he w ent to St. P e t e rsburg as agent for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, being there one year, going from there to Tarpon Springs, where he was agent for five years of the same road. When he severed his connection with the r ailroad, Mr. Smith engaged in the sponge business with John Che ne y, remaining in that business until 191 8. He is still interested in the sponge business, repr esenting a New York house as buyer Mr. Smith, who has been Tax Collector and City Clerk of Tarpon Springs since 1922, also serv ed as City Clerk in 1903, wh e n the tax receipts wer e less than $1,500. The receipts a r e now $220,000. When he first came to Tarpon Springs th e population wa s about 500, and is now about 5,000. Mr. Smith ha s been long identified with city affairs of Tarpon Springs, having served as a member o f the City Council. During his incumbency th e new City Hall was built. Mr. Sm ith is a membe r of the Chamber of Commerce, the Baptist church, and fraternally, is an Odd Fellow. He was marr ied at Tarpon Springs t o Miss Mildred Casta'ing, deceased, and later married Mrs. Edith Tinney. He has two c hildren by the fir.st wife, Joseph and Lester.

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PART IIBIOGRAPH I CAL 453 JONATHAN P. SMITH JoNATHAN P. SMITH, distinguished lawyer, and actively interested in many of St. Petersburg's civic organizations, a number of which he has served aS' president, is a citizen who has given much of his time to worth-while affairs, thereby giving an impetus to the cultu ral progress of the city. Mr. Smith was born in New York City, March 7, 1878, the son of John J. and Anna Connor Smith, and is of English-Irish ancestry. He was educated in the public schools of New York City, and at Columbia University, from which in stitution he received his A.B. and LL.B. degrees. After being admitted to the bar, Mr. Smith practiced his profession in New York City from 1898 until 1906 and for eleven year s the reafter held the position of Assistant Corporation Counsel in the Law Department o f that city. Since coming to St. Petersburg in 1918, Mr. Smith has been prominently iden tified with civic matters. H e was for years a member of the Charter Board of St. Petersburg, and has served as president of the New Jersey State Tourist Society for two terms; has been president for three terms of the Echo Club; organizer and president for two terms of the Open Air Forum, and was president for one term of the Pass-a-G rille Chamber of Comm e rce. Mr. Smith was one of the organizers, charter members and an officer of the St. Petersburg Center of the Drama Leagu e of America. He is very much int e re sted in the movement to establish and maintain a Little Theater in St. Petersburg. During the World War Mr. Smith was a member of the Liberty Loan organ ization, and was one of an organization of special speakers selected throughout the country to combat extreme radicalism. Mr. Smith and Miss Rebe cca Woolvert o n Fell, of Trenton N. J., were mar ried in that city on March 29, 1917 WILBUR F. SMITH W ILBUR F. SMITH was born in Battle Ground, Indiana, August 10, 1867, the son of George M. and Sarah (Snyder) Smith, both hatives of Ohio. The families of both fath er and mother had moved to Indiana when the chil dren were quite young and were among the early pioneers of the State. After attend ing the public schools of Battle Ground Mr. Smith learn ed the painting trade while yet a boy, and after working at that trade for a few years went into business for himself as a contractor, wruch occupied his time until he was married. Having a natural love for flowers and plant life in general, he gave up the paint business and went into the nursery business, establisrung what was called "The Battle Ground Nursery," making a specialty of propagating and raising fruit trees and ornamentals. In this business, Mr. Smith was quite successful, as his Nursery was close to LaFayette and was surrounded by a rich farming country. There was a ready sale for the fruit trees to the farmers and the ornamentals to the citizens o f LaFayette. On December 31, 1893, Mr. Smith was married to Rozella B. Ridgway daughter of Lorenzo D. and Nancy Jane (Ransdall) Ridgway. .

