The ‘human revolution’ in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo)

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Material Information

Title:
The ‘human revolution’ in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo)
Series Title:
Journal of Human Evolution
Creator:
Barker, Graeme
Barton, Huw
Bird, Michael
Daly, Patrick
Datan, Ipoi
Dykes, Alan
Farr, Lucy
Gilbertson, David
Harrisson, Barbara
Hunt, Chris
Higham, Tom
Kealhofer, Lisa
Krigbaum, John
Lewis, Helen
McLaren, Sue
Paz, Victor
Pike, Alistair
Piper, Phil
Pyatt, Brian
Rabett, Ryan
Reynolds, Tim
Rose, Jim
Rushworth, Garry
Stephens, Mark
Stringer, Chris
Thompson, Jill
Turney, Chris
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Behavioral Modernity ( local )
Dating ( local )
Subsistence ( local )
Tropical Environments ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans and behavioral modernity (the ‘human revolution’), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominins who created it. This paper presents one such case study: Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of a modern human skull, the ‘Deep Skull,’ controversially associated with radiocarbon dates of ca. 40,000 years before the present. A new chronostratigraphy has been developed through a re-investigation of the lithostratigraphy left by the earlier excavations, AMS-dating using three different comparative pre-treatments including ABOX of charcoal, and U-series using the Diffusion-Absorption model applied to fragments of bones from the Deep Skull itself. Stratigraphic reasons for earlier uncertainties about the antiquity of the skull are examined, and it is shown not to be an ‘intrusive’ artifact. It was probably excavated from fluvial-pond-desiccation deposits that accumulated episodically in a shallow basin immediately behind the cave entrance lip, in a climate that ranged from times of comparative aridity with complete desiccation, to episodes of greater surface wetness, changes attributed to regional climatic fluctuations. Vegetation outside the cave varied significantly over time, including wet lowland forest, montane forest, savannah, and grassland. The new dates and the lithostratigraphy relate the Deep Skull to evidence of episodes of human activity that range in date from ca. 46,000 to ca. 34,000 years ago. Initial investigations of sediment scorching, pollen, palynomorphs, phytoliths, plant macrofossils, and starch grains recovered from existi
Original Version:
Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 52, no. 3 (2007-03-01).

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