South Dakota Bat Management PlanSouth Dakota Bat Working Group Wildlife Division Report 2004-08July 13, 2004
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page iiTable of Contents Page Signature Page................................................................................................................. ..iv Preface........................................................................................................................ .........v Acknowledgements............................................................................................................vi Executive Summary..........................................................................................................vii List of Participants........................................................................................................... viii General Bat Information and Management Justification....................................................1 Introduction..................................................................................................................1 Background Information..............................................................................................1 Values and Concerns Associated with Bats.......................................................1 Natural History of Bats......................................................................................2 Bats and Health Issues........................................................................................5 Bat Studies Conducted in South Dakota............................................................7 Bat Species and Species Status in South Dakota.........................................................7 Species List........................................................................................................7 Current State Status...........................................................................................8 Current Federal Status.......................................................................................9 General Reasons for Bat Declines.............................................................................10 Bat Management Plan.......................................................................................................11 Introduction............................................................................................................ ....11 Goal.................................................................................................................... ........11 Threats to Bat Populations in South Dakota..............................................................12 Management Needs...................................................................................................20 Research Needs.........................................................................................................28 Education Needs........................................................................................................33 Summary Statement...................................................................................................34 Progress Evaluation...................................................................................................35 List of Potential Cooperators............................................................................................36 List of Personal Communications.....................................................................................37 Literature Cited............................................................................................................... ..38 Appendices..................................................................................................................... ...47 A. Taxonomy............................................................................................................. 47 B. Species Accounts..................................................................................................47 Eastern Red Bat................................................................................................47 Hoary Bat.........................................................................................................49 Silver-haired Bat..............................................................................................50 Northern Myotis...............................................................................................52 Little Brown Myotis.........................................................................................53 Western Small-footed Myotis...........................................................................54 Fringed Myotis.................................................................................................56 Long-eared Myotis...........................................................................................57 Long-legged Myotis.........................................................................................58 Big Brown Bat..................................................................................................59 Evening Bat......................................................................................................61 Townsend's Big-eared Bat................................................................................62
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page iiiC. Identifying Bats.....................................................................................................63 D. Management Recommendations...........................................................................65 E. Federal Cave Resources Protection Act.................................................................67 F. National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act....................................................73 G. Proper House Exclusions of Bats..........................................................................74 H. Additional Rabies Information..............................................................................77 I. Conservation Digest Articles..................................................................................81 J. Literature Cited.......................................................................................................85
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page ivSignature Page Protecting wildlife diversity in South Dakot a is important to conservationists alike thus we the undersigned vow to work tow ar d protecting bat fauna throughout the state by implementing action items (e.g., strategies) in this plan. CooperatorsDate . South Dakota Bat Working Group (SDBWG), President & Steering Committee (Management) Black Hills National Forest, Wildlife Biologist . . SDBWG, Vice President & Steerin g Committee (Research & Website) South Dakota State Univers ity, Associate Professor . . SDBWG, Secretary/Treasurer South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP), Wildlife Biologist . . SDBWG, Steering Committ ee (Research & Funding) SDGFP, Senior Wildlife Biologist . . SDBWG, Steering Committee (Research & List-Serve) SDGFP, Wildlife Biologist . . SDBWG, Steering Committee (Research) Batworks, Owner & Bat Biologist . . SDBWG, Steering Co mmittee (Education) SDGFP, Program Specialist .
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page vPreface Twelve bat species can be found throughout South Dakota comprising approximately 12 percent of the stateÂ’s mamma l fauna. As efficient predators of nightflying insects, bats are integral components of the environment and provide a substantial economical service as they feed on ag ricultural and fore st insect pests. Bat populations depend larg ely on their ability to fi nd safe, secure roosting habitat. Unfortunately, this habitat is in jeopardy in many areas. Depending on the species of bat, bats may roost in a wide vari ety of sites from rock crevices and cavities (caves, abandoned mines) to trees, both living and dead (snags), and structures such as buildings, bridges and even the artificial Â‘bat housesÂ’ that are becoming somewhat popular. It is important to note that due to micro-site (temperature) conditions and other selection criteria that are not fully understood, bats can be very sele ctive regarding roost sites. Besides roosting habitats, bat foraging habita t is also being degraded or destroyed, which reduces the availability of insect prey and drinking water. As well, other factors such as lack of protective regulations and a general public image of being rabid and dangerous pose threats to bats. Therefore, an increased effort to protec t, conserve and manage bats and their habitats in South Dakota is required. The South Dakota Bat Management Plan (SDBMP) is designed to identify risks to bats, develop objectives and strategies to conserve bats and to educate people about them, and make ma nagement recommendations associated with protecting bats and their ha bitats in South Dakota. All future bat conservation efforts in South Dakota will depend on cooperation among agencies, groups, organizations, and in dividuals in order to achieve these objectives and strategies. The South Dakota Bat Working Group initiated the development of this management plan and formed the framew ork through meetings and group discussions. Sixteen agencies, organizations , and individuals were involve d with developing the South Dakota Bat Management Plan. These and ot her agencies, individuals, and organizations will be the cooperators in this effort. Ba t conservation has become an important wildlife management goal as agencies, organizations , and individuals recognize the ecological and economic value of bats. This State Mana gement Plan is the first step. As time progresses, and we grow in our understanding of bats and their ha bitat needs the South Dakota Bat Working Group will utilize a pro-active approach to managing wildlife Â– adaptive management Â– to improve this plan.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page viAcknowledgements The South Dakota Bat Working Group woul d like to acknowledge the efforts of individuals in the development of th is plan. Working Group members include researchers, biologists, educators, and managers from different areas of the state. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks personnel were pa rticularly dedicated to the formulation and writing of the plan. People involved wi th the development of this plan include: Alyssa Kiesow, Barb Muenchau, Brad Phillips, Chad Tussing, Cheryl Schmidt, Doug Backlund, Eileen Dowd-Stukel, Joel Tigner , Lon Kightlinger/Linda Schaefer, Natalie Gates, Sara Reindl, Scott Pedersen, Stephanie Middlebrooks, and Vicki Swier. Also, many individuals of state, federal, and other organizations reviewed drafts of this plan throughout its development and/ pr provided their expertise in various areas covered in the plan. Those individuals in clude Barb Muenchau, Brad Phillips, Brian Scott, Cheryl Schmidt, Connie Vicuna, Dan McCormick, Dan Foster, Doug Backlund, Doug Hansen, Eddie Childers, Eileen Dowd St ukel, George Vandel, Karen Hall, Heather Johnson, Joan Bortnem, Joel Tigner, Kim Schultz, Lon Kightlinger, Marc Ohms, Paige Hoskinson, Renee Ohms, Rodd Horricks, Scott Pedersen, Shelly Diesch, Stan Michals, Steve Hirtzel, Steve Wilson, and Vicki Swier.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page viiExecutive Summary Bat populations are declining locally, and continentally, due to habitat loss and fragmentation, roost disturba nces, public lack of awareness, and poor regulatory measures. The South Dakota Bat Working Group and South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks recognize the ecological and economic bene fits of bats and ar e initiating efforts to protect habitats and conserve bats in S outh Dakota. This South Dakota Bat Working Group seeks to protect bats and bat habi tat through action, education, and cooperation with federal, state, and private landowne rs. Objectives include raising awareness concerning the role bats play in maintain ing healthy ecosystems and working with public land managers and private landowners to redu ce possible disruptions to bats and their habitat. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, specifically the Wildlife Diversity Program, seeks to inventory, protect, and ma nage species and habitats in a manner that meets the needs and desires of the people of the state while protecting South DakotaÂ’s biological diversity. Efforts towards conservi ng bats and their habitats in South Dakota include the development and implementation of a state bat management plan. The South Dakota Bat Management Plan includes general background information, a management plan outline, and numerous appendices. General background information includes details concerning bats a nd their habitat, health issues, management justification, and batsÂ’ legal status. The management plan outlines objectives, strategies, and makes management recommendations by taxon or habitat of bat species in the management, research, and education secti ons. Numerous appendices include species accounts, written articles regarding bats, and cu rrent federal laws associated with bats and their habitat. The main goal of the South Dakota Bat Ma nagement Plan is to provide guidance promoting long-term conservation of S outh Dakota bat species through research, management, and education. Through the implem entation of this plan, bat conservation efforts will be strengthened and cooperation among agencies, organizations, and landowners, as well as regulatory measures, w ill be enhanced. The goal is a reversal of downward trends of particular bat populati ons noted in bat survey work conducted through the years. Bats receive protection through proper habitat management, research, and education, therefore each objective and strate gy contributes to the achievement of the planÂ’s overall goal. The goals and objective s apply to all bats in South Dakota. While there has been no attempt to prioritized efforts by species, it is presumed that conservation efforts will be keyed to local c onditions and situations. Resource managers will decide which objectives and strategies to apply under their authority and which ones are most urgent in their area. Because the South Dakota Bat Management Plan is designed to be adaptive, each participating agency, group, indi vidual, or organization will be asked to provide annual updates and progress reports re garding objectives and stra tegies they are conducting or have fulfilled. The updates will help refine goals, objectives and specific strategies. In addition, as new information is learned regarding habitat requirements, population data, or other vital information it will be in corporated into future plan revisions.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page viiiList of ParticipantsThe South Dakota Bat Management Plan is a cooperative effort between local, state, and federal entities. Alyssa Kiesow (SDGFP) drafted most of the plan, though many individuals throughout the drafting process provided a great d eal of help. Doug Backlund (SDGFP) and Joel Tigner (Batworks) provided identifying keys that appeared in the Mammals of South Dakota book, and Joel Tigner, Eileen Dowd Stukel (SDGFP), and Alyssa Kiesow provided articles that appeared in the South Dakota Conservation Digest . Individuals who contributed to the plan are listed below. These individuals participated in meetings and provided numerous comments regarding bat conservation and their agencies ar e potential cooperators in fulfilling this plan.Alyssa Kiesow South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (Wildlife) 523 E Capitol Ave Â– Foss Building Pierre, SD 57501-3182 Barb Muenchau/Dan Foster Wind Cave National Park RR 1 Box 190 Hot Springs, SD 57747 Brad Phillips South Dakota Bat Working Group 3406 Ivy Ave Rapid City, SD 57701 http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html Brad Phillips USDA Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest 330 Mt Rushmore Custer, SD 57730 Cheryl Schmidt BS BioServ, Inc. 18897 Eichler Road Newell, SD 57760 Cheryl Schmidt USDA Forest Service, Rock y Mountain Research Station 1730 Samco Road Rapid City, SD 57702 Chad Tussing South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (Education) 412 W Missouri Ave Â– Kenyon Building Pierre, SD 57501-4521 Doug Backlund South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (Wildlife) 523 E Capitol Ave Â– Foss Building Pierre, SD 57501-3182 Eileen Dowd Stukel South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (Wildlife) 523 E Capitol Ave Â– Foss Building Pierre, SD 57501-3182 http://www.sdgfp.info/wild life/diversity/Index.htm Joel Tigner Batworks 2416 Cameron Drive Rapid City, SD 57702 Lon Kightlinger/Linda Schaefer South Dakota Department of Health 615 E 4th Street Pierre, SD 57501 Natalie Gates US Fish and Wildlife Serv ice, Ecological Services 420 S Garfield Ave Suite 400 Pierre, SD 57501 Scott Pedersen South Dakota State University Department of Microbiology/Biology Agricultural Hall 304 Box 2207B Brookings, SD 57007 Stephanie Middlebrooks Rosebud Sioux Tribe PO Box 430 Rosebud, SD 57570 Vicki Swier Texas Tech University Department of Biology, Box 43131 Lubbock, TX 79409
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 1General Information and Justification Introduction To help familiarize individuals, general info rmation about bats as a group and specific information pertaining to the bat species that occur in South Dakota are included in this management plan. Information includes ba ckground knowledge (e.g., natural history), bats and health issues, studies and species in South Dakota, and r easons for bat declines. This information is provided in the general bat info rmation and management justification section as the prelude to the actual strategic plan. Background Values and Concerns Worldwide Bats play an ecological and economic role in their community, which is not duplicated by any other animal group. Worldwide, there ar e nearly 1,000 species of bats that feed on fruit, nectar, other animals, insects, and even blood. In tropical regions (where bats are most abundant), bats disperse seeds and pollinate flowers by feeding on fru it and nectar, thereby playing a significant role in resource production, plant evolution, and reforestation. An estimated 450 products used by humans are produced by bat-pollinated plants (Laubach et al. 1994). Notable products include food (e.g., ba nanas and cashews), wood (e.g., balsa), and beverages (e.g., tequila). In the New World tr opics, three species of vampire bats are found (Laubach et al. 1994), which drink blood. Th e anticoagulant found in their saliva has been used for medicinal purposes and has saved lives. In the United States, and more specifically in South Dakota, bats feed on insects. In South Dakota the role of bats is relatively unknown, but it is susp ected that they play a major role in insect population control. For exampl e, it has been reported that little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ) may consume 600 insects (e.g., mosqu itoes) in one hour (Tuttle 1988), and may play a role in urban mosquito control. Big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) consume large quantities of beetles and agricultural pests. In one season, one maternity colony of nearly 150 bats consumed 38,000 cucumber beetles ( Diabrotica spp.), 16,000 June bugs ( Phyllophaga spp.), 19,000 green and brown stinkbugs (Pentatomida), and 50,000 leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) (Whitaker 1993). Tr ee-roosting bats (e.g., red bats [ Lasiurus borealis ], hoary bats [ Lasiurus cinereus ], and silver-haired bats [ Lasionycteris noctivagans ]) may help maintain forest health by consuming forest pests. Regardless of specifics , it is clear that bats serve a vital function in our ecosystem. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the value of bats threatens their populations in North America (Luce 1998). My th, superstition, and folklore continue to contribute to the decline of bat populations. People often a ssociate bats as blood sucking, rabies infected animals that ar e blind and often tangle themselves in peopleÂ’s hair. EuropeanAmerican culture tends to link bats to evil or evil powers, such as witches and vampires. Contrary to such beliefs, bats are actually unique creatures th at benefit humans, and in some cultures (Chinese, for example) are a symbol of good luck and prosperity. Other factors that may impact bats include human disturbance or destruction of bat habitat. Humans may vandalize roosts such as caves or mines, exclude bats from buildings at inappropriate times or by improper methods (Williams-Whitmer and Brittingham 1996) , and disturb roosting bats through recr eational and commercial activitie s such as partying in caves or selective logging. Destructi on or degradation of habitat may result from selective harvest
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 2of large trees (Adam et al. 1994, Ochoa 2000, Sedgeley 2001), presence of toxins often introduced through pesticide use (OÂ’Shea and Clark 2001, OÂ’ Shea et al. 2001), habitat fragmentation, human disturbance or vandali sm at caves (Perkins 1985, Gore and Hovis 1992), and slowly disappearing or degraded ripari an zones (Rich 2002). Because these threats may endanger important roosting, foraging, and watering areas, it has become necessary to safeguard critical habitat in order to conserve bat species in South Dakota. Natural History Overview Bats belong to the group of mammals called Chiroptera, which constitutes nearly 1200 species worldwide. Chiroptera literally means hand+wing (MWCD 2002). In fact, bat wings are structured as greatly enlarged hands making them very different from bird wings. As a result of their highly developed wings, bats ar e the only mammals that have truly mastered powered flight. Other types of mammals can g lide (e.g., flying squirrels) but are not capable of sustained flight. Bats are often compared to rodents, but rodents are flightless and have large paired teeth (incisors) designed for gnawing. Bats ar e more closely related to primates and have extremely sharp teeth similar to large fangs (c anines) found in carnivor es. BatsÂ’ teeth are not suited for gnawing; instead they are used to puncture and cut apart the hard outer coverings (exoskeletons) of insects. Physical Characteristics Most bats in South Dakota have dark br own wing membranes and short brown or gray fur, so it is difficult to disti nguish between species. Bat wings Â– large, five-fingered hands webbed with extremely thin skin stretching from fingertip to shoulder Â– provide lift and thrust for the animal during flight. Bats use their hind legs and tail, which are enclosed in very thin skin, to maneuver during flight, much like airp lanes use ailerons and rudder. Because the wing membranes are so thin, it is easy to s ee blood vessels along thei r length. These thin membranes also pose great risk of dehydration, fo rcing bats to seek roosts with high humidity and minimal air movement. Since bat wings ar e so fragile and easily damaged, bats utilize their hind feet to move around in their roosts. With short toes and long claws, bat feet are well adapted for hanging upside down. Bats in itiate flight from this position by dropping headfirst and spreading their wings. Bats evolved from small bodied, large br ained, insect eating mammals similar to shrews (Laubach et al. 1994). Much like th eir ancestors, many species of bats (and all of South DakotaÂ’s bat species) locate prey a nd avoid obstacles us ing a process called echolocation . Echolocation is much like the sonar navigational systems used by whales and dolphins. Bats emit high frequency sounds that strike objects (e.g., prey or obstacles) and reflect (echo) back to them, much like Doppler weather radar systems, telling bats the speed, direction, and size of their targ et (Simmons et al. 1978). Bats are able to adjust their flight accordingly. Once it detects prey, the bat cap tures it by scooping it up with its wing or tail membranes and transfers the food to its mouth. The bat immediately bites off the insectÂ’s wings and legs, and before it loses air spee d, quickly chews and swal lows the insectÂ’s body. For South Dakota bats, the senses of visi on and smell do not play a predominant role in hunting, but their sense of smell does play a significant role in social communication back
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 3at the roost (Bradbury 1977). Most bats apparently lack cones in the retina, a ch aracteristic of many nocturnal animals, but they are still able to see. Physiology Like humans, the operating body temperature of most bats is 37Â°C (98Â°F) (Lyman 1970). Maintaining body temperatures through internal regulation, called endothermy or homeothermy , takes a great deal of energy for bats to keep their bodies cool (panting) and warm (fat metabolism) (Licht and Leitner 1967). To conserve important resources, bats can allow their body temperatures to fluctuate with ambient temperatures ranging as high as 43Â°C (110Â°F) and as low as 0Â°C (32Â°F). This process, which is called heterothermy , conserves energy during times of stress (e.g., reproduction) wh en it is more important to protect body fat reserves than to sustain comfortable body temper atures. Periods of heterothermy are called torpor or hibernation . Torpor saves energy by reducing body temperature, slowing heart and respiratory rates, and reducing me tabolic speed (Humphrey 1982, Luce 1998). Periods of torpor may last from a few days to several months. Before entering long periods of hibernation, bats must feed excessive ly to build the large fat reserves needed to maintain body functions throughout the dormancy period. During hibernation, bats may rouse Â– though only occasionally and for short periods Â– to urinate, drink, or move to another roost site. During this dormancy period, bats are very sensitive to disturbances, which usually results in Â“emergency exits from torpor.Â” Th is emergency activity burns up important energy, and when bats re-enter hibernation, they may no longer have sufficient fat reserves to survive until food and water become available. During the day, bats often sleep and become semi-torpid. While being semi-torpid, bats are able to slightly re duce their oxygen consumption rates and body temperatures. Also, resting bats often groom themselves using th eir tongue and their toes . Upon awakening, bats raise their temperatures and increase their consum ption rates. Thus, some bats spend much of their life in torpor or in a condition approaching torpor. Reproduction During the breeding season, male testes des cend into the scrotum in preparation for mating. In South Dakota, bats typically mate in the fall before hibernation, though time of mating varies among species. Because bats are able to postpone egg fertilization or implantation, there is also variability as to when after mating the sperm fertilizes the egg (delayed fertilization) and when the fertilized egg begins development (delayed implantation). Pregnancy lasts approximately 50 to 60 days (Wimsatt 1945, Laubach et al. 1994), and 80 to 90 percent of the females in a nursery colony are reproductively active, depending on the year (Humphrey 1982). Typically, a single young is bor n in May, June, or late July and, while most species in South Dakota will typically produce only one offspring a year, the red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) may produce up to four (Jones et al. 1983). Six of the twelve bat species found in South Dakota are mouse-eared bats of the genus Myotis , which produce one young per year (Guthrie and Jeffers 1938, Wimsatt 1944); in some years, as few as 25 to 50 percent of the re productive-aged females produce single offspring (Barclay et al. 2002). Because of this lo w reproductive rate, bat populations are more susceptible to dramatic declines in number, which results in subsequent periods of low reproduction.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 4Mothers usually feed and nurture pups until they become volant and full-grown. Pups and juvenile bats typically cling to their moth erÂ’s underside, feeding alternately between the two teats located near the motherÂ’s armpits . (Most females have two functional mammae located in the chest region, but females of Lasiurus have four functional mammae.) Females may carry their young while traveling or foragi ng until the young become too large for their mothers to remain aloft or too restricting for them to hunt. As a result, young learn very quickly to fly and capture their prey. At 2.5 to 3.0 weeks of age, juvenile bats are nearly fullgrown. Many species of bats in South Dakota are known to live an aver age of 20 years, with their first pregnancy occurring du ring the second year (Humphrey 1982). Key Habitats Foraging habitats vary depending on insect availability, weather, and bat species. Usually, bats forage over water (e.g., lakes, st reams, etc.), along forest edges, along rocky escarpments and ravines, and near light sources because these features tend to concentrate insects (Humphrey 1982). Studies in South Da kota and Colorado have shown that small tree stands or water bodies are important features for bats in open prairi es (Everette et al. 2001, Swier 2003). The importance of watering sources is twof old. Most bats require more water than other mammals of comparable weight because their wing membranes have great evaporation surfaces in relation to their weight. Bats are ab le to drink water while in flight by flying low over the water, lowering their head, and taking a gulp of water. Wateri ng holes also attract insects upon which the bats feed. Bats roost in a variety of areas. Trees, rock crevices, caves, mines, and man-made structures (e.g., attics, wa lls or crevices in buildings) provi de adequate roost sites for bats. However, some bats in South Dakota even roost under rocks on the ground. Because landscapes differ in South Dako ta, all these roosts are important for maintaining bat populations in various areas of the state. Ty pically, day roosts Â– in cluding nursery roosts, summer male roosts, transient roosts, and wi nter roosts (Humphrey 1982) Â– provide more security and stable conditions than night roos ts, which offer areas for rest after feeding sessions. Most roosts are characterized by hum id, cool, and dimly lit conditions (Luce 1998). Nursery and winter roosts ar e particularly important to bat survival. Nursery roosts must afford protection from predators and prov ide beneficial microclimates for pregnant or nursing females and developing young (Humphrey 1982). Nurseries are typically located in hot, dark, poorly ventilated areas with se veral tiny openings. Winter roosts ( hibernacula ) offer bats stable environments, characterized by no air movement, humid conditions, and cool temperatures. Hibernacula typically include caves and mines, attics, wa lls, or lofts of old buildings, and males and females often share such hibernacula. South Dakota offers fewer roosting opportunities to bats than are available in other states in the region. Any distur bance or destruction of roosts Â– particularly nursery or winter roosts Â– may be limiting factors to bats, not only due to South DakotaÂ’s limited roosting opportunities but also due to lo w reproductive rates and extreme sensitivity of bats to environmental changes (e.g., altere d temperatures in hiberacula). Food Habits South Dakota bats feast on a wide variety of insects. Softor hard-bodied insects are selected as prey, depending on the species of bat. For instance, the diet of big brown bats in
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 5eastern South Dakota includes Co leoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Lepidoptera (moths) (Swier 2003). Generall y, size and sturdiness of a batÂ’s skull are correlated with size and hardness of favorite insect prey (Belwood 1979, Freeman 1979). In some instances, though, there may be no correla tion. For example, hoary bats have very powerful skulls, yet they prefer softbodied insects (S. Pedersen pers. comm.). Seasonal Behavior Bats need to migrate or hibernate to surv ive when harsh northern winters cause insect prey to die and open bodies of water to freeze. Whether they migrate or hibernate depends on factors relating to animal size, flight charac teristics, and proximity to over-wintering sites (e.g., hibernacula , Humphrey 1982). Very little is know n of the migration routes and the migratory behavior of bats in South Dakota, though they may migrate north-south along the eastern and western state borders and along th e Missouri River corridor. Bats may also migrate east-west from the Black Hills to the Missouri River drainage each season, though little concrete evidence is available to verify these movement patterns. Different species of bats migrate at differe nt times and over varying distances. For example, big brown bats move short distances from summer to winter roosts, while red bats travel long distances to follow warm weather and insect prey (Humphrey 1982). Usually, bats traveling short distances are hibernators traveli ng to and from their winter roosts, while bats traveling long distances are migrants moving s outhward with the onset of cool weather and returning northward with the ons et of warm weather. In South Dakota, southward migration usually begins in late summer and northward migration usually ends in mid to late spring, while hibernation generally lasts from Oct ober to April (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Mortality In general, bat mortality rates are affected by many factors including human activities (e.g., entering roosts at sensitive times of the year, camping in or near caves, releasing environmental toxins, and destroying roost site s). In addition, accidental midair collisions with wind turbines (Johnson et al. 2003), tr ees, and barbed-wire fences, or accidental groundings during extreme weather may cause bat fa talities (Tuttle 1994). Midair predation by raptors (Byre 1990) and roost predation by sn akes, raccoons, and skunks also contribute to bat mortality (Tuttle 1994). Prenatal mortality is minimal among bats (Humphrey 1982), while newborn and juvenile bat mortalities are associated with li tter size, environmental stress, accidents, and predation. Young bats have higher mortality rate s than adults. Fatalities to young bats may be caused by crashing into foliage during first flights, being knocked out of the air by large gusts of wind, and being preyed on by owls and ot her night predators. First year hibernators also seem to suffer high mortality rates (J. Tigner pers. comm.), possibly due to inadequate foraging success and low body weights when they en ter their first winter cycle. Most adult fatalities result from accidents, and mortality rates remain relatively constant throughout adulthood. Bats and Health Issues Rabies is one disease of many that can be transmitted to humans from wild or domestic animals in South Dakota. Bats are one of many species that can transmit rabies to humans. Rabies is a fatal viral disease in fecting the central ner vous system (SDDOH 2002).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 6After infection, symptoms appear in three to eight weeks and may include headache, behavior and sensory changes, paralysis, fever, and malaise. The South Dakota Department of Health records indicate that skunks are the most prevalent carriers of rabies in the state (Tab le 1). Since 1990, only 59 of the 1,656 bats tested for the rabies virus in South Dakota proved to be rabies-positive (rab id) Â– a 4 percent rabies infection rate during this 13-year period (SDDOH 2003a). During 2000, 12 of 357 bats tested positive for rabies, while in 2001, only 11 of 406 bats tested positive for rabies Â– together, a 3 percent infection rate. In 2002, 9 of 378 bats tested positive for rabies Â– a 2 percent infection rate (SDDOH 2003a).Table 1. Number of animals testing positive and nega tive for rabies in South Dakota, 1990 2002 (SDDOH 2003a). AnimalPositiveNegativePercent Positive Skunk105651267% Horse4224015% Cattle189163310% Bat5915974% Dog8723804% Cat7615972% Most bat rabies cases come from Sioux Falls, Minnehaha County, where the Animal Control Department collects an abundance of bats Â– the majority of specimens tested in South Dakota Â– from private residences each year. Most collected bats are sent to and tested by the Animal Diseases Research and Diagnostic Labo ratory at South Dakota State University in Brookings. The South Dakota Department of H ealth (SDDOH) also receives and tests dead bats according to criteria esta blished by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Note that the infection rates given here do not represent actual rabies infection rates in wild bats, because they do not represent a random sampling of w ild bat populations. Te st results, therefore, overestimate the incidence of bat rabies in S outh Dakota. Nationwide, approximately 10% of bat specimens submitted for rabies testing were positive for rabies (OÂ’Shea et al. 2003), but this number is inflated and does not represent actu al infection rates of w ild bats (S. Pedersen, pers. comm.). Rabid bats have been collected in Clay, Davison, Fall River, Lake, Lawrence, Meade, Miner, Minnehaha, Pennington, and Turner counties (SDDOH 2003b). Big brown bats are the most common Â– and most commonly tested Â– bats in South Dakota. As a result, over 50 percent of tested rabies-posit ive bats are big brown bats. Other species that have tested positive include the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), and hoary bat. Rabies is only transmitted through contact with rabid animals (including bats). Usually, people contract rabies from a bite , scratch, or mucous membrane exposure from rabid animals. Rabies cannot be contracted from droppings or urine. When exposed to rabies, SDDOH recommends seeking immediate medical care. This ensures prompt treatment through post-exposure prophylaxis shots, which prev ents rabies in humans. If humans are exposed to rabies, they must have anti-rabies shots to prevent rabies infection and fatality. Some individuals risk rabi es infection through work (e .g., wildlife researchers) or recreational activities (e.g., cavers). To a void rabies infection, SDDOH recommends preexposure rabies vaccination to wildlife rese archers working with bats and cavers entering