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454 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA l n 1908 the iU health of their son, Shennan, made it necessary to seek a milder climate. They sold t heir nursery business and came to St. Petersburg arriving on January 1, 1909 The mild climate had a very beneficia l effect on the son who regained his h ealth, and after finishing his education in the schoo ls of St. Peter sburg, he was able to go back north to finish in a high e r instit ution of learning. Upon coming to St. Peter sb urg, it was the intention of Mr. Smith to establish a nursery, but at that time, the city was small and there was not much demand for nursery stock, so he went into the paint and wallpaper business, buying the business of th e West Coast Decorating company, owned by Mr. R. H. Sumner which was located i n a f rame building on the lot where the Pheil Theatre now stands. Tha t building was tom down soon a f t e r Mr. Smith w ent into it and the business was moved to 2 4 7 Central avenue, at which location he operated under the name of the W. F. Smith Pain t and Wallpaper Store The business was expanded until it became o ne o f the largest paint and wall paper estab lishments in the State During the time Mr. Smith conducted th e paint store he was also quite an inve s tor in S t Petersburg real e s tate and was very success ul in this side lin e and as a result of his wise selection he is now the owner of some of the best business proper t y on Central avenue as well a s o t her close-in real estate. He h as always mad e a specialty of business or close-i n residential property. After 15 years of busines s activities, in 1924, Mr. Smith's health began to fai l and on the advice of his physician, he sold the paint and wallpaper store to Mr. John M. Graham and Frank E Ridgway who formed a c orporation under the name of the W. F Smith Pa i nt Supply Company which is still doing business at 1220 Fifth avenue, north. From the time Mr. Snnth came t o St. Petersburg, he has been active in the civic affairs of the city, having joined the Chamber of Commerce at once and serving as one of the City Commissioners from 1917 to 1920 the last year as chairman of that body. On account of his knowl edge and love of plant life as well as his executive ability, he was appointed chairman of th e Park Board July 1st, 1920 and served in that capacity until Jul y 1st, 1927 This seemed to be the particular kind o f civic work for which he wa s best fitted, and under his able management, the Park System, whic h was not up to the standard at that time, began to sho w an i mproved look and sev eral new parks were added. Mr. Smith was instrumental in persuading several of those men who were laying o u t s ubd ivisions to ded i cate parks for the benefit o f the people, so that th e parks a re very nicely distribu ted ove r the entire city. The outstanding deal which wa s made by Mr. Smith while on the Park Board, was the p urchase of Cresoent Lake Park. H e had the support of the Commissioners in the purchase, but many of the leading taxpayers were opposed to this, claiming it was a waste of funds to spe nd mon ey on such a mud hole.

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 45S Mr. Smith was firm in his conviction, as he knew that many of the most beau tiful parks in the country had been made out of such places as this. Time has proven that Mr. Smith was right in his opinion, for the purchase has since become most important to the interests of the park system, with its great muck beds and the establishing of the city nursery. This important park which had been a reptile-infested, disease-breeding muck pond with a jungle of vines, brush and swamp grass surrounding it, by the manage ment of Mr. Smith and his Board, has been transformed into a beautiful, high and dry park with a jewel of a lake in the shape of a crescent in the center. This park cost the city $30,000, but on account of the thousands of yards of muck which have been used to enrich other parks, and the thousands of trees and plants which have been grown in the nursery under Mr. Smith's personal super vision, the Park has paid back into the city many times what it cost. This park is the winter home of the celebrated Yankee baseball team, that trains here each spring for the coming season. It has always been Mr. Smith's ambition to make this park a botanical garden on account of the wonderful richness of the subsoil in which trees and plants grow very fast. In 1927, the health of Mr. Smith became so bad that he had to give up all active work and give his time to recuperation, but he is still much interested in the park work and often participates with the Park Board in the interests of the parks and the nursery. In 1926, an inventory was taken by a disinterested party from another city and the value of all parks was placed at $25,000,000, and the value of the nursery was placed at $80,000. The cost to the city has been only a small fraction of this amount. Mr. Smith with the help of A. W. Fisher and A. L. Pfau, who were on the Board with him in 1926, spent most of his time making the plans for th e beautifi cation of the waterfront. He went to the New England States and studied various parks, and employed Chas W. Leavitt of New York City to draw the plans and make specifications for the completion of these wonderful parks, all of which have been finished by the Board in accordance with those plans. A history of all parks as well as the great recreational clubs playing in them has been prepared by Mr. Smith and is given under the heading of "Parks and Games." Mr. and Mrs. Smith educated their two children in the New England Con servatory of Music of Boston, and they are both prominent in musical circles ; Sherman K. being a musical manager in New York City and Vora M. being one of the leaders in music and drama in St Petersburg. Mr. Smith and his family are members of the First Avenue Methodist Church. He is a member of the Masonic Lodge and all its branches, the Elks, Knights of Pythias and Rotary Club, and is a director of the Fide lity Bank, also of the Bee Line Ferry and is a stockholder in many of the financial institutions of the cityand he is a consistent booster and a firm believer in the future of St. Petersburg. In all his activities, Mr. Smith has had the loyal support of his devoted wife,

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456 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA who is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Women of Rotary, the Daugh ters of the Revolution, the P E 0. Sorority, the Garden Club and other social clubs, and is also a constant booster of our city and a believer in its future. H. B. SMITZ H. B. S11nTZ, in the realty business in St. Petersburg for the past eighteen years, was born in La Pointe, Wis., an island in Lake Superior, on June 7, 1863, the son of Bernhard and Jennie Smith. At the time of Mr. Smitz's infancy, only Chippewa Indians and a few half-breeds made up the population of La Pointe. His father and the latter's brother had a store there and traded with the Indians. In those days all steamers burned wood, and his father furnished the steamship company with wood. The parents of Mr. Smitz were German born, coming over to the United States when quite young. Mr. Smitz went to work early as his father died when he was but thirteen years of age He spent considerable time in Kansas City, St. Louis, Chicago and Salt Lake City as a salesman, and for seven years was engaged in the amusement business in Cincinnati. He conducted a moving picture theater in Cincinnati in 1909, at which time the picture business was in its infancy. Mr. Smitz came to St. Petersburg as a tourist in 1911, and liked the town so well that he decided to become a permanent resident. He engaged in the real estate bus iness, opening offices at the corner of Central A venue and Third Street South, where the J. Bruce Smith building now stands, his office rent at that time being $5 per month. Mr .' Smitz has built many houses and put on the Hyde Park and Smitz sub divisions in St. Petersburg. He has always had as his slogan "Smitz not Smith". Mr. Smitz was a charter member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club, but re signed two years ago. He is a life-member of the St. Petersburg Historical Society, and is affiliated with the city, state and national Association of Real Estate Boards, Y. M. C. A Florida Public Health Association, Florida and National Chamber of Commerce, Lakewood Estates Golf Club, and during the World War was a sergeant in the Home Guards of Pinellas County. Mr. Smitz and Miss Annie Goodsell, of Hebron, lll., were united in marriage at Waukegan, Ill. C. PERRY SNELL C. PERRY SNELL is a citizen whose vigorous initiative proved an impetus to a series of developments in St. Petersburg such as had never before been attempted. His well ordered exploitation, extensively and vigor ously prosecuted, backed by unlimited means, resulted in the erection of dozens of magnificent homes, handsome business blocks and the establ ishmen t of many large enterprises. A man of thought and action, Mr. Snell has set an example of endeavor and accomplishment which is unexcelled in a city where competition has been intense, and where the race has been to those possessed of resourcefulness, energy and vision. Mr Snell first came to St. Petersburg in 1899, and was so impressed with the possibilities of the then undeveloped but admirably situated village, that he the block where the Colonial Hotel now stands, later buying the site now graced by