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 7potential bat roosts. Usually, three shots are given over a three to f our week period. These shots do not prevent rabies, though they help ensure complete protection with only two additional booster shots after expos ure to rabies. Those indivi duals should also check their antibody titer every two years, and if it meas ures below acceptable levels, receive booster rabies shots. (Note: May wa s declared as Rabies Awareness month in South Dakota on May 3, 2001 by Governor Janklow.) Some additional diseases a ffecting bats are histoplasm osis and West Nile virus. Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans. This disease is most prevalent in droppings of birds and fr uit eating bats found commonly in moist, tropical regions. Bats in South Dakota have dry droppi ngs (guano) composed of insect remains; their droppings are unlikely to support the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus (S. Pedersen pers. comm.). West Nile virus may infect bats or humans, though this disease is a mosquito-borne infection. At this time, bats are not known to transmit West Nile virus to humans (L. Kightlinger, pers. comm.). West Nile virus may cause mild flu-like illness or severe infection of the brain (SDDOH 2003c). Like all mammals, bats are infested by ect oparasites including fleas, mites, chiggers, and lice (Humphrey 1982, Laubach et al. 1994), but none of these invertebrates pose a threat to public health. Bat Studies in South Dakota Few studies have been conducted in the past in South Dakota. Most current reports belong to unpublished literature, and they gene rally only note the presence or absence of species from local, regional, and statewide pe rspectives. Findley ( 1956) conducted local presence or absence surveys of mammals, in cluding bats, in Clay County South Dakota, while Wilhelm et al. (1981) conducted parallel su rveys at LaCreek National Wildlife Refuge. Turner (1974) conducted surveys of mammals, incl uding bats, in the Black Hills, and Froiland and Weedon (1990) conducted similar studies in the Badlands. Over and Churchill (1941 and 1945), Jones and Genoways (1967), Choate and J ones (1981), Sharps and Benzon (1984), and Blumberg (1993) presented ch ecklists or conducted surveys of mammals, including bats, in South Dakota. Specific bat research includes studies of individual species or surveys of bats in particular areas in South Dakota. Studies of individual species in clude research by Bole (1934), Moulthrop (1936), Jones and Packar d (1958), Long and Severson (1969), Gunier (1971), Tuttle and Heaney (1974), Jones a nd Choate (1978), and Mattson et al. (1996). Regional surveys include resear ch by Turner and Jones (1968 ), Turner and Davis (1970), Martin and Hawks (1972), Olson (1977), Farney and Jones (1980), Anderson (1993), Bogan et al. (1996), Choate and Ande rson (1997), Cryan et al. (2000), Cryan et al. (2001), Swier (2003), and Lane et al. (2003). Also, a num ber of unpublished report s exist concerning bat surveys conducted through Wind Cave National Park, Jewel Cave National Monument, the USDA Forest Service, and South Dakota Game, Fi sh and Parks. Despite this wealth of survey data, relatively little natural history data are available for eastern and central South Dakota, and existing data are limited to pres ence or absence at single locations. Species and Status of Bats in South Dakota Species List Forty-five species of bats are found in the United States (Pierson 1998). Of these, 12 species of bats have been documented in Sout h Dakota. Four species are considered summer
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 8residents or migratory specie s, and eight are considered year-round residents (Table 2). Summer resident and migratory species may tr avel northward and southward as a result of weather changes, and often year-round reside nts hibernate during cold, winter months. Table 2. Summer resident or migratory spec ies based on Swier (2003), and year-round resident species based on SDBWG (2002). Common Name Scientific Name Type Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Year-round resident Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Summer resident Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Migratory Fringed Myotis Myotis thysanodes Year-round resident Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Summer resident Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Year-round resident Long-eared Myotis Myotis evotis Year-round resident Long-legged Myotis Myotis volans Year-round resident Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Year-round resident Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Summer resident TownsendÂ’s Big-eared Bat Corynorhinus townsendii Year-round resident Western Small-footed Myotis Myotis ciliolabrum Year-round resident In January 2003, an eastern pipistrelle ( Pipistrellus subflavus ) was observed hibernating in the Black Hills. This is the first record of an eastern pipistrelle in South Dakota, though vocal signatures were recorded us ing an AnaBat bat dete ctor in the southern Black Hills at an earlier da te (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Since January 2003, two additional locations were recorded with hibernat ing eastern pipistrelle. At this time, eastern pipistrelles are not c onsidered migratory or reside nt species in South Dakota. Current State Status In South Dakota, no bats are state listed as threatened or enda ngered. However, six species are considered rare (S1, S2, S3), acco rding to the South Dakota Natural Heritage Program (SDNHP), while six bats are consid ered relatively common (Table 3). Six rare species include the long-eared myotis, fringe d myotis, northern myotis, silver-haired bat, TownsendÂ’s big-eared bat, and evening bat, whil e six common species include the little brown myotis, big brown bat, hoary bat, red bat, western small-footed myotis, and long-legged myotis (SDGFP 2002). South Dakota Natural Heritage Program mon itors rare bat spec ies in South Dakota. Information, such as maternity roosts and hibern acula, regarding these sp ecies is collected and recorded in the South Dakot a Natural Heritage Database. The database helps SDNHP biologists monitor species indicating which spec ies need greater management concern. Each species is ranked, at the global a nd state level, based on rarity. Listed below are South Dakota bat species and their global and state ranks. Gl obal ranks (Â“GÂ”) indicate the relative status of the species throughout their range, while state ranks (Â“SÂ”) indicate the re lative status of the species in South Dakota. Grea ter abundance relates to high num erical values (e.g., 4 or 5). Ranks report the relative rarene ss and degree of management c oncern regarding the species.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 9Table 3. Rare (above middle line) and common (below middle line) species in South Dakota with global and state ranks as determined by inform ation in the South Dakota Natural Heritage Database, 2003. Species Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Myotis evotis Long-eared myotisG5S1 Myotis thysanodes Fringed myotisG4G5S2 Myotis septentrionalis Northern myotisG4S3 Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-haired batG5S4 Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's big-eared batG4S2S3 Nycticeius humeralis Evening batG5S1 Myotis lucifugus Little brown myotisG5S5 Myotis volans Long-legged myotisG5S5 Myotis ciliolabrum Western small-footed myotisG5S5 Eptesicus fuscus Big brown batG5S5 Lasiurus borealis Eastern red batG5S5 Lasiurus cinereus Hoary batG5S5 Rank Definition: G1S1 Critically imperiled because of extreme rar ity (5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extinction. G2S2 Imperiled because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining indivi duals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range. G3S3 Either very rare and local throughout its range, or found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations) in a restricted range, or vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors; in the range of 21 of 100 occurrences. G4S4 Apparently secure, though it may be qu ite rare in parts of its range, esp ecially at the periphery. Cause for long term concern. G5S5 Demonstrably secure, though it may be quite ra re in parts of its range, especially at the periphery. T Rank of subspecies or variety (SDGFP 2002).Current Federal Status The United States Fish and Wildlife Serv ice (USFWS) has not designated any South Dakota bat species as candidate, threatened, or endangered species (Table 4). Whereas, the United States Forest Service (USFS) Â– Roc ky Mountain Region (Region 2 [R2]) including Wyoming, Colorado, and the Black Hills of Sout h Dakota Â– has three bat species designated as sensitive species two of wh ich occur in South Dakota (Table 4). Both species are located in the Black Hills National Forest in wester n South Dakota. The R2 Regional ForesterÂ’s Sensitive Species List provides special manageme nt (i.e. Forest Plan Standards) to conserve sensitive species and their habitats on la nds managed by the USDA, Forest Service . This step is taken in an effort to preclude the need for federally listing of these sensitive species. According to the USFS, Â“sensitive speciesÂ” is a term used to describe plants and animals with population viability or habitat capability concerns. The Western Bat Working Group (WBWG) desi gnates priority ranks to bat species in the western United States. Priority ranks do not provide protection to bats rather they provide information on conservation or management con cerns associated with bats. South Dakota is included in this group as Region 9 (Table 4). Hi gh priority species may be imperiled or at risk of imperilment, medium priori ty species are of concern but data regarding species and its threats are lacking, and low priority species ar e of little concern because existing data suggest species populations are stable and status change s are unlikely. This group published a list to avoid population declines thereby prev enting federally li sting (WBWG 1998).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 10Table 4. Federal status of species in South Dakota based on USFWS and USFS designations. Regional priority ranks of species in the w estern United States, according to the WBWG Regional Priority Matrix . Species Name Common Name USFWS USFS WBWG Myotis evotis Long-eared myotis--L Myotis thysanodes Fringed myotis-SM Myotis septentrionalis Northern myotis--L Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-haired bat--M Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's big-eared bat-SH Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat--Myotis lucifugus Little brown myotis--L Myotis volans Long-legged myotis--L Myotis ciliolabrum Western small-footed myotis--L Eptesicus fuscus Big brown bat--L Lasiurus borealis Eastern red bat--L Lasiurus cinereus Hoary bat--M Rank Definition: S Identified as sensitive species according to USFS in Region 2. L Identified as low priority species, M considered medium priority species, and H considered high priority species according to WBWG in Region 9.Reasons for Bat Declines Roosting habitats are most affected by human-related threats throughout South Dakota. Roost sites are degraded or destr oyed through ill-timed r ecreational activities in caves (J. Tigner pers. comm.), by sealing closed abandoned mines used as bat roosts (Luce 1998), by destroying tree roosts and removing or reconstructing bri dges also used as bat roosts (Swier 2003), and by improperly excluding bats from building or homes (SBWG 2002). In addition, new data suggest that active wind generators may a dversely affect bats through collisions resulting in death (Os born et al. 1998, Keel ey et al. 2001). Much like roosting habitats, foraging area s are most affected by human-related activities. Use of pesticides may threatened bats by presumably reducing or contaminating prey populations thereby reducing prey availability or contamin ating bats (OÂ’Shea et al. 2001, Hartman 2002). Contamination or loss of wate ring sites may affect bat distribution and survival. Natural threats also affect bat populations in South Dakota, such as disturbances (e.g., extreme winds) or catastrophes (e.g., tornadoe s or fire, Pedersen 1996, Adams and Pedersen 1998). Each may destroy habitats or reduce popu lations. Additional th reats include intense predation and reduced prey availability. Redu ced prey availability may be the result of reduced species diversity of plants (C. Schmidt pers. comm.).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 11Management Plan Introduction In 1999, the North American Bat Conserva tion Partnership (NABCP) was developed to provide a framework for willing groups to pa rticipate in a cooperative effort to conserve North American bat species (h ttp://www.batcon.org/nabcp/newsite /). NABCP is an alliance of working groups, bat researchers, non-governme ntal organizations, a nd state and federal agencies from Mexico, Canada, and the United St ates. Partners helped create a strategic plan that identifies conservation pr iorities regarding bat protect ion. Framework regarding bat protection includes res earch, education, and management initiatives. The Western Bat Working Group (WBWG), of which the South Dakota Bat Working Group (SDBWG) is considered an active member , plays an active role in the NABCP. The Western Bat Working Group Â– formed as a re sult of conservation efforts regarding TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats Â– includes agencies , organizations, and indi viduals interested in bat research, management, and conservation from 13 western states and 2 western provinces. The SDBWG works as a partner with the WBWG and therefore the NABCP. The South Dakota Bat Working Group works to protect bats and bat habitat by conserving bats and their habita ts, educating the public, and part icipating with federal, state, and private landowners. The main objectives are to raise awareness about the roles bats play in maintaining healthy ecosystems and to wo rk with public land managers and private landowners to reduce possible disrup tions to bats and their habitat. Because the SDBWG strives to protect ba ts and their habita ts, the SDBWG, in cooperation with South Dakota Game, Fish and Pa rks, has taken the lead to develop a fiveyear state bat management plan. This plan is intended to help guide agencies, organizations, and individuals with bat management th roughout South Dakota. Each year during implementation, an evaluation will be conducted to assess the progress of meeting objectives. After five years of implementation, the plan will be thoroughly revi sited and appropriate changes will be made. South Dakota has proposed a management plan with a framework similar to the strategic plan designed by NABCP in order to cooperate with other states on the national level. Three sections comprise the plan: mana gement, research, and education. Each section is critical for conserving bats in South Dakota . The South Dakota Bat Management PlanÂ’s list of participants Â– comprised mainly of SDBW G members Â– identified potential threats to be addressed through objectives and strategies in each section. Threats are thoroughly described to understand and effectively address the problem. Objectives (specific shortor long-term goals) and strategies (actions) identify efforts th at local, private, state, and federal agencies can take and/or continue to ta ke regarding bat conservation in South Dakota. Strategies are not prioritized. Goal This plan seeks to initiate new conserva tion methods and continue current efforts to protect bats in South Dakota. Ultimately, the goal of this plan is to provide guidance for individuals and agencies to promote long-te rm conservation of South Dakota bat species through research, management, and education.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 12Threats to Bat Populations Bats are affected by many factors, eight of which are addressed in this plan. Such threats relate to management, research, or e ducation needs. As a result, objectives and strategies are segregated into one of these areas based on their focus. Threat 1. Loss of habitat through natural and human-related factors. Roosting Habitat Bat populations are thought to be able to withstand and adapt to natural habitat degradation, but intensive human-related threat s have a significant impact on bats (Lunney 1990). Loss of roosting habitat (degradation or de struction) can affect large numbers of bats thus protecting and enhancing this habitat is im perative. Roost sites pr ovide areas for resting, rearing young, socializing, and hibernating. Such roost sites include underground structures, buildings, trees, bridges, and rock ledges. In the Black Hills, the greatest threat to caves is human disturbance (J. Tigner pers. comm.), whereas the greatest threat to mines is permanent and improper sealing of the mine for liability purposes or unexpected collapse of the mine due to natural degradation (Luce 1998). Underground structures (caves and mines) provide hibernacula and maternity roosts, and often these roosts are lost by lack of protection or management. Furthermore, underground structures are limited in the Black Hi lls, so the loss of th ese structures is a significant threat to bats, pa rticularly those using caves and mines as hibernacula. Although the extended importance of bridge s and abandoned buildi ngs is relatively unknown, safeguarding bridges and abandoned build ings may help preserve important bat roosts. Often bridges are removed without prope r bat surveys, and important bat roosts may be unknowingly destroyed. Above ground structures like bridge s (including box culverts) and abandoned buildings have been noted as bat ro osts in South Dakota. Swier (2003) detected big brown bats and little brown bats using concrete bridges and picnic shelters as roost sites, respectively. Frequently, th ese structures are removed fo r liability reasons or damaged through natural causes or vandalism. Living and dead trees in riparian and fo rested areas provide important roosts for resident and migratory bat species (Lacki and Schwierjohann 2001, Swier 2003). Removal of these habitats (riparian areas and forests) through commercial and residential development, agriculture, and selective forest harvesting destroys possible tree roosts, forage areas, or travel routes (Barclay and Brinham 1998). Silvicultu ral practices seem to favor monotypic stands, short rotation times, and selective tree harv est leaving minimal roosting habitat for treeroosting species (Pierson 1998). Also, data show that bats select roost sites in areas with diverse vegetation, old trees, and numerous alte rnative roosts (e.g., snags, Waldien et al. 2000). Statewide riparian areas are often no t specifically managed for bats, though some agencies provide standards and guidelines to pr otect and enhance riparian areas. Basically, Forest Service standards and gu idelines strive to protect ba sic soil, air, water, and cave resources and provide for a variety of life through management of biologically diverse ecosystems (BHNF 2000). Forested areas in the Bl ack Hills are not specifically surveyed for bats before removing trees for timber harvest (B . Phillips pers. comm.). If bat conservation is a management objective, protection of riparian and forest areas is necessary because riparian areas and other forested corri dors (e.g., shelterbelts) connect is olated forested areas to each other providing travel routes for bats. If these travel routes are fragmented, the ability for bats
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 13to move among different forested areas is gr eatly reduced. In addition, bats use multiple roosts often switching roosts duri ng their active season (Swier 2003). Snags in early to medium stages of decay are important roosts as bats have been observed roosting underneath the bark and within the hollows of dead trees (Weller and Zabel 2001). Federal forest management include provis ions to leave two to four snags (dead trees) per acre as wildlife habitat (BHNF 2000 Â– Standard 2301), and state forestry works provide snags as well (B. Scott pers. comm.). However, studies show that these numbers are often too low to accommodate the needs of cavity-dwell ing species (Pierson 1998, Rabe et al. 1998). Black Hills National Forest Plan also lists standards to provid e future snags in areas where snags are below snag objectives by leaving larg e diameter green trees as snag recruitment (BHNF 2000 Â– Standard 2304, 2306). Hibernating bats are susceptible to disturba nce, and disturbance is considered one of the greatest threats to bats. During the winter , human disturbances (e.g., surveys, recreational activities, vandalism, and soci al gatherings), though seemingly small, may wake hibernating bats and cause them to use important fat rese rves. Changes in cave or mine temperature due to the presence of humans or loud noises because of human voices or movements seem to affect most hibernators. Summer maternity roost can also be disturbed as a re sult of human actions (e.g., removal of roosts, recreationa l caving activities, and house exclusions). Ill-timed house exclusions may cause roosting females with young to drop their pups while moving to another roost, relocate young to a less suitable roost, or separate from their pups that eventually die. Often disturbances affect bats during cr itical phases of their life cycle (e.g., hibernation or reproduction) which has been shown to significantl y reduce bat populations. Foraging Habitat Bats forage in areas where their prey is mo st available. Removal of trees can reduce potential foraging areas for bats in treed areas, as prey seems to concentrate near treetops, water sources, or forested edges (Verboom a nd Spoelstra 1999), yet properly thinned forests may provide foraging areas to bats (Adams and Golten 2003). Pesticides may also affect bats and their prey. Often prey (pest) populations are controlled through pesticide use, which may reduce insect prey numbers making less food ava ilable to bats (CWF 2001). In addition, bats may consume insects affected by pesticides. Pes ticides remain in insect tissues, and therefore accumulate in the fatty tissues of bats. Pes ticides in fatty tissues are released during hibernation, migration, or periods of stre ss and may be passed to nursing young (McCracken 1986). Water sources supply water and prey to bats, but bank erosion and pesticide use threaten these water sources. Bank erosion and the resulting loss of ri parian vegetation can occur from actions such as livestock gr azing, road construction (Grace 2002), urban development (Nelson and Booth 2002), natural flooding, and agricultural practices (Souchere et al. 2003). Livestock with access to ripa rian areas may trample vegetation (Rich 2002), reducing plant diversity thereby reducing prey a bundance. Pesticides used to treat mosquitoes may also kill other insects. Road construction, urban development, and agricultural practices (e.g., row crops) increase sedimentation of st reams, which reduces water quality (Grace 2002, Nelson and Booth 2002, and Souchere et al. 2003). As a result, streams, ponds, or lakes may affect drinking water or prey availability for bats.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 14Threat 2. Regulations or polic ies associated with protecting bat species and roost sites are inadequate or poorly enforced. Bats are exposed to increased biological threats (e.g., predation and weather) because of human disturbance. Protecti ng bats and their habitats is important to maintain population numbers and essential roosts (e.g., caves and mi nes), but there are few incentives for private landowners to protect bats and th eir roosts on private lands. Re gulatory measures help protect important bat habitats and speci es and should be updated recurre ntly as an active part of species management. State Regulations State statutes provide some legal protection to bats. A ll bats in South Dakota are classified as nongame1 species according to state statutes . Section 34A-8-2 of South Dakota Codified Laws and Constitution states that Â“the secretary of Game, Fish and Parks shall investigate endangered, threaten ed, and nongame wildlife to de velop information relating to population, distribution, habitat needs, limiting fact ors, and other biologic al or ecological data to determine management measures necessary to ensure their pe rpetuation as viable components to the ecosystems and for human enjoyment.Â” Section 34A-8-6 of South Dakota Codified Laws and Constitution states that Â“the Department of Game, Fish and Parks and the Department of Agriculture shall perform act s necessary for the conservation, management, protection, restoration, and pr opagation of endangered, threatened, and nongame species of wildlife.Â” Nongame species are protected unle ss otherwise noted through law. As a result, nongame species, such as bats, cannot be killed without permission from the state. However, if a bat enters oneÂ’s living area, by unwritten policy a person will not be reprimanded due to an incidental killing. To collect bats for re search purposes, a scien tific collectorÂ’s permit (SDCL 41-6-32) is required. As indicated by se ction 41-2-18 of South Dakota Codified Laws and Constitution, the Game, Fish and Parks Co mmission has the option to adopt regulatory measures to provide additional protection or relax protection awarded to wild animals and threatened, endangered, and nongame species.1 Nongame species is any wild life species not legally classified as a ga me species, furbearer, or threatened or endangered species by statutes of South Dakota (SDCL 34A-8-1).Federal Regulations The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-691, November 18, 1988) provides regulatory measures for federa l agencies, particular ly the Department of Interior and Department of Agriculture, on federal lands (Appendix E). Federal Cave Resources Protection Act calls for federal agen cies to inventory and list significant caves on federal lands and to protect such caves from harm , either to the cave or its biota (e.g., bats and other animals). This act also states that th ere can be valid reasons for not disclosing cave locations to the general public, which means that cave locations can be kept confidential and protected from Freedom of Information Act (FIA) requests. Another act associated with bat resource s is the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-325, Appe ndix F). This act was designed for the National Park Service to establish and administ er a program on cave and karst research and to examine the feasibility of a centralized nationa l cave and karst research institute. Through cooperative efforts by other federal agencies, or ganizations, experts, a nd individuals involved with caves, the feasibility st udy was prepared and forwarded to Congress. As a result,
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 15Congress mandated the National Park Service to establish the National Cave and Karst Research Institute near Carlsbad Caverns Nati onal Park in New Mexico. This institute was formed to establish partnerships in order to fo ster research and education on caves and karsts. Federal funds must be matched by non-federal funds. More specifically, the InstituteÂ’s mission is to facilitate speleological scie nce, enhance public education, and promote environmentally sound cave and karst manageme nt, with bat conservation as a secondary focus. Thus far, partners include Bureau of Land Management, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and United States Geological Service. Additionally, the National Park Service (NPS) has guidelines Â– NPS Natural Resources Management Guidelines Â– that provide direction on NPS policies, such as the NPS Management Policies. All caves are deemed to fall within the definiti on of significant cave, therefore they are provided protection and perpetuation of natural cave, karst, and hydrological systems (R. Horrocks pers. comm.). Management policies relating to caves and karst include: 1) managing karst terrain to mainta in the inherent integr ity of its water quality, spring flow, drainage patterns, and caves, 2) managing caves in a ccordance with approved cave management plans to perpetuate natural syst ems associated with caves, such as karst and other drainage patterns, air flows, mineral deposition, and plant and animal communities, 3) protecting wilderness, cultural resources, and values, and 4) preventing development or uses in, above, or adjacent to caves (B. Muen chau pers. comm., R. Horrocks pers. comm.) Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), in west ern South Dakota, has a SuperintendentÂ’s Compendium containing specific regulations to provide public he alth and safety and protect natural and cultural resources for caves in the pa rk. All caves within the park are considered sensitive, so access is restricted and information regarding caves is confidential and thereby protected from FIA requests (R. Horrocks pers. comm.). In addition to this compendium, WCNP is currently developing a Cave and Ka rst Resource Management Plan to address management of caves and karst in the pa rk. The main cave, though not considered a significant bat resource, as well as other cav es within WCNP are managed to perpetuate natural systems associated w ith caves (e.g., karst, air flow , mineral deposition, plant and animal communities; M. Ohms pers. comm., D. Foster pers. comm.). Jewel Cave National Monument (JCNM) and WCNP have active cave policies in South Dakota. JCNM has the only policy that manages a significant bat resource in a manner consistent with bat conservation guidelines. Currently, JCNM is also developing a Cave and Karst Management Plan to address management of caves and karst in the park (R. Ohms pers. comm.). This plan will include formalized pol icies to protect the large hibernaculum in the historic area of the main cave (R. Ohms pers. comm.). The Missouri National Recreational River (M NRR) is a component of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System and is administered by the National Park Service. The MNRR includes 39 miles of relatively free-fl owing Missouri River from Ft. Randall Dam to the headwaters of Lewis and Clark Reservoir or approximately Running Water, South Dakota. In addition to the 39 miles above Lewis and Clark Reservoir, the National Park Service administers approximately 59 miles of Missour i River from just below Gavins Point Dam, Yankton SD to Ponca, Nebraska. Within this section of river, the National Pa rk Service strives to maintain the Missouri River so it functions in its most natural stat e. The MNRR is managed to ensure that its outstandingly remarkable values, including fish and wildlife, cu ltural, and historical are not
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 16negatively impacted by any actions along or in the river. The pol icy for riparian habitat in the MNRR is similar to the river bank stabilization policy of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, which is stated below. This policy works to protect and preserve river banklines, natural, cultural, and historical res ources within the MNRR boundaries (MNRR 1999). United States Fish and Wildlife Servic e (USFWS) has a policy regarding cave management (CFR Title 43 Â– Public Lands: Inte rior, Subtitle A Â– Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Part 37 Â– Cave Management). Cave management regulations seek to manage federal lands in a manner to protect and main tain significant caves and cave resources, as indicated in the Federal Cave Resources Protec tion Act. Caves or cave resources are deemed significant if the cave has one or more of the following features, characteristics, or values: biota (e.g., bats), cultural, geologic/mineralogi c/palentologic, hydrologi c, recreational, and educational/scientific. In addition, once cave s are determined as significant the USFWS cannot disclose cave locations fo r purposes other than research. According to the United States Fish and Wild life Service, riverine and riparian habitats are high resource priorities in Region 6. US FWS Region 6 has a river bank stabilization policy, which is designed to restor e or protect permanent infrastr ucture or cultural resources associated with riparian areas (USFWS 2001). As a result, any stabilization techniques should be designed to minimize impacts to river func tions or impair overbank flooding. Basically, bank stabilization techniques should be assessed prior to implementation to ensure impacts to bank areas are minimal. At present, this polic y does not include measures to protect trees for wildlife use (USFWS 2001). Besides policies to protect significant caves or cave resources and riparian areas (in their natural state), the USFWS provides no mana gement of bat habitat unless resident bat species are listed as threatened or endange red according to the Endangered Species Act (ESA). USFWS does not have jurisdiction to enforce habitat conserva tion practices relating to bat habitat unless mandated by the ESA. Mo st emphasis regarding ha bitat includes Â“Trust IssuesÂ” (e.g., wetlands and migratory birds) and threatened or endangere d species, since the USFWS has the authority (N. Gates pers. comm.). The Black Hills National Forest (BHNF) La nd and Resource Management Plan (also referred to the Forest Plan) cont ains specific Â“standardsÂ” to pr otect cave resources, mines, and other known bat roost sites. Standard 3207 st ates, Â“protect known bat nursery roosts and hibernaculaÂ”. The BHNF has started to manage a few caves and mines specifically as significant bat habitat (e.g., gated caves or mines). Maintenance of these gates becomes an issue. Thus far, there has been insufficient forest funding to ad equately monitor gated and non-gated bat roost sites (B. Phillips pers. comm.). Since gated ca ves and mines are not frequently monitored or maintained, vandalism may occur potentially co mpromising the effectiveness (sometimes for years) of protecting (gating) ba t resources (J. Tigner pers. comm.). To date, bat surveys have not been conducted on many caves and mines in the Black Hills, and some of these sites may need protection (e.g., gating). Riparian areas are protected through So uth Dakota Best Management Practices (BMPs), which are designed to prevent or minimize the adverse impacts of forestry, agricultural, or recrea tional activities on water quality. By definition, BMPs are developed to protect water quality and not other functions or values of riparian areas (Phillips et al. 2000). In the Black Hills National Forest, no riparian management zones have been identified. The Forest Plan contains standards and guidelines th at refer to water influence zones. In these