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 459 the Soreno Hotel. These investments were the first of a long series, which have stamped him as one of the greatest developers of Florida. Hundreds of acres have been developed by his companies into high-class residential districts, each a gem in itself. His crowning achievement is Snell Isle, a magnificent development in the northern part of the city, containing an 18-hole golf course, with its arltistic Moorish Club House. Snell Isle contains many palatial homes of Spanish design, in a setting of floral beauty and attractiveness, and whose location is unsurpassed in Florida. Among Mr. Snell's earliest projects were "Bay Shore" and "Bay Front", "North Shore" and "Granada Terrace" subdivisions, extending along the bay f rom Fifth Street to Twenty-Second Avenue, and continuing around Coffee Pot Bayou to Thirtieth Avenue North. "Lakeside", "West Lake" and "Crescent Lake" were among his earlier developments, all of which property was sold and improvements made thereon which are substantial and metropolitan in character. Hundreds of acres of outlying lands were sold by Mr. Snell to investors who have long since become permanent residents. Mr. Snell has just completed a handsome office building, the Snell Arcade, erected at a cost of over half-million dollars, at the corner of Fourth Street and Central Avenue, considered the most valuable corner in St. Petersburg. The archi tectural beauty of the building will stand as a monument to one whose name will be handed down to succeeding generations as one of the city's great developers. Baywood Park, North Shore Park, Granada Terrace Park and Snell Isle Park, with its beautiful statuary, were all gifts to the city by Mr. Snell. The west half of Mirror Lake fark was practically a gift, Mr. Snell accep(lng in remuneration only a brick paving assessment on one lot. High and artistic ideals have charac" terized the constructive works of Mr. Snell. For years he has spent his vaeations traveling over the world, especially studying the cities and localities to which St Petersburg and Florida are similar, and upon each return he has brouglit, not only the best ideas and knowledge of the arts of those places, but great collections of the art works themselves. All of these he has used in his magnificent development, Snell Isle. For ten years Mr. Snell was chairman of the Chamber of Commerce water front committee, and while in this capacity secured option after option, finally bringing about a purchase acquiring the area between the two docks and turning it over to the city at cost. This accomplishment was the reason for the Eve11ing Inde pendent stating in an editorial at that time that "C. Perry Snell is the mah who saved for the city our waterfront." Mr. Snell is a Kentuckian, born at Bowling Green, June 5, 1869, the son of C. P. and Isabelle Snell. He completed his education at Ogden College, located at Bowling Green, for which institution he was responsible for erecting "Perry Snell Hall" and placing therein a collection of several hundred pictures and statuary purchased by him abroad. In his early manhood, Mr. Snell was for seventeen years engaged in the retail drug business, later coming to Pinellas County, where his long and succtssful career iri the real estate field has made him a notable figure of State-wide fame . Mr. Snell and Miss Lillian Allen, of Columbia, Tenn., were married in January, 1899.

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460 ; HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA CAPT.CHAS. L .SNYDER CAPT. CHARLES L SNYDER, vice-president of the Leverett Insurance Agency, of St. Petersburg, prominently identified with municipal affairs, and a former realtor of the city, was born in Richmond County, Georgia, November 27, 1894, the son of Charles Myron and Mary Elizabeth (Malaghney) Snyder. His mother's father was an Episcopalian Rector in Buffalo, N. Y., and Detroit, Mich. His father was a descendant of the first Dutch settlers in New York State his family moving from that State to Georgia in 1843. Capt. Snyder was educated in the public schools of Richmond County, and when fifteen year s of age he attended Western State College at Kalamazoo He . graduated as a Civil Engineer from the University of Michigan in 1914. Capt. Snyder first came to St. Petersburg in March, 1919, to recuperate from injuries received on the battlefront in France. He remained thirty days, returning to live permanently in November of the same year He became connected at that time with the real estate firm of C. M. Roser, as salesman being connected with that' organization for a year and a half, when he engaged in the real estate business for himself, maintaining an office under his own name until the fall of 1928 when he joined S. D. Leverett and S. D. Petrie in the establishment of the Leverett Insurance Agency, Inc., of which concern Mr. Snyder is vice-president. During the World War Capt. Snyder served his country gallantly at the battle, f r ont. He enlisted when war was first declared, was sent to the First Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan, Ill., and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant there in July, 1917. He was ordered to France immediately, and served with the English troops until late in November, 1917, when he was assigned to the 1st Division, 28th Infantry, in France He was made a 1st Lieu t enant in January, 1918, and a Captain the following September. He served at the battlefront until wounded in the back and shoulders by a shell, when he was returned to the United States. He was able to report back for duty in April, 1919, when he was assigned to Camp Dix, N. J., and later transferred to Presidio, California He was dis charged on October 27, 1919, and immediately made plans to return to live per manently at St. Petersburg, arriving there on November II, 1919. In 1922, Capt Snyder was appointed a member of the City Tax Assessors Board, and served as chairman. The following year he was appointed a member of the city commission of St Petersburg to fill the unexpired term of John J. Woodside He was reelected to this office in 19;!5, and served for two years Capt. Snyder is president of the American L egion Crippled Children s Hos pital, is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the St. Petersburg Yacht Club. Jungle Club, University Club, Y. M. C. A., and is an Episcopalian in religious faith. He is a Mason, member of the Blue Lodge Chapter and Council, the Selama Grotto, and is an Elk. He was married November 26, 1921, to Miss Julia Ashley, of St. Petersburg. They have one young daughter; Anne Coleman C. E SPEAR C. E. SPI!AR, senior member of one of the largest law firms in St. Petersburg, and one who has practiced longer than any other attorney in that city was born in

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 463 Alton, Illinois, April 12, 1851, the son of Lewis P. and Lurene Spear. His parents were pioneers in Illinois. His father was originally a contractor, but later was engaged in farming. After graduating from the Illinois State Normal University. Mr. Spear studied Jaw' in various offices in his native State, later teaching school for several years. He started the practice of Jaw 43 years ago-in 1886---in Nebraska in which profession he has been eminently successful, having twice been elected as prosecuting attorney in that State. Coming to Florida in 1912, Mr. Spear chose St. Petersburg as his permanent home, feeling that there were more things combined to make the ideal place for both a home and a business in that city. At first he practiced alone, later taking J. I. Viney into partnership A lucrative practice from the start made additional partners necessary and the firm now operates as Spear, Viney, Skelton and Pearce. All branches of legal work are handled, and their large clientele is drawn from all parts of Pinellas County. Mr. Spear has served St. Petersburg as Municipal J udge. He is a member of the Kiwanis Club. He was married in Vermillion South Dakota, to Miss Addie Hoch. They have no children. J 0. SPENCER J. 0. SPllNCllR, one of the leading Civil Engineers of Florida, and City Engi neer of St. Petersburg the greater part of the past twenty years, was born in White County, Illinois, December 18, 1876, the son of M. W, and Maggie J . Spencer His parents were early pioneers in Illinois. His paternal grandfather was a Meth odist minister and was <.:aptain of the .89th Illinois Regiment during 'the Chdl War: His father was Major in the 9th lllinois in the Spanish-American War. Mr. Spencer and his father, also an engineer, were engaged in municipal and drainage engineering together in Illinois, both coming to St. Petersburg in 1910. His father was at that time City Engineer of St. Petersburg, holding this position until the time of his death in 1913, when Mr. Spencer, who had been assistant engineer, was appointed to the post. Mr. Spencer continued in this work until 1916, when he was for two years engaged in county road construction work. During the World War, Mr. Spence r was engaged in work for the Govern ment at Nitro, W. Va., after which he went to Brownsville, Texas, where he was for four years City Engineer, returning to St. Petersburg in 1923, when he became Resident Engineer of Gandy Bridge, and City Engineer of St. Petersburg. Mr. Spencer has been active in the extensive improvements of streets, sewers and waterfront that the City of St. Petersburg has authorized. During his years of service more than $20,000,000 has been appropriated for these items. While at Brownsville, his position as city engineer included the management of the citis electric light and water plant, and he also supervised the laying of $.300,000 worth of street paving and. sewers. No profession more technical knowledge than that of civil engineer, and Mr. Spencer's record of achievement places him among the leaders of. his profession. He is registered by the Florida State Board of Engineering Examiners as a municipal engineer.