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 17zones, only actions that maintain or improve long-term stream health and riparian ecosystem condition are allowed (BHNF 2000). As a rule, logging does not occur in these zones without some stream course protection. Livestock grazing in these areas is required to meet Â‘utilization standardsÂ’ (BHNF 2000). Additi onal emphasis by the BHNF should be placed on evaluating this grazing intensity and, where needed, improve protect ion of these riparian areas and natural spring sources (B. Phillips pers. comm.). Several agencies or groups provide inform ation pertaining to conservation concerns relevant to bats in South Dakota. These ag encies or groups include the USFS, SDGFP, and WBWG. Each designates rankings, maintain s databases and observation records, or recommends management actions all without a cohesive link (refer to pages 9-10). Threat 3. Insufficient inter agency cooperation, funding sources, and educational outreach impact the effectiveness of conserving bats in South Dakota. In the past, few organizations have take n steps to cooperate with other groups to manage or conserve bats in South Dakota . Although the SDBWG ha s initiated education, research, and conservation effort s in South Dakota, cooperative efforts across the state among state and federal agencies and the private se ctor are still minimal at best. Despite Â‘interagency memoranda of understanding and agreementsÂ’ , lack of funding and lack of priority have generally made these documents ineffective and short on substance soon after signing. To ensure the success of this plan, decision-make rs should see bat conservation as a management priority. At this time, several funding sources are av ailable for research activities associated with nongame and often these funding sources are not widely known. Some of these funds are appropriated year to year and are not a guaranteed source of funds. Most funding sources are temporary. Funding sources include State Wildlife Grants (federal grants), Wildlife Diversity Program Small Grants, Wildlife Divi sion monies, and Section 6 Endangered Species Act (ESA) Grants (Dowd Stukel 2003). Threat 4. Inadequate standardized methods associated with monitoring or surveying bat species. A standardized approach to monitoring e fforts across the state would significantly improve our ability to measure the progress of achieving the management plan goal and to gauge the effectiveness of the management plan. As information associated with bat monitoring, biological needs, and habitat selecti on improve, the need to verify and standardize monitoring and surveying techniques increase, wh ich ensures the accuracy and utility of this additional information. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) provides bat sampling and collection protocol guidelines for bat res earchers that is availa ble on the SDGFP Wildlife Diversity Program homepage (http://www.state.sd.us/gfp/DivisionWildlife/Diversity/index.htm) or SDBWG homepage (http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html). Increased interest in bats in the Black Hills led to concerns regarding impacts of sampling and collecting local bat populations, which prompted the designation of this protocol. This protocol states specific requirements and guidelines for bat sampling a nd collecting associated with research and monitoring in South Dakota and allows SDG FP to collect information regarding bat researcher qualifications and current/previous bat research methodologies and to review bat research and monitoring projects proposed for South Dakota.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 18The BHNF includes information pertaining to monitoring and evaluating sensitive species in their Land and Resource Management Plan, though these requirements are general and do not specify particular vari ables to collect or areas to visit during specific time periods. The approach involves general information of collecting and storing monitoring data and requires data collection every th ree years but does no t involve or suggest standard methods. Because bat research methodologies vary per species, region/habitat, and researcher, the implementation of a single bat research protocol is not proposed in this document. Although research methodologies vary, mon itoring efforts should be standardized. Standardizing monitoring efforts (e.g., time spen t surveying a site) wi ll reduce redundant data collection and decrease disturbance to bats at important roosts during critical periods (e.g., lactation in females). Data consistency is a key component in obtaining meaningful data (e.g., surveying the same cave at the same time under similar conditions) (Petryszyn 1995). Effective bat conservation relies on gathering appropriate information to recognize population changes regarding bat species, especi ally those of conservation concern. The WBWG is currently working with the USFS Pacific Northwest Research Station (Arcata, CA) to develop a set of guidelines for monitoring, surveying, and inventorying bats. Threat 5. Data and knowledge associated with natural history are lacking regarding bats in South Dakota, and due to inadequate awareness regarding regional bat research efforts, participation as a cooperative unit is lacking. Limited knowledge of factors affecting bat populations and insufficient data regarding aspects of bat natural history hinder bat conservation efforts. Conservation efforts throughout the United States are being designed and im plemented with negligible documentation regarding the value in alleviating damage or enhancing habitats for bats. As a result, biologists are taking efforts to fill these information gaps by investigating species distributions, population trends , and habitat requirements. At this time, information is limited to bat species in western South Dakota, particularly the Black Hills. Data gaps relating to ba ts include long-term monitoring of sites or populations, population status, popul ation distribution, foraging ha bitats and habits, roosting sites, migratory patterns, effects of wind pow er, reproductive strategi es, population structure, and genetic structure, particular ly in central and eastern South Dakota. Bats are difficult to study, which limits a detailed understanding of th eir natural history. Factors making research difficult include extreme mobility, widely di spersed populations (some species), nocturnal activity patterns, and cryptic and/or inaccessible roost sites ( Petryszyn 1995). Current data have not been summarized nor reviewed to evaluate where research priorities lie because data ar e not readily accessible. U nderstanding which habitats (e.g., roosting and foraging areas) are se lected by bats and are suitable for bats will help prioritize conservation efforts in order to fa vor the most critical sites. Da tabases help identify variables consistently collected by researchers and help manage an accumulation of data generated from various surveys. In order to recognize information gaps and research goals, current knowledge needs to be identified. Research and monitoring of bats in South Dakota are important to conserve these species. Being aware of and pa rticipating in regional efforts associated with bats is an effective method of increasing an understandi ng of regional bat habits and habitats. Currently, aside from participation in the WB WG, few organizations, agencies, or individuals in South Dakota participate in any regional effo rts regarding bats. Few programs are designed to monitor or research bats in a specific region, though some programs exist. For example,
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 19some states (e.g., Minnesota) have adopted a prog ram to monitor bats in mines in the Great Lakes region called the Great Lakes Regional Bat Conservation Initiative. Such efforts could be designed for the Great Plains Region. Some programs are designed for national and international pa rticipation. Bat Conservation International (BCI) ha s taken the lead role to resear ch and conserve bats thereby designing several research-oriented programs . Generally, these programs are designed to encourage state, federal, private, or individu al entities to survey and enhance bat habitat. Three programs developed by BCI include the Ba t House Project, Bats and Mines Project, and Bats in Buildings Project. Currently, agencies , organizations, and indi viduals in South Dakota have participated minimally in these efforts (M. Kiser pers. comm.). Threat 6. Insufficient use of data associated with bats in South Dakota is a problem that can be changed by creating appropriate management recommendations. Although data have been collected on bats in some regions of South Dakota, collected information is relatively unknown and thereby used inadequately. Data associated with bats may be applied to many areas: research, mon itoring protocol, and management. Generally, management refers to conserving and prot ecting bats in South Dakota using various techniques or decisions. Es tablishing certain management recommendations may protect areas near rivers, in the Black Hills, and in large cities. Often management recommendations are base d on a variety of agencies, organizations, and individuals, therefore emphasis, interpreta tions, and formats may differ. This causes confusion among different groups or individuals conc erning proper bat conservation methods. In order to alleviate confusion, universal management recommendations can be designed incorporating formats, interpretations, and idea s of groups and individu als with active policies or recommendations. To create these un iversal management recommendations, past recommendations should be reviewed. This will take cooperation among agencies and summarization of past data. Data can be used to bridge research findings and make management recommendations to resource managers. By developing a general list of management recommendations, managers will essentially be provided with a condensed vers ion of the South Dakota bat management plan. This offers a quick reference of some very important management steps to groups or individuals concerned with conserving bats in South Dakota. In addition, management recommendations will help guide managers with futu re research. As a result, it is important to analyze data, understand interpretations, rec ognize formats, and apply information towards identifying management recommendations related to bats. Threat 7. Inadequate knowledge of bats is a problem that plagues many areas, particularly South Dakota, and contributes to loss of individual bats, unnecessary rabies testing of bats, lack of protection of r oost sites, and poor understanding of bats. Many people have an incomplete understanding of bats and their ha bitats. Negligible information sources and limited opportunities for school activities and volunteer programs are available for all ages to become knowledgeable in bat ecology. Education is the foreground of understanding, which often leads to the prot ection of bat species. The consequence of insufficient knowledge is increas ed anthropogenic (human rela ted) threats to bats by the public sector. By informing the public about ba ts and their ecology, human associated threats to bats will hopefully be reduced. For exam ple, people in Austin, Texas once sought to eradicate bats because they believed bats caused problems. Bat Conservation International
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 20(BCI) educated people on the ecological and economic value of bats in this city. Consequently, people in Austin cherish their bats and consider Austin the Â“Bat Capitol of AmericaÂ”. Tourists even travel to Austin to observe emerging bats. Currently, the South Dakota Bat Working Group (SDBWG) has a website (http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html ) that includes information pertaining to bats in South Dakota. This website include s bat facts, proper bat exclusions, bat species found in South Dakota, current and past resear ch, educational tools, and other bat related information. Also, South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) has several publications or educational tools concerning bats . These include AcroBATS of the Night (poster and activity booklet), Sharing Your Space: a homeownerÂ’s guide to attracting backyard wildlife, Bat Trunk, School Programs in the Black Hills, and Bat Awareness Week (2nd week in August). In addition, BCI has numerous educational material s related to bats for all age groups. Efforts by these groups may have helped protect bats, but bats are still unnecessa rily killed for rabies testing and improperly excluded from roosts; misperceptions still plague many groups and individuals. Folklore, myth, and superstitions involvi ng bats have masked the ecological and economic role these species play in their ecosyst ems. For example, few bats carry rabies and few human rabies cases result from bat strains of the virus. Also, bats do not become tangled in oneÂ’s hair, and no bats are vampires in the United States. Unjustifiable public perception presents a serious threat to bats. For approx imately 20 years, public awareness concerning the value of bats has increased though lack of know ledge remains a hindra nce to bat protection. Often agencies, organizations, educators, and in dividuals lack essential resources to inform the public to dispel misconceptions associated with bats. By educating the public, they may learn of the value of bats and ways to assist with their conservation. Education will help the public develop an appreciation for the role bats play, dispel myths and misperceptions associated with bats, create an awareness of human related threats to bats, and encourage students to maintain and/or create habitats suitabl e for bats. This will help to conserve bats in South Dakota. Management Needs There are specific management needs vita l to protecting bats in South Dakota. Conserving bat habitats, enforc ing regulations or policies, improving interagency cooperation, and locating additional funding sour ces are issues that require sp ecial emphasis to improve bat conservation. HABITAT Issue 1.1. Â– Caves and Mines Bats residing year-round in South Dakota of ten use caves and mines as hibernacula or other roosts (e.g., maternity roosts). Caves on federal lands are protec ted through the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (Refer to Threat 2). Also, several caves are managed as bat hibernacula to protect hibernating bats (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003), and these caves are located on public lands (J. Tigner pers. comm.). Law does not protect mines, though several mines are managed and protected as bat habitat (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Mines are frequently being imprope rly closed (in reference to ba ts) due to liability issues or collapsing due to poor support wi thin the walls. As part of their management, cave and mine
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 21entrances are protected with Â“bat-friendlyÂ” ga tes to sustain current environmental conditions, allow bats to access the roost, and prevent hum an disturbance at critical times. Access by humans in managed caves is only restricted du ring the winter, while access in other managed mines is restricted year-round (J. Tigner pers. comm.). Because proper roosts are already limited in the Black Hills and slowly being deplet ed, it is necessary to continue protecting and restoring caves or mines in this region of South Dakota. Objective 1.1. Protect and restore bat caves and mines (e.g., hi bernacula) and assess progress in the next five years. Continue to maintain and inven tory protected caves and mines on federal and private properties. Strategy 1.1A. Evaluate mines (marked for closure on public lands or funded for closure by public monies) through biological survey and monitoring by bat biologists before closure to determine significance of bat habi tat. Develop Black Hills-wide education process (e.g., newspapers, schools, and radio/TV PSA) for existing and new landowners that may have mine audits. Strategy 1.1B. Identify and determine whether those caves or mines have signifi cant habitat for bats then prioritize caves or mines requiring protection (e.g., gate placement, gate reconstruction, or other means). Strategy 1.1C. Protect at least 10 additio nal caves or mines thr ough landowner cooperation (on private or public lands), co st-share, and other means. Contact and cooperate with State Preservation Officers, where appropri ate (see National Historic Preservation Act at http://www.achp.gov/NHPA.pdf ). Investigate funding opportunities for cost share on private land closures. Note: Protection generally refers to gating but can include other human exclusion methods such as sign placement or road closure. Strategy 1.1D. Monitor significant hibernacu la and maternity roosts through surveys, especially gated mines and caves. Strategy 1.1E. Cooperate with and educate the Paha Sa pa Grotto (e.g., caving groups) to minimize inappropriately timed cave explorations a nd increase supervised, cooperative cave surveys by promoting compliance with the stateÂ’s monitoring protocol. Develop a schedule of times, in one year, to avoid specific caves to prevent unnecessary bat disturbances. Strategy 1.1F. Cooperate and coordinate with regional pr ivate consultants, st ate biologists, and federal biologists to minimize repetitive cave surveys during the bat hibernation or
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 22maternity period. Develop a survey schedule, in two years, identifying and recording specific surveys and survey times. Strategy 1.1G. Step up efforts to contact and cooperate with commercial cave operations in an attempt to improve communication and perhaps mi nimize negative effects of cave tours on bats. Develop a seasonal closure schedule, in one year, when bats are most susceptible to disturbance (e.g., maternity roosts a nd hibernacula), and make this schedule available to commercial cave owners. Strategy 1.1H. Provide cave and mine location data only to approved (approval requires understanding bats, conforming to bat educ ational materials and protocols, and providing better overall protection of bats through site or surrounding habitat) managing organizations such as federal, st ate, and private entities (unless caves are commercial) to restrict access to data. Communicate and cooperate with the Paha Sapa Grotto to keep non-commercial cave lo cations confidential , particularly cave locations with bats of special concern. Issue 1.2. Â– Forested Habitat Several bats (e.g., red bats, hoary bats, and silver-haired ba ts) depend on trees as habitat, while most bats forage near trees or ve getation in search of in sect prey. Roosts may be found under bark, in holes or crevices, and amongst branches or limbs of both living and dead trees. Dead trees Â– snags Â– in the early to middle stag es of decay provide good habitat for many tree-roosting species (e.g., bats) but othe r tree roosts are essential for many types of wildlife, including bats (Mattson et al. 1994, Waldien et al . 2000). In addition, foraging areas usually are found above or in the tree canopy. Removing trees particul arly relating to overstory canopy affects availability of roosts (Adam et al. 1994) and potential foraging areas (Verboom and Spoelstra 1999). Objective 1.2. Provide federal, state, and private entities w ith bat habitat management guidelines for forest and/or riparian areas where wildlife, includi ng nongame wildlife, is a primary and secondary forest management objective that will incr ease the available bat roosting habitat to approximately 8.5 dead trees (> 12Â” dbh) per acre* by 2009 in forest areas. *Desired density of snags on forested lands for ideal bat habitat (Mattson et al. 1994). Strategy 1.2A. Work with government (state and federal) a nd private foresters to encourage retention of a minimum of eight large sn ags per acre, particularly in riparian areas or in areas of known bat roosting sites, by preserving ex isting snags whenever possible (except where snags would have a severe negative a ffect on harvest operations or would cause a public safety hazard).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 23Strategy 1.2B. Work with foresters, in areas where no snag s exist, to encourage leaving at least eight large live trees per acr e that can be preserved for future snag needs or created into snags and to leave at leas t 25-30% of salvage logging a nd fuelwood cutting areas as patches of land with large trees (dead or alive) representative of the entire stand for bat habitat. Strategy 1.2C. Work with land and resource managers to share information and management recommendations relating to bat roosts. Include information, recommendations, and procedures on how to maintain and enhance forest stands and riparians areas for bat habitat, survey timber sale areas for bat roosts, identify bat roosts for protection, and where appropriate, modify silvicultural activities to promote bat habitat. Issue 1.3 Â– Riparian Areas and Water Sources Aforementioned foraging areas usually are found above or in the tree canopy, but bats may also feed above or near ri parian corridors. Removing or degrading riparian vegetation may affect water quality (Grace 2002, Nelson a nd Booth 2002, and Souchere et al. 2003) and plant diversity thereby affec ting opportunities for bats to f eed by reducing prey abundance (e.g., invertebrates; Verboom and Spoelstr a 1999) and to drink by contaminating or eliminating water sources. Springs, seeps, ponds , creeks, and other wet areas provide feeding and drinking areas to bats, thus prot ecting these water s ources is twofold. Objective 1.3. Protect and improve water sources and associated riparian areas to protect important feeding and drinking areas (and potential ly roosting areas) for bats. Strategy 1.3A. Work with foresters, range specialists, a nd landowners to maintain and improve water influence zones and riparian areas by allowi ng only those actions that maintain and/or improve riparian ecosystem condition. Ma nage riparian areas to produce quality riparian communities by retaining woody vegetation along steam and lakes and providing large woody material in streams or lakes. Attempt to retain natural stream features (e.g., shallows), limit direct access to water (through fencing where applicable), retain and/or plant bank-side streams, and discourage season-long riparian grazing pastures (where applicable). Strategy 1.3B. Work with foresters, range specialists, and landowners to maintain and improve springs, seeps, ponds, or other wet areas as wa ter sources. Attempt to retain natural features, protect water quality from lives tock and pollutants, and protect springs sources (through fencing). Strategy 1.3C. Work with foresters, range specialists, and landowners to maintain and improve the management, production, and health of th e nationÂ’s privately (through governmental
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 24programs) and publicly owned grazing la nd, while protecting riparian areas and wetlands through allowable use or residual level practices. Issue 1.4. Â– Bridges Bridges Â– including box culverts Â– are known to provide roost habitat for bats in other regions (Keeley and Tuttle 1999). Bridges may have crevices or swallow nests (Tigner 1999) in which bats roost, however, the significance of these potential roost sites in South Dakota is relatively unknown. The schedule for bridge rem oval is not often communicated to enable bat surveys prior to removal. If bat surveys can be performed, bridges may be determined as important thus allowing bats to be appropriatel y excluded from the roost (bridge) and properly relocated to an alternative ro ost (e.g., bat house). In additi on, surveys may help determine which bridge designs best suppo rt bats and other wildlife. Objective 1.4. Protect and enhance bat roosts associated with crevices or swallow nests in bridges or box culverts in five years. Strategy 1.4A. Make information available to surveyors of bridges and box culverts to increase awareness of bat use of these habitats. Provide funding for bridge or box culvert surveys. Determine which bridge and box culvert designs are used most frequently and/or may enhance use by bats in Sout h Dakota and encourag e construction crews, government agencies, county road crews, a nd private landowners to use these designs where feasible. Strategy 1.4B. Educate and cooperate with construction crews, government agencies, county road crews, and private landowners to protect roost bridges and box culverts by promoting sealing procedures to crevices (~30 cm deep and 2.5 cm wide) during appropriate times and with proper techniques and pe rsonnel. Sealing pr ocedures are best completed when bats no longer use bridge or box culvert crevices as roosts. Replace sealed bridge or box culvert cr evices with artificial roosts. Strategy 1.4C. Maintain and protect swallow nests by mi nimizing nest destruction. Create new bridge and box culvert roosts by constructi ng and placing artificial bat roosts under bridges. Improve culvert/bridge design specif ications to include r oost structures in all new construction or reconstruction. Attemp t to protect or enhance 10 bridges or box culverts in five years. Use volunteers for additional help. Issue 1.5. Â– Buildings Some bats select human residences as th eir roosts, and most homeowners do not like the presence of bats in their homes. Therefore, these homeowners seek help from pest control groups or attempt to exclude bats from their homes by themselves. Few pest control groups have taken steps to actually conduct bat exclus ions, and many that conduct bat exclusions are unaware of the life cycle and pe rsistence of bats in roosts th ereby excluding bats in a manner
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 25that may negatively affect them. As well, homeowners are unaware of proper exclusion methods, which results in exclusion efforts duri ng critical times in th e batsÂ’ life cycle (e.g., during summer months). Bats roosting in homes during the summer may have young and are therefore highly susceptible to disturbance. Females or young may perish due to stress. The best method to exclude bats is performing a humane exclusion and providing alternate housing. Learning these proper bat exclusion methods is important to conserve bats. Objective 1.5. Promote bat friendly exclusions in houses or buildings with bat roosts Â– promote alternative roosts through artificial stru ctures in these situations. Strategy 1.5A. Provide information to pest control groups regarding bat friendly exclusion procedures Â– SDBWG. Encourage house or building exclusio ns during appropriate seasons, with appropriate techniques, and by appropriate personnel duri ng a period when bats are absent. Conduct at least one (educational) workshop and produce written informative material addressing these issues in one year. Strategy 1.5B. Develop a list of pest control operators practicing bat frie ndly house exclusions in one year. Provide homeowners with this list of pest cont rol operators upon their request. Update this list every two years Â– SDBWG. Strategy 1.5C. Encourage entities providing bat exclusi ons to participate in certification program sponsored by Bat Conservation Inte rnational (BCI). (Bat exclusionists are certified and listed on the BCI web si te by being insured and licensed in the states they serve and using approved bat exclusion methods.) Strategy 1.5D. Provide easily accessible information (e.g., website, posters, and brochures) to pest control operators, homeowners, and educatio nal facilities regarding proper timing and methods of conducting house or buildi ng exclusions and general background knowledge concerning bats. Encourage th e construction and erection of bat houses and other artificial bat structures to pr ovide potential roosts for excluded bats. REGULATIONS Issue 2.1. Â– Regulations Caves and karst are protected by the Fede ral Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (Refer to Threat 2). In addition, several fe deral agencies have policies and/or management plans that protect caves and karst formations but do not necessarily translate to protection for roost habitat in these caves. Because bats use a wide array of habitats, it is necessary to evaluate and establish protection policies relating to all bat habi tats in South Dakota. State and federal agencies should work together to enforce current re gulations relevant to all bat habitats in South Dakota.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 26Objective 2.1. Review regulations associated with bat habitats and recommend revisions (including incentive based protections) where necessary. Develop a policy statem ent from the SDBWG partners. Strategy 2.1A. Determine interpretation and evaluate im plementation of policies and regulations associated with bats and their conservati on. Work towards a broader understanding of bat policies and regulations over an ongoing timeframe. Strategy 2.1B. Review and summarize policies and regula tions associated w ith roost sites (e.g., caves/mines) in South Dakota. Develop a list of recommended changes or additions to policies and regulations a ssociated with bats and their habitat as needed. Strategy 2.1C. Provide information regarding regulati ons and policies associated with bat habitats to agencies, organizations, and in dividuals. Encourage increased enforcement of policies and regulations by managers and gain public support for protecting bat habitats. Use regulations and polic ies to guide management decisions. Issue 2.2. Â– Species Status According to South Dakota Codified Laws and Constitution (34A-8-1), bats are classified as nongame species (unless listed as a threatened or enda ngered species) and are protected as such. Also, the Game, Fish a nd Parks Commission has the opportunity to adopt additional rules to further prot ect threatened, endangered, or nonga me species in the state (E. Dowd Stukel pers. comm.). Although six species of bats are considered species of concern according to the SDNHP, no state protection beyond their nongame status is provided to these species. Little legal protection is awarded to bats in federal lands unless they are listed as a threatened or endangered species. Only two spec ies are considered R2 se nsitive species in the BHNF (B. Phillips pers. comm.). Communicati on and cooperation are key to developing adequate official status regul ations. Through research and communication, state and federal agencies can strive towards bett er protection of bats. Hopefull y, this will alleviate the need for special status. Objective 2.2. Each year review species Â‘statusÂ’ lists, particu larly rare species monitored by the Natural Heritage Database, in South Dakota. Strategy 2.2A. Review official status (e.g., ra re, threatened, or endangered sp ecies) of bat species, and initiate changes as necessary. Update thes e lists annually with changes based on state monitoring data and range-w ide status. Recommend to agencies throughout South Dakota to review and reevaluate the official st atus of their priority species. Prioritize management needs and actions based on species status.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 27Strategy 2.2C. Promote awareness and involvement with agencies throughout South Dakota and publics with regards to official species stat us. Provide information regarding bats and their value, protection status, and (i f available) conservation incentives. Strategy 2.2D Encourage the Game, Fish and Parks Commission to adopt additional rules if determined necessary to protect thre atened, endangered, and nongame species as indicated by SDCL 41-2-18. Make simila r recommendations, as needed, to the USFWS, USFS, BLM, and NPS. INTERAGENCY COOPERATION Issue 3.1. Â– Information Sharing The South Dakota Bat Working Group has identified improved coordination methods among different groups or individuals to as sist in managing bats in South Dakota. Coordination involves communication and cooper ation between agencies, organizations, and individuals, essential st eps to fulfilling the goal of this pla n. In the future, additional efforts should be taken to increase knowledge and ther efore conservation of bats in South Dakota. Objective 3.1. Develop cooperation and involvemen t between different agencies, organizations, or citizens concerning bats through shared research and in formation exchange over the next five years. Strategy 3.1A. Promote increased attention and awareness in government and tribal agencies or other organizations of bat issues by requesting a nd providing information to these agencies or organizations. Invite these agencies or organizations to interact in information exchanges and develop better management of bats and their habitats. Strategy 3.1B. Endorse interagency and wide-ranging c ooperation and interest by conducting three workshops (e.g., Sioux Falls, Rapid City, and Pierre) each year. Workshops include information exchange concerning bats a nd safe house exclusion. Workshops will attempt to reach publics like pest control operators, homeowners, teachers, biologists, and managers. Strategy 3.1C. Communicate with landowners and land managers at workshops or in person to create a good working relationship. Identify opportuni ties to work with landowners and/or land managers to protect and enhance habitats for bats. Issue 3.2. Â– Funding Sources Funding sources are available for nonga me research, though many agencies, organizations, and individuals are not aware of these funding opportunit ies (Refer to Threat 3). Nongame research or education may or ma y not involve bats, and often money allocation