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464 HISTORY O F PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA Mr. Spencer is a member of the St. P etersburg Chamber of Commerce; Maso n Knight o f Pythias and an Odd F ellow in fraternal affiliation, and a member of the Grotto and Sons of Veterans. He wa s married in Illinois to Miss Martha Foster. Mr. and Mrs. Spencer have two sons, Richard and Melville. FRANKl. STAMM, JR. FRANK J. STAMM, JR., successful contrac tor of St. Petersburg, and builder of the city's magnificent sea wall, was born May 5, 1891, at Decatur, Alabama the son of Frank J. and Theresa Stamm Mr. S t amm's parents moved to Ohio when he was a lad, and he was educated in the schools of that State He f ollowe d the carpenter trade f o r some years at Hamilton Ohio, and at vari ous parts o f t he United States. Fro m 1912 th rough 1914 Mr. S t amm and his father w ere engaged in building the sea wall, and the north and south sides and the north mole of the Yacht Basin. They also laid tli.e pipe lines f or the gas plant, when the plant was established in S t Petersburg He and his father followed the contracting business for some years in St. Petersburg, and very succe ss fully. Since 1923, Mr. Stamm has been Building Inspector of St. Petersburg kaving held this important position longer than any former incumbent. Mr. Stamm was married May 7th, 1914, at Hamilton, Ohio, to Mi ss Lucy Davis of that city. fAY B. STARKEY I JAY B. STARKt'i, General Manager of Ul merton Ranch Inc. of Largo one of t he leading hog ranches of the South, has lived in Florida practically h is entire l ife, coming to the State when an infant of 2}4 yea r s from St. Cloud Min n., where he was born January 31, 1895. His paren t s, Frank H and Gertrude (Porter ) Starkey, came to Florida in 1897, l ocatin g f or three years a t Kissimmee, where his mother's parents lived. In 1900 they moved to St. Petersburg and five year s la ter his father died His father was born in New York State and reared in Minne sota. His mother was born in Kansas, but moved with her parents to Kissimmee wh en she was ten years old. Mr. Starkey, who is a self-made man, dates his business career from his fir st job, which paid him $1.50 per w eek and which he earned by helping saw wood within 200 yards of where his present home now stands, but which wa s in the pine woods at that time When twelve year s old, h e worked for McPher son & Dent, who owned St Petersburg's first five and ten ce nt store. He also worked for the late A T. Blocker as collector during schooj vaca t ions. After graduating from the St. Pet e rsburg High School he worked as cler k in the pos t office until 1917 when he enlis t ed i n the World War, being statione d for a pa r t of the time in the Coast Artillery at Fort Dade, and then was sent to A t lan ta to the Officers' Trainin g Camp, where he was commissio ned a 2nd lieut en an t on October 15, 1918. H e was discharg ed in December of that y ear. Soon after returning from the army in 1 9 19 Mr. Starkey engaged in the live stock business, principally raising cattle for beef He started raising hog s in addition in 1924, and in 1928 with D. B. Cunningham, of St. Petersburg, organized 0

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PART IIBIOGRAPHICAL 467 the Ulme!ibn . Inc.; at Largo, oi which business he is General Manager. This prod11ces more pork than any other in Florida, and in addition ships fine breedinit hogs to all parts of the State. ':. Mr, Starkey was the efficient Census Enwnerator of Pinellas County in 1925 :., . . . and 1927. He is a meinber of the Christian Church, the Kiwariis Club, the Amer.ican Legwn; and is' a Mason. He was married in St. Petersburg ]1,1ne 9, 1920, to Miss M : of St. Petersburg daughter of Mr . and Mrs. W; L. Straub. Mr. an!! Mr.s. Starkey have one daughter, Marion Adele: . . . . > . FRANKLIN GEORGE STODDARD FRANKitN Gi!oRGE STODDARD, the accommodating and genial Agent of the Afliinti6 Coast Lirie Railway at St. Petersburg, was born in Howard City, Michigan; :Aprir 5, 1865, the son of Ashman and (Rank) Stoddard. were from Holland, early settlers of Canada, and his mother's pliopie were originilly from England, and were Michigan pioneers. . Mr. Stoddard is a graduate optometrist, and practiced optometry for a number of years before locating in St. Petersburg He graduated from the Northern Illinois College of Ophthalmology and Otology, receiving his degree of Doctor o f Optics in 1905. He also took post-graduate work under various specialists in Chicago. . . . : Mr. en__ga.gediil practice ai. his professj(,ln Boyne City, Mi<:hig;m. It. here tbat hi: Olive afterwards J,i\ !