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 28is competitive making monies difficult to obta in. Also, some funding sources are dependent on state or federal budgets, and monies may not be available each year. Therefore, agencies, organizations, and individuals should cooperate in making the best use of available funding sources and furthering ava ilable funding opportunities. Objective 3.2. Publicize funding sources and funding needs fo r bat research. Use available funding sources or opportunities for high priority bat research needs. Strategy 3.2A. Work with local, private, state, and fede ral agencies to iden tify available funding sources. Investigate opportunities and atte mpt to increase funding sources available for bat research, management, and/or educati on in two to three years. Publicize likely or potential funding sources, through pers onal communication, workshops, websites, and posters explaining ways to obtain fundi ng for bat research to qualified groups or individuals over five years. SDBWG will update funding sources via website each year. Strategy 3.2C. Publicize funding opportunities to appropriate groups or indi viduals. For example, an annual research review meeting is held between South Dakota State University and South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. Research Needs In South Dakota, research gaps exist re garding bats and their natural history. Therefore, research to fill these gaps be comes important to understanding bats residing or migrating through South Dakota in order to proper ly manage these species. Issues addressed in this section include data compilation, monito ring protocol, permits and their requirements, funding sources, and research goals. RESEARCH PROTOCOL AND PERMIT Issue 4.1. Technology is advancing and research empha sis is changing, thus more researchers have shown increased interest in studying and monitoring bats. Bats are very sensitive to stress even stress that seems minimal, such as research activities. This emphasizes the need for establishing research protoc ols to reduce the potential of harming bats associated with repeated surveying and data co llection. To prevent sickness or death to bats as a result of stress, specific guidelines and requirements (protocols) need to be identified for bat researchers. Researchers collecting data on bats in South Dakota must first apply for a South Dakota CollectorÂ’s Permit and adhere to c onditions of this license as a permittee. Objective 4.1. Develop protocols and review permit requir ements for bat researchers and identify appropriate revisions on an annual basis.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 29Strategy 4.1A. Develop protocols to provide researcher s with uniform survey methods for data collection and guidance on mine and cave issues. Review and summarize permit requirements for bat researchers each year. Make necessary changes associated with these requirements. Strategy 4.1B. Design a program for monitoring bats in South Dakota, particularly caves and mines, in two years. Record time a nd number of visits, sites visited, and frequency of visits to guide researcher s and biologists with monitoring surveys. Strategy 4.1C. Incorporate monitoring protocol as part of permit requirements for bat researchers in two years. DATABASE SUMMARY AND RESEARCH Issue 5.1. Â– Database Because data regarding all bat research in South Dakota is not easily accessible or completely compiled, current knowledge and info rmation gaps associated with South Dakota bats are not entirely known. As a result, da ta should be compiled and made accessible to biologists, managers, and researchers. Data bases provide readily available information to professionals for tracking rare species and ar ranging regional survey efforts. Furthermore, creating an organized database will help organi ze and analyze data to understand bats residing in and migrating through South Dakota. Additionall y, the sensitive nature of some of the data requires development of Â“special considerat ionsÂ”, which will guide data distribution. Objective 5.1.1. Develop a database with resources , previous research efforts, trend data, and research techniques per specific locations for bats in South Dakota to match past and future efforts in two years. Strategy 5.1.1A. Create a database through state funding, whic h includes data collected from South Dakota, to help standardize monitoring me thods, reduce survey repetition, and provide bibliographical information (e.g., literature sources) to bat re searchers, regional biologists, and individual citizens. Database will be maintained by SDGFP. Strategy 5.1.1B. Provide data, upon request a nd after scrutiny, to our region (South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, etc.) regard ing current information and research techniques relative to bats. Objective 5.1.2. Summarize current knowledge on natural history and literature resources on each bat species in South Dakota in two years.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 30Strategy 5.1.2A. Analyze database and determ ine the relative population tr end of each bat species in South Dakota. Strategy 5.1.2B. Develop distribution maps and status repo rts for individual resident and migrant bat species in two years. Strategy 5.1.2C. Compile current information regarding maternity roosts and hibernacula in two years. Due to data sensitivity, this info rmation will only be released when special consideration is given to each request and information remains confidential. Strategy 5.1.2D. Review research findings relative to migratory patterns in two years. Issue 5.2. Â– Future Research Research is important to understanding ba ts in South Dakota, particularly for conservation purposes. At presen t, research needs concerning bats in South Dakota appear to focus on natural history and hibernacula. Res earcher, managers, and biologists throughout the state identified the following research ne eds based on past information and current observations. Time and finances may affect re search needs in the future. At some point, analyzing current data and identifying curren t research needs are necessary to further understand and conserve bats in South Dakota. Objective 5.2. Conduct bat research based on research n eeds and secure financial assistance (where possible) to accomplish research. Future rese arch needs (listed below as strategies) cover various issues associated with bats. Prioritized Research Strategies Strategy 5.2A. Identify hibernacula and maternity roosts of bats, particularly for TownsendÂ’s bigeared bats, and identify sites for gate inst allations. Determine the effective size of buffer zones (based on each site) needed around occupied caves and/or mines. Strategy 5.2B. Continue to gather information on repr oductive rates, home range, and movement patterns of each species, particul arly rare species, in each region of the state. Continue to save and process bats tested by SDDOH each year (important for distribution, and reproductive data). Create GIS maps of high bat activity (e.g., roosting, foraging, or hibernating) and bat distributions in South Dakota for purposes of planning. Strategy 5.2C. Census bats along non-urban riparian corri dors to understand the value of these habitats for foraging and roosting and as migration routes. Monitor bats along the
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 31Missouri River and identify th e importance of this river system for migrating bats. Survey bridges and box culverts along these riparian corridors to determine location and type (e.g., swallow nests or crevices) of bat roosts. Strategy 5.2D. Investigate and determine impact of plant di versity and structure on bat activity at bat foraging habitats. Determine the diets of each bat species and the relationship between invasive plant species, insect av ailability, and bat foraging success. Strategy 5.2E. Create a database of reference calls using AnaBat and Petterson bat detection systems. Strategy 5.2F. Determine the abundance and diversity of prey and investigate the impacts of pesticides on prey abundance and di versity and the effects on bats. Strategy 5.2G. Analyze the potential threats in areas selected as high priority for wind power generation and determine the effects of wi nd power generation sites on migratory bat populations in South Dakota. Strategy 5.2H. Investigate responses of bats to fire , whether prescribed, wild, or other disturbance and/or catastrophe. Strategy 5.2I. Continue to gather information on populat ion genetic structure and evolutionary affinities of bat species and/or subspecies throughout the state. Strategy 5.2J. Examine the role bats play in contributing to the control of pest populations in South Dakota. Explore integrated pest manage ment techniques for agricultural areas. Additional Research Strategies Strategy 5.2K. Determine the effects of selective timber ha rvest on bat populations in the Black Hills. Employ experimental design for determina tion of effects before and after timber harvest. Issue 5.3. Â– Modification of Research Needs Research needs change through time. As specific research needs are addressed, new needs will be identified. New research often stems from old or past research.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 32Objective 5.3. Evaluate and revise research topics every five years. Complete research topics depending on available resources, identify topics that require more time and emphasis, and regularly reevaluate research priority list. Strategy 5.3A. Conduct research based on research topic prio rity list as permitted or required during plan implementation. Strategy 5.3B. Continue to identify additional research needs for future planning. Record new research topics needing focus and revise research priority li st after five years. Issue 5.4. Â– Cooperative Research In the past, South Dakota as well as othe r areas have not received much research attention associated with bats, though researcher s are becoming increasing ly interested in bats in this area. As a result, cooperative efforts by numerous gr oups or individuals will help increase understanding of region al bat habits and habitats he lping conserve them. At this time, no regional research or monitoring orga nizations has been established for groups or individuals in the western region (e.g., SD, ND, MT, WY, CO , ID, CA, AZ, NM, TX, NV, OR, and WA). Therefore, there is need for cooperative research efforts in the western region, for established program members but also through new research programs. Objective 5.4. Investigate regional research topi cs or efforts, particularly those amongst western states, and cooperate as opportunities and monitoring activitie s arise. Participate in relevant and logistically feasible research and/or monitoring projects in th e region in three to five years. Strategy 5.4A. Survey current biologistsÂ’ research and regional (e.g., western states) bat research topics or efforts, and identify any projects or efforts South Dakota may want to join in two years. Revisit cooperative pr ojects or efforts periodically. Strategy 5.4B. Develop cooperative research or mon itoring projects in South Dakota to compliment efforts in other states in the western region in three years. MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Issue 6.1. This plan provides a list of management recommendations (Refer to Appendix D) from available local information and management advice. However, new research needs to be periodically reviewed and analyzed to conti nually refine and improve these recommendations. In addition, data collec tion and monitoring by agencies and i ndividuals in South Dakota needs to be consulted and considered whenever these management recommendations are revised.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 33Objective 6.1. Keep current on new scientific informat ion to improve the list of management recommendations. Reevaluate the current li st of management recommendations every two years, or as information becomes available. Strategy 6.1A. Itemize research findings and reports as it pertains to bat species and their conservation in South Dakota. Create a priority list of changes to current management recommendations . Strategy 6.1B. Determine how agencies or groups may use better use these management recommendations . Identify the most accommodating format and best method of distribution in two years. Education Needs Education provides the foreground to unders tanding bats in South Dakota. Through education, the public and professi onals alike may learn about th e value of bats and seek to conserve them. Education needs include unde rstanding of public viewpoints, informative workshops, and information tools. PUBLIC OUTREACH Issue 7.1. In South Dakota, public attitudes toward bats are relatively unknown. Many regard bats as a nuisance species or fear bats as a result of lack of awareness. Human related activities are a major threat to bats. As a result, it is importa nt to evaluate public attitudes towards bats and determine focus groups for educational efforts hopefully reducing unnecessary killing of bats. Objective 7.1. Â– Public Attitudes Determine public and public educator attitude s towards bats. Inform the public (e.g., educators, students, pest control operators, public officials, agencies, and special interest groups or private organizations) of bat ecology and discuss the importance of bats by using different techniques (e.g., workshops, fieldwork, etc.) each year. Strategy 7.1A. Incorporate questions related to bats and their conserva tion needs in public attitude surveys conducted by SDGFP in one year. Strategy 7.1B. Use relevant findings of attitude surveys to shape direction of public information efforts. Familiarize public (e.g., educators, students, pest control operators, public officials, agencies, and special interest groups or private organizations) with bat ecology and bat species. Encourage medi a (e.g., television and newspaper) coverage on bats, particularly as critical components of ecological health.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 34Strategy 7.1C. Promote and obtain public involvemen t and develop opportunities for public assistance (e.g., educators, students, and speci al interest groups) with bat conservation and management activities (e.g., habitat enhancement via snag production or bat house/roost construction and erection). Strategy 7.1D. Target information messages to specific t opics, such as the number of bats tested for rabies by the South Dakota Department of Health along with rabies infection rate, improper house exclusions by pest cont rol operators, or unnecessary disturbances to bats. Identify specific opportunities to reach publics (e.g., agencies, pest control operators, and special intere st groups) during specific times (e.g., annual meetings and license renewals). Issue 7.2. Â– Informational Tools Minimal efforts have been taken to establ ish effective bat informational tools due to money and time constraints. Informational tools provide proper information to the public concerning bats and their habita ts and are easily distributed to various groups. Hopefully, by identifying and developing effective inform ational tools, public misperceptions and unawareness will change to public interest and concern regarding bats and their habitats. This will help increase bat conservation in South Dakota. Objective 7.2. Identify effective information tools to address lack of adequate information or misinformation concerning bats and distribute to the public (e.g., educators, st udents, pest control operators, public officials, agencies, and special interest groups or private organizations). Update and renew informational tools as required. Strategy 7.2A. Identify and develop informational tools, such as posters, brochures, and short videos, to distribute to different publics (e.g., educators, students, pest control operators, public officials, agencies, landowne rs, and special interest groups or private organizations) throughout the stat e in one year. Update a nd renew informational tools as needed. Strategy 7.2B. Investigate the effectiveness of informational tools thr ough surveys. Identify more effective informational tools according to certain publics (e.g., ed ucators, students, pest control operators, public officials, landowners, agencies, and special interest groups or private organizations) and dist ribute informational tools to appropriate publics. Summary Statement Because bats are threatened by factors that range from loss of habitat to the publicsÂ’ lack of knowledge, three sect ions in the management strategy were designated: management, research, and education needs. Management needs addressed issues relating to protecting
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 35important bat roosts or habitat (e.g., caves a nd mines), investigating and improving regulatory measures, developing interagency cooperation, a nd publicizing or utiliz ing potential funding opportunities. Research needs focused on issues relating to establishing a database of current information on bats, developing monitoring prot ocol, identifying future research goals, and creating cooperative research and managing efforts. Education needs included information relating to understanding and re specting bats in South Dakota through informational tools. Major threats were identified, which created indi vidual portions in the management plan. In each portion, issues, objectives, and strategies we re addressed. Objectives were more broadbased and strategies were more specific rela tive to actions for achieving overall goals. Objectives and strategies associated with bat management may help guide various agencies or entities with protecting ba t species in South Dakota. With this management plan for bats in South Dakota, the South Dakota Bat Working Group (SDBWG) seeks to gain increased publi c and interagency suppo rt and awareness in addition to increased conservati on of bats and their habitats. Progress Evaluation During the five-year implementation period of the state bat management plan, an annual review of the document is scheduled. Groups, agencies, organi zations, and individuals participating in the plan will be asked to provi de annual progress reports. These reports will be incorporated into the SDBMP annual progress report. By conducting an annual review of the st ate bat management plan, the SDBWG will be able to measure the progress of strategy implementation or completion, determine areas needing greater focus, and assist in updating the plan. Time frames associated with strategies will also evaluated during the annual review and revisions will be made if needed. Upon the completion of the annual progre ss evaluation, information regarding the progress of the plan will be available via SDBWG and SDGFP websites for public review. After the five-year implementation period is comp leted, an overall evaluation of the plan will be conducted.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 36List of Potential CooperatorsListed below are local, state, federal, or tribal en tities, which may cooperate in conserving bat species in South Dakota. Currently, some entities may actively conserve bat species in a manner consistent with this plan, though this plan will hopefully be used for all potentia l cooperators to strive in similar direction. Through cooperative efforts, this plan will more eff ectively conserve bat species in South Dakota. Badlands National Park http://www.nps.gov/badl/exp/home.htm Barrick Gold Corporation http://www.barrick.com/ Bat Conservation International http://www.batcon.org/ Batworks Black Hills State University http://www.bhsu.edu/ Bureau of Land Management http://www.blm.gov/nhp/ Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe http://www.sioux.org/ Crow Creek Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/crwcreek.htm Custer National Forest http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/custer/ Dakota Prairie Grasslands http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/dakotaprairie/ Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe http://www.fsst.org/ Jewel Cave National Monument http://www.nps.gov /jeca/index.htm Lower Brule Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/p rofiles/lwrbrule.htm Missouri National Recreational River http://www.nps.gov/mnrr Natural Resources Conservation Service http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/ Nebraska National Forest http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/nebraska/ Oglala Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/oglala.htm Rosebud Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/rosebud.htm Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/sisseton.htm South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources http://www.state.sd.us/denr/denr.html South Dakota Department of Game Fish and Parks http://www.sdgfp.info/Index.htm South Dakota Department of Health http://www.state.sd.us/doh/ South Dakota Department of Transportation http://www.sddot.com/ South Dakota National Wildlife Refuges http://mountain-prairie.fws.gov/refuges/sd South Dakota State University http://www3.sdstate.edu Standing Rock Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/strock.htm State Historic Preservation Office http://www.sdhistory.org/ The Nature Conservancy http://nature.org/ University of South Dakota http://www.usd.edu/ US Army Corp of Engineers http://www.us ace.army.mil/ US Army National Guard http://www.arng.army.mil/ US Bureau of Reclamation http://www.usbr.gov/main/ US Fish and Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov/ US Geological Survey http://www.usgs.gov/ USDA Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/ USDA Forest Service, Rock y Mountain Research Station http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/ Wharf Mine (Goldcorp Inc.) http://www.ame.com.au/mines/au/Wharf.htm Wind Cave National Park http://www.nps.gov/wica/Home.htm Yankton Sioux Tribe http://travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/yankton.htm
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 37List of Personal Communications Dowd Stukel, Eileen. April 2003. South Dako ta Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Foster, Dan. March 2004. National Park Service (Wind Cave National Park). Gates, Natalie. April 2003. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Kightlinger, Lon. March 2003. South Dakota Department of Health. Kiser, Mark. July 2003. Ba t Conservation International. Muenchau, Barbara. February 2003. Nationa l Park Service (Wind Cave National Park). Ohms, Marc. March 2004. National Park Service (Wind Cave National Park). Ohms, Renee. March 2004. National Park Service (Jewel Cave National Monument). Pedersen, Scott. December 2002. South Dakota State University. Phillips, Bradley. April 2003. United States Forest Service (Black Hills National Forest). Schmidt, Cheryl. December 2003. BS Bi ological Services/USDA Rocky Mountain Research Station. Scott, Brian. March 2003. South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Tigner, Joel. April 2003. Batworks.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 38Literature Cited Adams, R. A., and L. Golten. 2003. Preliminar y data for the effects of forest thinning on bat foraging patterns in Boulder C ounty, Colorado. Presentation at the 33rdAnnual North American Symposium on Bat Re search. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, 8-11 October 2003. Adams, R. A., and S. C. Pedersen. 1998. The effects of natural disasters on bat populations on Montserrsat BWI: a 20-year history. American Zoologist 38: 52. Abstract only. Adam, M. D., M. J. Lacki, and T. G. Barnes . 1994. Foraging areas and habitat use of the Virginia big-eared bat in Kentucky. Jo urnal of Wildlife Management 58: 462-469. Allen, J. A. 1874. Notes on the natural hi story of portions of Dakota and Montana territories. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 17: 33-48. Allen, J. A. 1895. List of mammals collected in the Black Hills region of South Dakota and in western Kansas by Mr. Walter W. Granger, with field notes by the collector. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 7: 259-275. Anderson, J. M. 1993. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. M. S. Thesis, Fort Hayes State University, Hays, Kansas, USA. 29pp. Anderson, K. W., and J. K. Jones. 1971. Mammals of northwestern South Dakota. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History 19: 361-393. Barclay, R. M. R., and R. M. Brinham. 1998. Hide and seek: in search of forest bats. Bats 16: 3-7. Barclay, R. M. R., J. Ulmer, C. J. A. Mackenzie, M. S. Thompson, L. Olson, J. McCool, E. Cropley, and G. Poll. 2002. Variat ion in reproductiv e rates of bats: correlations and life-history impli cations. Presentation at the 32nd Annual North American Symposium on Bat Research. Burlington, Vermont, USA, 6-9 November 2002. Belwood, J. J. 1979. Feeding ecology of an Indiana bat community with emphasis on the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis . M. S. Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 130pp. Blumberg, C. A. 1993. Use of a mail survey to determine present mammal distribution by county in South Dakota. M. S. Thesis. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA. 136pp.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 39BHNF (Black Hills National Forest). 2000. Ph ase I amendment of Forest Plan standards and guidelines homepage. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/pr ojects/planning/amend_2001/00_11_02_Standards .pdf 26 December 2003. Bogan, M. A., J. G. Osborn, and J. A. Clar k. 1996. Observations on bats at Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Prairie Natura list 28: 115-123. Bole, B. P. 1934. Myotis thysanodes in South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 16: 147148. Bradbury, J. W. 1977. Social organi zation and communication. Pages 1-72 i n W. A. Wimsatt, editor. Biology of bats (Vol ume 3). Academic Press, NewYork, New York, USA. Byre, V. J. 1990. A group of young Peregrine Falcons prey on migrating bats. Wilson Bulletin 102: 728. CWF (Canadian Wildlife Federation). 2001. Getting Started: Pesticides homepage. http://www.wildaboutgardening.org/e n/get_started/section4/index.htm 31 December 2003. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prev ention). 2003. West Nile virus: background homepage. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvb id/westnile/background.htm 2 July 2003. Choate, J. R., and J. K. Jones. 1981. Prov isional checklist of mammals of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 13: 65-77. Choate, J. R., and J. M. Anderson. 1997. Bats of Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 29: 39-47. Coats, G. W. 1945. Some observations on wildlife in the Black Hills during the last sixty-five years. South Dakota Conservation Digest 12: 10-11, 15. Cryan, P.M., M.A. Bogan, and J.S. Altenbach. 2000. Effect of Elevation on Distribution of female bats in the Black Hills, S outh Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 719-725 Cryan, P.M., M.A. Bogan, and G.M. Yanega. 2001. Roosting habits of four bat species in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Acta Chiropterologica 3: 43-52. Dowd Stukel, E. 2003. Summary of Wildlif e Diversity Program and Natural Heritage Database funding sources. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota, USA. 1pp. Everette, A. L., T. J. OÂ’Shea, L. E. Ellison, L. A. Stone, and J. L. McCance. 2001. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife ref uge. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29: 967-973.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 40Farney, J. P., and J. K. Jones. 1980. Notes on the natural history of bats from Badlands National Monument, South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 12: 9-12. Findley, J. S. 1956. Mammals of Clay C ounty, South Dakota. University of South Dakota Publications in Biology 1: 1-45. Freeman, P. W. 1979. Specialized insectivor y: beetle-eating and moth-eating molossid bats. Journal of Mammalogy 60: 467-479. Froiland, S.G., and R. R. Weedon. 1990. Na tural History of the Black Hills and Badlands. Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. 225pp. Grace, J. M. 2002. Sediment movement from forest road systems: roadsÂ—a major contributor to erosion and stream sedimentation. Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World 9: 13-14. Gore, J. A., and J. A. Hovis. 1992. The sout heastern bat: another cave-roosting species in peril. Bats 10: 10-12. Gunier, W. J. 1971. Long-distance record for movement of a gray bat. Bat Research News 12: 5. Guthrie, M. J., and K. R. Jeffers. 1938. Gr owth of follicles in th e ovaries of the bat Myotis lucifugus lucifugus . Anatomical Record 71: 477-496. Hartmann, R. 2002. Lead-induced Â“hardness of hearingÂ” in bats: a reason for their decline? Myotis 40: 5-9. Hayden, F. V. 1862. Mammals. Pages 138-151 in On the Geology and Natural History of the Upper Missouri. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society No. 12. Hoffman, W. J., and M. D. Late. 1877. List of mammals found in the vicinity of Grand River, Dakota Territory. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19: 94-102. Humphrey, S. R. 1982. Bats: Vespertilionidae and Molossidae. Pages 52-70 in J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer, editors. Wild Mammals of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Johnson, G. D., W. P. Erickson, and M. D. Strickland. 2003. Avian interactions with wind power structures. In R. L. Carlton, editor. Proc eedings of an Electric Power Research Institute (Concord, CA) Workshop. Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA, 16-17 October 2002. Jones, J. K., and R. L. Packard. 1958. Myotis keenii septentrionalis in South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 39: 150.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 41Jones, J. K., and H. H. Genoways. 1967. Annotated checklist of bats from South Dakota. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences 70: 184-196. Jones, J. K., and J. R. Choate. 1978. Dist ribution of two species of long-eared bats of the genus Myotis on the Northern Great Plains . Prairie Natura list 10: 49-52. Jones, J. K., D. M. Armstrong, R. S. Hoffman, and C. Jones. 1983. Mammals of the northern Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska. 379pp. Keeley, B. W., and M. D. Tuttle. 1999. Bats in American Bridges. Resource Publication No. 4, Bat Conservation In ternational, Austin, Texas, USA. Keeley, B., S. Ugoretz, and D. Stri ckland. 2001. Bat ecology and wind turbine considerations. Proceedings of th e National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting 4: 135-146. Keleher, S. 1996. Guano: batsÂ’ gift to gardeners. Bats 14: 15-17. Lacki, M. J., and J. H. Schwierjohann. 2001. Day-roost characteristics of northern bats in mixed mesophytic forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 482-488. Lane, J.E., C.L. Buck, and R.M. Brigham. 2003. The bat fauna of southeast South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 35:246-256. Laubach, C. M., J. Bowles, and R. Laubach. 1994. A guide to the bats of Iowa. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa, USA. 32pp. Licht, P., and P. Leitner. 1967. Physio logical responses to high environmental temperatures in three species of microchiropteran bats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 22: 371-387. Long, C. A., and R. G. Severson. 1969. Geogr aphical variation in the big brown bat in the north-central United States . Journal of Mammalogy 50: 621-624. Luce, B. 1998. Wyoming bats: wings of the night. Wyoming Wildlife 62: 17-32. Lunney, D. 1990. The case for bat conservation. Bats 8: 12-13. Lyman, C. P. 1970. Thermoregulation and metabolism in bats. Pages 301-331 in W. A. Wimsatt, editor. Biology of bats (Volum e 1). Academic Press, New York, New York, USA. Martin, R. A., and B. G. Hawks. 1972. Hibe rnating bats of the Black Hills of South Dakota: distribution and hab itat selection. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 17: 24-30.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 42Mattson, T. A., N. L. Stanton, and S. W. Buskirk. 1994. The roosting ecology of the silver-haired bat ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) in the Black Hills of South Dakota. National Biological Survey: Midcontinent Ec ological Science Center, Fort Collins, CO. 34 pp. Mattson, T. A., S. W. Buskirk, and N. L. Stanton. 1996. Roost sites of the silver-haired bat ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Great Basin Naturalist 56: 247-253. McCracken, G. F. 1986. Why are we losing our Mexican free-tailed bats? Bats 3: 1-2. Moulthrop, P. N. 1936. Myotis volans interior in South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 17: 413-414. MWCD (Merriams-Webster Collegiate Dicti onary). 2002. Collegiate dictionary: Chiropteran homepage. http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/ dictionary?va=chiropterans 21 November 2002. MNRR (Missouri National Recreation River). 1999. Final General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. Nationa l Park Service, Report NPS D-9A, United States Department of Interior. 281 pp. Nelson, E. J., and D. B. Booth. 2002. Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed landuse watershed. Journal of Hydrology 264: 51-68. NSE (NatureServe Explorer). 2002. Nature Serve Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life homepage. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/ 23 Dec 2002. Ochoa, J. 2000. Diversity of small mammals in extracted woods in low forest lands of the Guiana Venezuelan. Biotropica 32: 146-164. Olson, R. 1977. Hypogean ecology of Jewel Cave National Monument, Custer County, South Dakota. M. S. Thesis. University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. 96pp. Osborn, R. G., K. F. Higgins, C. D. Dieter, and R. E. Usgaard. 1998. Bat collisions with wind turbine in southwestern Minnes ota. Bat Research News 37: 105-108. OÂ’Shea, T. J., and D. R. Clark. 2001. Overview of impacts of contaminants on bats: with special reference to the Indian a bat. Bat Research News 42: 36. O'Shea, T. J., A. L. Everette, and L. E. Ellison. 2001. Cyclodiene insecticide, DDE, DDT, arsenic, and mercury contam ination of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) foraging at a Colorado Superfund site. Archiv es of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 112-120.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 43OÂ’Shea, T. J., R. A. Bowne, L .E. Ellison, C. E. Rupprecht, V. Shankar, and J. H. Winsatt. 2003. The Fort Collins bats and rabies study: overview and progress report. Presentation at the 2nd Four Corners Regional Bat Conference. Durango, Colorado, USA, 29 January-1 February 2003. Over, W. H., and E. P. Churchill. 1941. Mamm als of South Dakota. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA. 56pp. Over, W. H., and E. P. Churchill. 1945. Mamm als of South Dakota. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA. 56pp. Pedersen, S. C., H. H. Genoways, and P. W. Freeman. Notes on bats from Monterrat (Lesser Antilles) with comments concerni ng the effects of Hurricane Hugo. Carribean Journal of Sciencev32: 206-213. Perkins, M. 1985. The plight of Plecotus . Bats 2: 1-2. Petryszyn, Y. 1995. Bat monitoring protocol for the ecological monitoring program in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Spec. Rept. No. 11, Coop. Parks Studies Unit, Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ. Phillips, M. J., L. W. Swift, and C. R. Blinn. 2000. Best management practices for riparian areas. Pages 273-286 in E. S. Verry, J. W. Hornbeck, and C. A. Dolloff, editors. Riparian Management in Forests of the Continental Ea stern United States. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. Pierson, E. D. 1998. Tall trees, deep hole s, and scarred landscap es: conservation biology of North American bats. Pages 309-325 in T. H. Kunz and P. A. Racey, editors. Bat biology and conservation. Smithsoni an Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Rabe, M .J., T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. deVos, and C. R. Miller. 1998. Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 62: 612-621. Reagan, A. B. 1907. Animals, reptil es, and amphibians of the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences 21: 163-164. Rich, T. D. 2002. Using breeding land bird s in the assessment of western riparian systems. Wildlife Soci ety Bulletin 30: 1128-1139. SDBWG (South Dakota Bat Working Group). 2002. South Dakota Bat Working Group homepage. http://nat_hist.sdstate .edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html 8 April 2002. SDDOH (South Dakota Department of Health). 2003a. Rabies homepage. http://www.state.sd.us /doh/Pubs/rabies.htm 31 December 2003.
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South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 45Tigner, J., and E. Dowd Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Wildlife Division Report 2003-05, Pierre, South Dakota, USA. 94pp. Turner, R. W., and J. K. Jones. 1968. A dditional notes on bats from western South Dakota. Southwestern Naturalist 13: 444-447. Turner, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1970. Ba ts from the Black Hills of South Dakota. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences 72: 360-364. Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Miscellaneous Publications of the Muse um of Natural History, University of Kansas 60: 1-178. Tuttle, M. D., and L. R. Heaney. 1974. Maternity habits of Myotis leibii in South Dakota. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 73: 80-83. Tuttle, M. D. 1988. AmericaÂ’s Neighborhood Ba ts: understanding and learning to live in harmony with them. University of Te xas Press, Austin, Texas, USA. 96pp. Tuttle, M. D. 1994. The lives of Mexican free-tailed bats. Bats 12: 6-14. USFWS (United States Fish and Wildlif e Service). 2001. Policy on streambank stabilization projects homepage. http://www.r6.fws.gov/pfw/PD Files/bankersos10threv.pdf 31 December 2003. Verboom, B., and K. Spoelstra. 1999. Eff ects of food abundance and wind on the use of tree lines by an insectivorous bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus . Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 1393-1401. Wackenhut, M., and M. McGraw. 1996. IdahoÂ’s Bats: description, habitats, and conservation. Idaho Wildlife 16. Waldien, D. L., J. P. Hayes, and E. B. Arnett. 2000. Day-roosts of female long-eared myotis in western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 785-796. WBWG (Western Bat Working Group). 1998. Western Bat Species: Regional Priority Matrix. Western Bat Working Group Work shop. Reno, Nevada, USA, 9-13 February 1998. Weller, T. J., and C. J. Zabel. 2001. Char acteristics of fringed myotis day roosts in northern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 489-497. Whitaker, J. O. 1993. Bats, beetles, and bugs. Bats 11: 23.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 46Wilhelm, R. B., J. R. Choate, and J. K. Jones. 1981. Mammals of LaCreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota. Special P ublications of the Museum, No. 17, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA. 37pp. Williams-Whitmer, L. M., and M. C. Brittingham. 1996. A homeownerÂ’s guide to northeastern bats and bat problems. College of Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension, Pennsylvania State Univ ersity, University Park, PA. 22pp. Wimsatt, W. A. 1944. Growth of the ovarian follicle and ovulation in Myotis lucifugus lucifugus . American Journal of Anatomy 74: 129-173. Wimsatt, W. A. 1945. Notes on breeding be havior, pregnancy, and parturition in some vespertilionid bats of the eastern Unite d States. Journal of Mammalogy 26: 2333.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 47Appendices Appendix A. Taxonomy The 1200 species of bats alive today belong to the Order Chiroptera, which is the second largest group of mammals behind Rodentia . All bats found in North America belong to the Suborder Microchiroptera (small bats), a nd all bats found in Sout h Dakota belong to the Family Vespertilionidae. Forty-two genera and 324 species comprise the Vespertilionidae family worldwide (Nowak 1999). Of the 42 genera, Myotis includes nearly 100 species alone and has the widest worldwide distribution of any genus of bat (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Six genera are found in South Dakota: Lasiurus , Lasionycteris , Myotis , Corynorhinus , Eptesicus , and Nycticeius . All Vepertilionids are primarily insectivorous. In South Dakota, 12 species of bats have been documented (NSE 2002, SDBWG 2002):Eastern Red bat Lasiurus borealis (Muller 1776) Hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus (Palisot de Beauvois 1796) Silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans (LeConte 1831) Northern myotis Myotis septentrionalis (van Zyll de Jong 1979) (Prev. M. keenii ) Little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus (Thomas 1904) Western small-footed myotis Myotis ciliolabrum (van Zyll de Jong 1984) (Prev. M. leibii ) Fringed myotis Myotis thysanodes (Jones and Genoways 1967) Long-eared myotis Myotis evotis (Allen 1864) Long-legged myotis Myotis volans (Miller 1914) Big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus (Young 1908) TownsendÂ’s big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii (Tumlison and Douglas 1992) (Prev. Plecotus ) Evening bat Nycteceius humeralis (Rafinesque 1819)Appendix B. Species Accounts Species accounts are based on research conduc ted in South Dakota, if available, and research conducted elsewhere. Species accounts include information pertaining to appearance, distribution and status, natura l history, subspecies, and management notes concerning individual species found in South Dakota. Management notes are of great importance and each species is categorized unde r multi-habitat, cave-r oosting, or tree-roosting bats. Multi-habitat bats roost in a variety of areas: trees, caves , mines, crevices, and buildings. Tree-roosting bats roost exclusiv ely in trees, while cave-roosti ng bats roost nearly always in caves (or mines).Tree-Roosting Bats Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) Museum Records (4) : BONHOMME County: 1 (KU); BROOKINGS County: 1 (SDSU); HANSEN County: 1 (SDSU); HUGHES County: 1 (TTU); MCCOOK County: 1 (SDSU); MINNEHAHA County: 1 (SDSU); PENNINGTON County: 2 (KU).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 48Appearance Red bats ( Lasiurus borealis ) are medium-sized bats with average weight 11.03 g and forearm length 36.88 mm (Swier 2003). Generally, red bats are near 12 cm (5 in) in length (Over and Churchill 1945). Red bats are rusty ye llow or reddish-orange with long, dense fur extending to the uropatagium. A small, distinct tail and long, pointed wings characterize red bats. Ears are short and rounded wi th little to no hair evident. Indistinct white hairs lay along the back and belly depending on the sex. Typi cally, males have bright orange fur, and females have frost-tipped orange fur (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Distribution and Status Red bats range in the United States from east of the Rocky Mount ains to the Atlantic coast, excluding the Florida peninsula (Nowak and Paradiso 1983); red bats are common throughout the United States. In South Dakota, red bats are found throughout the state except in the treeless areas (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al . 1985, Higgins et al. 2000); red bats are least common in the Black Hills (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Population dynamics in the Black Hills are relativel y unknown due to limited observations (5) and summer residency (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Shump and Shump (1982a) reported that red bats are probably found in ar eas of the Great Plains with adequate tree cover. This common migratory species was observed in Clay County in April and primarily used timbered areas (Findley 1956). Natural History Red bats are solitary tree roosting bats. If females have young, then mothers can be seen roosting with their young; small family groups of four to five bats may be formed during the summer months (Tigner and Dowd Stuke l 2003). Deciduous and c oniferous trees are considered appropriate tree roosts (Shum p and Shump 1982a, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). In Kansas, red bats selected tall, large-diameter deciduous trees as day roosts. These were selected within upland areas (H utchinson and Lacki 2000) . In eastern South Dakota, roosting and foraging habitat cons ists of cottonwood floodplain forest areas, deciduous forest areas, and urban areas (Swier 2003). Red bats r oost in foliage of trees and do not depend on cavities for shelte r (Barbour and Davis 1969); red bats hang from their roost by one foot disguising themselves as dead leaves or pine cones. Often red bats are seen or heard hunting at early dusk or during cloudy days and can be identifi ed by their acoustic signatures. Feeding occurs in small areas above the tree canopy and beneath streetlights. Flight patterns are distinct; red bats repeatedly fly in large circles or in straight lines above tree canopies (Swier 2003). Primary prey species include b eetles, moths, and other night flying insects. Hypothetically, red bats migrate to South Dakot a in April and migrate from South Dakota in late August or early September (Swier 2003). In other states, red bats hi bernate in tree snags or beneath tree litter duri ng cold winter months, though this has not been documented in South Dakota. Red bats mate in August or September. Because of delayed fertilization, young are not born until late spri ng. After an 80 to 90-day gestation period, approximately two to four altricial (little to no hair and eyes closed ) pups are born each year (Shump and Shump 1982a, Kunz 1982, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). In response to increased susceptibility to predation (e.g., blue ja ys and raptors) due to tree-roosting habits, red bats produce a larger litter size in relation to other bats (Barbour and Davis 1969), which produce one to two pups per year.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 49Subspecies Red bat subspecies located in South Dakota is L. b. borealis. Management Notes Red bats may be impacted by the loss of roost trees. Protecting deciduous and coniferous tree roosts is importa nt to this species. Red bats are dependent on live trees with adequate foliage. Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) Museum Records (30) : BONHOMME County: 3 (KU); BROOKINGS County: 1 (SDSU); BROWN County: 1 (KU); CLAY County 1 (S DSU); CUSTER County: 3 (KU); DAVISON County 1 (FHS); FALL RIVER County: 2 (KU); HAMLIN County: 1 (SDSU); HARDING County: 1 (KU); HYDE County: 1 (SDSU); L AKE County: 1 (SDADR Â– rabies positive); LAWRENCE County: 15 (KU) ; MINNEHAHA County: 4 (S DSU); PENNINGTON County: 4 (KU); UNKNOWN CountyÂ—Moreau River: 1 (USNM). Appearance Hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus ) are the largest bats found in South Dakota (Over and Churchill 1945, Turner 1974). Hoary bats can be easily recognized by their large size (Shump and Shump 1982b, Nowak and Paradiso 1983, Harvey et al. 1999); average forearm length measures 55.00 mm and average weight measures 32.5 g (Swier 2003). Generally, hoary bats are greater than 12 cm (5 in) long (Over and C hurchill 1945). Hoary ba t fur is a combination of black and brown with white Â“frostingÂ” on th e tips. Hoary bats have dark wing membranes, furred uropatagiums, large teeth, and short, round, black-edged ears. Distribution and Status Hoary bats are found in the 48 contiguous United States and Hawaii (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Shump and Shump (1982b) re ported that hoary bats, among North American bats, are the most widespread bats though they are never found in great densities. In South Dakota, the hoary bat ranges throughout th e state (Over and Churchill 1945, Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al . 2000, BCI 2001). Hoary bats are relatively common throughout the Great Plains (Shump and Shump 1982b). In Clay County, the migratory hoary bat was found less commonly than the red bat, although this bat selected the same habitat as red bats (Findley 1956). In the Black Hills, hoary bats are plentiful where suitable habitat is availa ble (Turner 1974, Mattson 1994). Natural History Being a solitary, tree roosting bat, hoary bats will cryptically roost in trees with adequate foliage cover above but minimal foliage cover below. Roost sites are maintained on edge trees with heights of 3 to 5 m (3.3 to 5.5 yds ). In eastern South Da kota, hoary bats select trees in cottonwood floodplain fore sts along the Missouri River, bu t hoary bats also have been located using trees in urban areas (Swier 2003) . Generally, hoary bats are found near water. Foraging periods begin after dark and persist un til one hour before sunrise. Hoary bats can move up to 39 km (24 mi.) in one night due to fast, straight flight pa tterns. Being powerful fliers due to their large size, hoa ry bats are capable of flight from a level surface. Hoary bats are easy to detect by calls. They produce forcef ul calls while in flight and emit low frequency
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 50(16 to 18 kHz) calls while not feeding. Foraging occurs over water source s or at treetop levels above the tree canopy. Typical prey consists pr imarily of moths and supplemented by beetles and mosquitoes (Black 1974, van Zyll de Jong 1985). In the Black Hills, most hoary bats are captured between early June and late August (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Hoary bats in South Dakota migrate south during cold winter months. Females precede males in the migration north; females seem to inhabit the plai ns or arid flats during warm months, whereas males inhabit higher altitudes or latitudes (T urner 1974). Generally, hoary bats mate in the late summer or the early fall. Fertilization occurs the following spring, and parturition occurs before mid-June (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Approximately two young are produced each year (Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Fema les are often susceptible to severe windstorms, especially when carrying young. Subspecies Subspecies of hoary bat found in South Dakota is L. c. cinereus. Management Notes Hoary bats may be susceptible to the loss of selected tree roosts. Protecting deciduous and coniferous tree roosts is im portant to this species. Hoary bats are dependent on live trees at least 3 m tall with adequate foliage cover for roost sites. Typically, hoary bats select trees on the edges of forest areas. Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) Museum Records (12) : CUSTER County: 1 (KU); DAY County: 1 (USNM); FALL RIVER County: 3 (KU); HARDING County: 1 ( KU); KINGSBURY County: 1 (SDSU); LAWRENCE County: 3 (KU); PENNINGTON County: 3 (KU). Appearance Silver-haired bats ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) are medium-sized bats, which are noticeably smaller than hoary bats. Averag e forearm length measures 41.30 mm and average weight measures 12.31 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Silver-haired bats measure slightly over 10 cm (4 in) in length (Over and Churchil l 1945). This bat has long, soft brown to black fur, which is silver-tipped across the body. Ears are hairless and round with blunt, rounded traguses; ears are nearly as wide as long. Fur continues ont o uropatagium, and ears and wing membranes are black. Distribution and Status Silver-haired bats ra nge throughout forested regions of the 48 contiguous states in the United States, excluding Florida (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Silver-haired bats are erratically distributed a nd relatively uncommon throughout their range (Kunz 1982, BCI 2001). In South Dakota, silver-haired bats ar e found sporadically th roughout the state (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al. 2000). Silver-haired bats are found in the northern and southern Black Hills, though silver-haired bats are more prominent in the southern Black Hills (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Seemingly, silver-haired bats migrate through the Black Hills region, a lthough it is possible that a few silver-haired bats remain in the Black Hills throughout the year (Tur ner 1974, Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). In addition, Swier (2003) found silve r-haired bats in northeastern South Dakota. Silver-haired
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 51bats are considered a South Dakota species of concern due to its rarity or limited range (SDGFP 2002). Natural History Silver-haired bats are one of the slowest moving bats in North America (Harvey et al. 1999). Typically, silver-haired bats roost under bark, in snags, a nd in tree cavities or crevices (Mattson et al. 1996). More specifically, males roost soli tarily beneath bark or in cracks/crevices on boles of trees at varying heights. Males change roosts frequently (e.g., daily), and roost inhabitance av erages eight days (Mattson 1994). This bat species depends on old growth forests, generally coniferous forest s, with diverse tree structure and ample snags, but silver-haired bats are al so found in wooded areas along st reams or rivers (Nowak and Paradiso 1983, Mattson et al. 1996 ). In eastern South Dakota, silver-haired bats inhabit cottonwood riparian forests and other deciduous forests (Swier 2003). Corridors, such as roads and water sources, accumulate prey and al low maneuverable flight by bats. This results in use of these areas for foragi ng. Silver-haired bats are opportu nistic feeders; foraging occurs at seven meters or less above ground and incl udes prey such as termites, true bugs, moths, beetles, and mosquitoes (Kunz 1982, Whitaker et al. 1981a). Often silver-haired bats drink over woodland ponds prior to sunset. Kunz (1973) stated that silve r-haired bats in Iowa display a bimodal activity patt ern, appearing two hours after s unset for approximately two hours and two hours before sunrise for approximate ly two hours. Silver-haired bats migrate south during late summer or early fall with females moving farther south than males (Kunz 1982). Hibernacula include (beneath) bark, sn ags, open buildings, or underground structures, though the use of underground structures is not documented in South Dakota. Turner (1974) indicated that some individual s might winter in the Black Hills, but most silver-haired bats migrate south with the onset of cold weather. Most silver-haired bats are captured from June to September (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Each year silver-haired bats produce one to two pups, most commonly twins, in late spri ng or early summer after 50 to 60 days of gestation (Kunz 1982). Pups are raised in ma ternity roosts, and like most tree-roosting bats silver-haired bats often switch maternity roosts during the maternity season (Kunz 1982, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Matern ity roosts were identified in ponderosa pine snags an average 10 m off the ground rangi ng from 6 to 55 individuals in the roosts (Mattson 1994). More specificall y, maternity roosts were found in old woodpecker cavities of large (38 to 62 dbh) snags with unrestric ted southern exposure (Betts 1996, Mattson 1994, Vonhof 1996). Subspecies No subspecies are recognized for the silver-haired bat (J ones and Genoways 1967, Kunz 1982, Wilson and Ruff 1999, NSE 2002). Management Notes Silver-haired bats are susceptible to forest habitat alterations. This bat is reliant on live and dead trees and selects a range of tr ees with diverse age structure. Snags are particularly important for the survival of young bats. Reductions in snag numbers will lead to less roosting opportunities and more competition among snag roosting species. Forest management practices (e.g., silviculture) must re tain large snags through time to maintain this species (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 52Multi-Habitat Bats Northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis , formerly known as Myotis keeni in South Dakota ) Museum records (23) : BONHOMME County: 4 (KU) ; HUGHES County: 2 (TTU); PENNINGTON County: 17 (KU); STANLEY County: 1 (USNM). Appearance Northern myotis ( Myotis septentrionalis ) are rather small bats with average forearm length measuring 36.07 mm and average weight measuring 7.13 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Body lengths may reach 10 cm (4 in) (Fitch and Shump 1979), and overall ear lengths average 16.4 mm (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). No rthern myotis have similar light to dark brown fur as little brown myotis with dark backs and light bellies (Fitch and Shump 1979). Membranes and ears are dark brown. In addition, northern myotis have buffy shoulder patches and long, mouse-like ears. Northern m yotis can be distinguished by ear length and tragus shape; traguses are long and narrow with pointed tips. Also, face masks, though similarly dark brown, are balder than comparable Myotis species. Distribution and Status In the United States, northern myotis range in forested regions from east to central and south to northern Florida (Nowak and Para diso 1983). Northern myotis are common throughout their range, though they are found less commonly than little brown myotis (Fitch and Shump 1979). In South Dakota, northern myotis are found rather uncommonly throughout the state (Jones and Genoways 1967, Hi ggins et al. 2000). Conversely, northern myotis are rather abund ant throughout the Black Hills, and few winter occurrences have been recorded (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Northe rn myotis are state species of concern due to their rarity and limited range (SDGFP 2002). Natural History The northern myotis is an aggressive specie s when handled. Typically, these bats bite and vocalize as defensive mechanisms, especially when captured. Northern myotis select roosts in tight crevices or ho les sheltered from normal airflow. Often day roosts are selected in open buildings, under bark, or under house shutte rs, and night roosts or winter hibernacula comprise caves or mines. Northern myotis ar e dependent on night roosts, and hibernacula are selected in areas with standing water and high humidity (90%) (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Northern myotis may roost solitarily or in clusters of up to 100 bats, though clusters usually do not grow beyond 100 bats. In east ern South Dakota, northern myotis selected cottonwood floodplain forests or deciduous forests along the Misso uri River (Swier 2003). In these areas, northern myotis probably selected tr ees as roost sites. Ge nerally, northern myotis are found near water sources and dense forests. Foraging takes place over forested hillsides and ridges with prey consisting of night-flying insects. Northern myotis are food generalists (Nagorsen and Brighman 1993, van Zyll de Jong 1985). Northern myotis mate in late summer or early fall. In late spring or early summ er, one young is born with minimal hair and closed eyes. Upon the arrival of the newborn pups, a small nursery colony is formed by females (Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Tigner and Aney (1993) reported one maternity roost in an attic of a two-story brick building along the edge of the Black Hills.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 53Subspecies No subspecies are recognized for the northern myotis (Wilson and Ruff 1999, NSE 2002). Management Notes Northern myotis are vulnerable to threat s associated with humans. Because northern myotis have an affinity towards buildings as maternity roosts, public awareness of maternity roosts is particularly important with protecting this bat (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Also, this bat species is dependent on live trees, dead trees (e.g., snags), caves, and mines, which requires protection of th ese roost sites as well. Little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) Museum records (84) : CUSTER County: 14 (KU), 8 (TTU), 2 (WCNP); FALL RIVER County: 1 (KU); GREGORY County: 1 (USNM); HARDING County: 27 (KU); LAWRENCE County: 16 (KU); MEADE C ounty: 1 (KU); MINNEHAHA County: 1 (SDSU); PENNINGTON County: 12 (KU), 1 (TTU); STANLEY County: 1 (USNM); UNION County: 1 (KU); WALW ORTH County: 2 (SDSU). Appearance Little brown myotis ( Myotis lucifugus ) are relatively small bats with average forearm length 37.49 mm and average weight 8.33 g (T igner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Body length measures nearly 10 cm (4 in) (Over and Chur chill 1945). Pelage co loration is similar to northern myotis, appearing light to dark brown. More specifically, fur appears glossy along the back and buffy along the belly. Wing and ear membranes are dark brown. Little brown myotis have shorter ears than northern myotis; their ears do not extend past nose tip when pressed forward (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Calcars are not keeled and traguses are blunt and measuring one half the length of the ears. Distribution and Status Little brown myotis range throughout the Unit ed States stretching north into Alaska, excluding the south-central United States (N owak and Paradiso 1983). Throughout their range, little brown myotis are common and can exploit many habitats. Little brown myotis are found commonly throughout South Dakota, exce pt in the extreme south central portion of the state (Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al. 2000). In the Black Hills, little brown myotis are abundant (Turner 1974, Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003 ). Little brown myotis are relatively common near urban areas. Natural History Forested areas (e.g., riparian areas) a nd mountainous forests are favored by little brown myotis, although they may be found near or among structures as well. Fenton and Barclay (1980) consider little brown myotis opportunistic species with reference to foraging habitat and roost selection. Ge nerally, habitat in eastern Sout h Dakota consists of cottonwood forests, deciduous forests, and urban areas (S wier 2003). Roost sites appear in buildings, trees, caves, and mines. Little brown myotis ar e associated with humans, more specifically human-made structures (e.g., houses) (Fenton a nd Barclay 1980). Often males roost (singly or colonially) separate from females during th e summer. Day roosts usually are located in dimly lit areas (Fenton and Barclay 1980). Night roosts provide areas for bats to congregate
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 54after feeding. At night roosts, males are us ually found in the spring and early summer, while females are usually found in the late summer and early fall (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Little brown myotis hibernate in high humidity and temperature sites (Fenton and Barclay 1980), where noticeable droplets of condensa tion form on their bodies (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Limited roost entrance size is tole rated by little brown myotis. Usually little brown myotis forage over short distances above large bodies of water (Swier 2003) or infrequently terrestrial areas ne ar roost sites. While foraging, little brown myotis fly low with slow wing beats. They primarily capture aquatic insects; little brow n myotis prey consists largely of aquatic insects, although terrestrial insects, such as be etles and moths, may supplement their diet (Fenton and Barclay 1980, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001). Individuals mate in autumn, prior to or during hibernati on. One pup per year is born in late spring or early summer after a 50 to 60 day gestati on (Fenton and Barclay 1980, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001). At approximately three weeks, pups become volant. Females with pups form large nursing colonies in man-made structures, such as buildings and attics (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Trees may also serve as nursery roosts (Fenton and Barclay 1980). In the Black Hills, all identified maternity roosts are in buildings (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Subspecies The two subspecies found in South Dakota include M. l. carissima and M. l. lucifugus . M. l. carissima is paler with slightly larger cranial dimensions than M. l. lucifugus (Jones and Genoways 1967). Management Notes Because little brown myotis may select man-made structures for roosting, maternity and nursery roosts may be threatened more than roosts of bats choosing natural roosts (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). By increasing awar eness towards bats, human-related threats associated with bats may be reduced. Also, litt le brown myotis select certain hibernacula; it is imperative to protect these roosts. Western small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum , formerly Myotis leibii) Museum Records (108) : CUSTER County: 15 (KU), 5 (USNM), 2 (UCB); FALL RIVER County: 5 (KU); HARDING County: 8 ( KU); HUGHES County: 1 (TTU); JACKSON County: 27 (KU); LAWRENCE County: 5 (KU); PENNINGTON County: 40 (KU). Appearance Western small-footed myotis ( Myotis ciliolabrum ) are small bats with average forearm length measuring 31.27 mm and average weight measuring 5.72 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Their bodies can reach total lengths near 10 cm (4 in) (Over and Churchill 1945). In the Black Hills, western small-footed myotis are considered the smallest bats (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). As their name implies, western small-footed myotis have small feet with average lengths of 6.5 mm (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Western small-footed myotis have cream-colored fur accented by black masks, ears, and membranes. Membranes are usually hairless. Calcars are keeled, skull appear flattened, ears ar e long, and traguses are narrow. Traguses measure one half the total ear length (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 55Distribution and Status Western small-footed myotis range in the we stern portion of the United States (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). This speci es is relatively uncommon th roughout its range in the United States. As a result, western small-footed m yotis are species of concern throughout the nation (Harvey et al. 1999). In South Dakota, wester n small-footed myotis are found in the western portion of the state (Jones and Genoways 1967, Hi ggins et al. 2000). According to Over and Churchill (1945), western small-footed myo tis are uncommon in western South Dakota. Western small-footed myotis were present y ear-round in the five c ounties comprising the Black Hills, although populations were re latively small (Turner 1974, Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). M. ciliolabrum has been documented in Hughes County in central South Dakota as indicated by museum specimens. Natural History Western small-footed myotis are located in ar id habitats with cliffs, talus fields, and prairies containing clay butte s and steep banks along rivers. Stebler (1939) reported that western small-footed myotis were found in western South Dakota near floodplain areas with cottonwood-willow associations. Typically, roos t sites frequented by small-footed myotis include crevices and spaces beneath rock or clay areas, which are often found near water sources. Because of their small size and agile flying ablilty, western small-footed myotis are able to use small roost entrances. In the Bl ack Hills, western small-footed myotis were discovered roosting in caves and mines (Tigne r and Dowd Stukel 2003). Hibernacula include cool and dry caves or mines where western sma ll-footed myotis roost in crevices, on walls, or off ceilings. Western small-footed myotis hi bernate individually with minimal movement (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Foraging begins after dusk with peak foraging hours from 2200 h (10 PM) to 2300 h (11 PM) and from 0100 h (1am) to 0200 h (2am) (Harvey et al. 1999). Western small-footed myotis have slow , erratic flight patterns with very rapid echolocation calls while searching for food (prey). These bats are strong fliers that can obtain flight from level surfaces. Foraging occurs 1 to 3 m (1.1 to 3.3 yd) above ground over cliffs or clay buttes. Prey consists of small insects, such as flies, beetles, and moths (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Western small-footed myotis use hibe rnacula, such as caves and/or mines. Each year one pup or twin pups are born in late sp ring or early summer. Females care for young alone or may gather in a small group. No nursery or maternity roosts have been discovered in the Black Hills, though rocky outcrops and crev ices throughout the Black Hills offer areas as summer roosts; nursery roosts were discovered in cracks and crevices of clay-volcanic ash areas of the Badlands (Tigner and Dowd Stuke l 2003). Minimal data are available on western small-footed myotis (BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Subspecies Subspecies of western small-footed myotis found in South Dakota is M. c. ciliolabrum . Management Notes The main threat to this bat is availabili ty of suitable hibe rnacula. As a result, identifying and protecting sites (or roosts) that offer suitable habitat for western small-footed myotis is important (Tigner and Dowd St ukel 2003). Because littl e is known regarding various aspects of western small-footed myotis , further research is needed particularly on maternity and nursery roosts in South Dakota.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 56Fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) Museum Records (13) : CUSTER County: 5 (KU), 1 (U M); FALL RIVER County: 1 (KU); JACKSON County: 2 (KU); PENNINGTON County: 4 (KU). Appearance Fringed myotis ( Myotis thysanodes ) are medium-sized bats with average length 40.82 mm and average weight 7.8 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Body length measures approximately 10 cm (4 in) (Harvey et al. 1999) . Appearing similar to long-eared myotis ( M. evotis ), fringed myotis are classified as long-ear ed myotis with darkly colored fur minus a golden tinge. Ears ar e longer than other Myotis species, besides long-eared myotis, and measure less than half forearm length (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Long fur covers their back appearing darker than their belly fur. Ears and membranes are dark to black, and noticeable, stiff hairs are present down the free edge of the uropatagium. Distribution and Status Fringed myotis can be found in the United St ates from the Pacific Coast to the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Throughout their range, fringed myotis are located sporadically resul ting in the designation as a national species of special concern, according to Bat Conservation In ternational (Harvey et al. 1999). In South Dakota, fringed myotis form a disjunct popula tion in the Black Hills and possibly other western regions (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jone s and Choate 1978, OÂ’Farrell and Studier 1980, Jones et al. 1985, van Zyll de Jong 1985, Higgin s et al. 2000). Turner (1974) stated that Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis were found in Pennington, Custer, and Fall River counties throughout the year. Due to their rarity or lim ited range in South Dakot a, Black Hills fringetailed myotis are listed as a st ate species of concern (SDGFP 2002). Natural History Various habitats ranging from desert shrub to pine associations at moderate elevations are used by fringed myotis (OÂ’Farrell a nd Studier 1980, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Fringed myotis use roost sites that cons ist of caves or mines and abandoned buildings. Typically, fringed myotis are found roosting in caves, natural rock crevices, and buildings (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Because these bats hibernate during the winter, they are considered year-round residents. Often hibern ating individuals are difficult to locate and identify due to selection of cracks of crevic es in mines or caves (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Usually males roost individually in ro ck crevices and females roost collectively forming small nursery colonies (average 18.9 individuals) (Cryan a nd Bogan 1996). OÂ’Farrell and Studier (1980) reported that roost sites were usually in open areas where the fringed myotis could form tightly packed clusters of bats. Fringed myotis have characteristically deliberate and highly maneuverable flight wh ile foraging. Foraging occurs over vegetative canopy from sunset until midnight with prey cons isting of principally beetles but also moths (Black 1974). To survive the winter, fringed myotis form hibernacula colonies in typical roost sites (e.g., caves or mines) (Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Fringed myotis mate in late summer or early fall prior to hibe rnation. In late spring or early summer, one pup is born each year after a 50 to 60-day gestat ion period (OÂ’Farrell a nd Studier 1980). Large nursery colonies are formed upon the arrival of the pups. Adults typically roost separately