#si:.:'sm: '.: '. /' : . Bdng a lover of is:tlle the Atlantic Coast Line rights-of-\vay and .. station .groW!ds fteight depot. .. ' . . : >. Mr. Stoddard is a member of the Gongrega!:lonal is a rriember the Blue LOdge; Chapter ; Couiicil and . i% ( was iss'. Olive Livingstone ; of Miclligin-\ OctOber . tY,.o daughters, JOYCe J)ixie .imd porina ; : . . : c : ; : :).: : : : \ : T . ' ......... : . . . ... ... .. ,.;-; : .... ,, ...... "">,;; > . ; wf'LLIAi.i L. ir:RAUB .:: .':::.,Y; . . WII.L!AM L. edito: orie T}nt.es, was born at DowagJac, Michlgati, July -14, 186-7; (Woolsey) Straub. His education was seeilred in the ilathre' and early in life he entered the newspaper business, his first business venture being in Dakota Teft:itory, which was then in the throes of becoming North Dakota. In 1888 he became;. the editor and-of thi!-S-argent .Co1"i!y Rustler. In 1894-95 \ ,.: ' '. \i : ..\ .....

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468 HISTORY OF PINEL LAS COUNTY, FLORIDA he was editor and part owner of the Oakes (N. D.) Weekly RepU-blic1m, and from 1895-99 was associat e editor of the Grand Fork s (N. D.) Daily Herald In 1900 Mr Straub came to St. Peter sburg for his health and on April 1, 1901, became ed itor and owner of the St. Petersburg Weekly Times. In 1912 he o rg an ized the Times Publi shing Company and established The Daily Times, and has been its editor except during the years from 1916 until 1922, when he was postmaster of St. Petersburg. Mr Straub has a i ded all progressive movements, as a privat e citizen, news' p aper publisher and edi t o r and as head of vari ous civic bodies, and through the years whatever of acc omp lishment he has attain ed has been for him a labor of love. Among the improvements which Mr Straub had the pleasure of working for, a nd which are now a reality, was the creation of Pinellas County the city's sp l endid municipally-owned waterfroot, the es tablishment of the park s ystem of St. Pe ters burg and the county's fine syst e m of roads. Mr. Straub wa s o n e o f the organizers of the Cham ber of Commerc e of St. Petersb urg and served as i t s President ; he organized the Pine llas County Board of Trade, of which he wa s the first pre sident; he was likewise org anizer of the St. Petersburg Rotary Club and its first presid ent; orga nizer of the St. Pete r s burg Tarpon Club and its first presiding officer, and was one of the organiz ers of the S t P et ersburg Yacht Club, and served as a m ember of its Board of Go v ernors. Fraternall y, Mr. S t raub is a life member of th e Knights of P ythias, o f which o r der he served for several terms as chancell o r commander. He was editor-in-<:h ief of this publication, t he Histor y of Pinella s Count y, and author of the narrativ e section. Mr. Straub married Miss Sarah A. M oo re of Dowagiac, Michigan, and they have one daughter Blanche M. (Mrs. Jay B Starkey), of St. Peter sburg. HENRY L. TAYLOR HNRY L. TAYLOR architect of many o f St. Petersburg's larg est buildings, was born in Fa ll R iver, Ma ssa chusetts D ecember 10, 1884, the son of Henry and Sarah (Dyer) Taylor Hi s paternal ancestors came to this c ountry from England, his maternal f r om Ireland. After completing his High School education, Mr Taylor attended Harvard University. Choosin g arch i tecture as his life w o rk he practiced his profession in the East for a numb er of years with success, coming to St. Peter sburg in March, 1921. His ability wa s recognized from the start and among that city' s magnificent buildings which he designed are the Vinoy Hotel the Power and Lig ht buil ding, Th e Times building Southsid e Junior High School, the addition to the Yacht Club, St. Josep h's church, St. Mary's church the colored school at Thirty-Secon d stree t and many other buildings. Mr. Taylor is a mem ber of the A merican Institu t e of A rchit ects, is a di rector o f the Florida A ssocia t ion of Archite c t s, a member of th e Coun try Club, the University C lub, the Chamber of Commer ce, the Catholic church, and is an Elk. He was married in Bosto n on June 22, 1911, to Miss Gladys Spinney.