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 57from the nursery colonies. Adults fly to nurse ry roosts to feed thei r young returning to their roost after feeding (Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Subspecies Subspecies is the Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis , M. t. pahasapensis , which is briefly mentioned above. Management Notes Fringed mytois are reliant on caves or mi nes and abandoned buildings as roost sites. Captures are locally abundant indicative of uni que or significant bat habitats (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). These habitats should be recognized. Furthermore, information is required with regard to maternity and nursery roosts, relocation habits, and hibernacula requirements and availability. Long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) Museum Records (20) : HARDING County: 20 (KU). Appearance Long-eared myotis ( Myotis evotis ) are medium-sized bats weighing on average 7.5 g and forearm measuring on average 38.17 mm (T igner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Body length measures approximately 9 cm (3.5 in) (Over and Churchill 1945). Long-eared myotis have pale yellow to light brown, glossy fur with dark brown shoulder patches. Ears and membranes are black. Long-eared myotis have ear s that average longer th an the ears of other American members of the genus Myotis (Manning and Jones 1989). Therefore, long-eared myotis appear similar to the Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis though hairs edging the uropatagium are indistinct and ears are much la rger in long-eared myotis (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Ears extend 5 mm beyond their nose tip; ov erall ear lengths are greater than one half the forearm length. Distribution and Status Long-eared myotis range from the Pacific Co ast to the extreme western Dakotas of the United States, typically in temperate areas (Nowak and Paradiso 1983, Manning and Jones 1989). Nationally, this species is of special concern (Harvey et al. 1999). In South Dakota, long-eared myotis are found in the Black Hi lls and the northwestern region (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgi ns et al. 2000). No winter roosts have been identified in the Black Hills (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003), though one specimen has been found in Harding County (northwestern SD) (Anderson and Jones 1971, Jones and Choate 1978). Because of their rarity or li mited range in South Dakota, l ong-eared myotis are considered species of concern (SDGFP 2002). Natural History Long-eared myotis use coniferous forests at higher elevations or ar id badlands of the Great Plains. Stebler (1939) re ported that long-eared myotis we re found near streams in the Black Hills bordered by bur oak associations. Generally, long-eared myotis are found in a variety of habitats though most habitats are associated with forest areas (Manning and Jones 1989, Nagorsen and Brigham 1993). Roost sites in clude live or dead trees (beneath bark), abandoned buildings, mines or caves, sinkholes, or cl iff fissures. Night roosts consist of caves
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 58or mines and nursery roosts usually occur in buildings (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Winter hibernacula include primarily caves or mines. Long-eared myotis have a slow maneuverable flight, which aids in foraging abilit ies. Foraging begins after dusk or well past dark over tree canopy, ponds, or streams. Bee tles and moths comprise most of their diet (Black 1974). Breeding occurs in late summer or early fall before hibernation. One pup is produced each year in early to late summer . Once pups are born, long-eared myotis form maternity colonies on the ground in rock cer vices, fallen logs, or other ground dwelling sources (Manning and Jones 1989, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Maternity colonies are relatively small, usually less than 30 individuals. Subspecies Subspecies found in South Dakota is M. e. evotis . Management Notes Little is known concerning long-eared myotis in South Dakota, particularly the Black Hills. Further information is required to pr operly protect this species (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Long-legged myotis (Myotis volans) Museum Records (103) : CUSTER County: 20 (KU), 2 (UM), 1 (UCB); FALL RIVER County: 3 (KU); HARDING County: 43 ( KU); LAWRENCE County: 12 (KU); MEADE County: 1 (KU); PENNINGTON County: 21 (KU). Appearance Long-legged myotis ( Myotis volans ) are medium-sized bats with average forearm length 37.93 mm and average body weight 7.84 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Characteristics of long-legged myotis include dull brown fur, small hindfeet, and short, rounded ears (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Harvey et al. 1999). Ears and membranes are dark brown. In addition, long-legged myotis have long hair along the underside of the wing membrane, short rostrums, and steep foreheads (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Typically, females are larger than males, which is shown in fo rearm length. Often it is difficult to distinguish long-legged myotis from little brown myotis, especially during hibernation. Long-legged myotis have more dense fur along the ventra l surface of their wing membranes and distinct keels. (Fur and keels are usually lacking in little brown myotis.) Distribution and Status Much like long-eared myotis, long-legged myo tis range from the Pacific Coast to the extreme western Dakotas (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). This species is of special concern nationwide (Harvey et al. 1999). In South Dakot a, long-legged myotis are found in the Black Hills and other western portions of the state (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al. 2000). Long-legged myotis ar e more commonly found in the Black Hills and are year-round residents (Tigner and Dowd Stuke l 2003). Moreover, two studies indicate that long-legged myotis are the most common bat in Black Hills (Turner 1974, Mattson and Bogan 1993). Turner (1974) states all Chiropteran sp ecies found in the Black Hills are associated with long-legged myotis.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 59Natural History Habitat of long-legged myotis consists of coniferous-juniper forest mountain regions at moderate elevations, although this bat may use lowlands or riparian areas (Warner and Czaplewski 1984). Barbour and Davis (1969) noted that long-legged myotis are closely associated with coniferous forests. Sometimes selected habitat areas can be relatively arid. Long-legged myotis use trees (under bark or in ca vities), caves, mines, and rock crevices for roost sites in the Black Hi lls (Tigner and Aney 1994, Cryan and Bogan 1996). Selected hibernacula include abandoned mines and caves and are very humid (approximately 90%). During hibernation, droplets of condensation usually accumulate on the body while suspended from the ceiling or wall (Tigner and Dowd Stuke l 2003). Foraging occurs after twilight for 3 to 4 hours throughout canopy, much like the l ong-eared myotis (Barbour and Davis 1969). Prey species include chiefly moths but also ot her soft-bodied insects (Whitaker et al. 1981b). One pup is usually born each year in July (Warner and Czaplewski 1984, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Males roost separately from females, while females roost communally in maternity roosts. Most maternit y roosts are located in tree cavities (van Zyll de Jong 1985), but lactating fema les were discovered roosting beneath the bark of snags (dbh 66 cm) in the Black Hills (Cryan and Bogan 1996). Subspecies M. v. interior is the subspecies of long-leg ged myotis found in South Dakota. Management Notes Long-legged myotis require dead (e.g., snags) and live trees and caves or mines. To develop conservation strategies for this bat, habitat requirements of long-legged myotis need to be identified. More specifically, further in formation is required regarding maternity and nursery roosts (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003) . Reproductive females were absent from foraging areas implying that roost sites with impor tant characteristics might be present in the Black Hills (Cryan and Bogan 1996). Concentrat ions of bats at spec ific roost sites create greater susceptibility among bats to habita t alterations (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Museum Records (180) : BEADLE County: 1 (SDSU); BON HOMME County: 30 (KU); BROOKINGS County: 5 (SDSU); BRULE Count y: 2 (SDSU); CHARLES MIX County: 1 (SDSU); CLAY County: 8 (KU), 2 (SDSU), 2 (USNM); CUSTER County: 17 (UM), 5 (KU), 4 (USNM), 2 (WCNP); DAVISON County 2 (SDSU); DEUEL County: 1 (SDSU); FALL RIVER County: 22 (KU); GRANT County: 1 (SDSU); HARDING County: 11 (KU); HUGHES County: 1 (SDSU), 8 (TTU); HUT CHINSON County: 1 (SDSU); JACKSON County: 30 (KU); LAKE County: 1 (SDSU) ; LAWRENCE County: 31 (KU), 5 (USNM); LINCOLN County: 9 (SDSU) ; MINNEHAHA County: ~600 (S DSU); MOODY County: 3 (SDSU); PENNINGTON County: 3 (KU); STANLEY County: 1 (USNM); TURNER County: 3 (SDSU); UNION County: 1 (KU) , 1(SDSU); YANKTON County: 1 (SDSU). Appearance Big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) are large bats with average forearm length 45.72 mm and average body weight 17.54 g (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Body length measures nearly 13 cm (5 in) (Over and Churchill 1945). Big brown bats have pale brown, long fur,
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 60which varies regionally. Wings are short and br oad, and ears are pointed and furred at the medial side of the base. Ears and membra nes are black. Big brown bats differ from Myotis species; heads and snouts are br oader and body size is larger. Distribution and Status Big brown bats range throughout the United St ates with the excep tion of the extreme south central region and the Florida peninsula (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Big brown bats are common throughout much of their range. In South Dakota, big brow n bats range throughout the state and are very common (Over and Churchill 1945, Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al. 2000). Bi g brown bats are deemed the most common bat roosting in buildings and are one of the more successful bats residing in the Black Hills (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003) Natural History Forested areas are selected as primar y habitat, although habitat may range from timberline meadows to lowland deserts. Histor ically, big brown bats selected roost sites in tree cavities or under bark. St ebler (1939) reported that bi g brown bats were found near floodplain areas of western South Dakota with cottonwood-willow associations. Currently, big brown bats are closely associated with humans because roosts typically occur in manmade structures (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). In Clay County, big brown bats probably day roost in man-made structures (Findley 1956). Over and Churchill (1945) added that big brown bats use day roosts, such as old buildi ngs, rock crevices, and hollow trees. In eastern South Dakota, big brown bats select open areas in urban locale s, cottonwood floodplain forests, and deciduous forests but are most abunda nt in urban areas wher e they utilize humanmade structures (Swier 2003). In the Black Hills, big brown bats roost in buildings, trees, mines, caves, and railway tunnels (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Big brown bats spend the summer in eastern South Dakota but migrate to western South Dakota fo r winter hibernation, though some records indicate bats may stay in eastern South Dakota year-round (Swier 2003). Usually summer and winter roosts are in cl ose proximity. Hibernacula microclimates vary due to their large size and high fat reserves (Kurta and Baker 1990). Usually big brown bats hibernate in caves, mines, and buildings (Ti gner and Dowd Stukel 2003). (Big brown bats are the only species to hibernate in buildings in Black Hills [Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003].) Hibernating colonies usually consist of fema les and males with more males than females present (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Feeding occurs throughout the ni ght with pe ak activity at dusk and just prior to sunr ise (Kurta and Baker 1990). Big brown bats emerge with steady, straight flight patterns to feed over meadows, canopy vegetation, or water at nearly six to ten meters above ground (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). These bats are not as acrobatic and evasive as Myotis species in flight and must be at an elevat ed perch to initiate flight (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Big brown bats primarily prey on beetles, although many other insect species may comprise their diet. Mating occurs in the fall or winter before hi bernation. One to two (twin) young are born each year in June afte r a 60-day gestation. Big brown bats form maternity roost sites of many individuals usually in man-made structures, but historically they roosted under tree bark and in tree cavities (Kurta and Baker 1990, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001, TPW 2001). Brigham (1991) located maternity roosts in snags. Big brown bats select maternity roosts in older buildings with high temperatures, a great deal of access areas, and
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 61wide temperatures gradients (Williams and Br ittingham 1997), and large maternity roosts are not uncommon (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Subspecies Two subspecies found in South Dakota include E. f. fuscus and E. f. pallidus . These two subspecies differ: E. f. fuscus have larger craniums and darker pelages than E. f. pallidus (Jones and Genoways 1967), and E. f. fuscus is found east of the Missouri River, while E. f. pallidus is found west of the Missouri River. Management Notes Because this bat is associated with humans, th e main threat to this bat is lack of public awareness. Therefore, increasing public aw areness regarding roost sites and providing information on proper house exclusions is important to protect this bat. Evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) Appearance Evening bats ( Nycticeius humeralis ) are average-sized bats weighing from 7 to 14 g and measuring on average 10 cm (4 in) in body length (Watkins 1972, Harvey et al. 1999). Evening bats have thick, dark membranes and pa le brown to reddish brown fur. Generally, the belly is lighter than the back. Ears and tragus (fleshy protrusion in ear) are more rounded than those of Myotis spp. This bat resembles a small big brown bat. Distribution and Status In the United States, evening bats range fr om the southeastern Atlantic Coast west to the central region and north to the Midwest (N owak and Paradiso 1983). Evening bats are uncommon throughout their range, except for the southern coastal states (TPW 2001). Jones and Genoways (1967) noted that evening bats po ssibly occur in South Dakota, particularly in the southeast, due to the prox imity of NebraskaÂ’s evening bat population. Evening bats were recently documented in South Dakota. Lane et al. (in press) captured three bats in Vermillion, Clay County; two bats were captured in 2000 and one bat was captured in 2001. As a result of these captures, evening bats are consider ed rare with a limited range in South Dakota (SDGFP 2002). Natural History Habitat consists of highly forested areas. Roost sites occur in tr ees or buildings and almost never caves. The evening bat forages on sm all nocturnal insects, such as June beetles, and leaves the roost to feed ju st after dusk foraging well into the night. During late evening foraging bouts, flight is low and steady in sear ch of low-flying insects. The evening bat builds huge fat reserves for a long, southe rn migration, although much remains unknown about migration routes and hibernation si tes (Watkins 1972, Harvey et al. 1999, TPW 2001). Males may not migrate during spring as far north as females (Watkins 1972). In late spring or early fall, young evening bats are born with a li tter size consisting of two altricial pups. Pups are produced each year. Large nursery colonies are formed in buildings or attics, whereas small nursery colonies are formed behind loose bark or in tree caviti es (Harvey et al. 1999, TPW 2001).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 62Subspecies The subspecies of evening ba t located in South Dakota is N. h. humeralis . Management Notes Little is known of evening bats in South Dakota. More data are recommended for proper management.Cave-Roosting Bats TownsendÂ’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii , formerly Plectotus townsendii) Museum Records (121) : CUSTER County: 41 (KU), 9 (UCB), 8 (USNM); FALL RIVER County: 42 (KU); HARDING C ounty: 3 (KU); JACKSON C ounty: 4 (KU); LAWRENCE County: 1 (KU); MEADE County: 1 (KU); PENNINGTON C ounty: 12 (KU). Appearance TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats ( Corynorhinus townsendii ) are relatively large bats with average weight 11.59 g and average forear m length 44.31 mm (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats measure a pproximately 10 cm (4 in) body length (Allen 1895, Over and Churchill 1945). Fur is buff along the back and pale buff along the belly (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Ears are hair less, large, long, and pointed, and measure approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) with long pinna e (Over and Churchill 1945). While roosting, ears are folded back exposing only the tragus . Visible traguses appear as ears of Myotis species. Two large bumps exist on the snout. Females are slightly larger than males as demonstrated by forearm lengths (Kunz and Martin 1982). Distribution and Status TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats range from th e Pacific Coast to the extreme western portion of South Dakota (Nowak and Paradiso 1983). Nationally, TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats are considered of special concern (Harvey et al. 1999). In South Dakota, TownsendÂ’s bigeared bats are located in western portions of the state (Jones and Genoways 1967, Jones et al. 1985, Higgins et al. 2000). Formerly known as Plecotus townsendii , the TownsendÂ’s bigeared bat is a cave-dwelling bat distributed throughout the Black Hills (Turner 1974), and they are the most common underground roosting species in this region (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Due to their rarity and limited range, Town sendÂ’s big-eared bats are considered a state species of concern (SDGFP 2002). Natural History Habitat consists of arid west ern desert scrub and pine fore st regions, while roost sites occur underground (Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001). TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats are dependent on underground structures year-round. Roost sites and hibernacula are se lected in areas with minimal human intervention and relatively stable , cool temperatures. Selected hibernacula (e.g., mines and caves) are cooler and drier than Myotis hibernacula (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats hibernate in ca ves or mines in clusters of several to 100 individuals with a mixture of ages and sexes (Worthington 1992). Disturbance and temperature variation are detrimental to Town sendÂ’s big-eared bats; disturbance may cause hibernating clusters to relocate within or leave caves or mine s altogether. TownsendÂ’s big-
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 63eared bats are agile fliers searching for food in a variety of habitats . In the Black Hills, foraging primarily occurs along forested edges or in the canopy late at night (Kunz and Martin 1982); TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats emerge approx iamtely 30 minutes after sunset (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Food consists of primarily moths (Pierson et al. 1999). TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats occupy feeding perches in th e Black Hills (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003). Mating occurs in fall or winter usually in winter roosts. In June of the following year, one pup per year is born after a 50 to 100-day ge station (Pearson et al. 1952). Young females are reproductively mature and may mate their firs t fall, whereas males are not reproductively mature until their second year. Females form ma ternity and nursery roosts in inaccessible, spacious areas in warm sections of undergr ound structures (Tigner and Dowd Stukel 2003), while males continue to roost solitarily (Kunz and Martin 1982, Harvey et al. 1999, BCI 2001). Subspecies Subspecies of TownsendÂ’s big-ea red bat found in South Dakota is C. t. pallescens . Management Notes TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats are strictly dependent on underground structures (e.g., caves and mines) and extremely sensitive to di sturbance. As a result, protecting caves or mines especially those supplying roosts duri ng critical periods (e.g., maternity or nursery roosts and hibernacula) is necessary to prevent human disturbance and to conserve TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats (Tigner and Do wd Stukel 2003). Para llel efforts include increasing public awareness and determining and designating no treatment (where timber harvest does not occur) buffer zones around each protected roost. Appendix C. Identifying Bats A key can be used to help identify species. Some mammal species are easily identified without the use of a key, while others are difficult to identify ev en with the use of a key. Chiroptera is among the more difficult species to identify. Keys help to identify a mammal, in particular bats, to genus and often species. If identification is questionable, do not hesitate to seek assistance from professional mammalogists in the various wildlife agencies and universities. To use the keys, read the choices in descriptions of the same number and choose the best result. Go to the number that is indicated at the end of the chosen alternative and continue moving through the key until a final choice is indicated. However, a key se ldom works for every specimen because each species varies in size, color, and other characteristics. It is best to have several specimens on hand for comparison. Characteristics in these keys apply to only adult animals. This key is reproduced by permission from South Dakota, Game, Fish and Parks. Originally, the Order Chiroptera key was included in Â“Wild Mammals of South DakotaÂ” copyrighted in 2000.ORDER CHIROPTERANote: Because of the difficulty distinguishing South DakotaÂ’s Myotis species, two keys are included in this text. The second key emphasizes measurements obtained from bats found in the Black Hills. 1. Large bat, forearm length usually greater than 50 mm (1.97 in.). Fur is yellowish brown to mahogany and Â“frostedÂ” with silver; rounded ears edged in black----------------------------------------------------------Hoary Bat 1. Forearm length usually less than 50 mm (1 .97 in.). Fur not as described above------------------------Go to 2
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 642. Forearm length usually 41-48 mm (1.61-1.89 in.). Ears large, length greater than 25 mm (0.98 in.)----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TownsendÂ’s Big-eared Bat 2. Ears less than 25 mm (0.98 in.) length------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 3 3. Large bat, forearm length usually less then 50 mm (1.97 in.) but greater than 41 mm (1.61 in.). Fur is brown, ears less than 20 mm length (0.79 in.), total le ngth greater than 110 mm (4.33 in.); blunt tragus; broad head and snout--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Big Brown Bat 3. Forearm length usually less than 45 mm (1.77 in .), total length less than 110 mm (4.33 in.)---------Go to 4 4. Fur black to dark black-brown, Â“frosted Â” with silver or white---------------------------------Silver-haired Bat 4. Fur not as described above--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 5 5. Fur bright reddish orange to chestnut, no Â“frostedÂ” fur----------------------------------------------------Red Bat 5. Fur not as described above--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 6 6. Forearm usually less than 34 mm (1.34 in.), black facial mask, ears, and flight membranes contrasting with yellowish-brown to golden-brown fur-------------------------------------------Western Small-footed Myotis 6. Forearm usually greater th en 34 mm (1.34 in.)--------------------------------------------------------------Go to 7 7. Ears usually 18 mm (0.71 in .) or more in length------------------------------------------------------------Go to 8 7. Ears usually less than 18 mm (0.71 in.) in length-----------------------------------------------------------Go to 9 8. Ears usually 22-25 mm (0.87-0.98 in.) in lengt h, ears extend 5 mm (0.2 in.) or more beyond nose tip when laid forward, forearm usually less than 39.5 mm (1.56 in.) but may range from 36-41 mm (1.42-1.61 in.); indistinct fringe of minute hairs along edge of uropatagium------------------------------Long-eared Myotis 8. Ears usually 18-20 mm (0.71-0.79 in.) in lengt h but may range from 16-20 mm (0.63-0.79 in.), forearm usually more than 39.5 mm (1.56 in.); distinct fringe of small, stiff hairs along the edge of the uropatagium---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fringe-ta iled Myotis 9. Ear length usually 17-18 mm (0.67-0.71 in.) but may range up to 19 mm (0.75 in.); when ear laid forward extending beyond tip of nose (forearm length ranges from 32-39 mm or 1.26-1.54 in.)-------Northern Myotis 9. Ear length usually less than 16 mm (0.63 in.); when ear laid forward, extending to end of nose but not much past end of nose--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 10 10 Ears usually 13-15 mm (0.51-0.59 in.), calcar keeled--------------------------------------Long-legged Myotis 10. Ears usually 14-15 mm (0.55-0.59 in.), calcar not keeled---------Little Brown Bat (Little Brown Myotis)ALTERNATE KEY TO ORDER CHIROPTERA1. Ear length greater than 25 mm (0.98 in)-----------------------------------------------TownsendÂ’s Big-eared Bat 1. Ear length less than 25 mm (0.98 in .)-------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 2 2. Fur extending onto dorsal side of uropatagium; ear shape rounded---------------------------------------Go to 3 2. Sparse or no fur extending onto dorsal side of uropatigium; ear shape pointed-------------------------Go to 5 3. Forearm length equal to or greater than 45 mm (1 .77 in); fur multicolored yellowish and dark gray to black heavily tipped with white; rou nded ear edged in black---------------------------------------------Hoary Bat 3. Forearm length equal to or l ess than 44 mm (1.73 in.)-----------------------------------------------------Go to 4
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 654. Forearm length 37-44 mm (1.46-1.73 in); dark brow n to (usually) black with many hairs silver-tipped; ear round with short, blunt tragus---------------------------------------------------------------------Silver-haired Bat 4. Forearm length 36-42 mm (1.42-1.65 in.); fur color ranges from yellowish-orange to cinnamon; uropatagium is densely furred; tufts of pale fur freque ntly found at distal end of forearm----Eastern Red Bat 5. Distinct keel on calcar-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 6 5. Calcar keel absent or weak-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Go to 7 6. Forearm less than 34 mm (1.34 in.); black mask, ears, and flight membranes cont rasting with usually pale brown fur----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Western Small-footed Myotis 6. Forearm 41-51 mm (1.61-2.01 in.); ears short (less than 20 mm or 0.79 in.), barely reaching nose tip when pressed forward; blunt tragus; br oad head and snout -----------------------------------------Big Brown Bat 6. Forearm 35-41 mm (1.38-1.61 in.); usually furring on ventral side of wing membrane to a line from elbow to knee; fur dull lacking sheen; dark br own ears and flight membranes-------------Long-legged Myotis 7. Ears short (13-15 mm or 0.51-0.59 in.) with bl unt tragus approximately Â½ length of ear; varying shades of brown often with sheen to fur; forearm 3441 mm (1.34-1.61 in.); membranes and ears brown--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Little Brown Bat 7. Ears long (15-18 mm or 0.59-0.71 in.), extending beyond tip of nose when pressed forward; tragus long and narrow, coming to a point; ears, mask, and flight membranes brown; no fringe of hairs along free edge of uropatagium-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Northern Myotis 7. Distinct fringe of course hairs along free edge of uropatagium; ear length 16-20 mm (0.63-0.79 in.), ear length generally less than Â½ length of forearm; ears ex tend less than 5 mm (0.2 in.) beyond tip of nose when pressed forward; blackish ears and flight membranes; forearm 39-44 mm (1.54-1.73 in.)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fringe-ta iled Myotis 7. Ear length 22-25 mm (0.87-0.98 in.), ear length generally greater than Â½ length of forearm; ears extending more than 5 mm (0.2 in.) beyond tip of no se when pressed forward; frequently displays indistinct fringe of hairs along free edge of uropatigium; ear s and membranes blackish; forearm 36-41 mm (1.42-1.61 in.)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Long-eared MyotisAppendix D. Management Recommendations 1. Underground Roost Habitat All open underground cavities (e.g., natural caves, abandone d mines) irrespective of size should be evaluated as bat habitat by a qualif ied bat biologist. No actions that could potentially alter the site and its surrounding ar ea should occur without this evaluation. An acceptable evaluation will consider hibernacula, maternity, and day roost potential therefore surveys must be conducted in the appropriate seasons (e.g., hibernacula surveys cannot be conducted ou tside of winter months). This will mean that land managers, state biologists, and private landowners will need to plan activities far enough in advance to accommodate evaluation requirements. The (written) evaluation should include a brie f description of the site, proposed action, findings, and recommendations or mitiga tion required for the proposed action to continue. Note: If the situation warrants a complete closur e of the site, other than with a Â‘bat friendlyÂ’ gate design, then the exclusion mu st be performed in the seas on and using methods that would
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 66pose the least adverse affect to the bats. Th is can be accomplished by biologists and technicians trained in these procedures. 2. Water Source Protection Depending on location and season springs, s eeps, ponds, reservoirs, dugouts, stock tanks may provide important, and often limited, watering or foraging sites for bats. These sites need to be maintained in working order, and free of high levels of feculent material. Heavy levels of livestock congregation (s oil compaction) need to be avoided around spring sources. Aquatic and emergent vegetation should be en couraged and maintained. Often these sites were originally created for livestock wateri ng, however these recommendations will benefit livestock water quality and dependability, as well and improving wildlife watering opportunities. It is expected that watering sites located on public lands (National Forests, Grasslands, etc.) will be maintained in this multiple-use concept. 3. Riparian/Cottonwood Riparian, cottonwood, green ash, box elder, or other wooded draw habitats provide critical foraging, roosting, and migration corridors for ma ny bat species and othe r wildlife. Protect these habitats from activities that may contri bute to loss or decline. Improve structural diversity where possible. Encourage that public land National Forest/Grassland Management Plans (Standards and Guidelines, Go als and Objectives) be followed. Note: This is in agreement with the Western Bat Working Group (WBWG) resolution (9/29/2001) that supports the further rese arch, inventory, conservation, maintenance, restoration and re-establishment of historic cottonwood (and sycamore) ecosystems across western North America. 4. Forestry Practices Dead Trees (snags) Â– Many wild life species utilize snags fo r habitat but since this is focusing on bats we will limit our discus sion. Snags provide roosting habitat, and critical maternity roosts have been found under bark and in old woodpecker cavities. Working towards an average of 8-10 snags per acre would likely provide sufficient roosting habitat for the variety of bats spec ies (Mattson et al. 1994 ), as well as the customary cavity nesting bird species that depend on this habitat feature. Green Trees/Forest Fragmentation Â– Mature forests provide roost sites for tree bats, and produce insects where bats forage above the canopy. Large diameter, mature green trees provide the replacements for the snags that exist today. Even-aged forestry practices often remove the la rge diameter trees to make room for the next rotation of young trees. This plan supports un-even aged forestry practices that maintain a mix of old trees while planning for forest rege neration. This can be accomplished on a landscape (watershed) scale and need not ne cessarily be met at the individual stand level. However, it does need to be m onitored and not lost to commodity driven intensive forestry practices. Forest ma nagement on public lands is more easily monitored but this multi-storied, un-even ag ed condition is equally important on state and private forest habitats. Forest fragment ation is a term used to describe breakingup of large tracts of continuous forests. Due to the naturally fragmented condition of the forests in South Dakota, including th e Black Hills it is mentioned only for
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 67reference purposes. Naturally, fragmenta tion can and does occur on smaller scales. Some principle causes of forest fragmenta tion are fire, logging a nd insects (bug killed trees). Man-caused activi ties should consider any potenti al to decrease connectivity of forested habitats. 5. Buildings If a large number of bats are detected to be roosting in a building (e.g., house) during the summer, please have the site evaluate d by a qualified bat biologist. Most likely this site serves as a maternity roost. No act ions that could potentially alter this site and its surrounding area should occu r without this evaluation. This evaluation will help determine the importance of this site and locate any other suitable sites nearby in th e event that a proper bat exclusion is conducted. For information regarding proper bat exclusi ons, seek advice from bat biologists, seek information at the SDBWG website ( http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html , see Help! Bats in My House!), or read Joel TignerÂ’s article Â“Bat s and BuildingsÂ” (Appendix G). Appendix E. Federal Cave Resources Protection Act, 1988 (Public Law 100-691; November 18, 1988; 16 U.S.C. 4301-4309) Overview. This Act helps protect significant caves on fede ral lands by identifying their locations, regulating their uses, requiring permits for removal of their reso urces, and prohibiting destructive acts. Caves must be considered in the preparation and implementation of land management plans and cave locations may be kept confidential. Findings/Policy. Congress found that significan t caves on federal lands are invaluable and irreplaceable parts of our cultural heritage. In some instan ces, caves are threatened due to impr oper use, increased recreation, urban sprawl, and lack of specific statutory protection. This Act helps preserve significant caves on federal lands for the perpetual use, enjoyment, and benefit of all people and foster increased cooperation and information exchange between government authorities and people usin g caves on federal lands for scientific, education, or recreational purposes. U.S. policy states that federal la nds should be managed to protect and maintain significant caves to the extent practical. Â§ 4301. Selected Definitions. Cave: any naturally occurring void, cavity, r ecess, or system of interconnected passages which occurs beneath the earth's surface or within a cliff or ledge (excluding mines, tunnels and other manmade excavations) and which is large enough to permit an individual to enter. Cave resource: any material or substance occurring naturally in caves on federal lands, such as animal and plant life, paleontological deposits, sediments and minerals. Secretary: Secretary of Agriculture or Secretary of the Interior, as appropriate. Â§ 4302. Cave Management. Secretary is required to issue regulations to achieve the purposes of the Act no later than August 18, 1989. Regulations must include criteria fo r identification of significant caves. Secretaries must cooperate and consult with each other in preparing regula tions, which should be similar to the extent practical. Secretary must take other actions to further the Act's pu rposes, which includes identification of significant caves on federal lands, regulation or restriction of use of significant caves as appropriate, entering into volunteer management agreements with people in the scientific and recreational caving community, and appointment of appropriate advisory committees. Secret ary must ensure that significant caves are considered in the preparation or implementation of land management plans and foster communication and cooperation among land managers, cave users, and the public. Â§ 4303. Specific locations of significant caves cannot be made available to the public unless the Secretary determines that disclosure of this information would further the Act's purposes and not create a substantial risk of harm, theft, or destructio n of caves. Information on significant caves may be made available through written request by federal or state governmental agencies or educational and research institutions. Requests must describe specific sites or ar eas, explain purposes of seeking information, and include assurances that information will be kept confidential and caves will be protected from vandalism and unauthorized use. Â§ 4304.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 68 Collection Permits. Secretary may issue permits for the collectio n and removal of cave resources, if proposed activities are consistent with the Act's purposes. Secretary may issue permits for use on Indian lands only if the Indian or Indian tribe owning or having jurisdiction over the land consents. If a permit may result in harm to any religious or cultural site, the Secretary must notify any Indian tribe that may consider the site religiously or culturally important. Upon application of an Indian trib e, the Secretary may delegate to the tribe authority to issue and enforce permits for any cave resource located on the tribe's lands. Permits are not transferable and may be revoked by the Secretary for violation of the Act or failure to comply with the permit's conditions. Actions authorized by permit are not considered violations of the Act. Â§ 4305. Prohibitions and Penalties. . Act prohibits knowingly destroying, disturbing, defacing, removing, or harming any significant cave; altering free movement of any animal or plant life in or out of a significant cave; entering a significant cave with the intention of committing any pr ohibited act; possessing, selling, or exchanging any cave resource knowing that the resource was removed from a significant cave on federal lands; and employing or using another person to commit any act prohibited in this section. Violation of these prohibitions is subject to criminal and civil penalties. Â§Â§ 4306 and 4307. Cave Research Program. Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the National Park Service, must establish and administer a cave research program for the orderly and scholarly collection and analyze and disseminate research material on caves in lands managed by the National Park Service. Programs must produce educational information for public understanding of cave geology, assist students and researchers, and provide a comprehensive evaluation of cave reso urces and protection measures. Â§ 4310. Related Provision. Notes to this Act contain a related statute, the Lechuguilla Cave Protection Act of 1993. This statute designates approximately 6,280 acres of land in New Mexico as the Lechuguilla Cave Protection Area and protects it from development and mineral exploration. Â§ 4301 note.BE IT ENACTED BY THE SENATE AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED, SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be referred to as the "Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988." SEC. 2. FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND POLICY. (a) FINDINGS.-The Congress finds and declares that(1) significant caves on Federal lands are an invalu able and irreplaceable part of the Nation's natural heritage; and (2) in some instances, these significant caves are threatened due to improper use, increased recreational demand, urban spread, and a lack of specific statutory protection. (b) PURPOSES.-The purposes of this Act are(1) to secure, protect, and preserve significant caves on Federal lands for the perpetual use, enjoyment, and benefit of all people; and (2) to foster increased cooperation and exchange of information between governmental authorities and those who utilize caves located on Federal lands for scientific, education, or recreational purposes. (c) POLICY.-It is the policy of the United States that Federal lands be managed in a manner which protects and maintains, to the extent practical, significant caves. SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS. For purposes of this Act: (1) CAVE.-The term "cave" means any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnected passages which occurs beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge (including any cave resource therein, but not including any vug, mine, tunnel, aqueduct, or other man-made excavation) and which is la rge enough to permit an individual to enter, whether or not the entrance is naturally formed or man-made. Such term shall include any natural pit, sinkhole, or other feature which is an extension of the entrance.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 69 (2) FEDERAL LANDS.-The term "Federal lands" means lands the fee title to which is owned by the United States and administer ed by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of the Interior. (3) INDIAN LANDS-The term "Indian lands" means la nds of Indian tribes or Indian individuals which are either held in trust by the United States for the benefit of an Indian tribe or subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States. (4) INDIAN TRIBE.-The term "Indian tribe" mean s any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, in cluding any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C 1601 et seq.). (5) CAVE RESOURCE.-The term "cave resource" in cludes any material or substance occurring naturally in caves on Federal lands, such as anim al life, plant life, paleontological deposits, sediments, minerals, speleogens, and speleothems. (6) SECRETARY.-The term "Secretary" means the S ecretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of the Interior, as appropriate. (7) SPELEOTHEM-The term "speleothem" means an y natural mineral fo rmation or deposit occurring in a cave or lava tube, including but no t limited to any stalactite, stalagmite, helictite, cave flower, flowstone, concretion, drapery, rimstone, or formation of clay or mud. (8) SPELEOGEN.-The term "speleogen" means relie f features on the wails, ceiling and floor of any cave or lava tube which are part of th e surrounding bedrock, including but not limited to anastomoses, scallops, meander niches, petromor phs and rock pendants in solution caves and similar features unique to volcanic caves. SEC. 4. MANAGEMENT ACTIONS. (a) REGULATIONS-Not later than nine months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue such regulations as he deems necessary to achieve the purposes of this Act. Regulations shall include, but not be limite d to, criteria for the identification of significant caves. The Secretaries shall cooperate and cons ult with one another in preparation of the regulations. To the extent practical, regulati ons promulgated by the respective Secretaries should be similar. (b) IN GENERAL-The Secretary shall take such actions as may be necessary to further the purposes of this Act. These actions shall include (but not be limited to: identification of significant caves on federal lands; (1)(A) The Secretary shall prep are an initial list of significant caves for lands under his jurisdiction not later than one year after the publication of final regulations using the significance criteria defined in su ch regulations. Such a list shall be developed after consultation with appr opriate private sector interests, including cavers. (B) The initial list of significant caves shall be updated periodically, after consultation with appropriate private sector interests, including cavers. The Secretary shall prescribe by policy or regulation the requirements and process by which the initial list will be updated, including management measures to assure that caves under consideration for the list are protected during the period of consideration. Each cave recommended to the Secretary by interested groups for possi ble inclusion on the list of significant caves shall be considered by th e Secretary according to the requirements prescribed pursuant to th is paragraph, and shall be added to the list if the Secretary determines that the cav e meets the criteria for significance as defined by the regulations. (2) regulation or restriction of use of significant caves, as appropriate; (3) entering into volunteer management agreem ents with persons of the scientific and recreational caving community; and (4) appointment of appropria te advisory committees.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 70 (c) PLANNING AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION.The Secretary shall(1) ensure that significant caves are considered in the preparation or implementation of any land management plan if the preparation or revision of the plan began after the enactment of this Act; (2) foster communication, cooperation, and exch ange of information between land managers, those who utilize caves, and the public. SEC. 5. CONFIDENTIALITY OF INFORMATION CONCERNING NATURE AND LOCATION OF SIGNIFICANT CAVES. (a) IN GENERAL.-Information concerning the speci fic location of any significant cave may not be made available to the public under secti on 552 of title 5, United States Code, unless the Secretary determines that disclosure of such in formation would further the purposes of this Act and would not create a substantial risk of harm, theft, or destruction of such cave. (b) EXCEPTIONS.-Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Secretary may make available information regarding significant caves upon the written re quest by Federal and state governmental agencies or bona fide educational and research institutions. Any such written request shall, at a minimum: (1) describe the specific site or area for which information is sought; (2) explain the purpose for which such information is sought; and (3) include assurances satisfactory to the Secretar y that adequate measures are being taken to protect the confidentiality of such informa tion and to ensure the protection of the significant cave from destruction by vandalism and unauthorized use. SEC. 6. COLLECTION AND REMOVAL FROM FEDERAL CAVES. (a) PERMIT.-The Secretary is authorized to issue permits for the collection and removal of cave resources under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may impose, including the posting of bonds to insure compliance with the provisions of any permit. (1) Any permit issued pursuant to this section shall include information concerning the time, scope, location, and specific purpose of the proposed collection, removal or associated activity, and the manner in wh ich such collection, removal, or associated activity is to be performed must be provided. (2) The Secretary may issue a permit pursuant this subsection only if he determines that the proposed collection or removal activiti es are consistent with the purposes of this Act and with other applicable provisions of law. (b) REVOCATION OF PERMIT.-Any permit issued under this section shall be revoked by the Secretary upon a determination by the Secretary that the permittee has violated any provision of this Act, or has failed to comply with an y other condition upon which the permit was issued. Any such permit shall be revoked by the Secret ary upon assessment of a civil penalty against the permittee pursuant to section 8 or upon the permittee's conviction under section 7 of this Act. The Secretary may refuse to issue a pe rmit under this section to any person who has violated any provision of this Act or who has failed to comply with any condition of a prior permit. (c) TRANSFERABILITY OF PERMITS. Permits issued under this act are not transferable. (d) CAVE RESOURCES LOCATED ON INDIAN LANDS.(1)(A) Upon application by an Indian tribe, the Secretary is authorized to delegate to the tribe all authority of the Secretary under this section with respect to issuing and enforcing permits for the collection or remova l of any cave resource located on the affected Indian lands. (B) In the case of any perm it issued by the Secretary for the collection or removal of any cave resource, or to carry ou t activities associated with such collection or
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 71 removal, from any cave resource locat ed on Indian lands (other than permits issued pursuant to subparagraph (A)), the permit may be issued only after obtaining the consent of the Indian or Indian Tribe owning or having jurisdiction over such lands. The permit shall include such reasonable te rms and conditions as may be requested by such Indian or Indian Tribe. (2) If the Secretary determines that the issu ance of a permit pursuant to this section may result in harm to, or destru ction of, any religious or cultural site, the Secretary, prior to issuing such permit, shall notify any Indian tribe which may consider the site as having significant religious or cultural importance. Such notice shall not be deemed a disclosure to the public for purposes of section 5. (3) A permit shall not be required under this sec tion for the collection or removal of any cave resource located on Indian lands or activities associated with such collection, by the Indian or Indian tribe owning or having jurisdiction over such lands. (e) EFFECT OF PERMIT-No action specifically authorized by a permit under this section shall be treated as a violation of section 7. SEC. 7. PROHIBITED ACTS AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES. (a) PROHIBITED ACTS.(1) Any person who, without prior authorization from the Secretary knowingly destroys, disturbs, defaces, mars, alters, removes or harms any significant cave or alters the free movement of any animal or plant life into or out of any signi ficant cave located on Federal lands, or enters a significant cave with the intention of committing any act described in this paragraph shall be punished in accordance with subsection (b). (2) Any person who possesses, consumes, sells, barters or exchanges, or offers for sale, barter or exchange, any cave resource from a significant cave with knowledge or reason to know that such resource was removed from a significant ca ve located on Federal lands shall be punished in accordance with subsection (b). (3) Any person who counsels, procures, solicits, or employs any other person to violate any provisions of this subsection shall be punished in accordance with subsection (b). (4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed appli cable to any person who was in lawful possession of a cave resource from a significant cave prior to the date of enactment of this Act. (b) PUNISHMENT: Punishment for violating any provision of subsection (a) shall be imprisonment of not more than one year or a fine in accordance with the applicable provisions of title 18 of the United States Code, or both. In the case of a second or subsequent violation, the punishment sh all be imprisonment of not more than 3 years or a fine in accordance with the appli cable provisions of title 18 of the United States Code, or both. SEC. 8. CIVIL PENALTIES. (a) ASSESSMENT.-(t) The Secretary may issue an order assessing a civil penalty against any person who violates any prohibition contained in this Act, any regulati on promulgated pursuant to this Act, or any permit issued under this Act. Before issuing such an order, the Secretary shall provide such person written notice and the opportunity to request a hearing on the record within 30 days. Each violation shall be a separat e offense, even if such violations occurred at the same time. (1) The amount of such civil penalty shall be determined by the Secretary taking into account appropriate factors, including (A) the seriousness of the violation; (B) the economic benefit (if any) resulting from the violation; (C) any history of such violations; and (D) such other ma tters as the Secretary deems appropriate. The maximum fine permissi ble under this section is $10,000.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 72(b) JUDICIAL REVIEW.-Any person aggrieved by an assessment of a civil penalty under this section may file a petition for judicial review of such assessment with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or for the di strict in which the violation occurred. Such a petition shall be filed within the 30-day peri od beginning on the date the order assessing the civil penalty was issued. (c) COLLECTION-If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty(1) within 30 days after the order was issued under subsection (a), or (2) if the order is appealed within such 30 day period, within 10 days after the court has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary under subsection (b), the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General and th e Attorney General shall bring a civil action in an appropriate United States district court to recover the amount of penalty assessed (plus costs, attorneys fees, and interest at currently prevailing rates from the date the order was issued or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropria teness of such penalty shall not be subject to review. (d) SUBPOENAS.-The Secretary may issu e subpoenas in connection with proceedings under this subsection compelling the attendance and testimony of witnesses and subpoenas duces tecum, and may request the Attorn ey General to bring an action to enforce any subpoena under this section. The district cour ts shall have jurisdiction to enforce such subpoenas and impose sanctions. SEC 9. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. (a) AUTHORIZATION.-There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000 to carry out the purposes of this Act. (b) EFFECT ON LAND MANAGEMENT PLANS. -Nothing in this act shall require the am endment or revision of any land management plan, the preparation of which began prior to the enactment of this Act. (c) FUND-Any money collected by the United States as permit fees for collection and removal of cave resources; received by the United States as a result of the forfeiture of a bond or other security by a permittee who does not comply with the requirements of such permit issued under section 7; or collected by the United States by way of civil penalties or criminal fines for violations of this Act shall be placed in a special fund in the Treasury. Such monies shall be available for obligation or expenditure (to the ex tent provided for in advance in appropriation Acts) as determined by the Secretary for the improved management, benefit, repair, or restoration of significant caves located on Federal lands. (d) Nothing in this act shall be deemed to aff ect the full operation of the mining and mineral leasing laws of the United States, or otherwise affect valid existing rights. SEC. 10. SAVINGS PROVISIONS. (a) WATER.-Nothing in this Act shall be constr ued as authorizing the appropriation of water by any Federal, State, or local agency, Indian tribe, or any other entity or individual. Nor shall any provision of this Act(1) affect the rights or jurisdiction of the Unite d States, the States, Indian tribes, or other entities over water of any river or st ream or over any groundwater resource; (2) alter, amend, repeal, interpret, modify, or be in conflict with any interstate compact made by the States; or (3) alter or establish the respective rights of St ates, the United States, Indian tribes, or any person with respect to any water or water-related right. (b) FISH AND WILDLIFE.-Nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting the jurisdiction or responsibilities of the States with respect to fish and wildlife.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 73Appendix F. National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998 The National Cave and Research Institute Act of 1998 was formed to gather information regarding cave and karst, promote information exchange and education, and foster environmentally sound management practices. Part of this Act includes the development of a centralized location to facilitate these objectives. This location is near Na tional Park lands in New Mexico.SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE This Act may be cited as the Â‘National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998Â’. SECTION 2. PURPOSES The purposes of this Act are1. to further the science of speleology; 2. to centralize and standardize speleological information; 3. to foster interdisciplinary coopera tion in cave and karst research programs; 4. to promote public education; 5. to promote national and interna tional cooperation in protecting the environment for the benefit of cave and karst landforms; and 6. to promote and develop environmentally sound and sustainable resource management practices. SECTION 3. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INSTITUTE MANAGEMENTThe Institute shall be jointly ad ministered by the National Park Service and a public or private agency, organization, or institution, as determined by the Secretary. GUIDELINESThe Institute shall be operated and managed in accordance with the study prepared by the National Park Service pursuan t to section 203 of the Act entitled Â‘An Act to conduct certain studies in the State of New MexicoÂ’, approved November 15, 1990 (Public Law 101-578; 16 U.S.C. 4310 note). CONTRACTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTSThe Secretary may enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with a public or private agency, organization, or institution to carry out this Act. SECTION 4. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTITUTE FACILITY1. LEASING OR ACQUIRING A FACILITYThe Secretary may lease or acquire a facility for the Institute. 2. CONSTRUCTION OF A FACILITYIf the Secretary determines that a suitable facility is not available for a lease or acquisition under paragraph (1), the Secretary may construct a facility for the Institute. ACCEPTANCE OF GRANTS AND TRANSFERSTo car ry out this Act, the Secretary may accept1. a grant or donation from a private person; or 2. a transfer of funds from another Federal agency. SECTION 5. FUNDING MATCHING FUNDSThe Secretary may spend only such amount of Federal funds to carry out this Act as is matched by an equa l amount of funds from non-Federal sources. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONSThere are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 74Appendix G. Proper House Exclusions Proper house exclusions are important for conserving bats, such as little brown bats or big brown bats, that concentrate roosts in houses or other buildings. The following is an article published in the South Dakota Conservation Digest that reports methods to properly exclude bats from buildings. The author of this article, Joel Tigner, is a bat biologist and the owner of Batworks, a consulting firm specializing in bat study and bat-friendly exclusion.BATS IN BUILDINGS Joel TignerHaving "bats in the belfry" usually means that a person is considered crazy or erratic. The phrase derives from observations of bat use of a tall st ructure, such as a watchtower, and the flurry of activity as they leave at dusk. In modern times, fe w people own actual belfries, but they may have bats in their attic, garage, or other building sites. This article provides an overview of bats in buildings and describes how to deal with unwanted roosts. Timing is absolutely crucial when dealing with unwanted bat roosts. If you follow the guidelines outlined below at the wrong time of year, you may create new problems for the roost owner. First, a bit about batsÂ…Bats are not rodents. They do not make or enlarge holes in buildings, they do not chew wiring, and they do not build nests. They use a structure just as they find it, although they may cause damage. Over time, a large roos t can damage a building because of accumulation of urine and droppings. Bat urine has a very pungent od or, particularly noticeable during warm weather. A homeowner neednÂ’t worry about rodent-like bu ilding damage, although removing the urine odor can be difficult without replacing affected building materials. The same bats will use the same roosts from year to year. If you have bats this year, they will likely return next year unless y ou exclude them from the building. Exclusion is the best way to deal with unwanted ba ts in buildings. Exclusion is a process by which bats are sealed out of a structure. Exclusions must be performed at the appropriate time of year and follow certain guidelines. Why not use poisons? Poisoning bats is illegal and irr esponsible. Poisoning attempts se ldom kill all the bats, leaving sickened bats that emerge, become grounded, and may be retrieved by children and pets. Poisoning also fails to address the real issue Â– that bats ar e gaining access to your structure in the first place. As bats are mammals, anything harmful to them will also be harmful to you and your pets. In South Dakota, groups of bats in buildin gs are typically members of maternity/nursery roosts. In general, maternity r oosts may number from less than 10 to more than 1,000 bats. Typical roost size in South Dakota is 20-30 bats. Bats diffe r from most other small mammals in that they give birth only once a year and generally only to a single pup. Adult females come together in the early spring to give birth and rear their pups. These r oosts can form from wider areas with reproductive females sometimes traveling great distances to bene fit from collective roosting. Considering the large area from which females may gather and the low reprod uctive rate of bats, destroying such roosts can have serious impacts to a particular population or species. Exclusions must be timed to be completed be fore the females have given birth or postponed until after the pups have learned to fly. Optimal ex clusion dates vary with a yearÂ’s weather conditions, but in general, exclusions in South Dakota shoul d not be done between mid-May and September 1. Seasonal visitors Most groups of bats in build ings are seasonal visitors, arrivi ng in the spring and departing in the late summer or early fall. Bat species that roos t collectively in buildings must hibernate during the winter, as there is no insect prey available. Buildings typically do not provide the necessary conditions for bats to survive the winter. As cold weather a pproaches, they begin to move out of their summer
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 75roost and head for their hibernation sites (or to warmer climates farther south). By the time cold weather arrives, nearly all the bats will have left buildings. The ideal time to do exclusions is either after the bats have left for the winter or early in the spring before their arrival. NOTABLE EXCEPTION One particularly robust species, the Big Brown Bat ( Eptesicus fuscus ) has been known to winter in buildings in South Dakota, but not much is known about the extent of their winter building use. Buildings most likely to be used for hibernation generally contain brick or block sections (including foundations) where the bats can find a more stable temperature. Bats often move from their entry point to a distant location in the structure via cavities in walls to find their optimal seasonally specific temperature. Bat exclusi on in buildings with such features should employ a more conservative treatment plan to prevent entr apping over-wintering bats. (Entrapment frequently causes bats to seek alternative ways to exit the structure, which may l ead to their inadvertently entering the living space and confronting human inhabitants. In general, neither party is amused by such encounters.) Excluding unwanted bat roosts If you read the important preceding information a nd have decided to evict your bat tenants, here is the method to use when bats are (or may be ) in residence. The following should only be used in roosts of less than 100 bats. For larger roosts, contact an experienced bat exclusion specialist for advice. 1 Identify the batsÂ’ favorite point of entry (there may be more than one). If there is more than one point of access but you are certain they are connected within the structure (different openings leading into the same soffit, for example), you may proceed with the following directions. If you are uncertain the sites are connected or they are in different parts of the structure, each roost should be treated separately. Identifying the entry poi nt is usually not too difficult. Bat droppings may accumulate beneath the access points or a dark staining is sometimes visible around access points found in light-colored materials. If you have no idea where they are ente ring the structure, position yourself and some friends around the outside of the house at dusk to watch for the batsÂ’ nightly emergence. Do this on a warm, calm evening, since cool temperatures or rain will usually delay or prevent bat emergence. 2 Once you have identified the entry point, thoroughly examine the structure during daylight hours and identify any additional openings. This is proba bly the single-most important step in the entire procedure. Many openings may not be visible fro m a ground level vantagepoint, particularly for multistory structures. Use binoculars or examine the structure from a ladder. 3 All openings except the batÂ’s entry point should be sealed. Many people believe bats are larger than they actually are, requiring large holes to gain access. Some species are smaller than others, but you should fill any opening larger than Â½ inch. (Sma ller species can use the trough in the pointing between the ends of two bricks to pass under the fascia boa rd and gain access to the soffit.) Use a good quality caulk to seal smaller holes or crevices and expanding aerosol foam for larger openings. (Remember: bats are not rodents; they do not make or enlarge holes. It is absolutely essential to identify and seal all potential entry points, ex cept for the known entrance.) If the building has vents at the ends, check carefully to be sure they are screened. Even if vents appear to be screened, check for unf astened corners or holes that may be difficult to see with a cursory look. Also check around flashing for other easily mi ssed access points. If possible, enter the attic with the lights off (during daylight hours) and note places where you can see daylight. The single most common bat entry points in w estern South Dakota are small gaps between an exterior chimney and where it adjoins the house. Fill all gaps on both sides of the chimney except for a single two-inch gap at the point where youÂ’ve seen the bats enter or emerge.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 76When you are finished sealing all potential entr y points, the only entrance to the structure should be the identified bat access. 4 Over this final opening, temporarily install wh at will be a one-way escape vent or chute. This vent is fashioned from heavy mil plastic or poly tarp material, sized approximately 24 inches in overall length, and shaped as a cone (similar to a windsock) . Duct tape works well to hold the cone together (put the tape on the exterior of the cone so th e interior remains smooth). The large end of the cone should be large enough to cover the opening the bats have been using plus a couple of inches surrounding the opening. The small end of the cone s hould have a hole with a diameter about the size of your thumb. Attach the large end of the cone over this last opening in the structure, making sure to completely seal all the way around the cone. Duct tape works well for attaching the vent. The bats must not be able to emerge anywhere except th rough the small end of the funnel. The cone should hang away from the side of the house and not lie flat against the structure (that's the reason for using a heavier material like the poly tarp). 5 . Leave the vent in place for 5 to 7 nights of good weather to give all bats the opportunity to get out. They can emerge but cannot get back into the buildin g. At the end of this time, remove the cone and immediately seal this final opening. If you have not missed any other openings , you have solved your bat problem. REMEMBER: Simply blocking the batsÂ’ access holes without first treating the entire structure will usually result in the bats finding an alternate entr y point. If done at the wrong time of year (see above for acceptable dates), you may simply exclude the a dult females and entrap juveniles not yet able to fly. This generally leads to more determination on the part of the adult females to find another way to get back to their pups, which can often result in bats gaining access to the human living space. In addition, when the mother does not return, the j uveniles begin to search for mom and often end up crawling into the human living space. A NOTE OF CAUTION: Be forewarned that any activity on a la dder at any openings in the structure may startle an unseen roosting bat into flight. Try not to work immediately in front of or directly beneath an access point. Such a surprise can easily cause a fall from a ladder. Where possible, place your ladder to one side of your work area. Where do we go now? Consider erecting an alternative roost location for your newly evicted bats, such as a "bat box." Designs and tips are available at Bat Conservation InternationalÂ’s web-site: ( http://www.batcon.org ). Design and placement should be appropriate for the roost size and species. It is best to have this roosting alternative in place well before the exclusion is performed. Properly timing exclusion of unwanted bats from roosts in combination with providing appropriate roosting alternatives (w here applicable) is a workable, responsible method to deal with bat-related problems. Preventing contacts between ba ts and humans and bats and pets should be the goal of any control program, but this need not be d one at the expense of the bats. The contribution of bats to a healthy ecosystem as the main predators of night-flying insects (many of which are forestry and agricultural pests) far outweighs any associated risks. For more information about bats in Sout h Dakota, consult the following website: http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html . Original article was published in the South Dakota Conservation Digest. Citation should read: Tigner, J. 2002. Bats in Buildings. South Dakota Conservation Digest 69(4): 22-23.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 77Appendix H. Rabies Information Rabies information is vital to understanding rabies and how humans might be infected. Bats may be infected with rabies though not to the extent as other species, such as skunks. The following information regarding rabies was provided by the Center for Disease Control through their website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/r abies/Bats_&_Rabies/bats&.htm . The Center for Disease Control has standards with dealing with potential rabid species, and the South Dakota Department of Health adheres to those standards.What is rabies and how do people get it? Rabies is an infectious viral disease that a ffects the nervous system of humans and other mammals. People get rabies from the bite of an an imal with rabies (a rabid animal). Any wild mammal, like a raccoon, skunk, fox, coyote, or bat, can have rabies and transmit it to people. It is also possible, but quite rare, that people may get rabies if infectious material from a rabid animal, such as saliva, gets directly into their eyes, nose, mouth, or a wound. Because rabies is a fatal disease, the goal of public health is, first, to prevent human exposure to rabies by education and, second, to prevent the disease by anti-rabies treatment if exposure occurs. Tens of thousands of people are successfully treated each year after being bitten by an animal that may have rabies. A few people die of rabies each year in the United States, usua lly because they do not recognize the risk of rabies from the bite of a wild animal and do not seek medical advice. Why should I learn about bats and rabies? Most of the recent human rabies cases in the United States have been caused by rabies virus from bats. Awareness of the facts about bats and rabies can help people protect themselves, their families, and their pets. This information may also help clear up misunderstandings about bats. When people think about bats, they often imagine things that are not true. Bats are not blind. They are neither rodents nor birds. They will not su ck your blood -and most do not have rabies. Bats play key roles in ecosystems around the globe, from rain forests to deserts, especially by eating insects, including agricultural pests. The best protection we can offer these unique mammals is to learn more about their habits and recognize the value of living safely with them. How can I tell if a bat has rabies? Rabies can be confirmed only in a laboratory. Howe ver, any bat that is active by day, is found in a place where bats are not usually seen (for exampl e, in a room in your home or on the lawn), or is unable to fly, is far more likely than others to be rabid. Such bats are often the most easily approached. Therefore, it is best never to handle any bat. What should I do if I come in contact with a bat? If you are bitten by a bat -or if infectious mate rial (such as saliva) from a bat gets into your eyes, nose, mouth, or a wound -wash the affected area thoroughly and get medical advice immediately. Whenever possible, the bat should be captured and sent to a laboratory for rabies testing (see: How can I safely capture a bat in my home?). People usually know when they have been bitte n by a bat. However, because bats have small teeth which may leave marks that are not easily seen, there are situations in which you should seek medical advice even in the absence of an obvious bite wound. For example, if you awaken and find a bat in your room, see a bat in the room of an unattended child, or see a bat near a mentally impaired or intoxicated person, seek medical advice and have the bat tested. People cannot get rabies just from seeing a bat in an attic, in a cave, or at a distance. In addition, people cannot get rabies from having contact with bat guano (feces), blood, or urine, or from touching a bat on its fur (even thoug h bats should never be handled!).