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PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL 471 JOHNS. TAYLOR JoHN S. TAYI.OR, of Largo, distinguished statesman, prominent banker and one of the best posted citrus men in the State, is a citizen widely honored and esteemed, not only in Pinellas county but throughout Florida. In the 1928 election he was a candidate for Governor of the State, and made a magnificent race, it being generally conce ded by friends and opponents that if the campaign had las ted two weeks longer, he undoubtedly would have been the Democratic nominee. Hav ing entered the race late, he was hampered by the fact that those who would have supported him had pledged th emselves to others al ready in the race. He has been repeatedly urged to become a candidate in the next primaries, and should he do so it is confidently expected by his friends that he will be Florida's ilext Governor. Mr. Taylor's business interests include of wide scope and impor tance. He is a large citrus grower, and for many years .. was president of the John S. Taylor & Co., a concern which did an extensive fruit business. He is vicepresident and a director of the Bank of ClearWater, and is president of the Guaranty Title and Trust Company of Clearwater. He is owner of Clearwater's $75,000 theater, in addition to which he has other valuab l e property and extensive interests. Mr. Taylor has given many years of his life to furthering the interests of his community and of Pine llas county. He has been able to render. more valuable and lasting service than that pf the average Pinellas county for many years in tile .State J.,egislature. : : It or six years he .. ,...., ....... . . . was chainnan of the Commissiol).ef'-3!1\f.wl!S largely responsible for the formation of . ; : : Mr. Taylor was of' Soeiety at the organization's forty-second meeting, herd at: Clea:rwater'in 'iApril, 1929. No man in Florida can claim; a higher. place irnhe of his fellow-men than John S. Taylor. He represents the highest type of. citiiimship, his sincerity, honesty of purpose and ability eminently qualifying him for any position to which he might aspire. Mr. Taylor is a native of Florida born near Largo, now in Pinellas county, March 21, 1871, the son of William J. and Mary F. Taylor. He is a Mason, Shriner, Knight of Pythias and a member of the MethOdist church. He was married to Miss Flossie Campbell, May 2, 1901. They have one son. Johri S., Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have a lovely estate at Largo. CASEY. THIGPEN CASEY THIGPEN, member of St. Petersburg's legal (.raternity, and newly elected Justice of the Peace, District Nu mber Fiv.e, of J;'jnellas co4nty, is one of the suc cessful Republican candidates in the recent election who went into office by an overwhelming majority. Mr. Thigpen was born in Washington County, Georgia, July 26, 1898, the son of Thomas Jefferson and Rosa Viola (McDaniel) Thigpen. His mother's ancestors came to the United States from England before the Revolutionary War, and settled in Virginia, migrating to Columbia County, Georgia, about 1790; his

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472 HISTORY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA father's people came about the same time from England and settled in North Carolina, migrating to Georgia in about the year 1800. Both of Mr. Thigpen's grandfathers were soldiers in the Confederate Army; his father's brothers have held practically every political office in Washington County Georgia, including Tax Collector, Sheriff, County Treasurer and County Judge, and only one was ever de eated in a political race. Mr. Thigpen attended the public schools of Washington County, later was a student at Gordon Insti t ute Barnesville, Georgia, and matriculated at Mercer University at Macon, Georgia, being admitted to the bar in Macon on June 11, 1919, qualified to practice in both the State and Federal Courts. He began the practice of law at Douglas Georgia, in 1919, continuing for five years, at the end of which time he came to Florida and l ocated at St. Pete rsburg. He there became associated in business with Judge W F. Way, but later went into business alone and at the present time is practicing independently. Mr. Thigpen is an ardent Republican and has always been active in politics, although it was the first time he had e ver offered for public office when elected Justice of the Peace. He is splendidly equi