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 78What should I do if my pet is exposed to a bat? If you think your pet or domestic animal has been bitten by a bat, contact a veterinarian or your health department for assistance immediately and have the bat tested for rabies. Remember to keep vaccinations current for cats, dogs, and other animals. How can I keep bats out of my home? Some bats live in buildings, and there may be no reason to evict them if there is little chance for contact with people. However, bats should alwa ys be prevented from entering rooms of your home. For assistance with "bat-proofing" your home, cont act an animal-control or wildlife conservation agency. If you choose to do the "bat-proofing" yoursel f, here are some suggestions. Carefully examine your home for holes that might allow bats entry into your living quarters. Any openings larger than a quarter-inch by a half-inch should be caulked. U se window screens, chimney caps, and draft-guards beneath doors to attics, fill electrical and plumbing holes with stainless steel wool or caulking, and ensure that all doors to the outside close tightly. Additional "bat-proofing" can prevent bats fro m roosting in attics or buildings by covering outside entry points. Observe where the bats exit at dusk and exclude them by loosely hanging clear plastic sheeting or bird netting over these areas. Bats can crawl out and leave, but cannot re-enter. After the bats have been exclude d, the openings can be permanently sealed. For more information about "bat-proofing" your home, cont act Bat Conservation International. Things to remember when "bat-proofing" During summer, many young bats are unable to fly. If you exclude adult bats during this time, the young may be trapped inside and die or make their way into living quarters. Thus, if possible, avoid exclusion from May through August. Most bats leave in the fall or winter to hibern ate, so these are the best times to "bat-proof" your home. How can I safely capture a bat in my home? If a bat is present in your home and you cannot rule out the possibility of exposure, leave the bat alone and contact an animal-control or public health agency for assistance. If professional help is unavailable, use precautions to capture the bat safely, as described below. What you will need: leather work gloves (put them on) small box or coffee can piece of cardboard tape When the bat lands, approach it slowly, while wearing the gloves, and place the box or coffee can over it. Slide the cardboard under the container to trap the bat inside. Tape the cardboard to the container securely, and punch small holes in the car dboard, allowing the bat to breathe. Contact your health department or animal-control author ity to make arrangements for rabies testing. If you see a bat in your home and you are sure no human or pet exposure has occurred, confine the bat to a room by closing all doors and windows leading out of the room except those to the outside. The bat will probably leave soon. If not, it can be caught, as described, and released outdoors away from people and pets. How can rabies be prevented? Teach children never to handle unfamiliar animal s, wild or domestic, even if they appear friendly. " Love your own, leave other animals alone " is a good principle for children to learn.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 79 Wash any wound from an animal thoroughly w ith soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. Have all dead, sick, or easily captured bats t ested for rabies if exposure to people or pets occurs. Prevent bats from entering living quarters or o ccupied spaces in homes, churches, schools, and other similar areas where they might contact people and pets. Be a responsible pet owner by keeping vaccina tions current for all dogs, cats, and ferrets, keeping your cats and ferrets inside and your dogs under direct supervision, calling animal control to remove stray animals from your neighborhood, and cons ider having your pets spayed or neutered. Case study In February 1995, the aunt of a 4-year-old girl was awakened by the sounds of a bat in the room where the child was sleeping. The child did not wake up until the bat was captured, killed, and discarded. The girl reported no bite, and no ev idence of a bite wound was found when she was examined. One month later the child became sick and died of rabies. The dead bat was recovered from the yard and tested--it had rabies. This case demonstrates several points: This child's infection with rabies was most likel y the result of a bat bite. Children sleep heavily and may not awaken from the presence of a small bat. A bat bite can be superficial and not easily noticed. The bat was behaving abnormally. Instead of hiding, the bat was making unusual noises and was having difficulty flying. This strange beha vior should have led to a strong suspicion of rabies. If the bat had been submitted for rabies testing, a positive test would have led to life-saving anti-rabies treatment. Remember, in situations in which a bat is physically present and you cannot reasonably rule out having been bitten, safely capture the ba t for rabies testing and seek medical attention immediately. Are bats beneficial? Yes. Worldwide, bats are a major predator of night-flying insects, including pests that cost farmers billions of dollars annually. Throughout th e tropics, seed dispersal and pollination activities by bats are vital to rain forest surv ival. In addition, studies of bats have contributed to medical advances including the development of navigational aids for the blind. Unfortunately, many local populations of bats have been destroyed and many species are now endangered. Where can I learn more about bats? For information on bats in South DakotaÂ… South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks 523 E Capitol Ave Pierre, SD 57501 605-773-3387 http://www.state.sd.us/gfp/
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 80South Dakota Bat Working Group Brad Phillips, President 3406 Ivy Ave Rapid City, SD 57701 http://nat_hist.sdstate.edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html For information on bats in the western United StatesÂ… Western Bat Working Group Lyle Lewis, Chairman 2105 Osuna Road NE Albuquerque, NM 87109 (505) 346-2525 ext 14 http://www.batworkinggroups.org/ For information on bats in United StatesÂ… Bat Conservation International, Inc. P O Box 162603 Austin, TX 78716 1-800-538-BATS www.batcon.org For information on federally listed speciesÂ… U S Fish and Wildlife Service 420 S. Garfield Avenue, Suite 400 Pierre, SD 57501-5408 605-224-8693 http://southdakotafieldoffice.fws.gov/ Where can I learn more about rabies? For information on rabies and national infection ratesÂ… Center for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 1-800-311-3435 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/ For information on rabies in South DakotaÂ… South Dakota Department of Health 615 E Fourth Street Pierre, SD 57501-1700 1-800-592-1861 http://www.state.sd.us/doh/ For information on rabies t esting in South DakotaÂ… Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University Box 2175, North Campus Drive Brookings, SD 57007-1396 605-688-5171 http://vetsci.sdstate.edu/
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 81For information on veterinary and regulatory issuesÂ… South Dakota Animal Industry Board 441 S Fort Street Pierre, SD 57501-4503 605-773-3321 http://www.state.sd.us/aib/ Appendix I. Conservation Digest Articles The South Dakota Conservation Digest is published bimonthly by South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. The Natural Heritage Program has a column within the Conservation Digest called Dakota Natural Heritage that is used to publish articles on nongame species in South Dakota. Following were two articles published in the Dakota Natural Heritage section of the Conservation Digest. One article discussed TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats, and one article discussed South DakotaÂ’s tree bats. Eileen Dowd Stukel wrote both articles concerning bats in South Dakota. Eileen is a senior wildlife biologist for South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks and the coordinator of the Wildlife Diversity Program.TOWNSEND'S BIG-EARED BAT Eileen Dowd StukelWhen I was a little girl, I was terrified to vis it the large city park next door after dark. My brothers had convinced me that the bats flitteri ng through the air would entangle themselves in my hair. After futile attempts to free themselves, the ba ts would have to be rem oved by chopping my hair off. This ridiculous bat myth is still believed by many, along with other incredible myths and superstitions. Why are bats the objects of such fear and suspicion? A common characteristic of most human fears is a lack of understanding. Combine th is ignorance with a bat's secretive and nocturnal ways, its unusual appearance and its association w ith Count Dracula, and you have a serious public relations challenge. If we're willing to set aside our preconceptions about bats, we can quickly come to appreciate this remarkable group of mammals. There are approxi mately 1000 bat species worldwide, and they are very similar to bat fossils 50 million years old. Bats are grouped in the Order Chiroptera, which translates to "hand-wing". Bats are the only true fl ying mammals, with elonga ted hands and fingers to support wing membranes. Diversity among bat species is immense. Bat sizes range from the world's smallest mammal, the bumblebee bat of Thailand, weighing less than a penny, to the flying foxes, some with wingspans up to six feet. I had a recent conversation with someone about endangered species. After each description of a few of the rarest species found in South Dakota, the individual would ask: "But what's it good for?" Answering this question about bats is simple . In both the New and Old World tropics, many economically important plants rely on bat species for pollination. These include bananas, avocados, dates, figs, peaches, cashews, carob, mangoes, and even the tequila plant, from which we derive mescal. The African baobab, commonly called the "tr ee of life", is bat-pollinated, one of over 300 tropical plants of Asia and Africa that depe nds on bats for pollination or seed dispersal. On a more selfish note, North American bats truly are insect-catching machines. As the major predator of night-flying insects, bats consume enormous quantities of mosquitoes, as well as many agricultural insect pests, including grasshoppers, corn borers, potato beetles and grain and cutworm moths. One little brown bat, a common North Amer ican species, can catch 600 mosquitoes per hour. Despite their tremendous economic and ecological values, many bat species have declined. The tiny bumblebee bat is an endangered species, as are seven bat species found in the United States. The Townsend's big-eared bat is considered a ra re and vulnerable species in South Dakota. This
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 82species, sometimes called the lump-nosed or long-nosed bat, is found mainly in caves of western North America. Smaller populations are scattered through part s of the southern Great Plains, the Ozarks of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma a nd portions of Virginia and West Virginia. Two subspecies, the Ozark big-eared bat and Virginia big-eared bat, ar e endangered. In South Dakota, this species has been found in caves and abandoned mine tunnels of seven western counties, in both nursery and hibernation colonies. Female big-eared bats mate duri ng October and November of their first year. Like most North American bats, this species exhibits delayed ovulat ion and fertilization. Not until the spring following fall mating is an egg released from the female's ovary, to unite with the sperm for fertilization. In the meantime, both sexes gather in caves and mines for hibernation, one of two winter options for an insect-eater. This species typically doesn't migrate fo r any great distance, but instead forms hibernation clusters of a few to several hundred bats in caves or mines with temperatures of 55 degrees F or less. Their sensitivity to temperature cha nges can cause them to shift to di fferent sites within a cave or even to other caves during hibernation. Big-eared bats usually select the cool, well-ventilated parts of a cave, where they hang from an open ceiling. Ovulation and fertilization occur usually just after bats have left their winter quarters. Pregnant females gather in nursery colonies, where they give birth to one young each, after a gestation period of 8-14 weeks. A big-eared bat is relatively large at birth, measuring one-quarter of its mother's size. During daytime roosting, young suckle and cling to th eir mothers. They are soon left in clusters as the females forage, leaving after dark in search of ni ght-flying moths. A newborn can "chirp" a few hours after birth. It's possible that this vocalization may help a mother recognize her infant when she returns to the maternity roost. Young big-eared bats grow rapidly, are flighted by three weeks of age and weaned at two months. By this time, usually late in the summer, nursery colonies disperse, to reform the following spring. Townsend's big-eared bats are extremely faithfu l to maternity roosts, returning annually if not disturbed or displaced. This species is not considered common anywhere in its range, possibly due to its extreme sensitivity to disturbance. If disturbed in a maternity colony, pregnant females may abort or resorb an embryo. Mothers with young may drop their infants in panic or abandon helpless young at a maternity site. In any case, this can be a serious population loss for a species that gives birth to only one young per year. Hibernating bats are likewise at great risk when disturbed, either accident ally or intentionally. Bats prepare for hibernation by adding fat that may amount to one-third of their body weight. This fat store is drastically depleted if a bat is aroused dur ing hibernation. Each disruption can result in a bat losing up to 30 days worth of its winter fat storage. What can you do to help this unique and sensitive element of our natural heritage? 1. Report any bat activity you see in South Dakota's caves or old mines. The Game, Fish and Parks Department, Black Hills National Forest and the Pa ha Sapa Grotto, a spelunking club, have embarked on an inventory of potential bat habitats in the Bl ack Hills of South Dakota. Such information can help us identify and protect critical bat habitat fo r the eleven species found in the Black Hills. 2. Do not explore caves inhabited by bats. Huma n disturbance and persecution are two of the most serious threats to bats' survival. Unfortunately, ma ny Black Hills caves aren't presently used by bats because of extensive human use, vandalism and soot build-up from campfires set inside caves. 3. Learn more about bats and their conservation by joining Bat Conservation International, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the worldwide conserva tion and management needs of bats. Membership information can be obtained by writing to:
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 83Bat Conservation International PO Box 162603 Austin, TX 78716 Original article was published in the South Dakot a Conservation Digest. Citation should read: Dowd Stukel, E. 1993. TownsendÂ’s Big-eared Bat. South Dakota Conservation Digest 60(2): 18-19.SOUTH DAKOTAÂ’S TREE BATS Eileen Dowd StukelIf you see a bat in South Dakota, it is likely to be a little brown bat or a big brown bat, two species commonly associated with buildings. Big brown and little brown bats are just two of the dozen or more bat species found in the state during some part of the year. Three of South DakotaÂ’s bat species are "tree bats," meaning that they prefer trees and forested areas for foraging, maternity, and resting sites. South DakotaÂ’s tree bats are the hoary bat, the eastern red bat, and the silver-haired bat. In general, these tree bats may be seen almost anywhere in the state during migration, but their primary South Dakota breeding areas are in the Black Hills. In contrast to several species of the genus Myotis , which are difficult for anyone but an expert to di stinguish, each of our tree bats is distinctive in appearance and quite beautiful. The hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) is the largest bat species known in South Dakota, measuring 5 to 8 inches long and weighing Â¾ to 1Â½ ounces. The fur is yellowish brown to mahogany colored with a silver frosted appearance, he nce the name hoary bat. Longer hairs on the neck form a slight ruff. This bat ranges from southern Canada south thro ugh most of South America. The hoary bat is HawaiiÂ’s only native land mammal. Hoary bats are mostly solitary, spending summe r days hanging from tree branches in sites well covered by foliage above and open below. Hoary bats typically do not inhabit caves or buildings. Males and females come together only to mate in la te summer or early fall. As is true for all bat species found in South Dakota, the maleÂ’s sperm ar e dormant in the female until fertilization the following spring. The female typically gives birth to two pups during early summer. She carries her young until they are about a week old, then leaves th em clinging to a twig or leaf during her nightly foraging trips. Young hoary bats can fly when 3 to 4 weeks old. Hoary bats are often the last bats to begin foraging in the evening, starting several hours after sunset. Hoary bats do not hibernate in South Dakota, but rather travel south to warmer climates for the winter. The red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) is considered to be among the continentÂ’s most beautiful bats. Unlike most bat species, male and female red bats differ in color. The maleÂ’s fur ranges from bright orange to pale yellowish-orange, w ith white-tipped hairs. Females ha ve duller, buff-chestnut fur, with longer gray-tipped hairs that create a somewhat fro sted appearance. Red bats have a yellowish-white patch of hair on each shoulder. Weight ranges fro m 1/5 to Â½ ounce, and total length is 3Â¾ to 4Â½ inches. The eastern red bat ranges throughout most of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada as far south as northeastern Mexico. South Da kota forms part of the western boundary of the speciesÂ’ range. Red bats apparently do not winter in South Dakota, and this species is the least common bat of the Black Hills. Like the hoary bat, the red bat spends the day sheltered by the foliage of tree limbs or low shrubs, usually hanging by one foot from a leaf pe tiole, twig, or branch and often resembling a dead leaf. Red bats are relatively early foragers, starting their slow, erratic foraging flights in late afternoon. As darkness falls, they drop to tree level and lower in search of moths, crickets, flies, mosquitoes, and beetles. Red bats may also forage beneath artificial light sources, such as streetlights.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 84Eastern red bats mate in late summer, with sp erm stored in the female until fertilization the following spring. A female red bat may have 1 to 5 pups in late spring or early summer. The mother leaves her pups hanging on tree limbs while she forag es. She may relocate her young if disturbed. Red bats typically do not frequent caves or buildings. The scientific name of the silver-haired bat ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) describes its appearance ( Lasionycteris is from Greek words meaning "hairy bat") and its lifestyle ( noctivagans is from Latin words meaning "night wanderer"). The dark fur on the back is silver-tipped. This bat weighs 1/5 to 1/3 ounce and measures approximately 4 inches in length. This wide-ranging bat occurs from southeastern Alaska and central Canada acro ss most of the U.S. southward to northeastern Mexico. Silver-haired bats generally do not hibern ate in South Dakota. A research study in the Black Hills confirmed that large dead or dying ponde rosa pines (snags) are important roosting sites. The silver-haired bat inhabits both conifero us and deciduous forests and forest edges along waterways. Roost sites for this solitary bat include hollow trees, spaces under loose tree bark, woodpecker holes, and, less commonly, buildings. In areas with few trees, the silver-haired bat may roost in piles of fenceposts, board s, or bricks. Hibernation sites include hollow trees, rock crevices, mines, caves, and buildings. Silver-haired bats mate in late summer. The ma leÂ’s sperm are stored in the femaleÂ’s body until fertilization the following spring. The female gives birth to two pups in early summer, and females with young may roost together. Nightly foraging begins several hours after sunset, with another foraging period 6 to 8 hours after sunset. Foraging flights are slow, leisurely, and sometimes not far aboveground near and over woodland we tlands. Silver-haired bats may repeat the same feeding circuit in search of moths, insects, mosquitoes, termites, and caddisflies. All three of South DakotaÂ’s tree bat species bear more than one pup each year. Nearly all other bat species found in the state give birth to a sing le pup each year. These species, which include the familiar little brown and big brown bats, typically fi nd safety from predators and inclement weather in buildings, caves, or abandoned mines, in contrast to tree bats, which are more vulnerable to predators and to the elements. The larger number of pups bor ne by female tree bats may help offset the added risks associated with their maternity and roosting habitats. Henry David Thoreau said: "The universe is wider than our views of it." Our views of bats are still evolving from fear and loathing to a deep er understanding and fascination for these members of South DakotaÂ’s natural heritage. Original article was published in the South Dakot a Conservation Digest. Citation should read: Dowd Stukel, E. 2001. South DakotaÂ’s Tree Bats. South Dakota Conservation Digest 68(1): 22-23.THE FRINGE-TAILED MYOTIS ( Myotis thysanodes pahasapensis ) Alyssa KiesowEvil and mysterious creatures emerge at night that may threaten, stalk, and attack people, at least according to folklore and le gend. Folklore and legend conjure up our deepest fears. But, what really is fear? Fear is derived from the unknown. Many people fear creatures of the night because little is known about these elusive animalsÂ—including bats. Bats are often persecuted for their appearance and their habits. Bats are not ugly, bloo d-sucking vampires that tangle in oneÂ’s hair. Such rumors began long ago, thanks to folklore, legend, and myth. Fo lklore, legend, and myth depict certain creatures, like bats, as scary, problematic anim als. Actually, bats are an important part of the ecosystem and provide economic and ecological benef its to people. As a result, many groups and individuals are beginning to work towards unders tanding and conserving these organisms in South Dakota. Twelve bats are found in South Dakota. Th roughout South Dakota bats concentrate near insect clusters, which usually occur above or be low tree canopies and over water sources. But, these
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 85areas are slowly disappearing. Due to loss of hab itat (e.g., roosts) and ad equate foraging areas, six bats are considered rare in South Dakota. Among th ese rare bats is the Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis ( Myotis thysanodes pahasapensis ). The Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis is a medi um-sized bat with black, long ears and dark, long fur. Its fur appears darker along its back than along its belly. Being nearly black, the wing membranes have stiff hairs along the free edge be tween the hind limbs. These noticeable stiff hairs help distinguish the Black Hills fringe-taile d myotis from other bats in South Dakota. The Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis is exclusiv ely found in the Black Hills. Habitat in the Black HillsÂ—as most people already knowÂ—p rimarily consists of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa ) and undergrowth vegetation. The Black Hills fringe -tailed myotis selects habitats ranging from dry shrub to pine woodlands at moderate elevations. In these habitats, the Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis roosts in caves, mines, natural rock crevices, and buildings. These roosts are used year round. Therefore, males and females are considered y ear round residents in South Dakota and often collectively hibernate in caves and mi nes to survive through the winter. Before hibernation, these bats mate. Females retain sperm in their reproductive tract until the following spring. At this point, ovulation occurs a nd the egg is fertilized. One pup is born after 50 to 60 days of development. Because bats are mammals, young are born alive. After the arrival of pups, mothers form nursery colonies. These colonies may grow very largeÂ—though most colonies average about 20 individualsÂ—and are usually located in ope n areas of their roosts. During the summer, males typically roost separate from females and their young. To feed her young, the female Black Hills fringe -tailed myotis must search for food. Usually, food is collected over vegetative canopy or water from sunset to midnight. Prey includes primarily beetles and moths. The Black Hills fringe-tailed my otis has a very graceful flight that is long, deliberate, and highly maneuverableÂ— this flight pattern is noticeab le while this bat is foraging. As a result of their habits, the Black Hills fringe -tailed myotis and other bats are beneficial to people and the environment. Since many bats are economically important to agriculture and gardening and ecologically important to the ecosystem, it is important to protect bats in South DakotaÂ— particularly bats that are rare as the Black Hills fringe-tailed myotis. Because the Black Hills fringetailed myotis is unique to the Black Hills, protec ting this bat is very important. Education and knowledge play a large role in protecting bats and their habitats. Some people in South Dakota are actively learning and teaching about bats and their habitats. As more peopl e learn to understand bats and their habitats, we will slowly begin to c onserve these animals through knowledge rather than destroy them from folklore, legend, and myth. Original article was published in the South Da kota Conservation Digest. Citation should read: Kiesow, A. 2003. The Fringe-tailed Myotis ( Myotis thysanodes ). South Dakota Conservation Digest 70(5): 25.Appendix J. Literature Cited Allen, J. A. 1895. List of mammals collected in the Black Hills region of South Dakota and in western Kansas by Mr. Walter W. Gr anger, with field notes by the collector. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History 7: 259-275. Anderson, K. W., and J. K. Jones. 1971. Mammals of northwestern South Dakota. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 19: 361-393. Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bat of America. University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. 286pp.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 86BCI (Bat Conservation International). 2001. U. S. bats by statesÂ—South Dakota homepage. http://www.batcon.org/discover/species/sd.html September 1999. Betts, B. J. 1996. Roosting behavior of silver-haired bats ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) and big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) in northeast Oregon. Pages 55-61 in Barclay, R. M. R., and Brigham, R. M., editors. Bats and forests symposium: October 19-21, 1995, British Columbia Ministry of Forest s, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Black, H. L. 1974. A north temperate bat community: structure and prey populations. Journal of Mammalogy 55: 138-157. Brigham, R. M. 1991. Flexibility in foragi ng and roosting behavior by the big brown bat ( Eptesicus fuscus ). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 117-121. Cryan, P. M., and M. A. Bogan. 1996. Ecology and distribution of bats of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota: annual re port. Jewel Cave National Monument unpublished report. 20pp. CWF (Canadian Wildlife Federation). 2001. Attracting Wildlife homepage. http://www.wildaboutgardeni ng.org/en/attract ing/section4/ 11 July 2003. Fenton, M. B., and R. M. R. Barclay. 1980. Myotis lucifugus . Mammalian Species 142: 1-8. Findley, J. S. 1956. Mammals of Clay Count y. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA. 45pp. Fitch, J. H., and K. A. Shump. 1979. Myotis keenii . Mammalian Species 121: 1-3. Harvey, M. J., J. S. Altenbach, and T. L. Best. 1999. Bats of the United States. Arkansas Game and Fish Co mmission, Arkansas, USA. 64pp. Higgins, K. F., E. Dowd Stukel, J. M. Goulet, and D. C. Backlund. 2000. Wild mammals of South Dakota. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota, USA. 278pp. Hutchinson, J. T., and M. J. Lacki. 2000. Se lection of day roosts by red bats in mixed mesophytic forests. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 87-94. Jones, J. K., and J. R. Choate. 1978. Dist ribution of two species of long-eared bats of the genus Myotis on the Northern Great Plains 10: 49-52. Jones, J. K., and H. H. Genoways. 1967. Annotated checklist of bats from South Dakota. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences. 70: 184-196.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 87Jones, J. K., D. M. Armstrong, and J. R. Choate. 1985. Guide to mammals of the Plains states. University of Nebras ka Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. 371pp. Kunz, T. H. 1973. Resource utilization: tem poral and spatial components of bat activity in central Iowa. Journal of Mammalogy 54: 14-32. Kunz, T. H. 1982. Lasionycteris noctivagans . Mammalian Species 172: 1-5. Kunz, T. H., and R. A. Martin. 1982. Plecotus townsendii . Mammalian Species 175: 16. Kurta, A., and R. H. Baker. 1990. Eptesicus fuscus . Mammalian Species 356: 1-10. Manning, R. W., and J. Jones, Jr. 1989. Myotis evotis . Mammalian Species 329: 1-5. Mattson, T. A., and M. A. Bogan. 1993. Survey of bat roosts in th e southern Black Hills in 1993. Jewel Cave National Monument unpublished report. 20pp. Mattson, T. A. 1994. Distribution of bats, a nd the roosting ecology of the silver-haired bat ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) in the Black Hills of South Dakota. M.S. Thesis. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA. 60pp. Mattson, T. A., S. W. Buskirk, and N. L. Stanton. 1996. Roost sites of the silver-haired bat ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Great Basin Naturalist 56: 247-253. Nagorsen, D. W., and R. M. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 164pp. Nowak, R. M., and J. L. Paradiso. 1983. WalkerÂ’s mammals of the world (4th edition). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 568pp. Nowak, R. M. 1999. WalkerÂ’s mammals of the world (6th edition). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 1936pp. NSE (NatureServe Explorer). 2002. Nature Serve Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life homepage. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/ 23 Dec 2002. OÂ’Farrell, M. J., and E. H. Studier. 1980. Myotis thysanodes . Mammalian Species 137: 1-5. Over, W. H., and E. P. Churchill. 1945. Mamm als of South Dakota. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA. 56pp. Pearson, O. P., Koford, M. R., and A. K. Pearson. 1952. Reproduction of the lumpnosed bat ( Corynorhinus rafinesquei ) in California. Journal of Mammalogy 39: 150.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 88Pierson, E. D., M. C. Wackenhut, J. S. Altenbach, P. Bradley, P. Call, D. L. Genter, C. E. Harris, B. L. Keller, B. Lengus, L. Lewis, B. Luce, K. W. Navo, J. M. Perkins, S. Smith, and L. Welch. 1999. Species c onservation assessment and strategy for TownsendÂ’s big-eared bats ( Corynorhinus townsendii townsendii and Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens ): Idaho conservation effort. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho, USA. 67pp. SDBWG (South Dakota Bat Working Group) . 2002. Bats found in South Dakota homepage. http://nat_hist.sdstate .edu/SDBWG/SDBWG.html 8 April 2002. SDGFP (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks). 2002. Rare, threatened or endangered animals tracked by the South Dakota Natural Heritage Program homepage. http://www.state.sd.us/gfp/Diversity/RareAnimal.htm#MAMMALS 15 March 2002. Shump, K. A., and A. U. Shump. 1982a. Lasiurus borealis . Mammalian Species 183: 1-6. Shump, K. A., and A. U. Shump. 1982b. Lasiurus cinereus . Mammalian Species 185: 1-5. Stebler, A. M. 1939. An ecological study of the mammals of the Badlands and the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Ecology 20: 382-393. Swier, V. J. 2003. Distribution, roost site selection, and food habits of bats in eastern South Dakota. M.S. Thesis. South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA. 105pp. Tigner, J., and E. Dowd Stukel. 2003. Bats of the Black Hills: a description of status and conservation needs. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Wildlife Division Report 2003-05, Pierre, South Dakota, USA. 94pp. Tigner, J., and W. C. Aney. 1993. Report of the northern Black Hills bat survey. Black Hills National Forest unpublished report, Spearfish, South Dakota, USA. 16pp. TPW (Texas Parks and Wildlife). 2001. Na ture: species accounts of bat homepage. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/nature/ wild/mammals/bats/species/index.htm 14 December 2000. Turner, R. W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 178pp. van Zyll de Jong, G. G. 1985. Handbook of Canadian mammals 2: Bats. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
South Dakota Bat Working GroupSouth Dakota Bat Management Plan Page 89Vonhof, M. J. 1996. Roost-site preferences of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) and silver-haired bats ( Lasionycteris noctivagans ) in the Pend DÂ’Oreille Valley in souther British Columbia. Pages 62-80 in Barclay, R. M. R., and Brigham, R. M., editors. Bats and forests symposium: October 19-21, 1995, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Warner, R. M., and N. J. Czaplewski. 1984. Myotis volans . Mammalian Species 224: 14. Watkins, L. C. 1972. Nycticeius humeralis . Mammalian Species 23: 1-4. Whitaker, J. O., C. Maser, and S. P. Cross. 1981 a . Foods of Oregon silver-haired bats, Lasionycteris noctivagans . Northwest Science 55: 75-77. Whitaker, J. O., C. Maser, and S. P. Cross. 1981 b . Food habits of eastern Oregon bats, based on stomach and scat analysis. Northwest Science 55: 281-292. Williams, L. M., and M. C. Brittingham. 1997. Selection of maternity roosts by big brown bats. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 359-368. Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 750pp. Worthington, D. 1992. Methods and results of a census of bats in Jewel Cave on December 16, 1992. Jewel Cave National Monument unpublished report. 3 pp.